Sample records for antinuclear antibody positive

  1. Hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy with positive antinuclear antibodies: case report.

    PubMed

    Cruz, C; Rocha, M; Andrade, D; Guimarães, F; Silva, V; Souza, S; Moura, C A; Moura, C G

    2012-05-01

    A male Afro-descendant patient, 57 years old, complaining of polyarticular involvement and weight loss for 18 months, with a load of 13.5 pack years of smoking. On physical examination there was pain on palpation of the right knee and right leg, with signs of inflammation on the knee. We also observed digital clubbing in all fingers. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and anti-Sm antibodies were positive. X-rays of the legs and arm showed cortical thickening of long bones. The computed tomography demonstrated a large mass located in the middle lobe of the right lung. The anatomopathological study revealed a bronchial adenocarcinoma. The history of polyarticular involvement associated with positive anti-Sm and ANA antibodies could lead to an erroneous diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus. Considering the bad consequences of delayed diagnosis in this patient, the medical team should be alerted for suspecting and look for a lung cancer under these circumstances. PMID:22740821

  2. Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pregnancy and Rheumatic Disease Sex and Arthritis Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA) PRINT Download PDF Description The immune system ... Autoimmune diseases can be treated. What is an antibody or ANA? Antibodies develop in our immune system ...

  3. 21 CFR 866.5100 - Antinuclear antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Antinuclear antibody immunological test system. 866...Systems § 866.5100 Antinuclear antibody immunological test system. (a) Identification. An antinuclear antibody immunological test system is a...

  4. Antinuclear antibodies in arthritic and nonarthritic children with uveitis.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, A M; Romanchuk, K G

    1990-01-01

    We determined whether a positive test for antinuclear antibodies correlated with uveitis only in children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) or whether they also represented a serologic marker for isolated idiopathic chronic uveitis in children. We conclude that the immunopathogenesis of uveitis associated with JRA is different from that of idiopathic chronic uveitis. PMID:2313675

  5. Comparison of Antinuclear Antibody and Rheumatoid Arthritis Factor Test Results Between Two Nearby Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Flournoy, D. J.; Qadri, S. M. Hussain; Downard, Donna R.; Woolridge, Lorraine

    1987-01-01

    Antinuclear antibody and rheumatoid arthritis factor test results were compared between two nearby hospitals of approximately the same size but with different patient populations. There were dramatic differences in percentage of positive results, titers, and patterns (for antinuclear antibody tests) between the two institutions. PMID:3500319

  6. The Prevalence of Antinuclear Antibodies in Patients with Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Kobak, Senol; Yilmaz, Hatice; Sever, Fidan; Duran, Arzu; Sen, Nazime; Karaarslan, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Sarcoidosis, which is a chronic inflammatory granulomatous disease, can mimic different rheumatologic diseases including connective tissue diseases. Antinuclear antibodies are the markers used for connective tissue diseases. Aim. To determine antinuclear antibody frequency and any possible correlation with clinical and laboratory data in sarcoidosis patients. Material and Method. Forty-two sarcoidosis patients, 45 rheumatoid arthritis patients, and 45 healthy volunteers who were followed up in rheumatology outpatient clinic were included in this study. Demographic, clinical, serological, and radiological data of all patients were recorded. Antinuclear antibodies were determined with indirect immunofluorescent method and 1/100 titration was accepted as positive. The cases that were ANA positive were evaluated with immunoblot method. Results. Average age of the 42 patients (10 males) with sarcoidosis was 45.2 (20–70 years), and average disease duration was 3.5 years. ANA positivity was detected in 12 (28.5%) patients with sarcoidosis (1/100 in 10 patients, 1/320 in two patients), in 19 of RA patients (42.2%), and in two of healthy volunteers in low titer (P < 0.001). In the subgroup analysis made by immunblot test, one patient had anticentromere antibody, one had anti-Ro antibody, one had anti-Scl-70 antibody, one had anti-dsDNA antibody, and eight patients were negative. The two patients who had anticentromere and anti-Scl-70 antibodies had also Sjögren's syndrome and scleroderma diagnosis, respectively. Discussion. The prevalence of ANA in patients with sarcoidosis was found to be significantly higher than healthy control group and lower than RA patients. This result shows that ANA may have an important role in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis and also could be important in revealing the overlap syndromes of sarcoidosis-connective tissue diseases. Further studies with larger series are necessary in this subject. PMID:25580285

  7. Review for the generalist: The antinuclear antibody test in children - When to use it and what to do with a positive titer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter N Malleson; Murray J Mackinnon; Michaela Sailer-Hoeck; Charles H Spencer

    2010-01-01

    The antinuclear antibody test (ANA) is a much overused test in pediatrics. The ANA does have a role in serologic testing but it should be a very limited one. It is often ordered as a screening test for rheumatic illnesses in a primary care setting. However, since it has low specificity and sensitivity for most rheumatic and musculoskeletal illnesses in

  8. Development of positive antinuclear antibodies and rheumatoid factor in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis points toward an autoimmune phenotype later in the disease course

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) is commonly considered an autoinflammatory disease. However, sJIA patients may develop aggressive arthritis without systemic inflammation later in the disease, resembling an autoimmune phenotype similar to other subtypes of JIA. The objective of this study was to determine whether antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and rheumatoid factor (RF) will develop in patients with sJIA over the course of the disease. Findings A single center sample of sJIA patients with follow-up of more than one year was obtained. A retrospective chart survey was used to extract demographic and clinical data as well as presence and titers of ANA and RF at diagnosis and during follow-up. 32 patients were included in the study, with a median age of 4.2 years and median follow-up of 6.0 years. 8/32 patients had ANA titers???1:80 at diagnosis, with 22/32 patients showing rising ANA titers with titers???1:80 at last follow-up (p =0.001). 10/32 patients had a positive RF at least once during follow-up, compared to 0/32 at diagnosis (p?=?0.001). In 5/10 patients, positive RF was documented at least twice, more than twelve weeks apart. Patients treated with TNF antagonists were not significantly more likely to develop positive ANA titers (p?=?0.425) or positive RF (p?=?0.703). Conclusions Patients with sJIA developed increased ANA titers and positive RF over the course of the disease, independent of treatment with TNF antagonists. This might point towards an autoimmune, rather than an autoinflammatory phenotype later in the course of sJIA. PMID:25114627

  9. High Prevalence of Antinuclear Antibodies in Children with Thyroid Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Segni, Maria; Pucarelli, Ida; Truglia, Simona; Turriziani, Ilaria; Serafinelli, Chiara; Conti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Background. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are a hallmark of many autoimmune diseases and can be detected many years before disease onset. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are frequently associated with other organ- and non-organ-specific autoimmune disorders. Objectives. To assess the prevalence of ANA in pediatric patients with AITD and their clinical correlations. Methods. Ninety-three consecutive pediatric patients with AITD were enrolled (86 children with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and 7 with Graves' disease). ANA, anti-double DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibodies, anti-extractable nuclear antigen (anti-ENA), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP), and rheumatoid factor (RF) was obtained. Signs and symptoms potentially related to rheumatic diseases in children were investigated by a questionnaire. Results. ANA positivity was found in 66/93 children (71%), anti-ENA in 4/93 (4.3%), anti-dsDNA in 1/93 (1.1%), RF in 3/93 (3.2%), and anti-CCP in none. No significant differences were found between the ANA-positive and ANA-negative groups with respect to age, sex, L-thyroxine treatment, or prevalence of other autoimmune diseases. Overall, parental autoimmunity was found in 23%. Conclusions. ANA positivity was demonstrated in 71% of children with AITD. ANA positivity was not related to overt immune-rheumatic diseases. However, because the positivity of ANA can occur even many years before the onset of systemic autoimmune diseases, prospective studies are warranted. PMID:24741574

  10. [Clinical significance of antinuclear antibodies in progressive systemic sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Scagliusi, P; De Lucia, M; Di Luca, M L; Pannarale, M; Pipitone, V

    1984-02-11

    Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) was used to detect antinuclear antibodies (ANA) in 42 clinical cases. In each case cryostatic rat kidney slices and cultivated HEp-2 cells were used as substrates. Clinical diagnoses were as follow: Progressive Systemic Sclerosis (PSS) 25 cases, of which 8 were acrosclerotic, 8 diffuse, 5 CREST syndrome, 1 overlap PSS + Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and 3 PSS + myopathy; Localised scleroderma (morphea): 3 cases; Mixed Connective Tissue Disease (MCTD): 3 cases; "Idiopathic" Raynaud's Disease (RD): 4 cases; Dermatomyositis (DM): 2 cases (1 paraneoplastic); SLE: 1 case; Unclassifiable Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD): 4 cases. The ANA-positive cases identified by the traditional technique were divided according to pattern into 4 categories: homogeneous, peripheral, speckled, nucleolar. In contrast those identified using HEp-2 cells were divided into 9 pattern groups: (nuclear type) centromere, fine speckled, coarse speckled, diffusely grainy, homogeneous: (nucleolar type) speckled, clumpy, homogeneous. The results demonstrated a higher general incidence of positivity with HEp-2 cells and confirmed the close connection between Anticentromere ANA and CREST syndrome. A similarly close connection was noted between MCTD and both nuclear diffusely grainy and nucleolar speckled patterns. A fairly clear connection was also noted between acrosclerotic or diffuse SSP and a fine speckled nuclear pattern. It is felt that ANA tests using IFI on HEp-2 cells should lead to significant progress in the field of diagnosis and prognosis and the study of PSS subsets. PMID:6366619

  11. Intracellular and circulating neuronal antinuclear antibodies in human epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Iffland, Philip H.; Carvalho-Tavares, Juliana; Trigunaite, Abhishek; Man, Shumei; Rasmussen, Peter; Alexopoulos, Andreas; Ghosh, Chaitali; Jørgensen, Trine N.; Janigro, Damir

    2013-01-01

    There are overwhelming data supporting the inflammatory origin of some epilepsies (e.g., Rasmussen's encephalitis and limbic encephalitis). Inflammatory epilepsies with an autoimmune component are characterized by autoantibodies against membrane-bound, intracellular or secreted proteins (e.g., voltage gated potassium channels). Comparably, little is known regarding autoantibodies targeting nuclear antigen. We tested the hypothesis that in addition to known epilepsy-related autoantigens, human brain tissue and serum from patients with epilepsy contain autoantibodies recognizing nuclear targets. We also determined the specific nuclear proteins acting as autoantigen in patients with epilepsy. Brain tissue samples were obtained from patients undergoing brain resections to treat refractory seizures, from brain with arteriovenous malformations or from post-mortem multiple sclerosis brain. Patients with epilepsy had no known history of autoimmune disease and were not diagnosed with autoimmune epilepsy. Tissue was processed for immunohistochemical staining. We also obtained subcellular fractions to extract intracellular IgGs. After separating nuclear antibody-antigen complexes, the purified autoantigen was analyzed by mass spectrometry. Western blots using autoantigen or total histones were probed to detect the presence of antinuclear antibodies in the serum of patients with epilepsy. Additionally, HEp-2 assays and antinuclear antibody ELISA were used to detect the staining pattern and specific presence of antinuclear antibodies in serum of patients with epilepsy. Brain regions from patients with epilepsy characterized by blood-brain barrier disruption (visualized by extravasated albumin) contained extravasated IgGs. Intracellular antibodies were found in epilepsy (n=13/13) but not in multiple sclerosis brain (n= 4/4). In brain from patients with epilepsy, neurons displayed higher levels of nuclear IgGs compared to glia. IgG colocalized with extravasated albumin. All subcellular fractions from brain resections of patients with epilepsy contained extravasated IgGs (n=10/10), but epileptogenic cortex, where seizures originated from, displayed the highest levels of chromatin-bound IgGs. In the nuclear IgG pool, anti-histone autoantibodies were identified by two independent immunodetection methods. HEp-2 assay and ELISA confirmed the presence of anti-histone (n= 5/8) and anti-chromatin antibodies in serum from patients with epilepsy We developed a multi-step approach to unmask autoantigens in the brain and sera of patients with epilepsy. This approach revealed antigen-bound antinuclear antibodies in neurons and free antinuclear IgGs in serum of patients with epilepsy. Conditions with blood-brain barrier disruption but not seizures, were characterized by extravasated but not chromatin-bound IgGs. Our results show that the pool of intracellular IgG in brain of patients with epilepsy consists of nucleus-specific autoantibodies targeting chromatin and histones. Seizures may be the trigger of neuronal uptake of antinuclear antibodies. PMID:23880401

  12. Pathophysiology of Antinuclear Antibodies in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Related Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. Tan

    1996-01-01

    Antinuclear antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and related diseases have been used for characterizing nuclear antigens and for elucidating immune mechanisms that drive the autoimmune response. Each disease has its own characteristic profile of antinuclear antibodies, which has been useful for diagnostic purposes. In the biological context, concepts emerging from studies on nuclear antigens and antibodies show that the

  13. Antinuclear antibodies are not increased in the early phase of Borrelia infection.

    PubMed

    Spiewak, Rados?aw; Stojek, Nimfa Maria; Chmielewska-Badora, Jolanta

    2004-01-01

    In the literature, there are case reports suggesting that Borrelia burgdorferi infection may induce autoimmune diseases dependent on antinuclear antibodies (ANA). The present study was undertaken in order to verify this possibility in a prospective manner. The study group comprised 78 consecutive patients (51 women and 27 men, median age 41.5 years) referred to our Department for the serologic diagnosis of Borrelia infection. The patients' sera were tested for Borrelia-specific IgM and IgG (Recombinant Antigen Enzyme Immunoassays, Biomedica). Antibodies against Borrelia were detected in 31 (39.7 %) persons. 15 persons (19.2 %) had positive IgM, another 15 (19.2 %)--positive IgG, and 1 person (3.2 %)--both IgM and IgG. Frequent positivity of IgM antibodies suggests that persons in the early phase of infection prevailed in the group. Tests for anti-dsDNA, anti-RNP, anti-Sm antibodies, and a screening test for systemic rheumatic diseases (ANA Rheuma Screen) were carried out using Varelisa Enzyme Immunoassays (Pharmacia and Upjohn). The spectrum of autoimmune diseases covered by these tests included SLE, MCTD, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and dermatomyositis. ANA were detected in 15 persons (19.2 %): anti-dsDNA in 7 (9.0 %), anti-RNP in 1 (1.3 %), anti-Sm in 2 (2.6 %), and ANA Rheuma Screen was positive in 6 persons (7.7 %). Statistical analysis of differences in the ANA frequency between Borrelia-positive and -negative groups was carried out using Fisher's exact chi-square test (both without and with gender and age matching). No significant differences were found between the groups. Based on the above results, we conclude that there is no increase in the frequency of antinuclear antibodies in the early phase of Borrelia infection. PMID:15236512

  14. A fully automated IIF system for the detection of antinuclear antibodies and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies.

    PubMed

    Shovman, O; Agmon-Levin, N; Gilburd, B; Martins, T; Petzold, A; Matthias, T; Shoenfeld, Y

    2015-02-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) is the main technique for the detection of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA). The fully automated IIF processor HELIOS(®) is the first IIF processor that is able to automatically prepare slides and perform automatic reading. The objective of the present study was to determine the diagnostic performance of this system for ANA and ANCA IIF interpretation, in comparison with visual IIF. ANA detection by visual IIF or HELIOS(®) was performed on 425 sera samples including: 218 consecutive samples submitted to a reference laboratory for routine ANA testing, 137 samples from healthy subjects and 70 ANA/ENA positive samples. For ANCA determination, 170 sera samples were collected: 40 samples for routine testing, 90 samples from healthy blood donors and 40 anti-PR3/anti-MPO positive subjects. Good correlation was found for the visual and automated ANA IIF approach regarding positive/negative discrimination of these samples (kappa = 0.633 for ANA positive samples and kappa = 0.657 for ANA negative samples, respectively). Positive/negative IIF ANCA discrimination by HELIOS(®) and visual IIF revealed a complete agreement of 100 % in sera from healthy patients and PR3/MPO positive samples (kappa = 1.00). There was 95 % agreement between the ANCA IIF performed by automated and visual IIF on the investigation of routine samples. Based on these results, HELIOS(®) demonstrated a high diagnostic performance for the automated ANA and ANCA IIF interpretation that was similar to a visual reading in all groups of samples. PMID:25403695

  15. Antinuclear antibodies in routine analysis: the relevance of putative clinical associations.

    PubMed Central

    Swaak, A J; Huysen, V; Smeenk, R J

    1993-01-01

    Defined antinuclear antibodies (ANA), such as antibodies to Ro/SS-A, La/SS-B, Sm, and nRNP, are often present in serum samples from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or other connective tissue diseases (CTD). Most data on associations between the presence of these antibodies and defined disease features have been obtained with the use of predefined groups of patients. In this work the issue of disease associations was approached from a different angle: patients suspected of having CTD were selected on the presence of these ANA in their serum samples and clinical data were subsequently scored according to a defined protocol. It was then tried to relate measured ANA and clinical symptoms. No correlation was observed between the presence of antibodies to Ro/SS-A and specific clinical symptoms. The presence of antibodies to La/SS-B was associated with the diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome combined with leukocytopenia. In patients positive for antibodies to Sm a significantly increased incidence of skin lesions, such as butterfly rashes and discoid lesions, was seen, together with signs of myocarditis. Myocarditis was also found to be associated with the presence of antibodies to nRNP. The data presented in this study show that previously reported associations of these ANA with clinical symptoms are not confirmed when unselected patients are used. PMID:8447690

  16. Human peripheral blood monocytes display surface antigens recognized by monoclonal antinuclear antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Holers, V.M.; Kotzin, B.L.

    1985-09-01

    The authors used monoclonal anti-nuclear autoantibodies and indirect immunofluorescence to examine normal human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes for the presence of cell surface nuclear antigens. Only one monoclonal anti-histone antibody (MH-2) was found to bind to freshly isolated PBL, staining approximately 10% of large cells. However, after cells were placed into culture for 16-24 h, a high percentage (up to 60%) of large-sized cells were recognized by an anti-DNA (BWD-1) and several different antihistone monoclonal antibodies (BWH-1, MH-1, and MH-2). These antibodies recognize separate antigenic determinants on chromatin and histones extracted from chromatin. The histone antigen-positive cells were viable, and the monoclonal antibodies could be shown to be binding to the cell surface and not to the nucleus. Using monoclonal antibodies specific for monocytes and T cells, and complement-mediated cytotoxicity, the cells bearing histone antigens were shown to be primarily monocytes. The appearance of histone and DNA antigen-positive cells was nearly completely inhibited by the addition of low concentrations of cycloheximide at initiation of the cultures. In contrast, little effect on the percentage of positive cells was detected if cells were exposed to high doses of gamma irradiation before culture. These data further support the existence of cell surface nuclear antigens on selected cell subsets, which may provide insight into the immunopathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus and related autoimmune diseases.

  17. Attachment of antinuclear antibodies to nasopharyngeal carcinoma or other cells during preparation of biopsy imprints.

    PubMed

    Henle, W; Henle, G; Lanier, A P; Bornkamm, G W

    1986-06-01

    The presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genomes in nasopharyngeal and other carcinomas or Burkitt's and other B-cell lymphomas can be established by the demonstration of viral nucleic acid sequences in DNA extracts from biopsy specimens, the detection of EBV-associated nuclear antigen (EBNA) in biopsy imprints, and the inhibition of leukocyte migration by tumor extracts. Of these techniques, the detection of EBNA-positive tumor cells can be performed most readily in the laboratory. This report shows that a patient's antibodies to nuclear antigens can gain access to cell nuclei during the preparation of imprints. If the antibodies are directed against EBNA, nuclear immunofluorescence is elicited solely in the tumor cells when only complement (C') and fluorescein-labeled antibodies to C' are applied to the imprints without prior exposure to anti-EBNA-positive sera. If nonspecific antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are involved, the nuclear immunofluorescence seen in the EBNA-specific and control assays is not limited to the tumor cells but extends to any normal cells that may be present in the imprints. Furthermore, nuclear fluorescence is elicited when solely an anti-human IgG conjugate is applied because ANA is measurable by indirect immunofluorescence, whereas detection of EBNA requires augmentation of the antigen-antibody complexes by C', which differentiates further between EBNA-specific and nonspecific staining. Attachment of antibodies to nuclei can be avoided by minimizing the deposit of blood during imprint preparation and by rapid drying of the imprints. Similar results are obtained experimentally when smears of lymphoblasts are made in the presence of anti-EBNA or ANA. PMID:3012176

  18. Induction of antinuclear antibodies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis receiving treatment with human recombinant interferon gamma.

    PubMed Central

    Seitz, M; Franke, M; Kirchner, H

    1988-01-01

    Of six patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with human recombinant interferon gamma for two to eight months, three developed antinuclear antibodies (ANAs). This was accompanied by a simultaneous clinical exacerbation of the disease activity. In this study both anti-inflammatory and immunostimulatory effects of human recombinant interferon gamma in patients with RA were observed. PMID:3137901

  19. Antinuclear Antibodies as Potential Markers of Lung Cancer1 Felix Fernandez-Madrid,2

    E-print Network

    VandeVord, Pamela

    Antinuclear Antibodies as Potential Markers of Lung Cancer1 Fe´lix Ferna´ndez-Madrid,2 Pamela J of ANAs in lung cancer. We have previously reported that autoantibodies to collagen antigens resembling those found in the connective tissue diseases are consistently detected in the sera from lung cancer

  20. 21 CFR 866.5100 - Antinuclear antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...techniques the autoimmune antibodies in serum, other body fluids, and tissues that react with cellular nuclear constituents (molecules present in the nucleus of a cell, such as ribonucleic acid, deoxyribonucleic acid, or nuclear proteins). The...

  1. 21 CFR 866.5100 - Antinuclear antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...techniques the autoimmune antibodies in serum, other body fluids, and tissues that react with cellular nuclear constituents (molecules present in the nucleus of a cell, such as ribonucleic acid, deoxyribonucleic acid, or nuclear proteins). The...

  2. 21 CFR 866.5100 - Antinuclear antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...techniques the autoimmune antibodies in serum, other body fluids, and tissues that react with cellular nuclear constituents (molecules present in the nucleus of a cell, such as ribonucleic acid, deoxyribonucleic acid, or nuclear proteins). The...

  3. Elevated antinuclear antibodies and altered anti-Epstein-Barr virus immune responses.

    PubMed

    Cuomo, Laura; Cirone, Mara; Di Gregorio, Ana Oliva; Vitillo, Marina; Cattivelli, Marina; Magliocca, Vittoria; Maiorano, Silvana; Meledandri, Marcello; Scagnolari, Carolina; La Rocca, Sebastiano; Trivedi, Pankaj

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is able to alter the immune response towards self-antigens and may enhance risk of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in genetically predisposed individuals. In this study, we evaluated the specific antibody immune response against EBV in patients with anti-nuclear autoantibodies (ANA) in comparison with ANA-negative healthy controls. For this purpose, 92 patients with an high anti-ANA reactivity with or without concomitant extractable nuclear antigen (ENA) or double stranded DNA (dsDNA) positivity were selected and compared with 146 healthy donors. We found that anti-EBV-VCA and EA IgG concentrations were significantly higher in ANA-positive patients in comparison to the controls (VCA P<0.0001 and EA P<0,03) as well as in those ANA-positive patients that showed a concomitant ENA positivity (P=0.0002). Interestingly, elevated anti-EBNA-1 IgG was found in a group of patients who had anti SSA/Ro antibodies. Anti-VCA IgM Abs were more frequently found in those patients with a very high titer of ANA (P=0.06); moreover detection of anti-VCA IgM/IgG in absence of anti-EBNA-1 IgG was more frequent in the patient than in the control group. Both these conditions correlate with a recent EBV infection or reactivation. The data suggest that EBV, particularly during acute infection or in its reactivation phase, could be involved in the ANA and ENA autoantibody formation. PMID:25300805

  4. An improved incubation apparatus for Western blots used for the detection of antinuclear antibodies.

    PubMed

    Westgeest, A A; Bons, J C; Van den Brink, H G; Aarden, L A; Smeenk, R J

    1986-12-24

    To facilitate the use of Western blots for the detection of antibodies, we have developed an incubation apparatus. The use of this apparatus simplifies the incubation of blots with antisera, permits the testing of large numbers of sera and eliminates artefacts caused by the use of loose strips. The introduction of a pressure bag in the lower lid of the apparatus secures a steady pressure over the entire blot, a feature lacking in currently available commercial equipment. The detection of antinuclear antibodies is presented as an example of the use of this incubator. PMID:3794348

  5. Anti-nuclear antibody screening using HEp-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Buchner, Carol; Bryant, Cassandra; Eslami, Anna; Lakos, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    The American College of Rheumatology position statement on ANA testing stipulates the use of IIF as the gold standard method for ANA screening(1). Although IIF is an excellent screening test in expert hands, the technical difficulties of processing and reading IIF slides--such as the labor intensive slide processing, manual reading, the need for experienced, trained technologists and the use of dark room--make the IIF method difficult to fit in the workflow of modern, automated laboratories. The first and crucial step towards high quality ANA screening is careful slide processing. This procedure is labor intensive, and requires full understanding of the process, as well as attention to details and experience. Slide reading is performed by fluorescent microscopy in dark rooms, and is done by trained technologists who are familiar with the various patterns, in the context of cell cycle and the morphology of interphase and dividing cells. Provided that IIF is the first line screening tool for SARD, understanding the steps to correctly perform this technique is critical. Recently, digital imaging systems have been developed for the automated reading of IIF slides. These systems, such as the NOVA View Automated Fluorescent Microscope, are designed to streamline the routine IIF workflow. NOVA View acquires and stores high resolution digital images of the wells, thereby separating image acquisition from interpretation; images are viewed an interpreted on high resolution computer monitors. It stores images for future reference and supports the operator's interpretation by providing fluorescent light intensity data on the images. It also preliminarily categorizes results as positive or negative, and provides pattern recognition for positive samples. In summary, it eliminates the need for darkroom, and automates and streamlines the IIF reading/interpretation workflow. Most importantly, it increases consistency between readers and readings. Moreover, with the use of barcoded slides, transcription errors are eliminated by providing sample traceability and positive patient identification. This results in increased patient data integrity and safety. The overall goal of this video is to demonstrate the IIF procedure, including slide processing, identification of common IIF patterns, and the introduction of new advancements to simplify and harmonize this technique. PMID:24998977

  6. Severe Raynaud's Phenomenon in a Patient With Antinuclear Antibody-Negative Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Celia J.; Potter, Edger; Townsend, John

    1988-01-01

    There is a well-recognized subset of patients with clinical findings consistent with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) but with negative antinuclear antibodies (ANA). Most of these patients have significant cutaneous involvement with little central nervous system or renal pathology. The following case report describes such a patient whose presentation was suggestive of SLE but who was ANA negative despite repeated testing. Additionally, the patient was found to have severe Raynaud's phenomenon and cutaneous vasculitis. This case is noteworthy because of the prominence of vascular insufficiency as a presenting feature of ANA-negative SLE. PMID:3262169

  7. Antinuclear antibody determination: the present state of diagnostic and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Smeenk, R; Westgeest, T; Swaak, T

    1985-01-01

    Determination of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) will gain in diagnostic significance if a specific type of ANA can be related to a defined clinical disorder. The past decade has brought us quite a lot of papers dedicated to this subject. Yet, with exception of the DNA/anti-DNA system, observed correlations have remained scarce or contradictory. Also, still little is known about the pathogenic role of ANA. Perhaps more recent approaches using biochemical technologies will provide us with highly purified nuclear antigens necessary to study possible correlations at a more sophisticated level. PMID:3890156

  8. Cronkhite-Canada syndrome showing elevated levels of antinuclear and anticentromere antibody.

    PubMed

    Ota, Seisuke; Kasahara, Akinori; Tada, Shoko; Tanaka, Takehiro; Umena, Sachio; Fukatsu, Haruka; Noguchi, Toshio; Matsumura, Tadashi

    2015-02-01

    A 56-year-old female initially visited an otorhinolaryngologist because of an impaired sense of taste in September, 2010 and was referred to our facility in October, 2010. She was diagnosed with Basedow's disease for which she underwent subtotal thyroidectomy in 1984 and arthritis involving multiple joints, primarily affecting her hands. In addition, the anticentromere antibody (ACA) level was markedly high. On physical examination, alopecia as well as hyperpigmentation of the dorsum of the hands and back was observed. Dystrophic changes of the fingernails and a bilateral thumb abduction deformity were observed. Antinuclear antibodies were elevated. Gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy revealed the mucosa carpeted with strawberry-like polypoid lesions. Histopathological examination of the biopsied specimen of the stomach revealed a corkscrew-like appearance. Thus, the patient was diagnosed with Cronkhite-Canada syndrome (CCS). She admitted to our hospital in November, 2010. Oral prednisolone was administered with success. In July, 2012, her antimitochondrial M2 antibody level was elevated. To the best of our knowledge, the present case is the first patient with CCS, a history of Basedow's disease, and elevated levels of ACA and antimitochondrial M2 antibody. We consider the present case suggests CCS could be caused by immunological abnormality. PMID:25518819

  9. How should a district general hospital immunology service screen for anti-nuclear antibodies? An 'in-the-field' audit.

    PubMed

    Hira-Kazal, R; Shea-Simonds, P; Peacock, J L; Maher, J

    2015-04-01

    Anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) testing assists in the diagnosis of several immune-mediated disorders. The gold standard method for detection of these antibodies is by indirect immunofluorescence testing on human epidermoid laryngeal carcinoma (HEp-2) cells. However, many laboratories test for these antibodies using solid-phase assays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which allows for higher throughput testing at reduced cost. In this study, we have audited the performance of a previously established ELISA assay to screen for ANA, making comparison with the gold standard HEp-2 immunofluorescence test. A prospective and unselected sample of 89 consecutive ANA test requests by consultant rheumatologists were evaluated in parallel over a period of 10 months using both tests. ELISA and HEp-2 screening assays yielded 40 (45%) and 72 (81%) positive test results, respectively, demonstrating lack of concordance between test methods. Using standard and clinical samples, it was demonstrated that the ELISA method did not detect several ANA with nucleolar, homogeneous and speckled immunofluorescence patterns. None of these ELISA(NEG) HEp-2(POS) ANA were reactive with a panel of six extractable nuclear antigens or with double-stranded DNA. Nonetheless, 13 of these samples (15%) originated from patients with recognized ANA-associated disease (n?=?7) or Raynaud's phenomenon (n?=?6). We conclude that ELISA screening may fail to detect clinically relevant ANA that lack defined specificity for antigen. PMID:25412573

  10. IgG rheumatoid factors and anti-nuclear antibodies in rheumatoid vasculitis.

    PubMed Central

    Quismorio, F P; Beardmore, T; Kaufman, R L; Mongan, E S

    1983-01-01

    We studied the distribution and characteristics of circulating rheumatoid factors (RF) and anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) in 30 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients who had polyarthritis alone (group I), 28 RA patients with polyarthritis and extra-articular disease (group II), 28 RA patients with systemic vasculitis (group III) and 60 healthy matched controls. IgG RF occurred more frequently and in higher serum titres in group III (100%) than RA patients in group I (40%), or in group II (18%) or in normal controls (5.8%). The serum titre of IgM RF was higher in vasculitis patients than in other RA patients. ANA were found in 74% of all RA patients and although the frequency did not differ in the three patient groups, the serum titre was significantly higher in the vasculitis group. Antibodies to extractable nuclear antigen were found only in group III (18.7%). Antibodies to histones were also more prevalent in group III than in the other RA groups. The serological abnormalities in rheumatoid vasculitis differed quantitatively as well as qualitatively from other RA patients. PMID:6602676

  11. Development of the antinuclear and anticytoplasmic antibody consensus panel by the Association of Medical Laboratory Immunologists.

    PubMed

    James, K; Carpenter, A B; Cook, L; Marchand, R; Nakamura, R M

    2000-05-01

    The Association of Medical Laboratory Immunologists (AMLI) have developed a panel of antinuclear and anticytoplasmic antibody consensus sera that can be useful for enzyme immunoassay (EIA), Ouchterlony, and immunofluorescence assay methods. It was developed to assist in the evaluation of newly available EIA methods for the detection of autoantibodies. The panel of sera was evaluated in several clinical laboratories and a large number of laboratories owned by manufacturers of clinical autoantibody testing kits. The majority of sera performed well for the EIAs in both the clinical laboratories and the manufacturers' laboratories, but some samples had discrepant results. A major source of discrepancy is the current inability of the EIA results to be directly compared in a quantitative way as no standardization exists. The evaluation demonstrated lower sensitivity of detection by the Ouchterlony method. The limited evaluation of the sera with immunoblotting and Western blotting did not show good agreement with other methods. Further work must be done to standardize blotting methods prior to their use in routine clinical testing. The sera are now available to vendors and clinical laboratories for use in the detection of SS-A, SS-B, Sm, U1-RNP, Scl-70, Jo-1, double-stranded DNA, and centromere antibodies. The availability of the consensus sera will help evaluate and improve the EIA methods currently being used. PMID:10799458

  12. Development of the Antinuclear and Anticytoplasmic Antibody Consensus Panel by the Association of Medical Laboratory Immunologists

    PubMed Central

    James, Karen; Carpenter, A. Betts; Cook, Linda; Marchand, Richard; Nakamura, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    The Association of Medical Laboratory Immunologists (AMLI) have developed a panel of antinuclear and anticytoplasmic antibody consensus sera that can be useful for enzyme immunoassay (EIA), Ouchterlony, and immunofluorescence assay methods. It was developed to assist in the evaluation of newly available EIA methods for the detection of autoantibodies. The panel of sera was evaluated in several clinical laboratories and a large number of laboratories owned by manufacturers of clinical autoantibody testing kits. The majority of sera performed well for the EIAs in both the clinical laboratories and the manufacturers' laboratories, but some samples had discrepant results. A major source of discrepancy is the current inability of the EIA results to be directly compared in a quantitative way as no standardization exists. The evaluation demonstrated lower sensitivity of detection by the Ouchterlony method. The limited evaluation of the sera with immunoblotting and Western blotting did not show good agreement with other methods. Further work must be done to standardize blotting methods prior to their use in routine clinical testing. The sera are now available to vendors and clinical laboratories for use in the detection of SS-A, SS-B, Sm, U1-RNP, Scl-70, Jo-1, double-stranded DNA, and centromere antibodies. The availability of the consensus sera will help evaluate and improve the EIA methods currently being used. PMID:10799458

  13. Meta-Analysis: Diagnostic Accuracy of Antinuclear Antibodies, Smooth Muscle Antibodies and Antibodies to a Soluble Liver Antigen/Liver Pancreas in Autoimmune Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Juan; Chen, Wei-Xian

    2014-01-01

    Background Antinuclear antibodies (ANA), smooth muscle antibodies (SMA) and antibodies to a soluble liver antigen/liver pancreas (anti-SLA/LP) are useful markers that can help clinicians to diagnose and classify autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Objectives To determine whether ANA, SMA and anti-SLA/LP help to accurately diagnose patients with AIH. Search strategy The PubMed, CNKI, WANFANG, and SinoMed databases were accessed to retrieve studies published in English and Chinese. Studies published up to October 2013 were reviewed. Selection criteria Studies on the diagnostic value of ANA, SMA or anti-SLA/LP in the diagnosis of known or suspected AIH were included. Data collection and analysis Two authors evaluated studies independently and rated their methodological quality using quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies (QUADAS) tools; relevant data were abstracted. The random-effects method was used to summarize sensitivities, specificities, positive and negative likelihood ratios, and diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) from all 29 studies. Results The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, and DOR for ANA were 0.650 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.619 to 0.680), 0.751 (95%CI, 0.737 to 0.764), 3.030 (95%CI, 2.349 to 3.910), 0.464 (95%CI, 0.356 to 0.604), and 7.380 (95%CI, 4.344 to 12.539), respectively. For SMA, the values were 0.593 (95%CI, 0.564 to 0.621), 0.926 (95%CI, 0.917 to 0.934), 11.740 (95%CI, 7.379 to 18.678), 0.449 (95%CI, 0.367 to 0.549), and 31.553 (95%CI, 17.147 to 58.060), respectively. Finally, for anti-SLA/LP, the values were 0.194 (95%CI, 0.168 to 0.222), 0.989 (95%CI, 0.985 to 0.993), 11.089 (95%CI, 7.601 to 16.177), 0.839 (95%CI, 0.777 to 0.905), and 16.867 (95%CI, 10.956 to 25.967), respectively. Authors’ conclusions ANA provided moderate sensitivity and specificity, while SMA gave moderate sensitivity and high specificity, and anti-SLA/LP exhibited low sensitivity and high specificity. All three antibodies were limited by their unsatisfactory sensitivities and lack of consistency. PMID:24651126

  14. A computer program that periodically monitors the ability to interpret the antinuclear antibody test.

    PubMed

    Astion, M L; Wener, M H; Hutchinson, K; Olsen, G B; Orkand, A R; Pagliaro, L J

    1996-05-01

    Our laboratory has been developing computer programs that help medical technologists improve their performance of the microscope-based immunofluorescence assay for antinuclear antibodies (ANA). This image-based laboratory test has been associated with poor reproducibility. We have previously described our first program, ANA-Tutor, which systematically teaches the ANA test by using approximately 150 processed digital images of ANA test results. The program we describe here, Pattern Plus Auditor, is a logical extension to ANA-Tutor. Pattern Plus Auditor tests the ability of laboratory personnel to interpret the ANA test, and tracks individual and laboratory performance over time. The program consists of image-based questions that test a variety of ANA staining patterns, including homogeneous, speckled, centromere, nucleolar, mixed patterns, and rare patterns. For each question, the program provides correct answers with explanations and color overlays that highlight key image features. By entering the proper password, users gain access to exam results for individuals and for the laboratory as a whole. Results are available for the current exam, any previous exam, or cumulatively on all exams to date. Intralaboratory testing with computer programs such as Pattern Plus Auditor might be a useful part of quality-assurance procedures for many image-based laboratory tests. PMID:8653925

  15. An automatic segmentation and classification framework for anti-nuclear antibody images

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune disease is a disorder of immune system due to the over-reaction of lymphocytes against one's own body tissues. Anti-Nuclear Antibody (ANA) is an autoantibody produced by the immune system directed against the self body tissues or cells, which plays an important role in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases. Indirect ImmunoFluorescence (IIF) method with HEp-2 cells provides the major screening method to detect ANA for the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases. Fluorescence patterns at present are usually examined laboriously by experienced physicians through manually inspecting the slides with the help of a microscope, which usually suffers from inter-observer variability that limits its reproducibility. Previous researches only provided simple segmentation methods and criterions for cell segmentation and recognition, but a fully automatic framework for the segmentation and recognition of HEp-2 cells had never been reported before. This study proposes a method based on the watershed algorithm to automatically detect the HEp-2 cells with different patterns. The experimental results show that the segmentation performance of the proposed method is satisfactory when evaluated with percent volume overlap (PVO: 89%). The classification performance using a SVM classifier designed based on the features calculated from the segmented cells achieves an average accuracy of 96.90%, which outperforms other methods presented in previous studies. The proposed method can be used to develop a computer-aided system to assist the physicians in the diagnosis of auto-immune diseases. PMID:24565042

  16. Rheumatoid factor, anti-nuclear antibody in ischemic heart disease: Acute versus chronic patients

    PubMed Central

    Sedaghat, Akram; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Heidari, Ramin; Sistani, Efat; Bayanfar, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Immunopathological and inflammatory processes play important roles in the initiation and development of ischemic heart disease. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum levels rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) and severity of coronary stenotic lesions. METHODS Totally 140 patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) (n = 70) and chronic stable angina (CSA) (n = 70) that undergoing coronary angiography were enrolled in this study. ANA by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and serum level of RF was measured by latex method. The severity of coronary stenotic lesions calculated by Gensini score. To analyze the correlations of ANA and RF to Gensini score Pearson correlation test was used. To adjust the effect of age and other confounder factors such hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and smoking multiple linear regression was used. RESULTS The mean serum levels of RF and ANA in CSA group were significantly higher than ACS group after adjusting for the confounder factors (P < 0.050 for ANA). Serum levels of ANA significantly correlated with severity of coronary stenotic lesions calculated by Gensini score (r = 0.40 and P < 0.050). After adjusting confounders, multiple linear regression analysis showed ANA remained independently associated with Gensini scores in ACS group (B = 0.505, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION Higher serum levels of ANA may be considered as independent risk factors for ACS.

  17. Antinuclear antibodies can be detected in dog sera reactive to Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, Ehrlichia canis, or Leishmania infantum antigens.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brian E; Tompkins, Mary B; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2004-01-01

    The presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) is used to support a clinical diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in dogs. However, clinicians must interpret the detection of ANAs with caution, particularly in light of increasing evidence that dogs with known bacterial and protozoal infections can have high ANA titers. Retrospectively, medical records were reviewed for all dogs that were concurrently tested for antinuclear antigens and Bartonella vinsonii (berkhoffii), Ehrlichia canis, or Rickettsia rickettsii antigens between 1990 and 2000. When analyzed on the basis of reactivity to a specific infectious agent, 75% of the B vinsonii (berkhoffii) seroreactors, 16.7% of the E canis seroreactors, and 0% of the R rickettsii seroreactors had concurrent ANAs. Subsequent prospective testing did not detect ANAs in convalescent sera from dogs experimentally infected with B vinsonii (berkhoffii), E canis, or R rickettsii. However, 10-20% B vinsonii (berkhoffii), E canis, or Leishmania infantum reactive sera from naturally infected dogs contained ANAs. In addition, 45% of sera from dogs that are reactive to multiple vectorborne organisms were more likely to contain ANAs when compared to sera from dogs reactive to only 1 test antigen. When interpreting the relevance of seroreactivity to nuclear antigens, clinicians should recognize that dogs with seroreactivity to B vinsonii (berkhoffii), E canis, or L infantum antigens (especially those with seroreactivity to more than one of these pathogens) may produce ANAs. PMID:14765731

  18. Diagnostic profile on the IFA 40: HEp-20-10 - an immunofluorescence test for reliable antinuclear antibody screening.

    PubMed

    Rohwäder, Edda; Locke, Michael; Fraune, Johanna; Fechner, Kai

    2015-04-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence assay is the recommended gold standard to test for antinuclear antibodies (ANA), which are important biomarkers for systemic rheumatic autoimmune diseases. It is internationally accepted that indirect immunofluorescence assay ANA screening is most sensitive on human epithelial (HEp-2) cells. The cells present a multitude of antigens that display distinguishable localization patterns in interphase and mitotic cells in indirect immunofluorescence analysis. Here, we present the IFA 40: HEp-20-10 test kit (Euroimmun AG, Lübeck, Germany), which is cleared for sale on the US market by the FDA. The test has been designed for qualitative and semiquantitative screening of ANA in human sera. It uses the commonly applied 1:40 cutoff dilution and the enhanced HEp-20-10 cell line for more efficient pattern recognition and has been validated in various studies and by method comparison. The IFA 40: HEp-20-10 test fulfills the essential criteria for reliable application in autoimmune diagnostics. PMID:25530004

  19. Induction of Antinuclear Antibodies by De Novo Autoimmune Hepatitis Regulates Alloimmune Responses in Rat Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Toshiaki; Goto, Shigeru; Lai, Chia-Yun; Hsu, Li-Wen; Tseng, Hui-Peng; Chen, Kuang-Den; Wang, Chih-Chi; Cheng, Yu-Fan; Chen, Chao-Long

    2013-01-01

    Concanavalin A (Con A) is a lectin originating from the jack-bean and well known for its ability to stimulate T cells and induce autoimmune hepatitis. We previously demonstrated the induction of immunosuppressive antinuclear autoantibody in the course of Con A-induced transient autoimmune hepatitis. This study aimed to clarify the effects of Con A-induced hepatitis on liver allograft rejection and acceptance. In this study, we observed the unique phenomenon that the induction of transient de novo autoimmune hepatitis by Con A injection paradoxically overcomes the rejection without any immunosuppressive drug and exhibits significantly prolonged survival after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Significantly increased titers of anti-nuclear Abs against histone H1 and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and reduced donor specific alloantibody response were observed in Con A-injected recipients. Induction of Foxp3 and IL-10 in OLT livers of Con A-injected recipients suggested the involvement of regulatory T cells in this unique phenomenon. Our present data suggest the significance of autoimmune responses against nuclear histone H1 and HMGB1 for competing allogeneic immune responses, resulting in the acceptance of liver allografts in experimental liver transplantation. PMID:24454474

  20. Anti-nuclear antibody production and immune-complex glomerulonephritis in BALB/c mice treated with pristane.

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, M; Kumar, A; Kanwar, Y S; Reeves, W H

    1995-01-01

    The pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus is thought to be primarily under genetic control, with environmental factors playing a secondary role. However, it has been shown recently that intraperitoneal injection of pristane (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane) induces autoantibodies typical of lupus in BALB/c mice, a strain not usually considered to be genetically susceptible to the disease. In this study, the induction of autoimmune disease by pristane was investigated. BALB/c mice receiving pristane were tested for autoantibody production and histopathological evidence of glomerulonephritis. Six of 11 mice developed IgM anti-single-stranded DNA antibodies shortly after receiving pristane and 4 developed IgM anti-histone antibodies, but anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies were absent. IgG anti-DNA and anti-histone antibodies were absent. In contrast, the lupus-associated anti-nuclear ribonucleoprotein/Sm and anti-Su autoantibodies produced by these mice were predominantly IgG. In addition to autoantibodies, most of the mice developed significant proteinuria. Light microscopy of the kidney showed segmental or diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis. Electron microscopy showed subepithelial and mesangial immune-complex deposits and epithelial foot process effacement. Immunofluorescence revealed striking glomerular deposition of IgM, IgG, and C3 with a mesangial or mesangiocapillary distribution. Thus, pristane induces immune-complex glomerulonephritis in association with autoantibodies typical of lupus in BALB/c mice. These data support the idea that lupus is produced by an interplay of genetic and environmental factors and that unlike the MRL or (NZB x W)F1 mouse models, in which genetic susceptibility factors are of primary importance, environmental factors are of considerable importance in the autoimmune disease of pristane-treated BALB/c mice. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7479913

  1. Hep-2 cell based indirect immunofluorescence assay for antinuclear antibodies as a potential diagnosis of drug-induced autoimmunity in nonclinical toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Hong, Min; Ma, Ben; Lin, Zhi; Zhou, Xiaobing; Geng, Xingchao; Shen, Lianzhong; Li, Bo

    2015-03-01

    Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) are important biomarkers in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases in humans; however, the diagnostic performance of ANA in nonclinical safety studies are not well understood. Here, we studied the use of ANAs as potential nonclinical biomarkers for drug-induced autoimmunity (DIA) using a Hep-2 based indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Initially, MRL-fas(lpr)/J mice and HgCl2-treated rats were used as SLE-positive models. Serum samples obtained from 94 normal mice or 204 normal rats aged one to four months served as the negative control. The IFA effectively distinguished ANAs-positive samples in both species with a cut-off titer of 1:100. Brown Norway rats were treated with 450mg/kg d-penicillamine for 30 consecutive days. ANAs were generated and corresponded with DIA development. Human Hep-2 cells, mice Neuro 2A cells, and Chinese Hamster Lung cells served as antigen from different species, which were found cross-reactive with ANA-positive serum samples from mice, rats, and humans without any differences in diagnosis. This methodology showed no species-specificity for ANA detection. Furthermore, we found approximately 20 percentage of the mice aged seven to eight months demonstrated age-related ANAs, which was consistent with humans. Overall, our findings demonstrated the use of ANA detection using IFA in the nonclinical diagnosis of murine drug-induced autoimmunity, and age-related ANAs should be considered when aged animals are used. PMID:25455225

  2. Spectra of antinuclear antibodies in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung and of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Fernández Madrid, Félix; Karvonen, Robert L; Ensley, John; Kraut, Michael; Granda, José L; Alansari, Huda; Tang, Naimei; Tomkiel, John E

    2005-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) and of the lung (LSCC) share some important risk factors, but differ substantially in terms of prognosis and treatment. A pulmonary nodule developing in patients with surgically cured HNSCC may pose a diagnostic dilemma. Markers able to distinguish these two common malignancies would be of major clinical importance. In this work we compared the spectrum of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) from 22 patients with SCCL to that of 40 patients with HNSCC. Patient sera were used to probe immunoblots of nuclear extracts from all four major lung cancer cell types, normal lung fibroblasts, cells cultured from a HNSCC, and keratinocytes cultured from the field cancerization. The ability to classify retrospectively LSCC from HNSCC based on serum ANA reactivities was determined by recursive partitioning analyses. We found that while both malignancies share reactivities to a small group of nuclear antigens, other reactivities are directed against proteins uniquely or preferentially expressed in either SCCL or in SCCHN cells. Our work shows that autoimmunity is a prominent feature of squamous cell carcinoma and suggests that molecular characterization of nuclear antigens recognized by ANAs may lead to the discovery of markers valuable to distinguish LSCC from HNSCC. PMID:15734219

  3. Outcome of asbestos exposure (lung fibrosis and antinuclear antibodies) with respect to skin reactivity: an 8-year longitudinal study

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, A.; Garncarek, D.; Tomeczko, J.; Ciechanowski, G.; Bisikiewicz, R.

    1986-10-01

    Two hundred seventy asbestos workers were examined during an 8-year period. During this time five consecutive surveys were completed. Skin tests with streptokinase-streptodornase (SK-SD), tuberculin (PPD), and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) were performed in the middle of this period. The results of these tests were related to X-ray chest film results and the appearance of antinuclear antibodies (ANA). In all surveys, except the first, X-ray films with small irregular opacities with a profusion greater than or equal to1/1 belonged more frequently to asbestos workers who did not respond to SK-SD or PHA. Thirty-one cases of asbestosis were diagnosed at that time, 23 of them became asbestotic after the skin tests were performed. Asbestotic cases contributed more frequently to the group with energy as compared to asbestos workers lacking asbestosis. Furthermore, asbestosis was correlated with lack of response to second strength of SK-SD in males and PHA in both sexes. Lack of response to these activators was predictive of asbestosis. Asbestos workers with ANA frequently displayed a lack of response to the first strength of SK-SD, PPD, and PHA. This was partly due to the presence of asbestotic cases in the group. However, low responders to all these activators were found frequently in the group with ANA independent of the presence of asbestosis.

  4. Current Concepts and Future Directions for the Assessment of Autoantibodies to Cellular Antigens Referred to as Anti-Nuclear Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Mahler, Michael; Meroni, Pier-Luigi; Bossuyt, Xavier; Fritzler, Marvin J.

    2014-01-01

    The detection of autoantibodies that target intracellular antigens, commonly termed anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), is a serological hallmark in the diagnosis of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARD). Different methods are available for detection of ANA and all bearing their own advantages and limitations. Most laboratories use the indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) assay based on HEp-2 cell substrates. Due to the subjectivity of this diagnostic platform, automated digital reading systems have been developed during the last decade. In addition, solid phase immunoassays using well characterized antigens have gained widespread adoption in high throughput laboratories due to their ease of use and open automation. Despite all the advances in the field of ANA detection and its contribution to the diagnosis of SARD, significant challenges persist. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the current status on ANA testing including automated IIF reading systems and solid phase assays and suggests an approach to interpretation of results and discusses meeting the problems of assay standardization and other persistent challenges. PMID:24868563

  5. Development of antinuclear antibodies and a genetic linkage in pigs infected with porcine circovirus type 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives. Prominent nuclear immunohistochemical staining of a PCV-2 free porcine kidney cell line (PK-15) was detected with a rabbit polyclonal antibody produced against a conserved PCV2 Rep-protein peptide. This unexpected finding led us to retrospectively test sera from gnotobiotic pigs for the ...

  6. Persistence of pulmonary tertiary lymphoid tissues and anti-nuclear antibodies following cessation of cigarette smoke exposure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Formation of pulmonary tertiary immune structures is a characteristic feature of advanced COPD. In the current study, we investigated the mechanisms of tertiary lymphoid tissue (TLT) formation in the lungs of cigarette smoke-exposed mice. We found that cigarette smoke exposure led to TLT formation that persisted following smoking cessation. TLTs consisted predominantly of IgM positive B cells, while plasma cells in close proximity to TLTs expressed IgM, IgG, and IgA. The presence of TLT formation was associated with anti-nuclear autoantibody (ANA) production that also persisted following smoking cessation. ANAs were observed in the lungs, but not the circulation of cigarette smoke-exposed mice. Similarly, we observed ANA in the sputum of COPD patients where levels correlated with disease severity and were refractory to steroid treatment. Both ANA production and TLT formation were dependent on interleukin-1 receptor 1 (IL-1R1) expression. Contrary to TLT and ANA, lung neutrophilia resolved following smoking cessation. These data suggest a differential regulation of innate and B cell-related immune inflammatory processes associated with cigarette smoke exposure. Moreover, our study further emphasizes the importance of interleukin-1 (IL-1) signaling pathways in cigarette smoke-related pulmonary pathogenesis. PMID:24754996

  7. Antinuclear antibody panel

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medicine (antiseptic). The health care provider wraps an elastic band around the upper arm to apply pressure ... vial or tube attached to the needle. The elastic band is removed from your arm. Once the ...

  8. ANA (Antinuclear Antibody Test)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... C, Ashwood E, Bruns D, eds. (2006). Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics, 4th edition, ... to ensure that it reflects the most current science. A review may not require any modifications to ...

  9. Mercury exposure, malaria, and serum antinuclear/antinucleolar antibodies in amazon populations in Brazil: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Ines A; Nyland, Jennifer F; Gorman, Andrew; Perisse, Andre; Ventura, Ana Maria; Santos, Elizabeth CO; de Souza, Jose M; Burek, CL; Rose, Noel R; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2004-01-01

    Background Mercury is an immunotoxic metal that induces autoimmune disease in rodents. Highly susceptible mouse strains such as SJL/N, A.SW, B10.S (H-2s) develop multiple autoimmune manifestations after exposure to inorganic mercury, including lymphoproliferation, elevated levels of autoantibodies, overproduction of IgG and IgE, and circulating immune complexes in kidney and vasculature. A few studies have examined relationships between mercury exposures and adverse immunological reactions in humans, but there is little evidence of mercury-associated autoimmunity in humans. Methods To test the immunotoxic effects of mercury in humans, we studied communities in Amazonian Brazil with well-characterized exposures to mercury. Information was collected on diet, mercury exposures, demographic data, and medical history. Antinuclear and antinucleolar autoantibodies (ANA and ANoA) were measured by indirect immunofluorescence. Anti-fibrillarin autoantibodies (AFA) were measured by immunoblotting. Results In a gold mining site, there was a high prevalence of ANA and ANoA: 40.8% with detectable ANoA at ?1:10 serum dilution, and 54.1% with detectable ANA (of which 15% had also detectable ANoA). In a riverine town, where the population is exposed to methylmercury by fish consumption, both prevalence and levels of autoantibodies were lower: 18% with detectable ANoA and 10.7% with detectable ANA. In a reference site with lower mercury exposures, both prevalence and levels of autoantibodies were much lower: only 2.0% detectable ANoA, and only 7.1% with detectable ANA. In the gold mining population, we also examined serum for AFA in those subjects with detectable ANoA (?1:10). There was no evidence for mercury induction of this autoantibody. Conclusions This is the first study to report immunologic changes, indicative of autoimmune dysfunction in persons exposed to mercury, which may also reflect interactions with infectious disease and other factors. PMID:15522122

  10. Mercury exposure, serum antinuclear/antinucleolar antibodies, and serum cytokine levels in mining populations in Amazonian Brazil: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Renee M; Nyland, Jennifer F; Silva, Ines A; Ventura, Ana Maria; de Souza, Jose Maria; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2010-05-01

    Mercury is an immunotoxic substance that has been shown to induce autoimmune disease in rodent models, characterized by lymphoproliferation, overproduction of immunoglobulin (IgG and IgE), and high circulating levels of auto-antibodies directed at antigens located in the nucleus (antinuclear auto-antibodies, or ANA) or the nucleolus (antinucleolar auto-antibodies, or ANoA). We have reported elevated levels of ANA and ANoA in human populations exposed to mercury in artisanal gold mining, though other confounding variables that may also modulate ANA/ANoA levels were not well controlled. The goal of this study is to specifically test whether occupational and environmental conditions (other than mercury exposure) that are associated with artisanal gold mining affect the prevalence of markers of autoimmune dysfunction. We measured ANA, ANoA, and cytokine concentrations in serum and compared results from mercury-exposed artisanal gold miners to those from diamond and emerald miners working under similar conditions and with similar socio-economic status and risks of infectious disease. Mercury-exposed gold miners had higher prevalence of detectable ANA and ANoA and higher titers of ANA and ANoA as compared to diamond and emerald miners with no occupational mercury exposure. Also, mercury-exposed gold miners with detectable ANA or ANoA in serum had significantly higher concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma in serum as compared to the diamond and emerald miners. This study provides further evidence that mercury exposure may lead to autoimmune dysfunction and systemic inflammation in affected populations. PMID:20176347

  11. Distinction between MOG antibody-positive and AQP4 antibody-positive NMO spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Douglas Kazutoshi; Callegaro, Dagoberto; Lana-Peixoto, Marco Aurelio; Waters, Patrick J.; Jorge, Frederico M. de Haidar; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Nakashima, Ichiro; Apostolos-Pereira, Samira Luisa; Talim, Natalia; Simm, Renata Faria; Lino, Angelina Maria Martins; Misu, Tatsuro; Leite, Maria Isabel; Aoki, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate clinical features among patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) who have myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies, aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibodies, or seronegativity for both antibodies. Methods: Sera from patients diagnosed with NMOSD in 1 of 3 centers (2 sites in Brazil and 1 site in Japan) were tested for MOG and AQP4 antibodies using cell-based assays with live transfected cells. Results: Among the 215 patients with NMOSD, 7.4% (16/215) were positive for MOG antibodies and 64.7% (139/215) were positive for AQP4 antibodies. No patients were positive for both antibodies. Patients with MOG antibodies represented 21.1% (16/76) of the patients negative for AQP4 antibodies. Compared with patients with AQP4 antibodies or patients who were seronegative, patients with MOG antibodies were more frequently male, had a more restricted phenotype (optic nerve more than spinal cord), more frequently had bilateral simultaneous optic neuritis, more often had a single attack, had spinal cord lesions distributed in the lower portion of the spinal cord, and usually demonstrated better functional recovery after an attack. Conclusions: Patients with NMOSD with MOG antibodies have distinct clinical features, fewer attacks, and better recovery than patients with AQP4 antibodies or patients seronegative for both antibodies. PMID:24415568

  12. Mercury exposure, serum antinuclear/antinucleolar antibodies, and serum cytokine levels in mining populations in Amazonian Brazil: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Renee M.; Nyland, Jennifer F.; Silva, Ines A.; Ventura, Ana Maria; Souza, Jose Maria de; Silbergeld, Ellen K.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury is an immunotoxic substance that has been shown to induce autoimmune disease in rodent models, characterized by lymphoproliferation, overproduction of immunoglobulin (IgG and IgE), and high circulating levels of autoantibodies directed at antigens located in the nucleus (anti-nuclear autoantibodies, or ANA) or the nucleolus (anti-nucleolar autoantibodies, or ANoA). We have reported elevated levels of ANA and ANoA in human populations exposed to mercury in artisanal gold mining, though other confounding variables that may also modulate ANA/ANoA levels were not well-controlled. The goal of this study is to specifically test whether occupational and environmental conditions (other than mercury exposure) that are associated with artisanal gold mining affect the prevalence of markers of autoimmune dysfunction. We measured ANA, ANoA, and cytokine concentrations in serum and compared results from mercury-exposed artisanal gold miners to those from diamond and emerald miners working under similar conditions and with similar socioeconomic status and risks of infectious disease. Mercury-exposed gold miners had higher prevalence of detectable ANA and ANoA and higher titers of ANA and ANoA as compared to diamond and emerald miners with no occupational mercury exposure. Also, mercury-exposed gold-miners with detectable ANA or ANoA in serum had significantly higher concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1?, TNF-?, and IFN-? in serum as compared to the diamond and emerald miners. This study provides further evidence that mercury exposure may lead to autoimmune dysfunction and systemic inflammation in affected populations. PMID:20176347

  13. Anti-nuclear fantasies

    SciTech Connect

    Glynn, P.

    1983-01-01

    The author critiques two recent anti-nuclear books - Indefensible Weapons by two American professors, Robert Jay Lifton and Richard Falk; and Beyond the Cold War, a collection of polemical essays by E.P. Thompson, British Marxist historian. He sees a common thread in these books of moral rejection of traditional Western policies more than a rejection of the weapons themselves. Western institutions are judged indefensible in their arrangements for genocide. Glynn finds the authors focusing their criticism on the US, while excusing the Soviet Union, because of their alienation from US politics. He feels these are examples of a specialized literature movement that lacks a clear vision of the new order it promotes, however, because it is wary of all political arrangements. Attacks on the free press and American foreign policy take on an Orwellian irony in their rejection of security facts and their emphasis on psychological ills. Criticism of this approach does not deny the threat of nuclear weapons when it points out that, so far, the political approach has prevented their use. (DCK)

  14. Antinuclear Factor, a Dysimmunological Feature in Mental Depression. A Preliminary Communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Deberdt; J. van Hooren; W. Amery

    1974-01-01

    Antinuclear factor was present in the serum of more than one-fourth of 32 patients admitted to the psychiatric hospital because of mental depression. It appears that a positive antinuclear factor may be a rather common finding in endogenous depressions and the present data suggest that the presence of this serum factor is of unfavourable prognostic significance.

  15. The challenge of bleeding in antiphospholipid antibody-positive patients.

    PubMed

    Pazzola, Giulia; Zuily, Stéphane; Erkan, Doruk

    2015-02-01

    Antiphospholipid antibody-positive patients can develop bleeding due to capillaritis, microthrombosis, antiprothrombin antibodies, thrombocytopenia, and/or excessive antithrombotic therapy. Clinical characteristics of patients, e.g., renal impairment, elderly, or concomitant medications, are closely related to the risk of bleeding. The management of bleeding in antiphospholipid antibody (aPL)-positive patients is challenging due to the baseline increased risk of thrombosis. If anticoagulation is stopped, it should be restarted as soon as possible once the acute bleeding is controlled; the continuation of anticoagulation despite active bleeding may be required in selected cases. High-dose corticosteroid is the mainstay treatment for diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, lupus anticoagulant-hypoprothrombinemia syndrome, and severe thrombocytopenia; immunosuppressive drugs are also required to improve the long-term outcomes. Hydrocortisone is critical in adrenal hemorrhage patients due to concomitant adrenal insufficiency; despite bleeding, anticoagulation should be maintained as much as possible. Plasma exchange should be considered in catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome patients with concurrent bleeding. This article will review the causes of bleeding in aPL-positive patients as well as the management strategies. PMID:25618573

  16. Treatment with interferon-? does not induce anti-nuclear and anti-neuronal serum autoantibodies in multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Comabella, M; Rentzsch, K; Río, J; Bustamante, M F; Borowski, K; Stoecker, W; Montalban, X

    2013-02-15

    Type I interferons (IFNs) are known to enhance humoral immunity. Here, we investigated the prevalence and titer of anti-nuclear and anti-neuronal IgG autoantibodies in 71 relapsing-remitting MS patients classified based on their clinical response to IFN? in paired sera obtained at baseline and after 12months of treatment. All samples were negative for antibodies against cytoplasmic rods/rings, synaptic proteins and paraneoplastic antibodies. Regarding anti-nuclear, anti-filament and anti-myelin antibodies, pre- and post-treatment prevalence and titers did not differ significantly between IFN? responders and non-responders. Thus, pattern of anti-nuclear and anti-neuronal autoantibodies does not predict the response to IFN? in MS patients. PMID:23182615

  17. Clinical Significance of Antiproteinase 3 Antibody Positivity in cANCA-Positive Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. van Pesch; M. Jadoul; C. Lefèbvre; B. R. Lauwerys; J.-P. Tomasi; J.-P. Devogelaer; F. A. Houssiau

    1999-01-01

    :   We addressed the clinical significance of antiproteinase 3 (anti-PR3) antibody (Ab) positivity by reviewing the files of\\u000a 79 patients whose serum contained antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies with a cytoplasmic staining pattern (cANCA) and had\\u000a been tested for anti-PR3 reactivity. Vasculitis was present in most (22\\/35) cANCA+ PR3+ patients but in only a few (5\\/44) cANCA+ PR3+ patients, thereby suggesting that

  18. HLA-DRB1 Genotypes and the Risk of Developing Anti Citrullinated Protein Antibody (ACPA) Positive

    E-print Network

    Pardoux, Etienne

    HLA-DRB1 Genotypes and the Risk of Developing Anti Citrullinated Protein Antibody (ACPA) Positive antibody (ACPA) positive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) according to one's HLA-DRB1 genotype. Methods: We HLA-DRB1 genotyped 857 patients with ACPA positive RA and 2178 controls from South Eastern and Eastern

  19. Effects of cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) positive Helicobacter pylori infection on anti-platelet glycoprotein antibody producing B cells in patients with primary idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yuan-Shan; Kuang, Li-Ping; Zhuang, Chun-Lan; Jiang, Jia-Dian; Shi, Man

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) positive Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori or HP) infection on circulating B cells producing specific platelet glycoprotein antibodies and the association between therapeutic outcomes in primary idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) patients. Methods: A total of 76 newly diagnosed primary ITP patients were included in the study which was conducted at the first affiliated hospital of Shantou University Medical college, in Shantou city China, between January 2013 and January 2014. These patients were tested for H. pylori infection by 13C urea breath test and for anti-CagA antibody in H. pylori positive cases by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Anti-GPIb and anti-GPIIb/IIIa antibody-producing B cells were measured using an enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay in all ITP patients and 30 controls. Anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) was also detected in ITP patients. Results: The numbers of anti-GPIIb/IIIa antibody-producing B cells in HP+CagA+ patients were higher than in HP+CagA- or HP- patients. However, anti-GPIb antibody-producing B cells were found higher in HP- patients. Analysis of treatment outcomes showed that a therapeutic response was more likely in patients presenting anti-GPIIb/IIIa B cells, but the poor response was found to be associated with anti-GPIb B cells and ANA presences. Conclusion: CagA antigen of H. pylori may induce anti-GPIIb/IIIa antibodies production by a molecular mimicry mechanism. Anti-GPIIb/IIIa and anti-GPIb antibody producing B Cells detection is useful for predicting treatment effects of primary ITP.

  20. Anti-aquaporin-4 antibody-positive dorsal midbrain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Juyoun; Jeong, Seong-Hae; Park, Sang Min; Sohn, Eun Hee; Lee, Ae Young; Kim, Jae-Moon; Jo, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Yeon-Hee; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2015-04-01

    Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) can cause various ocular motor disorders in addition to optic neuritis. Ocular motor findings associated with NMOSD include spontaneous vertical and gaze-evoked nystagmus, wall-eyed bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia, and trochlear nerve palsy. The association between dorsal midbrain syndrome and anti-aquaporin-4 antibody seropositivity has not been reported. Here, we report a patient displaying typical dorsal midbrain syndrome and anti-aquaporin-4 antibody seropositivity. PMID:25013154

  1. Heterophilic antibodies interfering with radioimmunoassay. A false-positive pregnancy test

    SciTech Connect

    Vladutiu, A.O.; Sulewski, J.M.; Pudlak, K.A.; Stull, C.G.

    1982-11-19

    A young woman with amenorrhea had a consistently positive pregnancy test result (serum radioimmunoassay measurement of ..beta..-human chorionic gonadotropin hormone). No fetal or placental tissue was found after uterine curettage and exploratory laparotomy. The false-positive pregnancy test result was due to heterophilic antibovine and antigoat antibodies in the patient's serum. These antibodies interfered with radioimmunoassays using goat antibodies. This case shows that serum heterophilic antibodies can interfere with immunoassays and result in unnecessary diagnostic procedures and/or unnecessary treatment.

  2. A Peer Counselling Program for Persons Testing H.I.V. Antibody Positive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baiss, Alan

    1989-01-01

    Describes need for and development of a peer counseling program for persons who have tested positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies. Discusses selection of peer counselors, training, and confidentiality. Includes discussion of future plans. (ABL)

  3. Fulminant hepatitis B in an infant born to a hepatitis Be antibody positive, DNA negative carrier.

    PubMed Central

    Vanclaire, J; Cornu, C; Sokal, E M

    1991-01-01

    A boy was born to a mother who was a chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carrier. She was hepatitis Be (HBe) antibody positive and HBe antigen and HBV-DNA negative. The boy had not received hepatitis B vaccine and died from fulminant hepatitis at 3 months of age. This case demonstrates the need to vaccinate babies of HBe antibody positive, HBe antigen negative carriers. PMID:1929497

  4. Social-movement analysis of the American antinuclear movement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ladd

    1981-01-01

    Utilizing data from a survey of participants at the May 6, 1979 antinuclear rally in Washington, DC (N = 420), this dissertation explored some of the major structural and ideological characteristics of the American Antinuclear Movement. By organizing the data around three of the key analytical concepts in the study of social movements - mobilization, recruitment, and ideology - the

  5. [The positivity rate of specific IgE antibody to Japanese cedar pollen in Wakayama Prefecture].

    PubMed

    Enomoto, T; Sakoda, T; Dake, Y; Shibano, A; Saitoh, Y; Takahashi, M; Sogo, H; Fujiki, Y

    1999-12-01

    The incidence of Japanese cedar pollinosis has been increasing each year in Japan. Japanese cedar pollinosis is a state of allergic response, mediated by IgE. So, it is important to know the state of sensitization against Japanese cedar pollen. The subjects were 1321 nonselective cases who were more than 16 years of age and who live in Wakayama Prefecture. Specific IgE antibodies to Japanese cedar pollen were measured by Lumiward immunoassay system. The results showed that positivity for sera class 2 or higher was 30.9%. Furthermore, the positivity in 1995 was higher than the positivity in either 1985 (13.9%) or 1990 (18.3%). The incidence of specific IgE antibody positivity was higher in males. Also the age distribution of the positivity was highest in the 20-29 years old group, and the positivity was decreased with age. We examined the kinds of factors influencing the positivity of specific IgE antibodies. However, the relation between the positivity of specific IgE antibodies and the various environmental factors was unclear. PMID:10655720

  6. Mechanisms of antinuclear antibody production in the rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Pisetsky, D S

    1987-12-01

    Recent investigations on the mechanisms of ANA production in the rheumatic diseases suggest that these responses frequently emerge in the setting of nonspecific immunoregulatory disturbances. However, the expansion and maturation of these responses to generate pathogenic specificities may require the coexistence of clonal or antigen-specific abnormalities. At the genetic level, ANAs appear to be of diverse origin, including some with representation in the normal B cell repertoire. Since some ANAs are disease-specific, elucidation of the basis of their production should provide insights into the unique pathogenetic features of different rheumatic diseases. PMID:3324206

  7. Antibody

    MedlinePLUS

    An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples ... microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. Antibodies may be produced when the immune system mistakenly ...

  8. Antibody

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Darryl Leja (National Human Genome Research Institute REV)

    2005-04-04

    Antibody: A blood protein that is produced in response to and counteracts an antigen. Antibodies are produced in response to disease and help the body fight against the particular disease. In this way, antibodies help the body develop an immunity to disease.

  9. Studies on production of anticollagen antibodies in silicosis

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaoka, Tadasu; Tabata, Masaji; Kobayashi, Kenichi; Okada, Akira (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan))

    1993-01-01

    Silicosis is characterized by pulmonary fibrotic changes which consist primarily of an increase in collagen. In this study, anticollagen antibodies in the serum of 134 silicosis patients versus 40 normal subjects were examined and their relationship with immunoglobulin, autoantibodies, and procollagen III peptide (PIIIP) was investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mean levels of antihuman type I collagen (HI) and anti-human type Ill collagen (HIII) antibodies were significantly higher in the silicosis patients versus the normal subjects (P < 0.001). However, no differences were observed in the mean levels of anti-human type IV collagen (HIV) antibodies in the silicosis patients versus the normal subjects. Anticollagen antibodies in the sera of silicosis patients appear to be formed at an early stage of the disease. We observed a correlation between anticollagen antibodies and immunoglobulin. There was a tendency toward high values of anticollagen antibodies in the sera of patients positive for antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and rheumatoid factor (RF), both of which are autoantibodies. However, no correlation was observed between serum PIIIP and anticollagen antibodies. These observations suggest that, in silicosis, there is a relationship between anticollagen antibodies and immunoglobulins, as well as between anticollagen antibodies and autoantibodies. Measurement of anticollagen antibodies in the sera of silicosis patients offers a useful index for evaluating the prognosis of pulmonary fibrosis and autoimmune abnormality in silicosis. 49 refs. 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Antibody elutions in Thai patients with a positive direct antiglobulin test

    PubMed Central

    Nathalang, Oytip; Sriwanitchrak, Pramote; Tubrod, Jintana; Kupatawintu, Pawinee

    2011-01-01

    Background The direct antiglobulin test is performed to determine whether an anaemic patient with evidence of haemolysis has autoimmune or alloimmune haemolytic anaemia. Materials and methods We determined the antibody specificity of eluted IgG antibodies from patients’ blood samples with a positive direct antiglobulin test. Overall, 134 Thai patients were included in this study. EDTA blood samples were obtained from recently transfused patients, patients with unexplained anaemia and patients who had serum antibodies detected during routine pre-transfusion tests from different hospital blood banks. These complicated samples were sent to the National Blood Centre of the Thai Red Cross Society for investigation and to find compatible blood components. Each blood sample underwent a direct antiglobulin test with the gel technique using polyspecific antihuman globulin and mononospecific anti-IgG and anti-C3d. Acid eluates were prepared from the samples for which the direct antiglobulin test was positive and the specificities of the eluted antibodies were determined by the gel technique. Results Of the samples tested, 101 showed a positive direct antiglobulin test result (75.4%) using polyspecific antihuman globulin sera whereas only 95 samples (70.9%) were positive with anti-IgG or anti-IgG and anti-C3d. Moreover, 54 of 95 eluates (56.8%) were positive for antibody screening and tested with the reagent panel cells. Twenty-one eluates had specific alloantibodies, which were concordant with the findings in the patients’ sera and all patients had a history of blood transfusion. Additionally, 33 eluates contained pan-agglutinins. Interestingly, alloantibodies could be determined using titration studies in 5 of 26 eluates with pan-agglutinins. Conclusion Although the direct antiglobulin test is not routinely performed in pre-transfusion screening, this test and elution studies would be useful in patients with a history of previous transfusions, and in those for whom compatible blood cannot be found. PMID:21084008

  11. Enterovirus antibody levels during the first two years of life in prediabetic autoantibody-positive children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Sadeharju; M. Lönnrot; T. Kimpimäki; K. Savola; S. Erkkilä; T. Kalliokoski; P. Savolainen; P. Koskela; J. Ilonen; O. Simell; M. Knip; H. Hyöty

    2001-01-01

    \\u000a \\u000a Abstract\\u000a \\u000a   \\u000a \\u000a Aims\\/hypothesis. We evaluated the role of enterovirus infections in the pathogenesis of Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus by monitoring\\u000a enterovirus antibody levels in prediabetic children who turned positive for diabetes-associated autoantibodies in a prospective\\u000a birth cohort study. Methods. Serial serum samples taken during prospective observation starting at birth were analysed for IgG and IgA class antibodies\\u000a against enterovirus

  12. Antibody variable region glycosylation: position effects on antigen binding and carbohydrate structure.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, A; Tao, M H; Kabat, E A; Morrison, S L

    1991-01-01

    The presence of N-linked carbohydrate at Asn58 in the VH of the antigen binding site of an antibody specific for alpha(1----6)dextran (TKC3.2.2) increases its affinity for dextran 10- to 50-fold. Site-directed mutagenesis has now been used to create novel carbohydrate addition sequences in the CDR2 of a non-glycosylated anti-dextran at Asn54 (TST2) and Asn60 (TSU7). These antibodies are glycosylated and the carbohydrates are accessible for lectin binding. The amino acid change in TSU7 (Lys62----Thr62) decreases the affinity for antigen; however, glycosylation of TSU7 increased its affinity for antigen 3-fold, less than the greater than 10-fold increase in affinity seen for glycosylated TKC3.2.2. The difference in impact of glycosylation could result either from the position of the carbohydrate or from its structure; unlike the other antibodies, TSU7 attaches a high mannose, rather than complex, carbohydrate in CDR2. In contrast, glycosylation of TST2 at amino acid 54 inhibits dextran binding. Thus slight changes in the position of the N-linked carbohydrate in the CDR2 of this antibody result in substantially different effects on antigen binding. Unlike what was observed for the anti-dextrans, a carbohydrate addition site placed in a similar position in an anti-dansyl is not utilized. Images PMID:1717254

  13. Isolation of Highly Active Monoclonal Antibodies against Multiresistant Gram-Positive Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rossmann, Friederike S; Laverde, Diana; Kropec, Andrea; Romero-Saavedra, Felipe; Meyer-Buehn, Melanie; Huebner, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Multiresistant nosocomial pathogens often cause life-threatening infections that are sometimes untreatable with currently available antibiotics. Staphylococci and enterococci are the predominant Gram-positive species associated with hospital-acquired infections. These infections often lead to extended hospital stay and excess mortality. In this study, a panel of fully human monoclonal antibodies was isolated from a healthy individual by selection of B-cells producing antibodies with high opsonic killing against E. faecalis 12030. Variable domains (VH and VL) of these immunoglobulin genes were amplified by PCR and cloned into an eukaryotic expression vector containing the constant domains of a human IgG1 molecule and the human lambda constant domain. These constructs were transfected into CHO cells and culture supernatants were collected and tested by opsonophagocytic assay against E. faecalis and S. aureus strains (including MRSA). At concentrations of 600 pg/ml, opsonic killing was between 40% and 70% against all strains tested. Monoclonal antibodies were also evaluated in a mouse sepsis model (using S. aureus LAC and E. faecium), a mouse peritonitis model (using S. aureus Newman and LAC) and a rat endocarditis model (using E. faecalis 12030) and were shown to provide protection in all models at a concentration of 4 ?g/kg per animal. Here we present a method to produce fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibodies that are opsonic in vitro and protective in vivo against several multiresistant Gram-positive bacteria. The monoclonal antibodies presented in this study are significantly more effective compared to another monoclonal antibody currently in clinical trials. PMID:25706415

  14. Optimized detection of circulating anti-nuclear envelope autoantibodies by immunofluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Tsiakalou, Vagia; Tsangaridou, Elena; Polioudaki, Hara; Nifli, Artemissia-Phoebe; Koulentaki, Meri; Akoumianaki, Tonia; Kouroumalis, Elias; Castanas, Elias; Theodoropoulos, Panayiotis A

    2006-01-01

    Background Antinuclear antibodies are useful diagnostic tools in several autoimmune diseases. However, the routine detection of nuclear envelope autoantibodies using immunofluorescence (IF) is not always easy to perform in patients' sera because of the presence of autoantibodies to other nuclear and cytoplasmic components which could mask the characteristic rim-like pattern of nuclear envelope autoantibodies. This is particularly common in sera from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), which generaly have high titres of anti-mitochondrial antibodies. Therefore, we have assayed a number of commercial slides and alternative fixation conditions to optimize the detection of anti-nuclear envelope antibodies (ANEA) in PBC sera. Methods We have explored the presence of ANEA in 33 sera from patients with established PBC using three different Hep2 commercial slides and home-made slides with HeLa and Hep2 cells fixed with methanol, ethanol, 1% or 4% formaldehyde. Results We observed that the IF pattern was related to the cell type used (Hep2 or HeLa), the manufacturer and the cell fixation scheme. When both cell lines were fixed with 1% formaldehyde, the intensity of the cytoplasmic staining was considerably decreased regardless to the serum sample, whereas the prevalence of cytoplasmic autoantibodies was significantly lowered, as compared to any of the Hep2 commercial slide and fixation used. In addition, the prevalence of ANEA was importantly increased in formaldehyde-fixed cells. Conclusion Immunofluorescence using appropriately fixed cells represent an easy, no time-consuming and low cost technique for the routine screening of sera for ANEA. Detection of ANEA is shown to be more efficient using formaldehyde-fixed cells instead of commercially available Hep2 cells. PMID:16956395

  15. [Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis with positive anti-RI antibodies and mediastinal seminoma].

    PubMed

    Launay, M; Bozzolo, E; Venissac, N; Delmont, E; Fredenrich, A; Thomas, P

    2008-01-01

    We report the case of a 49-year-old man who was admitted for progressive behaviorial disorders with frontal elements. There was no sensorial nor motor deficiency. Clinical examination revealed android obesity, cutaneous and mucous paleness, pubic and axillary depilation and gynecomastia. Encephalic MRI found a lesion of the left amygdalian region with high T2 intensity and low T1 intensity associated with gadolinium-enhancement. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed a lymphocytic meningitis. Panhypopituitarism was found on the endocrine investigations. Anti-RI antibodies were positive, leading to the diagnosis of paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis. The CT-scan showed a node of the lower part of the thymic area. Surgical resection revealed an ectopic mediastinal seminoma. The evolution consisted of paraneoplastic fever and crossed-syndrome with right hemiparesia and left common oculomotor nerve paralysis. Treatment was completed by two cycles of carboplatin, corticosteroids and substitutive opotherapy. Paraneoplastic fever disappeared, but behavioral disorders and palsy remain unchanged. The patient died two years later in a bedridden state. This case of paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis associated with positive anti-RI antibodies and mediastinal seminoma is exceptional and has not to our knowledge been described in the literature. Cancers usually associated with anti-RI antibody are breast and lung cancer. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis is not the classical clinical presentation, which usually is brainstem encephalitis. Hypothalamic involvement, uncommon in paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis is mainly associated with positive antineuronal anti-Ma2 antibodies. Finally, the gadolinium enhancement on encephalic MRI is unusual in paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis. PMID:18565362

  16. Effects of abstract and concrete antinuclear filmed presentations on participation in a petition campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Gellis, J.

    1989-01-01

    The goal was to examine the effects of abstract and concrete anti-nuclear images and previous political activity on interest in the topic of nuclear war and participation in an anti-nuclear petition campaign. Subjects were 254 undergraduate students at Hofstra University in three political science classes, three psychology classes and three communication classes: 128 males and 126 females. They were assigned by class to one of three image conditions: concrete, abstract, or no image. After completing a questionnaire measuring their previous level of political activity, students in the concrete condition saw The Last Epidemic, a 30-minute video depicting the aftermath of a nuclear explosion. Subjects in the abstract condition saw Preventing Nuclear War-First Step, a 30 minute video conveying factual information about missile systems and the arms race. Subjects in the no-image condition were not exposed to a video and served as controls. They were asked to respond to a short questionnaire that elicited emotional and intellectual reactions to the topic of nuclear war. After viewing the video tape, subjects in the abstract and concrete conditions responded to a brief questionnaire that elicited emotional and intellectual reactions to the videos. Subjects in all three conditions were asked to provide their names addresses if they were interested in receiving more information on this topic. Subjects who provided their name and addresses were mailed, within 24-hours, a one page petition advocating an anti-nuclear position. Recipients were asked to sign the petition, gather as many signature as possible, and return the petition. Participation was measured by the number of signatures gathered. Data were analyzed by analyzes of variance. The type of image had no effect on either interest or participation in the petition campaign. A modest positive relationship was found between previous political activity and interest.

  17. Dose-dependent induction of anti-native DNA antibodies in cats by propylthiouracil.

    PubMed

    Aucoin, D P; Rubin, R L; Peterson, M E; Reidenberg, M M; Drayer, D E; Hurvitz, A I; Lahita, R G

    1988-05-01

    Cats receiving propylthiouracil (PTU) develop antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and an immune-mediated disease syndrome characterized by anorexia, lymphadenopathy, weight loss, and Coombs-positive hemolytic anemia. Investigation of the ANA specificity indicated that the predominant ANA activity consistent of anti-native DNA (nDNA) antibodies. The formation of anti-nDNA antibodies and immune-mediated disease syndrome appeared to be dose-dependent, even in cats in which a response had been induced on 4 prior occasions. These results supply further evidence that PTU-induced autoimmunity is not the result of a simple drug allergy. Rather, it appears that PTU induces a lupus-like syndrome, including the hallmark sign of systemic lupus erythematosus, anti-nDNA antibodies. PMID:3259886

  18. Adiponectin levels do not predict clinical onset of type 1 diabetes in antibody-positive relatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Truyen; J. De Grijse; C. Van Schravendijk; D. De Smet; K. Decochez; E. Vandemeulebroucke; M. Giri; B. Keymeulen; C. Mathieu; L. Van Gaal; P. De Pauw; I. Weets; D. G. Pipeleers; F. K. Gorus

    2007-01-01

    Aims\\/Hypothesis  Insulin resistance has been proposed as a risk factor for type 1 diabetes. We investigated whether adiponectin, an insulin\\u000a sensitiser, can serve as an additional predictive marker for type 1 diabetes in first-degree relatives of known patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Adiponectin was followed in 211 persistently islet antibody-positive (Ab+) first-degree relatives of type 1 diabetic patients\\u000a and in 211 age- and sex-matched persistently

  19. Antibodies to infectious agents and the positive symptom dimension of subclinical psychosis: The TRAILS study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Yolken, Robert H; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Burger, Huibert; Klein, Hans C

    2011-06-01

    Infections have been suggested to play a role in the etiology of schizophrenia, but the evidence for this has been inconsistent. Schizophrenia patients have an increased risk of infections as a result of hospitalizations or life style factors. Therefore a study on early subclinical manifestations of psychosis in relation to virus infections is warranted. We examined whether serum antibodies against human Herpes viruses and Toxoplasma gondii were associated with subclinical symptoms of psychosis in adolescents. Data were collected as part of the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) cohort, a large prospective cohort of Dutch adolescents. A total of 1176 participants with an available Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE) and an available blood sample were included in this analysis. Solid-enzyme immunoassay methods were used to measure the presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies in serum to the Herpes virus family and to T. gondii. There was no significant association between serologic evidence of infection with human Herpes viruses or T. gondii and the risk of subclinical positive experience of psychosis. Subjects with a positive serological reaction to Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) had higher scores on the positive dimension of psychosis measured by CAPE (b=0.03, P=0.02). This significant association was observed in males, but not in females. The current study suggests that there is no significant association between serological evidence of infection to human Herpes viruses and positive subclinical experience of psychosis, whereas there was an association between EBV infection and subclinical psychotic symptoms in boys. PMID:21458236

  20. Comparison of Antibodies That Mediate HIV Type 1 gp120 Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity in Asymptomatic HIV Type 1-Positive Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Mariana M.; Iwema, Joyce R.; Dell, Shanna; Neems, Leslie; Jamieson, Beth D.; Phair, John; Cohen, Mardge H.; Anastos, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies suggest that HIV-specific antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) antibodies contribute to protective immunity against HIV. An important characteristic of future HIV vaccines will, therefore, be the ability to stimulate production of these antibodies in both men and women. Early studies suggest that men may have a better ADCC antibody response against HIV than women. Our objective was to determine whether men and women differ with respect to their ADCC response to HIV-1 gp120. HIV-positive, asymptomatic untreated men and women were matched for race, age, CD4+ T cell number, HIV-1 viral load, and treatment and HIV-1 gp120 ADCC antibody titers were compared. A standard 51Cr-release assay was used to determine HIV-1 gp120 ADCC antibody titers in HIV-1-seropositive individuals from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS; n=32) and the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS; n=32). Both sexes had high ADCC titers against HIV-1 gp120: 34.4% (n=11) and 40.6% (n=13) of men and women, respectively, had titers of 10,000; 62.5% (n=20) and 56.3% (n=18) had titers of 100,000. Groups did not differ in percent specific release (% SR), lytic units (LU), correlations of titer to viral load, or titer to CD4+ T cells in men or women. Both groups also had similar cross-clade ADCC antibody responses (p>0.5 for % SR and LU). Comparable groups of asymptomatic HIV-1-infected men and women had comparable HIV-1 gp120 ADCC antibodies. Both sexes had significant cross-clade reactivity. Differences between men and women may become evident as disease progresses; this should be evaluated at later stages of HIV-1 infection. PMID:23972002

  1. ANCA-positive vasculitis associated with simvastatin/ezetimibe: expanding the spectrum of statin-induced autoimmunity?

    PubMed

    Sen, Deepali; Rosenstein, Elliot D; Kramer, Neil

    2010-08-01

    Although autoimmune syndromes such as systemic lupus erythematosus and dermatomyositis have been previously reported in association with statin use, vasculitis has not been well described. We present a patient with an antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive, predominantly cutaneous vasculitis, the temporal course of which was associated with simvastatin/ezetimibe use. The patient's serologic findings were consistent with drug-induced disease, with high titer antimyeloperoxidase, in addition to antinuclear and anti-Ro (SSA) antibodies. The patient demonstrated complete resolution of symptoms simply by withdrawing the drug. PMID:20704607

  2. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive conversion and microscopic polyangiitis development in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kagiyama, Naho; Takayanagi, Noboru; Kanauchi, Tetsu; Ishiguro, Takashi; Yanagisawa, Tsutomu; Sugita, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence indicates that antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-positive conversion occurs in patients initially diagnosed with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and as a result, some of these patients develop microscopic polyangiitis (MPA). However, the incidence density of these patients is not well known. Objectives To explore the incidence of ANCA-positive conversion and development of MPA during the disease course in patients with IPF and to evaluate whether corticosteroid therapy reduces MPA development in patients with IPF with myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA positivity at diagnosis or who later acquire MPO-ANCA positivity. Methods We retrospectively analysed the medical records of 504 Asian patients with IPF treated at our institution in Saitama, Japan. Results Of the 504 patients with IPF, 20 (4.0%) had MPO-ANCA and 16 (3.2%) had PR-3-ANCA when first evaluated. In 264 of 504 patients with IPF, ANCA was measured repeatedly and seroconversion to MPO-ANCA and PR3-ANCA occurred in 15 (5.7%) and 14 (5.3%) patients, respectively, and 9 of 35 patients who were either MPO-ANCA positive at IPF diagnosis or who subsequently seroconverted developed MPA. None of the nine patients who developed MPA had been previously treated with steroids. The incidence of MPA tended to be lower in patients treated than not treated with corticosteroids although this was not statistically significant. Conclusions Some patients with IPF with MPO-ANCA positivity at IPF diagnosis or with MPO-ANCA-positive conversion during follow-up developed MPA. Clinical trials to determine whether corticosteroid therapy can reduce MPA development and prolong survival in MPO-ANCA-positive patients with IPF should be considered. PMID:25593704

  3. High positive frequency of antibodies to metallothionein and heat shock protein 70 in sera of patients with metal allergy

    PubMed Central

    JIN, G-B; NAKAYAMA, H; SHMYHLO, M; INOUE, S; KONDO, M; IKEZAWA, Z; OUCHI, Y; CYONG, J-C

    2003-01-01

    Two principal types of stress protein, heat shock proteins (hsps) and metallothionein (MT), are induced in cells responding to a variety of stresses. They play an important role in protecting cells from these stresses. However, many reports indicate that antibodies to hsps are present in human serum and are associated with several autoimmunity diseases. Metals, which are commonly allergenic to humans, induce both MT and hsp70 (one of the hsps family). Until now, there has been no report of any antibody to MT in human serum. In the present study, serum samples from healthy controls (Group I), and patients suffering from atopic dermatitis without (Group II) or with (Group III) metal allergy, were measured for antibodies to MT and hsp70, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Metal allergy was confirmed by patch testing. We first found that antibody to MT exists in human serum. We also found a high positive frequency of antibody to MT (51·3%) and to hsp70 (43·6%) in the sera of Group III, compared to those of Group I (3·8% and 5·1%) or Group II (6·4% and 5·1%). Furthermore, there was a strong positive correlation between antibody to MT and antibody to hsp70 in Group III (P = 0·0013), but not in Group I and Group II. Our results indicate that antibody to MT exists in human serum, as do antibodies to hsps, and suggest that elevated levels of MT and hsp70 antibodies are associated with metal allergy in atopic patients. PMID:12562388

  4. Follow-Up Studies on Epstein – Barr virus IgA\\/VCA Antibody-Positive Persons in Zangwu County, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Zeng; J. M. Zhong; L. Y. Li; P. Z. Wang; H. Tang; Y. R. Ma; J. S. Zhu; W. J. Pan; Y. X. Liu; Z. N. Wei; J. Y. Chen; Y. K. Mo; E. J. Li; B. F. Tan

    1983-01-01

    Summary Serological mass surveys were carried out in Zangwu County, China, using an immunoenzymatic test. 3,533 persons were found to have Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) IgA\\/VCA antibody among 148,029 persons age 30 years and older who were tested during 1978–1980. Among the IgA\\/VCA antibody-positive persons, 55 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cases were detected. Follow-up studies were carried out yearly on the IgA\\/VCA

  5. Effect of Epitope Position on Neutralization by Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Monoclonal Antibody 2F5

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Wu; Lu, Ning; Yu, Sloane S.; Silver, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    The membrane-proximal region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmembrane protein (TM) is critical for envelope (Env)-mediated membrane fusion and contains the target for broadly reactive neutralizing antibody 2F5. It has been proposed that 2F5 neutralization might involve interaction of its long, hydrophobic, complementarity-determining region (CDR) H3, with adjacent viral membrane. Using Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV) as a tool, we examined the effect of epitope position on 2F5 neutralization. When the 2F5 epitope was inserted in the proline-rich region of MLV Env surface protein (SU), 2F5 blocked cell fusion and virus infection, whereas MLV with a hemagglutinin (HA) epitope at the same position was not neutralized by anti-HA, even though the antibodies bound their respective Envs on the surface of infected cells and viruses equally well. When the 2F5 epitope was inserted in the MLV Env TM at a position comparable to its natural position in HIV-1 TM, 2F5 antibody blocked Env-mediated cell fusion. Epitope position had subtle effects on neutralization by 2F5: the antibody concentration for 50% inhibition of cell fusion was more than 10-fold lower when the 2F5 epitope was in SU than in TM, and inhibition was less complete at high concentrations of antibody; we discuss possible explanations for these effects of epitope position. Since membrane proximity was not required for neutralization by 2F5 antibody, we speculate that the CDR H3 of 2F5 contributes to neutralization by destabilizing an adjacent protein rather than by inserting into an adjacent membrane. PMID:16474160

  6. Fluorescent particles in the antibody solution result in false TF- and CD14-positive microparticles in flow cytometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Aass, Hans Christian D; Øvstebø, Reidun; Trøseid, Anne-Marie S; Kierulf, Peter; Berg, Jens Petter; Henriksson, Carola Elisabeth

    2011-12-01

    Tissue factor (TF)-positive microparticles (MPs) are highly procoagulant, and linked to thrombosis in sepsis and cancer. MP-associated TF may be assayed by immunological or functional methods. Several reports have demonstrated discrepancies between TF-protein and TF-activity, which have been explained by antibody binding to "encrypted" or degraded forms of inactive TF-protein. Our goal was to evaluate the possible interference of fluorescent antibody aggregates in solutions containing antibodies against TF and CD14 in flow cytometric analysis. Using monocyte-derived microparticles (MPs) released from human monocytes, incubated with or without lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in vitro, we measured MP-associated TF-protein (flow cytometry) and TF-activity (clot formation assay). MPs released from monocytes exposed to LPS (1 ng mL(-1) ) had ?14 times higher TF-activity than MPs originated from monocytes exposed to only culture medium. However, using untreated anti-TF antibodies (American Diagnostica and BD) in the flow cytometric analysis, MPs released from unstimulated monocytes had a similar number of TF-positive events as MPs secernated from LPS-stimulated monocytes [?45,000 events mL(-1) (American Diagnostica); ?15,000 events mL(-1) (BD)]. These TF-positive events did not exert any TF-activity, and centrifugation (17,000g, 30 min, 4°C) of the antibody solutions prior to use effectively removed the interfering fluorescent events. Removal of fluorescent interference, probably in the form of fluorescent antibody aggregates, from the antibody solutions by centrifugation is essential to prevent the occurrence of false positive flow cytometric events. The events can be mistaken as MP-associated TF-protein, and interpreted as a discrepancy between TF-protein and TF-activity. PMID:21990118

  7. Thyroid peroxidase antibody positivity is associated with symptomatic distress in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Müssig, Karsten; Künle, Andreas; Säuberlich, Anna-Laura; Weinert, Claudia; Ethofer, Thomas; Saur, Ralf; Klein, Reinhild; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Klingberg, Stefan; Gallwitz, Baptist; Leyhe, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    Previous studies suggest impairments of physical, mental, and psychic well-being in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), but these impairments have been shown to be independent of thyroid dysfunction. In 64 euthyroid patients with HT, symptomatic distress was assessed with the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), a 90-item multidimensional self-report symptom inventory using a 5-point rating scale. In a subgroup of patients, endocrine testing 3 years prior to the current investigation was available. Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Abs) were associated with the three SCL-90-R global indices Global Severity Index (GSI), Positive Symptom Distress Index (PSDI), and Positive Symptom Total (PST) as well as with somatization and obsessive-compulsive symptoms after adjustment for age, gender, and thyroid function as assessed by TSH levels (all p<0.05). HT patients positive for TPO-Abs showed poorer results in the three SCL-90-R global indices as well as in the three domains: somatization, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and depression (all p?0.02), though the aforementioned associations did not withstand sequential Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. In contrast, TPO-Abs positivity, defined as TPO-Abs >100 IU/l, significantly predicted poorer psychosocial well-being in all of the three SCL-90-R global indices after three years, even after correction (all p?0.02). In conclusion, high TPO-Abs are associated with poor physical and psychological well-being and appear to predict future health perception in HT patients. PMID:22285302

  8. A subset of ulcerative colitis with positive proteinase-3 antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jin; Yang, Chuan-Hua; Chen, Xiao-Yu; Li, Xu-Hang; Dai, Min; Xiao, Shu-Dong

    2008-01-01

    A small subset of patients with active ulcerative colitis is non-responsive to major known non-biological therapies. We reported 5 patients with positive serum proteinase-3 antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (PR3-ANCA) and tried to (1) identify the common clinical features of these patients; (2) investigate the efficacy of a novel therapy using a Chinese medicine compound; and (3) attract more gastroenterologists to be engaged in further study of this subset of patients. The common manifestations of disease in these 5 patients included recurrent bloody diarrhea and inflammatory lesions involving the entire colorectal mucosa. Initial treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone successfully induced remission. Four of these 5 patients were steroid-dependence, and immunosuppressants, such as azathioprine and cyclophosphamide, were ineffective. In 3 patients, only the particular Chinese medicine compound could induce and maintain remission. One patient underwent colectomy. No vascular inflammatory lesions were found by histopathological examination. Although more cases are needed for confirmation, our study indicates that ulcerative colitis with positive PR3-ANCA may belong to a subtype of refractory ulcerative colitis. The particular Chinese medicine compound used in our study is by far the most effective in the management of these patients, with additional advantages of having no noticeable side-effects and less financial burden. PMID:19058341

  9. Rheumatic manifestations of euthyroid, anti-thyroid antibody-positive patients.

    PubMed

    Tagoe, Clement E; Zezon, Anna; Khattri, Saakshi; Castellanos, Patricia

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study is to define the rheumatic manifestations of euthyroid patients with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) but without a well-defined connective tissue disease. Forty-six consecutive patients with anti-thyroid peroxidase (?TPO) and/or anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (?TG), and normal thyroid function in the absence of a well-defined connective tissue disease were included in a case-cohort study. Arthralgias were a presenting complaint in 98 % of patients. Fibromyalgia syndrome was found in 59 % of patients. Raynaud's phenomenon occurred in 28 % and sicca symptoms in 26 % of patients. Two patients had seronegative arthritis resembling rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis was radiographically present in 88 %, affecting the spine in 45 % of patients. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels positively correlated with levels of ?TPO, but not with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) or ?TG levels. A positive ANA was found in 24 % of patients. One patient developed subclinical hypothyroidism during the study. Rheumatic manifestations frequently occur in patients with CLT in the absence of overt thyroid dysfunction and mimic the presentation of the well-defined connective tissue diseases. PMID:23292189

  10. Outcome of patients with positive heparin-platelet factor-4 antibodies: A retrospective multi-institutional observational study.

    PubMed

    Tapan, Umit; Bolla, Saritha; Daglilar, Ebubekir S; Chang, Shaoyu; Kozyreva, Olga

    2014-11-10

    Abstract Studies show increased mortality with positive heparin-platelet factor-4 (H-PF4) antibodies, especially in hemodialysis patients. We aimed to compare mortality and thrombosis in hospitalized patients with positive, equivocal and negative H-PF4 antibody results. Information was collected on these patients using a multi-institutional retrospective electronic medical record review. Patients tested for H-PF4 antibodies by commercial ELISA during the years 2006 to 2010 were identified. We compared 30-day, 90-day and 1-year mortality in patients with negative, equivocal and positive H-PF4 test and evaluated the relationship between H-PF4 status and rate of thrombosis. Four hundred and seventeen patients had ELISA testing for H-PF4 antibodies. Forty-four patients had equivocal (optical density value 0.4-0.9) and 21 had positive (value 1) H-PF4 antibody test. There were no statistically significant differences in mortality between patients with negative, equivocal and positive results at all three time points (p?=?0.22, 0.27 and 0.38, respectively) even after excluding patients with thrombosis (p?=?0.22, 0.24 and 0.31, respectively). Age and Charlson score were associated with increased 30-day, 90-day and 1 year mortality. Odds ratio of having thrombosis was 23.1 for positive vs. equivocal results (p?positive and negative groups. PMID:25383658

  11. Islet Cell Antibody–Positive Versus –Negative Phenotypic Type 2 Diabetes in Youth

    PubMed Central

    Tfayli, Hala; Bacha, Fida; Gungor, Neslihan; Arslanian, Silva

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Using the clamp technique, youths with a clinical diagnosis of type 2 diabetes (CDx-type 2 diabetes) and positive pancreatic autoantibodies (Ab+) were shown to have severe impairment in insulin secretion and less insulin resistance than their peers with negative antibodies (Ab?). In this study, we investigated whether oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)-derived indexes of insulin secretion and sensitivity could distinguish between these two groups. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 25 Ab?, 11 Ab+ CDx-type 2 diabetic, and 21 obese control youths had an OGTT. Fasting and OGTT-derived indexes of insulin sensitivity (including the Matsuda index, homeostasis model assessment [HOMA] of insulin resistance, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, and glucose-to-insulin ratio) and insulin secretion (HOMA of insulin secretion and 30-min insulogenic and C-peptide indexes) were used. Glucagon and glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 responses were assessed. RESULTS Fasting C-peptide and C-peptide–to–glucose ratio, and C-peptide area under the curve (AUC) were significantly lower in the Ab+ CDx-type 2 diabetic patients. Other OGTT-derived surrogate indexes of insulin sensitivity and secretion were not different between the Ab+ versus Ab? patients. GLP-1 during the OGTT was highest in the Ab+ youths compared with the other two groups, but this difference disappeared after adjusting for BMI. Ab+ and Ab? CDx-type 2 diabetes had relative hyperglucagonemia compared with control subjects. CONCLUSIONS The clinical measures of fasting and OGTT-derived surrogate indexes of insulin sensitivity and secretion, except for fasting C-peptide and C-peptide AUC, are less sensitive tools to distinguish metabolic/pathopysiological differences, detected by the clamp, between Ab+ and Ab? CDx-type 2 diabetic youths. This underscores the importance of using more sensitive methods and the importance of determining antibody status in obese youths with CDx-type 2 diabetes. PMID:20028940

  12. Central retinal vein occlusion in a pediatric patient with SLE and antiphospholipid antibodies without anti-cardiolipin or anti-?2 glycoprotein I antibodies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is characterized by venous and/or arterial thrombosis, and is found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Its diagnosis requires the presence of both clinical and laboratory findings, such as positive anti-cardiolipin and anti-?2 glycoprotein I antibodies and lupus anticoagulant. However, cardiolipin is a minor component of the vascular endothelial cells in human, and phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine are major components. Case presentation A 15-year-old female suddenly developed massive left intraretinal hemorrhaging due to central retinal vein occlusion. She also had a butterfly rash, and her laboratory findings revealed positive serum anti-nuclear antibodies and decreased serum complement. During this episode, she was diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus. Although she was negative for serum anti-cardiolipin IgG and anti-?2 glycoprotein I antibodies as well as lupus anticoagulant, her serum anti-phosphatidylcholine, anti-phosphatidylethanolamine, anti-phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine IgG antibodies levels were increased. Conclusion Pediatric cases of central retinal vein occlusion are rare. Even in patients without anti-cardiolipin or anti-?2 glycoprotein I antibodies and lupus anticoagulant, there is the potential for the development of antiphospholipid antibody-related thrombosis. PMID:24885875

  13. The Drug User's Identity and How It Relates to Being Hepatitis C Antibody Positive: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, Lorraine

    2004-01-01

    The increasing health problem of hepatitis C virus infection has only recently attracted the attention of psychosocial research, especially among subjects at higher risk (e.g. injecting drug users). There is a lack of information about the knowledge, perceptions and feelings that injecting drug users hold about their hepatitis C antibody positive

  14. Evaluation of Disulfide Bond Position to Enhance the Thermal Stability of a Highly Stable Single Domain Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Zabetakis, Dan; Olson, Mark A.; Anderson, George P.; Legler, Patricia M.; Goldman, Ellen R.

    2014-01-01

    Single domain antibodies are the small recombinant variable domains derived from camelid heavy-chain-only antibodies. They are renowned for their stability, in large part due to their ability to refold following thermal or chemical denaturation. In addition to refolding after heat denaturation, A3, a high affinity anti-Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B single domain antibody, possesses a melting temperature of ?84°C, among the highest reported for a single domain antibody. In this work we utilized the recently described crystal structure of A3 to select locations for the insertion of a second disulfide bond and evaluated the impact that the addition of this second bond had on the melting temperature. Four double-disulfide versions of A3 were constructed and each was found to improve the melting temperature relative to the native structure without reducing affinity. Placement of the disulfide bond at a previously published position between framework regions 2 and 3 yielded the largest improvement (>6°C), suggesting this location is optimal, and seemingly provides a universal route to raise the melting temperature of single domain antibodies. This study further demonstrates that even single domain antibodies with extremely high melting points can be further stabilized by addition of disulfide bonds. PMID:25526640

  15. Phenotypic Characteristics of GAD Antibody-Positive Recently Diagnosed Patients With Type 2 Diabetes in North America and Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard Zinman; Steven E. Kahn; Steven M. Haffner; M. Colleen O'Neill; Mark A. Heise; Martin I. Freed

    A number of patients with type 2 diabetes are GAD antibody positive. A Diabetes Outcome Progression Trial (ADOPT) is a randomized, double-blind clinical trial in recently diagnosed drug-naõ¨ve patients with type 2 diabe- tes that allows for the evaluation of GAD positivity in the context of anthropometric and biochemical characteris- tics. Of the 4,134 subjects enrolled in ADOPT for whom

  16. Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies Developed by an HIV-Positive Elite Neutralizer Exact a Replication Fitness Cost on the Contemporaneous Virus

    PubMed Central

    Sather, D. Noah; Carbonetti, Sara; Kehayia, Jenny; Kraft, Zane; Mikell, Iliyana; Scheid, Johannes F.; Klein, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 1% of those infected with HIV-1 develop broad and potent serum cross-neutralizing antibody activities. It is unknown whether or not the development of such immune responses affects the replication of the contemporaneous autologous virus. Here, we defined a pathway of autologous viral escape from contemporaneous potent and broad serum neutralizing antibodies developed by an elite HIV-1-positive (HIV-1+) neutralizer. These antibodies potently neutralize diverse isolates from different clades and target primarily the CD4-binding site (CD4-BS) of the viral envelope glycoprotein. Viral escape required mutations in the viral envelope glycoprotein which limited the accessibility of the CD4-binding site to the autologous broadly neutralizing anti-CD4-BS antibodies but which allowed the virus to infect cells by utilizing CD4 receptors on their surface. The acquisition of neutralization resistance, however, resulted in reduced cell entry potential and slower viral replication kinetics. Our results indicate that in vivo escape from autologous broadly neutralizing antibodies exacts fitness costs to HIV-1. PMID:22973035

  17. Positive dermal hypersensitivity and specific antibodies in workers exposed to bio-engineered enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Biagini, R.E.; Henningsen, G.M.; Driscoll, R.; MacKenzie, B.A.; Wilcox, T.; Scinto, J.D.; Bernstein, D.M.; Swanson, M. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States) Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Thirty-six employees who produced industrial enzymes from bio-engineered strains of bacteria and fungi were evaluated by skin prick testing and enzyme linked immunosorbent assays for specific IgE and IgG antibodies. The workers complained of asthma- and flu-like' symptoms which generally lessened away from work. The enzymes evaluated were {alpha}-amylase from A. niger (ind-AAN), B. licheniformis (ind-AAL) and B. subtilis (ind-AAS); purified {alpha}-amylase from B. subtilis (AAS) and A. niger (AAN); alkaline protease from B. licheniformis (ind-APL) and purified alkaline protease (APL); amylase glucosidase from A. niger (ind-AGN) and purified amylase glucosidase (AGN). Significantly positive skin tests were found for APL, AGN and ind-AAN. Significantly elevated specific IgE results were observed for AAN, AGN, and ind-AAN; elevated specific IgGs were observed for AAN, ind-AAN, ind-AAS, ind-AAL and ind-AGN. Radioimmunoassays of air filter samples (using sera with high Ab titers) for 4 of the ind-enzymes showed only ind-AAN at extremely high environmental levels. These results indicate that occupational exposure to some ind-enzymes causes immediate onset dermal hypersensitivity reactions. The results are equivocal as to whether these reactions are IgE mediated, as IgE titers were low. Contrary to this, IgG titers were extremely high and suggest that these biomarkers can be used as indicators of both individual exposure and environmental analyses.

  18. PET-positive extralimbic presentation of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody-associated encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Gotaro; Inaba, Michiko; Bruno, Michiko K

    2014-09-01

    Anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibody-associated autoimmune encephalitis has been reported mostly as limbic encephalitis. Only few cases with extralimbic involvement are reported with limited investigation. Here, we report an extensive investigation with MRI, PET, and pathological examination. A 66-year-old Japanese female with a history of hypothyroidism, colon cancer, pheochromocytoma, and thymoma-associated myasthenia gravis presented with generalised tonic-clonic seizures. MRI showed multiple hyperintense lesions and PET showed hypermetabolic lesions in the brain. Biopsy showed non-specific gliosis, microglial proliferation, and perivascular lymphohistiocytic infiltrates. Various neuronal antibodies were negative, except for anti-GAD antibody. Anti-GAD antibody-associated encephalitis is an increasingly recognised CNS disease. Pathophysiology of this encephalitis is unclear. While PET showed hypermetabolic lesions, the biopsy showed non-specific changes. The treatments may include immunosuppressants, IVIg, and plasma exchange. One should consider to measure this antibody, in addition to others, when autoimmune encephalitis is suspected [Published with video sequences] . PMID:25042574

  19. Monoclonal antibody against bacterial lipopolysaccharide cross-reacts with DNA-histone.

    PubMed

    Sumazaki, R; Fujita, T; Kabashima, T; Nishikaku, F; Koyama, A; Shibasaki, M; Takita, H

    1986-10-01

    Monoclonal antibodies to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were prepared by fusing spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with Salmonella Minnesota Re 595 LPS to the mouse myeloma cell line P3U1. One of them, designated RS01, revealed a strong positive antinuclear activity and reacted with DNA-histone. RS01 also bound specifically to Salmonella Minnesota Re 595 LPS and eliminated the biological activity of LPS. The Salmonella completely inhibited the ANA activity of RS01 and DNA-histone blocked the reactivity of RS01 with LPS. Thus, it is clear that an anti-LPS monoclonal antibody, RS01 cross-reacts with DNA-histone. PMID:3542315

  20. A case of immunohistochemical false positive staining caused by incompatibility between a CD4 antibody and an autostainer

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Ikuo; Sugihara, Nao; Yunokizaki, Hiroshi; Abe, Takashi; Hirota, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    Precise immunophenotyping of tumor cells by immunohistochemistry is complementary to morphological examination. It is critical for the correct histopathological diagnosis of lymphomas. In this paper, we report a case of T-cell lymphoma whose histopathological diagnosis was confounded by an immunohistochemical pitfall: a false positive caused by incompatibility between an antibody and an autostainer. In this case, based on CD4 immunohistochemistry of the affected lymph nodes, the T-cell lymphoma was diagnosed as CD4-positive at the onset, while it appeared discordantly to be CD4-negative at the second relapse. We noticed that CD4 antibodies and autostainers of different suppliers (designated as suppliers X and Y) were used in an unqualified combination in immunohistochemistry at the onset: that is, the combination of an antibody supplied by X and an autostainer supplied by Y (designated as X-Y combination) was used at the onset. On the other hand, the Y-Y combination was at the second relapse. At the second relapse, flow cytometry of the affected lymph node showed infiltration of CD4-negative T-cell lymphoma. We reasoned that CD4 immunonegativity obtained by the Y-Y combination at the second relapse was specific, while CD4 immunopositivity by the X-Y combination at the onset was false positive. Immunohistochemical reexamination of the lymph node at the onset proved to be CD4-negative by not only the Y-Y but also X-X combinations, confirming our final diagnosis of nodal relapse of CD4-negative T-cell lymphoma. This case illustrates the importance of using compatible combinations of antibodies and autostainers in diagnostic immunohistochemistry. PMID:25755812

  1. The Effects of an Anti-Nuclear War Film on Attitudes toward Nuclear Issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Donald Gunn; Peter Horvath

    1987-01-01

    This study tested the effects of an anti-nuclear war film on students' attitudes toward nuclear issues. Twenty-six male and female Canadian undergraduates were shown the film “If You Love This Planet”; another 26 were shown a neutral film. Students shown the anti-nuclear war film showed more support for activism and protest against nuclear war. The study provided evidence that a

  2. Anti-Ri antibody positive opsoclonus-myoclonus in a male patient with breast carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul W. Wirtz; Peter A. E. Sillevis Smitt; Jorrit I. Hoff; Bertie de Leeuw; Gert Jan Lammers; Sjoerd G. van Duinen; Jan J. Verschuuren

    2002-01-01

    .   A 65-year-old male patient developed truncal ataxia, opsoclonus and myoclonus. In the serum anti-Ri antibodies were found,\\u000a which led to the detection of a small adenocarcinoma of the breast. Other prominent clinical features were an excessive startle\\u000a response and behavioral disorders, such as anxiety and impatience. These features suggest an immune response against both\\u000a Nova-1 and Nova-2 antigens throughout

  3. Post-transplant development of C1q-positive HLA antibodies and kidney graft survival.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Antonina; Poggi, Elvira; Ozzella, Giuseppina; Adorno, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    The development of de novo human leukocyte antigen (HLA) donor specific antibodies (DSA), detected by both cytotoxic or solid phase assays, was considered the major risk factor for allograft failure in kidney transplantation. However, it was shown that not all patients with persistent production of DSA suffered loss of their grafts. Modified Luminex-Single Antigen assays, able to identify C1q-fixing antibodies, represent a new strategy in assessing the clinical relevance of detected DSA. This study demonstrated that C1q-fixing capability of de novo DSA is a clinically relevant marker of worse outcome and inferior graft survival in kidney transplantation. In fact, our findings evidenced a very low graft survival only in the patients who developed DSA able to fix C1q during post-transplant course, while patients producing C1q-negative DSA had good graft survival, which was comparable to that found in our previous study for DSA-negative patients. Moreover, anti-HLA class II antibodies had a higher incidence than anti-HLA class I, and the ability to fix C1q was significantly more frequent among anti-DQ DSA than anti-DR DSA. Monitoring of de novo C1q-DSA production represents a useful, non-invasive tool for risk stratification and prediction of graft outcome in kidney transplantation. PMID:25095531

  4. Patterns of Human Papillomavirus DNA and Antibody Positivity in Young Males and Females, Suggesting a Site-Specific Natural Course of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Vriend, Henrike J.; Bogaards, Johannes A.; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; Scherpenisse, Mirte; King, Audrey J.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.

    2013-01-01

    Background To monitor the impact of human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 vaccine on HPV infection dynamics in the Netherlands, we started an ongoing study in sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in 2009. Here, we analyze baseline type-specific HPV DNA and HPV-specific antibody positivity rates. Methods We enrolled 3569 men and women, 16–24 years of age, from 14 STI clinics, and estimated genital and anal HPV DNA and antibody positivity rates of 7 main carcinogenic HPV types. Generalized estimating equations regression analyses were applied to determine risk factors for, and associations between, type-specific HPV DNA and antibody positivity. Results Genital HPV DNA positivity rates were higher in women than in men; anal HPV DNA was especially high in men who have sex with men (MSM). HPV antibody seropositivity rates were also highest in women and MSM. High-risk sexual behavior was predictive of both HPV DNA and antibody positivity. Despite a strong correlation in serological profiles for multiple HPV types, seropositivity was independently associated with homologous HPV DNA detection. Conclusions HPV DNA and antibody positivity rates are higher in women and MSM than in heterosexual men, but their association is similar across gender. This suggests a site-specific natural course of infection. PMID:23637760

  5. Three-step monoclonal antibody tumor targeting in carcinoembryonic antigen-positive patients.

    PubMed

    Paganelli, G; Magnani, P; Zito, F; Villa, E; Sudati, F; Lopalco, L; Rossetti, C; Malcovati, M; Chiolerio, F; Seccamani, E

    1991-11-01

    We describe a method to postlabel, in vivo, biotinylated monoclonal antibodies pretargeted onto tumor deposits when most of the non-tumor-bound antibodies have already been cleared as avidin-bound complexes. The application of this principle to tumor detection by immunoscintigraphy was tested in 20 patients with histologically documented cancer and increased circulating carcinoembryonic antigen levels. One mg of biotinylated anti-carcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibody (FO23C5) was administered i.v. (first step). After 3 days, 4-6 mg of cold avidin were injected i.v. (second step), followed 48 h later by 0.2-0.3 mg of a biotin derivative labeled with 111In (2-3 mCi) (third step). No evidence of toxicity was observed. Whole body radioactivity distribution was measured in five patients at various intervals postinjection by the conjugate counting technique. Tumors and metastases were detected in 18 of 19 patients (the remaining patient was a true negative) within 3 h after administration of 111In-biotin by planar or single photon emission tomography imaging. At the time of imaging, tumor/blood pool ratio was 5.5 +/- 3.2, and tumor/liver ratio was 6.7 +/- 3.9. Blood clearance of 111In-biotin was multiexponential, with the fast component having a t1/2 of 5 +/- 3 min. Urinary excretion of radioactivity over 3 h was 63.5 +/- 4.9% of the injected dose. Radioactivity at 3 h was 6.5 +/- 1.8% in blood, 1.6 +/- 0.3% in the kidney, and 2.4 +/- 0.6% in the liver. This approach represents an improvement in immunoscintigraphic techniques for tumor localization. The potential use for radioimmunotherapy is discussed. PMID:1933860

  6. [Significance of anti-centromere antibodies. Clinical value].

    PubMed

    Meyer, O; Haim, T; Ryckewaert, A

    1983-04-01

    The authors report 38 cases of patients with antinuclear antibodies directed against the centromere of the chromosomes. These were 32 cases of scleroderma, 2 cases of Raynaud's syndrome, 2 cases of rheumatoid arthritis, 1 case of polymyositis and 1 case of disseminated lupus erythematosus. In the cases of scleroderma, anti-centromere antibodies were detected in 54 p. cent of cases of Crest syndrome, for which they are a good laboratory marker; they were found more rarely in case of sclerodactyly (26 p. cent of cases) and acrosclerosis (14 p. cent of cases) and not at all in cases of localized scleroderma, diffuse scleroderma or eosinophilic fasciitis. Anti-centromere antibodies may be the only antinuclear antibodies in these patients. They can be detected using rapidly dividing cell cultures. PMID:6348931

  7. [Following sensory neuropathy, anti-Hu antibody-positive paraneoplastic neurological syndrome presenting with limbic encephalitis occurs after complete remission].

    PubMed

    Fukami, Yuki; Umemura, Toshitaka; Shimono, Tetufumi; Yokoi, Takamasa; Kamijo, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Toshimasa

    2013-01-01

    Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis is a rare neurological disorder that frequently precedes the detection of malignancy. We report the case of a 68-year-old male with small-cell lung cancer who developed paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis associated with presence of the anti-Hu antibody, after achieving complete remission of the tumor by chemotherapy. The patient visited our hospital because of progressive sensory disturbance of the distal extremities at 65 years of age. Though paraneoplastic sensory neuropathy was suspected, we could not find any tumor and he did not improve with steroids or immunoglobulin therapy. Chest computed tomography (CT) revealed large mediastinal lymphadenopathy. He was subsequently diagnosed with small cell lung cancer at one year and three months after the neurological symptoms occurred. As his serum analysis was positive for the anti-Hu antibody, we diagnosed paraneoplastic sensory neuropathy. The lung cancer disappeared with chemotherapy, but he had developed short-term memory loss six months later. Brain fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging showed an abnormal high-intensity lesion in the left medial temporal lobe including the hippocampus. We therefore made the diagnosis of paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis following subacute sensory neuropathy associated with the anti-Hu antibody. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient presenting with paraneoplastic neurological syndrome in which limbic encephalitis developed after tumor disappearance. So we must recognize the possibility of neurological symptoms occurring during remission. As the mechanism of pathogenesis, delayed neuronal cell damage due to immune responses against the tumor is implicated. PMID:23603543

  8. Monoclonal antibody conjugated magnetic nanoparticles could target MUC-1-positive cells in vitro but not in vivo.

    PubMed

    Shanehsazzadeh, Saeed; Gruettner, Cordula; Lahooti, Afsaneh; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Allen, Barry J; Ghavami, Mahdi; Daha, Fariba Johari; Oghabian, Mohammad Ali

    2014-10-18

    MUC1 antigen is recognized as a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein that is unexpectedly over-expressed in human breast and other carcinomas. In contrast, C595 a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the protein core of the human urinary epithelial machine, is commonly expressed in breast carcinomas. The aim of this study was to conjugate ultra-small super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIO) with C595 mAb, in order to detect in vivo MUC1 expression. A dual contrast agent (the C595 antibody-conjugated USPIO labeled with 99mTc) was prepared for targeted imaging and therapy of anti-MUC1-expressing cancers. The C595 antibody-conjugated USPIO had good stability and reactivity in the presence of blood plasma at 37?°C. No significant differences were observed in immunoreactivity results between conjugated and nonconjugated nanoparticles. The T1 and T2 measurements show >79 and 29% increments (for 0.02?mg/ml iron concentrations) in T1 and T2 values for USPIO-C595 in comparison with USPIO, respectively. The nanoprobes showed the interesting targeting capability of finding the MUC1-positive cell line in vitro. However, we found disappointing in vivo results (i.e. very low accumulation of nanoprobes in the targeted site while >80% of the injected dose per gram was taken up by the liver and spleen), not only due to the coverage of targeting site by protein corona but also because of absorption of opsonin-based proteins at the surface of nanoprobes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25327822

  9. Optimal management of hypothyroidism, hypothyroxinaemia and euthyroid TPO antibody positivity preconception and in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chan, Shiao; Boelaert, Kristien

    2015-03-01

    Normal physiological changes of pregnancy warrant the need to employ gestation specific reference ranges for the interpretation of thyroid function tests. Thyroid hormones play crucial roles in foetal growth and neurodevelopment which are dependent on adequate supply of maternal thyroid hormones from early gestation onwards. The prevention of significant adverse obstetric and neurodevelopmental outcomes from hypothyroidism requires a strategy of empirical levothyroxine dose increases and predictive dose adjustments in pregnancy combined with regular thyroid function testing, starting before pregnancy and until the postpartum period. Subclinical hypothyroidism has been associated with an increased risk of pregnancy loss and neurocognitive deficits in children, especially when diagnosed before or during early pregnancy. Whilst trials of levothyroxine replacement for mild hypothyroidism in pregnancy have not indicated definite evidence of improvements in these outcomes, professional guidelines recommend treatment, especially if evidence of underlying thyroid autoimmunity is present. Studies of isolated hypothyroxinaemia in pregnancy have shown conflicting evidence with regards to adverse obstetric and neurodevelopmental outcomes and no causative relationships have been determined. Treatment of this condition in pregnancy may be considered in those with underlying thyroid autoimmunity. Whilst the evidence for a link between the presence of anti-TPO antibodies and increased risks of pregnancy loss and infertility is compelling, the results of ongoing randomized trials of levothyroxine in euthyroid women with underlying autoimmunity are currently awaited. Further studies to define the selection of women who require levothyroxine replacement and to determine the benefits of a predictive dose adjustment strategy are required. PMID:25200555

  10. Discovery of Antinuclear Antibodies in Pigs Infected with Porcine Circovirus Type 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) causes post-weaning-multisystemic-wasting-syndrome (PMWS), a swine disease first observed in Canada in 1991 (1). It is characterized by general wasting, respiratory disease, jaundice and pallor in young pigs resulting in production losses and variable...

  11. Membranous nephropathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... membranous nephropathy: Antinuclear antibodies test Anti-double-strand DNA, if the antinuclear antibodies test is positive Blood tests to check for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis Complement levels Cryoglobulin test

  12. Epitopes for natural antibodies of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative (normal) and HIV-positive sera are coincident with two key functional sequences of HIV Tat protein.

    PubMed Central

    Rodman, T C; To, S E; Hashish, H; Manchester, K

    1993-01-01

    We have previously shown that IgM antibodies that react with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Tat, a regulatory protein essential for viral replication, are present in sera of all normal, HIV-negative individuals and deficient in sera of HIV-positive individuals at progressively greater frequency as diagnosis of AIDS nears. That IgM was designated as a set of natural antibodies, a repertoire of the normal humoral immune system believed to provide early defense against infectious invaders. In the prior study, by means of a series of synthetic peptides representing the amino acid sequence of HIV-1 Tat, one epitope for the IgM natural antibodies was defined within the cysteine-rich domain, shown in cell transfection studies to participate in Tat function. In this study we have defined another epitope, within the basic domain, with which the natural antibodies react. The specific sequence and amino acid residues required for that epitope are coincident with those required for the role of Tat in viral replication. The IgM antibodies reactive with the two epitopes of Tat make up two distinct sets, which, together, account for the total Tat reactivity of both HIV-negative and HIV-positive sera. The striking coincidence of the two epitopes with the two functional sequences of Tat suggests a potential role of those natural antibodies in control of HIV pathogenesis. By inference from the extensive evidence for the presence of extracellular Tat in cultures of HIV-infected cells, Tat may be expected to be present in the circulating plasma of infected people. We propose, therefore, that the Tat-reactive natural antibodies, documented in these studies to be present in the circulating plasma in the pre-AIDS stages of HIV infection, may inhibit cell entry of plasma-borne Tat and thereby curtail HIV propagation. Thus, those natural antibodies may be a host factor for delay in HIV pathogenetic progression. PMID:7689227

  13. False-positive antibody signals for the pluripotency factor OCT4A (POU5F1) in testis-derived cells may lead to erroneous data and misinterpretations.

    PubMed

    Warthemann, R; Eildermann, K; Debowski, K; Behr, R

    2012-12-01

    Octamer-binding protein 4 (OCT4) is a key player in pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells and is essential for the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells. Recently, several reports indicated the spontaneous recovery of pluripotency in cultured adult human testis-derived cells. This was evidenced also by the detection of OCT4 using antibodies. However, the soundness of some data was recently put into question. During our attempts to derive pluripotent cells from the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) testis, we obtained inconsistent data which prompted us to analyze deeper the characteristics of three independent OCT4 antibodies that were used in numerous published studies that received greatest attention. All antibodies detected OCT4 by immunofluorescence (IF) in a marmoset monkey ES cell line. Two of the three OCT4 antibodies also gave robust nuclear signals in testis-derived cells. However, the latter cells expressed no OCT4 mRNA as revealed by quantitative RT-PCR and turned out to be mesenchymal cells. When tested in western blot analyses, all antibodies detected heterologously expressed marmoset monkey OCT4 protein. But, importantly, those antibodies that resulted in non-specific signals in IF also showed additional non-specific bands in western blots. In summary, some commercially available OCT4 antibodies result in false-positive signals which may provoke erroneous conclusions when used in studies aiming at the generation of pluripotent cells in vitro. We conclude that (i) antibodies must be carefully characterized before use to prevent misleading observations and (ii) OCT4 expression must be monitored by a second antibody-independent method. PMID:22933709

  14. Clinical phenotype associations with various types of anti-dsDNA antibodies in patients with recent onset of rheumatic symptoms. Results from a multicentre observational study

    PubMed Central

    Compagno, Michele; Rekvig, Ole P; Bengtsson, Anders A; Sturfelt, Gunnar; Heegaard, Niels H H; Jönsen, Andreas; Jacobsen, Rasmus Sleimann; Eilertsen, Gro Ø; Fenton, Christopher G; Truedsson, Lennart; Nossent, Johannes C; Jacobsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Despite anti-dsDNA antibodies constitute a wide range of specificities, they are considered as the hallmark for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Objective To identify clinical phenotypes associated with anti-dsDNA antibodies, independently of any clinical diagnoses. Methods Patients with recent onset of any rheumatic symptoms were screened for antinuclear antibodies (ANA). All ANA-positive and matching ANA-negative patients were examined, and their clinical phenotypes were registered, using a systematic chart formulated after consensus between the participating centres. All patients were tested for different anti-dsDNA antibody specificities with assays habitually used in each participating laboratory. Crithidia Luciliae Immuno Fluorescence Test (CLIFT) was performed three times (with two different commercial kits); solid and solution phase ELISA were performed four times. Associations between clinical phenotypes and results of anti-dsDNA assays were evaluated by linear regression analysis (LRA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Results Totally, 292 ANA-positive and 292 matching ANA-negative patients were included in the study. A full dataset for statistical analysis was obtained in 547 patients. Anti-dsDNA antibodies were most frequently detected by ELISA. LRA showed that overall positivity of anti-dsDNA antibodies was associated with proteinuria and pleuritis. Alopecia was significantly associated only with CLIFT-positivity. Besides confirming the same findings, PCA showed that combined positivity of CLIFT and ELISA was also associated with lymphopenia. Conclusions Our results show that different anti-dsDNA antibody specificities are associated with nephropathy, pleuritis, alopecia and lymphopenia, regardless of the diagnosis. It may challenge the importance of anti-dsDNA antibodies as a diagnostic hallmark for SLE. PMID:25396058

  15. Trastuzumab emtansine: a unique antibody-drug conjugate in development for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive cancer.

    PubMed

    LoRusso, Patricia M; Weiss, Denise; Guardino, Ellie; Girish, Sandhya; Sliwkowski, Mark X

    2011-10-15

    Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is a human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2)-targeted antibody-drug conjugate, composed of trastuzumab, a stable thioether linker, and the potent cytotoxic agent DM1 (derivative of maytansine), in phase III development for HER2-positive cancer. Extensive analysis of T-DM1 in preclinical studies has shown that T-DM1 combines the distinct mechanisms of action of both DM1 and trastuzumab, and has antitumor activity in trastuzumab- and lapatinib-refractory experimental models. Clinically, T-DM1 has a consistent pharmacokinetics profile and minimal systemic exposure to free DM1, with no evidence of DM1 accumulation following repeated T-DM1 doses. Although a few covariates were shown to affect interindividual variability in T-DM1 exposure and clearance in population-pharmacokinetics analyses, the magnitude of their effect on T-DM1 exposure was not clinically relevant. Phase I and phase II clinical trials of T-DM1 as a single agent and in combination with paclitaxel, docetaxel, and pertuzumab have shown clinical activity and a favorable safety profile in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. Two randomized phase III trials of T-DM1 are recruiting patients: EMILIA (NCT00829166) is evaluating T-DM1 compared with lapatinib plus capecitabine, and MARIANNE (NCT01120184) is evaluating T-DM1 plus placebo versus T-DM1 plus pertuzumab versus trastuzumab plus a taxane. Additional combinations of T-DM1 (for example, with GDC-0941) and additional disease settings (early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer) are also under investigation. Data from the phase III trials and other studies of T-DM1-containing agents are eagerly awaited. PMID:22003071

  16. False Positivity in a Cyto-ELISA for Anti-Endothelial Cell Antibodies Caused by Heterophile Antibodies to Bovine Serum Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronan Revelen; Anne Bordron; Maryvonne Dueymes; Pierre Youinou; Josiane Arvieux

    2000-01-01

    Background: ELISAs with fixed endothelial cells or cell lines are widely used screening tests for anti-endothe- lial cell antibodies (AECAs), but spurious increases occur. We examined interferences by heteroantibodies and means to eliminate them. Methods: AECAs were measured by ELISA on fixed layers of the human endothelial cell line, EA.hy 926, in a panel of 60 patient serum samples diluted

  17. Intestinal titres of anti-tissue transglutaminase 2 antibodies correlate positively with mucosal damage degree and inversely with gluten-free diet duration in coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Tosco, A; Auricchio, R; Aitoro, R; Ponticelli, D; Primario, M; Miele, E; Rotondi Aufiero, V; Discepolo, V; Greco, L; Troncone, R; Maglio, M

    2014-09-01

    It has always been known that anti-tissue transglutaminase 2 (anti-TG2) antibodies are produced in the small intestine. Their serum titres correlate with mucosal damage degree and decrease on a gluten-free diet (GFD). We aimed to correlate intestinal anti-TG2 antibodies levels with degree of mucosal damage and GFD duration. Thirty-four active, 71 potential and 24 CD patients on GFD for at least 2 years were enrolled. Anti-TG2 deposits were detected in intestinal biopsies by double immunofluorescence. Biopsies were cultured for 24?h with medium, and with gliadin peptic tryptic digest (PTG) or A-gliadin peptide 31-43 (P31-43). Anti-TG2 antibodies secreted into supernatants were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All active CD patients secreted high titres of anti-TG2 antibodies into culture medium that increased with the worsening of mucosal injury (Spearman's r?=?0·71; P?antibodies into supernatants, eight of nine negative treated patients being on GFD for more than 10 years. An inverse correlation between antibody titres and duration of GFD was found, (Spearman's r?=?-0·52; P?positive treated CD patients had been on GFD for fewer than 6 years and were also positive for secreted anti-TG2. In treated patients, PTG/P31-43 was not able to induce secretion of anti-TG2 antibodies into culture medium. Measurement of anti-TG2 antibodies in biopsy supernatants proved to be more sensitive than detection by immunofluorescence to reveal their intestinal production. Intestinal antiTG2 antibodies titres correlated positively with the degree of mucosal damage and inversely with the duration of GFD. PMID:24773630

  18. The association of anti-annexin1 antibodies with the occurrence of skin lesions in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Meng, Z; Shi, Z-R; Tan, G-Z; Yin, J; Wu, J; Mi, X-B; Wang, L

    2014-02-01

    Anti-annexin1 antibodies are associated with the subtypes of cutaneous lupus and are elevated in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. In this study, we investigated the correlation of this antibody with the incidence of SLE skin lesions. The presence of anti-annexin1-IgG and-IgM determined by Western blot was no different among healthy controls and SLE patients with and without skin lesions. Serum levels of anti-annexin1-IgG and -IgM measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were comparable between patients with and without skin lesions, whereas anti-annexin1-IgM was lower in SLE patients than in healthy controls. Annexin1 was abundantly detected in each epidermal layer in lupus lesional skin. Additionally, anti-annexin1-IgG was higher in SLE patients with arthritis and negatively correlated with white blood cells (WBC). Anti-annexin1-IgM was higher in patients with antinuclear antibody (ANA)-positive sera, and was positively related to hemoglobin and total serum IgM. Collectively, anti-annexin1 antibodies are not related to the incidence of skin lesions in SLE, and annexin1 abundantly distributes in epidermis in lesional skin. PMID:24300781

  19. De novo hepatitis B after liver transplantation from hepatitis B core antibody—Positive donors in an area with high prevalence of anti-HBc positivity in the donor population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mart??n Prieto; Mar??a D. Gómez; Marina Berenguer; Juan Córdoba; José M. Rayón; Miguel Pastor; Antonio Garc??a-Herola; David Nicolás; Domingo Carrasco; Juan F. Orbis; José Mir; Joaqu??n Berenguer

    2001-01-01

    Transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection from donors who are negative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg?) but positive for antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc+) has been reported. However, previous studies were generally performed in geographic regions with a low prevalence of anti-HBc positivity in the liver donor population. The aims of this study are (1) to

  20. Skin autoreactivity in Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients without urticaria: autologous serum skin test positivity correlation with thyroid antibodies, sonographical volume and grading.

    PubMed

    Turkoglu, Zafer; Zindanci, Ilkin; Turkoglu, Ozlem; Can, Burce; Kavala, Mukaddes; Tamer, Gonca; Ulucay, Vasfiye; Akyer, Erdal

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown an association between anti-thyroid antibodies and autologous serum skin test (ASST) positive urticaria patients. However, a connection between thyroid and this reliable skin test for mast cell autoreactivity, ASST, has not been reported yet. We investigated ASST in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) without urticaria and compared the results with laboratory and sonographical findings of HT. 154 HT patients, 100 healthy volunteers without HT as a first control group and 46 patients with multinodular goitre but without autoimmune thyroid disease as a second control group underwent testing with ASST. ASST was applied to these groups according to two criteria, first as ASST(new): autologous serum red wheal response 1.5 mm bigger than negative control; second as ASST(old): serum red wheal response 5 mm bigger than negative control accepted as positive. Free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO) and thyroglobulin antibody (anti-Tg) levels were measured. ASST(old), ASST(new) scored positive in 51.3-60.4% of HT patients, with statistically significant differences. Thyroid volume grades were inversely proportional with ASST(old) and (new) positivity. Moderate (+) titers of anti-Tg in ASST(old) and (new) (+) cases were significantly higher than the same titers of anti-Tg in ASST(old) and (new) (-) cases. The prevalence of ASST positivity in HT patients was not affected by the following factors: gender, age at screening, laboratory measurements of thyroid function tests, anti-TPO antibodies and thyroid ultrasound (US) echogenicity. Positivity of ASST in HT has shown that there is a skin mast cell autoreactivity in HT patients independent of autoreactive chronic urticaria (ACU). PMID:22503840

  1. Approach to Follow-Up of the Patient With Differentiated Thyroid Cancer and Positive Anti-Thyroglobulin Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Nabhan, Fadi

    2013-01-01

    Anti-thyroglobulin antibodies are commonly identified in patients with differentiated follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer. When present, they interfere with the measurement of thyroglobulin (Tg), which is the primary biochemical marker used for disease surveillance, creating challenges in monitoring patients for residual or recurrent disease. Moreover, there is variability in measuring anti-Tg antibodies according to the different assays, such that not all patients with anti-Tg antibodies are identifiable on a single assay system. The persistence of anti-Tg antibodies, especially if levels are rising, may indicate persistent, recurrent, or progressive thyroid cancer. In contrast, declining anti-Tg antibody levels may indicate reduced tumor burden or the absence of disease. In this review, we will explore in a case-based manner the data supporting monitoring and treatment paradigms for patients with anti-Tg antibodies and will stress areas where more evidence is needed to better inform clinicians regarding the management of patients with this challenging situation. PMID:23922347

  2. Thyroid Antibodies, Autoimmunity and Cognitive Decline: Is There a Population-Based Link?

    PubMed Central

    Napthali, Kate; Boyle, Michael; Tran, Huy; Schofield, Peter W.; Peel, Roseanne; McEvoy, Mark; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Attia, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Autoimmunity is considered an uncommon but under-recognised cause of cognitive decline. Methods Serum samples from 3,253 randomly selected subjects enrolled in the Hunter Community Study, aged 55-85 years, were assayed for thyrotropin stimulatory hormone, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab), anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) and extractable nuclear antigens (ENA). Cognitive function was assessed using the Audio Recorded Cognitive Screen (ARCS) tool. Results TPO-Ab were found in 8.4% and ANA in 27.9% of the study population, of whom 3% had positive ENA findings. No relationship was found between the ARCS score and either TPO-Ab (coefficient = 0.133; 95% CI ?0.20, 0.82, p = 0.616), ANA at a low (coefficient = 1.01; 95% CI ?2.58, 0.55, p = 0.203) or a high titre (coefficient = ?0.65; 95% CI ?2.59, 1.28, p = 0.508), or ENA antibodies (coefficient = 5.12; 95% CI ?0.53, 10.77; p = 0.076). Conclusions Autoantibody findings are common in an aging population and are not associated with cognitive decline. PMID:24987403

  3. A case of an anti-Ma2 antibody-positive patient presenting with variable CNS symptoms mimicking multiple system atrophy with a partial response to immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Wataru; Iwanaga, Yasutaka; Yamamoto, Akifumi

    2015-01-01

    A 70-year-old man with a 5-month history of progressive bradykinesia of the bilateral lower extremities was admitted to our hospital. At the age of 64, he underwent proximal gastrectomy for gastric cancer. He also had a history of subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord since the age of 67, which was successfully treated with vitamin B12 therapy. Four weeks before admission to our hospital, he admitted himself to his former hospital complaining of walking difficulty. Two weeks later, however, his symptoms progressed rapidly; he was immobilized for two weeks and did not respond to the vitamin therapy. On admission to our hospital, he showed moderate paralysis of the lower extremities, cog-wheel rigidity of the four extremities, and dystonic posture of his left hand. He also showed orthostatic hypotension and vesicorectal disorders. Blood examination and cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed no remarkable abnormalities. Electroencephalography showed frontal dominant, high voltage, sharp waves. His brain and spinal MRI revealed no notable abnormalities. We suspected autoimmune disease and commenced one course of intravenous methylprednisolone therapy, resulting in improvement of the parkinsonism and orthostatic hypotension. Based on these results, we investigated possible neural antigens and detected anti-Ma2 antibody. In addition to limbic encephalitis, anti-Ma2 antibody-positive neural disorders are characterized by rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorders or parkinsonism. Here, we report an anti-Ma2 antibody positive patient presenting variable CNS symptoms mimicking multiple system atrophy, who responded to immunotherapy. PMID:25746072

  4. Myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive crescentic glomerulonephritis complicating the course of Graves' disease: Report of three adult cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masayuki Tanemoto; Hiroshi Miyakawa; Junichi Hanai; Masako Yago; Masafumi Kitaoka; Shunya Uchida

    1995-01-01

    Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis has been recently recognized in Graves' disease patients treated with propylthiouracil. We have experienced three adult cases of Graves' disease with main features being renal derangements. All three patients, who were between the ages of 22 and 82 years, had been treated with propylthiouracil for 2 to 5 years after a diagnosis of Graves' disease.

  5. High Levels of Soluble Ctla-4 Are Present in Anti-Mitochondrial Antibody Positive, but Not in Antibody Negative Patients with Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Saverino, Daniele; Pesce, Giampaola; Antola, Princey; Porcelli, Brunetta; Brusca, Ignazio; Villalta, Danilo; Tampoia, Marilina; Tozzoli, Renato; Tonutti, Elio; Alessio, Maria Grazia; Bagnasco, Marcello; Bizzaro, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic autoimmune cholestatic liver disease frequently characterized by anti-mitochondrial autoantibodies (AMA). A minority of patients are AMA-negative. Cytotoxic-T-Lymphocyte-Antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is a surface molecule expressed on activated T-cells delivering a critical negative immunoregulatory signal. A soluble form of CTLA-4 (sCTLA-4) has been detected at high concentrations in several autoimmune diseases, and its possible functional meaning has been suggested. We aimed to evaluate sCTLA-4 concentration in sera of patients with PBC and to correlate it to immunological abnormalities associated with the disease. Blood samples were collected from 82 PBC-patients diagnosed according to international criteria (44 AMA-positive/MIT3-positive and 38 AMA-negative-MIT3-negative), and 65 controls. sCTLA-4 levels were evaluated by ELISA and Western blot. Increased sCTLA-4 concentrations were found in all AMA-positive PBC-patients, but in none of the AMA-negative ones, nor in normal controls or in controls with unrelated liver diseases. sCTLA-4 presence was associated with autoantibodies against MIT3, but not with nuclear autoantibodies (sp100, gp210). This is the first study to demonstrate that levels of sCTLA-4 are elevated in sera of PBC patients. However, they are clearly restricted to patients with AMA positivity, suggesting an immunological difference with respect to AMA-negative ones. PMID:25383768

  6. C-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody positivity in vasculitis patients is associated with the Z allele of alpha-1-antitrypsin, and P-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody positivity with the S allele

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Griffith; J. U. Lovegrove; G. Gaskin; D. B. Whitehouse; C. D. Pusey

    1996-01-01

    Background. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) in vasculitis have either cANCA or pANCA patterns as defined by immunofluorescence. The target autoantigen of cANCA is usually proteinase 3 (PR3), whereas that of pANCA is usually myeloperoxidase (MPO). Alpha-1-antitrypsin (alAT) is the major physiological inhibitor of PR3, while MPO is an inhib- itor of a 1 AT. Methods. To determine whether there was

  7. False-positive results in immunoglobulin M (IgM) toxoplasma antibody tests and importance of confirmatory testing: the Platelia Toxo IgM test.

    PubMed

    Liesenfeld, O; Press, C; Montoya, J G; Gill, R; Isaac-Renton, J L; Hedman, K; Remington, J S

    1997-01-01

    Although tests for detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) toxoplasma antibodies have been reported to have a high degree of accuracy, it is well recognized by investigators in the United States and Europe that false-positive results may occur with many of these tests, at times to an alarming degree. Unfortunately, this information is not well documented in the literature. Studies on various toxoplasma IgM test kits are frequently flawed. The investigators often use reference tests which have not previously been carefully evaluated as well as sera that were not appropriate to answer the question of how often false-positive results might occur. We recently had the unique opportunity to evaluate the accuracy of the Platelia Toxo IgM test in 575 serum samples obtained during an outbreak of toxoplasmosis which occurred in 1995 in the Capital Regional District of British Columbia, Canada. When compared with results obtained in a reference IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the Platelia Toxo IgM test had a sensitivity of 99.4%, specificity of 49.2%, positive predictive value of 51.9%, negative predictive value of 99.3%, and an overall agreement of 67.0%. In an attempt to resolve discrepancies between these two tests, a serological profile (Sabin-Feldman dye test, IgA and IgE antibody tests, differential agglutination [AC/HS] test, and IgG avidity method) was performed. Of 153 serum samples that were positive in the Platelia Toxo IgM test and negative in the IgM ELISA, 71 (46.4%) were negative in the Sabin-Feldman dye test. Of the serum samples that were positive in the dye test, 77 (93.9%) had a serological profile most compatible with an infection acquired in the distant past. These results reveal high numbers of false-positive results in the Platelia Toxo IgM test and highlight the importance of appropriate evaluation of commercial tests that are currently being marked. Our results also emphasize the importance of confirmatory testing to determine whether the results of an IgM antibody test reflect the likelihood of a recently acquired infection. PMID:8968902

  8. Analysis and solution of false-positives when testing CVA16 sera using an antibody assay against the EV71 virus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changbing; You, Aiping; Tian, Xingui; Zhao, Mingqi; Chen, Yi; Lin, Tao; Zheng, Jianbin; Xiao, Misi; Zhang, Yingying; Kuang, Lu; Zhou, Zhenwen; Zhu, Bing

    2013-09-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in humans is caused mainly by Enterovirus 71(EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16). EV71 is associated with severe HFMD cases but not CVA16. Use of IgM-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is important for the early diagnosis of EV71 infection, but cross-reactivity of the anti-CVA16 IgM antibody with EV71 produces false-positive results. In this report, we designed a new EV71 IgM-capture ELISA method using the EV71 VP1 peptide instead of the EV71 virion as the detectable antigen, and tested sera from patients infected with EV71 or CVA16. The results showed that acute sera from 76 EV71-infected patients had similar sensitivity for virus detection (98.68%) or VP1 detection (97.37%). When acute sera from patients infected with CVA16 were used, significant differences between the two methods were observed. The cross-reactivity rate of the virus detection method was 29.4% (5/17), but no cross-reactivity was observed using the VP1 detection method. Western immunoblotting demonstrated that EV71 VP3 cross-reacted with part of the CVA16 IgM antibody. The results demonstrate that EV71 VP3 is the cross-reactive antigen in the EV71 IgM-capture ELISA when testing CVA16 sera using the virus-antibody detection method. The problem of false-positive results was resolved by using the VP1 peptide as the detectable antigen. PMID:23707400

  9. Multiple cardiac thrombi and thromboembolism in a heparin-induced thrombocytopenia antibody-positive patient with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Wake, Ryotaro; Muro, Takashi; Hozumi, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Ryo; Kataoka, Toru; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Takemoto, Yasuhiko; Takagi, Masahiko; Suehiro, Shigefumi; Yoshiyama, Minoru

    2008-11-01

    A 49-year-old Japanese man presented with orthopnea and edema in both legs. He was diagnosed with congestive heart failure with triple-vessel coronary artery disease. Low antithrombin and left ventricular systolic dysfunction were possible causes of his hypercoagulable state. Echocardiography revealed thrombi in the left ventricle and left trium, poor left ventricular contractility, and a normal mitral valve. Electrocardiogram revealed normal sinus rhythm. We found small infarctions of the brain and spleen in the computed tomography. The heparin treatment of cardiac thrombi is useless because the patient had heparin-induced thrombocytopenia antibody. We removed thrombi in the left ventricle and left atrium by thrombectomy and performed coronary artery bypass graft. Warfarin was administered for anticoagulation. He recovered completely and is now doing well. Our experience indicates that poor cardiac function can together cause multiple cardiac thrombi and subsequent thromboembolism without mitral stenosis or atrial fibrillation. PMID:19091284

  10. Nuclear Energy. It is not a solution, it is a problem The Mediterranean Antinuclear Watch (MANW) is a non -

    E-print Network

    Nuclear Energy. It is not a solution, it is a problem #12;The Mediterranean Antinuclear Watch (MANW - called "peaceful use" of nuclear energy as well as the production and proliferation of nuclear weapons pose. #12;Nuclear energy renaissance Twenty two years after the accident in Chernobyl NPP. Energy

  11. Placental Hofbauer cells assemble and sequester HIV-1 in tetraspanin-positive compartments that are accessible to broadly neutralizing antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Erica L; Chu, Hin; Byrareddy, Siddappa Nagadenahalli; Spearman, Paul; Chakraborty, Rana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Within monocyte-derived macrophages, HIV-1 accumulates in intracellular virus-containing compartments (VCCs) that are inaccessible to the external environment, which implicate these cells as latently infected HIV-1 reservoirs. During mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1, human placental macrophages (Hofbauer cells (HCs)) are viral targets, and have been shown to be infected in vivo and sustain low levels of viral replication in vitro; however, the risk of in utero transmission is less than 7%. The role of these primary macrophages as viral reservoirs is largely undefined. The objective of this study is to define potential sites of viral assembly, accumulation and neutralization in HCs given the pivotal role of the placenta in preventing HIV-1 infection in the mother-infant dyad. Methods Term placentae from 20 HIV-1 seronegative women were obtained following caesarian section. VCCs were evaluated by 3D confocal and electron microscopy. Colocalization R values (Pearson's correlation) were quantified with colocalization module of Volocity 5.2.1. Replication kinetics and neutralization studies were evaluated using p24 ELISA. Results We demonstrate that primary HCs assemble and sequester HIV-1BaL in intracellular VCCs, which are enriched in endosomal/lysosomal markers, including CD9, CD81, CD63 and LAMP-1. Following infection, we observed HIV-1 accumulation in potentially acidic compartments, which stained intensely with Lysotracker-Red. Remarkably, these compartments are readily accessible via the cell surface and can be targeted by exogenously applied small molecules and HIV-1-specific broadly neutralizing antibodies. In addition, broadly neutralizing antibodies (4E10 and VRC01) limited viral replication by HIV-1-infected HCs, which may be mediated by Fc?RI. Conclusions These findings suggest that placental HCs possess intrinsic adaptations facilitating unique sequestration of HIV-1, and may serve as a protective viral reservoir to permit viral neutralization and/or antiretroviral drug entry in utero. PMID:25623930

  12. Immunoglobulin allotype gene polymorphisms in systemic sclerosis: interactive effect of MHC class II and KM genes on anticentromere antibody production

    PubMed Central

    Kameda, H.; Pandey, J.; Kaburaki, J.; Inoko, H.; Kuwana, M.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To examine potential interactions between immunoglobulin (Ig)allotype gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to systemic sclerosis (SSc) as well as serological expression in SSc patients.?METHODS—IgG heavy chain allotypes G1M(f, z), G2M(n+, n-), G3M(b, g) and Ig light chain allotype KM(1, (1, 2), 3) were genotyped in 105 Japanese SSc patients and 47 race matched normal controls using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods. Associations of each Ig allotype with SSc related antinuclear antibodies were examined in combination with or without MHC class II alleles.?RESULTS—GM/KM genotypic and allelic frequencies were similar in SSc patients and in normal controls. Frequencies of G1M(f) and G2M(n+) were significantly decreased in anticentromere antibody (ACA) positive SSc patients compared with ACA negative SSc patients (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively). Conversely, the presence of DQB1*0501 and KM(1, 2) significantly increased the risk of ACA positivity.?CONCLUSION—Ig allotype gene polymorphisms were not associated with susceptibility to SSc. Instead, the results suggested that MHC class II and KM genes are associated with autoimmune responses by interactively promoting the production of ACA.?? Keywords: autoantibody; immunoglobulin allotype; major histocompatibility complex; scleroderma PMID:9771212

  13. Staining Pattern Classification of Antinuclear Autoantibodies Based on Block Segmentation in Indirect Immunofluorescence Images

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiaqian; Tseng, Kuo-Kun; Hsieh, Zu Yi; Yang, Ching Wen; Huang, Huang-Nan

    2014-01-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence based on HEp-2 cell substrate is the most commonly used staining method for antinuclear autoantibodies associated with different types of autoimmune pathologies. The aim of this paper is to design an automatic system to identify the staining patterns based on block segmentation compared to the cell segmentation most used in previous research. Various feature descriptors and classifiers are tested and compared in the classification of the staining pattern of blocks and it is found that the technique of the combination of the local binary pattern and the k-nearest neighbor algorithm achieve the best performance. Relying on the results of block pattern classification, experiments on the whole images show that classifier fusion rules are able to identify the staining patterns of the whole well (specimen image) with a total accuracy of about 94.62%. PMID:25474260

  14. Targeted, Activatable, IN VIVO Fluorescence Imaging of Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA)-positive Tumors Using the Quenched Humanized J591 Antibody-ICG Conjugate

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Takahito; Mitsunaga, Makoto; Bander, Neil H.; Heston, Warren D.; Choyke, Peter L.; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2011-01-01

    In patients with prostate cancer, a positive surgical margin is associated with an increased risk of cancer recurrence and poorer outcome, yet, margin status cannot be determined during the surgery. An in vivo optical imaging probe that could identify the tumor margins, during surgery, could result in improved outcomes. The design of such a probe focuses on a highly specific targeting moiety and a near infrared (NIR) fluorophore that is activated only when bound to the tumor. In this study, we successfully synthesized an activatable monoclonal antibody-fluorophore conjugate consisting of a humanized anti-prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) antibody (J591) linked to an indocyanine green ICG-derivative. Prior to binding to PSMA and cellular internalization, the conjugate yielded little light, however after binding an 18-fold activation was observed permitting the specific detection of PSMA+ tumors up to 10 days after injection of a low dose (0.25 mg/kg) of the reagent. This agent demonstrates promise as a method to image the extent of prostate cancer in vivo and could assist with real time resection of extracapsular extension of tumor. PMID:21740058

  15. Reactivation of hepatitis B virus with mutated hepatitis B surface antigen in a liver transplant recipient receiving a graft from an antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen– and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen–positive donor

    PubMed Central

    Blaich, Annette; Manz, Michael; Dumoulin, Alexis; Schüttler, Christian G; Hirsch, Hans H; Gerlich, Wolfram H; Frei, Reno

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) may contain antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, anti-HBs). These anti-HBs may lead to a misinterpretation of the actual hepatitis B immune status. Furthermore, they may not only confer protection against hepatitis B virus (HBV), but may also favor the selection of HBsAg mutants. CASE REPORT We report a case of de novo HBV infection in a HBV-naïve recipient with alcoholic liver disease, who received a liver from a donor with antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg, anti-HBc) and anti-HBs. RESULTS A lookback investigation revealed the following: 1) Due to anti-HBs passively acquired through FFP, the recipient was considered immune to HBV and did not receive anti-HBV prophylaxis. 2) Within 1 year after transplantation he developed hepatitis B in absence of any elevated liver enzymes after the anti-HBs by FFP declined. 3) Despite an infection with HBV-containing wild-type HBcAg, the patient did not seroconvert to anti-HBc positivity. 4) The replicating HBV encoded two HBsAg mutations, first sQ129R and 4 months later sP127S. They map to the highly conserved “?” determinant of the HBsAg loop. CONCLUSION 1) Passive transfer of anti-HBs from FFP led to an erroneous pretransplant diagnosis of HBV immunity when the patient was in fact HBV-naïve. 2) HBsAg mutations might have been selected in escape from donor's actively produced anti-HBs and the recipient's anti-HBs by FFP might have favored this selection. 3) It is doubtful whether hepatitis B immunoglobulin could have prevented the reactivation. 4) Antiviral prophylaxis would have been crucial. PMID:22313146

  16. N-truncated Abeta starting with position four: early intraneuronal accumulation and rescue of toxicity using NT4X-167, a novel monoclonal antibody

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The amyloid hypothesis in Alzheimer disease (AD) considers amyloid ? peptide (A?) deposition causative in triggering down-stream events like neurofibrillary tangles, cell loss, vascular damage and memory decline. In the past years N-truncated A? peptides especially N-truncated pyroglutamate A?pE3-42 have been extensively studied. Together with full-length A?1–42 and A?1–40, N-truncated A?pE3-42 and A?4–42 are major variants in AD brain. Although A?4–42 has been known for a much longer time, there is a lack of studies addressing the question whether A?pE3-42 or A?4–42 may precede the other in Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Results Using different A? antibodies specific for the different N-termini of N-truncated A?, we discovered that A?4-x preceded A?pE3-x intraneuronal accumulation in a transgenic mouse model for AD prior to plaque formation. The novel A?4-x immunoreactive antibody NT4X-167 detected high molecular weight aggregates derived from N-truncated A? species. While NT4X-167 significantly rescued A?4–42 toxicity in vitro no beneficial effect was observed against A?1–42 or A?pE3-42 toxicity. Phenylalanine at position four of A? was imperative for antibody binding, because its replacement with alanine or proline completely prevented binding. Although amyloid plaques were observed using NT4X-167 in 5XFAD transgenic mice, it barely reacted with plaques in the brain of sporadic AD patients and familial cases with the Arctic, Swedish and the presenilin-1 PS1?9 mutation. A consistent staining was observed in blood vessels in all AD cases with cerebral amyloid angiopathy. There was no cross-reactivity with other aggregates typical for other common neurodegenerative diseases showing that NT4X-167 staining is specific for AD. Conclusions A?4-x precedes A?pE3-x in the well accepted 5XFAD AD mouse model underlining the significance of N-truncated species in AD pathology. NT4X-167 therefore is the first antibody reacting with A?4-x and represents a novel tool in Alzheimer research. PMID:24252153

  17. Trastuzumab-based treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer: an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity mechanism?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L Arnould; M Gelly; F Penault-Llorca; L Benoit; F Bonnetain; C Migeon; V Cabaret; V Fermeaux; P Bertheau; J Garnier; J-F Jeannin; B Coudert

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) immune cell response during neoadjuvant primary systemic therapy (PST) with trastuzumab in patients with HER2-positive primary breast cancer. In all, 23 patients with IHC 3+ primary breast cancer were treated with trastuzumab plus docetaxel. Pathological complete and partial responses were documented for nine (39%) and 14 (61%) patients, respectively. Case-matched controls comprised patients treated

  18. The Effect of Precipitation on the Transmission of Japanese Encephalitis (JE) Virus in Nature: A Complex Effect on Antibody-Positive Rate to JE Virus in Sentinel Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Kurane, Ichiro; Shibasaki, Ken-ichi; Kotaki, Akira; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2013-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of the most important mosquito-borne viral diseases in Asia. Pigs are a natural host and the amplifier of JE virus. The sero-conversion rate to JE virus in sentinel pigs reflects the activity of JE virus in the region. We analyzed whether precipitation has any effect on the sero-conversion rate to JE virus in sentinel pigs. Linear regression analysis was performed to determine the correlations between the levels of precipitation and sero-conversion rates to JE virus, in the entire year and during summertime over the period of 32 years from 1969 to 2000. The levels of the annual and summertime precipitation demonstrated statistically significant positive correlations with sero-conversion rates for the whole of the country and for some regions in Japan. The levels of the summertime precipitation, on the other hand, demonstrated statistically significant inverse correlations with the sero-conversion rates in other regions. Further, the levels of precipitation during preceding 10-day periods from days 1–40 before blood collection showed inverse correlation with antibody-positive rates in some regions. The results indicate that the relationship between the annual and summertime precipitation, and the sero-conversion rate to JE virus is complex; both positive and inverse effects are demonstrated depending on the regions. PMID:23644830

  19. A strong association between thyrotropin receptor-blocking antibody-positive atrophic autoimmune thyroiditis and HLA-DR8 and HLA-DQB1 0302 in Koreans

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Bo Youn; Chung, Jae Hoon; Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang-Soon; Lee, Jung-Bin (Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Shong, Young Kee (Univ. of Ulsan College of Medicine Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)); Han, Hoon (Catholic Univ. Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Chang, Youn Bok (Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of))

    1993-09-01

    The authors investigated whether the associations between HLA alleles of patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism varied according to the presence or absence of TSH receptor-blocking antibody (TRBab). They analyzed the HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DR antigens by serotyping and the DQA1 and DQB1 genes using both enzymatic DNA amplification and sequence-specific oligonucleotide hybridizations. The patient population consisted of 47 Korean patients with atrophic autoimmune thyroiditis and 62 patients with goitrous autoimmune thyroiditis. The antigen frequency of HLA-DR8 was significantly increased in 23 atrophic autoimmune thyroiditis patients that were positive for TSH binding inhibitor immunoglobulin (TBII) compared to 136 controls [52% vs. 16%; x[sup 2] = 13.1; Pc (corrected P value) = 0.003]. This relative risk was 5.7; the etiological fraction was 0.43. HLA-DQB1*0302 was also increased in patients with TBII-positive atrophic autoimmune thyroiditis (24% vs. 7%; x[sup 2] = 11.2; Pc = 0.012; relative risk = 4.4; etiological fraction = 0.19). No specific DR antigens or DQB1 alleles were increased in either TBII-negative atrophic autoimmune thyroidities or goitrous autoimmune thyroiditis. A significant decrease in the frequency of HLA-DR6 antigen was observed in both TBII-positive atrophic antoimmune thyroiditis (0% vs. 32%; x[sup 2] = 8.4; Pc = 0.03) and goitrous autoimmune thyroiditis (0% vs. 32%; x[sup 2] = 23.2; Pc < 0.001) patients. The frequency of the HLC-Cwl antigen was significantly increased in all patient groups. The authors conclude that TRBab-positive atrophic autoimmune thyroiditis is immunogenetically different from both goitrous autoimmune thyroiditis and TRBab-negative atrophic autoimmune thyroiditis. It is possible that HLA-DR8 and/or DQB1*0302 may be related to the susceptibility genes involved in the production of TRBab in Koreans. 32 refs., 5 tabs.

  20. Elevated levels of IgM and IgA antibodies to Proteus mirabilis and IgM antibodies to Escherichia coli are associated with early rheumatoid factor (RF)-positive rheumatoid arthritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Newkirk; R. Goldbach-Mansky; B. W. Senior; J. Klippel; H. R. Schumacher Jr; H. S. El-Gabalawy

    2005-01-01

    Objective. Antibodies to Proteus mirabilis were previously detected in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We examined the prevalence of antibodies to P. mirabilis and their associations with RA in early synovitis patients. Methods. Two hundred and forty-six patients with inflammatory arthritis for less than 1 yr were prospectively evaluated for 1 yr. Of these patients, 30% had rheumatoid factor

  1. Role of salivary anti-SSA/B antibodies for diagnosing primary Sjögren’s syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Pan; Li, Chunlei; Qiang, Lu; He, Jing; Li, Zhanguo

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) is complex, and the saliva test is a potential method to improve the existing diagnostic criteria. Objective: To estimate the diagnostic accuracy of salivary anti-SSA/B antibodies in primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS), and to analyze their correlations with clinical and laboratory profiles. Study Design: This study enrolled 100 pSS patients and 140 non-pSS controls, including 40 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, 40 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, and 60 healthy controls. Unstimulated whole saliva and stimulated parotid saliva samples were collected from the subjects. Salivary anti-SSA/B antibodies were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Clinical and laboratory data were retrieved from the medical records. Results: In the pSS group, the sensitivity of anti-SSA and anti-SSB antibodies in whole saliva was 49% and 29%, respectively, and the specificity was 87.5% and 95%. The sensitivity of anti-SSA and anti-SSB antibodies in parotid saliva was 32% and 8%, respectively, and the specificity was 95.52% and 97.86%, respectively. In the pSS group, the diagnostic accuracy of anti-SSA/B antibodies in whole saliva was significantly higher than in parotid saliva (p<0.05), but was significantly lower than in serum (p<0.05). The salivary flow rate in the pSS group positive for whole salivary anti-SSA was significantly lower than in the negative group (p<0.05). The prevalence of rheumatoid factor and antinuclear factor were significantly higher in salivary SSB-positive pSS patients than in SSB-negative patients (p<0.05). Conclusions: Compared to parotid saliva, whole saliva is a more suitable diagnostic fluid. Using salivary anti-SSA/B antibodies as a single test item is insufficient given the relatively low sensitivity. Further studies should investigate the possibility of combining tests for different salivary autoantibodies as a method for diagnosing pSS. Key words:Primary Sjögren’s syndrome, salivary diagnostics, anti-SSA autoantibodies, anti-SSB autoantibodies. PMID:25475778

  2. In vivo and in vitro studies of GAD-antibody positive subjects with Type 2 diabetes: A distinct sub-phenotype.

    PubMed

    O'Gorman, Donal J; Yousif, Obada; Dixon, Gordon; McQuaid, Siobhan; Murphy, Elaine; Rahman, Yousif; Gasparro, Declan; Pacini, Giovanni; Newsholme, Philip; Nolan, John J

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if immune mechanisms in GAD positive patients' contribute to the pathogenesis of a specific sub-type of Type 2 diabetes. GAD positive (n=8) and GAD negative (n=8) subjects diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes were matched for age, gender, body mass index, duration of diabetes and glycaemic control. All subjects underwent an insulin-modified frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test to measure insulin sensitivity and insulin secretory function with minimal model analysis. In addition, BRIN-BD11 clonal beta-cells were supplemented with patients' sera to determine basal and alanine-stimulated insulin secretion and terminal complement complex (TCC) formation. Both groups were severely insulin resistant (0.56+/-0.17 vs. 0.99+/-0.3310(-4)min(-1)/(microUml(-1)) for GADneg and GADpos, respectively) but the GAD negative subjects had a higher basal (87+/-11 vs. 58+/-14pmoll(-1), p<0.05) and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (DeltaAUCins 0.96+/-0.12 vs. 0.60+/-0.12pmol/(l(-1)min), p<0.05). In vivo measures of insulin secretion were negatively correlated with TCC formation, independent of antibody status. In conclusion, GAD positive subjects initially diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes are unable to compensate for insulin resistance due to more pronounced beta-cell impairment. TCC formation may be partly responsible for the insulin secretory dysfunction associated with this specific sub-type of Type 2 diabetes. PMID:18405999

  3. Quantitative Hepatitis B Core Antibody Level Is a New Predictor for Treatment Response In HBeAg-positive Chronic Hepatitis B Patients Receiving Peginterferon

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Feng-Qin; Song, Liu-Wei; Yuan, Quan; Fang, Lin-Lin; Ge, Sheng-Xiang; Zhang, Jun; Sheng, Ji-Fang; Xie, Dong-Ying; Shang, Jia; Wu, Shu-Huan; Sun, Yong-Tao; Wei, Shao-Feng; Wang, Mao-Rong; Wan, Mo-Bin; Jia, Ji-Dong; Luo, Guang-Han; Tang, Hong; Li, Shu-Chen; Niu, Jun-Qi; Zhou, Wei-dong; Sun, Li; Xia, Ning-Shao; Wang, Gui-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    A recent study revealed that quantitative hepatitis B core antibody (qAnti-HBc) level could serve as a novel marker for predicting treatment response. In the present study, we further investigated the predictive value of qAnti-HBc level in HBeAg-positive patients undergoing PEG-IFN therapy. A total of 140 HBeAg-positive patients who underwent PEG-IFN therapy for 48 weeks and follow-up for 24 weeks were enrolled in this study. Serum samples were taken every 12 weeks post-treatment. The predictive value of the baseline qAnti-HBc level for treatment response was evaluated. Patients were further divided into 2 groups according to the baseline qAnti-HBc level, and the response rate was compared. Additionally, the kinetics of the virological and biochemical parameters were analyzed. Patients who achieved response had a significantly higher baseline qAnti-HBc level (serological response [SR], 4.52±0.36 vs. 4.19±0.58, p=0.001; virological response [VR], 4.53±0.35 vs. 4.22±0.57, p=0.005; combined response [CR], 4.50±0.36 vs. 4.22±0.58, p=0.009)). Baseline qAnti-HBc was the only parameter that was independently correlated with SR (p=0.008), VR (p=0.010) and CR(p=0.019). Patients with baseline qAnti-HBc levels ?30,000 IU/mL had significantly higher response rates, more HBV DNA suppression, and better hepatitis control in PEG-IFN treatment. In conclusion, qAnti-HBc level may be a novel biomarker for predicting treatment response in HBeAg-positive patients receiving PEG-IFN therapy. PMID:25553110

  4. Anti-nuclear weapons activism in the United States and Great Britain: a comparative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sussman, G.

    1987-01-01

    This study is a response to the lacuna in empirical research into political activism and the nuclear issue and seeks to ascertain the social and value characteristics, political attitudes, and political behavior of activists in the United States and Great Britain. Consideration is also given to gender differences in light of evidence of an emerging gender gap in these two countries. The study investigates the common forces cited in two sets of literature - post-industrialism and anti-nuclear weapons movements - which provide a framework for analysis. Survey research data is employed to assess cross-national similarities and differences. The findings obtained indicate that while American and British activists exhibit common social and value characteristics, British activists appear more integrated in their political opposition to nuclear weapons compared with their American counterparts. Survey results indicate that the political-action repertoire of these activists is quite diverse, suggesting a new style of politics in advanced industrial democracies. Gender-based analysis reveals two important findings. First, activist American men differ significantly from the other three social groups in their attitudes towards nuclear weapons. Second, activist women in both national settings participate at a level equal to or exceeding that of activist men.

  5. In defiance of nuclear deterrence: anti-nuclear New Zealand after two decades.

    PubMed

    Reitzig, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    In 1984, nuclear-armed and nuclear-powered vessels were banned from New Zealand to express the country's rejection of the nuclear deterrence concept. This led to a disagreement with the United States. Today, the ban on nuclear-powered ships is the only element of the nuclear-free legislation that still strains US-New Zealand relations. This article presents the reasons for the ban on nuclear-powered ships, which include scientific safety concerns, a symbolic rejection of the nuclear deterrence posture, and patriotic factors such as a nuclear-free national identity. The military and economic consequences of the ban are also examined. Since the ban on nuclear-powered vessels appears to be neither widely known abroad nor commonly recognised as a supportive disarmament measure outside New Zealand, it is concluded that whatever the future of this ban will be, New Zealand's anti-nuclear image will remain known internationally through the ban on nuclear arms. PMID:16749477

  6. Nuclear energy in postwar Japan and anti-nuclear movements in the 1950s.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Masakatsu

    2009-01-01

    The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 revealed the most destructive power to-date of man-made weapons. Their impact was so great that Japanese scientists thought that a bigger disaster could be prevented only if war was abolished. Thus they welcomed the international control of atomic energy. It was, however, only after the occupation that the Japanese general public began to learn about the horror of these atomic disasters due to the censorship imposed by the occupational forces. The hydrogen bomb test by the US in the Bikini atoll on March 1, 1954 renewed fears of nuclear weapons. The crew of a Japanese fishing vessel, the "Daigo Fukuryu Maru" (Lucky Dragon No. 5) suffered from exposure to radiation from the test. Even after the incident the US did not stop nuclear tests which continued to radioactively contaminate fish and rains in Japan. As a result, the petition movement for the ban of nuclear trials suddenly spread all over the country. By the summer of 1955 the number of the signatures grew to more than one third of Japan's population at the time. Under the strong influence of anti-nuclear Japanese public opinion the Science Council of Japan announced the so-called three principles of atomic energy: "openness," "democracy," and "independence" to ensure atomic energy was used for peaceful uses only. These principles were included in the Atomic Energy Basic Law established in December 1955. With this law, military uses of nuclear energy were strictly forbidden. PMID:20521422

  7. Serum amyloid P component controls chromatin degradation and prevents antinuclear autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Bickerstaff, M C; Botto, M; Hutchinson, W L; Herbert, J; Tennent, G A; Bybee, A; Mitchell, D A; Cook, H T; Butler, P J; Walport, M J; Pepys, M B

    1999-06-01

    Serum amyloid P component (SAP), a highly conserved plasma protein named for its universal presence in amyloid deposits, is the single normal circulating protein that shows specific calcium-dependent binding to DNA and chromatin in physiological conditions. The avid binding of SAP displaces H1-type histones and thereby solubilizes native long chromatin, which is otherwise profoundly insoluble at the physiological ionic strength of extracellular fluids. Furthermore, SAP binds in vivo both to apoptotic cells, the surface blebs of which bear chromatin fragments, and to nuclear debris released by necrosis. SAP may therefore participate in handling of chromatin exposed by cell death. Here we show that mice with targeted deletion of the SAP gene spontaneously develop antinuclear autoimmunity and severe glomerulonephritis, a phenotype resembling human systemic lupus erythematosus, a serious autoimmune disease. The SAP-/- mice also have enhanced anti-DNA responses to immunization with extrinsic chromatin, and we demonstrate that degradation of long chromatin is retarded in the presence of SAP both in vitro and in vivo. These findings indicate that SAP has an important physiological role, inhibiting the formation of pathogenic autoantibodies against chromatin and DNA, probably by binding to chromatin and regulating its degradation. PMID:10371509

  8. EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in a patient with primary Sjögren’s syndrome and membranous glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sjögren’s syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disease in which lymphatic cells destroy the salivary and lacrimal glands. Glomerulonephritis is thought to be a rare occurrence in primary Sjögren’s syndrome. Furthermore, concurrent glomerular involvement and lymphoma in patients with Sjögren’s syndrome has seldom been reported. Case presentation A 52-year-old woman with primary Sjögren’s syndrome developed membranous glomerulonephritis and Epstein-Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). She was diagnosed with Sjögren’s syndrome based on the dry eyes, dry mouth, positive anti-nuclear antibody test, anti-Ro (SS-A) antibody, salivary gland biopsy, and salivary scintigraphy. Moreover, renal biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of membranous glomerulonephritis. Three months later, her small bowel was perforated with pneumoperitoneum, and the biopsy revealed Epstein-Barr virus-positive DLBCL. Conclusions We observed the first case of primary Sjögren’s syndrome associated with Epstein-Barr Virus-positive DLBCL and membranous glomerulonephritis. Because of the possibility of malignancy-associated membranous glomerulonephritis in patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome, we should be careful and examine such patients for hidden malignancy. PMID:23151312

  9. Antibody Blood Tests

    MedlinePLUS

    ... my positive antibody test suggests I may have celiac disease, how do I find out for sure? If ... For more information contact the University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center at 773.702.7593 or www.CeliacDisease. ...

  10. Clinical-laboratory characteristics of ANA-positive chronic idiopathic urticaria.

    PubMed

    Magen, Eli; Waitman, Dan-Andrei; Dickstein, Yoav; Davidovich, Valentina; Kahan, Natan R

    2015-03-01

    Despite the established association between chronic idiopathic/spontaneous urticaria (CIU) and presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANAs), the prevalence of autoimmune comorbidities in this population has not been analyzed. Here, we aim to identify clinical and laboratory manifestations associated with ANA-positive CIU. ANA-positive patients were identified via electronic data capture from the electronic patient record database of Leumit Health care Services (LHS) of Israel. Patient characteristics, medical histories, and details of diagnostic workup, medical treatment, and follow-up were retrieved by performing a chart review of electronic patient records (EPRs). The prevalence of target diseases among ANA(+) CIU(+), ANA(+) CIU(-), and ANA(-) CIU(+) patients was calculated. A total of 91 ANA(+) CIU(+), 3131 ANA(+) CIU(-), and 478 ANA(-) CIU(+) patients were identified. The ANA(+) CIU(+) group was characterized by higher prevalence of Sjögren's syndrome (SS)-A 52 antibodies (Ab) (7.7% versus 2.4%; p = 0.008), SS-A 60 Ab (11% versus 2.8%; p = < 0.001), and SS-B Ab (14.3% versus 3.2%; p < 0.001), compared with ANA(-) CIU(+) group. Additionally, ANA(+) CIU(+) patients were more likely to be diagnosed with thyroid autoimmune diseases, higher C-reactive protein (6.4 ± 10.3 versus 4.1 ± 8.8 mg/L; p = 0.027), and more profound basopenia (0.04 ± 0.09 versus 0.15 ± 0.11 cell/mm(3); p < 0.001) than ANA(-) CIU patients. More ANA(+) CIU(+) patients were resistant to four-fold standard licensed doses of antihistamines than ANA(-) CIU(+) patients [11 (12.1%) versus 29 (6.1%); p = 0.046]. ANA-positive CIU is characterized by higher prevalence of SS-A 52, SS-A 60, and SS-B antibodies and poorer clinical response to antihistamine medications. PMID:25715242

  11. Antithyroid microsomal antibody

    MedlinePLUS

    Thyroid antimicrosomal antibody; Antimicrosomal antibody; Microsomal antibody; Thyroid peroxidase antibody; TPOAb ... Granulomatous thyroiditis Hashimoto thyroiditis High levels of these antibodies have also been linked to an increased risk ...

  12. Predictive value of intravenous glucose tolerance test insulin secretion less than or greater than the first percentile in islet cell antibody positive relatives of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Vardi; L. Crisa; R. A. Jackson; R. Dumont Herskowitz; J. I. Wolfsdorf; D. Einhorn; L. Linarelli; R. Dolinar; S. Wentworth; S. J. Brink; H. Starkman; J. S. Soeldner; G. S. Eisenbarth

    1991-01-01

    Summary  We have followed-up 35 islet cell antibody-positive first degree relatives of patients with Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus for an average of 1,300 days with sequential intravenous glucose tolerance tests. At the time of analysis and manuscript submission approximately half (18 of 35) had developed diabetes during follow-up. At initial intravenous glucose tolerance test, 11 had a 1+3 min insulin

  13. Monoclonal Antibodies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killington, R. A.; Powell, K. L.

    1984-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have provided an exciting addition to the "armory" of the molecular biologist and immunologist. This article discusses briefly the concept of, techniques available for, production of, and possible uses of monoclonal antibodies. (Author)

  14. Expression of Recombinant Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Frenzel, André; Hust, Michael; Schirrmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant antibodies are highly specific detection probes in research, diagnostics, and have emerged over the last two decades as the fastest growing class of therapeutic proteins. Antibody generation has been dramatically accelerated by in vitro selection systems, particularly phage display. An increasing variety of recombinant production systems have been developed, ranging from Gram-negative and positive bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, insect cell lines, mammalian cells to transgenic plants and animals. Currently, almost all therapeutic antibodies are still produced in mammalian cell lines in order to reduce the risk of immunogenicity due to altered, non-human glycosylation patterns. However, recent developments of glycosylation-engineered yeast, insect cell lines, and transgenic plants are promising to obtain antibodies with “human-like” post-translational modifications. Furthermore, smaller antibody fragments including bispecific antibodies without any glycosylation are successfully produced in bacteria and have advanced to clinical testing. The first therapeutic antibody products from a non-mammalian source can be expected in coming next years. In this review, we focus on current antibody production systems including their usability for different applications. PMID:23908655

  15. Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kutteh, William H; Hinote, Candace D

    2014-03-01

    Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) are acquired antibodies directed against negatively charged phospholipids. Obstetric antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is diagnosed in the presence of certain clinical features in conjunction with positive laboratory findings. Obstetric APS is one of the most commonly identified causes of recurrent pregnancy loss. Thus, obstetric APS is distinguished from APS in other organ systems where the most common manifestation is thrombosis. Several pathophysiologic mechanisms of action of aPLs have been described. This article discusses the diagnostic and obstetric challenges of obstetric APS, proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms of APS during pregnancy, and the management of women during and after pregnancy. PMID:24491987

  16. Antibody penetration of viable human cells. II. Anti-RNP antibodies binding to RNP antigen expressed on cell surface, which may mediate the antibody internalization.

    PubMed

    Ma, J; King, N; Chen, S L; Penny, R; Breit, S N

    1993-09-01

    As U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (U1 snRNP2) has a crucial role in pre-mRNP splicing, the interaction of anti-RNP antibody with snRNP within viable lymphocytes may profoundly influence cell functions. We have shown that antibody can penetrate viable human lymphocytes, and anti-RNP antibodies enter more cells than other anti-nuclear antibodies or control IgG. In order to study the in vitro interaction of anti-RNP antibodies with viable cells, T lymphocytes were metabolically labelled with 35S-methionine, then incubated with the antibodies and washed. A set of 35S-labelled cell-associated snRNP polypeptides A, B'/B, C and D were found to bind to both monospecific human polyclonal anti-RNP IgG (human anti-RNP IgG) and a mouse monoclonal anti-RNP antibody (2.73), indicating that anti-RNP antibodies interacted with RNP antigen inside or/and on the surface of viable cells. To investigate antibody binding to RNP antigen on the cell surface, the cell surface proteins were either iodinated with 125I or the cells processed for immunoelectron microscopic studies after incubation with MoAb. At least seven 125I-labelled polypeptides on the cell surface were found to be immunoprecipitated by the anti-RNP MoAb which have similar molecular weights to U snRNP polypeptides 70K, A, B, D, E, F, and G. The immunoelectron microscopic studies showed that the gold particles formed clustered patches on the cell membrane. Further studies suggested that RNP antigen bound to the cell surface, and the RNP binding structure was probably a heterodimer receptor. This study provides evidence to suggest that anti-RNP antibody entry into viable cells may be mediated by interaction with RNP antigen expressed on the cell surface. PMID:8370166

  17. Belgian recommendations on ANA, anti-dsDNA and anti-ENA antibody testing.

    PubMed

    Van Blerk, M; Bossuyt, X; Humbel, R; Mewis, A; Servais, G; Tomasi, J P; Van Campenhout, C; Van Hoovels, L; Vercammen, M; Damoiseaux, J; Coucke, W; Van de Walle, P

    2014-04-01

    Autoantibodies to nuclear antigens, i.e. antinuclear antibodies (ANA), antibodies to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and extractable nuclear antigens (ENA), are useful as diagnostic markers for a variety of autoimmune diseases. In March 2010, the Belgian national External Quality Assessment Scheme sent a questionnaire on ANA, anti-dsDNA and anti-ENA antibody testing designed by the Dutch EASI (European Autoimmunity Standardization Initiative) team, to all clinical laboratories performing ANA testing. Virtually all laboratories completed the questionnaire (97·7%, 127/130). This paper discusses the results of this questionnaire and provides valuable information on the state-of-the-art of ANA, anti-dsDNA and anti-ENA antibody testing as practiced in the Belgian laboratories. In addition, this work presents practical recommendations developed by the members of the advisory board of the scheme as a result of the outcome of this study. PMID:24724745

  18. Tissue antibodies in primary biliary cirrhosis, active chronic (lupoid) hepatitis, cryptogenic cirrhosis and other liver diseases and their clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Doniach, Deborah; Roitt, I. M.; Walker, J. G.; Sherlock, Sheila

    1966-01-01

    The sera of virtually all patients with primary biliary cirrhosis contained non-organ specific antibodies, probably directed against mitochondria, which give rise to cytoplasmic `M' immunofluorescence in unfixed sections from various organs in high titres. They were also found in 31% of patients with cryptogenic cirrhosis particularly those with obstructive features, and 28% of cases of active chronic (lupoid) hepatitis. In contrast only two patients out of twenty-eight with extrahepatic biliary obstruction and one patient out of twenty-five with infective hepatitis gave positive reactions and then in very low titre. Uniformly negative results for `M' immunofluorescence were obtained in alcoholic cirrhosis, cholestatic drug jaundice and cholestasis associated with ulcerative colitis. These findings suggest that `M' antibodies do not arise merely in response to liver damage and confirm the value of the test for the differential diagnosis between primary biliary cirrhosis and extrahepatic biliary obstruction although care must be taken in interpretation of the results in cases with associated connective tissue disorders where a significant incidence of positive reactions was observed. Seventy-seven per cent of juvenile cirrhosis, 46% of primary biliary cirrhosis and 38% of the cryptogenic cirrhosis patients had anti-nuclear factors. The incidence of ANF in the other liver groups was no higher than in mixed hospital controls. A high incidence of antibodies staining smooth muscle was observed in the juvenile and primary biliary cirrhosis groups. No liver specific antibodies could be detected by precipitation or tanned red cell agglutination although non-organ-specific antibodies were demonstrated in some instances with the latter technique. Thyroid specific autoantibodies were increased four-fold in females with active chronic hepatitis but the incidence of thyroid and gastric autoantibodies was not significantly different from the controls in all other liver conditions studied. Autoimmune reactions are prominent in primary biliary cirrhosis and in active chronic hepatitis but their role in the pathogenesis of these diseases is still undefined. ImagesFig. 1 and 2Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:5330183

  19. Serum Antibodies from a Subset of Horses Positive for Babesia caballi by Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Demonstrate a Protein Recognition Pattern That Is Not Consistent with Infection

    PubMed Central

    Awinda, Peter O.; Mealey, Robert H.; Williams, Laura B. A.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Packham, Andrea E.; Reif, Kathryn E.; Grause, Juanita F.; Pelzel-McCluskey, Angela M.; Chung, Chungwon; Bastos, Reginaldo G.; Kappmeyer, Lowell S.; Howe, Daniel K.; Ness, SallyAnne L.; Knowles, Donald P.

    2013-01-01

    Tick-borne pathogens that cause persistent infection are of major concern to the livestock industry because of transmission risk from persistently infected animals and the potential economic losses they pose. The recent reemergence of Theileria equi in the United States prompted a widespread national survey resulting in identification of limited distribution of equine piroplasmosis (EP) in the U.S. horse population. This program identified Babesia caballi-seropositive horses using rhoptry-associated protein 1 (RAP-1)–competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA), despite B. caballi being considered nonendemic on the U.S. mainland. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the suitability of RAP-1–cELISA as a single serological test to determine the infection status of B. caballi in U.S. horses. Immunoblotting indicated that sera from U.S. horses reacted with B. caballi lysate and purified B. caballi RAP-1 protein. Antibody reactivity to B. caballi lysate was exclusively directed against a single ?50-kDa band corresponding to a native B. caballi RAP-1 protein. In contrast, sera from experimentally and naturally infected horses from regions where B. caballi is endemic bound multiple proteins ranging from 30 to 50 kDa. Dilutions of sera from U.S. horses positive by cELISA revealed low levels of antibodies, while sera from horses experimentally infected with B. caballi and from areas where B. caballi is endemic had comparatively high antibody levels. Finally, blood transfer from seropositive U.S. horses into naive horses demonstrated no evidence of B. caballi transmission, confirming that antibody reactivity in cELISA-positive U.S. horses was not consistent with infection. Therefore, we conclude that a combination of cELISA and immunoblotting is required for the accurate serodiagnosis of B. caballi. PMID:24049108

  20. DOTA-Functionalized Polylysine: A High Number of DOTA Chelates Positively Influences the Biodistribution of Enzymatic Conjugated Anti-Tumor Antibody chCE7agl

    PubMed Central

    Sarko, Dikran; Dennler, Patrick; Zimmermann, Kurt; Mier, Walter; Schibli, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Site-specific enzymatic reactions with microbial transglutaminase (mTGase) lead to a homogenous species of immunoconjugates with a defined ligand/antibody ratio. In the present study, we have investigated the influence of different numbers of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N-N?-N??-N???-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) chelats coupled to a decalysine backbone on the in vivo behavior of the chimeric monoclonal anti-L1CAM antibody chCE7agl. The enzymatic conjugation of (DOTA)1-decalysine, (DOTA)3-decalysine or (DOTA)5-decalysine to the antibody heavy chain (via Gln295/297) gave rise to immunoconjugates containing two, six or ten DOTA moieties respectively. Radiolabeling of the immunoconjugates with 177Lu yielded specific activities of approximately 70 MBq/mg, 400 MBq/mg and 700 MBq/mg with increasing numbers of DOTA chelates. Biodistribution experiments in SKOV3ip human ovarian cancer cell xenografts demonstrated a high and specific accumulation of radioactivity at the tumor site for all antibody derivatives with a maximal tumor accumulation of 43.6±4.3% ID/g at 24 h for chCE7agl-[(DOTA)-decalysine]2, 30.6±12.0% ID/g at 24 h for chCE7agl-[(DOTA)3-decalysine]2 and 49.9±3.1% ID/g at 48 h for chCE7agl-[(DOTA)5-decalysine)]2. The rapid elimination from the blood of chCE7agl-[(DOTA)-decalysine]2 (1.0±0.1% ID/g at 24 h) is associated with a high liver accumulation (23.2±4.6% ID/g at 24 h). This behavior changed depending on the numbers of DOTA moieties coupled to the decalysine peptide with a slower blood clearance (5.1±1.0 (DOTA)3 versus 11.7±1.4% ID/g (DOTA)5, p<0.005 at 24 h) and lower radioactivity levels in the liver (21.4±3.4 (DOTA)3 versus 5.8±0.7 (DOTA)5, p<0.005 at 24 h). We conclude that the site-specific and stoichiometric uniform conjugation of the highly DOTA-substituted decalysine ((DOTA)5-decalysine) to an anti-tumor antibody leads to the formation of immunoconjugates with high specific activity and excellent in vivo behavior and is a valuable option for radioimmunotherapy and potentially antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs). PMID:23565233

  1. Antibody engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyo Jeong Hong; Sun Taek Kim

    2002-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) have been used as diagnostic and analytical reagents since hybridoma technology was invented\\u000a in 1975. In recent years, antibodies have become increasingly accepted as therapeutics for human diseases, particularly for\\u000a cancer, viral infection and autoimmune disorders. An indication of the emerging significance of antibody-based therapeutics\\u000a is that over a third of the proteins currently undergoing clinical trials

  2. The PTPN22 1858C\\/T polymorphism is associated with anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody-positive early rheumatoid arthritis in northern Sweden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heidi Kokkonen; Martin Johansson; Lena Innala; Erik Jidell; Solbritt Rantapää-Dahlqvist

    2007-01-01

    The PTPN22 1858C\\/T polymorphism has been associated with several autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We have shown that carriage of the T variant (CT or TT) of PTPN22 in combination with anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies highly increases the odds ratio for developing RA. In the present study we analysed the association between the PTPN22 1858C\\/T polymorphism and early

  3. RhD Specific Antibodies Are Not Detectable in HLA-DRB1(*)1501 Mice Challenged with Human RhD Positive Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Lidice; Denomme, Gregory A; Shah, Kunjlata; Lazarus, Alan H

    2014-01-01

    The ability to study the immune response to the RhD antigen in the prevention of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn has been hampered by the lack of a mouse model of RhD immunization. However, the ability of transgenic mice expressing human HLA DRB1(*)1501 to respond to immunization with purified RhD has allowed this question to be revisited. In this work we aimed at inducing anti-RhD antibodies by administering human RhD(+) RBCs to mice transgenic for the human HLA DRB1(*)1501 as well as to several standard inbred and outbred laboratory strains including C57BL/6, DBA1/J, CFW(SW), CD1(ICR), and NSA(CF-1). DRB1(*)1501 mice were additionally immunized with putative extracellular immunogenic RhD peptides. DRB1(*)1501 mice immunized with RhD(+) erythrocytes developed an erythrocyte-reactive antibody response. Antibodies specific for RhD could not however be detected by flow cytometry. Despite this, DRB1(*)1501 mice were capable of recognizing immunogenic sequences of Rh as injection with Rh peptides induced antibodies reactive with RhD sequences, consistent with the presence of B cell repertoires capable of recognizing RhD. We conclude that while HLA DRB1(*)1501 transgenic mice may have the capability of responding to immunogenic sequences within RhD, an immune response to human RBC expressing RhD is not directly observed. PMID:25628657

  4. RhD Specific Antibodies Are Not Detectable in HLA-DRB1*1501 Mice Challenged with Human RhD Positive Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bernardo, Lidice; Denomme, Gregory A.; Shah, Kunjlata; Lazarus, Alan H.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to study the immune response to the RhD antigen in the prevention of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn has been hampered by the lack of a mouse model of RhD immunization. However, the ability of transgenic mice expressing human HLA DRB1*1501 to respond to immunization with purified RhD has allowed this question to be revisited. In this work we aimed at inducing anti-RhD antibodies by administering human RhD+ RBCs to mice transgenic for the human HLA DRB1*1501 as well as to several standard inbred and outbred laboratory strains including C57BL/6, DBA1/J, CFW(SW), CD1(ICR), and NSA(CF-1). DRB1*1501 mice were additionally immunized with putative extracellular immunogenic RhD peptides. DRB1*1501 mice immunized with RhD+ erythrocytes developed an erythrocyte-reactive antibody response. Antibodies specific for RhD could not however be detected by flow cytometry. Despite this, DRB1*1501 mice were capable of recognizing immunogenic sequences of Rh as injection with Rh peptides induced antibodies reactive with RhD sequences, consistent with the presence of B cell repertoires capable of recognizing RhD. We conclude that while HLA DRB1*1501 transgenic mice may have the capability of responding to immunogenic sequences within RhD, an immune response to human RBC expressing RhD is not directly observed. PMID:25628657

  5. The Clinical and Genomic Significance of Donor-Specific Antibody–Positive/C4d-Negative and Donor-Specific Antibody–Negative/C4d-Negative Transplant Glomerulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Hayde, Nicole; Bao, Yi; Pullman, James; Ye, Bin; Calder, R. Brent; Chung, Monica; Schwartz, Daniel; Lubetzky, Michelle; Ajaimy, Maria; de Boccardo, Graciela

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background This study investigated the mechanisms involved in development of donor-specific antibody (DSA) and/or C4d-negative transplant glomerulopathy (TGP) by allograft gene expression profiles using microarrays. Design, Setting, Participants, & Measurements This cohort study was conducted in kidney transplant recipients. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they required a clinically indicated biopsy at any time point after their transplant. They were then classified according to their histopathology findings and DSA and C4d results. Eighteen chronic antibody-mediated rejection (CAMR), 14 DSA+/C4d? TGP, 25 DSA?/C4d? TGP, and 47 nonspecific interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy (IFTA) biopsy specimens were identified. In a subset of patients from the study population, biopsy specimens in each group and normal transplant kidney specimens were analyzed with Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST Arrays. Results The mean sum score of glomerulitis and peritubular capillaritis increased from 0.28±0.78 in IFTA specimens to 0.75±0.85 in DSA?/C4d? TGP specimens, 1.71±1.49 in DSA+/C4d?/TGP specimens, and 2.11±1.74 in CAMR specimens (P<0.001). During a median follow-up time of 2 (interquartile range, 1.4–2.8) years after biopsy, graft loss was highest in CAMR specimens (27.8%) compared to IFTA specimens (8.5%), DSA+/C4d? TGP specimens (14.3%), and DSA?/C4d? TGP specimens (16%) (P=0.01). With use of microarrays, comparison of the gene expression profiles of DSA?/C4d? TGP specimens with glomerulitis + peritubular capillaritis scores > 0 to normal and IFTA biopsy specimens revealed higher expression of quantitative cytotoxic T cell–associated transcripts (QCAT). However, both CAMR and DSA+/C4d? TGP specimens had higher expression of not only QCAT but also IFN-? and rejection-induced, constitutive macrophage-associated, natural killer cell–associated, and DSA-selective transcripts. Endothelial cell–associated transcript expression was upregulated only in CAMR biopsy specimens. Conclusions These results suggested that DSA+/C4d? TGP biopsy specimens may be classified as CAMR. In contrast, DSA?/C4d? TGP specimens showed increased cytotoxic T cell–associated transcripts, suggesting T cell activation as a mechanism of injury. PMID:24030736

  6. Induction and detection of antibodies to squalene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary R Matyas; Nabila M Wassef; Mangala Rao; Carl R Alving

    2000-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) utilizing antigen coated on hydrophobic polyvinyldiene fluoride (PVDF) membranes is described for detecting antibodies that bind to squalene (SQE). Because of the prior lack of availability of validated antibodies to SQE, positive controls for the assay were made by immunization with formulations containing SQE to create monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that reacted with SQE. Among eight

  7. Bispecific anti-CD3 x anti-HER2 antibody mediates T cell cytolytic activity to HER2-positive colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Han, Huamin; Ma, Juan; Zhang, Keming; Li, Wei; Liu, Changzhen; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Ganlin; Ma, Pan; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Ge; Tao, Hua; Gao, Bin

    2014-12-01

    Targeting HER2 overexpressed breast cancer cells with anti?HER2 monoclonal antibodies inhibits tumor growth. Here we investigated whether HER2 can serve as a target for T cell-mediated immunotherapy of human colorectal carcinoma. Specific cytolytic activity of activated T cells (ATCs) armed with anti?CD3 x anti?HER2 bispecific antibody (HER2Bi-Ab) against HER2+ tumor cells was evaluated by bioluminescent signal generated by luciferase reporter on tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. In contrast to unarmed ATCs, increased cytotoxic activity of HER2Bi-armed ATCs against HER2+ tumor cells was observed. Moreover, HER2Bi-armed ATCs expressed higher level of activation marker CD69 and secreted significantly higher levels of IFN-? than the unarmed ATC counterpart. In addition, compared with anti?HER2 mAb (Herceptin®) or unarmed ATC, HER2Bi-armed ATCs showed significant suppression against colorectal carcinoma cells. In colorectal tumor cell xenograft mice, infusion of HER2Bi-armed ATCs successfully inhibited the growth of Colo205-luc cells. The HER2Bi-armed ATCs with anti-tumor effects may provide a promising immunotherapy for colorectal carcinoma in the future. PMID:25242665

  8. Thyroid Antibodies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2. Can thyroid antibody testing be done in my doctor's office? Though a blood sample may be ... gov. Accessed August 2012. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 21st ed. McPherson R, Pincus ...

  9. In vivo and in vitro studies of GAD-antibody positive subjects with Type 2 diabetes: A distinct sub-phenotype

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donal J. O’Gorman; Obada Yousif; Gordon Dixon; Siobhan McQuaid; Elaine Murphy; Yousif Rahman; Declan Gasparro; Giovanni Pacini; Philip Newsholme; John J. Nolan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if immune mechanisms in GAD positive patients’ contribute to the pathogenesis of a specific sub-type of Type 2 diabetes. GAD positive (n=8) and GAD negative (n=8) subjects diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes were matched for age, gender, body mass index, duration of diabetes and glycaemic control. All subjects underwent an insulin-modified frequently

  10. Lack of cross-reactivity of anti-DNA antibodies to ribonucleoproteins in a new commercial blot system for specific ANAs.

    PubMed

    González, C; Pascual, M J; González-Buitrago, J M

    2000-09-01

    Anti-DNA antibodies often exhibit cross-reactivity. It has been observed that anti-DNA antibodies cross-react with A and D snRNP proteins in an in-house developed Western blot assay but do not cross-react with native U1RNP in ELISA or immunoprecipitation experiments. We have analyzed the cross-reactivity of anti-DNA antibodies to snRNP A and D in a recently developed commercial blot assay (InnoLIA, Innogenetics). In our experience anti-DNA antibodies do not cross-react with proteins A and D in this blot system. Hence this new blot system avoids the cross-reactivity problems in the assessment of antinuclear antibody specificity for both Sm and U1snRNP. PMID:11078159

  11. Targeting of saporin to CD25-positive normal and neoplastic lymphocytes by an anti-saporin/anti-CD25 bispecific monoclonal antibody: in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Tazzari, P. L.; Zhang, S.; Chen, Q.; Sforzini, S.; Bolognesi, A.; Stirpe, F.; Xie, H.; Moretta, A.; Ferrini, S.

    1993-01-01

    This study has been designed to verify the specific toxicity of saporin, a type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP), with the same activity as ricin A chain, targeted by a bispecific monoclonal antibody (bimAb) recognising both the CD25 antigen and the RIP. The CD25 antigen is expressed by lymphoid populations upon activation and by leukaemias and lymphomas with an activated membrane phenotype (Hodgkin's lymphoma, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, adult T cell leukaemia). The bimAb-saporin mixture was tested on CD25+ targets at different bimAb and saporin concentrations. Saporin, in the presence of a bimAb concentration of 10(-9) M, inhibited protein synthesis by CD25+ neoplastic lymphocytes (L540 and MT2 cell lines) with IC50S (concentrations giving 50% of inhibition) ranging from 8 x 10(-12) M to 3 x 10(-11) M. The saporin-bimAb mixture was also effective in blocking the phytohaemagglutinin-driven proliferation of normal lymphocytes, whereas it displayed the same level of toxicity exerted by saporin alone on an irrelevant CD25-negative cell line (EBV-infected B lymphoblastoid cell line). From these results it is possible to envisage a clinical use of this bimAb as a cytotoxic agent for CD25+ leukaemias and lymphomas, as well as an immunosuppressive agent for severe immune disorders such as graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) and transplanted organ rejection. PMID:8512810

  12. Introduction to Antibodies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site contains a thorough overview of the fundamentals of antibodies. The site starts with an introduction to antigens and antibodies, antibody production and titer including practical information.

  13. Radioimmunoguided surgery using monoclonal antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, E.W. Jr.; Mojzisik, C.M.; Hinkle, G.H. Jr.; Sampsel, J.; Siddiqi, M.A.; Tuttle, S.E.; Sickle-Santanello, B.; Colcher, D.; Thurston, M.O.; Bell, J.G.

    1988-11-01

    The potential proficiency of radioimmunoguided surgery in the intraoperative detection of tumors was assessed using labeled monoclonal antibody B72.3 in 66 patients with tissue-proved tumor. Monoclonal antibody B72.3 was injected 5 to 42 days preoperatively, and the hand-held gamma-detecting probe was used intraoperatively to detect the presence of tumor. Intraoperative probe counts of less than 20 every 2 seconds, or tumor-to-adjacent normal tissue ratios less than 2:1 were considered negative (system failure). Positive probe counts were detected in 5 of 6 patients with primary colon cancer (83 percent), in 31 of 39 patients with recurrent colon cancer (79 percent), in 4 of 5 patients with gastric cancer (80 percent), in 3 of 8 patients with breast cancer (37.5 percent), and in 4 of 8 patients with ovarian cancer (50 percent) undergoing second-look procedures. Additional patients in each group were scored as borderline positive. Overall, radioimmunoguided surgery using B72.3 identified tumors in 47 patients (71.2 percent), bordered on positive in 6 patients (9.1 percent), and failed to identify tumor in 13 patients (19.7 percent). Improved selection of patients for antigen-positive tumors, the use of higher affinity second-generation antibodies, alternate routes of antibody administration, alternate radionuclides, and more sophisticatedly bioengineered antibodies and antibody combinations should all lead to improvements in radioimmunoguided surgery.

  14. Dynamic adhesion of CD8-positive cells to antibody-coated surfaces: the initial step is independent of microfilaments and intracellular domains of cell-binding molecules

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Cell adhesion is a multistep, metabolically active process usually requiring several minutes or even hours to complete. This results in the formation of strong bonds that cannot be ruptured by mechanical forces encountered by living cells in their natural environment. However, the first seconds after contact formation are much more sensitive to external conditions and may be the critical step of adhesion. This step is very difficult to monitor without disturbing the observed system. We addressed this problem by studying the interaction between anti-CD8-coated or control surfaces and murine lymphoid cell lines bearing wild-type CD8 molecules, or genetically engineered molecules bearing extracellular CD8 domains and transmembranar and intracytoplasmic domains of class I histocompatibility molecules, or with extensive deletion of intracytoplasmic domains. We used a new method that consisted of monitoring the motion of cells driven along adhesive surfaces by a hydrodynamic force weaker than the reported strength of single ligand-receptor bonds, but sufficient to make free cells move with an easily detectable velocity of several micrometers per second. Cells exhibited short-term (< or = 0.5 s) adhesions to the surface with a frequency of about one event per 30-s period of contact. These events did not require specific antigen-antibody bonds. However, when anti-CD8 were present, strong adhesion was achieved within < 1 s, since most arrests were longer than a standard observation period of 1 min. This bond strengthening was not affected by cytochalasin, and it did not require intact intracellular domains on binding molecules. It is concluded that the initial step in strong adhesion may be viewed as a passive, diffusion-driven formation of a new specific bonds. PMID:8188755

  15. Recently Added Antibodies

    Cancer.gov

    Reagents Data Portal AntibodiesNCI announces the release of monoclonal antipeptide antibodies from rabbit for distribution on the antibody portal. There are 60 recently added monoclonal antibodies, with 56 generated from mouse and 4 generated from rabbit. Print

  16. Auto-Antibodies and Their Association with Clinical Findings in Women Diagnosed with Microscopic Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Ohlsson, Bodil

    2013-01-01

    Background Microscopic colitis (MC) is a disease manifested by diarrhoea and is divided into collagenous and lymphocytic colitis. The aetiology is unknown, but auto-immunity is suggested. Auto-antibodies have been only rarely examined in this entity. The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of auto-antibodies, and to examine associations between the presence of antibodies and clinical findings. Methods and Findings Women with MC verified by biopsy and younger than 73 years, at any Department of Gastroenterology, in the district of Skåne, between 2002 and 2010 were invited to participate in this study. The patients were asked to complete both a questionnaire describing their medical history and the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS). Blood samples were collected. Anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA), anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA), and antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (anti-GAD), islet antigens-like insulin 2 (anti-IA2), thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO), and thyrotropin receptor (TRAK) were analysed. Of 240 women identified, 133 were finally included in the study, median age 63 (59–67) years. Apart from the MC diagnosis, 52% also suffered from irritable bowel syndrome, 31% from hypertension and 31% from allergy. The prevalence of ANA (14%), ASCA IgG (13%), and anti-TPO antibodies (14%) for these patients was slightly higher than for the general population, and were found together with other concomitant diseases. Patients had more of all gastrointestinal symptoms compared with norm values, irrespective of antibody expression. Conclusions Women with MC have a slightly increased prevalence of some auto-antibodies. These antibodies are not associated with symptoms, but are expressed in patients with concomitant diseases, obscuring the pathophysiology and clinical picture of MC. PMID:23776613

  17. Smoking interacts with HLA-DRB1 shared epitope in the development of anti-citrullinated protein antibody-positive rheumatoid arthritis: results from the Malaysian Epidemiological Investigation of Rheumatoid Arthritis (MyEIRA)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease in which genetic and environmental factors interact in the etiology. In this study, we investigated whether smoking and HLA-DRB1 shared-epitope (SE) alleles interact differently in the development of the two major subgroups of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), anti-citrullinated proteins antibody (ACPA)-positive and ACPA-negative disease, in a multiethnic population of Asian descent. Methods A case-control study comprising early diagnosed RA cases was carried out in Malaysia between 2005 and 2009. In total, 1,076 cases and 1,612 matched controls participated in the study. High-resolution HLA-DRB1 genotyping was performed for shared-epitope (SE) alleles. All participants answered a questionnaire on a broad range of issues, including smoking habits. The odds ratio (OR) of developing ACPA-positive and ACPA-negative disease was calculated for smoking and the presence of any SE alleles separately. Potential interaction between smoking history (defined as "ever" and "never" smoking) and HLA-DRB1 SE alleles also was calculated. Results In our multiethnic study, both the SE alleles and smoking were associated with an increased risk of developing ACPA-positive RA (OR SE alleles, 4.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.6 to 6.2; OR smoking, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.9 to 9.2). SE-positive smokers had an odds ratio of ACPA-positive RA of 25.6 (95% CI, 10.4 to 63.4), compared with SE-negative never-smokers. The interaction between smoking and SE alleles was significant (attributable proportion due to interaction (AP) was 0.7 (95% CI, 0.5 to 1.0)). The HLA-DRB1*04:05 SE allele, which is common in Asian populations, but not among Caucasians, was associated with an increased risk of ACPA-positive RA, and this allele also showed signs of interaction with smoking (AP, 0.4; 95% CI, -0.1 to 0.9). Neither smoking nor SE alleles nor their combination was associated with an increased risk of ACPA-negative RA. Conclusions The risk of developing ACPA-positive RA is associated with a strong gene-environment interaction between smoking and HLA-DRB1 SE alleles in a Malaysian multiethnic population of Asian descent. This interaction seems to apply also between smoking and the specific HLA-DRB1*04:05 SE allele, which is common in Asian populations but not in Caucasians. PMID:22537824

  18. [Monoclonal antibodies].

    PubMed

    Koyama, K

    1988-08-01

    Since the first successful application of somatic cell fusion by Kohler and Milstein to generate hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies (Mabs), this hybridoma technique has been widely applied for production of Mabs against a wide variety of antigens. In the lecture, general procedures for establishment of hybridomas and characteristic properties of Mabs were briefly explained and followed by presentation of our clinical studies using Mabs produced in our laboratory to hCG, sperm and tumor cells. 1. Monoclonal antibodies to hCG. Three hybridomas (5D4, 6E4, 2F8) were established by fusing mouse myeloma cells (P3U1) with spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with partially purified hCG. Mabs were obtained either from hybridoma culture media or from ascites of mice inoculated the hybridoma cells intraperitoneally. Three Mabs obtained were all IgG1 and each had a unique binding specificity to hCG, hCG-beta, hCG-alpha and LH. They were applied for development of specific, sensitive and easy to perform hCG assays. A reverse passive hemagglutination assay of urinary hCG with a sensitivity of 12.5 IU/l and a sandwich-enzyme immunoassay of serum hCG with a sensitivity of 0.1 mIU/ml were presented. 2. Monoclonal antibodies to human spermatozoa. For elucidation of mechanisms for induction of auto- or iso-sperm immunization and infertility by antisperm antibodies, antigen analysis of seminal components was essential. For this purpose, several Mabs with strong sperm immobilizing (SI) and agglutinating (SA) activities were generated in mice, rats and humans and the corresponding antigens were analysed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3075226

  19. Anticentromere antibody in localized scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Ruffatti, A; Peserico, A; Glorioso, S; Fiocco, U; Rossi, L; Gambari, P; Todesco, S

    1986-10-01

    Using metaphase chromosome spreads as substrate for indirect immunofluorescence technic, we observed anticentromere antibody in three of twenty-five patients affected with various clinical forms of localized scleroderma. Anticentromere antibody is generally considered a serologic marker of the CREST syndrome, a more benign subset of systemic sclerosis. However, none of the three anticentromere antibody-positive patients with localized scleroderma had Raynaud's phenomenon, acrosclerosis, or any signs or symptoms of systemic disease; on physical and laboratory examination, they showed only typical cutaneous features of localized scleroderma: two showed linear scleroderma, and one showed localized morphea. A 2-year 8-month follow-up of two patients did not disclose any clinical evidence of systemic sclerosis. The occurrence of anticentromere antibody in patients with localized scleroderma seems to offer supportive evidence that a relationship exists between localized scleroderma and systemic sclerosis. PMID:3534010

  20. Platelet associated antibodies

    MedlinePLUS

    A test for platelet-associated antibodies shows if you have antibodies against platelets in your blood. ... need this test when you have a low platelet count (thrombocytopenia). It is used to detect antibodies ...

  1. Reagents Data Portal Antibodies

    Cancer.gov

    NCI announces the release of monoclonal antipeptide antibodies from rabbit for distribution on the antibody portal. There are 60 recently added monoclonal antibodies, with 56 generated from mouse and 4 generated from rabbit.

  2. ANTIBODY FORMATION

    PubMed Central

    Uhr, Jonathan W.; Baumann, Joyce B.

    1961-01-01

    Diphtheria toxoid-antitoxin precipitates formed in antitoxin excess can prepare guinea pigs, rats, and rabbits for a secondary type of antitoxin response. Priming may occur without the development of detectable serum antibody. In rats, toxoid-antitoxin precipitates are more efficient than "free" toxoid in priming, whereas in guinea pigs, the magnitude of the anamnestic response varies with the precipitate employed. The possibility that priming is due to "free" antigen released from the specific precipitate rather than the precipitate itself is discussed. The anamnestic antitoxin response can be inhibited by passive antitoxin, but less efficiently than primary antitoxin formation. Partial suppression of the secondary antitoxin response was accomplished by injection of excess horse antitoxin as long as 4 days after reimmunization with toxoid. The importance of these findings for the understanding of passive-active immunization in the human is discussed. PMID:13779028

  3. In ACPA-positive RA patients, antibodies to EBNA35-58Cit, a citrullinated peptide from the Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1, strongly cross-react with the peptide ?60-74Cit which bears the immunodominant epitope of citrullinated fibrin.

    PubMed

    Cornillet, M; Verrouil, E; Cantagrel, A; Serre, G; Nogueira, L

    2015-02-01

    Although several infectious agents and particularly Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) have been suspected to be involved in aetiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), their role still remains elusive. Almost 80% of RA sera contain antibodies to citrullinated proteins/peptides. Among them, the autoantibodies to citrullinated human fibrinogen (AhFibA) are composed of two non-cross-reactive subsets directed to immunodominant epitopes borne by the ?36-50Cit and ?60-74Cit fibrin peptides. RA sera also contain antibodies towards the citrullinated EBNA35-58Cit peptide derived from the EBNA-1 protein of EBV. Here, using a large cohort of RA patients and controls, we showed that for a diagnostic specificity of 98.5%, 47% of the AhFibA-positive patients were anti-EBNA35-58Cit-positive and that almost all (98.5%) the anti-EBNA35-58Cit-positive were AhFibA-positive, whereas 86% were anti-?60-74Cit-positive and only 43% anti-?36-50Cit-positive. AhFibA, anti-EBNA35-58Cit- and anti-?60-74Cit-antibody titres were significantly correlated. Competition assays showed that anti-EBNA35-58Cit antibodies are highly cross-reactive with the ?60-74Cit peptide. The demonstration that a citrullinated peptide derived from the EBNA-1 protein of EBV presents a molecular mimicry with human citrullinated fibrin constitutes an additional argument for a possible role of EBV in RA aetiopathogeny. PMID:25407647

  4. Cerebral venous thrombosis presenting with subdural haematoma as first presentation for systemic lupus erythematosus with negative antiphospholipid antibodies.

    PubMed

    Alboudi, Ayman; Sarathchandran, Pournamy; Alrukn, Suhail; Al Madani, Abubaker

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 30-year-old woman, without any previous comorbidities presenting with acute onset headache, altered sensorium and unsteadiness of gait. Neurological evaluation revealed a drowsy patient with papilloedema, bilateral lateral rectus palsy, generalised hyper-reflexia and up going plantar responses. Urgent imaging performed showed extensive cortical venous sinus thrombosis. Workup for secondary causes of cortical venous sinus thrombosis revealed very high titres of antinuclear antibody and anti-dsDNA, but negative antiphospholipid antibodies (APLA). In hospital she started developing other complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Urine evaluation revealed proteinuria and granular casts suggestive of glomerulonephritis. Cardiac evaluation revealed moderate pericardial effusion. We have discussed neurolupus as initial presentation of SLE and the rare occurrence of major neurovascular complications without secondary APLA syndrome. PMID:25080548

  5. Selection of antibodies from synthetic antibody libraries.

    PubMed

    Harel Inbar, Noa; Benhar, Itai

    2012-10-15

    More than 2 dozen years had passed since the field of antibody engineering was established, with the first reports of bacterial [1-3] and mammalian cells [4] expression of recombinant antibody fragments, and in that time a lot of effort was dedicated to the development of efficient technological means, intended to assist in the creation of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Research focus was given to two intertwined technological aspects: the selection platform and the recombinant antibody repertoires. In accordance with these areas of interest, it is the goal of this chapter to describe the various selection tools and antibody libraries existing, with emphasis on the later, and their applications. This chapter gives a far from exhaustive, subjective "historic account" of the field, describing the selection platforms, the different formats of antibody repertoires and the applications of both for selecting recombinant antibodies. Several excellent books provide detailed protocols for constructing antibody libraries and selecting antibodies from those libraries [5-13]. Such books may guide a newcomer to the field in the fine details of antibody engineering. We would like to offer advice to the novice: although seemingly simple, effective library construction and antibody isolation provide best benefits in the hands of professionals. It is an art as much as it is science. PMID:22244834

  6. Use of monoclonal antibodies in the assay of hepatitis B core antigen and antibody.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Y; Inoue, M; Yoshihara, N

    1984-08-01

    Hybridoma cells secreting antibody against hepatitis B core antigen (HBc Ag) were prepared. BALB/c mice were immunized with 0.2 ml of purified HBc Ag, and their spleen cells were fused with mouse myeloma (P3U1) cells by means of polyethylene glycol 1000. Activities of antibodies against HBc Ag (anti-HBc) were tested by the immune adherence hemagglutination (IAHA) and reverse passive hemagglutination inhibition (RPHI) techniques. Hybridoma cells found to contain antibodies accounted for 26.5% by IAHA and 52.1% by RPHI, respectively. Among 32 monoclonal anti-HBc antibodies, 18 were found to be positive by both IAHA and RPHI, and the remaining 14 positive by RPHI only. After cloning, they were injected intraperitoneally into ascitic mice. The highest anti-HBc activity with an IAHA titer of 1:4 X 10(6) and with an RPHI titer of 1:1 X 10(5) was detected in this ascitic fluid. Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and RPHI with monoclonal antibody containing the highest anti-HBc activity were developed. All the sera in which anti-HBc was detected by IAHA and RPHI with polyclonal antibody were positive in EIA. RPHI titers obtained with monoclonal antibody were in good agreement with usual IAHA and RPHI titers obtained with polyclonal antibody. These results indicate that monoclonal antibody can be used in the HBc Ag and anti-HBc assay system. PMID:6396424

  7. The strong positive correlation between effective affinity and infectivity neutralization of highly cross-reactive monoclonal antibody IIB4, which recognizes antigenic site B on influenza A virus haemagglutinin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Kostolansky; E. Varec; T. Beta; V. Mucha; G. Russ; S. A. Wharton

    Monoclonal antibody (MAb) IIB4 displays a rare combination of virus neutralization (VN) activity and broad cross-reactivity with influenza A virus strains of the H3 subtype isolated in a period from 1973 to 1988. The epitope of this antibody has been identified as around HA1 residues 198, 199 and 201. Here we report that residues 155, 159, 188, 189 and 193

  8. Antiphospholipid antibodies and infertility.

    PubMed

    Chighizola, C B; de Jesus, G R

    2014-10-01

    Since the late 1980s some publications have proposed that antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) may have some relationship with infertility, considering reported deleterious effects that aPL exert on trophoblast proliferation and growth. Although not included in current classification criteria for antiphospholipid syndrome, many physicians investigate for aPL in patients with a history of infertility, including antibodies not listed in classification criteria, and most of those patients will receive anticoagulant therapy if any of those antibodies have a result considered positive. A review of literature was conducted searching for studies that investigated the association of aPL and infertility and if aPL positivity alters in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome. The definition of infertility, routine work-up to exclude other causes of infertility, definition of IVF failure as inclusion criteria and control populations were heterogeneous among studies. Most of them enrolled women over 40 years of age, and exclusion of other confounding factors was also inconsistent. Of 29 studies that assessed aPL positivity rates in infertile women, the majority had small sample sizes, implying a lack of power, and 13 (44.8%) reported higher frequency of aPL in infertile patients compared to controls, but most of them investigated a panel of non-criteria aPL tests, whose clinical significance is highly controversial. Only two studies investigated all three criteria tests, and medium-high titer of anticardiolipin cut-off conforming to international guidelines was used in one study. Considering IVF outcome, there was also disparity in this definition: few studies assessed the live birth rate, others the implantation rate. Of 14 publications that addressed the relationship between aPL and IVF outcome, only two described a detrimental effect of these autoantibodies. In conclusion, available data do not support an association between aPL and infertility, and aPL positivity does not seem to influence IVF outcome. Well-designed clinical studies recruiting women with a clear diagnosis of infertility and a high-risk aPL profile should be performed to test whether clinically relevant aPL do-or not-exert an effect on human fertility. PMID:25228713

  9. Prevalence of anticardiolipin antibodies in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Caporali, R; Ravelli, A; De Gennaro, F; Neirotti, G; Montecucco, C; Martini, A

    1991-01-01

    The prevalence of anticardiolipin antibodies was evaluated in 70 children with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA), in 25 adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis, in 42 healthy children and in 40 adult controls. Thirty seven (53%) patients with JCA were positive for IgG or IgM anticardiolipin antibodies, or both, and 30 (43%) for IgG anticardiolipin antibodies. In contrast, only seven (28%) adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis presented anticardiolipin antibodies, which were of IgG class in four (16%) cases. IgG anticardiolipin antibodies were negative in all control subjects while IgM anticardiolipin antibodies were detected in two (5%) children and in four (10%) adult controls. No correlations were found in patients with JCA between the presence or titres of anticardiolipin antibodies and various clinical or laboratory variables. No patient with anticardiolipin antibodies showed any feature of the anticardiolipin syndrome. PMID:1929580

  10. Coeliac Disease-Associated Antibodies in Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Akbulut, Sabiye; Gür, Günes; Topal, Firdevs; Topal, Fatih Esad; Alli, Nuran; Saritas, Ülkü

    2013-01-01

    Background The possible relationship between psoriasis and coeliac disease (CD) has been attributed to the common pathogenic mechanisms of the two diseases and the presence of antigliadin antibodies in patients has been reported to increase the incidence of CD. Objective The aim of this report was to study CD-associated antibodies serum antigliadin antibody immunoglobulin (Ig)A, IgG, anti-endomysial antibody IgA and anti-transglutaminase antibody IgA and to demonstrate whether there is an increase in the frequency of those markers of CD in patients with psoriasis. Methods Serum antigliadin antibody IgG and IgA, antiendomysial antibody IgA and anti-transglutaminase antibody IgA were studied in 37 (19 males) patients with psoriasis and 50 (23 males) healthy controls. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and duodenal biopsies were performed in patients with at least one positive marker. Results Antigliadin IgA was statistically higher in the psoriasis group than in the controls (p<0.05). Serological markers were found positive in 6 patients with psoriasis and 1 person from the control group. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed in all these persons, with biopsies collected from the duodenum. The diagnosis of CD was reported in only one patient with psoriasis following the pathological examination of the biopsies. Whereas one person of the control group was found to be positive for antigliadin antibody IgA, pathological examination of the duodenal biopsies obtain from this patient were found to be normal. Conclusion Antigliadin IgA prominently increases in patients diagnosed with psoriasis. Patients with psoriasis should be investigated for latent CD and should be followed up. PMID:24003271

  11. RBC Antibody Screen

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this website will be limited. Search Help? RBC Antibody Screen Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... treatable. ^ Back to top 3. Can I get antibodies from donating blood? No, you will not be ...

  12. GE Healthcare Antibody Purification

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    GE Healthcare Antibody Purification Handbook GE Healthcare imagination at work agination at work from GE Healthcare #12;Antibody Purification Handbook #12; Handbook 18-1037-46 AD Contents Introduction

  13. Antibody profiling sensitivity through increased reporter antibody layering

    DOEpatents

    Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S

    2010-04-13

    A method for analyzing a biological sample by antibody profiling for identifying forensic samples or for detecting the presence of an analyte. In an embodiment of the invention, the analyte is a drug, such as marijuana, Cocaine (crystalline tropane alkaloid), methamphetamine, methyltestosterone, or mesterolone. The method comprises attaching antigens to a surface of a solid support in a preselected pattern to form an array wherein locations of the antigens are known; contacting the array with the biological sample such that a portion of antibodies in the sample reacts with and binds to the antigens in the array to form immune complexes; washing away antibodies that do form immune complexes; and detecting the immune complexes, to form an antibody profile. Forensic samples are identified by comparing a sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source. Further, an assay, such as a test for illegal drug use, can be coupled to a test for identity such that the results of the assay can be positively correlated to the subject's identity.

  14. Antibody profiling sensitivity through increased reporter antibody layering

    DOEpatents

    Apel, William A; Thompson, Vicki S

    2013-02-26

    A method for analyzing a biological sample by antibody profiling for identifying forensic samples or for detecting the presence of an analyte. In an embodiment of the invention, the analyte is a drug, such as marijuana, Cocaine (crystalline tropane alkaloid), methamphetamine, methyltestosterone, or mesterolone. The method comprises attaching antigens to a surface of a solid support in a preselected pattern to form an array wherein locations of the antigens are known; contacting the array with the biological sample such that a portion of antibodies in the sample reacts with and binds to the antigens in the array to form immune complexes; washing away antibodies that do form immune complexes; and detecting the immune complexes, to form an antibody profile. Forensic samples are identified by comparing a sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source. Further, an assay, such as a test for illegal drug use, can be coupled to a test for identity such that the results of the assay can be positively correlated to the subject's identity.

  15. Modeling Antibody Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Moore, Cathy Ronstadt

    1998-01-01

    Understanding antibody structure and function is difficult for many students. The rearrangement of constant and variable regions during antibody differentiation can be effectively simulated using a paper model. Describes a hands-on laboratory exercise which allows students to model antibody diversity using readily available resources. (PVD)

  16. Antibodies, viruses and vaccines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis R. Burton

    2002-01-01

    Neutralizing antibodies are crucial for vaccine-mediated protection against viral diseases. They probably act, in most cases, by blunting the infection, which is then resolved by cellular immunity. The protective effects of neutralizing antibodies can be achieved not only by neutralization of free virus particles, but also by several activities directed against infected cells. In certain instances, non-neutralizing antibodies contribute to

  17. Peptide antibodies and their use in detecting oncogene products

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, G.L.; Arnheim, N.; McCormick, F.P.; Wong, G.L.; Clark, R.; Arnheim, N.; Nitecki, D.E.

    1989-01-17

    A polyclonal antibody preparation is described. It binds selectively to a characteristic marker epitope encompassing amino acid position 12 of an activated form of p21 protein, wherein the polyclonal antibody preparation is specific for a particular polyclonal antibody amino acid at position 12 and does not bind the p21 protein encoded by the corresponding proto-oncogene. A method for detecting an activated form of p21 protein is also described. It is encoded by an oncogene in a cellular sample of a patient which protein has a characteristic marker epitope encompassing amino acid position 12 which is not present in the p21 protein encoded by the corresponding proto-oncogene and which is not exposed in the undenatured protein. The method comprises: (a) treating the sample with a protein denaturing agent that causes the epitope to be exposed and does not substantially inhibit binding of an antibody to the epitope of the protein, (b) incubating the sample with the antibody under conditions that permit the binding of the antibody preparation to the epitope, (c) incubating the sample with a labeled antibody which binds specifically to the antibody employed in step (b), (d) washing the incubated sample to remove unbound labeled antibody, and (e) detecting the presence of labelled immune complexes of the epitope with the antibodies employed in steps (b) and (c).

  18. Method for altering antibody light chain interactions

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Fred J. (Naperville, IL); Stevens, Priscilla Wilkins (Evanston, IL); Raffen, Rosemarie (Elmhurst, IL); Schiffer, Marianne (Downers Grove, IL)

    2002-01-01

    A method for recombinant antibody subunit dimerization including modifying at least one codon of a nucleic acid sequence to replace an amino acid occurring naturally in the antibody with a charged amino acid at a position in the interface segment of the light polypeptide variable region, the charged amino acid having a first polarity; and modifying at least one codon of the nucleic acid sequence to replace an amino acid occurring naturally in the antibody with a charged amino acid at a position in an interface segment of the heavy polypeptide variable region corresponding to a position in the light polypeptide variable region, the charged amino acid having a second polarity opposite the first polarity. Nucleic acid sequences which code for novel light chain proteins, the latter of which are used in conjunction with the inventive method, are also provided.

  19. Passive West Nile virus antibody transfer from maternal Eastern Screech-Owls (Megascops asio) to progeny

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hahn, D.C.; Nemeth, N.M.; Edwards, E.; Bright, P.R.; Komar, N.

    2006-01-01

    Transovarial antibody transfer in owls has not been demonstrated for West Nile virus (WNV). We sampled chicks from captive adult WNV-antibody-positive Eastern Screech-Owls (Megascops asio) to evaluate the prevalence of transovarial maternal antibody transfer, as well as titers and duration of maternal antibodies. Twenty-four owlets aged 1 to 27 days old circulated detectable antibodies with neutralizing antibody titers ranging from 20 to 1600 (median 1:40). Demonstrating that WNV antibodies are passively transferred transovarially is important for accurate interpretation of serologic data from young birds.

  20. A monoclonal antibody against PMEL.

    PubMed

    Shi, Fangyuan; Xu, Zhenjie; Chen, Hongdong; Wang, Xin; Cui, Jihong; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Ping; Xie, Xin

    2014-10-01

    PMEL, also known as Pmel17 or gp100, is a melanocyte-specific glycoprotein that is essential for the formation of stage II melanosomes. As it has a highly restricted expression pattern in normal tissues and a transient presence on the cell surface, PMEL is believed to be a potential target for antibody drug conjugate therapy in some pigmentary diseases. The production of a high specificity and high affinity monoclonal antibody against human PMEL was helpful for the antibody drug conjugate therapy study. In the present study, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against PMEL were obtained by immunizing BALB/c mice with the recombinant PMEL-GST fusion protein. Three mAbs (A3F, G11B, and J7E) with a titer of 1:6000, 1:10,000, and 1:3000, respectively, were obtained. Immunoglobulin subclass assay revealed that A3F was IgG2b, G11B was IgG1, and J7E was IgG2a. Specificity analysis by Western blotting demonstrated that A3F and J7E cross-reacted with GPNMB or LAMP; however, G11B reacted with PMEL only. Immunohistochemistry experiments showed that G11B could bind human PMEL antigen in normal skin. Flow cytometry assay demonstrated that G11B could bind to the surface of PMEL positive melanoma cells but not PMEL negative cells. Taken together, these results show that this G11B provides a useful tool for the antibody drug conjugate therapy study in some pigmentary diseases. PMID:25118787

  1. Multiple loci are linked with anti-red blood cell antibody production in NZB mice – comparison with other phenotypes implies complex modes of action

    PubMed Central

    LEE, N J; RIGBY, R J; GILL, H; BOYLE, J J; FOSSATI-JIMACK, L; MORLEY, B J; VYSE, T J

    2004-01-01

    The New Zealand Black (NZB) mouse strain is a model of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AHA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), characterized by the production of anti-red blood cell (RBC) antibodies and anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), respectively. A linkage analysis was carried out in an (NZB × BALB/c) F2 cross in order to identify loci involved in the production of both anti-RBC IgM and IgG antibodies. These regions of linkage were compared with linkage data to ANA from the same cohort and other linkage analyses involving New Zealand mice. Four previously described NZB loci linked to anti-RBC antibodies were confirmed, and eight novel loci linked to this trait were also mapped: five of which were of NZB origin, and three derived from the non-autoimmune BALB/c background. A comparison between loci linked with anti-RBC antibodies and ANA demonstrated many that co-localize, suggesting the presence of genes that result in the general breaking of tolerance to self-antigen. Furthermore, the observation that some loci were associated only with the anti-RBC response suggests an antigen specific mechanism in addition to a general breaking of tolerance. A locus linked with anti-RBC antibodies and ANA on distal chromosome 7 in this cohort is orthologous to one on the q arm of human chromosome 11, a region linked to AHA and ANA in human SLE. PMID:15373903

  2. Multiple loci are linked with anti-red blood cell antibody production in NZB mice -- comparison with other phenotypes implies complex modes of action.

    PubMed

    Lee, N J; Rigby, R J; Gill, H; Boyle, J J; Fossati-Jimack, L; Morley, B J; Vyse, T J

    2004-10-01

    The New Zealand Black (NZB) mouse strain is a model of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AHA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), characterized by the production of anti-red blood cell (RBC) antibodies and anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), respectively. A linkage analysis was carried out in an (NZB x BALB/c) F(2) cross in order to identify loci involved in the production of both anti-RBC IgM and IgG antibodies. These regions of linkage were compared with linkage data to ANA from the same cohort and other linkage analyses involving New Zealand mice. Four previously described NZB loci linked to anti-RBC antibodies were confirmed, and eight novel loci linked to this trait were also mapped: five of which were of NZB origin, and three derived from the non-autoimmune BALB/c background. A comparison between loci linked with anti-RBC antibodies and ANA demonstrated many that co-localize, suggesting the presence of genes that result in the general breaking of tolerance to self-antigen. Furthermore, the observation that some loci were associated only with the anti-RBC response suggests an antigen specific mechanism in addition to a general breaking of tolerance. A locus linked with anti-RBC antibodies and ANA on distal chromosome 7 in this cohort is orthologous to one on the q arm of human chromosome 11, a region linked to AHA and ANA in human SLE. PMID:15373903

  3. [Antibodies against Borrelia garinii in diagnosis of Lyme disease].

    PubMed

    Flisiak, R; Prokopowicz, D

    2000-01-01

    Prevalence of antibodies against Borrelia garinii (Bg) was analysed in sera of 42 patients with Lyme borreliosis confirmed through demonstration of antibodies against antigen 41 kDa of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (Bbss). IgM or IgG antibodies against Bg were found in sera of 88% patients. Agreement of the results between Bg and Bbss tests related to IgM antibodies reached 84% and to IgG antibodies 76%. Comparison of individual results revealed significant positive correlation of optical densities in respect to both IgM and IgG antibodies. These results indicate possible use of detection of anti-Borrelia garinii antibodies in diagnostics of Lyme borreliosis in Poland. PMID:10909283

  4. New haptens and antibodies for ractopamine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhanhui; Liu, Meixuan; Shi, Weimin; Li, Chenglong; Zhang, Suxia; Shen, Jianzhong

    2015-09-15

    In this work, three unreported immunizing haptens of ractopamine (RAC) were synthesized and used to produce highly sensitive and specific polyclonal antibody. The spacer arms of haptens for coupling to protein carrier were located on different position of RAC with different length. High affinity polyclonal antibodies were obtained and characterized in terms of titer and sensitivity by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The best antibody employed in a heterologous competitive ELISA exhibited an IC50 value as low as 0.12ngmL(-1) and could not recognize other 10 ?-agonists including clenbuterol and salbutamol. The heterologous competitive ELISA was preliminary applied to swine urine and the results showed the new antibody was sufficiently sensitive and specific, and potentially used for the detection of RAC at trace level in real samples. PMID:25863617

  5. Biobarcodes: Antibodies and Nanosensors

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-06-04

    In this activity/demo, learners investigate biobarcodes, a nanomedical technology that allows for massively parallel testing that can assist with disease diagnosis. Learners define antibodies and learn how each antibody binds to a unique protein. Learners also discover how biobarcoding uses nanoparticles, antibodies, DNA and magnetism to detect diseases earlier than we could detect before. Learners assemble a jigsaw puzzle that models how biobarcodes work.

  6. RSV antibody test

    MedlinePLUS

    Respiratory syncytial virus antibody test; RSV serology ... Breese HC. Respiratory syncytial virus. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Mandel, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of ...

  7. Antiphospholipid antibodies lead to increased risk in cardiovascular surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rocco G. Ciocca; John Choi; Alan M. Graham

    1995-01-01

    Background: Antiphospholipid (APL) antibodies are a heterogenous group of antibodies that have been associated with an increase in bleeding complications and a marked increase in thrombotic events, both of which result in significant patient morbidity and mortality.Patients and methods: A retrospective analysis of patients identified to be positive for APL via a university thrombosis registry who had cardiovascular surgery between

  8. Antibodies in Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The expression of antibodies in plants has several promising applications that are currently being developed. Plants are being considered for the large scale production of antibodies needed for medical purposes. The benefit of using plants is that they are able to perform post-translational modifi...

  9. The antibody mining toolbox

    PubMed Central

    D'Angelo, Sara; Glanville, Jacob; Ferrara, Fortunato; Naranjo, Leslie; Gleasner, Cheryl D; Shen, Xiaohong; Bradbury, Andrew RM; Kiss, Csaba

    2014-01-01

    In vitro selection has been an essential tool in the development of recombinant antibodies against various antigen targets. Deep sequencing has recently been gaining ground as an alternative and valuable method to analyze such antibody selections. The analysis provides a novel and extremely detailed view of selected antibody populations, and allows the identification of specific antibodies using only sequencing data, potentially eliminating the need for expensive and laborious low-throughput screening methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. The high cost and the need for bioinformatics experts and powerful computer clusters, however, have limited the general use of deep sequencing in antibody selections. Here, we describe the AbMining ToolBox, an open source software package for the straightforward analysis of antibody libraries sequenced by the three main next generation sequencing platforms (454, Ion Torrent, MiSeq). The ToolBox is able to identify heavy chain CDR3s as effectively as more computationally intense software, and can be easily adapted to analyze other portions of antibody variable genes, as well as the selection outputs of libraries based on different scaffolds. The software runs on all common operating systems (Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, Linux), on standard personal computers, and sequence analysis of 1–2 million reads can be accomplished in 10–15 min, a fraction of the time of competing software. Use of the ToolBox will allow the average researcher to incorporate deep sequence analysis into routine selections from antibody display libraries. PMID:24423623

  10. Production Of Human Antibodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sammons, David W.; Neil, Garry A.

    1993-01-01

    Process for making human monoclonal antibodies based on combination of techniques. Antibodies made active against specific antigen. Process involves in vivo immunization of human B lymphocyte cells in mice. B cells of interest enriched in vitro before fusion. Method potentially applicable to any antigen. Does not rely on use of Epstein-Barr virus at any step. Human lymphocytes taken from any source.

  11. Therapeutic Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhtiar, Ray

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, the rapid growth of biotechnology-derived techniques has led to a myriad of therapeutic recombinant monoclonal antibodies with significant clinical benefits. Recombinant monoclonal antibodies can be obtained from a number of natural sources such as animal cell cultures using recombinant DNA engineering. In contrast to…

  12. Serum herpes simplex antibodies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... antibodies to the herpes simplex virus (HSV), including HSV-1 and HSV-2. HSV-1 usually causes cold sores (oral herpes). HSV-2 ... looks for antibodies to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2). An ...

  13. Recombinant renewable polyclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Fortunato; D'Angelo, Sara; Gaiotto, Tiziano; Naranjo, Leslie; Tian, Hongzhao; Gräslund, Susanne; Dobrovetsky, Elena; Hraber, Peter; Lund-Johansen, Fridtjof; Saragozza, Silvia; Sblattero, Daniele; Kiss, Csaba; Bradbury, Andrew Rm

    2015-01-01

    Only a small fraction of the antibodies in a traditional polyclonal antibody mixture recognize the target of interest, frequently resulting in undesirable polyreactivity. Here, we show that high-quality recombinant polyclonals, in which hundreds of different antibodies are all directed toward a target of interest, can be easily generated in vitro by combining phage and yeast display. We show that, unlike traditional polyclonals, which are limited resources, recombinant polyclonal antibodies can be amplified over one hundred million-fold without losing representation or functionality. Our protocol was tested on 9 different targets to demonstrate how the strategy allows the selective amplification of antibodies directed toward desirable target specific epitopes, such as those found in one protein but not a closely related one, and the elimination of antibodies recognizing common epitopes, without significant loss of diversity. These recombinant renewable polyclonal antibodies are usable in different assays, and can be generated in high throughput. This approach could potentially be used to develop highly specific recombinant renewable antibodies against all human gene products. PMID:25530082

  14. Antibody engineering for cancer therapy

    E-print Network

    Yeung, Yik Andy

    2005-01-01

    Antibodies targeting various tumor-associated antigens have been developed successfully to treat cancer. In this Thesis, novel antibodies and antibody-conjugate against two tumor antigens, AF-20 antigen and human aspartyl ...

  15. Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Antibody ID, RBC; RBC Ab ID Formal name: Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification Related tests: Direct Antiglobulin ... None The Test Sample What is being tested? Red blood cell antibodies are proteins produced by the ...

  16. Ebola virus antibodies in fruit bats, bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Olival, Kevin J; Islam, Ariful; Yu, Meng; Anthony, Simon J; Epstein, Jonathan H; Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Khan, Salah Uddin; Crameri, Gary; Wang, Lin-Fa; Lipkin, W Ian; Luby, Stephen P; Daszak, Peter

    2013-02-01

    To determine geographic range for Ebola virus, we tested 276 bats in Bangladesh. Five (3.5%) bats were positive for antibodies against Ebola Zaire and Reston viruses; no virus was detected by PCR. These bats might be a reservoir for Ebola or Ebola-like viruses, and extend the range of filoviruses to mainland Asia. PMID:23343532

  17. Association of anti-phospholipid antibodies with connective tissue diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Reena; Swetha, T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The antiphospholipid antibodies (APLA) are directed against phospholipids and their binding proteins and are frequently found in association with connective tissue disorders. Systemic lupus erythematoses (SLE) with APLA may cause a diagnostic dilemma as there are several manifestations like haemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, neurologic manifestations, leg ulcerations, serositis proteinuria which overlap in both these conditions. We conducted a study to find out the association of antiphospholipid antibodies with connective tissue diseases and compared the clinical and laboratory parameters between antiphoshpolipid antibody positive and antiphoshpolipid antibody negative group. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in 102 patients diagnosed with connective tissue diseases. APLA testing was done at baseline and for those positive, the test was repeated after 12 weeks. Results: 14.7 % of patients with connective tissue diseases tissue had positive antiphoshpolipid antibodies. Positive antiphoshpolipid antibody was detected in 73.3% of patients with SLE group, 13.3% of patients with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) and 13.3% of patients with systemic sclerosis. APLA positivity was seen in SLE patients with leg ulcers (87.2%), neurologic manifestation (72.7%), hemolytic anemia (62.3%), thrombocytopenia (72.7%), serositis (27.8%) and proteinuria(19.6%). Conclusions: Antiphoshpolipid antibodies should be tested in all patients with connective tissue disease.

  18. Antibody discovery: sourcing of monoclonal antibody variable domains.

    PubMed

    Strohl, William R

    2014-03-01

    Historically, antibody variable domains for therapeutic antibodies have been sourced primarily from the mouse IgG repertoire, and typically either chimerized or humanized. More recently, human antibodies from transgenic mice producing human IgG, phage display libraries, and directly from human B lymphocytes have been used more broadly as sources of antibody variable domains for therapeutic antibodies. Of the total 36 antibodies approved by major maket regulatory agencies, the variable domain sequences of 26 originate from the mouse. Of these, four are marketed as murine antibodies (of which one is a mouse-rat hybrid IgG antibody), six are mouse-human chimeric antibodies, and 16 are humanized. Ten marketed antibodies have originated from human antibody genes, three isolated from phage libraries of human antibody genes and seven from transgenic mice producing human antibodies. Five antibodies currently in clinical trials have been sourced from camelids, as well as two from non-human primates, one from rat, and one from rabbit. Additional sources of antibody variable domains that may soon find their way into the clinic are potential antibodies from sharks and chickens. Finally, the various methods for retrieval of antibodies from humans, mouse and other sources, including various display technologies and amplification directly from B cells, are described. PMID:24168292

  19. Generation of neutralising antibodies against porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs)

    SciTech Connect

    Kaulitz, Danny; Fiebig, Uwe; Eschricht, Magdalena; Wurzbacher, Christian; Kurth, Reinhard; Denner, Joachim, E-mail: DennerJ@rki.d

    2011-03-01

    Antibodies neutralising porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) were induced in different animal species by immunisation with the transmembrane envelope protein p15E. These antibodies recognised epitopes, designated E1, in the fusion peptide proximal region (FPPR) of p15E, and E2 in the membrane proximal external region (MPER). E2 is localised in a position similar to that of an epitope in the transmembrane envelope protein gp41 of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), recognised by the monoclonal antibody 4E10 that is broadly neutralising. To detect neutralising antibodies specific for PERV, a novel assay was developed, which is based on quantification of provirus integration by real-time PCR. In addition, for the first time, highly effective neutralising antibodies were obtained by immunisation with the surface envelope protein of PERV. These data indicate that neutralising antibodies can be induced by immunisation with both envelope proteins.

  20. A serological survey of domestic poultry in the united kingdom for antibody to chicken anaemia agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. McNulty; T. J. Connor; F. McNeilly; K. S. Kirkpatrick; J. B. McFerran

    1988-01-01

    A serological survey for antibody to chicken anaemia agent (CAA) was carried out by indirect immunofluorescence. Antibody to CAA was widespread in broiler breeders and in parent and commercial layers in the UK. Antibody to CAA was also detected in five of 11 specific pathogen?free (SPF) chicken flocks tested; positive flocks included those being used for vaccine production or as

  1. Determination of acetylcholine receptor antibody in myasthenia gravis: clinical usefulness and pathogenetic implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A K Lefvert; K Bergström; G Matell; P O Osterman; R Pirskanen

    1978-01-01

    Antibodies to cholinergic receptor structures were found in 75% of 76 Finnish and 93% of 175 Swedish patients with myasthenia gravis. The amount of antibodies showed a positive correlation to the severity of the disease, and was reduced during immunosuppressive treatment, and by thymectomy. Thymoma patients had high values. The antibody was also found in the cerebrospinal fluid. Two healthy

  2. Fluorescence intensity positivity classification of Hep-2 cells images using fuzzy logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazali, Dayang Farzana Abang; Janier, Josefina Barnachea; May, Zazilah Bt.

    2014-10-01

    Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF) is a good standard used for antinuclear autoantibody (ANA) test using Hep-2 cells to determine specific diseases. Different classifier algorithm methods have been proposed in previous works however, there still no valid set as a standard to classify the fluorescence intensity. This paper presents the use of fuzzy logic to classify the fluorescence intensity and to determine the positivity of the Hep-2 cell serum samples. The fuzzy algorithm involves the image pre-processing by filtering the noises and smoothen the image, converting the red, green and blue (RGB) color space of images to luminosity layer, chromaticity layer "a" and "b" (LAB) color space where the mean value of the lightness and chromaticity layer "a" was extracted and classified by using fuzzy logic algorithm based on the standard score ranges of antinuclear autoantibody (ANA) fluorescence intensity. Using 100 data sets of positive and intermediate fluorescence intensity for testing the performance measurements, the fuzzy logic obtained an accuracy of intermediate and positive class as 85% and 87% respectively.

  3. Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Company: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description.gza.com, to view a listing of current open positions. Resumes may also be sent to humanresources@gza.com GZA

  4. Immunotherapy with the trifunctional anti-CD20 x anti-CD3 antibody FBTA05 (Lymphomun) in paediatric high-risk patients with recurrent CD20-positive B cell malignancies.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Friedhelm R; Stanglmaier, Michael; Woessmann, Wilhelm; Winkler, Beate; Siepermann, Meinolf; Meisel, Roland; Schlegel, Paul G; Hess, Jürgen; Lindhofer, Horst; Borkhardt, Arndt; Buhmann, Raymund

    2015-04-01

    Children with B cell malignancies refractory to standard therapy are known to have a poor prognosis and very limited treatment options. Here, we report on the treatment and follow-up of ten patients diagnosed with relapsed or refractory mature B-cell Non Hodgkin Lymphoma (B-NHL), Burkitt leukaemia (B-AL) or pre B-acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (pre B-ALL). All children were treated with FBTA05 (now designated Lymphomun), an anti-CD3 x anti-CD20 trifunctional bispecific antibody (trAb) in compassionate use. Within individual treatment schedules, Lymphomun was applied (a) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT, n = 6) to induce sustained long-term remission, or (b) stand alone prior to subsequent chemotherapy to eradicate residual disease before allo-SCT (n = 4). Nine of ten children displayed a clinical response: three stable diseases (SD), one partial remission (PR) and five induced or sustained complete remissions (CR). Five of these nine responders died during follow-up. The other patients still maintain CR with a current overall survival of 874-1424 days (median: 1150 days). In conclusion, despite the dismal clinical prognosis of children refractory to standard therapy, immunotherapy with Lymphomun resulted in a favourable clinical outcome in this cohort of refractory paediatric patients. PMID:25495919

  5. Predominant role for activation-induced cytidine deaminase in generating IgG anti-nucleosomal antibodies of murine SLE.

    PubMed

    Detanico, Thiago; Guo, Wenzhong; Wysocki, Lawrence J

    2015-04-01

    Serum IgG anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) directed to complexes of DNA and histones are a hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and reflect a failure in lymphocyte self-tolerance. A prior study utilizing spontaneously autoimmune B6.Nba2 mice deficient in terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) and with heterozygous deficiencies in Jh and Igk loci underscored the importance of somatic hypermutation (SHM) as a major generator of SLE-associated ANA. This interpretation had to be qualified because of severely limited opportunities for receptor editing and restricted VHCDR3 diversity. Therefore, we performed the converse study using mice that carried functional Tdt genes and wild type Jh and Igk loci but that could not undergo SHM. Analyses of ANA and ANA-producing hybridomas from B6.Nba2 Aicda(-/-) mice revealed that few animals produced high titers of the prototypical ANA directed to complexes of histones and DNA, that this response was delayed and that those cells that did produce such antibody exhibited limited clonal expansion, unusual Jk use and only infrequent dual receptor expression. This, together with the additional finding of an intrinsic propensity for SHM to generate Arg codons selectively in CDRs, reinforce the view that most IgG autoimmune clones producing prototypical anti-nucleosome antibodies in wild type mice are created by SHM. PMID:25634361

  6. Enzyme inhibition by antibodies.

    PubMed

    Arnon, R

    1975-01-01

    The interest in the inhibition of enzymes by their specific antibodies stems mainly from the fact that these systems can serve as suitable models in the study of neutralization of biologically active molecules in general. The interaction of enzymes with their specific antibodies generally leads to a reduction in their enzymatic activity. The mechanism of this inhibition is rarely a direct combination of the antibodies with the catalytic site, but is rather due to steric hindrance, namely, barring the access to the active site. In several systems the mechanism of the antibody effect is by conformational changes which it induces on the enzyme. In these cases, the interaction with the antibody may result either in inhibition or in enhancement of the enzymatic activity. In every instance, however, the effect of the antibody is dependent on its narrow specificity, namely, on the regions of the enzyme to which it is directed. The extent of inhibition or enhancement is, therefore, a reflection of the nature and distribution of the various antigenic determinants on the enzyme molecule. Antibodies specific exclusively to defined regions of an enzyme molecule can be prepared. This has been performed for both lysozyme and staphylococcal nuclease by two procedures: a) Selective separation of the relevant antibodies from the anti-enzyme serum by an immunoadsorbent containing a particular immunologically active fragment of the enzyme. b) The use of an isolated antigenic fragment of the enzyme, or a conjugate of it, for immunization. The antibodies thus prepared, specific toward a unique defined region of the lysozyme molecule (residues 60-83, denoted "loop") recognize the structural conformation of the fragment and are reactive with the intact enzyme molecule. Furthermore, a chemically synthesized loop-like derivative was proved immunologically identical with the natural fragment, and when forming a part of a completely synthetic conjugate, elicited conformation-specific antibodies, reactive with native lysozyme. These findings are relevant to the topic of an immunological approach to fertility control from two different viewpoints: In the first place they are informative regarding the specific inhibition by antibodies of sperm enzymes which partake in the fertilization process. Secondly, they encourage the synthetic approach for induction of an immune response toward hormones which are crucial in fertilization or implantation. PMID:47683

  7. HLA antibody analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriana Zeevi; Alin Girnita; Rene Duquesnoy

    2006-01-01

    The clinical relevance of humoral allosensitization has gained a lot of attention in the last few years. An increasing number\\u000a of studies have demonstrated adverse graft survival in patients who have either preformed or post-transplant-developed anti-HLA\\u000a antibodies. The detection of HLA antibodies and the specificity analysis have evolved over time from primarily cell-based\\u000a to solid-phase methods, including the availability of

  8. STUDIES ON HUMAN ANTIBODIES

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Carlos; Kabat, Elvin A.

    1969-01-01

    Human antibodies to blood group A substance were purified by absorption on columns of insoluble polyleucyl hog blood group A + H substance and eluted first with N-acetylgalactosamine and then with an A active reduced pentasaccharide ARL0.52. The ?M and ?G antibodies in these eluates were separated by density gradient centrifugation. The antibodies were studied for their relative capacities to be inhibited by various blood group A active oligosaccharides. Antibodies eluted by the N-acetylgalactosamine could be inhibited by N-acetylgalactosamine, as well as by lower concentrations of A active tri- and pentasaccharides, while those eluted by the pentasaccharide ARL0.52 could only be inhibited by the two oligosaccharides, but not by N-acetylgalactosamine, indicating that the N-acetylgalactosamine eluate had more antibodies with smaller size combining sites than the ARL0.52 eluate. Measurements by equilibrium dialysis gave values ranging from 2 x 103 to 1 x 105 M–1 and the values obtained with the ARL0.52 eluate were somewhat higher than those with the GalNAc eluate. Only one of three anti-A sera had ?M anti-A in the ARL0.52 eluate, while all three had ?M in the N-acetylgalactosamine eluate. Data on the precipitating, hemagglutinating, complement fixing, hemolytic properties of the eluted antibodies, and of their content of ? and ? light chains are given. PMID:5778788

  9. Prevalence of cattle persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus in 20 dairy herds in two counties in central Michigan and comparison of prevalence of antibody-positive cattle among herds with different infection and vaccination status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Houe; J. C. Baker; R. K. Maes; H. Wuryastuti; R. Wasito; P. L. Ruegg; J. W. Lloyd

    1995-01-01

    All cattle in 20 dairy herds randomly selected from herds participating in the Dairy Herd Im- provement Association program in 2 counties in central Michigan were tested for the presence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Virus-positive animals were retested to ascertain persistent infection with the virus. A total of 5,481 animals were tested for presence of BVDV. In 9

  10. Structural Comparison of Different Antibodies Interacting with Parvovirus Capsids

    SciTech Connect

    Hafenstein, Susan; Bowman, Valorie D.; Sun, Tao; Nelson, Christian D.S.; Palermo, Laura M.; Chipman, Paul R.; Battisti, Anthony J.; Parrish, Colin R.; Rossmann, Michael G.; Cornell; Purdue

    2009-05-13

    The structures of canine parvovirus (CPV) and feline parvovirus (FPV) complexed with antibody fragments from eight different neutralizing monoclonal antibodies were determined by cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) reconstruction to resolutions varying from 8.5 to 18 {angstrom}. The crystal structure of one of the Fab molecules and the sequence of the variable domain for each of the Fab molecules have been determined. The structures of Fab fragments not determined crystallographically were predicted by homology modeling according to the amino acid sequence. Fitting of the Fab and virus structures into the cryoEM densities identified the footprints of each antibody on the viral surface. As anticipated from earlier analyses, the Fab binding sites are directed to two epitopes, A and B. The A site is on an exposed part of the surface near an icosahedral threefold axis, whereas the B site is about equidistant from the surrounding five-, three-, and twofold axes. One antibody directed to the A site binds CPV but not FPV. Two of the antibodies directed to the B site neutralize the virus as Fab fragments. The differences in antibody properties have been linked to the amino acids within the antibody footprints, the position of the binding site relative to the icosahedral symmetry elements, and the orientation of the Fab structure relative to the surface of the virus. Most of the exposed surface area was antigenic, although each of the antibodies had a common area of overlap that coincided with the positions of the previously mapped escape mutations.

  11. Antibodies to GABAA receptor ?1 and ?2 subunits

    PubMed Central

    Pettingill, Philippa; Kramer, Holger B.; Coebergh, Jan Adriaan; Pettingill, Rosie; Maxwell, Susan; Nibber, Anjan; Malaspina, Andrea; Jacob, Anu; Irani, Sarosh R.; Buckley, Camilla; Beeson, David; Lang, Bethan; Waters, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To search for antibodies against neuronal cell surface proteins. Methods: Using immunoprecipitation from neuronal cultures and tandem mass spectrometry, we identified antibodies against the ?1 subunit of the ?-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABAAR) in a patient whose immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies bound to hippocampal neurons. We searched 2,548 sera for antibodies binding to GABAAR ?, ?, and ? subunits on live HEK293 cells and identified the class, subclass, and GABAAR subunit specificities of the positive samples. Results: GABAAR-Abs were identified in 40 of 2,046 (2%) referred sera previously found negative for neuronal antibodies, in 5/502 (1%) previously positive for other neuronal surface antibodies, but not in 92 healthy individuals. The antibodies in 40% bound to either the ?1 (9/45, 20%) or the ?2 subunits (9/45, 20%) and were of IgG1 (94%) or IgG3 (6%) subclass. The remaining 60% had lower antibody titers (p = 0.0005), which were mainly immunoglobulin M (IgM) (p = 0.0025), and showed no defined subunit specificity. Incubation of primary hippocampal neurons with GABAAR IgG1 sera reduced surface GABAAR membrane expression. The clinical features of 15 patients (GABAAR ?1 n = 6, ?2 n = 5, undefined n = 4) included seizures (47%), memory impairment (47%), hallucinations (33%), or anxiety (20%). Most patients had not been given immunotherapies, but one with new-onset treatment-resistant catatonia made substantial improvement after plasma exchange. Conclusions: The GABAAR ?1 and ?2 are new targets for antibodies in autoimmune neurologic disease. The full spectrum of clinical features, treatment responses, correlation with antibody specificity, and in particular the role of the IgM antibodies will need to be assessed in future studies. PMID:25636713

  12. Antithyroid antibodies and thyroid function in pediatric patients with celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Kalyoncu, Derya; Urganci, Nafiye

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease, persistence of antithyroid antibodies, effect of gluten-free diet, and long-term outcome of thyroid function in pediatric patients with celiac disease (CD). Methods. 67 patients with CD aged from 1 year to 16 years were screened for thyroid antithyroperoxidase, antithyroglobulin and anti-TSH receptor antibodies, serum free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) at diagnosis and during follow-up. Results. None of the patients had antithyroid antibodies at diagnosis. Antithyroid antibodies became positive in 16.4% of the patients (11/67) 2 to 3 years after the diagnosis of CD. Clinical hypothyroidism was observed only in 3 of 11 CD patients with positive antithyroid antibodies (27.2%). The antithyroid antibodies positive and negative patients did not differ significantly according to compliance to GFD (P > 0.05). A statistically significant difference was observed only in age, in which the patients with positive antithyroid antibodies were younger than the patients with negative antithyroid antibodies (P = 0.004). None of the patients had any change in their thyroid function and antibody profile during their follow-up. Conclusion. Antithyroid antibodies were detected in younger pediatric patients with CD and the prevalence of antithyroid antibodies did not correlate with the duration of gluten intake. PMID:25788942

  13. Antithyroid Antibodies and Thyroid Function in Pediatric Patients with Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kalyoncu, Derya; Urganci, Nafiye

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease, persistence of antithyroid antibodies, effect of gluten-free diet, and long-term outcome of thyroid function in pediatric patients with celiac disease (CD). Methods. 67 patients with CD aged from 1 year to 16 years were screened for thyroid antithyroperoxidase, antithyroglobulin and anti-TSH receptor antibodies, serum free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) at diagnosis and during follow-up. Results. None of the patients had antithyroid antibodies at diagnosis. Antithyroid antibodies became positive in 16.4% of the patients (11/67) 2 to 3 years after the diagnosis of CD. Clinical hypothyroidism was observed only in 3 of 11 CD patients with positive antithyroid antibodies (27.2%). The antithyroid antibodies positive and negative patients did not differ significantly according to compliance to GFD (P > 0.05). A statistically significant difference was observed only in age, in which the patients with positive antithyroid antibodies were younger than the patients with negative antithyroid antibodies (P = 0.004). None of the patients had any change in their thyroid function and antibody profile during their follow-up. Conclusion. Antithyroid antibodies were detected in younger pediatric patients with CD and the prevalence of antithyroid antibodies did not correlate with the duration of gluten intake. PMID:25788942

  14. Cerebrovascular disease associated with antiphospholipid antibodies: more questions than answers

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Carolyn; Gatenby, Paul; Tuck, Roger; Danta, Gytis; Andrews, Colin

    2006-01-01

    Neurological syndromes occur in a significant number of patients with antiphospholipid antibodies. The optimal management for these patients however remains uncertain. Our study is a descriptive analysis looking retrospectively at 45 patients who presented to the principal tertiary referral centre in the Australian Capital Territory, with either cerebral arterial or venous thrombosis for which there was no obvious cause for their presentation when initially reviewed. The diagnosis was based on the clinical findings made by one of three neurologists attached to our centre. Radiological findings and the presence of either IgM or IgG anticardiolipin antibodies, IgG anti-beta-2 glycoprotein 1 antibodies or a lupus anticoagulant were then documented. In this group of patients three subgroups were identified: 1. Individuals that fulfilled the Sapporo Classification Criteria 2. Individuals with transiently positive antiphospholipid antibodies and 3. Individuals with persistently low positive antiphospholipid antibodies. The most interesting of these three groups are those individuals with transiently positive antiphospholipid antibodies. A potential cause for presentation was identified in only one patient of this group with documented infective endocarditis and bacteraemia. Comparison with the other two groups suggested that there was little in terms of clinical presentation, radiological findings or intercurrent risk factors for thrombotic disease to distinguish between them. With disappearance of antiphospholipid antibodies, the individuals within this group have not had further thrombotic events. Our observations emphasise the problems that continue to exist in relation to the occurrence of cerebrovascular disease in the context of antiphospholipid antibodies and the optimal management of these stratified groups. Our findings also raise an as yet unanswered question as to the signficance of these transiently positive antiphospholipid antibodies. In the absence of significant intercurrent risk factors our findings would suggest that in the group we describe that they are likely to be of clinical significance. PMID:16573816

  15. IDIOTYPY OF RABBIT ANTIBODIES

    PubMed Central

    Oudin, Jacques; Michel, Mauricette

    1969-01-01

    Sera of rabbits immunized against Salmonella typhi have been studied for the idiotypy of certain of their components, i.e., the property of these components to possess an antigenic specificity which is different in individual rabbits, and which varies with the antigens against which these rabbits have been immunized. The reagent used (precipitating anti-idiotypic sera) have been prepared by injecting rabbits with bacteria agglutinated by anti-S. typhi sera (immunizing sera) as was done in the first observations by the authors of the phenomenon in the rabbit. These first observations have been confirmed and extended. In contrast to allotypy, the anti-idiotypic sera precipitate the corresponding immunizing sera, but not the sera taken in the immunizing rabbits prior to their immunization against S. typhi, nor the immunizing sera absorbed with the somatic antigen of S. typhi, demonstrating that idiotypes are antibodies. The idiotypic specificities of the antibodies of one rabbit against S. typhi are not detected in the antibodies of the same rabbit against another noncross-reacting Salmonella (S. tranoroa) and vice versa; nor are they detected in the anti-pneumococcal antibodies of the same rabbit. Each anti-idiotypic serum fails to precipitate anti-S. typhi sera of rabbits other than the immunizing one except for certain extremely faint reactions, the significance of which has not been established. The idiotypic specificities of anti-S. typhi antibodies of three rabbits were not found in anti-S. typhi antibodies of their parents. This lack of a sign of hereditary transmission of idiotypic specificities contrasts with allotypy. The apparent role of random chance in the determinism of the idiotypic patterns or of the idiotypic determinants has been discussed. Unless it were admitted that antibodies with similar functions do not exist in different individuals, idiotypy apparently adds an order of magnitude to the antibody variability which had been previously envisaged. In one given individual, the heterogeneity of the idiotypic specificities seems to be less extended than that of the antibody functions. The possible relationships between these two levels of molecular variability and between the corresponding levels of cellular variability have been discussed. PMID:4390062

  16. Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Company: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description Center Liberty Mutual Insurance Bachelors Liberty Mutual offers entry level positions into 9 different functions. Each position differents depending on the specific function Liberty Mutual offers entry level

  17. Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Company: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description to fill current Trooper positions, with potential additional opportunities during ones' career job postingsDescription of positions vary www.nh.gov Law Enforcement Company Overview: Degree: Unpaid

  18. Hydralazine induces Z-DNA conformation in a polynucleotide and elicits anti(Z-DNA) antibodies in treated patients.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, T J; Seibold, J R; Adams, L E; Hess, E V

    1993-01-01

    We studied the effect of hydralazine, an antihypertensive drug with lupus-inducing side effects, on the conformation of poly(dG-m5dC).poly(dG-m5dC) and a plasmid with a 23 bp insert of (dG-dC)n.(dG-dC)n sequences. Using an e.l.i.s.a. with a monoclonal anti-(Z-DNA) antibody Z22, we found that hydralazine provoked the Z-DNA conformation in poly(dG-m5dC).poly(dG-m5dC) at 250-500 microM concentration. The supercoiled form of hydralazine-treated plasmid bound to Z22 in a gel-retardation assay. To examine further whether Z-DNA could act as an inciting agent in anti-nuclear antibody production in patients, we analysed 65 sera from 25 hypertensive patients taking hydralazine and found anti-(Z-DNA) antibodies in 82% of these sera. Sera from age-matched normal controls showed no binding to Z-DNA. Data on sera drawn sequentially from four hypertensive patients showed that antibodies were present after the drug treatment. These data demonstrate the presence of a high incidence of anti-(Z-DNA) antibodies in patients treated with hydralazine and suggest that a possible mechanism for the production of autoantibodies in drug-related lupus might involve the induction and stabilization of Z-DNA by drugs. Images Figure 3 PMID:8373356

  19. Polyclonal antibodies against fusaproliferin.

    PubMed

    Monti, S M; Fogliano, V; Randazzo, G; Peluso, G; Logrieco, A; Ritieni, A

    1999-01-01

    Fusaproliferin (FP), a toxic metabolite of the world-wide maize pathogens Fusarium proliferatum and Fusarium subglutinans, was recently found to be a natural contaminant of maize. Its toxic activity on haematopoietic human cell lines and its teratogenic effects on chicken embryos has been recently proved. Therefore a sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive screening test to detect FP in agricultural commodities is necessary to protect human health. FP-hemiglutarate conjugated to modified bovine serum albumin was synthesized, characterized, and used as an antigen for raising polyclonal antibodies by immunizing rabbits. Indirect and competitive ELISA and immunoblotting analyses were performed to determine antibody specificity towards the mycotoxin. The determination of 10 micrograms of free FP/mL was achieved using antibodies purified by means of affinity chromatography on a FP-lysine-Sepharose column. This unsatisfactory detection limit is due to high background values; thus, this method is not competitive with traditional UV-HPLC methods. PMID:10349720

  20. An Antibody Molecule

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Martin Raff

    1998-07-01

    An antibody molecule. (A) Schematic drawing of a typical antibody molecule. As indicated, this protein is Y-shaped and has two identical binding sites for its antigen, one on either arm of the 3Y.2 The protein is composed of four polypeptide chains (two identical heavy chains and two identical and smaller light chains) held together by disulfide bonds. Each chain is made up of several different domains, here shaded either blue or gray. The antigen-binding site is formed where a heavy chain variable domain (VH) and a light chain variable domain (VL) come close together. These are the domains that differ most in their sequence and structure in different antibodies. (B) Ribbon drawing of a light chain showing the parts of the VL domain most closely involved in binding to the antigen in red; these contribute half of the fingerlike loops that fold around each of the antigen molecules in (A).

  1. Assessments of antibody biodistribution.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Patrick M; Abuqayyas, Lubna; Balthasar, Joseph P

    2015-03-01

    Monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutics are in use for several disease conditions, and have generally shown excellent clinical benefit, in large part due to their high specificity and affinity for target proteins. As this therapeutic class continues to grow in size, improved understanding of the mechanisms controlling mAb biodistribution and protein binding may be expected to allow better prediction of safety and efficacy. Due to the large size and polarity of antibodies, rates of mAb distribution and elimination are typically much slower than those reported for small molecule drugs. Additionally, high affinity interaction with target proteins will often influence mAb pharmacokinetics, leading to complex, nonlinear tissue distribution and elimination. In this report, we summarize key determinants of mAb disposition, methods for assessing antibody exposure and protein binding, and model-based approaches that may be utilized to predict mAb pharmacokinetics. PMID:25707961

  2. Production of a monoclonal antibody specific for seminomas and dysgerminomas.

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, D; Baumal, R; Law, J; Sheldon, K; Kannampuzha, P; Stratis, M; Kahn, H; Marks, A

    1986-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody (M2A, IgG2a) was produced against a cultured human ovarian epithelial adenocarcinoma cell line, HEY. Monoclonal antibody M2A reacted with a glycoprotein of molecular weight 40,000 on the surface of HEY cells. The affinity constant of the monoclonal antibody M2A for HEY cells was 10(9) M-1, and the number of binding sites on HEY cells was 2 X 10(4) per cell. The monoclonal antibody produced positive immunoperoxidase staining of fetal (but not adult) testis and of seminomas and dysgerminomas but did not stain various normal adult tissues or other gonadal or extragonadal tumors. Monoclonal antibody M2A may be useful for confirming a histological diagnosis of seminoma and dysgerminoma. Images PMID:3523489

  3. Immune Regulatory Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Wolchok, Jedd D.; Yang, Arvin S.; Weber, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    During the past decade, new insights into the mechanisms by which T-cell activation and proliferation are regulated have led to the identification of checkpoint proteins that either up- or down-modulate T-cell reactivity. In the presence of active malignancy, pathophysiologic inhibition of T-cell activity may predominate over stimulation. A number of antibodies have been generated that can block inhibitory checkpoint proteins or promote the activity of activating molecules. In murine models, their use alone or with a vaccine strategy has resulted in regression of poorly immunogenic tumors and cures of established tumors. The prototypical immune regulatory antibodies are those directed against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4, a molecule present on activated T cells. In this review, the preclinical rationale and clinical experience with 2 anticytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 antibodies are extensively discussed, demonstrating that abrogation of an immune inhibitory molecule can result in significant regression of tumors and long-lasting responses. The unique kinetics of antitumor response and the characteristic immune-related side effects of ipilimumab are also discussed. This clinical efficacy of this promising antitumor agent has been evaluated in 2 randomized phase III trials, whose results are eagerly awaited. Programmed death (PD)-1 is another immune inhibitory molecule against which an abrogating human antibody has been prepared. Initial preclinical testing with anti–PD-1 and anti–PD-L1 has shown encouraging results. Stimulatory molecules such as CD40, 41-BB, and OX-40 are also targets for antibody binding and activation, not blockade, and early dose ranging trials with antibodies against all 3 have shown that they can mediate regression of tumors, albeit with their own spectrum of side effects that are different from those that occur with abrogation of immune inhibition. PMID:20693841

  4. Antibody-Antigen Interactions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cann, Alan.

    The experimental protocol in this Web site is just one of many microbiology resources provided by the University of Leicester. The procedure guides students in finding the antibody concentration of a test antiserum and the number of antibody binding sites on an antigen molecule. A results graph and correct answers to the required calculations are given, providing the option of performing a virtual experiment in lieu of an actual one. This activity is probably most appropriate for high school and undergraduate level biology labs.

  5. Epitope-specificities of HLA antibodies: The effect of epitope structure on Luminex technique-dependent antibody reactivity.

    PubMed

    Resse, Marianna; Paolillo, Rossella; Minucci, Biagio Pellegrino; Cavalca, Francesco; Casamassimi, Amelia; Napoli, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    The search of HLA antibodies is currently more accessible by solid-phase techniques (Luminex) in the immunized patients leading to an expansion of the antibody patterns. The aim of this study was to investigate low median fluorescence intensity value in unexpected reactivity patterns. Here, we performed HLAMatchmaker analyses to evaluate the potential functional epitopes that can elicit HLA-specific alloantibody responses in a pregnancy-sensitized woman with an epitope defined by the 82LR. Surprisingly, in according to the registry of HLA epitopes, we found that 82LR epitope covered all allelic specificities of our unexpected antibody patterns, shared between Bw4-positive HLA-B antigen and HLA-A23, -A24, -A25 and -A32. This finding is consistent with the verification of HLA ABC epitope recorded in the website-based HLA Epitope Registry and addresses the importance of determining HLA antibody epitope-specificities on Luminex technique-dependent antibody reactivity. PMID:25700961

  6. Effect of antithyroid antibodies on ICSI outcome in antiphospholipid antibody-negative euthyroid women.

    PubMed

    Karacan, Meric; Alwaeely, Faiz; Cebi, Ziya; Berberoglugil, Munip; Batukan, Melike; Ulug, Murat; Arvas, Ayse; Caml?bel, Teksen

    2013-10-01

    Antithyroid antibodies (ATA) are found in 5-15% of women at reproductive age and are not necessarily accompanied with thyroid dysfunction. ATA are associated with adverse effects such as spontaneous miscarriage, recurrent miscarriages, preterm delivery and maternal post-partum thyroiditis in women with normal thyroid hormone concentrations. The role of ATA on the outcome of IVF cycles remains to be investigated. This study evaluated the impact of ATA on the outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)-embryo transfer cycles in euthyroid women. A total of 253 women undergoing ICSI-embryo transfer cycles were prospectively enrolled in this study. Women positive for at least one of the thyroid antibodies, with normal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free T4 concentrations and negative for anticardiolipin antibodies and lupus anticoagulant were included. ICSI was performed for fertilization in all cycles. Of 253 women, 219 were ATA negative and 34 ATA positive. Implantation rates (19.1% versus 18.4%), miscarriage rates (9.0% versus 8.3%) and ongoing pregnancy rates (37.0% versus 32.4%) did not differ significantly between the ATA-positive group and the ATA-negative group, respectively. The presence of antithyroid antibodies in euthyroid and antiphospholipid antibody-negative women was not found to significantly affect the outcome of ICSI-embryo transfer cycles. Antithyroid antibodies (ATA) can interact with thyroid hormone receptors located on the human oocyte and impair the chance of fertilization and healthy pregnancy. They are found in 5-15% of women at reproductive age and are not necessarily accompanied with thyroid dysfunction. ATA have been reported to be associated with adverse effects such as spontaneous miscarriage, recurrent miscarriages, preterm delivery and maternal post-partum thyroiditis in women with normal thyroid hormone concentrations. The role of ATA on the outcome of IVF cycles remains to be investigated. The objective of our study was to evaluate the impact of ATA on the outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)-embryo transfer cycles in euthyroid women. A total of 253 women undergoing ICSI-embryo transfer cycles were prospectively enrolled in this study. Women with at least one of the thyroid antibodies positive and normal TSH and free T4 concentrations were included in the study. Since other immunological disorders might affect the results, antiphospholipid antibodies (APA), which are the markers of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, were also screened in all women prior to study. Women with positive for APA were excluded in the final analysis. Of 253 women, 219 (86.6%) were ATA negative and 34 (13.4%) ATA positive. Implantation rates (19.1% versus 18.4%), biochemical pregnancy rates (9.2% versus 14.3%), miscarriage rates (9.0% versus 8.3%) and ongoing pregnancy rates (37.0% versus 32.4%) did not differ significantly between the ATA-positive group and the ATA-negative group, respectively. In conclusion, presence of antithyroid antibodies in euthyroid and antiphospholipid antibody-negative women does not affect the outcome of ICSI-embryo transfer cycles. PMID:23953066

  7. Utility of feline coronavirus antibody tests.

    PubMed

    Addie, Diane D; le Poder, Sophie; Burr, Paul; Decaro, Nicola; Graham, Elizabeth; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Jarrett, Oswald; McDonald, Michael; Meli, Marina L

    2015-02-01

    Eight different tests for antibodies to feline coronavirus (FCoV) were evaluated for attributes that are important in situations in veterinary practice. We compared four indirect immunofluorescent antibody tests (IFAT), one enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (FCoV Immunocomb; Biogal) and three rapid immunochromatographic (RIM) tests against a panel of samples designated by consensus as positive or negative. Specificity was 100% for all but the two IFATs based on transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), at 83.3% and 97.5%. The IFAT and ELISA tests were best for obtaining an antibody titre and for working in the presence of virus. The RIM tests were the best for obtaining a result quickly (10-15 mins); of these, the Speed F-Corona was the most sensitive, at 92.4%, followed by FASTest feline infectious peritonitis (FIP; 84.6%) and Anigen Rapid FCoV antibody test (64.1%). Sensitivity was 100% for the ELISA, one FCoV IFAT and one TGEV IFAT; and 98.2% for a second TGEV IFA and 96.1% for a second FCoV IFAT. All tests worked with effusions, even when only blood products were stipulated in the instruction manual. The ELISA and Anigen RIM tests were best for small quantities of sample. The most appropriate FCoV antibody test to use depends on the reason for testing: in excluding a diagnosis of FIP, sensitivity, specificity, small sample quantity, rapidity and ability to work in the presence of virus all matter. For FCoV screening, speed and sensitivity are important, and for FCoV elimination antibody titre is essential. PMID:24966245

  8. The Art of Making Antibodies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headon, Denis R.

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information for teachers on the nature and production of antibodies. Points out that the production of monoclonal antibodies blends the malignant with the beneficial to create a medical tool of exciting potential. (JN)

  9. Anti-insulin antibody test

    MedlinePLUS

    Insulin antibodies - serum; Insulin Ab test ... Normally, there are no antibodies against insulin in your blood. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or ...

  10. Humanized Antibodies for Antiviral Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Co, Man Sung; Deschamps, Marguerite; Whitley, Richard J.; Queen, Cary

    1991-04-01

    Antibody therapy holds great promise for the treatment of cancer, autoimmune disorders, and viral infections. Murine monoclonal antibodies are relatively easy to produce but are severely restricted for therapeutic use by their immunogenicity in humans. Production of human monoclonal antibodies has been problematic. Humanized antibodies can be generated by introducing the six hypervariable regions from the heavy and light chains of a murine antibody into a human framework sequence and combining it with human constant regions. We humanized, with the aid of computer modeling, two murine monoclonal antibodies against herpes simplex virus gB and gD glycoproteins. The binding, virus neutralization, and cell protection results all indicate that both humanized antibodies have retained the binding activities and the biological properties of the murine monoclonal antibodies.

  11. Virus Antibody Prevalence in

    E-print Network

    Mladenoff, David

    . No significant differences were noted in antibody prevalence with regard to sex, age, month of collection) was detected for the first time in the United States in dead American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos), and a disease surveillance sys- tem that used dead crows was established (1,2). Serologic surveys to determine

  12. Monoclonal antibodies in haematopathology

    SciTech Connect

    Grignani, F.; Martelli, M.F.; Mason, D.Y.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains over 40 selections. Some of the titles are: Oncogene (c-myc, c-myb) amplification in acute myelogenous leukaemia; Ultrastructural characterization of leukaemic cells with monoloclonal antibodies; Origin of B-cell malignancies; Immunohistology of gut lymphomas; and Spurious evidence of lineage infidelity in monocytic leukaemia.

  13. NMDA receptor antibodies associated with distinct white matter syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Hacohen, Yael; Absoud, Michael; Hemingway, Cheryl; Jacobson, Leslie; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Pike, Mike; Pullaperuma, Sunil; Siddiqui, Ata; Wassmer, Evangeline; Waters, Patrick; Irani, Sarosh R.; Buckley, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To report the clinical and radiologic findings of children with NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antibodies and white matter disorders. Method: Ten children with significant white matter involvement, with or without anti-NMDAR encephalitis, were identified from 46 consecutive NMDAR antibody–positive pediatric patients. Clinical and neuroimaging features were reviewed and the treatment and outcomes of the neurologic syndromes evaluated. Results: Three distinct clinicoradiologic phenotypes were recognized: brainstem encephalitis (n = 3), leukoencephalopathy following herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE) (n = 2), and acquired demyelination syndromes (ADS) (n = 5); 3 of the 5 with ADS had myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein as well as NMDAR antibodies. Typical NMDAR antibody encephalitis was seen in 3 patients remote from the first neurologic syndrome (2 brainstem, 1 post-HSVE). Six of the 7 patients (85%) who were treated acutely, during the original presentation with white matter involvement, improved following immunotherapy with steroids, IV immunoglobulin, and plasma exchange, either individually or in combination. Two patients had escalation of immunotherapy at relapse resulting in clinical improvement. The time course of clinical features, treatments, and recoveries correlated broadly with available serum antibody titers. Conclusion: Clinicoradiologic evidence of white matter involvement, often distinct, was identified in 22% of children with NMDAR antibodies and appears immunotherapy responsive, particularly when treated in the acute phase of neurologic presentation. When observed, this clinical improvement is often mirrored by reduction in NMDAR antibody levels, suggesting that these antibodies may mediate the white matter disease. PMID:25340058

  14. Bortezomib for acute antibody-mediated rejection in liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Paterno, F; Shiller, M; Tillery, G; O'Leary, J G; Susskind, B; Trotter, J; Klintmalm, G B

    2012-09-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) is an uncommon, but challenging type of rejection after solid organ transplantation. We review three cases of AMR in ABO-compatible liver transplant recipients. These cases were characterized by severe acute rejection resistant to steroids and antithymocyte globulin, histologic evidence of plasma cell infiltrates, C4d positivity and high serum anti-HLA donor-specific antibodies. All three patients were treated with bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor effective in depleting plasma cells. After treatment, all patients had improved or normal liver function tests, resolution of C4d deposition and significant decline in their HLA donor-specific antibodies. PMID:22681986

  15. Prevalence of Antibodies to Hepatitis C Virus in Hemodialysis Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Kallinowski; L. Theilmann; K. Gmelin; K. Andrassy; D. Deppermann; B. Weinel; B. Kommerell

    1991-01-01

    Due to frequent parenteral contact with blood transfusions hemodialysis patients are prone to acquire hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. To determine the role of HCV infection we investigated the prevalence of antibodies to HCV in 188 hemodialysis patients. The prevalence of antibodies to HCV was 7.4%. As compared to anti-HCV-negative patients, anti-HCV-positive patients had slightly elevated transaminases which were independent

  16. Rapid development of broadly influenza neutralizing antibodies through redundant mutations.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Leontios; Foglierini, Mathilde; Piccoli, Luca; Kallewaard, Nicole L; Turrini, Filippo; Silacci, Chiara; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Blanca; Agatic, Gloria; Giacchetto-Sasselli, Isabella; Pellicciotta, Gabriele; Sallusto, Federica; Zhu, Qing; Vicenzi, Elisa; Corti, Davide; Lanzavecchia, Antonio

    2014-12-18

    The neutralizing antibody response to influenza virus is dominated by antibodies that bind to the globular head of haemagglutinin, which undergoes a continuous antigenic drift, necessitating the re-formulation of influenza vaccines on an annual basis. Recently, several laboratories have described a new class of rare influenza-neutralizing antibodies that target a conserved site in the haemagglutinin stem. Most of these antibodies use the heavy-chain variable region VH1-69 gene, and structural data demonstrate that they bind to the haemagglutinin stem through conserved heavy-chain complementarity determining region (HCDR) residues. However, the VH1-69 antibodies are highly mutated and are produced by some but not all individuals, suggesting that several somatic mutations may be required for their development. To address this, here we characterize 197 anti-stem antibodies from a single donor, reconstruct the developmental pathways of several VH1-69 clones and identify two key elements that are required for the initial development of most VH1-69 antibodies: a polymorphic germline-encoded phenylalanine at position 54 and a conserved tyrosine at position 98 in HCDR3. Strikingly, in most cases a single proline to alanine mutation at position 52a in HCDR2 is sufficient to confer high affinity binding to the selecting H1 antigen, consistent with rapid affinity maturation. Surprisingly, additional favourable mutations continue to accumulate, increasing the breadth of reactivity and making both the initial mutations and phenylalanine at position 54 functionally redundant. These results define VH1-69 allele polymorphism, rearrangement of the VDJ gene segments and single somatic mutations as the three requirements for generating broadly neutralizing VH1-69 antibodies and reveal an unexpected redundancy in the affinity maturation process. PMID:25296253

  17. Circulating anti-entactin antibodies in patients with glomerulonephritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramesh Saxena; Per Bygren; Bo Cederholm; Jörgen Wieslander

    1991-01-01

    Circulating anti-entactin antibodies in patients with glomerulonephritis. Sera from 305 consecutive patients in a renal biopsy series were analyzed for the presence of anti-entactin antibodies by ELISA. Of these patients, 59% had primary glomerulonephritis, 21% had secondary glomerulonephritis, while 20% had other nephropathies (noninflammatory conditions like amyloidosis, diabetic nephropathy, nephrosclerosis, etc.). Forty-one of these patients (13.4%) were positive for IgG\\/IgM

  18. Antibody-gold cluster conjugates

    DOEpatents

    Hainfeld, J.F.

    1988-06-28

    Antibody- or antibody fragment-gold cluster conjugates are shown wherein the conjugate size can be about 5.0 nm. Methods and reagents are disclosed in which antibodies or Fab' fragments thereof are covalently bound to a stable cluster of gold atoms. 2 figs.

  19. Frequency and predictive value of antisperm antibodies among infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Collins, J A; Burrows, E A; Yeo, J; YoungLai, E V

    1993-04-01

    Although sperm-associated antibody could impair fertility through various mechanisms, the results of follow-up studies do not uniformly confirm that pregnancy rates are lower when one of the infertile partners demonstrates antibody to spermatozoa. We conducted a prospective double-blind cohort comparative analysis in which antibody assay results were not available to physicians or patients for clinical management. The diagnostic protocol included mid-luteal progesterone, semen analysis, hysterosalpingogram and laparoscopy. The serum of each partner was assayed by immunobead testing, tray agglutination testing and a gelatin agglutination test. Data on relevant clinical characteristics and events during follow-up were collected prospectively. Among 471 couples in whom both partners were evaluated, 42 (8.9%) tested positive for anti-sperm antibodies by one or more assays, including 38 (8.1%) male partners and 6 (1.3%) female partners. The number of conceptions was 118/429 (27.5%) in antibody negative couples, 9/38 (23.7%) in male partner-positive couples and 1/6 (16.7%) in female partner-positive couples. With proportional hazards analysis, antibody status in either partner was not a significant independent predictor of time to pregnancy. PMID:8501191

  20. Her2 Monoclonal Antibodies, Antibody Drug Conjugates, and Site Specific Antibody Conjugate Methods

    Cancer.gov

    Antibody drug conjugates (ADC) can demonstrate high efficacy as cancer therapeutics, however, much more can be done to improve their efficacy and safety profile. Site-specific antibody drug conjugation is a promising way to do this.

  1. Detection of IgG antibody to Epstein-Barr virus viral capsid antigen in saliva by antibody capture radioimmunoassay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Vyse; W. A. Knowles; B. J. Cohen; D. W. G. Brown

    1997-01-01

    A ‘G’ antibody capture radioimmunoassay (GACRIA) to detect IgG to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) viral capsid antigen (VCA) in saliva is described. The monoclonal antibody to EBV VCA used in the GACRIA bound non-specifically when testing saliva samples having a total IgG content of less than 2.0 mg\\/l, so giving false positive results. This problem was overcome by including 0.5% EBV-negative

  2. Antibody mimetics: promising complementary agents to animal-sourced antibodies.

    PubMed

    Baloch, Abdul Rasheed; Baloch, Abdul Wahid; Sutton, Brian J; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2014-09-29

    Abstract Despite their wide use as therapeutic, diagnostic and detection agents, the limitations of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies have inspired scientists to design the next generation biomedical agents, so-called antibody mimetics that offer many advantages over conventional antibodies. Antibody mimetics can be constructed by protein-directed evolution or fusion of complementarity-determining regions through intervening framework regions. Substantial progress in exploiting human, butterfly (Pieris brassicae) and bacterial systems to design and select mimetics using display technologies has been made in the past 10 years, and one of these mimetics [Kalbitor® (Dyax)] has made its way to market. Many challenges lie ahead to develop mimetics for various biomedical applications, especially those for which conventional antibodies are ineffective, and this review describes the current characteristics, construction and applications of antibody mimetics compared to animal-sourced antibodies. The possible limitations of mimetics and future perspectives are also discussed. PMID:25264572

  3. Antibody Engineering and Therapeutics Conference

    PubMed Central

    Almagro, Juan Carlos; Gilliland, Gary L; Scott, Jamie; Larrick, James W; Plückthun, Andreas; Veldman, Trudi; Adams, Gregory P; Parren, Paul WHI; Chester, Kerry A; Bradbury, Andrew; Reichert, Janice M; Huston, James S

    2013-01-01

    The Antibody Engineering and Therapeutics conference, which serves as the annual meeting of The Antibody Society, will be held in Huntington Beach, CA from Sunday December 8 through Thursday December 12, 2013. The scientific program will cover the full spectrum of challenges in antibody research and development, and provide updates on recent progress in areas from basic science through approval of antibody therapeutics. Keynote presentations will be given by Leroy Hood (Institute of System Biology), who will discuss a systems approach for studying disease that is enabled by emerging technology; Douglas Lauffenburger (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), who will discuss systems analysis of cell communication network dynamics for therapeutic biologics design; David Baker (University of Washington), who will describe computer-based design of smart protein therapeutics; and William Schief (The Scripps Research Institute), who will discuss epitope-focused immunogen design.   In this preview of the conference, the workshop and session chairs share their thoughts on what conference participants may learn in sessions on: (1) three-dimensional structure antibody modeling; (2) identifying clonal lineages from next-generation data sets of expressed VH gene sequences; (3) antibodies in cardiometabolic medicine; (4) the effects of antibody gene variation and usage on the antibody response; (5) directed evolution; (6) antibody pharmacokinetics, distribution and off-target toxicity; (7) use of knowledge-based design to guide development of complementarity-determining regions and epitopes to engineer or elicit the desired antibody; (8) optimizing antibody formats for immunotherapy; (9) antibodies in a complex environment; (10) polyclonal, oligoclonal and bispecific antibodies; (11) antibodies to watch in 2014; and (12) polyreactive antibodies and polyspecificity.

  4. Subcutaneous Administration of Monoclonal Antibodies in Oncology.

    PubMed

    Jackisch, C; Müller, V; Maintz, C; Hell, S; Ataseven, B

    2014-04-01

    Treatment with monoclonal antibodies (mabs) has become an established component of oncological therapy. The monoclonal antibodies available for this purpose are mainly administered intravenously in individually adapted doses according to body weight over longer treatment times. For other chronic diseases such as, for example, diabetes mellitus, the subcutaneous administration of drugs is an established therapy option. For the subcutaneous administration of larger volumes as needed for mab solutions the extracellular matrix of the subcutaneous tissue represents a problem. The co-formulation with recombinant human hyaluronidase makes the relatively pain-free administration of larger fluid volumes and thus the subcutaneous administration of monoclonal antibodies possible, as illustrated by the development of a subcutaneous formulation of trastuzumab. This constitutes a less invasive, time-optimised and flexible form of administration for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer that, with its fixed dosing possibilities, contributes to therapeutic safety. The example of trastuzumab shows that the subcutaneous administration of monoclonal antibodies can simplify oncological long-term therapy not only for the patients but also for the medical personnel. PMID:25076790

  5. Subcutaneous Administration of Monoclonal Antibodies in Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Jackisch, C.; Müller, V.; Maintz, C.; Hell, S.; Ataseven, B.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment with monoclonal antibodies (mabs) has become an established component of oncological therapy. The monoclonal antibodies available for this purpose are mainly administered intravenously in individually adapted doses according to body weight over longer treatment times. For other chronic diseases such as, for example, diabetes mellitus, the subcutaneous administration of drugs is an established therapy option. For the subcutaneous administration of larger volumes as needed for mab solutions the extracellular matrix of the subcutaneous tissue represents a problem. The co-formulation with recombinant human hyaluronidase makes the relatively pain-free administration of larger fluid volumes and thus the subcutaneous administration of monoclonal antibodies possible, as illustrated by the development of a subcutaneous formulation of trastuzumab. This constitutes a less invasive, time-optimised and flexible form of administration for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer that, with its fixed dosing possibilities, contributes to therapeutic safety. The example of trastuzumab shows that the subcutaneous administration of monoclonal antibodies can simplify oncological long-term therapy not only for the patients but also for the medical personnel. PMID:25076790

  6. [Antibody therapy for Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Tabira, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Shin-Ei; Jin, Haifeng

    2011-11-01

    In order to avoid Abeta-induced autoimmune encephalitis, several monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies are in clinical trials. These are bapineuzumab, solanezumab, ponezumab, gantenerumab, BAN2401, gammaguard and octagam. Since each antibody has a different antigen epitope of Abeta, anti-amyloid activities are different. It is unknown which antibody is effective for Alzheimer disease, and we must wait for the result of clinical trials. Some patients who developed tissue amyloid plaque immuno-reactive (TAPIR) antibody showed slower decline after AN-1792 vaccination. We developed TAPIR-like monoclonal antibody, which was found to react with Abeta oligomers preferentially. PMID:22277519

  7. Targeting antibodies to the cytoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Marschall, Andrea L J; Frenzel, André; Schirrmann, Thomas; Schüngel, Manuela

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of research consortia are now focused on generating antibodies and recombinant antibody fragments that target the human proteome. A particularly valuable application for these binding molecules would be their use inside a living cell, e.g., for imaging or functional intervention. Animal-derived antibodies must be brought into the cell through the membrane, whereas the availability of the antibody genes from phage display systems allows intracellular expression. Here, the various technologies to target intracellular proteins with antibodies are reviewed. PMID:21099369

  8. Transfer of maternal antibodies against avian influenza virus in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Jacintha G B; Mateman, A Christa; Klaassen, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Maternal antibodies protect chicks from infection with pathogens early in life and may impact pathogen dynamics due to the alteration of the proportion of susceptible individuals in a population. We investigated the transfer of maternal antibodies against avian influenza virus (AIV) in a key AIV host species, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Combining observations in both the field and in mallards kept in captivity, we connected maternal AIV antibody concentrations in eggs to (i) female body condition, (ii) female AIV antibody concentration, (iii) egg laying order, (iv) egg size and (v) embryo sex. We applied maternity analysis to the eggs collected in the field to account for intraspecific nest parasitism, which is reportedly high in Anseriformes, detecting parasitic eggs in one out of eight clutches. AIV antibody prevalence in free-living and captive females was respectively 48% and 56%, with 43% and 24% of the eggs receiving these antibodies maternally. In both field and captive study, maternal AIV antibody concentrations in egg yolk correlated positively with circulating AIV antibody concentrations in females. In the captive study, yolk AIV antibody concentrations correlated positively with egg laying order. Female body mass and egg size from the field and captive study, and embryos sex from the field study were not associated with maternal AIV antibody concentrations in eggs. Our study indicates that maternal AIV antibody transfer may potentially play an important role in shaping AIV infection dynamics in mallards. PMID:25386907

  9. Transfer of Maternal Antibodies against Avian Influenza Virus in Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Jacintha G. B.; Mateman, A. Christa; Klaassen, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Maternal antibodies protect chicks from infection with pathogens early in life and may impact pathogen dynamics due to the alteration of the proportion of susceptible individuals in a population. We investigated the transfer of maternal antibodies against avian influenza virus (AIV) in a key AIV host species, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Combining observations in both the field and in mallards kept in captivity, we connected maternal AIV antibody concentrations in eggs to (i) female body condition, (ii) female AIV antibody concentration, (iii) egg laying order, (iv) egg size and (v) embryo sex. We applied maternity analysis to the eggs collected in the field to account for intraspecific nest parasitism, which is reportedly high in Anseriformes, detecting parasitic eggs in one out of eight clutches. AIV antibody prevalence in free-living and captive females was respectively 48% and 56%, with 43% and 24% of the eggs receiving these antibodies maternally. In both field and captive study, maternal AIV antibody concentrations in egg yolk correlated positively with circulating AIV antibody concentrations in females. In the captive study, yolk AIV antibody concentrations correlated positively with egg laying order. Female body mass and egg size from the field and captive study, and embryos sex from the field study were not associated with maternal AIV antibody concentrations in eggs. Our study indicates that maternal AIV antibody transfer may potentially play an important role in shaping AIV infection dynamics in mallards. PMID:25386907

  10. Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive

  11. Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    : Software Engineer (embedded systems), Java Developer, SAP techno/functional analyst, Web Developer, Systems -- 12:00-4:00pm Yes Software Engineer, Web Developer, Network Administrator, Systems Engineer, SoftwareCompany: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description

  12. Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Company: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description's easy to see you'll be a manager at this multibillion dollar industry leader some day. At Enterprise you't be a glorified gopher getting coffee or filing all day. Our interns go at the same energized pace and take

  13. Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    decision-making skills -Assertiveness and initiative -Team-oriented thinking -Ability to communicateCompany: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description Target Bachelors, Masters Use your business, leadership and people skills to inspire exceptional

  14. Commercial antibodies and their validation.

    PubMed

    Voskuil, Jla

    2014-01-01

    Despite an impressive growth in the business of research antibodies a general lack of trust in commercial antibodies remains in place. A variety of issues, each one potentially causing an antibody to fail, underpin the frustrations that scientists endure. Lots of money goes to waste in buying and trying one failing antibody after the other without realizing all the pitfalls that come with the product: Antibodies can get inactivated, both the biological material and the assay itself can potentially be flawed, a single antibody featuring in many different catalogues can be deemed as a set of different products, and a bad choice of antibody type, wrong dilutions, and lack of proper validation can all jeopardize the intended experiments. Antibodies endorsed by scientific research papers do not always meet the scientist's requirements either due to flawed specifications, or due to batch-to-batch variations. Antibodies can be found with Quality Control data obtained from previous batches that no longer represent the batch on sale. In addition, one cannot assume that every antibody is fit for every application. The best chance of success is to try an antibody that already was confirmed to perform correctly in the required platform. PMID:25324967

  15. Commercial antibodies and their validation

    PubMed Central

    Voskuil, JLA

    2014-01-01

    Despite an impressive growth in the business of research antibodies a general lack of trust in commercial antibodies remains in place. A variety of issues, each one potentially causing an antibody to fail, underpin the frustrations that scientists endure. Lots of money goes to waste in buying and trying one failing antibody after the other without realizing all the pitfalls that come with the product: Antibodies can get inactivated, both the biological material and the assay itself can potentially be flawed, a single antibody featuring in many different catalogues can be deemed as a set of different products, and a bad choice of antibody type, wrong dilutions, and lack of proper validation can all jeopardize the intended experiments. Antibodies endorsed by scientific research papers do not always meet the scientist’s requirements either due to flawed specifications, or due to batch-to-batch variations. Antibodies can be found with Quality Control data obtained from previous batches that no longer represent the batch on sale. In addition, one cannot assume that every antibody is fit for every application. The best chance of success is to try an antibody that already was confirmed to perform correctly in the required platform. PMID:25324967

  16. Radiolabeled antifibrin antibody in the detection of venous thrombosis: Preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Alavi, A.; Palevsky, H.I.; Gupta, N.; Meranze, S.; Kelley, M.A.; Jatlow, A.D.; Schaible, T.F.; Brown, J.; Berger, H.J. (Hospital of the Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (USA))

    1990-04-01

    The recent development of monoclonal antibodies against components of coagulated blood may provide new approaches to the diagnosis of venous thrombosis. Scanning with an indium-111-labeled Fab fragment of a murine monoclonal antifibrin antibody (59D8) and ascending contrast venography were performed in 33 patients. Images of the calves, popliteal fossae, thighs, and pelvis were obtained immediately, 4-6 hours, and 24 hours after injection of 2 mCi (74 MBq) of the antibody. All images were read in a blinded manner. Findings in both studies were positive in 28 patients and negative in three. In 19 patients not undergoing heparin therapy, 19 specific anatomic sites were positive on venograms and 29 were positive on antibody images (19 sites matched). In 14 patients undergoing heparin therapy, 34 sites were positive on venograms and 27 were positive on antibody images (22 sites matched). In most patients, positive results were noted within 1 hour of antibody injection. No adverse effects were noted with the antibody preparation. Preliminary data suggest that antifibrin antibody imaging is sensitive in detecting clots, is safe to use, and may have a role in diagnosing and managing venous thrombosis.

  17. Chemically programmed antibodies.

    PubMed

    Rader, Christoph

    2014-04-01

    Due to their unlimited chemical diversity, small molecules can rival monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with respect to specificity and affinity for target molecules. However, key pharmacological properties of mAbs remain unmatched by small molecules. Chemical programming strategies have been developed for site-specific and covalent conjugation of small molecules to mAbs with unique reactivity centers. In addition to blending favorable features of small molecules and mAbs, chemically programmed antibodies (cpAbs) are economically attractive because they utilize the same mAb for an almost unlimited number of target molecule specificities, reducing manufacturing costs and shortening drug discovery and development time. Preclinical studies and clinical trials have begun to demonstrate the broad utility of cpAbs for the treatment and prevention of human diseases. PMID:24630478

  18. Anti-adenosine deaminase antibodies in lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Lee, J Y Y; Hempel, J; Deng, J S

    2002-01-01

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an enzyme involved in purine metabolism and has a major role in the development and function of lymphoid cells. Congenital deficiency of ADA results in severe immunodeficiency. Patients with congenital ADA deficiency treated with polyethylene glycol-conjugated bovine ADA develop antibodies to ADA. This leads us to investigate the role of anti-ADA antibodies in patients with systemic rheumatic diseases. Commercially available ADA was used in ELISA and immunoblots for detection of anti-ADA antibodies. Four out of 100 patients examined were positive for anti-ADA antibodies. Two of them had peripheral blood lymphopenia but the antibody levels did not appear to correlate with the lymphocyte counts. Immunoblotting revealed that the antibodies recognized a 40 kDa peptide of ADA, corresponding to ADA1, the major component of ADA. Affinity-purified antibodies were used to locate the distribution of ADA on Hep-2 cells and lymphocytes by indirect immunofluorescence. Anti-ADA antibodies gave a distinct nuclear speckled pattern on acetone-fixed cells. With viable cell immunofluorescence, anti-ADA antibodies also stained the cell surface of HEp-2 cells and lymphocytes, indicating surface expression of ADA. The anti-ADA antibodies failed to gain access into the cytoplasm or nuclei when added to the cultures of HEp-2 cells. In summary, this is the first report of detection of anti-ADA1 autoantibody which is a new type of ANA with discrete, speckled nuclear staining, but which may not be associated with lymphopenia. PMID:11999881

  19. QUANTITATIVE INVESTIGATIONS OF IDIOTYPIC ANTIBODIES

    PubMed Central

    Daugharty, Harry; Hopper, John E.; MacDonald, A. Bruce; Nisonoff, Alfred

    1969-01-01

    Specifically purified anti-p-azobenzoate antibodies of the IgG class from individual rabbits were used to elicit anti-idiotypic antibodies in recipient rabbits. Allotypes of each donor and recipient were matched. When polymerized antibodies were used for immunization, more than 80% of the recipients responded with the formation of antibodies that precipitated the monomeric donor antibody. Percentages of precipitable molecules in the donor antibody population (D) varied from 4 to 56. As little as 4% was readily detectable by the Ouchterlony method or precipitin test. Specificity of the reaction was tested by double diffusion in agar gel against a panel of purified antibenzoate antibodies from 14 heterologous rabbits and, quantitatively, in three systems by measurement of the extent of coprecipitation of heterologous, radiolabeled antibenzoate antibodies. No cross-reactions were observed. Reactions were shown to be attributable to antibenzoate antibodies in the donor serum, and contributions of allotypic reactions were excluded. In three systems investigated quantitatively, and in one studied qualitatively, two recipients of the same donor antibody produced anti-antibody that reacted with essentially the same subfraction of the donor antibody population. The findings that only a portion of the D population is immunogenic, and that the same subfraction is frequently immunogenic in different recipients, suggest that the immunogenic population comprises a limited number of homogeneous groups of antibody molecules. This is supported by the small number of bands usually observed by the Ouchterlony technique. Quantitative methods of analysis should provide an approach to the study of cell populations producing antibodies of a particular idiotype. PMID:5347693

  20. AID in antibody perfection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Vallur; M. Yabuki; E. D. Larson; N. Maizels

    2007-01-01

    .  Expressed immunoglobulin (Ig) genes undergo alterations in sequence and genomic structure in order to optimize antibody function.\\u000a A single B cellspecific factor, activation-induced deaminase (AID), initiates these changes by deamination of cytosine to\\u000a uracil. Uracil in DNA is encountered commonly, and conserved pathways are responsible for its faithful repair. However, at\\u000a the Ig loci of B cells, AID-initiated damage is

  1. Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cucurull, Elena; Gharavi, Azzudin E.; Menon, Yamini; Wilson, Wendell A.

    2003-04-01

    Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is a recently defined autoimmune disorder characterized by recurrent vascular thromboses or recurrent pregnancy morbidity; these features are linked to the presence in blood of autoantibodies against negatively charged phospholipids or phospholipid-binding proteins. Thrombosis can occur in any tissue, in veins, arteries, or the microvasculature. Pregnancy morbidity in APS includes miscarriages or premature birth. Criteria that define the major clinical and laboratory features of APS were published in 1999. In patients with antiphospholipid antibodies and prior thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity, there is a high risk of recurrence that persists as long as antiphospholipid antibodies occur in blood. This risk for recurrence of thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity is greatly reduced by preventive anticoagulant therapy. Patients presenting with thrombosis in APS are initially managed in much the same way as are patients with vascular thrombosis owing to other causes. However, in patients with APS, high-intensity anticoagulation is usually needed to prevent recurrences of thrombosis. Thrombosis in APS is often multifactorial, as with non-APS thrombosis. Therefore, in all patients with APS, other reversible risk factors for thrombosis should be sought. The pregnancy outcome of women with APS who have had prior miscarriages is greatly improved by treatment during pregnancy with a combination of heparin and low-dose aspirin. PMID:12686010

  2. Heparin-independent, PF4-dependent binding of HIT antibodies to platelets: implications for HIT pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Anand; Jones, Curtis G; Bougie, Daniel W; Curtis, Brian R; McFarland, Janice G; Wang, Demin; Aster, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies specific for platelet factor 4 (PF4)/heparin complexes are the hallmark of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis (HIT), but many antibody-positive patients have normal platelet counts. The basis for this is not fully understood, but it is believed that antibodies testing positive in the serotonin release assay (SRA) are the most likely to cause disease. We addressed this issue by characterizing PF4-dependent binding of HIT antibodies to intact platelets and found that most antibodies testing positive in the SRA, but none of those testing negative, bind to and activate platelets when PF4 is present without any requirement for heparin (P < .0001). Binding of SRA-positive antibodies to platelets was inhibited by chondroitinase ABC digestion (P < .05) and by the addition of chondroitin-4-sulfate (CS) or heparin in excess quantities. The findings suggest that although all HIT antibodies recognize PF4 in a complex with heparin, only a subset of these antibodies recognize more subtle epitopes induced in PF4 when it binds to CS, the major platelet glycosaminoglycan. Antibodies having this property could explain "delayed HIT" seen in some individuals after discontinuation of heparin and the high risk for thrombosis that persists for weeks in patients recovered from HIT. PMID:25342714

  3. Assessment of a fluorescent antibody test for the detection of antibodies against epizootic bovine abortion.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Myra T; Anderson, Mark L; Hoar, Bruce R; Pires, Alda F A; Blanchard, Patricia C; Yeargan, Bret V; Teglas, Mike B; Belshaw, Margaret; Stott, Jeffery L

    2014-09-01

    The current study was directed at developing and validating an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) capable of detecting antibodies specific for the agent of epizootic bovine abortion (aoEBA). Sensitivity and specificity was determined by comparing antibody titers from 114 fetuses infected with aoEBA with 68 fetuses diagnosed with alternate infectious etiologies. Data established specificity at 100% and sensitivity at 94.7% when cutoff criteria for a positive test were assigned at a titer of ?1,000. Potential cross-reactivity was noted in samples from 3 fetuses with antibody titers of 10 or100; all were infected with Gram-positive organisms. The remaining 65 fetuses infected with microbes other than aoEBA, and an additional 12 negative reference sera, did not have detectable titers. The IFAT-based serology assay is rapid, reproducible, and unaffected by fluid color or opacity. Total fetal immunoglobulin (Ig)G was also evaluated as an aid for diagnosing EBA. Significantly higher concentrations of IgG were identified in fetuses infected with aoEBA as compared to those with alternate infectious etiologies. The presence of IgG is a sensitive indicator of EBA and increases the specificity of FAT-based serologic diagnosis when titers are 10 or 100. Taken together, serology and IgG analyses suggest that the incidence of EBA may be underestimated. PMID:25139792

  4. Pseudomonas infection in antibody deficient patients

    PubMed Central

    Duraisingham, Sai S.; Hanson, Steven; Buckland, Matthew; Grigoriadou, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is commonly isolated from the respiratory secretions of antibody deficiency patients, but the significance of this has not been well studied. We have reviewed our adult antibody deficiency cohort of 179 patients and assessed the prevalence and characteristics of PA infection and the effects of early antibiotic eradication treatments. Of the 34 patients with PA, 55.9% (19) underwent successful eradication and were infection-free, 38.2% (13) had intermittent infection, and 5.9% (2) had chronic PA. PA infection was significantly associated with bronchiectasis (p < 0.0001), with 36.1% (22 out of 61) of patients with bronchiectasis developing a PA infection. Infection status was also significantly associated with chronic sinusitis (p < 0.0001). Most treated PA exacerbations were symptomatic and with colony counts of ?1000 cfu/ml. Current eradication protocols used at our center involve early treatment at first positive isolate with ciprofloxacin for 3 weeks and nebulized colomycin for 3 months, and if eradication fails, intravenous ceftazidime and gentamycin or colomycin is administered for 2 weeks. Continued sputum surveillance and early eradication treatments upon positive PA culture may help to limit chronic PA infection in antibody deficiency patients. PMID:25544892

  5. Anticardiolipin antibodies in patients with Behcet’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Zivkovic, Maja; Zlatanovic, Marko; Zlatanovic, Gordana; Djordjevic-Jocic, Jasmina; Cekic, Sonja

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study are to determine anticardiolipin antibodies in patients with Sy Behcet and to determine correlation between the levels of anticardiolipin antibodies in serum in patients with clinic systemic and ocular manifestations. The study was conducted on 11 patients with Behcet disease (group I), and on 11 healthy subjects (group II). Anticardiolipin antibodies –aCL were determined by the standard ELISA method, where 1GPL= 1 microgram/ml IgG aCL and 1 MPL= 1 microgram/ml IgM, and were considered negative < 10 GPL or MPL, low positive (10-40 GPL and MPL), or high positive (>40 GPL and MPL). In the group of 11 patients with the diagnosis Sy Behcet, 6 of them were (54.5%) with values of anticardiolipin antibodies over 10 positive. In the control group of the healthy examinees aCl were positive in 2 cases (18.2%). There are no statistically significant differences in the presence of systemic clinic characteristics between aCl positive and negative patients. All the patients with SY Behcet in whom anticardiolipn antibodies were found have extremely severe visual damage which is not present in the group of those patients where the values of aCl were low. The difference is statistically significant. The level of anticardiolipin antibodies is increased in the patients with Behcet. There are no statistically significant differences in the presence of systemic clinical characteristics between aCL positive and negative patients. Visual acuity in patients with SY Behcet is statistically significantly much lower in patients who had increased values of aCL. PMID:21342144

  6. Microbials for the production of monoclonal antibodies and antibody fragments

    PubMed Central

    Spadiut, Oliver; Capone, Simona; Krainer, Florian; Glieder, Anton; Herwig, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and antibody fragments represent the most important biopharmaceutical products today. Because full length antibodies are glycosylated, mammalian cells, which allow human-like N-glycosylation, are currently used for their production. However, mammalian cells have several drawbacks when it comes to bioprocessing and scale-up, resulting in long processing times and elevated costs. By contrast, antibody fragments, that are not glycosylated but still exhibit antigen binding properties, can be produced in microbial organisms, which are easy to manipulate and cultivate. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the expression systems, strain engineering, and production processes for the three main microbials used in antibody and antibody fragment production, namely Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris, and Escherichia coli. PMID:24183828

  7. Antibody Therapy for Pediatric Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Vedi, Aditi; Ziegler, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Despite increasing cure rates for pediatric leukemia, relapsed disease still carries a poor prognosis with significant morbidity and mortality. Novel targeted therapies are currently being investigated in an attempt to reduce adverse events and improve survival outcomes. Antibody therapies represent a form of targeted therapy that offers a new treatment paradigm. Monoclonal antibodies are active in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and are currently in Phase III trials. Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are the next generation of antibodies where a highly potent cytotoxic agent is bound to an antibody by a linker, resulting in selective targeting of leukemia cells. ADCs are currently being tested in clinical trials for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia and ALL. Bispecific T cell engager (BiTE) antibodies are a construct whereby each antibody contains two binding sites, with one designed to engage the patient’s own immune system and the other to target malignant cells. BiTE antibodies show great promise as a novel and effective therapy for childhood leukemia. This review will outline recent developments in targeted agents for pediatric leukemia including monoclonal antibodies, ADCs, and BiTE antibodies. PMID:24795859

  8. Vaccination Strategies to Promote Mucosal Antibody Responses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kang; Cerutti, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    There are great interest and demand for the development of vaccines to prevent and treat diverse microbial infections. Mucosal vaccines elicit immune protection by stimulating the production of antibodies at mucosal surfaces and systemic districts. Being positioned in close proximity to a large community of commensal microbes, the mucosal immune system deploys a heterogeneous population of cells and a complex regulatory network to maintain the balance between surveillance and tolerance. A successful mucosal vaccine relies on leveraging the functions of these immune cells and regulatory components. This article reviews the important cellular interactions and molecular pathways underlying the induction and regulation of mucosal antibody responses and discusses their implications on mucosal vaccination. PMID:21029959

  9. Immunofluorescent antibody test for diagnosis of gonorrhoea.

    PubMed Central

    Caloenescu, M; Clecner, B; Petrow, S; Kasatiya, S S

    1975-01-01

    An indirect fluorescent antibody test was evaluated in 198 cases of a high-risk group with a culture prevalence of 37.3% and in 426 cases of a low-risk group with a culture prevalence of 1.16%. A sensitivity of 77.1% in the culture-positive patients with uncomplicated gonorrhoea, and a specificity of 88.7% in the culture- and history-negative cases, was obtained in the high-risk group. In this group, the sera from 88.8% of the patients with culture-proven gonorrhoea became positive in an indirect fluorescent antibody test within 3 weeks of last sexual contact. In the low-risk group, for which the sensitivity could not be determined due to various reasons, a specificity of 95.8% was obtained. Complement fixation test was positive in sera of only 17.6% of the culture-positive cases of the high-risk group. PMID:809468

  10. Nursing Positions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cross-cradle position allows you to have more control over how your baby latches on. Many moms find that they're able to get their babies latched on more deeply with this hold. Continue The Side-Lying Position This position is comfortable for mothers who've had a cesarean section (C-section) ...

  11. Antibody-Mediated Immunity against Tuberculosis: Implications for Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Achkar, Jacqueline M.; Casadevall, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    There is an urgent need for new and better vaccines against tuberculosis (TB). Current vaccine design strategies are generally focused on the enhancement of cell-mediated immunity. Antibody-based approaches are not being considered, mostly due to the paradigm that humoral immunity plays little role in the protection against intracellular pathogens. Here, we reappraise and update the increasing evidence for antibody-mediated immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, discuss the complexity of antibody responses to mycobacteria, and address mechanism of protection. Based on these findings and discussions, we challenge the common belief that immunity against M. tuberculosis relies solely on cellular defense mechanisms, and posit that induction of antibody-mediated immunity should be included in TB vaccine development strategies. PMID:23498951

  12. Leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1 antibody encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Mayasi, Yunis; Takhtani, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe a case of leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1 (LGI1) antibody–associated encephalitis. Methods: The clinical and ancillary data and brain MRIs were gathered retrospectively by chart review. Relevant literature on similar cases was also reviewed. Results: The diagnosis of LGI1 antibody–associated autoimmune encephalitis was based on the typical clinical presentation of seizures, psychiatric symptoms, and memory loss as well as negative diagnostic testing for cancer; the diagnosis was confirmed by positive LGI1 antibody. The patient responded favorably to treatment with IV immunoglobulin and continues to do well. Conclusion: LGI1 antibody–associated encephalitis has increasingly been recognized as a primary autoimmune disorder with good prognosis and response to treatment. PMID:25520958

  13. Clinical manifestations of patients with CASPR2 antibodies.

    PubMed

    Sunwoo, Jun-Sang; Lee, Soon-Tae; Byun, Jung-Ick; Moon, Jangsup; Shin, Jung-Won; Jeong, Da-Eun; Lee, Gun-Hee; Jeong, Seong Ho; Shin, Yong-Won; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Lee, Doo Young; Jeon, Daejong; Jung, Ki-Young; Kim, Manho; Lee, Sang Kun; Chu, Kon

    2015-04-15

    Contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) is one of the target antigens of voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKC) complex antibodies. There has been relatively little information in the literature regarding CASPR2 autoimmunity, especially in Asian population. We investigated the presence of CASPR2 antibodies in patients with presumed autoimmune neurological disorders and described the clinical features, laboratory findings, and responses to immunotherapy. Five patients were identified to be positive for CASPR2 antibodies. The results obtained here suggested that CASPR2 antibodies might be the possible cause of epilepsy even in the absence of typical features of limbic encephalitis and that immunotherapy could provide a favorable outcome. PMID:25867463

  14. A SURVEY OF HANTAVIRUS ANTIBODY IN SMALL-MAMMAL POPULATIONS IN SELECTED UNITED STATES NATIONAL PARKS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAMES N. MILLS; JERRY M. JOHNSON; THOMAS G. KSIAZEK; BARBARA A. ELLIS; PIERRE E. ROLLIN; TERRY L. YATES; MICHAEL O. MANN; MARK R. JOHNSON; MARIEL L. CAMPBELL; JENNIFER MIYASHIRO; MICHAEL PATRICK; MICHAEL ZYZAK; DAVE LAVENDER; MARK G. NOVAK; KARINA SCHMIDT; C. J. PETERS; JAMES E. CHILDS

    Hantavirus activity in 39 National Parks in the eastern and central United States was surveyed by testing 1,815 small mammals of 38 species for antibody reactive to Sin Nombre virus. Antibody-positive rodents were found throughout the area sampled, and in most biotic communities. Antibody was detected in 7% of 647 deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus ), 2% of 590 white-footed mice

  15. Feasibility of a multiplex flow cytometric bead immunoassay for detection of anti-epoetin alfa antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ferbas, John; Thomas, John; Hodgson, John; Gaur, Amitabh; Casadevall, Nicole; Swanson, Steven J

    2007-09-01

    Immunogenicity profiles of recombinant therapeutic proteins are important to understand because antibodies raised against these molecules may have important clinical sequelae. The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate that a flow cytometric bead array could be used to detect clinically relevant antibodies with specificity to such therapeutics. We chose to evaluate well-characterized specimens from persons treated with epoetin alfa that developed antibody-mediated pure red blood cell aplasia as a means to demonstrate the utility of this platform. Our data show that this assay is capable of detecting anti-epoetin alfa antibodies with a relative antibody concentration of 50 ng/ml, where 25 of 25 sera spiked with antibodies at this concentration scored positive. Moreover, the assay was designed to include positive and negative control beads for each specimen that is processed to ensure the specificity of the signal when detected. Measurement of interassay precision supports quantitative estimates of relative antibody concentrations in the range of 313 to 5,000 ng/ml, where the percent coefficient of variation did not exceed 20%. With respect to clinical specimens, antibodies with specificity for epoetin alfa could be easily detected in a set of specimens from persons with pure red blood cell aplasia that had prior exposure to the EPREX brand of recombinant epoetin alfa. Further development and validation of this approach may facilitate successful widespread application of the method for detection of anti-epoetin alfa antibodies, as well as antibodies directed against other recombinant therapeutic proteins. PMID:17634512

  16. Antibody biodistribution coefficients

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Dhaval K.; Betts, Alison M.

    2013-01-01

    Tissue vs. plasma concentration profiles have been generated from a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model of monoclonal antibody (mAb). Based on the profiles, we hypothesized that a linear relationship between the plasma and tissue concentrations of non-binding mAbs could exist; and that the relationship may be generally constant irrespective of the absolute mAb concentration, time, and animal species being analyzed. The hypothesis was verified for various tissues in mice, rat, monkey, and human using mAb or antibody-drug conjugate tissue distribution data collected from diverse literature. The relationship between the plasma and various tissue concentrations was mathematically characterized using the antibody biodistribution coefficient (ABC). Estimated ABC values suggest that typically the concentration of mAb in lung is 14.9%, heart 10.2%, kidney 13.7%, muscle 3.97%, skin 15.7%, small intestine 5.22%, large intestine 5.03%, spleen 12.8%, liver 12.1%, bone 7.27%, stomach 4.98%, lymph node 8.46%, adipose 4.78%, brain 0.351%, pancreas 6.4%, testes 5.88%, thyroid 67.5% and thymus is 6.62% of the plasma concentration. The validity of using the ABC to predict mAb concentrations in different tissues of mouse, rat, monkey, and human species was evaluated by generating validation data sets, which demonstrated that predicted concentrations were within 2-fold of the observed concentrations. The use of ABC to infer tissue concentrations of mAbs and related molecules provides a valuable tool for investigating preclinical or clinical disposition of these molecules. It can also help eliminate or optimize biodistribution studies, and interpret efficacy or toxicity of the drug in a particular tissue. PMID:23406896

  17. Monoclonal antibodies for treating cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Dillman, R.O. (Hoag Cancer Center, Newport Beach, CA (USA))

    1989-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the current status of in-vivo use of monoclonal antibodies for treating cancer. Publications appearing between 1980 and 1988 were identified by computer searches using MEDLINE and CANCERLIT, by reviewing the table of contents of recently published journals, and by searching bibliographies of identified books and articles. More than 700 articles, including peer-reviewed articles and book chapters, were identified and selected for analysis. The literature was reviewed and 235 articles were selected as relevant and representative of the current issues and future applications for in-vivo monoclonal antibodies for cancer therapy and of the toxicity and efficacy which has been associated with clinical trials. Approaches include using antibody alone (interacting with complement or effector cells or binding directly with certain cell receptors) and immunoconjugates (antibody coupled to radioisotopes, drugs, toxins, or other biologicals). Most experience has been with murine antibodies. Trials of antibody alone and radiolabeled antibodies have confirmed the feasibility of this approach and the in-vivo trafficking of antibodies to tumor cells. However, tumor cell heterogeneity, lack of cytotoxicity, and the development of human antimouse antibodies have limited clinical efficacy. Although the immunoconjugates are very promising, heterogeneity and the antimouse immune response have hampered this approach as has the additional challenge of chemically or genetically coupling antibody to cytotoxic agents. As a therapeutic modality, monoclonal antibodies are still promising but their general use will be delayed for several years. New approaches using human antibodies and reducing the human antiglobulin response should facilitate treatment. 235 references.

  18. Clinical value of specific intrathecal production of antibodies.

    PubMed

    Treib, J; Woessner, R; Dobler, G; Fernandez, A; Holzer, G; Schimrigk, K

    1997-02-01

    The production of intrathecal antibodies is considered a highly specific marker for an infection of the central nervous system (CNS), e.g. borreliosis or tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). To investigate the validity of this assumption, we examined records of patients who had been hospitalized between 1989 and 1995, who were tested for borreliosis (n = 8003) and TBE (n = 904) and whose cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) had subsequently tested positive for intrathecal production of antibodies. The time period between the beginning of the symptoms and the time of the CSF examination ranged from one day to six weeks. Seventy-seven patients showed a production of intrathecal antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi. Three of these patients were false positives with no history and no clinical signs of neuroborreliosis. In two cases, this was due to a non-specific cross-reaction caused by a preceding infection with syphilis. The third false positive was possibly caused by an earlier administration of immunoglobulins. Three patients showed a production of intrathecal antibodies against TBE virus. Two of these patients were false positives. In one case, we suspect that the production of intrathecal antibodies was caused by a non-specific immune reaction during an acute neuroborreliosis. One year earlier, the patient had contact with TBE virus through a vaccination against TBE. The cause of the second false positive is unclear, the clinical findings, acute encephalitis and the serological analysis suggest a cross-reaction with a virus similar to TBE. A specific intrathecal production of antibodies is not a proof for an infection of the CNS. In unclear cases, one should carry out a Western blot analysis or, if one suspects a case of TBE, a neutralization test. PMID:9199711

  19. Antibodies to MOG have a demyelination phenotype and affect oligodendrocyte cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Russell C.; Tantsis, Esther M.; Merheb, Vera; Kumaran, Raani-Yogeeta A.; Sinmaz, Nese; Pathmanandavel, Karrnan; Ramanathan, Sudarshini; Booth, David R.; Wienholt, Louise A.; Prelog, Kristina; Clark, Damien R.; Guillemin, Gilles J.; Lim, Chai K.; Mathey, Emily K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the clinical features of pediatric CNS demyelination associated with positive myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies and to examine the functional effects of MOG antibody on oligodendrocyte cytoskeleton. Methods: We measured MOG antibody using a fluorescence-activated cell sorting live cell-based assay in acute sera of 73 children with CNS demyelination (DEM) (median age 8 years, range 1.3–15.3) followed for a median of 4 years. We used MO3.13 cells to examine immunoglobulin (Ig) G effects on oligodendrocyte cytoskeleton using 3D deconvolution imaging. Results: MOG antibodies were found in 31/73 patients with DEM (42%) but in 0/24 controls. At first presentation, MOG antibody–positive patients were more likely to have bilateral than unilateral optic neuritis (ON) (9/10 vs 1/5, respectively, p = 0.03), less likely to have brainstem findings (2/31 vs 16/42, p = 0.005), more likely to have a raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate >20 mm/h (9/19 vs 3/21, p = 0.05), less likely to have intrathecal oligoclonal bands (0/16 vs 5/27, p = 0.18), and less likely to be homozygous or heterozygous for human leukocyte antigen DRB1*1501 (3/18 vs 7/22, p = 0.46). MOG antibody positivity varied according to clinical phenotype, with ON and relapsing ON most likely to be seropositive. Two relapsing MOG antibody–positive patients treated with mycophenolate mofetil remain in remission and have become MOG antibody seronegative. Oligodendrocytes incubated with purified IgG from MOG antibody–positive patients showed a striking loss of organization of the thin filaments and the microtubule cytoskeleton, as evidenced by F-actin and ?-tubulin immunolabelings. Conclusions: MOG antibody may define a separate demyelination syndrome, which has therapeutic implications. MOG antibody has functional effects on oligodendrocyte cytoskeleton. PMID:25340056

  20. Predictive value of anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies: a real life experience.

    PubMed

    Watad, Abdulla; Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Gilburd, Boris; Lidar, Merav; Amital, Howard; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2014-12-01

    Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune destructive joint disease, characterized by the presence of rheumatoid factor and anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies. Anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies were recently defined as RA criterion with sensitivity and specificity of 50-80 and 75-95 %, respectively. However, in the general population, the predictive value of anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies is yet to be determined. Herein, we aim to determine the predictive value of anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies in real life as well as clinical and serological factors related to this value. Retrospective cross-sectional study of consecutive samples evaluated for anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies in a referral autoimmune laboratory. Demographic and clinical parameters at the time the sample was drawn were collected. During November 2011 through December 2013, a total of 215 anti-citrullinated peptide antibody tests were performed in our laboratory. Data were available for 140 samples of which only 28 samples were positive for anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies. Of the 140 patients tested, 18 were diagnosed with RA, of which 12 were positive and 6 were negative for anti-citrullinated peptide antibody test. Thus, in this cohort, anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies were positive in 20 % of samples with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 43 % and a negative predictive value of 95 %. In real life, only 20 % of anti-citrullinated peptide antibody tests referred to a tertiary center where found to be positive. The negative predictive value of this test is very high and may support the common use of anti-citrullinated peptide antibody test as an exclusion criterion in the process of evaluating a patient with rheumatic disease. PMID:25407644

  1. Vitiligo Antibodies Are Not Directed to Tyrosinase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhong Xie; Dunlu Chen; Diane Jiao; Jean-Claude Bystryn

    1999-01-01

    Background: Patients with vitiligo have a markedly in- creased incidence of antibodies to melanocytes, re- ferred to as vitiligo antibodies. Antibodies to tyrosinase have been reported in some patients with vitiligo, sug- gesting that vitiligo antibodies may be directed to this en- zyme. However, there is considerable controversy as to the frequency with which these antibodies occur, and, hence, about

  2. Monoclonal antibodies and neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Miraldi, F. (University Hospital of Cleveland, OH (USA))

    1989-10-01

    Several antineuroblastoma monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) have been described and two have been used in radioimmunoimaging and radioimmunotherapy in patients. MoAb 3F8 is a murine IgG3 antibody specific for the ganglioside GD2. Radioiodine-labeled 3F8 has been shown to specifically target human neuroblastoma in patients, and radioimmunoimaging with this agent has provided consistently high uptakes with tumor-to-background ratios of greater than or equal to 10:1. Radioimmunotherapy has been attempted with both MoAb 3F8 and MoAb UJ13A, and although encouraging results have been obtained, dosimetry data and tissue dose response information for these agents is lacking, which impedes the development of such therapy. 124I, a positron emitter, can be used with 3F8 in positron emission tomography (PET) scanning to provide dosimetry information for radioimmunotherapy. The tumor radiation dose response from radiolabeled MoAb also can be followed with PET images with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) scanning of neuroblastoma tumors. Results to date indicate that radioimmunoimaging has clinical use in the diagnosis of neuroblastoma and the potential for radioimmunotherapy for this cancer remains high.48 references.

  3. Screening Autoimmune Anti-neuronal Antibodies in Pediatric Patients with Suspected Autoimmune Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo Yeon; Choi, Sun Ah; Ryu, Hye Won; Kim, Hunmin; Lim, Byung Chan; Hwang, Hee; Chae, Jong-Hee; Choi, Jieun; Kim, Ki Joong; Hwang, Yong Seung; Lee, Soon-Tae; Chu, Kon; Lee, Sang Kun

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify and describe the pediatric autoimmune encephalitis cases positive for anti-neuronal antibody tests. Methods: Screening of six anti-neuronal antibodies in 23 children with suspected autoimmune encephalitis was performed by cell-based indirect immunofluorescence test with patients’ serum or cerebrospinal fluid. Results: Among the 23 cases enrolled here, eight patients (35%) were positive for the anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antibody and one patient (4%) was positive for the anti-contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) antibody. In the anti-NMDA receptor antibody-positive group, seizure and movement disorders were the most prominent features and were present in all patients. A tumor was present in only one patient. Three patients with infant- and toddler-onset disease did not exhibit a classic multistage illness. In addition to seizure and dyskinesia, aphasia or mutism without severe consciousness impairment was present in all three patients. These atypical clinical presentations may suggest different pathomechanism of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis among these age groups. The patient who was positive for the anti-CASPR2 antibody was an 8-year-old girl who presented with fever, encephalopathy, and seizure. Neuromyotonia or other dyskinesia was not present. Conclusions: Eight anti-NMDA receptor antibody positive patients and one CASPR2 positive patient were identified from the screening of six anti-neuronal antibodies in pediatric patients suspected with autoimmune encephalitis. Developmental regression specifically for language skills was suggested as one of the atypical clinical features in infants and toddler onset anti-NMDA receptor antibody positive patients. PMID:25625089

  4. Acute hepatitis caused by alverine associated with anti-lamin A and C autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Malka, D; Pham, B N; Courvalin, J C; Corbic, M; Pessayre, D; Erlinger, S

    1997-08-01

    We report the case of a 67-year-old woman in whom onset and regression of acute hepatitis were closely related to the time of administration and withdrawal of the smooth muscle relaxant alverine. Antinuclear antibodies were positive, and their titer followed the course of hepatitis. They presented a smooth rim-like nuclear immunofluorescence staining pattern. Immunoblot assay showed that they were directed against lamin A and lamin C. This suggests that alverine should be added to the list of drugs known to produce acute hepatitis, and that drug-induced liver injury is a possible cause of antinuclear antibodies specific for lamin A and lamin C. PMID:9288616

  5. Yersinia enterocolitica infection does not confer an increased risk of thyroid antibodies: evidence from a Danish twin study

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, P S; Wenzel, B E; Brix, T H; Hegedüs, L

    2006-01-01

    Understanding of the aetiological basis of thyroid autoimmunity may be gained by studying the early stages of the disease process. We aimed to (1) investigate the relationship between thyroid antibody status and Yersinia enterocolitica (YE) infection in euthyroid subjects and (2) explore the relative importance of genetic and environmental risk factors in the acquisition of YE infection. The association between thyroid antibody status and YE infection was explored using a case–control design. Furthermore, thyroid antibody-positive twins were compared with their thyroid antibody-negative co-twin. In 468 twins, IgA and IgG antibodies to virulence-associated outer-membrane proteins (YOPs) of YE were measured. Of these, 147 were thyroid antibody-positive (cases). A total of 147 age- and gender-matched twins were chosen as controls. The prevalence of YOP antibodies was lower among thyroid antibody-positive individuals than among controls. Yersinia infection was not associated with a positive thyroid antibody status: the odds ratio (with 95% CI) for YOP IgA-ab was 0·66 (0·42–1·05), P = 0·078 and for YOP IgG-ab it was 0·95 (0·60–1·50), P = 0·816. Within discordant twin pairs, the thyroid antibody-positive twin did not have an increased risk of Yersinia infection compared to the thyroid antibody-negative co-twin [odds ratio: YOP IgA-Ab: 0·94 (0·49–1·83), P = 0·866, and YOP IgG-Ab: 1·35 (0·72–2·53), P = 0·345]; 41% (95% CI 10–67% of the liability of being YOP antibody-positive was due to genetic effects. In conclusion, Yersinia infection does not confer an increased risk of thyroid antibodies. The genetic contribution in the acquisition of Yersinia infection is modest. PMID:16968395

  6. Automated Panning and Screening Procedure on Microplates for Antibody Generation from Phage Display Libraries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Turunen; Kristiina Takkinen; Hans Söderlund; Timo Pulli

    2009-01-01

    Antibody phage display technology is well established and widely used for selecting specific antibodies against desired targets. Using conventional manual methods, it is laborious to perform multiple selections with different antigens simultaneously. Furthermore, manual screening of the positive clones requires much effort. The authors describe optimized and automated procedures of these processes using a magnetic bead processor for the selection

  7. Occurrence of anti- Neospora caninum antibodies in Brazilian cervids kept in captivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia C. H. Tiemann; Aline A. R. Rodrigues; Silvio L. P. de Souza; José M. Barbanti Duarte; Solange M. Gennari

    2005-01-01

    Neospora caninum is a coccidian parasite that causes disease in captive and domesticated animals and has been found in wild animals such as cervids. Sera from 150 cervids of the genus Mazama, were collected from 31 captive herds and 16 zoos from different Brazilian regions and analyzed by indirect fluorescent antibody test for anti-N. caninum antibodies. Positive reactions were found

  8. Seropositivity of Dengue Antibodies during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed Ismail, Nor Azlin; Wan Abd Rahim, Wan Elly Rushima; Salleh, Sharifah Azura; Neoh, Hui-Min; Jamal, Rahman; Jamil, Muhammad Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Malaysia a dengue endemic country with dengue infections in pregnancy on the rise. The present study was aimed at determining dengue seroprevalence (IgG or IgM) during pregnancy and its neonatal transmission in dengue seropositive women. Methods. Maternal with paired cord blood samples were tested for dengue antibodies (IgG and IgM) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Maternal age, parity, occupation, ethnic group, and gestational age were recorded. Data on neonatal Apgar score and admissions to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) were analyzed. Results. Out of 358 women recruited, about 128 (35.8%) patients were seropositive. Twelve patients (3.4%) had recent infections (IgM positive) and another 116 women (32.4%) were with past infections (IgG positive). All babies born to seropositive mothers had positive IgG paired cord blood; however, no IgM seropositivity was observed. All neonates had good Apgar scores and did not require NICU admission. Conclusion. In this study, 35.8% pregnant women were found to be dengue seropositive. However, transplacental transfer of IgG antibodies had no detrimental effect on the neonatal outcomes. PMID:25587564

  9. High-content Analysis of Antibody Phage-display Library Selection Outputs Identifies Tumor Selective Macropinocytosis-dependent Rapidly Internalizing Antibodies*

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Kevin D.; Bidlingmaier, Scott M.; Zhang, Yafeng; Su, Yang; Liu, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Many forms of antibody-based targeted therapeutics, including antibody drug conjugates, utilize the internalizing function of the targeting antibody to gain intracellular entry into tumor cells. Ideal antibodies for developing such therapeutics should be capable of both tumor-selective binding and efficient endocytosis. The macropinocytosis pathway is capable of both rapid and bulk endocytosis, and recent studies have demonstrated that it is selectively up-regulated by cancer cells. We hypothesize that receptor-dependent macropinocytosis can be achieved using tumor-targeting antibodies that internalize via the macropinocytosis pathway, improving potency and selectivity of the antibody-based targeted therapeutic. Although phage antibody display libraries have been utilized to find antibodies that bind and internalize to target cells, no methods have been described to screen for antibodies that internalize specifically via macropinocytosis. We hereby describe a novel screening strategy to identify phage antibodies that bind and rapidly enter tumor cells via macropinocytosis. We utilized an automated microscopic imaging-based, High Content Analysis platform to identify novel internalizing phage antibodies that colocalize with macropinocytic markers from antibody libraries that we have generated previously by laser capture microdissection-based selection, which are enriched for internalizing antibodies binding to tumor cells in situ residing in their tissue microenvironment (Ruan, W., Sassoon, A., An, F., Simko, J. P., and Liu, B. (2006) Identification of clinically significant tumor antigens by selecting phage antibody library on tumor cells in situ using laser capture microdissection. Mol. Cell. Proteomics. 5, 2364–2373). Full-length human IgG molecules derived from macropinocytosing phage antibodies retained the ability to internalize via macropinocytosis, validating our screening strategy. The target antigen for a cross-species binding antibody with a highly active macropinocytosis activity was identified as ephrin type-A receptor 2. Antibody-toxin conjugates created using this macropinocytosing IgG were capable of potent and receptor-dependent killing of a panel of EphA2-positive tumor cell lines in vitro. These studies identify novel methods to screen for and validate antibodies capable of receptor-dependent macropinocytosis, allowing further exploration of this highly efficient and tumor-selective internalization pathway for targeted therapy development. PMID:25149096

  10. High-content analysis of antibody phage-display library selection outputs identifies tumor selective macropinocytosis-dependent rapidly internalizing antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ha, Kevin D; Bidlingmaier, Scott M; Zhang, Yafeng; Su, Yang; Liu, Bin

    2014-12-01

    Many forms of antibody-based targeted therapeutics, including antibody drug conjugates, utilize the internalizing function of the targeting antibody to gain intracellular entry into tumor cells. Ideal antibodies for developing such therapeutics should be capable of both tumor-selective binding and efficient endocytosis. The macropinocytosis pathway is capable of both rapid and bulk endocytosis, and recent studies have demonstrated that it is selectively up-regulated by cancer cells. We hypothesize that receptor-dependent macropinocytosis can be achieved using tumor-targeting antibodies that internalize via the macropinocytosis pathway, improving potency and selectivity of the antibody-based targeted therapeutic. Although phage antibody display libraries have been utilized to find antibodies that bind and internalize to target cells, no methods have been described to screen for antibodies that internalize specifically via macropinocytosis. We hereby describe a novel screening strategy to identify phage antibodies that bind and rapidly enter tumor cells via macropinocytosis. We utilized an automated microscopic imaging-based, High Content Analysis platform to identify novel internalizing phage antibodies that colocalize with macropinocytic markers from antibody libraries that we have generated previously by laser capture microdissection-based selection, which are enriched for internalizing antibodies binding to tumor cells in situ residing in their tissue microenvironment (Ruan, W., Sassoon, A., An, F., Simko, J. P., and Liu, B. (2006) Identification of clinically significant tumor antigens by selecting phage antibody library on tumor cells in situ using laser capture microdissection. Mol. Cell. Proteomics. 5, 2364-2373). Full-length human IgG molecules derived from macropinocytosing phage antibodies retained the ability to internalize via macropinocytosis, validating our screening strategy. The target antigen for a cross-species binding antibody with a highly active macropinocytosis activity was identified as ephrin type-A receptor 2. Antibody-toxin conjugates created using this macropinocytosing IgG were capable of potent and receptor-dependent killing of a panel of EphA2-positive tumor cell lines in vitro. These studies identify novel methods to screen for and validate antibodies capable of receptor-dependent macropinocytosis, allowing further exploration of this highly efficient and tumor-selective internalization pathway for targeted therapy development. PMID:25149096

  11. Laboratory testing for platelet antibodies.

    PubMed

    Heikal, Nahla M; Smock, Kristi J

    2013-09-01

    Laboratory testing for immune-mediated thrombocytopenias involves identification and classification of antibodies present in patient sera or attached to patient platelets. This article summarizes the available types of platelet antibody testing and applications in disorders such as neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, post-transfusion purpura, multiple platelet transfusion refractoriness, immune thrombocytopenia, and drug-induced thrombocytopenia. PMID:23757218

  12. Prospects for immunotherapeutic proteolytic antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Xin Zhou; Sangeeta Karle; Hiroaki Taguchi; Stephanie Planque; Yasuhiro Nishiyama; Sudhir Paul

    2002-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are suitable for therapeutic applications by virtue of their excellent target binding characteristics (specificity, affinity) and long half-life in vivo. Catalytic antibodies (CAbs) potentially represent a new generation of therapeutics with enhanced antigen inactivation capability. Here, we describe prospects for development of therapeutic CAbs to the envelope protein gp120 of HIV. The strategy consists of exploiting the natural

  13. Recent advances in the development of anti-HER2 antibodies and antibody-drug conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Deborah J.L.

    2014-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted therapies have revolutionized the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer, both in the metastatic and early stage settings. While trastuzumab and lapatinib had been the mainstays of treatment in combination with chemotherapy, innate and acquired resistance to these therapies occur. More recently, two additional HER2-directed therapies have been approved for HER2-positive breast cancer. Pertuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the extracellular portion of the receptor on a domain distinct from the binding site of trastuzumab. The addition of pertuzumab to trastuzumab results in synergistic tumor cell inhibition and has been shown to significantly improve clinical outcomes for patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) compared to trastuzumab plus chemotherapy alone. In addition, ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1), a novel antibody-drug conjugate linking trastuzumab with the cytotoxic maytansinoid, DM1, is an effective treatment for HER2-positive breast cancer that has progressed on other HER2-directed therapies. Both pertuzumab and T-DM1 are relatively well tolerated. This review presents the mechanisms of action as well as phase I, II and III clinical data describing the safety and efficacy of pertuzumab and T-DM1 for HER2-positive breast cancer. PMID:25568875

  14. Positive Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Rashid, Tayyab; Parks, Acacia C.

    2006-01-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported…

  15. HIV Antibody Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... next test to perform is a HIV-1 RNA test (nucleic acid amplification test, NAAT). If the HIV-1 RNA is positive, then the test is considered positive. ^ ... HIV-2 differentiation test and a DNA or RNA-based nucleic acid amplification test in persons with ...

  16. Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia Antibody Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... will be limited. Search Help? Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia Antibody Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... antibody? 1. Can the heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) antibody test be done in my doctor’s office? No. ...

  17. Endogenous Antibodies for Tumor Detection

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Barrie S.; Honeyman, Joshua N.; Darcy, David G.; Smith, Peter T.; Williams, Andrew R.; Lim, Irene Isabel P.; Johnson, Linda K.; Gönen, Mithat; Simon, Joel S.; LaQuaglia, Michael P.; Simon, Sanford M.

    2014-01-01

    The study of cancer immunology has provided diagnostic and therapeutic instruments through serum autoantibody biomarkers and exogenous monoclonal antibodies. While some endogenous antibodies are found within or surrounding transformed tissue, the extent to which this exists has not been entirely characterized. We find that in transgenic and xenograft mouse models of cancer, endogenous gamma immunoglobulin (IgG) is present at higher concentration in malignantly transformed organs compared to non-transformed organs in the same mouse or organs of cognate wild-type mice. The enrichment of endogenous antibodies within the malignant tissue provides a potential means of identifying and tracking malignant cells in vivo as they mutate and diversify. Exploiting these antibodies for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes is possible through the use of agents that bind endogenous antibodies. PMID:24875800

  18. Anti-CCR5 antibodies in sera of HIV-positive individuals 1 1 The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not reflect the official policy of the Department of Defense or other departments of the United States government

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edith Grene; Ligia A Pinto; Alan L Landay; Harold A Kessler; Stephanie A Anderson; Matthew J Dolan; Gene M Shearer

    2001-01-01

    One of the proposed mechanisms for resistance to human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection is the presence of antibodies against receptor for CC-chemokines (CCR5). These antibodies, detected in sera of uninfected individuals exposed to HIV, have been shown to downmodulate surface CCR5 in vivo and are able to neutralize the infectivity of CCR5 strains in vitro. To address the potential role

  19. Prevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Antibodies in Dental Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodu, Brad; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study of 125 sophomore preclinical dental students found that these young professionals, because of having a low prevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) antibodies, are at risk for acquiring a primary HSV infection when treating HSV positive patients and should take precautions to avoid virus transmission. (MSE)

  20. DISPATCHES Ebola Virus Antibodies in Fruit Bats, Bangladesh

    E-print Network

    Kevin J. Olival; Ariful Islam; Meng Yu; Simon J. Anthony; Jonathan H. Epstein; Shahneaz Ali Khan; Salah Uddin Khan; Gary Crameri; Lin-fa Wang; W. Ian Lipkin; Stephen P. Luby; Peter Daszak; Ebola Virus; Lloviu Ebola Virus

    To determine geographic range for Ebola virus, we tested 276 bats in Bangladesh. Five (3.5%) bats were positive for antibodies against Ebola Zaire and Reston viruses; no virus was detected by PCR. These bats might be a reservoir for Ebola or Ebola-like viruses, and extend the range of filoviruses

  1. SINGLE CHAIN ANTIBODY WITH SPECIFICITY FOR LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single chain antibody (scFv) fragments exhibiting specific binding to Listeria monocytogenes strains were isolated from a pool of random scFv fragments expressed on the surface of filamentous bacteriophage. Positive selection (panning) using L. monocytogenes was used to enrich for phage clones with...

  2. Micromechanical antibody sensor

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN); Jacobson, K. Bruce (Oak Ridge, TN); Doktycz, Mitchel J. (Knoxville, TN); Kennel, Stephen J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Warmack, Robert J. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A sensor apparatus is provided using a microcantilevered spring element having a coating of a detector molecule such as an antibody or antigen. A sample containing a target molecule or substrate is provided to the coating. The spring element bends in response to the stress induced by the binding which occurs between the detector and target molecules. Deflections of the cantilever are detected by a variety of detection techniques. The microcantilever may be approximately 1 to 200 .mu.m long, approximately 1 to 50 .mu.m wide, and approximately 0.3 to 3.0 .mu.m thick. A sensitivity for detection of deflections is in the range of 0.01 nanometers.

  3. Delivery of antibodies to the cytosol: debunking the myths.

    PubMed

    Marschall, Andrea L J; Zhang, Congcong; Frenzel, André; Schirrmann, Thomas; Hust, Michael; Perez, Franck; Dübel, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The use of antibodies to target their antigens in living cells is a powerful analytical tool for cell biology research. Not only can molecules be localized and visualized in living cells, but interference with cellular processes by antibodies may allow functional analysis down to the level of individual post-translational modifications and splice variants, which is not possible with genetic or RNA-based methods. To utilize the vast resource of available antibodies, an efficient system to deliver them into the cytosol from the outside is needed. Numerous strategies have been proposed, but the most robust and widely applicable procedure still remains to be identified, since a quantitative ranking of the efficiencies has not yet been done. To achieve this, we developed a novel efficiency evaluation method for antibody delivery based on a fusion protein consisting of a human IgG 1 Fc and the recombination enzyme Cre (Fc-Cre). Applied to suitable GFP reporter cells, it allows the important distinction between proteins trapped in endosomes and those delivered to the cytosol. Further, it ensures viability of positive cells and is unsusceptible to fixation artifacts and misinterpretation of cellular localization in microscopy and flow cytometry. Very low cytoplasmic delivery efficiencies were found for various profection reagents and membrane penetrating peptides, leaving electroporation as the only practically useful delivery method for antibodies. This was further verified by the successful application of this method to bind antibodies to cytosolic components in living cells. PMID:24848507

  4. Induction of immunity to a human tumor marker by in vivo administration of anti-idiotypic antibodies in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Nepom, G T; Nelson, K A; Holbeck, S L; Hellström, I; Hellström, K E

    1984-01-01

    Anti-idiotypic antibodies are described that were raised against murine monoclonal antibody 8.2, an antibody specific for a human melanoma-associated cell surface marker called p97. The 8.2 idiotopes recognized by this anti-idiotypic antiserum are binding site-associated and are shared by other monoclonal anti-p97 antibodies with the same specificity as antibody 8.2. Mice immunized with the anti-idiotype demonstrate delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions when challenged with melanoma (p97-positive) tumor cells. PMID:6609369

  5. Repeated Acetylcholine Receptor Antibody-Concentrations and Association to Clinical Myasthenia Gravis Development

    PubMed Central

    Heldal, Anne Taraldsen; Eide, Geir Egil; Romi, Fredrik; Owe, Jone Furlund; Gilhus, Nils Erik

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to examine the longitudinal association between Myasthenia Gravis (MG) clinical severity and concentration of acetylcholine receptor (AChR)-antibodies to evaluate if AChR-antibody variations correlate to disease severity. A positive AChR-antibody test is specific for MG. Material and Methods All patients from western Norway who had two or more AChR- antibody tests in the period 1983–2013 were identified. The Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) Clinical Classification was used to grade disease development. Multiple ordinal logistic regression analysis was used to estimate a possible predictive effect for AChR-antibody concentration on MGFA classification result. Results In 67 patients two or more AChR-antibody tests with a corresponding MGFA-score were performed, with a total of 309 tests. 56 patients were treated with immunosuppressive drugs and 11 by pyridostigmine only. There was a positive association between concentration of AChR-antibodies and longitudinal MGFA-score for the subgroup with immunosuppressive treatment, but not for those treated with pyridostigmine only. This association between AChR-antibody concentration and MGFA score declined with increasing time since onset (p?=?0.005 for the interaction of group×time×concentration). Conclusions For MG patients with immunosuppressive treatment, repeated AChR-antibody measurements give information about clinical development, and can therefore be of support in therapeutic decisions. PMID:25464006

  6. Voltage gated calcium channel antibody-related neurological diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bekircan-Kurt, Can Ebru; Derle Çiftçi, Eda; Kurne, Asl? Tuncer; Anlar, Banu

    2015-01-01

    Voltage gated calcium channel (VGCC) antibodies are generally associated with Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome. However the presence of this antibody has been associated with paraneoplastic as well as non-paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration. Most patients with VGCC-antibody-positivity have small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is an autoimmune disease of the presynaptic part of the neuromuscular junction. Its classical clinical triad is proximal muscle weakness, areflexia and autonomic dysfunction. Fifty to sixty percent of LEMS patients have a neoplasia, usually SCLC. The co-occurrence of SCLC and LEMS causes more severe and progressive disease and shorter survival than non-paraneoplastic LEMS. Treatment includes 3,4 diaminopyridine for symptomatic purposes and immunotherapy with prednisolone, azathioprine or intravenous immunoglobulin in patients unresponsive to 3,4 diaminopyridine. Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) is a syndrome characterized with severe, subacute pancerebellar dysfunction. Serum is positive for VGCC antibody in 41%-44% of patients, usually with the co-occurrence of SCLC. Clinical and electrophysiological features of LEMS are also present in 20%-40% of these patients. Unfortunately, PCD symptoms do not improve with immunotherapy. The role of VGCC antibody in the immunopathogenesis of LEMS is well known whereas its role in PCD is still unclear. All patients presenting with LEMS or PCD must be investigated for SCLC. PMID:25789302

  7. Hemadsorption immunosorbent technique for determination of rubella immunoglobulin M antibody.

    PubMed Central

    van der Logt, J T; van Loon, A M; van der Veen, J

    1981-01-01

    A highly specific and sensitive hemadsorption immunosorbent technique for measuring rubella immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody is described. IgM from human sera was absorbed into anti-human IgM-coated wells in plates and rubella-specific IgM was detected by adding rubella virus hemagglutinin and a small quantity of sheep erythrocytes. Centrifugation of the plates facilitated reading of the test. Specific IgM-positive sera showed hemadsorption, whereas negative sera showed hemagglutination. Rheumatoid factor and rubella-specific IgG antibody did not interfere with the results. The test was clearly more sensitive than the solid-phase immunosorbent technique for detection of rubella IgM antibody by hemagglutination inhibition and at least as sensitive as the hemagglutination inhibition test on IgM fractions from a sucrose density gradient and the indirect immunofluorescence test for IgM antibody with absorbed serum. All of 40 sera from 17 rubella patients taken 4 to 49 days after the onset of rash were positive in the new test, with antibody titers ranging from 2,560 to 81,920 between 4 and 28 days. The test is reliable, practical, and suitable for general diagnostic use. Images PMID:7016893

  8. Voltage gated calcium channel antibody-related neurological diseases.

    PubMed

    Bekircan-Kurt, Can Ebru; Derle Çiftçi, Eda; Kurne, Asl? Tuncer; Anlar, Banu

    2015-03-16

    Voltage gated calcium channel (VGCC) antibodies are generally associated with Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome. However the presence of this antibody has been associated with paraneoplastic as well as non-paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration. Most patients with VGCC-antibody-positivity have small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is an autoimmune disease of the presynaptic part of the neuromuscular junction. Its classical clinical triad is proximal muscle weakness, areflexia and autonomic dysfunction. Fifty to sixty percent of LEMS patients have a neoplasia, usually SCLC. The co-occurrence of SCLC and LEMS causes more severe and progressive disease and shorter survival than non-paraneoplastic LEMS. Treatment includes 3,4 diaminopyridine for symptomatic purposes and immunotherapy with prednisolone, azathioprine or intravenous immunoglobulin in patients unresponsive to 3,4 diaminopyridine. Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) is a syndrome characterized with severe, subacute pancerebellar dysfunction. Serum is positive for VGCC antibody in 41%-44% of patients, usually with the co-occurrence of SCLC. Clinical and electrophysiological features of LEMS are also present in 20%-40% of these patients. Unfortunately, PCD symptoms do not improve with immunotherapy. The role of VGCC antibody in the immunopathogenesis of LEMS is well known whereas its role in PCD is still unclear. All patients presenting with LEMS or PCD must be investigated for SCLC. PMID:25789302

  9. Presence of antibodies against rabies in wild boars.

    PubMed

    Vengušt, Gorazd; Hostnik, Peter; Cerovšek, Mojca; Cilenšek, Polona; Malovrh, Tadej

    2011-03-01

    Serum samples of 746 shot wild boars collected throughout Slovenia during the hunting season of 2005/2006 were examined for the presence of antibodies against rabies virus: 541 samples were collected in areas subjected to yearly antirabies vaccination, and 205 samples were collected in areas where preventive antirabies vaccination was not practised. Using a modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), in 209 out of 746 sera (28%) the levels of antibodies against rabies virus were higher than 0.5 IU/ml and deemed positive. A total of 173/541 (32%) and 36/205 (18%) samples were positive in the vaccinated and nonvaccinated areas, respectively. Further analysis of 191 out of the 746 samples using the fluorescent antibody virus neutralisation (FAVN) test revealed the presence of antibodies against rabies virus in 122/191 (64%) samples. This is the first extended research reporting that antibodies against rabies virus that originate from preventive oral vaccination targeting the fox population are present in wild boar. PMID:21354950

  10. Adjuvant Medical Therapy for HER2-Positive Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and chemotherapy, and HER2-directed treatment, such as trastuzumab (Herceptin). Each works on your cancer differently. Will ... HER2-positive breast cancer will receive chemotherapy and trastuzumab, the anti-HER2 antibody. Many studies have shown ...

  11. Monoclonal Antibody Specific for an Activated RAS Protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. P. Carney; D. Petit; P. Hamer; C. J. der; T. Finkel; G. M. Cooper; M. Lefebvre; H. Mobtaker; R. Delellis; A. S. Tischler; Y. Dayal; H. Wolfe; H. Rabin

    1986-01-01

    Activated RAS transforming genes that encode proteins (p21s) with amino acid substitutions at positions 12, 13, or 61 have been detected in 10-20% of human neoplasms. This report describes a monoclonal antibody (DWP) raised against a synthetic peptide corresponding to amino acids 5-16 of a mutated RAS gene encoding Val instead of Gly at position 12. DWP reacted in competition

  12. Prevalence of antibodies to Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi in wild canids from South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Rosypal, Alexa C; Tidwell, Richard R; Lindsay, David S

    2007-08-01

    Wild canids are reservoir hosts for Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi. The present study examined the prevalence of antibodies to these zoonotic parasites in a population of wild canids from a nonagricultural setting in South Carolina. Sera from 26 gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and 2 coyotes (Canis latrans) were examined for antibodies to L. infantum and T. cruzi using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test and commercially available parasite-specific immunochromatigraphic strip assays. Antibodies to L. infantum were not detected by either assay in gray foxes or coyotes. Two (8%) of 26 gray foxes were positive in both the T. cruzi immunofluorescent antibody and strip assays. Antibodies to T. cruzi were not detected in coyotes. Results from this study indicate that wild canids are exposed to T. cruzi, but not L. infantum. in this geographic region. PMID:17918387

  13. Positive emotions Some positive emotions

    E-print Network

    Cooper, Brenton G.

    Friendship Fulfillment Generosity Happiness Hope Joy Love Loyalty Passion Playfulness Pride Relief content, recording instances of happiness, interest, love and hope. They found that nuns who expressed hypothesis of positive emotions Fredrikson, 2003, Amer Sci, 91, 330-335. #12;Animal models of positive

  14. Rapid Isolation of Antibody from a Synthetic Human Antibody Library by Repeated Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting (FACS)

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Sung Sun; Bang, Hyun Bae; Kim, Young Hwan; Lee, Yong Jae; Jeong, Gu Min; Jeong, Ki Jun

    2014-01-01

    Antibodies and their derivatives are the most important agents in therapeutics and diagnostics. Even after the significant progress in the technology for antibody screening from huge libraries, it takes a long time to isolate an antibody, which prevents a prompt action against the spread of a disease. Here, we report a new strategy for isolating desired antibodies from a combinatorial library in one day by repeated fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). First, we constructed a library of synthetic human antibody in which single-chain variable fragment (scFv) was expressed in the periplasm of Escherichia coli. After labeling the cells with fluorescent antigen probes, the highly fluorescent cells were sorted by using a high-speed cell sorter, and these cells were reused without regeneration in the next round of sorting. After repeating this sorting, the positive clones were completely enriched in several hours. Thus, we screened the library against three viral antigens, including the H1N1 influenza virus, Hepatitis B virus, and Foot-and-mouth disease virus. Finally, the potential antibody candidates, which show KD values between 10 and 100 nM against the target antigens, could be successfully isolated even though the library was relatively small (?106). These results show that repeated FACS screening without regeneration of the sorted cells can be a powerful method when a rapid response to a spreading disease is required. PMID:25303314

  15. Beta cell and insulin antibodies in treated and untreated diabetic cats.

    PubMed

    Hoenig, M; Reusch, C; Peterson, M E

    2000-11-23

    Beta cell and insulin antibodies are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes in human patients. Beta cell antibodies have also been found in about 50% of newly diagnosed diabetic dogs. This study's objective was to examine these antibodies' role in feline diabetes. The serum of 26 newly diagnosed untreated diabetic cats, 29 cats on insulin therapy, 30 cats with diseases other than diabetes, and 30 healthy cats was examined for beta cell and insulin antibodies. For beta cell antibody testing, purified beta cells from a radiation-induced transplantable rat insulinoma were used. Serum from cats in which anti-beta cell antibodies were induced by injecting a purified beta cell suspension subcutaneously was used as a positive control. Following incubation with test sera, fluorescein-labeled anti-cat immunoglobulins were used to visualize binding between the beta cells and cat gamma globulins. Each serum was tested on two different tumor preparations. For the detection of insulin antibodies, a charcoal separation method was used. It was found that none of the healthy cats, none of the newly diagnosed, untreated diabetic cats and none of the cats with diseases other than diabetes had antibodies against beta cells or against endogenous insulin. Four diabetic cats (14%) that had been treated with different insulin preparations had insulin antibodies. It is concluded that immune-mediated processes are not causing diabetes in the cat. Further studies are needed to evaluate if antibodies directed against exogenous insulin alter the response of diabetic cats to insulin. PMID:11068068

  16. Human monoclonal antibody with dual GM2/GD2 specificity derived from an immunized melanoma patient.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, H; Furukawa, K; Fortunato, S R; Livingston, P O; Lloyd, K O; Oettgen, H F; Old, L J

    1990-05-01

    GM2 ganglioside is a common cell surface constituent of human melanoma and other tumors of neuroectodermal origin, and vaccination with GM2 ganglioside results in high levels of anti-GM2 antibodies in patients with melanoma. Lymphocytes from a GM2-vaccinated patient (VS) were transformed by Epstein-Barr virus and tested for production of antibodies with reactivity for GM2-positive tumor cells. A high percentage of antibody-producing B cells was detected, but antibody reactivity was generally lost during culture expansion. Two cultures, however, remained stable for antibody productivity and one was used to develop a stable hybrid line with mouse myeloma. The monoclonal antibody (designated 3-207) derived from patient VS has dual specificity for GM2 and GD2, despite the fact that only GM2 antibody could be detected in the patient's serum. Monoclonal antibody 3-207 shows high-titered reactivity with a range of melanoma, astrocytoma, neuroblastoma, and leukemia cell lines, cells with prominent cell surface expression of GM2 and GD2. The cell surface reactivity of monoclonal antibody 3-207 was not abolished by treatment of target cells with neuraminidase, as the enzyme converted GD2 to GM2, which was still detected by monoclonal antibody 3-207. PMID:2159145

  17. Fully Human Antagonistic Antibodies against CCR4 Potently Inhibit Cell Signaling and Chemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Géraudie, Solène; Scheffler, Ulrike; Griep, Remko A.; Reiersen, Herald; Duncan, Alexander R.; Kiprijanov, Sergej M.

    2014-01-01

    Background CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) represents a potentially important target for cancer immunotherapy due to its expression on tumor infiltrating immune cells including regulatory T cells (Tregs) and on tumor cells in several cancer types and its role in metastasis. Methodology Using phage display, human antibody library, affinity maturation and a cell-based antibody selection strategy, the antibody variants against human CCR4 were generated. These antibodies effectively competed with ligand binding, were able to block ligand-induced signaling and cell migration, and demonstrated efficient killing of CCR4-positive tumor cells via ADCC and phagocytosis. In a mouse model of human T-cell lymphoma, significant survival benefit was demonstrated for animals treated with the newly selected anti-CCR4 antibodies. Significance For the first time, successful generation of anti- G-protein coupled chemokine receptor (GPCR) antibodies using human non-immune library and phage display on GPCR-expressing cells was demonstrated. The generated anti-CCR4 antibodies possess a dual mode of action (inhibition of ligand-induced signaling and antibody-directed tumor cell killing). The data demonstrate that the anti-tumor activity in vivo is mediated, at least in part, through Fc-receptor dependent effector mechanisms, such as ADCC and phagocytosis. Anti-CC chemokine receptor 4 antibodies inhibiting receptor signaling have potential as immunomodulatory antibodies for cancer. PMID:25080123

  18. Antibody-mediated inhibition of ricin toxin retrograde transport.

    PubMed

    Yermakova, Anastasiya; Klokk, Tove Irene; Cole, Richard; Sandvig, Kirsten; Mantis, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    Ricin is a member of the ubiquitous family of plant and bacterial AB toxins that gain entry into the cytosol of host cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and retrograde traffic through the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). While a few ricin toxin-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been identified, the mechanisms by which these antibodies prevent toxin-induced cell death are largely unknown. Using immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and a TGN-specific sulfation assay, we demonstrate that 24B11, a MAb against ricin's binding subunit (RTB), associates with ricin in solution or when prebound to cell surfaces and then markedly enhances toxin uptake into host cells. Following endocytosis, however, toxin-antibody complexes failed to reach the TGN; instead, they were shunted to Rab7-positive late endosomes and LAMP-1-positive lysosomes. Monovalent 24B11 Fab fragments also interfered with toxin retrograde transport, indicating that neither cross-linking of membrane glycoproteins/glycolipids nor the recently identified intracellular Fc receptor is required to derail ricin en route to the TGN. Identification of the mechanism(s) by which antibodies like 24B11 neutralize ricin will advance our fundamental understanding of protein trafficking in mammalian cells and may lead to the discovery of new classes of toxin inhibitors and therapeutics for biodefense and emerging infectious diseases. IMPORTANCE Ricin is the prototypic member of the AB family of medically important plant and bacterial toxins that includes cholera and Shiga toxins. Ricin is also a category B biothreat agent. Despite ongoing efforts to develop vaccines and antibody-based therapeutics against ricin, very little is known about the mechanisms by which antibodies neutralize this toxin. In general, it is thought that antibodies simply prevent toxins from attaching to cell surface receptors or promote their clearance through Fc receptor (FcR)-mediated uptake. In this report, however, we describe a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (MAb) against ricin's binding subunit (RTB) that not only associates with ricin after the toxin has bound to the cell's surface but actually enhances toxin uptake into host cells. Following endocytosis, the antibody-toxin complexes are then routed for degradation. The results of this study are important because they reveal a previously unappreciated role for B-subunit-specific antibodies in intracellular neutralization of ricin toxin. PMID:24713323

  19. Positive Proof.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoffrey

    1988-01-01

    Presents experiments which show that in electrostatics there are logical reasons for describing charged materials as positive or negative. Indicates that static and current electricity are not separate areas of physics. Diagrams of experiments and circuits are included. (RT)

  20. Flow cytometry study on the effect of serum and peritoneal fluid of women on sperm-binding activity of immunoglobulin G antisperm antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marina A. Nikolaeva; Vladimir I. Kulakov; Irina A. Goukasian; Roza D. Philippova; Irina V. Korotkova; Gennady T. Sukhikh

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of sera and peritoneal fluids (PFs) from fertile and infertile women on the binding of antisperm antibodies to the surface of spermatozoa.Design: The immunoglobulin (Ig) G antisperm antibodies binding to the surface of live spermatozoa was evaluated after their incubation in antisperm antibodies-positive serum from an infertile male in the presence and absence of female

  1. Radiographic positioning

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, R.L.; Dennis, C.A.; May, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book concentrates on the routine radiographic examinations commonly performed. It details the wide variety of examinations possible and their place in initial learning and in the radiology department as references for those occasions when an unusual examination is requested. This book provides information ranging from basic terminology to skeletal positioning to special procedures. Positions are discussed and supplemented with a picture of a patient, the resulting radiograph, and a labeled diagram. Immobilization and proper shielding of the patient are also shown.

  2. Restricted diversity of antigen binding residues of antibodies revealed by computational alanine scanning of 227 antibody-antigen complexes.

    PubMed

    Robin, Gautier; Sato, Yoshiteru; Desplancq, Dominique; Rochel, Natacha; Weiss, Etienne; Martineau, Pierre

    2014-11-11

    Antibody molecules are able to recognize any antigen with high affinity and specificity. To get insight into the molecular diversity at the source of this functional diversity, we compiled and analyzed a non-redundant aligned collection of 227 structures of antibody-antigen complexes. Free energy of binding of all the residue side chains was quantified by computational alanine scanning, allowing the first large-scale quantitative description of antibody paratopes. This demonstrated that as few as 8 residues among 30 key positions are sufficient to explain 80% of the binding free energy in most complexes. At these positions, the residue distribution is not only different from that of other surface residues but also dependent on the role played by the side chain in the interaction, residues participating in the binding energy being mainly aromatic residues, and Gly or Ser otherwise. To question the generality of these binding characteristics, we isolated an antibody fragment by phage display using a biased synthetic repertoire with only two diversified complementarity-determining regions and solved its structure in complex with its antigen. Despite this restricted diversity, the structure demonstrated that all complementarity-determining regions were involved in the interaction with the antigen and that the rules derived from the natural antibody repertoire apply to this synthetic binder, thus demonstrating the robustness and universality of our results. PMID:25174334

  3. Anti-Ganglioside Antibodies in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Kollewe, Katja; Wurster, Ulrich; Sinzenich, Thomas; Körner, Sonja; Dengler, Reinhard; Mohammadi, Bahram; Petri, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Background Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder with typical onset in the 5th- 6th decade of life. The hypothesis of an autoimmune origin of ALS receives less attention today, but immunological phenomena still seem to be involved and mechanisms such as protective autoimmunity may be important. Detection of antibodies against a variety of gangliosides has been repeatedly described in ALS-patients by several authors, but widely differing frequencies and titres have been reported. Therefore, we investigated the presence of six common antibodies with a commercially available test panel for GA1, GM1, GM2, GD1a, GD1b and GQ1b in a large group of clinically well-characterized ALS patients and compared them to a collective of 200 healthy blood donors. Methods IgG and IgM antibodies to the six gangliosides asialoGM1 (GA1), GM1, GM2, GD1a, GD1b, GQ1b were determined by GanglioCombi ELISA in sera of 84 ALS patients. Results were expressed as a %-ratio of a highly positive control and categorized as negative (<30%), borderline (30–50%), moderately (50–100%) and strongly positive (>100%). The values obtained from 200 Swiss blood donors served as a reference group. Results In twenty-two (26.2%) ALS-patients elevated anti-ganglioside antibodies could be detected: Taking all subspecific antibodies together, IgG antibodies were found in 9/84 (10.7%) and IgM in 15/84 (17.9%) patients. There was no correlation between age, gender, site of onset or survival and anti-ganglioside-positive/-negative titres in ALS-patients. No statistically significant difference in the frequency of anti-ganglioside antibodies compared to the group of healthy blood donors was found. Conclusion Even with this more comprehensive approach, anti-ganglioside antibody frequencies and patterns in our ALS cohort closely resembled the values measured in healthy controls. In accordance with other studies, we did not observe any association of a distinct ALS phenotype with elevated anti-ganglioside antibodies or an impact on survival. PMID:25875836

  4. Avian reovirus antibody assay by indirect immunofluorescence using plastic microculture plates.

    PubMed Central

    Ide, P R

    1982-01-01

    An indirect fluorescent antibody test was developed to detect serum antibody to avian reovirus strain WVU2937. This test employed small multiple well plastic plates (8 x 5.5 cm) which readily fitted into the standard mechanical stage mechanism of an incident light fluorescence microscope. The small wells of the plates required minimal (10 muL) volumes of reagents. In tests on 18 sera in which the indirect fluorescent antibody, agar gel precipitin and plaque reduction methods were compared sera which gave negative results in the agar gel precipitin test were sometimes positive in the indirect fluorescent antibody and plaque reduction test, but indirect fluorescent antibody titers were lower than plaque reduction test titers. No false positive reactions were detected in 46 sera from uninoculated specific pathogen free chicks of up to eight weeks of age. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:6462191

  5. Anti–JC virus antibody levels in serum or plasma further define risk of natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Plavina, Tatiana; Subramanyam, Meena; Bloomgren, Gary; Richman, Sandra; Pace, Amy; Lee, Sophia; Schlain, Brian; Campagnolo, Denise; Belachew, Shibeshih; Ticho, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Objective The increased risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) with natalizumab treatment is associated with the presence of anti–JC virus (JCV) antibodies. We analyzed whether anti-JCV antibody levels, measured as index, may further define PML risk in seropositive patients. Methods The association between serum or plasma anti-JCV antibody levels and PML risk was examined in anti-JCV antibody–positive multiple sclerosis (MS) patients from natalizumab clinical studies and postmarketing sources. For PML and non-PML patients, the probabilities of having an index below and above a range of anti-JCV antibody index thresholds were calculated using all available data and applied to the PML risk stratification algorithm. Longitudinal stability of anti-JCV antibody index was also evaluated. Results Anti-JCV antibody index data were available for serum/plasma samples collected >6 months prior to PML diagnosis from 71 natalizumab-treated PML patients and 2,522 non-PML anti-JCV antibody–positive patients. In patients with no prior immunosuppressant use, anti-JCV antibody index distribution was significantly higher in PML patients than in non-PML patients (p?antibody negative at baseline in the AFFIRM and STRATIFY-1 trials, 97% remained consistently negative or below an index threshold of 1.5 over 18 months. Retrospective analyses of pre-PML samples collected longitudinally from PML patients displayed sustained higher anti-JCV antibody index over time. Interpretation Anti-JCV antibody levels in serum/plasma, measured as index, may differentiate PML risk in anti-JCV antibody–positive MS patients with no prior immunosuppressant use. Continued evaluation of anti-JCV antibody index and PML risk is warranted. Ann Neurol 2014;76:802–812 PMID:25273271

  6. Localization of malignant melanoma using monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Wasselle, J.; Becker, J.; Cruse, W.; Espinosa, C.; Cox, C.; Reintgen, D. (Univ. of South Florida, Tampa (USA))

    1991-04-01

    Finding a screening test to evaluate patients with cancer for occult metastatic disease, as well as imaging all known disease, is a goal of research efforts. Twenty-nine evaluable patients with deeply invasive (stage I), regional nodal (stage II), or systemic (stage III) melanoma underwent imaging by administration of a preparation of the antimelanoma antibody labeled with technetium 99m. Scan results indicated that 28 of 32 confirmed metastatic sites were imaged with this technique (88% sensitivity). Analysis of the individual positive sites revealed that nodal basins and visceral metastases accounted for the highest percentage of metastatic sites imaged, with 14 (88%) of 16 nodal basin metastases and all four visceral metastases being detected through imaging. Occult nodal disease was detected in the iliac nodal chain in two of the 29 patients. The imaging of benign tumors and nodal basins not containing disease accounted for a confirmed false-positive rate of 21%. Three (10%) of the 29 scan results were confirmed to be false-negative. In vivo tumor localization with monoclonal antibodies showed a sensitivity similar to that of other roentgenographic procedures for identifying metastatic disease and was useful in two of three patients in identifying occult iliac nodal disease, a region that is difficult to evaluate with physical examination and other imaging modalities.

  7. Reducing heterophilic antibody interference in immunoassays using single chain antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, Cheryl L.; Tan, Ruimin; Fischer, Christopher J.; Victry, Kristin D.; Zangar, Richard C.; Rodland, Karin D.

    2011-12-15

    Sandwich ELISA microarrays have the potential to simultaneously quantify the levels of multiple diagnostic targets in a biological sample. However, as seen with traditional ELISA diagnostics, heterophilic antibodies (HA) in patient sera have the potential to cause interference in these assays. We demonstrate here that reducing the diagnostic capture antibody to its minimal functional unit, the variable heavy and light domains artificially connected with a short polypeptide linker (scFv), is an effective strategy for reducing the HA assay interference.

  8. Toxoplasma antibodies among bobcats and other carnivores of norther California.

    PubMed

    Riemann, H P; Howarth, J A; Ruppanner, R; Franti, C E; BEHYMER, D E

    1975-04-01

    The prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was investigated among five species of wild carnivores in Norther Ccalifornia. The highest prevalence was among bobcats (Lynx rufus), with 15 of 21 tested being serologically positive. Other results included serological evidence of toxoplasmosis in two of seven raccoons (Procyon lotor), one of three badgers (taxidea taxus) and two of three coyotes (Canis latrans). Two gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) were serologically negative. Oone badger with an indirect hemagglutination antibody titer of 1:8192 was found to harbor T. gondii in its brain tissues. PMID:1142562

  9. Antimyelin antibodies and the risk of relapse in patients with a primary demyelinating event

    PubMed Central

    Rauer, S; Euler, B; Reindl, M; Berger, Th

    2006-01-01

    Aim To investigate whether the presence of serum antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) and myelin basic protein (MBP) in patients with a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) predicts the interval to develop more frequently and earlier a first relapse (clinically definite multiple sclerosis: CDMS) than seronegative patients. Methods Sera from 45 patients with a CIS and positive intrathecal IgG?synthesis were retrospectively tested for the presence of IgM antibodies against both MOG and MBP. Antibodies were detected by immunoblot using recombinant MOG (1–125) and human MBP antigen preparations. Clinical follow ups were performed retrospectively by telephone interviews and documented neurological examination. Results Using the Cox proportional hazards model there was no significant increased risk for developing CDMS in anti?MOG and anti?MBP positive patients compared with negative. However regarding the median of the time span between CIS and CDMS over the whole follow up, antibody positive patients (MOG/MBP +/+) developed significantly earlier relapses (median 5.5 months (range 3–20)) than the antibody negative ones (median 25.0 months (range 7–43); p<0.006). On testing sera from 56 apparently healthy students, quite high frequencies of anti?MOG and anti?MBP antibodies (21% and 28% respectively) were detected. This limited specificity of anti?MOG and anti?MBP antibodies has been seen earlier and restricts their diagnostic relevance in MS despite their role as a predictor of relapses after a CIS. Conclusions This study confirms previous data only in a subanalysis indicating that patients with positive anti?MOG/MBP antibodies develop earlier relapses than patients who are antibody negative. However, the authors could not verify that the presence of these antibodies anticipates the overall risk of developing CDMS—according to study criteria—after a first demyelinating event within the study period of 21–106 months (mean 60 (SD 25)). PMID:16705196

  10. Anti-phospholipase A2 receptor antibody in idiopathic membranous nephropathy: A report from Iranian population

    PubMed Central

    Ardalan, MohammadReza; Ghafari, Ali; Hamzavi, Fatemeh; Nasri, Hamid; Baradaran, Behrooz; Majidi, Jafar; Nikbin, Behrooz

    2013-01-01

    Background: Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy (iMN) is the most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults. Approximately one third of patients with iMN progress to end-stage renal disease. Anti-phospholipase A2-receptor (anti-PLA2R) antibodies are present in patients with iMN and appear to play a role in the pathogenesis of iMN. Objectives: In this study, we explored the prevalence of anti-PLA2R antibodies in a cohort of patients with iMN in Iran. We also sought to determine circulating levels of anti-secretory PLA2 (anti-sPLA2) antibodies in those with anti-PLA2R antibodies. Patients and Methods: Using an indirect immunofluorescence assay, we measured anti-PLA2R antibodies in a group of patients with iMN in Iran. The serum levels of anti-sPLA2 antibodies were also measured in those with positive results for anti-PLA2R antibodies. Results: We studied 23 patients with iMN (M/F 12/11, 34±9.8 year), two patients with secondary MN and five patients  with the nephrotic syndrome of other causes.Anti-PLA2R antibodies were detected in 17/23 (74%) of patients with iMN, but not in those with secondary MN or other forms of primary glomerular diseases. We found no correlation between anti-PLA2R antibody titer and the degree of proteinuria. We found high titers of anti-sPLA2 antibodies in a subset of patients with high levels of anti-PLA2R antibodies. Conclusions: Anti-PLA2R antibodies are specific for iMN. Proteinuria may also reflect glomerular structural damage rather than immunological activity of the disease. The preliminary idea of any presumptive role of anti-sPLA2antibodies in iMN needs further  investigation. PMID:24475456

  11. Schmallenberg virus antibody persistence in adult cattle after natural infection and decay of maternal antibodies in calves

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Schmallenberg virus (SBV) has swept through the major part of Europe in the period 2011–2013. A vaccine against SBV has been developed and may be a possible preventive instrument against infection. Presently, there is no data available to refute the assumption that natural SBV infection results in long-term immunity. In that respect, it is of interest to know how long (protecting) virus-neutralizing antibodies are present in naturally infected animals. New-born calves acquire passive immunity from their dams by ingestion and absorption of antibodies present in colostrum, which can block the production of serum antibodies when vaccine is administered to calves with maternally derived antibodies. In that respect, it is useful to know how long it takes for maternal antibodies against SBV to disappear in young animals born from infected dams. Results Longitudinal whole-herd serological monitoring using virus neutralization test (VNT) indicated that 80% of adult dairy cows still had measurable antibodies against SBV at least 24 months after the estimated introduction of the virus into the herd. Median 2Log VNT titer of the adult dairy cows (?1 year) dropped from 8.6 to 5.6 in a period of 17 months. Median 2Log VNT maternal antibodies titers of calves sampled within 30 days after birth was 8. Calves lost their maternally-derived antibodies after 5–6 months. There was a definite positive relationship between the VNT titer of the dam and the VNT titer of the corresponding calf (age ? 30 days) of dam-calf combinations sampled on the same day: the higher the VNT titer of the dam, the higher the VNT titer (maternal antibodies) of the calf. Conclusions Our field data support the assumption that natural SBV infection in adult cows results in persistence of specific antibodies for at least two years. Based on the observed decay of maternally-derived antibodies in calves, it is presumed safe to vaccinate calves against SBV at an age of approximately 6 months. PMID:24885026

  12. Position indicator

    DOEpatents

    Tanner, David E. (Poway, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear reactor system is described in which a position indicator is provided for detecting and indicating the position of a movable element inside a pressure vessel. The movable element may be a valve element or similar device which moves about an axis. Light from a light source is transmitted from a source outside the pressure vessel to a first region inside the pressure vessel in alignment with the axis of the movable element. The light is redirected by a reflector prism to a second region displaced radially from the first region. The reflector prism moves in response to movement of the movable element about its axis such that the second region moves arcuately with respect to the first region. Sensors are arrayed in an arc corresponding to the arc of movement of the second region and signals are transmitted from the sensors to the exterior of the reactor vessel to provide indication of the position of the movable element.

  13. Surface chemistries for antibody microarrays

    SciTech Connect

    Seurynck-Servoss, Shannon L.; Baird, Cheryl L.; Rodland, Karin D.; Zangar, Richard C.

    2007-05-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) microarrays promise to be a powerful tool for the detection of disease biomarkers. The original technology for printing ELISA microarray chips and capturing antibodies on slides was derived from the DNA microarray field. However, due to the need to maintain antibody structure and function when immobilized, surface chemistries used for DNA microarrays are not always appropriate for ELISA microarrays. In order to identify better surface chemistries for antibody capture, a number of commercial companies and academic research groups have developed new slide types that could improve antibody function in microarray applications. In this review we compare and contrast the commercially available slide chemistries, as well as highlight some promising recent advances in the field.

  14. Antibodies to Polynucleotides: Distribution in Human Serums

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Koffler; R. I. Carr; V. Agnello; T. Fiezi; H. G. Kunkel

    1969-01-01

    Hemagglutination procedures were used to determine the distribution of antibodies to native DNA, single-stranded DNA, and double-stranded RNA. Antibodies to all three polynucleotides were found in a high percentage of the serums of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Antibodies to native DNA occurred almost exclusively in serums of patients in the active stages of systemic lupus erythematosus, whereas antibodies to

  15. Human Monoclonal Antibody Against Mesothelin

    Cancer.gov

    Mesothelin is a cell surface protein that is naturally expressed at very low levels, but that is significantly increased in aggressive tumors such as mesotheliomas, and pancreatic and ovarian tumors. Therefore, mesothelin is an excellent candidate for tumor-targeted immunotherapeutics. However, the only antibodies against mesothelin that are currently available for clinical trials are of murine origin. The use of these antibodies may be limited by their potential to elicit adverse immune responses in patients with repeated doses.

  16. Antibodies to watch in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, Janice M

    2014-01-01

    Since 2010, mAbs has documented the biopharmaceutical industry’s progress in transitioning antibody therapeutics to first Phase 3 clinical studies and regulatory review, and its success at gaining first marketing approvals for antibody-based products. This installment of the “Antibodies to watch” series outlines events anticipated to occur between December 2013 and the end of 2014, including first regulatory actions on marketing applications for vedolizumab, siltuximab, and ramucirumab, as well as the Fc fusion proteins Factor IX-Fc and Factor VIII-Fc; and the submission of first marketing applications for up to five therapeutics (secukinumab, ch14.18, onartuzumab, necitumumab, gevokizumab). Antibody therapeutics in Phase 3 studies are described, with an emphasis on those with study completion dates in 2014, including antibodies targeting interleukin-17a or the interleukin-17a receptor (secukinumab, ixekizumab, brodalumab), proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (alirocumab, evolocumab, bococizumab), and programmed death 1 receptor (lambrolizumab, nivolumab). Five antibodies with US Food and Drug Administration’s Breakthrough Therapy designation (obinutuzumab, ofatumumab, lambrolizumab, bimagrumab, daratumumab) are also discussed. PMID:24284914

  17. Avian Diagnostic and Therapeutic Antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, David Sherman [UND SMHS] [UND SMHS

    2012-12-31

    A number of infectious agents have the potential of causing significant clinical symptomology and even death, but dispite this, the number of incidence remain below the level that supports producing a vaccine. Therapeutic antibodies provide a viable treatment option for many of these diseases. We proposed that antibodies derived from West Nile Virus (WNV) immunized geese would be able to treat WNV infection in mammals and potential humans. We demonstrated that WNV specific goose antibodies are indeed successful in treating WNV infection both prophylactically and therapeutically in a golden hamster model. We demonstrated that the goose derived antibodies are non-reactogenic, i.e. do not cause an inflammatory response with multiple exposures in mammals. We also developed both a specific pathogen free facility to house the geese during the antibody production phase and a patent-pending purification process to purify the antibodies to greater than 99% purity. Therefore, the success of these study will allow a cost effective rapidly producible therapeutic toward clinical testing with the necessary infrastructure and processes developed and in place.

  18. Novel antibodies as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Zafir-Lavie, I; Michaeli, Y; Reiter, Y

    2007-05-28

    In recent years antibodies, whether generated by traditional hybridoma technology or by recombinant DNA strategies, have evolved from Paul Ehrlich's 'magic bullets' to a modern age 'guided missile'. In the recent years of immunologic research, we are witnessing development in the fields of antigen screening and protein engineering in order to create specific anticancer remedies. The developments in the field of recombinant DNA, protein engineering and cancer biology have let us gain insight into many cancer-related mechanisms. Moreover, novel techniques have facilitated tools allowing unique distinction between malignantly transformed cells, and regular ones. This understanding has paved the way for the rational design of a new age of pharmaceuticals: monoclonal antibodies and their fragments. Antibodies can select antigens on both a specific and a high-affinity account, and further implementation of these qualities is used to target cancer cells by specifically identifying exogenous antigens of cancer cell populations. The structure of the antibody provides plasticity resonating from its functional sites. This review will screen some of the many novel antibodies and antibody-based approaches that are being currently developed for clinical applications as the new generation of anticancer agents. PMID:17530025

  19. Antibodies to watch in 2015.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Janice M

    2015-01-01

    The commercial pipeline of recombinant antibody therapeutics is robust and dynamic. As of early December 2014, a total of 6 such products (vedolizumab, siltuximab, ramucirumab, pembrolizumab, nivolumab, blinatumomab) were granted first marketing approvals in 2014. As discussed in this perspective on antibodies in late-stage development, the outlook for additional approvals, potentially still in 2014 and certainly in 2015, is excellent as marketing applications for 7 antibody therapeutics (secukinumab, evolocumab, mepolizumab, dinutuximab, nivolumab, blinatumomab, necitumumab) are undergoing a first regulatory review in the EU or US. Of the 39 novel mAbs currently in Phase 3 studies, a marketing application for one (alirocumab) may be submitted in late 2014, and marketing application submissions for at least 4 (reslizumab, ixekizumab, ocrelizumab, obiltoxaximab) are expected in 2015. Other 'antibodies to watch' are those in Phase 3 studies with estimated primary completion dates in late 2014 or 2015, which includes 13 for non-cancer indications (brodalumab, bimagrumab, bococizumab, MABp1, gevokizumab, dupilumab, sirukumab, sarilumab, tildrakizumab, guselkumab, epratuzumab, combination of actoxumab + bezlotoxumab, romosozumab) and 2 (racotumomab and clivatuzumab tetraxetan) undergoing evaluation as treatments for cancer. In addition to the novel antibody therapeutics mentioned, biosimilar infliximab and biosimilar trastuzumab are 'antibodies to watch' in 2015 because of their potential for entry into the US market and regulatory review, respectively. PMID:25484055

  20. Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    : Description: Paid/Unpaid: When: Hire International Students: No Career & Internship Fair October 22, 2013 are our top priority, and team members are our greatest asset! Computer Engineering, Computer Science a difference. This position requires the ability to work independently on projects with initial guidance from

  1. Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    profitability and identifying variances Experience ?General Accounting and Financial Analysis experience in this position is responsible for supporting the Finance group in the monthly closings, variance analysis, sales analysis and providing assistance to division Financial Analysts. ?Support Finance group in General

  2. Changing Positions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRose, Albert J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes one search for a middle- or upper-management academic library position within the context of concerns expressed by respondents in a 1985 survey of 1,400 American Library Association (ALA) members by Bernstein and Leach. Factors examined include locale; availability and salary; staff relations; the application; the screening process; and…

  3. Comparison of physical chemical properties of llama V HH antibody fragments and mouse monoclonal antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. J. van der Linden; L. G. J. Frenken; B. de Geus; M. M. Harmsen; R. C. Ruuls; W. Stok; L. de Ron; S. Wilson; P. Davis; C. T. Verrips

    1999-01-01

    Antigen specific llama VHH antibody fragments were compared to antigen specific mouse monoclonal antibodies with respect to specificity, affinity and stability. The llama VHH antibody fragments and the mouse monoclonal antibodies investigated were shown to be highly specific for the protein antigen hCG or the hapten antigen RR-6. The affinity of the interaction between monovalent llama VHH antibody fragments and

  4. /sup 123/I radioiodinated antibody imaging of occult ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Epenetos, A.A.; Shepherd, J.; Britton, K.E.; Mather, S.; Taylor-Papadimitriou, J.; Granowska, M.; Durbin, H.; Nimmon, C.C.; Hawkins, L.R.; Malpas, J.S.

    1985-03-01

    A monoclonal antibody HMFG2 labeled with iodine 123 was given to a patient who had ovarian cancer. The scan, taken 18 hours after administration of the antibody, demonstrated the presence and the position of residual tumor in the pelvis that was not previously detected by ultrasonography and computerized tomography (CT) scanning. The presence of the tumor was confirmed by surgery and histologic as well as immunoperoxidase examination of resected tissues. The tumor mass found was less than 0.8 cm in diameter. It is concluded that, in the search for residual or early ovarian cancer in the pelvis, monoclonal antibody scanning using /sup 123/I-labeled HMFG2 can complement ultrasonography and CT scanning.

  5. A technetium-labeled monoclonal antibody for imaging metastatic melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Frytak, S.; Creagan, E.T.; Brown, M.L.; Salk, D.; Nelp, W. (Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (USA))

    1991-04-01

    Twenty patients with histologically proven metastatic melanoma were scanned with a 99mtechnetium ({sup 99}mTc)-labeled melanoma antibody to determine the detection rate of known malignant lesions and to evaluate the antibody's ability to discover occult metastases. Isotope localization in different organs was as follows: liver 100%, bone 100%, subcutaneous lesions 80%, lymph nodes 54%, and lung 33%. Four unsuspected bone lesions and 16 occult subcutaneous lesions were found. False positive lesions were noted in two instances--one benign thyroid adenoma, and one arthritic bone lesion. One patient developed an atypical serum sickness reaction with a rash and arthralgias that responded rapidly to treatment. The {sup 99}mTc antimelanoma antibody is a safe and effective method to detect metastatic melanoma. It has potential use for screening newly diagnosed melanomas that carry an increased risk of recurrence.

  6. Detecting Lyme disease using antibody-functionalized carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dailey, Jennifer; Lerner, Mitchell; Goldsmith, Brett; Brisson, Dustin; Johnson, A. T. Charlie

    2011-03-01

    We combine antibodies for Lyme flagellar protein with carbon nanotube transistors to create an electronic sensor capable of definitive detection of Lyme disease. Over 35,000 cases of Lyme disease are reported in the United States each year, of which more than 23 percent are originally misdiagnosed. Rational design of the coupling of the biological system to the electronic system gives us a flexible sensor platform which we can apply to several biological systems. By coupling these antibodies to carbon nanotubes in particular, we allow for fast, sensitive, highly selective, electronic detection. Unlike antibody or biomarker detection, bacterial protein detection leads to positive identification of both early and late stage bacterial infections, and is easily expandable to environmental monitoring.

  7. Characteristics of HPV-Specific Antibody Responses Induced by Infection and Vaccination: Cross-Reactivity, Neutralizing Activity, Avidity and IgG Subclasses

    PubMed Central

    Scherpenisse, Mirte; Schepp, Rutger M.; Mollers, Madelief; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.; Berbers, Guy A. M.; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives In order to assess HPV-specific IgG characteristics, we evaluated multiple aspects of the humoral antibody response that will provide insight in the HPV humoral immune response induced by HPV infection and vaccination. Methods Cross-reactivity of HPV-specific antibodies induced by infection or vaccination was assessed with VLP16 or 18 inhibition using a VLP-based multiplex immunoassay (MIA) for HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58. HPV16/18 specific IgG1-4 subclasses and avidity were determined with the VLP-MIA in sera after HPV infection and after vaccination. Neutralizing antibodies were determined in a small subset of single-seropositive and multi-seropositive naturally derived antibodies. Results Naturally derived antibodies from single-positive sera were highly genotype-specific as homologue VLP-inhibition percentages varied between 78-94%. In multi-positive sera, cross-reactive antibodies were observed both within and between ?7 and ?9 species. After vaccination, cross-reactive antibodies were mainly species-specific. Avidity of vaccine-derived HPV-specific antibodies was 3 times higher than that of antibodies induced by HPV infection (p<0.0001). IgG1 and IgG3 were found to be the predominant subclasses observed after HPV infection and vaccination. In the small subset tested, the number of single-positive sera with neutralizing capacity was higher than of multi-positive sera. Conclusion Naturally derived HPV-specific antibodies from single-positive samples showed different characteristics in terms of cross-reactivity and neutralizing capacity compared with antibodies from multi-positive sera. Post-vaccination, HPV antibody avidity was approximately 3 times higher than antibody avidity induced by HPV infection. Therefore, antibody avidity might be a potential surrogate of protection. PMID:24058629

  8. Detection of circulating parasite antigen and specific antibody in Toxocara canis infections.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, B D; Burkot, T R; Gillespie, S H; Kennedy, M W; Wambai, Z; Maizels, R M

    1988-01-01

    Serological surveys, measuring humoral antibody responses, have indicated significant levels of human infection with the zoonotic nematode Toxocara canis, and raised concern about the resultant risk of ocular and neurological damage. Such measurements do not distinguish with certainty current infection from past exposure. Thus, we have developed a test for circulating Toxocara antigen released by parasites in the host. This monoclonal antibody-based two-site 'sandwich' assay discriminates between T. canis and the related feline ascarid T. cati, and has been used, in tandem with the standard ELISA, to examine experimental and human infections. In experimental animals, antigen is transiently detectable, disappearing when immunocomplexed with host antibody. Antigen was also found in sera from UK patients diagnosed with visceral or ocular toxocariasis, and in four asymptomatic Papua New Guinean children. In the latter population, individuals positive for parasite antigens were not necessarily positive for antibody, implying that some infected cases may be negative in the current diagnostic ELISA. The antibody test was also adapted to measure host antibody directed to single monoclonal antibody-defined epitopes, revealing evidence of differential temporal regulation of distinct antibody specificities. PMID:2465108

  9. Anti-voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.4 antibodies in myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Romi, Fredrik; Suzuki, Shigeaki; Suzuki, Norihiro; Petzold, Axel; Plant, Gordon T; Gilhus, Nils Erik

    2012-07-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease characterized by skeletal muscle weakness mainly caused by acetylcholine receptor antibodies. MG can be divided into generalized and ocular, and into early-onset (<50 years of age) and late-onset (?50 years of age). Anti-Kv1.4 antibodies targeting ?-subunits (Kv1.4) of the voltage-gated potassium K(+) channel occurs frequently among patients with severe MG, accounting for 18% of a Japanese MG population. The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical features and serological associations of anti-Kv1.4 antibodies in a Caucasian MG population with mild and localized MG. Serum samples from 129 Caucasian MG patients with mainly ocular symptoms were tested for the presence of anti-Kv1.4 antibodies and compared to clinical and serological parameters. There were 22 (17%) anti-Kv1.4 antibody-positive patients, most of them women with late-onset MG, and all of them with mild MG. This contrasts to the Japanese anti-Kv1.4 antibody-positive patients who suffered from severe MG with bulbar symptoms, myasthenic crisis, thymoma, myocarditis and prolonged QT time on electrocardiography, despite equal anti-Kv1.4 antibody occurrence in both populations. No other clinical or serological parameters influenced anti-Kv1.4 antibody occurrence. PMID:22167224

  10. Anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies may occur in patients with psoriatic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Vander, C; Hoffman, I; Zmierczak, H; Van den Berghe, M; Kruithof, E; De Rycke, L; Mielants, H; Veys, E; Baeten, D; De Keyser, F

    2005-01-01

    Background: Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies are considered highly specific markers of rheumatoid arthritis. Despite the high specificity of the test, anti-CCP antibodies have also been observed in psoriatic arthritis. Objective: To determine the frequency of anti-CCP antibodies in psoriatic arthritis and to describe the clinical characteristics of such patients. Methods: Serum samples from 192 patients with psoriatic arthritis were analysed for anti-CCP antibodies. A previously defined cut off point was applied at a specificity level of ?98.5% (42 U/ml). Antibodies against pepA and pepB (two synthetic citrullinated peptides) were determined on samples containing anti-CCP antibodies by line immune assay. The swollen joint count and the numbers of affected joints (present or past) were recorded. Clinical features were noted and if available radiographs of hands and feet were scored for erosions. Rheumatoid factor was determined in all samples. Results: Anti-CCP antibodies were found in 15 patients (7.8%); 13 of 15 anti-CCP2 positive samples were also positive for anti-pepA or pepB antibodies. The prevalence of anti-CCP antibodies was higher than expected in view of the highly specific cut off applied in the test. Detailed analysis of the clinical and radiological features makes it improbable that the high prevalence of anti-CCP antibodies resulted solely from concomitant psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis or from misclassification. Conclusions: Anti-CCP antibodies may be present in patients with psoriatic arthritis. Although some of the present cohort could have had psoriasis with concomitant rheumatoid arthritis, a proportion at least had the typical characteristics of psoriatic arthritis as the primary diagnosis. PMID:15695535

  11. Novel Monoclonal Antibodies against the Proximal (Carboxy-Terminal) Portions of MUC16

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Thapi Dharma; Park, Kay J.; Smith-Jones, Peter; Iasonos, Alexia; Linkov, Irina; Soslow, Robert A.; Spriggs, David R.

    2013-01-01

    The CA125 antigen, recognized by the OC125 antibody, is a tissue-specific, circulating antigen expressed in ovarian cancer. The CA125 antigen is encoded by the MUC16 gene, cloned by Lloyd and Yin. The full-length gene describes a complex tethered mucin protein present primarily in a variety of gynecologic tissues, especially neoplasms. OC125 and other related antibodies react with glycosylation-dependent antigens present exclusively in the cleaved portion of the molecule. These antibodies are not useful as screening tools, nor can they detect the proximal residual MUC16 protein fragment after cleavage. This has limited its diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Using synthetic peptides we raised novel-specific antibodies to the carboxy-terminal portion of MUC16, retained by the cell, proximal to the putative cleavage site. These antibodies were characterized using fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis, enzyme-linked immunoassay, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry. Each of the selected monoclonal antibodies was reactive against recombinant GST-?MUC16c114 protein and the MUC16 transfected SKOV3 cell line. Three antibodies, 4H11, 9C9, and 4A5 antibodies demonstrated high affinities by Western blot analysis and saturation-binding studies of transfected SKOV3 cells, and displayed antibody internalization. Immunohistochemical positivity with novel antibody 4H11 was similar to OC125, but with important differences, including diffuse positivity in lobular breast cancer and a small percentage of OC125-negative ovarian carcinomas that showed intense and diffuse 4H11. Development of such antibodies may be useful for the characterization of MUC16 biology and allow for future studies in targeted therapy and diagnostics. PMID:20453816

  12. Correlation of antibody multireactivity with variable region primary structure among murine anti-erythrocyte autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Conger, J D; Sage, H J; Corley, R B

    1992-03-01

    A high proportion of the antibodies in the preimmune repertoire bind to several unrelated antigens and are considered to be multireactive. This property is reportedly associated with the antibodies produced by CD5+ B lymphocytes. Because many antibodies specific for bromelain-treated mouse red blood cells (BrMRBC) derive from CD5+ B cells, we tested monoclonal antibodies of this specificity for multireactivity. Two variable region combinations, VH11/V kappa 9 and VH12/V kappa 4, account for greater than 80% of this repertoire, but none of these antibodies exhibited a multireactive phenotype. In contrast, three anti-BrMRBC binding antibodies belonging to the J558 family (BrM1, BrM8, and CH12) showed varying degrees of multireactivity, and bound both highly negatively and positively charged antigens. The amino acid sequences of the VH regions of these antibodies are highly homologous (greater than 85% identical) and they possess large VH-D-J junctions with extensive N-region insertions. The kappa chains of two of these antibodies utilize an identical V kappa gene segment, while the third uses a very different V kappa with only 50% homology. The entire H chain V regions of these antibodies are unusually basic, with isoelectric points of 9.5-10, a feature which might be important in promoting interactions with acidic epitopes. The multireactive antibodies also contain regions with a high concentration of hydroxylside chain amino acids, especially in their VH-D-J junctions. This region also contains acidic amino acid residues, which may be important in binding of positively charged epitopes. We propose that an open, accessible binding site and a charge polarity may be features which facilitate the binding of charged epitopes, providing a structural basis for multireactivity of at least some antibodies. PMID:1547822

  13. Screening and Identification of Unexpected Red Cell Antibodies by Simultaneous LISS/Coombs and NaCl/Enzyme Gel Methods

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jeong Hwan; Lee, Ja Young; Kim, Jae Hyen; Kim, Hye Ran

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the clinical usefulness of simultaneous LISS/Coombs and NaCl/Enzyme testing using the gel method for screening and identification of unexpected antibodies in 15,014 samples. When unexpected antibodies were detected by either screening test, those antibodies were identified using both the LISS/Coombs and the NaCl/Enzyme gel test. The positive screening rates of the LISS/Coombs, NaCl/Enzyme, and combined tests (excluding 25 autoantibody cases) were 0.48%, 1.29%, and 1.39%, respectively. Among the 57 samples positive by both screening methods, the antibodies in 19.3% could be identified only by the NaCl/Enzyme method. Among the 137 samples positive only by NaCl/Enzyme screening, 74.5% showed positive results in antibody identification only by the NaCl/Enzyme test, although 7.3% were also positive in the LISS/Coombs test. The NaCl/Enzyme method thus showed about threefold higher detection rates than the LISS/Coombs method, especially in screening for Rh antibodies, and higher exact identification rates and discriminatory power for identifying mixed antibodies. Addition of the NaCl/Enzyme method to routine laboratory procedures may detect and identify considerable numbers of significant antibodies that might be missed if only the LISS/Coombs method is used. PMID:19654944

  14. T-cell modulation of the antibody response to bacterial polysaccharide antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, C E; Bright, R

    1989-01-01

    Pretreatment of mice with subimmunogenic doses of meningococcal polysaccharide (MP), Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide (PA), or Streptococcus mutans polysaccharide (SM) resulted in suppression of antibody response. The transfer of putative suppressor T cells (Ts cells) from donor mice primed with a subimmunogenic dose of MP to naive recipients at the time of immunization with MP substantially reduced the magnitude of the antibody response. Also, the infusion of B cells taken from animals immunized with either MP or PA suppressed the antibody response of naive recipients to MP or PA, respectively, relative to controls, suggesting that Ts cells respond to determinants on immune B cells. We observed that the injection of concanavalin A or phytohemagglutinin (two lectins known to augment the activity of amplifier T cells [Ta cells]) 2 days postimmunization enhanced the antibody response to MP and SM. In addition, Ta-cell activity was transferred to naive animals by using spleen cells. Although the administration of phytohemagglutinin at the time of immunization with MP also resulted in increased antibody response, the injection of concanavalin A simultaneous with immunization resulted in a suppression of the antibody response to MP. Although Ts cells generated in response to pneumococcal polysaccharide type III were found to respond to monoclonal antibody Ly-m22, Ta cells responded to monoclonal antibodies L3T4 and Ia but not to Ly-m22. These studies suggest that Ta and Ts cells can modulate the antibody response to MP, SM, and PA in a positive and negative manner, respectively. PMID:2462536

  15. Myasthenia gravis patients with ryanodine receptor antibodies have distinctive clinical features.

    PubMed

    Romi, F; Aarli, J A; Gilhus, N E

    2007-06-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease caused in 85% of the patients by acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies. Non-AChR muscle antibodies, against titin and ryanodine receptor (RyR) are mainly found in sera of patients with thymoma or late-onset MG. The occurrence of RyR antibodies increases the risk for severe MG and should lead to active immunomodulating treatment already at MG onset. The aim in this study was to describe the association between symptoms at MG onset and antibody profile in 152 patients. Patients with RyR antibodies had the highest rate of bulbar, respiratory and neck involvement at MG onset. They also had the highest frequency of non-limb MG symptoms. Neck weakness occurred in 40%. Respiratory difficulties at MG onset occurred in patients with titin antibodies, with and without RyR antibodies. Patients with RyR antibodies have a distinctive non-limb MG symptom profile, with bulbar, ocular, neck, and respiratory symptoms. These features, identified as early as at the first examination by a neurologist, characterize the RyR antibody positive subgroup at MG onset. PMID:17539937

  16. IMMUNE AND NATURAL ANTIBODIES TO SYNGENEIC MURINE PLASMA CELL TUMORS

    PubMed Central

    Herberman, Ronald B.; Aoki, Tadao

    1972-01-01

    Cytotoxic antibody to a plasma cell tumor antigen was produced in syngeneic BALB mice by immunization with viable or inactivated plasma cell tumors. Antibody with the same specificity was found in the sera of normal BALB and other strains of mice. This natural antibody reacted with an antigen with characteristics indistinguishable from the previously described alloantigen, PC.1, and with viral envelope antigen, ?VEA. The incidence of cytotoxic reactivity and the antibody titers reached a peak in normal BALB mice at 3–4 months of age, and were lower in 9–12-month old mice. The sera of germfree mice had lower reactivity; but when the mice were transferred to conventional conditions, their sera soon became as active as those of conventional mice. A virus common to all plasma cell tumors, which is present in latent form in some normal tissues of BALB and other PC.1 positive strains, is suggested as the cause for the PC.1 antigen and for the appearance of natural antibody to it. The considerable evidence for the close association of a virus with plasma cell tumors is presented. PMID:5033423

  17. Escherichia coli antibodies in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed Central

    Tabaqchali, S; O'Donoghue, D P; Bettelheim, K A

    1978-01-01

    Sera from 30 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (16 with Crohn's disease (CD) and 14 with ulcerative colitis (UC) were assayed for the presence of antibodies against 159 Escherichia coli O-antigens and compared with sera from 16 matched control subjects. The majority of patients with IBD had agglutinating antibodies to a higher number of Escherichia coli O-antigens and in higher titres than the control group. The number of positive agglutinins was O-33 mean 13.8 in CD, O-26 mean 7.9 for UC, and O-7 mean 1.5 in controls. Eight patients with IBD and arthropathy had antibodies to fewer O-antigens (O-7 mean 3.2). The antibodies were in the IgG and IgM, in titres corresponding to original values. No specific O-serotypes were associated with IBD. Common serotypes, R-plasmid carrying serotypes, and those associated with shigella-like adult diarrhoea were detected. O14 was detected only in five patients and O119 in none. There was no correlation between the number of Escherichia coli agglutinins and the site and severity of the disease or type of therapy. It is suggested that the presence of the high numbers of Escherichia coli antibodies is secondary to the disease process and is unlikely to be causally involved in the pathogenesis of the disease, but may play a role in the perpetuation of the disease and in the extraintestinal complications. PMID:344155

  18. Antibody targeting of Cathepsin S induces antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Proteolytic enzymes have been implicated in driving tumor progression by means of their cancer cell microenvironment activity where they promote proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion. Therapeutic strategies have focused on attenuating their activity using small molecule inhibitors, but the association of proteases with the cell surface during cancer progression opens up the possibility of targeting these using antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Cathepsin S is a lysosomal cysteine protease that promotes the growth and invasion of tumour and endothelial cells during cancer progression. Our analysis of colorectal cancer patient biopsies shows that cathepsin S associates with the cell membrane indicating a potential for ADCC targeting. Results Here we report the cell surface characterization of cathepsin S and the development of a humanized antibody (Fsn0503h) with immune effector function and a stable in vivo half-life of 274 hours. Cathepsin S is expressed on the surface of tumor cells representative of colorectal and pancreatic cancer (23%-79% positive expression). Furthermore the binding of Fsn0503h to surface associated cathepsin S results in natural killer (NK) cell targeted tumor killing. In a colorectal cancer model Fsn0503h elicits a 22% cytotoxic effect. Conclusions This data highlights the potential to target cell surface associated enzymes, such as cathepsin S, as therapeutic targets using antibodies capable of elicitingADCC in tumor cells. PMID:22168338

  19. EB9, a new antibody for the detection of trophozoites of Pneumocystis carinii in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens in AIDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J F Wazir; I Brown; E Martin-Bates; D V Coleman

    1994-01-01

    AIM--To prepare a monoclonal antibody (EB9) against the trophozoite form of Pneumocystis carinii and to test its efficacy for detecting infection with this organism. METHOD--The sensitivity and specificity of the EB9 antibody were assessed by comparing it with other conventional stains (Papanicolaou, Giemsa and Grocott) and 3F6 antibody in 33 bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from HIV positive patients suspected of having

  20. Prevalence of antipituitary antibodies in acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Guaraldi, Federica; Caturegli, Patrizio; Salvatori, Roberto

    2012-12-01

    Acromegaly is a rare disorder due to an excessive production of growth hormone (GH), typically caused by a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma. Anti-pituitary antibodies (APAs) are often seen in patients with different kinds of pituitary pathologies. Because GH has been proposed as a possible antigen recognized by such antibodies, the prevalence of APAs may be higher in conditions characterized by excessive GH secretion. The primary aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of APAs in patients with acromegaly and in controls with other types of pituitary tumors and healthy subjects. Secondary aim was to characterize the pituitary cells targeted by the APAs. Thirty eight acromegaly patients and 215 controls, including 38 patients with prolactinomas, 64 with non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA), and 113 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. All subjects were tested for APAs using indirect immunofluorescence. Target cells recognized by APAs were identified by double staining immunofluorescence. APAs were significantly more prevalent in acromegaly cases than in healthy controls (10.5% vs. 1.8%, P < 0.05). This prevalence was similar to that found in patients with prolactinomas (7.9%) and NFPA (12.5%). Among APAs-positive subjects, antibodies recognizing somatotrope cells were more common in acromegaly cases than in healthy controls (3/4 vs. 0/113, P < 0.0001), but had similar frequencies in NFPA (2/8) and prolactinomas (1/3). APAs are more frequently found in patients with pituitary adenomas than healthy subjects, with no significant difference among the tumor types studied. GH-secreting cells could represent a target of the autoimmune response. PMID:22002711

  1. Monoclonal antibodies to type X collagen. Biosynthetic studies using an antibody to the amino-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Summers, T A; Irwin, M H; Mayne, R; Balian, G

    1988-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies to chick type X collagen have been used to study the structure, biosynthesis, and location of type X in cartilage. The antibodies were produced by injecting purified type X collagen into female SJL/J mice and then fusing their spleen cells with Sp2/0 myeloma cells. Hybridoma culture supernatants were screened for antibodies to type X collagen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blots. Positive supernatants did not cross-react with other collagen types (I, II, IX, XI) or with fibronectin. Three monoclonal antibodies were chosen for further characterization. Two of them (1A6 and 6F6) recognize a pepsin-sensitive domain of type X collagen. Rotary shadowing showed that 1A6 and 6F6 both recognize the same end of type X, probably the aminoterminal non-triple helical domain. Amino acid sequencing of the intact protein and of the epitope-containing peptide confirmed that the antibody recognition sites for 1A6 and 6F6 are within the amino-terminal domain. Monoclonal antibody 2B3 reacts with the pepsinized (45 kDa) and weakly with the nonpepsinized (59 kDa) forms of type X collagen. The monoclonal antibodies were used for immunolocalization of type X in hypertrophic chondrocytes and reacted only with tissue samples from areas undergoing endochondral ossification, e.g. growth plate and fracture callus. Antibody 6F6, when coupled to Sepharose, selectively binds to type X collagen from cell and organ cultures. In a pulse-chase experiment, no processing of the 59-kDa form of type X could be detected. Two components with molecular masses of approximately 70 and 85 kDa, arising from a disulfide-bonded aggregate, were synthesized by both the permanent and calcifying cartilage organ cultures but did not react with the antibody, suggesting that these proteins are not related to type X. In summary, the pulse-chase results and the immune precipitation with monoclonal antibody 6F6 did not detect biosynthetic precursors larger than 59 kDa or proteolytically processed forms of type X. PMID:2826450

  2. Antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein in idiopathic optic neuritis

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Hideki; Motomura, Masakatsu; Tanaka, Keiko; Fujikawa, Azusa; Nakata, Ruka; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Shima, Tomoaki; Mukaino, Akihiro; Yoshimura, Shunsuke; Miyazaki, Teiichiro; Shiraishi, Hirokazu; Kawakami, Atsushi; Tsujino, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the differences of clinical features, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), MRI findings and response to steroid therapies between patients with optic neuritis (ON) who have myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies and those who have seronegative ON. Setting We recruited participants in the department of neurology and ophthalmology in our hospital in Japan. Methods We retrospectively evaluated the clinical features and response to steroid therapies of patients with ON. Sera from patients were tested for antibodies to MOG and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) with a cell-based assay. Participants Between April 2009 and March 2014, we enrolled serial 57 patients with ON (27 males, 30 females; age range 16–84?years) who ophthalmologists had diagnosed as having or suspected to have ON with acute visual impairment and declined critical flicker frequency, abnormal findings of brain MRI, optical coherence tomography and fluorescein fundus angiography at their onset or recurrence. We excluded those patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of neuromyelitis optica (NMO)/NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSD), MS McDonald's criteria, and so on. Finally we defined 29 patients with idiopathic ON (14 males, 15 females, age range 16–84 years). Results 27.6% (8/29) were positive for MOG antibodies and 3.4% (1/29) were positive for AQP4. Among the eight patients with MOG antibodies, five had optic pain (p=0.001) and three had prodromal infection (p=0.179). Three of the eight MOG-positive patients showed significantly high CSF levels of myelin basic protein (p=0.021) and none were positive for oligoclonal band in CSF. On MRIs, seven MOG-positive patients showed high signal intensity on optic nerve, three had a cerebral lesion and one had a spinal cord lesion. Seven of the eight MOG-positive patients had a good response to steroid therapy. Conclusions Although not proving primary pathogenicity of anti-MOG antibodies, the present results indicate that the measurement of MOG antibodies is useful in diagnosing and treating ON. PMID:25838512

  3. Uses of monoclonal antibody 8H9

    DOEpatents

    Cheung, Nai-Kong V.

    2010-06-22

    This invention provides a composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a suitable carrier. This invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. This invention also provides an antibody other than the monoclonal antibody 8H9 comprising the complementary determining regions of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof, capable of binding to the same antigen as the monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention provides a substance capable of competitively inhibiting the binding of monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention also provides an isolated scFv of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof. This invention also provides the 8H9 antigen. This invention also provides different uses of the monoclonal antibody 8H9 or its derivative.

  4. Uses of monoclonal antibody 8H9

    DOEpatents

    Cheung, Nai-Kong V.

    2013-04-09

    This invention provides a composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a suitable carrier. This invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. This invention also provides an antibody other than the monoclonal antibody 8H9 comprising the complementary determining regions of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof, capable of binding to the same antigen as the monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention provides a substance capable of competitively inhibiting the binding of monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention also provides an isolated scFv of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof. This invention also provides the 8H9 antigen. This invention also provides different uses of the monoclonal antibody 8H9 or its derivative.

  5. Antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein in bilateral and recurrent optic neuritis

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Sudarshini; Reddel, Stephen W.; Henderson, Andrew; Parratt, John D.E.; Barnett, Michael; Gatt, Prudence N.; Merheb, Vera; Kumaran, Raani-Yogeeta Anusuiya; Pathmanandavel, Karrnan; Sinmaz, Nese; Ghadiri, Mahtab; Yiannikas, Con; Vucic, Steve; Stewart, Graeme; Bleasel, Andrew F.; Booth, David; Fung, Victor S.C.; Dale, Russell C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We examined a cohort of adults with aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody–negative neuromyelitis optica/neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMO/NMOSD) for antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). Methods: We performed a flow cytometry cell-based assay using live human lentivirus–transduced cells expressing full-length surface MOG. Serum was tested in 23 AQP4 antibody–negative NMO/NMOSD patients with bilateral and/or recurrent optic neuritis (BON, n = 11), longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM, n = 10), and sequential BON and LETM (n = 2), as well as in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS, n = 76) and controls (n = 52). Results: MOG antibodies were detected in 9/23 AQP4 antibody–negative patients with NMO/NMOSD, compared to 1/76 patients with MS and 0/52 controls (p < 0.001). MOG antibodies were detected in 8/11 patients with BON, 0/10 patients with LETM, and 1/2 patients with sequential BON and LETM. Six of 9 MOG antibody–positive patients had a relapsing course. MOG antibody–positive patients had prominent optic disc swelling and were more likely to have a rapid response to steroid therapy and relapse on steroid cessation than MOG antibody–negative patients (p = 0.034 and p = 0.029, respectively). While 8/9 MOG antibody–positive patients had good follow-up visual acuity, one experienced sustained visual impairment, 3 had retinal nerve fiber layer thinning, and one had residual spinal disability. Conclusions: MOG antibodies have a strong association with BON and may be a useful clinical biomarker. MOG antibody–associated BON is a relapsing disorder that is frequently steroid responsive and often steroid dependent. Failure to recognize the disorder early and institute immunotherapy promptly may be associated with sustained impairment. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that MOG antibodies are associated with AQP4 antibody–negative BON (sensitivity 69%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 42%–87%; specificity 99%, 95% CI 93.7%–99.8%). PMID:25364774

  6. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, Max A. (Kennewick, WA); Alter, Paul (Richland, WA)

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus for precisely positioning materials test specimens within the optimum neutron flux path emerging from a neutron source located in a housing. The test specimens are retained in a holder mounted on the free end of a support pivotably mounted and suspended from a movable base plate. The support is gravity biased to urge the holder in a direction longitudinally of the flux path against the housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the holder in two mutually perpendicular directions normal to the axis of the flux path.

  7. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, M.A.; Alter, P.

    1983-07-07

    An apparatus is provided for precisely adjusting the position of an article relative to a beam emerging from a neutron source disposed in a housing. The apparatus includes a support pivotably mounted on a movable base plate and freely suspended therefrom. The support is gravity biased toward the housing and carries an article holder movable in a first direction longitudinally of the axis of said beam and normally urged into engagement against said housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the suspended holder in two mutually perpendicular directions, respectively, normal to the axis of the beam.

  8. Positive Lives

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Positive Lives project is "a unique international project that photographs and documents the social and emotional impact of the global HIV/AIDS epidemic, illuminating positive human responses to this world crisis." Sponsored by the Levi Strauss Foundation and the Terrence Higgins Trust, the project has sponsored photographers from across the world to photograph various persons living with HIV/AIDS in a host of very different settings. While the project has sponsored a number of various photographic exhibits, this online collection represents a small portion of the work thus far. Using an interactive map of the world, users can click on different geographic areas to view photographic exhibits documenting the lived experience of this condition. In South Africa, visitors can learn about the work and the residents of Nazareth House, which is a children's home in Cape Town taking care of abandoned children with HIV or AIDS. In Edinburgh, visitors are taken through the lives of young drug abusers at the Muirhouse Estate who are also living with either HIV or AIDS. In the words of photographer John Sturrock, "In Muirhouse I witnessed the emotional struggle of people enduring a tragedy..." However, hope is present in these photographic essays as well, as they represent a broad range of emotions.

  9. Molecular-specific urokinase antibodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atassi, M. Zouhair (Inventor); Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Antibodies have been developed against the different molecular forms of urokinase using synthetic peptides as immunogens. The peptides were synthesized specifically to represent those regions of the urokinase molecules which are exposed in the three-dimensional configuration of the molecule and are uniquely homologous to urokinase. Antibodies are directed against the lysine 158-isoleucine 159 peptide bond which is cleaved during activation from the single-chain (ScuPA) form to the bioactive double chain (54 KDa and 33 KDa) forms of urokinase and against the lysine 135 lysine 136 bond that is cleaved in the process of removing the alpha-chain from the 54 KDa form to produce the 33 KDa form of urokinase. These antibodies enable the direct measurement of the different molecular forms of urokinase from small samples of conditioned medium harvested from cell cultures.

  10. Emerging antibody-based products.

    PubMed

    Whaley, Kevin J; Morton, Josh; Hume, Steve; Hiatt, Ernie; Bratcher, Barry; Klimyuk, Victor; Hiatt, Andrew; Pauly, Michael; Zeitlin, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Antibody-based products are not widely available to address many global health challenges due to high costs, limited manufacturing capacity, and long manufacturing lead times. There are now tremendous opportunities to address these industrialization challenges as a result of revolutionary advances in plant virus-based transient expression. This review focuses on some antibody-based products that are in preclinical and clinical development, and have scaled up manufacturing and purification (mg of purified mAb/kg of biomass). Plant virus-based antibody products provide lower upfront cost, shorter time to clinical and market supply, and lower cost of goods (COGs). Further, some plant virus-based mAbs may provide improvements in pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy. PMID:22772797

  11. Antibodies to watch in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, Janice M

    2013-01-01

    The transitions of antibody therapeutics to late-stage clinical development, regulatory review and the market are proceeding at a rapid pace in 2013. Since late 2012, two monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutics (itolizumab, trastuzumab emtansine) received their first approvals, first marketing applications for three mAbs (vedolizumab, ramucirumab, obinutuzumab) were submitted to regulatory agencies, and five mAbs (brodalumab, MABp1, moxetumomab pasudotox, tildrakizumab, rilotumumab) entered their first Phase 3 studies. The current total of commercially-sponsored antibody therapeutics undergoing evaluation in late-stage studies is 30. Recently announced study results for farletuzumab, naptumomab estafenatox, and tabalumab indicate that clinical endpoints were not met in some Phase 3 studies of these product candidates. PMID:23727858

  12. Controlling chemical reactivity with antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, L.C.; Schultz, P.G. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States)); Yonkovich, S.; Kochersperger, L. (Affymax Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States))

    1993-04-16

    The remarkable specificity of an antibody molecule has been used to accomplish highly selective functional group transformations not attainable by current chemical methods. An antibody raised against an amine-oxide hapten catalyzes the reduction of a diketone to a hydroxyketone with greater than 75:1 regioselectivity for one of two nearly equivalent ketone moieties. The antibody-catalyzed reaction is highly stereoselective, affording the hydroxyketone in high enantiomeric excess. Similarly, the reduction of ketones containing branched and aryl substituents, including the highly symmetrical 1-nitrophenyl-3-phenyl-2-propanone, was enantioselective. The simple strategy presented herein may find general applicability to the regio- and stereoselective reduction of a broad range of compounds. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Prevalence of Antibody to Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin-1 in Burn Patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Young

    2015-01-01

    Background Burn wounds lack normal barriers that protect against pathogenic bacteria, and burn patients are easily colonized and infected by Staphylococcus aureus. Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a rare but fatal disease caused by S. aureus. A lack of detectable antibodies to TSS toxin-1 (TSST-1) in serum indicates susceptibility to TSS. Methods A total of 207 patients (169 men and 38 women; median age, 42.5 yr) admitted to a burn center in Korea were enrolled in this study. The serum antibody titer to TSST-1 was measured by sandwich ELISA. S. aureus isolates from the patients' nasal swab culture were tested for TSST-1 toxin production by PCR-based detection of the TSST-1 toxin gene. Results One hundred seventy-four (84.1%) patients showed positive results for antibody against TSST-1. All patients aged ?61 yr (n=28) and <26 months (n=7) were positive for the anti-TSST-1 antibody. S. aureus was isolated from 70 patients (33.8%), and 58.6% of the isolates were methicillin resistant. Seventeen patients were colonized with TSST-1-producing S. aureus. The antibody positivity in these 17 carriers was 88.2%, and the positivity in the non-carriers was 83.7%. Conclusions Most burn patients had antibody to TSST-1, and nasal colonization with TSST-1-producing S. aureus was associated with positive titers of anti-TSST-1 antibody. Additionally, patients with negative titers of anti-TSST-1 antibody might be susceptible to TSS. PMID:25553286

  14. Limited interlaboratory comparison of Schmallenberg virus antibody detection in serum samples.

    PubMed

    van der Poel, W H M; Cay, B; Zientara, S; Steinbach, F; Valarcher, J F; Bøtner, A; Mars, M H; Hakze-van der Honing, R; Schirrmeier, H; Beer, M

    2014-04-12

    Eight veterinary institutes in seven different countries in Europe participated in a limited interlaboratory comparison trial to evaluate laboratory performances of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) antibody detection in serum. Seven different sheep sera and three different cattle sera were circulated, and all participating institutes were asked to test these sera using SBV antibody detection assay(s) in place in their laboratories. All laboratories within the trial performed a virus neutralisation test (VNT) as well as one or two ELISAs on all samples, and swiftly detected SBV antibodies using these assays. VNT was more sensitive in detecting SBV antibodies than several of the used ELISA assays. Based on the test results, one cattle and one sheep SBV antibody-positive serum were selected to serve as reference sera, which now can be supplied to other laboratories on request. PMID:24591480

  15. Prenatal passive transfer of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antibodies in Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) calves.

    PubMed

    McGee, Jennifer L; Wiedner, Ellen; Isaza, Ramiro

    2014-12-01

    Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) dams and their newborn calves were tested for Mycobacterium tuberculosis antibodies in serum. Blood was drawn from dams prior to calving and from calves on their day of birth. All six calves born to tuberculosis-reactive dams were also tuberculosis reactive, suggesting prenatal passive placental transfer of tuberculosis antibodies. In contrast, all three calves born to tuberculosis-nonreactive dams lacked detectable tuberculosis antibodies in pre-suckling or day-of-birth blood samples. Of the living tuberculosis-reactive calves observed from 1 to 11 yr of age, none exhibited clinical signs of tuberculosis infection or became tuberculosis culture positive. This is the first report of prenatal passive placental transfer of tuberculosis antibodies in elephants and demonstrates that detectible tuberculosis antibodies in newborn elephant calves should not be assumed to correlate with clinical tuberculosis. PMID:25632691

  16. Intestinal biopsy is not always required to diagnose celiac disease: a retrospective analysis of combined antibody tests

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to compare celiac disease (CD)– specific antibody tests to determine if they could replace jejunal biopsy in patients with a high pretest probability of CD. Methods This retrospective study included sera from 149 CD patients and 119 controls, all with intestinal biopsy. All samples were analyzed for IgA and IgG antibodies against native gliadin (ngli) and deamidated gliadin peptides (dpgli), as well as for IgA antibodies against tissue transglutaminase and endomysium. Results Tests for dpgli were superior to ngli for IgG antibody determination: 68% vs. 92% specificity and 79% vs. 85% sensitivity for ngli and dpgli, respectively. Positive (76% vs. 93%) and negative (72% vs. 83%) predictive values were also higher for dpgli than for ngli. Regarding IgA gliadin antibody determination, sensitivity improved from 61% to 78% with dpgli, while specificity and positive predictive value remained at 97% (P < 0.00001). A combination of four tests (IgA anti-dpgli, IgG anti-dpgli, IgA anti- tissue transglutaminase, and IgA anti-endomysium) yielded positive and negative predictive values of 99% and 100%, respectively and a likelihood ratio positive of 86 with a likelihood ratio negative of 0.00. Omitting the endomysium antibody determination still yielded positive and negative predictive values of 99% and 98%, respectively and a likelihood ratio positive of 87 with a likelihood ratio negative of 0.01. Conclusion Antibody tests for dpgli yielded superior results compared with ngli. A combination of three or four antibody tests including IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase and/or IgA anti- endomysium permitted diagnosis or exclusion of CD without intestinal biopsy in a high proportion of patients (78%). Jejunal biopsy would be necessary in patients with discordant antibody results (22%). With this two-step procedure, only patients with no CD-specific antibodies would be missed. PMID:23343249

  17. Antibody separation by hydrophobic charge induction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Boschetti, Egisto

    2002-08-01

    Hydrophobic charge induction chromatography using 4-mercapto-ethyl-pyridine as the ligand is an effective method for the separation of antibodies from a variety of feedstocks. Antibodies are adsorbed in physiological conditions without preliminary concentration. Desorption occurs when the pH is lowered, thus inducing an ionic charge of the same sign to the ligand and the antibody. Antibody capture conditions are compatible with crude samples in terms of pH, conductivity, binding capacity and expression level. The final purity of the antibody is feedstock dependent, but can reach levels of purity as high as 98%. Examples of antibody separation are given and ligand structure information discussed. PMID:12127280

  18. Monoclonal Antibodies in Diagnosis and Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldmann, Thomas A.

    1991-06-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have been applied clinically to the diagnosis and therapy of an array of human disorders, including cancer and infectious diseases, and have been used for the modulation of immune responses. Effective therapy using unmodified monoclonal antibodies has, however, been elusive. Recently, monoclonal antibody-mediated therapy has been revolutionized by advances such as the definition of cell-surface structures on abnormal cells as targets for effective monoclonal antibody action, genetic engineering to create less immunogenic and more effective monoclonal antibodies, and the arming of such antibodies with toxins or radionuclides to enhance their effector function.

  19. 21 CFR 866.5090 - Antimitochondrial antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Antimitochondrial antibody immunological test system. 866...866.5090 Antimitochondrial antibody immunological test system. ...Identification. An antimitochondrial antibody immunological test system...

  20. 9 CFR 113.452 - Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae Antibody.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... false Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae Antibody. 113.452 Section 113.452 ...AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Antibody Products § 113.452 Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae Antibody. Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae...

  1. Structure, function and properties of antibody binding sites.

    PubMed

    Mian, I S; Bradwell, A R; Olson, A J

    1991-01-01

    Do antibody combining sites possess general properties that enable them to bind different antigens with varying affinities and to bind novel antigens? Here, we address this question by examining the physical and chemical characteristics most favourable for residues involved in antigen accommodation and binding. Amphipathic amino acids could readily tolerate the change of environment from hydrophilic to hydrophobic that occurs upon antibody-antigen complex formation. Residues that are large and can participate in a wide variety of van der Waals' and electrostatic interactions would permit binding to a range of antigens. Amino acids with flexible side-chains could generate a structurally plastic region, i.e. a binding site possessing the ability to mould itself around the antigen to improve complementarity of the interacting surfaces. Hence, antibodies could bind to an array of novel antigens using a limited set of residues interspersed with more unique residues to which greater binding specificity can be attributed. An individual antibody molecule could thus be cross-reactive and have the capacity to bind structurally similar ligands. The accommodation of variations in antigenic structure by modest combining site flexibility could make an important contribution to immune defence by allowing antibody binding to distinct but closely related pathogens. Tyr and Trp most readily fulfil these catholic physicochemical requirements and thus would be expected to be common in combining sites on theoretical grounds. Experimental support for this comes from three sources, (1) the high frequency of participation by these amino acids in the antigen binding observed in six crystallographically determined antibody-antigen complexes, (2) their frequent occurrence in the putative binding regions of antibodies as determined from structural and sequence data and (3) the potential for movement of their side-chains in known antibody binding sites and model systems. The six bound antigens comprise two small different haptens, non-overlapping regions of the same large protein and a 19 amino acid residue peptide. Out of a total of 85 complementarity determining region positions, only 37 locations (plus 3 framework) are directly involved in antigen interaction. Of these, light chain residue 91 is utilized by all the complexes examined, whilst light chain 32, light chain 96 and heavy chain 33 are employed by five out of the six. The binding sites in known antibody-antigen complexes as well as the postulated combining sites in free Fab fragments show similar characteristics with regard to the types of amino acids present. The possible role of other amino acids is also assessed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1988675

  2. Rabies virus and antibody in bats in Grenada and Trinidad.

    PubMed

    Price, J L; Everard, C O

    1977-04-01

    Rabies virus was detected by fluorescent-antibody and mouse inoculation tests in the brain of one bat, Artibeus jamaicensis, collected at La Tante, Grenada on 19 June 1974. No rabies virus was found in the brains and/or salivary glands of 411 other Grenadian bats of 6 species tested, including 56 A. jamaicensis. Rabies neutralizing antibody was detected by the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) in 27 of 353 Grenadian bats. Positives occurred in each of the 6 species sampled, with 40.5% prevalence in A. jamaicensis. In 11 of 86 Trinidadian bats of 4 species known to carry rabies, positive sera occurred only in A. jamaicensis (18.6%) and A. lituratus (18.1%). The potential use of the REFIT indetermining rabies activity is discussed. PMID:864845

  3. B cell responses to HIV and the development of human monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, J E; James, K

    1992-01-01

    In this review B cell responses in HIV-infected individuals are summarized together with the techniques used to date to produce human monoclonals to HIV and the properties of these antibodies. Profound disturbances in B cell responses are apparent both in vivo and in vitro. While there is evidence in vivo of marked polyclonal B cell activation, primary and secondary antibody responses are impaired. Similarly these cells exhibit spontaneous immunoglobulin secretion upon in vitro culture but do not readily respond to B cell mitogens and recall antigens including HIV. Furthermore, certain of these defects can be reproduced in normal B cells in vitro by incubation with HIV or HIV coded peptides. Individuals infected with HIV develop antibodies to HIV structural proteins (e.g. p17, p24, gp41 and gp120) and regulatory proteins (e.g. vif, nef, RT). Autoantibodies against a number of immunologically important molecules are also frequently observed. The anti-HIV antibodies are predominantly of the IgG1 isotype and exhibit a variety of effects on the virus in vitro. To date, using conventional immortalization strategies, an appreciable number of human monoclonals to HIV have been developed. These have been specific for gp41, gp120 and gag with antibodies of the former specificity predominating. The majority of these antibodies have been of the IgG1 isotype. Only a small number of the antibodies neutralize virus in vitro and most of these react with gp120. The neutralizing antibodies recognize conformational and carbohydrate epitopes or epitopes in amino acid positions 306-322. The predominant epitopes recognized by the anti-gp41 antibodies were in amino acid positions 579-620 and 644-662. A high percentage (congruent to 25%) of these antibodies enhance viral growth in vitro. The problems relating to the production of human monoclonals to HIV are discussed together with strategies that could be used in the future. PMID:1572084

  4. Antiphospholipid antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis: Identifying the dominoes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debbie A. Gladd; Ewa Olech

    2009-01-01

    Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) occur in a variety of autoimmune, malignant, and infectious diseases, with or without the\\u000a thrombotic or obstetric sequelae that characterize the antiphospholipid syndrome. Although many studies have focused on the\\u000a clinical implications of aPL in systemic lupus erythematosus, few have specifically addressed the questions facing rheumatologists\\u000a caring for rheumatoid arthritis patients who are concomitantly positive for aPL.

  5. Production of monoclonal antibody to human IgG allotype G3M T.

    PubMed

    Kimura, A; Tamaki, Y; Kishida, T; Fukuda, M; Tsuji, T

    1989-01-01

    An efficient method for the production of monoclonal anti-G3M T antibody is described. IgG3 protein of GM B3ST phenotype was isolated by affinity chromatography on Ricinus communis lectin I-agarose and used for immunization. A mouse hybridoma clone was obtained by fusion of popliteal lymph node cells and P3U1 myeloma cells. The antibody produced was tested for allotype specificity by hemagglutination inhibition and ELISA methods using 101 IgG-allotyping control sera. The antibody was neutralizable by all G3M T-positive sera and entirely nonneutralizable by G3M T-negative sera in the inhibition test, and reacted only with G3M T-positive IgG coats in the ELISA test. The results prove the antibody to be allotype-specific, and therefore practically establishes its monoclonality. PMID:2915127

  6. Presence of voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibody in a case of genetic prion disease.

    PubMed

    Jammoul, Adham; Lederman, Richard J; Tavee, Jinny; Li, Yuebing

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex antibody-mediated encephalitis is a recently recognised entity which has been reported to mimic the clinical presentation of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Testing for the presence of this neuronal surface autoantibody in patients presenting with subacute encephalopathy is therefore crucial as it may both revoke the bleak diagnosis of prion disease and allow institution of potentially life-saving immunotherapy. Tempering this optimistic view is the rare instance when a positive VGKC complex antibody titre occurs in a definite case of prion disease. We present a pathologically and genetically confirmed case of CJD with elevated serum VGKC complex antibody titres. This case highlights the importance of interpreting the result of a positive VGKC complex antibody with caution and in the context of the overall clinical manifestation. PMID:24903967

  7. Anesthetic management of right atrial mass removal and pulmonary artery thrombectomy in a patient with primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rawat, S K S; Mehta, Yatin; Vats, Mayank; Mishra, Yugal; Khurana, Poonam; Trehan, Naresh

    2010-01-01

    Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APLAS) characterises a clinical condition of arterial and venous thrombosis associated with phospholipids directed antibodies. APLAS occurs in 2% of the general population. However, one study demonstrated that 7.1% of hospitalised patients were tested positive for at least one of the three anticardiolipin antibody idiotype. Antiphospholipid antibodies often inhibit phospholipids dependent coagulation in vitro and interfere with laboratory testing of hemostasis. Therefore, the management of anticoagulation during cardiopulmonary bypass can be quite challenging in these patients. Here, we present a case of right atrial mass removal and pulmonary thrombectomy in a patient of APLAS. PMID:20075534

  8. Towards a carbon nanotube antibody sensor

    E-print Network

    Bojö, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This work investigated single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)/polymer-protein A complexes for optically reporting antibody concentration via a change in near infrared fluorescent emission after antibody binding. SWNT have ...

  9. [Antibodies against Borrelia afzelli in patients with an early stage of Lyme disease].

    PubMed

    Flisiak, I; Chodynicka, B

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was evaluation of specific immune response against Borrelia afzelii in patients with erythema migrans, as a sign of an early stage of Lyme borreliosis. The study was performed in 42 patients, residents of Podlasie province, who were initially evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence assay as a seropositive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Antibodies against particular antigens of B. afzelii were demonstrated using a Western-blot technique. Evaluation of results showed the most frequent prevalence of antibodies against 41 kDa antigen in majority of patients, which were predominantly of IgM class in patients with short-lasting lesions, and IgG class in patients with long-lasting lesions. Results of IgM blots were recognized as a positive in 26 patients, and IgG blots in 22 patients. Positive result in at least one class of antibodies was noted in 34 patients (81%), and in both classes in 14 (33%). IgM antibodies against 21 kDa antigen, and IgG antibodies against 43 kDa antigen were two fold more frequent in patients with short-lasting lesions. These results confirm the diagnostic usefulness of determination of antibodies against B. afzelii antigens in Poland. The most important for an early diagnosis can be simultaneous demonstration of IgM antibodies against 21 and 41 kDa antigens. PMID:11344697

  10. Evaluation of antibodies reactive with Campylobacter jejuni in Egyptian diarrhea patients.

    PubMed

    Ismail, T F; Wasfy, M O; Oyofo, B A; Mansour, M M; El-Berry, H M; Churilla, A M; Eldin, S S; Peruski, L F

    1997-09-01

    Serum and stool samples were collected from 128 individuals: 96 diarrhea patients and 32 apparently healthy controls. Stool specimens were cultured for enteric bacterial pathogens, while sera were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Campylobacter jejuni-reactive antibodies. Of 28 diarrhea patients who demonstrated C. jejuni-reactive antibodies (titers, > 100), 14 were culture positive for this organism. The 32 healthy controls showed significantly lower antibody titers (P < 0.05) with the exception of 10 subjects who were culture positive for C. jejuni and had reactive immunoglobulin M (IgM) (6 subjects) and IgG (7 subjects). IgA was not detected in those 10 individuals (asymptomatic). Avidity was expressed as the thiocyanate ion concentration required to inhibit 50% of the bound antibodies. The avidity was higher in symptomatic patients than asymptomatic healthy controls. IgG was less avid (0.92 M) compared to IgM (0.1 M) and IgA (1.1 M), with no correlation between antibody titer and avidity. However, the thiocyanate ion concentration required for the complete inhibition of IgG (5 M)-bound antibodies was higher than that of IgA (2 M) and IgM (3 M). This study also shows that C. jejuni antibodies were variably cross-reactive with Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Shigella sonnei, and Neisseria meningitidis in addition to Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter rectus. PMID:9302201

  11. Identification with monoclonal antibodies of hemolysin produced by clinical isolates of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Hugo, F; Arvand, M; Reichwein, J; Mackman, N; Holland, I B; Bhakdi, S

    1987-01-01

    Murine monoclonal antibodies were generated against the 107,000-dalton hemolysin encoded by the hemolytic determinant from Escherichia coli LE 2001, and colony blotting was used to assay for production of the hemolysin by 35 hemolytic strains of E. coli and other hemolytic members of the family Enterobacteriaceae of clinical origin. All hemolytic E. coli strains gave positive reactions with two monoclonal antibodies. In contrast, none of the hemolytic, non-E. coli isolates yielded positive colony blots. In addition, Western blotting showed that the hemolysins produced by all clinical E. coli isolates had a similar molecular weight of about 107,000. Discrete antigenic variation may occur in the molecule, since a third monoclonal antibody did not react with the hemolysin from a number of wild-type E. coli strains. Western blot analysis was used to assess the presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgA, and IgM antibodies to E. coli hemolysin in human sera. All 20 of the tested sera from healthy adults contained antibodies to the toxin, with various constellations among the antibody classes. In contrast, sera from five of eight infants aged 8 to 36 months contained no antihemolysin antibodies. We conclude that the 107,000-dalton hemolysin of E. coli is a widespread immunogen that is produced by most or all hemolytic E. coli strains in the human host. Images PMID:3539994

  12. New Insights into the Functional Behavior of Antibodies as Revealed by Binding Studies on an Anti-Uranium Monoclonal Antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, Diane A.; Xia Li; Haini Yu; Blake, Robert C.

    2004-03-17

    As part of an ongoing effort to develop immunoassays for chelated uranium(VI) on a hand-held flow fluorimeter, an anti-uranium monoclonal antibody designated as 8A11 was fluorescently labeled using two different strategies. When 8A11 was coupled via reactive lysines to either ALEXATM 488 or Cy5TM, the resulting fluorescent antibody conjugate exhibited positive cooperativity in the presence of its antigen, U(VI) chelated with 2,9-dicarboxy-1,10-phenanthroline (U(VI)-DCP). That is, when one of the two binding sites on the covalently modified 8A11 was occupied with bound antigen, the affinity of the remaining site on the antibody for U(VI)-DCP appeared to increase. Unmodified 8A11 bound U(VI)-DCP with the expected hyperbolic dependence on the concentration of antigen, consistent with independent and equal binding of ligand at both sites. Proteolytic cleavage of the fluorescently conjugated 8A11 to produce the fluorescent monovalent Fab fragment yielded an active preparation that now bound U(VI)-DCP with no evidence of positive cooperativity. Although, in principle, any divalent antibody has the potential to exhibit positive cooperativity in its binding interactions with its antigen, very little literature precedent for this type of behavior exists. Native 8A11 was also noncovalently labeled with highly fluorescent ZENONTM reagents. These reagents are fluorescently-labeled Fab fragments of goat anti-mouse antibodies that bind to the Fc portion of 8A11. These high-affinity, monovalent fluorescent reagents permitted the intact 8A11 mouse antibody to be labeled in situ with no covalent modifications. Incubation of the 8A11 with ZENON 647 produced a fluorescent protein complex that showed an 8-fold higher affinity for U(VI)-DCP than did the free 8A11 alone. Again, very few literature precedents exist for this phenomenon, where agents that bind to the Fc portion of an intact antibody change the affinity of the antibody for the antigen at the structurally distant Fab portion of the molecule. The addition of protein G, a bacterial protein that also binds to the Fc portion of mouse IgG, to the covalently modified 8A11 produced an antibody preparation that showed a lower affinity for U(VI)-DCP than that observed in the absence of protein G. This protein G-dependent decrease in the affinity of 8A11for U(VI)-DCP was dose-dependent. Similarly, U(VI)-DCP was observed to decrease the affinity between 8A11 and protein G, also in a dose-dependent manner. These reciprocal binding effects between protein G and U(VI)-DCP were taken as further evidence that binding to the Fc portion on the intact 8A11 antibody could influence the strength of the interaction at the antigen binding sites on the Fab portions of the protein, and vice versa. These practical, development-driven binding experiments have revealed a fundamental facet of antibody functional behavior that appears to have been largely unnoticed. The binding phenomena described for the first time in this report may have physiological relevance and can be purposefully exploited to improve the sensitivity and utility of selected immunoassays.

  13. Novel antibodies as anticancer agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I Zafir-Lavie; Y Michaeli; Y Reiter

    2007-01-01

    In recent years antibodies, whether generated by traditional hybridoma technology or by recombinant DNA strategies, have evolved from Paul Ehrlich's ‘magic bullets’ to a modern age ‘guided missile’. In the recent years of immunologic research, we are witnessing development in the fields of antigen screening and protein engineering in order to create specific anticancer remedies. The developments in the field

  14. Rationalization and Design of the Complementarity Determining Region Sequences in an Antibody-Antigen Recognition Interface

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ing-Chien; Lee, Yu-Ching; Chen, Jun-Bo; Tsai, Keng-Chang; Chen, Ching-Tai; Chang, Jeng-Yih; Yang, Ei-Wen; Hsu, Po-Chiang; Jian, Jhih-Wei; Hsu, Hung-Ju; Chang, Hung-Ju; Hsu, Wen-Lian; Huang, Kai-Fa; Ma, Alex Che; Yang, An-Suei

    2012-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions are critical determinants in biological systems. Engineered proteins binding to specific areas on protein surfaces could lead to therapeutics or diagnostics for treating diseases in humans. But designing epitope-specific protein-protein interactions with computational atomistic interaction free energy remains a difficult challenge. Here we show that, with the antibody-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) interaction as a model system, the experimentally observed amino acid preferences in the antibody-antigen interface can be rationalized with 3-dimensional distributions of interacting atoms derived from the database of protein structures. Machine learning models established on the rationalization can be generalized to design amino acid preferences in antibody-antigen interfaces, for which the experimental validations are tractable with current high throughput synthetic antibody display technologies. Leave-one-out cross validation on the benchmark system yielded the accuracy, precision, recall (sensitivity) and specificity of the overall binary predictions to be 0.69, 0.45, 0.63, and 0.71 respectively, and the overall Matthews correlation coefficient of the 20 amino acid types in the 24 interface CDR positions was 0.312. The structure-based computational antibody design methodology was further tested with other antibodies binding to VEGF. The results indicate that the methodology could provide alternatives to the current antibody technologies based on animal immune systems in engineering therapeutic and diagnostic antibodies against predetermined antigen epitopes. PMID:22457753

  15. Anti-idiotype monoclonal antibody carrying the internal image of ganglioside GM3.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, S; Yamamoto, T; Saxton, R E; Hoon, D S; Irie, R F

    1990-11-21

    Murine anti-idiotype monoclonal antibodies were generated against a human IgM monoclonal antibody (L612) that recognizes ganglioside GM3 on human melanoma. Hybridomas secreting antibodies that bound specifically to L612 were selected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using L612 and three negative control human IgMs, including monoclonal anti-GM2 and anti-GD2 antibodies, as well as purified serum IgM, as antigen sources. GM3-binding inhibition and cell-binding inhibition assays were used to identify seven anti-idiotype monoclonal antibodies that recognized determinants located within the antigen-combining sites of L612. To determine whether these anti-idiotype monoclonal antibodies possessed the internal image of the original antigen, we immunized syngeneic BALB/c mice with one of the anti-idiotype monoclonal antibodies, 4C10, coupled with keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Sera from the immunized mice reacted strongly with an antigen-positive M12 melanoma cell line and with purified GM3. Because L612 detects and kills melanoma tumor cells in vitro and in vivo in the presence of complement without affecting normal tissues, anti-idiotype monoclonal antibodies carrying the internal image of GM3 may be an effective tool for active specific immunotherapy in patients with melanoma. PMID:1700134

  16. [Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies in patients with Crohn's disease].

    PubMed

    Barta, Z; Csípö, I; Antal-Szalmás, P; Sipka, S; Szabó, G; Szegedi, G

    2001-10-21

    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases are a group of diseases with chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, but without proven etiology. Immunologic, environmental, infective and genetic factors equally can play role in their development. Antibodies to an oligomannose epitope of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae demonstrated in 60-70% of the patients with Crohn's disease. The origin and the clinicopathological role are not clarified. It is important that there are no surveys with patients suffering in gluten sensitive enteropathy in the literature. As there are no ASCA survey in Hungary, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the ASCA. The authors examined at their patients the ASCA's occurrence and compared with the clinical picture of the Crohn's disease. The results supported the theory that ASCA positivity correlates with small intestines' Crohn's disease and in these cases both the IgG and IgA type antibodies proved. The antibodies in the sera at the analyzed ASCA positive cases prove a systemic immune response against Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the authors suggest the end of the oral tolerance against the yeast's antigens. The diet restriction (elemental diet, total parenteral nutrition, and fecal diversion) may ameliorate the status of the patients with Crohn's disease. It is speculated that the yeast-free diet as a part of the therapy for the ASCA positive patients can be reasonable: moreover the permanent "forbidding" of the yeast can be an acceptable alternative in case of getting well. PMID:11760647

  17. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies on domiciled cats from Lages municipality, Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dalla Rosa, Luciana; Moura, Anderson Barbosa de; Trevisani, Natascha; Medeiros, Alessandra Pereira; Sartor, Amélia Aparecida; Souza, Antonio Pereira de; Bellato, Valdomiro

    2010-01-01

    Sera were collected from 300 domiciled cats from the municipality of Lages, Southern Brazil, to determine the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and risk factors associated. Tests for T. gondii antibodies were performed using indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Positive reactions with titers ?1:64 were found in 43 (14.33%) cats. A significant number of seropositive cats were ?6 month old (p = 0.03758) and had access to the streets or/and rural areas (p = 0.04185). The results indicate that T. gondii is widespread in cats in Lages with a prevalence of 14.33%. PMID:21184709

  18. Gliadin antibodies in adult insulin-dependent diabetes--autoimmune and immunogenetic correlates.

    PubMed

    Sjöberg, K; Wassmuth, R; Reichstetter, S; Eriksson, K F; Ericsson, U B; Eriksson, S

    2000-12-01

    Gliadin antibody (GA) tests used in screening for coeliac disease (CD) frequently yield positive GA results without accompanying CD in cases of diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM-1). To enlighten this phenomenon we screened 848 DM-1 patients for IgA- and IgG-GA. Subsequently, 16 out of 19 high titre GA patients (6 with CD) were compared with 37 low titre DM-1 patients matched for sex, age and disease duration, for autoimmune and immunogenetic markers. Chronic thyroiditis and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibody positivity were more frequent in the GA-positive than in the GA-negative sub-group (38 vs. 2.7%, p = 0.003, and 69 vs. 27%, p < 0.00, respectively). The tissue transglutaminase (tTg) IgA titres correlated with CD but not with GA. tTg IgG titres were lower in GA-positive individuals (p = 0.0012). GA-positivity correlated with a higher titre of factor XIII IgA antibodies (p < 0.001). GA-positive DM-I patients were characterised by a distinct immunogenetic profile; the risk of HLA DQB1*02 was lower among GA-positive patients than among GA-negatives (OR 0.4, preventive fraction 0.43). All CD patients were HLA DRB1*03-DQB1* 02-positive, but none of the five patients with normal biopsies. GA-positive patients instead had HLA DRB1*13 in 37.5% as compared to 8.6% in GA-negative (OR 6.4, etiologic fraction 0.32). Thus, the occurrence of positive GA in DM-1 is correlated to TPO antibody positivity, thyroiditis and factor XIII IgA antibodies, but inversely correlated to tTg IgG, and seems to be associated with another HLA haplotype than that previously found to be associated with CD. PMID:11191281

  19. Mating antibody phage display with proteomics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Hust; Stefan Dübel

    2004-01-01

    Antibodies are central to mastering the next main task of ‘postgenomic’ research: that is, to understand gene function by analysing the proteome. This analysis of more than 90?000 human gene products requires high-throughput methods for antibody generation. In contrast to animal-based methods, in vitro selection systems using recombinant antibodies offer this capability. Antibody phage display, the most commonly used contemporary

  20. Monoclonal antibody (UCHL1) that recognises normal and neoplastic T cells in routinely fixed tissues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A J Norton; A D Ramsay; S H Smith; P C Beverley; P G Isaacson

    1986-01-01

    UCHL1 is a murine monoclonal antibody that recognises a 180-185 kD determinant on CD4 (72%) and CD8 (36%) positive T cells. This antibody is effective in formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissues, using the immunoperoxidase method. One hundred and forty three cases of malignant lymphoma were examined. Neoplastic cells in 100% of cases of Mycosis fungoides (n = 10), 83%

  1. The detection of antibody against peste des petits ruminants virus in Sheep, Goats, Cattle and Buffaloes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haider Ali Khan; Muhammad Siddique; Sajjad-ur-Rahman; Muhammad Abubakar; Muhammad Ashraf

    2008-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody-based competitive ELISA (C-ELISA) has been used for the specific measurement of antibodies to peste des\\u000a petits ruminants (PPR) viruses in sheep, goats, cattle and Buffalo. Serum samples from sheep (n?=?232), goats (n?=?428), cattle\\u000a (n?=?43), buffalo (n?=?89) were tested. The animals had not been vaccinated against rinderpest or PPR. Findings suggested\\u000a that the sero-positive cases were significantly higher in

  2. Evaluation of Antibodies Reactive with Campylobacter jejuni in Egyptian Diarrhea Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    THARWAT F. ISMAIL; MOMTAZ O. WASFY; BUHARI A. OYOFO; MOUSTAFA M. MANSOUR; HASSAN M. EL-BERRY; ALBERT M. CHURILLA; SAMAH S. ELDIN

    1997-01-01

    Serum and stool samples were collected from 128 individuals: 96 diarrhea patients and 32 apparently healthy controls. Stool specimens were cultured for enteric bacterial pathogens, while sera were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Campylobacter jejuni-reactive antibodies. Of 28 diarrhea patients who demonstrated C. jejuni-reactive antibodies (titers, >100), 14 were culture positive for this organism. The 32 healthy controls showed

  3. Reaction of human smooth muscle antibodies with human blood lymphocytes and lymphoid cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Astrid Fagraeus; Knut Lidman; Gunnel Biberfeld

    1974-01-01

    ANTIBODIES to smooth muscle appear in serum from cases of active chronic hepatitis1,2 and transiently in various acute viral diseases3,4. The smooth muscle antibodies (SMA) are demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence (IFL) using cryostat sections of rat stomach and kidney and human thyroid5. The reaction of SMA-positive sera with lymphoid tissue has been pointed out6,7. Here we deal with the reaction

  4. Detection of hepatitis C virus antibodies in oral fluid specimens for prevalence studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. González; E. Martró; C. Folch; A. Esteve; L. Matas; A. Montoliu; J. R. Grífols; F. Bolao; C. Tural; R. Muga; J. V. Parry; V. Ausina; J. Casabona

    2008-01-01

    Within the framework of hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence monitoring, we evaluated oral fluid (OF), which is richer in IgG\\u000a than whole saliva, as a possible alternative to serum for the detection of HCV antibodies. Paired OF and serum samples were\\u000a collected from 90 individuals, including 45 HCV-positives and 45 HCV-negatives. The detection of HCV antibodies in both serum\\u000a and

  5. Selective Serial Multi-Antibody Biosensing with TOPAS Microstructured Polymer Optical Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Emiliyanov, Grigoriy; Høiby, Poul E.; Pedersen, Lars H.; Bang, Ole

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a fluorescence-based fiber-optical biosensor, which can selectively detect different antibodies in serial at preselected positions inside a single piece of fiber. The fiber is a microstructured polymer optical fiber fabricated from TOPAS cyclic olefin copolymer, which allows for UV activation of localized sensor layers inside the holes of the fiber. Serial fluorescence-based selective sensing of Cy3-labelled ?-streptavidin and Cy5-labelled ?-CRP antibodies is demonstrated. PMID:23529122

  6. Recognition of different antigens of mistletoe extracts by anti-mistletoe lectin antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerburg Maria Stein; Uwe Pfüller; Peter Alfred Berg

    1999-01-01

    Anti-mistletoe lectin-1 (ML-1) antibodies are produced during treatment of cancer patients with mistletoe extracts. However, little is known about their ability to recognise distinct epitopes present in mistletoe extracts. To estimate this, ML-1, ML-2 and ML-3 were analysed by Western blot analysis using high titred anti-ML antibody positive sera from cancer patients treated with different mistletoe extracts. In these experiments

  7. Human Monoclonal Antibody with Dual GM2\\/GD2 Specificity Derived from an Immunized Melanoma Patient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Yamaguchi; Koichi Furukawa; Sheila R. Fortunato; Philip O. Livingston; Kenneth O. Lloyd; Herbert F. Oettgen; Lloyd J. Old

    1990-01-01

    GM2 ganglioside is a common cell surface constituent of human melanoma and other tumors of neuroectodermal origin, and vaccination with GM2 ganglioside results in high levels of anti-GM2 antibodies in patients with melanoma. Lymphocytes from a GM2-vaccinated patient (VS) were transformed by Epstein-Barr virus and tested for production of antibodies with reactivity for GM2-positive tumor cells. A high percentage of

  8. Comparative of three methods (ELIZA, MAIPA and flow cytometry) to determine anti-platelet antibody in children with ITP

    PubMed Central

    Hamidpour, Mohsen; Khalili, Ghader; Tajic, Nader; Shamsian, Bi Bi Shahin; Hamidpour, Rafie

    2014-01-01

    Immune (idiopathic) thrombocytopenic purpurea (ITP) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the increased anti-platelet antibodies in the patient’s sera and decreased platelets in the blood circulation. This study has determined and characterized the antiplatelet glycoproteins in children with ITP. Thirty eight children, who were hospitalized with clinical signs of ITP in Mofid Children Hospital (Tehran, Iran) during 18 months, went under our clinical studies in a research project. ELISA, Flow cytometry and MAIPA (Monoclonal Antibody Immobilization of Platelet Antigens) methods were employed to determine serum anti-platelet antibodies level. The anti-platelet antibodies level above mean + 3SD of control group was assumed as positive. The platelet counts ranged between 2 × 109/L and 100 × 109/L. Among the patients 63.5% of them were anti-platelet antibodies positive with ELISA method. Results of platelet lysate method showed that 51.7% of patients had antibodies against platelet antigens. Antibody against platelet GPIIb/IIIa, GPIb/IX and GPIa/IIa using MAIPA method were 48%, 54% and 25% respectively. In flow cytometry 62% of patients showed anti-platelet antibodies. The comparison of three methods shows that since MAIPA is the specific method for the detection of very small amount of antibody against glycoprotein antigens, it has the advantage of differentiating between immune and non-immune thrombocytopenia.

  9. Effects of medium concentration on antibody production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J.

    1984-01-01

    Antibody production by two different cell lines was measured as the media were supplemented with varied amounts of glucose and fetal bovine serum. Both cell lines elaborated antidinitrophenyl hapten antibodies. Two basic media were used: RPMI 1640 and Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium. The production of antibodies was followed from 0 to 180 h and was assayed by radioimmunoassay.

  10. Original article Monoclonal antibodies against goldfish

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    immunoglobulin and antibody levels by ELISA in carp (Cyprinus carpio) AK Siwicki C Vergnet J Charlemagne M Dunier decreased until day 28. monoclonal antibody / ELISA / ELISPOT / antibody-secreting cells / Cyprinus carpio suite. anticorps monoc/ona//EL/S/Cyprinus carpio

  11. Temporal analysis of HIV envelope sequence evolution and antibody escape in a subtype A-infected individual with a broad neutralizing antibody response

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Katherine A.; Rainwater, Stephanie; Jaoko, Walter; Overbaugh, Julie

    2010-01-01

    The origin of broadly neutralizing HIV-specific antibodies and their relation to HIV evolution are not well defined. Here we examined virus evolution and neutralizing antibody escape in a subtype A infected individual with a broad, cross subtype, antibody response. The majority of envelope variants isolated over the first ~ 5 years post-infection were poorly neutralized by contemporaneous plasma that neutralized variants from earlier in infection, consistent with a dynamic process of escape. The majority of variants could be neutralized by later plasma, suggesting these evolving variants may have contributed to the elicitation of new antibody responses. However, some variants from later in infection were recognized by plasma from earlier in infection, including one notably neutralization-sensitive variant that was sensitive due to a proline at position 199 in V2. These studies suggest a complex pattern of virus evolution in this individual with a broad NAb response, including persistence of neutralization-sensitive viruses. PMID:20034648

  12. Indirect fluorescent-antibody test for human cytomegalovirus infection in the absence of interfering immunoglobulin G receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Swack, N S; Michalski, F J; Baumgarten, A; Hsiung, G D

    1977-01-01

    The presence of immunoglobulin G receptors in human fibroblasts infected with human cytomegalovirus (CMV) resulted in a nonspecific cytoplasmic reaction in the indirect fluorescent-antibody test. Both CMV antibody-positive and antibody-negative sera from human or other animal species produced the cytoplasmic reaction. The substitution of a simian CMV strain for the human virus successfully eliminated this cytoplasmic reaction and, thus, allowed for the observation of virus-induced fluorescent intranuclear inclusions. With the latter system, CMV antibody titers in human sera were equivalent to those obtained by using the human virus and, in addition, allowed for the detection of relatively low-titered serum samples in which antibody measurement was difficult when human CMV-infected cells were used in the indirect fluorescent-antibody test. Images PMID:193791

  13. Monoclonal Antibody-Based Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detection of Morbillivirus Antibody in Marine Mammal Sera

    PubMed Central

    Saliki, Jeremiah T.; Lehenbauer, Terry W.

    2001-01-01

    A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA), using two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), was developed and compared with the standard virus neutralization test (VNT) for detecting antibodies against canine distemper virus (CDV) and phocine distemper virus (PDV) in sera from dogs and various species of marine mammals. The test depends on the blocking of MAb binding to solid-phase antigen in the presence of positive serum. Test conditions were optimized by using control VNT-negative and -positive sera specific for CDV and PDV. A positive cutoff value of 30% inhibition, which represents the mean cutoff of a VNT-negative population (n = 623) plus 2 standard deviations, was adopted for the test. A total of 736 serum samples were tested by the new cELISA and by the VNT as the “gold standard.” An unexpected but useful finding was the ability of this CDV- and PDV-specific cELISA to also detect antibodies against the related pair dolphin morbillivirus and porpoise morbillivirus. Based on a subpopulation of 625 sera used in statistical analyses, the overall sensitivity and specificity of cELISA relative to those of the VNT were 94.9 and 97.7%, respectively. Because the cELISA proved to be nearly as sensitive and specific as the VNT while being simpler and more rapid, it would be an adequate screening test for suspect CDV or PDV cases and would also be useful for epidemiological surveillance of morbilliviral infections in marine mammal populations. PMID:11326007

  14. Endowing self-binding feature restores the activities of a loss-of-function chimerized anti-GM2 antibody.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunfeng; Russ, Michael; Retter, Marc; Fanger, Gary; Morgan, Charles; Kohler, Heinz; Muller, Sybille

    2007-02-01

    Our previous studies have described a rare type of antibody that spontaneously binds to itself, or homodimerizes. This self-binding, or autophilic antibody provides stronger protection against bacterial infection than a non-self-binding antibody with identical specificity and affinity, due to an increase of polymeric avidity. Furthermore, we have shown that a peptide derived from the self-binding domain of the autophilic T15 antibody can be crosslinked to the Fc carbohydrate of monoclonal antibodies specific for the B-cell receptor of B-cell tumors. These peptide-crosslinked antibodies can exert self-binding properties, leading to an increase in binding efficiency to the target cells as well as an increase in potential to induce apoptosis. Herein, we report a novel finding that crosslinking of the autophilic T15 peptide rescues a loss-of-function chimerized (ch) anti-GM2 antibody. The parental antibody demonstrates in vivo anti-tumor activity against melanoma xenografts. The T15 peptide-conjugated antibody shows the ability to bind to itself, as well as an increased binding to its antigen, ganglioside GM2. Moreover, the peptide-conjugated antibody also demonstrates an increased ability to bind to two GM2-positive tumor cell lines and notably important, restores its ability to induce apoptosis in two types of tumor cells. These results provide strong support for the clinical potential of the autophilic technology. PMID:16896968

  15. Characteristics and clinical significance of a stabilization assay to detect specific antibodies to reverse transcriptase of human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Morita, M; Suzuki, T; Nakajima, K; Shiozawa, C; Gill, M J; Hoshino, H

    1995-01-01

    Antibodies against reverse transcriptase (RT) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) have been detected in seropositive subjects by immunoprecipitation, Western immunoblotting, and neutralization assay. Recently, we noticed that the antibodies against RT stabilized RT upon heat inactivation, and we have developed a stabilization assay of RT antibody. Briefly, the RT of HIV-1 is completely inactivated by incubation at 56 degrees C for 20 min, but this inactivation is inhibited in the presence of a specific antibody directed against this molecule. We examined the specificity and clinical significance of this stabilization assay. HIV-1 antibody-positive sera stabilized HIV-1 RT but not HIV-2 RT, whereas half of these sera cross-neutralized HIV-2 RT. Antibody titers against RT determined by the neutralization assay and the stabilization assay were compared with clinical characteristics. Antibodies against HIV-1 RT were much more frequently detected by the stabilization assay than by the neutralization assay. Statistically significant associations were found between stabilizing antibody titer and CD4+ cell number in peripheral blood of patients and also between antibody titer and CD4+/CD8+ ratios. These results indicate that our new stabilization assay to detect specific antibodies against RT of HIV-1 is useful as a clinical marker of infection and progress of the disease. PMID:8548538

  16. Reactivity of a mouse/human chimeric anti-GM2 antibody KM966 with brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Dohi, T; Nakamura, K; Hanai, N; Taomoto, K; Oshima, M

    1994-01-01

    With the aim of investigating the passive immunotherapy of brain tumors, we examined the binding of a mouse/human chimeric anti-ganglioside GM2 antibody KM966 to various organs and brain tumors. Frozen sections of 51 surgically resected brain tumors were stained with antibody KM966. Fourteen gliomas out of 16 were stained positively with antibody KM966. Eleven positive sections demonstrated homogenous staining. No specific binding to normal gray matter and white matter was observed. Some cases of meningiomas, neurinomas and metastatic brain tumors were stained with KM966 but with less frequency and intensity than gliomas. In addition, KM966 demonstrated strong antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against human malignant glioma cells. These results showed that antibody KM966 will be useful for passive immunotherapy of malignant gliomas. PMID:7872684

  17. Induction of specific transplantation immune reactions using anti- idiotypic antibodies

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    B and T lymphocytes with reactivity against major histocompatibility antigens are known to express this immune potential via a display on the outer surface of antigen-specific, idiotypic receptors. Here, we show that anti-idiotypic antibodies directed against such receptors may serve as specific triggering agents of the idiotype-positive lymphocytes in the physical absence of foreign histocompatibility antigens. This was shown in vitro using normal or immune spleen T cells where anti-idiotypic antibodies would lead to the selective proliferation and development of antigen-specific cytolytic T cells as determined by short-time 51Cr release assays. Furthermore, purified anti-idiotypic antibodies in adjuvant administered in vivo to normal syngeneic animals could be shown to lead to production of high titers of specific alloantibodies. The present experiments were in most cases carried out using auto-anti-idiotypic antibodies as triggering agents. The present results thus lend further support to the concept that idiotype-anti-idiotype reactions may be normal parts of conventional immune processes with either stimulatory or inhibitory consequences, depending upon the prevailing conditions. PMID:304882

  18. Intracavitary use of two radiolabeled tumor-associated monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Malamitsi, J.; Skarlos, D.; Fotiou, S.; Papakostas, P.; Aravantinos, G.; Vassilarou, D.; Taylor-Papadimitriou, J.; Koutoulidis, K.; Hooker, G.; Snook, D.

    1988-12-01

    Six patients with metastatic breast cancer and malignant pleural effusions and 13 patients with known or suspected ovarian cancer, underwent immunoscintigraphy after intracavitary (intrapleural or intraperitoneal) administration of iodine-131-(131I) or indium-111-(111In) labeled tumor associated monoclonal antibodies HMFG2 and H17E2. This method proved to be sensitive and specific with a true-positive result in 13 out of 14 patients with tumor and a true-negative result in five out of five patients without tumor. At any one time, 65%-80% of the whole-body radioactivity was closely associated with the cavity into which the radiolabeled antibody was administered while the radioactivity in the blood was always low, (approximately 4 X 10(-3) of administered dose/ml of blood). Concentrations of radiolabeled antibody (per gram of tumor tissue) ranged from 0.02%-0.1% of the injected dose in intracavitary tumors, but only 0.002% in a retroperitoneal metastasis. The specificity of this approach was documented in four control patients with benign ovarian cysts and in two patients who were imaged using both specific and nonspecific radiolabeled antibody. We conclude that the intracavitary administration of 131I- or 111In-labeled HMFG2 and H17E2 is a favorable route of administration and offers significant advantages over previously reported intravenous administration for the localization of breast or ovarian metastases confined to the pleural or peritoneal cavities.

  19. Antibody-Dependent Enhancement of Marburg Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Eri; Tomabechi, Daisuke; Matsuno, Keita; Kishida, Noriko; Yoshida, Reiko; Feldmann, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Background.?Marburg virus (MARV) and Ebola virus (EBOV) cause severe hemorrhagic fever in primates. Earlier studies demonstrated that antibodies to particular epitopes on the glycoprotein (GP) of EBOV enhanced virus infectivity in vitro. Methods.?To investigate this antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) in MARV infection, we produced mouse antisera and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to the GPs of MARV strains Angola and Musoke. Results.?The infectivity of vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotyped with Angola GP in K562 cells was significantly enhanced in the presence of Angola GP antisera, whereas only minimal ADE activity was seen with Musoke GP antisera. This difference correlated with the percentage of hybridoma clones producing infectivity-enhancing mAbs. Using mAbs to MARV GP, we identified 3 distinct ADE epitopes in the mucinlike region on Angola GP. Interestingly, some of these antibodies bound to both Angola and Musoke GPs but showed significantly higher ADE activity for strain Angola. ADE activity depended on epitopes in the mucinlike region and glycine at amino acid position 547, present in the Angola but absent in the Musoke GP. Conclusions.?These results suggest a possible link between ADE and MARV pathogenicity and provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying ADE entry of filoviruses. PMID:21987779

  20. Deficit Schizophrenia: Association With Serum Antibodies to Cytomegalovirus

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Faith; Kirkpatrick, Brian; Boronow, John; Stallings, Cassie; Origoni, Andrea; Yolken, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Background: Patients with deficit schizophrenia differ from nondeficit patients with schizophrenia relative to several neurobiological correlates and relative to the risk factors of family history and season of birth. Exposure to human herpesviruses is a possible risk factor for schizophrenia. We hypothesized that there would be deficit/nondeficit difference in the prevalence of serum antibodies to human herpesviruses. Methods: In deficit (N = 88) and nondeficit (N = 235) schizophrenia patients, we measured IgG class antibodies to the 6 known human herpesviruses: herpes simplex virus type 1, herpes simplex virus type 2, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, human herpes virus 6, and varicella-zoster virus. Results: Deficit categorization was associated with the presence of serum antibodies to cytomegalovirus (odds ratio = 2.01, p = .006). This association remained significant after covarying for positive psychotic symptoms and demographic features known to be associated with cytomegalovirus seropositivity and after correcting for multiple comparisons. An association between herpes simplex virus type 1 and deficit status was not significant after covarying for potentially confounding variables. No other human herpesvirus was significantly associated with deficit versus nondeficit categorization. Conclusions: The association between deficit schizophrenia and cytomegalovirus antibody seropositivity provides further evidence for differences in etiopathophysiology between deficit and nondeficit schizophrenia. PMID:16166610

  1. The seroprevalence of antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona in Michigan equids.

    PubMed

    Rossano, M G; Kaneene, J B; Marteniuk, J V; Banks, B D; Schott, H C; Mansfield, L S

    2001-01-29

    A cross-sectional study of serum antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona (the etiologic agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, EPM) was performed on Michigan equids. Our objectives were to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies to S. neurona in Michigan equids and to identify specific risk factors for seropositivity. A random, weighted sample of Michigan horse farms (stratified by the state's opossum (Didelphis virginiana) population and the number of equids on each operation) was selected. Ninety-eight equine-operation owners agreed to participate, and blood collection occurred from late March through October of 1997. Data regarding the 98 farms' feeding and management practices were collected, as well as descriptive data for each of the 1121 individual horses. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to S. neurona using a Western blot test. The true seroprevalence of antibodies specific to S. neurona was estimated to be 60%. Chi-square analysis showed that seroprevalence was lowest in the colder parts of the state that had the fewest opossums (P<0.0001). In two multivariable logistic-regression analyses with random effects grouped by herd, age and exposure to pasture were associated with increased odds of seropositivity, and feeding of sweet feed (grains mixed with molasses) was associated with decreased odds of testing positive. No association was found between farm size, animal gender, hay types, horse-housing types or exposure to natural surface water and seropositivity. PMID:11154784

  2. Anti-HTLV antibody profiling reveals an antibody signature for HTLV-I-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP)

    PubMed Central

    Burbelo, Peter D; Meoli, Elise; Leahy, Hannah P; Graham, Jhanelle; Yao, Karen; Oh, Unsong; Janik, John E; Mahieux, Renaud; Kashanchi, Fatah; Iadarola, Michael J; Jacobson, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Background HTLV-I is the causal agent of adult T cell leukemia (ATLL) and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Biomarkers are needed to diagnose and/or predict patients who are at risk for HAM/TSP or ATLL. Therefore, we investigated using luciferase immunoprecipitation technology (LIPS) antibody responses to seven HTLV-I proteins in non-infected controls, asymptomatic HTLV-I-carriers, ATLL and HAM/TSP sera samples. Antibody profiles were correlated with viral load and examined in longitudinal samples. Results Anti-GAG antibody titers detected by LIPS differentiated HTLV-infected subjects from uninfected controls with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity, but did not differ between HTLV-I infected subgroups. However, anti-Env antibody titers were over 4-fold higher in HAM/TSP compared to both asymptomatic HTLV-I (P < 0.0001) and ATLL patients (P < 0.0005). Anti-Env antibody titers above 100,000 LU had 75% positive predictive value and 79% negative predictive value for identifying the HAM/TSP sub-type. Anti-Tax antibody titers were also higher (P < 0.0005) in the HAM/TSP compared to the asymptomatic HTLV-I carriers. Proviral load correlated with anti-Env antibodies in asymptomatic carriers (R = 0.76), but not in HAM/TSP. Conclusion These studies indicate that anti-HTLV-I antibody responses detected by LIPS are useful for diagnosis and suggest that elevated anti-Env antibodies are a common feature found in HAM/TSP patients. PMID:18937847

  3. Improving sensitivity of oral fluid testing in IgG prevalence studies: application of mixture models to a rubella antibody survey.

    PubMed Central

    Gay, N. J.; Vyse, A. J.; Enquselassie, F.; Nigatu, W.; Nokes, D. J.

    2003-01-01

    A method for the analysis of age-stratified antibody prevalence surveys is applied to a previously reported survey of antibody to rubella virus using oral fluid samples in which the sensitivity of the assay used was shown to be compromised. The age-specific distribution of the quantitative results of antibody tests using oral fluids is modelled as a mixture of strong positive, weak positive and negative components. This yields maximum likelihood estimates of the prevalence at each age and demonstrates that, when used in conjunction with mixture modelling techniques, the results of antibody prevalence studies using oral fluids accurately reflect those obtained using sera. PMID:12729197

  4. Helicobacter pylori Antibodies and Iron Deficiency in Female Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sandström, Göran; Rödjer, Stig; Kaijser, Bertil; Börjesson, Mats

    2014-01-01

    Objective Iron deficiency (ID) is a common clinical problem worldwide, affecting primarily females. Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection has been shown to be associated with ID. The objective of this study was to define the prevalence of HP antibodies in female adolescents, and to find out if there was a correlation between HP infection and ID. The secondary aim was to study if regularly performed sporting activity, have any association to HP infection, in itself. Design A controlled clinical trial. Setting A senior high school in Gothenburg, Sweden. Subjects All female athletes at a senior high school for top-level athletes were offered to take part, and 56 athletes took part in the study. The control group consisted of a random sample of age-matched non-athlete students of which 71 entered the study. Main outcome measures Iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) were defined by the use of levels of haemoglobin, serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin, as previously described. HP IgG-antibodies were detected by ELISA. Results 18 of 127 (14%) adolescent females had antibodies against HP. Only 3% had IDA, while 50% had ID. In total, 66% of the HP positive females had ID compared to 48% of the negative females (p?=?0.203). No correlation between sporting activity and HP infection was found. Regarding ethnicity, 11/28 of subjects from medium-high risk areas were HP-positive, compared to 7/99 coming from low-risk areas (p<0.001). Conclusion The main finding of this study is that the prevalence of HP IgG antibodies was 14% in adolescent females. We could not find any difference regarding frequency of ID and IDA, between HP positive and negative individuals. Ethnicity is of great importance for the risk of HP infection, while sporting activity itself seems to have no association to HP-infection. PMID:25409451

  5. SERUM ANTIBODIES TO BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM, AND BABESIA MICROTI IN RECAPTURED WHITE-FOOTED MICE

    PubMed Central

    Magnarelli, Louis A.; Williams, Scott C.; Norris, Steven J.; Fikrig, Erol

    2013-01-01

    A mark-release-recapture study was conducted during 2007 through 2010 in six, tick-infested sites in Connecticut, United States to measure changes in antibody titers for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti in Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mice). There was an overall recapture rate of 40%, but only four tagged mice were caught in ?2 yr. Sera from 561 mice were analyzed for total antibodies to B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum by using whole-cell or recombinant (VlsE or protein 44) antigens in a solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or to whole-cell B. microti by indirect fluorescent antibody staining. Antibody prevalences were highly variable for B. burgdorferi (from 56% to 98%), A. phagocytophilum (from 11% to 85%), and B. microti (from 11% to 84%) depending on the site and time of sampling. Of 463 mice with antibodies, 206 (45%) had antibodies to all three pathogens. Changes in antibody status for some mice from negative to positive (117 seroconversions) or from positive to negative (55 reversions) were observed. Seroconversions were observed in 10.1% of 417 mice for B. burgdorferi, 18.0% of 306 mice for A. phagocytophilum, and 6.6% of 304 mice for B. microti; reversion rates were 5.3, 5.9, and 4.9%, respectively. Antibodies to all pathogens persisted in some mice over several weeks while, in others, there were marked declines in titration end points to negative status. The latter may indicate elimination of a certain pathogen, such as A. phagocytophilum, or that mouse immune systems ceased to produce antibodies despite an existing patent infection. PMID:23568904

  6. Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Accelerates Human Antibody-Mediated Transplant Vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Ryoichi; Issa, Fadi; Heidt, Sebastiaan; Taggart, David; Wood, Kathryn J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of transplant vasculopathy (TV) is a multifactorial process. We hypothesized that ischemia-reperfusion injury and antibody-mediated damage contribute to the development of TV. Methods Human vessels were procured from nine separate donors undergoing cardiac surgery and stored in saline solution on ice until transplantation. BALB/c Rag2-/-IL-2R?-/- mice were transplanted with a human vessel graft on day 0. Purified anti–human leukocyte antigen class I antibody (W6/32), isotype control antibody, or saline was injected into recipient mice weekly until day 42, at which point the degree of intimal expansion (IE) of vessels was assessed by histologic analysis. Results We found that a prolonged cold ischemia time (6–12 hr) alone did not induce IE. In mice that received antibody where vessels were transplanted within 6 hr of procurement, no IE was observed. By contrast, in vessels exposed to more than 6 hr cold ischemia, both W6/32 antibody (30.4%±6.9%) and isotype control antibody (39.5%±6.0%) promoted significant IE (P<0.05 vs. saline [12.4%±1.7%]). Importantly, the isotype control antibody did not cross-react with human tissue. Interestingly, the number of mouse Fc-receptor–positive cells was significantly increased in human vessels exposed to more than 6 hr cold ischemia but only in the presence of antibody (P<0.05). Conclusions Antibody, regardless of its specificity, may promote IE in human vessels that are injured through cold ischemia via interaction with Fc-receptor–positive cells. This highlights the importance of controlling the degree of cold ischemia in clinical transplantation in an effort to reduce the risk of TV development. PMID:23856999

  7. Effect of anti-immunoglobulin antibodies produced in cattle infected with Trypanosoma evansi on antigen detection ELISA.

    PubMed

    Kashiwazaki, Y; Thammasart, S

    1998-09-01

    The possibility of interference with the antigen-detection ELISA for trypanosomosis by anti-rodent IgG antibodies produced in cattle infected with Trypanosoma evansi was investigated. Two different ELISA for detection of trypanosome antigen and three different systems for anti-rodent IgG antibody detection were established. The former two were respectively polyclonal antibody-based and a combination of monoclonal and polyclonal antibody-based assays. The latter three were also adapted for detection of anti-mouse IgG, anti-rabbit IgG and anti-IgG antibodies cross-reactive with both rabbit and mouse IgGs. A total of 170 samples were collected from a dairy cattle farm where an outbreak of T. evansi infection was reported. One hundred and two cattle (59%) were found to be positive for trypanosome antigens by the polyclonal antibody-based assay and 86 (51%) were positive by the combination-based system. On the other hand, 51 (30%) and 10 (6%) of cattle had anti-rabbit and anti-mouse IgG antibodies respectively but none had antibodies cross-reactive with both IgGs. Of the 102 cattle positive for trypanosome antigens in the polyclonal antibody-based ELISA, 48 (47%) were also anti-rabbit IgG antibody positive. It is concluded that antigen detection ELISA based on a single-species immunoglobulin for capture and detection might misdiagnose T. evansi infection. Results indicate that this bias will be avoided if reagents for capture and detection are derived from different species. PMID:9770620

  8. Production of therapeutic antibodies with controlled fucosylation

    PubMed Central

    Yamane-Ohnuki, Naoko

    2009-01-01

    The clinical success of therapeutic antibodies is demonstrated by the number of antibody therapeutics that have been brought to market and the increasing number of therapeutic antibodies in development. Recombinant antibodies are molecular-targeted therapeutic agents and represent a major new class of drugs. However, it is still very important to optimize and maximize the clinical efficacy of therapeutic antibodies, in part to help lower the cost of therapeutic antibodies by potentially reducing the dose or the duration of treatment. Clinical trials using therapeutic antibodies fully lacking core fucose residue in the Fc oligosaccharides are currently underway, and their remarkable physiological activities in humans in vivo have attracted attention as next-generation therapeutic antibody approaches with improved efficacy. Thus, an industrially applicable antibody production process that provides consistent yields of fully non-fucosylated antibody therapeutics with fixed quality has become a key goal in the successful development of next-generation therapeutic agents. In this article, we review the current technologies for production of therapeutic antibodies with control of fucosylation of the Fc N-glycans. PMID:20065644

  9. Majority of Children With Type 1 Diabetes Produce and Deposit Anti-Tissue Transglutaminase Antibodies in the Small Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Maglio, Mariantonia; Florian, Fiorella; Vecchiet, Monica; Auricchio, Renata; Paparo, Francesco; Spadaro, Raffaella; Zanzi, Delia; Rapacciuolo, Luciano; Franzese, Adriana; Sblattero, Daniele; Marzari, Roberto; Troncone, Riccardo

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Anti-tissue transglutaminase (TG2) antibodies are the serological marker of celiac disease. Given the close association between celiac disease and type 1 diabetes, we investigated the production and deposition of anti-TG2 antibodies in the jejunal mucosa of type 1 diabetic children. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Intestinal biopsies were performed in 33 type 1 diabetic patients with a normal mucosal architecture: 14 had high levels (potential celiac disease patients) and 19 had normal levels of serum anti-TG2 antibodies. All biopsy specimens were investigated for intestinal deposits of IgA anti-TG2 antibodies by double immunofluorescence. In addition, an antibody analysis using the phage display technique was performed on the intestinal biopsy specimens from seven type 1 diabetic patients, of whom four had elevated and three had normal levels of serum anti-TG2 antibodies. RESULTS Immunofluorescence studies showed that 11 of 14 type 1 diabetic children with elevated levels and 11 of 19 with normal serum levels of anti-TG2 antibodies presented with mucosal deposits of such autoantibodies. The phage display analysis technique confirmed the intestinal production of the anti-TG2 antibodies; however, whereas the serum-positive type 1 diabetic patients showed a preferential use of the VH5 antibody gene family, in the serum-negative patients the anti-TG2 antibodies belonged to the VH1 and VH3 families, with a preferential use of the latter. CONCLUSIONS Our findings demonstrate that there is intestinal production and deposition of anti-TG2 antibodies in the jejunal mucosa of the majority of type 1 diabetic patients. However, only those with elevated serum levels of anti-TG2 antibodies showed the VH usage that is typical of the anti-TG2 antibodies that are produced in patients with celiac disease. PMID:19401430

  10. Application of the Filariasis CELISA Antifilarial IgG4 Antibody Assay in Surveillance in Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programmes in the South Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Hayley; Maiava, Fuatai; Naseri, Take; Taleo, Fasihah; ‘Ake, Malakai; Capuano, Corinne; Melrose, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    Elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in the Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICT) has been defined as <0.1% circulating filarial antigen (CFA) prevalence in children born after the implementation of successful mass drug administrations (MDAs). This research assessed the feasibility of CFA and antibody testing in three countries; Tonga, Vanuatu, and Samoa. Transmission is interrupted in Vanuatu and Tonga as evidenced by no CFA positive children and a low antibody prevalence and titre. Transmission is ongoing in Samoa with microfilaraemic (Mf) and CFA positive children and a high antibody prevalence and titre. Furthermore, areas of transmission were identified with Mf positive adults, but no CFA positive children. These areas had a high antibody prevalence in children. In conclusion, CFA testing in children alone was not useful for identifying areas of residual endemicity in Samoa. Thus, it would be beneficial to include antibody serology in the PICT surveillance strategy. PMID:21961018

  11. In vitro inhibition of Cryptosporidium parvum infection by human monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Elliot, B C; Wisnewski, A V; Johnson, J; Fenwick-Smith, D; Wiest, P; Hamer, D; Kresina, T; Flanigan, T P

    1997-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum infection of the small epithelial intestine causes unremitting diarrhea and malabsorption that can lead to chronic and sometimes fatal illness in patients with AIDS. The illness may be ameliorated by passive oral immunoglobulin therapy. The objective of this study was to produce anti-Cryptosporidium human monoclonal antibodies for evaluation as potential therapy. All human monoclonal cell lines that produced C. parvum antibodies were originally generated from the peripheral blood lymphocytes of a human immunodeficiency virus-seronegative woman. She had recovered from C. parvum infection and had a high specific antibody titer. Hybridization of these lymphocytes with a tumor cell line was accomplished by hypo-osmolar electrofusion. Twelve clones were identified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as secreting anti-Cryptosporidium antibodies after the initial hybridization. From the 12 positive clones, two high antibody-secreting clones, 17A and 17B, were maintained in long-term culture. A second hybridization produced two other human monoclonal cell lines, EC5 and BB2. Human monoclonal antibody from the first two cell lines bound to C. parvum sporozoites and oocysts by immunofluorescence. The ability of human monoclonal antibodies to inhibit C. parvum infection in vitro was assessed by using a human enterocyte cell line, HT29.74. The antibodies of the four different human hybridomas inhibited infection by 35 to 68% (P < 0.05) compared to a control irrelevant human monoclonal antibody derived in a similar fashion. Human monoclonal antibodies are candidate molecules for immunotherapy of C. parvum infection. PMID:9284173

  12. Antibodies recognizing sulfated carbohydrates are prevalent in systemic sclerosis and associated with pulmonary vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Grader-Beck, Thomas; Boin, Francesco; von Gunten, Stephan; Smith, David; Rosen, Antony; Bochner, Bruce S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Glycosylation represents an important modification that regulates biological processes in tissues relevant for disease pathogenesis in systemic sclerosis (SSc), including the endothelium and extracellular matrix. Whether patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) develop antibodies to carbohydrates is not known. Objectives To determine the prevalence and clinical phenotype associated with serum IgG antibodies recognizing distinct glycans in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Methods Pooled sera from patients with SSc and controls were screened for the presence of specific anti-carbohydrate antibodies using a novel array containing over 300 glycans. Antibody titers to 4-sulfated N-Acetyl-lactosamine (4S-LacNAc, [4OSO3]Gal?1-4GlcNAc) were determined in 181 individual sera from SSc patients by ELISA and associated with disease phenotype. Results 4S-LacNAc was identified as a target in pooled SSc serum. Anti-4SLAcNAc antibodies were detected in 27/181 (14.9%) of SSc patients compared to 1/40 (2.5%) of healthy controls. Sulfation at position C-4 of galactose (4S-LacNAc) was found to be critical for immunogenicity. Anti-4SLacNAc antibody positive SSc patients had a higher prevalence of pulmonary hypertension by echocardiography (15/27; 55.7% versus anti-4S LacNac negative patients 49/154; 31.8% p=0.02) with an odds ratio of 2.6 (CI 1.1, 6.3). Anti-4S-LacNAc positive patients accounted for 23.4% of all patients with pulmonary hypertension. Conclusion Sera from SSc patients contain IgG antibodies targeting distinct sulfated carbohydrates. The presence of anti-4S-LacNAc antibodies is associated with a high prevalence of pulmonary hypertension. These results suggest that specific posttranslational carbohydrate modifications may act as important immunogens in SSc and may contribute to disease pathogenesis. PMID:21873333

  13. Bispecific antibody conjugates in therapeutics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Cao; Laura Lam

    2003-01-01

    Bispecific monoclonal antibodies have drawn considerable attention from the research community due to their unique structure against two different antigens. The two-arm structure of bsMAb allows researchers to place a therapeutic agent on one arm while allowing the other to specifically target the disease site. The therapeutic agent can be a drug, toxin, enzyme, DNA, radionuclide, etc. Furthermore, bsMAb may

  14. Antibody dissociation rates are predictive of neutralizing antibody (NAb) course: A comparison of interferon beta-1b-treated Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients with transient versus sustained NAbs.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Ebrima; Karim, Mohammad Ehsanul; Oger, Joel

    2015-03-01

    A proportion of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with interferon-? (IFN?) develop neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), which can reduce therapeutic efficacy. In the Betaseron/Betaferon in Newly Emerging MS for Initial Treatment (BENEFIT) study, 88/277 patients developed NAbs, 48 having transient positivity and 29 having sustained positivity. This study aimed to investigate the antibody binding characteristics of serial sera in a subset of these two patient groups. Using Biacore™, a surface plasmon resonance-based technology that monitors biomolecular interactions in real time, we immobilized pure IFN?-1b and analyzed antibody binding responses and dissociation rates of these sera. NAb titers correlated directly with binding responses and inversely with dissociation rates, and sera from sustained NAb patients demonstrated significantly higher binding responses and slower dissociation rates than sera from transient NAb patients. Thus, transient and sustained NAbs are quantitatively and qualitatively different, and interestingly, binding responses and dissociation rates at month 12 could predict the NAb course. PMID:25543089

  15. Single-Chain Antibody Library

    DOE Data Explorer

    Baird, Cheryl

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have constructed a nonimmune library consisting of 109 human antibody scFv fragments, which have been cloned and expressed on the surface of yeast. Nanomolar-affinity scFvs are routinely obtained by magnetic bead screening and flow cytometric sorting. The yeast library can be amplified 1010 fold without measurable loss of clonal diversity. This allows for indefinite expansion of the library. All scFv clones can be assessed directly on the yeast cell surface by immunofluorescent labeling and flow cytometry, obviating separate subcloning, expression, and purification steps. The ability to use multiplex library screening demonstrates the utility of this approach for high-throughput antibody isolation for proteomic applications. The yeast library may be used for research projects or teaching performed for U.S. Government purposes only. If you would like to request an aliquot of the single-chain antibody library for your research, please print and fill out the Materials Transfer Agreement (MTA) [PDF, 20K]. The website provides the contact information for mailing the MTA. [copied from http://www.sysbio.org/dataresources/singlechain.stm

  16. Improved monoclonal antibodies to halodeoxyuridine

    DOEpatents

    Vanderlaan, M.; Dolbeare, F.A.; Gray, J.W.; Thomas, C.B.

    1983-10-18

    The development, method of production, characterization and methods of use of two hybridomas, CIdU-1 (ATCC Accession No. HB-8321) and CIdU-2 (ATCC Accession No. HB-8320), are described. These secrete IgG/sub 1/(K) immunoglobulins that react with halodeoxyuridine (HdU or halodU) such as bromo, chloro, fluoro and iodo deoxyuridine (BrdU, CldU, FdU and IdU), whether these are free in solution or incorporated into single stranded DNA in whole cells. The antibodies do not react with naturally occurring free nucleic acids or with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA) polymers. These antibodies are suitable for use in enzyme immunoassays for free CldU, FdU, IdU and BrdU and for detecting cells with these nucleotides incorporated into them. The monoclonal antibodies are useful in the detection of the sensitivity of tumor cells to specific chemotherapeutic agents, in the measurement of the rate of cellular DNA synthesis, in the measurement of the rate of proliferation of normal and malignant cells and in the detection of HPRT deficiency in cells. 1 tab.

  17. For anti-HLA-specific donor antibodies detection by flow cytometry cytotoxic crossmatches comparison of methods.

    PubMed

    Cervelli, C; Pisani, F; Aureli, A; Azzarone, R; Scimitarra, M; Battistoni, C; Di Iulio, B; Fracassi, D; Scarnecchia, M A; Famulari, A; Papola, F

    2013-09-01

    Anti-HLA-specific donor antibodies induce rapid, irreversible destruction of the transplant (hyperacute rejection) that today happens rarely due to immunologic studies-prospective crossmatch-of patients awaiting the kidney graft. The usual approach for pretransplant donor/recipient evaluation is based on 2 methods: (1) the cytotoxic complement crossmatch (CDC) and (2) the flow cytometric crossmatch (FCX). The CDC crossmatch is positive when complement-fixing antibodies are present, an absolute contraindication to kidney transplantation. The more sensitive FCX-positive crossmatch detects low concentrations of unable to fix performed antibodies complement. It is an "index" of possible damage due to accelerated rejection. The target of our study was to develop a cytotoxic flow cytometry crossmatch (cFCX) that detected cytotoxic antibodies move sensitively than the traditional CDC method and also was less subjective and more standardized for interpretation studying sera from 23 patients; the cFCX showed the requested efficiency characteristics even in an emergency. In addition, the new method permited one to calculate a cutoff for positivity (average value of the negative control + 2 standard deviations), assuring an "objective" interpretation of the results that agreed with the CDC but was more sensitive and accurate allowing solution of ambiguous results for cases of "doubt"-positive CDC crossmatch. Furthermore, our aim was to correlate the effect of the strength of the anti-HLA antibodies determined by mean fluorescence intensity value of LabScreen Single Antigen beads with results of CDC, cFCX, and FCX methods. PMID:24034042

  18. A mammalian expression system for high throughput antibody screening.

    PubMed

    Xu, Linda; Jin, Xiaofang; Rainey, G Jonah; Wu, Herren; Gao, Changshou

    2013-09-30

    We describe herein a method to enable high throughput (HTP) screening of libraries of soluble proteins such as phage-derived clones of IgG, scFv-Fc, or other Fc-fusion proteins expressed in mammalian cells via adenovirus transduction. DNA fragments of antibody single chains (scFvs) and fragment antigen-binding (Fabs) from the positive clones of the third round of bacteriophage panning against a target antigen were batch reformatted into scFv-Fc or IgG in an oriP bearing entry vector and then recombined to an adenovirus vector through Gateway technology. The resulting antibody gene-containing adenovirus libraries were added to 96-well plates seeded with mammalian cells at a ratio of 0.7 infectious viral particles per well to establish clonality. Protocol optimization improved the expression of scFv-Fc and IgGs up to 100?g/mL in 96-well plates, which is sufficient for most antibody characterizations. In addition, 78% of the wells that were positive for protein expression contain only one sequence, indicating successful establishment of clonality in a majority of wells. We have established and optimized a mammalian expression system that produces soluble protein variants in a HTP manner. The system will facilitate developing multiple downstream screening methodologies. PMID:23831609

  19. Epitope Mapping of Antibodies to Alpha-Synuclein in LRRK2 Mutation Carriers, Idiopathic Parkinson Disease Patients, and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Castelao, Beatriz; Gorostidi, Ana; Ruíz-Martínez, Javier; López de Munain, Adolfo; Castaño, José G.

    2014-01-01

    Alpha-synuclein (Snca) plays a major role in Parkinson disease (PD). Circulating anti-Snca antibodies has been described in PD patients and healthy controls, but they have been poorly characterized. This study was designed to assess the prevalence of anti-Snca reactivity in human subjects carrying the LRRK2 mutation, idiopathic PD (iPD) patients, and healthy controls and to map the epitopes of the anti-Snca antibodies. Antibodies to Snca were detected by ELISA and immunoblotting using purified recombinant Snca in plasma from individuals carrying LRRK2 mutations (104), iPD patients (59), and healthy controls (83). Epitopes of antibodies were mapped using recombinant protein constructs comprising different regions of Snca. Clear positive anti-Snca reactivity showed no correlation with age, sex, years of evolution, or the disability scores for PD patients and anti-Snca reactivity was not prevalent in human patients with other neurological or autoimmune diseases. Thirteen of the positive individuals were carriers of LRRK2 mutations either non-manifesting (8 out 49 screened) or manifesting (5 positive out 55), three positive (out of 59) were iPD patients, and five positive (out of 83) were healthy controls. Epitope mapping showed that antibodies against the N-terminal (a.a. 1–60) or C-terminal (a.a. 109–140) regions of Snca predominate in LRRK2 mutation carriers and iPD patients, being N122 a critical amino acid for recognition by the anti-C-terminal directed antibodies. Anti-Snca circulating antibodies seem to cluster within families carrying the LRRK2 mutation indicating possible genetic or common environmental factors in the generation of anti-Snca antibodies. These results suggest that case-controls’ studies are insufficient and further studies in family cohorts of patients and healthy controls should be undertaken, to progress in the understanding of the possible relationship of anti-Snca antibodies and PD pathology. PMID:25076905

  20. Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies are associated with a non-MS course in children

    PubMed Central

    Hacohen, Yael; Absoud, Michael; Deiva, Kumaran; Hemingway, Cheryl; Nytrova, Petra; Woodhall, Mark; Palace, Jacqueline; Wassmer, Evangeline; Tardieu, Marc; Vincent, Angela; Waters, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-Abs) were predictive of a demyelination phenotype in children presenting with acquired demyelinating syndrome (ADS). Method: Sixty-five children with a first episode of ADS (12 acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, 24 optic neuritis, 18 transverse myelitis, 11 other clinically isolated syndrome) were identified from 2 national demyelination programs in the United Kingdom and France. Acute serum samples were tested for MOG-Abs by cell-based assay. Antibodies were used to predict diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) at 1 year. Results: Twenty-three of 65 (35%) children had MOG-Abs. Antibody-positive and antibody-negative patients were not clinically different at presentation, but identification of MOG-Abs predicted a non-MS course at 1-year follow-up: only 2/23 (9%) MOG-Ab–positive patients were diagnosed with MS compared to 16/42 (38%) MOG-Ab–negative patients (p = 0.019, Fisher exact test). Antibody positivity at outset was a useful predictor for a non-MS disease course, with a positive predictive value of 91% (95% confidence interval [CI] 72–99), negative predictive value of 38% (95% CI 24–54), positive likelihood ratio of 4.02 (CI 1.0–15.4), and odds ratio of 6.5 (CI 1.3–31.3). Conclusions: MOG-Abs are found at presentation in 35% of patients with childhood ADS, across a range of demyelinating disorders. Antibody positivity can be useful in predicting a non-MS disease course at onset.

  1. Antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia spp. Are common in Oklahoma horses.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Robert C; Duell, Jason R; Holbrook, Todd C; Herrin, Brian H; Leutenegger, Christian M; O'Connor, Thomas P; Little, Susan E

    2014-08-01

    Abstract Tick infestations and infection with tick-borne agents are commonly recognized in horses in North America, but equine infection with true Ehrlichia spp. has not been described. To determine the degree to which horses in the south-central United States are naturally exposed to and infected with tick-borne disease agents, serum samples were collected at random (n=240) or from horses with active tick infestations (n=73) and tested by immunofluorescence antibody assay (IFA) and/or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for evidence of antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., and Borrelia burgdorferi. Positive samples were further evaluated by species-specific serology for antibodies reactive to E. canis and E. chaffeensis, and whole blood samples were tested by PCR for evidence of infection with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, and an E. ruminantium-like organism referred to as the Panola Mountain Ehrlichia. Antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia spp. were identified in 8.75% (21/240) of the randomly acquired samples and 24.7% (18/73) of the serum samples from tick-infested horses, but species-specific ELISA and PCR failed to confirm exposure to or infection with any known Ehrlichia spp. Antibodies to Anaplasma spp. (5/313; 1.6%) and B. burgdorferi (3/313; 1.0%) were uncommon. These data suggest that horses in the south-central United States are likely exposed to a novel Ehrlichia sp. Further research is needed to identify the etiologic agent responsible for the serologic activity seen and to determine the clinical significance, if any, of this finding. PMID:25072984

  2. Antibodies to Heteromeric Glycolipid Complexes in Guillain-Barré Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kalna, Gabriela; Walgaard, Christa; van Doorn, Pieter; Jacobs, Bart C.; Yu, Robert K.; Mansson, Jan-Eric; Goodyear, Carl S.; Willison, Hugh J.

    2013-01-01

    Autoantibodies are infrequently detected in the sera of patients with the demyelinating form of Guillain-Barré syndrome most commonly encountered in the Western world, despite abundant circumstantial evidence suggesting their existence. We hypothesised that antibody specificities reliant on the cis interactions of neighbouring membrane glycolipids could explain this discrepancy, and would not have been detected by traditional serological assays using highly purified preparations of single gangliosides. To assess the frequency of glycolipid complex antibodies in a Western European cohort of patients GBS we used a newly developed combinatorial glycoarray methodology to screen against large range of antigens (11 gangliosides, 8 other single glycolipids and 162 heterodimeric glycolipid complexes). Serum samples of 181 patients from a geographically defined, Western European cohort of GBS cases were analysed, along with 161 control sera. Serum IgG binding to single gangliosides was observed in 80.0% of axonal GBS cases, but in only 11.8% of cases with demyelinating electrophysiology. The inclusion of glycolipid complexes increased the positivity rate in demyelinating disease to 62.4%. There were 40 antigens with statistically significantly increased binding intensities in GBS as compared to healthy control sera. Of these, 7 complex antigens and 1 single ganglioside also produced statistically significantly increased binding intensities in GBS versus neurological disease controls. The detection of antibodies against specific complexes was associated with particular clinical features including disease severity, requirement for mechanical ventilation, and axonal electrophysiology. This study demonstrates that while antibodies against single gangliosides are often found in cases with axonal-type electrophysiology, antibodies against glycolipid complexes predominate in cases with demyelinating electrophysiology, providing a more robust serum biomarker than has ever been previously available for such cases. This work confirms the activation of the humoral immune system in the dysimmune disease process in GBS, and correlates patterns of antigen recognition with different clinical features. PMID:24358172

  3. Serosurvey for antibody to deerpox virus in five cervid species in Oregon, USA.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ling; McKay, Alison; Green, Richard; Xu, Linzhi; Bildfell, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Five cervid species in Oregon, USA were tested with a serum neutralization assay for antibody to deerpox virus (DPV). None of the 50 elk (Cervus elaphus ssp. roosevelti and nelsonii) had detectable antibody. Prevalence of antibody to DPV in the remaining species was: 52% (n=55) in black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus), 32% (n= 59) in mule deer (O. hemionus hemionus), and 36% (n=50) in Columbian white-tailed deer (O. virginianus leucurus), with an overall antibody prevalence of 40.2% (n=164) for Odocoileus spp. Antibody-positive animals were identified throughout the state with no statistically significant differences among geographic regions. No statistically significant gender or age-related differences in antibody prevalence were demonstrated at either the genus or species level. This serosurvey indicates that exposure to DPV is common in Odocoileus populations in Oregon. Given the low rates of observed DPV-related disease, this high antibody prevalence suggests a pathogen of low virulence. PMID:23307387

  4. Position Summary Employee Details

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    Position Summary Employee Details Employee First Name: Employee Last Name: Open Position Employee Salary Grade: 0 Position Description Position Number: (Assigned when added to Library) 02004048 Dept: FM: GROUNDS SERVICES - 064040 Position: ARBORETUM GARDENING SPECIALIST HEERA/Union Representation

  5. Prevalence of antibodies against influenza virus in non-vaccinated equines from the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Gaíva e Silva, Lucas; Borges, Alice Mamede Costa Marques; Villalobos, Eliana Monteforte Cassaro; Lara, Maria do Carmo Custodio Souza Hunold; Cunha, Elenice Maria Siquetin; de Oliveira, Anderson Castro Soares; Braga, Isis Assis; Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of antibodies against Equine Influenza Virus (EIV) was determined in 529 equines living on ranches in the municipality of Poconé, Pantanal area of Brazil, by means of the hemagglutination inhibition test, using subtype H3N8 as antigen. The distribution and possible association among positive animal and ranches were evaluated by the chi-square test, spatial autoregressive and multiple linear regression models. The prevalence of antibodies against EIV was estimated at 45.2% (95% CI 30.2 - 61.1%) with titers ranging from 20 to 1,280 HAU. Seropositive equines were found on 92.0% of the surveyed ranches. Equine from non-flooded ranches (66.5%) and negativity in equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) (61.7%) were associated with antibodies against EIV. No spatial correlation was found among the ranches, but the ones located in non-flooded areas were associated with antibodies against EIV. A negative correlation was found between the prevalence of antibodies against EIV and the presence of EIAV positive animals on the ranches. The high prevalence of antibodies against EIV detected in this study suggests that the virus is circulating among the animals, and this statistical analysis indicates that the movement and aggregation of animals are factors associated to the transmission of the virus in the region. PMID:25351542

  6. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST INFLUENZA VIRUS IN NON-VACCINATED EQUINES FROM THE BRAZILIAN PANTANAL

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Lucas Gaíva E; Borges, Alice Mamede Costa Marques; Villalobos, Eliana Monteforte Cassaro; Lara, Maria do Carmo Custodio Souza Hunold; Cunha, Elenice Maria Siquetin; de Oliveira, Anderson Castro Soares; Braga, Ísis Assis; Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of antibodies against Equine Influenza Virus (EIV) was determined in 529 equines living on ranches in the municipality of Poconé, Pantanal area of Brazil, by means of the hemagglutination inhibition test, using subtype H3N8 as antigen. The distribution and possible association among positive animal and ranches were evaluated by the chi-square test, spatial autoregressive and multiple linear regression models. The prevalence of antibodies against EIV was estimated at 45.2% (95% CI 30.2 - 61.1%) with titers ranging from 20 to 1,280 HAU. Seropositive equines were found on 92.0% of the surveyed ranches. Equine from non-flooded ranches (66.5%) and negativity in equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) (61.7%) were associated with antibodies against EIV. No spatial correlation was found among the ranches, but the ones located in non-flooded areas were associated with antibodies against EIV. A negative correlation was found between the prevalence of antibodies against EIV and the presence of EIAV positive animals on the ranches. The high prevalence of antibodies against EIV detected in this study suggests that the virus is circulating among the animals, and this statistical analysis indicates that the movement and aggregation of animals are factors associated to the transmission of the virus in the region. PMID:25351542

  7. Isolation of IgG Antibodies to Toxocara in Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients with Acute Anterior Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Balderas, Francisco-Javier; García-Jaimes, Janete; Ríos, Rita; Zonana-Nacach, Abraham; Tapia-Romero, Raquel; Villanueva, Nayeli; Méndez-Samperio, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Since few reports had been published on the prevalence of toxocariasis in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients with acute non-granulomatous anterior uveitis (ANGAU), the aim of this work was to determine the presence of antibodies against Toxocara canis in AS patients with ANGAU. Methods Thirty-six patients (14 female and 22 male) with AS were enrolled in the study. The history of ANGAU was accepted only if diagnosed by an ophthalmologist. The detection of IgG antibodies to T. canis was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides were also tested to verify non-specific reactions. Results The prevalence of ANGAU in the AS patients was 58% (21 / 36), and 38% (8 / 21) of the patients with ANGAU were positive for antibodies to Toxocara, while 7% (1 / 15) of AS patients without ANGAU were positive for T. canis (p = 0.038, two tails; mid-p exact). No antibodies were detected to A. lumbricoides antigens in the serum samples of patients with AS. Conclusions These data suggest that the seroprevalence of antibodies to T. canis is high in Mexican patients with AS-associated uveitis, suggesting a chronic asymptomatic toxocariosis, which could be associated with the pathogenesis of ANGAU; however, further larger-scale studies are needed to confirm this observation. PMID:24882953

  8. An Anti-Ubiquitin Antibody Response in Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Ardelt, Peter U.; Ebbing, Jan; Adams, Fabian; Reiss, Cora; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata; Bachmann, Alexander; Wetterauer, Ulrich; Riedmiller, Hubertus; Kneitz, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    Background To use combinatorial epitope mapping (“fingerprinting”) of the antibody response to identify targets of the humoral immune response in patients with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder. Methods A combinatorial random peptide library was screened on the circulating pool of immunoglobulins purified from an index patient with a high risk TCC (pTa high grade plus carcinoma in situ) to identify corresponding target antigens. A patient cohort was investigated for antibody titers against ubiquitin. Results We selected, isolated, and validated an immunogenic peptide motif from ubiquitin as a dominant epitope of the humoral response. Patients with TCC had significantly higher antibody titers against ubiquitin than healthy donors (p<0.007), prostate cancer patients (p<0.0007), and all patients without TCC taken together (p<0.0001). Titers from superficial tumors were not significantly different from muscle invasive tumors (p = 0.0929). For antibody response against ubiquitin, sensitivity for detection of TCC was 0.44, specificity 0.96, positive predictive value 0.96 and negative predictive value 0.41. No significant titer changes were observed during the standard BCG induction immunotherapy. Conclusions This is the first report to demonstrate an anti-ubiquitin antibody response in patients with TCC. Although sensitivity of antibody production was low, a high specificity and positive predictive value make ubiquitin an interesting candidate for further diagnostic and possibly immune modulating studies. PMID:25742283

  9. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum antibodies in cattle and water buffaloes in India.

    PubMed

    Meenakshi; Sandhu, K S; Ball, M S; Kumar, H; Sharma, S; Sidhu, P K; Sreekumar, C; Dubey, J P

    2007-12-01

    Neospora caninum is now recognized as a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide, but there is no report of N. caninum infection in cattle in India. Serum samples from 427 dairy cattle and 32 dairy water buffaloes from 7 organized dairy farms located in Punjab, India, were tested for N. caninum antibodies using a commercial monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 35 of 427 cattle from 6 of the 7 farms; 9.6% of cows, 5.1% of heifers, and 5.0% of calves were seropositive, suggesting postnatal transmission of N. caninum on the farm. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 16 of 32 buffaloes tested from 2 dairy farms. In total, 64 cattle and 16 buffalo sera already tested by ELISA were also evaluated by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) to verify ELISA results. Of the 64 cattle samples, 29 sera were negative by both tests and of the 35 ELISA-positive sera, 12 had IFAT titers of 1:100 or higher (1 had IFAT titer of 100, 2 had IFAT titer of 200, and 9 had IFAT titers of 400 or higher). Of the 16 buffalo sera positive by ELISA, 1 had an IFAT titer of 1:400. Thus, antibodies to N. caninum were demonstrated in cattle sera by 2 serologic methods. To our knowledge this is the first report of N. caninum infection in cattle and buffaloes in India. PMID:18314683

  10. Serological survey of antibodies against BVD virus in camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Iran.

    PubMed

    Raoofi, Afshin; Hemmatzadeh, Farhid; Ghanaei, Amir Mansoor

    2010-03-01

    This serological survey was carried out to detect antibodies in dromedary camels against BVD virus in Iran. A total of 137 serum samples, were collected from camels at Khorein abattoir in suburbs of Tehran and examined for BVDV, using the serum neutralization test (SNT). Twenty seven of the 137 camels (19.7%) were positive for BVDV antibodies. It was found that the rate of seropositive camels in Iran is substantially higher compared to figures published in most other countries. This study indicated an increased frequency of infection rate with increasing age of camels. The frequency of positive cases was not significantly different between male and female camels. PMID:19701796

  11. Interference from heterophilic antibodies in amyloid-? oligomer ELISAs.

    PubMed

    Sehlin, Dag; Söllvander, Sofia; Paulie, Staffan; Brundin, RoseMarie; Ingelsson, Martin; Lannfelt, Lars; Pettersson, Frida Ekholm; Englund, Hillevi

    2010-01-01

    Amyloid-? (A?) oligomers of different sizes and forms have recently been the focus formany Alzheimer's disease (AD) researchers. Various immunoassays have been used to detect low concentrations of these elusive A? species in different forms of human samples using little or no sample dilutions. However, the possibility that positive results may be caused by interference from heterophilic antibodies (HA) is often overlooked. HA, which recognize immunoglobulins from other species, are present in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and may cause interference in sandwich immunoassays like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) by cross-binding the capture and detection antibodies of the assay. They thus may generate a false positive signal. Here we show that when assessing the A? oligomer content in plasma samples from 44 individuals with a sandwich ELISA, none of the 21 positive signals remained when the assay was repeated in the presence of factors blocking HA. Similarly, in CSF samples from 104 individuals, the signals from the 22 positive samples were strongly reduced when analyzed after anti-HA treatment. Taken together, HA interference is a problem that needs to be addressed when measuring low levels of an antigen in human plasma and CSF samples. PMID:21504116

  12. Frequency of anti-hsp60, -65 and -70 antibodies in sera of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Zlacka, Denisa; Vavrincova, Pavla; Hien Nguyen, Thi Thu; Hromadnikova, Ilona

    2006-09-01

    Cross-reactivity between microbial and human heat shock proteins (hsps) led to the concept that hsp might be involved in the etiopathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. We investigated antibodies to recombinant human hsp60, recombinant Mycobacterium bovis hsp65 and to stress-inducible recombinant human hsp70 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in sera of 209 juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients and 50 healthy controls. Anti-hsp60 antibodies did not exceed the control level in any JIA patient. The numbers of JIA patients (16/209, 7.6%) who raised anti-hsp65 antibodies was equal to healthy controls (4/50, 8%). Elevated levels of antibodies against hsp70 were found in a cohort of patients with JIA (36.8%) when compared with age-matched healthy individuals (2%). These antibodies were predominantly of IgG isotype in systemic disease and IgM isotype in oligoarthritis. In polyarthritis both IgG and IgM antibodies frequently occurred. Significantly higher anti-hsp70 antibody levels were found in RF-positive JIA patients. The levels of anti-hsp70 antibodies correlated with the severity of disease evaluated on the basis of Steinbrocker's functional classification and rtg staging system. No association between anti-hsp70 antibody levels and ANA, HLA B27 and disease duration (less than 2 years x more than 2 years) was observed except IgM anti-hsp70 antibody where significantly higher levels were also detected in HLA B27-positive patients. The prevalence of anti-hsp70 antibodies is much higher in JIA patients when compared with healthy controls, suggesting their possible role in pathological mechanism of the disease. PMID:16934956

  13. Role of Maternal Antibody in Natural Infection of Peromyscus maniculatus with Sin Nombre Virus

    PubMed Central

    Borucki, Monica K.; Boone, John D.; Rowe, Joan E.; Bohlman, Marlene C.; Kuhn, Edward A.; DeBaca, Robert; St. Jeor, Stephen C.

    2000-01-01

    Data from naturally infected deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were used to investigate vertical transmission of Sin Nombre virus (SNV) and SNV-specific antibody. The antibody prevalence in juvenile mice (14 g or less) was inversely proportional to the mass of the animal, with juvenile deer mice weighing less than 11 g most likely to be antibody positive (26.9%) and juvenile mice weighing between 13 and 14 g least likely to be antibody positive (12.9%). Although a significant sex bias in seropositivity was detected in adult deer mice, no significant sex bias in seropositivity was detected in juvenile animals. Ten juvenile deer mice were identified that had initially tested positive for SNV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) but had subsequently tested negative when recaptured as adults. SNV RNA was detected by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) in the blood of ELISA-positive adult deer mice but not in the blood of ELISA-positive juveniles. One of the juvenile mice initially tested negative for SNV RNA but later tested positive when recaptured as an ELISA-positive adult. The RT-PCR results for that individual correlated with the disappearance and then reappearance of SNV-specific IgG, indicating that the presence of SNV RNA at later time points was due to infection with SNV via horizontal transmission. SNV-specific antibody present in both ELISA-positive juvenile and adult mice was capable of neutralizing SNV. Additionally, our data indicate that SNV is not transmitted vertically. PMID:10666274

  14. Associations between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis antibodies in bulk tank milk, season of sampling and protocols for managing infected cows

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to identify associations between the concentration of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) antibodies in bulk milk and potential risk factors in herd management and herd characteristics, explaining high MAP antibody titers in milk. An extensive questionnaire was administered to 292 organic and conventional dairy farms from New York, Wisconsin and Oregon. Bulk milk samples were taken from each farm for MAP enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A general linear model was constructed with MAP ELISA value as the outcome variable and the management factors and herd characteristics as independent variables, while at the same time controlling for the study design variables of state, herd size, and production system (organic or conventional). High bulk tank MAP ELISA value may be due to either a high prevalence of MAP in a herd with many cows contributing to the antibody titer or due to a few infected cows that produce large quantities of antibodies. Results Results of the regression models indicated that bulk milk ELISA value was associated with season of sampling and the presence or absence of protocols for managing MAP-positive cows. The concentration of MAP antibodies in bulk milk varied seasonally with a peak in the summer and low concentrations in the winter months. When compared to farms that had never observed clinical Johne’s disease, keeping MAP-positive cows or only culling them after a period of delay was associated with an increase in optical density. Conclusions The seasonal variation in MAP antibody titers, with a peak in the summer, may be due to a seasonal increase in MAP-bacterial load. Additionally, seasonal calving practices may contribute to seasonal fluctuations in MAP antibody titers in bulk tank milk. Keeping MAP-positive cows increases the antibody titer in bulk milk, likely due to direct antibody production in the infected cow and indirect triggering of antibody production in herdmates. PMID:24283287

  15. Prevalence of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum and their clinical relevance in dogs in Munich, Germany.

    PubMed

    Barth, Charlotte; Straubinger, Reinhard K; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Hartmann, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Although prevalences of antibodies against Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) and Anaplasma (A.) phagocytophilum have been reported to be high in the German dog population, the importance of the diseases caused by both agents is still not well characterized in a field situation.The aim of this study was (1) to determine the prevalence of antibodies to B. burgdorferi sl and A. phagocytophilum in dogs in Munich, Germany, and (2) to assess the clinical presentation and laboratory values of antibody-positive dogs and compare them to a negative control group. In total, 448 randomly selected dogs were screened for antibodies to B. burgdorferi sl and A. phagocytophilum with the SNAP 4Dx assay (IDEXX, Laboratories, Inc., USA). Dogs carrying antibodies against B. burgdorferi sl and/or A. phagocytophilum were classified as "positive"(n=100), the following 100 negative dogs served as control group. In both groups, physical examination and laboratory parameters were compared. 22 (4.9%) dogs had antibodies to B. burgdorferi sl, 78 (19.4%) to A. phagocytophilum, nine (2.0%) to both agents. Bernese Mountain Dogs had significantly more often antibodies against B. burgdorferi sl. Negative dogs were more often diagnosed as "healthy" compared to A. phagocytophilum antibody-positives that showed more often elevated body temperature and poor general condition; beyond that, there were no differences in clinical and laboratory abnormalities between both groups. Although dogs tested negative were more often considered healthy, there were no differences in parameters considered "specific" for both infections between dogs with and without antibodies. Hence, tests detecting antibodies against both agents are not able to detect animals with the clinical disease. PMID:22919928

  16. Human monoclonal antibodies specific to hepatitis B virus generated in a human/mouse radiation chimera: the Trimera system.

    PubMed Central

    Eren, R; Lubin, I; Terkieltaub, D; Ben-Moshe, O; Zauberman, A; Uhlmann, R; Tzahor, T; Moss, S; Ilan, E; Shouval, D; Galun, E; Daudi, N; Marcus, H; Reisner, Y; Dagan, S

    1998-01-01

    An approach to develop fully human monoclonal antibodies in a human/mouse radiation chimera, the Trimera system, is described. In this system, functional human lymphocytes are engrafted in normal strains of mice which are rendered immuno-incompetent by lethal total body irradiation followed by radioprotection with severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mouse bone marrow. Following transplantation, human lymphocytes colonize murine lymphatic organs and secrete human immunoglobulins. We have established this system as a tool to develop fully human monoclonal antibodies, and applied it for the generation of monoclonal antibodies specific for hepatitis B virus surface antigen. A strong memory response to hepatitis B surface antigen was elicited in Trimera engrafted with lymphocytes from human donors positive for antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen. The human specific antibody fraction in the Trimera was 10(2)-10(3)-fold higher as compared with that found in the donors. Spleens were harvested from Trimera mice showing high specific-antibody titres and cells were fused to a human-mouse heteromyeloma fusion partner. Several stable hybridoma clones were isolated and characterized. These hybridomas produce high-affinity, IgG, anti-hepatitis B surface antigen antibodies demonstrating the potential of the Trimera system for generating fully human monoclonal antibodies. The biological function and the neutralizing activity of these antibodies are currently being tested. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:9616363

  17. Antiphospholipid Antibodies Predict Progression of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Dejaco, Christian; Chemelli-Steingruber, Iris; Schennach, Harald; Klotz, Werner; Rieger, Michael; Herold, Manfred; Falkensammer, Jürgen; Fraedrich, Gustav; Schirmer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) frequently occur in autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases and correlate with a worse clinical outcome. In the present study, we evaluated the association between antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs), markers of inflammation, disease progression and the presence of an intra-aneurysmal thrombus in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients. APLs ELISAs were performed in frozen serum samples of 96 consecutive AAA patients and 48 healthy controls yielding positive test results in 13 patients (13.5%) and 3 controls (6.3%; n.s.). Nine of the 13 aPL-positive AAA patients underwent a second antibody testing >12 weeks apart revealing a positive result in 6 cases. APL-positive patients had increased levels of inflammatory markers compared to aPL-negative patients. Disease progression was defined as an increase of the AAA diameter >0.5 cm/year measured by sonography. Follow-up was performed in 69 patients identifying 41 (59.4%) patients with progressive disease. Performing multipredictor logistic regression analysis adjusting for classical AAA risk factors as confounders, the presence of aPLs at baseline revealed an odds ratio of 9.4 (95% CI 1.0–86.8, p?=?0.049) to predict AAA progression. Fifty-five patients underwent a computed tomography in addition to ultrasound assessment indicating intra-aneurysmal thrombus formation in 82.3%. Median thrombus volume was 46.7 cm3 (1.9–377.5). AAA diameter correlated with the size of the intra-aneurysmal thrombus (corrcoeff?=?0.721, p<0.001), however neither the presence nor the size of the intra-aneurysmal thrombus were related to the presence of aPLs. In conclusion, the presence of aPLs is associated with elevated levels of inflammatory markers and is an independent predictor of progressive disease in AAA patients. PMID:24979700

  18. Evolution of Specific Antibodies and Proviral DNA in Milk of Small Ruminants Infected by Small Ruminant Lentivirus

    PubMed Central

    Barquero, Nuria; Gomez-Lucia, Esperanza; Arjona, Alvaro; Toural, Cristina; las Heras, Alfonso; Fernández-Garayzabal, José F.; Domenech, Ana

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of Small Ruminant Lentivirus (SRLV) is based on clinical signs, pathological lesions and laboratory testing. No standard reference test for the diagnosis of maedi visna has been validated up to the present, and it is puzzling that tests which detect antibodies against the virus and tests which detect the proviral genome may render opposite results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence in milk throughout a lactation period of specific antibodies by ELISA and of SRLV proviral DNA by a PCR of the highly conserved pol region. A six-month study was conducted with the milk of 28 ewes and 31 goats intensively reared. The percentage of animals with antibodies against SRLV increased throughout the study period. Seroprevalence in sheep was 28% at the beginning of the study and by the end it had increased up to 52.4%. In goats, initial seroprevalence of 5.6% increased to 16%. The percentage of PCR positive ewes was stable throughout the study period. Of the positive sheep, 21.4% were PCR-positive before antibodies could be detected and most of them became PCR-negative shortly after the first detection of antibodies. This might suggest that antibodies have a neutralizing effect. In addition, an equal percentage of sheep were always PCR-negative but either became ELISA-positive or was always ELISA-positive, which might support this hypothesis. On the other hand, the PCR results in goats did not follow any pattern and oscillated between 35.3% and 55.6% depending on the month. Most goats positive by PCR failed to develop antibodies in the 6 months tested. We may conclude that the infection and the antibody response to it follow a different trend in sheep and goats. PMID:24153063

  19. Bispecific Antibodies that Mediate Killing of Cells Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus of Any Strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Jorg; Lotscher, Erika; Steimer, Kathelyn S.; Capon, Daniel J.; Baenziger, Jurg; Jack, Hans-Martin; Wabl, Matthias

    1991-06-01

    Although AIDS patients lose human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific cytotoxic T cells, their remaining CD8-positive T lymphocytes maintain cytotoxic function. To exploit this fact we have constructed bispecific antibodies that direct cytotoxic T lymphocytes of any specificity to cells that express gp120 of HIV. These bispecific antibodies comprise one heavy/light chain pair from an antibody to CD3, linked to a heavy chain whose variable region has been replaced with sequences from CD4 plus a second light chain. CD3 is part of the antigen receptor on T cells and is responsible for signal transduction. In the presence of these bispecific antibodies, T cells of irrelevant specificity effectively lyse HIV-infected cells in vitro.

  20. A survey of hantavirus antibody in small-mammal populations in selected United States National Parks.

    PubMed

    Mills, J N; Johnson, J M; Ksiazek, T G; Ellis, B A; Rollin, P E; Yates, T L; Mann, M O; Johnson, M R; Campbell, M L; Miyashiro, J; Patrick, M; Zyzak, M; Lavender, D; Novak, M G; Schmidt, K; Peters, C J; Childs, J E

    1998-04-01

    Hantavirus activity in 39 National Parks in the eastern and central United States was surveyed by testing 1,815 small mammals of 38 species for antibody reactive to Sin Nombre virus. Antibody-positive rodents were found throughout the area sampled, and in most biotic communities. Antibody was detected in 7% of 647 deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), 2% of 590 white-footed mice (P. leucopus), 17% of 12 rice rats (Oryzomys palustris), 3% of 31 cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), and 33% of 18 western harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis). Antibody was also found in three of six species of voles, and in one of 33 chipmunks (Tamias minimus). Prevalence among Peromyscus was highest in the northeast. Although few cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome have been identified from the eastern and central regions, widespread infection in reservoir populations indicates that potential exists for human infection throughout much of the United States. PMID:9574803

  1. Highly tumor-reactive, internalizing, mouse monoclonal antibodies to Le(y)-related cell surface antigens.

    PubMed

    Hellström, I; Garrigues, H J; Garrigues, U; Hellström, K E

    1990-04-01

    Two monoclonal antibodies, designated BR64 (IgG1) and BR96 (IgG3), were generated that, according to immunohistology, bind selectively to carcinomas of the colon, breast, ovary, and lung. They have no or very low reactivity with normal human tissues, except for the fact that BR64 strains capillaries in the hearts from certain normal donors and that both monoclonal antibodies stain some epithelial cells from the gastrointestinal system, including stomach. Preliminary studies indicate that at least a portion of the epitope recognized by BR64 and BR96 is a Le(y) carbohydrate chain. Both monoclonal antibodies can be "internalized" by antigen-positive tumor cells, since immunoconjugates with ricin A-chain are cytotoxic. BR96 has the additional properties of being cytotoxic by itself, and it can mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and complement dependent cytotoxicity. PMID:1690595

  2. Diagnostic and prognostic significance of the IgM antibody to the Hepatitis delta virus

    SciTech Connect

    Farci, P.; Gerin, J.L.; Aragona, M.; Lindsey, I.; Crivelli, O.; Balestrieri, A.; Smedile, A.; Thomas, H.C.; Rizzetto, M.

    1986-03-21

    The IgM class antibody to the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) was determined in different clinical categories of hepatitis B surface antigen carriers infected by the HDV (positive in the test for total antibody to HDV). The IgM antibody was found at high titers in each 70 patients with inflammatory liver disease and at a low titer in one six patients with inactive cirrhosis; it was not found in eight carriers with normal liver histology. Testing for Igm antibody to HDV distinguishes hepatitis B surface antigen carriers who have underlying inflammatory HDV liver disease from those with past HDV infection and provides prognostic information on the course of chronic HDV hepatitis.

  3. Pathogenic role of antibodies against monomeric C-reactive protein in tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jakuszko, K; Krajewska, M; Ha?o?, A; Ko?cielska-Kasprzak, K; Myszka, M; ?abi?ska, M; Augustyniak-Bartosik, H; Rukasz, D; Weyde, W; Klinger, M

    2014-08-01

    Antibodies against monomeric C-reactive protein, which is a target antigen expressed both in kidney tubules and uveal cells, have been recently detected in patients with active tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis syndrome. We report the case of an 65-year-old woman with acute renal failure caused by biopsy-proven tubulointerstitial nephritis and the onset of uveitis 21 months later. The expression of monomeric C-reactive protein in kidney oligobiopsy was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining using mouse monoclonal antibody against human monomeric C-reactive protein. The levels of antibodies against monomeric C-reactive protein were 117% of the reference during the flare and 22% during the remission of the disease. The difference in the levels of antibodies against monomeric C-reactive protein during flare and remission, and above all positive biopsy staining, supports their pathogenic role in this disease. PMID:25081046

  4. MAPs: a database of modular antibody parts for predicting tertiary structures and designing affinity matured antibodies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The de novo design of a novel protein with a particular function remains a formidable challenge with only isolated and hard-to-repeat successes to date. Due to their many structurally conserved features, antibodies are a family of proteins amenable to predictable rational design. Design algorithms must consider the structural diversity of possible naturally occurring antibodies. The human immune system samples this design space (2 1012) by randomly combining variable, diversity, and joining genes in a process known as V-(D)-J recombination. Description By analyzing structural features found in affinity matured antibodies, a database of Modular Antibody Parts (MAPs) analogous to the variable, diversity, and joining genes has been constructed for the prediction of antibody tertiary structures. The database contains 929 parts constructed from an analysis of 1168 human, humanized, chimeric, and mouse antibody structures and encompasses all currently observed structural diversity of antibodies. Conclusions The generation of 260 antibody structures shows that the MAPs database can be used to reliably predict antibody tertiary structures with an average all-atom RMSD of 1.9 Å. Using the broadly neutralizing anti-influenza antibody CH65 and anti-HIV antibody 4E10 as examples, promising starting antibodies for affinity maturation are identified and amino acid changes are traced as antibody affinity maturation occurs. PMID:23718826

  5. Recombinant bispecific antibodies for cellular cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Müller, Dafne; Kontermann, Roland E

    2007-08-01

    Bispecific antibodies recognizing two different antigens present on different cells have been developed for cellular cancer therapy in which cytotoxic effector cells are recruited to tumor cells. Initial studies with bispecific antibodies have not reached satisfactory clinical endpoints, mainly due to low efficacy, Fc-mediated side effects and immunogenicity. This has resulted in a declining interest in bispecific antibodies for cancer therapy. However, growing knowledge in effector cell biology and the implementation of antibody engineering technologies has led to a revival and the development of novel or improved strategies. Various recombinant bispecific antibodies have demonstrated efficacy in vitro andin vivo, with the first recombinant antibody molecule currently in clinical trials for the treatment of B-cell malignancies. PMID:17694444

  6. Phase Separation in Solutions of Monoclonal Antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedek, George; Wang, Ying; Lomakin, Aleksey; Latypov, Ramil

    2012-02-01

    We report the observation of liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) in a solution of humanized monoclonal antibodies, IgG2, and the effects of human serum albumin, a major blood protein, on this phase separation. We find a significant reduction of phase separation temperature in the presence of albumin, and a preferential partitioning of the albumin into the antibody-rich phase. We provide a general thermodynamic analysis of the antibody-albumin mixture phase diagram and relate its features to the magnitude of the effective inter-protein interactions. Our analysis suggests that additives (HSA in this report), which have moderate attraction with antibody molecules, may be used to forestall undesirable protein condensation in antibody solutions. Our findings are relevant to understanding the stability of pharmaceutical solutions of antibodies and the mechanisms of cryoglobulinemia.

  7. Expression of Haemophilus influenzae type b idiotype 1 on naturally acquired antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ulanova, M; Hahn-Zoric, M; Lau, Y L; Lucas, A; Hanson, L A

    1996-09-01

    The Chinese population in Hong Kong has a low incidence of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b(Hib) disease, as well as carriage of the microorganism. Likely stimuli for the natural antibodies to Hib, which might protect against Hib infection, are cross-reactive antigens of bacteria like Escherichia coli K 100. Our aim was to determine the isotype and idiotype distribution and cross-reactivity of natural antibodies against Hib capsular polysaccharide (CP) in healthy Hong Kong Chinese. Titration of 20 sera by ELISA showed IgG antibodies reacting with Hib CP in all individuals. The antibodies were mainly IgG2, and their avidity index ranged widely. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) combined with immunoblotting showed patterns of IgG2 antibody clones against the CP of Hib and E. coli K 100 which were similar in 10 cases. Absorption with Hib CP only eliminated some bands in two sera. Absorption with K 100 CP did not remove any anti-Hib CP bands. In three sera additional clones of antibodies reacting to K 100 CP only, disappeared after absorption with this CP. Spectrotypic analyses of IgG antibodies reacting with anti-Hib idiotype 1 (Id-1) revealed stronger IEF patterns with bands in differing locations compared with anti-Hib CP antibodies. The strong reactivity of serum IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies with monoclonal anti-Hib Id-1 was confirmed by ELISA. This reactivity was not abolished after absorption of the sera with either Hib CP, or K 100 CP. The data indicate a high prevalence of Id-1 among Hong Kong Chinese. However, only one individual had Id-1 antibodies specific for Hib CP, judging from absorption experiments. Others had much lower activity of Id-1 anti-Hib CP antibodies compared with the total IgG Id-1, suggesting that Hong Kong subjects have Id-1-positive antibodies in their serum which are not specific for Hib CP. This is consistent with the nature of Id-1, which is a marker of A2VL region usage rather than a marker of a Hib CP paratope. We suggest that natural antibodies reacting with Hib CP in healthy Hong Kong Chinese are the product of exposure to some cross-reactive antigen(s), different from both Hib and E. coli K 100 CP. PMID:8809129

  8. Mepanipyrim haptens and antibodies with nanomolar affinity.

    PubMed

    Esteve-Turrillas, Francesc A; Mercader, Josep V; Agulló, Consuelo; Abad-Somovilla, Antonio; Abad-Fuentes, Antonio

    2013-06-21

    Mepanipyrim is an anilinopyrimidine fungicide used worldwide for crop protection. With the aim of developing useful immunoreagents for mepanipyrim immunoanalysis, two new functionalized derivatives were prepared and antibodies were generated. Affinity and specificity were assessed by direct and indirect competitive ELISA using homologous and heterologous conjugates. Although all antibodies were selective for the target analyte, the immunizing hapten structure was revealed as a determinant for high-affinity antibody production (IC(50) = 3 nM). PMID:23666476

  9. Analysis of anticholesterol antibodies using hydrophobic membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacinta Aniagolu; Glenn M. Swartz; Jan Dijkstra; John W. Madsen; Jennifer J. Raney; Shawn J. Green

    1995-01-01

    An analytical immunoblotting procedure and a serological enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the characterization of antibodies to cholesterol are described. Hydrophobic membranes consisting of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) are used to immobilize cholesterol for immunodetection by anti-sterol antibodies. To determine whether antibodies to cholesterol were induced after immunization with liposomal cholesterol, we separated total lipid extracts of very-low density lipoproteins by

  10. Anticardiolipin antibodies: isotype distribution and phospholipid specificity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A E Gharavi; E N Harris; R A Asherson; G R Hughes

    1987-01-01

    Quantitative isotype specific enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine the distribution of immunoglobulin isotypes and phospholipid specificities of anticardiolipin (anti-CL) antibodies in 40 patients with one or more of the following 'antiphospholipid (anti-PL) antibody associated clinical complications'--namely, thrombosis, fetal loss, thrombocytopenia. Twelve of 40 patients had IgG, IgM, and IgA anti-CL antibodies. Ten patients had IgG and

  11. Role of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and glomerular basement membrane antibodies in the diagnosis and monitoring of systemic vasculitides.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, David; Stevens, Judith M

    2007-09-01

    Systemic vasculitis, although rare, is often diagnosed late and long after the onset of symptoms. The small vessel vasculitides are recognized clinically by their multisystem presentation, markers of inflammation and evidence for an acute glomerulonephritis (GN), with the most apparent organ involved directing referral to secondary care. Routine laboratory tests are usually non-specific in systemic vasculitis but the use of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) and glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibodies can aid diagnosis, treatment and monitoring decisions. These antibodies are detected and quantified by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and antigen-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), usually in combination for ANCA, and ELISA systems (or direct IIF on kidney biopsy) for GBM antibodies. The presence or absence of ANCA does not confirm or exclude the diagnosis of systemic vasculitis but negative and positive predictive values will be strongly influenced by clinical presentation. Various large studies have been unable to conclude that following serial ANCA titres has great clinical utility in each case but each patient must be considered on its own merits; for example the reappearance of ANCA in a patient who was rendered ANCA negative following treatment is more likely to indicate relapse. The adoption of consensus guidelines that direct testing towards patients with rapidly progressive GN, pulmonary haemorrhage, persistent and destructive ear, nose and upper airways problems, such as subglottic tracheal stenosis, a retro-orbital mass and cutaneous vasculitis with systemic features or peripheral neuropathy, will greatly increase the clinical utility and positive predictive value of these tests. PMID:17761028

  12. Anticardiolipin antibodies in childhood rheumatic disorders.

    PubMed

    Gedalia, A; Molina, J F; García, C O; Doggett, S; Espinoza, L R; Gharavi, A E

    1998-01-01

    Anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) have been reported to occur in a wide variety of autoimmune and non-autoimmune disorders in adults. Our objective was to investigate the prevalence and isotype distribution of aCL and its relationship with the features of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in childhood rheumatic disorders. Between November 1995 and May 1996, all patients who visited our paediatric rheumatology clinic whose guardians signed a consent form participated in the study. The study population included 106 patients (36 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 28 juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), 11 fibromyalgia, 7 sarcoidosis, 5 dermatomyositis, 3 rheumatic fever (RF), 3 vasculitis, 2 scleroderma, and 11 miscellaneous). aCL measurements were performed by enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA). All patients were carefully evaluated for symptoms and signs of APS. Eighteen of the 106 patients (17%) were tested positive for one or more of the three aCL isotypes. In SLE, aCL were found positive in 13 of 36 (37%); in JRA 2 of 28 (7%); in sarcoidosis 2 of 7; and in RF 1 of 3. aCL of IgG isotype were found positive in 16 patients (11 SLE, 2 sarcoidosis, 2 JRA, and 1 RF). This isotype was usually detected at low titers (16-24 GPL). aCL of IgM isotype were found positive in five patients (2 sarcoidosis, 2 SLE, 1 JRA), and aCL of IgA isotype were found positive in only three patients (2 SLE, 1 sarcoidosis). Clinical features of APS were rarely seen in our SLE population and were not associated with the presence of aCL. None of the patients in the other groups exhibited any clinical manifestations of APS. In conclusion, aCL were found in 37% of our childhood SLE patients as compared with only 7% in JRA. These were mostly aCL of IgG isotype of low titers and therefore were not associated with the main features of APS. Prospective studies with a larger sample size may be needed to ascertain the exact prevalence and clinical significance of aCL in childhood-onset SLE. PMID:9863898

  13. Monoclonal Antibody Therapy for Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Rader

    \\u000a Since the approval of rituximab (Rituxan®) for the treatment of B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (B-NHL) in 1997, nine additional monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been\\u000a approved by the FDA for cancer therapy. Currently, more than 1,300 clinical studies registered at ClinicalTrials.gov investigate\\u000a mAb therapy of cancer, including more than 150 phase III clinical trials. In concert with their clinical acceptance, mAbs\\u000a in

  14. Position Advertisement TENURE-TRACK FACULTY POSITION

    E-print Network

    Stephens, Graeme L.

    Position Advertisement TENURE-TRACK FACULTY POSITION SUSTAINABILITY The Department of Environmental and research advising. The position requires teaching Introduction to Sustainability and electives in area of applications will begin 10 March 2013, and continue until the position is filled or the search is terminated

  15. Interferon-Beta: Neutralizing Antibodies, Binding Antibodies, Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics, and Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Deisenhammer, Florian

    2014-12-01

    Antibodies to interferon-beta (IFNb) may occur during treatment with this drug and can be measured at several levels, the totality of antibodies referred to as antidrug antibodies (ADA) or binding antibodies, and in case of interference with the drug activity referred to as neutralizing antibodies (NAB). Antibodies can also interfere with the biological activity of IFNb as measured by pharmacodynamic markers. To get a complete picture of the interference between IFNb as a drug and the ADA, all the 3 above levels need to be considered. Furthermore, the interaction of these biomarkers changes over time with a shift of antibody properties with respect to immunoglobulin subtypes, affinity, and titers of antibodies. In case of persistent NAB, the clinical benefit of IFNb in the treatment of multiple sclerosis is abolished. In this report, the current knowledge on these issues will be reviewed. The data have been presented at a meeting in Coral Gables, Florida on April 18-21, 2012. PMID:25493961

  16. Monoclonal antibodies with group specificity toward sulfonamides: Selection of hapten and antibody selectivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although many antibodies to sulfonamides have been generated, immunoassays based on the current available antibodies for large multi-sulfonamide screening programs have properties dependent on the immunizing hapten structure and have always suffered from high selectivity for individual sulfonamides....

  17. A universal combinatorial design of antibody framework to graft distinct CDR sequences: a bioinformatics approach.

    PubMed

    Haidar, Jaafar N; Yuan, Qing-An; Zeng, Lin; Snavely, Mark; Luna, Xenia; Zhang, Haifan; Zhu, Wei; Ludwig, Dale L; Zhu, Zhenping

    2012-03-01

    Antibody (Ab) humanization is crucial to generate clinically relevant biologics from hybridoma-derived monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). In this study, we integrated antibody structural information from the Protein Data Bank with known back-to-mouse mutational data to build a universal consensus of framework positions (10 heavy and 7 light) critical for the preservation of the functional conformation of the Complimentarity Determining Region of antibodies. On the basis of FR consensus, we describe here a universal combinatorial library suitable for humanizing exogenous antibodies by CDR-grafting. The six CDRs of the murine anti-human EGFR Fab M225 were grafted onto a distinct (low FR sequence similarity to M225) human FR sequence that incorporates at the 17 FR consensus positions the permutations of the naturally observed amino acid diversities. Ten clones were selected from the combinatorial library expressing phage-displayed humanized M225 Fabs. Surprisingly, 2 of the 10 clones were found to bind EGFR with stronger affinity than M225. Cell-based assays demonstrated that the 10 selected clones retained epitope specificity by blocking EGFR phosphorylation and thus hindering cellular proliferation. Our results suggest that there is a universal and structurally rigid near-CDR set of FR positions that cooperatively support the binding conformation of CDRs. PMID:22180101

  18. Monoclonal Antibodies as Diagnostics; an Appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, M. Z.

    2010-01-01

    Ever since the development of Hybridoma Technology in 1975 by Kohler and Milstein, our vision for antibodies as tools for research for prevention, detection and treatment of diseases, vaccine production, antigenic characterization of pathogens and in the study of genetic regulation of immune responses and disease susceptibility has been revolutionized. The monoclonal antibodies being directed against single epitopes are homogeneous, highly specific and can be produced in unlimited quantities. In animal disease diagnosis, they are very useful for identification and antigenic characterization of pathogens. Monoclonal antibodies have tremendous applications in the field of diagnostics, therapeutics and targeted drug delivery systems, not only for infectious diseases caused by bacteria, viruses and protozoa but also for cancer, metabolic and hormonal disorders. They are also used in the diagnosis of lymphoid and myeloid malignancies, tissue typing, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, radio immunoassay, serotyping of microorganisms, immunological intervention with passive antibody, antiidiotype inhibition, or magic bullet therapy with cytotoxic agents coupled with anti mouse specific antibody. Recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid technology through genetic engineering has successfully led to the possibility of reconstruction of monoclonal antibodies viz. chimeric antibodies, humanized antibodies and complementarily determining region grafted antibodies and their enormous therapeutic use. PMID:20582184

  19. Uses of monoclonal antibody 8H9

    DOEpatents

    Cheung, Nai-Kong V.

    2010-06-15

    This invention provides a composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a suitable carrier. This invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. This invention also provides an antibody other than the monoclonal antibody 8H9 comprising the complementary determining regions of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof, capable of binding to the same antigen as the monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention provides a substance capable of competitively inhibiting the binding of monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention also provides an isolated scFv of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof. This invention also provides the 8H9 antigen. This invention also provides a method of inhibiting the growth of tumor cells comprising contacting said tumor cells with an appropriate amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof.

  20. Circulating thyroid antibodies in congenital hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Ilicki, A; Larsson, A; Karlsson, F A

    1991-01-01

    The role of maternal thyroid antibodies in congenital hypothyroidism is controversial. We have analysed serum thyroid antibodies in patients and their mothers. In a bioassay, antibodies interacting with thyroid cells were analysed by measuring of TSH-stimulated cAMP production in a rat thyroid cell line, FRTL5. Serum antibodies against the TSH receptor, thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin were determined by radioreceptor assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The bioassay was performed with IgG preparations from 89 mothers of children with congenital hypothyroidism. Analyses for TSH receptor antibodies and thyroid peroxidase/thyroglobulin antibodies were performed on 144 and 118 sera of newborn patients respectively. No evidence of an increased prevalence of thyroid antibodies was found on comparison with controls. One infant had transient neonatal hyperthyrotropinaemia because of TSH receptor blocking antibodies transferred from the mother. Our data indicate that, apart from transplacental transfer of TSH receptor antibodies, maternal immunoglobulins have a limited role in the aetiology of congenital thyroid dysfunction. PMID:1659767