These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

[Prevalence of antinuclear envelope antibodies and their isotypes in sera positive for antinuclear antibodies].  

PubMed

Antinuclear antibodies detected in HEp-2 cells by indirect immunofluorescence assay display a great variety of images, including the nuclear envelope pattern. This is quite a less frequent finding. Two thousand five hundred and ninety-four sera were processed, and 37.6% of ANA were detected. The prevalence of anti-nuclear envelope antibodies (ANEA) was of 1.2%, with a high association with autoimmune liver diseases (83%) and a low association with systemic lupus erythematosus. In 21 sera of patients with ANEA, no anti-DNAn antibodies were found; but 28.6% of anti-smooth muscle antibodies and 19% of anti-mitochondrial antibodies were detected. The triple rodent tissue section proved to be a less sensitive substrate than HEp-2 for the detection of ANEA. When using conjugates against different isotypes of antibodies for the detection of ANA, 90.5% of IgG, 66.6% of IgA and 9.5% of IgM. Two patients had ANEA-IgA at high titers (> or = 1:160) without ANEA-IgG. In this work, the importance of performing complementary tests for the detection of anti-smooth muscle antibodies, anti-mitochondrial antibodies and anti-DNAn is highlighted in order to apply these tests as guidelines for the clinical diagnosis of patients with ANEA. Besides, this study expresses the need of using total anti-Ig antibodies as conjugate for IIF-HEp-2 instead of anti-lgG; until the role of IgA antibodies in these autoimmune diseases is clarified. PMID:16977968

Arcavi, Miriam; Orfus, Gladys

2006-01-01

2

Hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy with positive antinuclear antibodies: case report.  

PubMed

A male Afro-descendant patient, 57 years old, complaining of polyarticular involvement and weight loss for 18 months, with a load of 13.5 pack years of smoking. On physical examination there was pain on palpation of the right knee and right leg, with signs of inflammation on the knee. We also observed digital clubbing in all fingers. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and anti-Sm antibodies were positive. X-rays of the legs and arm showed cortical thickening of long bones. The computed tomography demonstrated a large mass located in the middle lobe of the right lung. The anatomopathological study revealed a bronchial adenocarcinoma. The history of polyarticular involvement associated with positive anti-Sm and ANA antibodies could lead to an erroneous diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus. Considering the bad consequences of delayed diagnosis in this patient, the medical team should be alerted for suspecting and look for a lung cancer under these circumstances. PMID:22740821

Cruz, C; Rocha, M; Andrade, D; Guimarães, F; Silva, V; Souza, S; Moura, C A; Moura, C G

2012-05-01

3

Hydroxychloroquine is a good second-line treatment for adults with immune thrombocytopenia and positive antinuclear antibodies.  

PubMed

Treatment of patients with lupus-associated thrombocytopenia (SLE-ITP) is not standardized. We report data on efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in this setting and in ITP patients with positive antinuclear antibodies (ANA) without definite SLE. Inclusion criteria were: definite diagnosis of ITP with a platelet count (PLT) <50 × 10(9) /L, ANA ? 1/160 on Hep2 cells with or without a definite diagnosis of SLE, and no sustained response to at least one previous treatment-line and treatment with HCQ. Response criteria were Complete Response (CR) for PLT ? 100 × 10(9) /L and Response (R) for PLT ?30 × 10(9) /L and at least twice the initial value. Forty patients (32 females) with a mean age of 35 ± 17 years and PLT at ITP diagnosis of 14 ± 13 × 10(9) /L were analyzed. Twelve (30%) patients had a SLE-ITP, 28 patients had only positive ANA. All the patients failed to respond to oral prednisone with a median of two treatment-lines (1-5) before HCQ which was initially given in combination with another ITP treatment in 36 patients. Overall response rate was 60% (24/40) including 18 lasting CR and six lasting R maintained with a median follow-up of 64 months (6-146), in ¾ of cases with only HCQ and no concomitant ITP treatment. The response rate (CR+R) was higher in the SLE group vs ANA-positive group (83% vs 50%, P < 0.05). No patient stopped HCQ because of a side-effect. HCQ appears to be a safe and effective second line treatment for patients with SLE-ITP or ITP and high titer of ANA. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as # NCT01549184. PMID:24254965

Khellaf, Mehdi; Chabrol, Amèlie; Mahevas, Matthieu; Roudot-Thoraval, Françoise; Limal, Nicolas; Languille, Laetitia; Bierling, Philippe; Michel, Marc; Godeau, Bertrand

2014-02-01

4

Detection of antinuclear antibodies in SLE.  

PubMed

The antinuclear antibodies (ANA) also known as antinuclear factors (ANF) are unwanted molecules which bind and destroy certain structures within the nucleus. In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), they are produced in excess; hence their detection in the blood of patients is important for diagnosis and monitoring of the disease. Several methods are available which can be used to detect ANA; nevertheless, indirect immunofluorescence antinuclear antibody test (IF-ANA) is considered a "reference method" for their detection. Though IF-ANA is relatively easier to perform, its interpretation requires considerable skill and experience. The chapter therefore is aimed to provide comprehensive details to readers, not only about its methodology but also the result interpretation and reporting aspects of IF-ANA. PMID:24497352

Kumar, Yashwant; Bhatia, Alka

2014-01-01

5

Antinuclear antibodies: two-step detection strategy.  

PubMed

In order to evaluate the performance of the chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) in antinuclear antibodies (ANA) testing, using indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) on HEp-2 cells as a standard, 209 samples were studied from September to October/2010. The tests were conducted according to the procedures recommended by the manufacturers of the reagents. The interpretation of the IFA results was done according to the Brazilian standards. The charts of patients showing different results between the two techniques were analyzed. The CLIA efficiency was 89%, with a sensitivity of 65%, and a specificity of 94.7%. Nine (4.3%) false-positive and 14 (6.7%) false-negative results were detected. Of these, 13 (93%) represented no risk for the diagnosis and therapeutic management of the patients. The CLIA methodology reduced the need for the IFA manual technique by 77% (160/209). The ANA screening test proved to be a fast and acceptable methodology in the studied population. We established the following criteria for the introduction of an automated ANA screening: (1) Positive results must be confirmed by IFA to characterize the pattern and titer of the antibody. (2) Negative results are issued with a notice to request a new test by IFA when the clinical suspicion of autoimmune disease persists. PMID:24131388

Callado, Maria Roseli Monteiro; de Alencar Barroso, Maria Nancy; Alves, Vania Maria; de Lima Abreu, Maria Arenilda; Muniz, Lívia M Mesquita Mororó; Lima, José Rubens Costa

2014-01-01

6

High Prevalence of Antinuclear Antibodies in Children with Thyroid Autoimmunity  

PubMed Central

Background. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are a hallmark of many autoimmune diseases and can be detected many years before disease onset. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are frequently associated with other organ- and non-organ-specific autoimmune disorders. Objectives. To assess the prevalence of ANA in pediatric patients with AITD and their clinical correlations. Methods. Ninety-three consecutive pediatric patients with AITD were enrolled (86 children with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and 7 with Graves' disease). ANA, anti-double DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibodies, anti-extractable nuclear antigen (anti-ENA), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP), and rheumatoid factor (RF) was obtained. Signs and symptoms potentially related to rheumatic diseases in children were investigated by a questionnaire. Results. ANA positivity was found in 66/93 children (71%), anti-ENA in 4/93 (4.3%), anti-dsDNA in 1/93 (1.1%), RF in 3/93 (3.2%), and anti-CCP in none. No significant differences were found between the ANA-positive and ANA-negative groups with respect to age, sex, L-thyroxine treatment, or prevalence of other autoimmune diseases. Overall, parental autoimmunity was found in 23%. Conclusions. ANA positivity was demonstrated in 71% of children with AITD. ANA positivity was not related to overt immune-rheumatic diseases. However, because the positivity of ANA can occur even many years before the onset of systemic autoimmune diseases, prospective studies are warranted. PMID:24741574

Segni, Maria; Pucarelli, Ida; Truglia, Simona; Turriziani, Ilaria; Serafinelli, Chiara; Conti, Fabrizio

2014-01-01

7

Antinuclear antibodies prevalence in Filipinos migrated to Italy.  

PubMed

Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) represent the main diagnostic markers for systemic autoimmune disease (AD), although their presence can be detected in blood donors. The aim of this study was to study ANA prevalence in healthy subjects of different racial groups, exposed to the same environmental factors, in order to understand the relevance of genetics or environment in determining autoimmunity. We enrolled in this study 80 healthy Filipinos (Polynesian), migrated to Italy from an average of 15 years, and 60 healthy native Italians (Caucasian) and ANA were detected in their sera (at 1:80 screening dilution) through indirect immunofluorescence assay. We found a higher prevalence of ANA positivity in Filipinos compared to Italians (23.7% vs 8.3%--P = 0.02; OR 3.43; 95% CI 1.2-9.8), above all in females and elderly, although demographic characteristics, clinical history and habits were not significantly different between the two groups. These data confirm that ANA positivity is not a rare condition and healthy non-Caucasians present a higher prevalence of autoantibodies. This could be determined by their autoimmunity-prone immune system or by the exposition to infective agents, pollution, drugs or nutrition of a western country. Future studies to evaluate the ANA prevalence in Filipinos in their own country and the follow-up of positive patients could clarify the real predisposition to AD of this population. PMID:18727460

Cacciapaglia, F; Arcarese, L; Rigon, A; Vadacca, M; Valorani, M G; Pozzilli, P; Afeltra, A

2008-01-01

8

Sperm auto - antibodies and anti-nuclear antigen antibodies in chronic dioxin - exposed veterans.  

PubMed

The authors studied anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) in 25 chronic dioxin - exposed veterans by IIF technics with Hep-2 cell line and sperm autoantibodies by agglutination test of Franklin-Dukes. The site of antibody binding on spermatozoon is detected by IIF test. The control group for ANA detection is 63 healthy persons of the same age as that of dioxin - exposed veterans and the control group for sperm autoantibodies is 36 healthy males of 28-63 years old, having 1-2 children. Obtained results show that the rate of ANA positive in veterans group is normal, and sperm auto-antibodies is also at normal range. The site of antibody binding on spermatozoon is predominantly head - head, rarely head - neck or tail - tail. PMID:8907229

Chinh, T T; Phi, P T; Thuy, N T

1996-02-01

9

[Clinical significance of antinuclear antibodies in progressive systemic sclerosis].  

PubMed

Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) was used to detect antinuclear antibodies (ANA) in 42 clinical cases. In each case cryostatic rat kidney slices and cultivated HEp-2 cells were used as substrates. Clinical diagnoses were as follow: Progressive Systemic Sclerosis (PSS) 25 cases, of which 8 were acrosclerotic, 8 diffuse, 5 CREST syndrome, 1 overlap PSS + Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and 3 PSS + myopathy; Localised scleroderma (morphea): 3 cases; Mixed Connective Tissue Disease (MCTD): 3 cases; "Idiopathic" Raynaud's Disease (RD): 4 cases; Dermatomyositis (DM): 2 cases (1 paraneoplastic); SLE: 1 case; Unclassifiable Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD): 4 cases. The ANA-positive cases identified by the traditional technique were divided according to pattern into 4 categories: homogeneous, peripheral, speckled, nucleolar. In contrast those identified using HEp-2 cells were divided into 9 pattern groups: (nuclear type) centromere, fine speckled, coarse speckled, diffusely grainy, homogeneous: (nucleolar type) speckled, clumpy, homogeneous. The results demonstrated a higher general incidence of positivity with HEp-2 cells and confirmed the close connection between Anticentromere ANA and CREST syndrome. A similarly close connection was noted between MCTD and both nuclear diffusely grainy and nucleolar speckled patterns. A fairly clear connection was also noted between acrosclerotic or diffuse SSP and a fine speckled nuclear pattern. It is felt that ANA tests using IFI on HEp-2 cells should lead to significant progress in the field of diagnosis and prognosis and the study of PSS subsets. PMID:6366619

Scagliusi, P; De Lucia, M; Di Luca, M L; Pannarale, M; Pipitone, V

1984-02-11

10

Clinical significance of antinuclear antibodies in systemic rheumatic diseases.  

PubMed

Autoantibodies directed to intracellular antigens can be detected in many systemic rheumatic diseases. In this review, we discuss the clinical significance of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Slögren's syndrome, scleroderma and polymyositis/dermatomyositis, the immunogenetic factors associated with these four autoimmune diseases, and the possible role of autoantibodies in the etiopathogenesis of autoimmune disease. The antibodies associated with systemic rheumatic diseases serve as important tools in the initial diagnosis, and they are also useful in the evaluation of prognosis. However, for correct conclusions, the autoantibody findings should be carefully considered and interpreted in clinical context. PMID:8862680

Hietarinta, M; Lassila, O

1996-08-01

11

Antinuclear antibodies: clinical correlations and biologic significance.  

PubMed

Several trends become evident from the foregoing discussion. As the different ANA antigenic specificities have been identified, they have often been found to be highly conserved polypeptides that subserve very basic cellular functions that are carried out in the nucleus, nucleolus, and ribosomes. The reasons why only 30 or so basic cellular proteins become the targets of an autoimmune response in patients with connective tissue disease at the exclusions of the other 10,000 macromolecules that exist inside cells remain a mystery. However, some insight into this enigma might be provided by the mechanism of molecular mimicry (Table 9). The possibility that highly conserved immunogenic molecules that are expressed by infectious pathogens can trigger an immune response in a genetically predisposed human host that cross-reacts with cellular autoantigens is a well documented phenomenon in disorders such as rheumatic fever. This mechanism is now being mentioned with increasing frequency in discussions pertaining to the pathogenesis of autoimmune connective tissue diseases. Another trend relates to the increasing sensitivity of the newer assays that have been developed to detect ANA. When highly purified or recombinant autoantigens are used in versatile assays such as ELISA, radioimmunoassays, or immunoprecipitation, the frequency with which certain autoantibodies can be detected in patient subgroups can go up significantly. For example, with classical immunodiffusion, anti-Ro/SS-A antibodies can be detected in 25% of unselected patients with SLE, whereas with an ELISA based on affinity purified Ro/SS-A antigen, 50% of patients with SLE are found to have elevated levels of this autoantibody specificity. As is often the case, we pay for increased sensitivity in a laboratory test with decreased specificity. With immunodiffusion, virtually no normal individuals have anti-Ro/SS-A antibodies, but with the ELISA as many as 10% of normals have elevated anti-Ro/SS-A binding levels. Thus, the incremental diagnostic value of this newer anti-Ro/SS-A assay could be questioned. The true clinical value of this new laboratory technology will become more evident when these more sophisticated ANA assays are used together in a panel-like fashion to profile a given patient's autoimmune response at the very onset of his illness. Preliminary work has already begun in this area. This approach, if well standardized, could have significant diagnostic and prognostic value. Another benefit of this newer technology will be the ability to measure antibody binding levels to individual autoepitopes--limited portions of an autoantigen's amino acid sequence that represent single antibody binding sites. It is possible that certain patterns of clinical disease could be linked to autoantibody production against individual autoepitopes rather than whole autoantigenic molecules. This area is only now beginning to be explored. PMID:1371222

Sontheimer, R D; McCauliffe, D P; Zappi, E; Targoff, I

1992-01-01

12

Antinuclear antibodies in the sera of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

We studied the production of heterophile antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) in the sera of 50 patients, 20 with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and 30 with other head and neck cancers (laryngeal cancer and maxillary cancer), before and after radiation therapy. A higher incidence of ANAs was found in the sera of patients with NPC and ANA production in these patients was higher after radiation therapy. We therefore performed in vitro experiments to explore the mechanisms of ANA production in the serum of postirradiated NPC patients. X-ray-irradiated NPC-derived cells (NPC-KT) produced a large amount of Epstein-Barr virus (NPC EBV) compared with non-irradiated NPC-KT cells. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma EBV-infected lymphocytes produced high levels of ANAs. These data suggest that lymphocytes infected by EBV from NPC cells may produce ANAs in the sera of NPC patients.

Takimoto, T.; Ishikawa, S.; Masuda, K.; Tanaka, S.; Yoshizaki, T.; Umeda, R. (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan))

1989-11-01

13

Prevalence and clinical significance of antinuclear antibodies in Iranian women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage  

PubMed Central

Background: Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) in women with recurrent miscarriage have been reported. The presence of moderate to high titers of these antibodies represents an autoimmune condition that can endanger the health of the fetus in pregnant women. Objective: In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of ANAs in Iranian women with a history of two or more unexplained abortion. Materials and Methods: 560 women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage and 560 healthy controls accounted for this study over a period of 13 months. ANAs were detected by indirect immunofluorescence technique. Results: ANAs were detected in 74 of 560 (13.21%) patient with recurrent miscarriage, and in only 5 of 560 (0.9%) controls (p<0.001). ANA positivity was generally found with low-positive results (1.40-1.80) in about 38% of positive cases, whereas moderate titres (1.160-1.320) and high titres (>1.640) were seen in about 46% and 16% of cases respectively. Finally evaluating of microscopic ANA patterns revealed that about half of positive cases had antibodies against DNA- histone complex, associated with systemic lupus erythematosus disease. Conclusion: Antinuclear antibodies are not uncommon in women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage, suggesting the possible role of an autoimmune disorder on abortion, at least in a subgroup of patients. PMID:24799884

Molazadeh, Morteza; Karimzadeh, Hadi; Azizi, Mohammad R

2014-01-01

14

Antinuclear antibodies are not increased in the early phase of Borrelia infection.  

PubMed

In the literature, there are case reports suggesting that Borrelia burgdorferi infection may induce autoimmune diseases dependent on antinuclear antibodies (ANA). The present study was undertaken in order to verify this possibility in a prospective manner. The study group comprised 78 consecutive patients (51 women and 27 men, median age 41.5 years) referred to our Department for the serologic diagnosis of Borrelia infection. The patients' sera were tested for Borrelia-specific IgM and IgG (Recombinant Antigen Enzyme Immunoassays, Biomedica). Antibodies against Borrelia were detected in 31 (39.7 %) persons. 15 persons (19.2 %) had positive IgM, another 15 (19.2 %)--positive IgG, and 1 person (3.2 %)--both IgM and IgG. Frequent positivity of IgM antibodies suggests that persons in the early phase of infection prevailed in the group. Tests for anti-dsDNA, anti-RNP, anti-Sm antibodies, and a screening test for systemic rheumatic diseases (ANA Rheuma Screen) were carried out using Varelisa Enzyme Immunoassays (Pharmacia and Upjohn). The spectrum of autoimmune diseases covered by these tests included SLE, MCTD, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and dermatomyositis. ANA were detected in 15 persons (19.2 %): anti-dsDNA in 7 (9.0 %), anti-RNP in 1 (1.3 %), anti-Sm in 2 (2.6 %), and ANA Rheuma Screen was positive in 6 persons (7.7 %). Statistical analysis of differences in the ANA frequency between Borrelia-positive and -negative groups was carried out using Fisher's exact chi-square test (both without and with gender and age matching). No significant differences were found between the groups. Based on the above results, we conclude that there is no increase in the frequency of antinuclear antibodies in the early phase of Borrelia infection. PMID:15236512

Spiewak, Rados?aw; Stojek, Nimfa Maria; Chmielewska-Badora, Jolanta

2004-01-01

15

Antinuclear antibodies define a subgroup of paraneoplastic neuropathies: clinical and immunological data  

PubMed Central

Objective: Paraneoplastic neuropathy is a clinical and immunological heterogeneous disorder and attempts have been made to classify subgroups of this disease. Only 30–50% of the clinical defined cases have antineuronal antibodies. Methods: The clinical and immunological features of 36 patients with paraneoplastic neuropathy from the authors' database were analysed including the type and course of the neuropathy, associated tumours, and the presence of antineuronal and other autoantibodies. Results: Antineuronal antibodies were detected in 17/36 patients (47%) and anti-Hu was the most frequent antineuronal antibody. Nine patients had high titre antinuclear antibodies (ANA, median titre 1/1000) without antineuronal antibodies. ANA reactivities were different in most patients. Comparison of the ANA positive and ANA negative patients revealed that ANA positive paraneoplastic neuropathy is more frequently associated with breast cancer but is not associated with lung cancer (p<0.05). The main clinical type in these patients was sensorimotor neuropathy. No ANA positive patient had central nervous system involvement. Although the Rankin score at the time of diagnosis was not different, the functional outcome in ANA positive patients was better than in ANA negative patients (p<0.05). Conclusions: Paraneoplastic neuropathy is a heterogeneous disorder. ANA may define a subgroup of paraneoplastic neuropathy with different clinical and immunological features and may be related to better prognosis of the neuropathic symptoms. PMID:16291897

Tschernatsch, M; Stolz, E; Strittmatter, M; Kaps, M; Blaes, F

2005-01-01

16

Antinuclear antibody detection by automated multiplex immunoassay in untreated patients at the time of diagnosis.  

PubMed

Fully automated multiplex immunoassays are increasingly used as first line screening for antinuclear antibodies. The diagnostic performance of such multiplex assays in untreated patients at the time of diagnosis has not been reported. Antinuclear antibodies were measured by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) (dilution 1:160) and by BioPlex 2200 ANA screen (antibodies to dsDNA, chromatin, ribosomal protein, SSA-52, SSA-60, SSB, Sm, SmRNP, RNP-A, RNP-68, Scl-70, Jo-1, and centromere B) in 236 patients with a systemic rheumatic disease at the time of diagnosis, 149 blood donors, 139 patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), and 134 diseased controls. BioPlex ANA screen and IIF were positive in, respectively, 79% and 90% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 60% and 60% with cutaneous lupus, 72% and 93% with systemic sclerosis (SSc), 100% and 100% with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD), 89% and 56% with primary Sjögren's (SS) syndrome, 36% and 36% with polymyositis/dermatomyositis, 5.4% and 6% of blood donors, 7.2% and 3.6% of patients with CFS, and 11% and 18% of diseased controls. BioPlex test result interval specific likelihood ratios increased with increasing antibody concentration. The simultaneous presence of at least three antibodies by BioPlex was found in 35% of patients with SLE, 4% with SSc, 100% with MCTD, 64% with SS, 7% with inflammatory myopathy, 0.7% of CFS and diseased controls, and none of the blood donors. In conclusion, test result specific likelihood ratios and the presence of multiple autoantibodies help with the interpretation of data generated by multiplex immunoassays. PMID:22387973

Op De Beéck, Katrijn; Vermeersch, Pieter; Verschueren, Patrick; Westhovens, René; Mariën, Godelieve; Blockmans, Daniel; Bossuyt, Xavier

2012-12-01

17

Human peripheral blood monocytes display surface antigens recognized by monoclonal antinuclear antibodies.  

PubMed Central

We used monoclonal anti-nuclear autoantibodies and indirect immunofluorescence to examine normal human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes for the presence of cell surface nuclear antigens. Only one monoclonal anti-histone antibody (MH-2) was found to bind to freshly isolated PBL, staining approximately 10% of large cells. However, after cells were placed into culture for 16-24 h, a high percentage (up to 60%) of large-sized cells were recognized by an anti-DNA (BWD-1) and several different antihistone monoclonal antibodies (BWH-1, MH-1, and MH-2). These antibodies recognize separate antigenic determinants on chromatin and histones extracted from chromatin. None of the monoclonal autoantibodies appeared to bind to a significant percentage of cells of relatively small cell size, either before or after culture. The histone antigen-positive cells were viable, and the monoclonal antibodies could be shown to be binding to the cell surface and not to the nucleus. Further experiments, including those using aggregated Ig to block antibody binding, strongly indicated that anti-histone antibody binding was not Fc receptor mediated. Using monoclonal antibodies specific for monocytes and T cells, and complement-mediated cytotoxicity, the cells bearing histone antigens were shown to be primarily monocytes. The appearance of histone and DNA antigen-positive cells was nearly completely inhibited by the addition of low concentrations (0.25 micrograms/ml) of cycloheximide at initiation of the cultures. In contrast, little effect on the percentage of positive cells was detected if cells were exposed to high doses of gamma irradiation before culture. These data further support the existence of cell surface nuclear antigens on selected cell subsets, which may provide insight into the immunopathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus and related autoimmune diseases. Images PMID:3876357

Holers, V M; Kotzin, B L

1985-01-01

18

Anti-nuclear antibodies in daily clinical practice: prevalence in primary, secondary, and tertiary care.  

PubMed

For the diagnosis of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARD), patients are screened for anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA). ANA, as assessed by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF), have a poor specificity. This hampers interpretation of positive results in clinical settings with low pretest probability of SARD. We hypothesized that the utility of positive ANA IIF results increases from primary to tertiary care. We retrospectively determined ANA, anti-ENA, and anti-dsDNA antibody prevalence in patient cohorts from primary (n = 1453), secondary (n = 1621), and tertiary (n = 1168) care settings. Results reveal that from primary care to tertiary care, ANA prevalence increases (6.2, 10.8, and 16.0%, resp.). Moreover, in primary care low titres (70% versus 51% and 52% in secondary and tertiary care, resp.) are more frequent and anti-ENA/dsDNA reactivities are less prevalent (21% versus 39% in secondary care). Typically, in tertiary care the prevalence of anti-ENA/dsDNA reactivities (21%) is lower than expected. From this descriptive study we conclude that positive ANA IIF results are more prone to false interpretation in clinical settings with low pretest probabilities for SARD, as in primary care. Whether alternative approaches, that is, immunoadsorption of anti-DFS70 antibodies or implementation of anti-ENA screen assays, perform better, needs to be determined. PMID:24741596

Avery, Thomas Y; van de Cruys, Mart; Austen, Jos; Stals, Frans; Damoiseaux, Jan G M C

2014-01-01

19

Anti-Nuclear Antibodies in Daily Clinical Practice: Prevalence in Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Care  

PubMed Central

For the diagnosis of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARD), patients are screened for anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA). ANA, as assessed by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF), have a poor specificity. This hampers interpretation of positive results in clinical settings with low pretest probability of SARD. We hypothesized that the utility of positive ANA IIF results increases from primary to tertiary care. We retrospectively determined ANA, anti-ENA, and anti-dsDNA antibody prevalence in patient cohorts from primary (n = 1453), secondary (n = 1621), and tertiary (n = 1168) care settings. Results reveal that from primary care to tertiary care, ANA prevalence increases (6.2, 10.8, and 16.0%, resp.). Moreover, in primary care low titres (70% versus 51% and 52% in secondary and tertiary care, resp.) are more frequent and anti-ENA/dsDNA reactivities are less prevalent (21% versus 39% in secondary care). Typically, in tertiary care the prevalence of anti-ENA/dsDNA reactivities (21%) is lower than expected. From this descriptive study we conclude that positive ANA IIF results are more prone to false interpretation in clinical settings with low pretest probabilities for SARD, as in primary care. Whether alternative approaches, that is, immunoadsorption of anti-DFS70 antibodies or implementation of anti-ENA screen assays, perform better, needs to be determined. PMID:24741596

Avery, Thomas Y.; van de Cruys, Mart; Austen, Jos; Stals, Frans; Damoiseaux, Jan G. M. C.

2014-01-01

20

[Therapeutic effect of mineral water of the Belokurikha spa resort on the level of antinuclear antibodies and chromosomal aberrations in synovial cells of patients with osteoarthrosis].  

PubMed

The objective of this study was chromosomal analysis and measurement of anti-nuclear antibody level in synovial cells of 28 patients aged between 35 and 50 years with knee joint osteoarthrosis before and after radon therapy at an equivalent doe of 280 mSv per treatment course. It was shown that the presence of osteoarthrosis was associated with a rise in the number of synoviocytes characterized by cytogenetic defects in the form of various chromosomal aberrations the frequency of which positively correlated with the number of anti-nuclear antibodies. Radon therapy brought about a decreases in the titers of antinuclear antibodies in synovial cells and the number of chromosomal aberrations in their nuclear apparatus. These changes were accompanied by the enhancement of mitotic activity of synoviocytes, stimulation of protein synthesis in these cells, and activation of proliferative processes in the synovial medium of the joints. PMID:19886018

Udartsev, E Iu; Il'inskikh, N N; Raspopova, E A; Il'inskikh, I N; Semenov, A G

2009-01-01

21

Antinuclear Antibodies as Potential Markers of Lung Cancer1 Felix Fernandez-Madrid,2  

E-print Network

Antinuclear Antibodies as Potential Markers of Lung Cancer1 Fe´lix Ferna´ndez-Madrid,2 Pamela J of ANAs in lung cancer. We have previously reported that autoantibodies to collagen antigens resembling those found in the connective tissue diseases are consistently detected in the sera from lung cancer

VandeVord, Pamela

22

Induction of antinuclear antibodies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis receiving treatment with human recombinant interferon gamma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of six patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with human recombinant interferon gamma for two to eight months, three developed antinuclear antibodies (ANAs). This was accompanied by a simultaneous clinical exacerbation of the disease activity. In this study both anti-inflammatory and immunostimulatory effects of human recombinant interferon gamma in patients with RA were observed.

M Seitz; M Franke; H Kirchner

1988-01-01

23

21 CFR 866.5100 - Antinuclear antibody immunological test system.  

...immunochemical techniques the autoimmune antibodies in serum, other...erythematosus (a multisystem autoimmune disease in which antibodies attack the...tissues), hepatitis (a liver disease), rheumatoid arthritis,...

2014-04-01

24

21 CFR 866.5100 - Antinuclear antibody immunological test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...immunochemical techniques the autoimmune antibodies in serum, other...erythematosus (a multisystem autoimmune disease in which antibodies attack the...tissues), hepatitis (a liver disease), rheumatoid...

2012-04-01

25

21 CFR 866.5100 - Antinuclear antibody immunological test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...immunochemical techniques the autoimmune antibodies in serum, other...erythematosus (a multisystem autoimmune disease in which antibodies attack the...tissues), hepatitis (a liver disease), rheumatoid...

2011-04-01

26

21 CFR 866.5100 - Antinuclear antibody immunological test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...immunochemical techniques the autoimmune antibodies in serum, other...erythematosus (a multisystem autoimmune disease in which antibodies attack the...tissues), hepatitis (a liver disease), rheumatoid arthritis,...

2013-04-01

27

21 CFR 866.5100 - Antinuclear antibody immunological test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...immunochemical techniques the autoimmune antibodies in serum, other...erythematosus (a multisystem autoimmune disease in which antibodies attack the...tissues), hepatitis (a liver disease), rheumatoid...

2010-04-01

28

A Comparison of Anti-Nuclear Antibody Quantification Using Automated Enzyme Immunoassays and Immunofluorescence Assays  

PubMed Central

Anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) have traditionally been evaluated using indirect fluorescence assays (IFA) with HEp-2 cells. Quantitative immunoassays (EIA) have replaced the use of HEp-2 cells in some laboratories. Here, we evaluated ANA in 400 consecutive and unselected routinely referred patients using IFA and automated EIA techniques. The IFA results generated by two independent laboratories were compared with the EIA results from antibodies against double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), from ANA screening, and from tests of the seven included subantigens. The final IFA and EIA results for 386 unique patients were compared. The majority of the results were the same between the two methods (n = 325, 84%); however, 8% (n = 30) yielded equivocal results (equivocal-negative and equivocal-positive) and 8% (n = 31) yielded divergent results (positive-negative). The results showed fairly good agreement, with Cohen's kappa value of 0.30 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.14–0.46), which decreased to 0.23 (95% CI = 0.06–0.40) when the results for dsDNA were omitted. The EIA method was less reliable for assessing nuclear and speckled reactivity patterns, whereas the IFA method presented difficulties detecting dsDNA and Ro activity. The automated EIA method was performed in a similar way to the conventional IFA method using HEp-2 cells; thus, automated EIA may be used as a screening test. PMID:24592328

Baronaite, Renata; Engelhart, Merete; M?rk Hansen, Troels; Thamsborg, Gorm; Slott Jensen, Hanne; Stender, Steen; Szecsi, Pal Bela

2014-01-01

29

Anti-nuclear antibodies and the optic-spinal form of multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We found anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) (1?:?20 or higher) in sera from 11 of 16 patients with a diagnosis of the optic-spinal\\u000a form of multiple sclerosis (OpS-MS) and 13 of 59 patients with other forms of MS (other MS), both rates being significant\\u000a (P = 0.0004). Six of the OpS-MS patients had a high level of ANA (1?:?80 or higher), while

Toshiyuki Fukazawa; Seiji Kikuchi; Hidenao Sasaki; Koji Hamada; Takeshi Hamada; Kazuo Miyasaka; Kunio Tashiro

1997-01-01

30

The incidence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) method.  

PubMed

Human anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) react specificaly with DNA, RNA, several proteins and ribonucleoproteins. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is the classic type of polysystemic autoimmune disease. The high frequency of ANA is determined in these patients. Actually, all SLE patients are ANA positive. ANA testing by IFA (Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay) is an excellent screening tool for SLE cases, but it is not so highly specific test. Patients with connective tissue diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma and dermatomyositis are also frequently positive. Results of IFA ANA have relative low specific degree, and for this reason the titration of these specimens to the end point is usually recommended. Indirect immunoflourescence is reference method for ANA testing. Common substrates are thin sections of rodent organs or various types of cell lines. The cell line substrates are preferable to organ sections, because these rapidly dividing cells have higher level for detection of certain clinically relevant antigens such as (e.g., centromere, SSA (Ro) and Scl-70). In this paper we present the results evaluation of ANA incidence, detected by IFA in serum specimens of corresponding clinical patients, during 2005 and 2006. PMID:17582968

Karamehic, Jasenko; Subasic, Djemo; Gavrankapetanovic, Faris; Zecevic, Lamija; Eminovic, Izet; Memic, Senaid; Seric, Natasa; Drace, Zahida

2007-01-01

31

Prevalence and Sociodemographic Correlates of Antinuclear Antibodies In the United States  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the prevalence, types and sociodemographic and biobehavioral correlates of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) in the United States (U.S.). Methods Cross-sectional analysis of 4,754 individuals from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004. ANA by indirect immunofluorescence, including cellular staining patterns and specific autoantibody reactivities by immunoprecipitation in those with ANA. Results ANA prevalence in the U.S. population ages 12 years and older was 13.8% (95% CI, 12.2% to 15.5%). ANA increased with age (P = 0.01) and were more prevalent among females than males (17.8% vs. 9.6%, P < 0.001), with the female to male ratio peaking at 40–49 years of age. ANA prevalence was modestly higher in African Americans than whites (adjusted prevalence odds ratio [POR], 1.30; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.70). Remarkably, ANA were less common in overweight and obese (adjusted POR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.94) individuals than persons of normal weight. No significant associations were seen with education, family income, alcohol use, smoking history, serum levels of cotinine or C-reactive protein. In ANA-positive individuals, nuclear patterns were seen in 84.6%, cytoplasmic patterns in 21.8%, and nucleolar patterns in 6.1%, and the most common specific autoantibodies were anti-Ro (3.9%) and anti-Su (2.4%). Conclusion These findings suggest that over 32 million persons in the U.S. have ANA and the prevalence is higher among females, older individuals, African Americans and those with normal weight. These data will serve as a useful baseline for future investigations of predictors and changes in ANA prevalence over time. PMID:22237992

Satoh, Minoru; Chan, Edward K. L.; Ho, Lindsey A.; Rose, Kathryn M.; Parks, Christine G.; Cohn, Richard D.; Jusko, Todd A.; Walker, Nigel J.; Germolec, Dori R.; Whitt, Irene Z.; Crockett, Patrick W.; Pauley, Brad A.; Chan, Jason Y.F.; Ross, Steven J.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Miller, Frederick W.

2012-01-01

32

Emergence of antinuclear antibodies in psoriatic patients treated with infliximab: personal experience and literature review.  

PubMed

Postmarketing Phase IV Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting up to 2.5% of the population, with joint involvement in approximately 30% of patients. Given the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, anti-TNF therapies have been developed; several studies have demonstrated the efficacy of infliximab (IFX) as induction and maintenance therapy in the treatment of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. The development of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) in anti-TNF-treated patients has been frequently reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of ANA and anti-double stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibodies in psoriatic patients receiving IFX. Incidence of new ANA and anti-ds-DNA was 16.2% and 8.1% respectively. No case of anti-TNF induced Lupus was observed during the follow-up. PMID:25381980

Chimenti, Maria Sole; Spinelli, Francesca Romana; Giunta, Alessandro; Martinelli, Francesco; Saraceno, Rosita; Conti, Fabrizio; Perricone, Roberto; Valesini, Guido

2014-11-01

33

Mercuric chloride-, gold sodium thiomalate-, and D-penicillamine-induced antinuclear antibodies in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inducibility of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) by mercuric chloride (HgCl2) was studied in various strains of mice. High response to the treatment was observed in strains A.SW (H-2s), A.CA (H-2f), A.TH (H-2t2), B10.S (H-2s), DBA\\/1J (H-2q), and P\\/J (H-2p); strains A.BY (H-2b), B10.M (H-2f), and C3H\\/HeSnJ (H-2k) showed a low response, while strains A\\/WySn (H-2a), A\\/J (H-2a), A.TL (H-2tl), BALB\\/cJ (H-2d),

C J Robinson; T Balazs; I K Egorov

1986-01-01

34

Meta-Analysis: Diagnostic Accuracy of Antinuclear Antibodies, Smooth Muscle Antibodies and Antibodies to a Soluble Liver Antigen/Liver Pancreas in Autoimmune Hepatitis  

PubMed Central

Background Antinuclear antibodies (ANA), smooth muscle antibodies (SMA) and antibodies to a soluble liver antigen/liver pancreas (anti-SLA/LP) are useful markers that can help clinicians to diagnose and classify autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Objectives To determine whether ANA, SMA and anti-SLA/LP help to accurately diagnose patients with AIH. Search strategy The PubMed, CNKI, WANFANG, and SinoMed databases were accessed to retrieve studies published in English and Chinese. Studies published up to October 2013 were reviewed. Selection criteria Studies on the diagnostic value of ANA, SMA or anti-SLA/LP in the diagnosis of known or suspected AIH were included. Data collection and analysis Two authors evaluated studies independently and rated their methodological quality using quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies (QUADAS) tools; relevant data were abstracted. The random-effects method was used to summarize sensitivities, specificities, positive and negative likelihood ratios, and diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) from all 29 studies. Results The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, and DOR for ANA were 0.650 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.619 to 0.680), 0.751 (95%CI, 0.737 to 0.764), 3.030 (95%CI, 2.349 to 3.910), 0.464 (95%CI, 0.356 to 0.604), and 7.380 (95%CI, 4.344 to 12.539), respectively. For SMA, the values were 0.593 (95%CI, 0.564 to 0.621), 0.926 (95%CI, 0.917 to 0.934), 11.740 (95%CI, 7.379 to 18.678), 0.449 (95%CI, 0.367 to 0.549), and 31.553 (95%CI, 17.147 to 58.060), respectively. Finally, for anti-SLA/LP, the values were 0.194 (95%CI, 0.168 to 0.222), 0.989 (95%CI, 0.985 to 0.993), 11.089 (95%CI, 7.601 to 16.177), 0.839 (95%CI, 0.777 to 0.905), and 16.867 (95%CI, 10.956 to 25.967), respectively. Authors’ conclusions ANA provided moderate sensitivity and specificity, while SMA gave moderate sensitivity and high specificity, and anti-SLA/LP exhibited low sensitivity and high specificity. All three antibodies were limited by their unsatisfactory sensitivities and lack of consistency. PMID:24651126

Chen, Juan; Chen, Wei-Xian

2014-01-01

35

An automatic segmentation and classification framework for anti-nuclear antibody images  

PubMed Central

Autoimmune disease is a disorder of immune system due to the over-reaction of lymphocytes against one's own body tissues. Anti-Nuclear Antibody (ANA) is an autoantibody produced by the immune system directed against the self body tissues or cells, which plays an important role in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases. Indirect ImmunoFluorescence (IIF) method with HEp-2 cells provides the major screening method to detect ANA for the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases. Fluorescence patterns at present are usually examined laboriously by experienced physicians through manually inspecting the slides with the help of a microscope, which usually suffers from inter-observer variability that limits its reproducibility. Previous researches only provided simple segmentation methods and criterions for cell segmentation and recognition, but a fully automatic framework for the segmentation and recognition of HEp-2 cells had never been reported before. This study proposes a method based on the watershed algorithm to automatically detect the HEp-2 cells with different patterns. The experimental results show that the segmentation performance of the proposed method is satisfactory when evaluated with percent volume overlap (PVO: 89%). The classification performance using a SVM classifier designed based on the features calculated from the segmented cells achieves an average accuracy of 96.90%, which outperforms other methods presented in previous studies. The proposed method can be used to develop a computer-aided system to assist the physicians in the diagnosis of auto-immune diseases. PMID:24565042

2013-01-01

36

In vivo anti-nuclear antibodies in epithelial biopsies in SLE and other connective tissue diseases.  

PubMed

In vivo anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) was observed by direct immunofluorescence microscopy in epithelial cell nuclei in forty-four biopsies from thirty-three patients. The tissue containing the ANA was macroscopically normal in twenty-seven patients. The thirty-three patients with in vivo biopsy ANA included twenty-three with SLE, three with mixed connective tissue disease, two each with multi-system Sjögren's syndrome, dermatomyositis, and progressive systemic sclerosis, and one with rheumatoid arthritis. Features of sicca syndrome were noted in seventeen patients. The patterns of the in vivo biopsy ANA in the thirty-three patients were speckled (21), homogeneous (6), nodular (2), and both speckled and homogeneous (4). Complement was not detected in the epithelial cell nuclei. Immunoglobulin(s) and/or complement were deposited along the dermoepidermal junction in thirty-two of the forty-four biopsies, and in dermal blood vessels in twenty-two biopsies. Each patient had serum ANA against rat liver substrate; twenty-seven had high titre ANA (1 in 1000 or greater). Elevated levels of DNA-binding were found in twenty patients (61%), but the level of DNA-binding did not correlate with the intensity of in vitro biopsy ANA staining. Serum antibody to ribonucleoprotein (RNP) was present in eight of the twenty-three patients tested (35%), all eight patients having clinical features of sicca syndrome. Hypocomplementaemia was found in thirteen patients (40%), all of whom had active SLE. In vivo biopsy ANA appears to be a real phenomenon of unknown aetiology, and not an artifact, which is found in some patients with active multisystem autoimmune disease, especially SLE. PMID:394890

Wells, J V; Webb, J; Van Deventer, M; Fry, B; Pollard, K M; Raftos, J; Monk, W; Nelson, D S

1979-12-01

37

IgG, IgM, and IgA antinuclear antibodies in discoid and systemic lupus erythematosus patients.  

PubMed

IgG antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) are elevated in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) compared with patients with discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE). To provide an expanded immunologic view of circulating ANAs in lupus patients, we compared the expressions of IgG, IgM, and IgA ANAs in DLE and SLE patients. In this cross-sectional study, sera from age-, gender-, and ethnic-matched SLE (N = 35), DLE (N = 23), and normal patients (N = 22) were tested for IgG, IgM, and IgA ANAs using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) with monkey esophagus as substrate. ELISAs showed elevated levels of IgG ANA, IgM ANA, and IgG/IgM ANA ratios in SLE patients compared with DLE and normal patients. IgA ANA expression was higher in SLE and DLE patients versus normal patients. IIF studies showed higher percentages of patients positive for IgG, IgM, and IgA ANAs in the SLE group. Higher IgG/IgM ANA ratios in SLE than DLE show enhanced class-switching and a more sustained humoral response in SLE. They also suggest a potential connection of IgM ANAs with disease containment. PMID:24741342

Jost, Sheridan A; Tseng, Lin-Chiang; Matthews, Loderick A; Vasquez, Rebecca; Zhang, Song; Yancey, Kim B; Chong, Benjamin F

2014-01-01

38

Olf1/EBF associated zinc finger protein interfered with antinuclear antibody production in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aim of the study was to determine whether Olf1/EBF associated zinc finger protein (OAZ), a transcription factor encoded by a positional systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) candidate gene, plays a functional role in the pathogenesis in SLE. Methods Gene expression levels in peripheral blood cells (PBLs) measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were assessed for association with disease activity and the presence of specific autoantibodies. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were incubated with specific siRNAs for three days, then cells were harvested for measuring mRNA levels using qPCR, and supernatants for levels of total immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM as well as secreted cytokines, chemokine and antinuclear antibodies (ANA) using ELISA. Indirect immunofluorescence was also applied for ANA detection. Results OAZ gene expressions in PBLs from 40 ANA-positive SLE patients were significantly increased than those from 30 normal controls (P < 0.0001) and 18 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (P < 0.01). In SLE patients, OAZ transcripts were positively correlated with SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) score (r = 0.72, P < 0.0001) and higher in those positive for anti-dsDNA or anti-Sm antibodies (both P < 0.05). Co-culturing with OAZ siRNAs reduced mRNA levels of OAZ by 74.6 ± 6.4% as compared to those co-cultured with non-targeting siRNA and OAZ silencing resulted in reduced total IgG, ANA, interferon (IFN)-?, interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12 and IL-21, but elevated CCL2 levels in culture supernatants (P < 0.05). The declined ANA levels correlated with inhibited OAZ expression (r = 0.88, P = 0.05), reduced IL-21 levels (r = 0.99, P < 0.01), and elevated chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 levels (r = -0.98, P < 0.01). Expressions of ID1-3 were significantly down-regulated by 68.7%, 70.2% and 67.7% respectively after OAZ silence, while ID3 was also highly expressed in SLE PBLs (P < 0.0001) and associated with disease activity (r = 0.76, P < 0.0001) as well as anti-dsDNA or anti-Sm antibodies (both P < 0.05). Conclusions Elevated expression of OAZ transcripts in SLE PBLs were strongly correlated with disease activity. Suppression of OAZ expression inhibited downstream ID levels, and secretion of ANA and IL-21, implicating a role of OAZ pathway in the pathogenesis of SLE. PMID:20359360

2010-01-01

39

Induction of Antinuclear Antibodies by De Novo Autoimmune Hepatitis Regulates Alloimmune Responses in Rat Liver Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Concanavalin A (Con A) is a lectin originating from the jack-bean and well known for its ability to stimulate T cells and induce autoimmune hepatitis. We previously demonstrated the induction of immunosuppressive antinuclear autoantibody in the course of Con A-induced transient autoimmune hepatitis. This study aimed to clarify the effects of Con A-induced hepatitis on liver allograft rejection and acceptance. In this study, we observed the unique phenomenon that the induction of transient de novo autoimmune hepatitis by Con A injection paradoxically overcomes the rejection without any immunosuppressive drug and exhibits significantly prolonged survival after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Significantly increased titers of anti-nuclear Abs against histone H1 and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and reduced donor specific alloantibody response were observed in Con A-injected recipients. Induction of Foxp3 and IL-10 in OLT livers of Con A-injected recipients suggested the involvement of regulatory T cells in this unique phenomenon. Our present data suggest the significance of autoimmune responses against nuclear histone H1 and HMGB1 for competing allogeneic immune responses, resulting in the acceptance of liver allografts in experimental liver transplantation. PMID:24454474

Nakano, Toshiaki; Goto, Shigeru; Lai, Chia-Yun; Hsu, Li-Wen; Tseng, Hui-Peng; Chen, Kuang-Den; Wang, Chih-Chi; Cheng, Yu-Fan; Chen, Chao-Long

2013-01-01

40

International recommendations for the assessment of autoantibodies to cellular antigens referred to as anti-nuclear antibodies.  

PubMed

Anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) are fundamental for the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases, and have been determined by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIFA) for decades. As the demand for ANA testing increased, alternative techniques were developed challenging the classic IIFA. These alternative platforms differ in their antigen profiles, sensitivity and specificity, raising uncertainties regarding standardisation and interpretation of incongruent results. Therefore, an international group of experts has created recommendations for ANA testing by different methods. Two groups of experts participated in this initiative. The European autoimmunity standardization initiative representing 15 European countries and the International Union of Immunologic Societies/World Health Organization/Arthritis Foundation/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention autoantibody standardising committee. A three-step process followed by a Delphi exercise with closed voting was applied. Twenty-five recommendations for determining ANA (1-13), anti-double stranded DNA antibodies (14-18), specific antibodies (19-23) and validation of methods (24-25) were created. Significant differences between experts were observed regarding recommendations 24-25 (p<0.03). Here, we formulated recommendations for the assessment and interpretation of ANA and associated antibodies. Notably, the roles of IIFA as a reference method, and the importance of defining nuclear and cytoplasmic staining, were emphasised, while the need to incorporate alternative automated methods was acknowledged. Various approaches to overcome discrepancies between methods were suggested of which an improved bench-to-bedside communication is of the utmost importance. These recommendations are based on current knowledge and can enable harmonisation of local algorithms for testing and evaluation of ANA and related autoantibodies. Last but not least, new more appropriate terminologies have been suggested. PMID:24126457

Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Damoiseaux, Jan; Kallenberg, Cees; Sack, Ulrich; Witte, Torsten; Herold, Manfred; Bossuyt, Xavier; Musset, Lucille; Cervera, Ricard; Plaza-Lopez, Aresio; Dias, Carlos; Sousa, Maria José; Radice, Antonella; Eriksson, Catharina; Hultgren, Olof; Viander, Markku; Khamashta, Munther; Regenass, Stephan; Andrade, Luis Eduardo Coelho; Wiik, Allan; Tincani, Angela; Rönnelid, Johan; Bloch, Donald B; Fritzler, Marvin J; Chan, Edward K L; Garcia-De La Torre, I; Konstantinov, Konstantin N; Lahita, Robert; Wilson, Merlin; Vainio, Olli; Fabien, Nicole; Sinico, Renato Alberto; Meroni, Pierluigi; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

2014-01-01

41

Current Concepts and Future Directions for the Assessment of Autoantibodies to Cellular Antigens Referred to as Anti-Nuclear Antibodies  

PubMed Central

The detection of autoantibodies that target intracellular antigens, commonly termed anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), is a serological hallmark in the diagnosis of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARD). Different methods are available for detection of ANA and all bearing their own advantages and limitations. Most laboratories use the indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) assay based on HEp-2 cell substrates. Due to the subjectivity of this diagnostic platform, automated digital reading systems have been developed during the last decade. In addition, solid phase immunoassays using well characterized antigens have gained widespread adoption in high throughput laboratories due to their ease of use and open automation. Despite all the advances in the field of ANA detection and its contribution to the diagnosis of SARD, significant challenges persist. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the current status on ANA testing including automated IIF reading systems and solid phase assays and suggests an approach to interpretation of results and discusses meeting the problems of assay standardization and other persistent challenges. PMID:24868563

Mahler, Michael; Meroni, Pier-Luigi; Bossuyt, Xavier; Fritzler, Marvin J.

2014-01-01

42

Antinuclear Antibodies and Patterns of Nuclear Immunofluorescence in Type 1 Autoimmune Hepatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the significance of antinuclearantibodies and their patterns of indirectimmunofluorescence in type 1 autoimmune hepatitis, serafrom 99 patients were evaluated. Patients withantinuclear antibodies had a lower frequency of livertransplantation (6% vs 22%, P = 0.04) than seronegativepatients. They were also more commonly HLA-DR4- positivethan seronegative patients (56% vs 30%, P = 0.05) and normal subjects (56% vs 30%, P

Albert J. Czaja; Fabio Cassani; Michela Cataleta; Paolo Valentini; Francesco B. Bianchi

1997-01-01

43

Relation between antinuclear antibodies and the autoimmune rheumatic diseases and disease type and activity in systemic lupus erythematosus using a variety of cultured cell lines.  

PubMed Central

Antinuclear activity was assessed in serum samples from a series of 40 patients with differing clinical subsets (including renal and neurological disease) of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) against a transformed keratinocyte line (SvK14)* and normal human keratinocytes. Paired serum samples were studied during disease activity and inactivity, and the effects of ultraviolet radiation on the availability of nuclear antigens in the cell substrates were assessed. Serum samples from 20 healthy controls and 40 disease controls, comprising 10 patients each with rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome, scleroderma, and myositis, were also studied. The keratinocytes all provided sensitive substrates for the detection of antinuclear antibodies (ANAs), and in normal keratinocytes treated with ultraviolet radiation nuclear antigens were exposed on the cell surface. There was no correlation between ANAs and disease activity or patterns so, apart from assisting diagnosis, the detection of ANAs is of little relevance to predicting disease activity. Images PMID:2015009

Sequi, J; Leigh, I; Isenberg, D A

1991-01-01

44

Persistence of pulmonary tertiary lymphoid tissues and anti-nuclear antibodies following cessation of cigarette smoke exposure  

PubMed Central

Formation of pulmonary tertiary immune structures is a characteristic feature of advanced COPD. In the current study, we investigated the mechanisms of tertiary lymphoid tissue (TLT) formation in the lungs of cigarette smoke-exposed mice. We found that cigarette smoke exposure led to TLT formation that persisted following smoking cessation. TLTs consisted predominantly of IgM positive B cells, while plasma cells in close proximity to TLTs expressed IgM, IgG, and IgA. The presence of TLT formation was associated with anti-nuclear autoantibody (ANA) production that also persisted following smoking cessation. ANAs were observed in the lungs, but not the circulation of cigarette smoke-exposed mice. Similarly, we observed ANA in the sputum of COPD patients where levels correlated with disease severity and were refractory to steroid treatment. Both ANA production and TLT formation were dependent on interleukin-1 receptor 1 (IL-1R1) expression. Contrary to TLT and ANA, lung neutrophilia resolved following smoking cessation. These data suggest a differential regulation of innate and B cell-related immune inflammatory processes associated with cigarette smoke exposure. Moreover, our study further emphasizes the importance of interleukin-1 (IL-1) signaling pathways in cigarette smoke-related pulmonary pathogenesis. PMID:24754996

2014-01-01

45

Persistence of pulmonary tertiary lymphoid tissues and anti-nuclear antibodies following cessation of cigarette smoke exposure.  

PubMed

Formation of pulmonary tertiary immune structures is a characteristic feature of advanced COPD. In the current study, we investigated the mechanisms of tertiary lymphoid tissue (TLT) formation in the lungs of cigarette smoke-exposed mice. We found that cigarette smoke exposure led to TLT formation that persisted following smoking cessation. TLTs consisted predominantly of IgM positive B cells, while plasma cells in close proximity to TLTs expressed IgM, IgG, and IgA. The presence of TLT formation was associated with anti-nuclear autoantibody (ANA) production that also persisted following smoking cessation. ANAs were observed in the lungs, but not the circulation of cigarette smoke-exposed mice. Similarly, we observed ANA in the sputum of COPD patients where levels correlated with disease severity and were refractory to steroid treatment. Both ANA production and TLT formation were dependent on interleukin-1 receptor 1 (IL-1R1) expression. Contrary to TLT and ANA, lung neutrophilia resolved following smoking cessation. These data suggest a differential regulation of innate and B cell-related immune inflammatory processes associated with cigarette smoke exposure. Moreover, our study further emphasizes the importance of interleukin-1 (IL-1) signaling pathways in cigarette smoke-related pulmonary pathogenesis. PMID:24754996

Morissette, Mathieu C; Jobse, Brian N; Thayaparan, Danya; Nikota, Jake K; Shen, Pamela; Labiris, Nancy Renée; Kolbeck, Roland; Nair, Parameswaran; Humbles, Alison A; Stämpfli, Martin R

2014-01-01

46

ANA (Antinuclear Antibody Test)  

MedlinePLUS

... Glance Why Get Tested? To evaluate for certain autoimmune disorders , such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Sjogren ... provider thinks that you have symptoms of an autoimmune disorder Sample Required? A blood sample drawn from a ...

47

Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA)  

MedlinePLUS

... to begin attacking itself which can lead to autoimmune diseases, including lupus , scleroderma , Sjögren's syndrome , polymyositis/ dermatomyositis, mixed ... test does not indicate the presence of an autoimmune disease or the need for therapy. Autoimmune diseases can ...

48

Can Administration of Potentized Homeopathic Remedy, Arsenicum Album, Alter Antinuclear Antibody (ANA) Titer in People Living in High-Risk Arsenic Contaminated Areas? I. A Correlation with Certain Hematological Parameters  

PubMed Central

To examine whether elevated antinuclear antibody (ANA) titers reported in random human population of arsenic contaminated villages can be reverted to the normal range by administration of a potentized homeopathic drug, Arsenicum album, randomly selected volunteers in two arsenic contaminated villages and one arsenic-free village in West Bengal (India) were periodically tested for their ANA titer as well as various blood parameters in two types of experiments: ‘placebo-controlled double blind’ experiment for shorter duration and ‘uncontrolled verum fed experiment’ for longer duration. Positive modulation of ANA titer was observed along with changes in certain relevant hematological parameters, namely total count of red blood cells and white blood cells, packed cell volume, hemoglobin content, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and blood sugar level, mostly within 2 months of drug administration. Thus, Arsenicum album appears to have great potential for ameliorating arsenic induced elevated ANA titer and other hematological toxicities. PMID:16550230

Belon, Philippe; Banerjee, Pathikrit; Choudhury, Sandipan Chaki; Banerjee, Antara; Biswas, Surjyo Jyoti; Karmakar, Susanta Roy; Pathak, Surajit; Guha, Bibhas; Chatterjee, Sagar; Bhattacharjee, Nandini; Das, Jayanta Kumar; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

2006-01-01

49

Mercury exposure, serum antinuclear/antinucleolar antibodies, and serum cytokine levels in mining populations in Amazonian Brazil: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

Mercury is an immunotoxic substance that has been shown to induce autoimmune disease in rodent models, characterized by lymphoproliferation, overproduction of immunoglobulin (IgG and IgE), and high circulating levels of auto-antibodies directed at antigens located in the nucleus (antinuclear auto-antibodies, or ANA) or the nucleolus (antinucleolar auto-antibodies, or ANoA). We have reported elevated levels of ANA and ANoA in human populations exposed to mercury in artisanal gold mining, though other confounding variables that may also modulate ANA/ANoA levels were not well controlled. The goal of this study is to specifically test whether occupational and environmental conditions (other than mercury exposure) that are associated with artisanal gold mining affect the prevalence of markers of autoimmune dysfunction. We measured ANA, ANoA, and cytokine concentrations in serum and compared results from mercury-exposed artisanal gold miners to those from diamond and emerald miners working under similar conditions and with similar socio-economic status and risks of infectious disease. Mercury-exposed gold miners had higher prevalence of detectable ANA and ANoA and higher titers of ANA and ANoA as compared to diamond and emerald miners with no occupational mercury exposure. Also, mercury-exposed gold miners with detectable ANA or ANoA in serum had significantly higher concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma in serum as compared to the diamond and emerald miners. This study provides further evidence that mercury exposure may lead to autoimmune dysfunction and systemic inflammation in affected populations. PMID:20176347

Gardner, Renee M; Nyland, Jennifer F; Silva, Ines A; Ventura, Ana Maria; de Souza, Jose Maria; Silbergeld, Ellen K

2010-05-01

50

[Arthralgia, bone pain, positive antinuclear antibodies and thrombocytopenia...diagnosis: Niemann-Pick disease].  

PubMed

The differential diagnosis of rheumatic diseases is sometimes very complex given the lack of specificity of some clinical manifestations. A careful physical examination with the aid of laboratory and radiographic findings can lead us to some rare conditions, reminding that they should never be forgotten in the differential diagnosis. The authors present a case report of a woman referred to the rheumatology department with joint and bone pain. Physical examination and laboratory findings lead us to the diagnosis of type B Niemann-Pick disease. Some considerations about the diagnostic challenge of this rare clinical condition are made. PMID:19365305

Ambrósio, C; Serra, S; Alexandre, M; Malcata, A

2009-01-01

51

A retrospective study on IVF/ICSI outcome in patients with anti-nuclear antibodies: the effects of prednisone plus low-dose aspirin adjuvant treatment  

PubMed Central

Background Anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) are suspected of having relevance to adverse reproductive events. Methods This study aims to investigate the potential effect of ANA on IVF/ICSI outcome and the therapeutic role of prednisone plus low-dose aspirin (P + A) adjuvant treatment in ANA + patients. The first IVF/ICSI cycles without P + A of sixty-six ANA + women were enrolled as the ANA + group, and the 233 first IVF/ICSI cycles of matched ANA- women served as the ANA- group. The ANA + group was divided into the Titre??1:320 subgroup. Twenty-one ANA + women with adverse outcomes in their first cycles (ANA + cycles without P + A) received P + A adjuvant treatment for three months before the second IVF/ICSI cycle (ANA + cycles with P + A). The clinical characteristics and the IVF/ICSI outcomes were compared, respectively, between 1) the ANA + group and the ANA- group, 2) the Titre??1:320 subgroup, and 3) the ANA + cycles without P + A and the ANA + cycles with P + A. Results No significant differences were observed between each of the two-group pairs in the clinical characteristics. The ANA?+?group exhibited significantly lower MII oocytes rate, normal fertilisation, pregnancy and implantation rates, as well as remarkably higher abnormal fertilisation and early miscarriage rates. The Titre??1:320 subgroup. After the P + A adjuvant treatment, the number of two pro-nuclei, perfect embryos and available embryos, and the implantation rate increased significantly. Conclusions These observations suggest that ANA could exert a detrimental effect on IVF/ICSI outcome that might not be titre-dependent, and P + A adjuvant treatment could be useful for ANA + patients. This hypothesis should be verified in further prospective randomised studies. PMID:24093222

2013-01-01

52

Antinuclear autoantibodies in chronic schizophrenia.  

PubMed

We determined the presence of antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA), antinative DNA and histone-reactive ANA in 3 groups of chronic schizophrenic patients (n=85): haloperidol-treated patients (for at least 3 months) (n=35), drug-free for at least 3 months (n=35) and neuroleptic-naive patients (n=15). The autoantibody titers were compared with those of healthy controls (n=37). A significantly higher frequency of positive ANA was found among chronic schizophrenic patients (approximately 20%) as compared with the controls (approximately 5%), irrespective of drug treatment, sex and age. No antinative ANA autoantibodies or histone reactive ANA were detected in either schizophrenic patients or controls. Further studies are needed to isolate and characterize in ANA-positive schizophrenic patients a putative specific ANA profile. PMID:8848951

Spivak, B; Radwan, M; Bartur, P; Mester, R; Weizman, A

1995-10-01

53

Prevalence of symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and of fluorescent antinuclear antibodies associated with chronic exposure to trichloroethylene and other chemicals in well water  

SciTech Connect

Criteria for the recognition of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were applied to 362 subjects exposed to trichloroethylene, trichloroethane, inorganic chromium, and other chemicals in water obtained from wells in an industrially contaminated aquifer in Tucson, Arizona. Their antinuclear autoantibodies were measured by fluorescence (FANA) in serum. Ten patients with clinical SLE and/or other collagen-vascular diseases were considered separately. Results were compared to an Arizona control group, to published series, and to laboratory controls. Frequencies of each of 10 ARA symptoms were higher in exposed subjects than in any comparison group except those with clinical SLE. The number of subjects with 4 or more symptoms was 2.3 times higher compared to referent women and men. FANA titers > 1:80 was approximately 2.3 times higher in women but equally frequent in men as in laboratory controls. ARA score and FANA rank were correlated with a coefficient (cc) of .1251, r{sup 2} = .0205 in women and this correlation was almost statistically significant in men cc = .1282, r{sup 2} = .0253. In control men and women neither correlation was significant. Long-term low-dose exposure to TCE and other chemicals in contaminated well water significantly increased symptoms of lupus erthematosus as perceived by the ARA score and the increased FANA titers.

Kilburn, K.H.; Warshaw, R.H. (Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States))

1992-02-01

54

Impact of pre-transplant Anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and Anti-smooth muscle antibody (SMA) titers on disease recurrence and graft survival following liver transplantation in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) patients  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Disease recurrence following transplant occurs in 20-45% of patients with autoimmune hepatitis. Factors associated with an increased risk of recurrence include HLA DR3 and HLA DR4 positivity, inadequate immunosuppression and severity of inflammation in the native liver. Titers of several auto antibodies can be elevated in patients with autoimmune hepatitis including ANA and SMA however it is unclear whether or not the degree of elevation influences the risk of disease recurrence following transplant. Methods We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the potential impact of pre transplant titers on post transplant outcomes for patients with autoimmune hepatitis. Sixty three patients with autoimmune hepatitis who underwent 72 liver transplants between January 1, 1989 and January 1, 2009 were included with a median follow up of 104 months. Patients were divided into group A (ANA or SMA ? 1:160) and group B (titers ? 1:160). Results There was no significant difference in recurrence rates or death between patients in group A and B respectively. Only race appeared to impact outcomes with African American patients having a higher incidence of death and recurrent disease post transplant compared to other ethnicities. Conclusions Based on our findings, pre transplant ANA and ASMA levels do not appear to impact recurrence rates or outcomes following liver transplantation for autoimmune hepatitis. PMID:22432792

Dbouk, Nader; Parekh, Samir

2012-01-01

55

High-titer antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in type-1 autoimmune hepatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims:Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), an unresolving liver inflammation characterized by periportal hepatitis and presence of serum autoantibodies, is distinguished by smooth muscle antibody and\\/or antinuclear antibody seropositivity. Type-2 AIH is characterized by antibodies to liver\\/kidney microsome type-1. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) are highly specific for ulcerative colitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and, in this report, type-1 AIH determined by positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent

Stephan R. Targan; Carol Landers; Alda Vidrich; Albert J. Czaja

1995-01-01

56

Anti-DNA antibodies in the primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS)  

PubMed

Primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS) is considered a distinct entity from SLE and patients with PAPS are generally regarded as being dsDNA antibody negative. Levels of IgG and IgM ss and ds DNA antibodies were measured by ELISA in 30 patients who fulfilled the criteria for the diagnosis of PAPS. We compared these patients with 20 normal controls and seven patients with idiopathic SLE. We also examined all the sera for anti-nuclear antibodies by Hep-2 cells and for dsDNA antibodies by Crithidia. We found that 16 patients with PAPS had antibodies to ss and/or dsDNA. Only three of the 16 positive patients had both IgG and IgM anti-DNA antibodies. Twelve patients had anti-nuclear antibodies, but only two were weakly positive for dsDNA antibodies by Crithidia immunofluorescence. Eleven out of 30 patients with PAPS had IgM anti-dsDNA antibodies compared to two out of the seven SLE patients. The PAPS patients with anti-DNA antibodies were clinically indistinguishable from the PAPS patients without antibodies against DNA. Our results show that 53% of patients with PAPS had antibodies to DNA which supports the view that PAPS and SLE are probably overlapping disorders. PMID:8495254

Ehrenstein, M R; Swana, M; Keeling, D; Asherson, R; Hughes, G R; Isenberg, D A

1993-05-01

57

Poor specific antibody response immunodeficiency (dysgammaglobulinemia) predates systemic lupus erythematosus.  

PubMed

Poor specific antibody response is a well-known primary immunodeficiency that is related to hypogammaglobulinemia or common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). The co-existence of CVID or hypogammaglobulinemia and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been rarely described. In all reported cases, the diagnosis of SLE antedates CVID. We report a 15-year-old Saudi girl who was diagnosed with poor specific antibody response at age 6 years in the form of poor or no antibody response and dysgammaglobulinemia. She developed SLE with musculoskeletal and hematological manifestations, positive antinuclear antibody and high anti-dsDNA nine years later. She was treated with rituximab with good response. PMID:23894048

Al Hamzi, H; Al Shaikh, A; Arnaout, R K

2013-08-01

58

Screening tests for hepatitis B antigen and antibody in two colleges of education and studies on the relationship between nonspecific positive antibody tests and EB virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sera from 627 students entering Colleges of Education between 1969 and 1972 were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen and antibody. One was found positive for antigen, none for antibody. Six for 15 positive Hepanosticon results and two positive Hepatest results occurred in sera which also gave positive heterophil antibody tests indicative of current or recent EB virus infection. One

K G Ruparelia; J M Edwards

1976-01-01

59

Philosophic roots of Western antinuclear movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The popular campaign in the West against nuclear weapons (also called the antinuclear movement or the peace movement) has been waged for over 30 years. Although one can debate its impact and influence, one cannot doubt its staying power. The antinuclear movement may rise--as it did in the late 1950's and late 1970s--and fall--as it did in the mid-1960s and

Bitzinger

1989-01-01

60

HLA class II genes associated with anticentromere antibody in Japanese patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma)  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To define further HLA class II gene associations with anticentromere antibody (ACA), a major serum antinuclear antibody in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS--HLA class II genes were determined using polymerase chain reaction\\/restriction fragment length polymorphisms in 94 Japanese patients with SSc (22 ACA positive and 72 ACA negative) and 50 race matched normal control subjects. RESULTS--Frequency of DQB1*0501 was

M Kuwana; Y Okano; J Kaburaki; H Inoko

1995-01-01

61

The experience of having a positive HIV antibody test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the logistics of taking an HIV antibody test and yet knowledge of people's experiences of having a test result is helpful to evolving a sensitive and client orientated service and can provide some guidelines for organisation issues around testing. This paper reports the experiences of 252 gay men who had an HIV test which proved to

K. McCann; E. Wadsworth

1991-01-01

62

A monoclonal macroglobulin with antinuclear activity.  

PubMed Central

Serum containing a monoclonal IgM protein from a patient with Waldenstroms' macroglobulinaemia gave intense immunofluorescent staining of kidney nuclei. The Fab mu fragments of this immunoglobulin were obtained. The IgM and Fab fragments reacted in vitro with kidney nuclei using unfixed cryostat sections of rat or mouse kidney. After treatment of the patient with chemotherapy, the monoclonal IgM disappeared, and no more antinuclear activity could be detected in the serum. The results strongly suggest that this IgM protein had antinuclear activity. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:112123

Intrator, L; Andre, C; Chenal, C; Sultan, C

1979-01-01

63

A Peer Counselling Program for Persons Testing H.I.V. Antibody Positive.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes need for and development of a peer counseling program for persons who have tested positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies. Discusses selection of peer counselors, training, and confidentiality. Includes discussion of future plans. (ABL)

Baiss, Alan

1989-01-01

64

Understanding the presence of false-positive antibodies in acute hepatitis.  

PubMed

Although false-positive antibodies (FPAs) have been well described in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV), this has not been evaluated in acute viral hepatitis. Patients with acute viral hepatitis underwent antibody testing for other causes of liver disease and sexually transmitted diseases. Those with antibody positivity underwent confirmatory testing and monitoring. Patients with FPAs were compared with patients with acute hepatitis C infection without FPAs. In total 7 of 24 patients (29%) had FPAs. FPAs during acute viral hepatitis are associated with higher IgM levels and higher ESR in acute HCV. This has both mechanistic and clinical implications and should be evaluated further. PMID:24943727

Sakiani, Sasan; Koh, Christopher; Heller, Theo

2014-12-15

65

Two Unique Cases with Anti-GluR Antibody-Positive Encephalitis  

PubMed Central

We report two cases of anti-glutamic acid receptor (anti-GluR) antibody-positive encephalitis in males with symptoms such as Parkinsonism, urinary retention, and paralytic ileus. Although non-herpetic encephalitis typically shows magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in the limbic system during early stages, the present cases showed MRI lesions during later stages in the bilateral claustrum and pons. In both cases, anti-GluR?2 and ?2 antibodies were later shown to be positive in the cerebrospinal fluid but negative in the serum. Although early detection of anti-GluR antibodies is essential, early treatment may be significantly more important. PMID:23843718

Matsuzono, Kosuke; Kurata, Tomoko; Deguchi, Shoko; Yamashita, Toru; Deguchi, Kentaro; Ikeda, Yoshio; Abe, Koji

2013-01-01

66

Successful treatment of MuSK antibody-positive myasthenia gravis with rituximab.  

PubMed

We report on a 56-year-old woman with muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase (MuSK) antibody-positive myasthenia with predominant bulbar symptoms and respiratory insufficiency. Conventional immunosuppression (prednisolone, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil) could not maintain the clinical improvement initially achieved by repeated plasma exchanges. Therefore, treatment with rituximab was initiated. After 2 months of rituximab treatment, remarkable clinical improvement correlating with a reduction of MuSK serum antibodies was seen. The patient continued to remain stable 12 months after initiation of therapy. This case report demonstrates that rituximab may be an effective and tolerable treatment in MuSK antibody-positive myasthenia gravis. PMID:16323216

Hain, Berit; Jordan, Karin; Deschauer, Marcus; Zierz, Stephan

2006-04-01

67

Aggregation of Classifiers for Staining Pattern Recognition in Antinuclear Autoantibodies Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indirect immunofluorescence is currently the recommended method for the detection of antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA). The diagnosis consists of both estimating the fluorescence intensity and reporting the staining pattern for positive wells only. Since resources and adequately trained personnel are not always available for these tasks, an evident medical demand is the development of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) tools that can support

Paolo Soda; Giulio Iannello

2009-01-01

68

Attitudes that predict antinuclear-war activity in medical students.  

PubMed

The possibility of nuclear war may be the most significant threat to health in the world. Medical practitioners have played, and should continue to play, a leading role in raising awareness of this danger. In the present study, the attitudes that predict a specific antinuclear-war behaviour (that is, signing a letter to the Prime Minister of Australia to request more active political effort to prevent nuclear war) were studied in a group of 143 undergraduate medical students. Attitudes towards that particular behaviour were assessed by means of a questionnaire, and the differences in attitude between students who chose to sign and those who chose not to sign the letter were analysed statistically by means of discriminant analysis. The key differences in attitude between signers and non-signers of the letter was in their belief that such an action would achieve tangible positive outcomes. The results are discussed in terms of the need to target strategies of change for the specific attitudes which are likely to modify behaviour and to promote antinuclear behaviours in medical practitioners, which in turn may alter the behaviour of politicians. PMID:3200184

Halford, W K; Neumann, P; Peck, C L; Coleman, G

69

Vancomycin-induced neutropenia in a patient positive for an antineutrophil antibody.  

PubMed

A 48-year-old man, hospitalized after experiencing subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to a basilar aneurysm, received vancomycin for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus sepsis. He developed neutropenia 16 days after the start of vancomycin therapy, and his white blood cell count decreased to a nadir of 1200 cells/mm3. Vancomycin was discontinued, and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) therapy was begun. The patient was rechallenged with a single dose of vancomycin 1 g in preparation for intraarterial aneurysm coiling. His white blood cell count dropped to 600 cells/mm3 but returned to normal with continued G-CSF therapy. A diagnosis of vancomycin-induced neutropenia was considered. Subsequent testing by granulocyte agglutination and granulocyte immunofluorescence assays revealed that his serum was positive for an antigranulocyte antibody. A test for HLA antibody reactivity was negative. Monoclonal antibody immobilization of granulocyte antigens assay failed to determine the antigen specificity of his granulocyte antibody. PMID:12066971

Schwartz, Michael D

2002-06-01

70

Antibody  

MedlinePLUS

An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples ... as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. Antibodies may be produced when the immune system mistakenly ...

71

Antibody  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Antibody: A blood protein that is produced in response to and counteracts an antigen. Antibodies are produced in response to disease and help the body fight against the particular disease. In this way, antibodies help the body develop an immunity to disease.

Darryl Leja (National Human Genome Research Institute REV)

2005-04-04

72

Seroprevalence of HHV 8 antibodies among the general population and HIV positive persons in the Czech Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The seroprevalence rates of herpesvirus 8 (HHV 8) antibodies were determined for the general Czech population and HIV-positive individuals. Objectives: Six hundred and sixty six serum samples from the general Czech population and 129 serum samples from HIV- positive persons were tested for the presence of antibodies to the HHV 8 lytic and latent antigens. Study design: HHV 8

A. Suchánková; M. Sta?ková; K. Roubalová; J. Vandasová; M. Br??ková

2003-01-01

73

Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy as a cause of progression of weakness in antibody positive myasthenia gravis  

PubMed Central

Many neuromuscular conditions cause bulbar and limb weakness, and when several conditions coexist they present additional diagnostic challenges. Here we describe a case of a 45-year-old woman with antibody positive myasthenia gravis since age 16, who then develops treatment-resistant weakness due to genetically proven oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy. We conclude that the development of treatment-resistant weakness in myasthenia gravis should spur further work up for other neuromuscular disorders including oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy. PMID:23453859

Ringel, Steven P.

2014-01-01

74

Studies on production of anticollagen antibodies in silicosis  

SciTech Connect

Silicosis is characterized by pulmonary fibrotic changes which consist primarily of an increase in collagen. In this study, anticollagen antibodies in the serum of 134 silicosis patients versus 40 normal subjects were examined and their relationship with immunoglobulin, autoantibodies, and procollagen III peptide (PIIIP) was investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mean levels of antihuman type I collagen (HI) and anti-human type Ill collagen (HIII) antibodies were significantly higher in the silicosis patients versus the normal subjects (P < 0.001). However, no differences were observed in the mean levels of anti-human type IV collagen (HIV) antibodies in the silicosis patients versus the normal subjects. Anticollagen antibodies in the sera of silicosis patients appear to be formed at an early stage of the disease. We observed a correlation between anticollagen antibodies and immunoglobulin. There was a tendency toward high values of anticollagen antibodies in the sera of patients positive for antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and rheumatoid factor (RF), both of which are autoantibodies. However, no correlation was observed between serum PIIIP and anticollagen antibodies. These observations suggest that, in silicosis, there is a relationship between anticollagen antibodies and immunoglobulins, as well as between anticollagen antibodies and autoantibodies. Measurement of anticollagen antibodies in the sera of silicosis patients offers a useful index for evaluating the prognosis of pulmonary fibrosis and autoimmune abnormality in silicosis. 49 refs. 6 figs., 6 tabs.

Nagaoka, Tadasu; Tabata, Masaji; Kobayashi, Kenichi; Okada, Akira (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan))

1993-01-01

75

[Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis with positive anti-RI antibodies and mediastinal seminoma].  

PubMed

We report the case of a 49-year-old man who was admitted for progressive behaviorial disorders with frontal elements. There was no sensorial nor motor deficiency. Clinical examination revealed android obesity, cutaneous and mucous paleness, pubic and axillary depilation and gynecomastia. Encephalic MRI found a lesion of the left amygdalian region with high T2 intensity and low T1 intensity associated with gadolinium-enhancement. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed a lymphocytic meningitis. Panhypopituitarism was found on the endocrine investigations. Anti-RI antibodies were positive, leading to the diagnosis of paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis. The CT-scan showed a node of the lower part of the thymic area. Surgical resection revealed an ectopic mediastinal seminoma. The evolution consisted of paraneoplastic fever and crossed-syndrome with right hemiparesia and left common oculomotor nerve paralysis. Treatment was completed by two cycles of carboplatin, corticosteroids and substitutive opotherapy. Paraneoplastic fever disappeared, but behavioral disorders and palsy remain unchanged. The patient died two years later in a bedridden state. This case of paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis associated with positive anti-RI antibodies and mediastinal seminoma is exceptional and has not to our knowledge been described in the literature. Cancers usually associated with anti-RI antibody are breast and lung cancer. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis is not the classical clinical presentation, which usually is brainstem encephalitis. Hypothalamic involvement, uncommon in paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis is mainly associated with positive antineuronal anti-Ma2 antibodies. Finally, the gadolinium enhancement on encephalic MRI is unusual in paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis. PMID:18565362

Launay, M; Bozzolo, E; Venissac, N; Delmont, E; Fredenrich, A; Thomas, P

2008-01-01

76

Factors associated with Coxiella burnetii antibody positivity in Danish dairy cows.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to identify associations between the level of Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) antibodies in individual milk samples and cow and herd level factors in Danish dairy cows. The study, designed as a prospective cross sectional study with follow up, included 24 herds identified by a stratified random sampling procedure according to the level of C. burnetii antibodies in one bulk tank milk (BTM) sample at the beginning of the study. Ten herds were BTM positive, ten herds were BTM negative and four herds had an intermediate level. The samples were tested with an ELISA and results determined as S/P (sample to positive control) values. Three cross sectional studies of all lactating cows within each herd were then conducted during an 11 months follow up period with collection of a total of 5829 milk samples from 3116 cows. Each sample was tested with the same ELISA as used for BTM testing, and cows were considered test positive for S/P values ? 40, and otherwise negative. Individual cow information was extracted from the Danish Cattle Database and herd information was obtained from a telephone interview with each farmer. From multivariable logistic regression analysis accounting for hierarchical structures in the data it was concluded that odds for seropositivity increased with Danish Holstein breed, increasing number of parity and high milk protein contents, but decreased with increasing milk yield and high milk fat contents. Cows were at a higher risk during summer than other seasons. Among the herd level factors, herd size, tie stall housing system, quarantine of newly purchased animals and good hygienic precautions taken by the veterinarian before entering into the stable were also significantly associated with reduced odds of C. burnetii antibody positivity. The prevalence of test positive cows was almost constant during the study period in herds which were initially BTM positive and BTM intermediate, whilst the prevalence of positive cows in a few of the initial BTM negative herds changed from almost zero to higher than 60%. This indicates that herd infections last quite long and that test negative herds may convert to positive due to a few latently infected cows or due to transmissions from other herds. PMID:22748360

Paul, Suman; Agger, Jens F; Markussen, Bo; Christoffersen, Anna-Bodil; Agerholm, Jørgen S

2012-11-01

77

Antibodies to infectious agents and the positive symptom dimension of subclinical psychosis: The TRAILS study.  

PubMed

Infections have been suggested to play a role in the etiology of schizophrenia, but the evidence for this has been inconsistent. Schizophrenia patients have an increased risk of infections as a result of hospitalizations or life style factors. Therefore a study on early subclinical manifestations of psychosis in relation to virus infections is warranted. We examined whether serum antibodies against human Herpes viruses and Toxoplasma gondii were associated with subclinical symptoms of psychosis in adolescents. Data were collected as part of the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) cohort, a large prospective cohort of Dutch adolescents. A total of 1176 participants with an available Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE) and an available blood sample were included in this analysis. Solid-enzyme immunoassay methods were used to measure the presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies in serum to the Herpes virus family and to T. gondii. There was no significant association between serologic evidence of infection with human Herpes viruses or T. gondii and the risk of subclinical positive experience of psychosis. Subjects with a positive serological reaction to Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) had higher scores on the positive dimension of psychosis measured by CAPE (b=0.03, P=0.02). This significant association was observed in males, but not in females. The current study suggests that there is no significant association between serological evidence of infection to human Herpes viruses and positive subclinical experience of psychosis, whereas there was an association between EBV infection and subclinical psychotic symptoms in boys. PMID:21458236

Wang, Hao; Yolken, Robert H; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Burger, Huibert; Klein, Hans C

2011-06-01

78

Antibody-Based Detection of ERG Rearrangement-Positive Prostate Cancer12  

PubMed Central

TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions occur in 50% of prostate cancers and result in the overexpression of a chimeric fusion transcript that encodes a truncated ERG product. Previous attempts to detect truncated ERG products have been hindered by a lack of specific antibodies. Here, we characterize a rabbit anti-ERG monoclonal antibody (clone EPR 3864; Epitomics, Burlingame, CA) using immunoblot analysis on prostate cancer cell lines, synthetic TMPRSS2-ERG constructs, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and immunofluorescence. We correlated ERG protein expression with the presence of ERG gene rearrangements in prostate cancer tissues using a combined immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. We independently evaluated two patient cohorts and observed ERG expression confined to prostate cancer cells and high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia associated with ERG-positive cancer, as well as vessels and lymphocytes (where ERG has a known biologic role). Image analysis of 131 cases demonstrated nearly 100% sensitivity for detecting ERG rearrangement prostate cancer, with only 2 (1.5%) of 131 cases demonstrating strong ERG protein expression without any known ERG gene fusion. The combined pathology evaluation of 207 patient tumors for ERG protein expression had 95.7% sensitivity and 96.5% specificity for determining ERG rearrangement prostate cancer. In conclusion, this study qualifies a specific anti-ERG antibody and demonstrates exquisite association between ERG gene rearrangement and truncated ERG protein product expression. Given the ease of performing IHC versus FISH, ERG protein expression may be useful for molecularly subtyping prostate cancer based on ERG rearrangement status and suggests clinical utility in prostate needle biopsy evaluation. PMID:20651988

Park, Kyung; Tomlins, Scott A; Mudaliar, Kumaran M; Chiu, Ya-Lin; Esgueva, Raquel; Mehra, Rohit; Suleman, Khalid; Varambally, Sooryanarayana; Brenner, John C; MacDonald, Theresa; Srivastava, Abhishek; Tewari, Ashutosh K; Sathyanarayana, Ubaradka; Nagy, Dea; Pestano, Gary; Kunju, Lakshmi P; Demichelis, Francesca; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Rubin, Mark A

2010-01-01

79

Bioanalysis of antibody-drug conjugates: American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists Antibody-Drug Conjugate Working Group position paper.  

PubMed

Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) typically consist of a cytotoxic drug covalently bound to an antibody by a linker. These conjugates have the potential to substantially improve efficacy and reduce toxicity compared with cytotoxic small-molecule drugs. Since ADCs are generally complex heterogeneous mixtures of multiple species, these novel therapeutic products present unique bioanalytical challenges. The growing number of ADCs being developed across the industry suggests the need for alignment of the bioanalytical methods or approaches used to assess the multiple species and facilitate consistent interpretation of the bioanalytical data. With limited clinical data, the current strategies that can be used to provide insight into the relationship between the multiple species and the observed clinical safety and efficacy are still evolving. Considerations of the bioanalytical strategies for ADCs based on the current industry practices that take into account the complexity and heterogeneity of ADCs are discussed. PMID:23641692

Gorovits, Boris; Alley, Stephen C; Bilic, Sanela; Booth, Brian; Kaur, Surinder; Oldfield, Phillip; Purushothama, Shobha; Rao, Chetana; Shord, Stacy; Siguenza, Patricia

2013-05-01

80

Clinical findings in MuSK-antibody positive myasthenia gravis: a U.S. experience.  

PubMed

We performed a retrospective chart review on 53 muscle-specific kinase antibody (MuSK-Ab)-positive myasthenia gravis (MG) patients at nine university-based centers in the U.S. Of these, 66% were Caucasian, 85% were women, and age of onset was 9-79 years. Twenty-seven patients were nonresponsive to anticholinesterase therapy. Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America improvement status was achieved in 53% patients on corticosteroids, 51% with plasma exchange, and in 20% on intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). Thymectomy was beneficial in 7/18 patients at 3 years. Long-term (> or =3 years) outcome was very favorable in 58% of patients who achieved remission and/or minimal manifestation status. Overall, 73% improved. There was one MG-related death. This survey reinforces several cardinal features of MuSK-Ab-positive MG, including prominent bulbar involvement and anticholinesterase nonresponsiveness. Facial or tongue atrophy was rare. Most patients respond favorably to immunotherapy. The best clinical response was to corticosteroids and plasma exchange, and the poorest response was to IVIG. Long-term outcome is favorable in about 60% of cases. PMID:19882635

Pasnoor, Mamatha; Wolfe, Gil I; Nations, Sharon; Trivedi, Jaya; Barohn, Richard J; Herbelin, Laura; McVey, April; Dimachkie, Mazen; Kissel, John; Walsh, Ronan; Amato, Anthony; Mozaffar, Tahseen; Hungs, Marcel; Chui, Luis; Goldstein, Jonathan; Novella, Steven; Burns, Ted; Phillips, Lawrence; Claussen, Gwendolyn; Young, Angela; Bertorini, Tulio; Oh, Shin

2010-03-01

81

Prevalence and significance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) viremia in HCV antibody-positive subjects from various populations.  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is currently assessed by detection of antibodies to HCV with immunoassays. However, in the absence of an in vitro system to isolate the virus, or an immunoassay to identify HCV antigen in blood, an ongoing acute or chronic HCV infection can be diagnosed only by detection of HCV RNA by polymerase chain reaction. We used a reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction to detect an HCV 5' noncoding viral RNA sequence in serum specimens collected from anti-HCV-positive individuals belonging to different risk groups and compared the results with those obtained with a prototype recombinant immunoblot assay (Chiron HCV SIA prototype recombinant immunoblot assay [RIBA]) containing four different viral peptides (c22, c33c, c100, and NS5). The prevalence of HCV viremia ranged from 25.9% in HCV antibody-positive blood donors to 92% in HCV antibody-positive hemophiliacs. Elevated alanine aminotransferase values in HCV antibody-positive patients were clearly associated with viremia. Ninety-six percent of HCV RNA-positive patients reacted to two viral antigens or more, compared with only 64% of HCV RNA-negative patients. Contrary to previous reports, HCV viremia was not associated with either the presence or the absence of a particular antibody specificity. The newly introduced NS5 peptide did not improve the sensitivity or specificity of the RIBA. Although 20% of the patients in our study whose sera reacted to all of the antigens were HCV RNA negative, the positive predictive value of a RIBA considered positive by the manufacturer (two or more bands), was rather high (78%) and may allow suspicion of viremia in EIA2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-positive patients. Images PMID:7684749

Francois, M; Dubois, F; Brand, D; Bacq, Y; Guerois, C; Mouchet, C; Tichet, J; Goudeau, A; Barin, F

1993-01-01

82

Effects of abstract and concrete antinuclear filmed presentations on participation in a petition campaign  

SciTech Connect

The goal was to examine the effects of abstract and concrete anti-nuclear images and previous political activity on interest in the topic of nuclear war and participation in an anti-nuclear petition campaign. Subjects were 254 undergraduate students at Hofstra University in three political science classes, three psychology classes and three communication classes: 128 males and 126 females. They were assigned by class to one of three image conditions: concrete, abstract, or no image. After completing a questionnaire measuring their previous level of political activity, students in the concrete condition saw The Last Epidemic, a 30-minute video depicting the aftermath of a nuclear explosion. Subjects in the abstract condition saw Preventing Nuclear War-First Step, a 30 minute video conveying factual information about missile systems and the arms race. Subjects in the no-image condition were not exposed to a video and served as controls. They were asked to respond to a short questionnaire that elicited emotional and intellectual reactions to the topic of nuclear war. After viewing the video tape, subjects in the abstract and concrete conditions responded to a brief questionnaire that elicited emotional and intellectual reactions to the videos. Subjects in all three conditions were asked to provide their names addresses if they were interested in receiving more information on this topic. Subjects who provided their name and addresses were mailed, within 24-hours, a one page petition advocating an anti-nuclear position. Recipients were asked to sign the petition, gather as many signature as possible, and return the petition. Participation was measured by the number of signatures gathered. Data were analyzed by analyzes of variance. The type of image had no effect on either interest or participation in the petition campaign. A modest positive relationship was found between previous political activity and interest.

Gellis, J.

1989-01-01

83

The Drug User's Identity and How It Relates to Being Hepatitis C Antibody Positive: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increasing health problem of hepatitis C virus infection has only recently attracted the attention of psychosocial research, especially among subjects at higher risk (e.g. injecting drug users). There is a lack of information about the knowledge, perceptions and feelings that injecting drug users hold about their hepatitis C antibody positive

Copeland, Lorraine

2004-01-01

84

Trace metal imbalance associated with oxidative stress and inflammatory status in anti-hepatitis C virus antibody positive subjects.  

PubMed

Toxic and essential trace metals, oxidative stress, and inflammatory status were evaluated in anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody-positive subjects. Blood biochemical parameters were determined in anti-HCV antibody-positive (n=17) and -negative controls (n=46). Compared with controls, anti-HCV antibody-positive individuals had significantly lower concentrations of plasma zinc (Zn); higher copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and aluminum (Al); and lower activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase and catalase, and elevated superoxide dismutase. Significantly increased lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde (MDA), and inflammatory markers such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), ferritin, and Cu/Zn ratios, as well as decreased albumin and high density lipoprotein (HDL) concentrations were observed. We have found significant interactions between toxic (e.g., Pb, Cd, and Al) and essential metals (e.g., Zn, Cu, Fe), which correlated with MDA. In conclusion, anti-HCV antibody-positive subjects had abnormal distributions of trace metals that may aggravate oxidative stress and inflammation, and exacerbate hepatic damage. PMID:22240188

Guo, Chih-Hung; Chen, Pei-Chung; Lin, Kuan-Pin; Shih, Min-Yi; Ko, Wang-Sheng

2012-03-01

85

Guillain-Barré syndrome-like-onset neurosarcoidosis positive for immunoglobulin G anti-N-acetylgalactosaminyl-GD1a antibody.  

PubMed

Anti-ganglioside antibodies have been reported in various peripheral neuropathies, including Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, multifocal motor neuropathy, Fisher syndrome, monoclonal gammopathy-associated neuropathy, and other idiopathic neuropathies. To our knowledge, there has been no report of anti-ganglioside-positive sarcoidosis. We report a 62-year-old man with acute weakness of the limbs and sensory disturbance of the right arm and trunk resembling GBS. Soluble interleukin-2 receptor and angiotensin-converting enzyme levels were elevated. Anti-ganglioside antibodies (immunoglobulin G anti-N-acetylgalactosaminyl-GD1a antibody [IgG anti-GalNAc-GD1a antibody]) were detected. Neurophysiological examination demonstrated axonal neuropathy. Bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy was demonstrated on a chest CT scan, and abnormal uptake of 67 Gallium was detected by scintigraphy. The ratio of CD4 to CD8 was elevated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Noncaseating epithelioid cell granulomas were detected in a specimen obtained via transbronchial lung biopsy. Because intravenous immunoglobulin did not improve the symptoms, we commenced steroid pulse therapy followed by oral prednisolone therapy. After steroid therapy, he recovered fully. Because the findings in our patient fulfilled the criteria for neurosarcoidosis, we diagnosed his illness as probable neurosarcoidosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first patient with GBS-like-onset neurosarcoidosis positive for anti-IgG anti-GalNAc-GD1a antibody. PMID:23916762

Chatani, H; Tanaka, M; Nagata, T; Araki, T; Kusunoki, S

2014-01-01

86

A case of TSH receptor antibody-positive hyperthyroidism with functioning metastases of thyroid carcinoma.  

PubMed

The presence of TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) is rarely responsible for hyperthyroidism due to metastatic lesions of thyroid carcinoma. A 70-year-old woman was incidentally found to be thyrotoxic around the time that external irradiation was performed for multiple bone metastases 9 years after subtotal thyroidectomy for follicular carcinoma. Hyperthyroidism persisted after oral administration of thiamazole. Relevant laboratory data were as follows: FT4 9.6 ng/L, FT3 7.3 ng/L, TSH <0.19 mU/L, TBII 70, TSAb 735, and Tg 32,000 microg/L. 131I-total body scan showed 131I accumulation in the occipital bone, cervical vertebra, thoracic vertebra, ilium, and residual thyroid gland. Since the ilium uptake (11.6) was markedly higher compared to the residual thyroid gland uptake (0.14), four subsequent 131I therapies were performed. The patient became hypothyroid, and TBII became negative. TSAb became negative after the first 131I-therapy but has increased again to 204 at present. Tg was 1,962 microg/L despite high TSH levels. 131I accumulation in the residual thyroid, cervical vertebra, and thoracic vertebra disappeared. Also 131I accumulation in the ilium has gradually decreased, but the image in the occipital bone has become markedly distinctive. This is a rare case characterized by TRAb-positive hyperthyroidism, by T3-predominant thyrotoxicosis, and by stronger accumulation of 131I in the metastatic tumor than in the residual thyroid gland. Thus, the response to TRAb and 131I-therapy is different among metastatic thyroid tissues. PMID:12081245

Ishihara, Takashi; Ikekubo, Katsuji; Shimodahira, Makiko; Iwakura, Toshio; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Hino, Megumu; Oobayashi, Motoko; Kohno, Kouichi; Kimura, Kazuhiko; Kawamura, Shuji; Kurahachi, Hiroyuki

2002-04-01

87

Positive dermal hypersensitivity and specific antibodies in workers exposed to bio-engineered enzymes  

SciTech Connect

Thirty-six employees who produced industrial enzymes from bio-engineered strains of bacteria and fungi were evaluated by skin prick testing and enzyme linked immunosorbent assays for specific IgE and IgG antibodies. The workers complained of asthma- and flu-like' symptoms which generally lessened away from work. The enzymes evaluated were {alpha}-amylase from A. niger (ind-AAN), B. licheniformis (ind-AAL) and B. subtilis (ind-AAS); purified {alpha}-amylase from B. subtilis (AAS) and A. niger (AAN); alkaline protease from B. licheniformis (ind-APL) and purified alkaline protease (APL); amylase glucosidase from A. niger (ind-AGN) and purified amylase glucosidase (AGN). Significantly positive skin tests were found for APL, AGN and ind-AAN. Significantly elevated specific IgE results were observed for AAN, AGN, and ind-AAN; elevated specific IgGs were observed for AAN, ind-AAN, ind-AAS, ind-AAL and ind-AGN. Radioimmunoassays of air filter samples (using sera with high Ab titers) for 4 of the ind-enzymes showed only ind-AAN at extremely high environmental levels. These results indicate that occupational exposure to some ind-enzymes causes immediate onset dermal hypersensitivity reactions. The results are equivocal as to whether these reactions are IgE mediated, as IgE titers were low. Contrary to this, IgG titers were extremely high and suggest that these biomarkers can be used as indicators of both individual exposure and environmental analyses.

Biagini, R.E.; Henningsen, G.M.; Driscoll, R.; MacKenzie, B.A.; Wilcox, T.; Scinto, J.D.; Bernstein, D.M.; Swanson, M. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States) Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States))

1991-03-15

88

Central retinal vein occlusion in a pediatric patient with SLE and antiphospholipid antibodies without anti-cardiolipin or anti-?2 glycoprotein I antibodies  

PubMed Central

Background Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is characterized by venous and/or arterial thrombosis, and is found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Its diagnosis requires the presence of both clinical and laboratory findings, such as positive anti-cardiolipin and anti-?2 glycoprotein I antibodies and lupus anticoagulant. However, cardiolipin is a minor component of the vascular endothelial cells in human, and phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine are major components. Case presentation A 15-year-old female suddenly developed massive left intraretinal hemorrhaging due to central retinal vein occlusion. She also had a butterfly rash, and her laboratory findings revealed positive serum anti-nuclear antibodies and decreased serum complement. During this episode, she was diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus. Although she was negative for serum anti-cardiolipin IgG and anti-?2 glycoprotein I antibodies as well as lupus anticoagulant, her serum anti-phosphatidylcholine, anti-phosphatidylethanolamine, anti-phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine IgG antibodies levels were increased. Conclusion Pediatric cases of central retinal vein occlusion are rare. Even in patients without anti-cardiolipin or anti-?2 glycoprotein I antibodies and lupus anticoagulant, there is the potential for the development of antiphospholipid antibody-related thrombosis. PMID:24885875

2014-01-01

89

Changes in serum thyroglobulin antibody levels as a dynamic prognostic factor for early-phase recurrence of thyroglobulin antibody-positive papillary thyroid carcinoma after total thyroidectomy.  

PubMed

We demonstrated previously that dynamic prognostic markers such as the thyroglobulin (Tg)-doubling time in thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb)-negative papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and changes in pre- and postoperative TgAb levels in TgAb-positive PTC patients more keenly reflect patients' prognosis than conventional static prognostic factors. Here we investigated periodic changes in TgAb levels in 513 TgAb-positive PTC patients who underwent total thyroidectomy. The TgAb levels at 1 year after surgery decreased to <50% of the preoperative values in 407 (79%) patients, and the remaining 106 (21%) patients showed no decrease in TgAb. In 426 patients, TgAb was also measured more than 1 year after surgery. Compared with their TgAb levels 1 year after surgery, 59 patients (14%) showed an increase in TgAb levels of >20% during the follow-up. The postoperative Tg levels at 1 year after surgery remained positive in 44 (9%) patients despite their TgAb positivity. To date (median follow-up period 35 months), 12 of the 426 patients (3%) showed PTC recurrence, and 11 of these patients showed either or both a TgAb elevation later than 1 year after surgery and postoperative Tg positivity. Although further studies with longer follow-ups are necessary, we can conclude that changes in postoperative TgAb levels may be usable as a surrogate tumor marker for TgAb-positive PTC patients after total thyroidectomy. PMID:25029954

Yamada, Osamu; Miyauchi, Akira; Ito, Yasuhiro; Nakayama, Ayako; Yabuta, Tomonori; Masuoka, Hiroo; Fukushima, Mitsuhiro; Higashiyama, Takuya; Kihara, Minoru; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Miya, Akihiro

2014-10-31

90

Radiolocalization of human small cell lung cancer and antigen-positive normal tissues using monoclonal antibody LS2D617  

SciTech Connect

The murine monoclonal antibody LS2D617, which reacts with an antigen associated with human small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), was tested in preclinical models to assess its potential for specific targeting of tumors in human SCLC cancer patients. LS2D617 detects a cell antigen on the surface of cultured SCLC and neuroblastoma cell lines. Scatchard analysis of the binding of LS2D617 to NCIH69 SCLC cells indicates an affinity constant of about 1 x 10(8) M-1 and an epitope expression level of approximately 2 x 10(6) antigenic sites/cell. Molecular weight analysis of the target antigen and antibody competition experiments showed that LS2D617 should be classified as a SCLC Cluster 1 antibody. LS2D617 was labeled with 111In and tested for biodistribution (4, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h postinjection) in nude mice bearing the human SCLC NCIH69 tumor. Tumor values peaked at about 35% injected dose/g (Day 3) compared with about 8% injected dose/g for an irrelevant IgG1 antibody while normal tissue accumulation for both antibodies was about 2-8% injected dose/g. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that LS2D617 reacts with the central nervous system, peripheral nerves, endocrine tissues, and heart tissue of rabbits as it does in human tissues. The ability of LS2D617 to accumulate in vivo in normal tissues that express the specific target antigen was tested in rabbits. Rabbits given i.v. injections of 111In-LS2D617 or control labeled antibody were sacrificed at 48 h and tissues were examined by gamma well counting, autoradiography, and immunohistochemical staining for murine immunoglobulin. Specific uptake was seen in all sites defined as antigen positive by immunohistology (i.e., heart, liver bile duct, peripheral nerves, pituitary, adrenal), except the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) which was inaccessible to antibody because of the blood brain barrier.

Wilson, B.S.; Petrella, E.; Lowe, S.R.; Lien, K.; Mackensen, D.G.; Gridley, D.S.; Stickney, D.R. (Hybritech Inc., San Diego, CA (USA))

1990-05-15

91

Clonal analysis of liver-infiltrating T cells in patients with LKM-1 antibody-positive autoimmune chronic active hepatitis.  

PubMed Central

Autoantibodies against microsomal antigen of liver and kidney (LKM-1) are diagnostic markers for a subgroup of autoimmune chronic active hepatitis (AI-CAH). Cytochrome P450dbl, now classified as cytochrome P450 IID6, is the major antigen of LKM-1 antibodies. Immunohistological studies suggest that hepatic injury in AI-CAH is mediated by liver-infiltrating T cells. In the present study the specificity and function of liver-infiltrating T cells was analysed at the clonal level. Phenotypical characterization of 189 T cell clones isolated from four liver biopsies of LKM-1 antibody-positive patients showed an enrichment of CD4+ CD8- T cell clones proliferated specifically in the presence of recombinant human LKM-1 antigen (rLKM). This reaction was restricted to autologous antigen-presenting cells and to HLA class II molecules. In order to see whether rLKM was also recognized by peripheral blood T lymphocytes (PBL) we tested the proliferative response of PBL from several individuals. PBL from three of the four patients with LKM-1 antibody-positive AI-CAH proliferated to rLKM, whereas no response was seen with PBL from patients with LKM-1 antibody-negative chronic liver diseases and from healthy blood donors. These data demonstrate that the LKM-1 antigen is recognized by liver-infiltrating T cells in LKM-1 antibody-positive AI-CAH. For further functional characterization, liver-derived T cell clones were tested for their cytotoxic activity. In the presence of phytohaemagglutinin 24 out of 26 CD4- CD8+ but also 20 out of 63 CD4+ CD8- T cell clones lysed autologous as well as allogenic EBV-transformed B cell lines or K562 cells. Five CD4- CD8+ T cell clones lysed autologous but not allogenic B cell lines spontaneously in a HLA class I-restricted manner. Although the antigen specificity of these clones is still unknown the data show the presence of autoreactive T cells at the site of inflammation that could contribute in the pathogenesis of AI-CAH. PMID:2025956

Lohr, H; Manns, M; Kyriatsoulis, A; Lohse, A W; Trautwein, C; Meyer zum Buschenfelde, K H; Fleischer, B

1991-01-01

92

Political returns: irony, theory, and the antinuclear movement  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation explores the theoretical relationship between the concept of irony and the concept of politics, and culminates in an argument regarding the presence of irony within the politics of the anti-nuclear movement. The work begins with a discussion of certain contemporary accounts of the concept of politics in ancient Greece, and a critique of a literal notion of political community is proposed as an indirect introduction for the theme of political community as ironic. In the second chapter, the thesis regarding the place of irony within the Greek conception of political community is illustrated by way of an intensive reading and reinterpretation of Plato's Republic. The next chapter attempts to answer the question, What is irony.; and to that end, an argument concerning the relationship between philosophic and literary formulations of irony is forwarded. The fourth chapter examines the theorists and theories of philosophic irony in the 19th century. In the final chapter, certain theories of the strategy of nonviolent resistance are analyzed and in response it is argued that an element of political irony is implicit within the general idea of nonviolent resistance and that an ironic view of political community informs the nonviolent protest activities of the anti-nuclear movement in particular.

Seery, J.E.

1985-01-01

93

HLA-DRB1 Genotypes and the Risk of Developing Anti Citrullinated Protein Antibody (ACPA) Positive Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Objective To provide a table indicating the risk for developing anti citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) positive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) according to one’s HLA-DRB1 genotype. Methods We HLA-DRB1 genotyped 857 patients with ACPA positive RA and 2178 controls from South Eastern and Eastern France and calculated Odds Ratios (OR) for developing RA for 106 of 132 possible genotypes accounting for 97% of subjects. Results HLA-DRB1 genotypic ORs for developing ACPA positive RA range from 28 to 0.19. HLA-DRB1 genotypes with HLA-DRB1*04SE (HLA-DRB1*0404, HLA-DRB1*0405, HLA-DRB1*0408), HLA-DRB1*04?01, HLA-DRB1*01 are usually associated with high risk for developing RA. The second HLA-DRB1 allele in genotype somewhat modulates shared epitope associated risk. We did not identify any absolutely protective allele. Neither the Reviron, nor the du Montcel models accurately explains our data which are compatible with the shared epitope hypothesis and suggest a dosage effect among shared epitope positive HLA-DRB1 alleles, double dose genotypes carrying higher ORs than single dose genotypes. Conclusion HLA-DRB1 genotypic risk for developing ACPA positive RA is influenced by both HLA-DRB1 alleles in genotype. We provide an HLA-DRB1 genotypic risk table for ACPA positive RA. PMID:23737967

Balandraud, Nathalie; Picard, Christophe; Reviron, Denis; Landais, Cyril; Toussirot, Eric; Lambert, Nathalie; Telle, Emmanuel; Charpin, Caroline; Wendling, Daniel; Pardoux, Etienne; Auger, Isabelle; Roudier, Jean

2013-01-01

94

Absence of antiphospholipid\\/co-factor antibodies in Takayasu Arteritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are anecdotal reports and small series describing the presence of anticardiolipin antibodies in patients with Takayasu Arteritis. This communication describes a systematic study searching for non-organ specific autoantibodies which includes antinuclear antibodies, anticardiolipin and anti-?2 GP1 antibodies in a cohort of 28 Mexicans with angiographic definitive diagnostic of Takayasu Arteritis. Material and methods: Twenty-eight consecutive patients, who fulfilled classification

Arnulfo Nava; Jean Luc Senécal; José Luis Bañales; Ives Raymond; Pedro A. Reyes

2000-01-01

95

Prevalence and clinical significance of antikeratin antibodies and other serological markers in Lithuanian patients with rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESTo assess the clinical value of several serological markers in Lithuanian patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared with control patients with rheumatic disease and age matched healthy controls.METHODSSerum samples from 96 patients with RA of approximately 8 years' duration, 90 rheumatic disease controls, and 37 healthy subjects were tested. Antikeratin antibody (AKA), antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA), and antinuclear antibody (ANA)

L Vasiliauskiene; A Wiik; M Høier-Madsen

2001-01-01

96

Analysis of pancreas tissue in a child positive for islet cell antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  Type 1 diabetes is caused by an immune-mediated process, reflected by the appearance of autoantibodies against pancreatic\\u000a islets in the peripheral circulation. Detection of multiple autoantibodies predicts the development of diabetes, while positivity\\u000a for a single autoantibody is a poor prognostic marker. The present study assesses whether positivity for a single autoantibody\\u000a correlates with pathological changes in the pancreas.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We

M. Oikarinen; S. Tauriainen; T. Honkanen; K. Vuori; P. Karhunen; C. Vasama-Nolvi; S. Oikarinen; C. Verbeke; G. E. Blair; I. Rantala; J. Ilonen; O. Simell; M. Knip; H. Hyöty

2008-01-01

97

Predicting factors of present hepatitis C virus infection among patients positive for the hepatitis C virus antibody  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims To identify the predicting factors of present hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among patients with positivity for antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV). Methods We analyzed patients who showed positive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) results and performed an HCV RNA test as a confirmatory test at Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong from June 2006 to July 2012. The features distinguishing the groups with positive and negative HCV RNA results were reviewed. Results In total, 490 patients were included. The results of the HCV RNA test were positive and negative in 228 and 262 patients, respectively. The index value of anti-HCV, mean age, platelet counts, total bilirubin, prothrombin time international normalized ratio, albumin and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels differed significantly between the two groups. On multivariable analysis, an index value of anti-HCV >10 [odds ratio (OR)=397.27, P<0.001), ALT >40 IU/L (OR=3.64, P=0.001), and albumin <3.8 g/dL (OR=2.66, P=0.014) were related to present HCV infection. Conclusions Although EIA is not a quantitative test, considering the anti-HCV titer with ALT and albumin levels may be helpful in predicting present of HCV infection. PMID:24459642

Lee, Chi Hoon; Lee, Joung Il; Joo, Kwang Ro; Cha, Jae Myung; Jeon, Jung Won; Lim, Jun Uk; Min, Joon Ki; Kim, Dong Hee; Kang, Sung Wook; Joung, Hyun Jun

2013-01-01

98

HLA-DRB1 Genotypes and the Risk of Developing Anti Citrullinated Protein Antibody (ACPA) Positive  

E-print Network

Rheumatoid Arthritis Nathalie Balandraud1,2 , Christophe Picard3 , Denis Reviron3 , Cyril Landais6 , Eric genotypic risk table for ACPA positive RA. Citation: Balandraud N, Picard C, Reviron D, Landais C, Toussirot Copyright: Ã? 2013 Balandraud et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms

Pardoux, Etienne

99

No detectable precolostral antibody response in calves born from cows with cotyledons positive for Coxiella burnetii by quantitative PCR.  

PubMed

Samples from 45 dams (milk/colostrum, faeces, vaginal fluid and blood on days 171-177 of gestation and at parturition, and cotyledons at parturition) and their calves (blood collected before colostrum intake and weekly until days 29-35) were analysed to examine the vertical transmission of Coxiella burnetii and links between shedding and seropositivity. All calves were born C. burnetii seronegative. Only those born to seropositive dams seroconverted following colostrum intake. Logistic regression analyses indicated that the likelihood of dam seropositivity was 21 and 4.85 times higher for multiparous than for primiparous (65.6% vs. 8.3%, P = 0.006) and for prepartum shedding cows (75% vs. 38.2%, P = 0.03) compared to the remaining animals, respectively. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate no detectable precolostral antibody response in calves born from dams with cotyledons positive for C. burnetii by qPCR. In order to analyse the possibility of persistent infection due to immunotolerance to an early in utero infection, further studies will need to test for C. burnetii DNA. In addition, in the present study multiparous cows showed a significantly higher seroprevalence than primiparous cows and heifers, colostral antibodies were efficiently transferred to newborn calves, and there was a link between bacterial shedding on days 171-177 of gestation and Coxiella seropositivity of the dam. PMID:23974927

Tutusaus, Joan; López-Gatius, Fernando; Almería, Sonia; Serrano, Beatriz; Monleón, Eva; José Badiola, Juan; García-Ispierto, Irina

2013-12-01

100

Clinical and Electrophysiologic Responses to Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors in MuSK-Antibody-Positive Myasthenia Gravis: Evidence for Cholinergic Neuromuscular Hyperactivity  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Patients with muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK) antibody (MuSK-Ab)-positive myasthenia gravis (MG) show distinct responses to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs). Although clinical responses to AChEIs in MuSK-Ab MG are reasonably well known, little is known about the electrophysiologic responses to AChEIs. We therefore investigated the clinical and electrophysiologic responses to AChEIs in MuSK-Ab-positive MG patients. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and electrodiagnostic findings of 17 MG patients (10 MuSK-Ab-positive and 7 MuSK-Ab-negative patients) who underwent electrodiagnostic testing before and after a neostigmine test (NT). Results The frequency of intolerance to pyridostigmine bromide (PB) was higher in MuSK-Ab-positive patients than in MuSK-Ab-negative patients (50% vs. 0%, respectively; p=0.044), while the maximum tolerable dose of PB was lower in the former (90 mg/day vs. 480 mg/day, p=0.023). The frequency of positive NT results was significantly lower in MuSK-Ab-positive patients than in MuSK-Ab-negative patients (40% vs. 100%, p=0.035), while the nicotinic side effects of neostigmine were more frequent in the former (80% vs. 14.3%, p=0.015). Repetitive compound muscle action potentials (R-CMAPs) developed more frequently after NT in MuSK-Ab-positive patients than in MuSK-Ab-negative patients (90% vs. 14.3%, p=0.004). The frequency of a high-frequency-stimulation-induced decrement-increment pattern (DIP) was higher in MuSK-Ab-positive patients than in MuSK-Ab-negative patients (100% vs. 17.7%, p=0.003). Conclusions These results suggest that MuSK-Ab-positive MG patients exhibit unique and hyperactive responses to AChEIs. Furthermore, R-CMAP and DIP development on a standard AChEI dose may be a distinct neurophysiologic feature indicative of MuSK-Ab-positive MG. PMID:24829597

Shin, Ha Young; Park, Hyung Jun; Lee, Hyo Eun; Choi, Young-Chul

2014-01-01

101

Titers of herpes simplex virus type 1 antibodies positively correlate with grey matter volumes in Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

HSV-1 infection of the central nervous system targets the same brain regions most affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and could play a pathogenic role in AD. HSV-1 serum IgG titers were analyzed in patients with mild AD (n = 83) and healthy controls (HC, n = 51); results were correlated with cortical grey matter (GM) volumes as analyzed by MRI. Seroprevalence and antibody (Ab) titers were comparable between AD and HC; elevated Ab titers (>75th percentile) were nevertheless significantly more frequent in AD and were positively correlated with cortical bilateral temporal and orbitofrontal GM volumes. HSV-1-specific-Ab could possibly play a protective role in the early stages of AD. PMID:24072067

Mancuso, Roberta; Baglio, Francesca; Cabinio, Monia; Calabrese, Elena; Hernis, Ambra; Nemni, Raffaello; Clerici, Mario

2014-01-01

102

Retargeting T Cells for HER2-Positive Tumor Killing by a Bispecific Fv-Fc Antibody  

PubMed Central

To exploit the biological and pharmacological properties of immunoglobulin constant domain Fc fragment and increase the killing efficacy of T cells, a single chain variable fragment specific to CD3 was fused with Fcab (Fc antigen binding), a mutant Fc fragment with specificity against Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) developed by F-star. The bispecific fusion named as FcabCD3 was expressed by transient transfection in HEK-293T cells and purified by affinity chromatography. Specific cytolytic activity of retargeted T cells to kill HER2 positive SKBR3 cell line was evaluated in vitro. FcabCD3 was able to retarget T cells to kill both Herceptin insensitive Colo205-luc cell line and HER2 low expression MDA-MB-231-luc cell line. Furthermore, FcabCD3 was effective in eliminating the Colo205 tumor established on BALB/c nu/nu mice. PMID:24086580

Wang, Lei; He, Yanran; Zhang, Ge; Ma, Juan; Liu, Changzhen; He, Wen; Wang, Wei; Han, Huamin; Boruah, Bhargavi M.; Gao, Bin

2013-01-01

103

Faecal alpha 1 antitrypsin as a marker of gastrointestinal disease in HIV antibody positive individuals.  

PubMed Central

Hypoalbuminaemia and diarrhoea are common complications of HIV infection and substantial causes of morbidity, but the specific intestinal pathologies that cause enteric protein loss have not been clearly defined. Two hundred and twenty stool samples from patients with a variety of HIV related conditions were analysed for faecal alpha 1 antitrypsin. Patients with intestinal Kaposi's sarcoma had a significantly raised faecal alpha 1 antitrypsin value and hypoalbuminaemia. A faecal alpha 1 antitrypsin value of greater than 0.3 mg/g wet stool has a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 76% for the diagnosis of intestinal Kaposi's sarcoma in HIV positive individuals. Patients with cytomegalovirus and bacterial enteritis had raised faecal alpha 1 antitrypsin values but levels were normal for all other intestinal pathologies compared with pathogen negative stool. The combination of faecal alpha 1 antitrypsin concentration greater than 0.2 mg/g, a negative stool culture for enteric bacteria, and the absence of palatal Kaposi's sarcoma has a sensitivity of 55% and specificity of 88% for the diagnosis of enteric cytomegalovirus infection. PMID:8801198

Sharpstone, D; Rowbottom, A; Nelson, M; Gazzard, B

1996-01-01

104

Targeting 11q23 positive acute leukemia cells with high molecular weight-melanoma associated antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies  

PubMed Central

Background Acute leukemia with 11q23 aberrations is associated with a poor outcome with therapy. The lack of efficacy of conventional therapy has stimulated interest in developing novel strategies. Recent studies have shown that 11q23-positive acute leukemia cells express the high molecular weight-melanoma associated antigen (HMW-MAA). This tumor antigen represents a useful target to control growth of human melanoma tumors in patients and in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice, utilizing antibody-based immunotherapy. This effect appears to be mediated by inhibition of the HMW-MAA function such as triggering of the focal adhesion kinase/proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) pathways. Therefore, in this study we tested whether HMW-MAA-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb) could inhibit growth of 11q23-positive leukemia cells in SCID mice. Methods HMW-MAA-specific mAb were tested for their ability to inhibit the in vitro proliferation of an 11q23-positive acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell line and blasts from four patients with 11q23 aberrations and their in vivo growth in subcutaneous and disseminated xenograft models. Results The HMW-MAA-specific mAb did not affect in vitro proliferation although they down-regulated phosphorylated (P) Pyk2 expression. Furthermore, the mAb enhanced the in vitro anti-proliferative effect of cytarabine. In vivo the mAb inhibited the growth of leukemic cells in a dose-dependent fashion. However, the difference did not reach statistical significance. No effect was detected on P-Pyk2 expression. Furthermore, HMW-MAA-specific mAb in combination with cytarabine did not improve tumor inhibition. Lastly, the combination of two mAb which recognize distinct HMW-MAA determinants had no detectable effect on survival in a disseminated xenograft model. Conclusions HMW-MAA-specific mAb down-regulated P-Pyk2 expression and enhanced the anti-proliferative effect of cytarabine in vitro, but had no detectable effect on survival or growth of leukemia cells in vivo. Whether the HMW-MAA-specific mAb can be used as carriers of toxins or chemotherapeutic agents against 11q23-acute leukemia remains to be determined. PMID:18677475

Drake, Allison S.; Brady, Michael T.; Wang, Xin Hui; Sait, Sheila J. N.; Earp, Justin C.; Ghoshal (Gupta), Sampa; Ferrone, Soldano; Wang, Eunice S.; Wetzler, Meir

2009-01-01

105

Epidemiological analysis of the significance of low-positive test results for antibody to hepatitis B surface and core antigens.  

PubMed Central

To determine the significance of certain serological test results commonly encountered in hepatitis B virus testing, we reviewed serological test data from nine studies of hepatitis B conducted between 1980 and 1982. Three tests, for hepatitis B surface antigen and for antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBs and anti-HBc), were used to measure hepatitis B virus infection risk in various populations. Two results, low levels of anti-HBs alone and low levels of anti-HBc alone, occurred at constant frequencies (2.72 and 0.4%, respectively), regardless of the prevalence of HBV infection in the population. Positivity for low levels of anti-HBs alone persisted for 1 year in less than one-half of those studied; in addition, response to hepatitis B virus vaccine was augmented in only one-third of this group. Positivity for low levels of anti-HBc alone did not persist in any of 11 persons studied. These findings indicate that presently available tests for anti-HBs and anti-HBc at low levels are often nonspecific and should be interpreted with caution. PMID:6715519

Hadler, S C; Murphy, B L; Schable, C A; Heyward, W L; Francis, D P; Kane, M A

1984-01-01

106

An IgM l Antibody to Escherichia coli Produces False-Positive Results in Multiple Immunometric Assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Interferences in immunometric assays as a result of human anti-immunoglobulin antibodies fre- quently have been described in the literature. The etiology of these interfering antibodies is usually not known but has been associated with rheumatoid factors in some assays. It is known that microorganisms in experimental settings can induce anti-immunoglobulin antibodies. Methods: Following Escherichia coli septicemia, a 56- year-old

Michael Covinsky; Omar Laterza; John D. Pfeifer; Tunde Farkas-Szallasi; Mitchell G. Scott

2000-01-01

107

Combination therapy with rituximab and cyclophosphamide in the treatment of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) positive pulmonary hemorrhage: case report  

PubMed Central

Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) with pulmonary hemorrhage is rare in childhood. Standard treatment includes corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide (CYC), which is associated with a high level of toxicity. We report a white female with ANCA positive pulmonary hemorrhage who was treated with cyclophosphamide (CYC) and rituximab (RTX) combination therapy. PMID:22032441

2011-01-01

108

Lamivudine resistance leading to de novo hepatitis B infection in recipients of hepatitis B core antibody positive liver allografts.  

PubMed

Most studies have shown that lamivudine (LAM) prophylaxis is sufficient to prevent hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission in recipients of hepatitis B core antibody positive (HBcAb(+) ) allografts. However, de novo hepatitis B (DNHB) is known to occur in this patient population. Herein, we report a case series of four liver transplant recipients who developed DNHB after receiving HBcAb(+) allografts due to acquisition of LAM resistance mutations, suggesting that LAM prophylaxis may be suboptimal. A retrospective chart review was performed of all adult liver transplants performed at Mount Sinai from 2001 to 2010. A total of 79 patients received HBcAb(+) allografts for non-hepatitis B-related liver disease. Of these 79 recipients, four patients developed DNHB and were found to have documented LAM resistance. With the increasing use of HBcAb(+) donor livers, we suspect that there will also be a growing number of cases of DNHB due to acquisition of LAM resistance. We suggest that other agents, such as entecavir or tenofovir, be considered for use as prophylaxis in this patient population to decrease this risk. PMID:24107139

Leong, Jennifer; Coty, Patrick; Fiel, M Isabel; Chang, Charissa; Florman, Sander; Schiano, Thomas

2014-11-01

109

Available means: manifestations of Aristotle's three modes of rhetorical appeal in antinuclear fiction  

SciTech Connect

The abundance of sympathetic scientists, military men and clergymen in antinuclear fiction reflects a public perception that authorities speak most knowledgeably about an issue. Other antinuclear works employ characters with less traditional ethical appeals: nurturing women, vital youths, and even infallible computers. Antinuclear fiction uses enthymeme and example to reflect the history of the nuclear weapons debate. Some works attach the immorality of the weapons by examining the moral dilemmas of nuclear scientists. Others admit the permanence of the nuclear threat. By arousing emotions, fiction is capable of mobilizing its audience's active support for the ideas it presents. The principal emotions that various antinuclear works arouse highlight the close relationship between literature and rhetoric. The most dominant emotions, pity and fear, are the two Aristotle links to tragedy. Scorn, the principal emotion that Dr. Strangelove arouses - is the crucial emotion on which all satire depends. However, the other principal emotion in anti-nuclear fiction - hope - has principally a rhetorical function ensuring that the feelings the works provoke will be channeled constructively.

Mannix, P.J.

1986-01-01

110

Approach to Follow-Up of the Patient With Differentiated Thyroid Cancer and Positive Anti-Thyroglobulin Antibodies  

PubMed Central

Anti-thyroglobulin antibodies are commonly identified in patients with differentiated follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer. When present, they interfere with the measurement of thyroglobulin (Tg), which is the primary biochemical marker used for disease surveillance, creating challenges in monitoring patients for residual or recurrent disease. Moreover, there is variability in measuring anti-Tg antibodies according to the different assays, such that not all patients with anti-Tg antibodies are identifiable on a single assay system. The persistence of anti-Tg antibodies, especially if levels are rising, may indicate persistent, recurrent, or progressive thyroid cancer. In contrast, declining anti-Tg antibody levels may indicate reduced tumor burden or the absence of disease. In this review, we will explore in a case-based manner the data supporting monitoring and treatment paradigms for patients with anti-Tg antibodies and will stress areas where more evidence is needed to better inform clinicians regarding the management of patients with this challenging situation. PMID:23922347

Nabhan, Fadi

2013-01-01

111

Approach to follow-up of the patient with differentiated thyroid cancer and positive anti-thyroglobulin antibodies.  

PubMed

Anti-thyroglobulin antibodies are commonly identified in patients with differentiated follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer. When present, they interfere with the measurement of thyroglobulin (Tg), which is the primary biochemical marker used for disease surveillance, creating challenges in monitoring patients for residual or recurrent disease. Moreover, there is variability in measuring anti-Tg antibodies according to the different assays, such that not all patients with anti-Tg antibodies are identifiable on a single assay system. The persistence of anti-Tg antibodies, especially if levels are rising, may indicate persistent, recurrent, or progressive thyroid cancer. In contrast, declining anti-Tg antibody levels may indicate reduced tumor burden or the absence of disease. In this review, we will explore in a case-based manner the data supporting monitoring and treatment paradigms for patients with anti-Tg antibodies and will stress areas where more evidence is needed to better inform clinicians regarding the management of patients with this challenging situation. PMID:23922347

Ringel, Matthew D; Nabhan, Fadi

2013-08-01

112

Increased detection of Sin Nombre hantavirus RNA in antibody-positive deer mice from Montana, USA: evidence of male bias in RNA viremia.  

PubMed

Hantaviruses are widespread emergent zoonotic agents that cause unapparent or limited disease in their rodent hosts, yet cause acute, often fatal pulmonary or renal infections in humans. Previous laboratory experiments with rodent reservoir hosts indicate that hantaviruses can be cleared from host blood early in the infection cycle, while sequestered long term in various host organs. Field studies of North American deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), the natural reservoir of Sin Nombre hantavirus, have shown that viral RNA can be transiently detected well past the early acute infection stage, but only in the minority of infected mice. Here, using a non-degenerate RT-PCR assay optimized for SNV strains known to circulate in Montana, USA, we show that viral RNA can be repeatedly detected on a monthly basis in up to 75% of antibody positive deer mice for periods up to 3-6 months. More importantly, our data show that antibody positive male deer mice are more than twice as likely to have detectable SNV RNA in their blood as antibody positive females, suggesting that SNV-infected male deer mice are more likely to shed virus and for longer periods of time. PMID:24064796

Bagamian, Karoun H; Towner, Jonathan S; Mills, James N; Kuenzi, Amy J

2013-09-01

113

Increased Detection of Sin Nombre Hantavirus RNA in Antibody-Positive Deer Mice from Montana, USA: Evidence of Male Bias in RNA Viremia  

PubMed Central

Hantaviruses are widespread emergent zoonotic agents that cause unapparent or limited disease in their rodent hosts, yet cause acute, often fatal pulmonary or renal infections in humans. Previous laboratory experiments with rodent reservoir hosts indicate that hantaviruses can be cleared from host blood early in the infection cycle, while sequestered long term in various host organs. Field studies of North American deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), the natural reservoir of Sin Nombre hantavirus, have shown that viral RNA can be transiently detected well past the early acute infection stage, but only in the minority of infected mice. Here, using a non-degenerate RT-PCR assay optimized for SNV strains known to circulate in Montana, USA, we show that viral RNA can be repeatedly detected on a monthly basis in up to 75% of antibody positive deer mice for periods up to 3–6 months. More importantly, our data show that antibody positive male deer mice are more than twice as likely to have detectable SNV RNA in their blood as antibody positive females, suggesting that SNV-infected male deer mice are more likely to shed virus and for longer periods of time. PMID:24064796

Bagamian, Karoun H.; Towner, Jonathan S.; Mills, James N.; Kuenzi, Amy J.

2013-01-01

114

The association of anti-annexin1 antibodies with the occurrence of skin lesions in systemic lupus erythematosus.  

PubMed

Anti-annexin1 antibodies are associated with the subtypes of cutaneous lupus and are elevated in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. In this study, we investigated the correlation of this antibody with the incidence of SLE skin lesions. The presence of anti-annexin1-IgG and-IgM determined by Western blot was no different among healthy controls and SLE patients with and without skin lesions. Serum levels of anti-annexin1-IgG and -IgM measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were comparable between patients with and without skin lesions, whereas anti-annexin1-IgM was lower in SLE patients than in healthy controls. Annexin1 was abundantly detected in each epidermal layer in lupus lesional skin. Additionally, anti-annexin1-IgG was higher in SLE patients with arthritis and negatively correlated with white blood cells (WBC). Anti-annexin1-IgM was higher in patients with antinuclear antibody (ANA)-positive sera, and was positively related to hemoglobin and total serum IgM. Collectively, anti-annexin1 antibodies are not related to the incidence of skin lesions in SLE, and annexin1 abundantly distributes in epidermis in lesional skin. PMID:24300781

Meng, Z; Shi, Z-R; Tan, G-Z; Yin, J; Wu, J; Mi, X-B; Wang, L

2014-02-01

115

High Levels of Soluble Ctla-4 Are Present in Anti-Mitochondrial Antibody Positive, but Not in Antibody Negative Patients with Primary Biliary Cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic autoimmune cholestatic liver disease frequently characterized by anti-mitochondrial autoantibodies (AMA). A minority of patients are AMA-negative. Cytotoxic-T-Lymphocyte-Antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is a surface molecule expressed on activated T-cells delivering a critical negative immunoregulatory signal. A soluble form of CTLA-4 (sCTLA-4) has been detected at high concentrations in several autoimmune diseases, and its possible functional meaning has been suggested. We aimed to evaluate sCTLA-4 concentration in sera of patients with PBC and to correlate it to immunological abnormalities associated with the disease. Blood samples were collected from 82 PBC-patients diagnosed according to international criteria (44 AMA-positive/MIT3-positive and 38 AMA-negative-MIT3-negative), and 65 controls. sCTLA-4 levels were evaluated by ELISA and Western blot. Increased sCTLA-4 concentrations were found in all AMA-positive PBC-patients, but in none of the AMA-negative ones, nor in normal controls or in controls with unrelated liver diseases. sCTLA-4 presence was associated with autoantibodies against MIT3, but not with nuclear autoantibodies (sp100, gp210). This is the first study to demonstrate that levels of sCTLA-4 are elevated in sera of PBC patients. However, they are clearly restricted to patients with AMA positivity, suggesting an immunological difference with respect to AMA-negative ones. PMID:25383768

Saverino, Daniele; Pesce, Giampaola; Antola, Princey; Porcelli, Brunetta; Brusca, Ignazio; Villalta, Danilo; Tampoia, Marilina; Tozzoli, Renato; Tonutti, Elio; Alessio, Maria Grazia; Bagnasco, Marcello; Bizzaro, Nicola

2014-01-01

116

Alternative diagnosis to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in two critically ill patients despite a positive PF4/heparin-antibody test  

PubMed Central

Thrombocytopenia can cause diagnostic challenges in patients who have received heparin. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is often considered in the differential diagnosis, and a positive screening can be mistaken as confirmation of the disorder. We present two patients who both received low-molecular-weight heparin for several days. In the first patient, clinical judgment rejected the suspicion of HIT despite a positive screening assay, and treatment for the alternative diagnosis of post-transfusion purpura was correctly initiated. In the second patient, the inaccurate diagnosis HIT was pursued due to a positive screening assay, while the alternative diagnosis of drug-dependent thrombocytopenia caused by piperacillin/tazobactam was rejected. This resulted in re-exposure to piperacillin/tazobactam which caused a second episode of severe thrombocytopenia. A positive screening assay for platelet factor 4/heparin-antibody should be verified by a functional assay, especially in patients with low pretest probability for HIT. PMID:24102149

Hron, Gregor; Knutson, Folke; Thiele, Thomas; Althaus, Karina; Busemann, Christoph; Friesecke, Sigrun; Greinacher, Andreas

2013-01-01

117

Alternative diagnosis to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in two critically ill patients despite a positive PF4/heparin-antibody test.  

PubMed

Thrombocytopenia can cause diagnostic challenges in patients who have received heparin. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is often considered in the differential diagnosis, and a positive screening can be mistaken as confirmation of the disorder. We present two patients who both received low-molecular-weight heparin for several days. In the first patient, clinical judgment rejected the suspicion of HIT despite a positive screening assay, and treatment for the alternative diagnosis of post-transfusion purpura was correctly initiated. In the second patient, the inaccurate diagnosis HIT was pursued due to a positive screening assay, while the alternative diagnosis of drug-dependent thrombocytopenia caused by piperacillin/tazobactam was rejected. This resulted in re-exposure to piperacillin/tazobactam which caused a second episode of severe thrombocytopenia. A positive screening assay for platelet factor 4/heparin-antibody should be verified by a functional assay, especially in patients with low pretest probability for HIT. PMID:24102149

Hron, Gregor; Knutson, Folke; Thiele, Thomas; Althaus, Karina; Busemann, Christoph; Friesecke, Sigrun; Greinacher, Andreas; Lubenow, Norbert

2013-11-01

118

Antibodies against Neural, Nuclear, Cytoskeletal, and Streptococcal Epitopes in Children and Adults with  

E-print Network

with Tourette's Syndrome, Sydenham's Chorea, and Autoimmune Disorders Syed A. Morshed, Salina Parveen, James F in three patient groups: TS (n 81), SC (n 27), and a group of autoimmune disorders (n 52) and in normal, and a significantly higher rank for total antinuclear antibodies. Compared to a mixed group of autoimmune disorders

119

Protection from clinical disease against three highly virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus after in ovo application of an antibody-antigen complex vaccine in maternal antibody-positive chickens.  

PubMed

Worldwide, Newcastle disease (ND) remains one of the most economically important diseases of poultry. Current vaccination strategies for commercial poultry include the use of inactivated and live ND vaccines that typically induce protection against virulent field viruses. Here, we tested the efficacy of an antigen-antibody complex (AAC) ND vaccine delivered in ovo. Commercial maternal antibody-positive broiler chickens (Gallus domesticus) were vaccinated in ovo with an AAC vaccine composed of live B1-LaSota Newcastle disease virus (NDV) complexed with NDV-specific antiserum, and then they were challenged at weekly intervals after hatch. Challenge viruses included three exotic ND disease (END) viruses: the neurotropic strain Texas GB NDV-92-01 (TxGB) and two viscerotropic isolates, one isolate from the 2002-2003 outbreak in California (California 2002 isolate S212676 [CA]) and the other isolate from a 1997 END outbreak in South Korea (South Korea 94-147 [SK]). Results demonstrate that maternal antibody was able to provide approximately 50% protection in either vaccinated or control chickens at 7 days of age after TxGB challenge. However, with challenge at > or = 14 days, most control birds died, whereas all AAC-vaccinated birds were protected. Challenge with the CA or SK viruses in chickens at 28 days of age resulted in 100% protection of vaccinated birds, whereas all control birds died. In addition, AAC-vaccinated birds displayed decreased incidence of viral shedding in oral and cloacal swabs than control birds. Antibody titers were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in vaccinated chickens, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and hemagglutinin-inhibition tests, than in nonvaccinated controls. Together, these results demonstrate the efficacy of AAC vaccines delivered in ovo to protect commercial poultry. PMID:23050473

Kapczynski, Darrell R; Martin, Alison; Haddad, Eid E; King, Daniel J

2012-09-01

120

Characterization of BIS20x3, a bi-specific antibody activating and retargeting T-cells to CD20-positive B-cells  

PubMed Central

This paper describes a bi-specific antibody, which was called BIS20x3. It retargets CD3?-positive cells (T-cells) to CD20-positive cells and was obtained by hybrid–hybridoma fusion. BIS20x3 could be isolated readily from quadroma culture supernatant and retained all the signalling characteristics associated with both of its chains. Cross-linking of BIS20x3 on Ramos cells leads to DNA fragmentation percentages similar to those obtained after Rituximab-cross-linking. Cross-linking of BIS20x3 on T-cells using cross-linking F(ab?)2-fragments induced T-cell activation. Indirect cross-linking of T-cell-bound BIS20x3 via Ramos cells hyper-activated the T-cells. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that BIS20x3 effectively re-targets T-cells to B-cells, leading to high B-cell cytotoxicity. The results presented in this paper show that BIS20x3 is fully functional in retargeting T-cells to B-cells and suggest that B-cell lymphomas may represent ideal targets for T-cell retargeting bi-specific antibodies, because the retargeted T-cell is maximally stimulated in the presence of B-cells. Additionally, since B-cells may up-regulate CD95/ Fas expression upon binding of CD20-directed antibodies, B-cells will become even more sensitive for T-cell mediated killing via CD95L/ Fas L, and therefore supports the intention to use T-cell retargeting bi-specific antibodies recognizing CD20 on B-cell malignancies as a treatment modality for these diseases. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11308263

Withoff, S; Bijman, M N A; Stel, A J; Delahaye, L; Calogero, A; Jonge, M W A de; Kroesen, B J; Leij, L de

2001-01-01

121

Limited reliability of the indirect immunofluorescence technique for the detection of anti-Rib-P antibodies  

PubMed Central

Introduction Autoantibodies to the ribosomal P proteins represent a highly specific marker for the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus, where they have been associated with certain clinical manifestations. Historically, autoantibodies against ribosomal P proteins have been detected by indirect immunofluorescence, immunodiffusion, immunoblot, and other immunoassays. More recently, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and line and addressable laser bead immunoassays have become more widely used. The primary goal of this study was to determine the sensitivity of indirect immunofluorescence using conventional HEp-2 substrates in the detection of sera with ribosomal P antibodies as detected by other immunoassays. Methods Anti-ribosomal P-positive sera (n = 345) as detected by an addressable laser bead immunoassay were collected between 2003 and 2007 and analysed by indirect immunofluorescence. Furthermore, 51 anti-ribosomal P-positive samples from an unselected systemic lupus erythematosus cohort (n = 100) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) reference sera were tested for anti-ribosomal P reactivity. Results In the cohort of 345 anti-ribosomal P-positive samples identified by addressable laser bead immunoassay, a low sensitivity (<30%) of indirect immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cell substrates was observed. Although the degree of sensitivity varied among different manufacturers, all immunofluorescence substrates exhibited limited sensitivity and false-negative results were not restricted to samples with low anti-ribosomal P titers. Even the anti-ribosomal P reactivity of CDC ANA reference serum number 12 was not clearly predictable by indirect immunofluorescence. Comparison of five different methods for the detection of anti-ribosomal P found moderate qualitative agreements. Conclusions Based on our data, we conclude that indirect immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cells is not a reliable screening test for the prediction of ribosomal P antibodies. As this method is widely used as a first-line screening test for anti-nuclear and other autoantibodies, special considerations for the detection of ribosomal P antibodies are needed. As with many other autoantibodies, further effort is required for the standardisation of ribosomal P immunoassays. PMID:19000323

Mahler, Michael; Ngo, Jennifer T; Schulte-Pelkum, Johannes; Luettich, Tanja; Fritzler, Marvin J

2008-01-01

122

Immune responses induced by DNA vaccines encoding Newcastle virus haemagglutinin and/or fusion proteins in maternal antibody-positive commercial broiler chicken.  

PubMed

1. The immune responses induced by recombinant plasmids containing Newcastle disease virus (NDV) F (pVAX.nd.f) or HN (pcDNA.nd.hn) genes separately or in combination in bi-cistronic (pIRES.nd.hn.f) constructs were evaluated in maternal antibody-positive commercial chicks. 2. Immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase tests demonstrated the expression of both F and HN proteins in Vero cells. Real-time PCR analysis revealed the expression of HN and/or F genes in muscle, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), spleen and liver after immunisation. 3. Chicks inoculated intramuscularly thrice (two booster doses) with pVAX.nd.f and pcDNA.nd.hn did not develop detectable haemagglutination inhibiting (HI) antibodies. In contrast, an increase in a NDV-specific cell-mediated immune response was demonstrated. 4. After challenge with virulent NDV, chicks immunised with the recombinant plasmids as well as those in control groups succumbed to Newcastle disease. 5. Based on these results, it is concluded that DNA vaccines containing HN and/or F genes fail to protect commercial chicks, possibly due to interference from maternal antibodies. PMID:18409084

Rajawat, Y S; Sundaresan, N R; Ravindra, P V; Kantaraja, C; Ratta, B; Sudhagar, M; Rai, A; Saxena, V K; Palia, S K; Tiwari, A K

2008-03-01

123

Different amounts of protein-bound citrulline and homocitrulline in foot joint tissues of a patient with anti-citrullinated protein antibody positive erosive rheumatoid arthritis  

PubMed Central

Background Antibodies binding to citrullinated proteins are a frequent finding in rheumatoid arthritis patients and may precede the onset of clinical symptoms several years. The antibodies are a predisposing factor for bone erosions but their origin is unknown. In this study we analyze in detail the levels of protein bound citrulline and homocitrulline in several tissue samples of a single erosive arthritic surgery patient. Methods Serum antibodies binding to CCP, MCV and citrulline- or homocitrulline-containing type I and II collagen carboxytelopeptides were measured. Tissue samples of a single RA patient, taken in two separate operations performed with two-year time span were hydrolyzed and analyzed for citrulline and homocitrulline content by HPLC. Results Protein-bound citrulline and homocitrulline were found in several joint tissues of a RA patient with ACPA-positive erosive disease. The amount of homocitrulline stayed relatively constant between the different tissues. The amount of citrulline in erosive tissue was 3-times higher than in non-erosive tissue in the first operation. In the samples of the second operation 3-4-times higher mean amounts of citrulline were found in two out of the six tissues investigated. Conclusions Homocitrulline is present in rheumatoid nodule together with citrulline. There is more variation in the amount of citrulline than in the amount of homocitrulline between the tissues. The tissue sample containing the most citrulline was the most erosive. PMID:24060405

2013-01-01

124

T-Cell and Antibody Responses to Mycobacterial Antigens in Tuberculin Skin-Test-Positive Bos indicus and Bos taurus Cattle in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Higher IFN-? responses to mycobacterial antigens were observed in Bos taurus (Holsteins) than in Bos indicus (Zebu) cattle which could due to differences in antigen recognition profiles between the two breeds. The present study was conducted to evaluate mycobacterial antigen recognition profiles of the two breeds. Twenty-three mycobacterial antigens were tested on 46 skin test positive (24 Zebu and 22 Holstein) using enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT) and multiple antigen print immunoassay (MAPIA). Herds from which the study cattle obtained were tested for Fasciola antibody. The T cells from both breeds recognized most of the mycobacterial antigens at lower and comparable frequencies. However, antigens such as CFP-10, ESAT-6, Rv0287, Rv0288, MPB87, Acr-2, Rv3616c, and Rv3879c were recognized at higher frequencies in zebu while higher frequencies of T cell responses were observed to Hsp65 in both breeds. Furthermore, comparable antibody responses were observed in both breeds; MPB83 being the sero-dominant antigen in both breeds. The prevalence of Fasciola antibody was 81% and similar in both breeds. This piece of work could not lead to a definitive conclusion if there are differences in mycobacterial recognition profiles between the two breeds warranting for further similar studies using sound sample size from the two breeds. PMID:22685689

Ameni, Gobena; Cockle, Paul; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Vordermeier, Martin

2012-01-01

125

A new type of protein chip to detect hepatocellular carcinoma-related autoimmune antibodies in the sera of hepatitis C virus-positive patients  

PubMed Central

Background We report here a new type of protein chip to detect antibodies in sera. This chip method was used to a prototype created to detect hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) -related autoantibodies in the sera of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected individuals. Results Five cysteine-tagged (Cys-tag) and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fused recombinant heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), and peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6), were spotted and immobilized on maleimide-incorporated diamond-like carbon (DLC) substrates. The antibodies in diluted sera were trapped by these proteins at each spot on the chip, and visualized by a fluorescence-conjugated anti-human IgG. The total immobilized protein level of each spot was detected with anti-GFP mouse IgG and a fluorescence-conjugated secondary anti-mouse IgG. The ratio between the two fluorescence intensities was used to quantify autoantibody levels in each serum sample. Heat treatment of the chip in a solution of denaturing and reducing agents, before serum-incubation, improved autoantibody detection. We tested serum samples from healthy individuals and HCC patients using the chips. The HSP70 autoantibodies were found at high levels in sera from HCV-positive HCC patients, but not in HCV-negative sera. Conclusion This protein chip system may have useful properties to capture a specific set of antibodies for predicting the onset of particular cancers such as HCC in HCV-infected individuals. PMID:23866785

2013-01-01

126

Management of very high risk pregnancy with secondary anti-phospholipid syndrome and triple positivity to the anti-phospholipid antibodies.  

PubMed

There is a significantly increased risk of pregnancy complications in women with anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS). The risk is further heightened in those with previous arterial or venous thromboembolism and so-called 'triple positivity' for anti-phospholipid antibodies (i.e., when lupus anticoagulant, and anti-cardiolipin (aCL) and anti-?2 glycoprotein-I (anti-?2Gp-I) antibodies are all detected). Management of these cases is extremely difficult and little is available in the medical literature to guide therapy. This report describes the use of regular plasma exchanges (PEx) to bring about a successful pregnancy outcome in a woman with secondary APS and previous recurrent miscarriages. The patient was also anticoagulated with enoxaparin and administered aspirin, prednisolone, azathioprine and hydroxychloroquine. Through regular PEx and immunomodulation therapy, levels of aCL and anti-?2Gp-I antibodies were monitored and documented to fall as pregnancy progressed. Although the outcome in this case was successful, further experience is required before this regimen can be accepted as the standard of care for these patients at very high risk of pregnancy loss. PMID:24777280

Rose, Hannah L; Ho, Wai Khoon

2014-11-01

127

Immune responses induced by DNA vaccines encoding Newcastle virus haemagglutinin and\\/or fusion proteins in maternal antibody-positive commercial broiler chicken  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?The immune responses induced by recombinant plasmids containing Newcastle disease virus (NDV) F (pVAX.nd.f) or HN (pcDNA.nd.hn) genes separately or in combination in bi-cistronic (pIRES.nd.hn.f) constructs were evaluated in maternal antibody-positive commercial chicks.2.?Immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase tests demonstrated the expression of both F and HN proteins in Vero cells. Real-time PCR analysis revealed the expression of HN and\\/or F genes in

Y. S. Rajawat; N. R. Sundaresan; P. V. Ravindra; C. Kantaraja; B. Ratta; M. Sudhagar; A. Rai; V. K. Saxena; S. K. Palia; A. K. Tiwari

2008-01-01

128

Distinct antibody profile: a clue to primary antiphospholipid syndrome evolving into systemic lupus erythematosus?  

PubMed

We have performed a retrospective study to determine if patients with antiphospholipid syndrome that developed systemic lupus erythematosus (APS/SLE) had distinct clinical and/or serological features. All 80 primary APS (PAPS) patients followed up at our APS unit were included in the study and divided into two groups: 14 APS/SLE and 66 PAPS. Prior or at onset of lupus manifestations, six patients were uniformly negative for lupus and Sjögren autoantibodies, and the other eight patients had persistent positive. In the first year after diagnosis of SLE, three patients remained with negative antibodies, the other seven patients maintained the same antibodies, and four patients developed other antibodies. APS/SLE group had a significant lower mean age at PAPS diagnosis (26.0 ± 8.0 vs. 34.2 ± 11.9 years, p = 0.03) and a longer disease duration (14.0 ± 7.0 vs. 6.0 ± 5.0 years, p < 0.0001). The mean time for PAPS to develop SLE was 5.2 ± 4.3 years. The typical clinical and laboratorial findings of APS did not discriminate both groups of patients. At lupus onset, antinuclear antibodies were more frequently observed in those who evolved to SLE (100 vs. 51.5%, p = 0.0005). Anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), anti-ribosomal P, anti-Ro/SS-A, anti-La/SS-B, and anti-U1RNP antibodies were exclusively found in the APS/SLE patients, whereas anti-Smith (Sm) antibodies were not detected in both groups. The detection of a distinct subgroup of lupus-associated autoantibody in PAPS patients seems to be a hint to overt SLE disease, particularly in those patients with young age at diagnosis. PMID:24420722

Freire, Paula Vieira; Watanabe, Elisa; dos Santos, Nelita Rocha; Bueno, Cleonice; Bonfá, Eloísa; de Carvalho, Jozélio Freire

2014-03-01

129

Evaluation of heterophilic antibody blocking agents in reducing false positive interference in immunoassays for IL-17AA, IL-17FF, and IL-17AF.  

PubMed

IL-17AA, IL-17FF, and IL-17AF are proinflammatory cytokines that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In order to measure the levels of these cytokines in synovial fluid and serum samples from RA patients, immunoassays specific for IL-17AA, FF, and AF were developed. Although these assays could tolerate up to 50% pooled normal human serum, false positive reactivity was problematic in patient samples suggesting interference from heterophilic antibodies. We therefore evaluated the ability of several commercially available heterophilic antibody blocking agents to reduce false positive reactivity by testing them against samples that were confirmed as false positives in the IL-17AA, FF, and AF assays. Several of the blockers performed well, including HBR-1, HBR-9, HBR-11, HBR-Plus, Serum Cytokine Assay Diluent, and IIR. We chose to move forward using IIR blocker for sample analysis and verified that IIR had no effect on the assay standard curves and did not affect IL-17 quantitation in plasma from ex vivo stimulated human whole blood. IL-17FF and IL-17AF were below the limits of quantitation of the assays (12.3 and 10.5pg/ml, respectively) in synovial fluid and serum samples from patients with RA and osteoarthritis (OA). For the more sensitive IL-17AA assay (1.6pg/ml limit of quantitation), low levels of IL-17AA were measurable in 48% of RA synovial fluid samples (mean, 7.9pg/ml; median, <1.6pg/ml; range, <1.6-29.7pg/ml; n=23) but not in synovial fluid from patients with OA (n=33). For serum samples, however, IL-17AA was below the limit of detection for both RA and OA patients. When these same serum samples were analyzed in the absence of a heterophilic antibody blocker, false positive reactivity yielded apparent mean IL-17AA levels of 43.3pg/ml (28% positive; n=50) and 14.8pg/ml (12% positive; n=50) for RA and OA patients, respectively, results that could potentially be interpreted as consistent with disease biology. These studies demonstrate the importance of ensuring that HAb interference is well controlled, particularly when measuring low concentrations of cytokines in samples from patients with autoimmune disease. PMID:20833179

DeForge, Laura E; Loyet, Kelly M; Delarosa, Donnie; Chinn, Jason; Zamanian, Fojan; Chuntharapai, Anan; Lee, James; Hass, Phil; Wei, Nathan; Townsend, Michael J; Wang, Jianyong; Wong, Wai Lee T

2010-10-31

130

Defining a social problem: socio-historical analysis of the antinuclear weapons movement  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation is a socio-historical analysis of the anti-nuclear weapons movement in the United States. This work conceptualizes social movements in advanced industrial societies by synthesizing certain aspects of social constructionism, resource mobilization, and new class theory. The research design is a socio-historical, comparative case study. Both qualitative and quantitative methods are employed for data analysis. Extensive content analysis of documents and interviews with key actors are supplemented with a critical analysis of a wide variety of primary and secondary data. All major antinuclear weapons protest, particularly the Atomic Scientists Movement of the 1940s, the Ban-the-Bomb Movement of the 1950s and 1960s, and the Freeze Movement of the 1980s, shared similar characteristics, and experienced similar problems. The findings are congruent with the theoretical synthesis. Antinuclear weapons protest is best understood as a new class phenomenon, in which intellectuals have mobilized resources to challenge the ruling elite. Yet, though the protest has succeeded in challenging the legitimacy of the ruling apparatus, successes of the movement have been mostly symbolic.

McCrea, F.B.

1988-01-01

131

Prevalence of positive antibody test results for canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) and response to modified live vaccination against CPV and CDV in dogs entering animal shelters.  

PubMed

Canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) infections are relatively common in animal shelters and are important population management issues since the immune status of incoming dogs is usually unknown. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of positive antibody test results for CPV and CDV in incoming dogs aged ? 4 months and to measure antibody response over 2 weeks following vaccination with a modified live vaccine (MLV). Dogs aged 4-24 months entering an adoption-guarantee shelter (Shelter 1, n=51) and aged ? 4 months entering a limited admission shelter (Shelter 2; n=51) were enrolled. Dogs from Shelter 1 had been vaccinated with MLV at a municipal shelter 5 days before enrollment, whereas dogs from Shelter 2 had no known history of vaccination at enrollment. Sera were obtained on day 1, immediately prior to CPV/CDV MLV, and tested using an in-clinic ELISA kit to detect CPV/CDV antibodies. Dogs negative for CPV and/or CDV were retested at day 6-8 and those dogs still negative at day 6-8 were retested at day 13-15. Prior to CPV/CDV MLV on day 1, more dogs tested positive for CPV (Shelter 1 - 68.6%; Shelter 2 - 84.3%) than for CDV (Shelter 1 - 37.3%; Shelter 2 - 41.2%). On day 1, prior to MLV, all spayed/neutered animals tested CPV antibody-positive (n=17/102) and CPV antibody-positive dogs were older than serologically negative dogs (Shelter 1, P=0.0029; Shelter 2, P=0.0042). By day 13-15, almost all dogs were CPV antibody-positive (Shelter 1 - 97.9%; Shelter 2 - 100.0%) and CDV antibody-positive (Shelter 1 - 93.8%; Shelter 2 - 97.8%). MLV induces protective antibody titers against CPV/CDV in almost all dogs after 13-15 days. PMID:22261239

Litster, Annette; Nichols, Jamieson; Volpe, Allison

2012-05-25

132

Homozygosity of the Polymorphism MICA5.1 Identifies Extreme Risk of Progression to Overt Adrenal Insufficiency among 21-Hydroxylase Antibody-Positive Patients with Type 1 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Context: Autoimmunity associated with Addison’s disease (AD) can be detected by measuring 21-hydroxylase (21OH) autoantibodies. Subjects with type 1 diabetes (T1D) are at increased risk for AD. Genetic factors including HLA-DRB1*0404 and MICA have been associated with AD in populations with and without T1D. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine the effect of the MICA5.1 allele in subjects with 21OH autoantibodies on progression to AD. Design: Two components were used: 1) a cross-sectional study with subjects with AD identified and enrolled from September 1993 to November 2008 and 2) a cohort study prospectively following up patients with T1D who screened positive for 21OH autoantibodies. Setting: Subjects were identified from the Barbara Davis Center and through the National Adrenal Diseases Foundation. Patients: Sixty-three subjects with AD were referred through the National Adrenal Diseases Foundation (AD referrals). Sixty-three subjects with positive 21OH antibodies from the Barbara Davis Center were followed up for progression to AD, and 11 were diagnosed with AD (progressors). Results: Seventy-three percent of progressors (eight of 11) and 57% of AD referrals (36 of 63) were MICA5.1 homozygous (P = ns). Overall, 59% of patients with AD (44 of 74) were MICA5.1/5.1 compared with 17% of nonprogressors (nine of 52) (P < 0.0001) and 19% of normal DR3/4-DQB1*0302 controls (64 of 336) (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Identifying extreme risk should facilitate monitoring of progression from 21OH antibody positivity to overt AD. The HLA-DR3/0404 genotype defines high-risk subjects for adrenal autoimmunity. MICA5.1/5.1 may define those at highest risk for progression to overt AD, a feature unique to AD and distinct from T1D. PMID:19820007

Triolo, Taylor M.; Baschal, Erin E.; Armstrong, Taylor K.; Toews, Carrie S.; Fain, Pamela R.; Rewers, Marian J.; Yu, Liping; Miao, Dongmei; Eisenbarth, George S.; Gottlieb, Peter A.; Barker, Jennifer M.

2009-01-01

133

Risk factors for herds to test positive for Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis-antibodies with a commercial milk enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in Ontario and western Canada  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study were to identify risk factors associated with i) a Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP)-antibody milk enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAP milk ELISA)-positive herd status, and ii) the within-herd MAP milk ELISA-positive prevalence in Canadian dairy herds. This prospective cohort study was conducted between 2005 and 2009 on 226 herds in Ontario and western Canada, which participated in a voluntary risk assessment (RA)-based Johne’s disease control program. Two MAP milk ELISA and risk assessments and a previsit survey were available per herd. The overall farm RA scores alone could not be used to predict whether a herd would test positive for MAP antibodies. However, the results of this study indicated that increasing the likelihood of exposing calves to MAP through certain management practices, as assessed with the RA, increased the likelihood of a herd being test-positive for MAP antibodies. PMID:23450860

Sorge, Ulrike S.; Lissemore, Kerry; Godkin, Ann; Jansen, Jocelyn; Hendrick, Steven; Wells, Scott; Kelton, David F.

2012-01-01

134

N-truncated Abeta starting with position four: early intraneuronal accumulation and rescue of toxicity using NT4X-167, a novel monoclonal antibody  

PubMed Central

Background The amyloid hypothesis in Alzheimer disease (AD) considers amyloid ? peptide (A?) deposition causative in triggering down-stream events like neurofibrillary tangles, cell loss, vascular damage and memory decline. In the past years N-truncated A? peptides especially N-truncated pyroglutamate A?pE3-42 have been extensively studied. Together with full-length A?1–42 and A?1–40, N-truncated A?pE3-42 and A?4–42 are major variants in AD brain. Although A?4–42 has been known for a much longer time, there is a lack of studies addressing the question whether A?pE3-42 or A?4–42 may precede the other in Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Results Using different A? antibodies specific for the different N-termini of N-truncated A?, we discovered that A?4-x preceded A?pE3-x intraneuronal accumulation in a transgenic mouse model for AD prior to plaque formation. The novel A?4-x immunoreactive antibody NT4X-167 detected high molecular weight aggregates derived from N-truncated A? species. While NT4X-167 significantly rescued A?4–42 toxicity in vitro no beneficial effect was observed against A?1–42 or A?pE3-42 toxicity. Phenylalanine at position four of A? was imperative for antibody binding, because its replacement with alanine or proline completely prevented binding. Although amyloid plaques were observed using NT4X-167 in 5XFAD transgenic mice, it barely reacted with plaques in the brain of sporadic AD patients and familial cases with the Arctic, Swedish and the presenilin-1 PS1?9 mutation. A consistent staining was observed in blood vessels in all AD cases with cerebral amyloid angiopathy. There was no cross-reactivity with other aggregates typical for other common neurodegenerative diseases showing that NT4X-167 staining is specific for AD. Conclusions A?4-x precedes A?pE3-x in the well accepted 5XFAD AD mouse model underlining the significance of N-truncated species in AD pathology. NT4X-167 therefore is the first antibody reacting with A?4-x and represents a novel tool in Alzheimer research. PMID:24252153

2013-01-01

135

Antimitochondrial antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory-prepared and commercially obtained fluorescein-labeled rabbit antihuman IgG were compared in performing the antimitochondrial antibody (AMA) assay. Identical results were obtained using either of the fluorescent antisera at protein concentrations of 1.5 mg\\/ml and 1:10 dilutions of patients' sera. Positive AMA tests with either antisera were observed in each of 7 patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), 2 of 83

Stephen L. Winter; Sumner C. Kraft; James L. Boyer

1979-01-01

136

Shared Epitope Alleles Remain A Risk Factor for Anti-Citrullinated Proteins Antibody (ACPA) - Positive Rheumatoid Arthritis in Three Asian Ethnic Groups  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate the associations between HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE) alleles and rheumatoid arthritis in subsets of rheumatoid arthritis defined by autoantibodies in three Asian populations from Malaysia. Methods 1,079 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 1,470 healthy controls were included in the study. Levels of antibodies to citrullinated proteins (ACPA) and rheumatoid factors were assessed and the PCR-SSO method was used for HLA-DRB1 genotyping. Results The proportion of ACPA positivity among Malay, Chinese and Indian rheumatoid arthritis patients were 62.9%, 65.2% and 68.6%, respectively. An increased frequency of SE alleles was observed in ACPA-positive rheumatoid arthritis among the three Asian ethnic groups. HLA-DRB1*10 was highly associated with rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility in these Asian populations. HLA-DRB1*0405 was significantly associated with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis in Malays and Chinese, but not in Indians. HLA-DRB1*01 did not show any independent effect as a risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis in this study and HLA-DRB1*1202 was protective in Malays and Chinese. There was no association between SE alleles and ACPA- negative rheumatoid arthritis in any of the three Asian ethnic groups. Conclusion The HLA-DRB1 SE alleles increase the risk of ACPA-positive rheumatoid arthritis in all three Asian populations from Malaysia. PMID:21698259

Chun-Lai, Too; Padyukov, Leonid; Dhaliwal, Jasbir Singh; Lundstrom, Emeli; Yahya, Abqariyah; Muhamad, Nor Asiah; Klareskog, Lars; Alfredsson, Lars; Larsson, Per Tobias; Murad, Shahnaz

2011-01-01

137

The Effect of Precipitation on the Transmission of Japanese Encephalitis (JE) Virus in Nature: A Complex Effect on Antibody-Positive Rate to JE Virus in Sentinel Pigs  

PubMed Central

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of the most important mosquito-borne viral diseases in Asia. Pigs are a natural host and the amplifier of JE virus. The sero-conversion rate to JE virus in sentinel pigs reflects the activity of JE virus in the region. We analyzed whether precipitation has any effect on the sero-conversion rate to JE virus in sentinel pigs. Linear regression analysis was performed to determine the correlations between the levels of precipitation and sero-conversion rates to JE virus, in the entire year and during summertime over the period of 32 years from 1969 to 2000. The levels of the annual and summertime precipitation demonstrated statistically significant positive correlations with sero-conversion rates for the whole of the country and for some regions in Japan. The levels of the summertime precipitation, on the other hand, demonstrated statistically significant inverse correlations with the sero-conversion rates in other regions. Further, the levels of precipitation during preceding 10-day periods from days 1–40 before blood collection showed inverse correlation with antibody-positive rates in some regions. The results indicate that the relationship between the annual and summertime precipitation, and the sero-conversion rate to JE virus is complex; both positive and inverse effects are demonstrated depending on the regions. PMID:23644830

Kurane, Ichiro; Shibasaki, Ken-ichi; Kotaki, Akira; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Takasaki, Tomohiko

2013-01-01

138

The effect of precipitation on the transmission of Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus in nature: a complex effect on antibody-positive rate to JE virus in sentinel pigs.  

PubMed

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of the most important mosquito-borne viral diseases in Asia. Pigs are a natural host and the amplifier of JE virus. The sero-conversion rate to JE virus in sentinel pigs reflects the activity of JE virus in the region. We analyzed whether precipitation has any effect on the sero-conversion rate to JE virus in sentinel pigs. Linear regression analysis was performed to determine the correlations between the levels of precipitation and sero-conversion rates to JE virus, in the entire year and during summertime over the period of 32 years from 1969 to 2000. The levels of the annual and summertime precipitation demonstrated statistically significant positive correlations with sero-conversion rates for the whole of the country and for some regions in Japan. The levels of the summertime precipitation, on the other hand, demonstrated statistically significant inverse correlations with the sero-conversion rates in other regions. Further, the levels of precipitation during preceding 10-day periods from days 1-40 before blood collection showed inverse correlation with antibody-positive rates in some regions. The results indicate that the relationship between the annual and summertime precipitation, and the sero-conversion rate to JE virus is complex; both positive and inverse effects are demonstrated depending on the regions. PMID:23644830

Kurane, Ichiro; Shibasaki, Ken-ichi; Kotaki, Akira; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Takasaki, Tomohiko

2013-05-01

139

Antibody-mediated rejection after adult living-donor liver transplantation triggered by positive lymphocyte cross-match combination  

PubMed Central

A 46-year-old female suffering from liver cirrhosis was referred to us for living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Pre-transplant lymphocyte cross-match tests were positive. The recipient showed immunoreactivity against donor human leukocyte antigen (HLA) Class I antigens, a finding confirmed by flow cytometry. Additional tests confirmed donor-specific lymphocyte immunoreactivity against HLA B 55. As no other suitable donor was available, we performed LDLT coupled with splenectomy, despite the positive cross-match. Tacrolimus, methylprednisolone and mycophenolate mofetil were used postoperatively for immunosuppression. The postoperative course was uneventful until Day 3 when blood tests showed disorders in liver function and the patient’s condition suddenly worsened. Although intensive care (including plasma exchange) was given, her condition continued to deteriorate. Flow cytometry initially showed that immunoreactivity against Class I antigens was down-regulated immediately after LDLT, but further testing showed that it had increased again. We diagnosed humoral rejection based on clinical, immunological and histopathological findings and suggest that this was mediated by an immune response to donor-specific antigens. The patient experienced multi-organ failure and died on post-operative Day 9. PMID:24714061

Hori, Tomohide; Egawa, Hiroto; Uemoto, Shinji

2012-01-01

140

Trastuzumab-based treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer: an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity mechanism?  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) immune cell response during neoadjuvant primary systemic therapy (PST) with trastuzumab in patients with HER2-positive primary breast cancer. In all, 23 patients with IHC 3+ primary breast cancer were treated with trastuzumab plus docetaxel. Pathological complete and partial responses were documented for nine (39%) and 14 (61%) patients, respectively. Case-matched controls comprised patients treated with docetaxel-based PST without trastuzumab (D; n=23) or PST without docetaxel or trastuzumab (non-taxane, non-trastuzumab, NT–NT; n=23). All surgical specimens were blind-analysed by two independent pathologists, with immunohistochemical evaluation of B and T lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and natural killer (NK) cells. Potential cytolytic cells were stained for Granzyme B and TiA1. HER2 expression was also evaluated in residual tumour cells. Trastuzumab treatment was associated with significantly increased numbers of tumour-associated NK cells and increased lymphocyte expression of Granzyme B and TiA1 compared with controls. This study supports an in vivo role for immune (particularly NK cell) responses in the mechanism of trastuzumab action in breast cancer. These results suggest that trastuzumab plus taxanes lead to enhanced NK cell activity, which may partially account for the synergistic activity of trastuzumab and docetaxel in breast cancer. PMID:16404427

Arnould, L; Gelly, M; Penault-Llorca, F; Benoit, L; Bonnetain, F; Migeon, C; Cabaret, V; Fermeaux, V; Bertheau, P; Garnier, J; Jeannin, J-F; Coudert, B

2006-01-01

141

A strong association between thyrotropin receptor-blocking antibody-positive atrophic autoimmune thyroiditis and HLA-DR8 and HLA-DQB1 0302 in Koreans  

SciTech Connect

The authors investigated whether the associations between HLA alleles of patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism varied according to the presence or absence of TSH receptor-blocking antibody (TRBab). They analyzed the HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DR antigens by serotyping and the DQA1 and DQB1 genes using both enzymatic DNA amplification and sequence-specific oligonucleotide hybridizations. The patient population consisted of 47 Korean patients with atrophic autoimmune thyroiditis and 62 patients with goitrous autoimmune thyroiditis. The antigen frequency of HLA-DR8 was significantly increased in 23 atrophic autoimmune thyroiditis patients that were positive for TSH binding inhibitor immunoglobulin (TBII) compared to 136 controls [52% vs. 16%; x[sup 2] = 13.1; Pc (corrected P value) = 0.003]. This relative risk was 5.7; the etiological fraction was 0.43. HLA-DQB1*0302 was also increased in patients with TBII-positive atrophic autoimmune thyroiditis (24% vs. 7%; x[sup 2] = 11.2; Pc = 0.012; relative risk = 4.4; etiological fraction = 0.19). No specific DR antigens or DQB1 alleles were increased in either TBII-negative atrophic autoimmune thyroidities or goitrous autoimmune thyroiditis. A significant decrease in the frequency of HLA-DR6 antigen was observed in both TBII-positive atrophic antoimmune thyroiditis (0% vs. 32%; x[sup 2] = 8.4; Pc = 0.03) and goitrous autoimmune thyroiditis (0% vs. 32%; x[sup 2] = 23.2; Pc < 0.001) patients. The frequency of the HLC-Cwl antigen was significantly increased in all patient groups. The authors conclude that TRBab-positive atrophic autoimmune thyroiditis is immunogenetically different from both goitrous autoimmune thyroiditis and TRBab-negative atrophic autoimmune thyroiditis. It is possible that HLA-DR8 and/or DQB1*0302 may be related to the susceptibility genes involved in the production of TRBab in Koreans. 32 refs., 5 tabs.

Cho, Bo Youn; Chung, Jae Hoon; Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang-Soon; Lee, Jung-Bin (Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Shong, Young Kee (Univ. of Ulsan College of Medicine Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)); Han, Hoon (Catholic Univ. Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Chang, Youn Bok (Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of))

1993-09-01

142

CYP3A-mediated drug-drug interaction potential and excretion of brentuximab vedotin, an antibody-drug conjugate, in patients with CD30-positive hematologic malignancies  

PubMed Central

Brentuximab vedotin is an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) that selectively delivers monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) into CD30-expressing cells. This study evaluated the CYP3A-mediated drug-drug interaction potential of brentuximab vedotin and the excretion of MMAE. Two 21-day cycles of brentuximab vedotin (1.2 or 1.8 mg/kg intravenously) were administered to 56 patients with CD30-positive hematologic malignancies. Each patient also received either a sensitive CYP3A substrate (midazolam), an effective inducer (rifampin), or a strong inhibitor (ketoconazole). Brentuximab vedotin did not affect midazolam exposures. ADC exposures were unaffected by concomitant rifampin or ketoconazole; however, MMAE exposures were lower with rifampin and higher with ketoconazole. The short-term safety profile of brentuximab vedotin in this study was generally consistent with historic clinical observations. The most common adverse events were nausea, fatigue, diarrhea, headache, pyrexia, and neutropenia. Over a 1-week period, ~23.5% of intact MMAE was recovered after administration of brentuximab vedotin; all other species were below the limit of quantitation. The primary excretion route is via feces (median 72% of the recovered MMAE). These results suggest that brentuximab vedotin (1.8 mg/kg) and MMAE are neither inhibitors nor inducers of CYP3A; however, MMAE is a substrate of CYP3A. PMID:23754575

Han, Tae H.; Gopal, Ajay K.; Ramchandren, Radhakrishnan; Goy, Andre; Chen, Robert; Matous, Jeffrey V.; Cooper, Maureen; Grove, Laurie E.; Alley, Stephen C.; Lynch, Carmel M.; O'Connor, Owen A.

2013-01-01

143

Nuclear Energy. It is not a solution, it is a problem The Mediterranean Antinuclear Watch (MANW) is a non -  

E-print Network

Nuclear Energy. It is not a solution, it is a problem #12;The Mediterranean Antinuclear Watch (MANW - called "peaceful use" of nuclear energy as well as the production and proliferation of nuclear weapons pose. #12;Nuclear energy renaissance Twenty two years after the accident in Chernobyl NPP. Energy

144

Characterization of a new mitochondrial antigen-antibody system (M9/anti-M9) in patients with anti-M2 positive and anti-M2 negative primary biliary cirrhosis.  

PubMed Central

A new antimitochondrial antibody (AMA) against an outer membrane associated antigen on liver mitochondria was detected by ELISA in sera from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). This antibody was named anti-M9. There is evidence that it is a partial organ-specific antibody as shown by absorption studies using submitochondrial particles prepared from heart, liver and kidney. A purified M9-fraction was prepared by subjecting a 100,000 g supernatant from rat liver mitochondria to ion exchange chromatography. This fraction was devoid of the previously described M1-M8 antigens except for M4. Trypsin treatment of the fraction enabled a distinction to be made between M4 which was protease resistant, and M9 which was trypsin sensitive. Applying this M9-fraction in Western blotting anti-M9 positive sera recognized two proteins at a molecular weight of 98 kD and 59 kD. Anti-M9 antibodies were detected in 37% of 156 anti-M2 positive as well as in 82% of 22 anti-M2 negative patients with histologically proven PBC. It is concluded that anti-M9 is a new AMA type in PBC which may be helpful especially for the early diagnosis of PBC in patients who are still anti-M2 negative. As one of the earliest immunological signs in PBC further characterization of M9 could provide new insights into the etiopathogenesis of the disease. Images Fig. 3 PMID:2464450

Klein, R; Berg, P A

1988-01-01

145

Immunologic and structural studies of the lupus/Sj?gren's syndrome autoantigen, La/SSB, with a monoclonal antibody.  

PubMed Central

La/SSB is a small nuclear RNA protein against which precipitating autoantibodies are made in many patients with systemic lupus erythematosus or Sjögren's syndrome. The recent purification of La/SSB has made structural and immunologic studies possible. Consequently, a mouse hybridoma antibody (La1) was raised, after immunization and fusion, that reacted with bovine La/SSB. Results of inhibition tests with tissue extracts and fluorescent antinuclear antibody tests demonstrated that La1 reacted with bovine extracts and cells, but not with those from human, mouse, or rabbit sources. La1 reacted in Western blot and in an adapted anti-La/SSB enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with only the 41-kD bovine La/SSB peptide and not with the smaller 29-kD bovine La/SSB peptide. RNA gels showed that La1 bound the La/SSB particle that contained the predominant La/SSB RNA species near 90 nucleotides as well as the minor RNA species, both of which were bound by the human autoimmune anti-La/SSB serum. A solid-phase assay for human autoimmune anti-La/SSB antibody using La1 was more sensitive for the detection of human anti-La/SSB than was a comparable assay using purified La/SSB, and showed that anti-La/SSB is present in nearly all Ro/SSA precipitin-positive sera. Thus, this study demonstrates that monoclonal antibody can be raised against La/SSB; that the protein moiety of bovine La/SSB differs from human, mouse, and rabbit at an epitope on the 41-kD La/SSB peptide; that the RNA bound to the La1-reactive particle was as heterogeneous as that binding the anti-La/SSB autoimmune serum; and that anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB are closely associated. Images PMID:2411763

Harley, J B; Rosario, M O; Yamagata, H; Fox, O F; Koren, E

1985-01-01

146

Immunologic and structural studies of the lupus/Sjögren's syndrome autoantigen, La/SSB, with a monoclonal antibody.  

PubMed

La/SSB is a small nuclear RNA protein against which precipitating autoantibodies are made in many patients with systemic lupus erythematosus or Sjögren's syndrome. The recent purification of La/SSB has made structural and immunologic studies possible. Consequently, a mouse hybridoma antibody (La1) was raised, after immunization and fusion, that reacted with bovine La/SSB. Results of inhibition tests with tissue extracts and fluorescent antinuclear antibody tests demonstrated that La1 reacted with bovine extracts and cells, but not with those from human, mouse, or rabbit sources. La1 reacted in Western blot and in an adapted anti-La/SSB enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with only the 41-kD bovine La/SSB peptide and not with the smaller 29-kD bovine La/SSB peptide. RNA gels showed that La1 bound the La/SSB particle that contained the predominant La/SSB RNA species near 90 nucleotides as well as the minor RNA species, both of which were bound by the human autoimmune anti-La/SSB serum. A solid-phase assay for human autoimmune anti-La/SSB antibody using La1 was more sensitive for the detection of human anti-La/SSB than was a comparable assay using purified La/SSB, and showed that anti-La/SSB is present in nearly all Ro/SSA precipitin-positive sera. Thus, this study demonstrates that monoclonal antibody can be raised against La/SSB; that the protein moiety of bovine La/SSB differs from human, mouse, and rabbit at an epitope on the 41-kD La/SSB peptide; that the RNA bound to the La1-reactive particle was as heterogeneous as that binding the anti-La/SSB autoimmune serum; and that anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB are closely associated. PMID:2411763

Harley, J B; Rosario, M O; Yamagata, H; Fox, O F; Koren, E

1985-08-01

147

Monoclonal antibodies and immobilized antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibodies in both their free and immobilized state have been the object of considerable industrial and academic interest.\\u000a A variety of methods are used for preparing and immobilizing antibodies. Applications for monoclonal antibodies include the\\u000a preparation of therapeutics, diagnostics, and in affinity fractionation. Recent US patents on monoclonal and immobilized antibodies\\u000a and scientific literature on monoclonal antibodies are surveyed. A

Robert J. Linhardt; C. W. Abell; R. M. Denney; B. W. Altrock; R. Auerbach; S. D. Bernal; R. E. Canfield; P. H. Ehrlich; W. R. Moyle; T. S. Chan; T. W. Chang; N. T. Chang; J. A. Cidlowski; M. D. Viceps; R. J. Cote; D. M. Morrissey; A. N. Houghton; E. J. Beattie; H. F. Oettgen; L. J. Old; C. M. Croce; R. S. Cubicciotti; A. E. Karu; R. M. Krauss; J. S. Cullor; A. Deutsch; H. Brandwein; H. Platt; D. M. Hunter; A. Dubitsky; S. M. Durham; F. A. Dolbeare; J. W. Gray; G. R. Dreesman; C. E. Kendall; J. C. Egrie; A. R. Frackelton; H. N. Eisen; A. H. Ross; S. Gay; G. Geirnaert; J. E. Geltosky; E. H. Goldberg; E. Goldwasser; C. Kavinsky; T. L. Weiss; H. G. Gratzner; B. Hampar; M. Zweig; S. D. Showalter; H. H. Handley; M. C. Glassy; Y. Hagiwara; H. Hagiwara; C. M. Huang; S. N. Cohen; J. V. Hughes; E. M. Scolnick; J. E. Tomassini; R. Jefferis; J. Steensgaard; H. S. Kaplan; N. N. H. Teng; K. S. Earn; R. F. Calvo; L. Kass; J. R. Kettman; M. V. Norgard; M. B. Khazaeli; W. H. Beierwaltes; B. G. England; P. C. Kung; G. Goldstein; L. Lanier; J. Phillips; N. L. Warner; J. W. Larrick; A. R. Raubitschek; K. E. Truitt; H. Lazarus; J. F. Schwaber; J. Lewicki; C. Lewis; J. V. Olander; W. R. Tolbert; E. L. Milford; C. B. Carpenter; J. M. Paradysz; D. F. Mosher; J. L. Mulshine; J. D. Minna; K. A. Murray; D. M. Neville; R. J. Youle; M. Nicolson; I. Pastan; M. C. Willingham; D. J. Fitzgerald; A. Pucci; A. M. Smithyman; M. B. Slade; P. W. French; G. Wijffels; C. S. Pukel; K. O. Lloyd; L. R. Travassos; W. G. Dippold; R. P. Reckel; J. L. Harris; R. Wellerson; S. M. Shaw; P. M. Kaplan; E. L. Reinherz; S. F. Schlossman; S. C. Mener; J. Sakamoto; C. C. Cordon; E. Friedman; C. L. Finstad; W. E. Enker; M. R. Melamed; J. F. Oettgen; P. J. Scannon; L. E. Spitler; H. M. Lee; R. T. Kawahata; R. P. Mischak; J. Schlom; D. Colcher; M. Nuti; P. H. Hand; F. Austin; G. D. Shockman; D. E. Jackson; W. Wong; Z. Steplewski; H. Koprowski; M. Herlyn; M. Strand; I. S. Trowbridge; D. L. Urdal; C. J. March; S. K. Dower; J. R. Wands; V. R. Zurawski; C. A. White; R. Dulbecco; W. R. Allen; E. C. Arnold; M. Flasher; H. H. Freedman; T. D. Heath; P. Shek; D. Papahadjopoulos; M. Ikeda; S. Sakamoto; K. Suzuki; M. Kuboyama; Y. Harada; A. Kawashiri; E. Takahashi; H. S. Lee; S. Margel; R. C. Nowinski; A. S. Hoffman; J. W. Peterson; K. B. Platt; D. E. Reed; F. X. Real; M. J. Mattes; P. O. Livingston; A. Rembaum; R. C. K. Yen; R. Rosenstein; B. Schneider

1987-01-01

148

Latex agglutination assay of human immunoglobulin M antitoxoplasma antibodies which uses enzymatically treated antigen-coated particles.  

PubMed Central

An assay of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antitoxoplasma antibodies which is rapid (less than 30 min), homogeneous, and reliable (interassay coefficient of variation, less than 11%) is proposed. Its principle is based on the observation that a suspension of latex particles coated with toxoplasma antigens, after treatment with proteinase K, becomes less agglutinable by IgG antibodies but more agglutinable by IgM antibodies. The difference between the activities of the two classes of antibodies is increased by the addition of a monoclonal antibody directed against the Fc region of IgM. Agglutination is measured with a special instrument which optically counts the particles that remain free after the reaction. Turbidimetric reading, although less sensitive, is also suitable. No significant interferences either by IgG antitoxoplasma antibodies or by rheumatoid factor or antinuclear antibodies were observed. The sensitivity was similar to that of the immunosorbent agglutination assay. PMID:1572975

Cambiaso, C L; Galanti, L M; Leautaud, P; Masson, P L

1992-01-01

149

Monoclonal Antibodies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Monoclonal antibodies have provided an exciting addition to the "armory" of the molecular biologist and immunologist. This article discusses briefly the concept of, techniques available for, production of, and possible uses of monoclonal antibodies. (Author)

Killington, R. A.; Powell, K. L.

1984-01-01

150

Anti-nuclear weapons activism in the United States and Great Britain: a comparative analysis  

SciTech Connect

This study is a response to the lacuna in empirical research into political activism and the nuclear issue and seeks to ascertain the social and value characteristics, political attitudes, and political behavior of activists in the United States and Great Britain. Consideration is also given to gender differences in light of evidence of an emerging gender gap in these two countries. The study investigates the common forces cited in two sets of literature - post-industrialism and anti-nuclear weapons movements - which provide a framework for analysis. Survey research data is employed to assess cross-national similarities and differences. The findings obtained indicate that while American and British activists exhibit common social and value characteristics, British activists appear more integrated in their political opposition to nuclear weapons compared with their American counterparts. Survey results indicate that the political-action repertoire of these activists is quite diverse, suggesting a new style of politics in advanced industrial democracies. Gender-based analysis reveals two important findings. First, activist American men differ significantly from the other three social groups in their attitudes towards nuclear weapons. Second, activist women in both national settings participate at a level equal to or exceeding that of activist men.

Sussman, G.

1987-01-01

151

Nuclear energy in postwar Japan and anti-nuclear movements in the 1950s.  

PubMed

The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 revealed the most destructive power to-date of man-made weapons. Their impact was so great that Japanese scientists thought that a bigger disaster could be prevented only if war was abolished. Thus they welcomed the international control of atomic energy. It was, however, only after the occupation that the Japanese general public began to learn about the horror of these atomic disasters due to the censorship imposed by the occupational forces. The hydrogen bomb test by the US in the Bikini atoll on March 1, 1954 renewed fears of nuclear weapons. The crew of a Japanese fishing vessel, the "Daigo Fukuryu Maru" (Lucky Dragon No. 5) suffered from exposure to radiation from the test. Even after the incident the US did not stop nuclear tests which continued to radioactively contaminate fish and rains in Japan. As a result, the petition movement for the ban of nuclear trials suddenly spread all over the country. By the summer of 1955 the number of the signatures grew to more than one third of Japan's population at the time. Under the strong influence of anti-nuclear Japanese public opinion the Science Council of Japan announced the so-called three principles of atomic energy: "openness," "democracy," and "independence" to ensure atomic energy was used for peaceful uses only. These principles were included in the Atomic Energy Basic Law established in December 1955. With this law, military uses of nuclear energy were strictly forbidden. PMID:20521422

Yamazaki, Masakatsu

2009-01-01

152

Expression of Recombinant Antibodies  

PubMed Central

Recombinant antibodies are highly specific detection probes in research, diagnostics, and have emerged over the last two decades as the fastest growing class of therapeutic proteins. Antibody generation has been dramatically accelerated by in vitro selection systems, particularly phage display. An increasing variety of recombinant production systems have been developed, ranging from Gram-negative and positive bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, insect cell lines, mammalian cells to transgenic plants and animals. Currently, almost all therapeutic antibodies are still produced in mammalian cell lines in order to reduce the risk of immunogenicity due to altered, non-human glycosylation patterns. However, recent developments of glycosylation-engineered yeast, insect cell lines, and transgenic plants are promising to obtain antibodies with “human-like” post-translational modifications. Furthermore, smaller antibody fragments including bispecific antibodies without any glycosylation are successfully produced in bacteria and have advanced to clinical testing. The first therapeutic antibody products from a non-mammalian source can be expected in coming next years. In this review, we focus on current antibody production systems including their usability for different applications. PMID:23908655

Frenzel, Andre; Hust, Michael; Schirrmann, Thomas

2013-01-01

153

DOTA-Functionalized Polylysine: A High Number of DOTA Chelates Positively Influences the Biodistribution of Enzymatic Conjugated Anti-Tumor Antibody chCE7agl  

PubMed Central

Site-specific enzymatic reactions with microbial transglutaminase (mTGase) lead to a homogenous species of immunoconjugates with a defined ligand/antibody ratio. In the present study, we have investigated the influence of different numbers of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N-N?-N??-N???-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) chelats coupled to a decalysine backbone on the in vivo behavior of the chimeric monoclonal anti-L1CAM antibody chCE7agl. The enzymatic conjugation of (DOTA)1-decalysine, (DOTA)3-decalysine or (DOTA)5-decalysine to the antibody heavy chain (via Gln295/297) gave rise to immunoconjugates containing two, six or ten DOTA moieties respectively. Radiolabeling of the immunoconjugates with 177Lu yielded specific activities of approximately 70 MBq/mg, 400 MBq/mg and 700 MBq/mg with increasing numbers of DOTA chelates. Biodistribution experiments in SKOV3ip human ovarian cancer cell xenografts demonstrated a high and specific accumulation of radioactivity at the tumor site for all antibody derivatives with a maximal tumor accumulation of 43.6±4.3% ID/g at 24 h for chCE7agl-[(DOTA)-decalysine]2, 30.6±12.0% ID/g at 24 h for chCE7agl-[(DOTA)3-decalysine]2 and 49.9±3.1% ID/g at 48 h for chCE7agl-[(DOTA)5-decalysine)]2. The rapid elimination from the blood of chCE7agl-[(DOTA)-decalysine]2 (1.0±0.1% ID/g at 24 h) is associated with a high liver accumulation (23.2±4.6% ID/g at 24 h). This behavior changed depending on the numbers of DOTA moieties coupled to the decalysine peptide with a slower blood clearance (5.1±1.0 (DOTA)3 versus 11.7±1.4% ID/g (DOTA)5, p<0.005 at 24 h) and lower radioactivity levels in the liver (21.4±3.4 (DOTA)3 versus 5.8±0.7 (DOTA)5, p<0.005 at 24 h). We conclude that the site-specific and stoichiometric uniform conjugation of the highly DOTA-substituted decalysine ((DOTA)5-decalysine) to an anti-tumor antibody leads to the formation of immunoconjugates with high specific activity and excellent in vivo behavior and is a valuable option for radioimmunotherapy and potentially antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs). PMID:23565233

Sarko, Dikran; Dennler, Patrick; Zimmermann, Kurt; Mier, Walter; Schibli, Roger

2013-01-01

154

DOTA-functionalized polylysine: a high number of DOTA chelates positively influences the biodistribution of enzymatic conjugated anti-tumor antibody chCE7agl.  

PubMed

Site-specific enzymatic reactions with microbial transglutaminase (mTGase) lead to a homogenous species of immunoconjugates with a defined ligand/antibody ratio. In the present study, we have investigated the influence of different numbers of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N-N'-N''-N'''-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) chelats coupled to a decalysine backbone on the in vivo behavior of the chimeric monoclonal anti-L1CAM antibody chCE7agl. The enzymatic conjugation of (DOTA)1-decalysine, (DOTA)3-decalysine or (DOTA)5-decalysine to the antibody heavy chain (via Gln295/297) gave rise to immunoconjugates containing two, six or ten DOTA moieties respectively. Radiolabeling of the immunoconjugates with (177)Lu yielded specific activities of approximately 70 MBq/mg, 400 MBq/mg and 700 MBq/mg with increasing numbers of DOTA chelates. Biodistribution experiments in SKOV3ip human ovarian cancer cell xenografts demonstrated a high and specific accumulation of radioactivity at the tumor site for all antibody derivatives with a maximal tumor accumulation of 43.6±4.3% ID/g at 24 h for chCE7agl-[(DOTA)-decalysine]2, 30.6±12.0% ID/g at 24 h for chCE7agl-[(DOTA)3-decalysine]2 and 49.9±3.1% ID/g at 48 h for chCE7agl-[(DOTA)5-decalysine)]2. The rapid elimination from the blood of chCE7agl-[(DOTA)-decalysine]2 (1.0±0.1% ID/g at 24 h) is associated with a high liver accumulation (23.2±4.6% ID/g at 24 h). This behavior changed depending on the numbers of DOTA moieties coupled to the decalysine peptide with a slower blood clearance (5.1±1.0 (DOTA)3 versus 11.7±1.4% ID/g (DOTA)5, p<0.005 at 24 h) and lower radioactivity levels in the liver (21.4±3.4 (DOTA)3 versus 5.8±0.7 (DOTA)5, p<0.005 at 24 h). We conclude that the site-specific and stoichiometric uniform conjugation of the highly DOTA-substituted decalysine ((DOTA)5-decalysine) to an anti-tumor antibody leads to the formation of immunoconjugates with high specific activity and excellent in vivo behavior and is a valuable option for radioimmunotherapy and potentially antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs). PMID:23565233

Grünberg, Jürgen; Jeger, Simone; Sarko, Dikran; Dennler, Patrick; Zimmermann, Kurt; Mier, Walter; Schibli, Roger

2013-01-01

155

High mobility group (HMG) non-histone chromosomal proteins HMG1 and HMG2 are significant target antigens of perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in autoimmune hepatitis  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—High mobility group (HMG) non-histone chromosomal proteins HMG1 and HMG2 have been identified as novel antigens of perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (p-ANCAs), and the existence of anti-HMG1 and anti-HMG2 antibodies in a population of patients with ulcerative colitis has been reported.?AIMS—To investigate whether HMG1 and HMG2 are target antigens for p-ANCAs in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH).?PATIENTS—Serum samples from 28 patients with AIH, 44 patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), 27 patients with chronic hepatitis C, and 23 patients with chronic hepatitis B were tested.?METHODS—ANCAs were detected by routine indirect immunofluorescence (IIF). Anti-HMG1 and anti-HMG2 antibodies were assayed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.?RESULTS—p-ANCAs were detected in 89% (25/28) of patients with AIH, 36% (16/44) of patients with PBC, 11% (3/27) of patients with chronic hepatitis C, and 13% (3/23) of patients with chronic hepatitis B. Anti-HMG1 and/or anti-HMG2 antibodies were detected in 89% (25/28) of patients with AIH, 70% (31/44) with PBC, 26% (7/27) with chronic hepatitis C, and 9% (2/23) with chronic hepatitis B. In AIH, anti-HMG1 and/or anti-HMG2 antibodies were detected in 96% (24/25) of p-ANCA positive patients. The p-ANCA staining pattern detected by IIF using sera from patients with AIH disappeared or decreased in titre after preincubation with a mixture of HMG1/HMG2. The presence and titres of those antibodies in AIH correlated significantly with those of p-ANCA, but not with those of anti-nuclear antibody or anti-smooth muscle antibody.?CONCLUSIONS—HMG1 and HMG2 are significant target antigens of p-ANCA in AIH.???Keywords: perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies; chromosomal proteins; high mobility group 1 and 2; autoimmune; hepatitis PMID:10323891

Sobajima, J; Ozaki, S; Uesugi, H; Osakada, F; Inoue, M; Fukuda, Y; Shirakawa, H; Yoshida, M; Rokuhara, A; Imai, H; Kiyosawa, K; Nakao, K

1999-01-01

156

Serum Antibodies from a Subset of Horses Positive for Babesia caballi by Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Demonstrate a Protein Recognition Pattern That Is Not Consistent with Infection  

PubMed Central

Tick-borne pathogens that cause persistent infection are of major concern to the livestock industry because of transmission risk from persistently infected animals and the potential economic losses they pose. The recent reemergence of Theileria equi in the United States prompted a widespread national survey resulting in identification of limited distribution of equine piroplasmosis (EP) in the U.S. horse population. This program identified Babesia caballi-seropositive horses using rhoptry-associated protein 1 (RAP-1)–competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA), despite B. caballi being considered nonendemic on the U.S. mainland. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the suitability of RAP-1–cELISA as a single serological test to determine the infection status of B. caballi in U.S. horses. Immunoblotting indicated that sera from U.S. horses reacted with B. caballi lysate and purified B. caballi RAP-1 protein. Antibody reactivity to B. caballi lysate was exclusively directed against a single ?50-kDa band corresponding to a native B. caballi RAP-1 protein. In contrast, sera from experimentally and naturally infected horses from regions where B. caballi is endemic bound multiple proteins ranging from 30 to 50 kDa. Dilutions of sera from U.S. horses positive by cELISA revealed low levels of antibodies, while sera from horses experimentally infected with B. caballi and from areas where B. caballi is endemic had comparatively high antibody levels. Finally, blood transfer from seropositive U.S. horses into naive horses demonstrated no evidence of B. caballi transmission, confirming that antibody reactivity in cELISA-positive U.S. horses was not consistent with infection. Therefore, we conclude that a combination of cELISA and immunoblotting is required for the accurate serodiagnosis of B. caballi. PMID:24049108

Awinda, Peter O.; Mealey, Robert H.; Williams, Laura B. A.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Packham, Andrea E.; Reif, Kathryn E.; Grause, Juanita F.; Pelzel-McCluskey, Angela M.; Chung, Chungwon; Bastos, Reginaldo G.; Kappmeyer, Lowell S.; Howe, Daniel K.; Ness, SallyAnne L.; Knowles, Donald P.

2013-01-01

157

Antiphospholipid antibodies during 6-month treatment with infliximab: A preliminary report  

PubMed Central

Background The introduction of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists (adalimumab, infliximab, and etanercept) was a major advance and was highly important and beneficial in most rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. The adverse effects of this treatment are infrequent, but include opportunistic intracellular infection (especially the reactivation of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis); exacerbation of demyelinating disorders; and the production of various types of antibodies such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA) or double-stranded DNA autoantibodies (dsDNA) and antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) such as anti-cardiolipin antibodies (aCL) and anti-B2GP-I antibodies (B2GP-I). The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of aCL and B2GP-I in IgM and IgG classes, using ELISA tests, during 6 months of follow-up in patients with refractory RA successfully treated with infliximab. Material/Methods We determined the prevalence of aCL and B2GP-I in IgM and IgG classes, using ELISA tests, during 6 months of follow-up in patients with refractory RA successfully treated with infliximab. Results We observed a statistically important increase only in the group of B2GP-I IgM (p<0.05). There are contradictory results concerning the ability of infliximab to induce aPL, but most authors confirm this phenomenon. Conclusions Further investigations are needed to determine if the new aPL appears in patients with ?2-GPI gene polymorphisms such as leucine-to-valine substitution at position 247, which can lead to a conformational changes in ?2-GPI protein, leading to aPL synthesis. The role of aPL in pathogenesis of APS is still unclear, but we should remember the immunogenic aspect of TNF antagonist treatment. Therefore, we recommend early detection of aPL and observation of the patient, paying special attention to signs and symptoms of thromboembolism. PMID:25027437

Kolarz, Bogdan; Majdan, Maria; Darmochwal-Kolarz, Dorota A.; Dryglewska, Magdalena

2014-01-01

158

Chronic Malaria Revealed by a New Fluorescence Pattern on the Antinuclear Autoantibodies Test  

PubMed Central

Background Several clinical forms of malaria such as chronic carriage, gestational malaria or hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly may follow a cryptic evolution with afebrile chronic fatigue sometimes accompanied by anemia and/or splenomegaly. Conventional parasitological tests are often negative or not performed, and severe complications may occur. Extensive explorations of these conditions often include the search for antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA). Methods We analysed fluorescence patterns in the ANA test in patients with either chronic cryptic or acute symptomatic malaria, then conducted a one-year prospective study at a single hospital on all available sera drawn for ANA detections. We then identified autoantibodies differentially expressed in malaria patients and in controls using human protein microarray. Results We uncovered and defined a new, malaria-related, nucleo-cytoplasmic ANA pattern displaying the specific association of a nuclear speckled pattern with diffuse cytoplasmic perinuclearly-enhanced fluorescence. In the one-year prospective analysis, 79% of sera displaying this new nucleo-cytoplasmic fluorescence were from patients with malaria. This specific pattern, not seen in other parasitic diseases, allowed a timely reorientation of the diagnosis toward malaria. To assess if the autoantibody immune response was due to autoreactivity or molecular mimicry we isolated 42 autoantigens, targets of malarial autoantibodies. BLAST analysis indicated that 23 of recognized autoantigens were homologous to plasmodial proteins suggesting autoimmune responses directly driven by the plasmodial infection. Conclusion In patients with malaria in whom parasitological tests have not been performed recognition of this new, malaria-related fluorescence pattern on the ANA test is highly suggestive of the diagnosis and triggers immediate, easy confirmation and adapted therapy. PMID:24551116

Hommel, Benjamin; Charuel, Jean-Luc; Jaureguiberry, Stephane; Arnaud, Laurent; Courtin, Regis; Kassab, Petra; Prendki, Virginie; Paris, Luc; Ghillani-Dalbin, Pascale; Thellier, Marc; Caumes, Eric; Amoura, Zahir; Mazier, Dominique; Musset, Lucile; Buffet, Pierre; Miyara, Makoto

2014-01-01

159

Brucella antibodies in sudanese camels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sera of 740 camels of both sexes from three regions of Sudan were tested for antibodies toBrucella abortus. The overall incidence of antibodies was 4.9%. The highest positive number of samples (7.5%) was from the Eastern Region followed by Darfur Region (3.1%) and the Central Region (2.0%).Brucella antibodies were as frequent in males (5.6%) as females (4.5%).

H. Abu Damir; S. J. Kenyon; Amna E. Khalaf Alla; O. F. Idris

1984-01-01

160

One-Step 2-Minute Test To Detect Typhoid-Specific Antibodies Based on Particle Separation in Tubes  

PubMed Central

Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella typhi. Detection of anti-S. typhi antibodies in the patient is a useful diagnostic aid. Among the various methods developed over the years for this purpose, the Widal test, based on bacterial agglutination, has remained the most widely used, even though it is neither specific nor sensitive. Its popularity stems from the fact that it is simple to use and inexpensive. We describe a new test which also uses a simple one-step procedure but is more rapid and accurate than the Widal. The new test (TUBEX) detects anti-Salmonella O9 (both immunoglobulin M [IgM] and IgG) antibodies in patients by inhibiting the binding between an anti-O9 IgM monoclonal antibody (MAb) conjugated to colored latex particles and S. typhi lipopolysaccharide (LPS) conjugated to magnetic latex particles. The reactants are mixed in a specially designed microtube for 2 min, and the result is read based on the resultant color of the supernatant following forced sedimentation of the magnetic beads. In the absence of inhibitory antibodies, there is a color change (from blue to red) due to cosedimentation of the indicator particles with the magnetic particles, whereas if these antibodies are present, they prevent such a change to a degree dependent on their concentration. Preliminary examination of TUBEX using the anti-O9 MAb and irrelevant MAbs as inhibitors revealed the test to be specific and reproducible, with an analytical sensitivity of 16 ?g per ml of antibody. The reagents remained stable for at least 9 months when kept at 4°C. In the examination of 16 stored sera obtained from 14 patients with proven cases of typhoid fever and 78 serum samples from 75 subjects without typhoid fever, TUBEX was found to be 100% sensitive and 100% specific. The nontyphoid group comprised 26 healthy blood donors, 30 antinuclear antibody (ANA)-negative patients, 9 ANA-positive patients, of whom 1 was positive for anti-DNA antibody, 4 typhus patients, and 6 septicemic patients. In addition, the sera obtained from 11 patients clinically diagnosed as having typhoid fever were all positive in the test. The TUBEX results correlated to some extent, albeit insignificantly (r = 0.38, P = 0.07), with those of an enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) which used a similar detection format (inhibition) and reagents (S. typhi LPS and anti-O9 antibody). TUBEX correlated very well with ELISAs which detected anti-S. typhi LPS IgM (r = 0.58, P = 0.003) or IgG (r = 0.54, P = 0.006) antibodies from the typhoid patients. There was no correlation with the Widal test. The TUBEX test, if performed on slides (instead of tubes) or with soluble antigen (instead of antigen-conjugated magnetic beads), suffered significantly in sensitivity. Direct agglutination tests using LPS-conjugated indicator particles performed either on slides or in microwells also failed to detect antibodies from the majority of typhoid patients. Thus, TUBEX appears to be well designed and well suited for use in the laboratory or by the bedside as a simple, rapid aid to the routine diagnosis of typhoid fever. PMID:9666004

Lim, Pak-Leong; Tam, Frankie C. H.; Cheong, Yuet-Meng; Jegathesan, M.

1998-01-01

161

ANTIBODY FORMATION  

PubMed Central

The suppression of antibody formation by passively administered antibody is influenced by the dose and nature of the antigen, type of immunization procedure, ratio of antibody to antigen, species origin and characteristics of the antiserum used, as well as the species selected for immunization. In guinea pigs, diphtheria antitoxin formation can be effectively suppressed by an intravenous injection of excess homologous or heterologous antitoxin as long as 5 days after toxoid immunization and after delayed-type hypersensitivity to toxoid has developed. Following the period of antibody suppression which lasts 2 to 7 weeks, serum antibody can usually be demonstrated. It is proposed that this delayed immunization results from dissociation of antigen, since diphtheritic paralysis and death can be produced in guinea pigs and rabbits by the intravenous injection of toxin-antitoxin precipitates formed in antitoxin excess. This syndrome is prevented by injection of excess horse antitoxin 1 hour after injection of the toxin-antitoxin complexes. PMID:13779027

Uhr, Jonathan W.; Baumann, Joyce B.

1961-01-01

162

Belgian recommendations on ANA, anti-dsDNA and anti-ENA antibody testing.  

PubMed

Autoantibodies to nuclear antigens, i.e. antinuclear antibodies (ANA), antibodies to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and extractable nuclear antigens (ENA), are useful as diagnostic markers for a variety of autoimmune diseases. In March 2010, the Belgian national External Quality Assessment Scheme sent a questionnaire on ANA, anti-dsDNA and anti-ENA antibody testing designed by the Dutch EASI (European Autoimmunity Standardization Initiative) team, to all clinical laboratories performing ANA testing. Virtually all laboratories completed the questionnaire (97·7%, 127/130). This paper discusses the results of this questionnaire and provides valuable information on the state-of-the-art of ANA, anti-dsDNA and anti-ENA antibody testing as practiced in the Belgian laboratories. In addition, this work presents practical recommendations developed by the members of the advisory board of the scheme as a result of the outcome of this study. PMID:24724745

Van Blerk, M; Bossuyt, X; Humbel, R; Mewis, A; Servais, G; Tomasi, J P; Van Campenhout, C; Van Hoovels, L; Vercammen, M; Damoiseaux, J; Coucke, W; Van de Walle, P

2014-04-01

163

Anti-HIV Activity in Cervical-Vaginal Secretions from HIV-Positive and -Negative Women Correlate with Innate Antimicrobial Levels and IgG Antibodies  

PubMed Central

Background We investigated the impact of antimicrobials in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) from HIV(+) and HIV(?) women on target cell infection with HIV. Since female reproductive tract (FRT) secretions contain a spectrum of antimicrobials, we hypothesized that CVL from healthy HIV(+) and (?) women inhibit HIV infection. Methodology/Principal Findings CVL from 32 HIV(+) healthy women with high CD4 counts and 15 healthy HIV(?) women were collected by gently washing the cervicovaginal area with 10 ml of sterile normal saline. Following centrifugation, anti-HIV activity in CVL was determined by incubating CVL with HIV prior to addition to TZM-bl cells. Antimicrobials and anti-gp160 HIV IgG antibodies were measured by ELISA. When CXCR4 and CCR5 tropic HIV-1 were incubated with CVL from HIV(+) women prior to addition to TZM-bl cells, anti-HIV activity in CVL ranged from none to 100% inhibition depending on the viral strains used. CVL from HIV(?) controls showed comparable anti-HIV activity. Analysis of CH077.c (clone of an R5-tropic, mucosally-transmitted founder virus) viral inhibition by CVL was comparable to laboratory strains. Measurement of CVL for antimicrobials HBD2, trappin-2/elafin, SLPI and MIP3? indicated that each was present in CVL from HIV(+) and HIV(?) women. HBD2 and MIP3? correlated with anti-HIV activity as did anti-gp160 HIV IgG antibodies in CVL from HIV(+) women. Conclusions/Significance These findings indicate that CVL from healthy HIV(+) and HIV(?) women contain innate and adaptive defense mechanisms that inhibit HIV infection. Our data suggest that innate endogenous antimicrobials and HIV-specific IgG in the FRT can act in concert to contribute toward the anti-HIV activity of the CVL and may play a role in inhibition of HIV transmission to women. PMID:20614007

Shen, Zheng; Lahey, Timothy; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Wu, Zhijin; Mayer, Kenneth; Wright, Peter F.; Kappes, John C.; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Wira, Charles R.

2010-01-01

164

Amelioration of Lupus-Like Autoimmune Disease in NZB\\/W F1 Mice after Treatment with a Blocking Monoclonal Antibody Specific for Complement Component C5  

Microsoft Academic Search

New Zealand black × New Zealand white (NZB\\/W) F1 mice spontaneously develop an autoimmune syndrome with notable similarities to human systemic lupus erythematosus. Female NZB\\/W F1 mice produce high titers of antinuclear antibodies and invariably succumb to severe glomerulonephritis by 12 months of age. Although the development of the immune-complex nephritis is accompanied by abundant local and systemic complement activation,

Yi Wang; Qile Hu; Joseph A. Madri; Scott A. Rollins; Amy Chodera; Louis A. Matis

1996-01-01

165

Induction and detection of antibodies to squalene  

Microsoft Academic Search

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) utilizing antigen coated on hydrophobic polyvinyldiene fluoride (PVDF) membranes is described for detecting antibodies that bind to squalene (SQE). Because of the prior lack of availability of validated antibodies to SQE, positive controls for the assay were made by immunization with formulations containing SQE to create monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that reacted with SQE. Among eight

Gary R Matyas; Nabila M Wassef; Mangala Rao; Carl R Alving

2000-01-01

166

Clinical and virological factors associated with hepatitis B virus reactivation in HBsAg-negative and anti-HBc antibodies-positive patients undergoing chemotherapy and/or autologous stem cell transplantation for cancer.  

PubMed

We studied clinical outcome and clinico-virological factors associated with hepatitis B virus reactivation (HBV-R) following cancer treatment in hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative/anti-hepatitis B core antibodies (anti-HBcAb)-positive patients. Between 11/2003 and 12/2005, HBV-R occurred in 7/84 HBsAg-negative/anti-HBcAb-positive patients treated for haematological or solid cancer. Virological factors including HBV genotype, core promoter, precore, and HBsAg genotypic and amino acid (aa) patterns were studied. Patients presenting with reactivation were men, had an hepatitis B virus surface antibody (HBsAb) titre <100 IU/L and underwent >1 line of chemotherapy (CT) significantly more frequently than controls. All were treated for haematological cancer, 3/7 received haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and 4/7 received rituximab. Using multivariate analysis, receiving >1 line of CT was an independent risk factor for HBV-R. Fatal outcome occurred in 3/7 patients (despite lamivudine therapy in two), whereas 2/4 survivors had an HBsAg seroconversion. HBV-R involved non-A HBV genotypes and core promoter and/or precore HBV mutants in all cases. Mutations known to impair HBsAg antigenicity were detected in HBV DNA from all seven patients. HBV DNA could be retrospectively detected in two patients prior cancer treatment and despite HBsAg negativity. HBV-R is a concern in HBsAg-negative/anti-HBcAb-positive patients undergoing cancer therapy, especially in males presenting with haematological cancer, a low anti-HBsAb titre and more than one chemotherapeutic agent. HBV DNA testing is mandatory to improve diagnosis and management of HBV-R in these patients. The role of specific therapies such as rituximab or HSCT as well as of HBV aa variability deserves further studies. PMID:20002298

Borentain, P; Colson, P; Coso, D; Bories, E; Charbonnier, A; Stoppa, A M; Auran, T; Loundou, A; Motte, A; Ressiot, E; Norguet, E; Chabannon, C; Bouabdallah, R; Tamalet, C; Gérolami, R

2010-11-01

167

Rh Antibodies Detectable only by Enzyme Technique  

PubMed Central

The titration of Rh antibodies at intervals during pregnancy by various methods has led to evidence for the existence of an Rh antibody or antibodies detectable by an enzyme (papain) method but not by anti-human-globulin. Adsorption experiments show that this antibody is less readily absorbed by red cells than the other Rh antibodies unless the cells are pretreated with enzyme. This fact may possibly account for the finding of a negative or weakly positive anti-human-globulin test associated with moderate or high titres by enzyme techniques. The relationship of this antibody to the general immunization process in pregnant women is discussed. PMID:13886834

Dodd, Barbara E.; Eeles, Doreen A.

1961-01-01

168

Antibodies to nuclear antigens in polymyositis: relationship to autoimmune 'overlap syndromes' and carcinoma.  

PubMed

Thirty-two patients with polymyositis were categorised into 4 groups: (1) 'pure' polymyositis, (2) dermatomyositis, (3) myositis associated with autoimmune 'overlap syndrome', and (4) those with associated malignancy. Serum from each patient was examined for a range of antinuclear antibodies. Seventeen patients had ANA detected by immunofluorescence, 18 patients had raised DNA binding (greater than 25 U/ml), of whom eight had levels greater than 50 U/ml (SI conversion: U/l = U/ml x 10(3)). Antibodies to soluble nuclear antigens were detected in 23 (72%) by 1 or more of 3 methods, and in all of these anti-RNP was the main antibody detected. Antibodies to other soluble antigens were also present in 6 sera. In 2 cases, both patients with SLE/myositis overlap, these were shown to be anti-Sm. The remaining 4 had antibodies to various protein components of the extracts, but it was not possible to demonstrate an antibody of diagnostic specificity for polymyositis. Furthermore, quantitation of anti-RNP and anti-DNA antibodies failed to define a distinct clinical entity or exclude malignant disease. High levels of anti-RNP antibodies showed an association with Raynaud's phenomenon, sclerodactyly, and pulmonary fibrosis and an inverse correlation with the rash of dermatomyositis, suggesting that this antibody may be of pathogenetic rather than diagnostic significance. PMID:6787993

Venables, P J; Mumford, P A; Maini, R N

1981-06-01

169

In vitro Activity of Monoclonal and Recombinant Yeast Killer Toxin-like Antibodies Against Antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive Cocci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Monoclonal (mAbKT) and recom- binant single-chain (scFvKT) anti-idiotypic anti- bodies were produced to represent the internal image of a yeast killer toxin (KT) characterized by a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity, including Gram-positive cocci. Pathogenic eukaryotic and prokaryotic microorganisms, such as Candida albi- cans, Pneumocystis carinii, and a multidrug-resistant strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, presenting spe- cific, although yet undefined,

S. Conti; W. Magliani; S. Arseni; E. Dieci; A. Salati; P. E. Varaldo; L. Polonelli

2000-01-01

170

Introduction to Antibodies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a thorough overview of the fundamentals of antibodies. The site starts with an introduction to antigens and antibodies, antibody production and titer including practical information.

2011-02-14

171

Isotype profile and clinical relevance of anticardiolipin antibodies in Sjögren's syndrome.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the occurrence and clinical value of anticardiolipin antibodies in patients with Sjögren's syndrome. Thirty one patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (all women, mean (SD) age 48.3 (11.2) years) and 32 patients with secondary Sjögren's syndrome with rheumatoid arthritis (all women, mean (SD) age 54.9 (11) years) were studied. IgG, IgM, and IgA anticardiolipin antibodies were determined by a standard enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Anticardiolipin antibodies were found in five patients (16%) with primary Sjögren's syndrome and in seven patients (22%) with secondary Sjögren's syndrome. There was no correlation between anticardiolipin antibodies and the clinical features of the antiphospholipid syndrome (thrombotic events, fetal loss, thrombocytopenia) or extraglandular manifestations of Sjögren's syndrome (arthritis, skin lesions, myositis, polyneuropathy, central nervous system disease, pulmonary and renal disease) in either group. Among the various serological features studied, anticardiolipin antibodies correlated with antinuclear antibodies and antibodies to RNP only in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome. These results indicate that although anticardiolipin antibodies are often found in serum samples from patients with Sjögren's syndrome, their clinical significance remains unclear. PMID:1632664

Jedryka-Goral, A; Jagiello, P; D'Cruz, D P; Maldykowa, H; Khamashta, M A; Hughes, G R; Swana, G T; Luft, S

1992-07-01

172

Isotype profile and clinical relevance of anticardiolipin antibodies in Sj?gren's syndrome.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine the occurrence and clinical value of anticardiolipin antibodies in patients with Sjögren's syndrome. Thirty one patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (all women, mean (SD) age 48.3 (11.2) years) and 32 patients with secondary Sjögren's syndrome with rheumatoid arthritis (all women, mean (SD) age 54.9 (11) years) were studied. IgG, IgM, and IgA anticardiolipin antibodies were determined by a standard enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Anticardiolipin antibodies were found in five patients (16%) with primary Sjögren's syndrome and in seven patients (22%) with secondary Sjögren's syndrome. There was no correlation between anticardiolipin antibodies and the clinical features of the antiphospholipid syndrome (thrombotic events, fetal loss, thrombocytopenia) or extraglandular manifestations of Sjögren's syndrome (arthritis, skin lesions, myositis, polyneuropathy, central nervous system disease, pulmonary and renal disease) in either group. Among the various serological features studied, anticardiolipin antibodies correlated with antinuclear antibodies and antibodies to RNP only in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome. These results indicate that although anticardiolipin antibodies are often found in serum samples from patients with Sjögren's syndrome, their clinical significance remains unclear. PMID:1632664

Jedryka-Goral, A; Jagiello, P; D'Cruz, D P; Maldykowa, H; Khamashta, M A; Hughes, G R; Swana, G T; Luft, S

1992-01-01

173

The combination of the antiviral agent cidofovir and anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab exerts an antiproliferative effect on HPV-positive cervical cancer cell lines' in-vitro and in-vivo xenografts.  

PubMed

Cervical carcinoma remains a leading cause of female mortality worldwide and over 90% of these tumors contain the human papillomavirus (HPV) genome. Cross-talk between the epidermal growth factor receptor and HPV has been reported and is implicated in tumor progression. The combination of the antiviral compound cidofovir (Cd) with the monoclonal antibody antiepidermal growth factor receptor cetuximab (Cx) was evaluated. HPV-positive (HeLa and Me180) and HPV-negative (C33A, H460 and A549) human cancer cell lines were incubated with Cd (1-10 ?g/ml) and/or Cx (10 or 50 ?g/ml). The antitumor effect of the combination was assessed in vitro using a clonogenic survival assay, cell cycle analysis, and phospho-H2AX level. Tumor growth delay was assayed in vivo using xenograft models. A pan-genomic analysis was carried out to identify the genes expressed differentially in untreated HeLa HPV-positive cells versus cells treated by the Cd-Cx combination. The Cd-Cx combination inhibited proliferation in all the cell lines tested. The association of Cd and Cx exerted a synergistic activity on HPV-positive but not on HPV-negative cell lines. The combination delayed tumor growth of HPV-positive tumors in vivo; however, no efficacy was reported on HPV-negative C33A xenografts nor on cell lines treated by single-drug therapy. The combination induced an S-phase arrest associated with an enhanced level of the double-strand break in Me180 and HeLa cell lines. Gene profiling assays showed a significant differential modulation of genes in HeLa cell lines treated with the combination involving the EGR-1 transcription factor. The current data support a synergistic antiproliferative action of the Cd-Cx combination on HPV-related cervical tumors. PMID:23698251

Deberne, Mélanie; Levy, Antonin; Mondini, Michele; Dessen, Philippe; Vivet, Sonia; Supiramaniam, Ajitha; Vozenin, Marie-Catherine; Deutsch, Eric

2013-07-01

174

Smoking interacts with HLA-DRB1 shared epitope in the development of anti-citrullinated protein antibody-positive rheumatoid arthritis: results from the Malaysian Epidemiological Investigation of Rheumatoid Arthritis (MyEIRA)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease in which genetic and environmental factors interact in the etiology. In this study, we investigated whether smoking and HLA-DRB1 shared-epitope (SE) alleles interact differently in the development of the two major subgroups of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), anti-citrullinated proteins antibody (ACPA)-positive and ACPA-negative disease, in a multiethnic population of Asian descent. Methods A case-control study comprising early diagnosed RA cases was carried out in Malaysia between 2005 and 2009. In total, 1,076 cases and 1,612 matched controls participated in the study. High-resolution HLA-DRB1 genotyping was performed for shared-epitope (SE) alleles. All participants answered a questionnaire on a broad range of issues, including smoking habits. The odds ratio (OR) of developing ACPA-positive and ACPA-negative disease was calculated for smoking and the presence of any SE alleles separately. Potential interaction between smoking history (defined as "ever" and "never" smoking) and HLA-DRB1 SE alleles also was calculated. Results In our multiethnic study, both the SE alleles and smoking were associated with an increased risk of developing ACPA-positive RA (OR SE alleles, 4.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.6 to 6.2; OR smoking, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.9 to 9.2). SE-positive smokers had an odds ratio of ACPA-positive RA of 25.6 (95% CI, 10.4 to 63.4), compared with SE-negative never-smokers. The interaction between smoking and SE alleles was significant (attributable proportion due to interaction (AP) was 0.7 (95% CI, 0.5 to 1.0)). The HLA-DRB1*04:05 SE allele, which is common in Asian populations, but not among Caucasians, was associated with an increased risk of ACPA-positive RA, and this allele also showed signs of interaction with smoking (AP, 0.4; 95% CI, -0.1 to 0.9). Neither smoking nor SE alleles nor their combination was associated with an increased risk of ACPA-negative RA. Conclusions The risk of developing ACPA-positive RA is associated with a strong gene-environment interaction between smoking and HLA-DRB1 SE alleles in a Malaysian multiethnic population of Asian descent. This interaction seems to apply also between smoking and the specific HLA-DRB1*04:05 SE allele, which is common in Asian populations but not in Caucasians. PMID:22537824

2012-01-01

175

Pneumocystis carinii antibody testing.  

PubMed Central

Sera from blood donors and patients from all over Scotland were examined by indirect immunofluorescence using Pneumocystis carinii antigen from infected rat lung. Antibody was found in 76 of 488 (15.6%) of patients tested on clinical grounds but in only 13 of 148 (8.8%) blood donors. The antibody rates were higher in disease groups likely to have or develop P carinii pneumonia: in those with histologically confirmed or strongly suspected P carinii pneumonia the rate was 14 of 24 (58.3%); in those who had undergone transplantation eight of 24 (33.3%); in those who were immunosuppressed five of 16 (31.2%); in those who were human immunodeficiency virus antibody (HIV) positive 11 of 43 (25.6%); in those with malignancy 34 of 233 (14.6%); and in those with chest infection 10 of 85 (11.7%). P carinii pneumonia was confirmed or likely in four of 45 (8.8%) patients with titres of 1/8-1/16 and in three of seven (42.8%) in those with titres of greater than or equal to 1/128. Seroconversion or rising titre was detected in seven of 13 (53.8%) cases of confirmed or likely P carinii pneumonia compared with 10 of 93 (10.7%) in other patients. Diagnosis of P carinii infection can therefore be assisted by positive immunofluorescence results, but negative serology does not exclude infection. PMID:2671053

Chatterton, J M; Joss, A W; Williams, H; Ho-Yen, D O

1989-01-01

176

T4+ cell depletion as a major risk factor for AIDS-related complex and AIDS. Longitudinal study of 253 HIV-antibody positive heroin addicts from northern Italy.  

PubMed

We enrolled 253 HIV-antibody positive heroin addicts without HIV-related disease (n = 81) or with persistent generalized lymphadenopathy (n = 172) in a prospective study to evaluate clinical progression to AIDS related complex (ARC) or AIDS and to identify factors of possible prognostic relevance. Follow-up lasted between 6 and 40 months (median 12 months). According to the non-parametric Cox's model the only significant (P less than 0.001) prognostic variable was T4+ cell count considered in three classes: greater than 800/microliters (no depletion), 400-800/microliters (moderate depletion) and less than 400/microliters (absolute depletion). Subjects with T4+ cell count of less than 400/microliters had a risk of developing ARC or AIDS that was 6.46 and 1.98 higher than those with values of greater than 800/microliters or between 400 and 800/microliters respectively. The estimated probability of progression to ARC or AIDS was 0.029, 0.056 and 0.172 at one year in subjects with T4+ cell count of greater than 800/microliters 400-800/microliters and less than 400/microliters, respectively, and 0.296, 0.501, and 0.896 at two years. PMID:1674662

Conte, D; Mandelli, C; Cesana, B M; Barbera, R; Aimo, G P; Piubello, W; Bianchi, P A

1991-01-01

177

Antireticulin antibody: Incidence and diagnostic significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sera from 101 patients with adult coeliac disease, 46 patients with childhood coeliac disease, 50 patients with dermatitis herpetiformis, and 479 patients with various other diseases, including skin, gastrointestinal, haematological, and immunological disorders, have been tested for the presence of the antireticulin antibody. Positive sera were retested at higher dilutions. Antireticulin antibody was only found in a significant proportion of

P. P. Seah; Lionel Fry; E. J. Holborow; Mary A. Rossiter; W. F. Doe; A. F. Magalhaes; A. V. Hoffbrand

1973-01-01

178

Neonatal lupus erythematosus: Discordant disease expression of U 1RNP-positive antibodies in fraternal twins—Is this a subset of neonatal lupus erythematosus or a new distinct syndrome?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neonatal lupus erythematosus (NLE) is an uncommon disease that is manifested by cutaneous lesions, cardiac conduction defects, or both, that appear in utero or shortly after birth. In approximately 95% of patients, anti-Ro antibody (Ro[SS-A]) has been identified and has become the serologic marker for NLE. Since 1987 there have been four reported cases of Ro- and anti-La antibody (La[SS-B])-negative,

Barry A Solomon; Teresita A Laude; Alan R Shalita

1995-01-01

179

X antigen/antibody markers in hepadnavirus infections. Antibodies to the X gene product(s).  

PubMed

Antibodies to the X antigen of hepatitis B virus and woodchuck hepatitis virus were assayed in serial sera from infected individuals and compared with other markers of infection. Antibody to the X antigen was found in 11 of 17 (65%) patients and 17 of 40 (42%) woodchucks that were surface-antigen positive. In comparison, this antibody was found in 5 of 14 (36%) patients and in none of 4 woodchucks that were surface-antigen negative. In 5 of 6 patients showing seroconversion from hepatitis B e antigen to antibody, antibody to X appeared at or near the time of seroconversion. In patients persistently positive for e antigen, X antibody often appeared when viral DNA became undetectable in the serum. In 14 of 17 (82%) woodchucks positive for antibody to X antigen, it also appeared near or after the time that viral DNA in serum disappeared. X antibodies were detected with great frequency only in populations with high frequencies of other hepatitis B virus markers. The results are consistent with the conclusion that antibody to X antigen is a marker of hepadnavirus infections that seems to be associated with a decrease in viral replication. Antibodies to the X antigen, then, may be a host response to the replication complex of the virus. PMID:2365196

Feitelson, M A; Clayton, M M

1990-08-01

180

Antibody to intermediate filaments of the cytoskeleton.  

PubMed Central

IgM antibodies against cultures of intermediate filaments (IMF) of the cytoskeleton were demonstrated by immunofluorescence in the sera of 94 (80%) of 118 patients with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis. These antibodies reacted with IMF in cultures of both human fetal fibroblasts and laryngeal carcinoma (HEp2) cells. Of 10 patients from whom paired synovial fluids were also available 8 had anti-IMF antibodies in both serum and fluid. In seronegative RA the incidence of anti-IMF was 40%, in ankylosing spondylitis 25%, in osteoarthrosis 16%, and in normal subjects 14%. Only a minority of RA sera positive for anti-IMF antibodies were also positive for smooth muscle antibody. Absorption experiments suggest that in RA anti-IMF is directed at the intermediate filament protein, vimentin. Images PMID:7039524

Osung, O A; Chandra, M; Holborow, E J

1982-01-01

181

Antiphospholipid antibodies and infertility.  

PubMed

Since the late 1980s some publications have proposed that antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) may have some relationship with infertility, considering reported deleterious effects that aPL exert on trophoblast proliferation and growth. Although not included in current classification criteria for antiphospholipid syndrome, many physicians investigate for aPL in patients with a history of infertility, including antibodies not listed in classification criteria, and most of those patients will receive anticoagulant therapy if any of those antibodies have a result considered positive. A review of literature was conducted searching for studies that investigated the association of aPL and infertility and if aPL positivity alters in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome. The definition of infertility, routine work-up to exclude other causes of infertility, definition of IVF failure as inclusion criteria and control populations were heterogeneous among studies. Most of them enrolled women over 40 years of age, and exclusion of other confounding factors was also inconsistent. Of 29 studies that assessed aPL positivity rates in infertile women, the majority had small sample sizes, implying a lack of power, and 13 (44.8%) reported higher frequency of aPL in infertile patients compared to controls, but most of them investigated a panel of non-criteria aPL tests, whose clinical significance is highly controversial. Only two studies investigated all three criteria tests, and medium-high titer of anticardiolipin cut-off conforming to international guidelines was used in one study. Considering IVF outcome, there was also disparity in this definition: few studies assessed the live birth rate, others the implantation rate. Of 14 publications that addressed the relationship between aPL and IVF outcome, only two described a detrimental effect of these autoantibodies. In conclusion, available data do not support an association between aPL and infertility, and aPL positivity does not seem to influence IVF outcome. Well-designed clinical studies recruiting women with a clear diagnosis of infertility and a high-risk aPL profile should be performed to test whether clinically relevant aPL do-or not-exert an effect on human fertility. PMID:25228713

Chighizola, Cb; de Jesus, Gr

2014-10-01

182

Transmission of hepatitis B by transplantation of livers from donors positive for antibody to hepatitis B core antigen. The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Liver Transplantation Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Organ donors are a potential source of transmissible disease after transplantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of acquiring hepatitis B among transplantation recipients of livers from donors without serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) but with antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc).METHODS: The transplantation experience of four centers between 1989 and

RC Dickson; JE Everhart; JR Lake; Y Wei; EC Seaberg; RH Wiesner; RK Zetterman; TL Pruett; MB Ishitani; JH Hoofnagle

1997-01-01

183

Are the current attempts at standardization of antiphospholipid antibodies still useful? Emerging technologies signal a shift in direction.  

PubMed

The pathogenic role of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) has been widely established over past years in several experimental models and clinical studies. Accordingly, the detection of aPL by immunoassays (anticardiolipin antibodies; anti-beta2 glycoprotein I antibodies) has become a routine practice in the clinical workup of patients with systemic autoimmune diseases. aPL are mostly assayed using commercial ELISA kits, whose performance has not been found to be sufficiently concordant among the different manufacturers. In the past years, collaborative groups have spent considerable effort to reach some form of standardization but this process is still ongoing. Such lack of standardization has recently become even more crucial, as manufacturers have had to face an increasing demand for fully automated tests for aPL, like those test systems that have been developed for other autoantibodies (e.g., antinuclear antibodies, anti-ENA antibodies). We therefore report our recent experience with two newly developed automated methods for anticardiolipin antibodies testing. In particular, we discuss the results obtained using routine samples, as we believe that these better reflect the "real-life" situation in which those automated methods will operate. We also mention other emerging technologies in the field of aPL detection. PMID:18814069

Andreoli, Laura; Rizzini, Silvia; Allegri, Flavio; Meroni, Pierluigi; Tincani, Angela

2008-06-01

184

Antibody Blood Tests  

MedlinePLUS

... CeliacDisease.net People with celiac disease who eat gluten have higher than normal levels of certain antibodies ... rye and barley that are generically known as “gluten.” Find Out For Sure Antibody tests are only ...

185

Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... fo-LIP-id) antibody syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder. Autoimmune disorders occur if the body's immune system makes antibodies ... long term. If you have APS and another autoimmune disorder, it's important to control that condition as well. ...

186

Subclass restriction and polyclonality of the systemic lupus erythematosus marker antibody anti-Sm.  

PubMed Central

Anti-Sm antibodies are highly specific markers for the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This specificity suggests that the immunoregulation of these autoantibodies would reflect fundamental immune abnormalities in this disorder. As a clue to this immunoregulation, we have investigated the isotype distribution of anti-Sm antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. We have found that the anti-Sm response is markedly restricted to the IgG1 heavy chain isotype. On the other hand, the light chain distribution reflects that in normal serum, while isoelectric focusing analysis fails to show an oligoclonal pattern. The related specificity, anti-ribonucleoprotein, is also restricted to IgG1, while the SLE-specific antibody anti-double-stranded DNA is mostly IgG1 with a lesser contribution by IgG3. These results suggest that antinuclear antibodies that are strongly associated with SLE are produced by a T cell-dependent response, probably driven by antigen. The immunoregulation of the response to several autoantigens may be quite similar. Images PMID:3872886

Eisenberg, R A; Dyer, K; Craven, S Y; Fuller, C R; Yount, W J

1985-01-01

187

Antibodies, viruses and vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutralizing antibodies are crucial for vaccine-mediated protection against viral diseases. They probably act, in most cases, by blunting the infection, which is then resolved by cellular immunity. The protective effects of neutralizing antibodies can be achieved not only by neutralization of free virus particles, but also by several activities directed against infected cells. In certain instances, non-neutralizing antibodies contribute to

Dennis R. Burton

2002-01-01

188

Modeling Antibody Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding antibody structure and function is difficult for many students. The rearrangement of constant and variable regions during antibody differentiation can be effectively simulated using a paper model. Describes a hands-on laboratory exercise which allows students to model antibody diversity using readily available resources. (PVD)

Baker, William P.; Moore, Cathy Ronstadt

1998-01-01

189

Bispecific anti?CD3 x anti?HER2 antibody mediates T cell cytolytic activity to HER2?positive colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Targeting HER2 overexpressed breast cancer cells with anti?HER2 monoclonal antibodies inhibits tumor growth. Here we investigated whether HER2 can serve as a target for T cell?mediated immunotherapy of human colorectal carcinoma. Specific cytolytic activity of activated T cells (ATCs) armed with anti?CD3 x anti?HER2 bispecific antibody (HER2Bi?Ab) against HER2+ tumor cells was evaluated by bioluminescent signal generated by luciferase reporter on tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. In contrast to unarmed ATCs, increased cytotoxic activity of HER2Bi?armed ATCs against HER2+ tumor cells was observed. Moreover, HER2Bi?armed ATCs expressed higher level of activation marker CD69 and secreted significantly higher levels of IFN?? than the unarmed ATC counterpart. In addition, compared with anti?HER2 mAb (Herceptin®) or unarmed ATC, HER2Bi?armed ATCs showed significant suppression against colorectal carcinoma cells. In colorectal tumor cell xenograft mice, infusion of HER2Bi?armed ATCs successfully inhibited the growth of Colo205?luc cells. The HER2Bi?armed ATCs with anti?tumor effects may provide a promising immunotherapy for colorectal carcinoma in the future. PMID:25242665

Han, Huamin; Ma, Juan; Zhang, Keming; Li, Wei; Liu, Changzhen; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Ganlin; Ma, Pan; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Ge; Tao, Hua; Gao, Bin

2014-12-01

190

A Monoclonal Antibody Against PMEL.  

PubMed

PMEL, also known as Pmel17 or gp100, is a melanocyte-specific glycoprotein that is essential for the formation of stage II melanosomes. As it has a highly restricted expression pattern in normal tissues and a transient presence on the cell surface, PMEL is believed to be a potential target for antibody drug conjugate therapy in some pigmentary diseases. The production of a high specificity and high affinity monoclonal antibody against human PMEL was helpful for the antibody drug conjugate therapy study. In the present study, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against PMEL were obtained by immunizing BALB/c mice with the recombinant PMEL-GST fusion protein. Three mAbs (A3F, G11B, and J7E) with a titer of 1:6000, 1:10,000, and 1:3000, respectively, were obtained. Immunoglobulin subclass assay revealed that A3F was IgG2b, G11B was IgG1, and J7E was IgG2a. Specificity analysis by Western blotting demonstrated that A3F and J7E cross-reacted with GPNMB or LAMP; however, G11B reacted with PMEL only. Immunohistochemistry experiments showed that G11B could bind human PMEL antigen in normal skin. Flow cytometry assay demonstrated that G11B could bind to the surface of PMEL positive melanoma cells but not PMEL negative cells. Taken together, these results show that this G11B provides a useful tool for the antibody drug conjugate therapy study in some pigmentary diseases. PMID:25118787

Shi, Fangyuan; Xu, Zhenjie; Chen, Hongdong; Wang, Xin; Cui, Jihong; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Ping; Xie, Xin

2014-10-01

191

Method for altering antibody light chain interactions  

DOEpatents

A method for recombinant antibody subunit dimerization including modifying at least one codon of a nucleic acid sequence to replace an amino acid occurring naturally in the antibody with a charged amino acid at a position in the interface segment of the light polypeptide variable region, the charged amino acid having a first polarity; and modifying at least one codon of the nucleic acid sequence to replace an amino acid occurring naturally in the antibody with a charged amino acid at a position in an interface segment of the heavy polypeptide variable region corresponding to a position in the light polypeptide variable region, the charged amino acid having a second polarity opposite the first polarity. Nucleic acid sequences which code for novel light chain proteins, the latter of which are used in conjunction with the inventive method, are also provided.

Stevens, Fred J. (Naperville, IL); Stevens, Priscilla Wilkins (Evanston, IL); Raffen, Rosemarie (Elmhurst, IL); Schiffer, Marianne (Downers Grove, IL)

2002-01-01

192

Have we overestimated the benefit of human(ized) antibodies?  

PubMed Central

The infusion of animal-derived antibodies has been known for some time to trigger the generation of antibodies directed at the foreign protein as well as adverse events including cytokine release syndrome. These immunological phenomena drove the development of humanized and fully human monoclonal antibodies. The ability to generate human(ized) antibodies has been both a blessing and a curse. While incremental gains in the clinical efficacy and safety for some agents have been realized, a positive effect has not been observed for all human(ized) antibodies. Many human(ized) antibodies trigger the development of anti-drug antibody responses and infusion reactions. The current belief that antibodies need to be human(ized) to have enhanced therapeutic utility may slow the development of novel animal-derived monoclonal antibody therapeutics for use in clinical indications. In the case of murine antibodies, greater than 20% induce tolerable/negligible immunogenicity, suggesting that in these cases humanization may not offer significant gains in therapeutic utility. Furthermore, humanization of some murine antibodies may reduce their clinical effectiveness. The available data suggest that the utility of human(ized) antibodies needs to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis, taking a cost-benefit approach, taking both biochemical characteristics and the targeted therapeutic indication into account. PMID:20935511

Getts, Meghann T; McCarthy, Derrick P; Chastain, Emily ML; Miller, Stephen D

2010-01-01

193

Biobarcodes: Antibodies and Nanosensors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity/demo, learners investigate biobarcodes, a nanomedical technology that allows for massively parallel testing that can assist with disease diagnosis. Learners define antibodies and learn how each antibody binds to a unique protein. Learners also discover how biobarcoding uses nanoparticles, antibodies, DNA and magnetism to detect diseases earlier than we could detect before. Learners assemble a jigsaw puzzle that models how biobarcodes work.

Network, Nanoscale I.; Industry, Oregon M.

2014-06-04

194

Antibodies to cholesterol.  

PubMed

Cholesterol-dependent complement activation has been proposed as a factor that might influence the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Although antibodies to cholesterol conjugates have been reported, cholesterol is widely regarded as a poorly immunogenic substance. Monoclonal IgM complement-fixing antibodies to cholesterol were obtained in the present study after immunizing mice with liposomes containing high amounts of cholesterol (71 mol % relative to phosphatidylcholine) and lipid A as an adjuvant. Clones were selected for the ability of secreted antibodies to react with liposomes containing 71% cholesterol but not with liposomes containing 43% cholesterol. The antibodies also reacted with crystalline cholesterol in a solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Binding of monoclonal antibodies to the surface of crystalline cholesterol was demonstrated by electron microscopy by utilizing a second antibody (anti-IgM) labeled with colloidal gold. The immunization period required to induce monoclonal antibodies was very short (3 days) and a high fraction of the hybrid cells (at least 70%) were secreting detectable antibodies to cholesterol. The results demonstrate that cholesterol can be a highly immunogenic molecule and that complement-fixing antibodies to cholesterol can be readily obtained. PMID:3162316

Swartz, G M; Gentry, M K; Amende, L M; Blanchette-Mackie, E J; Alving, C R

1988-03-01

195

Passive West Nile virus antibody transfer from maternal Eastern screech-owls (Megascops asio) to progeny.  

PubMed

Transovarial antibody transfer in owls has not been demonstrated for West Nile virus (WNV). We sampled chicks from captive adult WNV-antibody-positive Eastern Screech-Owls (Megascops asio) to evaluate the prevalence of transovarial maternal antibody transfer, as well as titers and duration of maternal antibodies. Twenty-four owlets aged 1 to 27 days old circulated detectable antibodies with neutralizing antibody titers ranging from 20 to 1600 (median 1:40). Demonstrating that WNV antibodies are passively transferred transovarially is important for accurate interpretation of serologic data from young birds. PMID:17039850

Hahn, D C; Nemeth, Nicole M; Edwards, Eric; Bright, Patricia R; Komar, Nicholas

2006-09-01

196

Passive West Nile virus antibody transfer from maternal Eastern Screech-Owls (Megascops asio) to progeny  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Transovarial antibody transfer in owls has not been demonstrated for West Nile virus (WNV). We sampled chicks from captive adult WNV-antibody-positive Eastern Screech-Owls (Megascops asio) to evaluate the prevalence of transovarial maternal antibody transfer, as well as titers and duration of maternal antibodies. Twenty-four owlets aged 1 to 27 days old circulated detectable antibodies with neutralizing antibody titers ranging from 20 to 1600 (median 1:40). Demonstrating that WNV antibodies are passively transferred transovarially is important for accurate interpretation of serologic data from young birds.

Hahn, D.C.; Nemeth, N.M.; Edwards, E.; Bright, P.R,.; Komar, N.

2006-01-01

197

Position Information Position Details  

E-print Network

policies, admission policies, scholarship and loan programs, athletics, and other school_10398 Department College of Education - Masters in Teaching Program Pay Band Faculty FLSA Status Exempt The College of Education invites applications for a 1-year, full time non-tenure track Instructor position w

Carter, John

198

GE Healthcare Antibody Purification  

E-print Network

GE Healthcare Antibody Purification Handbook GE Healthcare imagination at work agination at work Separation Media Methodology and Applications 18-1115-69 Ion Exchange Chromatography & Chromatofocusing from GE Healthcare #12;Antibody Purification Handbook #12; Handbook 18-1037-46 AD Contents Introduction

Lebendiker, Mario

199

Antibodies with infinite affinity  

PubMed Central

Here we report an approach to the design and production of antibody/ligand pairs, to achieve functional affinity far greater than avidin/biotin. Using fundamental chemical principles, we have developed antibody/ligand pairs that retain the binding specificity of the antibody, but do not dissociate. Choosing a structurally characterized antibody/ligand pair as an example, we engineered complementary reactive groups in the antibody binding pocket and the ligand, so that they would be in close proximity in the antibody/ligand complex. Cross-reactions with other molecules in the medium are averted because of the low reactivity of these groups; however, in the antibody/ligand complex the effective local concentrations of the complementary reactive groups are very large, allowing a covalent reaction to link the two together. By eliminating the dissociation of the ligand from the antibody, we have made the affinity functionally infinite. This chemical manipulation of affinity is applicable to other biological binding pairs. PMID:11447282

Chmura, Albert J.; Orton, Molly S.; Meares, Claude F.

2001-01-01

200

Production Of Human Antibodies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Process for making human monoclonal antibodies based on combination of techniques. Antibodies made active against specific antigen. Process involves in vivo immunization of human B lymphocyte cells in mice. B cells of interest enriched in vitro before fusion. Method potentially applicable to any antigen. Does not rely on use of Epstein-Barr virus at any step. Human lymphocytes taken from any source.

Sammons, David W.; Neil, Garry A.

1993-01-01

201

Therapeutic Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the last two decades, the rapid growth of biotechnology-derived techniques has led to a myriad of therapeutic recombinant monoclonal antibodies with significant clinical benefits. Recombinant monoclonal antibodies can be obtained from a number of natural sources such as animal cell cultures using recombinant DNA engineering. In contrast to…

Bakhtiar, Ray

2012-01-01

202

Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)  

E-print Network

and autoimmune diseases to serious infectious diseases. Adimab is backed by top-tier venture capitalist firms human immune system to create novel antibody therapeutics across a broad range of diseases from cancer

New Hampshire, University of

203

[Humanized antibodies as therapeutics].  

PubMed

Since 1997, nine humanized antibodies received the approval of the FDA to be used as drugs for the treatment of various diseases including transplant rejections, metastatic breast and colon cancers, leukaemia, non-Hodgkin lymphomas, allergic conditions or multiple sclerosis. This review describes techniques used to engineer these antibodies and presents the recent evolutions of these techniques : SDRs grafting or < abbreviated > CDRs grafting. Based on the illustrative examples of several antibodies, Mylotarg, Herceptin or Xolair, the therapeutic effectiveness of humanized antibodies are underlined and, with the example of Tysabri, the sometimes dramatic adverse effects associated with their clinical use is stressed. In a second part, this review presents some future and realistic avenues to improve the effectiveness of the humanized antibodies, to decrease their immunogenicity and to reduce their cost. PMID:16324646

Bellet, Dominique; Dangles-Marie, Virginie

2005-12-01

204

[Recombinant antibodies against bioweapons].  

PubMed

The threat posed by bioweapons (BW) could lead to the re-emergence of such deadly diseases as plague or smallpox, now eradicated from industrialized countries. The development of recombinant antibodies allows tackling this risk because these recombinant molecules are generally well tolerated in human medicine, may be utilized for prophylaxis and treatment, and because antibodies neutralize many BW. Recombinant antibodies neutralizing the lethal toxin of anthrax, botulinum toxins and the smallpox virus have in particular been isolated recently, with different technologies. Our approach, which uses phage-displayed immune libraries built from non-human primates (M. fascicularis) to obtain recombinant antibodies, which may later be super-humanized (germlinized), has allowed us to obtain such BWs-neutralizing antibodies. PMID:20035695

Thullier, Philippe; Pelat, Thibaut; Vidal, Dominique

2009-12-01

205

Antibodies for biodefense  

PubMed Central

Potential bioweapons are biological agents (bacteria, viruses and toxins) at risk of intentional dissemination. Biodefense, defined as development of therapeutics and vaccines against these agents, has seen an increase, particularly in the US, following the 2001 anthrax attack. This review focuses on recombinant antibodies and polyclonal antibodies for biodefense that have been accepted for clinical use. These antibodies aim to protect against primary potential bioweapons or category A agents as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, botulinum neurotoxins, smallpox virus and certain others causing viral hemorrhagic fevers) and certain category B agents. Potential for prophylactic use is presented, as well as frequent use of oligoclonal antibodies or synergistic effect with other molecules. Capacities and limitations of antibodies for use in biodefense are discussed, and are generally applicable to the field of infectious diseases. PMID:22123065

Froude, Jeffrey W; Stiles, Bradley; Pelat, Thibaut

2011-01-01

206

Antibody engineering for cancer therapy  

E-print Network

Antibodies targeting various tumor-associated antigens have been developed successfully to treat cancer. In this Thesis, novel antibodies and antibody-conjugate against two tumor antigens, AF-20 antigen and human aspartyl ...

Yeung, Yik Andy

2005-01-01

207

Antibody discovery: sourcing of monoclonal antibody variable domains.  

PubMed

Historically, antibody variable domains for therapeutic antibodies have been sourced primarily from the mouse IgG repertoire, and typically either chimerized or humanized. More recently, human antibodies from transgenic mice producing human IgG, phage display libraries, and directly from human B lymphocytes have been used more broadly as sources of antibody variable domains for therapeutic antibodies. Of the total 36 antibodies approved by major maket regulatory agencies, the variable domain sequences of 26 originate from the mouse. Of these, four are marketed as murine antibodies (of which one is a mouse-rat hybrid IgG antibody), six are mouse-human chimeric antibodies, and 16 are humanized. Ten marketed antibodies have originated from human antibody genes, three isolated from phage libraries of human antibody genes and seven from transgenic mice producing human antibodies. Five antibodies currently in clinical trials have been sourced from camelids, as well as two from non-human primates, one from rat, and one from rabbit. Additional sources of antibody variable domains that may soon find their way into the clinic are potential antibodies from sharks and chickens. Finally, the various methods for retrieval of antibodies from humans, mouse and other sources, including various display technologies and amplification directly from B cells, are described. PMID:24168292

Strohl, William R

2014-03-01

208

Fetal arthrogryposis and maternal serum antibodies.  

PubMed

Arthrogryposis multiplex congenital (AMC) describes multiple joint contractures resulting from lack of movement in utero. Antibodies directed at the fetal isoform of the muscle acetylcholine receptor (AChR) have been reported in a small number of asymptomatic mothers of AMC babies. We examined sera from 179 mothers of AMC babies and 20 parous and non-parous controls to look for antibodies to AChR or undefined muscle or neuronal proteins. We found positive AChR antibodies in only three sera (1.5%) from asymptomatic AMC mothers. However, there was reactivity with muscle or with neuronal antigens in 33% of the sera, and reactivity to undefined neuronal antigens was more common in sera from mothers of AMC babies with CNS involvement (p=0.001) than those without. The offspring of mothers with AChR antibodies may benefit from treatment during pregnancy. Other maternal antibodies require further study, but these observations add to the emerging literature on maternal antibodies associated with developmental intrauterine disorders. PMID:16919948

Dalton, Paola; Clover, Linda; Wallerstein, Robert; Stewart, Helen; Genzel-Boroviczeny, Orsolya; Dean, Andrew; Vincent, Angela

2006-08-01

209

Ebola Virus Antibodies in Fruit Bats, Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

To determine geographic range for Ebola virus, we tested 276 bats in Bangladesh. Five (3.5%) bats were positive for antibodies against Ebola Zaire and Reston viruses; no virus was detected by PCR. These bats might be a reservoir for Ebola or Ebola-like viruses, and extend the range of filoviruses to mainland Asia. PMID:23343532

Islam, Ariful; Yu, Meng; Anthony, Simon J.; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Khan, Salah Uddin; Crameri, Gary; Wang, Lin-Fa; Lipkin, W. Ian; Luby, Stephen P.; Daszak, Peter

2013-01-01

210

Monoclonal antibody "gold rush".  

PubMed

The market, sales and regulatory approval of new human medicines, during the past few years, indicates increasing number and share of new biologics and emergence of new multibillion dollar molecules. The global sale of monoclonal antibodies in 2006 were $20.6 billion. Remicade had annual sales gain of $1 billion during the past 3 years and five brands had similar increase in 2006. Rituxan with 2006 sales of $4.7 billion was the best selling monoclonal antibody and biological product and the 6th among the top selling medicinal brand. It may be the first biologic and monoclonal antibody to reach $10 billion annual sales in the near future. The strong demand from cancer and arthritis patients has surpassed almost all commercial market research reports and sales forecast. Seven monoclonal antibody brands in 2006 had sales exceeding $1 billion. Humanized or fully human monoclonal antibodies with low immunogenicity, enhanced antigen binding and reduced cellular toxicity provide better clinical efficacy. The higher technical and clinical success rate, overcoming of technical hurdles in large scale manufacturing, low cost of market entry and IND filing, use of fully human and humanized monoclonal antibodies has attracted funds and resources towards R&D. Review of industry research pipeline and sales data during the past 3 years indicate a real paradigm shift in industrial R&D from pharmaceutical to biologics and monoclonal antibodies. The antibody bandwagon has been joined by 200 companies with hundreds of new projects and targets and has attracted billions of dollars in R&D investment, acquisitions and licensing deals leading to the current Monoclonal Antibody Gold Rush. PMID:17691940

Maggon, Krishan

2007-01-01

211

Prevalence of cattle persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus in 20 dairy herds in two counties in central Michigan and comparison of prevalence of antibody-positive cattle among herds with different infection and vaccination status  

Microsoft Academic Search

All cattle in 20 dairy herds randomly selected from herds participating in the Dairy Herd Im- provement Association program in 2 counties in central Michigan were tested for the presence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Virus-positive animals were retested to ascertain persistent infection with the virus. A total of 5,481 animals were tested for presence of BVDV. In 9

H. Houe; J. C. Baker; R. K. Maes; H. Wuryastuti; R. Wasito; P. L. Ruegg; J. W. Lloyd

1995-01-01

212

Heart antibodies in cardiomyopathies.  

PubMed Central

The reported frequency of circulating heart reactive antibodies in cardiomyopathies has varied and their significance is unknown. In this study such antibodies were sought in patients with primary congestive and hypertrophic cardiomyopathies and other heart diseases. Standard "single sandwich" and the more sensitive "double sandwich" indirect immunofluorescence techniques failed to disclose a significant difference between any cardiomyopathic group and controls in repeated experiments. With both techniques results were subject to considerable method-specific artefacts and observer variation. No published work associating heart antibodies detected by immunofluorescence methods with cariomyopathies adequately takes these into account. PMID:7028058

Trueman, T; Thompson, R A; Cummins, P; Littler, W A

1981-01-01

213

Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)  

E-print Network

Company: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description.gossinternational.com Machinery Engineering Company Overview: Degree: Paid Fall, Spring, Summer Yes Career & Internship Fair innovation. Chemical Engineering, Computer Engineering, Computer Science, Electrical Engineering, Mechanical

New Hampshire, University of

214

Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)  

E-print Network

Company: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description: Description: Paid/Unpaid: When: Hire International Students: Yes Career and Internship Fair March 5, 2013 & Clinical Practice. Business Administration, Chemistry, Computer Engineering, Computer Science, Health

Pringle, James "Jamie"

215

Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)  

E-print Network

Company: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description: Description: Paid/Unpaid: When: Hire International Students: Yes Career & Internship Fair October 22, 2013 Engineering, Computer Engineering, Computer Science, Mechanical Engineering Yes Entry Level

New Hampshire, University of

216

Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)  

E-print Network

Company: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description: Description: Paid/Unpaid: When: Hire International Students: Yes Career & Internship Fair October 22, 2013, "Where did I leave my electrosurgical unit?" Computer Engineering, Computer Science, Electrical

New Hampshire, University of

217

Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)  

E-print Network

Company: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description: Description: Paid/Unpaid: When: Hire International Students: Yes Career & Internship Fair October 22, 2013. Business Administration, Computer Engineering, Computer Science, Liberal Arts Majors No Entry Level

New Hampshire, University of

218

Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)  

E-print Network

Company: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description: Description: Paid/Unpaid: When: Hire International Students: Yes Career & Internship Fair October 22, 2013 at Riverbed. Computer Engineering, Computer Science, Electrical Engineering Yes Entry Level

New Hampshire, University of

219

Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)  

E-print Network

Company: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description: Description: Paid/Unpaid: When: Hire International Students: No Career & Internship Fair October 22, 2013 Engineer (aerospace), .Net Developer, and Data Architect. Computer Engineering, Computer Science

New Hampshire, University of

220

Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)  

E-print Network

Company: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description: Description: Paid/Unpaid: When: Hire International Students: Yes Career & Internship Fair October 22, 2013 sensor network products. Computer Engineering, Computer Science, Electrical Engineering Yes Entry Level

New Hampshire, University of

221

Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)  

E-print Network

Company: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description: Description: Paid/Unpaid: When: Hire International Students: No Career & Internship Fair October 22, 2013 efficient process. Business Administration, Civil Engineering, Computer Engineering, Computer Science

New Hampshire, University of

222

Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)  

E-print Network

Company: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description: Description: Paid/Unpaid: When: Hire International Students: No Career & Internship Fair October 22, 2013. Computer Engineering, Computer Science, Electrical Engineering, Math & Statistics, Physics Yes Entry Level

New Hampshire, University of

223

Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)  

E-print Network

Company: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description: Description: Paid/Unpaid: When: Hire International Students: No Career & Internship Fair October 22, 2013) software by leading industry analysts. Computer Engineering, Computer Science Yes Entry Level

New Hampshire, University of

224

Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)  

E-print Network

Company: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description meetings. tylertech.com Technology Company Overview: Degree: Paid Summer Yes Career & Internship Fair Specialist Business Administration, Computer Engineering, Computer Science, Electrical Engineering, Math

New Hampshire, University of

225

Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)  

E-print Network

Company: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description: Description: Paid/Unpaid: When: Hire International Students: No Career & Internship Fair October 22, 2013 customer requirements. Business Administration, Computer Engineering, Computer Science, Economics, Liberal

New Hampshire, University of

226

Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)  

E-print Network

Company: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description: Description: Paid/Unpaid: When: Hire International Students: No Career & Internship Fair October 22, 2013 Administration, Computer Engineering, Computer Science, Health & Human Services, Hospitality, Liberal Arts Majors

New Hampshire, University of

227

Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)  

E-print Network

Company: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description: Description: Paid/Unpaid: When: Hire International Students: No Career & Internship Fair October 22, 2013 employer. Business Administration, Computer Science Yes Entry LevelInternships Summer internships

New Hampshire, University of

228

Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)  

E-print Network

Company: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description: Description: Paid/Unpaid: When: Hire International Students: No Career & Internship Fair October 22, 2013 in its class. Business Administration, Computer Science, Economics, Electrical Engineering Yes Entry

New Hampshire, University of

229

Encephalitozoon cuniculi in rabbits in Germany: prevalence and sensitivity of antibody testing.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi antibodies in healthy and diseased rabbits in Germany. Age and gender dependencies were taken into consideration. The sensitivity of the E cuniculi antibody test and its relevance for the diagnosis of E cuniculi infection in rabbits was also examined. A total of 773 healthy and diseased rabbits were tested for E cuniculi antibodies (indirect immune fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) or carbon immunoassay (CIA). No differences between diseased and healthy rabbits were observed with regard to gender, but diseased rabbits were significantly older (P>0.001). Forty-three percent (336/773) of all rabbits were positive for E cuniculi antibodies. Of the diseased rabbits, 48 per cent (266/555) were positive for E cuniculi antibodies. While 96 per cent (91/95) of the rabbits with histopathologically or PCR confirmed encephalitozoonosis were E cuniculi antibody-positive, only 60 per cent (144/241) of the rabbits suspected of E cuniculi infection were antibody-positive. Of the healthy rabbits, 18 per cent (39/218) were positive for E cuniculi antibodies. Diseased rabbits were almost three times more likely to be E cuniculi antibody-positive than healthy ones (P>0.001; relative risk (RR): 2.68; 95% CI 1.99 to 3.61). The sensitivity of the E cuniculi antibody test was 96 per cent. PMID:24570403

Hein, J; Flock, U; Sauter-Louis, C; Hartmann, K

2014-04-01

230

Generation of neutralising antibodies against porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs)  

SciTech Connect

Antibodies neutralising porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) were induced in different animal species by immunisation with the transmembrane envelope protein p15E. These antibodies recognised epitopes, designated E1, in the fusion peptide proximal region (FPPR) of p15E, and E2 in the membrane proximal external region (MPER). E2 is localised in a position similar to that of an epitope in the transmembrane envelope protein gp41 of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), recognised by the monoclonal antibody 4E10 that is broadly neutralising. To detect neutralising antibodies specific for PERV, a novel assay was developed, which is based on quantification of provirus integration by real-time PCR. In addition, for the first time, highly effective neutralising antibodies were obtained by immunisation with the surface envelope protein of PERV. These data indicate that neutralising antibodies can be induced by immunisation with both envelope proteins.

Kaulitz, Danny; Fiebig, Uwe; Eschricht, Magdalena; Wurzbacher, Christian; Kurth, Reinhard; Denner, Joachim, E-mail: DennerJ@rki.d

2011-03-01

231

Mining human antibody repertoires  

PubMed Central

Human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become drugs of choice for the management of an increasing number of human diseases. Human antibody repertoires provide a rich source for human mAbs. Here we review the characteristics of natural and non-natural human antibody repertoires and their mining with non-combinatorial and combinatorial strategies. In particular, we discuss the selection of human mAbs from naïve, immune, transgenic and synthetic human antibody repertoires using methods based on hybridoma technology, clonal expansion of peripheral B cells, single-cell PCR, phage display, yeast display and mammalian cell display. Our reliance on different strategies is shifting as we gain experience and refine methods to the efficient generation of human mAbs with superior pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. PMID:20505349

2010-01-01

232

Intracellular antibody immunity.  

PubMed

Antibodies allow the immune system to target pathogens despite their tremendous diversity and rapid evolution. Once bound to a pathogen, antibodies induce a broad range of effector mechanisms, including phagocytosis and complement. However, these mechanisms are all initiated in the extracellular space, meaning that pathogens like viruses evade them upon infection of their target cells. Recently, it has been shown that, in addition to mediating extracellular immune responses, antibodies also activate immunity inside infected cells. Antibodies that are bound to the surface of non-enveloped viruses or bacteria are carried into the cell during pathogen entry. Once inside the cell, these pathogen-attached antibodies are recognised by a highly conserved, high affinity cytosolic antibody receptor called TRIM21. TRIM21 initiates both sensor and effector responses that reduce viral replication and induce an antiviral state. These responses are an important part of antiviral immunity and the removal of TRIM21 results in uncontrolled viraemia and death in a mouse model of infection. PMID:24722852

Watkinson, Ruth E; McEwan, William A; James, Leo C

2014-07-01

233

STUDIES ON ANTIBODY PRODUCTION  

PubMed Central

A method for the specific histochemical demonstration of antibody in cells and parts of cells is described. It consists of carrying out a two stage immunological reaction on frozen sections of tissues: (a) allowing reaction between antibody in the tissue and dilute antigen applied in vitro, and (b) the detection of those areas where this antigen has been specifically absorbed by means of a precipitin reaction carried out with fluorescein-labelled antibody. Examination under the fluorescence microscope reveals the yellow-green fluorescence of fluorescein over those areas where a precipitate has formed. A study of the hyperimmune rabbit on the first few days after the last of a series of intravenous antigen injections reveals that antibody against human ?-globulin or ovalbumin is present in groups of plasma cells in the red pulp of the spleen, the medullary areas of lymph nodes, the submucosa of the ileum, and the portal connective tissue of the liver. Because of extensive non-specific reactions, the bone marrow could not be examined. Small amounts of antibody were occasionally visible in cells in the lymphoid follicles of the spleen and lymph nodes, so that a minor contribution by lymphocytes to antibody synthesis cannot be excluded. PMID:14392240

Coons, Albert H.; Leduc, Elizabeth H.; Connolly, Jeanne M.

1955-01-01

234

Role of Maternal Antibody in Natural Infection of Peromyscus maniculatus with Sin Nombre Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from naturally infected deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were used to investigate vertical transmis- sion of Sin Nombre virus (SNV) and SNV-specific antibody. The antibody prevalence in juvenile mice (14 g or less) was inversely proportional to the mass of the animal, with juvenile deer mice weighing less than 11 g most likely to be antibody positive (26.9%) and juvenile

MONICA K. BORUCKI; JOHN D. BOONE; JOAN E. ROWE; MARLENE C. BOHLMAN; EDWARD A. KUHN; ROBERT DEBACA; STEPHEN C. S. T. JEOR

2000-01-01

235

Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis C virus in Saudi and expatriate women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Six of 511 (1.17%) parturient Saudi females were positive for antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV), while one of 171 (0.58%) expatriate female nurses tested positive for the antibody. The prevalence of 1.17% in Saudis compares with 1.2% among pregnant women in Spain, while none of the 40 pregnant women screened in England tested positive for anti-HCV. Antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen in the same sample from Saudi women were positive in 24.6%. Judging by the low prevalence of its antibody, HCV is not as highly endemic as hepatitis B virus (HBV) in this population. PMID:17590779

Fakunle, Y M; Al-Mofarreh, M; Al-Ghreimil, M S; Idrees, Y B; El-Drees, A Z; Al-Karamany, W; Ezzat, H O

1991-09-01

236

IN ANTIBODY-POSITIVE FIRST-DEGREE RELATIVES OF PATIENTS WITH TYPE 1 DIABETES, HLA-A*24 AND HLA-B*18, BUT NOT HLA-B*39, ARE PREDICTORS OF IMPENDING DIABETES WITH DISTINCT HLA-DQ INTERACTIONS  

PubMed Central

Aims/hypothesis Secondary type 1 diabetes prevention trials require selection of participants with impending diabetes. HLA-A and -B alleles have been reported to promote disease progression. We investigated whether typing for HLA-B*18 and -B*39 may complement screening for HLA-DQ8, -DQ2 and -A*24 and autoantibodies (Abs) against islet antigen-2 (IA-2) and zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8) for predicting rapid progression to hyperglycaemia. Methods A registry-based group of 288 persistently autoantibody-positive (Ab+) offspring/siblings (aged 0–39 years) of known patients (Ab+ against insulin, GAD, IA-2 and/or ZnT8) were typed for HLA-DQ, -A and -B and monitored from the first Ab+ sample for development of diabetes within 5 years. Results Unlike HLA-B*39, HLA-B*18 was associated with accelerated disease progression, but only in HLA-DQ2 carriers (p < 0.006). In contrast, HLA-A*24 promoted progression preferentially in the presence of HLA-DQ8 (p < 0.002). In HLA-DQ2- and/or HLA-DQ8-positive relatives (n = 246), HLA-B*18 predicted impending diabetes (p = 0.015) in addition to HLA-A*24, HLA-DQ2/DQ8 and positivity for IA-2A or ZnT8A (p ? 0.004). HLA-B*18 interacted significantly with HLA-DQ2/DQ8 and HLA-A*24 in the presence of IA-2 and/or ZnT8 autoantibodies (p ? 0.009). Additional testing for HLA-B*18 and -A*24 significantly improved screening sensitivity for rapid progressors, from 38% to 53%, among relatives at high Ab-inferred risk carrying at least one genetic risk factor. Screening for HLA-B*18 increased sensitivity for progressors, from 17% to 28%, among individuals carrying ?3 risk markers conferring >85% 5 year risk. Conclusions/interpretation These results reinforce the importance of HLA class I alleles in disease progression and quantify their added value for preparing prevention trials. PMID:23712485

Mbunwe, E.; Van der Auwera, B. J.; Weets, I.; Van Crombrugge, P.; Crenier, L.; Coeckelberghs, M.; Seret, N.; Decochez, K.; Vandemeulebroucke, E.; Gillard, P.; Keymeulen, B.; van Schravendijk, C.; Wenzlau, J. M.; Hutton, J. C.; Pipeleers, D. G.; Gorus, F. K.; Registry, The Belgian Diabetes

2013-01-01

237

Fluorescence intensity positivity classification of Hep-2 cells images using fuzzy logic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF) is a good standard used for antinuclear autoantibody (ANA) test using Hep-2 cells to determine specific diseases. Different classifier algorithm methods have been proposed in previous works however, there still no valid set as a standard to classify the fluorescence intensity. This paper presents the use of fuzzy logic to classify the fluorescence intensity and to determine the positivity of the Hep-2 cell serum samples. The fuzzy algorithm involves the image pre-processing by filtering the noises and smoothen the image, converting the red, green and blue (RGB) color space of images to luminosity layer, chromaticity layer "a" and "b" (LAB) color space where the mean value of the lightness and chromaticity layer "a" was extracted and classified by using fuzzy logic algorithm based on the standard score ranges of antinuclear autoantibody (ANA) fluorescence intensity. Using 100 data sets of positive and intermediate fluorescence intensity for testing the performance measurements, the fuzzy logic obtained an accuracy of intermediate and positive class as 85% and 87% respectively.

Sazali, Dayang Farzana Abang; Janier, Josefina Barnachea; May, Zazilah Bt.

2014-10-01

238

Antibody-targeted vaccines.  

PubMed

The specificity and high affinity binding of antibodies provides these molecules with ideal properties for delivering a payload to target cells. This concept has been commercialized for cancer therapies using toxin- or radionucleotide-conjugated antibodies that are designed to selectively deliver cytotoxic molecules to cancer cells. Exploiting the same effective characteristics of antibodies, antibody-targeted vaccines (ATV) are designed to deliver disease-specific antigens to professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs), thus enabling the host's immune system to recognize and eliminate malignant or infected cells through adaptive immunity. The concept of ATVs has been in development for many years, and recently has entered clinical trials. Early studies with ATVs focused on the ability to induce humoral immunity in the absence of adjuvants. More recently, ATVs targeted to C-type lectin receptors have been exploited for induction of potent helper and cytolytic T-cell responses. To maximize their stimulatory capacity, the ATVs are being evaluated with a variety of adjuvants or other immunostimulatory agents. In the absence of co-administered immunostimulatory signals, APC-targeting can induce antigen-specific tolerance and, thus, may also be exploited in developing specific treatments for autoimmune and allergic diseases, or for preventing transplant rejection. The successful clinical application of this new class of antibody-based products will clearly depend on using appropriate combinations with other strategies that influence the immune system. PMID:17530028

Keler, T; He, L; Ramakrishna, V; Champion, B

2007-05-28

239

Glycoproteomic Analysis of Antibodies*  

PubMed Central

Antibody glycosylation has been shown to change with various processes. This review presents mass spectrometric approaches for antibody glycosylation analysis at the level of released glycans, glycopeptides, and intact protein. With regard to IgG fragment crystallizable glycosylation, mass spectrometry has shown its potential for subclass-specific, high-throughput analysis. In contrast, because of the vast heterogeneity of peptide moieties, fragment antigen binding glycosylation analysis of polyclonal IgG relies entirely on glycan release. Next to IgG, IgA has gained some attention, and studies of its O- and N-glycosylation have revealed disease-associated glycosylation changes. Glycoproteomic analyses of IgM and IgE are lagging behind but should complete our picture of glycosylation's influence on antibody function. PMID:23325769

Zauner, Gerhild; Selman, Maurice H. J.; Bondt, Albert; Rombouts, Yoann; Blank, Dennis; Deelder, Andre M.; Wuhrer, Manfred

2013-01-01

240

An Antibody Molecule  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An antibody molecule. (A) Schematic drawing of a typical antibody molecule. As indicated, this protein is Y-shaped and has two identical binding sites for its antigen, one on either arm of the 3Y.2 The protein is composed of four polypeptide chains (two identical heavy chains and two identical and smaller light chains) held together by disulfide bonds. Each chain is made up of several different domains, here shaded either blue or gray. The antigen-binding site is formed where a heavy chain variable domain (VH) and a light chain variable domain (VL) come close together. These are the domains that differ most in their sequence and structure in different antibodies. (B) Ribbon drawing of a light chain showing the parts of the VL domain most closely involved in binding to the antigen in red; these contribute half of the fingerlike loops that fold around each of the antigen molecules in (A).

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Martin Raff N:Raff;Martin REV:2005-04-15 END:VCARD; BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Julian Lewis N:Lewis;Julian REV:2005-04-15 END:VCARD; BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Alexander Johnson N:Johnson;Alexander REV:2005-04-15 END:VCARD; BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Dennis Bray N:Bray;Dennis REV:2005-04-15 END:VCARD; BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Bruce Alberts N:Alberts;Bruce REV:2005-04-15 END:VCARD; BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Keith Roberts N:Roberts;Keith REV:2005-04-15 END:VCARD

1998-07-01

241

Antibody-Antigen Interactions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The experimental protocol in this Web site is just one of many microbiology resources provided by the University of Leicester. The procedure guides students in finding the antibody concentration of a test antiserum and the number of antibody binding sites on an antigen molecule. A results graph and correct answers to the required calculations are given, providing the option of performing a virtual experiment in lieu of an actual one. This activity is probably most appropriate for high school and undergraduate level biology labs.

Cann, Alan.

2010-01-05

242

Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)  

E-print Network

Company: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description products have a 98% Customer Satisfaction rating! Due to growth we have moved our headquarters to a new 180&D, QA, Customer Service, Marketing and Product Management departments are not out-sourced. Our GTAC team

Pringle, James "Jamie"

243

Positive Psychology \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positive psychology is the study of human strength, resilience, and optimal human functioning. The goal of positive psychology is to make people happier by understanding and building positive emotion, gratification and meaning. The constructs of happiness, hope, optimism, well-being, resilience and flow are examined in how they relate to positive psychology. The \\

Andrew W Fleming

2006-01-01

244

Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)  

E-print Network

Company: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description: Description: Paid/Unpaid: When: Hire International Students: No Career & Internship Fair October 22, 2013 are our top priority, and team members are our greatest asset! Computer Engineering, Computer Science

New Hampshire, University of

245

Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)  

E-print Network

Company: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description Ecology or Management, Environmental Science, or Veterinary Science. The large number of animals.yorkcenterforwildlife.org Wildlife Rehabilitation Company Overview: Degree: Unpaid Fall, Spring, Summer No Career & Internship Fair

New Hampshire, University of

246

Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)  

E-print Network

Company: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description of Science Program in Civil Engineering or related engineering fields. Working knowledge of computer Overview: Degree: Paid Fall, Spring, Summer Yes Career & Internship Fair October 22, 2013 -- 12:00-4:00pm

New Hampshire, University of

247

Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)  

E-print Network

Company: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description Overview: Degree: No Career & Internship Fair October 22, 2013 -- 12:00-4:00pm Yes Software Engineer Permanent Residency or US Citizenship required. Computer Engineering, Computer Science, Electrical

New Hampshire, University of

248

Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)  

E-print Network

Company: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description: Description: Paid/Unpaid: When: Hire International Students: No Career & Internship Fair October 22, 2013 and dispatching and asset maintenance. Computer Science Yes Entry LevelInternships Software Engineer (Intern

New Hampshire, University of

249

Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)  

E-print Network

Company: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description Company Overview: Degree: Yes Career & Internship Fair October 22, 2013 -- 12:00-4:00pm Not at this time, Chemistry, Computer Engineering, Computer Science, Economics, Electrical Engineering, Math & Statistics

New Hampshire, University of

250

Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)  

E-print Network

Company: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description: Description: Paid/Unpaid: When: Hire International Students: No Career & Internship Fair October 22, 2013 program. Computer Science Yes Entry LevelInternships Software Intern Whittemore Center Jacobs Technology

New Hampshire, University of

251

Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)  

E-print Network

Company: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description: Description: Paid/Unpaid: When: Hire International Students: Yes Career & Internship Fair October 22, 2013, and dramatically change the price/performance of data center networks. Computer Engineering, Computer Science

New Hampshire, University of

252

Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)  

E-print Network

Company: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description: Description: Paid/Unpaid: When: Hire International Students: No Career & Internship Fair October 22, 2013 in providing innovative products and services to the life science market. Our SaaS based business collaboration

New Hampshire, University of

253

Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)  

E-print Network

Company: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description/Hardware Company Overview: Degree: No Career & Internship Fair October 22, 2013 -- 12:00-4:00pm Yes Pre of ownership. Computer Engineering, Computer Science No Entry LevelInternships Whittemore Center Oracle

New Hampshire, University of

254

Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)  

E-print Network

Company: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description: Description: Paid/Unpaid: When: Hire International Students: No Career & Internship Fair October 22, 2013 submarine technology to a new level. Civil Engineering, Computer Engineering, Computer Science, Electrical

New Hampshire, University of

255

Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)  

E-print Network

Company: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description: Description: Paid/Unpaid: When: Hire International Students: No Career & Internship Fair October 22, 2013 Majors, Thompson School Applied Science No Entry LevelInternships Whittemore Center PC Connection, Inc

New Hampshire, University of

256

Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)  

E-print Network

Company: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description: Description: Paid/Unpaid: When: Hire International Students: No Career and Internship Fair March 5, 2013 -- 12 America, Asia and Europe as well as a global sales and support network. Computer Science, Electrical

Pringle, James "Jamie"

257

Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)  

E-print Network

Company: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description: Description: Paid/Unpaid: When: Hire International Students: No Career & Internship Fair October 22, 2013, Computer Engineering, Computer Science, Economics, Liberal Arts Majors, Math & Statistics Yes Entry Level

New Hampshire, University of

258

Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)  

E-print Network

Company: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description: Description: Paid/Unpaid: When: Hire International Students: Unsure Career & Internship Fair October 22, 2013 -- 12:00-4:00pm Yes Sales, Finance, Customer Service, IT, Quality, Lab Science Thermo Fisher Scientific

New Hampshire, University of

259

Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)  

E-print Network

Company: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description in engineering design process and materials science Strong written and oral communication skills Must be able & Internship Fair October 22, 2013 -- 12:00-4:00pm Yes Engineer Level I Safran is a world-class manufacturer

New Hampshire, University of

260

Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)  

E-print Network

Company: Industry: Website: Majors: Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s): Description: Description: Paid/Unpaid: When: Hire International Students: Unsure Career & Internship Fair October 22, 2013 and on-going marketing program support. Computer Engineering, Computer Science No Entry Level

New Hampshire, University of

261

Therapeutic antibody engineering  

PubMed Central

It is an important event in any knowledge area when an authority in the field decides that it is time to share all accumulated knowledge and learnings by writing a text book. This does not occur often in the biopharmaceutical industry, likely due to both the highly dynamic environment with tight timelines and policies and procedures at many pharmaceutical companies that hamper knowledge sharing. To take on a task like this successfully, a strong drive combined with a desire and talent to teach, but also an accommodating and stimulating environment is required. Luckily for those interested in therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, Dr. William R. Strohl decided about two years ago that the time was right to write a book about the past, present and future of these fascinating molecules. Dr. Strohl’s great expertise and passion for biotechnology is evident from his life story and his strong academic and industry track record. Dr. Strohl pioneered natural product biotechnology, first in academia as a full professor of microbiology and biochemistry at Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio and later in industry while at Merck. Despite his notable advances in recombinant natural products, industry interest in this area waned and in 2001 Dr. Strohl sought new opportunities by entering the field of antibody therapeutics. He initiated antibody discovery through phage display at Merck, and then moved to Centocor Research and Development Inc. (now Janssen Biotech, Inc.) in 2008 to head Biologics Research, where he now directs the discovery of innovative therapeutic antibody candidates.

Parren, Paul W.H.I.; Lugovskoy, Alexey A.

2013-01-01

262

Polyclonal antibody catalytic variability.  

PubMed Central

We have performed a systematic variability study of polyclonal antibody catalysis by using five rabbits immunized with the same hapten. Important results from this work are the following. (1) Similarities were observed in the catalytic polyclonal antibodies derived from all five rabbits. Four of the five rabbits produced polyclonal samples that were nearly the same in terms of catalytic activity, whereas the fifth rabbit, designated as rabbit 2, displayed a somewhat higher level of catalytic activity. The catalytic activities (as kcat/kuncat) of these polyclonal samples were similar to that from the best murine monoclonal antibody that had been previously elicited by the same hapten. (2) Titre was not an accurate indicator of polyclonal antibody catalytic activity. (3) A mathematical analysis to describe a distribution of Michaelis-Menten catalysts was performed to help interpret our results. (4) Kinetic analysis indicated that the binding parameters of the different samples were remarkably homogeneous, because one or two components were all that were required to fit the on-rate and off-rate data satisfactorily. Interestingly, the most active catalytic polyclonal sample, that from rabbit 2, displayed the slowest off-rate (so slow it could not be measured) and thus the highest overall affinity. (5) Catalytic analysis of eluted fractions of antibody from a substrate column indicated that each polyclonal sample was also relatively homogeneous in terms of catalytic parameters. The main conclusion of our study is that for this hapten-animal system, the overall catalytic immune response is relatively consistent at two levels. Consistent catalytic activity was observed between the polyclonal samples elicited in the different animals, and the elicited hapten-specific polyclonal antibodies were relatively homogeneous in terms of binding and catalytic parameters within each immunized animal. The observed similarities of the catalytic activity in the different animals is surprising, because the immune response is based on specific binding of antibodies to hapten. There is no known selective pressure to maintain consistent levels of catalytic activity. Our results can therefore be interpreted as providing evidence that for this hapten there is a fixed relationship between hapten structure and catalytic activity and/or consistent genetic factors that dominate the catalytic immune response. PMID:9576860

Stephens, D B; Thomas, R E; Stanton, J F; Iverson, B L

1998-01-01

263

Humanized Antibodies for Antiviral Therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antibody therapy holds great promise for the treatment of cancer, autoimmune disorders, and viral infections. Murine monoclonal antibodies are relatively easy to produce but are severely restricted for therapeutic use by their immunogenicity in humans. Production of human monoclonal antibodies has been problematic. Humanized antibodies can be generated by introducing the six hypervariable regions from the heavy and light chains of a murine antibody into a human framework sequence and combining it with human constant regions. We humanized, with the aid of computer modeling, two murine monoclonal antibodies against herpes simplex virus gB and gD glycoproteins. The binding, virus neutralization, and cell protection results all indicate that both humanized antibodies have retained the binding activities and the biological properties of the murine monoclonal antibodies.

Co, Man Sung; Deschamps, Marguerite; Whitley, Richard J.; Queen, Cary

1991-04-01

264

Anti-insulin antibody test  

MedlinePLUS

Insulin antibodies - serum; Insulin Ab test ... Normally, there are no antibodies against insulin in your blood. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or ...

265

The Art of Making Antibodies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information for teachers on the nature and production of antibodies. Points out that the production of monoclonal antibodies blends the malignant with the beneficial to create a medical tool of exciting potential. (JN)

Headon, Denis R.

1986-01-01

266

Human Antibodies to Bovine ?-Globulin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibodies to bovine ?-globulin (anti-BGG antibodies) were detectable by a radio-immunoassay in 70% of healthy blood donors but, generally, the titres were low. Significantly increased concentrations of anti-BGG antibodies were found in patients lacking IgA but not in patients with allergic disorders. The anti-BGG antibodies were shown to give rise to falsely high IgE values in the radio-immunosorbent test for

T. Foucard; H. Bennich; S. G. O. Johansson; U. Lundkvist

1975-01-01

267

Antibody-gold cluster conjugates  

DOEpatents

Antibody- or antibody fragment-gold cluster conjugates are shown wherein the conjugate size can be about 5.0 nm. Methods and reagents are disclosed in which antibodies or Fab' fragments thereof are covalently bound to a stable cluster of gold atoms. 2 figs.

Hainfeld, J.F.

1988-06-28

268

Parietal cell antibody identified by ELISA is superior to immunofluorescence, rises with age and is associated with intrinsic factor antibody.  

PubMed

Parietal cell antibody is a marker for autoimmune gastritis. With identification of gastric H/K ATPase as its molecular target, ELISAs have been introduced. We compared performance of ELISA with immunofluorescence in a retrospective and prospective sera set and correlated the results with intrinsic factor antibody. In 138 retrospective sera selected for positivity or negativity for intrinsic factor antibody, 87 reacted with gastric H/K ATPase by Euroimm ELISA but only 62 reacted by immunofluorescencence.. Similar results were obtained with Inova ELISA with 78 positives that were also positive by Euroimm ELISA. In 161 prospective sera, 29 sera tested positive by ELISA compared to 24 by immunofluorescence. ELISA positive but immunofluoresnce negative sera are bona fide positives because a representative set of 16 sera reacted with both 95kD ? and 60-90kD? subunits of gastric H/K ATPase. ELISA values rose with age regardless of whether immunofluorescence tests were positive or negative. Of 53 sera containing antibody to intrinsic factor, 46/53 (87%) reacted to gastric H/K ATPase by ELISA. Taken together, the data indicates an enhanced detection rate by ELISA over immunofluorescence and validates it as a robust diagnostic assay for parietal cell antibody. As parietal cell antibody marks asymptomatic autoimmune gastritis that may progress to end stage gastric atrophy and haematological complications, and as autoimmune gastritis is associated with autoimmune thyroiditic and type 1 diabetes mellitus, early detection of parietal cell antibody by a sensitive ELISA will enable early follow-up of at risk subjects. PMID:22779747

Toh, Ban-Hock; Kyaw, T; Taylor, Roberta; Pollock, Wendy; Schlumberger, Wolfgang

2012-11-01

269

Nursing Positions  

MedlinePLUS

... more deeply with this hold. Continue The Side-Lying Position This position is comfortable for mothers who' ... crib or bassinet before falling asleep. Start by lying on your side with your baby on his ...

270

Antibodies to human caudate nucleus neurons in Huntington's chorea.  

PubMed Central

Antibodies reacting with neuronal cytoplasmic antigens present in normal human caudate and subthalamic nuclei were detected in 37 of 80 probands afflicted with Huntington's disease (HD). IgG antibodies were detected by immunofluorescence using frozen sections of unfixed normal human and rat brain. Specificity of IgG binding was confirmed using pepsin F(ab')2 fragments of IgG isolated from positive sera. In vitro complement fixation of IgG antibody was detected in 22 of 31 sera tested. Neuronal cytoplasmic antigens reacting with positive HD sera were diminished after trypsin or RNAase treatment of tissue sections but were not removed by DNAase, neuraminidase, EDTA, or dithiothreitol treatment. Antibody staining of neurons could be removed after absorption with isolated caudate nucleus neurons or by using perchloroacetic acid extracts of caudate nucleus. Prevalence of antibody reacting with neuronal cytoplasm was 3% in 60 normal controls and 6% among a wide variety of patients with diverse neurological disorders. However, one-third of 33 patients with Parkinson's disease showed presence of antineuronal antibody. Among patients with HD, a significant association was noted between duration of clinical disease greater than 7 yr and titers of antibody of 1:2 or greater (P less than 0.001). When 115 family members of HD probands were tested, 30% of unaffected spouses showed presence of antineuronal antibody. 23.2% of first-degree relatives at risk for developing HD was also positive (P less than 0.001). 10.5% of second-degree relatives showed presence of antineuronal antibody. These data may support an environmental or infectious factor somehow involved in the ultimate expression of HD. Images PMID:140183

Husby, G; Li, L; Davis, L E; Wedege, E; Kokmen, E; Williams, R C

1977-01-01

271

Her2 Monoclonal Antibodies, Antibody Drug Conjugates, and Site Specific Antibody Conjugate Methods  

Cancer.gov

Antibody drug conjugates (ADC) can demonstrate high efficacy as cancer therapeutics, however, much more can be done to improve their efficacy and safety profile. Site-specific antibody drug conjugation is a promising way to do this.

272

NMDA receptor antibodies associated with distinct white matter syndromes  

PubMed Central

Objective: To report the clinical and radiologic findings of children with NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antibodies and white matter disorders. Method: Ten children with significant white matter involvement, with or without anti-NMDAR encephalitis, were identified from 46 consecutive NMDAR antibody–positive pediatric patients. Clinical and neuroimaging features were reviewed and the treatment and outcomes of the neurologic syndromes evaluated. Results: Three distinct clinicoradiologic phenotypes were recognized: brainstem encephalitis (n = 3), leukoencephalopathy following herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE) (n = 2), and acquired demyelination syndromes (ADS) (n = 5); 3 of the 5 with ADS had myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein as well as NMDAR antibodies. Typical NMDAR antibody encephalitis was seen in 3 patients remote from the first neurologic syndrome (2 brainstem, 1 post-HSVE). Six of the 7 patients (85%) who were treated acutely, during the original presentation with white matter involvement, improved following immunotherapy with steroids, IV immunoglobulin, and plasma exchange, either individually or in combination. Two patients had escalation of immunotherapy at relapse resulting in clinical improvement. The time course of clinical features, treatments, and recoveries correlated broadly with available serum antibody titers. Conclusion: Clinicoradiologic evidence of white matter involvement, often distinct, was identified in 22% of children with NMDAR antibodies and appears immunotherapy responsive, particularly when treated in the acute phase of neurologic presentation. When observed, this clinical improvement is often mirrored by reduction in NMDAR antibody levels, suggesting that these antibodies may mediate the white matter disease. PMID:25340058

Hacohen, Yael; Absoud, Michael; Hemingway, Cheryl; Jacobson, Leslie; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Pike, Mike; Pullaperuma, Sunil; Siddiqui, Ata; Wassmer, Evangeline; Waters, Patrick; Irani, Sarosh R.; Buckley, Camilla

2014-01-01

273

Antibody Engineering and Therapeutics Conference  

PubMed Central

The Antibody Engineering and Therapeutics conference, which serves as the annual meeting of The Antibody Society, will be held in Huntington Beach, CA from Sunday December 8 through Thursday December 12, 2013. The scientific program will cover the full spectrum of challenges in antibody research and development, and provide updates on recent progress in areas from basic science through approval of antibody therapeutics. Keynote presentations will be given by Leroy Hood (Institute of System Biology), who will discuss a systems approach for studying disease that is enabled by emerging technology; Douglas Lauffenburger (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), who will discuss systems analysis of cell communication network dynamics for therapeutic biologics design; David Baker (University of Washington), who will describe computer-based design of smart protein therapeutics; and William Schief (The Scripps Research Institute), who will discuss epitope-focused immunogen design.   In this preview of the conference, the workshop and session chairs share their thoughts on what conference participants may learn in sessions on: (1) three-dimensional structure antibody modeling; (2) identifying clonal lineages from next-generation data sets of expressed VH gene sequences; (3) antibodies in cardiometabolic medicine; (4) the effects of antibody gene variation and usage on the antibody response; (5) directed evolution; (6) antibody pharmacokinetics, distribution and off-target toxicity; (7) use of knowledge-based design to guide development of complementarity-determining regions and epitopes to engineer or elicit the desired antibody; (8) optimizing antibody formats for immunotherapy; (9) antibodies in a complex environment; (10) polyclonal, oligoclonal and bispecific antibodies; (11) antibodies to watch in 2014; and (12) polyreactive antibodies and polyspecificity.

Almagro, Juan Carlos; Gilliland, Gary L; Scott, Jamie; Larrick, James W; Pluckthun, Andreas; Veldman, Trudi; Adams, Gregory P; Parren, Paul WHI; Chester, Kerry A; Bradbury, Andrew; Reichert, Janice M; Huston, James S

2013-01-01

274

Positional plagiocephaly  

PubMed Central

Cranial asymmetry occurring as a result of forces that deform skull shape in the supine position is known as deformational plagiocephaly. The risk of plagiocephaly may be modified by positioning the baby on alternate days with the head to the right or the left side, and by increasing time spent in the prone position during awake periods. When deformational plagiocephaly is already present, physiotherapy (including positioning equivalent to the preventive positioning, and exercises as needed for torticollis and positional preference) has been shown to be superior to counselling about preventive positioning only. Helmet therapy (moulding therapy) to reduce skull asymmetry has some drawbacks: it is expensive, significantly inconvenient due to the long hours of use per day and associated with skin complications. There is evidence that helmet therapy may increase the initial rate of improvement of asymmetry, but there is no evidence that it improves the final outcome for patients with moderate or severe plagiocephaly. PMID:23024590

Cummings, Carl

2011-01-01

275

Infertility and Antiphospholipid Antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) play a pathogenic role in infertility is highly controversial. aPL have been suggested to represent one potential etiology of infertility, specifically in patients with unexplained implantation failure following in vitro fertilization (IVF). The rationale is appealing, as it represents a logical extension of the demonstrated pathogenicity of aPL in contributing to recurrent spontaneous abortion, where mechanisms

Lisa R. Sammaritano

276

Commercial antibodies and their validation  

PubMed Central

Despite an impressive growth in the business of research antibodies a general lack of trust in commercial antibodies remains in place. A variety of issues, each one potentially causing an antibody to fail, underpin the frustrations that scientists endure. Lots of money goes to waste in buying and trying one failing antibody after the other without realizing all the pitfalls that come with the product: Antibodies can get inactivated, both the biological material and the assay itself can potentially be flawed, a single antibody featuring in many different catalogues can be deemed as a set of different products, and a bad choice of antibody type, wrong dilutions, and lack of proper validation can all jeopardize the intended experiments. Antibodies endorsed by scientific research papers do not always meet the scientist’s requirements either due to flawed specifications, or due to batch-to-batch variations. Antibodies can be found with Quality Control data obtained from previous batches that no longer represent the batch on sale. In addition, one cannot assume that every antibody is fit for every application. The best chance of success is to try an antibody that already was confirmed to perform correctly in the required platform. PMID:25324967

Voskuil, JLA

2014-01-01

277

Subcutaneous Administration of Monoclonal Antibodies in Oncology  

PubMed Central

Treatment with monoclonal antibodies (mabs) has become an established component of oncological therapy. The monoclonal antibodies available for this purpose are mainly administered intravenously in individually adapted doses according to body weight over longer treatment times. For other chronic diseases such as, for example, diabetes mellitus, the subcutaneous administration of drugs is an established therapy option. For the subcutaneous administration of larger volumes as needed for mab solutions the extracellular matrix of the subcutaneous tissue represents a problem. The co-formulation with recombinant human hyaluronidase makes the relatively pain-free administration of larger fluid volumes and thus the subcutaneous administration of monoclonal antibodies possible, as illustrated by the development of a subcutaneous formulation of trastuzumab. This constitutes a less invasive, time-optimised and flexible form of administration for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer that, with its fixed dosing possibilities, contributes to therapeutic safety. The example of trastuzumab shows that the subcutaneous administration of monoclonal antibodies can simplify oncological long-term therapy not only for the patients but also for the medical personnel. PMID:25076790

Jackisch, C.; Muller, V.; Maintz, C.; Hell, S.; Ataseven, B.

2014-01-01

278

Natural antibodies and cancer.  

PubMed

Immunity is not only responsible for recognition and elimination of infectious particles, but also for removal of cellular waste, modified self structures and transformed cells. Innate or natural immunity acts as a first line defense and is also the link to acquired immunity and memory. A striking phenomenon of immunity against malignant cells is that neither in animals nor in humans affinity-maturated tumor-specific IgG antibodies have been detected so far. All tumor-specific isolated antibodies were germ-line coded natural IgM antibodies. It's also a fact that these IgM's preferentially bind to carbohydrate epitopes on post-transcriptionally modified surface receptors and that they all induce a cancer-specific apoptosis, by triggering the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. From an evolutionary point of view, this makes sense because cancer cells are not infectious, so there is no need for memory. Natural IgMs bind to conservative structures because they are coded by a limited set of genes and they use apoptosis, the "clean" way of killing, to avoid inflammatory processes. PMID:17826951

Vollmers, H Peter; Brändlein, Stephanie

2007-12-01

279

Evaluation of Gamma Interferon and Antibody Tuberculosis Tests in Alpacas  

PubMed Central

We describe the performance of cell-based and antibody blood tests for the antemortem diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in South American camelids (SAC). The sensitivity and specificity of the gamma interferon (IFN-?) release assay, two lateral flow rapid antibody tests (Stat-Pak and Dual Path Platform [DPP]), and two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based antibody tests (Idexx and Enferplex) were determined using diseased alpacas from Mycobacterium bovis culture-confirmed breakdown herds and TB-free alpacas from geographical areas with no history of bovine TB, respectively. Our results show that while the sensitivities of the IFN-? and antibody tests were similar (range of 57.7% to 66.7%), the specificity of the IFN-? test (89.1%) was lower than those of any of the antibody tests (range of 96.4% to 97.4%). This lower specificity of the IFN-? test was at least in part due to undisclosed Mycobacterium microti infection in the TB-free cohort, which stimulates a positive purified protein derivative (PPD) response. The sensitivity of infection detection could be increased by combining two antibody tests, but even the use of all four antibody tests failed to detect all diseased alpacas. These antibody-negative alpacas were IFN-? positive. We found that the maximum sensitivity could be achieved only by the combination of the IFN-? test with two antibody tests in a “test package,” although this resulted in decreased specificity. The data from this evaluation of tests with defined sensitivity and specificity provide potential options for antemortem screening of SAC for TB in herd breakdown situations and could also find application in movement testing and tracing investigations. PMID:22914362

Holder, Tom; Clifford, Derek; Dexter, Ian; Brewer, Jacky; Smith, Noel; Waring, Laura; Crawshaw, Tim; Gillgan, Steve; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Lawrence, John; Clarke, John; de la Rua-Domenech, Ricardo; Vordermeier, Martin

2012-01-01

280

Mothers of children with Down syndrome have higher herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2) antibody levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antibody response to herpes simplex virus (HSV) was studied in 53 mothers of children with Down syndrome (Ds) and compared with that in 154 controls, using sera sampled during pregnancy or at delivery. Conventional analysis of HSV complement fixing antibodies showed the same frequency of positivity for the two groups (70%). When the levels of IgG antibodies to an

Göran Annerén; J. S. Gronowitz; C. F. R. Källander; Vivi-Anne Sundqvist

1986-01-01

281

Transfer of Maternal Antibodies against Avian Influenza Virus in Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).  

PubMed

Maternal antibodies protect chicks from infection with pathogens early in life and may impact pathogen dynamics due to the alteration of the proportion of susceptible individuals in a population. We investigated the transfer of maternal antibodies against avian influenza virus (AIV) in a key AIV host species, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Combining observations in both the field and in mallards kept in captivity, we connected maternal AIV antibody concentrations in eggs to (i) female body condition, (ii) female AIV antibody concentration, (iii) egg laying order, (iv) egg size and (v) embryo sex. We applied maternity analysis to the eggs collected in the field to account for intraspecific nest parasitism, which is reportedly high in Anseriformes, detecting parasitic eggs in one out of eight clutches. AIV antibody prevalence in free-living and captive females was respectively 48% and 56%, with 43% and 24% of the eggs receiving these antibodies maternally. In both field and captive study, maternal AIV antibody concentrations in egg yolk correlated positively with circulating AIV antibody concentrations in females. In the captive study, yolk AIV antibody concentrations correlated positively with egg laying order. Female body mass and egg size from the field and captive study, and embryos sex from the field study were not associated with maternal AIV antibody concentrations in eggs. Our study indicates that maternal AIV antibody transfer may potentially play an important role in shaping AIV infection dynamics in mallards. PMID:25386907

van Dijk, Jacintha G B; Mateman, A Christa; Klaassen, Marcel

2014-01-01

282

Transfer of Maternal Antibodies against Avian Influenza Virus in Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)  

PubMed Central

Maternal antibodies protect chicks from infection with pathogens early in life and may impact pathogen dynamics due to the alteration of the proportion of susceptible individuals in a population. We investigated the transfer of maternal antibodies against avian influenza virus (AIV) in a key AIV host species, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Combining observations in both the field and in mallards kept in captivity, we connected maternal AIV antibody concentrations in eggs to (i) female body condition, (ii) female AIV antibody concentration, (iii) egg laying order, (iv) egg size and (v) embryo sex. We applied maternity analysis to the eggs collected in the field to account for intraspecific nest parasitism, which is reportedly high in Anseriformes, detecting parasitic eggs in one out of eight clutches. AIV antibody prevalence in free-living and captive females was respectively 48% and 56%, with 43% and 24% of the eggs receiving these antibodies maternally. In both field and captive study, maternal AIV antibody concentrations in egg yolk correlated positively with circulating AIV antibody concentrations in females. In the captive study, yolk AIV antibody concentrations correlated positively with egg laying order. Female body mass and egg size from the field and captive study, and embryos sex from the field study were not associated with maternal AIV antibody concentrations in eggs. Our study indicates that maternal AIV antibody transfer may potentially play an important role in shaping AIV infection dynamics in mallards. PMID:25386907

van Dijk, Jacintha G. B.; Mateman, A. Christa; Klaassen, Marcel

2014-01-01

283

Common use of inaccurate antibody assays to identify infection status with herpes simplex virus type 2.  

PubMed

In recent proficiency testing of herpes simplex virus type-specific serologic evidence by the College of American Pathologists, commercially available herpes simplex virus antibody assays that were not glycoprotein-G based demonstrated high false-positive rates (14%-88%) for herpes simplex virus type-2 antibodies in sera that were positive for herpes simplex virus type-1 antibodies but negative for herpes simplex virus type-2 antibodies. Herpes simplex virus serologic testing should be performed with only glycoprotein-G-based tests. PMID:16098855

Morrow, Rhoda Ashley; Brown, Zane A

2005-08-01

284

Selecting antibodies to detect HER2 overexpression by immunohistochemistry in invasive mammary carcinomas.  

PubMed

There is an increasing clinical demand for HER2 analysis in breast cancer, especially since the release of trastuzumab. The authors assessed the ability of immunohistochemistry to detect HER2 overexpression in invasive mammary carcinomas (IMC) using five antibodies. Paraffin-embedded samples of 86 IMCs (T2N0) were used to compare the immunohistochemical overexpression of HER2 using two polyclonal antibodies (HercepTest [DAKO] and A0485 [DAKO]) and three monoclonal antibodies (CB11 from two different laboratories, Biogenex and Novocastra, and 4D5 [Genentech]). All immunostainings were scored according to the FDA-approved HercepTest recommendations. The HercepTest-positive cases were compared with gene amplification by FISH (Oncor Inform, Ventana). The HercepTest was positive in 31 of the 86 cases (36.1%). The DAKO antibody A0485 was positive in 25 of the 66 (37.8%). Monoclonal antibody 4D5 was positive in only 15 of the 86 cases (17.4%). There was almost total agreement in results between the two CB11 antibodies: 25 of the 86 positive cases (29.1%). All cases positive for CB11 or 4D5 were HercepTest positive. Most of the HercepTest 2+ cases were negative when using either monoclonal antibody. FISH was positive in 19 of the 20 HercepTest 3+ cases and negative in 5 HercepTest 2+ cases. Three CB11-2+ cases showed no amplification by FISH. In three FISH-positive cases the immunohistochemistry showed no overexpression by all antibodies used. These findings suggest that immunohistochemistry may be used reliably as a primary methodology for evaluating HER2; however, the use of polyclonal antibodies may not be adequate to assess HER2 overexpression. CB11, regardless of the manufacturer (Biogenex or Novocastra), showed better concordance with FISH (kappa=0.83) than did the polyclonal antibodies. PMID:16540740

Gouvêa, Agostinho Pinto; Milanezi, Fernanda; Olson, Sandra Jean; Leitao, Dina; Schmitt, Fernando Carlos; Gobbi, Helenice

2006-03-01

285

Assessment of a fluorescent antibody test for the detection of antibodies against epizootic bovine abortion.  

PubMed

The current study was directed at developing and validating an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) capable of detecting antibodies specific for the agent of epizootic bovine abortion (aoEBA). Sensitivity and specificity was determined by comparing antibody titers from 114 fetuses infected with aoEBA with 68 fetuses diagnosed with alternate infectious etiologies. Data established specificity at 100% and sensitivity at 94.7% when cutoff criteria for a positive test were assigned at a titer of ?1,000. Potential cross-reactivity was noted in samples from 3 fetuses with antibody titers of 10 or100; all were infected with Gram-positive organisms. The remaining 65 fetuses infected with microbes other than aoEBA, and an additional 12 negative reference sera, did not have detectable titers. The IFAT-based serology assay is rapid, reproducible, and unaffected by fluid color or opacity. Total fetal immunoglobulin (Ig)G was also evaluated as an aid for diagnosing EBA. Significantly higher concentrations of IgG were identified in fetuses infected with aoEBA as compared to those with alternate infectious etiologies. The presence of IgG is a sensitive indicator of EBA and increases the specificity of FAT-based serologic diagnosis when titers are 10 or 100. Taken together, serology and IgG analyses suggest that the incidence of EBA may be underestimated. PMID:25139792

Blanchard, Myra T; Anderson, Mark L; Hoar, Bruce R; Pires, Alda F A; Blanchard, Patricia C; Yeargan, Bret V; Teglas, Mike B; Belshaw, Margaret; Stott, Jeffery L

2014-09-01

286

Examining variable domain orientations in antigen receptors gives insight into TCR-like antibody design.  

PubMed

The variable domains of antibodies and T-Cell receptors (TCRs) share similar structures. Both molecules act as sensors for the immune system but recognise their respective antigens in different ways. Antibodies bind to a diverse set of antigenic shapes whilst TCRs only recognise linear peptides presented by a major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The antigen specificity and affinity of both receptors is determined primarily by the sequence and structure of their complementarity determining regions (CDRs). In antibodies the binding site is also known to be affected by the relative orientation of the variable domains, VH and VL. Here, the corresponding property for TCRs, the V?-V? orientation, is investigated and compared with that of antibodies. We find that TCR and antibody orientations are distinct. General antibody orientations are found to be incompatible with binding to the MHC in a canonical TCR-like mode. Finally, factors that cause the orientation of TCRs and antibodies to be different are investigated. Packing of the long V? CDR3 in the domain-domain interface is found to be influential. In antibodies, a similar packing affect can be achieved using a bulky residue at IMGT position 50 on the VH domain. Along with IMGT VH 50, other positions are identified that may help to promote a TCR-like orientation in antibodies. These positions should provide useful considerations in the engineering of therapeutic TCR-like antibodies. PMID:25233457

Dunbar, James; Knapp, Bernhard; Fuchs, Angelika; Shi, Jiye; Deane, Charlotte M

2014-09-01

287

positions): transistor,  

E-print Network

scientists of the century'' (20 positions): . Technology � 6 (airplane, rocket, TV, transistor, plastic, WWW project: ''The greatest scientists of the century'' (20 positions): . Technology � 6 (airplane, rocket, TV unfriendly! #12; Why is excessive coding so bad for specific tasks? E#ciency is lost, which makes

Artemov, Sergei N.

288

Positive Psychotherapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported…

Seligman, Martin E. P.; Rashid, Tayyab; Parks, Acacia C.

2006-01-01

289

How antibodies use complement to regulate antibody responses.  

PubMed

Antibodies, forming immune complexes with their specific antigen, can cause complete suppression or several 100-fold enhancement of the antibody response. Immune complexes containing IgG and IgM may activate complement and in such situations also complement components will be part of the immune complex. Here, we review experimental data on how antibodies via the complement system upregulate specific antibody responses. Current data suggest that murine IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b upregulate antibody responses primarily via Fc-receptors and not via complement. In contrast, IgM and IgG3 act via complement and require the presence of complement receptors 1 and 2 (CR1/2) expressed on both B cells and follicular dendritic cells. Complement plays a crucial role for antibody responses not only to antigen complexed to antibodies, but also to antigen administered alone. Lack of C1q, but not of Factor B or MBL, severely impairs antibody responses suggesting involvement of the classical pathway. In spite of this, normal antibody responses are found in mice lacking several activators of the classical pathway (complement activating natural IgM, serum amyloid P component (SAP), specific intracellular adhesion molecule-grabbing non-integrin R1 (SIGN-R1) or C-reactive protein. Possible explanations to these observations will be discussed. PMID:25001046

Sörman, Anna; Zhang, Lu; Ding, Zhoujie; Heyman, Birgitta

2014-10-01

290

Antibody development to Fusobacterium necrophorum in patients with peritonsillar abscess.  

PubMed

A polymicrobial mixture of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria is commonly recovered from peritonsillar abscess (PTA) aspirates. Previous studies have suggested a role for Fusobacterium necrophorum (FN) in the development of PTA. The purpose of the current study was to explore whether anti-FN antibodies were produced in patients with PTA. We developed a novel immunofluorescence-based method to measure anti-FN antibody levels in acute and convalescent sera from 15 patients with PTA and 47 patients with chronic tonsillar conditions (controls) undergoing acute or elective tonsillectomy, respectively. Bacterial cultures were performed on tonsillar cores and surfaces, pus aspirates, and blood. An increase in anti-FN antibody levels (of at least doubling of the previous level) was observed in 8 of 11 (73 %) PTA patients with FN-positive pus aspirate cultures (FN-positive patients). In contrast, the four FN-negative PTA patients did not have an increase in anti-FN antibody levels (p?=?0.026). The change in anti-FN antibody levels in FN-positive PTA patients was also significantly greater than that for FN-positive electively tonsillectomized patients (p?=?0.0014) and all electively tonsillectomized patients (p?

Klug, T E; Henriksen, J-J; Rusan, M; Fuursted, K; Krogfelt, K A; Ovesen, T; Struve, C

2014-10-01

291

The future of monoclonal antibody technology  

PubMed Central

With the rapid growth of monoclonal antibody-based products, new technologies have emerged for creating modified forms of antibodies, including fragments, conjugates and multi-specific antibodies. We created a database of 450 therapeutic antibodies in development to determine which technologies and indications will constitute the “next generation” of antibody products. We conclude that the antibodies of the future will closely resemble the antibodies that have already been approved for commercial sale. PMID:20676053

Zider, Alexander

2010-01-01

292

Immunofluorescent antibody test for diagnosis of gonorrhoea.  

PubMed Central

An indirect fluorescent antibody test was evaluated in 198 cases of a high-risk group with a culture prevalence of 37.3% and in 426 cases of a low-risk group with a culture prevalence of 1.16%. A sensitivity of 77.1% in the culture-positive patients with uncomplicated gonorrhoea, and a specificity of 88.7% in the culture- and history-negative cases, was obtained in the high-risk group. In this group, the sera from 88.8% of the patients with culture-proven gonorrhoea became positive in an indirect fluorescent antibody test within 3 weeks of last sexual contact. In the low-risk group, for which the sensitivity could not be determined due to various reasons, a specificity of 95.8% was obtained. Complement fixation test was positive in sera of only 17.6% of the culture-positive cases of the high-risk group. PMID:809468

Caloenescu, M; Clecner, B; Petrow, S; Kasatiya, S S

1975-01-01

293

Development of scoring functions for antibody sequence assessment and optimization.  

PubMed

Antibody development is still associated with substantial risks and difficulties as single mutations can radically change molecule properties like thermodynamic stability, solubility or viscosity. Since antibody generation methodologies cannot select and optimize for molecule properties which are important for biotechnological applications, careful sequence analysis and optimization is necessary to develop antibodies that fulfil the ambitious requirements of future drugs. While efforts to grab the physical principles of undesired molecule properties from the very bottom are becoming increasingly powerful, the wealth of publically available antibody sequences provides an alternative way to develop early assessment strategies for antibodies using a statistical approach which is the objective of this paper. Here, publically available sequences were used to develop heuristic potentials for the framework regions of heavy and light chains of antibodies of human and murine origin. The potentials take into account position dependent probabilities of individual amino acids but also conditional probabilities which are inevitable for sequence assessment and optimization. It is shown that the potentials derived from human sequences clearly distinguish between human sequences and sequences from mice and, hence, can be used as a measure of humaness which compares a given sequence with the phenotypic pool of human sequences instead of comparing sequence identities to germline genes. Following this line, it is demonstrated that, using the developed potentials, humanization of an antibody can be described as a simple mathematical optimization problem and that the in-silico generated framework variants closely resemble native sequences in terms of predicted immunogenicity. PMID:24204701

Seeliger, Daniel

2013-01-01

294

Development of Scoring Functions for Antibody Sequence Assessment and Optimization  

PubMed Central

Antibody development is still associated with substantial risks and difficulties as single mutations can radically change molecule properties like thermodynamic stability, solubility or viscosity. Since antibody generation methodologies cannot select and optimize for molecule properties which are important for biotechnological applications, careful sequence analysis and optimization is necessary to develop antibodies that fulfil the ambitious requirements of future drugs. While efforts to grab the physical principles of undesired molecule properties from the very bottom are becoming increasingly powerful, the wealth of publically available antibody sequences provides an alternative way to develop early assessment strategies for antibodies using a statistical approach which is the objective of this paper. Here, publically available sequences were used to develop heuristic potentials for the framework regions of heavy and light chains of antibodies of human and murine origin. The potentials take into account position dependent probabilities of individual amino acids but also conditional probabilities which are inevitable for sequence assessment and optimization. It is shown that the potentials derived from human sequences clearly distinguish between human sequences and sequences from mice and, hence, can be used as a measure of humaness which compares a given sequence with the phenotypic pool of human sequences instead of comparing sequence identities to germline genes. Following this line, it is demonstrated that, using the developed potentials, humanization of an antibody can be described as a simple mathematical optimization problem and that the in-silico generated framework variants closely resemble native sequences in terms of predicted immunogenicity. PMID:24204701

Seeliger, Daniel

2013-01-01

295

Monoclonal antibodies for treating cancer  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to assess the current status of in-vivo use of monoclonal antibodies for treating cancer. Publications appearing between 1980 and 1988 were identified by computer searches using MEDLINE and CANCERLIT, by reviewing the table of contents of recently published journals, and by searching bibliographies of identified books and articles. More than 700 articles, including peer-reviewed articles and book chapters, were identified and selected for analysis. The literature was reviewed and 235 articles were selected as relevant and representative of the current issues and future applications for in-vivo monoclonal antibodies for cancer therapy and of the toxicity and efficacy which has been associated with clinical trials. Approaches include using antibody alone (interacting with complement or effector cells or binding directly with certain cell receptors) and immunoconjugates (antibody coupled to radioisotopes, drugs, toxins, or other biologicals). Most experience has been with murine antibodies. Trials of antibody alone and radiolabeled antibodies have confirmed the feasibility of this approach and the in-vivo trafficking of antibodies to tumor cells. However, tumor cell heterogeneity, lack of cytotoxicity, and the development of human antimouse antibodies have limited clinical efficacy. Although the immunoconjugates are very promising, heterogeneity and the antimouse immune response have hampered this approach as has the additional challenge of chemically or genetically coupling antibody to cytotoxic agents. As a therapeutic modality, monoclonal antibodies are still promising but their general use will be delayed for several years. New approaches using human antibodies and reducing the human antiglobulin response should facilitate treatment. 235 references.

Dillman, R.O. (Hoag Cancer Center, Newport Beach, CA (USA))

1989-10-01

296

Monoclonal antibody therapy of cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most significant recent advances in the application of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to oncology have been the introduction and approval of bevacizumab (Avastin), an anti–vascular endothelial growth factor antibody, and of cetuximab (Erbitux), an anti–epidermal growth factor antibody. In combination with standard chemotherapy regimens, bevacizumab significantly prolongs the survival of patients with metastatic cancers of the colorectum, breast and lung.

Gregory P Adams; Louis M Weiner

2005-01-01

297

Detection of antibody to murine cytomegalovirus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent and indirect immunofluorescence assays.  

PubMed

We have compared murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) antibody determination by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence assay. A comparison of antibody detection with 146 serum samples at a 1:20 dilution showed 100% agreement (60 negatives and 86 positives) between the assays. There was close agreement of endpoint determinations of sera by both methods. After experimental MCMV infection, antibody to MCMV was detected by both assays as early as day 7, and high titers persisted as late as 6 months. In contrast to immunocompetent littermates, athymic nude mice did not develop antibody after infection. Mice lacking antibody detectable by ELISA were susceptible to lethal MCMV challenge. In a survey of animals from five commercial sources, MCMV antibody was not detected unless mice were experimentally infected. MCMV antibody determination by ELISA is a convenient method, comparable to the indirect immunofluorescence assay in sensitivity and specificity. PMID:3033015

Classen, D C; Morningstar, J M; Shanley, J D

1987-04-01

298

Synthesis of potent taxoids for tumor-specific delivery using monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed

The targeted delivery of taxoids, in the form of taxane-antibody immunoconjugates, requires the preparation of taxoids containing moieties suitable for their conjugation to monoclonal antibodies. A series of taxoids incorporating a disulfide-containing linker at various positions of the taxoid framework have been prepared to investigate the most suitable position for conjugation. A second series of taxoids modified at the C-2 position aimed at increasing the potency of these taxanes has also been prepared. PMID:15225730

Miller, Michael L; Roller, Elizabeth E; Wu, Xinyaun; Leece, Barbara A; Goldmacher, Victor S; Chari, Ravi V J; Ojima, Iwao

2004-08-01

299

Detection of Anti-Yellow Fever Virus Immunoglobulin M Antibodies at 3-4 Years Following Yellow Fever Vaccination  

PubMed Central

The duration of anti-yellow fever (YF) virus immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies following YF vaccination is unknown, making it difficult to interpret positive IgM antibody results in previously vaccinated travelers. We evaluated the frequency and predictors of YF IgM antibody positivity 3–4 years following YF vaccination. Twenty-nine (73%) of 40 participants had YF IgM antibodies 3–4 years postvaccination. No demographic or exposure variables were predictive of YF IgM positivity. However, persons who were YF IgM positive at 3–4 years postvaccination had earlier onset viremia and higher neutralizing antibody geometric mean titers at 1 month and 3–4 years postvaccination compared with persons who were YF IgM negative. Detection of YF IgM antibodies several years postvaccination might reflect remote YF vaccination rather than recent YF vaccination or YF virus infection. PMID:23109371

Gibney, Katherine B.; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Panella, Amanda J.; Kosoy, Olga I.; Delorey, Mark J.; Lanciotti, Robert S.; Mulligan, Mark J.; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J. Erin

2012-01-01

300

Clinical significance of antibody specificities to M, N and Lewis blood group system  

PubMed Central

Context: The clinically significant antibodies are those active at 37°C and/or by the indirect antiglobulin test. Most of the published literature refers to antibodies of Lewis blood group system to be insignificant, whereas antibodies to M and N blood groups are associated with variable clinical significance. Aims: The aim of this study is to find the frequency and clinical significance of antibodies to M, N and Lewis blood group systems. Settings and Design: The study was carried out retrospectively from January 2009 to December 2012. Materials and Methods: Antibody screening was performed by solid phase red cell adherence (SPRCA) technique using four cell screening panel on a fully automated platform GALILEO (Immucor Inc. USA). In case of a positive antibody screen, antibody identification was performed using SPRCA (GALILEO, Immucor Inc. USA). Results: A total of 49,077 red cell antibody screens were performed and a total of 427 identifications of red cell antibodies were carried out. A total of 304 specific antibodies were detected: 8.22% of antibodies were of anti-M specificity and 2.96% were of anti-N specificity. Majority (84%) of anti-M and 77.78% of anti-N were of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) class reacting at 37°C. 1.31% of the antibodies were directed against Lewis system antigens of which 0.65% were anti-Lea and 0.65% were anti-Leb. Half of the Lewis system antibodies, i.e., 1 each of anti-Lea and anti-Leb were of IgG class. Conclusion: Our study highlights the importance of detecting the thermal amplitude of antibodies with variable clinical significance especially if both IgG and IgM types of antibodies are associated with it so as to establish their clinical significance. PMID:25161347

Makroo, Raj Nath; Arora, Bhavna; Bhatia, Aakanksha; Chowdhry, Mohit; Luka, Rosamma Nakamatathil

2014-01-01

301

Micromechanical antibody sensor  

DOEpatents

A sensor apparatus is provided using a microcantilevered spring element having a coating of a detector molecule such as an antibody or antigen. A sample containing a target molecule or substrate is provided to the coating. The spring element bends in response to the stress induced by the binding which occurs between the detector and target molecules. Deflections of the cantilever are detected by a variety of detection techniques. The microcantilever may be approximately 1 to 200 .mu.m long, approximately 1 to 50 .mu.m wide, and approximately 0.3 to 3.0 .mu.m thick. A sensitivity for detection of deflections is in the range of 0.01 nanometers.

Thundat, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN); Jacobson, K. Bruce (Oak Ridge, TN); Doktycz, Mitchel J. (Knoxville, TN); Kennel, Stephen J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Warmack, Robert J. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01

302

Antibodies to MOG have a demyelination phenotype and affect oligodendrocyte cytoskeleton  

PubMed Central

Objective: To examine the clinical features of pediatric CNS demyelination associated with positive myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies and to examine the functional effects of MOG antibody on oligodendrocyte cytoskeleton. Methods: We measured MOG antibody using a fluorescence-activated cell sorting live cell-based assay in acute sera of 73 children with CNS demyelination (DEM) (median age 8 years, range 1.3–15.3) followed for a median of 4 years. We used MO3.13 cells to examine immunoglobulin (Ig) G effects on oligodendrocyte cytoskeleton using 3D deconvolution imaging. Results: MOG antibodies were found in 31/73 patients with DEM (42%) but in 0/24 controls. At first presentation, MOG antibody–positive patients were more likely to have bilateral than unilateral optic neuritis (ON) (9/10 vs 1/5, respectively, p = 0.03), less likely to have brainstem findings (2/31 vs 16/42, p = 0.005), more likely to have a raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate >20 mm/h (9/19 vs 3/21, p = 0.05), less likely to have intrathecal oligoclonal bands (0/16 vs 5/27, p = 0.18), and less likely to be homozygous or heterozygous for human leukocyte antigen DRB1*1501 (3/18 vs 7/22, p = 0.46). MOG antibody positivity varied according to clinical phenotype, with ON and relapsing ON most likely to be seropositive. Two relapsing MOG antibody–positive patients treated with mycophenolate mofetil remain in remission and have become MOG antibody seronegative. Oligodendrocytes incubated with purified IgG from MOG antibody–positive patients showed a striking loss of organization of the thin filaments and the microtubule cytoskeleton, as evidenced by F-actin and ?-tubulin immunolabelings. Conclusions: MOG antibody may define a separate demyelination syndrome, which has therapeutic implications. MOG antibody has functional effects on oligodendrocyte cytoskeleton. PMID:25340056

Dale, Russell C.; Tantsis, Esther M.; Merheb, Vera; Kumaran, Raani-Yogeeta A.; Sinmaz, Nese; Pathmanandavel, Karrnan; Ramanathan, Sudarshini; Booth, David R.; Wienholt, Louise A.; Prelog, Kristina; Clark, Damien R.; Guillemin, Gilles J.; Lim, Chai K.; Mathey, Emily K.

2014-01-01

303

Natural antibody - Biochemistry and functions  

PubMed Central

Natural antibodies have been common knowledge in the scientific community for more than half a century. Initially disregarded, their functions have garnered a newfound interest recently. Natural antibodies are usually polyreactive IgM antibodies and are implicated in numerous physiologic and pathologic processes. Current research demonstrates they play a role in adaptive and innate immune responses, autoimmunity, and apoptosis. Evidence exists that they are involved in the modulation of neurodegenerative disorders and malignancy. Furthermore, natural antibodies have been implicated in ischemia reperfusion injury and atherosclerosis. As such the study of natural antibodies may provide new insight into normal physiologic processes whilst concurrently paving the road for a wide-range of possible therapeutic options.

Rahyab, Ali Seyar; Alam, Amit; Kapoor, Aricka; Zhang, Ming

2012-01-01

304

Prevalence of Leptospira and Brucella antibodies in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Tuscany, Italy.  

PubMed

Five hundred sixty-two blood samples were collected from wild boars (Sus scrofa) shot in six districts of Tuscany, central Italy, between 1997 and 2000. Sera were examined for antibodies specific for Leptospira interrogans by microagglutination test and Brucella spp. by the Rose Bengal test and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Thirty-four (6.0%) samples tested positive for anti-Leptospira antibodies, 29 (5.1%) sera were positive for anti-L. interrogans serovar bratislava antibodies (titres ranging from 1:100-1:400), and 5 (0.9%) sera were positive for anti-L. interrogans serovar icterohaemorrhagiae antibodies (titres 1:100). All the examined sera were negative for anti-Brucella antibodies. PMID:14567237

Ebani, Valentina V; Cerri, Domenico; Poli, Alessandro; Andreani, Ernesto

2003-07-01

305

Antibodies to Orientia tsutsugamushi in Thai soldiers.  

PubMed

Thai soldiers who were conscripted, Royal Thai Army forces, professional Border Patrol Police, or local militia (Thai Rangers) located in any of seven provinces of Thailand were bled in April and again, four months later, in July 1989. In 1991, soldiers from five different locations in southern Thailand were bled once, in July. Serum samples were tested by indirect fluorescent antibody assay for antibody to Orientia (formerly Rickettsia) tsutsugamushi, etiologic agent of scrub typhus, with any titer > or = 1:50 considered positive. Prior to field exercises, prevalence of antibody varied significantly between different types of units, ranging between 18.6% for Thai Rangers and 6.8% for the Royal Thai Army. The April prevalence, July prevalence, and incidence varied significantly by province in 1989, with highest incidence being 14.5% in Kanchanaburi and the lowest 0% in Utraladit. The prevalence in southern Thailand in 1991 varied between 1.6% and 6.8%. The data demonstrate that O. tsutsugamushi is widely distributed in Thailand and that military activity consisting of field exercises that simulate combat conditions significantly expose soldiers to infection. PMID:8940989

Eamsila, C; Singsawat, P; Duangvaraporn, A; Strickman, D

1996-11-01

306

Proper application of antibodies for immunohistochemical detection: antibody crimes and how to prevent them.  

PubMed

For several decades antibodies raised against specific proteins, peptides, or peptide epitopes have proven to be versatile and very powerful tools to demonstrate molecular identity in cells and tissues. New techniques of immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence have improved both the optical resolution of such protein identification as well as its sensitivity, particularly through the use of amplification methodology. However, this improved sensitivity has also increased the risks of false-positive and false-negative staining and thereby raised the necessity for proper and adequate controls. In this review, the authors draw on many years of experience to illuminate many of the more common errors and problematic issues in immunohistochemistry, and how these may be avoided. A key factor in all of this is that techniques need to be properly documented and especially antibodies and procedures must be adequately described. Antibodies are a valuable and shared resource within the scientific community; it is essential therefore that mistakes involving antibodies and their controls are not perpetuated through inadequate reporting in the literature. PMID:24428532

Ivell, Richard; Teerds, Katja; Hoffman, Gloria E

2014-03-01

307

Offered: Offered: Position(s): Position(s)  

E-print Network

monthly Financial packages for both Wholesale and Retail divisions ?Complete monthly sales analysis in a Retail, Wholesale, and Manufacturing environment. ?Basic understanding and experience using JD Edwards and COGNOS/Powerplay ?Previous experience in a Finance or Accounting position within the US food industry

New Hampshire, University of

308

A Study of Circulating Gliadin Antibodies in Schizophrenia Among a Chinese Population  

PubMed Central

The present work measured circulating antibodies against native gliadins, deamidated gliadin–derived epitopes, and transglutaminase 2 (TGM2) in 473 patients with schizophrenia and 478 control subjects among a Chinese population. The results showed that 27.1% of patients with schizophrenia were positive for the IgA antibody against native gliadins compared with 17.8% of control subjects (?2 = 11.52, P = .0007, OR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.25–2.35), although this significant difference appeared to be due mainly to low IgA gliadin antibody levels in female controls. A total of 27.6% of female patients were positive for IgA gliadin antibodies compared with 13.9% of female controls (?2 = 10.46, P = .0012, OR = 2.36, 95% CI 1.39–4.01), and 26.4% of male patients were positive for IgA antibodies compared with 19.8% of male controls (?2 = 3.26, P = .071, OR = 1.46, 95% CI 0.97–2.19). Of 128 patients who were positive for the IgA antibody against native gliadins, 8 were positive for the IgA antibody against deamidated gliadin epitopes and 1 was positive for IgA anti-TGM2 antibody. However, quantitative analysis demonstrated that the mean levels of IgA antibodies against deamidated gliadin epitopes and TGM2 were significantly lower in patients with schizophrenia than the control subjects (P < .001 and P = .008, respectively). The prevalence of IgG antibodies against native gliadins was not significantly different between the patient group and the control group (?2 = 2.25, P = .134, OR = 1.32, 95% CI 0.92–1.88). This study suggests that specific gliadin-derived epitopes may be involved in schizophrenia. PMID:20884755

Jin, Shun-Zi; Wu, Ning; Xu, Qi; Zhang, Xuan; Ju, Gui-Zhi; Law, Matthew H.; Wei, Jun

2012-01-01

309

Rift Valley fever in Kenya: the presence of antibody to the virus in camels (Camelus dromedarius).  

PubMed Central

Five hundred and seventy-one camel sera collected after an epizootic of Rift Valley Fever were examined for antibody to the virus. Clinical disease had not been observed in cattle and sheep in the ecosystems shared with the camels. Positive sera with high titres of serum neutralizing antibody were found in 22% of camels at one of the seven sampling sites. PMID:3989285

Davies, F. G.; Koros, J.; Mbugua, H.

1985-01-01

310

Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies, Autoimmune Neutropenia, and Vasculitis  

PubMed Central

Objectives Reports of an association between antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and autoimmune neutropenia have rarely included cases of proven vasculitis. A case of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) with recurrent neutropenia is described and relevant literature on the association between ANCA, neutropenia, and vasculitis is reviewed. Methods Longitudinal clinical assessments and laboratory findings are described in a patient with AAV and recurrent episodes of profound neutropenia from December 2008 – October 2010. A PubMed database search of the medical literature was performed for papers published from 1960 through October 2010 to identify all reported cases of ANCA and neutropenia. Results A 49 year-old man developed recurrent neutropenia, periodic fevers, arthritis, biopsy-proven cutaneous vasculitis, sensorineural hearing loss, epididymitis, and positive tests for ANCA with specificity for antibodies to both proteinase 3 and myeloperoxidase. Antineutrophil membrane antibodies were detected during an acute neutropenic phase and were not detectable in a post-recovery sample, whereas ANCA titers did not seem to correlate with neutropenia. An association between ANCA and neutropenia has been reported in 74 cases from 24 studies in the context of drug/toxin exposure, underlying autoimmune disease, or chronic neutropenia without underlying autoimmune disease. In these cases, the presence of atypical ANCA patterns and other antibodies were common; however, vasculitis was uncommon and when it occurred was usually limited to the skin and in cases of underlying toxin exposure. Conclusions ANCA is associated with autoimmune neutropenia, but systemic vasculitis rarely occurs in association with ANCA and neutropenia. The interaction between neutrophils and ANCA may provide insight into understanding both autoimmune neutropenia and AAV. PMID:21507463

Grayson, Peter C.; Sloan, J. Mark; Niles, John L.; Monach, Paul A.; Merkel, Peter A.

2011-01-01

311

Stiff-person syndrome with amphiphysin antibodies  

PubMed Central

Background: Stiff-person syndrome (SPS), formerly Stiff-man syndrome, is a rare autoimmune disease usually exhibiting severe spasms and thoracolumbar stiffness, with very elevated glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GAD Ab). A paraneoplastic variant, less well characterized, is associated with amphiphysin antibodies (amphiphysin Ab). The objective of this study was to identify distinctive clinical features of amphiphysin Ab-associated SPS. Methods: Records associated with 845 sera tested in the Yale SPS project were examined, and 621 patients with clinically suspected SPS were included in the study. Clinical characteristics were assessed with correction for multiple comparisons. Results: In all, 116 patients had GAD antibodies and 11 patients had amphiphysin Ab; some clinical information was available for 112 and 11 of these patients, respectively. Patients with amphiphysin Ab-associated SPS were exclusively female; mean age was 60. All except one had breast cancer; none had diabetes. Compared to patients with GAD Ab-associated SPS, those with amphiphysin Ab were older (p = 0.02) and showed a dramatically different stiffness pattern (p < 0.0000001) with cervical involvement more likely, p ? 0.001. Electromyography showed continuous motor unit activity or was reported positive in eight. Benzodiazepines at high dose (average 50 mg/day diazepam) were partially effective. Four patients were steroid responsive and tumor excision with chemotherapy produced marked clinical improvement in three of five patients. Conclusions: Amphiphysin Ab-associated stiff-person syndrome is strongly associated with cervical region stiffness, female sex, breast cancer, advanced age, EMG abnormalities, and benzodiazepine responsiveness. The condition may respond to steroids and can dramatically improve with cancer treatment. GLOSSARY EAE = experimental autoimmune encephalitis; GAD Ab = glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies; ICC = immunocytochemistry; PERM = progressive variant with encephalomyelitis, rigidity, and myoclonus; SPS = stiff-person syndrome. PMID:18971449

Murinson, Beth B.; Guarnaccia, Joseph B.

2008-01-01

312

Computer-aided antibody design  

PubMed Central

Recent clinical trials using antibodies with low toxicity and high efficiency have raised expectations for the development of next-generation protein therapeutics. However, the process of obtaining therapeutic antibodies remains time consuming and empirical. This review summarizes recent progresses in the field of computer-aided antibody development mainly focusing on antibody modeling, which is divided essentially into two parts: (i) modeling the antigen-binding site, also called the complementarity determining regions (CDRs), and (ii) predicting the relative orientations of the variable heavy (VH) and light (VL) chains. Among the six CDR loops, the greatest challenge is predicting the conformation of CDR-H3, which is the most important in antigen recognition. Further computational methods could be used in drug development based on crystal structures or homology models, including antibody–antigen dockings and energy calculations with approximate potential functions. These methods should guide experimental studies to improve the affinities and physicochemical properties of antibodies. Finally, several successful examples of in silico structure-based antibody designs are reviewed. We also briefly review structure-based antigen or immunogen design, with application to rational vaccine development. PMID:22661385

Kuroda, Daisuke; Shirai, Hiroki; Jacobson, Matthew P.; Nakamura, Haruki

2012-01-01

313

Delivery of antibodies to the cytosol: debunking the myths.  

PubMed

The use of antibodies to target their antigens in living cells is a powerful analytical tool for cell biology research. Not only can molecules be localized and visualized in living cells, but interference with cellular processes by antibodies may allow functional analysis down to the level of individual post-translational modifications and splice variants, which is not possible with genetic or RNA-based methods. To utilize the vast resource of available antibodies, an efficient system to deliver them into the cytosol from the outside is needed. Numerous strategies have been proposed, but the most robust and widely applicable procedure still remains to be identified, since a quantitative ranking of the efficiencies has not yet been done. To achieve this, we developed a novel efficiency evaluation method for antibody delivery based on a fusion protein consisting of a human IgG 1 Fc and the recombination enzyme Cre (Fc-Cre). Applied to suitable GFP reporter cells, it allows the important distinction between proteins trapped in endosomes and those delivered to the cytosol. Further, it ensures viability of positive cells and is unsusceptible to fixation artifacts and misinterpretation of cellular localization in microscopy and flow cytometry. Very low cytoplasmic delivery efficiencies were found for various profection reagents and membrane penetrating peptides, leaving electroporation as the only practically useful delivery method for antibodies. This was further verified by the successful application of this method to bind antibodies to cytosolic components in living cells. PMID:24848507

Marschall, Andrea L J; Zhang, Congcong; Frenzel, André; Schirrmann, Thomas; Hust, Michael; Perez, Franck; Dübel, Stefan

2014-01-01

314

Prevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Antibodies in Dental Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 125 sophomore preclinical dental students found that these young professionals, because of having a low prevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) antibodies, are at risk for acquiring a primary HSV infection when treating HSV positive patients and should take precautions to avoid virus transmission. (MSE)

Rodu, Brad; And Others

1992-01-01

315

Evaluation of murine cytomegalovirus antibody detection by serological techniques.  

PubMed Central

Naturally acquired murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection in laboratory strains of mice induces antibody levels which are generally undetectable by standard techniques; therefore, MCMV has not been included routinely in mouse viral antibody screening programs. The relative sensitivity of three assay systems, the nuclear anticomplement immunofluorescence (NACIF), the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the complement fixation (CF) test, was evaluated for the detection of MCMV antibodies. Sera were harvested from CD1 male mice (33 days old) infected intraperitoneally with salivary gland-passaged MCMV (Smith strain). The sera were assayed separately at weeks 1 through 8, and at week 11, 16, and 25 post-inoculation; a total of 167 mice in 11 groups were tested. The animals tested at 1 week post-inoculation had low levels of antibodies to MCMV as measured by the NACIF test (1:10), whereas only 25% were positive by ELISA, and none was positive by CF until 5 weeks post-inoculation. A higher titer of MCMV antibodies was measured by CF (1:640) than by NACIF (1:40) at 6 months post-inoculation; yet, a titer of 1:3,200 was detected by ELISA from the same serum. The ELISA technique was more sensitive for detecting persistent infection with MCMV, and NACIF was more useful for detecting acute MCMV infection. Since MCMV can have significant long-term effects on the immune system, it is recommended that testing for antibodies to MCMV be included in mouse viral antibody screening protocols. PMID:6313750

Anderson, C A; Murphy, J C; Fox, J G

1983-01-01

316

Antibodies targeting mutated citrullinated vimentin in patients with psoriatic arthritis.  

PubMed

Antibodies against mutated citrullinated vimentin (anti-MCV) are of a comparable diagnostic value in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as antibodies targeting citrullinated peptides (anti-CCP). Anti-CCP are present in up to 15% of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients, while the prevalence of anti-MCV in PsA patients has been poorly investigated. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and relevance of anti-MCV antibodies in PsA patients. The study included 56 PsA patients. Clinical features, disease activity, and functional ability were noted by an experienced rheumatologist. Serum samples of all patients were analyzed for anti-MCV and anti-CCP antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data on 92 patients with RA, 44 patients with other inflammatory rheumatic diseases, and 107 healthy controls from a previous study were used to compare the prevalence of anti-MCV antibodies in PsA patients. Anti-MCV antibodies were positive in only two out of 56 (3.6%) PsA patients, which was significantly lower compared to RA patients (63%). The anti-MCV level was moderately positive and borderline in one patient each. Both patients had asymmetric polyarthritis, dactylitis, moderate to high disease activity, and were anti-CCP and rheumatoid factor (RF) negative. There was no significant difference in anti-MCV levels according to clinical subtypes of PsA and no correlation of anti-MCV levels with anti-CCP, RF, disease activity variables, and functional ability indices. According to study results, anti-MCV antibodies can be detected in a very small proportion of PsA patients with polyarthritic disease and are primarily related to the polyarthritic pattern rather than the specific diagnosis of RA. PMID:20069329

Tesija-Kuna, Andrea; Grazio, Simeon; Miler, Marijana; Vukasovic, Ines; Peric, Porin; Vrkic, Nada

2010-05-01

317

Rapid Isolation of Antibody from a Synthetic Human Antibody Library by Repeated Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting (FACS)  

PubMed Central

Antibodies and their derivatives are the most important agents in therapeutics and diagnostics. Even after the significant progress in the technology for antibody screening from huge libraries, it takes a long time to isolate an antibody, which prevents a prompt action against the spread of a disease. Here, we report a new strategy for isolating desired antibodies from a combinatorial library in one day by repeated fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). First, we constructed a library of synthetic human antibody in which single-chain variable fragment (scFv) was expressed in the periplasm of Escherichia coli. After labeling the cells with fluorescent antigen probes, the highly fluorescent cells were sorted by using a high-speed cell sorter, and these cells were reused without regeneration in the next round of sorting. After repeating this sorting, the positive clones were completely enriched in several hours. Thus, we screened the library against three viral antigens, including the H1N1 influenza virus, Hepatitis B virus, and Foot-and-mouth disease virus. Finally, the potential antibody candidates, which show KD values between 10 and 100 nM against the target antigens, could be successfully isolated even though the library was relatively small (?106). These results show that repeated FACS screening without regeneration of the sorted cells can be a powerful method when a rapid response to a spreading disease is required. PMID:25303314

Yim, Sung Sun; Bang, Hyun Bae; Kim, Young Hwan; Lee, Yong Jae; Jeong, Gu Min; Jeong, Ki Jun

2014-01-01

318

Gene Positioning  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic gene expression is an intricate multistep process, regulated within the cell nucleus through the activation or repression of RNA synthesis, processing, cytoplasmic export, and translation into protein. The major regulators of gene expression are chromatin remodeling and transcription machineries that are locally recruited to genes. However, enzymatic activities that act on genes are not ubiquitously distributed throughout the nucleoplasm, but limited to specific and spatially defined foci that promote preferred higher-order chromatin arrangements. The positioning of genes within the nuclear landscape relative to specific functional landmarks plays an important role in gene regulation and disease. PMID:20484389

Ferrai, Carmelo; de Castro, Ines Jesus; Lavitas, Liron; Chotalia, Mita; Pombo, Ana

2010-01-01

319

Positioning apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is provided for precisely adjusting the position of an article relative to a beam emerging from a neutron source disposed in a housing. The apparatus includes a support pivotably mounted on a movable base plate and freely suspended therefrom. The support is gravity biased toward the housing and carries an article holder movable in a first direction longitudinally of the axis of said beam and normally urged into engagement against said housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the suspended holder in two mutually perpendicular directions, respectively, normal to the axis of the beam.

Vogel, M.A.; Alter, P.

1983-07-07

320

Ryanodine receptor antibodies related to severity of thymoma associated myasthenia gravis.  

PubMed Central

Ryanodine receptor (RyR) antibodies are detected in about 50% of patients with myasthenia gravis who have a thymoma. The RyR is a calcium release channel involved in the mechanism of excitation-contraction coupling in striated muscle. In this study the severity of myasthenia gravis assessed by a five point disability score was compared between 12 patients with myasthenia gravis, a thymoma, and RyR antibodies and 10 patients with myasthenia gravis and a thymoma but without such antibodies. Symptoms of myasthenia gravis were significantly more severe in patients with RyR antibodies. The mean (SD) disability scores were 3.7(0.5) in patients with antibodies and 2.7 (0.9) in those without at peak of illness, (p = 0.01) and 3.4(1.4) v 1.6(0.7) at the end of an average observation period of five years (p = 0.002). The number of deaths due to myasthenia gravis was five of 12 RyR antibody positive patients, and none of 10 RyR antibody negative patients (p = 0.04). RyR antibody levels correlated positively with severity of myasthenia gravis. The presence of circulating RyR antibodies seems to be associated with a severe form of thymoma associated myasthenia gravis. PMID:8021674

Mygland, A; Aarli, J A; Matre, R; Gilhus, N E

1994-01-01

321

Bluetongue antibody in Botswana's domestic and game animals.  

PubMed

Bluetongue precipitating antibody was demonstrated in sera of cattle, camels, sheep, goats and seven game species. Of the domestic species the percentage of sera positive were; cattle 92%, camels 81%, goats 83% and sheep 36%. Sheep sera, unlike those of other domestic species, varied greatly from area to area in the percentage positive. Seroconversions were recorded in adult sheep between September and April. In adult cattle there was a gradual decline in the percentage positive with increasing age. Positive reactions were recorded in the following game species: impala (Aepyceros melampus), lechwe (Kobus leche), kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), gemsbok (Oryx gazella), springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) and tsessebe (Damaliscus lunatus). PMID:220761

Simpson, V R

1979-02-01

322

Prevalence of antibodies to Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi in wild canids from South Carolina.  

PubMed

Wild canids are reservoir hosts for Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi. The present study examined the prevalence of antibodies to these zoonotic parasites in a population of wild canids from a nonagricultural setting in South Carolina. Sera from 26 gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and 2 coyotes (Canis latrans) were examined for antibodies to L. infantum and T. cruzi using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test and commercially available parasite-specific immunochromatigraphic strip assays. Antibodies to L. infantum were not detected by either assay in gray foxes or coyotes. Two (8%) of 26 gray foxes were positive in both the T. cruzi immunofluorescent antibody and strip assays. Antibodies to T. cruzi were not detected in coyotes. Results from this study indicate that wild canids are exposed to T. cruzi, but not L. infantum. in this geographic region. PMID:17918387

Rosypal, Alexa C; Tidwell, Richard R; Lindsay, David S

2007-08-01

323

Application of phage display to high throughput antibody generation and characterization  

PubMed Central

We have created a high quality phage display library containing over 1010 human antibodies and describe its use in the generation of antibodies on an unprecedented scale. We have selected, screened and sequenced over 38,000 recombinant antibodies to 292 antigens, yielding over 7,200 unique clones. 4,400 antibodies were characterized by specificity testing and detailed sequence analysis and the data/clones are available online. Sensitive detection was demonstrated in a bead based flow cytometry assay. Furthermore, positive staining by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays was found for 37% (143/381) of antibodies. Thus, we have demonstrated the potential of and illuminated the issues associated with genome-wide monoclonal antibody generation. PMID:18047641

Schofield, Darren J; Pope, Anthony R; Clementel, Veronica; Buckell, Jenny; Chapple, Susan DJ; Clarke, Kay F; Conquer, Jennie S; Crofts, Anna M; Crowther, Sandra RE; Dyson, Michael R; Flack, Gillian; Griffin, Gareth J; Hooks, Yvette; Howat, William J; Kolb-Kokocinski, Anja; Kunze, Susan; Martin, Cecile D; Maslen, Gareth L; Mitchell, Joanne N; O'Sullivan, Maureen; Perera, Rajika L; Roake, Wendy; Shadbolt, S Paul; Vincent, Karen J; Warford, Anthony; Wilson, Wendy E; Xie, Jane; Young, Joyce L; McCafferty, John

2007-01-01

324

Positive Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Positive Lives project is "a unique international project that photographs and documents the social and emotional impact of the global HIV/AIDS epidemic, illuminating positive human responses to this world crisis." Sponsored by the Levi Strauss Foundation and the Terrence Higgins Trust, the project has sponsored photographers from across the world to photograph various persons living with HIV/AIDS in a host of very different settings. While the project has sponsored a number of various photographic exhibits, this online collection represents a small portion of the work thus far. Using an interactive map of the world, users can click on different geographic areas to view photographic exhibits documenting the lived experience of this condition. In South Africa, visitors can learn about the work and the residents of Nazareth House, which is a children's home in Cape Town taking care of abandoned children with HIV or AIDS. In Edinburgh, visitors are taken through the lives of young drug abusers at the Muirhouse Estate who are also living with either HIV or AIDS. In the words of photographer John Sturrock, "In Muirhouse I witnessed the emotional struggle of people enduring a tragedy..." However, hope is present in these photographic essays as well, as they represent a broad range of emotions.

325

Anti-gliadin antibodies identify celiac patients overlooked by tissue transglutaminase antibodies.  

PubMed

For patients with suspected celiac disease, the American Gastroenterological Association recommends initial screening with anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody (tTG) and confirmation testing with small bowel biopsy. However, at Tripler Army Medical Center we routinely screen patients with both tTG and anti-gliadin antibodies (AGA) in combination. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether this dual screening method adds to the evaluation of patients with suspected celiac disease or results in more false-positive results than tTG screening alone. A retrospective chart review of all tTG and AGA screening serologies at Tripler Army Medical Center between September 2008 and March 2012 was performed. For patients with positive serologic testing, small bowel biopsy results or reasoning for deferring biopsy were investigated. tTG was found to have a higher positive predictive value for celiac disease than AGA, however AGA identified 5 patients (19% of biopsy confirmed celiac disease) that had a negative tTG and would not have been identified by tTG screening alone. Using AGA in combination with tTG should be considered if the goal of screening is to identify all patients with celiac disease, with the understanding that this strategy will generate more false positive tests and result in additional patients undergoing small bowel biopsy. PMID:24052912

Benson, Brian C; Mulder, Christopher J; Laczek, Jeffrey T

2013-09-01

326

Interfacial structure of immobilized antibodies and perdeuterated HSA in model pregnancy tests measured with neutron reflectivity.  

PubMed

Experimental studies of antibody adsorption and antigen binding that mimicked pregnancy test immunoassays have been performed using neutron reflectivity studies of a model antibody/antigen system immobilized on the silica/water interface. The study revealed the nature of the antibody/antigen interaction and also the importance of a blocking protein, in this case human serum albumin (HSA), that enhances the immunoassay's specificity and efficiency. Of central importance to this study has been the use of a perdeuterated human serum albumin (d-HSA), providing contrast that highlights the orientation and position of the blocking agent within the adsorbed layer. It was found that the adsorbed HSA filled the gaps between the preadsorbed antibodies on the substrate, with decreased adsorption occurring as a function of increased antibody surface coverage. In addition, the antigen binding capacity of the adsorbed antibodies was investigated as a function of antibody surface coverage. The amount of specifically bound antigen was found to saturate at approximately 0.17 mg/m(2) and became independent of the antibody surface coverage. The ratio of bound antigen to immobilized antibody decreased with increased antibody surface coverage. These results are of importance for a full understanding of immunoassay systems that are widely used in clinical tests and in the detection of environmental contaminants. PMID:24788076

Cowsill, Benjamin J; Zhao, Xiubo; Waigh, Thomas A; Eapen, Saji; Davies, Robert; Laux, Valerie; Haertlein, Michael; Forsyth, V Trevor; Lu, Jian R

2014-05-27

327

Fully Human Antagonistic Antibodies against CCR4 Potently Inhibit Cell Signaling and Chemotaxis  

PubMed Central

Background CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) represents a potentially important target for cancer immunotherapy due to its expression on tumor infiltrating immune cells including regulatory T cells (Tregs) and on tumor cells in several cancer types and its role in metastasis. Methodology Using phage display, human antibody library, affinity maturation and a cell-based antibody selection strategy, the antibody variants against human CCR4 were generated. These antibodies effectively competed with ligand binding, were able to block ligand-induced signaling and cell migration, and demonstrated efficient killing of CCR4-positive tumor cells via ADCC and phagocytosis. In a mouse model of human T-cell lymphoma, significant survival benefit was demonstrated for animals treated with the newly selected anti-CCR4 antibodies. Significance For the first time, successful generation of anti- G-protein coupled chemokine receptor (GPCR) antibodies using human non-immune library and phage display on GPCR-expressing cells was demonstrated. The generated anti-CCR4 antibodies possess a dual mode of action (inhibition of ligand-induced signaling and antibody-directed tumor cell killing). The data demonstrate that the anti-tumor activity in vivo is mediated, at least in part, through Fc-receptor dependent effector mechanisms, such as ADCC and phagocytosis. Anti-CC chemokine receptor 4 antibodies inhibiting receptor signaling have potential as immunomodulatory antibodies for cancer. PMID:25080123

Géraudie, Solène; Scheffler, Ulrike; Griep, Remko A.; Reiersen, Herald; Duncan, Alexander R.; Kiprijanov, Sergej M.

2014-01-01

328

Antibodies to deamidated gliadin peptides: an accurate predictor of coeliac disease in infancy.  

PubMed

Immunoglobulin G antibodies against deamidated gliadin peptides are now known to have diagnostic accuracy comparable to tissue transglutaminase and endomysium autoantibodies in patients with coeliac disease. However, little is known about their predictive value in infants with a suspected gluten enteropathy. We tested whether deamidated gliadin immunoglobulin G antibodies are more reliable than traditional tests for coeliac disease screening in infancy. Sixty-five children under 2 years of age (42 with malabsorption, 23 controls) were tested for deamidated gliadin immunoglobulin G, tissue transglutaminase and endomysium immunoglobulin A, and gliadin immunoglobulins A and G . Thirty-seven of the 42 children with malabsorption had deamidated gliadin antibodies, associated with tissue transglutaminase and endomysial antibodies in 33, and with gliadin immunoglobulins A and G in 21 and 29, respectively. Intestinal biopsy was performed in 34 of the 37 children positive for deamidated gliadin antibodies. Thirty-two/34 showed villous atrophy consistent with coeliac disease, while the remaining two had a Marsh 1 and a normal mucosa, respectively. Only gliadin immunoglobulins A (4.3%) and G (39.1%) were found in controls. The sensitivity of deamidated gliadin, tissue transglutaminase and endomysial antibodies for coeliac disease was significantly higher than that of gliadin immunoglobulins G and A. High titre deamidated gliadin antibodies correlated with severe intestinal damage. Deamidated gliadin antibodies showed a higher diagnostic accuracy for coeliac disease than gliadin antibodies in infancy. High titre deamidated gliadin antibodies predict a severe gluten-dependent duodenal damage. PMID:23558824

Amarri, Sergio; Alvisi, Patrizia; De Giorgio, Roberto; Gelli, Maria Carolina; Cicola, Ronny; Tovoli, Francesco; Sassatelli, Romano; Caio, Giacomo; Volta, Umberto

2013-07-01

329

Antibodies in human infectious disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigation of human antibody responses to viral pathogens at the molecular level is revealing novel aspects of the interplay\\u000a of viruses with the humoral immune system. In viral infection, at least two types of human antibody responses exist: a response\\u000a to mature envelope on virions that is neutralizing and a response to immature forms of envelope (viral debris) that is

Paul W. H. I. Parren; Pascal Poignard; Henrick J. Ditzel; R. Anthony Williamson; Dennis R. Burton

2000-01-01

330

Bispecific Antibodies and Gene Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Gene therapy is the transfer of therapeutic genes, via gene transfer vectors, into patients for therapeutic purposes. Different\\u000a gene therapy strategies are being pursued, including long-term gene correction of monogenetic diseases, eradication of tumor\\u000a cells in cancer patients, or genetic vaccination for infectious diseases. Bispecific antibodies and gene therapy are connected\\u000a in two ways. First, bispecific antibodies are tools of

Dirk M. Nettelbeck

331

Human Monoclonal Antibody Against Mesothelin  

Cancer.gov

Mesothelin is a cell surface protein that is naturally expressed at very low levels, but that is significantly increased in aggressive tumors such as mesotheliomas, and pancreatic and ovarian tumors. Therefore, mesothelin is an excellent candidate for tumor-targeted immunotherapeutics. However, the only antibodies against mesothelin that are currently available for clinical trials are of murine origin. The use of these antibodies may be limited by their potential to elicit adverse immune responses in patients with repeated doses.

332

Antibody levels for cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, and rubella in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Significantly higher proportions of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or lymphadenopathy syndrome (LAS) were positive for antibodies to cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) compared with control groups of commercial blood donors. In contrast, no differences were found in the incidence of individuals positive for antibodies to rubella in these groups of subjects. Of those positive for antibodies to CMV and HSV in each group, the mean antibody levels were significantly higher in AIDS-LAS patients compared with the controls. The entire distribution of antibody concentrations to CMV and HSV in AIDS patients was shifted upward, so that significantly more patients showed high values and significantly fewer showed low values, indicating hyperactive humoral immune responses to these viruses. In sharp contrast, the AIDS patients with antibody levels for rubella showed the same distribution of antibody levels as did two groups of controls. No correlation was found between concentrations of CMV and HSV antibodies in individual AIDS-LAS patients. PMID:3009534

Halbert, S P; Kiefer, D J; Friedman-Kien, A E; Poiesz, B

1986-01-01

333

Antibodies to watch in 2014.  

PubMed

Since 2010, mAbs has documented the biopharmaceutical industry's progress in transitioning antibody therapeutics to first Phase 3 clinical studies and regulatory review, and its success at gaining first marketing approvals for antibody-based products. This installment of the "Antibodies to watch" series outlines events anticipated to occur between December 2013 and the end of 2014, including first regulatory actions on marketing applications for vedolizumab, siltuximab, and ramucirumab, as well as the Fc fusion proteins Factor IX-Fc and Factor VIII-Fc; and the submission of first marketing applications for up to five therapeutics (secukinumab, ch14.18, onartuzumab, necitumumab, gevokizumab). Antibody therapeutics in Phase 3 studies are described, with an emphasis on those with study completion dates in 2014, including antibodies targeting interleukin-17a or the interleukin-17a receptor (secukinumab, ixekizumab, brodalumab), proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (alirocumab, evolocumab, bococizumab), and programmed death 1 receptor (lambrolizumab, nivolumab). Five antibodies with US Food and Drug Administration's Breakthrough Therapy designation (obinutuzumab, ofatumumab, lambrolizumab, bimagrumab, daratumumab) are also discussed. PMID:24284914

Reichert, Janice M

2014-01-01

334

Avian Diagnostic and Therapeutic Antibodies  

SciTech Connect

A number of infectious agents have the potential of causing significant clinical symptomology and even death, but dispite this, the number of incidence remain below the level that supports producing a vaccine. Therapeutic antibodies provide a viable treatment option for many of these diseases. We proposed that antibodies derived from West Nile Virus (WNV) immunized geese would be able to treat WNV infection in mammals and potential humans. We demonstrated that WNV specific goose antibodies are indeed successful in treating WNV infection both prophylactically and therapeutically in a golden hamster model. We demonstrated that the goose derived antibodies are non-reactogenic, i.e. do not cause an inflammatory response with multiple exposures in mammals. We also developed both a specific pathogen free facility to house the geese during the antibody production phase and a patent-pending purification process to purify the antibodies to greater than 99% purity. Therefore, the success of these study will allow a cost effective rapidly producible therapeutic toward clinical testing with the necessary infrastructure and processes developed and in place.

Bradley, David Sherman [UND SMHS] [UND SMHS

2012-12-31

335

Toxoplasma antibodies among bobcats and other carnivores of norther California.  

PubMed

The prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was investigated among five species of wild carnivores in Norther Ccalifornia. The highest prevalence was among bobcats (Lynx rufus), with 15 of 21 tested being serologically positive. Other results included serological evidence of toxoplasmosis in two of seven raccoons (Procyon lotor), one of three badgers (taxidea taxus) and two of three coyotes (Canis latrans). Two gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) were serologically negative. Oone badger with an indirect hemagglutination antibody titer of 1:8192 was found to harbor T. gondii in its brain tissues. PMID:1142562

Riemann, H P; Howarth, J A; Ruppanner, R; Franti, C E; BEHYMER, D E

1975-04-01

336

Selecting and screening recombinant antibody libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past decade several display methods and other library screening techniques have been developed for isolating monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from large collections of recombinant antibody fragments. These technologies are now widely exploited to build human antibodies with high affinity and specificity. Clever antibody library designs and selection concepts are now able to identify mAb leads with virtually any specificity.

Hennie R Hoogenboom

2005-01-01

337

Schmallenberg virus antibody persistence in adult cattle after natural infection and decay of maternal antibodies in calves  

PubMed Central

Background Schmallenberg virus (SBV) has swept through the major part of Europe in the period 2011–2013. A vaccine against SBV has been developed and may be a possible preventive instrument against infection. Presently, there is no data available to refute the assumption that natural SBV infection results in long-term immunity. In that respect, it is of interest to know how long (protecting) virus-neutralizing antibodies are present in naturally infected animals. New-born calves acquire passive immunity from their dams by ingestion and absorption of antibodies present in colostrum, which can block the production of serum antibodies when vaccine is administered to calves with maternally derived antibodies. In that respect, it is useful to know how long it takes for maternal antibodies against SBV to disappear in young animals born from infected dams. Results Longitudinal whole-herd serological monitoring using virus neutralization test (VNT) indicated that 80% of adult dairy cows still had measurable antibodies against SBV at least 24 months after the estimated introduction of the virus into the herd. Median 2Log VNT titer of the adult dairy cows (?1 year) dropped from 8.6 to 5.6 in a period of 17 months. Median 2Log VNT maternal antibodies titers of calves sampled within 30 days after birth was 8. Calves lost their maternally-derived antibodies after 5–6 months. There was a definite positive relationship between the VNT titer of the dam and the VNT titer of the corresponding calf (age ? 30 days) of dam-calf combinations sampled on the same day: the higher the VNT titer of the dam, the higher the VNT titer (maternal antibodies) of the calf. Conclusions Our field data support the assumption that natural SBV infection in adult cows results in persistence of specific antibodies for at least two years. Based on the observed decay of maternally-derived antibodies in calves, it is presumed safe to vaccinate calves against SBV at an age of approximately 6 months. PMID:24885026

2014-01-01

338

Engineered antibodies take center stage.  

PubMed

The start of the post-genomic era provides a useful juncture for reflection on the state of antibody engineering, which will be a critical technology for relating function and pathology to genomic sequence in biology and medicine. The phenomenal progress in deciphering the human genome has given significant impetus to the application of engineered antibodies in proteomics. Thus, advances in phage display antibody libraries can now help to define novel gene function and the measurement of abnormal protein expression in pathological states. Furthermore, intrabody and antibody engineering provide vehicles for the development of molecular medicines of the future. In addition to these new directions, antibody engineering has begun to show concrete success in its long-term efforts to develop targeted immunotherapies for cancer and other diseases. The cornerstones of clinical development are the detailed academic clinical trials that continue to push the boundaries of engineered antibodies into the real world. The field displays a healthy impatience for practical results, as research accelerates with concerted efforts to transfer preclinical insights into clinical trials. Growing private and governmental expenditures will lead to the rapid expansion of life-saving immunotherapeutic agents. The present review developed from our effort to report on the 11th Annual International Conference on Antibody Engineering (3-6 December 2000). This annual meeting is a forum for discussions on the latest advances in antibody engineering groups from around the world, and now includes the broader agenda of engineering in molecular immunology. In bringing scientists together to exchange ideas at this open forum, new collaborations and the threads of new discoveries are woven. For example, Professors Gerhard Wagner (Harvard Medical School), Dennis Burton (Scripps Research Institute), and Peter Hudson (CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia) gave exciting insights on structural immunobiology that had implications across many disciplines. The growth in antibody engineering was highlighted by the attendance of some 600 participants at the meeting, doubling that of the 1999 meeting. Dramatic clinical acceptance of monoclonal antibodies during the past two years has fostered this growth, with sales in 2000 of 1.8 billion dollars and projections for 2001 of 3 billion dollars. However, economic measures cannot begin to convey the medical revolution that is being effected by these first humanized and chimerized monoclonal antibodies. At this juncture, the 10 monoclonal antibody therapeutics in clinical use are of murine origin, of which 3 are entirely murine (OKT3, Mylotarg, 90Y-labeled Bexxar), 4 have been chimerized (human constant domains replacing murine) (ReoPro, Rituxan and its 131I-labeled analogue (Zevalin), Simulect, Remicade) and 3 were chimerized and humanized (human residues being substituted for at least some mouse-specific framework residues in VH and VL) (Zenapax, Herceptin, Synagis). Fully humanized anti-CD52 (CAMPATH-1H) has also been approved by the FDA for the treatment of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and should become available in late 2001. Humanization was initially developed by Dr. Greg Winter at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology (Cambridge, UK), who presented the meeting's keynote address, "Antibodies as a Paradigm for Molecular Evolution". His pioneering work in antibody phage display libraries has been reformulated into a daring approach to develop truly novel proteins with genetically paired structural elements. He described studies in combinatorial protein engineering with enormous implications for both industrial and therapeutic applications of macromolecules. PMID:11847424

Huston, J S; George, A J

2001-01-01

339

Clinical correlations with Porphyromonas gingivalis antibody responses in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Prior studies have demonstrated an increased frequency of antibodies to Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), a leading agent of periodontal disease, in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. However, these patients generally had long-standing disease, and clinical associations with these antibodies were inconsistent. Our goal was to examine Pg antibody responses and their clinical associations in patients with early RA prior to and after disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy. Methods Serum samples from 50 DMARD-naïve RA patients were tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with whole-Pg sonicate. For comparison, serum samples were tested from patients with late RA, patients with other connective tissue diseases (CTDs), age-similar healthy hospital personnel and blood bank donors. Pg antibody responses in early RA patients were correlated with standard RA biomarkers, measures of disease activity and function. Results At the time of enrollment, 17 (34%) of the 50 patients with early RA had positive immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody responses to Pg, as did 13 (30%) of the 43 patients with late RA. RA patients had significantly higher Pg antibody responses than healthy hospital personnel and blood bank donors (P < 0.0001). Additionally, RA patients tended to have higher Pg antibody reactivity than patients with other CTDs (P = 0.1), and CTD patients tended to have higher Pg responses than healthy participants (P = 0.07). Compared with Pg antibody-negative patients, early RA patients with positive Pg responses more often had anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody reactivity, their anti-CCP levels were significantly higher (P = 0.03) and the levels of anti-Pg antibodies correlated directly with anti-CCP levels (P < 0.01). Furthermore, at the time of study entry, the Pg-positive antibody group had greater rheumatoid factor values (P = 0.04) and higher inflammatory markers (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, or ESR) (P = 0.05), and they tended to have higher disease activity scores (Disease Activity Score based on 28-joint count (DAS28)-ESR and Clinical Disease Activity Index) and more functional impairment (Health Assessment Questionnaire). In Pg-positive patients, greater disease activity was still apparent after 12 months of DMARD therapy. Conclusions A subset of early RA patients had positive Pg antibody responses. The responses correlated with anti-CCP antibody reactivity and to a lesser degree with ESR values. There was a trend toward greater disease activity in Pg-positive patients, and this trend remained after 12 months of DMARD therapy. These findings are consistent with a role for Pg in disease pathogenesis in a subset of RA patients. PMID:24017968

2013-01-01

340

Hepatitis C viremia and anti-HCV antibodies in alcoholics.  

PubMed

We determined serum hepatitis C status using a RIBA2 kit and a sensitive PCR procedure in 62 chronic alcoholics, 36 of whom had anti-HCV antibodies (Ab) detectable in an ELISA1 assay. Anti-HCV antibodies were detected in 22 patients using RIBA2. HCV RNA was detected by means of PCR in 18 patients who were RIBA2 positive and in none who were RIBA2 negative. Liver biopsies, available for 12 HCV RNA-positive patients, revealed histological features of purely alcohol-related lesions in seven and mixed alcohol-viral lesions in five. These results indicate that HCV replication is maintained in most alcoholics who score positive for anti-HCV Ab in the RIBA2 test, and that HCV viremia can be associated with histological features typical of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:1380027

Nalpas, B; Thiers, V; Pol, S; Driss, F; Thepot, V; Berthelot, P; Brechot, C

1992-03-01

341

Glycine receptor antibodies are detected in progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM) but not in saccadic oscillations.  

PubMed

Glycine receptor (GlyR) antibodies were recently identified in a few patients with progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM); none of these patients had antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). An inhibitory glycinergic transmission defect has also been implicated in the mechanism underlying saccadic oscillations, including ocular flutter or opsoclonus; GlyR antibodies have not been reported in these patients. The purpose was to determine whether GlyR antibodies are found in patients with PERM, ocular flutter syndrome (OFS), and opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS). GlyR antibodies were first measured in archived sera and CSF from five patients, including one patient with GAD antibody-positive PERM, two patients with OFS, and two patients with OMS. GlyR antibodies were also measured in archived sera from nine other adult patients with OMS. GlyR antibodies and GAD antibodies were both found at high titers in the serum and CSF of the patient with PERM, and their levels paralleled disease activity over time. GlyR antibodies were not found at significant levels in 13 patients with saccadic oscillations. GlyR and GAD antibodies can co-exist in PERM and follow the clinical course. Although saccadic oscillations are a feature of this condition, GlyR antibodies are not commonly found in patients with isolated saccadic oscillations. PMID:22215239

Iizuka, Takahiro; Leite, Maria I; Lang, Bethan; Waters, Patrick; Urano, Yoshiaki; Miyakawa, Saori; Hamada, Junichi; Sakai, Fumihiko; Mochizuki, Hideki; Vincent, Angela

2012-08-01

342

Benign positional vertigo  

MedlinePLUS

Vertigo - positional; Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo; BPPV: dizziness- positional ... Benign positional vertigo is also called benign paroxysmal positional ... ear has fluid-filled tubes called semicircular canals. When ...

343

Prevalence of antipituitary antibodies in acromegaly.  

PubMed

Acromegaly is a rare disorder due to an excessive production of growth hormone (GH), typically caused by a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma. Anti-pituitary antibodies (APAs) are often seen in patients with different kinds of pituitary pathologies. Because GH has been proposed as a possible antigen recognized by such antibodies, the prevalence of APAs may be higher in conditions characterized by excessive GH secretion. The primary aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of APAs in patients with acromegaly and in controls with other types of pituitary tumors and healthy subjects. Secondary aim was to characterize the pituitary cells targeted by the APAs. Thirty eight acromegaly patients and 215 controls, including 38 patients with prolactinomas, 64 with non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA), and 113 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. All subjects were tested for APAs using indirect immunofluorescence. Target cells recognized by APAs were identified by double staining immunofluorescence. APAs were significantly more prevalent in acromegaly cases than in healthy controls (10.5% vs. 1.8%, P < 0.05). This prevalence was similar to that found in patients with prolactinomas (7.9%) and NFPA (12.5%). Among APAs-positive subjects, antibodies recognizing somatotrope cells were more common in acromegaly cases than in healthy controls (3/4 vs. 0/113, P < 0.0001), but had similar frequencies in NFPA (2/8) and prolactinomas (1/3). APAs are more frequently found in patients with pituitary adenomas than healthy subjects, with no significant difference among the tumor types studied. GH-secreting cells could represent a target of the autoimmune response. PMID:22002711

Guaraldi, Federica; Caturegli, Patrizio; Salvatori, Roberto

2012-12-01

344

Broad neutralization coverage of HIV by multiple highly potent antibodies  

PubMed Central

Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against highly variable viral pathogens are much sought-after to treat or protect against global circulating viruses. We have probed the neutralizing antibody repertoires of four HIV-infected donors with remarkably broad and potent neutralizing responses and rescued 17 new monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that neutralize broadly across clades. Many of the new MAbs are almost 10-fold more potent than the recently described PG9, PG16, and VRC01 bnMAbs and 100-fold more potent than the original prototype HIV bnMAbs1–3. The MAbs largely recapitulate the neutralization breadth found in the corresponding donor serum and many recognize novel epitopes on envelope (Env) glycoprotein gp120, illuminating new targets for vaccine design. Analysis of neutralization by the full complement of anti-HIV bnMAbs now available reveals that certain combinations of antibodies provide significantly more favorable coverage of the enormous diversity of global circulating viruses than others and these combinations might be sought in active or passive immunization regimes. Overall, the isolation of multiple HIV bnMAbs, from several donors, that, in aggregate, provide broad coverage at low concentrations is a highly positive indicator for the eventual design of an effective antibody-based HIV vaccine. PMID:21849977

Walker, Laura M.; Huber, Michael; Doores, Katie J.; Falkowska, Emilia; Pejchal, Robert; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Wang, Sheng-Kai; Ramos, Alejandra; Chan-Hui, Po-Ying; Moyle, Matthew; Mitcham, Jennifer L.; Hammond, Phillip W.; Olsen, Ole A.; Phung, Pham; Fling, Steven; Wong, Chi-Huey; Phogat, Sanjay; Wrin, Terri; Simek, Melissa D.; Koff, Wayne C.; Wilson, Ian A.; Burton, Dennis R.; Poignard, Pascal

2012-01-01

345

Anti-actin antibodies revealed by counter-immunoelectrophoresis. Relation to smooth muscle antibodies and bile canalicular antibodies.  

PubMed Central

In investigations by counter-immunoelectrophoresis, anti-actin antibodies were found in 59% of patients with chronic hepatitis and in 8% of patients with non-hepatic diseases and normal blood donors. Anti-actin antibodies were found more frequently in patients with hepatitis and IgG smooth muscle antibodies than in other groups of diseases and normal subjects with IgG smooth muscle antibodies. Anti-actin antibodies showed no correlation with bile canalicular antibodies. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6893598

Diederichsen, H; Riisom, K

1980-01-01

346

A 17-Year-Old Female with Systemic Lupus Presents with Complex Movement Disorder: Possible Relationship with Antiribosomal P Antibodies  

PubMed Central

Complex movement disorder is a relatively rare presentation of neurolupus. Antiphospholipid antibodies are associated with movement disorders likely via aberrant neuronal stimulation. Antiribosomal P antibodies have been previously associated with neuropsychiatric disorders but their correlation with movement disorder was not previously established. Our case report involves a 17-year-old Caucasian female patient positive for only antiribosomal P antibody and lupus anticoagulant who presented with a sudden onset of complex movement disorder. After complete cessation of physical signs with olanzapine, anticardiolipin and anti-?2 glycoprotein I antibodies became positive which indicates a likely discordance between movement disorder and antiphospholipid antibodies. This also indicates a potential causal role of antiribosomal P antibodies in inducing movement disorder. PMID:23738166

Ozcan, Muhammed Emin; Alt?noz, Meric Adil; Karadeli, Hasan Huseyin; Asil, Talip; Kocer, Abdulkadir

2013-01-01

347

Monoclonal antibodies to type X collagen. Biosynthetic studies using an antibody to the amino-terminal domain.  

PubMed

Monoclonal antibodies to chick type X collagen have been used to study the structure, biosynthesis, and location of type X in cartilage. The antibodies were produced by injecting purified type X collagen into female SJL/J mice and then fusing their spleen cells with Sp2/0 myeloma cells. Hybridoma culture supernatants were screened for antibodies to type X collagen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blots. Positive supernatants did not cross-react with other collagen types (I, II, IX, XI) or with fibronectin. Three monoclonal antibodies were chosen for further characterization. Two of them (1A6 and 6F6) recognize a pepsin-sensitive domain of type X collagen. Rotary shadowing showed that 1A6 and 6F6 both recognize the same end of type X, probably the aminoterminal non-triple helical domain. Amino acid sequencing of the intact protein and of the epitope-containing peptide confirmed that the antibody recognition sites for 1A6 and 6F6 are within the amino-terminal domain. Monoclonal antibody 2B3 reacts with the pepsinized (45 kDa) and weakly with the nonpepsinized (59 kDa) forms of type X collagen. The monoclonal antibodies were used for immunolocalization of type X in hypertrophic chondrocytes and reacted only with tissue samples from areas undergoing endochondral ossification, e.g. growth plate and fracture callus. Antibody 6F6, when coupled to Sepharose, selectively binds to type X collagen from cell and organ cultures. In a pulse-chase experiment, no processing of the 59-kDa form of type X could be detected. Two components with molecular masses of approximately 70 and 85 kDa, arising from a disulfide-bonded aggregate, were synthesized by both the permanent and calcifying cartilage organ cultures but did not react with the antibody, suggesting that these proteins are not related to type X. In summary, the pulse-chase results and the immune precipitation with monoclonal antibody 6F6 did not detect biosynthetic precursors larger than 59 kDa or proteolytically processed forms of type X. PMID:2826450

Summers, T A; Irwin, M H; Mayne, R; Balian, G

1988-01-01

348

Uses of monoclonal antibody 8H9  

DOEpatents

This invention provides a composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a suitable carrier. This invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. This invention also provides an antibody other than the monoclonal antibody 8H9 comprising the complementary determining regions of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof, capable of binding to the same antigen as the monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention provides a substance capable of competitively inhibiting the binding of monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention also provides an isolated scFv of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof. This invention also provides the 8H9 antigen. This invention also provides different uses of the monoclonal antibody 8H9 or its derivative.

Cheung, Nai-Kong V.

2013-04-09

349

Entanglement model of antibody viscosity.  

PubMed

Antibody solutions are typically much more viscous than solutions of globular proteins at equivalent volume fraction. Here we propose that this is due to molecular entanglements that are caused by the elongated shape and intrinsic flexibility of antibody molecules. We present a simple theory in which the antibodies are modeled as linear polymers that can grow via reversible bonds between the antigen binding domains. This mechanism explains the observation that relatively subtle changes to the interparticle interaction can lead to large changes in the viscosity. The theory explains the presence of distinct power law regimes in the concentration dependence of the viscosity as well as the correlation between the viscosity and the charge on the variable domain in our antistreptavidin IgG1 model system. PMID:24758234

Schmit, Jeremy D; He, Feng; Mishra, Shradha; Ketchem, Randal R; Woods, Christopher E; Kerwin, Bruce A

2014-05-15

350

Molecular-specific urokinase antibodies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Antibodies have been developed against the different molecular forms of urokinase using synthetic peptides as immunogens. The peptides were synthesized specifically to represent those regions of the urokinase molecules which are exposed in the three-dimensional configuration of the molecule and are uniquely homologous to urokinase. Antibodies are directed against the lysine 158-isoleucine 159 peptide bond which is cleaved during activation from the single-chain (ScuPA) form to the bioactive double chain (54 KDa and 33 KDa) forms of urokinase and against the lysine 135 lysine 136 bond that is cleaved in the process of removing the alpha-chain from the 54 KDa form to produce the 33 KDa form of urokinase. These antibodies enable the direct measurement of the different molecular forms of urokinase from small samples of conditioned medium harvested from cell cultures.

Atassi, M. Zouhair (Inventor); Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)

2009-01-01

351

Smoking and periodontal disease: discrimination of antibody responses to pathogenic and commensal oral bacteria  

PubMed Central

Smoking is an independent risk factor for the initiation, extent and severity of periodontal disease. This study examined the ability of the host immune system to discriminate commensal oral bacteria from pathogens at mucosal surfaces, i.e. oral cavity. Serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibody reactive with three pathogenic and five commensal oral bacteria in 301 current smokers (age range 21–66 years) were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clinical features of periodontal health were used as measures of periodontitis. Antibody to the pathogens and salivary cotinine levels were related positively to disease severity; however, the antibody levels were best described by the clinical disease unrelated to the amount of smoking. The data showed a greater immune response to pathogens than commensals that was related specifically to disease extent, and most noted in black males. Significant correlations in individual patient responses to the pathogens and commensals were lost with an increasing extent of periodontitis and serum antibody to the pathogens. Antibody to Porphyromonas gingivalis was particularly distinct with respect to the discriminatory nature of the immune responses in recognizing the pathogens. Antibody responses to selected pathogenic and commensal oral microorganisms differed among racial groups and genders. The antibody response to the pathogens was related to disease severity. The level of antibody to the pathogens, and in particular P. gingivalis, was correlated with disease severity in black and male subsets of patients. The amount of smoking did not appear to impact directly serum antibody levels to these oral bacteria. PMID:21303363

Hayman, L; Steffen, M J; Stevens, J; Badger, E; Tempro, P; Fuller, B; McGuire, A; Al-Sabbagh, Mohanad; Thomas, M V; Ebersole, J L

2011-01-01

352

Autoantibody potential of cancer therapeutic monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed

We and others have reported that multiple autoantibodies are unmasked in human polyclonal antibody preparations after exposure to physiological oxidizing agents (hemin) or electromotive force. We now have asked if oxidation unmasks autoantibody reactivities in monoclonal antibodies (mAb). To do this, we have studied 9 FDA approved mAb used therapeutically, including 4 chimeric, 4 humanized and 1 chemically modified chimeric Fab that were exposed to the physiological oxidizing agent hemin at 36 degrees C for 20 hr. These mAb were studied for autoantibody activity to phospholipids and DNA before and after oxidation with hemin and found to develop autoantibody activities after oxidation, while retaining their original specificity as measured by mAb anti-glycophorin A binding of erythrocytes, CD 19 binding to B lymphocytes and anti-HLA-A29 binding to A29-positive lymphocytes. The finding that certain mAb have the potential to unmask autoantibody activities as a consequence of exposure to physiological redox reactions in vitro gives pause to our present understanding of the immunological basis of tolerance and concern for potential autoimmune side effects in patients receiving mAb for diagnosis or treatment. PMID:19904753

McIntyre, John A; Faulk, And W Page

2010-07-15

353

Novel Antibody Vectors for Imaging  

PubMed Central

Non-invasive molecular imaging approaches include nuclear, optical, MRI, CT, ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging, which require accumulation of a signal delivered by a probe at the target site. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are high affinity molecules that can be used for specific, high signal delivery to cell surface molecules. However, their long circulation time in blood makes them unsuitable as imaging probes. Efforts to improve antibodies pharmacokinetics without compromising affinity and specificity have been made through protein engineering. Antibody variants that differ in antigen binding sites and size have been generated and evaluated as imaging probes to target tissues of interest. Fast clearing fragments such as single-chain Fv (scFv; 25 kDa) with one antigen binding site (monovalent) demonstrated low accumulation in tumors due the low exposure time to the target. Using scFv as building block to produce larger, bivalent fragments such as scFv dimers (diabodies, 50 kDa) and scFv-fusion proteins (80 kDa minibodies and 105 kDa scFv-Fc) resulted in higher tumor accumulation due to their longer residence time in blood. Imaging studies with these fragments following radiolabeling have demonstrated excellent, high contrast images in gamma cameras and PET scanners. Several studies have also investigated antibody fragments conjugated to fluorescence (near infrared dyes), bioluminescence (luciferases) and quantum dots for optical imaging and iron oxides nanoparticles for MRI. However, these studies indicate that there are several factors that influence successful targeting and imaging. These include stability of the antibody fragment, the labeling chemistry (direct or indirect), whether critical residues are modified, the number of antigen expressed on the cell, and whether the target has a rapid recycling rate or internalizes upon binding. The preclinical data presented are compelling and it is evident that antibody-based molecular imaging tracers will play an important future role in the diagnosis and management of cancer and other diseases. PMID:20350626

Olafsen, Tove; Wu, Anna M.

2010-01-01

354

Fatal pulmonary transfusion reaction to plasma containing donor HLA antibody.  

PubMed

A 55-year-old woman with common variable immunodeficiency and mild chronic obstructive lung disease received 3 units of plasma as immunoglobulin replacement therapy. During the administration of the final unit, her temperature rose 1 degree C, with no other observable symptoms. Fifteen minutes later she developed shortness of breath without nausea, vomiting, rash, or pruritus. In 30 min she lost consciousness, was breathless, and cyanotic. Resuscitative efforts failed. Autopsy failed to pinpoint a cause of death. There was no evidence of ABO or Rh incompatibility, bacterial contamination, or hemolysis. There were no neutrophil, platelet or IgA antibodies detectable in the patient or the 3 plasma donors. There were no lymphocytotoxic HLA antibodies in the patient or two of the plasma donors. The third donor had HLA-B35 lymphocytotoxic antibodies that did not agglutinate or aggregate neutrophils. The patient's HLA type was A2, A3; B35, B40. Lymphocytotoxic crossmatches using lymphocytes of the patient were positive with plasma from the third donor but negative with the other two. An eluate prepared from post-mortem lung parenchymal tissue was cytotoxic to 7 of 8 panel lymphocytes positive for the HLA-B35 antigen but not with cells lacking B35. The implicated plasma donor was healthy with a history of 6 pregnancies. This case report illustrates the potential hazard of transfusion of plasma containing HLA antibodies. PMID:2800469

Eastlund, T; McGrath, P C; Britten, A; Propp, R

1989-01-01

355

Increased prevalence of transglutaminase 6 antibodies in sera from schizophrenia patients.  

PubMed

Gluten can cause extraintestinal manifestations with or without gastrointestinal symptoms and elevated antitissue transglutaminase 2 (tTG2) autoantibodies. Organ-specific gluten reaction involves immune response toward other transglutaminase (TG) isoforms including tTG3 (expressed in the skin, leading to dermatitis herpetiformis) and tTG6 (expressed in the brain, causing gluten ataxia). This analysis focuses on tTG6 antibodies, which have never been studied before in schizophrenia (SZ) and its relationships to tTG2 and to antigliadin antibodies. We previously showed an increased prevalence of tTG2 antibodies in gluten sensitive SZ patients compared with healthy controls (HC) that was not paralleled by an increased prevalence of antiendomysial antibody. To elucidate this discrepancy, we examined those tTG2 positive SZ patients for the presence of tTG6 antibody. We also searched for tTG6 antibodies in our sample of antigliadin (AGA) positive and AGA and tTG2 negative SZ patients. Seventy-four tTG2 positive SZ patients were compared with 148 age and gender-matched HC. Of the 74 tTG2 positive SZ patients, 16 were positive for tTG6 IgA for a prevalence of 22%. Only 4 HC were positive for tTG6 IgA for a prevalence of 2.7%. Among the AGA positive SZ patients, the prevalence of tTG6 IgA was 21.3% while 13.1% of the AGA and tTG2 negative SZ patients were positive for tTG6 IgA. The HC had a prevalence of 6%. Our results indicate a higher prevalence of tTG6 antibodies in SZ that may represent a biomarker useful to identify SZ patients who would benefit from a gluten-free diet. PMID:22516148

Cascella, Nicola G; Santora, Debby; Gregory, Patricia; Kelly, Deanna L; Fasano, Alessio; Eaton, William W

2013-07-01

356

A minimal model of peptide binding predicts ensemble properties of serum antibodies  

PubMed Central

Background The importance of peptide microarrays as a tool for serological diagnostics has strongly increased over the last decade. However, interpretation of the binding signals is still hampered by our limited understanding of the technology. This is in particular true for arrays probed with antibody mixtures of unknown complexity, such as sera. To gain insight into how signals depend on peptide amino acid sequences, we probed random-sequence peptide microarrays with sera of healthy and infected mice. We analyzed the resulting antibody binding profiles with regression methods and formulated a minimal model to explain our findings. Results Multivariate regression analysis relating peptide sequence to measured signals led to the definition of amino acid-associated weights. Although these weights do not contain information on amino acid position, they predict up to 40-50% of the binding profiles' variation. Mathematical modeling shows that this position-independent ansatz is only adequate for highly diverse random antibody mixtures which are not dominated by a few antibodies. Experimental results suggest that sera from healthy individuals correspond to that case, in contrast to sera of infected ones. Conclusions Our results indicate that position-independent amino acid-associated weights predict linear epitope binding of antibody mixtures only if the mixture is random, highly diverse, and contains no dominant antibodies. The discovered ensemble property is an important step towards an understanding of peptide-array serum-antibody binding profiles. It has implications for both serological diagnostics and B cell epitope mapping. PMID:22353141

2012-01-01

357

Antibodies against some viruses of domestic animals in southern African wild animals.  

PubMed

Twenty-four species of South African wild animals were tested for the presence of antibodies against the viruses of 16 common diseases of domestic animals. Positive results were obtained for African horsesickness, equine encephalosis, equid herpes virus-1, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, Allerton disease (Herpes mammillitis), lumpy skin disease, parainfluenza, encephalomyocarditis, bluetongue, Wesselsbron disease, bovine ephemeral fever, and Akabane disease complex. No antibodies could be demonstrated against the viruses of equine influenza, equine infectious anaemia, equine viral arteritis and Rift Valley fever. The negative results substantiate observations that the latter diseases, with the exception of equine viral arteritis, are absent in South Africa. The number of animal species found positive for a specific virus, ranged from 0-16. No antibodies were found in crocodiles and warthogs, whereas antibodies against Wesselsbron and bovid herpes virus-1 were present in 16 species. Antibodies against viruses of horses were found almost exclusively in zebras and, although elephants reacted to African horsesickness, no neutralizing antibodies against it could be demonstrated in their sera. Zebras were also found to be positive for Wesselsbron and Akabane, which are usually regarded as viruses of ruminants. Antibodies against most viruses were encountered in all vegetation zones in South Africa but, as a rule, most viruses were more prevalent in the high-rainfall zone in KwaZulu-Natal. PMID:9352558

Barnard, B J

1997-06-01

358

Clinical Analysis of Thyroglobulin Antibody and Thyroid Peroxidase Antibody and their Association with Vitiligo  

PubMed Central

Background: Recently, the abnormal presence of thyroglobulin antibody (TG-Ab) and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) has been reported in vitiligo patients, but presence of TG-Ab and TPO-Ab in patients of different ages and gender, and its association with vitiligo and thyroid autoimmunity has rarely been reported. The aim of our research was to determine whether vitiligo was associated with thyroid autoimmunity and figure out its relationship with age and gender. Materials and Methods: We analyzed TG-Ab, TPO-Ab in age and gender matched 87 vitiligo patients and 90 healthy controls, the patients of vitiligo who were positive for the presence of TG-Ab and TPO-Ab were followed up to confirm autoimmune thyroid disease subsequently. Results: Results showed that the frequencies of TG-Ab (23.0%, 20/87) positivity and TPO-AB (24.1%, 21/87) in vitiligo patients were significantly higher than that in healthy controls (P < 0.05). Moreover, The positivity for of TG-Ab and TPO-Ab was higher in 11-20-year age group and 21-40-year age group than that in age matched healthy controls. We found female patients with vitiligo had higher positive frequencies of TG-Ab and TPO-Ab than healthy female controls. (34.1% vs. 8.8% and 34.1% vs. 11.1%, P = 0.000 and P = 0.011). When 20 patients with TG-Ab and TPO-Ab positivity were followed up for three monthes, 14 of them (70%) were diagnosed as having autoimmune thyroid disease compared with age-matched healthy controls (16.7%, ?2 = 5.4, P = 0.02). Conclusion: TG-Ab and TPO-Ab are likely to be found in female teenagers with vitiligo, and are relevant with respect to subsequent development autoimmune thyroid disease. PMID:25071254

Yang, Yifen; Huang, Gan; Yan, Xiang; Qing, Zhiju

2014-01-01

359

Utilization of tests for Lyme disease antibody at a university hospital.  

PubMed Central

We performed a retrospective study on patients who had a positive screening antibody test result for antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi to determine the clinical indicators used by physicians to order this test. Eighty-two evaluable patients who were screen positive (indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) between August 1991 and March 1993 were included. Additional tests, isotype-specific capture immunoglobulin enzyme immunoassay and Western blot (immunoblot) analysis (immunoglobulin G), were performed on positive samples. Of 82 patients with a positive screening test result, 54 (66%) had no serologic evidence of Lyme disease on the basis of additional testing (positive predictive value, 34%). Only 28 of 82 patients (34%) had clinical indicators suggestive of Lyme disease. Antibody screening tests may provide misleading information if they are not accompanied by more specific assays. Inappropriate testing of patients without indications of Lyme disease is frequently performed, and the ordering practices of physicians should be reassessed. PMID:8705670

Nachamkin, I; Riddle, D L; Feldman, M; Edelstein, P H

1996-01-01

360

Antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein in bilateral and recurrent optic neuritis  

PubMed Central

Objective: We examined a cohort of adults with aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody–negative neuromyelitis optica/neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMO/NMOSD) for antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). Methods: We performed a flow cytometry cell-based assay using live human lentivirus–transduced cells expressing full-length surface MOG. Serum was tested in 23 AQP4 antibody–negative NMO/NMOSD patients with bilateral and/or recurrent optic neuritis (BON, n = 11), longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM, n = 10), and sequential BON and LETM (n = 2), as well as in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS, n = 76) and controls (n = 52). Results: MOG antibodies were detected in 9/23 AQP4 antibody–negative patients with NMO/NMOSD, compared to 1/76 patients with MS and 0/52 controls (p < 0.001). MOG antibodies were detected in 8/11 patients with BON, 0/10 patients with LETM, and 1/2 patients with sequential BON and LETM. Six of 9 MOG antibody–positive patients had a relapsing course. MOG antibody–positive patients had prominent optic disc swelling and were more likely to have a rapid response to steroid therapy and relapse on steroid cessation than MOG antibody–negative patients (p = 0.034 and p = 0.029, respectively). While 8/9 MOG antibody–positive patients had good follow-up visual acuity, one experienced sustained visual impairment, 3 had retinal nerve fiber layer thinning, and one had residual spinal disability. Conclusions: MOG antibodies have a strong association with BON and may be a useful clinical biomarker. MOG antibody–associated BON is a relapsing disorder that is frequently steroid responsive and often steroid dependent. Failure to recognize the disorder early and institute immunotherapy promptly may be associated with sustained impairment. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that MOG antibodies are associated with AQP4 antibody–negative BON (sensitivity 69%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 42%–87%; specificity 99%, 95% CI 93.7%–99.8%). PMID:25364774

Ramanathan, Sudarshini; Reddel, Stephen W.; Henderson, Andrew; Parratt, John D.E.; Barnett, Michael; Gatt, Prudence N.; Merheb, Vera; Kumaran, Raani-Yogeeta Anusuiya; Pathmanandavel, Karrnan; Sinmaz, Nese; Ghadiri, Mahtab; Yiannikas, Con; Vucic, Steve; Stewart, Graeme; Bleasel, Andrew F.; Booth, David; Fung, Victor S.C.; Dale, Russell C.

2014-01-01

361

Assessing inflammatory bowel disease-associated antibodies in Caucasian and First Nations cohorts  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: First Nation populations in Canada have a very low incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Based on typical infections in this population, it is plausible that the First Nations react differently to microbial antigens with a different antibody response pattern, which may shed some light as to why they experience a low rate of IBD. OBJECTIVE: To compare the positivity rates of antibodies known to be associated with IBD in Canadian First Nations compared with a Canadian Caucasian population. METHODS: Subjects with Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis (UC), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (as an immune disease control) and healthy controls without a personal or family history of chronic immune diseases, were enrolled in a cohort study aimed to determine differences between First Nations and Caucasians with IBD or RA. Serum from a random sample of these subjects (n=50 for each of First Nations with RA, First Nations controls, Caucasians with RA, Caucasians with Crohn’s disease, Caucasians with UC and Caucasians controls, and as many First Nations with either Crohn’s disease or UC as could be enrolled) was analyzed in the laboratory for the following antibodies: perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (pANCA), and four Crohn’s disease-associated antibodies including anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the outer membrane porin C of Escherichia coli, I2 – a fragment of bacterial DNA associated with Pseudomonas fluorescens, and the bacterial flagellin CBir-1. The rates of positive antibody responses and mean titres among positive results were compared. RESULTS: For pANCA, First Nations had a positivity rate of 55% in those with UC, 32% in healthy controls and 48% in those with RA. The pANCA positivity rate was 32% among Caucasians with RA. The rates of the Crohn’s disease-associated antibodies for the First Nations and Caucasians were comparable. Among First Nations, up to one in four healthy controls were positive for any one of the Crohn’s disease-associated antibodies. First Nations had significantly higher pANCA titres in both the UC and RA groups than Caucasians DISCUSSION: Although First Nation populations experience a low rate of IBD, they are relatively responsive to this particular antibody panel. CONCLUSIONS: The positivity rates of these antibodies in First Nations, despite the low incidence of IBD in this population, suggest that these antibodies are unlikely to be of pathogenetic significance. PMID:21647462

Bernstein, Charles N; El-Gabalawy, Hani; Sargent, Michael; Landers, Carol J; Rawsthorne, Patricia; Elias, Brenda; Targan, Stephan R

2011-01-01

362

Arthritis and interstitial granulomatous dermatitis (Ackerman syndrome) with pulmonary silicosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe the case of a patient suffering from pulmonary silicosis associated with a rheumatoid factor negative, antinuclear antibody positive, symmetrical, nonerosive synovitis, and interstitial granulomatous dermatitis (IGD) and compare it with similar cases reported in the literature. Methods: Literature search to identify published cases of IGD with arthritis and cases associated with silicosis. Results: Thiry-eight cases of IGD

Stephan Kroesen; Peter H. Itin; Paul Hasler

2003-01-01

363

Emerging antibody combinations in oncology  

PubMed Central

The use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has become a general approach for specifically targeting and treating human disease. In oncology, the therapeutic utility of mAbs is usually evaluated in the context of treatment with standard of care, as well as other small molecule targeted therapies. Many anti-cancer antibody modalities have achieved validation, including the targeting of growth factor and angiogenesis pathways, the induction of tumor cell killing or apoptosis and the blocking of immune inhibitory mechanisms to stimulate anti-tumor responses. But, as with other targeted therapies, few antibodies are curative because of biological complexities that underlie tumor formation and redundancies in molecular pathways that enable tumors to adapt and show resistance to treatment. This review discusses the combinations of antibody therapeutics that are emerging to improve efficacy and durability within a specific biological mechanism (e.g., immunomodulation or the inhibition of angiogenesis) and across multiple biological pathways (e.g., inhibition of tumor growth and induction of tumor cell apoptosis). PMID:21697653

Hariharan, Kandasamy

2011-01-01

364

Monoclonal antibodies: application in radiopharmacy.  

PubMed

In this study was carried on a systematic review of the data was carried out in the topic of monoclonal antibodies in the last 40 years. All the data collected and summarized revealed that this new class of medicine may bring great advance in the field of radiopharmacy, oncology and imaging. PMID:24251731

Ligiero, Thais Braga; de Souza Albernaz, Marta; de Carvalho, Samira Marques; de Oliveira, Silvia Maria Velasques; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph

2013-12-01

365

Rabbit polyclonal antibody to Peripherin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripherin is a Class III intermediate filament subunit found in both the peripheral and central nervous systems, though it is concentrated, as its name suggests, in the neurons of peripheral ganglia and their processes. Antibodies to peripherin can be used in identifying, classifying, and studying neurons in the nervous system. Peripherin is also a good diagnostic marker for ballooned axons

Species Reactivity

2006-01-01

366

Novel antibodies as anticancer agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years antibodies, whether generated by traditional hybridoma technology or by recombinant DNA strategies, have evolved from Paul Ehrlich's ‘magic bullets’ to a modern age ‘guided missile’. In the recent years of immunologic research, we are witnessing development in the fields of antigen screening and protein engineering in order to create specific anticancer remedies. The developments in the field

I Zafir-Lavie; Y Michaeli; Y Reiter

2007-01-01

367

Detection of Campylobacter species using monoclonal antibodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A panel of species specific monoclonal antibodies were raised to Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter lari. The isotypes, and cross-reactivity profiles of each monoclonal antibody against an extensive panel of micro- organisms, were determined.

Young, Colin R.; Lee, Alice; Stanker, Larry H.

1999-01-01

368

2006 Nature Publishing Group Department of Antibody  

E-print Network

and the second largest class of drugs after vaccines. The generation of potent antibody therapeutics, which I, which further increases the cost. Although antibody therapeutics are often safe and well tolerated, rare

Cai, Long

369

Towards a carbon nanotube antibody sensor  

E-print Network

This work investigated single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)/polymer-protein A complexes for optically reporting antibody concentration via a change in near infrared fluorescent emission after antibody binding. SWNT have ...

Bojö, Peter

2012-01-01

370

A T Cell Receptor-specific Blockade of Positive Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary To investigate the influence of endogenous peptides on the developmental processes that occur during thymocyte selection, we have used monoclonal antibodies that preferentially recognize the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule I-E k when it is bound to the moth cy- tochrome c peptide (88-103). One of these antibodies (G35) specifically blocks the positive se- lection of transgenic thymocytes expressing

Kristin K. Baldwin; Philip A. Reay; Lawren Wu; Andrew Farr; Mark M. Davis

2010-01-01

371

Prevalence and Level of Antibodies Anti-Plasmodium spp. in Travellers with Clinical History of Imported Malaria  

PubMed Central

In this study, we show that 40.29% of travellers with a possible history of malaria exposure were positive for anti-Plasmodium spp. antibodies, while these individuals were negative by microscopy. The antibody test described here is useful to elucidate malaria exposure in microscopy-negative travellers from endemic countries. PMID:23691274

Medina Costa, Rita; de Sousa, Karina Pires; Atouguia, Jorge; Tavira, Luis Tavora; Silva, Marcelo Sousa

2013-01-01

372

Antibody response to Rocky Mountain spotted fever.  

PubMed Central

Various techniques were compared to determine the most sensitive method for detection of rocky Mountain spotted fever antibody. A radiometabolic technique for detection of Rocky Mountain spotted fever antibody is also described. In infected monkeys, the fluorescent antibody technique yielded the earliest evidence of seroconversion; with some monkeys the microagglutination procedure was equally effective. The fluorescent antibody and microagglutination measurements showed higher titers than those for complement fixation, Weil-Felix, or the radiometabolic techniques. PMID:819455

Kenyon, R H; Canonico, P G; Sammons, L S; Bagley, L R; Pedersen, C E

1976-01-01

373

[Sneddon's syndrome vasculopathy with antiphospholipid antibodies in a child].  

PubMed

We studied a ten-year old girl with livedo reticularis and multiple central nervous system ischemic attacks beginning when she was five. Blood tests were positive for cryoglobulins and antiphospholipid antibodies; superior limb angiography showed occlusion and irregularities of the vessel walls and temporal artery biopsy revealed concentric thickening of the vessel wall due to fibrotic subendothelial proliferation. Sneddon's syndrome was diagnosed. Onset of this syndrome during early childhood has not been previously reported. PMID:7893511

Villaizán, C; Ferrada, M J; Legarda, I; Iriarte, J; Narbona, J; Martínez-Lage, J M

1995-01-01

374

Original article Monoclonal antibodies against goldfish  

E-print Network

immunoglobulin and antibody levels by ELISA in carp (Cyprinus carpio) AK Siwicki C Vergnet J Charlemagne M Dunier decreased until day 28. monoclonal antibody / ELISA / ELISPOT / antibody-secreting cells / Cyprinus carpio suite. anticorps monoc/ona//EL/S/Cyprinus carpio

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

375

Anti-DNA antibodies in SLE  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 8 chapters. Some of the titles are: Anti-DNA Antibodies in SLE: Historical Perspective; Specificity of Anti-DNA Antibodies in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Monoclonial Autoimmune Anti-DNA Antibodies; and Structure--Function Analyses of Anti-DNA Autoantibodies.

Voss, E.W.

1988-01-01

376

Yellow fever vaccination in Malaya by subcutaneous injection and multiple puncture. Neutralizing antibody responses in persons with and without pre-existing antibody to related viruses.  

PubMed

Because of the risk of introduction of yellow fever to South-East Asia, comparative studies were made of yellow fever vaccination in Malayans who had a high prevalence of antibody to related viruses and in volunteers without related antibody. The proportions of positive neutralizing antibody responses to subcutaneous vaccination with 17D vaccine were not significantly different between volunteers with and without heterologous antibody but the degree of antibody response was greater in those without. The ID(50) of 17D in both groups was about 5 mouse intracerebral LD(50). Multiple puncture vaccination with 17D gave a much lower response rate than subcutaneous vaccination in volunteers with heterologous antibody. In both groups subcutaneous doses of about 50 mouse intracerebral LD(50) gave larger antibody responses than higher doses. The neutralizing indices and analysis of results were calculated by a method based on the survival time of the mice. This method, which has advantages over that of Reed & Muench, is fully described in an annex to this paper. PMID:13993152

SMITH, C E; TURNER, L H; ARMITAGE, P

1962-01-01

377

Glycine receptor antibodies in PERM and related syndromes: characteristics, clinical features and outcomes.  

PubMed

The clinical associations of glycine receptor antibodies have not yet been described fully. We identified prospectively 52 antibody-positive patients and collated their clinical features, investigations and immunotherapy responses. Serum glycine receptor antibody endpoint titres ranged from 1:20 to 1:60 000. In 11 paired samples, serum levels were higher than (n = 10) or equal to (n = 1) cerebrospinal fluid levels; there was intrathecal synthesis of glycine receptor antibodies in each of the six pairs available for detailed study. Four patients also had high glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (>1000 U/ml), and one had high voltage-gated potassium channel-complex antibody (2442 pM). Seven patients with very low titres (<1:50) and unknown or alternative diagnoses were excluded from further study. Three of the remaining 45 patients had newly-identified thymomas and one had a lymphoma. Thirty-three patients were classified as progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus, and two as stiff person syndrome; five had a limbic encephalitis or epileptic encephalopathy, two had brainstem features mainly, two had demyelinating optic neuropathies and one had an unclear diagnosis. Four patients (9%) died during the acute disease, but most showed marked improvement with immunotherapies. At most recent follow-up, (2-7 years, median 3 years, since first antibody detection), the median modified Rankin scale scores (excluding the four deaths) decreased from 5 at maximal severity to 1 (P < 0.0001), but relapses have occurred in five patients and a proportion are on reducing steroids or other maintenance immunotherapies as well as symptomatic treatments. The glycine receptor antibodies activated complement on glycine receptor-transfected human embryonic kidney cells at room temperature, and caused internalization and lysosomal degradation of the glycine receptors at 37°C. Immunoglobulin G antibodies bound to rodent spinal cord and brainstem co-localizing with monoclonal antibodies to glycine receptor-?1. Ten glycine receptor antibody positive samples were also identified in a retrospective cohort of 56 patients with stiff person syndrome and related syndromes. Glycine receptor antibodies are strongly associated with spinal and brainstem disorders, and the majority of patients have progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus. The antibodies demonstrate in vitro evidence of pathogenicity and the patients respond well to immunotherapies, contrasting with earlier studies of this syndrome, which indicated a poor prognosis. The presence of glycine receptor antibodies should help to identify a disease that responds to immunotherapies, but these treatments may need to be sustained, relapses can occur and maintenance immunosuppression may be required. PMID:24951641

Carvajal-González, Alexander; Leite, M Isabel; Waters, Patrick; Woodhall, Mark; Coutinho, Ester; Balint, Bettina; Lang, Bethan; Pettingill, Philippa; Carr, Aisling; Sheerin, Una-Marie; Press, Raomand; Lunn, Michael P; Lim, Ming; Maddison, Paul; Meinck, H-M; Vandenberghe, Wim; Vincent, Angela

2014-08-01

378

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of flavivirus antibodies in chicken sera.  

PubMed

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to determine the presence of flavivirus antibodies to Murray Valley encephalitis (MVE) and Kunjin viruses in sentinel chicken sera. The development of a quick, reliable assay to detect antibodies to MVE was an essential part of a large-scale surveillance programme to monitor arbovirus activity in Western Australia. This assay was developed for use with alkaline phosphatase conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG using mouse anti-chicken globulin in an intermediate step. There was a significant difference in absorbance values between neutralization test positive and pre-bled sera. However, some sera obtained from sentinel chickens and deemed negative by neutralization demonstrated adsorbance levels above the cutoff level in the ELISA, which reflects the increased sensitivity of this technique. The ELISA test detected antibodies to MVE in chicken sera 7-10 days after infection, whereas these antibodies were only consistently detected by the neutralization test 24 days after infection. Antibodies to both MVE and Kunjin reacted positively with the MVE antigen, but there was little cross-reactivity between this antigen and antibodies to other togaviruses. The main advantages of the ELISA over the neutralization test for detecting antibodies to MVE virus in the sera of sentinel chickens are its greater sensitivity and the speed with which tests can be performed. Results are available within 48 h of receiving specimens and emergency mosquito control measures may then be implemented. PMID:3027114

Broom, A K; Charlick, J; Richards, S J; Mackenzie, J S

1987-01-01

379

Molecular Characterization of the Monoclonal Antibodies Composing ZMAb: A Protective Cocktail Against Ebola Virus.  

PubMed

Ebola virus (EBOV) causes severe viral hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates, with a case fatality rate of up to 88% in human outbreaks. Over the past 3 years, monoclonal antibody (mAb) cocktails have demonstrated high efficacy as treatments against EBOV infection. One such cocktail is ZMAb, which consists of three mouse antibodies, 1H3, 2G4, and 4G7. Here, we present the epitope binding properties of mAbs 1H3, 2G4, and 4G7. We showed that these antibodies have different variable region sequences, suggesting that the individual mAbs are not clonally related. All three antibodies were found to neutralize EBOV variant Mayinga. Additionally, 2G4 and 4G7 were shown to cross-inhibit each other in vitro and select for an escape mutation at the same position on the EBOV glycoprotein (GP), at amino acid 508. 1H3 selects an escape mutant at amino acid 273 on EBOV GP. Surface plasmon resonance studies showed that all three antibodies have dissociation constants on the order of 10(-7). In combination with previous studies evaluating the binding sites of other protective antibodies, our results suggest that antibodies targeting the GP1-GP2 interface and the glycan cap are often selected as efficacious antibodies for post-exposure interventions against EBOV. PMID:25375093

Audet, Jonathan; Wong, Gary; Wang, Han; Lu, Guangwen; Gao, George F; Kobinger, Gary; Qiu, Xiangguo

2014-01-01

380

Detection of antibodies to ovine lentivirus using a recombinant antigen derived from the env gene.  

PubMed

The Western blot assay was performed to characterize antibodies to the transmembrane glycoprotein (TGP) of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) by using glutathione-S-transferase-TGP (GST-TGP) protein. The GST-TGP protein was efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) and was highly immunoreactive in the Western blot assay. This assay detected antibodies in 97% (103/106) of the sera from agarose gel immunodiffusion (AGID) positive OPP animals. Like human AIDS patients, antibodies to TGP appear to be one of the major serological markers in OPP infected animals. PMID:1314572

Kwang, J; Cutlip, R

1992-03-31

381

West nile virus antibodies in bats from New Jersey and New York.  

PubMed

Eighty-three serum samples were obtained from big brown (Eptesicus fuscus), little brown (Myotis lucifugus), and northern long-eared (Myotis septentriotalis) bats (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae), from New Jersey and New York (USA) between July and October 2002. Samples were analyzed for neutralizing antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus. One little brown bat and one northern long-eared bat tested positive for WNV neutralizing antibodies. No bats had antibodies to SLE virus. This was the first large-scale investigation of WNV infection in bats in New Jersey. Additional work is needed to determine the effects of WNV on bat populations. PMID:15362837

Pilipski, Jacob D; Pilipskl, Lucas M; Risley, Lance S

2004-04-01

382

Bilateral Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion Associated with the Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome  

PubMed Central

A 39-year-old woman presented with a right-hemispheric stroke 1 year after she had suffered a left-hemispheric stroke. Her diagnostic workup was notable for bilateral occlusions of the internal carotid arteries at their origins and a positive lupus anticoagulant antibody test. There was no evidence of carotid dissection or another identifiable cause for her carotid occlusions. These findings suggest that the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome may be implicated in the pathological changes that resulted in occlusions of the extracranial internal carotid arteries. Young stroke patients who present with unexplained internal carotid artery occlusions may benefit from testing for the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. PMID:24707268

Anand, Pria; Mann, Sharan K.; Fischbein, Nancy J.; Lansberg, Maarten G.

2014-01-01

383

Liver cell surface expression of the antigen reacting with liver-kidney microsomal antibody (LKM).  

PubMed Central

To test the hypothesis that liver membrane antibodies, found in all liver-kidney microsomal antibody (LKM) positive sera from patients with chronic active hepatitis, were directed against antigens shared by both hepatocellular endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membranes, absorption experiments have been performed using viable isolated hepatocytes and liver microsomes as antigens. Results are in agreement with the above hypothesis, LKM, which displays a restricted organ specificity, is thus able to react with antigenic determinants expressed on the liver cell surface, as it has been demonstrated for strictly organ specific antibodies directed against thyroid, adrenal and gastric parietal cell microsomes. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6692597

Lenzi, M; Bianchi, F B; Cassani, F; Pisi, E

1984-01-01

384

Prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis Antibodies among a Rural Appalachian Population-Kentucky, 2013.  

PubMed

We investigated whether Strongyloides infection remains endemic in rural Kentucky's Appalachian regions; 7 of 378 (1.9%) participants tested positive for Strongyloides antibodies. We identified no statistically significant association between a positive test and travel to a known endemic country (P = 0.58), indicating that transmission in rural Kentucky might be ongoing. PMID:25157122

Russell, Elizabeth S; Gray, Elizabeth B; Marshall, Rebekah E; Davis, Stephanie; Beaudoin, Amanda; Handali, Sukwan; McAuliffe, Isabel; Davis, Cheryl; Woodhall, Dana

2014-11-01

385

Selective Serial Multi-Antibody Biosensing with TOPAS Microstructured Polymer Optical Fibers  

PubMed Central

We have developed a fluorescence-based fiber-optical biosensor, which can selectively detect different antibodies in serial at preselected positions inside a single piece of fiber. The fiber is a microstructured polymer optical fiber fabricated from TOPAS cyclic olefin copolymer, which allows for UV activation of localized sensor layers inside the holes of the fiber. Serial fluorescence-based selective sensing of Cy3-labelled ?-streptavidin and Cy5-labelled ?-CRP antibodies is demonstrated. PMID:23529122

Emiliyanov, Grigoriy; H?iby, Poul E.; Pedersen, Lars H.; Bang, Ole

2013-01-01

386

The detection of antibody against peste des petits ruminants virus in Sheep, Goats, Cattle and Buffaloes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monoclonal antibody-based competitive ELISA (C-ELISA) has been used for the specific measurement of antibodies to peste des\\u000a petits ruminants (PPR) viruses in sheep, goats, cattle and Buffalo. Serum samples from sheep (n?=?232), goats (n?=?428), cattle\\u000a (n?=?43), buffalo (n?=?89) were tested. The animals had not been vaccinated against rinderpest or PPR. Findings suggested\\u000a that the sero-positive cases were significantly higher in

Haider Ali Khan; Muhammad Siddique; Sajjad-ur-Rahman; Muhammad Abubakar; Muhammad Ashraf

2008-01-01

387

Immediate Antibody-Mediated (Hyperacute) Rejection in Small-Bowel Transplantation and Relationship to Cross-Match Status and Donor-Specific C4d-Binding Antibodies: Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe role of preformed donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) as a barrier to isolated intestinal transplantation (ITx) remains ambiguous; thus, a positive cross-match has not been a contraindication to ITx.

P. Ruiz; M. Carreno; D. Weppler; C. Gomez; E. Island; G. Selvaggi; S. Nishida; J. Moon; D. Levi; A. Tekin; P. Tryphonopoulos; A. G. Tzakis

2010-01-01

388

Antibody immobilization using heterobifunctional crosslinkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Covalent attachment of functional proteins to a solid support is important for biosensors. One method employs thiol-terminal silanes and heterobifunctional crosslinkers such as N-succinimidyl 4-maleimidobutyrate (GMBS) to immobilize proteins through amino groups onto glass, silica, silicon or platinum surfaces. In this report, several heterobifunctional crosslinkers are compared to GMBS for their ability to immobilize active antibodies onto glass cover slips

Lisa C. Shriver-Lake; Brian Donner; Rebecca Edelstein; Kristen Breslin; Suresh K. Bhatia; Frances S. Ligler

1997-01-01

389

Measles antibody prevalence after mass immunization in São Paulo, Brazil.  

PubMed Central

In 1987, a mass immunization campaign against measles was carried out in the greater metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. During a ten-day period, 4,194,174 children from 9 months to 14 years old, representing 86% of the target population, were vaccinated regardless of their previous vaccination status. Four months later, the prevalence of measles antibodies was evaluated through a random seroepidemiological survey. The survey included all children in greater São Paulo between one month and 14 years old, irrespective of campaign participation. Blood samples were collected on filter-paper and tested for measles antibody by indirect immunofluorescence. Negative or doubtful cases were tested again using an immunoenzymatic assay (ELISA). Of the 8661 samples included in the study, 8146 (94.1%) were positive for measles antibody. In children aged one year or more a significant difference in antibody prevalence was observed when comparing those who were vaccinated during the mass immunization (98.0%) with those who did not participate in the campaign (91.3%). In addition, after the immunization, a marked and immediate decrease was observed in incidence rates for measles cases notified to the State Secretary of Health, falling from 222/100,000 inhabitants in 1987 to 2.7/100,000 in 1988. These data suggest that mass immunization can serve as an additional strategy for the rapid control of measles in developing countries. PMID:1959156

Pannuti, C. S.; Moraes, J. C.; Souza, V. A.; Camargo, M. C.; Hidalgo, N. T.

1991-01-01

390

Single-Chain Antibody Library  

DOE Data Explorer

Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have constructed a nonimmune library consisting of 109 human antibody scFv fragments, which have been cloned and expressed on the surface of yeast. Nanomolar-affinity scFvs are routinely obtained by magnetic bead screening and flow cytometric sorting. The yeast library can be amplified 1010 fold without measurable loss of clonal diversity. This allows for indefinite expansion of the library. All scFv clones can be assessed directly on the yeast cell surface by immunofluorescent labeling and flow cytometry, obviating separate subcloning, expression, and purification steps. The ability to use multiplex library screening demonstrates the utility of this approach for high-throughput antibody isolation for proteomic applications. The yeast library may be used for research projects or teaching performed for U.S. Government purposes only. If you would like to request an aliquot of the single-chain antibody library for your research, please print and fill out the Materials Transfer Agreement (MTA) [PDF, 20K]. The website provides the contact information for mailing the MTA. [copied from http://www.sysbio.org/dataresources/singlechain.stm

Baird, Cheryl

391

Improved monoclonal antibodies to halodeoxyuridine  

DOEpatents

The development, method of production, characterization and methods of use of two hybridomas, CIdU-1 (ATCC Accession No. HB-8321) and CIdU-2 (ATCC Accession No. HB-8320), are described. These secrete IgG/sub 1/(K) immunoglobulins that react with halodeoxyuridine (HdU or halodU) such as bromo, chloro, fluoro and iodo deoxyuridine (BrdU, CldU, FdU and IdU), whether these are free in solution or incorporated into single stranded DNA in whole cells. The antibodies do not react with naturally occurring free nucleic acids or with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA) polymers. These antibodies are suitable for use in enzyme immunoassays for free CldU, FdU, IdU and BrdU and for detecting cells with these nucleotides incorporated into them. The monoclonal antibodies are useful in the detection of the sensitivity of tumor cells to specific chemotherapeutic agents, in the measurement of the rate of cellular DNA synthesis, in the measurement of the rate of proliferation of normal and malignant cells and in the detection of HPRT deficiency in cells. 1 tab.

Vanderlaan, M.; Dolbeare, F.A.; Gray, J.W.; Thomas, C.B.

1983-10-18

392

A detection of unexpected blood antibody at the time of transfusion was needed, during the operation -A case report-  

PubMed Central

To avoid the occurrence of fatal complications of blood transfusion, several tests are implemented before transfusion. The tests include ABO typing, Rh typing, cross-matching test and blood antibody screening test, and in usual they are completed before transfusion. However in the case of repetitive operations done via brief distance, reexamination for blood antibody tends to be omitted. After 2 previous operations, 30 years old male patient showed positive blood antibody screening during the third operation. Although antibody screening test performed before the first operation, no unexpected blood antibody was detected. During the third operation, after the decision to start transfusion was made, it took two hours to find appropriate blood. There was no significant deterioration of patient's condition but the loss of time could lead to critical consequences. We present this case to make anesthesiologists and surgeons aware of possibility of unexpected blood antibody detection after transfusion. PMID:23372889

Kim, Hyung Joon; Yoo, Byung Hoon; Woo, Seung-Hoon; Hong, Ki Hyuk; Kim, Jung Won

2013-01-01

393

Effect of specific chemotherapy on the levels of lytic antibodies in Chagas's disease.  

PubMed

Clinical trials with compounds active in Chagas's disease have shown that after treatment parasitological diagnostic methods (xenodiagnosis) become repeatedly negative whereas conventional serology (immunofluorescence and complement fixation tests) persists steadily positive. Consequently, assessment of cure still remains controversial. This paper reports the influence of specific treatment on antibodies involved in the conventional serological diagnosis and on antibodies which bind to the living bloodstream forms and are related to host resistance. Antibodies lytic to Trypanosoma cruzi bloodstream stages were detected, through a complement-mediated lysis (CML) test, in: (a) 100% of 28 untreated patients; (b) 94% of a group of 21 treated patients in whom conventional serology remained positive, including those with persistently negative xenodiagnosis; (c) 0% of 17 normal controls. In some patients treated with a nitrofuran derivative (nifurtimox) or with a 2-nitroimidazole derivative (benznidazol), CML test became gradually negative whereas conventional serology continued to be positive. Finally, in five patients treated with benznidazol, serological tests, CML and xenodiagnosis became regularly negative, strongly suggesting parasitological cure. Those findings demonstrate a dissociation between the antibodies mediating serological diagnosis and those directed against living bloodstream parasites. Moreover, since in some patients both types of antibodies disappeared after treatment, the results suggest that cure of Chagas's disease should be based not only on negative xenodiagnosis but also on the elimination of specific antibodies detectable by conventional serology and CML test. PMID:6810519

Krettli, A U; Cançado, J R; Brener, Z

1982-01-01

394

Helicobacter pylori Antibodies and Iron Deficiency in Female Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Objective Iron deficiency (ID) is a common clinical problem worldwide, affecting primarily females. Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection has been shown to be associated with ID. The objective of this study was to define the prevalence of HP antibodies in female adolescents, and to find out if there was a correlation between HP infection and ID. The secondary aim was to study if regularly performed sporting activity, have any association to HP infection, in itself. Design A controlled clinical trial. Setting A senior high school in Gothenburg, Sweden. Subjects All female athletes at a senior high school for top-level athletes were offered to take part, and 56 athletes took part in the study. The control group consisted of a random sample of age-matched non-athlete students of which 71 entered the study. Main outcome measures Iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) were defined by the use of levels of haemoglobin, serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin, as previously described. HP IgG-antibodies were detected by ELISA. Results 18 of 127 (14%) adolescent females had antibodies against HP. Only 3% had IDA, while 50% had ID. In total, 66% of the HP positive females had ID compared to 48% of the negative females (p?=?0.203). No correlation between sporting activity and HP infection was found. Regarding ethnicity, 11/28 of subjects from medium-high risk areas were HP-positive, compared to 7/99 coming from low-risk areas (p<0.001). Conclusion The main finding of this study is that the prevalence of HP IgG antibodies was 14% in adolescent females. We could not find any difference regarding frequency of ID and IDA, between HP positive and negative individuals. Ethnicity is of great importance for the risk of HP infection, while sporting activity itself seems to have no association to HP-infection. PMID:25409451

Sandström, Göran; Rödjer, Stig; Kaijser, Bertil; Börjesson, Mats

2014-01-01

395

Neutralizing Antibodies Against Interferon-Beta  

PubMed Central

The development of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) is a major problem in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with interferon-beta (IFN-ß). Whereas binding antibodies (BAbs) can be demonstrated in the vast majority of patients, only a smaller proportion of patients develop NAbs. The principle in NAb in vitro assays is the utilization of cultured cell lines that are responsive to IFN-ß. The cytopathic effect (CPE) assay measures the capacity of NAbs to neutralize IFN- ß's protective effect on cells challenged with virus and the MxA induction assay measures the ability of NAbs to reduce the IFN-ß-induced expression of MxA, either at the mRNA or the protein level. A titer of >20 neutralizing units/ml traditionally defines NAb posi-tivity. NAbs in high titers completely abrogate the in vivo response to IFN-ß, whereas the effect of low and intermediate titers is unpredictable. As clinically important NAbs appear only after 9-18 months IFN- ß0 therapy, short-term studies of two years or less are unsuitable for evaluation of clinical NAb effects. All long-term trials of three years or more concordantly show evidence of a detrimental effect of NAbs on relapses, disease activity on MRI, or on disease progression. Persistent high titers of NAbs indicate an abrogation of the biological response and, hence, absence of therapeutic efficacy, and this observation should lead to a change of therapy. As low and medium titers are ambiguous treatment decisions in patients with low NAb titres should be guided by determination of in vivo mRNA MxA induction and clinical disease activity. PMID:21180570

2008-01-01

396

The functional repertoire of rabbit antibodies and antibody discovery via next-generation sequencing.  

PubMed

To gain insight into the functional antibody repertoire of rabbits, the VH and VL repertoires of bone marrow (BM) and spleen (SP) of a naïve New Zealand White rabbit (NZW; Oryctolagus cuniculus) and that of lymphocytes collected from a NZW rabbit immunized (IM) with a 16-mer peptide were deep-sequenced. Two closely related genes, IGHV1S40 (VH1a3) and IGHV1S45 (VH4), were found to dominate (~90%) the VH repertoire of BM and SP, whereas, IGHV1S69 (VH1a1) contributed significantly (~40%) to IM. BM and SP antibodies recombined predominantly with IGHJ4. A significant proportion (~30%) of IM sequences recombined with IGHJ2. The VK repertoire was encoded by nine IGKV genes recombined with one IGKJ gene, IGKJ1. No significant bias in the VK repertoire of the BM, SP and IM samples was observed. The complementarity-determining region (CDR)-H3 and -L3 length distributions were similar in the three samples following a Gaussian curve with average length of 12.2 ± 2.4 and 11.1 ± 1.1 amino acids, respectively. The amino acid composition of the predominant CDR-H3 and -L3 loop lengths was similar to that of humans and mice, rich in Tyr, Gly, Ser and, in some specific positions, Asp. The average number of mutations along the IGHV/KV genes was similar in BM, SP and IM; close to 12 and 15 mutations for VH and VL, respectively. A monoclonal antibody specific for the peptide used as immunogen was obtained from the IM rabbit. The CDR-H3 sequence was found in 1,559 of 61,728 (2.5%) sequences, at position 10, in the rank order of the CDR-H3 frequencies. The CDR-L3 was found in 24 of 11,215 (0.2%) sequences, ranking 102. No match was found in the BM and SP samples, indicating positive selection for the hybridoma sequence. Altogether, these findings lay foundations for engineering of rabbit V regions to enhance their potential as therapeutics, i.e., design of strategies for selection of specific rabbit V regions from NGS data mining, humanization and design of libraries for affinity maturation campaigns. PMID:24481222

Kodangattil, Sreekumar; Huard, Christine; Ross, Cindy; Li, Jian; Gao, Huilan; Mascioni, Alessandro; Hodawadekar, Santosh; Naik, Snehal; Min-debartolo, Jessica; Visintin, Alberto; Almagro, Juan C

2014-01-01

397

Serum antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti in recaptured white-footed mice.  

PubMed

A mark-release-recapture study was conducted during 2007 through 2010 in six, tick-infested sites in Connecticut, United States to measure changes in antibody titers for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti in Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mice). There was an overall recapture rate of 40%, but only four tagged mice were caught in ?2 yr. Sera from 561 mice were analyzed for total antibodies to B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum by using whole-cell or recombinant (VlsE or protein 44) antigens in a solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or to whole-cell B. microti by indirect fluorescent antibody staining. Antibody prevalences were highly variable for B. burgdorferi (from 56% to 98%), A. phagocytophilum (from 11% to 85%), and B. microti (from 11% to 84%) depending on the site and time of sampling. Of 463 mice with antibodies, 206 (45%) had antibodies to all three pathogens. Changes in antibody status for some mice from negative to positive (117 seroconversions) or from positive to negative (55 reversions) were observed. Seroconversions were observed in 10.1% of 417 mice for B. burgdorferi, 18.0% of 306 mice for A. phagocytophilum, and 6.6% of 304 mice for B. microti; reversion rates were 5.3, 5.9, and 4.9%, respectively. Antibodies to all pathogens persisted in some mice over several weeks while, in others, there were marked declines in titration end points to negative status. The latter may indicate elimination of a certain pathogen, such as A. phagocytophilum, or that mouse immune systems ceased to produce antibodies despite an existing patent infection. PMID:23568904

Magnarelli, Louis A; Williams, Scott C; Norris, Steven J; Fikrig, Erol

2013-04-01

398

Ischemia-reperfusion injury accelerates human antibody-mediated transplant vasculopathy.  

PubMed

Background. The pathogenesis of transplant vasculopathy (TV) is a multifactorial process. We hypothesized that ischemia-reperfusion injury and antibody-mediated damage contribute to the development of TV.Methods. Human vessels were procured from nine separate donors undergoing cardiac surgery and stored in saline solution on ice until transplantation. BALB/c Rag2-/-IL-2Rgamma-/- mice were transplanted with a human vessel graft on day 0. Purified anti-human leukocyte antigen class I antibody (W6/32), isotype control antibody, or saline was injected into recipient mice weekly until day 42, at which point the degree of intimal expansion (IE) of vessels was assessed by histologic analysis.Results. We found that a prolonged cold ischemia time (6-12 hr) alone did not induce IE. In mice that received antibody where vessels were transplanted within 6 hr of procurement, no IE was observed. By contrast, in vessels exposed to more than 6 hr cold ischemia, both W6/32 antibody (30.4%T6.9%) and isotype control antibody(39.5%T6.0%) promoted significant IE (P<0.05 vs. saline [12.4%T1.7%]). Importantly, the isotype control antibody did not cross-react with human tissue. Interestingly, the number of mouse Fc-receptor-positive cells was significantly increased in human vessels exposed to more than 6 hr cold ischemia but only in the presence of antibody (P<0.05).Conclusions. Antibody, regardless of its specificity, may promote IE in human vessels that are injured through cold ischemia via interaction with Fc-receptor-positive cells. This highlights the importance of controlling the degree of cold ischemia in clinical transplantation in an effort to reduce the risk of TV development. PMID:24049808

Goto, Ryoichi; Issa, Fadi; Heidt, Sebastiaan; Taggart, David; Wood, Kathyrn J

2013-07-27

399

SERUM ANTIBODIES TO BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM, AND BABESIA MICROTI IN RECAPTURED WHITE-FOOTED MICE  

PubMed Central

A mark-release-recapture study was conducted during 2007 through 2010 in six, tick-infested sites in Connecticut, United States to measure changes in antibody titers for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti in Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mice). There was an overall recapture rate of 40%, but only four tagged mice were caught in ?2 yr. Sera from 561 mice were analyzed for total antibodies to B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum by using whole-cell or recombinant (VlsE or protein 44) antigens in a solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or to whole-cell B. microti by indirect fluorescent antibody staining. Antibody prevalences were highly variable for B. burgdorferi (from 56% to 98%), A. phagocytophilum (from 11% to 85%), and B. microti (from 11% to 84%) depending on the site and time of sampling. Of 463 mice with antibodies, 206 (45%) had antibodies to all three pathogens. Changes in antibody status for some mice from negative to positive (117 seroconversions) or from positive to negative (55 reversions) were observed. Seroconversions were observed in 10.1% of 417 mice for B. burgdorferi, 18.0% of 306 mice for A. phagocytophilum, and 6.6% of 304 mice for B. microti; reversion rates were 5.3, 5.9, and 4.9%, respectively. Antibodies to all pathogens persisted in some mice over several weeks while, in others, there were marked declines in titration end points to negative status. The latter may indicate elimination of a certain pathogen, such as A. phagocytophilum, or that mouse immune systems ceased to produce antibodies despite an existing patent infection. PMID:23568904

Magnarelli, Louis A.; Williams, Scott C.; Norris, Steven J.; Fikrig, Erol

2013-01-01

400

Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Accelerates Human Antibody-Mediated Transplant Vasculopathy  

PubMed Central

Background The pathogenesis of transplant vasculopathy (TV) is a multifactorial process. We hypothesized that ischemia-reperfusion injury and antibody-mediated damage contribute to the development of TV. Methods Human vessels were procured from nine separate donors undergoing cardiac surgery and stored in saline solution on ice until transplantation. BALB/c Rag2-/-IL-2R?-/- mice were transplanted with a human vessel graft on day 0. Purified anti–human leukocyte antigen class I antibody (W6/32), isotype control antibody, or saline was injected into recipient mice weekly until day 42, at which point the degree of intimal expansion (IE) of vessels was assessed by histologic analysis. Results We found that a prolonged cold ischemia time (6–12 hr) alone did not induce IE. In mice that received antibody where vessels were transplanted within 6 hr of procurement, no IE was observed. By contrast, in vessels exposed to more than 6 hr cold ischemia, both W6/32 antibody (30.4%±6.9%) and isotype control antibody (39.5%±6.0%) promoted significant IE (P<0.05 vs. saline [12.4%±1.7%]). Importantly, the isotype control antibody did not cross-react with human tissue. Interestingly, the number of mouse Fc-receptor–positive cells was significantly increased in human vessels exposed to more than 6 hr cold ischemia but only in the presence of antibody (P<0.05). Conclusions Antibody, regardless of its specificity, may promote IE in human vessels that are injured through cold ischemia via interaction with Fc-receptor–positive cells. This highlights the importance of controlling the degree of cold ischemia in clinical transplantation in an effort to reduce the risk of TV development. PMID:23856999

Goto, Ryoichi; Issa, Fadi; Heidt, Sebastiaan; Taggart, David; Wood, Kathryn J.

2013-01-01

401

Anti-class II antibodies in AIDS patients and AIDS-risk groups.  

PubMed Central

The specificity of anti-lymphocyte antibodies was evaluated in AIDS patients and in individuals at risk of AIDS [R-AIDS: male homosexuals (Ho) and haemophiliacs (He)]. Antibodies capable of inducing antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against non-T cells and lymphoblastoid cell lines (P3HR-1K and Raji) were detected in AIDS patients and in R-AIDS with positive or negative human immune deficiency virus (HIV) serology. Anti-class II antigen specificity was revealed by experiments in which class II antigens on target cells were blocked with monoclonal anti-class II antibody (DA6,231) and the cytotoxic reaction induced by patient's sera was abolished. In contrast, ADCC was not impaired by preincubating the target cells with anti-class I monoclonal antibody (W6/32). Prevalence of antibodies to non-T cells was confirmed by standard C-mediated microlymphocytotoxicity. However, with this technique anti-T lymphocyte cytotoxicity was also observed in three AIDS patients with haemophilia. R-AIDS peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were also cytotoxic against autologous non-T cells, and lysis was slightly increased by sensitization of the target cells with autologous serum. In addition to ADCC and C-mediated cytotoxicity, the specificity of anti-lymphocyte antibodies was assayed by their ability to interfere the binding of fluorescein-labelled anti-class II (HLA-DR) and anti-class I (W6/32) monoclonal antibodies to PBMC, non-T cells, P3HR-1K and Raji. Anti-class II specificity was confirmed, and antibody titres tended to be higher in Ho than in He R-AIDS, using non-T cells and Raji as targets. Higher titres of anti-class II antibodies in the Ho group could play a role in the different susceptibility of HIV-infected Ho when compared to HIV (+) He to develop AIDS. PMID:3501399

de la Barrera, S; Fainboim, L; Lugo, S; Picchio, G R; Muchinik, G R; de Bracco, M M

1987-01-01

402

Development of Anti-donor Antibody Directed Toward Non-MHC Antigens in Tolerant Animals  

PubMed Central

Background The clinical significance of antibodies directed against antigens other than MHC antigens is poorly understood and there are few large animal models in which such antibodies can be examined. We studied, both retrospectively and prospectively, the development of antibodies to non-MHC antigens in tolerant miniature swine. Methods Our database was assessed for cases of anti-donor antibody formation in tolerant animals over the last 20 years. Flow cytometry, absorption assays and familial analyses for inheritance pattern of the gene(s) potentially responsible for the antibody reactivities were carried out and an animal determined to be negative for this reactivity was immunized by a skin graft and subcutaneous injections of PBMCs from an antigen-positive donor. Results Sixteen of 469 tolerant animals tested were found to have developed anti-donor antibodies. These antibodies were found to be specific for the same, presumably single, non-MHC antigen. Familial analyses indicated that the gene encoding this antigen was expressed in an autosomal dominant manner in approximately 95% of the herd. In a prospective study, anti-donor antibodies with the same specificity as those observed retrospectively were successfully induced in an antigen-negative animal after immunization with PBMCs. Conclusions To our knowledge