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Sample records for antiprotons beam applied

  1. Low energy antiproton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapisch, R.

    1992-04-01

    It was the invention of stochastic cooling by S. Van Meer that has allowed antiproton beams to become a powerful tool for the physicist. As a byproduct of the high energy proton-antiproton collider, a versatile low-energy facility, LEAR has been operating at CERN since 1984. The facility and its characteristics will be described as well as examples of its use for studying fundamental properties of the antiproton and for topics in atomic, nuclear and particle Physics.

  2. Polarized antiproton beam at U-70 accelerator of IHEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurushev, S. B.; Chetvertkov, M. A.; Chetvertkova, V. A.; Garkusha, V. I.; Meschanin, A. P.; Mochalov, V. V.; Nurusheva, M. B.; Rykov, V. L.; Semenov, P. A.; Strikhanov, M. N.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Zapolsky, V. N.

    2016-02-01

    The polarized proton and antiproton beam channel is currently under development at the U-70 accelerator of IHEP, Protvino, Russia. An availability of the both, polarized protons and antiprotons provides an exciting opportunity for the comparative studies of spin effects induced by polarized protons and antiprotons in a variety of hadronic reactions. While the proton and antiproton beams are formed by essentially the same method, there is the specific in the antiproton beam shaping and properties compared to protons. In this report, we address some technical details of forming the polarized antiproton beam and describe its main properties.

  3. Antiproton beam polarizer using a dense polarized target

    SciTech Connect

    Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan

    2011-05-01

    We describe considerations regarding the spin filtering method for the antiproton beam. The proposed investigation of the double polarization cross section for antiproton to nucleon interaction is outlined. It will use a single path of the antiproton beam through a dense polarized target, e.g. 3He or CH2, followed by a polarimeter.

  4. Confinement of a large number of antiprotons and production of an ultraslow antiproton beam.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, N; Torii, H A; Franzen, K Yoshiki; Wang, Z; Yoneda, S; Inoue, M; Hori, M; Juhász, B; Horváth, D; Higaki, H; Mohri, A; Eades, J; Komaki, K; Yamazaki, Y

    2005-01-21

    We have used a radio frequency quadrupole decelerator to decelerate antiprotons emerging from the CERN Antiproton Decelerator from MeV- to keV-scale energy, and collected five decelerated pulses in a multiring trap. Some 5 x 10(6) antiprotons were stacked in this way. Cooling of the trapped antiprotons by a simultaneously trapped electron plasma was studied nondestructively via shifts in plasma mode frequencies. We have also demonstrated the first step in extracting a 10-500 eV antiproton beam from the trap. PMID:15698175

  5. Radial compression of an antiproton cloud for production of intense antiproton beams.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, N; Torii, H A; Shibata, M; Nagata, Y; Barna, D; Hori, M; Horváth, D; Mohri, A; Eades, J; Komaki, K; Yamazaki, Y

    2008-05-23

    We report here the radial compression of a large number of antiprotons ( approximately 5 x 10(5)) in a strong magnetic field under ultrahigh vacuum conditions by applying a rotating electric field. Compression without any resonant structures was demonstrated for a range of frequencies from the sideband frequency of 200 kHz to more than 1000 kHz. The radial compression achieved is a key technique for synthesizing and manipulating antihydrogen atoms and antiprotonic atoms. PMID:18518532

  6. The antiproton cell experiment—do antiprotons offer advantages over other particle beam modalities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellner, Stefan; Boll, Rebecca; Caccia, Massimo; Negrini, Loretta; Straße, Tina; Tegami, Sara; Holzscheiter, Michael H.

    2012-12-01

    The use of heavy charged particles for cancer therapy has the potential for a significant improvement of the therapeutic window compared to standard X-ray treatments. This is due to the improved energy deposition profile, exhibiting a well-defined peak at a depth in target controllable by the initial energy of the beam. Particles heavier than protons in addition show an increase in biological effectiveness. Compared to protons or heavy ions, antiprotons deposit additional annihilation energy, mostly by low energy recoils, resulting in an increase of dose and also adding a component with high biological effectiveness in the target region. The relative magnitude of the physical energy deposition of antiprotons compared to protons was measured at Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) by A. Sullivan, but no study of the biological effect had been conducted prior to the Antiproton Cell Experiment (AD-4/ACE) experiment at CERN. The special conditions found at CERN present significant challenges, but also offer unique opportunities. 500 ns pulses of antiprotons are extracted from the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at 500 MeV/c momentum. Biological cell samples are irradiated and clonogenic survival fractions are measured for various doses. To extract biological efficiency, the physical dose deposition is obtained by Monte-Carlo calculations in conjunction with shot-by-shot monitoring of the incoming beam intensity and profile using a silicon pixel detector. Also imaging of the pions resulting from antiproton annihilations in the target using silicon pixel detector technology to determine the actual range in more complex targets with strong variations in material densities was carried out. The feasibility of this technique using a novel arrangement of the detector was demonstrated. This paper describes the ACE experiment and focuses on the different detector activities within the AD-4/ACE collaboration, explaining the experimental set-up, physical and biological methods used

  7. Radial compression of protons and H3+ ions in a multiring trap for the production of ultralow energy antiproton beams.

    PubMed

    Higaki, H; Kuroda, N; Yoshiki Franzen, K; Wang, Z; Hori, M; Mohri, A; Komaki, K; Yamazaki, Y

    2004-08-01

    Radial compression of a proton cloud was performed in a multiring trap which was designed to trap and cool a large number of antiprotons for the production of low-energy ( 10-1000 eV ) antiproton beams. The resonance frequency for the radial compression was almost constant from 3 x 10(5) to 3 x 10(6) protons. The collision process of the trapped protons was also investigated to estimate the energy of the protons inside the trap. This technique will be applied to the ASACUSA experiment at the antiproton decelerator, CERN, to extract ultraslow antiprotons with good emittance. PMID:15447603

  8. Transverse instability of the antiproton beam in the Recycler Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Prost, L.R.; Bhat, C.M.; Burov, A.; Crisp, J.; Eddy, N.; Hu, M.; Shemyakin, A.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The brightness of the antiproton beam in Fermilab's 8 GeV Recycler ring is limited by a transverse instability. This instability has occurred during the extraction process to the Tevatron for large stacks of antiprotons even with dampers in operation. This paper describes observed features of the instability, introduces the threshold phase density to characterize the beam stability, and finds the results to be in agreement with a resistive wall instability model. Effective exclusion of the longitudinal tails from Landau damping by decreasing the depth of the RF potential well is observed to lower the threshold density by up to a factor of two.

  9. Commissioning of polarized-proton and antiproton beams at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Yokosawa, A.

    1988-05-04

    The author described the polarized-proton and polarized-antiproton beams up to 200 GeV/c at Fermilab. The beam line, called MP, consists of the 400-m long primary and 350-m long secondary beam line followed by 60-m long experimental hall. We discuss the characteristics of the polarized beams. The Fermilab polarization projects are designated at E-581/704 initiated and carried out by an international collaboration, Argonne (US), Fermilab (US), Kyoto-Kyushu-Hiroshima-KEK (Japan), LAPP (France), Northwestern University (US), Los Alamos Laboratory (US), Rice (US), Saclay (France), Serpukhov (USSR), INFN Trieste (Italy), and University of Texas (US).

  10. Antiprotons

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Chamberlain, Owen; Segre, Emilio; Wiegand, Clyde

    1955-11-29

    Since the development of Dirac's theory of the electron and the brilliant confirmation of one of its most startling predictions by the discovery of the positron by Anderson, it has been assumed most likely that the proton would also have its charge conjugate, the antiproton. The properties that define the antiproton are: (a) charge equal to the electron charge (also in sign); (b) mass equal to the proton mass; (c) stability against spontaneous decay; (d) ability to annihilate by interaction with a proton or neutron, probably generating pions and releasing in some manner the energy 2 mc{sup 2}; (e) generation in pairs with ordinary nucleons; (f) magnetic moment equal but opposite to that of the proton; (g) fermion of spin 1/2. Not all these properties are independent, but all might ultimately be subjected to experiment.

  11. Physics with thermal antiprotons

    SciTech Connect

    Hynes, M.V.; Campbell, L.J.

    1988-01-01

    The same beam cooling techniques that have allowed for high luminosity antiproton experiments at high energy also provide the opportunity for experiments at ultra-low energy. Through a series of deceleration stages, antiprotons collected and cooled at the peak momentum for production can by made available at thermal or sub-thermal energies. In particular, the CERN, PS-200 collaboration is developing an RFO-plused ion trap beam line for the antiproton gravitational mass experiment at LEAR that will provide beams of antiprotons in the energy range 0.001--1000.0 eV. Antiprotons at these energies make these fundamentals particles available for experiments in condensed matter and atomic physics. The recent speculation that antiprotons may form metastable states in some forms of normal matter could open many new avenues of basic and applied research. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Time purified/separated antiproton beam at the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Bachman, M.; Barlett, M.L.; Bonner, B.; Borenstein, S.; Bridges, D.; Brown, H.; Buchanan, J.; Clement, J.C.; Daftari, I.; Debbe, R.

    1984-01-01

    A 1 km antiproton beam has been designed for construction at the AGS. The momentum band can be varied between +-0.3% to +-1.0%, and the resolution for tagged particles will be deltap/p approx. 10/sup -4/ at beam rates as high as 10/sup 6/ anti p/s. Separation by decay purification will be on the order of 1 anti p/10(..pi../sup -/+..mu../sup -/). This beam will be used in a detailed investigation of Charmonium including a measurement of the chi widths. We will also search for expected but as yet unseen states, and search for possible I=1 events which would imply the existence of four quark states. This facility will also lend itself to a wide variety of exciting physics such as the proton form factor including both e/sup +/e/sup -/ and ..gamma gamma.. final states, two-body hadron final states, anti-nucleus yields, and possibly tagged hadron beams (i.e., Lambda, E, etc.). When heavy ions become available at the AGS, one can measure various long lived particle yields. Finally, with as many as 10/sup 7/ polarized muons in the beam, one has the possibility to use them for nuclear structure studies.

  13. Generating a Reduced-energy Antiproton beam using Channeling Electrostatic elements (GRACE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, Gerard; Pacifico, Nicola; Aegis Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    A device was designed for Generating a Reduced-energy Antiproton-beam using Channeling Electrostatic elements (GRACE). A series of einzel lenses and electrodes are used to create a slow beam of antiprotons with tunable mean energy (0 to 16 keV with root mean squared value below 20%) using antiprotons (mean energy of 5 MeV) from the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN. Degrader foil is in place, so GRACE further deflects the beam bunches away from the annihilation products, focusing them on a 14 mm x 14 mm detector. Manufacturing parameters were found using simulations written in C++. The device is currently in use by the Antihydrogen Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy (AEgIS) collaboration at CERN, which seeks to measure the sign of the gravitational constant for antimatter by performing interferometry studies on an antihydrogen beam. GRACE delivers on the order of 10 events per beam bunch from the AD. Antiprotons will eventually be used together with a pulse of positronium atoms to make antihydrogen atoms with horizontal velocity. GRACE is being used to perform intermediary experiments concerning interferometry of antiprotons, an important stepping stone on the way to measuring the sign of gravity. Special thanks to Boston University Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program, Lawrence Sulak, and Michael Doser.

  14. A new antiproton beam transfer scheme without coalescing

    SciTech Connect

    Weiren Chou et al.

    2003-06-04

    An effective way to increase the luminosity in the Fermilab Tevatron collider program Run2 is to improve the overall antiproton transfer efficiency. During antiproton coalescing in the Main Injector (MI), about 10-15% particles get lost. This loss could be avoided in a new antiproton transfer scheme that removes coalescing from the process. Moreover, this scheme would also eliminate emittance dilution due to coalescing. This scheme uses a 2.5 MHz RF system to transfer antiprotons from the Accumulator to the Main Injector. It is then followed by a bunch rotation in the MI to shorten the bunch length so that it can be captured by a 53 MHz RF bucket. Calculations and ESME simulations show that this scheme works. No new hardware is needed to implement this scheme.

  15. Heating {sup 197}Au nuclei with 8 GeV antiproton and {pi}- beams.

    SciTech Connect

    Back, B.; Beaulieu, L.; Breuer, H.; Gushue, S.; Hsi, W.-C.; Korteling, R. G.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Laforest, R.; Lefort, T.; Martin, E.; Pienkowski, L.; Ramakrishnan, E.; Remsberg, L. P.; Viola, V. E.

    1999-05-03

    This contribution stresses results recently obtained from experiment E900 performed at the Brookhaven AGS accelerator with 8 GeV/c antiproton and negative pion beams using the Indiana Silicon Sphere detector array. An investigation of the reaction mechanism is presented, along with source characteristics deduced from a two-component fit to the spectra. An enhancement of deposition energy with the antiproton beam with respect to the pion beam is observed. The results are qualitatively consistent with predictions of an intranuclear cascade code.

  16. Beam Diagnostics for Measurements of In-Flight Annihilation Cross Sections of Antiprotons at 130 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghai-Khozani, Hossein; Barna, Daniel; Corradini, Maurizio; Hayano, Ryugo; Hori, Masaki; Kobayashi, Takumi; Leali, Marco; Lodi-Rizzini, Evandro; Mascagna, Valerio; Prest, Michela; Soter, Anna; Todoroki, Koichi; Vallazza, Erik; Venturelli, Luca; Zurlo, Nicola

    The ASACUSA (the Atomic Spectroscopy And Collisions Using Slow Antiprotons) collaboration of CERN is currently attempting to measure the antiproton-nucleus in-flight annihilation cross sections on thin target foils of C, Pd, and Pt at the kinetic energy of 130 keV. The low-energy antiprotons were provided by the Antiproton Decelerator of CERN and a radio-frequency quadrupole decelerator developed by the ASACUSA collaboration. A beam profile monitor based on secondary electron emission was developed for this measurement. It was used to measure the spatial profile of 200-ns-long beam pulses containing 105-106 antiprotons with an active area of 40 mm × 40 mm and a spatial resolution of 4 mm. Using this monitor, we succeeded in finely tuning antiproton beams to an 80-mm-diameter target, and observed some annihilation events originating from the target.

  17. Report of the Snowmass T4 working group on particle sources: Positron sources, anti-proton sources and secondary beams

    SciTech Connect

    N. Mokhov et al.

    2002-12-05

    This report documents the activities of the Snowmass 2001 T4 Particle Sources Working Group. T4 was charged with examining the most challenging aspects of positron sources for linear colliders and antiproton sources for proton-antiproton colliders, and the secondary beams of interest to the physics community that will be available from the next generation of high-energy particle accelerators. The leading issues, limiting technologies, and most important R and D efforts of positron production, antiproton production, and secondary beams are discussed in this paper. A listing of T4 Presentations is included.

  18. Report of the Snowmass T4 Working Group on Particle Sources:Positron Sources, Antiproton Sources, and Secondary Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, John C.

    2002-08-30

    This report documents the activities of the Snowmass 2001 T4 Particle Sources Working Group. T4 was charged with examining the most challenging aspects of positron sources for linear colliders and antiproton sources for proton-antiproton colliders, and the secondary beams of interest to the physics community that will be available from the next generation of high-energy particle accelerators. The leading issues, limiting technologies, and most important R&D efforts of positron production, antiproton production, and secondary beams are discussed in this paper. A listing of T4 Presentations is included.

  19. First observation of a (1,0) mode frequency shift of an electron plasma at antiproton beam injection.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, N; Mohri, A; Torii, H A; Nagata, Y; Shibata, M

    2014-07-11

    The frequency shift of the center-of-mass oscillation, known as the (1,0) mode, of a trapped electron plasma and, furthermore, its time evolution were observed during the cooling of an injected antiproton beam for the first time. Here, antiprotons mixed with the electrons did not follow faster electron oscillations but contributed to the modification of the effective potential. The time evolution of the plasma temperature, deduced from the frequency shift of the excited (3,0) mode, suggested that there was an abnormal energy deposition of the antiproton beam in the electron plasma before thermalization. PMID:25062195

  20. Using time separation of signals to obtain independent proton and antiproton beam position measurements around the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, R.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    Independent position measurement of the counter-circulating proton and antiproton beams in the Tevatron, never supported by the original Tevatron Beam Position Monitor (BPM) system, presents a challenge to upgrading that system. This paper discusses the possibilities and complications of using time separation of proton and antiproton signals at the numerous BPM locations and for the dynamic Tevatron operating conditions. Results of measurements using one such method are presented.

  1. Experimental setup and first measurement of DNA damage induced along and around an antiproton beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavanagh, J. N.; Currell, F. J.; Timson, D. J.; Holzscheiter, M. H.; Bassler, N.; Herrmann, R.; Prise, K. M.; Schettino, G.

    2010-10-01

    Radiotherapy employs ionizing radiation to induce lethal DNA lesions in cancer cells while minimizing damage to healthy tissues. Due to their pattern of energy deposition, better therapeutic outcomes can, in theory, be achieved with ions compared to photons. Antiprotons have been proposed to offer a further enhancement due to their annihilation at the end of the path. The work presented here aimed to establish and validate an experimental procedure for the quantification of plasmid and genomic DNA damage resulting from antiproton exposure. Immunocytochemistry was used to assess DNA damage in directly and indirectly exposed human fibroblasts irradiated in both plateau and Bragg peak regions of a 126 MeV antiproton beam at CERN. Cells were stained post irradiation with an anti- γ-H2AX antibody. Quantification of the γ-H2AX foci-dose relationship is consistent with a linear increase in the Bragg peak region. A qualitative analysis of the foci detected in the Bragg peak and plateau region indicates significant differences highlighting the different severity of DNA lesions produced along the particle path. Irradiation of desalted plasmid DNA with 5 Gy antiprotons at the Bragg peak resulted in a significant portion of linear plasmid in the resultant solution.

  2. Experiments with Fermilab polarized proton and polarized antiproton beams

    SciTech Connect

    Yokosawa, A.

    1990-01-01

    We summarize activities concerning the Fermilab polarized beams. They include a brief description of the polarized-beam facility, measurements of beam polarization by polarimeters, asymmetry measurements in the {pi}{degree} production at high p{sub {perpendicular}} and in the {Lambda} ({Sigma}{degree}), {pi}{sup {plus minus}}, {pi}{degree} production at large x{sub F}, and {Delta}{sigma}{sub L}(pp, {bar p}p) measurements. 18 refs.

  3. Antiproton radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bassler, Niels; Alsner, Jan; Beyer, Gerd; DeMarco, John J; Doser, Michael; Hajdukovic, Dragan; Hartley, Oliver; Iwamoto, Keisuke S; Jäkel, Oliver; Knudsen, Helge V; Kovacevic, Sandra; Møller, Søren Pape; Overgaard, Jens; Petersen, Jørgen B; Solberg, Timothy D; Sørensen, Brita S; Vranjes, Sanja; Wouters, Bradly G; Holzscheiter, Michael H

    2008-01-01

    Antiprotons are interesting as a possible future modality in radiation therapy for the following reasons: When fast antiprotons penetrate matter, protons and antiprotons have near identical stopping powers and exhibit equal radiobiology well before the Bragg-peak. But when the antiprotons come to rest at the Bragg-peak, they annihilate, releasing almost 2 GeV per antiproton-proton annihilation. Most of this energy is carried away by energetic pions, but the Bragg-peak of the antiprotons is still locally augmented with approximately 20-30 MeV per antiproton. Apart from the gain in physical dose, an increased relative biological effect also has been observed, which can be explained by the fact that some of the secondary particles from the antiproton annihilation exhibit high-LET properties. Finally, the weakly interacting energetic pions, which are leaving the target volume, may provide a real time feedback on the exact location of the annihilation peak. We have performed dosimetry experiments and investigated the radiobiological properties using the antiproton beam available at CERN, Geneva. Dosimetry experiments were carried out with ionization chambers, alanine pellets and radiochromic film. Radiobiological experiments were done with V79 WNRE Chinese hamster cells. The radiobiological experiments were repeated with protons and carbon ions at TRIUMF and GSI, respectively, for comparison. Several Monte Carlo particle transport codes were investigated and compared with our experimental data obtained at CERN. The code that matched our data best was used to generate a set of depth dose data at several energies, including secondary particle-energy spectra. This can be used as base data for a treatment planning software such as TRiP. Our findings from the CERN experiments indicate that the biological effect of antiprotons in the plateau region may be reduced by a factor of 4 for the same biological target dose in a spread-out Bragg-peak, when comparing with protons. The

  4. Elastic scattering polarimeter for a polarized antiproton beam at U-70 accelerator of IHEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, A. A.; Chetvertkov, M. A.; Chetvertkova, V. A.; Garkusha, V. I.; Meschanin, A. P.; Mochalov, V. V.; Nurusheva, M. B.; Nurushev, S. B.; Ridiger, A. V.; Rykov, V. L.; Semenov, P. A.; Strikhanov, M. N.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Zapolsky, V. N.

    2016-02-01

    The absolute polarimeter based on the elastic p¯p-scattering in the diffraction kinematic regions with the total momentum transfer squared coverage of 0.1 < - t < 0.3 (GeV/c)2 is proposed for the polarized antiproton beam at the U-70 proton synchrotron of IHEP. It is shown that it would take ˜200-400 hours for measuring the beam polarization at the statistical errors of ΔPB/PB ≃10-15%. These time estimates include also the time which is necessary for the measurements of an analyzing power AN, using a polarized target. Besides the measurements of beam polarizations, the proposed polarimeter provides an opportunity for carrying out the experimental studies of the small momentum transfers physics which would be a valuable enrichment of the SPASCHARM experiment capabilities and its physics program.

  5. CERN antiproton target: Hydrocode analysis of its core material dynamic response under proton beam impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Claudio Torregrosa; Perillo-Marcone, Antonio; Calviani, Marco; Muñoz-Cobo, José-Luis

    2016-07-01

    Antiprotons are produced at CERN by colliding a 26 GeV /c proton beam with a fixed target made of a 3 mm diameter, 55 mm length iridium core. The inherent characteristics of antiproton production involve extremely high energy depositions inside the target when impacted by each primary proton beam, making it one of the most dynamically demanding among high energy solid targets in the world, with a rise temperature above 2000 °C after each pulse impact and successive dynamic pressure waves of the order of GPa's. An optimized redesign of the current target is foreseen for the next 20 years of operation. As a first step in the design procedure, this numerical study delves into the fundamental phenomena present in the target material core under proton pulse impact and subsequent pressure wave propagation by the use of hydrocodes. Three major phenomena have been identified, (i) the dominance of a high frequency radial wave which produces destructive compressive-to-tensile pressure response (ii) The existence of end-of-pulse tensile waves and its relevance on the overall response (iii) A reduction of 44% in tensile pressure could be obtained by the use of a high density tantalum cladding.

  6. Proceedings of the 1986 summer workshop on antiproton beams in the 2-10 GeV/c range

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, D.

    1987-05-07

    The possibilities for building a facility for the formation spectroscopy of ''charmonium'' and the study of ''exotics'' at the AGS with high intensity antiproton beams of good resolution and enhanced purity are explored. The performance potential of a number of long beams and the AGS booster are evaluated and costs are estimated. Fluxes of several 10/sup 7/ antiprotons per pulse with purities of 5% to 99% are possible with conventional long beams. A similar total antiproton flux would be available with the Booster with no beam contamination. This could effectively be enhanced by two orders of magnitude by reducing the momentum spread in order to scan very narrow (less than 1 MeV) resonances. The maximum momentum attainable with the present Booster magnet design is 5.6 GeV/c which only reaches the Chi/sub 0/ (3415) charmonium state. Modifications are possible which would raise the maximum momentum to 6.3 GeV/c to include all states up to and including eta'/sub c/ (3590) in its range. The performance potential for this physics at the AGS is found to compare favorably with that at other laboratories with more antiprotons delivered annually, running in the post-Booster era, than at FNAL or Super-Lear with ACOL under typical scheduling conditions. A high resolution purified source of antiprotons in the 2-10 GeV/c range at BNL would cost $3.0M - $4.1M including an experimental hall. There are contributed papers in the appendices.

  7. The Antiproton-Nucleon Annihilation Process (Antiproton Collaboration Experiment)

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Barkas, W. H.; Birge, R. W.; Chupp, W. W.; Ekspong, A. G.; Goldhaber, G.; Goldhaber, S.; Heckman, H. H.; Perkins, D. H.; Sandweiss, J.; Segre, E.; Smith, F. M.; Stork, D. H.; Rossum, L. Van; Amaldi, E.; Baroni, G.; Castagnoli, C.; Franzinetti, C.; Manfredini, A.

    1956-09-10

    In the exposure to a 700-MeV/c negative particle beam, 35 antiproton stars have been found. Of these antiprotons, 21 annihilate in flight and three give large-angle scatters ({Theta} > 15 , T{sub P-} > 50 Mev), while 14 annihilate at rest. From the interactions in flight we obtain the total cross section for antiproton interaction.

  8. Search for Polarization Effects in the Antiproton Production Process

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Grzonka, D.; Kilian, K.; Ritman, J.; Sefzick, T.; Oelert, W.; Diermaier, M.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.; Głowacz, B.; Moskal, P.; et al

    2015-01-01

    For the production of a polarized antiproton beam, various methods have been suggested including the possibility that antiprotons may be produced polarized which will be checked experimentally. The polarization of antiprotons produced under typical conditions for antiproton beam preparation will be measured at the CERN/PS. If the production process creates some polarization, a polarized antiproton beam could be prepared by a rather simple modification of the antiproton beam facility. The detection setup and the expected experimental conditions are described.

  9. Formation spectra of charmed meson-nucleus systems using an antiproton beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagata-Sekihara, J.; Garcia-Recio, C.; Nieves, J.; Salcedo, L. L.; Tolos, L.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the structure and formation of charmed meson-nucleus systems, with the aim of understanding the charmed meson-nucleon interactions and the properties of the charmed mesons in the nuclear medium. The D bar mesic nuclei are of special interest, since they have tiny decay widths due to the absence of strong decays for the D bar N pair. Employing an effective model for the D bar N and DN interactions and solving the Klein-Gordon equation for D bar and D in finite nuclei, we find that the D--11B system has 1s and 2p mesic nuclear states and that the D0-11B system binds in a 1s state. In view of the forthcoming experiments by the PANDA and CBM Collaborations at the future FAIR facility and the J-PARC upgrade, we calculate the formation spectra of the [D--11B] and [D0-11B] mesic nuclei for an antiproton beam on a 12C target. Our results suggest that it is possible to observe the 2pD- mesic nuclear state with an appropriate experimental setup.

  10. Simulations of an acceleration scheme for producing high intensity and low emittance antiproton beam for Fermilab collider operation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Vincent; Bhat, C.M.; MacLachlan, J.A.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    During Fermilab collider operation, the Main Injector (MI) provides high intensity and low emittance proton and antiproton beams for the Tevatron. The present coalescing scheme for antiprotons in the Main Injector yields about a factor of two increase in the longitudinal emittance and a factor of 5% to 20% decrease in intensity before injection to the Tevatron. In order to maximize the integrated luminosity delivered to the collider experiments, it is important to minimize the emittance growth and maximize the intensity of the MI beam. To this end, a new scheme using a combination of 2.5 MHz and 53 MHz accelerations has been developed and tested. This paper describes the full simulation of the new acceleration scheme, taking account of space charge, 2.5 MHz and 53 MHz beam loading, and the effect of residual 53 MHz rf voltage during 2.5 MHz acceleration and rf manipulations. The simulations show the longitudinal emittance growth at the 10% level with no beam loss. The experimental test of the new scheme is reported in another PAC05 paper.

  11. Antiproton Driven Fusion Propulsion System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ricky; Kammash, Terry; Gallimore, Alec

    A fusion propulsion system in which the plasma is heated to thermonuclear temperature by antiproton annihilation reactions is proposed. It makes use of an open-ended magnetic confinement device known as the gasdynamic mirror (GDM) in which the plasma - such as deuteriumtritium (DT) - is confined long enough to be heated before being ejected through one mirror (serving as a magnetic nozzle) to produce thrust. The heating process is based on recent theoretical and experimental physics research which revealed that "at rest" annihilation of antiprotons in uranium-238 targets causes fission at nearly 100% efficiency. Thus, heating in the proposed system can be achieved by inserting U238 targets (in the form of foils or atomic beams) in the proper position and then striking them with antiprotons released from a trap attached to one end of the asymmetric GDM device. The resulting fission fragments and annihilation products, namely pions and muons, are highly ionizing and energetic and could readily heat the background plasma to very high temperatures leading to its ignition. We have examined in detail the various phenomena that underlie the operation of such a propulsion system, ranging from the propagation of antiprotons in plasma, to the confinement of the various species by the mirror-type magnetic field, to the role of ambipolar potential in accelerating the plasma, as well as other relevant processes, and have concluded that the proposed system is capable of producing very impressive propulsive capabilities such as specific impulse and thrust. When applied to a round trip mission to Mars, as an example, we find that it can be accomplished in about 59 days and requires less than 4 micrograms of antiprotons. Although roughly nanograms of antiprotons are currently produced annually, it is expected that hundreds of milligrams or possibly several grams will be produced annually in the next decade or so when Mars missions might be contemplated.

  12. On the Possibility of Non-Neutral Antiproton Plasmas and Antiproton-Positron Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Higaki, H.

    2005-10-19

    Progresses in accumulating a large number of low energy antiprotons with Antiproton Decelerator (AD), Radio Frequency Quadrupole Decelerator (RFQD), and a multiring trap in Atomic Spectroscopy And Collisions Using Slow Antiprotons (ASACUSA) enables the confinement of more than 106 antiprotons. Confinement of a larger number of antiprotons in the trap will result in a non-neutral antiproton plasma. This is also favorable for the effective production of low energy antiproton beams. Possibility of an antiproton-positron plasma is also considered in a magnetic mirror field.

  13. Short History of Polarized Antiprotons

    SciTech Connect

    Steffens, Erhard

    2008-04-30

    This paper summarizes the attempts and ideas for generating polarized antiproton beams. Such beams are needed for the study of the--largely unknown--spin dependence of nucleon-antinucleon interaction. Emphasis is on spin dependent attenuation of antiprotons on a polarized hydrogen target as the only experimentally tested method.

  14. Cancer Therapy with Antiprotons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassler, Niels; Holzscheiter, Michael H.; Ad-4 Collaboration

    2005-10-01

    Starting in 2003 the AD-4/ACE collaboration has studied the biological effects of antiprotons annihilating in a human tissue like material on live V-79 Chinese Hamster cells. The main goal of the work is to prove the efficacy of antiprotons for cancer therapy. In this report we discuss a critical point to be considered carefully for all particle beam radiation therapies, namely the loss of primary particles from the beam on the way to a tumor seated some distance below the surface.

  15. PHYSICS WITH ULTRA-LOW ENERGY ANTIPROTONS

    SciTech Connect

    M. HOLZSCHEITER

    2001-02-01

    In this report the author describes the current status of the antiproton deceleration (AD) facility at CERN, and highlights the physics program with ultra-low energy antiproton at this installation. He also comments on future possibilities provided higher intensity antiproton beams become available at Fermilab, and review possibilities for initial experiments using direct degrading of high energy antiprotons in material has been developed and proven at CERN.

  16. Report on Operation of Antiproton Decelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Belochitskii, Pavel

    2006-03-20

    The Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN operates for physics since 1999. The 3.5 GeV/c antiprotons produced in the target by a 26 GeV/c proton beam coming from CERN PS. Since the experiments need a low energy antiprotons, beam is decelerated in the AD down to an extraction momentum of 100 MeV/c. Due to significant emittance blow up during deceleration, as well as tight requirements from experiments on extracted beam sizes, efficient compression of beam phase space is indispensable. Two cooling systems, stochastic and electron are used in AD. The progress in machine performance is reviewed, along with plans for the future. Special emphasis is given to the proposed new extra low energy antiproton ring (ELENA) for deceleration of antiproton beam further down to an energy of 100 keV (momentum 13.7 MeV/c), which would allow much higher antiproton capture rate with significantly higher beam density.

  17. Physics with Polarized Antiprotons

    SciTech Connect

    Lenisa, Paolo

    2008-04-30

    Polarized antiprotons will provide access to a wealth of double- (and single-) spin observables, thereby opening a window to physics uniquely accessible with the HESR at FAIR. This include a first direct measurement of the transversity distribution of the valence quarks in the proton and a first measurement of the moduli and phase of the time-like electric and magnetic form factors G{sub E,M} of the proton. Additional applications of a polarized antiproton beam can be forseen in hadron spectroscopy, and nucleon-antinucleon scattering.

  18. Antiproton production for Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Azhgirey, I.L.; Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I. . Inst. Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij)

    1991-03-01

    Needs to improve the Fermilab Pbar Source for the Tevatron Upgrade and discrepancies in predictions of the antiproton yields have forced us to develop the production model based on the modern data and to incorporate this model to the current version of MARS10 code. The inclusive scheme of this code with the use of statistical weights allows the production of antiprotons to be enhanced within the phase space region of interest, which is extremely effective for optimization of Pbar Source parameters and for developing of such an idea as a beam sweeping system. Antiproton production model included in the modified version of our Monte Carlo program MARS10M for the inclusive simulation of hadronic cascades, as for other particles throughout the program, is based on a factorization approach for hadron-nucleus differential cross-section. To describe antiproton inclusive spectra in pp-collisions a phenomenological model has been used modified in the low-Pt region. The antiproton production in pion-nucleon interactions is described in the frame of our simple phenomenological model based on the modern data. In describing of the of antiproton production cross-sections ratio in hadron-nucleus and hadron-nucleon collisions the ideas of soft hadronization of color strings and all the present experimental data have been used. Some comparisons of our model with experimental data are presented in the wide intervals of initial momenta, antiproton kinematical variables and nuclei. In all the cases the agreement is pretty good what gives us an assurance in the consequent studies carried out for the Fermilab Pbar Source. The results of such study are presented in this paper.

  19. Towards Polarized Antiprotons at FAIR

    SciTech Connect

    Rathmann, Frank

    2007-06-13

    Understanding the interplay of the nuclear interaction with polarized protons and the electromagnetic interaction with polarized electrons in polarized atoms is crucial to progress towards the PAX goal to eventually produce stored polarized antiproton beams at FAIR. Presently, there exist two competing theoretical scenarios: one with substantial spin filtering of (anti)protons by atomic electrons, and a second one suggesting a self-cancellation of the electron contribution to spin filtering. After a brief review of the PAX physics case for polarized antiprotons at FAIR, a detailed discussion of future investigations, including spin-filtering experiments at COSY-Juelich and at the AD of CERN is presented.

  20. ASTER: Imaging with antiprotons

    SciTech Connect

    Muratore, R.

    1988-01-01

    Antiprotons are of great promise in biomedical research and in practical biomedical and industrial applications. It is likely that antiprotons will be of far greater utility in the next century than x-rays have been in this century. Antiprotonic STEReography (ASTER), a 3-D photography-like imaging technique, is basic to most of the foreseen applications. This dissertation explores realistic models of ASTER analytically, numerically, and with computer simulations. It carries the understanding of ASTER further than previous work, and its models are adaptable to more powerful computers. In particular, ASTER is portrayed as a robust alternative to the ambiguities inherent in the imaging techniques used in x-ray computer tomography, CT. The scattering of the antiprotons lateral to their initial direction is the limiting factor in ASTERs ability to resolve fine anatomical details. This lateral scattering is calculated with a mathematical term ignored in previous studies, which overestimate the scattering of heavy charged particles in homogeneous media. Optimization techniques are explored and found to provide twice the resolution for a given radiation dose, and to reduce the needed detector size. Proper choice of orientation of the antiproton beam is shown to improve the resolution/dose ratio by an order of magnitude. Comparison of simulated ASTER scans with actual CT scans shows that ASTER imparts about one to two orders of magnitude less dose than that imparted by CT at comparable resolutions. The scanned targets include a random pattern. The target and the image are shown to be more correlated as the number of antiprotons used is increased. Finally, the future of ASTER is considered: further computer simulations are suggested, and implications for medicine and industry are discussed.

  1. Applying EVM principles to Tevatron Beam Position Monitor Project

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Bakul; /Fermilab

    2005-08-01

    At Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), the Tevatron high energy particle collider must meet the increasing scientific demand of higher beam luminosity. To achieve this higher luminosity goal, U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored a major upgrade of capabilities of Fermilab's accelerator complex that spans five years and costs over fifty million dollars. Tevatron Beam Position Monitor (BPM) system upgrade is a part of this project, generally called RunII upgrade project. Since the purpose of the Tevatron collider is to detect the smashing of proton and anti-protons orbiting the circular accelerator in opposite directions, capability to detect positions of both protons and antiprotons at a high resolution level is a desirable functionality of the monitoring system. The original system was installed during early 1980s, along with the original construction of the Tevatron. However, electronic technology available in 1980s did not allow for the detection of significantly smaller resolution of antiprotons. The objective of the upgrade project is to replace the existing BPM system with a new system utilizing capabilities of modern electronics enhanced by a front-end software driven by a real-time operating software. The new BPM system is designed to detect both protons and antiprotons with increased resolution of up to an order of magnitude. The new system is capable of maintaining a very high-level of data integrity and system reliability. The system consists of 27 VME crates installed at 27 service buildings around the Tevatron ring servicing 236 beam position monitors placed underground, inside the accelerator tunnel. Each crate consists of a single Timing Generator Fanout module, custom made by Fermilab staff, one MVME processor card running VxWorks 5.5, multiple Echotek Digital Receiver boards complimented by custom made Filter Board. The VxWorks based front-end software communicates with the Main Accelerator Control software via a special

  2. Uncoupled thermoelasticity solutions applied on beam dumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouzia, A.; Antonakakis, T.

    2016-06-01

    In particle accelerators the process of beam absorption is vital. At CERN particle beams are accelerated at energies of the order of TeV. In the event of a system failure or following collisions, the beam needs to be safely absorbed by dedicated protecting blocks. The thermal shock caused by the rapid energy deposition within the absorbing block causes thermal stresses that may rise above critical levels. The present paper provides a convenient expression of such stresses under hypotheses described hereafter. The temperature field caused by the beam energy deposition is assumed to be Gaussian. Such a field models a non-diffusive heat deposition. These effects are described as thermoelastic as long as the stresses remain below the proportional limit and can be analytically modeled by the coupled equations of thermoelasticity. The analytical solution to the uncoupled thermoelastic problem in an infinite domain is presented herein and matched with a finite unit radius sphere. The assumption of zero diffusion as well as the validity of the match with a finite geometry is quantified such that the obtained solutions can be rigorously applied to real problems. Furthermore, truncated series solutions, which are not novel, are used for comparison purposes. All quantities are nondimensional and the problem reduces to a dependence of five dimensionless parameters. The equations of elasticity are presented in the potential formulation where the shear potential is assumed to be nil due to the source being a gradient and the absence of boundaries. Nevertheless equivalent three-dimensional stresses are computed using the compressive potential and optimized using standard analytical optimization methods. An alternative algorithm for finding the critical points of the three-dimensional stress function is presented. Finally, a case study concerning the proton synchrotron booster dump is presented where the aforementioned analytical solutions are used and the preceding assumptions

  3. The antiproton depth-dose curve in water.

    PubMed

    Bassler, N; Holzscheiter, M H; Jäkel, O; Knudsen, H V; Kovacevic, S

    2008-02-01

    We have measured the depth-dose curve of 126 MeV antiprotons in a water phantom using ionization chambers. Since the antiproton beam provided by CERN has a pulsed structure and possibly carries a high-LET component from the antiproton annihilation, it is necessary to correct the acquired charge for ion recombination effects. The results are compared with Monte Carlo calculations and were found to be in good agreement. Based on this agreement we calculate the antiproton depth-dose curve for antiprotons and compare it with that for protons and find a doubling of the physical dose in the peak region for antiprotons. PMID:18199915

  4. Past, present and future low energy antiproton facilities at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartmann, W.; Belochitskii, P.; Breuker, H.; Butin, F.; Carli, C.; Eriksson, T.; Maury, S.; Oelert, W.; Pasinelli, S.; Tranquille, G.

    2014-05-01

    Low energy antiprotons are available for physics experiments at CERN since the 1980s and have been used by a large variety of experiments. The Low Energy Antiproton Ring LEAR has been constructed as a complementary use of antiprotons available at that time for high energy physics and delivered beam to experiments mainly using slow extraction. After completion of LEAR exploitation, the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) was constructed (adaptation of the existing Antiproton Collector, AC) to allow for a simpler low energy antiproton scheme (only one accelerator operated with Antiprotons) with fast extraction well suited for trap experiments. The Extra Low ENergy Antiproton ring ELENA is a small synchrotron presently constructed to further decelerate antiprotons from the AD in a controlled manner, and to reduce emittances with the help of an electron cooler to improve the capture efficiencies of existing experiments and allow for additional ones.

  5. Antiproton annihilation dynamics in the Gasdynamic Fusion Rocket

    SciTech Connect

    Kammash, T.; Lee, M.

    1996-03-01

    The use of antiprotons to initiate the fusion reactions in the Gasdynamic Fusion Rocket (GDFR) is examined as potential replacement of the neutral beam injection system often cited in connection with fusion power reactors. The effectiveness of this approach depends critically, however, on the ability of the antiprotons to penetrate the plasma and reach the center of the engine without undergoing many annihilation reactions along the way. Using expressions for the annihilation rate per unit distance and the stopping power of antiprotons in a fully ionized hydrogenous plasma we calculate the annihilation distribution and the fraction of antiprotons that reach the central region in a relatively cold deuterium-tritium plasma. We apply these results to a rocket engine 16 m in length and containing plasma with 10{sup 16} cm{sup {minus}3} density, and we find that well over 90{percent} of the annihilations take place within a few centimeters from the midplane of the engine when the initial plasma temperature is 20 eV. Under these conditions we find that about 10{sup {minus}5} grams per second of antiprotons injected at an energy of about 4 MeV are required to ignite the plasma in this rocket engine. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Solar modulation of galactic antiprotons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perko, J. S.

    1987-01-01

    Galactic antiproton data of current interest lie in an energy regime heavily influenced by solar modulation. Correcting for it needs to be done more carefully than it has been in the past. The well-known force-field analytic approximation of the spherically-symmetric, steady-state, cosmic-ray transport equation is applied in order to account for modulation down to at least 100 MeV. A sample solution which applies to the currently available antiproton data set (1979-80), and can be used to accurately modulate any possible interstellar antiproton spectrum, is given. The solution is easily adapted for comparison to future measurements. It also shows that boosting the low-energy (less than 600 MeV) side of the interstellar antiproton spectrum will not affect the low-energy spectrum at 1 AU, due to strong adiabatic deceleration during that time.

  7. Antiproton Powered Gas Core Fission Rocket

    SciTech Connect

    Kammash, Terry

    2005-02-06

    Extensive research in recent years has demonstrated that 'at rest' annihilation of antiprotons in the uranium isotope U238 leads to fission at nearly 100% efficiency. The resulting highly-ionizing, energetic fission fragments can heat a suitable medium to very high temperatures, making such a process particularly suitable for space propulsion applications. Such an ionized medium, which would serve as a propellant, can be confined by a magnetic field during the heating process, and subsequently ejected through a magnetic nozzle to generate thrust. The gasdynamic mirror (GDM) magnetic configuration is especially suited for this application since the underlying confinement principle is that the plasma be of such density and temperature as to make the ion-ion collision mean free path shorter than the plasma length. Under these conditions the plasma behaves like a fluid, and its escape from the system is analogous to the flow of a gas into vacuum from a vessel with a hole. For the system we propose we envisage radially injecting atomic or U238 plasma beam at a pre-determined position and axially pulsing an antiproton beam which upon interaction with the uranium target gives rise to near isotropic ejection of fission fragments with a total mass of 212 amu and total energy of about 160 MeV. These particles, along with the annihilation products (i.e. pions and muons) will heat the background U238 gas - inserted into the chamber just prior to the release of the antiproton - to one keV temperature. Preliminary analysis reveals that such a propulsion system can produce a specific impulse of about 3000 seconds at a thrust of about 50 kN. When applied to a round trip Mars mission, we find that such a journey can be accomplished in about 142 days with 2 days of thrusting and requiring only one gram of antiprotons to achieve it.

  8. Antiproton Powered Gas Core Fission Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammash, T.

    Extensive research in recent years has demonstrated that “at rest” annihilation of antiprotons in the uranium isotope U238 leads to fission at nearly 100% efficiency. The resulting highly-ionizing, energetic fission fragments can heat a suitable medium to very high temperatures, making such a process particularly suitable for space propulsion applications. Such an ionized medium, which would serve as a propellant, can be confined by a magnetic field during the heating process, and subsequently ejected through a magnetic nozzle to generate thrust. The gasdynamic mirror (GDM) magnetic configuration is especially suited for this application since the underlying confinement principle is that the plasma be of such density and temperature as to make the ion-ion collision mean free path shorter than the plasma length. Under these conditions the plasma behaves like a fluid, and its escape from the system is analogous to the flow of a gas into vacuum from a vessel with a hole. For the system we propose we envisage radially injecting atomic or U238 plasma beam at a pre-determined position and axially pulsing an antiproton beam which upon interaction with the uranium target gives rise to near isotropic ejection of fission fragments with a total mass of 212 amu and total energy of about 160 MeV. These particles, along with the annihilation products (i.e. pions and muons) will heat the background U238 gas - inserted into the chamber just prior to the release of the antiproton - to one keV temperature. Preliminary analysis reveals that such a propulsion system can produce a specific impulse of about 3000 seconds at a thrust of about 50 kN. When applied to a round trip Mars mission, we find that such a journey can be accomplished in about 142 days with 2 days of thrusting and requiring only one gram of antiprotons to achieve it.

  9. Antiproton Powered Gas Core Fission Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammash, Terry

    2005-02-01

    Extensive research in recent years has demonstrated that "at rest" annihilation of antiprotons in the uranium isotope U238 leads to fission at nearly 100% efficiency. The resulting highly-ionizing, energetic fission fragments can heat a suitable medium to very high temperatures, making such a process particularly suitable for space propulsion applications. Such an ionized medium, which would serve as a propellant, can be confined by a magnetic field during the heating process, and subsequently ejected through a magnetic nozzle to generate thrust. The gasdynamic mirror (GDM) magnetic configuration is especially suited for this application since the underlying confinement principle is that the plasma be of such density and temperature as to make the ion-ion collision mean free path shorter than the plasma length. Under these conditions the plasma behaves like a fluid, and its escape from the system is analogous to the flow of a gas into vacuum from a vessel with a hole. For the system we propose we envisage radially injecting atomic or U238 plasma beam at a pre-determined position and axially pulsing an antiproton beam which upon interaction with the uranium target gives rise to near isotropic ejection of fission fragments with a total mass of 212 amu and total energy of about 160 MeV. These particles, along with the annihilation products (i.e. pions and muons) will heat the background U238 gas — inserted into the chamber just prior to the release of the antiproton — to one keV temperature. Preliminary analysis reveals that such a propulsion system can produce a specific impulse of about 3000 seconds at a thrust of about 50 kN. When applied to a round trip Mars mission, we find that such a journey can be accomplished in about 142 days with 2 days of thrusting and requiring only one gram of antiprotons to achieve it.

  10. Antiproton chain of the FAIR storage rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, T.; Kamerdzhiev, V.; Lehrach, A.; Maier, R.; Prasuhn, D.; Stassen, R.; Stockhorst, H.; Herfurth, F.; Lestinsky, M.; Litvinov, Yu A.; Steck, M.; Stöhlker, T.

    2015-11-01

    In the Modularized Start Version of the Facility of Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt Germany, the 3 GeV antiprotons are precooled in the collector ring and accumulated in the high energy storage ring (HESR). They are further accelerated to 14 GeV or decelerated to 1 GeV for the experiments with a high-density internal target. The powerful beam cooling devices, stochastic cooling and electron cooling will support the provision of a high-resolution antiproton beam. The other option of FAIR is to prepare the low energy, 300 keV antiproton beam connecting the existing storage rings ESR and CRYRING with HESR. Beam physics issues related with these concepts are described.

  11. Measurement of interaction between antiprotons.

    PubMed

    2015-11-19

    One of the primary goals of nuclear physics is to understand the force between nucleons, which is a necessary step for understanding the structure of nuclei and how nuclei interact with each other. Rutherford discovered the atomic nucleus in 1911, and the large body of knowledge about the nuclear force that has since been acquired was derived from studies made on nucleons or nuclei. Although antinuclei up to antihelium-4 have been discovered and their masses measured, little is known directly about the nuclear force between antinucleons. Here, we study antiproton pair correlations among data collected by the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), where gold ions are collided with a centre-of-mass energy of 200 gigaelectronvolts per nucleon pair. Antiprotons are abundantly produced in such collisions, thus making it feasible to study details of the antiproton-antiproton interaction. By applying a technique similar to Hanbury Brown and Twiss intensity interferometry, we show that the force between two antiprotons is attractive. In addition, we report two key parameters that characterize the corresponding strong interaction: the scattering length and the effective range of the interaction. Our measured parameters are consistent within errors with the corresponding values for proton-proton interactions. Our results provide direct information on the interaction between two antiprotons, one of the simplest systems of antinucleons, and so are fundamental to understanding the structure of more-complex antinuclei and their properties. PMID:26536116

  12. Measurement of interaction between antiprotons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Star Collaboration; Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Bairathi, V.; Banerjee, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandenburg, J. D.; Brandin, A. V.; Bunzarov, I.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de La Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, X.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; de Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A.; Hamed, A.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, X.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Jiang, K.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikoła, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Klein, S.; Kochenda, L.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, X.; Li, Z. M.; Li, Y.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, R.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, L.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Manion, A.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; Meehan, K.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V.; Olvitt, D.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peterson, A.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, M. K.; Sharma, B.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnov, D.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stepanov, M.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B.; Sun, Z.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, X.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, N.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Tang, Z.; Tang, A. H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Varma, R.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Wang, F.; Webb, J. C.; Webb, G.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z. G.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, H.; Xu, N.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Y.; Yang, C.; Yang, S.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Q.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhu, X.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.

    2015-11-01

    One of the primary goals of nuclear physics is to understand the force between nucleons, which is a necessary step for understanding the structure of nuclei and how nuclei interact with each other. Rutherford discovered the atomic nucleus in 1911, and the large body of knowledge about the nuclear force that has since been acquired was derived from studies made on nucleons or nuclei. Although antinuclei up to antihelium-4 have been discovered and their masses measured, little is known directly about the nuclear force between antinucleons. Here, we study antiproton pair correlations among data collected by the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), where gold ions are collided with a centre-of-mass energy of 200 gigaelectronvolts per nucleon pair. Antiprotons are abundantly produced in such collisions, thus making it feasible to study details of the antiproton-antiproton interaction. By applying a technique similar to Hanbury Brown and Twiss intensity interferometry, we show that the force between two antiprotons is attractive. In addition, we report two key parameters that characterize the corresponding strong interaction: the scattering length and the effective range of the interaction. Our measured parameters are consistent within errors with the corresponding values for proton-proton interactions. Our results provide direct information on the interaction between two antiprotons, one of the simplest systems of antinucleons, and so are fundamental to understanding the structure of more-complex antinuclei and their properties.

  13. Results of head-on beam-beam compensation studies at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Valishev, A.; Stancari, G.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    At the Tevatron collider, we studied the feasibility of suppressing the antiproton head-on beam-beamtune spread using a magnetically confined 5-keV electron beam with Gaussian transverse profile overlapping with the circulating beam. When electron cooling of antiprotons is applied in regular Tevatron operations, the head-on beam-beam effect on antiprotons is small. Therefore, we first focused on the operational aspects, such as beam alignment and stability, and on fundamental observations of tune shifts, tune spreads, lifetimes, and emittances. We also attempted two special collider stores with only 3 proton bunches colliding with 3 antiproton bunches, to suppress long-range forces and enhance head-on effects. We present here the results of this study and a comparison between numerical simulations and observations, in view of the planned application of this compensation concept to RHIC.

  14. Conceptual Design of an Antiproton Generation and Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Peggs, Stephen

    2006-10-24

    The Antiproton Generation and Storage Facility (AGSF) creates copious quantities of antiprotons, for bottling and transportation to remote cancer therapy centers. The first step in the generation and storage process is to accelerate an intense proton beam down the Main Linac for injection into the Main Ring, which is a Rapid Cycling Synchrotron that accelerates the protons to high energy. The beam is then extracted from the ring into a transfer line and into a Proton Target. Immediately downstream of the target is an Antiproton Collector that captures some of the antiprotons and focuses them into a beam that is transported sequentially into two antiproton rings. The Precooler ring rapidly manipulates antiproton bunches from short and broad (in momentum) to long and thin. It then performs some preliminary beam cooling, in the fraction of a second before the next proton bunch is extracted from the Main Ring. Pre-cooled antiprotons are passed on to the Accumulator ring before the next antiprotons arrive from the target. The Accumulator ring cools the antiprotons, compressing them into a dense state that is convenient for mass storage over many hours. Occasionally the Accumulator ring decelerates a large number of antiprotons, injecting them into a Deceleration Linac that passes them into a waiting Penning trap.

  15. Antiproton fast ignition for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, L.J.

    1997-10-24

    With 180MJ/{micro}g, antiprotons offer the highest stored energy per unit mass of any known entity. We investigate the use of antiprotons to promote fast ignition in an ICF capsule and seek high gains with only modest compression of the main fuel. Unlike standard fast ignition where the ignition energy is supplied by an energetic, short pulse laser, the energy here is supplied through the ionization energy deposited when antiprotons annihilate at the center of a compressed fuel capsule. In the first of two candidate fast ignition schemes, the antiproton package is delivered by a low energy external ion beam. In the second, ''autocatalytic'' scheme, the antiprotons are pre-emplaced at the center of the capsule prior to compression. In both schemes, we estimate that {approximately}3x10{sup 13} antiprotons are required to initiate fast ignition in a typical ICF capsule and show that incorporation of a thin, heavy metal shell is desirable to enhance energy deposition in the igniter zone. In addition to obviating the need for a second energetic fast laser and vulnerable final optics, this scheme would achieve central without reliance on laser channeling through halo plasma or houlrahm debris. However, in addition to the unknowns involved in the storage and manipulation of antiprotons at low energy, the other large uncertainty for the practicality of such a scheme is the ultimate efficiency of antiproton production in, an external, optimized facility.

  16. Beam-energy dependence of the directed flow of protons, antiprotons, and pions in Au+Au collisions.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, L; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anson, C D; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Banerjee, A; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Brovko, S G; Bültmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chwastowski, J; Codrington, M J M; Contin, G; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Cui, X; Das, S; Davila Leyva, A; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; Derradi de Souza, R; Dhamija, S; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Ding, F; Djawotho, P; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Engle, K S; Eppley, G; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Fedorisin, J; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Gliske, S; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Haque, R; Harris, J W; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huang, X; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kesich, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Kotchenda, L; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Levine, M J; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Madagodagettige Don, D M M D; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nigmatkulov, G; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Olvitt, D L; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Pujahari, P R; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Riley, C K; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ross, J F; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solanki, D; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sumbera, M; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; Szelezniak, M A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Turnau, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vandenbroucke, M; Vanfossen, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Vossen, A; Wada, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yan, W; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yu, N; Zawisza, Y; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, J L; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2014-04-25

    Rapidity-odd directed flow (v1) measurements for charged pions, protons, and antiprotons near midrapidity (y=0) are reported in sNN=7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4, and 200 GeV Au+Au collisions as recorded by the STAR detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. At intermediate impact parameters, the proton and net-proton slope parameter dv1/dy|y=0 shows a minimum between 11.5 and 19.6 GeV. In addition, the net-proton dv1/dy|y=0 changes sign twice between 7.7 and 39 GeV. The proton and net-proton results qualitatively resemble predictions of a hydrodynamic model with a first-order phase transition from hadronic matter to deconfined matter, and differ from hadronic transport calculations. PMID:24815640

  17. A method to polarize stored antiprotons to a high degree.

    PubMed

    Rathmann, F; Lenisa, P; Steffens, E; Contalbrigo, M; Dalpiaz, P F; Kacharava, A; Lehrach, A; Lorentz, B; Maier, R; Prasuhn, D; Ströher, H

    2005-01-14

    Polarized antiprotons can be produced in a storage ring by spin-dependent interaction in a purely electron-polarized hydrogen gas target. The polarizing process is based on spin transfer from the polarized electrons of the target atoms to the orbiting antiprotons. After spin filtering for about two beam lifetimes at energies T approximately equal 40-170 MeV using a dedicated large acceptance ring, the antiproton beam polarization would reach P=0.2-0.4. Polarized antiprotons would open new and unique research opportunities for spin-physics experiments in p(-) p interactions. PMID:15698088

  18. Towards Polarised Antiprotons: Machine Developments for Spin-Filtering Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenisa, Paolo

    2016-02-01

    We address the commissioning of the experimental equipment and the machine studies required for the first spin-filtering experiment with protons at the COSY ring in Jülich (Germany) at a beam kinetic energy of 49.3 MeV. The implementation of a low-beta insertion made it possible to achieve beam lifetimes of 8000 s in the presence of a dense polarized hydrogen storage cell target. The developed techniques can be directly applied to antiproton machines and allow for the determination of the spin-dependent pbar-p cross sections via spin-filtering.

  19. The Antiproton Decelerator: AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, S.; Berlin, D.; Boillot, J.; Bosser, J.; Brouet, M.; Buttkus, J.; Caspers, F.; Chohan, V.; Dekkers, D.; Eriksson, T.; Garoby, R.; Giannini, R.; Grobner, O.; Gruber, J.; Hemery, J. Y.; Koziol, H.; Maccaferri, R.; Maury, S.; Metzger, C.; Metzmacher, K.; Möhl, D.; Mulder, H.; Paoluzzi, M.; Pedersen, F.; Riunaud, J. P.; Serre, C.; Simon, D. J.; Tranquille, G.; Tuyn, J.; Williams, B.

    1997-02-01

    In view of a possible future programme of physics with low-energy antiprotons, a simplified scheme for the provision of antiprotons at 100 MeV/ c has been studied. It uses the present target area and the modified Antiproton Collector (AC) in its present location. In this report the modifications and the operation are discussed.

  20. The Antiproton Decelerator: AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maury, S.; Baird, S.; Berlin, D.; Boillot, J.; Bosser, J.; Brouet, M.; Buttkus, J.; Caspers, F.; Chohan, V.; Dekkers, D.; Eriksson, T.; Garoby, R.; Giannini, R.; Gröbner, O.; Gruber, J.; Hemery, J. Y.; Koziol, H.; Maccaferri, R.; Metzger, C.; Metzmacher, K.; Möhl, D.; Mulder, H.; Paoluzzi, M.; Pedersen, F.; Riunaud, J. P.; Serre, C.; Simon, D. J.; Tranquille, G.; Tuyn, J.; Williams, B.

    1997-05-01

    A simplified scheme for the provision of antiprotons at 100 MeV/c in fast extraction mode is described. It uses the existing antiproton production target and the modified Antiproton Collector ring in their present location. The physics programme is largely based on capturing and storing antiprotons in Penning traps for the production and spectroscopy of antihydrogen. The machine modifications necessary to deliver batches of 10^7 antiprotons every minute at 100 MeV/c are described and details of the machine layout are given.

  1. Antiproton - Ion Collider for FAIR Project

    SciTech Connect

    Beller, P.; Franzke, B.; Kienle, P.; Kruecken, R.; Koop, I.; Parkhomchuk, V.; Shatunov, Y.; Skrinsky, A.; Vostrikov, V.; Widmann, E.

    2006-03-20

    An antiproton-ion collider (AIC), with extensive using of electron cooling, is proposed to determine rms radii for protons and neutrons in unstable and short lived nuclei by means of antiproton absorption at medium energies. The experiment makes use of the electron-ion collider complex with appropriate modifications of the electron ring to store, cool and collide antiprotons of 30 MeV energy with 740 MeV/unit ions in the NESR. Antiprotons are collected, cooled, decelerated up to 30 MeV and transferred to the electron storage ring. The radioactive nuclei beams are transferred to the CR and cooled at 740A MeV and transported via the RESR to NESR, in which especially short lived nuclei are accumulated continuously to increase the luminosity. Luminosities of about 1023 cm-2s-1 may be reached with 106 ions accumulated in the NESR in coasting mode of operation, used for Schottky spectroscopy of the fragments.

  2. Antiprotonic helium and CPT invariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayano, Ryugo S.; Hori, Masaki; Horváth, Dezso; Widmann, Eberhard

    2007-12-01

    We review recent progress in the laser and microwave spectroscopy of antiprotonic helium atoms (\\barpHe^+ \\equiv \\rme^\\--\\barp - He^{++}) carried out at CERN's Antiproton Decelerator facility (AD). Laser transitions were here induced between Rydberg states (n, ell) and (n ± 1, ell - 1) of \\barpHe^+ (n ~ 40 and ell ≲ n - 1 being the principal and orbital angular momentum quantum numbers of the antiproton orbit). Successive refinements in the experimental techniques improved the fractional precision on the \\barpHe^+ frequencies from 3 parts in 106 to ~1 part in 108. These included a radiofrequency quadrupole decelerator, which reduced the energy of the antiprotons from 5.3 MeV (the energy of the beam emerging from AD) to ~100 keV. This enabled the production of \\barpHe^+ in ultra-low density targets, where collisional effects with other helium atoms are negligible. A continuous wave pulse-amplified dye laser, stabilized against a femtosecond optical frequency comb, was then used to measure the \\barpHe^+ frequencies with ppb-scale precision. This progress in the experimental field was matched by similar advances in computing methods for evaluating the expected transition frequencies in three-body QED calculations. The comparison of experimental (νexp) and theoretical (νth) frequencies for seven transitions in \\barp^4He^+ and five in \\barp^3 He^+ yielded an antiproton-to-electron mass ratio of m_\\bar p/m_{\\rme} = 1836.152\\,674(5) . This agrees with the known proton-to-electron mass ratio at the level of ~2 × 10-9. The experiment also set a limit on any CPT-violating difference between the antiproton and proton charges and masses, (Q_p - |Q_{\\barp}|)/Q_p \\sim (m_p - m_{\\barp})/m_p < 2 \\times 10^{-9} to a 90% confidence level. If on the other hand we assume the validity of the CPT invariance, the m_{\\barp}/m_{\\rme} result can be taken to be equal to mp/me. This can be used as an input to future adjustments of fundamental constants. The hyperfine

  3. Applying field mapping refractive beam shapers to improve holographic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskin, Alexander; Williams, Gavin; McWilliam, Richard; Laskin, Vadim

    2012-03-01

    Performance of various holographic techniques can be essentially improved by homogenizing the intensity profile of the laser beam with using beam shaping optics, for example, the achromatic field mapping refractive beam shapers like πShaper. The operational principle of these devices presumes transformation of laser beam intensity from Gaussian to flattop one with high flatness of output wavefront, saving of beam consistency, providing collimated output beam of low divergence, high transmittance, extended depth of field, negligible residual wave aberration, and achromatic design provides capability to work with several laser sources with different wavelengths simultaneously. Applying of these beam shapers brings serious benefits to the Spatial Light Modulator based techniques like Computer Generated Holography or Dot-Matrix mastering of security holograms since uniform illumination of an SLM allows simplifying mathematical calculations and increasing predictability and reliability of the imaging results. Another example is multicolour Denisyuk holography when the achromatic πShaper provides uniform illumination of a field at various wavelengths simultaneously. This paper will describe some design basics of the field mapping refractive beam shapers and optical layouts of their applying in holographic systems. Examples of real implementations and experimental results will be presented as well.

  4. Antiproton acceleration in the Fermilab Main Ring and Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.; Dinkel, J.; Ducar, R.; Kerns, C.; Kerns, Q.; Meisner, K.; Miller, H.W.; Reid, J.; Tawzer, S.; Wildman, D.

    1987-03-01

    The operation of the Fermilab Main Ring and Tevatron rf systems for colliding beams physics is discussed. The changes in the rf feedback system required for the accelration of antiprotons, and the methods for achieving proper transfer of both protons and antiprotons are described. Data on acceleration and transfer efficiencies are presented.

  5. Photo-Production of Proton Antiproton Pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Eugenio, Paul; Stokes, Burnham

    2007-02-27

    Results are reported on the reaction {gamma}p {yields} ppp-bar. A high statistic data set was obtained at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility utilizing the CLAS detector and a tagged photon beam of 4.8 to 5.2 GeV incident on a liquid hydrogen target. The focus of this study was to search for possible intermediate resonances which decay to proton-antiproton. Both final state protons were detected in the CLAS apparatus whereas the antiproton was identified via missing mass. General features of the data are presented along with results on narrow and broad resonance studies.

  6. Photo-Production of Proton Antiproton Pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Eugenio; Burnham Stokes

    2007-02-01

    Results are reported on the reaction gammap --> ppp-bar . A high statistic data set was obtained at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility utilizing the CLAS detector and a tagged photon beam of 4.8 to 5.2 GeV incident on a liquid hydrogen target. The focus of this study was to search for possible intermediate resonances which decay to proton-antiproton. Both final state protons were detected in the CLAS apparatus whereas the antiproton was identified via missing mass. General features of the data are presented along with results on narrow and broad resonance studies.

  7. Extragalactic origin of antiprotons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, S. A.; Golden, R. L.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of Galactic modulation on cosmic rays entering the Galaxy from outside has been studied for two different models for the confinement of cosmic rays, using a one-dimensional transport equation. From this study, the role of extragalactic cosmic rays has been examined critically in the context of the recent data on antiprotons. It is concluded that they are not a significant source of cosmic ray antiprotons. However, determination of the energy spectrum of antiprotons at least up to a few tens of GeV would provide information on the modulation of cosmic rays, while entering the Galaxy from outside.

  8. Hadron Physics with Antiprotons

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedner, Ulrich

    2005-10-26

    The new FAIR facility which comes into operation at GSI in the upcoming years has a dedicated program of utilizing antiprotons for hadron physics. In particular, the planned PANDA experiment belongs to the group of core experiments at the new FAIR facility in Darmstadt/Germany. PANDA will be a universal detector to study the strong interaction by utilizing the annihilation process of antiprotons with protons and nuclear matter. The current paper gives an introduction into the hadron physics with antiprotons and part of the planned physics program with PANDA.

  9. Toward polarized antiprotons: machine development for spin-filtering experiments at COSY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidemann, Christian; the PAX Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    In 2011 the Polarized Antiproton eXperiments Collaboration has performed a successful spin-filtering test using protons at {T}p=49.3 MeV at the COSY ring in Jülich, which allowed the determination of the spin-dependent polarizing cross section, that compares well with the theoretical prediction from the nucleon-nucleon potential and it confirms that spin filtering can be adopted as a method to polarize a stored beam. The document concentrates on the commissioning of the experimental equipment and the machine studies conducted to achieve the required beam lifetimes of τ =8000 s in the presence of a dense polarized hydrogen storage cell target of areal density {d}{{t}}=(5.5+/- 0.2)× {10}13 {atoms} {{cm}}-2. The developed techniques can be directly applied to antiproton machines and allow for the determination of the spin-dependent \\bar{p}p cross sections via spin filtering.

  10. Physics overview of the Fermilab Low Energy Antiproton Facility Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1986-05-01

    A physics overview is presented of the Fermilab workshop to consider a possible high flux, low energy antiproton facility that would use cooled antiprotons from the accumulator ring of the Tevatron collider. Two examples illustrate the power of each a facility to produce narrow states at high rates. Physics topics to which such a facility may be applied are reviewed.

  11. Polarized Antiprotons - The Quest For A Missing Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Steffens, Erhard

    2009-08-04

    After termination of the LEAR facility in 1996 and the restriction of the CERN antiproton program to Trap experiments, stored antiprotons at low and medium energies are no longer available for experiments. FAIR at GSI (Darmstadt) will provide intense stored antiproton beams in less than a decade from now. This has renewed the interest in polarized antiprotons originally proposed for LEAR. In August 2007, an International Workshop was organized at the Cockcroft Institute (Daresbury) and methods to polarize stored antiprotons were discussed. In June 2008, a Heraeus Seminar at the Physikzentrum in Bad Honnef dealing with the same subject took place. The results of these workshops will be presented with some historical remarks and an account of the recent developments.

  12. A systematic review of antiproton radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittner, Martin-Immanuel; Grosu, Anca-Ligia; Wiedenmann, Nicole; Wilkens, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Antiprotons have been proposed as possible particles for radiotherapy; over the past years, the renewed interest in the potential biomedical relevance led to an increased research activity. It is the aim of this review to deliver a comprehensive overview regarding the evidence accumulated so far, analysing the background and depicting the current status of antiprotons in radiotherapy. A literature search has been conducted, including major scientific and commercial databases. All articles and a number of relevant conference abstracts published in the respective field have been included in this systematic review. The physical basis of antiproton radiotherapy is complex; however, the characterisation of the energy deposition profile supports its potential use in radiotherapy. Also the dosimetry improved considerably over the past few years. Regarding the biological properties, data on the effects on cells are presented; however, definite conclusions regarding the relative biological effectiveness cannot be made at the moment and radiobiological evidence of enhanced effectiveness remains scarce. In addition, there is new evidence supporting the potential imaging properties, for example for online dose verification. Clinical settings which might profit from the use of antiprotons have been further tracked. Judging from the evidence available so far, clinical constellations requiring optimal sparing in the entrance region of the beam and re-irradiations might profit most from antiproton radiotherapy. While several open questions remain to be answered, first steps towards a thorough characterisation of this interesting modality have been made.

  13. A systematic review of antiproton radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittner, Martin-Immanuel; Grosu, Anca-Ligia; Wiedenmann, Nicole; Wilkens, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Antiprotons have been proposed as possible particles for radiotherapy; over the past years, the renewed interest in the potential biomedical relevance led to an increased research activity. It is the aim of this review to deliver a comprehensive overview regarding the evidence accumulated so far, analysing the background and depicting the current status of antiprotons in radiotherapy. A literature search has been conducted, including major scientific and commercial databases. All articles and a number of relevant conference abstracts published in the respective field have been included in this systematic review. The physical basis of antiproton radiotherapy is complex; however, the characterisation of the energy deposition profile supports its potential use in radiotherapy. Also the dosimetry improved considerably over the past few years. Regarding the biological properties, data on the effects on cells are presented; however, definite conclusions regarding the relative biological effectiveness cannot be made at the moment and radiobiological evidence of enhanced effectiveness remains scarce. In addition, there is new evidence supporting the potential imaging properties, for example for online dose verification. Clinical settings which might profit from the use of antiprotons have been further tracked. Judging from the evidence available so far, clinical constellations requiring optimal sparing in the entrance region of the beam and re-irradiations might profit most from antiproton radiotherapy. While several open questions remain to be answered, first steps towards a thorough characterisation of this interesting modality have been made.

  14. The Antiproton Accumulator and Collector and the discovery of the W & Z intermediate vector bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chohan, Vinod; Maury, Stephan

    The following sections are included: * Preface * Brief outline of the overall scheme for antiprotons of the SPS as a collider * Antiproton production and accumulation * The AA and AC storage rings * Stochastic cooling and stacking * Post-acceleration of antiprotons and beams for SPS Collider * Proton test beams for the AA and AC from the PS * The W and Z discoveries and the Nobel Prize * Accumulator performance * Acknowledgements and conclusions * References

  15. Antiproton Trapping for Advanced Space Propulsion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Gerald A.

    1998-01-01

    The Summary of Research parallels the Statement of Work (Appendix I) submitted with the proposal, and funded effective Feb. 1, 1997 for one year. A proposal was submitted to CERN in October, 1996 to carry out an experiment on the synthesis and study of fundamental properties of atomic antihydrogen. Since confined atomic antihydrogen is potentially the most powerful and elegant source of propulsion energy known, its confinement and properties are of great interest to the space propulsion community. Appendix II includes an article published in the technical magazine Compressed Air, June 1997, which describes CERN antiproton facilities, and ATHENA. During the period of this grant, Prof. Michael Holzscheiter served as spokesman for ATHENA and, in collaboration with Prof. Gerald Smith, worked on the development of the antiproton confinement trap, which is an important part of the ATHENA experiment. Appendix III includes a progress report submitted to CERN on March 12, 1997 concerning development of the ATHENA detector. Section 4.1 reviews technical responsibilities within the ATHENA collaboration, including the Antiproton System, headed by Prof. Holzscheiter. The collaboration was advised (see Appendix IV) on June 13, 1997 that the CERN Research Board had approved ATHENA for operation at the new Antiproton Decelerator (AD), presently under construction. First antiproton beams are expected to be delivered to experiments in about one year. Progress toward assembly of the ATHENA detector and initial testing expected in 1999 has been excellent. Appendix V includes a copy of the minutes of the most recently documented collaboration meeting held at CERN of October 24, 1997, which provides more information on development of systems, including the antiproton trapping apparatus. On February 10, 1998 Prof. Smith gave a 3 hour lecture on the Physics of Antimatter, as part of the Physics for the Third Millennium Lecture Series held at MSFC. Included in Appendix VI are notes and

  16. Antiproton stacking and un-stacking in the Fermilab Recycler Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra Bhat

    2003-06-12

    The Fermilab Recycler Ring (RR) is intended to be used as a future antiproton storage ring for the Run II proton-antiproton collider operation. It is proposed that about 40mA of antiproton beam from the Accumulator Ring will be transferred to the Recycler once for every two to three hours, stacked and cooled. This operation continues for about 10 to 20 hours depending on the collider needs for antiprotons. Eventually, the cooled antiproton beam will be un-stacked from the Recycler and transferred to the Tevatron via the Main Injector. They have simulated stacking and un-stacking of antiprotons in the Recycler using multi-particle beam dynamics simulation code ESME. In this paper they present results of these simulations.

  17. An antiproton simulation study using MCNPX for radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Michael Handley, Stephen; Ahmad, Salahuddin

    2011-01-01

    Radiation therapy using antiprotons is a potential interesting future modality. Energetic antiprotons penetrate matter with almost near identical stopping powers and radio biological effectiveness (RBE) as protons in the region well before the Bragg peak region. When the antiprotons come to rest at or near the Bragg peak, they annihilate releasing almost 2 GeV per annihilation. Most of the energy is carried away on the average by 4 to 5 energetic pi mesons. The annihilations lead to roughly a doubling of physical dose with additional increase due to RBE in the Bragg peak region. This study was undertaken in order to assess the effect of the products of antiproton annihilations on depth dose profiles through MCNPX simulations. Beams of protons and antiprotons with varying energies and field sizes were used in the simulations. In our study, for 126 MeV beam, the peak to entrance (P/E) dose ratios of 4.9 for protons and 8.9 for antiprotons were found which gave the antiproton/proton P/E dose ratio equals to 1.8. This is in excellent agreement with the previous result obtained with FLUKA simulations. PMID:21876284

  18. FAIR - the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research: the Universe in the Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissbach, F.

    2015-11-01

    As of the year 2018 the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) will offer access to exotic ion beams and beams of antiproton of unprecedented luminosity. The facility currently under construction in Darmstadt, Germany, adjacent to the existing accelerator at the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy-Ion Research, will serve several collaborations and fields simultaneously: atomic, hadron, nuclear, and plasma physics.

  19. Toward polarized antiprotons: Machine development for spin-filtering experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidemann, C.; Rathmann, F.; Stein, H. J.; Lorentz, B.; Bagdasarian, Z.; Barion, L.; Barsov, S.; Bechstedt, U.; Bertelli, S.; Chiladze, D.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Dymov, S.; Engels, R.; Gaisser, M.; Gebel, R.; Goslawski, P.; Grigoriev, K.; Guidoboni, G.; Kacharava, A.; Kamerdzhiev, V.; Khoukaz, A.; Kulikov, A.; Lehrach, A.; Lenisa, P.; Lomidze, N.; Macharashvili, G.; Maier, R.; Martin, S.; Mchedlishvili, D.; Meyer, H. O.; Merzliakov, S.; Mielke, M.; Mikirtychiants, M.; Mikirtychiants, S.; Nass, A.; Nikolaev, N. N.; Oellers, D.; Papenbrock, M.; Pesce, A.; Prasuhn, D.; Retzlaff, M.; Schleichert, R.; Schröer, D.; Seyfarth, H.; Soltner, H.; Statera, M.; Steffens, E.; Stockhorst, H.; Ströher, H.; Tabidze, M.; Tagliente, G.; Engblom, P. Thörngren; Trusov, S.; Valdau, Yu.; Vasiliev, A.; Wüstner, P.

    2015-02-01

    The paper describes the commissioning of the experimental equipment and the machine studies required for the first spin-filtering experiment with protons at a beam kinetic energy of 49.3 MeV in COSY. The implementation of a low-β insertion made it possible to achieve beam lifetimes of τb=8000 s in the presence of a dense polarized hydrogen storage-cell target of areal density dt=(5.5 ±0.2 )×1 013 atoms /cm2 . The developed techniques can be directly applied to antiproton machines and allow the determination of the spin-dependent p ¯p cross sections via spin filtering.

  20. Antiproton compression and radial measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, G. B.; Bowe, P. D.; Hangst, J. S.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Charlton, M.; Humphries, A. J.; Jenkins, M. J.; Joergensen, L. V.; Madsen, N.; Werf, D. P. van der; Bray, C. C.; Chapman, S.; Fajans, J.; Povilus, A.; Wurtele, J. S.; Cesar, C. L.; Lambo, R.; Silveira, D. M.; Fujiwara, M. C.

    2008-08-08

    Control of the radial profile of trapped antiproton clouds is critical to trapping antihydrogen. We report detailed measurements of the radial manipulation of antiproton clouds, including areal density compressions by factors as large as ten, achieved by manipulating spatially overlapped electron plasmas. We show detailed measurements of the near-axis antiproton radial profile, and its relation to that of the electron plasma. We also measure the outer radial profile by ejecting antiprotons to the trap wall using an octupole magnet.

  1. Observation of Ultra-Slow Antiprotons using Micro-channel Plate

    SciTech Connect

    Imao, H.; Toyoda, H.; Shimoyama, T.; Kanai, Y.; Mohri, A.; Yamazaki, Y.; Torii, H. A.; Nagata, Y.; Enomoto, Y.; Higaki, H.

    2008-08-08

    Our group ASACUSA-MUSASHI has succeeded in accumulating several million antiprotons and extracting them as monochromatic ultra-slow antiproton beams (10 eV-1 keV) at CERN AD. We have observed ultra-slow antiprotons using micro-channel plates (MCP). The integrated pulse area of the output signals generated when the MCP was irradiated by ultra-slow antiprotons was 6 times higher than that by electrons. As a long-term effect, we also observed an increase in the background rate presumably due to the radioactivation of the MCP surface. Irradiating the antiproton beams on the MCP induces antiproton-nuclear annihilations only on the first layer of the surface. Low-energy and short-range secondary particles like charged nuclear fragments caused by the 'surface nuclear reactions' would be the origin of our observed phenomena.

  2. Antiprotons in cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubrahmanyan, V. K.; Ormes, J. F.; Streitmatter, R. E.

    1987-01-01

    Recent experimental observations and results are discussed. It was found that the approximately 50 antiprotons collected in balloon experiments to date have generated considerable theoretical interest. Clearly, confirmatory experiments and measurements over an extended energy range are required before definite conclusions are drawn. Antiproton measurements have a bearing on astrophysical problems ranging from cosmic ray propagation to issues of cosmological import. The next generation of balloon experiments and the Particle Astrophysics Magnet Facility being discussed for operation on NASA's space station should provide data and insights of highest interest.

  3. How a Bent Crystal Could Polarize the Antiprotons

    SciTech Connect

    Ukhanov, Mikhail

    2008-04-30

    Particles scattered off nuclear targets acquire a polarization if the nuclei have a nonzero analyzing power. This effect is enhanced when particles traverse a bent crystal. Such an enhancement under certain assumptions allows one to get a beam polarization of more than 50% after extraction of a primary beam with a bent crystal. Since the equilibrium condition between centrifugal and electrostatic forces during the channeling are identical for protons and antiprotons this gives us a hope that one can observe an antiproton beam channeling at a reasonable efficiency and get it polarized. It is also possible to observe a volume reflection of antiprotons. The detection of beam polarization resulting from channeling would open a window to a completely unexplored physics domain at very small transfer momentum which is hardly if not at all could be reached with other methods.

  4. Commissioning of Fermilab's electron cooling system for 8-GeV antiprotons

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaitsev, S.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Burov, A.; Carlson, K.; Gattuso, C.; Hu, M.; Kramper, B.; Kroc, T.; Leibfritz, J.; Prost, L.; Pruss, S.; Saewert, G.; Schmidt, C.W.; Shemyakin, A.; Sutherland, M.; Tupikov, V.; Warner, A.; Seletsky, S.; Gai, W.; Kazakevich, Grigory M.; /Novosibirsk, IYF

    2005-05-01

    A 4.3-MeV electron cooling system [1] has been installed at Fermilab in the Recycler antiproton storage ring and is currently being commissioned. The cooling system is designed to assist accumulation of 8.9-GeV/c antiprotons for the Tevatron collider operations. This paper reports on the progress of the electron beam commissioning effort as well as on detailed plans of demonstrating the cooling of antiprotons.

  5. Antiprotons for imaging and therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalogeropoulos, Theodore E.; Muratore, Robert

    1989-04-01

    Antiprotons are presently produced and stored at CERN and Fermilab at a rate of about 10 7 p/s. Efforts are underway to develop transportable storage devices, 'bottles', which would store as much as 10 12 antiprotons for months, or years and make the antiprotons available anywhere. A workshop held last year at the RAND Corporation assessed the science and technology of antimatter and the enabling tools. The biomedical potential of antiprotons was discussed and appears to be promising at current antimatter collection capabilities. Two applications have been studied using computer simulations: direct 3-D d E/d x imaging and the treatment of tumors with antiprotons. We discuss antiprotonic imaging and make comparisons with X-ray CT scans. The potential of antiprotons for monitoring precise delivery of radiation as well as treatment will also be discussed.

  6. Macroparticle simulations of antiproton lifetime at 150 GeV in the te vatron

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, Ji; Ryne, Robert D.; Sen, Tanaji; Xiao, Meiqin

    2003-05-09

    In this paper we report on a systematic study of antiproton lifetime at the injection energy of 150 GeV in the Tevatron. Our parallel beam-beam model can handle both strong-strong and weak-strong beam-beam collisions with arbitrary beam-beam separation and beam distributions. In this study, we have only used the weak-strong capability due to the fact that the antiproton intensity is much smaller than the proton intensity. We have included all 72 long-range beam-beam collisions with a linear transfer map between adjacent collision points and taken into account linear chromaticity. The effects of antiproton emittance, beam-beam separation, proton intensity, and machine chromaticity have been investigated. Initial results show that the antiproton lifetime as a function of the proton intensity from the simulation is in good agreement with that from the experimental measurements. The antiproton lifetime can be significantly improved by increasing the beam separation and by reducing the antiproton emittance.

  7. Antiproton-nucleus interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cugnon, J.; Vandermeulen, J.

    The antiproton-nucleus physics is reviewed. On the experimental side, the recent results obtained at the LEAR, BNL and KEK facilities are analyzed. A brief summary of the main pp and pn experimental data is also given. The antiproton-nucleus interaction can lead to elasic, inelastic and charge exchange scattering and to annihilation. The latter is very dominant. The scattering cross-sections are usually analyzed in terms of complex potential models. The relationship between potentials, charge conjugation and Dirac phenomenology is discussed. Much emphasis is put on the dynamics of the antiproton annihilation on nuclei. The energy transfer, pion absorption and target response are analyzed within the intranuclear cascade model. Special interest is devoted to strangeness production, hypernucleus formation and possible annihilation on two nucleons. Signatures for this new process are searched in experimental data. Finally, the highly debated question of quark-gluon formation is analyzed. Cet article constitue une revue de la physique antiproton-noyau. Du point de vue expérimental, cette revue porte particulièrement sur les récents résultats obtenus à LEAR, BNL et KEK. On y a aussi inclus une mise à jour des faits expérimentaux principaux pour pp et pn. L'interaction antiproton-noyau conduit à la diffusion élastique, inélastique et d'xA9change de charge et à des processus d'annihilation. Habituellement, les expériences de diffusion sont analysées en termes de potentiels complexes. La relation entre ces potentiels, la conjugaison de charge et la phénoménologie de Dirac est discutée. On s'est particulièrement intéressé à la dynamique de l'annihilation d'antiprotons sur des noyaux. Le transfert d'énergie, l'absorption de pions et la réponse de la cible sont analysés dans le cadre du modèle de cascade intranucléaire. Certains autres points sont discutés plus en détail: la production d'étrangeté, la formation d'hypernoyaux et l'annihilation sur

  8. Measurement of proton and anti-proton intensities in the Tevatron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Pordes et al.

    2003-06-04

    This paper describes the techniques used to measure the intensities of the proton (p) and anti-proton ({bar p}) beams in the Tevatron collider. The systems provide simultaneous measurements of the intensity of the 36 proton and 36 antiproton bunches and their longitudinal profiles.

  9. Hadronic Physics with Antiprotons at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettoni, Diego

    2011-09-01

    The physics program of the future FAIR facility covers a wide range of topics that address central issues of strong interactions and QCD. The antiproton beam of unprecedented quality in the momentum range from 1 GeV/c to 15 GeV/c will allow to make high precision, high statistics measurements, from charmonium spectroscopy to the search for exotic hadrons and the study of nucleon structure, from the study of in-medium modifications of hadron masses to the physics of hypernuclei. These topics form the scientific program of the PANDA experiment. In addition to that the possibility to polarize antiprotons will provide the possibility to perform new, unique measurements of single- and double-spin observables, which are part of the experimental program of PAX.

  10. Observation of Antiprotons

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Chamberlain, Owen; Segre, Emilio; Wiegand, Clyde; Ypsilantis, Thomas

    1955-10-19

    One of the striking features of Dirac's theory of the electron was the appearance of solutions to his equations which required the existence of an antiparticle, later identified as the positron. The extension of the Dirac theory to the proton requires the existence of an antiproton, a particle which bears to the proton the same relationship as the positron to the electron. However, until experimental proof of the existence of the antiproton was obtained, it might be questioned whether a proton is a Dirac particle in the same sense as is the electron. For instance, the anomalous magnetic moment of the proton indicates that the simple Dirac equation does not give a complete description of the proton.

  11. Galactic antiprotons from photinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Rudaz, S.; Walsh, T. F.

    1985-01-01

    Stable photinos, the photino being the supersymmetry partner of the photon, can explain both the 'missing mass' in galactic halos and the cosmic-ray antiproton spectrum up to the highest energies observed so far. This requires a photino mass around 15 GeV; significantly higher masses are cosmologically disfavored. As a consequence, the observed cosmic-ray antiproton-to-proton ratio is predicted to decrease abruptly just above the measured energy range, at E = m(x). If observed, this striking effect would strongly support the hypothesis that photinos make up the missing matter in the galaxy and also lead to a measurement of the photino mass from cosmic-ray data.

  12. Sub-Femtosecond Correlated Dynamics Probed with Antiprotons

    SciTech Connect

    Welsch, C. P.; Kuehnel, K. U.; Schroeter, C. D.; Ullrich, J.

    2008-08-08

    Low-energy antiprotons are the ideal and perhaps the only tool to study in detail correlated quantum dynamics of few-electron systems in the femto and sub-femtosecond time regime. Unfortunately cooled beams of antiprotons with the necessary beam quality and luminosity are not yet available and cannot be provided with present scientific infrastructures. In order to pave the way for a next-generation low-energy antiproton facility, challenging developments in both, storing and imaging techniques have been launched at MPI-K. A novel ultra-low energy storage ring (USR) to be integrated at the proposed facility for low-energy antiproton and ion research (FLAIR) is being developed to provide electron-cooled beams of antiprotons and possibly highly charged ions in the energy range between 300 and 20 keV/q, maybe even approaching the sub keV regime. To allow for kinematically complete investigations for a variety of different collision processes, a reaction microscope shall be integrated in the ring thus achieving unprecedented luminosities. In this contribution, the present status of experiments in comparison with theory is highlighted and the layout of the USR as well as of the in-ring and an external single-pass reaction microscope is presented.

  13. Electron cooling of 8-GeV antiprotons at Fermilab's Recycler: Results and operational implications

    SciTech Connect

    Prost, L.R.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Burov, Alexey V.; Carlson, K.; Gattuso, C.; Hu, M.; Kroc, T.; Leibfritz, J.; Nagaitsev, S.; Pruss, S.; Saewert, G.; Schmidt, C.W.; Shemyakin, A.; Sutherland, M.; Tupikov, V.; Warner, A.; /Fermilab

    2006-05-01

    Electron cooling of 8 GeV antiprotons at Fermilab's Recycler storage ring is now routinely used in the collider operation. It requires a 0.1-0.5 A, 4.3 MeV dc electron beam and is designed to increase the longitudinal phase-space density of the circulating antiproton beam. This paper briefly describes the characteristics of the electron beam that were achieved to successfully cool antiprotons. Then, results from various cooling force measurements along with comparison to a nonmagnetized model are presented. Finally, operational aspects of the implementation of electron cooling at the Recycler are discussed, such as adjustments to the cooling rate and the influence of the electron beam on the antiproton beam lifetime.

  14. The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langanke, K.

    2015-11-01

    In the coming years the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research FAIR will be constructed at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, Germany. This new accelerator complex will allow for unprecedented and path-breaking research in hadronic, nuclear and atomic physics as well as applied sciences. This manuscript will discuss some of these research opportunities, with a focus on nuclear physics related to supernova dynamics and nucleosynthesis.

  15. ANTIPROTONS PRODUCED IN SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Berezhko, E. G.; Ksenofontov, L. T.

    2014-08-20

    We present the energy spectrum of an antiproton cosmic ray (CR) component calculated on the basis of the nonlinear kinetic model of CR production in supernova remnants (SNRs). The model includes the reacceleration of antiprotons already existing in the interstellar medium as well as the creation of antiprotons in nuclear collisions of accelerated protons with gas nuclei and their subsequent acceleration by SNR shocks. It is shown that the production of antiprotons in SNRs produces a considerable effect in their resultant energy spectrum, making it essentially flatter above 10 GeV so that the spectrum at TeV energies increases by a factor of 5. The calculated antiproton spectrum is consistent with the PAMELA data, which correspond to energies below 100 GeV. As a consistency check, we have also calculated within the same model the energy spectra of secondary nuclei and show that the measured boron-to-carbon ratio is consistent with the significant SNR contribution.

  16. Physics at CERN’s Antiproton Decelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, M.; Walz, J.

    2013-09-01

    The Antiproton Decelerator (AD) facility of CERN began operation in 1999 to serve experiments for studies of CPT invariance by precision laser and microwave spectroscopy of antihydrogen (Hbar ) and antiprotonic helium (pbar He) atoms. The first 12 years of AD operation saw cold Hbar synthesized by overlapping clouds of positrons (e+) and antiprotons (pbar ) confined in magnetic Penning traps. Cold Hbar was also produced in collisions between Rydberg positronium (Ps) atoms and pbar . Ground-state Hbar was later trapped for up to ˜1000 s in a magnetic bottle trap, and microwave transitions excited between its hyperfine levels. In the pbar He atom, deep ultraviolet transitions were measured to a fractional precision of (2.3-5)×10-9 by sub-Doppler two-photon laser spectroscopy. From this the antiproton-to-electron mass ratio was determined as M/me=1836.1526736(23), which agrees with the p value known to a similar precision. Microwave spectroscopy of pbar He yielded a measurement of the pbar magnetic moment with a precision of 0.3%. More recently, the magnetic moment of a single pbar confined in a Penning trap was measured with a higher precision, as μ=-2.792845(12)μ in nuclear magnetons. Other results reviewed here include the first measurements of the energy loss (-dE/dx) of 1-100 keV pbar traversing conductor and insulator targets; the cross sections of low-energy (<10 keV) pbar ionizing atomic and molecular gas targets; and the cross sections of 5 MeV pbar annihilating on various target foils via nuclear collisions. The biological effectiveness of pbar beams destroying cancer cells was measured as a possible method for radiological therapy. New experiments under preparation attempt to measure the gravitational acceleration of Hbar or synthesize H. Several other future experiments will also be briefly described.

  17. Response of long, flexible cantilever beams applied root motions. [spacecraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fralich, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented for an analysis of the response of long, flexible cantilever beams to applied root rotational accelerations. Maximum values of deformation, slope, bending moment, and shear are found as a function of magnitude and duration of acceleration input. Effects of tip mass and its eccentricity and rotatory inertia on the response are also investigated. It is shown that flexible beams can withstand large root accelerations provided the period of applied acceleration can be kept small relative to the beam fundamental period.

  18. Photon and dilepton production at the Facility for Proton and Anti-Proton Research and beam-energy scan at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider using coarse-grained microscopic transport simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endres, Stephan; van Hees, Hendrik; Bleicher, Marcus

    2016-05-01

    We present calculations of dilepton and photon spectra for the energy range Elab=2 A to35 A GeV which will be available for the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future Facility for Proton and Anti-Proton Research (FAIR). The same energy regime will also be covered by phase II of the beam-energy scan at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC-BES). Coarse-grained dynamics from microscopic transport calculations of the Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) model is used to determine temperature and chemical potentials, which allows for the use of dilepton and photon-emission rates from equilibrium quantum-field-theory calculations. The results indicate that nonequilibrium effects, the presence of baryonic matter, and the creation of a deconfined phase might show up in specific manners in the measurable dilepton invariant-mass spectra and in the photon transverse-momentum spectra. However, as the many influences are difficult to disentangle, we argue that the challenge for future measurements of electromagnetic probes will be to provide a high precision with uncertainties much lower than in previous experiments. Furthermore, a systematic study of the whole energy range covered by CBM at FAIR and RHIC-BES is necessary to discriminate between different effects, which influence the spectra, and to identify possible signatures of a phase transition.

  19. Photothermal beam deflection applied to SO2 trace detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzano, Francisco A.; D'Accurso, V.; Radulovich, O.

    2004-10-01

    We present the application to environmental monitoring of a compact setup for in situ trace gas detection based on photothermal beam deflection (mirage effect) spectroscopy. Gas traces measurements are performed by detecting the time-varying component of the photothermal deflection of a red diode laser beam, propagating inside the region where a pollutant is excited by another laser. In this work, detection of traces of SO2 in a mixture with Nitrogen at atmospheric pressure enclosed in a glass cell, was performed using the fourth-harmonic pulses of a 10 Hz Nd:YAG laser. It was verified by FTIR spectroscopy that negligible SO2 destruction was produced after irradiation of high pressure mixtures with 105 UV pulses. Several beam sizes and propagating angles for the UV and visible laser were tested and evaluated in order to overcome parasitic signals due to unwanted absorption in optical elements. With this setup we reached a detection limit of 5 ppbV in a hundred-second averaging time span but we estimate sub-ppbV levels can be reached by simple changes in the geometry for improving the signal to noise ratio.

  20. Ion Beam Analysis applied to laser-generated plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutroneo, M.; Macková, A.; Havranek, V.; Malinsky, P.; Torrisi, L.; Kormunda, M.; Barchuk, M.; Ullschmied, J.; Dudzak, R.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the research activity on Ion Beam Analysis methods performed at Tandetron Laboratory (LT) of the Institute of Nuclear Physics AS CR, Rez, Czech Republic. Recently, many groups are paying attention to implantation by laser generated plasma. This process allows to insert a controllable amount of energetic ions into the surface layers of different materials modifying the physical and chemical properties of the surface material. Different substrates are implanted by accelerated ions from plasma through terawatt iodine laser, at nominal intensity of 1015 W/cm2, at the PALS Research Infrastructure AS CR, in the Czech Republic. This regime of the laser matter interaction generates, multi-MeV proton beams, and multi-charged ions that are tightly confined in time (hundreds ps) and space (source radius of a few microns). These ion beams have a much lower transverse temperature, a much shorter duration and a much higher current than those obtainable from conventional accelerators. The implementation of protons and ions acceleration driven by ultra-short high intensity lasers is exhibited by adopting suitable irradiation conditions as well as tailored targets. An overview of implanted targets and their morphological and structural characterizations is presented and discussed.

  1. Applying CLIPS to control of molecular beam epitaxy processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabeau, Arthur A.; Bensaoula, Abdelhak; Jamison, Keith D.; Horton, Charles; Ignatiev, Alex; Glover, John R.

    1990-01-01

    A key element of U.S. industrial competitiveness in the 1990's will be the exploitation of advanced technologies which involve low-volume, high-profit manufacturing. The demands of such manufacture limit participation to a few major entities in the U.S. and elsewhere, and offset the lower manufacturing costs of other countries which have, for example, captured much of the consumer electronics market. One such technology is thin-film epitaxy, a technology which encompasses several techniques such as Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE), Chemical Beam Epitaxy (CBE), and Vapor-Phase Epitaxy (VPE). Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) is a technology for creating a variety of electronic and electro-optical materials. Compared to standard microelectronic production techniques (including gaseous diffusion, ion implantation, and chemical vapor deposition), MBE is much more exact, though much slower. Although newer than the standard technologies, MBE is the technology of choice for fabrication of ultraprecise materials for cutting-edge microelectronic devices and for research into the properties of new materials.

  2. The antiproton saga at CERN (1976 - 1984)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaudi, F.

    1993-04-01

    I shall try to describe what can be considered as one of the great scientific adventures of our times, namely the project to develop high intensity beams of antiprotons, so that one could make particle-antiparticle collisions in a hadron storage ring. As is well known, this led to the long awaited discovery of the massive intermediate bosons, W+, W- and Z0. It is appropriate to delve into this adventure on this occasion, because Leon Van Hove played the rôle of a courageous leader and inspirer throughout; courageous in particular because he well knew the risks involved in the enterprise.

  3. Collisional and Spectroscopic Studies of Exotic Atoms Using Ultra-Slow Antiprotons

    SciTech Connect

    Torii, H. A.; Toyoda, H.; Kuroda, N.; Nagata, Y.; Yamazaki, Y.; Imao, H.; Varentsov, V. L.

    2009-07-10

    Antiproton, the antiparticle of proton, is a unique projectile in the study of atomic collision physics, which can be treated theoretically either as a 'negative proton' or a 'heavy electron'. Atomic capture of an antiproton will result in formation of a highly excited exotic atom. Antiprotonic helium atom has been studied intensively by means of precision laser spectroscopy, which has led to a stringent determination of antiproton mass and charge to a level of ppb. Comparison of these values with those of proton gives one of the best tests of CPT invariance, the most fundamental symmetry in physics. However, the dynamic processes of antiproton capture remain unclarified, except for some indirect information given by those optical and X-ray observations. With an aim to produce an antiproton beam at atomic-physics energies for 'pure' collision experiments, we have so far developed techniques to decelerate, cool and confine antiprotons in vacuo, using a sequential combination of the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN, a Radio-Frequency Quadrupole Decelerator (RFQD), and an electromagnetic trap. Our recent success in stable extraction of monoenergetic ultra-slow antiprotons, about 3x10{sup 5} in number available every 5 minutes, has opened up the possibility to study ionization and atomic capture processes between an antiproton thus provided as a beam and an atom prepared in the form of a supersonic gas-jet target, at an unprecedented low energy from 10 eV to 1 keV under the single-collision condition. Our design and strategy of the cross-beam experiments are discussed.

  4. Centrifugal separation of antiprotons and electrons.

    PubMed

    Gabrielse, G; Kolthammer, W S; McConnell, R; Richerme, P; Wrubel, J; Kalra, R; Novitski, E; Grzonka, D; Oelert, W; Sefzick, T; Zielinski, M; Borbely, J S; Fitzakerley, D; George, M C; Hessels, E A; Storry, C H; Weel, M; Müllers, A; Walz, J; Speck, A

    2010-11-19

    Centrifugal separation of antiprotons and electrons is observed, the first such demonstration with particles that cannot be laser cooled or optically imaged. The spatial separation takes place during the electron cooling of trapped antiprotons, the only method available to produce cryogenic antiprotons for precision tests of fundamental symmetries and for cold antihydrogen studies. The centrifugal separation suggests a new approach for isolating low energy antiprotons and for producing a controlled mixture of antiprotons and electrons. PMID:21231298

  5. Centrifugal Separation of Antiprotons and Electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Gabrielse, G.; Kolthammer, W. S.; McConnell, R.; Richerme, P.; Wrubel, J.; Kalra, R.; Novitski, E.; Grzonka, D.; Oelert, W.; Zielinski, M.; Sefzick, T.; Borbely, J. S.; Fitzakerley, D.; George, M. C.; Hessels, E. A.; Storry, C. H.; Weel, M.; Muellers, A.; Walz, J.; Speck, A.

    2010-11-19

    Centrifugal separation of antiprotons and electrons is observed, the first such demonstration with particles that cannot be laser cooled or optically imaged. The spatial separation takes place during the electron cooling of trapped antiprotons, the only method available to produce cryogenic antiprotons for precision tests of fundamental symmetries and for cold antihydrogen studies. The centrifugal separation suggests a new approach for isolating low energy antiprotons and for producing a controlled mixture of antiprotons and electrons.

  6. Autoresonant Excitation of Antiproton Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, G. B.; Bowe, P. D.; Hangst, J. S.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Hayden, M. E.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Chapman, S.; Fajans, J.; Povilus, A.; So, C.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Charlton, M.; Humphries, A. J.; Madsen, N.; Werf, D. P. van der; Carpenter, P. T.; Hurt, J. L.; Robicheaux, F.; Cesar, C. L.

    2011-01-14

    We demonstrate controllable excitation of the center-of-mass longitudinal motion of a thermal antiproton plasma using a swept-frequency autoresonant drive. When the plasma is cold, dense, and highly collective in nature, we observe that the entire system behaves as a single-particle nonlinear oscillator, as predicted by a recent theory. In contrast, only a fraction of the antiprotons in a warm plasma can be similarly excited. Antihydrogen was produced and trapped by using this technique to drive antiprotons into a positron plasma, thereby initiating atomic recombination.

  7. Autoresonant excitation of antiproton plasmas.

    PubMed

    Andresen, G B; Ashkezari, M D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Bowe, P D; Butler, E; Carpenter, P T; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hurt, J L; Hydomako, R; Jonsell, S; Madsen, N; Menary, S; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; So, C; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y

    2011-01-14

    We demonstrate controllable excitation of the center-of-mass longitudinal motion of a thermal antiproton plasma using a swept-frequency autoresonant drive. When the plasma is cold, dense, and highly collective in nature, we observe that the entire system behaves as a single-particle nonlinear oscillator, as predicted by a recent theory. In contrast, only a fraction of the antiprotons in a warm plasma can be similarly excited. Antihydrogen was produced and trapped by using this technique to drive antiprotons into a positron plasma, thereby initiating atomic recombination. PMID:21405235

  8. New generation electronics applied to beam position monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Unser, K.B.

    1997-01-01

    Cellular telephones and global positioning system (GPS) satellite receivers are examples of modern rf engineering. Taking some inspiration from those designs, a precision signal-processor module for beam position monitors was developed. It features a heterodyne receiver (100 MHz to 1 GHz) with more than 90 dB dynamic range. Four multiplexed input channels are able to resolve signal differences lower than 0.0005 dB with good long-term stability. This corresponds to sub-micron resolution when used with a beam position pick-up with 40 mm free aperture. The paper concentrates on circuit design and modern dynamic testing methods, used first during development and later for production tests. The frequency synthesizer of the local oscillator, the phase-locked synchronous detector, and the low-noise preamplifier with automatic gain control are discussed. Other topics are design for immunity to electromagnetic interference to ensure reliable operation in an accelerator environment. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Status of antiproton accumulation and cooling at Fermilab's Recycler

    SciTech Connect

    Prost, L.R.; Bhat, C.M.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Burov, A.; Carlson, K.; Crisp, J.; Derwent, P.; Eddy, N.; Gattuso, C.; Hu, M.; Pruss, S.; /Fermilab

    2009-08-01

    The Recycler ring is an 8 GeV permanent magnet storage ring where antiprotons are accumulated and prepared for Fermilab's Tevatron Collider program. With the goal of maximizing the integrated luminosity delivered to the experiments, storing, cooling and extracting antiprotons with high efficiency has been pursued. Over the past two years, while the average accumulation rate doubled, the Recycler continued to operate at a constant level of performance thanks to changes made to the Recycler Electron Cooler (energy stability and regulation, electron beam optics), RF manipulations and operating procedures. In particular, we discuss the current accumulation cycle in which {approx} 400 x 10{sup 10} antiprotons are accumulated and extracted to the Tevatron every {approx}15 hours.

  10. Weak measurements applied to process monitoring using focused beam scatterometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Thomas G.; Alonso, Miguel A.; Vella, Anthony; Theisen, Michael J.; Head, Stephen T.

    2014-04-01

    The capacity to measure nanoscale features rapidly and accurately is of central importance for the monitoring of manufacturing processes in the production of computer integrated circuits. Parameters of interest include, for example, trench depth, duty cycle, wall angle and oxide layer thickness. The measurement method proposed here uses focused beam scatterometry, in which the illumination consists of a focused field with a suitably tailored spatially-varying polarization distribution. In an analysis that is analogous to classical off-null measurements as well as weak measurements in quantum mechanics, we predict that four or more parameters can be measured and distinguished with an accuracy consistent with the needs laid out in the semiconductor roadmap.

  11. Heating of nuclear matter and multifragmentation : antiprotons vs. pions.

    SciTech Connect

    Back, B.; Beaulieu, L.; Breuer, H.; Gushue, S.; Hsi, W.-C.; Korteling, R. G.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Laforest, R.; Lefort, T.; Martin, E.; Pienkowski, L.; Ramakrishnan, E.; Remsberg, L. P.; Rowland, D.; Ruangma, A.; Viola, V. E.; Winchester, E.; Yennello, S. J.

    1999-05-03

    Heating of nuclear matter with 8 GeV/c {bar p} and {pi}{sup {minus}} beams has been investigated in an experiment conducted at BNL AGS accelerator. All charged particles from protons to Z {approx_equal} 16 were detected using the Indiana Silicon Sphere 4{pi} array. Significant enhancement of energy deposition in high multiplicity events is observed for antiprotons compared to other hadron beams. The experimental trends are qualitatively consistent with predictions from an intranuclear cascade code.

  12. Antiprotons in the cosmic radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Protheroe, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    Cosmic ray antiprotons were first detected three years ago by Golden et al. (1979) and Bogomolov et al. (1979). The measured flux at about 10 GeV was found to be a factor of 5 to 10 higher than expected in the leaky box model. More recently, an unexpected high antiproton flux has been measured by Buffington et al. (1981) at about 200 MeV, well below a low energy cut-off in the spectrum expected if the antiprotons are secondary. This paper briefly reviews calculations of the flux of secondary antiprotons expected for different models of cosmic ray propagation and discusses some of the primary origin hypotheses which have been proposed to account for the data.

  13. Antiproton Yield Diagnostics for the Tevatron I Debuncher

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.D.; Hojvat, C.; /Fermilab

    1984-10-17

    During start-up of the CERN AA, many hours of machine experiments went into the study and optimization of antiproton yields. Those involved in the commissioning programme experienced the difficulty of tuning a new machine to accept a low-intensity full-aperture beam. The antiproton yield could only be obtained by integrating a slow Schottky scan of the beam on the injection orbit, normalized with respect to primary beam intensity by a charge transformer just in front of the production target. A precise yield measurement took about five minutes. At high yields this method permitted measurements to within a few percent. The slowness of the multi-parameter yield optimization, starting from low yields where the measurement errors were often as large as the gains to be made, cannot be over emphasized. In the Tevatron I Debuncher the antiproton yields should be substantially higher than at the AA and, given a Schottky pick-up of sufficient sensitivity, the situation looks more promising. At the AA we have resolved some of our difficulties by improving the charge transformer signal, speeding up the Schottky scan and adding instrumentation to use the signals from pions, muons and electrons injected along with the antiprotons. Low yields, e.g. at reduced aperture, are now measured using beam scrapers in conjunction with counters calibrated against the Schottky pick-up at high intensities. The latter is itself calibrated by the circulating beam current transformer at even higher intenSities, usually with protons in reverse polarity mode. Based on the AA experience we outline the techniques that could be used for the following measurements and procedures at the Debuncher: (1) antiproton yield (number of antiprotons circulating in the Debuncher per incident proton) versus the machine apertures 6X, 6y, and 6p, (2) yield versus phase space coordinates downstream from the production target, (3) use of other secondary particle fluxes, (4) optimization of full-aperture yield at the

  14. Experimental Studies of Compensation of Beam-Beam Effects with Tevatron Electron Lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, V.; Alexahin, Yu.; Bishofberger, Kip; Kamerdzhiev, V.; Parkhomchuk, V.; Reva, V.; Solyak, N.; Wildman, D.; Zhang, X.-L.; Zimmermann, F.; /Fermilab /Los Alamos /Novosibirsk, IYF /CERN

    2008-02-01

    Applying the space-charge forces of a low-energy electron beam can lead to a significant improvement of the beam-particle lifetime limit arising from the beam-beam interaction in a high-energy collider [1]. In this article we present the results of various beam experiments with 'electron lenses', novel instruments developed for the beam-beam compensation at the Tevatron, which collides 980-GeV proton and antiproton beams. We study the dependencies of the particle betatron tunes on the electron beam current, energy and position; we explore the effects of electron-beam imperfections and noises; and we quantify the improvements of the high-energy beam intensity and the collider luminosity lifetime obtained by the action of the Tevatron Electron Lenses.

  15. Experimental studies of compensation of beam beam effects with Tevatron electron lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiltsev, V.; Alexahin, Y.; Bishofberger, K.; Kamerdzhiev, V.; Parkhomchuk, V.; Reva, V.; Solyak, N.; Wildman, D.; Zhang, X.-L.; Zimmermann, F.

    2008-04-01

    Applying the space-charge forces of a low-energy electron beam can lead to a significant improvement of the beam-particle lifetime limit arising from the beam-beam interaction in a high-energy collider [1]. In this paper, we present the results of various beam experiments with 'electron lenses', novel instruments developed for the beam-beam compensation at the Tevatron, which collides 980 GeV proton and antiproton beams. We study the dependencies of the particle betatron tunes on the electron beam current, energy and position; we explore the effects of electron-beam imperfections and noises; and we quantify the improvements of the high-energy beam intensity and the collider luminosity lifetime obtained by the action of the Tevatron electron lenses.

  16. Comparison of electromagnetic and hadronic models generated using Geant 4 with antiproton dose measured in CERN

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli, Mohammad Bagher; Reiazi, Reza; Mohammadi, Mohammad Mehdi; Jabbari, Keyvan

    2015-01-01

    After proposing the idea of antiproton cancer treatment in 1984 many experiments were launched to investigate different aspects of physical and radiobiological properties of antiproton, which came from its annihilation reactions. One of these experiments has been done at the European Organization for Nuclear Research known as CERN using the antiproton decelerator. The ultimate goal of this experiment was to assess the dosimetric and radiobiological properties of beams of antiprotons in order to estimate the suitability of antiprotons for radiotherapy. One difficulty on this way was the unavailability of antiproton beam in CERN for a long time, so the verification of Monte Carlo codes to simulate antiproton depth dose could be useful. Among available simulation codes, Geant4 provides acceptable flexibility and extensibility, which progressively lead to the development of novel Geant4 applications in research domains, especially modeling the biological effects of ionizing radiation at the sub-cellular scale. In this study, the depth dose corresponding to CERN antiproton beam energy by Geant4 recruiting all the standard physics lists currently available and benchmarked for other use cases were calculated. Overall, none of the standard physics lists was able to draw the antiproton percentage depth dose. Although, with some models our results were promising, the Bragg peak level remained as the point of concern for our study. It is concluded that the Bertini model with high precision neutron tracking (QGSP_BERT_HP) is the best to match the experimental data though it is also the slowest model to simulate events among the physics lists. PMID:26170558

  17. Comparison of electromagnetic and hadronic models generated using Geant 4 with antiproton dose measured in CERN.

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, Mohammad Bagher; Reiazi, Reza; Mohammadi, Mohammad Mehdi; Jabbari, Keyvan

    2015-01-01

    After proposing the idea of antiproton cancer treatment in 1984 many experiments were launched to investigate different aspects of physical and radiobiological properties of antiproton, which came from its annihilation reactions. One of these experiments has been done at the European Organization for Nuclear Research known as CERN using the antiproton decelerator. The ultimate goal of this experiment was to assess the dosimetric and radiobiological properties of beams of antiprotons in order to estimate the suitability of antiprotons for radiotherapy. One difficulty on this way was the unavailability of antiproton beam in CERN for a long time, so the verification of Monte Carlo codes to simulate antiproton depth dose could be useful. Among available simulation codes, Geant4 provides acceptable flexibility and extensibility, which progressively lead to the development of novel Geant4 applications in research domains, especially modeling the biological effects of ionizing radiation at the sub-cellular scale. In this study, the depth dose corresponding to CERN antiproton beam energy by Geant4 recruiting all the standard physics lists currently available and benchmarked for other use cases were calculated. Overall, none of the standard physics lists was able to draw the antiproton percentage depth dose. Although, with some models our results were promising, the Bragg peak level remained as the point of concern for our study. It is concluded that the Bertini model with high precision neutron tracking (QGSP_BERT_HP) is the best to match the experimental data though it is also the slowest model to simulate events among the physics lists. PMID:26170558

  18. Finite element nonlinear random response of beams to acoustic and thermal loads applied simultaneously

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ruixi; Mei, Chuh

    1993-04-01

    A finite element formulation combined with the equivalent linearization technique and the normal mode method is developed for the study of nonlinear random response of beams subjected to simultaneously applied acoustic and thermal loads. Examples include thermally buckled random response of simply supported beam, clamped-clamped beam and simply supported-clamped beam. To compare and validate the present formulation, results are compared with the solutions from existing sequential load method, and significant difference has been found. Results by classical continuum solution and the solution of Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation are also derived and obtained for comparison.

  19. Applying the laser beam for reconstruction of the upper airway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukwa, Andrzej; Tulibacki, Marek P.; Wojtowicz, Piotr; Dudziec, Katarzyna; Oledzka, Iwona

    2000-11-01

    The authors present their own experience in restoration of the upper airway using a different source of high power laser. There are many patients with a stricture of the upper airway. One of the most common cause insufficiency of this is nosal polyps. Surgical treatment of polyps till now is not sufficiently effective. For this reason we work out a Nd:YAG laser applying technique that let us to reduce a hospitalization time with elongation of an asymptotic period of our patients. Nd:YAG energy we apply for conchoplasty benefiting of its profound coagulation as a distinctive role. This type of laser is very useful in removing of granulation tissue from different areas of the upper airway. Other applications of Nd:YAG laser in our hands is very useful for: coagulation of vessels in Kisselbach area, especially in Rendou-Osler's diseases, resection of the nosal Septo-turbinate adhesions, treatment of hemangiomas and small papillomas in nasal cavity, diminishing of the hypertrophied mucosa in the nasopharyngeal space as well as, reduction of the uvula and soft palate in OSAS patients. In our department we use a Nd:YAG for treatment of precancerous and early stages of cancer and for a palliation procedures in an advanced cancer infiltration in mouth, pharynx and laryngeal region. For treatment removing of cicatrix tissue in a larynx and trachea we use to use a Holm: YAG laser their very superficial penetration of tissues is used for a coagulation of small vessels too let us to resect it without bleeding from a bony and mucosa tissue, as a fragments maxillary sinus wall, nosal septum crest or spine with resection of the posterior pole of a turbinate. Both laser are conveyed by fiberoptic, to reach a pathological changes in many plans, places for this reason we are able to continuously work on a new its applications.

  20. The CERN SPS proton-antiproton collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Rudiger

    One of CERN's most ambitious and successful projects was the search for the intermediate bosons, W and Z [1]. The accelerator part of the project relied on a number of innovations in accelerator physics and technology. The invention of the method of stochastic cooling and the extension by many orders of magnitude beyond the initial proof of principle demonstration allowed the construction of the Antiproton Accumulator. Major modifications to the 26 GeV PS complex and the conversion of the 300 GeV SPS, which had just started up as an accelerator, to a pbar p collider were required. The SPS collider had to master the beam-beam effect far beyond limits reached before and had to function in a tight symbiosis with the UA1 and UA2 experiments.

  1. The Early Antiproton Work [Nobel Lecture

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Chamberlain, O.

    1959-12-15

    Early work on the antiproton, particularly that part which led to the first paper on the subject, is described. Conclusions that can be drawn purely from the existence of the antiproton are discussed. (W.D.M.)

  2. Experiments on Antiprotons: Antiproton-Nucleon Cross Sections

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Chamberlain, Owen; Keller, Donald V.; Mermond, Ronald; Segre, Emilio; Steiner, Herbert M.; Ypsilantis, Tom

    1957-07-22

    In this paper experiments are reported on annihilation and scattering of antiprotons in H{sub 2}O , D{sub 2}O, and O{sub 2}. From the data measured it is possible to obtain an antiproton-proton and an antiproton-deuteron cross section at 457 Mev (lab). Further analysis gives the p-p and p-n cross sections as 104 mb for the p-p reaction cross section and 113 mb for the p-n reaction cross section. The respective annihilation cross sections are 89 and 74 mb. The Glauber correction necessary in order to pass from the p-d to the p-n cross section by subtraction of the p-p cross section is unfortunately large and somewhat uncertain. The data are compared with the p-p and p-n cross sections and with other results on p-p collisions.

  3. Beam Transport with an Applied-B Diode with Magnetically Injected Anode Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D. J.; Lockner, T. R.

    1998-11-01

    Proton and nitrogen beams generated with a 10-cm-radius extractor diode on the 600kV, 40kA, 100ns RHEPP1 accelerator are observed with shadowboxes, witness plates and Faraday cups to optimize beam transport for IBEST. An active anode plasma was created by a 2μs-risetime B-field from a fast coil that induces an E-field to ionize a gas puff. A second gas puff neutralizes the space charge of the beam during transport through the applied-B-field in the diode. The effects of diagmagnetic motion on the accelerating equipotentals and space-charge blow up at the edges of the annular beam in the 1.5 cm AKG are investigated. Accelerating potentials with a 7-cm-radius convex curvature gave a proton beam energy at a 14-cm-diameter region 50 cm from the anode that is ~ 40% of the energy coupled to the diode. With nitrogen beams ~ 20% of the diode energy is transported to this region when a 10-cm-radius accelerating curvature is used. Studies of beam rotation show that the beam is emitted from plasma that crosses ~ 7 mm of the slow applied-B field in the AKG reducing the effective AKG to ~ 8 mm.

  4. Compression of Antiproton Clouds for Antihydrogen Trapping

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, G. B.; Bowe, P. D.; Hangst, J. S.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Charlton, M.; Jenkins, M. J.; Joergensen, L. V.; Madsen, N.; Werf, D. P. van der; Bray, C. C.; Chapman, S.; Fajans, J.; Povilus, A.; Wurtele, J. S.; Cesar, C. L.; Lambo, R.; Silveira, D. M.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.

    2008-05-23

    Control of the radial profile of trapped antiproton clouds is critical to trapping antihydrogen. We report the first detailed measurements of the radial manipulation of antiproton clouds, including areal density compressions by factors as large as ten, by manipulating spatially overlapped electron plasmas. We show detailed measurements of the near-axis antiproton radial profile and its relation to that of the electron plasma.

  5. ELENA antiproton facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartmann, Wolfgang; Belochitskii, Pavel; Breuker, Horst; Butin, François Carli, Christian; Eriksson, Tommy; Maury, Stephen; Oelert, Walter; Pasinelli, Sergio; Tranquille, Gerard

    The following sections are included: * Motivation to build ELENA * From initial ideas to machine project * Choice of ELENA extraction energy * ELENA layout and optics * ELENA cycle * Beam extraction and main machine parameters * Beam instrumentation * ELENA transfer lines * ELENA experimental areas * Conclusion * References

  6. Antiprotons in the Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nutter, Scott

    1999-10-01

    The HEAT (High Energy Antimatter Telescope) collaboration flew in May 1999 a balloon-borne instrument to measure the relative abundance of antiprotons and protons in the cosmic rays to kinetic energies of 30 GeV. The instrument uses a multiple energy loss technique to measure the Lorentz factor of through-going cosmic rays, a magnet spectrometer to measure momentum, and several scintillation counters to determine particle charge and direction (up or down in the atmosphere). The antiproton/proton abundance ratio as a function of energy is a probe of the propagation environment of protons through the galaxy. Existing measurements indicate a higher than expected value at both high and low energies. A confirming measurement could indicate peculiar antiproton sources, such as WIMPs or supersymmetric darkmatter candidates. A description of the instrument, details of the flight and instrument performance, and status of the data analysis will be given.

  7. Production and Collections of Antiprotons

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, V.

    2001-01-01

    The historical best antiproton yield obtained at the antiproton source is equal to 1.8 {center_dot} 10{sup -5}. That corresponds to the acceptance of about 17 mm {center_dot} mrad while the largest measured debuncher acceptance is about 25 mm {center_dot} mrad. It is expected that better debuncher tuning will increase the debuncher acceptance to about 35 mm {center_dot} mrad. Thus, improvements of optics and steering in the AP2 line and debuncher should allow an increase of antiproton yield by about 1.7 times to 3.1 {center_dot} 10{sup -5} for 35 mm {center_dot} mrad acceptance as shown in Figure 17. Although the maximum lithium lens gradient, which we can reliably achieve nowadays, is significantly below the optimum we should not expect significant increase of antiproton yield with lens upgrade. To reach the maximum antiproton yield with lens of the same length (15 cm) one would need to increase the lens gradient by 1.4 and 1.7 times correspondingly for 25 and 35 mm {center_dot} mrad acceptances. That corresponds to gradients of 105 and 127 kG/cm reaching of which is a challenging problem. And in spite of this significant increase of focusing strength that will bring only 13% and 16% antiproton yield increases corresponding to acceptances of 25 and 35 mm {center_dot} mrad. Minor improvement of about 3-4% can be achieved comparatively easy by lengthening of the lens by 20-30%.

  8. INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS (ICA) APPLIED TO LONG BUNCH BEAMS IN THE LOS ALAMOS PROTON STORAGE RING

    SciTech Connect

    Kolski, Jeffrey S.; Macek, Robert J.; McCrady, Rodney C.; Pang, Xiaoying

    2012-05-14

    Independent component analysis (ICA) is a powerful blind source separation (BSS) method. Compared to the typical BSS method, principal component analysis (PCA), which is the BSS foundation of the well known model independent analysis (MIA), ICA is more robust to noise, coupling, and nonlinearity. ICA of turn-by-turn beam position data has been used to measure the transverse betatron phase and amplitude functions, dispersion function, linear coupling, sextupole strength, and nonlinear beam dynamics. We apply ICA in a new way to slices along the bunch and discuss the source signals identified as betatron motion and longitudinal beam structure.

  9. Precision comparison of the g-factor of the proton and anti-proton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disciacca, Jack

    2013-05-01

    We report the first measurement of the antiproton magnetic moment using a single antiproton. The magnetic moment in nuclear magnetons is μp /μN = - 2 . 792845 +/- 0 . 000012 , a 4.4 parts per million (ppm) measurement. This represents a factor of 680 improvement in precision over previous work using exotic atom spectroscopy, which has achieved a 3000 ppm precision and remained essentially unchanged in the past 20 years., Our measurement allows for an improved comparison of the proton and antiproton magnetic moments, yielding a result consistent with the prediction of charge, parity and time reversal symmetry. Following a proof of principle, 2.5 ppm measurement of the proton magnetic moment, the experiment was moved to CERN for the antiproton experiment. Initial work focused on catching, cooling and trapping a single antiproton from the 5 MeV beam at CERN's Antiproton Decelerator. Following this work, we undertook a magnetic moment measurement. The spin and cyclotron frequency are measured to determine the g-factor, g / 2 =fs /fc . Prospects for further improvement should be possible with single spin flip detection, similar to what was used to measure the electron magnetic moment - currently the most precisely measured property of a fundamental particle. The new antiproton magnetic moment measurement is likely a first step towards improved precision by an additional factor of 103 or 104 improvement, with a precision at the part per billion level.,, A. Kreissl, et al., Z. Phys. C: Part. Fields 37, 557 (1988).

  10. New techniques for trapping antiprotons, positrons, and antihydrogen atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Yamazaki, Y.

    2005-10-26

    A large number of antiprotons have been accumulated, cooled, compressed, and extracted for the first time. This was accomplished combining the AD(Antiproton Decelerator), the RFQD (Radio Frequency Quadrupole Decelerator) and an MRT (Multi-Ring Trap) installed in a 2.5T solenoid. Some 1.2 x 106 antiprotons were stably stored per one AD shot, which was {approx}50 times better in the accumulation efficiency than conventional methods with thick degrader foils. The trapped antiprotons were then cooled by a preloaded electron plasma({approx} 108/cm3), radially compressed by a rotating electric field, and then extracted from the MRT as mono-energetic DC beams of 10-500eV. A similar system with much higher electron density({approx} 1011/cm3) has enabled a new positron accumulation, the efficiency of which is 360e+/s/mCi, some {approx}30 times better than previous UHV compatible schemes. With these ingredients, a cusp trap is under development, which could synthesize and at the same time trap spin-polarized antihydrogen atoms in their ground states.

  11. Enhancing trappable antiproton populations through deceleration and frictional cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Zolotorev, Max; Sessler, Andrew; Penn, Gregory; Wurtele, Jonathan S.; Charman, Andrew E.

    2012-03-20

    CERN currently delivers antiprotons for trapping experiments with the Antiproton Decelerator (AD), which slows the antiprotons down to about 5 MeV.This energy is currently too high for direct trapping, and thick foils are used to slow down the beam to energies which can be trapped.To allow further deceleration to $\\sim 100 \\;\\mbox{keV}$, CERN is initiating the construction of ELENA,consisting of a ring which will combine RF deceleration and electron cooling capabilities. We describe a simple frictionalcooling scheme that can serve to provide significantly improved trapping efficiency, either directly from the AD or first usinga standard deceleration mechanism (induction linac or RFQ). This scheme could be implemented in a short time.The device itself is short in length, uses accessible voltages, and at reasonable cost could serve in the interim beforeELENA becomes operational, or possibly in lieu of ELENA for some experiments. Simple theory and simulations provide a preliminary assessment of theconcept and its strengths and limitations, and highlight important areas for experimental studies, in particular to pin down the level of multiplescattering for low-energy antiprotons. We show that the frictional cooling scheme can provide a similar energy spectrum to that of ELENA,but with higher transverse emittances.

  12. Annihilation of Low Energy Antiprotons in Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Ovchinnikov, S.Yu.; Macek, J.H.

    2003-08-26

    The cross sections for annihilation of antiprotons in hydrogen are very important for designing the High-Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT). When antiprotons are trapped they undergo atomic reactions with background gases which remove them from the trap. First, antiprotons are captured into highly excited bound states by ejecting the bound electrons, then they are radiationally deexcited and, finally, they annihilate by nuclear interaction. An understanding of these process require reliable cross sections for low-energy collisions of antiprotons with atoms. We have developed a theoretical technique for accurate calculations of these cross sections.

  13. Doubly Strange Hypernuclei Physics with antiprotons at PANDA

    SciTech Connect

    Szymanska, K.; Iazzi, F.

    2010-04-26

    The study of the double hypernuclei will be possible inside the future facility FAIR. A new technique for their production was recently proposed, based on high intensity antiproton beams in connection with a two-target set-up, for the future PANDA experiment at HESR. In particular, the production technique and optimized parameters for the primary target where the hyperon XI{sup -} is produced as well as the expected rates for the stoped XI{sup -} will be discussed.

  14. Antiproton induced DNA damage: proton like in flight, carbon-ion like near rest.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, J N; Currell, F J; Timson, D J; Savage, K I; Richard, D J; McMahon, S J; Hartley, O; Cirrone, G A P; Romano, F; Prise, K M; Bassler, N; Holzscheiter, M H; Schettino, G

    2013-01-01

    Biological validation of new radiotherapy modalities is essential to understand their therapeutic potential. Antiprotons have been proposed for cancer therapy due to enhanced dose deposition provided by antiproton-nucleon annihilation. We assessed cellular DNA damage and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of a clinically relevant antiproton beam. Despite a modest LET (~19 keV/μm), antiproton spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) irradiation caused significant residual γ-H2AX foci compared to X-ray, proton and antiproton plateau irradiation. RBE of ~1.48 in the SOBP and ~1 in the plateau were measured and used for a qualitative effective dose curve comparison with proton and carbon-ions. Foci in the antiproton SOBP were larger and more structured compared to X-rays, protons and carbon-ions. This is likely due to overlapping particle tracks near the annihilation vertex, creating spatially correlated DNA lesions. No biological effects were observed at 28-42 mm away from the primary beam suggesting minimal risk from long-range secondary particles. PMID:23640660

  15. Segmented scintillation detectors with silicon photomultiplier readout for measuring antiproton annihilations.

    PubMed

    Sótér, A; Todoroki, K; Kobayashi, T; Barna, D; Horváth, D; Hori, M

    2014-02-01

    The Atomic Spectroscopy and Collisions Using Slow Antiprotons experiment at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) facility of CERN constructed segmented scintillators to detect and track the charged pions which emerge from antiproton annihilations in a future superconducting radiofrequency Paul trap for antiprotons. A system of 541 cast and extruded scintillator bars were arranged in 11 detector modules which provided a spatial resolution of 17 mm. Green wavelength-shifting fibers were embedded in the scintillators, and read out by silicon photomultipliers which had a sensitive area of 1 × 1 mm(2). The photoelectron yields of various scintillator configurations were measured using a negative pion beam of momentum p ≈ 1 GeV/c. Various fibers and silicon photomultipliers, fiber end terminations, and couplings between the fibers and scintillators were compared. The detectors were also tested using the antiproton beam of the AD. Nonlinear effects due to the saturation of the silicon photomultiplier were seen at high annihilation rates of the antiprotons. PMID:24593349

  16. Segmented scintillation detectors with silicon photomultiplier readout for measuring antiproton annihilations

    SciTech Connect

    Sótér, A.; Todoroki, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Barna, D.; Wigner Research Center of Physics, H-1525 Budapest ; Horváth, D.; Hori, M.; Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033

    2014-02-15

    The Atomic Spectroscopy and Collisions Using Slow Antiprotons experiment at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) facility of CERN constructed segmented scintillators to detect and track the charged pions which emerge from antiproton annihilations in a future superconducting radiofrequency Paul trap for antiprotons. A system of 541 cast and extruded scintillator bars were arranged in 11 detector modules which provided a spatial resolution of 17 mm. Green wavelength-shifting fibers were embedded in the scintillators, and read out by silicon photomultipliers which had a sensitive area of 1 × 1 mm{sup 2}. The photoelectron yields of various scintillator configurations were measured using a negative pion beam of momentum p ≈ 1 GeV/c. Various fibers and silicon photomultipliers, fiber end terminations, and couplings between the fibers and scintillators were compared. The detectors were also tested using the antiproton beam of the AD. Nonlinear effects due to the saturation of the silicon photomultiplier were seen at high annihilation rates of the antiprotons.

  17. Antiproton induced DNA damage: proton like in flight, carbon-ion like near rest

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, J. N.; Currell, F. J.; Timson, D. J.; Savage, K. I.; Richard, D. J.; McMahon, S. J.; Hartley, O.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Romano, F.; Prise, K. M.; Bassler, N.; Holzscheiter, M. H.; Schettino, G.

    2013-01-01

    Biological validation of new radiotherapy modalities is essential to understand their therapeutic potential. Antiprotons have been proposed for cancer therapy due to enhanced dose deposition provided by antiproton-nucleon annihilation. We assessed cellular DNA damage and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of a clinically relevant antiproton beam. Despite a modest LET (~19 keV/μm), antiproton spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) irradiation caused significant residual γ-H2AX foci compared to X-ray, proton and antiproton plateau irradiation. RBE of ~1.48 in the SOBP and ~1 in the plateau were measured and used for a qualitative effective dose curve comparison with proton and carbon-ions. Foci in the antiproton SOBP were larger and more structured compared to X-rays, protons and carbon-ions. This is likely due to overlapping particle tracks near the annihilation vertex, creating spatially correlated DNA lesions. No biological effects were observed at 28–42 mm away from the primary beam suggesting minimal risk from long-range secondary particles. PMID:23640660

  18. Antiproton induced DNA damage: proton like in flight, carbon-ion like near rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavanagh, J. N.; Currell, F. J.; Timson, D. J.; Savage, K. I.; Richard, D. J.; McMahon, S. J.; Hartley, O.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Romano, F.; Prise, K. M.; Bassler, N.; Holzscheiter, M. H.; Schettino, G.

    2013-05-01

    Biological validation of new radiotherapy modalities is essential to understand their therapeutic potential. Antiprotons have been proposed for cancer therapy due to enhanced dose deposition provided by antiproton-nucleon annihilation. We assessed cellular DNA damage and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of a clinically relevant antiproton beam. Despite a modest LET (~19 keV/μm), antiproton spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) irradiation caused significant residual γ-H2AX foci compared to X-ray, proton and antiproton plateau irradiation. RBE of ~1.48 in the SOBP and ~1 in the plateau were measured and used for a qualitative effective dose curve comparison with proton and carbon-ions. Foci in the antiproton SOBP were larger and more structured compared to X-rays, protons and carbon-ions. This is likely due to overlapping particle tracks near the annihilation vertex, creating spatially correlated DNA lesions. No biological effects were observed at 28-42 mm away from the primary beam suggesting minimal risk from long-range secondary particles.

  19. Review of the High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James J.; Lewis, Raymond A.; Pearson, J. Boise; Sims, W. Herb; Chakrabarti, Suman; Fant, Wallace E.; McDonald, Stan

    2003-01-01

    Many space propulsion concepts exist that use matter-antimatter reactions. Current antiproton production rates are enough to conduct proof-of-principle evaluation of these concepts. One enabling technology for such experiments is portable storage of low energy antiprotons, to transport antiprotons to experimental facilities. To address this need, HiPAT is being developed, with a design goal of containing 10(exp 12) particles for up to 18 days. HiPAT is a Penning-Malmberg trap with a 4 Tesla superconductor, 20kV electrodes, radio frequency (RF) network, and 10(exp -13) Torr vacuum. 'Normal' matter is being used to evaluate the system. An electron beam ionizes background gas in situ, and particle beams are captured dynamically. The experiment examines ion storage lifetimes, RF plasma diagnostics, charge exchange with background gases, and dynamic ion beam capture.

  20. Antiproton Production by CR on Air Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maskalenko, I. V.; Mashnik, S. G.

    2003-01-01

    Recent measurements of the cosmic ray (CR) antiproton flux have been shown to challenge existing CR propagation models. In particular, the conventional reacceleration model designed to match secondary/primary nuclei ratios produces too few antiprotons. Recently there appear some indications that the atmospheric contribution to antiproton production is considerably underestimated, which implies that antiproton CR flux might be lower. This may be the primary reason of the discrepancy discovered in CR propagation. We use the Los Alamos version of the Quark-Gluon String Model code LAQGSM together with available data on antiproton production on nuclei to analyse the accuracy of existing parameterizations of antiproton production cross section. The LAQGSM model has been shown to reproduce well nuclear reactions and hadronic data in the range 0.01-800 GeV/nucleon.

  1. Anitproton-matter interactions in antiproton applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, David L., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    By virtue of the highly energetic particles released when they annihilate in matter, antiprotons have a variety of potentially important applications. Among others, these include remote 3-D density and composition imaging of the human body and also of thick, dense materials, cancer therapy, and spacecraft propulsion. Except for spacecraft propulsion, the required numbers of low energy antiprotons can be produced, stored, and transported through reliance on current or near term technology. Paramount to these applications and to fundamental research involving antiprotons is knowledge of how antiprotons interact with matter. The basic annihilation process is fairly well understood, but the antiproton annihilation and energy loss rates in matter depend in complex ways on a number of atomic processes. The rates, and the corresponding cross sections, were measured or are accurately predictable only for limited combinations of antiproton kinetic energy and material species.

  2. Antiproton powered propulsion with magnetically confined plasma engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapointe, Michael R.

    1989-01-01

    The reaction of the matter-antimatter annihilation, with its specific energy being over 250 times the specific energy released in nuclear fusion, is considered as an energy source for spacecraft propulsion. A concept of a magnetically confined pulsed plasma engine is described. In this concept, antiproton beams are injected axially into a pulsed magnetic mirror system, where they annihilate with an initially neutral hydrogen gas; the resulting charge annihilation products transfer energy to the hydrogen propellant, which is then exhausted through one end of the pulsed mirror system to provide thrust. Numerical simulations were developed to calculate the annihilation rate of antiprotons in hydrogen and to follow the resulting ion, muon, and electron/positron number density evolutions.

  3. Antiproton powered propulsion with magnetically confined plasma engines

    SciTech Connect

    Lapointe, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    The reaction of the matter-antimatter annihilation, with its specific energy being over 250 times the specific energy released in nuclear fusion, is considered as an energy source for spacecraft propulsion. A concept of a magnetically confined pulsed plasma engine is described. In this concept, antiproton beams are injected axially into a pulsed magnetic mirror system, where they annihilate with an initially neutral hydrogen gas; the resulting charge annihilation products transfer energy to the hydrogen propellant, which is then exhausted through one end of the pulsed mirror system to provide thrust. Numerical simulations were developed to calculate the annihilation rate of antiprotons in hydrogen and to follow the resulting ion, muon, and electron/positron number density evolutions. 22 refs.

  4. Applied-B ion diode experiments on the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator-I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreike, P. L.; Burns, E. J. T.; Slutz, S. A.; Crow, J. T.; Johnson, D. J.; Johnson, P. R.; Leeper, R. J.; Miller, P. A.; Mix, L. P.; Seidel, D. B.; Wenger, D. F.

    1986-08-01

    A series of experiments was performed with an Applied-B ion diode on the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator-I, with peak voltage, current, and power of approximately 1.8 MV, 6 MA, and 6 TW, respectively. The purpose of these experiments was to explore issues of scaling of Applied-B diode operation from the sub-TW level on single module accelerators to the multi-TW level on a low impedance, self-magnetically insulated, multimodule accelerator. This is an essential step in the development of the 100-TW level light ion beam driver required for inertial confinement fusion. The accelerator and the diode are viewed as a whole because the power pulse delivered by the 36 imperfectly synchronized magnetically insulated transmission lines to the single diode affects module addition, diode operation, and ion beam focusability. We studied electrical coupling between the accelerator and the diode, power flow symmetry, the ionic composition of the beam, and the focusability of the proton component of the beam. Scaling of the diode impedance behavior and beam quality with electrical drive power is obtained from comparison with lower-power experiments. The diode impedance lifetime was about 10 ns, several times shorter than for lower-power experiments. Azimuthal and top-to-bottom variations of the diode and ion currents were found to be approximately ±10%, compared with an estimated requirement of 5%-7% uniformity to avoid focal blurring by self-magnetic field effects. The ion production efficiency was 80%-90%. However, only 50%±10% of the ion current was carried by protons; the balance was carried by multiply charged carbon and oxygen ions. Activation measurements showed a proton beam energy of approximately 50 kJ. A gas cell filled with 5 Torr of argon was used for beam transport. The macroscopic divergence was 15±10 mrad and the microscopic divergence was 20±15 mrad, values that are similar to those from lower-power experiments. A model of beam focusing is formulated that

  5. Utility Monitoring for the Antiproton Source

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, D.

    1984-06-11

    The purpose of the utility portion of the FIRUS system is to alert humans in the main control room, at Phillips farm, and in building 10 control room when either environmental conditions are unhealthy for antiproton source devices, or electrical or mechanical equipment is malfunctioning. When first envisioned, the FIRUS system consisted of the following equipment: (1) 2 FIRUS mini-computers (wall mounted, 1 fire, 1 utility); (2) emergency power supply (also wall mounted); (3) coax hardline communication cable; (4) Junction boxes; (5) contact points and analog transducers; (6) three-pair 18 gage shielded cable; and (7) silent printer. Each mini can monitor 16 contact points or 15 analog points or a combination of contact and analog points. Each contact point can be more than one physical point if the points are wired in series. An alarm then indicates anyone of a group of points has opened. The following devices/quantities are proposed to be monitored by the utility portion of the FIRUS system: (1) sump pumps; (2) LCW (Low Conductivity Water); (3) auxiliary generator; (4) service building temperatures; (5) stub room/tunnel temperature; and (6) stub room/tunnel humidity. After the number of quantities to be monitored (see table I) was determined, it was found that two or three minis would be required, or a FIRUS crate could be used. A FIRUS crate is an 'old beam transfer crate' with 25 slots which hold cards to either monitor 16 contact points or 15 analog points. The space requirement for the crate system is about half a relay rack. The emergency power supply could remain wall mounted, or it could be rack mounted with the firus crate. Conversations with Al Franck and Rich Mahler concerning availability, expandability, cabling, and cost indicate that the FIRUS crate is the preperable option for the antiproton source.

  6. Status of the Antiproton Decelerator: AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, S.; Berlin, D.; Boillot, J.; Bosser, J.; Brouet, M.; Buttkus, J.; Caspers, F.; Chohan, V.; Dekkers, D.; Eriksson, T.; Garoby, R.; Giannini, R.; Grobner, O.; Gruber, J.; Hémery, J. Y.; Koziol, H.; Maccaferri, R.; Maury, S.; Metzger, C.; Metzmacher, K.; Möhl, D.; Mulder, H.; Paoluzzi, M.; Pedersen, F.; Riunaud, J. P.; Serre, C.; Simon, D. J.; Tranquille, G.; Tuyn, J.; Williams, B.; Muary, S.

    1997-06-01

    A simplified scheme for the provision of antiprotons at 100 MeV/c in fast extraction is described. The scheme uses the existing p¯ production target area and the modified Antiproton Collector Ring in their current location. Some modifications necessary to deliver batches of 1 × 10 7 antiprotons every minute at 100 MeV/c are described, details of the machine layout and the experimental area in the existing AAC Hall are given.

  7. Antiproton Cooling in the Fermilab Recycler Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaitsev, S.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Burov, A.; Carlson, K.; Gattuso, C.; Hu, M.; Kramper, B.; Kroc, T.; Leibfritz, J.; Prost, L.; Pruss, S.; Saewert, G.; Schmidt, C. W.; Shemyakin, A.; Sutherland, M.; Tupikov, V.; Warner, A.; Bolshakov, A.; Zenkevich, P.; Kazakevich, G.

    2006-03-20

    The 8.9-GeV/c Recycler antiproton storage ring is equipped with both stochastic and electron cooling systems. These cooling systems are designed to assist accumulation of antiprotons for the Tevatron collider operations. In this paper we report on an experimental demonstration of electron cooling of high-energy antiprotons. At the time of writing this report, the Recycler electron cooling system is routinely used in collider operations. It has helped to set recent peak luminosity records.

  8. Antiproton cooling in the Fermilab Recycler Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaitsev, S.; Bolshakov, A.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Burov, Alexey V.; Carlson, K.; Gattuso, C.; Hu, M.; Kazakevich, G.; Kramper, B.; Kroc, T.; Leibfritz, J.; Prost, L.; Pruss, S.; Saewert, G; Schmidt, C.W.; Seletskiy, S.; Shemyakin, A.; Sutherland, M.; Tupikov, V.; Warner, A.; Zenkevich, P.; /Fermilab /Moscow, ITEP /Novosibirsk, IYF /Rochester U.

    2005-12-01

    The 8.9-GeV/c Recycler antiproton storage ring is equipped with both stochastic and electron cooling systems. These cooling systems are designed to assist accumulation of antiprotons for the Tevatron collider operations. In this paper we report on an experimental demonstration of electron cooling of high-energy antiprotons. At the time of writing this report, the Recycler electron cooling system is routinely used in collider operations. It has helped to set recent peak luminosity records.

  9. Applying a polynomial formula to photon beam output and equivalent square field.

    PubMed

    Chen, F S

    1990-01-01

    The polynomial formula proposed by Chen [Med. Phys. 15, 348 (1988)] in calculating the electron beam output from a Therac 20 linear accelerator has been applied to generating the output factor of various machines with photon energies ranging from 100 kVp to 18 MeV. The calculated outputs are within 1% of the measured values. This formula can be very useful to the physicist in preparing an output table of photon beams or electron beams for a therapeutic unit. An equation is derived from this formula to calculate the equivalent square. The derivation shows that only under special circumstances is the equivalent square field equivalent to 2ab/(a + b); otherwise the equivalent square field depends on the formula's parameters as well as the sides of the rectangular field. These parameters, in turn, are dependent on the photon energy, the medium irradiated, and the collimator design. PMID:2117228

  10. Galactic cosmic ray antiprotons and supersymmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Walsh, T.; Rudaz, S.

    1985-01-01

    The physics of the annihilation of photinos is considered as a function of mass in detail, in order to obtain the energy spectra of the cosmic ray antiprotons produced under the assumption that photinos make up the missing mass in the galactic halo. The modulated spectrum is at 1 a.w. with the cosmic ray antiprotons data. A very intriguing fit is obtained to all of the present antiprotons up to 13.4 GeV data for similar to 15 GeV. A cutoff is predicted in the antiprotons spectrum at E = photino mass above which only a small flux from secondary production should remain.

  11. Antiproton limits on decaying gravitino dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Delahaye, Timur; Grefe, Michael E-mail: michael.grefe@uam.es

    2013-12-01

    We derive 95 % CL lower limits on the lifetime of decaying dark matter in the channels Zν, Wℓ and hν using measurements of the cosmic-ray antiproton flux by the PAMELA experiment. Performing a scan over the allowed range of cosmic-ray propagation parameters we find lifetime limits in the range of 8 × 10{sup 28} s to 5 × 10{sup 25} s for dark matter masses from roughly 100 GeV to 10 TeV. We apply these limits to the well-motivated case of gravitino dark matter in scenarios with bilinear violation of R-parity and find a similar range of lifetime limits for the same range of gravitino masses. Converting the lifetime limits to constraints on the size of the R-parity violating coupling we find upper limits in the range of 10{sup −8} to 8 × 10{sup −13}.

  12. Tevatron beam-beam compensation project progress

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, V.; Zhang, X.L.; Kuznetsov, G.; Pfeffer, H.; Saewert, G.; Zimmermann, F.; Tiunov, M.; Bishofberger, K.; Bogdanov, I.; Kashtanov, E.; Kozub, S.; Sytnik, V.; Tkachenko, L.; /Serpukhov, IHEP

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, we report the progress of the Tevatron Beam-Beam Compensation (BBC) project [1]. Electron beam induced proton and antiproton tuneshifts have been reported in [2], suppression of an antiproton emittance growth has been observed, too [1]. Currently, the first electron lens (TEL1) is in operational use as the Tevatron DC beam cleaner. We have made a lot of the upgrades to improve its stability [3]. The 2nd Tevatron electron lens (TEL2) is under the final phase of development and preparation for installation in the Tevatron.

  13. Overview of the High Performance Antiproton (HiPAT) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James J.; Sims, William H.; Chakrabarti, Suman; Pearson, Boise; Fant, Wallace E.; Lewis, Raymond A.; Rodgers, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The annihilation of matter with antimatter represents the highest energy density of any known reaction, producing 10(exp 8) MJ/g, approximately 10 orders of magnitude more energy per unit mass than chemical based combustion. To take the first step towards using this energy for propulsion applications the NASA MSFC Propulsion Research Center (PRC) has initiated a research activity examining the storage of low energy antiprotons. Storage was identified as a key enabling technology since it builds the experience base necessary to understand the handling of antiprotons for virtually all utilization and high-density storage concepts. To address this need, a device referred to as the High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT) is under development at the NASA MSFC PRC. The HiPAT is an electromagnetic system (Penning-Malmberg design) consisting of a 4 Tesla superconductor, a high voltage confinement electrode system (operation up to 20 KV), and an ultra high vacuum test section (operating in the 10(exp -12) torr range). The system was designed to be portable with an ultimate goal of maintaining 10(exp 12) charged particles with a half-life of 18 days. Currently, this system is being experimentally evaluated using normal matter ions which are cheap to produce and relatively easy to handle. These normal ions provide a good indication of overall trap behavior, with the exception of assessing annihilation losses. The ions are produced external to HiPAT using two hydrogen ion sources, with adjustable beam energy and current. Ion are transported in a beam line and controlled through the use of electrostatic optics. These optics serve to both focus and gate the incoming ions, providing microsecond-timed pulses that are dynamically captured by cycling the HiPAT electric containment field like a 'trap door'. The layout of this system more closely simulates the operations expected at an actual antiproton production facility where 'packets' of antiprotons with pulse widths measured in

  14. On the Utility of Antiprotons as Drivers for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, L J; Orth, C D; Tabak, M

    2003-10-20

    By contrast to the large mass, complexity and recirculating power of conventional drivers for inertial confinement fusion (ICF), antiproton annihilation offers a specific energy of 90MJ/{micro}g and thus a unique form of energy packaging and delivery. In principle, antiproton drivers could provide a profound reduction in system mass for advanced space propulsion by ICF. We examine the physics underlying the use of antiprotons ({bar p}) to drive various classes of high-yield ICF targets by the methods of volumetric ignition, hotspot ignition and fast ignition. The useable fraction of annihilation deposition energy is determined for both {bar p}-driven ablative compression and {bar p}-driven fast ignition, in association with 0-D and 1-D target burn models. Thereby, we deduce scaling laws for the number of injected antiprotons required per capsule, together with timing and focal spot requirements. The kinetic energy of the injected antiproton beam required to penetrate to the desired annihilation point is always small relative to the deposited annihilation energy. We show that heavy metal seeding of the fuel and/or ablator is required to optimize local deposition of annihilation energy and determine that a minimum of {approx}3x10{sup 15} injected antiprotons will be required to achieve high yield (several hundred megajoules) in any target configuration. Target gains - i.e., fusion yields divided by the available p - {bar p} annihilation energy from the injected antiprotons (1.88GeV/{bar p}) - range from {approx}3 for volumetric ignition targets to {approx}600 for fast ignition targets. Antiproton-driven ICF is a speculative concept, and the handling of antiprotons and their required injection precision - temporally and spatially - will present significant technical challenges. The storage and manipulation of low-energy antiprotons, particularly in the form of antihydrogen, is a science in its infancy and a large scale-up of antiproton production over present supply

  15. The low energy atmospheric antiproton albedo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, J. B.; Ormes, J. F.

    1989-01-01

    The flux of albedo antiprotons in the 100-1000 MeV kinetic energy range produced by the cosmic ray primaries in the atmosphere is calculated. It is shown that this is not a significant background to measurements of the low energy anti-proton cosmic ray flux.

  16. Antiproton powered propulsion with magnetically confined plasma engines

    SciTech Connect

    Lapointe, M.R.

    1989-08-01

    Matter-antimatter annihilation releases more energy per unit mass than any other method of energy production, making it an attractive energy source for spacecraft propulsion. In the magnetically confined plasma engine, antiproton beams are injected axially into a pulsed magnetic mirror system, where they annihilate with an initially neutral hydrogen gas. The resulting charged annihilation products transfer energy to the hydrogen propellant, which is then exhausted through one end of the pulsed mirror system to provide thrust. The calculated energy transfer efficiencies for a low number density (10(14)/cu cm) hydrogen propellant are insufficient to warrant operating the engine in this mode. Efficiencies are improved using moderate propellant number densities (10(16)/cu cm), but the energy transferred to the plasma in a realistic magnetic mirror system is generally limited to less than 2 percent of the initial proton-antiproton annihilation energy. The energy transfer efficiencies are highest for high number density (10(18)/cu cm) propellants, but plasma temperatures are reduced by excessive radiation losses. Low to moderate thrust over a wide range of specific impulse can be generated with moderate propellant number densities, while higher thrust but lower specific impulse may be generated using high propellant number densities. Significant mass will be required to shield the superconducting magnet coils from the high energy gamma radiation emitted by neutral pion decay. The mass of such a radiation shield may dominate the total engine mass, and could severely diminish the performance of antiproton powered engines which utilize magnetic confinement. The problem is compounded in the antiproton powered plasma engine, where lower energy plasma bremsstrahlung radiation may cause shield surface ablation and degradation.

  17. Antiproton powered propulsion with magnetically confined plasma engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapointe, Michael R.

    1989-01-01

    Matter-antimatter annihilation releases more energy per unit mass than any other method of energy production, making it an attractive energy source for spacecraft propulsion. In the magnetically confined plasma engine, antiproton beams are injected axially into a pulsed magnetic mirror system, where they annihilate with an initially neutral hydrogen gas. The resulting charged annihilation products transfer energy to the hydrogen propellant, which is then exhausted through one end of the pulsed mirror system to provide thrust. The calculated energy transfer efficiencies for a low number density (10(14)/cu cm) hydrogen propellant are insufficient to warrant operating the engine in this mode. Efficiencies are improved using moderate propellant number densities (10(16)/cu cm), but the energy transferred to the plasma in a realistic magnetic mirror system is generally limited to less than 2 percent of the initial proton-antiproton annihilation energy. The energy transfer efficiencies are highest for high number density (10(18)/cu cm) propellants, but plasma temperatures are reduced by excessive radiation losses. Low to moderate thrust over a wide range of specific impulse can be generated with moderate propellant number densities, while higher thrust but lower specific impulse may be generated using high propellant number densities. Significant mass will be required to shield the superconducting magnet coils from the high energy gamma radiation emitted by neutral pion decay. The mass of such a radiation shield may dominate the total engine mass, and could severely diminish the performance of antiproton powered engines which utilize magnetic confinement. The problem is compounded in the antiproton powered plasma engine, where lower energy plasma bremsstrahlung radiation may cause shield surface ablation and degradation.

  18. Interaction of antiprotons with nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrtánková, Jaroslava; Mareš, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    We performed fully self-consistent calculations of p bar -nuclear bound states using a complex p bar -nucleus potential accounting for p bar -atom data. While the real part of the potential is constructed within the relativistic mean-field (RMF) model, the p bar annihilation in the nuclear medium is described by a phenomenological optical potential. We confirm large polarization effects of the nuclear core caused by the presence of the antiproton. The p bar annihilation is treated dynamically, taking into account explicitly the reduced phase space for annihilation from deeply bound states as well as the compressed nuclear density due to the antiproton. The energy available for the products of p bar annihilation in the nuclear medium is evaluated self-consistently, considering the additional energy shift due to transformation from the p bar N system to p bar -nucleus system. Corresponding p bar widths in the medium are significantly suppressed, however, they still remain considerable for the p bar potential consistent with experimental data.

  19. Longitudinal momentum mining of antiprotons at the Fermilab Recycler: past, present and future

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, C.M.; Chase, B.E.; Gattuso, C.; Joireman, P.W.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The technique of longitudinal momentum mining (LMM)[1] in the Fermilab Recycler was adopted in early 2005 to extract thirty-six equal intensity and equal 6D-emittance antiproton bunches for proton-antiproton collider operation in the Tevatron. Since that time, several improvements have been made in the Recycler and the mining technique to handle higher intensity beams. Consequently, the Recycler has become a key contributor to the increased luminosity performance observed during Tevatron Run IIb. In this paper, we present an overview of the improvements and the current status of the momentum mining technique.

  20. Operating Procedure Changes to Improve Antiproton Production at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Drendel, B.; Morgan, J.P.; Vander Meulen, D.; /Fermilab

    2009-04-01

    Since the start of Fermilab Collider Run II in 2001, the maximum weekly antiproton accumulation rate has increased from 400 x 10{sup 10} Pbars/week to approximately 3,700 x 10{sup 10} Pbars/week. There are many factors contributing to this increase, one of which involves changes to operational procedures that have streamlined and automated Antiproton Source production. Automation has been added to the beam line orbit control, stochastic cooling power level management, and RF settings. In addition, daily tuning efforts have been streamlined by implementing sequencer driven tuning software.

  1. Secondary antiproton production in relativistic plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dermer, C. D.; Ramaty, R.

    1985-01-01

    The possibility is investigated that the reported excess low energy antiproton component of the cosmic radiation results from proton-proton (p-p) interactions in relativistic plasmas. Because of both target and projectile motion in such plasmas, the antiproton production threshold in the frame of the plasma is much lower than the threshold of antiproton production in cosmic ray interactions with ambient matter. The spectrum of the resultant antiprotons therefore extends to much lower energy than in the cosmic ray case. The antiproton spectrum is calculated for relativistic thermal plasmas and the spectrum is estimated for relativistic nonthermal plasmas. As possible production sites, matter accreting onto compact objects located in the galaxy is considered. Possible overproduction of gamma rays from associated neutral pion production can be avoided if the site is optically thick to the photons but not to the antiprotons. A possible scenario involves a sufficiently large photon density that the neutral pion gamma rays are absorbed by photon-photon pair production. Escape of the antiprotons to the interstellar medium can be mediated by antineutron production.

  2. Bouncing and dynamic trapping of a bistable curved micro beam actuated by a suddenly applied electrostatic force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Lior; Gilat, Rivka; Krylov, Slava

    2016-07-01

    In this work, the results of numerical investigations of the transient dynamics of a stress-free initially curved bistable double clamped micro beam actuated by a suddenly applied electrostatic force are presented. The analysis is based on a reduced order (RO) model derived through the Galerkin decomposition. Two beam configurations and two corresponding loading scenarios are considered. In the first case, the beam, which manifests two stable equilibria both accessible under quasi-static loading, is subjected to a suddenly applied (step function) voltage. Under such a signal, the beam may snap into the second stable configuration or bounce back to its initial position. We map the regions of the various types of response on the actuation voltage - quality factor plane. In the second case, the configuration of the beam is such that the second equilibrium is inaccessible neither under quasi static loading nor under a suddenly applied load. However, it is attainable by means of a specially tailored dynamic actuation, for example, by a two step voltage signal that is considered here. For this case, we map the conditions allowing the trapping of the beam in the second stable state, depending on the properties of the signal and the level of damping. We also demonstrate that trapping the dynamically bistable beam at a stable state located in the close proximity to the electrode may result in much more efficient gap usage than in the case of statically bistable beam or of an initially straight beam.

  3. Cosmic ray antiprotons in closed galaxy model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Protheroe, R.

    1981-01-01

    The flux of secondary antiprotons expected for the leaky-box model was calculated as well as that for the closed galaxy model of Peters and Westergard (1977). The antiproton/proton ratio observed at several GeV is a factor of 4 higher than the prediction for the leaky-box model but is consistent with that predicted for the closed galaxy model. New low energy data is not consistent with either model. The possibility of a primary antiproton component is discussed.

  4. Phase and synchronous detector theory as applied to beam position and intensity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, J.D.

    1995-05-01

    A popular signal processing technique for beam position measurements uses the principle of amplitude-to-phase (AM/PM) conversion and phase detection. This technique processes position-sensitive beam-image-current probe-signals into output signals that are proportional to the beam`s position. These same probe signals may be summed and processed in a different fashion to provide output signals that are proportional to the peak beam current which is typically referred to as beam intensity. This paper derives the transfer functions for the AM/PM beam position and peak beam current processors.

  5. Evaluation on Geant4 Hadronic Models for Pion Minus, Pion Plus and Neutron Particles as Major Antiproton Annihilation Products

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli, Mohammad Bagher; Mohammadi, Mohammad Mehdi; Reiazi, Reza; Jabbari, Keyvan

    2015-01-01

    Geant4 is an open source simulation toolkit based on C++, which its advantages progressively lead to applications in research domains especially modeling the biological effects of ionizing radiation at the sub-cellular scale. However, it was shown that Geant4 does not give a reasonable result in the prediction of antiproton dose especially in Bragg peak. One of the reasons could be lack of reliable physic model to predict the final states of annihilation products like pions. Considering the fact that most of the antiproton deposited dose is resulted from high-LET nuclear fragments following pion interaction in surrounding nucleons, we reproduced depth dose curves of most probable energy range of pions and neutron particle using Geant4. We consider this work one of the steps to understand the origin of the error and finally verification of Geant4 for antiproton tracking. Geant4 toolkit version 9.4.6.p01 and Fluka version 2006.3 were used to reproduce the depth dose curves of 220 MeV pions (both negative and positive) and 70 MeV neutrons. The geometry applied in the simulations consist a 20 × 20 × 20 cm3 water tank, similar to that used in CERN for antiproton relative dose measurements. Different physic lists including Quark-Gluon String Precompound (QGSP)_Binary Cascade (BIC)_HP, the recommended setting for hadron therapy, were used. In the case of pions, Geant4 resulted in at least 5% dose discrepancy between different physic lists at depth close to the entrance point. Even up to 15% discrepancy was found in some cases like QBBC compared to QGSP_BIC_HP. A significant difference was observed in dose profiles of different Geant4 physic list at small depths for a beam of pions. In the case of neutrons, large dose discrepancy was observed when LHEP or LHEP_EMV lists were applied. The magnitude of this dose discrepancy could be even 50% greater than the dose calculated by LHEP (or LHEP_EMV) at larger depths. We found that effect different Geant4 physic list in

  6. Evaluation on Geant4 Hadronic Models for Pion Minus, Pion Plus and Neutron Particles as Major Antiproton Annihilation Products.

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, Mohammad Bagher; Mohammadi, Mohammad Mehdi; Reiazi, Reza; Jabbari, Keyvan

    2015-01-01

    Geant4 is an open source simulation toolkit based on C++, which its advantages progressively lead to applications in research domains especially modeling the biological effects of ionizing radiation at the sub-cellular scale. However, it was shown that Geant4 does not give a reasonable result in the prediction of antiproton dose especially in Bragg peak. One of the reasons could be lack of reliable physic model to predict the final states of annihilation products like pions. Considering the fact that most of the antiproton deposited dose is resulted from high-LET nuclear fragments following pion interaction in surrounding nucleons, we reproduced depth dose curves of most probable energy range of pions and neutron particle using Geant4. We consider this work one of the steps to understand the origin of the error and finally verification of Geant4 for antiproton tracking. Geant4 toolkit version 9.4.6.p01 and Fluka version 2006.3 were used to reproduce the depth dose curves of 220 MeV pions (both negative and positive) and 70 MeV neutrons. The geometry applied in the simulations consist a 20 × 20 × 20 cm(3) water tank, similar to that used in CERN for antiproton relative dose measurements. Different physic lists including Quark-Gluon String Precompound (QGSP)_Binary Cascade (BIC)_HP, the recommended setting for hadron therapy, were used. In the case of pions, Geant4 resulted in at least 5% dose discrepancy between different physic lists at depth close to the entrance point. Even up to 15% discrepancy was found in some cases like QBBC compared to QGSP_BIC_HP. A significant difference was observed in dose profiles of different Geant4 physic list at small depths for a beam of pions. In the case of neutrons, large dose discrepancy was observed when LHEP or LHEP_EMV lists were applied. The magnitude of this dose discrepancy could be even 50% greater than the dose calculated by LHEP (or LHEP_EMV) at larger depths. We found that effect different Geant4 physic list in

  7. Evaporative cooling of antiprotons for the production of trappable antihydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Silveira, D. M.; Cesar, C. L.; Andresen, G. B.; Bowe, P. D.; Hangst, J. S.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Hayden, M. E.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Chapman, S.; Fajans, J.; Povilus, A.; So, C.; Wurtele, J. S.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Charlton, M.; Madsen, N.; Werf, D. P. van der; Friesen, T.; Hydomako, R.; and others

    2013-03-19

    We describe the implementation of evaporative cooling of charged particles in the ALPHA apparatus. Forced evaporation has been applied to cold samples of antiprotons held in Malmberg-Penning traps. Temperatures on the order of 10 K were obtained, while retaining a significant fraction of the initial number of particles. We have developed a model for the evaporation process based on simple rate equations and applied it succesfully to the experimental data. We have also observed radial re-distribution of the clouds following evaporation, explained by simple conservation laws. We discuss the relevance of this technique for the recent demonstration of magnetic trapping of antihydrogen.

  8. RF Stabilization for Storage of Antiprotons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, J. Boise; Lewis, Raymond A.

    2005-01-01

    Portable storage of antimatter is an important step in the experimental exploration of antimatter in propulsion applications. The High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is a Penning-Malmberg ion trap being developed to trap and store low energy antiprotons for a period of weeks. The antiprotons can then be transported for use in experiments. HiPAT is being developed and evaluated using normal matter, before an attempt is made to store and transport antiprotons. Stortd ions have inherent instabilities that limit the storage lifetime. RF stabilization at cyclotron resonance frequencies is demonstrated over a period of 6 days for normal matter ion clouds. A variety of particles have been stored, including protons, C+ ions, and H2+ ions. Cyclotron resonance frequencies are defined and experimental evidence presented to demonstrate excitation of cyclotron waves in the plasma for all three species of ions.

  9. Studying antiprotons from balloons and Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormes, J. F.; Balasubrahmanyan, V. K.; Streitmatter, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental measurements are proposed to determine the existence of cosmic antiprotons and to differentiate between various hypothetical origins for them. The balloon-borne experiment proposed by Balasubrahmanyan et al. (1983) for detecting 50-220-MeV antiprotons and measuring their energy distribution is described; the astrophysical significance of antiproton measurements is considered; the antiproton/proton ratios predicted by various cosmic-ray and exotic models are presented graphically; and the performance required of a Space Station superconducting-magnet detector for the 10-1000-GeV range is discussed. It is concluded that an instrument with 0.3-sq m sr geometry could distinguish (at a 5-sigma level) between hypotheses with spectral-exponent separation of 0.1 in observing time about 1 month, assuming a spectral exponent as steep as E to the -3rd.

  10. Antiproton catalyzed microfission/fusion propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, Pi-Ren; Lewis, Raymond A.; Smith, Gerald A.; Newton, Richard; Dailey, James; Werthman, W. Lance; Chakrabarti, Suman

    1994-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) utilizing an antiproton catalyzed hybrid fission/fusion target is discussed as a potential energy source for interplanetary propulsion. A proof-of-principle experiment underway at Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland AFB and antiproton trapping experiments at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland, are presented. The ICAN propulsion concept is described and results of performance analyses are reviewed. Future work to further define the ICAN concept is outlined.

  11. Modified Penning-Malmberg Trap for Storing Antiprotons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, William H.; Martin, James; Lewis, Raymond

    2005-01-01

    A modified Penning-Malmberg trap that could store a small cloud of antiprotons for a relatively long time (weeks) has been developed. This trap is intended for use in research on the feasibility of contemplated future matter/antimatter-annihilation systems as propulsion sources for spacecraft on long missions. This trap is also of interest in its own right as a means of storing and manipulating antiprotons for terrestrial scientific experimentation. The use of Penning-Malmberg traps to store antiprotons is not new. What is new here is the modified trap design, which utilizes state-of-the-art radiofrequency (RF) techniques, including ones that, heretofore, have been used in radio-communication applications but not in iontrap applications. A basic Penning-Malmberg trap includes an evacuated round tube that contains or is surrounded by three or more collinear tube electrodes. A steady axial magnetic field that reaches a maximum at the geometric center of the tube is applied by an external source, and DC bias voltages that give rise to an electrostatic potential that reaches a minimum at the center are applied to the electrodes. The combination of electric and magnetic fields confines the charged particles (ions or electrons) for which it was designed to a prolate spheroidal central region. However, geometric misalignments and the diffusive cooling process prevent the steady fields of a basic Penning- Malmberg trap from confining the particles indefinitely. In the modified Penning-Malmberg trap, the loss of antiprotons is reduced or eliminated by use of a "rotating-wall" RF stabilization scheme that also heats the antiproton cloud to minimize loss by matter/antimatter annihilation. The scheme involves the superposition of a quadrupole electric field that rotates about the cylindrical axis at a suitably chosen radio frequency. The modified Penning-Malmberg trap (see Figure 1) includes several collinear sets of electrodes inside a tubular vacuum chamber. Each set

  12. Laser and electron beams physical analyses applied to the comparison between two silver tetradrachm greek coins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrisi, L.; Mondio, G.; Mezzasalma, A. M.; Margarone, D.; Caridi, F.; Serafino, T.; Torrisi, A.

    2009-08-01

    Physical analyses by laser ablation coupled to mass quadrupole spectrometry (LAMQS), energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDX) induced by electron beam, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and surface profilometry analysis (SPA) are applied to the investigation of two silver tetradrachms from Messana, in order to compare their elemental composition and structure. Quantitative analysis of the elemental composition and of the silver isotopic ratios have been carried out analyzing the surface patina of the two samples. Significant differences in the sulfur, chlorine and copper content, in the isotopic ratios and in the morphological aspects have been measured. The obtained results are presented and discussed from the point of view of the physical techniques useful to establish the differences between apparently true and false coins.

  13. Evidence For The Production Of Slow Antiprotonic Hydrogen In Vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Zurlo, N.; Rizzini, E. Lodi; Venturelli, L.; Amoretti, M.; Macri, M.; Testera, G.; Variola, A.; Amsler, C.; Pruys, H.; Regenfus, C.; Bonomi, G.; Carraro, C.; Lagomarsino, V.; Manuzio, G.; Cesar, C. L.; Charlton, M.; Joergensen, L. V.; Madsen, N.; Mitchard, D.; Werf, D. P. van der

    2006-10-13

    We present evidence showing how antiprotonic hydrogen, the quasistable antiproton (p)-proton bound system, has been synthesized following the interaction of antiprotons with the molecular ion H{sub 2}{sup +} in a nested Penning trap environment. From a careful analysis of the spatial distributions of antiproton annihilation events, evidence is presented for antiprotonic hydrogen production with sub-eV kinetic energies in states around n=70, and with low angular momenta. The slow antiprotonic hydrogen may be studied using laser spectroscopic techniques.

  14. Evidence for the production of slow antiprotonic hydrogen in vacuum.

    PubMed

    Zurlo, N; Amoretti, M; Amsler, C; Bonomi, G; Carraro, C; Cesar, C L; Charlton, M; Doser, M; Fontana, A; Funakoshi, R; Genova, P; Hayano, R S; Jørgensen, L V; Kellerbauer, A; Lagomarsino, V; Landua, R; Rizzini, E Lodi; Macrì, M; Madsen, N; Manuzio, G; Mitchard, D; Montagna, P; Posada, L G; Pruys, H; Regenfus, C; Rotondi, A; Testera, G; Van der Werf, D P; Variola, A; Venturelli, L; Yamazaki, Y

    2006-10-13

    We present evidence showing how antiprotonic hydrogen, the quasistable antiproton (p)-proton bound system, has been synthesized following the interaction of antiprotons with the molecular ion H2+ in a nested Penning trap environment. From a careful analysis of the spatial distributions of antiproton annihilation events, evidence is presented for antiprotonic hydrogen production with sub-eV kinetic energies in states around n=70, and with low angular momenta. The slow antiprotonic hydrogen may be studied using laser spectroscopic techniques. PMID:17155325

  15. Transport from the Recycler Ring to the Antiproton Source Beamlines

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, M.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-14

    In the post-NOvA era, the protons are directly transported from the Booster ring to the Recycler ring rather than the Main Injector. For Mu2e and g-2 project, the Debuncher ring will be modified into a Delivery ring to deliver the protons to both Mu2e and g-2 experiments. Therefore, it requires the transport of protons from the Recycler Ring to the Delivery ring. A new transfer line from the Recycler ring to the P1 beamline will be constructed to transport proton beam from the Recycler Ring to existing Antiproton Source beamlines. This new beamline provides a way to deliver 8 GeV kinetic energy protons from the Booster to the Delivery ring, via the Recycler, using existing beam transport lines, and without the need for new civil construction. This paper presents the Conceptual Design of this new beamline.

  16. Prototype of a test bench for applied research on Extracted beams of the nuclotron accelerator complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldin, A. A.; Berlev, A. I.; Bradnova, V.; Butenko, A. V.; Fedorov, A. N.; Kudashkin, I. V.

    2016-05-01

    The results of the development and testing of elements of a test bench for investigating the impact of accelerated particle beams on biological objects, electronics, and other targets are presented. The systems for beam monitoring and target positioning were tested on extracted argon beams in the framework of experiments on studying the radiation hardness of electronic components.

  17. Physics Results from the Antiproton Experiment (APEX) at Fermilab

    DOE Data Explorer

    APEX Collaboration

    Is Antimatter stable? The APEX experiment searches for the decay of antiprotons at the Fermilab Antiproton Accumulator. Observation of antiproton decay would indicate a violation of the CPT theorem, which is one of the most fundamental theorems of modern physics. The best laboratory limits on antiproton decay come from the APEX experiment which achieved a sensitivity to antiproton lifetimes up to of order 700,000 years for the most sensitive decay modes. Antiproton lifetimes in this range could arise from CPT violation at the Planck scale.[copied from http://www-apex.fnal.gov/] This website presents published results from the APEX Test Experiment (T861) and from the E868 Experiment. Limits were placed on six antiproton decay modes with a muon in the final state and on seven antiproton decay modes with an electron in the final state. See also the summary table and plot and the APEX picture gallery.

  18. Electron beam focusing system

    SciTech Connect

    Dikansky, N.; Nagaitsev, S.; Parkhomchuk, V.

    1997-09-01

    The high energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. Thus, the electron beam focusing system is very important for the performance of electron cooling. A system with and without longitudinal magnetic field is presented for discussion. Interaction of electron beam with the vacuum chamber as well as with the background ions and stored antiprotons can cause the coherent electron beam instabilities. Focusing system requirements needed to suppress these instabilities are presented.

  19. Refrigerated hydrogen gas jet for the Fermilab antiproton accumulator

    SciTech Connect

    Allspach, D.H.; Kendziora, C.L.; Marinelli, M.

    1995-07-01

    A hydrogen gas jet has been built for use at Fermilab for the study of charmonium spectroscopy in proton-antiproton annihilations. The hydrogen gas jet is part of an upgrade to a previous experiment which ran in the Fermilab 1990-1991 fixed target program utilizing a jet cooled to 80 K with liquid nitrogen. The jet delivers a defined stream of hydrogen gas which travels through a series of vacuum chambers and then intersects the circulating antiproton beam. The goal of the upgrade is to provide a hydrogen gas stream at least twice as dense as used for the earlier experiment to increase the interaction rate and allow an improved study of rare processes. This is achieved by cooling the stream to below 30 K using a Gifford-McMahon refrigerator. The jet apparatus is designed to allow motion in the plane perpendicular to the gas stream as well as angular positioning at the jet nozzle to provide a means of optimizing the interaction rate. Two skimmers located in the vacuum chambers are used to define the gas stream dimensions. The jet target vacuum chambers require constant pumping with turbomolecular pumps. The vacuum space around the jet is designed to have a large system pumping speed so that the chamber pressure can be maintained below an absolute pressure of 1 Pa. The jet will operate in the next fixed target run at Fermilab. Details of the design and test results are discussed.

  20. Transverse characterization of focused Bessel beams with angular momentum applied to study degree of coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xi; Wu, Fengtie; Chen, Ziyang; Pu, Jixiong; Chavez-Cerda, Sabino

    2016-05-01

    The transverse focusing properties at the ‘pseudo-focal’ plane of coherent Bessel beams with angular momentum are analyzed in detail. The transverse magnification of the central dark region of Bessel beams at this pseudo-focal plane is derived for the first time by calculating the ratio of the magnitude of the transverse components of the corresponding wave vectors before and after the focusing lens. We test our results experimentally with coherent laser Bessel beams and excellent agreement is observed. Then, an LED light source is used to generate Bessel beams. By modifying the coherence of the LED light source, we observe that by reducing coherence a smaller and shallower central dark region of Bessel beams with angular momentum is produced at the pseudo-focal plane. This technique can be used as a method to characterize the degree of coherence of vortex beams.

  1. Cosmic ray antiprotons from nearby cosmic accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Jagdish C.; Gupta, Nayantara

    2015-05-01

    The antiproton flux measured by PAMELA experiment might have originated from Galactic sources of cosmic rays. These antiprotons are expected to be produced in the interactions of cosmic ray protons and nuclei with cold protons. Gamma rays are also produced in similar interactions inside some of the cosmic accelerators. We consider a few nearby supernova remnants observed by Fermi LAT. Many of them are associated with molecular clouds. Gamma rays have been detected from these sources which most likely originate in decay of neutral pions produced in hadronic interactions. The observed gamma ray fluxes from these SNRs are used to find out their contributions to the observed diffuse cosmic ray antiproton flux near the earth.

  2. Antiprotons in cosmic rays and their implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    A brief description of the experiments carried out so far to measure the energy spectrum of antiprotons is made and the reason for the excitement in this field of research is elucidated. The observed spectrum appears to be different form the other components of cosmic rays. Various physical processes by which antiprotons could be created are summarized. The equilibrium spectrum of antiprotons in the Galaxy, arising from each of these processes, is derived for different propagation models. It is shown that no single model can predict correctly the observed data over the entire energy region. However, the recent data at low energies suggest that the conventional models with large amount of matter traversal by cosmic rays, either in the source region or during propagation, can reproduce the data closely. The implications of these propagation models for other components are discussed and the need for more observations is emphasized.

  3. The HEAT Cosmic Ray Antiproton Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nutter, Scott

    1998-10-01

    The HEAT (High Energy Antimatter Telescope) collaboration is constructing a balloon-borne instrument to measure the relative abundance of antiprotons and protons in the cosmic rays to kinetic energies of 30 GeV. The instrument uses a multiple energy loss technique to measure the Lorentz factor of through-going cosmic rays, a magnet spectrometer to measure momentum, and several scintillation counters to determine particle charge and direction (up or down in the atmosphere). The antiproton to proton abundance ratio as a function of energy is a probe of the propagation environment of protons through the galaxy. Existing measurements indicate a higher than expected value at both high and low energies. A confirming measurement could indicate peculiar antiproton sources, such as WIMPs or supersymmetric darkmatter candidates.

  4. Evaporative Cooling of Antiprotons to Cryogenic Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, G. B.; Bowe, P. D.; Hangst, J. S.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Hayden, M. E.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Chapman, S.; Fajans, J.; Povilus, A.; So, C.; Wurtele, J. S.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Charlton, M.; Humphries, A.; Madsen, N.; Werf, D. P. van der; Wilding, D.; Cesar, C. L.; Lambo, R.

    2010-07-02

    We report the application of evaporative cooling to clouds of trapped antiprotons, resulting in plasmas with measured temperature as low as 9 K. We have modeled the evaporation process for charged particles using appropriate rate equations. Good agreement between experiment and theory is observed, permitting prediction of cooling efficiency in future experiments. The technique opens up new possibilities for cooling of trapped ions and is of particular interest in antiproton physics, where a precise CPT test on trapped antihydrogen is a long-standing goal.

  5. Evaporative cooling of antiprotons to cryogenic temperatures.

    PubMed

    Andresen, G B; Ashkezari, M D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Bowe, P D; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayano, R S; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A; Hydomako, R; Jonsell, S; Kurchaninov, L; Lambo, R; Madsen, N; Menary, S; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; So, C; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wilding, D; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y

    2010-07-01

    We report the application of evaporative cooling to clouds of trapped antiprotons, resulting in plasmas with measured temperature as low as 9 K. We have modeled the evaporation process for charged particles using appropriate rate equations. Good agreement between experiment and theory is observed, permitting prediction of cooling efficiency in future experiments. The technique opens up new possibilities for cooling of trapped ions and is of particular interest in antiproton physics, where a precise CPT test on trapped antihydrogen is a long-standing goal. PMID:20867439

  6. Beam-beam effects in the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, V.; Alexahin, Y.; Lebedev, V.; Lebrun, P.; Moore, R.S.; Sen, T.; Tollestrup, A.; Valishev, A.; Zhang, X.L.; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    The Tevatron in Collider Run II (2001-present) is operating with 6 times more bunches, many times higher beam intensities and luminosities than in Run I (1992-1995). Electromagnetic long-range and head-on interactions of high intensity proton and antiproton beams have been significant sources of beam loss and lifetime limitations. We present observations of the beam-beam phenomena in the Tevatron and results of relevant beam studies. We analyze the data and various methods employed in operations, predict the performance for planned luminosity upgrades, and discuss ways to improve it.

  7. Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research, FAIR, at the GSI site

    SciTech Connect

    Rosner, Guenther

    2006-11-17

    FAIR is a new large-scale particle accelerator facility to be built at the GSI site in Germany. The research pursued at FAIR will cover a wide range of topics in nuclear and hadron physics, as well as high density plasma physics, atomic and antimatter physics, and applications in condensed matter physics and biology. The working horse of FAIR will be a 1.1km circumference double ring of rapidly cycling 100 and 300Tm synchrotrons, which will be used to produce high intensity secondary beams of short-lived radioactive ions or antiprotons. A subsequent suite of cooler and storage rings will deliver heavy ion and antiproton beams of unprecedented quality. Large experimental facilities are presently being designed by the NUSTAR, PANDA, PAX, CBM, SPARC, FLAIR, HEDgeHOB and BIOMAT collaborations.

  8. The antiproton interaction with an internal 12C target inside the HESR ring at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Introzzi, R.; Balestra, F.; Lavagno, A.; Scozzi, F.; Younis, H.

    2016-04-01

    In order to fulfill the goal of producing higher rates of doubly strange hyperons, the P¯ANDA collaboration will use the antiproton ring HESR at the future facility FAIR. The low energy hyperon production by an antiproton beam requires to insert a solid target inside the ring. Unwanted side effects of such an insertion are the overwhelming amount of annihilations, which would make the detectors blind, and the fast depletion of the bunch, which circulates inside the ring. The choice of the target material impacts the hyperon production yield: Carbon turned out to provide enough initial hyperon deceleration and keep secondary interactions below a tolerable level. The use of a very thin Diamond target, together with beam steering techniques, seems to be a satisfactory solution to the above problems and will be described hereafter.

  9. Automatic steering corrections to minimize injection oscillations in the Fermilab Antiproton Source rings

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, D.J.; Riddiford, A.W.

    1989-03-01

    Missteering of particle beam at injection into a circular accelerator produces coherent betatron oscillations. The beam position monitor system in the Antiproton Source at Fermilab can measure the beam position on each turn around the ring during these oscillations. From the amplitude and phase of the oscillations, corrections to the beamline steering are calculated to remove the oscillations. The analysis includes the case where the horizontal and vertical tunes are quite strongly coupled. This technique has proved to be valuable both in operation of the Fermilab Collider and as an analytical tool. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Transverse Emittance Growth in the Fermilab Antiproton Accumulator with High-Current Antiproton Stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Werkema, Steven J.; Peterson, David W.; Zhou, Ping

    1992-01-01

    Transverse emittance growth due to coherent instabilities in the Fermilab antiproton accumulator imposes a limit on the number of antiprotons which can be stacked and subsequently transferred to the collider. Consequences, the diagnosis and control of these phenomena has been required to further increase the luminosity of the collider. In this paper they present an overview of the techniques by which these instabilities have been studied and the methods by which they are controlled.

  11. Secondary antiprotons - A valuable cosmic-ray probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steigman, G.

    1977-01-01

    Even in the absence of antiprotons in the primary cosmic rays, a flux of secondary antiprotons will be produced in collisions between cosmic rays and interstellar gas. The predicted antiproton fraction increases with increasing cosmic-ray confinement, so that observations of antiprotons will provide a probe of models of cosmic-ray confinement. It is shown that the expected antiproton fraction (for energies of at least about 10 GeV) ranges between 0.00023 for the 'leaky box' model and 0.0018 for the 'closed box' model. In addition, attention is called to the fact that a detection of cosmic-ray antiprotons at or above a level of 0.0002 will provide a valuable lower limit to the antiproton lifetime.

  12. Beam-beam effects in the Tevatron Run II

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, V.; Alexahin, Yu.; Lebedev, V.; Lebrun, P.; Moore, R.; Sen, T.; Valishev, A.; Zhang, X.L.; /FERMILAB

    2005-05-01

    Electromagnetic long-range and head-on interactions of high intensity proton and antiproton beams are significant sources of beam loss and lifetime limitations in the Tevatron Collider Run II (2001-present). We present observations of the beam-beam phenomena in the Tevatron and results of relevant beam studies. We analyze the data and various methods employed in high energy physics (HEP) operation, predict the performance for planned luminosity upgrades and discuss ways to improve it.

  13. Calculation of antihydrogen formation via antiproton scattering with excited positronium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawlins, C. M.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Stelbovics, A. T.; Bray, I.; Charlton, M.

    2016-01-01

    The two-center convergent close-coupling method is used to calculate antihydrogen (H ¯) formation via positronium (Ps) scattering on antiprotons (p ¯) at near threshold energies. For excited Ps of energy ɛ , the 1 /ɛ behavior of the H ¯ formation cross sections is valid strictly only at the respective threshold, as is the 1 /√{ɛ } behavior for Ps in the ground state. Simple equations are given for the H ¯(n ≤4 ) formation cross sections from Ps(n ≤3 ) from zero to around 0.1 eV above threshold. Some of the implications of using p ¯-Ps collisions to form antihydrogen in beams, and held in traps, are discussed.

  14. Mathematical modelling of the beam under axial compression force applied at any point - the buckling problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnucka-Blandzi, Ewa

    2016-06-01

    The study is devoted to stability of simply supported beam under axial compression. The beam is subjected to an axial load located at any point along the axis of the beam. The buckling problem has been desribed and solved mathematically. Critical loads have been calculated. In the particular case, the Euler's buckling load is obtained. Explicit solutions are given. The values of critical loads are collected in tables and shown in figure. The relation between the point of the load application and the critical load is presented.

  15. Overview of the Recent Operation of the AAC and LEAR for the Low-energy Antiproton Physics Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maury, S.; Baird, S.; Boillot, J.; Caspers, F.; Chanel, M.; Chohan, V.; Eriksson, T.; Ley, R.; Metzger, C.; Möhl, D.; Mulder, H.; Pedersen, F.; Tranquille, G.

    1997-05-01

    This paper reviews the recent performances of the AAC and LEAR. Activities on the AAC include the successful exploitation of a magnetic horn as an antiproton collector lens and an energy-saving mode of operation which has been possible since 1992 when LEAR became the only client of the AAC. LEAR has worked in virtually its full momentum range between 100 MeV/c and 2 GeV/c, with performances (intensities, ejection modes and spill length) often exceeding the design specifications. Improvements are described which contributed to the quality of the beam delivered to the experiments. The reliability and the availability of the antiproton machines is also discussed.

  16. Double intensity injection for antiproton production

    SciTech Connect

    King-Yuen Ng

    2002-09-30

    A way to increase the luminosity of the Fermilab Tevatron during Run IIa [1] is to increase the number protons delivered to the target for antiproton production. In Ref. [2], a method to inject continuously 12 booster batches into the Main Injector is described in detail. The injection will fill 6/7 of the Main Injector with double intensity, for both antiproton production and the Numi neutrino project in Run IIb [3]. In this paper, they address the special case of filling only one booster-batch length of the Main Injector with double intensity in Run IIa. The problem we are facing is to limit the length of the final proton batch to within a booster-batch length, which is the circumferential length of the antiproton accumulator. Otherwise, losses will occur either at the Main Injector or the antiproton production area. With reasonable sizes of the barrier waves, simulations show that they are able to restrict the double-density protons to 5.9% longer than the booster-batch length before adiabatic capture. After adiabatic capture with 53-MHz rf, 90 buckets are occupied. The protons in the extra 6 buckets at the sides will be lost eventually. However, these amount to only 0.51% of the total proton batch. Some injection parameters of the Main Injector are listed in a table.

  17. Conceptual Design Report. Antiproton - Proton Collider Upgrade 20 GeV Rings. Technical Components and Civil Construction May, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    1988-05-01

    This report contains a description of the design and cost estimate of two new 20 GeV rings which will be required to support the upgrade of the Fermilab Collider with a luminosity goal of 5x10 31 cm-2s-1. The new rings include an antiproton post-accumulator, denoted the Antiproton Super Booster (ASB), and a proton post-booster, denoted the Proton Super Booster (PSB). The siting of the rings is shown in Figure I-1. Both rings are capable of operation at 20 GeV, eliminating the need for ever again injecting beam into the Main Ring below transition, and significantly enhancing Main Ring performance. The Antiproton Super Booster is designed to accept and accumulate up to 4x1012 antiprotons from the existing Antiproton Accumulator, and deliver them to the Main Ring at 20 GeV for acceleration and injection into the Collider. It is also designed to accept diluted antiprotons from the Main Ring at 20 GeV for recooling. The PSB accepts 8.9 GeV protons from the existing Booster and accelerates them to 20 GeV for injection into the Main Ring. The PSB is designed to operate at 5 Hz. The siting shown in Figure I-1 has the attractive feature that it removes all Main Ring injection hardware from the AO straight section, opening the possibility of installing a third proton-antiproton interaction region in the Tevatron Collider.

  18. Beam Efficiency of an Applied-B Diode with Magnetically Injected Anode Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D. J.; Crawford, M. T.

    1997-11-01

    Proton and electron currents are measured for a repetitively pulsed extractor diode on RHEPP1. The 600 kV, 40 kA, 100 ns power pulse accelerates a 10 cm radius, 2 cm annular beam via a 1.3 cm anode-cathode gap (AKG). The anode plasma originates from a hydrogen gas puff and 2 μs risetime B field from a fast coil. The inducted-E field from the coil creates plasma in the gas that is injected into the AKG by the fast-B field. The electron beam was measured with anode dB/dt loops and radiachromic film to be 8 kA. The beam current measured with Rogowski coils in the cathodes was 32 kA at peak diode power. Although these two currents equal the diode current, proton beam measurements with Faraday cups and nuclear activation show a total proton beam of 16 kA with 6 kA striking the cathode coil supports and housings and 10 kA available to focus. The 16 kA missing beam may be due to very low energy protons that undergo charge-exchange in the AKG.

  19. Experimental test of a new antiproton acceleration scheme in the Fermilab Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, V.; Bhat, C.M.; Chase, B.E.; Dey, J.E.; Meisner, K.G.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    In an effort to provide higher intensity and lower emittance antiproton beam to the Tevatron collider for high luminosity operation, a new Main Injector (MI) antiproton acceleration scheme has been developed [1-4]. In this scheme, beam is accelerated from 8 to 27 GeV using the 2.5 MHz rf system and from 27 to 150 GeV using the 53 MHz rf system. This paper reports the experimental results of beam study. Simulation results are reported in a different PAC'05 paper [5]. Experiments are conducted with proton beam from the Booster. Acceleration efficiency, emittance growth and beam harmonic transfer between 2.5 MHz (h=28) and 53 MHz (h=588) buckets have been studied. Beam study shows that one can achieve an overall acceleration efficiency of about 100%, longitudinal emittance growth less than 20% and negligible transverse emittance growth. accelerated to 150 GeV and injected to the Tevatron. The multi-bunch coalescing process is eliminated in this acceleration scheme. Consequently, longitudinal emittance growth is reduced. Smaller emittance growth reduces beam loss.

  20. High intensity proton injector for facility of antiproton and ion research.

    PubMed

    Berezov, R; Brodhage, R; Chauvin, N; Delferriere, O; Fils, J; Hollinger, R; Ivanova, V; Tuske, O; Ullmann, C

    2016-02-01

    The high current ion source with the low energy beam transport (LEBT) will serve as injector into the proton LINAC to provide primary proton beam for the production of antiprotons. The pulsed ion source developed and built in CEA/Saclay operates with a frequency of 2.45 GHz based on ECR plasma production with two coils with 87.5 mT magnetic field necessary for the electron cyclotron resonance. The compact LEBT consists of two solenoids with a maximum magnetic field of 500 mT including two integrated magnetic steerers to adjust the horizontal and vertical beam positions. The total length of the compact LEBT is 2.3 m and was made as short as possible to reduced emittance growth along the beam line. To measure ion beam intensity behind the pentode extraction system, between solenoids and at the end of the beam line, two current transformers and a Faraday cup are installed. To get information about the beam quality and position, the diagnostic chamber with different equipment will be installed between the two solenoids. This article reports the current status of the proton injector for the facility of antiproton and ion research. PMID:26931923

  1. High intensity proton injector for facility of antiproton and ion research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezov, R.; Brodhage, R.; Chauvin, N.; Delferriere, O.; Fils, J.; Hollinger, R.; Ivanova, V.; Tuske, O.; Ullmann, C.

    2016-02-01

    The high current ion source with the low energy beam transport (LEBT) will serve as injector into the proton LINAC to provide primary proton beam for the production of antiprotons. The pulsed ion source developed and built in CEA/Saclay operates with a frequency of 2.45 GHz based on ECR plasma production with two coils with 87.5 mT magnetic field necessary for the electron cyclotron resonance. The compact LEBT consists of two solenoids with a maximum magnetic field of 500 mT including two integrated magnetic steerers to adjust the horizontal and vertical beam positions. The total length of the compact LEBT is 2.3 m and was made as short as possible to reduced emittance growth along the beam line. To measure ion beam intensity behind the pentode extraction system, between solenoids and at the end of the beam line, two current transformers and a Faraday cup are installed. To get information about the beam quality and position, the diagnostic chamber with different equipment will be installed between the two solenoids. This article reports the current status of the proton injector for the facility of antiproton and ion research.

  2. Further analysis of a recent cosmic-ray antiproton experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffington, A.; Schindler, S. M.

    1983-01-01

    Reference is made to the measurements of a cosmic ray antiproton flux at a few hundred MeV reported by Buffington et al. (1981), noting that one of the final background processes to be removed by the data analysis in that study was helium-induced events which satisfied the criteria for topology and timing. The response in the third scintillator S3 was used to identify and remove these events. For the top two scintillators S1 and S2, pulse size information was lost during the data-taking. A method is reported here for the partial retrieval of pulse size information for the scintillator S2. This is possible because a portion of this signal was subtracted from the Cerenkov response before trigger discrimination and data recording to remove scintillation from the Cerenkov response. For separating protons from more highly charged particles, the method is considered sufficient. It is pointed out that the sample of events identified as antiprotons, for which the method can be applied, has the expected unit charge in scintillator S2.

  3. Laser-electron beam interaction applied to optical amplifiers and oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pantell, R. H.; Piestrup, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    Momentum modulation of a relativistic electron beam by a Nd:YAG laser is demonstrated. The electrons, at 100 MeV energy, interact with the laser light in helium gas at standard temperature and pressure. At an angle of 6.55 mrad between the two wavevectors, corresponding to the Cerenkov angle, a given electron remains in a field of constant phase as it passes through the light beam. The experimental arrangement is illustrated showing the trajectories of the electron and light. The particle momentum is measured by a mass spectrometer, and the angle between the wavevectors is controlled by a rotatable mirror. Experimental results indicate that momentum modulation of an electron beam may be used for amplification. A possible configuration for an optical klystron is illustrated.

  4. The proton injector for the accelerator facility of antiproton and ion research (FAIR)

    SciTech Connect

    Ullmann, C. Kester, O.; Chauvin, N.; Delferriere, O.

    2014-02-15

    The new international accelerator facility for antiproton and ion research (FAIR) at GSI in Darmstadt, Germany, is one of the largest research projects worldwide and will provide an antiproton production rate of 7 × 10{sup 10} cooled pbars per hour. This is equivalent to a primary proton beam current of 2 × 10{sup 16} protons per hour. For this request a high intensity proton linac (p-linac) will be built with an operating rf-frequency of 325 MHz to accelerate a 35 mA proton beam at 70 MeV, using conducting crossed-bar H-cavities. The repetition rate is 4 Hz with beam pulse length of 36 μs. The microwave ion source and low energy beam transport developed within a joint French-German collaboration GSI/CEA-SACLAY will serve as an injector of the compact proton linac. The 2.45 GHz ion source allows high brightness ion beams at an energy of 95 keV and will deliver a proton beam current of 100 mA at the entrance of the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) within an acceptance of 0.3π mm mrad (norm., rms)

  5. Decoupling and observation theory applied to control of a long flexible beam in orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamer, H. A.

    1983-01-01

    Techniques which use decoupling theory and state variable feedback to control the pitch attitude and the flexible mode amplitudes of a long, thin beam are discussed. An observer based on the steady state Kalman filter was incorporated into the control design procedure in order to estimate the values of the modal state variables required for the feedback control law.

  6. Validation of the Pinnacle³ photon convolution-superposition algorithm applied to fast neutron beams.

    PubMed

    Kalet, Alan M; Sandison, George A; Phillips, Mark H; Parvathaneni, Upendra

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate a photon convolution-superposition algorithm used to model a fast neutron therapy beam in a commercial treatment planning system (TPS). The neutron beam modeled was the Clinical Neutron Therapy System (CNTS) fast neutron beam produced by 50 MeV protons on a Be target at our facility, and we implemented the Pinnacle3 dose calculation model for computing neutron doses. Measured neutron data were acquired by an IC30 ion chamber flowing 5 cc/min of tissue equivalent gas. Output factors and profile scans for open and wedged fields were measured according to the Pinnacle physics reference guide recommendations for photon beams in a Wellhofer water tank scanning system. Following the construction of a neutron beam model, computed doses were then generated using 100 monitor units (MUs) beams incident on a water-equivalent phantom for open and wedged square fields, as well as multileaf collimator (MLC)-shaped irregular fields. We compared Pinnacle dose profiles, central axis doses, and off-axis doses (in irregular fields) with 1) doses computed using the Prism treatment planning system, and 2) doses measured in a water phantom and having matching geometry to the computation setup. We found that the Pinnacle photon model may be used to model most of the important dosimetric features of the CNTS fast neutron beam. Pinnacle-calculated dose points among open and wedged square fields exhibit dose differences within 3.9 cGy of both Prism and measured doses along the central axis, and within 5 cGy difference of measurement in the penumbra region. Pinnacle dose point calculations using irregular treatment type fields showed a dose difference up to 9 cGy from measured dose points, although most points of comparison were below 5 cGy. Comparisons of dose points that were chosen from cases planned in both Pinnacle and Prism show an average dose difference less than 0.6%, except in certain fields which incorporate both wedges and heavy blocking of the central axis. All

  7. Kickers and power supplies for the Fermilab Tevatron I antiproton source

    SciTech Connect

    Castellano, T.; Bartoszek, L.; Tilles, E.; Petter, J.; McCarthy, J.

    1985-05-01

    The Fermilab Antiproton Source Accumulator and Debuncher rings require 5 kickers in total. These range in design from conventional ferrite delay line type magnets, with ceramic beam tubes to mechanically complex shuttered kickers situated entirely in the Accumulator Ring's 10/sup -10/ torr vacuum. Power supplies are thyratron switched pulse forming networks that produce microsecond width pulses of several kiloamps with less than 30 nanoseconds rise and fall times. Kicker and power supply design requirements for field strength, vacuum, rise and fall time, timing and magnetic shielding of the stacked beam in the accumulator by the eddy current shutter will be discussed. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Antiproton rate estimates for the 1996 E866 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, J.Y.; Garcia-Solis, E.J.; Stanskas, P.J.

    1996-02-01

    There has always been a strong interest to study antiprotons produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions. A specific point has been a puzzle for years in that both ARC and RQMD predict the correct antiproton yield for Au+Au collisions at the AGS, but with two entirely different physical explanations. The RQMD is able to describe available data by relying on the enhanced production of antiprotons, followed by the annihilation of a large fraction of the produced antiprotons. Conversely, ARC describes the data by producing less antiprotons initially, but the annihilation of the antiprotons is {open_quotes}screened{close_quotes} in the high density environment of the collision on account of collisions with mesons. It is then particularly interesting to studying the shadowing effect in the Au-Au collisions at the AGS to shine a light in the theoretical debate in heavy-ion collisions.

  9. The cosmic ray antiproton background for AMS-02

    SciTech Connect

    Kappl, Rolf; Winkler, Martin Wolfgang E-mail: martin.winkler@desy.de

    2014-09-01

    The AMS-02 experiment is measuring the cosmic ray antiproton flux with high precision. The interpretation of the upcoming data requires a thorough understanding of the secondary antiproton background. In this work, we employ newly available data of the NA49 experiment at CERN, in order to recalculate the antiproton source term arising from cosmic ray spallations on the interstellar matter. We systematically account for the production of antiprotons via hyperon decay and discuss the possible impact of isospin effects on antineutron production. A detailed comparison of our calculation with the existing literature as well as with Monte Carlo based evaluations of the antiproton source term is provided. Our most important result is an updated prediction for the secondary antiproton flux which includes a realistic assessment of the particle physics uncertainties at all energies.

  10. Antiproton production in relativistic Si-nucleus collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Barrette, J.; Bellwied, R.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Cleland, W.E.; Cormier, T.; Dadusc, G.; David, G.; Dee, J.; Diebold, G.E.; Dietzsch, O.; Duek, E.; Fatyga, M.; Fox, D.; Greene, S.V.; Germani, J.V.; Hall, J.R.; Hemmick, T.K.; Herrmann, N.; Hogue, R.W.; Hong, B.; Jayananda, K.; Kraus, D.; Kumar, B.S.; Lacasse, R.; Lissauer, D.; Llope, W.J.; Ludlam, T.W.; Majka, R.; Makowiecki, D.; Mark, S.K.; Mitchell, J.T.; Muthuswamy, M.; O'Brien, E.; Pruneau, C.; Rotondo, F.S.; Sandweiss, J.; da Silva, N.C.; Simon-Gillo, J.; Slaughter, J.; Sonnadara, U.; Stachel, J.; Takai, H.; Takagui, E.M.; Throwe, T.G.; Waters, L.; Winter, C.; Wolf, K.; Wolfe, D.; Woody, C.L.; Xu, N.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Zou, C. Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 McGill University, Montreal, H3A 2T8 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, P

    1993-03-22

    We have measured antiproton production cross sections as functions of centrality in collisions of 14.6 GeV/[ital c] per nucleon [sup 28]Si ions with targets of Al, Cu, and Pb. For all targets, the antiproton yields increase linearly with the number of projectile nucleons that have interacted, and show little target dependence. We discuss the implications of this result on the production and absorption of antiprotons within the nuclear medium.

  11. An antiproton catalyst for inertial confinement fusion propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Raymond A.; Newton, Richard; Smith, Gerald A.; Toothacker, William S.; Kanzleiter, Randall J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of an inertial confinement fusion propulsion system involving an antiproton catalyst (for antiproton-induced fission). It is argued that, when the two processes, fusion and antimatter annihilation, are combined into one system, a viable candidate propulsion system for planetary exploration emerges. It is shown that as much as 7.6 GW of power, well within the requrements for interplanetary travel, can be achieved using existing driver technologies and available quantities of antiprotons.

  12. Antiprotons in CR: What Do They Tell Us?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moskalenko, I. V.; Strong, A. W.; Mashnik, S. G.; Ormes, J. F.

    2003-01-01

    Recent measurements of the CR antiproton flux have been shown to pose a problem for conventional propagation models (Moskalenko et al. 2002). In particular, models consistent with secondary/primary nuclei ratio in CR produce too few antiprotons, while matching the ratio and the antiproton flux requires some artificial assumptions. This may indicate an additional local CR component or new phenomena in particle propagation in the Galaxy. We discuss several possibilities which may cause this problem.

  13. Polarizing Antiprotons Using DNP-in-Flight

    SciTech Connect

    Krisch, A. D.

    2008-04-30

    This talk will review my 'crazy' idea presented at the 1985 Bodega Bay workshop on polarizing antiprotons; I then called the idea 'Moving Dynamic Nuclear Polarization'. However, in his historical introduction to this Daresbury Workshop, Erhard Steffens called it 'Dynamic Nuclear Polarization in flight'; this name seems better. I will first briefly review the 1985 workshop and then discuss the prospects for 'DNP-in-flight' 22 years later.

  14. Thermal Imaging Applied to Cryocrystallography: Cryocooling and Beam Heating (Part I)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snell, Edward; Bellamy, Henry; Rosenbaum, Gerd; vanderWoerd, Mark; Kazmierczak, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Thermal imaging provides a non-invasive method to study both the cryocooling process and the heating due to the X-ray beam interaction with a sample. The method has been used successfully to image cryocooling in a number of experimental situations, i.e. cooling as a function of sample volume and as a function of cryostream orientation. Although there are experimental limitations to the method, it has proved a powerful technique to aid cryocrystallography development. Due to the rapid spatial temperature information provided about the sample it is also a powerful tool in the testing of mathematical models. Recently thermal imaging has been used to measure the temperature distribution on both a model and typical crystal samples illuminated with an X-ray beam produced by an undulator. A brief overview of thermal imaging and previous results will be presented. In addition, a detailed description of the calibration and experimental aspects of the beam heating measurements will be described. This will complement the following talk on the mathematical modeling and analysis of the results.

  15. Applied Focused Ion Beam Techniques for Sample Preparation of Astromaterials for Integrated Nano-Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, G A; Teslich, N E; Kearsley, A T; Stadermann, F J; Stroud, R M; Dai, Z R; Ishii, H A; Hutcheon, I D; Bajt, S; Snead, C J; Weber, P K; Bradley, J P

    2007-02-20

    Sample preparation is always a critical step in study of micrometer sized astromaterials available for study in the laboratory, whether their subsequent analysis is by electron microscopy or secondary ion mass spectrometry. A focused beam of gallium ions has been used to prepare electron transparent sections from an interplanetary dust particle, as part of an integrated analysis protocol to maximize the mineralogical, elemental, isotopic and spectroscopic information extracted from one individual particle. In addition, focused ion beam techniques have been employed to extract cometary residue preserved on the rims and walls of micro-craters in 1100 series aluminum foils that were wrapped around the sample tray assembly on the Stardust cometary sample collector. Non-ideal surface geometries and inconveniently located regions of interest required creative solutions. These include support pillar construction and relocation of a significant portion of sample to access a region of interest. Serial sectioning, in a manner similar to ultramicrotomy, is a significant development and further demonstrates the unique capabilities of focused ion beam microscopy for sample preparation of astromaterials.

  16. Engineering Challenges in Antiproton Triggered Fusion Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Cassenti, Brice; Kammash, Terry

    2008-01-21

    During the last decade antiproton triggered fusion propulsion has been investigated as a method for achieving high specific impulse, high thrust in a nuclear pulse propulsion system. In general the antiprotons are injected into a pellet containing fusion fuel with a small amount of fissionable material (i.e., an amount less than the critical mass) where the products from the fission are then used to trigger a fusion reaction. Initial calculations and simulations indicate that if magnetically insulated inertial confinement fusion is used that the pellets should result in a specific impulse of between 100,000 and 300,000 seconds at high thrust. The engineering challenges associated with this propulsion system are significant. For example, the antiprotons must be precisely focused. The pellet must be designed to contain the fission and initial fusion products and this will require strong magnetic fields. The fusion fuel must be contained for a sufficiently long time to effectively release the fusion energy, and the payload must be shielded from the radiation, especially the excess neutrons emitted, in addition to many other particles. We will review the recent progress, possible engineering solutions and the potential performance of these systems.

  17. Preliminary results on time-resolved ion beam induced luminescence applied to the provenance study of lapis lazuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czelusniak, C.; Palla, L.; Massi, M.; Carraresi, L.; Giuntini, L.; Re, A.; Lo Giudice, A.; Pratesi, G.; Mazzinghi, A.; Ruberto, C.; Castelli, L.; Fedi, M. E.; Liccioli, L.; Gueli, A.; Mandò, P. A.; Taccetti, F.

    2016-03-01

    This work will present preliminary results concerning the use of time-resolved ion beam induced luminescence applied to provenance studies of lapis lazuli. Measurements were performed at the pulsed beam facility at LABEC laboratory in Florence. Lapis lazuli is a semi-precious gemstone, used as ornament since the early civilizations that can be found in few places on Earth. The importance of this work lies in understanding the origin of various samples of lapis lazuli, from which it may be possible to gain insight into trade routes from ancient times. The samples studied in this work originated from Chile, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Myanmar, and Siberia. The stones were irradiated with 3 MeV protons and the resulting luminescence was detected by a photomultiplier tube, whose output was acquired using a sampling digitizer VME module (CAEN/V1720). Wavelength discrimination was performed at 430 nm utilizing a range of beam currents. The results showed that, by changing the beam current intensity, one can study different features of lapis lazuli, and this may aid in distinguishing lapis lazuli from different provenances.

  18. High energy polarized beams from hyperon decays

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, D.G.

    1986-01-01

    The use of various ways to utilize lambda decays to obtain polarized beams of protons and antiprotons is emphasized. Examples described are the Fermilab polarized beam, now under construction, and the use of similar techniques at other energies. Beam transport, spin precession and reversal systems, and polarimeters are also discussed. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Nonlinear optimisation techniques for accelerator performance improvement on-line: recent trials and experiment for the CERN antiproton accumulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chohan, Vinod

    1986-06-01

    The use of function minimisation techniques for optimum design according to given performance criteria is well-known. Given a well-defined criterion and a means of evaluating it precisely, the problem reduces to choosing the best optimisation procedure to suit the problem. Direct search techniques which do not generally rely on the computation of derivatives of the error function are ideal for on-line improvement of the global accelerator performance since the error function is not known analytically, e.g. the number of antiprotons stored in the antiproton accumulator ring on a pulse-to-pulse basis as a function of all the antiproton production and stochastic cooling system parameters. The user-friendliness of the NODAL interpreter at the man-machine interaction level, its capability to easily control and manipulate equipment as well as its capability to synchronise with respect to time events on a cycle-to-cycle basis makes it suitable for an on-line accelerator performance optimisation type of application. A modular procedure, based on the Simplex technique [1] has been implemented recently which allows function minimisation depending on the error function definition module. This enables an easy manipulation of variables and synchronization with machine events. For the antiproton accumulator (AA), while the circulating beam current transformer lacks the resolution to measure the exact number of antiprotons stored on a pulse-to-pulse basis, there are a large number of electrons produced in the production process [2] and a signal emanating from these can be adapted to provide the performance criterion and appropriate parameters used as function variables in the optimisation process. First trials based on optimisation of injection of antiprotons in the AA look promising, but further work is necessary in the direct definition of the error functions.

  20. The Reason for Beam Cooling: Some of the Physics that Cooling Allows

    SciTech Connect

    Oelert, W.

    2006-03-20

    There are many examples of achievements in physics which would not be possible without cooling. Different mechanisms for cooling exist and some will be presented in this introductory talk where we distinguish between 'relative' and 'absolute' cooling. A short reminder to high and medium energy physics with antiprotons as performed at the accelerators of CERN will be delineated. The success in applying cooling of beams in hadron physics at the internal COSY-11 experiment installed at the cooler synchrotron COSY will be presented. COSY-11 aims for meson production investigations at threshold in nucleon-nucleon collisions. Again, such investigations would not be feasible without cooling especially regarding the precision required and obtained. The need of cooling for the production and trapping of antihydrogen atoms is demonstrated - as an example - by the ATRAP experiment at the CERN antiproton decelerator AD aiming for a comparison of hydrogen (H0) to antihydrogen (H-bar0) atom spectroscopy.

  1. Variational calculation of energy levels for metastable states of antiprotonic helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Mu-Hong; Yao, Si-Meng; Wang, Yi; Li, Wang; Gu, Ying-Ying; Zhong, Zhen-Xiang

    2016-06-01

    We apply the variational method in Hylleraas coordinates to solve the energy eigenvalue problem for antiprotonic helium molecular systems including p bar 3 He+ and p bar 4 He+. The numerical accuracy on the nonrelativistic energies is shown to reach 10-17, thus the precision of our results is only limited by the width of the metastable states. Expectation values of the Dirac delta operators for these states are also calculated.

  2. The universe in the laboratory - Nuclear astrophysics opportunity at the facility for antiproton and ion research

    SciTech Connect

    Langanke, K.

    2014-05-09

    In the next years the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research FAIR will be constructed at the GSI Helmholtzze-ntrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, Germany. This new accelerator complex will allow for unprecedented and pathbreaking research in hadronic, nuclear, and atomic physics as well as in applied sciences. This manuscript will discuss some of these research opportunities, with a focus on supernova dynamics and nucleosynthesis.

  3. Ion beam divergence from unstable fluctuations in applied-[ital B] diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Sudan, R.N.; Longcope, D.W. )

    1993-05-01

    An electron plasma oscillation driven unstable by ion streaming is identified with the low-frequency mode observed in QUICKSILVER [[ital Computational] [ital Physics], edited by A. Tenner (World Scientific, Singapore, 1991), pp. 475--482] numerical simulations. This mode heats the electrons along the magnetic field and is ultimately stabilized by the thermal spread. A quasilinear theory determines the saturation level of the fluctuations, the ion divergence, and the ion energy and momentum spread as they exit the diode. The ion divergence is predicted to be independent of the ion mass for fixed diode voltage and scales as the product of the effective gap and the ion beam enhancement factor over Child--Langmuir current.

  4. Progress in Antiproton Production at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Pasquinelli, Ralph J.; Drendel, Brian; Gollwitzer, Keith; Johnson, Stan; Lebedev, Valeri; Leveling, Anthony; Morgan, James; Nagaslaev, Vladimir; Peterson, Dave; Sondgeroth, Alan; Werkema, Steve; /Fermilab

    2009-04-01

    Fermilab Collider Run II has been ongoing since 2001. During this time peak luminosities in the Tevatron have increased from approximately 10 x 10{sup 30} cm{sup -2}sec{sup -1} to 300 x 10{sup 30} cm{sup 02}sec{sup -1}. A major contributing factor in this remarkable performance is a greatly improved antiproton production capability. Since the beginning of Run II, the average antiproton accumulation rate has increased from 2 x 10{sup 10}{anti p}/hr to about 24 x 10{sup 10}{anti p}/hr. Peak antiproton stacking rates presently exceed 28 x 10{sup 10}{anti p}/hr. The antiproton stacking rate has nearly doubled since 2005. It is this recent progress that is the focus of this paper. The process of transferring antiprotons to the Recycler Ring for subsequent transfer to the collider has been significantly restructured and streamlined, yielding additional cycle time for antiproton production. Improvements to the target station have greatly increased the antiproton yield from the production target. The performance of the Antiproton Source stochastic cooling systems has been enhanced by upgrades to the cooling electronics, accelerator lattice optimization, and improved operating procedures. In this paper, we will briefly report on each of these modifications.

  5. THE DISCOVERY OF GEOMAGNETICALLY TRAPPED COSMIC-RAY ANTIPROTONS

    SciTech Connect

    Adriani, O.; Barbarino, G. C.; Bazilevskaya, G. A.; Bellotti, R.; Bruno, A.; Cafagna, F.; Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Bogomolov, E. A.; Bongi, M.; Bottai, S.; Borisov, S.; Casolino, M.; De Pascale, M. P.; De Santis, C.; Campana, D.; Carbone, R.; Consiglio, L.; Carlson, P.; Castellini, G.

    2011-08-20

    The existence of a significant flux of antiprotons confined to Earth's magnetosphere has been considered in several theoretical works. These antiparticles are produced in nuclear interactions of energetic cosmic rays with the terrestrial atmosphere and accumulate in the geomagnetic field at altitudes of several hundred kilometers. A contribution from the decay of albedo antineutrons has been hypothesized in analogy to proton production by neutron decay, which constitutes the main source of trapped protons at energies above some tens of MeV. This Letter reports the discovery of an antiproton radiation belt around the Earth. The trapped antiproton energy spectrum in the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) region has been measured by the PAMELA experiment for the kinetic energy range 60-750 MeV. A measurement of the atmospheric sub-cutoff antiproton spectrum outside the radiation belts is also reported. PAMELA data show that the magnetospheric antiproton flux in the SAA exceeds the cosmic-ray antiproton flux by three orders of magnitude at the present solar minimum, and exceeds the sub-cutoff antiproton flux outside radiation belts by four orders of magnitude, constituting the most abundant source of antiprotons near the Earth.

  6. Low-energy antiprotons physics and the FLAIR facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widmann, E.

    2015-11-01

    FLAIR, the Facility for low-energy antiproton and ion research has been proposed in 2004 as an extension of the planned FAIR facility at Darmstadt, Germany. FLAIR was not included into the modularized start version of FAIR, but the recent installation of the CRYRING storage ring at GSI Darmstadt has opened new perspectives for physics with low-energy antiprotons at FAIR.

  7. Experimental demonstration of colliding beam lifetime improvement by electron lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, Vladimir; Alexahin, Yuri; Kamerdzhiev, Vsevolod; Kuznetsov, Gennady; Zhang, Xiao-Long; Bishofberger, Kip; /Los Alamos

    2007-10-01

    We report successful application of space-charge forces of a low-energy electron beam for improvement of particle lifetime determined by beam-beam interaction in high-energy collider. In our experiments, an electron lens, a novel instrument developed for the beam-beam compensation, was set on a 980-GeV proton bunch in the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. The proton bunch losses due to its interaction with antiproton beam were reduced by a factor of 2 when the electron lens was operating. We describe the principle of electron lens operation and present experimental results.

  8. A measurement of the antiproton flux in the cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffington, A.; Schindler, S. M.

    1981-01-01

    A balloon-borne instrument has been used to detect cosmic-ray antiprotons. These are identified topologically by the appearance of annihilation prongs in a thick lead-plate spark chamber. The initial recording of the data is enriched in potential antimatter events by a selective trigger. After a small subtraction for background, 14 identified antiprotons yield a flux of 1.7 plus or minus 0.00005 antiproton/(sq m ster sec MeV) between 130 and 320 MeV at the top of the atmosphere. When combined with higher energy antiproton flux measurements, this result indicates that the antiprotons have a spectrum whose shape is the same as that of the protons, but with a magnitude reduced by a factor of 1/3000.

  9. Intensity-Frontier Antiproton Physics with The Antiproton Annihilation Spectrometer (TAPAS) at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Apollinari, Giorgio; Asner, David M.; Baldini, Wander; Bartoszek, Larry; Broemmelsiek, Daniel R.; Brown, Charles N.; Chakravorty, Alak; Colas, Paul; Derwent, Paul; Drutskoy, Alexey; Fortner, Michael; /Northern Illinois U. /Saclay /Indian Inst. Tech., Hyderabad

    2011-11-01

    The Fermilab Antiproton Source is the world's most intense source of antimatter. With the Tevatron program now behind us, this unique facility can help make the case for Fermilab's continued accelerator operations. The Antiproton Source can be used for unique, dedicated antimatter studies, including medium-energy {bar p}-annihilation experiments. We propose to assemble a powerful, yet cost-effective, solenoidal magnetic spectrometer for antiproton-annihilation events, and to use it at the Fermilab Antiproton Accumulator to measure the charm production cross section, study rare hyperon decays, search for hyperon CP asymmetry, precisely measure the properties of several charmonium and nearby states, and make the first measurements of the Drell-Yan continuum in medium-energy antiproton annihilation. Should the charm production cross section be as large as some have proposed, we will also be able to measure D{sup 0}-{bar D}{sup 0} mixing with high precision and discover (or sensitively limit) charm CP violation. The observation of charm or hyperon CP violation would be evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model, with possible implications for the origin of the baryon asymmetry of the universe - the question of what happened to all the antimatter that must have been produced in the Big Bang. The experiment will be carried out by an international collaboration and will require some four years of running time. As possibly the sole hadron experiment in progress at Fermilab during that time, it will play an important role in maintaining a broad particle physics program at Fermilab and in the U.S. It will thus help us to continue attracting creative and capable young people into science and technology, and introducing them to the important technologies of accelerators, detectors, and data acquisition and analysis - key roles in society that accelerator-based particle physics has historically played.

  10. Electron backscatter diffraction applied to lithium sheets prepared by broad ion beam milling.

    PubMed

    Brodusch, Nicolas; Zaghib, Karim; Gauvin, Raynald

    2015-01-01

    Due to its very low hardness and atomic number, pure lithium cannot be prepared by conventional methods prior to scanning electron microscopy analysis. Here, we report on the characterization of pure lithium metallic sheets used as base electrodes in the lithium-ion battery technology using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and X-ray microanalysis using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) after the sheet surface was polished by broad argon ion milling (IM). No grinding and polishing were necessary to achieve the sufficiently damage free necessary for surface analysis. Based on EDS results the impurities could be characterized and EBSD revealed the microsctructure and microtexture of this material with accuracy. The beam damage and oxidation/hydration resulting from the intensive use of IM and the transfer of the sample into the microscope chamber was estimated to be <50 nm. Despite the fact that the IM process generates an increase of temperature at the specimen surface, it was assumed that the milling parameters were sufficient to minimize the heating effect on the surface temperature. However, a cryo-stage should be used if available during milling to guaranty a heating artefact free surface after the milling process. PMID:25280344

  11. Low Energy Antiproton Experiments - A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Jungmann, Klaus P.

    2005-10-19

    Low energy antiprotons offer excellent opportunities to study properties of fundamental forces and symmetries in nature. Experiments with them can contribute substantially to deepen our fundamental knowledge in atomic, nuclear and particle physics. Searches for new interactions can be carried out by studying discrete symmetries. Known interactions can be tested precisely and fundamental constants can be extracted from accurate measurements on free antiprotons (p-bar's) and bound two- and three-body systems such as antihydrogen (H-bar = p-bare-), the antprotonic helium ion (He++p-bar)+ and the antiprotonic atomcule (He++p-bare-) . The trapping of a single p-bar in a Penning trap, the formation and precise studies of antiprotonic helium ions and atoms and recently the production of H-bar have been among the pioneering experiments. They have led already to precise values for p-bar parameters, accurate tests of bound two- and three-body Quantum Electrodynamics (QED), tests of the CPT theorem and a better understanding of atom formation from their constituents. Future experiments promise more precise tests of the standard theory and have a robust potential to discover new physics. Precision experiments with low energy p-bar's share the need for intense particle sources and the need for time to develop novel instrumentation with all other experiments, which aim for high precision in exotic fundamental systems. The experimental programs - carried out in the past mostly at the former LEAR facility and at present at the AD facility at CERN - would benefit from intense future sources of low energy p-bar's. The highest possible p-bar fluxes should be aimed for at new facilities such as the planned FLAIR facility at GSI in order to maximize the potential of delicate precision experiments to influence model building. Examples of key p-bar experiments are discussed here and compared with other experiments in the field. Among the central issues is their potential to obtain

  12. Stability of the Helium-Antiproton System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drachman, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    In the course of their Born-Oppenheimer calculations of this system Todd and Armour noted that the lowest-lying state closely resembles the hydrogen negative ion, since the antiproton lies very close to the helium nucleus and shields one unit of nuclear charge. In the present paper this observation will be taken seriously to produce a variationally correct estimate of the total energy of this system, along with a similar estimate of the energy of the once-ionized system. The nonadiabatic effect of exactly treating the reduced masses improves the results.

  13. Collimation with hollow electron beams.

    PubMed

    Stancari, G; Valishev, A; Annala, G; Kuznetsov, G; Shiltsev, V; Still, D A; Vorobiev, L G

    2011-08-19

    A novel concept of controlled halo removal for intense high-energy beams in storage rings and colliders is presented. It is based on the interaction of the circulating beam with a 5-keV, magnetically confined, pulsed hollow electron beam in a 2-m-long section of the ring. The electrons enclose the circulating beam, kicking halo particles transversely and leaving the beam core unperturbed. By acting as a tunable diffusion enhancer and not as a hard aperture limitation, the hollow electron beam collimator extends conventional collimation systems beyond the intensity limits imposed by tolerable losses. The concept was tested experimentally at the Fermilab Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. The first results on the collimation of 980-GeV antiprotons are presented. PMID:21929171

  14. Progress with Tevatron Electron Lens Head-On Beam-Beam Compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Valishev, A.; Kuznetsov, G.; Shiltsev, V.; Stancari, G.; Zhang, X.

    2010-05-19

    Tevatron electron lenses have been successfully used to mitigate bunch-to-bunch differences caused by longrange beam-beam interactions. For this purpose, the electron beam with uniform transverse density distribution was used. Another planned application of the electron lens is the suppression of tune spread due to head-on beam-beam collisions. For this purpose, the transverse distribution of the E{sup -} beam must be matched to that of the antiproton beam. In 2009, the Gaussian profile electron gun was installed in one of the Tevatron electron lenses. We report on the first experiments with non-linear beam-beam compensation. Discussed topics include measurement and control of the betatron tune spread, importance of the beam alignment and stability, and effect of electron lens on the antiproton beam lifetime.

  15. Do angles of obliquity apply to 30 degrees scattered radiation from megavoltage beams?

    PubMed

    Biggs, Peter J; Styczynski, John R

    2008-10-01

    The angle of obliquity is used in radiation shielding calculations to account for the longer path length x rays will see when obliquely incident on the protective barrier. According to the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), use of the angle of obliquity is explicitly assumed for primary radiation, so that an angle of obliquity for secondary radiation is never addressed. However, in the example section of the latest report, it specifically recommends against using an angle of obliquity for scattered radiation. To check this assumption, the existence or not of an angle of obliquity for scattered radiation has been investigated for bremsstrahlung x-ray beams of 4, 6, 10, 15, and 18 MV and for barriers consisting of concrete, lead, and steel using a Monte Carlo approach. The MCNP Monte Carlo code, v4.2C, has been used to generate scattered radiation at 30 degrees from a water phantom and incident on a secondary barrier at the same angle relative to the normal to the barrier. The barrier thickness was increased from zero to a thickness sufficient to reduce the fluence (f4 tally) to <10(-3). A transmission curve was created for each energy-barrier material combination by normalizing to zero thickness. The results for the first tenth-value layer (TVL) in concrete (5 energies) show an average angle of obliquity of 21.7 degrees +/- 5.6 degrees , and for the first two TVLs averaged 29.7 degrees +/- 3.9 degrees . The results for the first TVL in lead (3 energies) show an average angle of obliquity of 27.7 degrees +/- 4.0 degrees , and for the first two TVLs averaged 20.5 degrees +/- 5.8 degrees . There are no data in the NCRP reports for 30 degrees scattered radiation attenuated by steel with which to make a comparison. PMID:18784515

  16. Anti- and Hypermatter Research at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinheimer, J.; Xu, Z.; Gudima, K.; Botvina, A.; Mishustin, I.; Bleicher, M.; Stöcker, H.

    2012-11-01

    Within the next six years, the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) is built adjacent to the existing accelerator complex of the GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research at Darmstadt, Germany. Thus, the current research goals and the technical possibilities are substantially expanded. With its worldwide unique accelerator and experimental facilities, FAIR will provide a wide range of unprecedented fore-front research in the fields of hadron, nuclear, atomic, plasma physics and applied sciences which are summarized in this article. As an example this article presents research efforts on strangeness at FAIR using heavy ion collisions, exotic nuclei from fragmentation and antiprotons to tackle various topics in this area. In particular, the creation of hypernuclei and antimatter is investigated.

  17. Anti- and Hypermatter Research at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinheimer, J.; Xu, Z.; Rau, P.; Sturm, C.; Stöcker, H.

    2013-07-01

    Within the next six years, the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) is built adjacent to the existing accelerator complex of the GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research at Darmstadt, Germany. Thus, the current research goals and the technical possibilities are substantially expanded. With its worldwide unique accelerator and experimental facilities, FAIR will provide a wide range of unprecedented fore-front research in the fields of hadron, nuclear, atomic, plasma physics and applied sciences which are summarized in this article. As an example this article presents research efforts on strangeness at FAIR using heavy ion collisions, exotic nuclei from fragmentation and antiprotons to tackle various topics in this area. In particular, the creation of hypernuclei, metastable exotic multi-hypernuclear objects (MEMOs) and antimatter is investigated.

  18. 2D potential measurements by applying automatic beam adjustment system to heavy ion beam probe diagnostic on the Large Helical Devicea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, A.; Ido, T.; Kurachi, M.; Makino, R.; Nishiura, M.; Kato, S.; Nishizawa, A.; Hamada, Y.

    2014-11-01

    Two-dimensional potential profiles in the Large Helical Device (LHD) were measured with heavy ion beam probe (HIBP). To measure the two-dimensional profile, the probe beam energy has to be changed. However, this task is not easy, because the beam transport line of LHD-HIBP system is very long (˜20 m), and the required beam adjustment consumes much time. To reduce the probe beam energy adjustment time, an automatic beam adjustment system has been developed. Using this system, required time to change the probe beam energy is dramatically reduced, such that two-dimensional potential profiles were able to be successfully measured with HIBP by changing the probe beam energy shot to shot.

  19. 2D potential measurements by applying automatic beam adjustment system to heavy ion beam probe diagnostic on the Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, A. Ido, T.; Kato, S.; Hamada, Y.; Kurachi, M.; Makino, R.; Nishiura, M.; Nishizawa, A.

    2014-11-15

    Two-dimensional potential profiles in the Large Helical Device (LHD) were measured with heavy ion beam probe (HIBP). To measure the two-dimensional profile, the probe beam energy has to be changed. However, this task is not easy, because the beam transport line of LHD-HIBP system is very long (∼20 m), and the required beam adjustment consumes much time. To reduce the probe beam energy adjustment time, an automatic beam adjustment system has been developed. Using this system, required time to change the probe beam energy is dramatically reduced, such that two-dimensional potential profiles were able to be successfully measured with HIBP by changing the probe beam energy shot to shot.

  20. Ion Dynamic Capture Experiments With The High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James; Lewis, Raymond; Chakrabarti, Suman; Sims, William H.; Pearson, J. Boise; Fant, Wallace E.

    2002-01-01

    To take the first step towards using the energy produced from the matter-antimatter annihilation for propulsion applications, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Propulsion Research Center (PRC) has initiated a research activity examining the storage of low energy antiprotons. The High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT) is an electromagnetic system (Penning-Malmberg design) consisting of a 4 Tesla superconductor, a high voltage electrode confinement system, and an ultra high vacuum test section. It has been designed with an ultimate goal of maintaining 10(exp 12) charged particles with a half-life of 18 days. Currently, this system is being evaluated experimentally using normal matter ions that are cheap to produce, relatively easy to handle, and provide a good indication of overall trap behavior (with the exception of assessing annihilation losses). The ions are produced via a positive hydrogen ion source and transported to HiPAT in a beam line equipped with electrostatic optics. The optics serve to both focus and gate the incoming ions, providing microsecond-timed beam pulses that are dynamically captured by cycling the HiPAT forward containment field like a "trap door". Initial dynamic capture experiments have been successfully performed with beam energy and currents set to 1.9 kV and 23 micro-amps, respectively. At these settings up to 2x10(exp 9) ions have been trapped during a single dynamic cycle.

  1. Use of a wire scanner for monitoring residual gas ionization in Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility 20 keV∕u proton∕deuteron low energy beam transport beam line.

    PubMed

    Vainas, B; Eliyahu, I; Weissman, L; Berkovits, D

    2012-02-01

    The ion source end of the Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility accelerator consists of a proton∕deuteron ECR ion source and a low energy beam transport (LEBT) beam line. An observed reduction of the radio frequency quadrupole transmission with increase of the LEBT current prompted additional study of the LEBT beam properties. Numerous measurements have been made with the LEBT bream profiler wire biased by a variable voltage. Current-voltage characteristics in presence of the proton beam were measured even when the wire was far out of the beam. The current-voltage characteristic in this case strongly resembles an asymmetric diodelike characteristic, which is typical of Langmuir probes monitoring plasma. The measurement of biased wire currents, outside the beam, enables us to estimate the effective charge density in vacuum. PMID:22380317

  2. Experimental limit on low energy antiprotons in the cosmic radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streitmatter, R. E.; Stochaj, S. J.; Ormes, J. F.; Golden, R. L.; Stephens, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    Results are reported from the Low Energy Antiproton Experiment (LEAP), a balloon-borne instrument which was flown in August, 1987. No evidence of antiproton fluxes is found in the kinetic energy range of 120 MeV to 360 MeV, at the top of the atmosphere. The 90-percent is found confidence upper limit on the antiproton/proton ratio in this energy range is 3.5 x 10 to the -5th. In particular, this new experiment places an upper limit on the flux almost an order of magnitude below the reported flux of Buffington et al. (1981).

  3. Propagation of Secondary Antiprotons and Cosmic Rays in the Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moskalenko, I. V.; Strong, A. W.; Mashnik, S. G.; Ormes, J. F.; Jones, F. C.

    2002-01-01

    Recent more accurate antiproton data obtained by the BESS team during the last solar minimum pose a challenge to conventional propagation models of cosmic rays. In particular, the diffusive reacceleration model, which matches well key secondary/primary isotope ratios in cosmic rays, fails to reproduce the secondary antiproton spectrum. Tuning both secondary/primary isotope ratios and antiprotons is possible, but requires artificial breaks in the diffusion coefficient and the injection spectrum of primaries. We will discuss some possibilities to overcome these difficulties in the propagation models. We will present new results of our calculation of CR propagation in the Galaxy using the GALPROP code.

  4. Evidence for the existence of cosmic-ray antiprotons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, R. L.; Horan, S.; Mauger, B. G.; Badhwar, G. D.; Lacy, J. L.; Stephens, S. A.; Daniel, R. R.; Zipse, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    A search for cosmic-ray antiprotons was recently performed with the use of a balloon-borne superconducting-magnet spectrometer. A total of 46 antiproton candidates were observed in the rigidity interval from 5.6 to 12.5 GV/c. Of these events 18.3 are expected to be atmospheric and instrumentation background. The p(-)/p ratio is found to be 0.00052 + or - 0.00015. This ratio is consistent with secondary production of antiprotons in the interstellar medium.

  5. Cosmic ray antiprotons in the closed galaxy model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Protheroe, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    A calculation is made of the flux of secondary antiprotons expected for the leaky box model and for the closed galaxy model of Peters and Westergaard (1977). The antiproton/proton ratio observed at several GeV is a factor of 4 higher than the prediction for the leaky box model but is consistent with that predicted for the closed galaxy model. It is found that new low-energy data are not consistent with either model. Attention is given to the possibility of a primary antiproton component.

  6. Micro-/nanosized cantilever beams and mass sensors under applied axial tensile/compressive force vibrating in vacuum and viscous fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachiv, Ivo; Fang, Te-Hua; Chen, Tao-Hsing

    2015-11-01

    Vibrating micro-/nanosized cantilever beams under an applied axial force are the key components of various devices used in nanotechnology. In this study, we perform a complete theoretical investigation of the cantilever beams under an arbitrary value of the axial force vibrating in a specific environment such as vacuum, air or viscous fluid. Based on the results easy accessible expressions enabling one the fast and highly accurate estimations of changes in the Q-factor and resonant frequencies of beam oscillating in viscous fluid caused by the applied axial force are derived and analyzed. It has been also shown that for beam-to-string and string vibrational regimes the mode shape starts to significantly deviate from the one known for a beam without axial force. Moreover, a linear dependency of the vibrational amplitude in resonance on the dimensionless tension parameter has been found. We revealed that only a large axial force, i.e. the string vibrational regime, significantly improves the Q-factor of beams submerged in fluid, while an increase of the axial force in beam and beam-to-string transition regimes has a negligibly small impact on the Q-factor enhancement. Experiments carried out on the carbon nanotubes and nanowires are in a good agreement with present theoretical predictions.

  7. Micro-/nanosized cantilever beams and mass sensors under applied axial tensile/compressive force vibrating in vacuum and viscous fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Stachiv, Ivo; Fang, Te-Hua; Chen, Tao-Hsing

    2015-11-15

    Vibrating micro-/nanosized cantilever beams under an applied axial force are the key components of various devices used in nanotechnology. In this study, we perform a complete theoretical investigation of the cantilever beams under an arbitrary value of the axial force vibrating in a specific environment such as vacuum, air or viscous fluid. Based on the results easy accessible expressions enabling one the fast and highly accurate estimations of changes in the Q-factor and resonant frequencies of beam oscillating in viscous fluid caused by the applied axial force are derived and analyzed. It has been also shown that for beam-to-string and string vibrational regimes the mode shape starts to significantly deviate from the one known for a beam without axial force. Moreover, a linear dependency of the vibrational amplitude in resonance on the dimensionless tension parameter has been found. We revealed that only a large axial force, i.e. the string vibrational regime, significantly improves the Q-factor of beams submerged in fluid, while an increase of the axial force in beam and beam-to-string transition regimes has a negligibly small impact on the Q-factor enhancement. Experiments carried out on the carbon nanotubes and nanowires are in a good agreement with present theoretical predictions.

  8. Experimental demonstration of beam-beam compensation by Tevatron electron lenses and prospects for the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, V.; Alexahin, Y.; Kamerdzhiev, V.; Kuznetsov, G.; Zhang, X.L.; Bishofberger, K.; /Los Alamos

    2007-06-01

    Electromagnetic long-range and head-on interactions of high intensity proton and antiproton beams are significant sources of beam loss and lifetime limitations in the Tevatron Collider Run II (2001-present). We present observations of the beam-beam phenomena in the Tevatron and results of relevant beam studies. We analyze the data and various methods employed in high energy physics (HEP) operation, predict the performance for planned luminosity upgrades and discuss ways to improve it.

  9. Conceptual designs for antiproton space propulsion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cassenti, B.N.

    1989-01-01

    Five conceptual designs for antimatter space propulsion systems were compared in terms of their performance characteristics. The systems examined included solid-core liquid-propellant rockets; magnetically confined gaseous-core rockets using liquid or solid propellants; plasma-core rockets; pion rockets, which are driven directly by the mass annihilation products; and ram-augmented rockets, in which antiproton annihilation is used to heat hydrogen collected in interstellar space. It was found that, in general, as the specific impulse of the propulsion system increases, the thrust decreases. The comparison between designs showed that only fusion rockets have the capability to compete in performance with mass annihilation rockets. For very-high-speed interstellar missions, pion rockets, which can have a specific impulse of 20 million sec (although with a thrust-to-engine mass ratios of only 0.01 G) will offer best performance. 36 refs.

  10. Prospects for antiproton physics, my perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelert, Walter

    These closing remarks are not supposed to be a summary talk, for this please have a look to the individual contributions to be published in the proceedings, but rather some considerations on future prospects for antiproton physics. However, first I would like to appreciate the organizers idea for giving me the opportunity to thank them for a well balanced, exciting and interesting conference LEAP-2011 in this marvelous city of Vancouver. I am sure we all loved to be here and enjoyed the hospitality and the bond of friendship we could experience during these days. We appreciate the patience and help of all the local organizers where I especially would like to mention Jana Thomson for her endless and helpful assignment. Thank you all—the participants, the speakers, the conference chair, the sponsors—for making this conference a success and we are looking forward to the next occasion in this series of meetings which will be celebrated in Uppsala.