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Sample records for antistatic ability thermal

  1. Antistatic sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Antistatic sprays from several different manufacturers are examined. The sprays are examined for contamination potential (i.e., outgassing and nonvolatile residue), corrosiveness on an aluminum mirror surface, and electrostatic effectiveness. In addition, the chemical composition of the antistatic sprays is determined by infrared spectrophotometry, mass spectrometry, and ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The results show that 12 of the 17 antistatic sprays examined have a low contamination potential. Of these sprays, 7 are also noncorrosive to an aluminum surface. And of these, only 2 demonstrate good electrostatic properties with respect to reducing voltage accumulation; these sprays did not show a fast voltage dissipation rate however. The results indicate that antistatic sprays can be used on a limited basis where contamination potential, corrosiveness, and electrostatic effectiveness is not critical. Each application is different and proper evaluation of the situation is necessary. Information on some of the properties of some antistatic sprays is presented in this document to aid in the evaluation process.

  2. Durable antistatic coating for polymethylmethacrylate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadek, V.; Somoano, R. B.; Rembaum, A. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A durable antistatic coating is achieved on polymethylmethacrylate plastic without affecting its optical clarity by applying to the surface of the plastic a low molecular weight solvent having a high electron affinity and a high dipole moment, such as acentonitrile or nitromethane alone or in the presence of photopolymerizable monomer. The treated polymethylmethacrylate plastic dissipates most of the induced electrostatic charge and retains its optical clarity. The antistatic behavior persists after washing, rubbing and vacuum treatment.

  3. Anti-static coat for solar arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellas, C. N.

    1982-06-01

    A Kapton based composite material, suitable as a substrate for flexible solar arrays, was designed, constructed and tested under electron energies ranging from 5 to 30 keV. The rear of the array under adverse eclipse conditions (-197 C) produced voltages well below the discharge threshold. An antistatic coat suitable as a front cover for solar arrays is also described. The thermal and optical transmission characteristics were tested and are satisfactory, but the UV and particle degradation of the Tedlar material needs to be evaluated.

  4. Antistatic Polycarbonate/Copper Oxide Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovich, Michael; Rowland, George R., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    A composite material consisting of polycarbonate filled with copper oxide has been found to be suitable as an antistatic material. This material was developed to satisfy a requirement for an antistatic material that has a mass density less than that of aluminum and that exhibits an acceptably low level of outgassing in a vacuum.

  5. Polyaniline nanorods/PVC composites with antistatic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yulun; Feng, Weitao; Ding, Guoxin; Cheng, Guojun

    2015-08-01

    Novel antistatic polyaniline/poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) composite materials are prepared. This study focuses on modification of PVC matrix with different content of polyaniline nanorods. Polyaniline nanorods can reduce the volumn resistivity of PVC/polyaniline composites 1016 Ω cm from to 1011 Ω cm five orders of magnitude at low content of 2 wt %. Moreover, the mechanical performance of the composite material is also good. Based on the results, we have confidence in the new antistatic composites.

  6. Antistatic modification of polypropylene by incorporating Tween/modified Tween

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Anna; Xu, Xiang; Xiao, Huining; Li, Na; Guan, Yong; Li, Shuzhao

    2012-09-01

    Tween, one type of non-ionic surfactants, was used as inner antistatic agent of polypropylene (PP) and the antistatic performance of PP/Tween sheets were evaluated by surface resistivities (ρs) and water contact angles. The influence factors including hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) of Tween, addition amount, process conditions and atmospheric humidity were investigated in detail and the results showed Tween 40 with HLB at 15.7 provided PP an optimum antistatic effect with surface resistivity of 1010 Ω/sq, water contact angle of 57°, and surface energy of 49.5 mN/m. The ρs of PP/Tween sheets declined approximately 1 order of magnitude with 10% increasing of relative humidity. In order to improve the washing endurance of antistatic PP, a combination of T40 and cationic PP (CPP) were blended with PP and PP/CPP/T40 sheets revealed improved washing durability, with ρs below 1011 Ω/sq after ultrasound washing. In addition, T40 with double bonds was synthesized and UV crosslinking of modified T40 on PP surface also presented definite effects on water resistance.

  7. Evaluation of conductive concrete for anti-static flooring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yehia, Sherif; Qaddoumi, Nasser; Hassan, Mohamed; Swaked, Bassam

    2015-04-01

    Static electricity, exchange of electrons, and retention of charge between any two materials due to contact and separation are affected by the condition of the materials being nonconductive or insulated from ground. Several work environments, such as electronics industry, hospitals, offices, and computer rooms all require electro-static discharge (ESD) mitigation. Carpet Tile, Carpet Broadloom, Vinyl Tile, Vinyl sheet, Epoxy and Rubber are examples of existing flooring systems in the market. However, each system has its advantages and limitations. Conductive concrete is a relatively new material technology developed to achieve high electrical conductivity and high mechanical strength. The conductive concrete material can be an economical alternative for these ESD flooring systems. In this paper, the effectiveness of conductive concrete as an anti-static flooring system was evaluated. The initial results indicated that the proposed conductive concrete flooring and ground system met the acceptance criteria stated by ASTM F150.

  8. Surface modification of polyester fabric with plasma pretreatment and carbon nanotube coating for antistatic property improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. X.; Lv, J. C.; Ren, Y.; Zhi, T.; Chen, J. Y.; Zhou, Q. Q.; Lu, Z. Q.; Gao, D. W.; Jin, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    This study introduced a green method to prepare antistatic polyester (PET) fabrics by plasma pretreatment and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) coating. The influences of plasma conditions and SWCNT coating parameters on antistatic property of PET fabrics were investigated. PET fabrics were pretreated under various plasma conditions such as different treatment times, output powers and working gases, and then SWCNT coating on the plasma treated PET fabrics was carried out by coating-dry-cure using various coating parameters including different SWCNT concentrations, curing times and curing temperatures. PET fabrics were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and volume resistivity. SEM and XPS analysis of the plasma treated PET fabrics revealed the increase in surface roughness and oxygen/nitrogen containing groups on the PET fiber surface. SEM and XPS analysis of the plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabrics indicated the SWCNT coating on PET fiber surface. The plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabrics exhibited a good antistatic property, which increased and then decreased with the increasing plasma treatment time and output power. The antistatic property of the O2 plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabric was better and worse than that of N2 or Ar plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabric in the shorter treatment time and the longer treatment time, respectively. In addition, the antistatic property of the plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabrics also increased with the increasing SWCNT concentration, curing time and curing temperature in the range studied. Plasma conditions and SWCNT coating parameters had signally influence on the antistatic property of plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabrics. Therefore, adequate parameters should be carefully selected for the optimum antistatic property of the plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabrics.

  9. A sol-gel based surface treatment for preparation of water repellent antistatic textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Textor, Torsten; Mahltig, Boris

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a surface treatment is described for preparation of hydrophobic sol-gel coatings that simultaneously offer antistatic properties for an appropriate finishing of textiles and refinement of polymer foils. Sol-gel based formulations are modified with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic components simultaneously. Hydrophobic components are, e.g., alkoxysilanes modified with alkyl chains while the hydrophilic ones are amino-functionalized alkoxysilanes. The basic idea is that due to an enrichment of hydrophobic groups at the solid/air interface the surface of the as prepared coatings will be hydrophobic while the deeper region will be more hydrophilic. Textiles finished with these coatings exhibit sufficient water repellence and simultaneously absorb sufficient amounts of humidity in the deeper areas of the coating guaranteeing antistatic properties. This concept offers interesting approaches for the preparation of multifunctional surface coatings not only focussing on combining water repellence with antistatic properties for textile materials.

  10. Liquid phase deposition of a space-durable, antistatic SnO₂ coating on Kapton.

    PubMed

    Gotlib-Vainstein, Katya; Gouzman, Irina; Girshevitz, Olga; Bolker, Asaf; Atar, Nurit; Grossman, Eitan; Sukenik, Chaim N

    2015-02-18

    Polyimides are widely used in thermal blankets covering the external surfaces of spacecrafts due to their space durability and their thermo-optical properties. However, they are susceptible to atomic oxygen (AO) erosion, the main hazard of low Earth orbit (LEO), and to electrical charging. This work demonstrates that liquid phase deposition (LPD) of 100 nm of tin oxide creates a protective coating on Kapton polyimide that has good adherence and is effective in preventing AO-induced surface erosion and in reducing electrical charging. The as-deposited tin oxide induces no significant changes in the original thermo-optical properties of the polymer and is effective in preventing electrostatic discharge (ESD). The durability of the oxide coating under AO attack was studied using oxygen RF plasma. The AO exposure did not result in any significant changes in surface morphology, thermo-optical, mechanical, and electrical properties of the tin oxide-coated Kapton. The erosion yield of tin oxide-coated Kapton was negligible after exposure to 6.4 × 10(20) O atoms·cm(-2) of LEO equivalent AO fluence, indicating a complete protection of Kapton by the LPD deposited coating. Moreover, the tin oxide coating is flexible enough so that its electrical conductivity stays within the desired range of antistatic materials despite mechanical manipulations. The advantages of liquid phase deposited oxides in terms of their not being line of site limited are well established. We now extend these advantages to coatings that reduce electrostatic discharge while still providing a high level of protection from AO erosion. PMID:25607925

  11. 21 CFR 178.3130 - Antistatic and/or anti-fogging agents in food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Antistatic and/or anti-fogging agents in food-packaging materials. 178.3130 Section 178.3130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND...

  12. Elaboration of m-cresol polyamide12/ polyaniline composite films for antistatic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mezdour, D.; Tabellout, M.; Bardeau, J.-F; Sahli, S.

    2013-12-16

    The present work deals with the preparation of transparent antistatic films from an extreme dilution of an intrinsically conducting polymer (ICP) with not coloured polymers. Our approach is based on the chemical polymerization of a very thin layer of Polyaniline (PANI) around particles of an insulating polymer (PA12). Films were obtained by dissolving the synthesized core-shell particles in m-Cresol. The electric property and structure relationships were investigated by using dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Composite films exhibited a well established dc conductivity over all the frequency range for 10 wt. % of PANI concentration related to the conductive properties of the PANI clusters. X-ray diffraction data show broader and lower intensity of PA12 peaks when increasing PANI content, probably due to the additional doping effect of m- cresol. The doping of PA12/PANI films with Dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) was unequivocally verified by Raman spectroscopy.

  13. Dielectric relaxations of polyether-based polyurethanes containing ionic liquids as antistatic agents.

    PubMed

    Tsurumaki, Akiko; Bertasi, Federico; Vezzù, Keti; Negro, Enrico; Di Noto, Vito; Ohno, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-28

    Dielectric properties of polyurethanes containing poly(propylene oxide) (PO) and poly(ethylene oxide) (EO) units are discussed, along with the results of direct current (DC) measurements and broadband electrical spectroscopy (BES) studies. The dielectric properties of polyether-containing polyurethanes (PUs) are compared to those of PUs containing 1000 ppm of ionic liquids (ILs) as antistatic agents. The effects of the chemical environment of these ILs, including anion-fixed polymers (PU-AF), cation-fixed polymers (PU-CF), and a simple mixture of IL with the PUs (PU-IL), are compared and discussed on the basis of ion mobility. DC measurements suggest that the charge current is attributed not only to the electrode polarization but also to continuous dielectric relaxation. BES studies elucidate that both fast and slow relaxations are taking place in EO-rich domains in pristine PU and PU-AF. The activation energies of the slow relaxation and of the ionic conductivity are similar, suggesting that the ionic conductivity of these materials is attributed to the ion exchange reaction in EO/ion complexes. In contrast, only fast relaxations are observed in the domains mostly comprised of ion-depleted EO in the PUs containing "free" anions, i.e., PU-CF and PU-IL. This suggests that [Tf2N](-) ligands are weakly interacting with the EO chains and contribute effectively to the ion conduction. Thus, enhanced ionic conductivity is observed in PU-CF and PU-IL, yielding sufficient antistatic effects. Taking into account its long shelf life, arising from the lack of IL bleed-out, PU-CF is concluded to be the most promising candidate. PMID:26700822

  14. Novel microwave-synthesis of Cu nanoparticles in the absence of any stabilizing agent and their antibacterial and antistatic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raspolli Galletti, Anna Maria; Antonetti, Claudia; Marracci, Mirko; Piccinelli, Fabio; Tellini, Bernardo

    2013-09-01

    For the first time, copper nanoparticles were synthesized under microwave (MW) irradiation in the absence of any stabilizing agent. A 2-step synthetic approach was adopted working in basic ethanol solution and then ascorbic acid was added as a reducing reagent in the second step. The obtained copper nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, XRPD and TEM analysis. UV-vis spectra show an absorption peak at about 580-590 nm, typical of the plasma resonance of copper nanoparticles and XRPD analysis reveals that the complete reduction to metallic copper was reached at the end of the second step. Average sizes in the range 7-15 nm were ascertained through TEM microscopy. These copper nanoparticles are suitable for antibacterial and antistatic applications. The bactericidal effect was investigated in relation to the diameter of inhibition zone in disk diffusion tests on calf crust leather sample and an interesting antibacterial activity was verified against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans). Moreover, this treated leather showed encouraging antistatic behavior: in particular, equivalent circuital parameters were estimated via an impedance spectroscopy technique to have a first evaluation of the charge dissipation activity by volume conduction.

  15. The ability of different thermal aids to reduce hypothermia in neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, L J; Larsen, M L V; Malmkvist, J

    2016-05-01

    We investigated whether hypothermia in newborn piglets could be reduced by applying different thermal aids. The experiment was performed on 150 newborn piglets from 24 sows. Right after birth, the piglets were moved to a wire mesh cage for the first 2 h of life where they experienced 1 of 7 different combinations of flooring (solid vs. slatted) and treatments: control, with no additional thermal aids on a solid floor ( = 26) or a slatted floor ( = 26); built-in floor heating ( = 31) or floor heating as a radiant floor plate on solid floor (FloorPlate; = 19); radiant heater above a solid floor (RadiantC; = 22) or a slatted floor (RadiantSlat; = 18); and provision of straw on a solid floor (Straw; = 8). Piglets' rectal temperature was measured both continuously and manually every 10 min for the first 2 h after birth using a thermal sensor inserted in the rectum of the piglets. The rectal temperature curve was analyzed for differences in the slope of the drop in rectal temperature and the deflection tangent of the curve. Furthermore, differences in average rectal temperature, minimum rectal temperature, rectal temperature 2 h after birth, and time with rectal temperature below 35°C were analyzed. All statistical analyses were performed using a mixed model. All thermal aids/heat solutions resulted in a less steep drop in rectal temperature, a faster recovery, and, for the smaller piglets, also a greater average rectal temperature (except for built-in floor heating) and less time with rectal temperature below 35°C. The most efficient thermal aids to reduce hypothermia in newborn piglets were Straw and RadiantC. Furthermore, Straw, RadiantC, and FloorPlate also eliminated the effect of birth weight on some of these indicators of thermoregulatory success. Otherwise, FloorPlate and RadiantSlat showed an intermediate outcome for most measures. With no heating, piglets on a solid floor experienced more severe hypothermia than piglets on a slatted floor. In conclusion

  16. Effect of Minor al Addition on Glass-Forming Ability and Thermal Stability of Zr-Cu Binary Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Z. H.; Ding, D.; Lu, T.; Xia, L.; Dong, Y. D.

    By adding 2 at.% Al element in Zr50Cu50 binary glass-forming alloy, we obtained Zr50Cu48Al2 glassy rods with diameter larger than 3 mm. The reduced glass transition temperature, parameter γ and the critical section thickness obtained from the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) traces indicate the better glass-forming ability (GFA) of Zr50Cu48Al2 bulk metallic glass (BMG). The super-cooled liquid region and the continuous heating transformation diagram constructed from Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann fitting of crystallization temperature illustrate the enhanced thermal stability of the Zr50Cu48Al2 BMG. The mechanism of effect of minor Al addition on GFA was investigated in more detail from Angell's fragility concept and from the thermodynamic point of view respectively.

  17. A critical evaluation of the ability of SEVIRI thermal IR RGB rendering to identify mineral dust outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brindley, H.

    2011-12-01

    Imagery derived from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) onboard the Meteosat Second Generation series of geostationary satellites is routinely exploited for a wide variety of forecasting and hazard monitoring applications. By selectively combining the information from different wavelength channels, red-green-blue (RGB) composites can be produced which offer the potential to identify specific features, while the high temporal resolution of SEVIRI allows these features to be tracked forwards or backwards in time. Amongst the various rendering schemes is one designed to identify and monitor desert dust events using the information content within three thermal IR channels. Imagery produced using this rendering has been widely used by the scientific community as a tool to: identify dust sources and activation; assist with field campaign planning, including aircraft in-flight routing; as a visual tool to probe particular dust generation mechanisms and transport; and to qualitatively assess dust forecast model performance. Since the SEVIRI field of view extends across approximately 70°N to 70°S and 70°E to 70°W the instrument is ideally placed to monitor events originating from both African and Arabian dust sources. Nevertheless, interpretation of the imagery is subjective, and the rendering may fail to produce an unambiguous dust signal under certain conditions. Particular candidates which may confound the identification of a dust signature include high levels of atmospheric water vapour, a strong near-surface temperature inversion, the height of the dust layer, the characteristics of the underlying surface, variability in the dust mineralogical composition and in the size of the dust particles. In this paper a quantitative analysis of the ability of the SEVIRI dust RGB imagery to identify dust presence will be presented. This work is partly motivated by the findings of previous studies, but also by ongoing projects such as the UK-led Fennec

  18. Micro solid oxide fuel cell fabricated on porous stainless steel: a new strategy for enhanced thermal cycling ability

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kun Joong; Park, Byung Hyun; Kim, Sun Jae; Lee, Younki; Bae, Hongyeul; Choi, Gyeong Man

    2016-01-01

    Miniaturized solid oxide fuel cells (micro-SOFCs) are being extensively studied as a promising alternative to Li batteries for next generation portable power. A new micro-SOFC is designed and fabricated which shows enhanced thermal robustness by employing oxide-based thin-film electrode and porous stainless steel (STS) substrate. To deposit gas-tight thin-film electrolyte on STS, nano-porous composite oxide is proposed and applied as a new contact layer on STS. The micro-SOFC fabricated on composite oxide- STS dual layer substrate shows the peak power density of 560 mW cm−2 at 550 °C and maintains this power density during rapid thermal cycles. This cell may be suitable for portable electronic device that requires high power-density and fast thermal cycling. PMID:26928921

  19. Micro solid oxide fuel cell fabricated on porous stainless steel: a new strategy for enhanced thermal cycling ability.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kun Joong; Park, Byung Hyun; Kim, Sun Jae; Lee, Younki; Bae, Hongyeul; Choi, Gyeong Man

    2016-01-01

    Miniaturized solid oxide fuel cells (micro-SOFCs) are being extensively studied as a promising alternative to Li batteries for next generation portable power. A new micro-SOFC is designed and fabricated which shows enhanced thermal robustness by employing oxide-based thin-film electrode and porous stainless steel (STS) substrate. To deposit gas-tight thin-film electrolyte on STS, nano-porous composite oxide is proposed and applied as a new contact layer on STS. The micro-SOFC fabricated on composite oxide- STS dual layer substrate shows the peak power density of 560 mW cm(-2) at 550 °C and maintains this power density during rapid thermal cycles. This cell may be suitable for portable electronic device that requires high power-density and fast thermal cycling. PMID:26928921

  20. Micro solid oxide fuel cell fabricated on porous stainless steel: a new strategy for enhanced thermal cycling ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kun Joong; Park, Byung Hyun; Kim, Sun Jae; Lee, Younki; Bae, Hongyeul; Choi, Gyeong Man

    2016-03-01

    Miniaturized solid oxide fuel cells (micro-SOFCs) are being extensively studied as a promising alternative to Li batteries for next generation portable power. A new micro-SOFC is designed and fabricated which shows enhanced thermal robustness by employing oxide-based thin-film electrode and porous stainless steel (STS) substrate. To deposit gas-tight thin-film electrolyte on STS, nano-porous composite oxide is proposed and applied as a new contact layer on STS. The micro-SOFC fabricated on composite oxide- STS dual layer substrate shows the peak power density of 560 mW cm-2 at 550 °C and maintains this power density during rapid thermal cycles. This cell may be suitable for portable electronic device that requires high power-density and fast thermal cycling.

  1. Measurements of some parameters of thermal sparks with respect to their ability to ignite aviation fuel/air mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haigh, S. J.; Hardwick, C. J.; Baldwin, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    A method used to generate thermal sparks for experimental purposes and methods by which parameters of the sparks, such as speed, size, and temperature, were measured are described. Values are given of the range of such parameters within these spark showers. Titanium sparks were used almost exclusively, since it is particles of this metal which are found to be ejected during simulation tests to carbon fiber composite (CFC) joints. Tests were then carried out in which titanium sparks and spark showers were injected into JP4/(AVTAG F40) mixtures with air. Single large sparks and dense showers of small sparks were found to be capable of causing ignition. Tests were then repeated using ethylene/air mixtures, which were found to be more easily ignited by thermal sparks than the JP4/ air mixtures.

  2. Antistatic coating for acrylics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadek, V.; Rembaum, A.; Somono, R. B.

    1979-01-01

    After immersion in low molecular-weight solvents such as acetonitril or nitromethane, clear acrylic plastics dissipate up to 70% of induced electric charge within one minute, yet retain optical clarity.

  3. Effects of Phosphorus and Carbon Contents on Amorphous Forming Ability in Fe-based Amorphous Alloys Used for Thermal Spray Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Jeonghyeon; Jung, Seungmun; Lee, Hyuk-Joong; Lee, Byeong-Joo; Cha, Gil-up; Jo, Chang Yong; Lee, Sunghak

    2013-06-01

    Cost-effective Fe-based amorphous alloys used for thermal spray coatings were developed by varying contents of P and C, and their microstructure, hardness, and corrosion resistance were analyzed. In order to achieve chemical compositions having high amorphous forming ability, thermodynamically calculated phase diagrams of Fe-Al-P-C-B five-component system were used, from which compositions of super-cooled liquid having the lowest driving force of formation of crystalline phases were obtained. The thermodynamic calculation results showed that only phases of Fe3P and Fe3C were formed in the Fe78Al2P(18.3- x)C x B1.7 alloy system. Considering driving force curves of Fe3P and Fe3C, the carbon contents were selected to be 6.90 and 7.47 at. pct, when the thermodynamic calculation temperatures were 697 K (414 °C) and 715 K (442 °C), respectively. According to the microstructural analysis of suction-cast alloys, the Fe78Al2P10.83C7.47B1.7 alloy showed a fully amorphous microstructure, whereas the Fe78Al2P11.40C6.9B1.7 and Fe78Al2P10.3C8.0B1.7 alloys contained Fe3P and Fe3C phases. This Fe78Al2P10.83C7.47B1.7 alloy showed the better hardness and corrosion resistance than those of conventional thermal spray coating alloys, and its production cost could be lowered using cheaper alloying elements, thereby leading to the practical application to amorphous thermal spray coatings.

  4. Effects of sublethal fenitrothion ingestion on cholinesterase inhibition, standard metabolism, thermal preference, and prey-capture ability in the Australian central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps, Agamidae).

    PubMed

    Bain, David; Buttemer, William A; Astheimer, Lee; Fildes, Karen; Hooper, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    The central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) is a medium-sized lizard that is common in semiarid habitats in Australia and that potentially is at risk of fenitrothion exposure from use of the chemical in plague locust control. We examined the effects of single sublethal doses of this organophosphate (OP; low dose = 2.0 mg/kg; high dose = 20 mg/kg; control = vehicle alone) on lizard thermal preference, standard metabolic rate, and prey-capture ability. We also measured activities of plasma total cholinesterase (ChE) and acetylcholinesterase before and at 0, 2, 8, 24, 120, and 504 h after OP dosing. Predose plasma total ChE activity differed significantly between sexes and averaged 0.66 +/- 0.06 and 0.45 +/- 0.06 micromol/min/ml for males and females, respectively. Approximately 75% of total ChE activity was attributable to butyrylcholinesterase. Peak ChE inhibition reached 19% 2 h after OP ingestion in the low-dose group, and 68% 8 h after ingestion in high-dose animals. Neither OP doses significantly affected diurnal body temperature, standard metabolic rate, or feeding rate. Plasma total ChE levels remained substantially depressed up to 21 d after dosing in the high-dose group, making this species a useful long-term biomonitor of OP exposure in its habitat. PMID:14768874

  5. Enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity and oxidation ability of porous graphene-like g-C3N4 nanosheets via thermal exfoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Fan; Li, Yuhan; Wang, Zhenyu; Ho, Wing-Kei

    2015-12-01

    Graphene-like porous g-C3N4 nanosheets were synthesized via direct pyrolysis of thiourea followed by a thermal exfoliation. With increased exfoliation temperature, the color of the resulting samples gradually became shallow, and the thickness and size of the layers were decreased. A formation mechanism involving layer-by-layer exfoliation coupled with layer splitting was proposed. The band structure of the g-C3N4 nanosheets was continuously tuned because of quantum size effect. Time-resolved decay spectra indicated that the radiative lifetime of charge carriers (τ1 and τ2) increased from 4.13 and 26.23 ns for bulk g-C3N4 to 5.36 and 36.57 ns for graphene-like g-C3N4 nanosheets. The g-C3N4 nanosheet samples were applied for visible light photocatalytic removal of NOx in air. The performance of porous g-C3N4 nanosheets was significantly enhanced with increased exfoliation temperature from 450 to 550 °C. Moreover, photochemical and structural stability was well maintained after multiple reaction cycles. By monitoring the reaction intermediate NO2, it was found that the generation of NO2 was inhibited. The activity enhancement of graphene-like g-C3N4 nanosheets can be predominantly ascribed to the prolonged lifetime and improved photo-oxidation ability of charge carriers arising from the unique electronic structure. As the synthesis method for graphene-like g-C3N4 nanosheets with high a performance is simple, the g-C3N4 nanosheets can be envisioned to be applicable in environmental remediation and solar energy conversion.

  6. A critical evaluation of the ability of the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) thermal infrared red-green-blue rendering to identify dust events: Theoretical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brindley, Helen; Knippertz, Peter; Ryder, Claire; Ashpole, Ian

    2012-04-01

    Using a combination of idealized radiative transfer simulations and a case study from the first field campaign of the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) in southern Morocco, this paper provides a systematic assessment of the limitations of the widely used Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) red-green-blue (RGB) thermal infrared dust product. Both analyses indicate that the ability of the product to identify dust, via its characteristic pink coloring, is strongly dependent on the column water vapor, the lower tropospheric lapse rate, and dust altitude. In particular, when column water vapor exceeds ˜20-25 mm, dust presence, even for visible optical depths of the order 0.8, is effectively masked. Variability in dust optical properties also has a marked impact on the imagery, primarily as a result of variability in dust composition. There is a moderate sensitivity to the satellite viewing geometry, particularly in moist conditions. The underlying surface can act to confound the signal seen through variations in spectral emissivity, which are predominantly manifested in the 8.7μm SEVIRI channel. In addition, if a temperature inversion is present, typical of early morning conditions over the Sahara and Sahel, an increased dust loading can actually reduce the pink coloring of the RGB image compared to pristine conditions. Attempts to match specific SEVIRI observations to simulations using SAMUM measurements are challenging because of high uncertainties in surface skin temperature and emissivity. Recommendations concerning the use and interpretation of the SEVIRI RGB imagery are provided on the basis of these findings.

  7. Musical ability.

    PubMed

    Sloboda, J

    1993-01-01

    Musical ability is the ability to 'make sense' of music, and develops in most people over the first decade of life through normal enculturation. Whether this ability is developed to a high level usually depends on the decision to start learning a musical instrument, which forces high levels of focused cognitive engagement (practice) with musical materials. Performance ability has both technical and expressive aspects. These aspects are not always developed equally well. Factors contributing to the development of a well-balanced musical performer include (a) lengthy periods of engagement with music through practice and exploration, (b) high levels of material and emotional support from parents and other adults, (c) relationships with early teachers characterized by warmth and mutual liking, and (d) early experiences with music that promote, rather than inhibit, intense sensuous/affective experiences. It is argued that much formal education inhibits the development of musical ability through over-emphasis on assessment, creating performance anxiety, coupled with class and sex stereotyping of approved musical activities. Early free exploration of a medium is a necessity for the development of high levels of musicality. PMID:8168360

  8. High-contrast process using a positive-tone resist with antistatic coating and high-energy (100-keV) e-beam lithography for fabricating diffractive optical elements (DOE) on quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poli, Louis C.; Kondek, Christine A.; Shoop, Barry L.; McLane, George F.

    1995-06-01

    Diffractive optical elements (DOE) are becoming important as optical signal processing elements in increasingly diverse applications. These elements, fabricated on quartz, may be used as phase shift type masks or as embedded components that implement a transfer function within a processing network. A process is under development for the fabrication of a DOE implementing a Jervis error diffusion kernel for research in half tone image processing. Dry etching is performed after lithography and pattern transfer through a nickel mask. This results in etched areal features on the substrate. An optical diffraction medium is thus created. Lithographic patterning is done by e-beam lithography (EBL) to realize small features, but also offers the important advantage of a large depth of field which relaxes the problem of complex surface topology. The recent availability of high energy (100 KeV) lithography tools provides a capability for precision overlay, small feature resolution, and enhanced image contrast through a lower induced proximity effect. Patterning by EBL on insulating substrates is complicated by the necessity of providing a vehicle for the avoidance of charge buildup on the surface. In a previously presented paper a methodology was shown for the use of TQV-501 (Nitto Chemical) antistatic compound as a final spin on film for use with PMMA and SAL-601 (Shipley). In this current work, a process is described using EBL and a high performance positive resist working with a final film layer of antistatic TQV-501 on a nickel coated wafer. The process may then be reapplied to realize additional lithographic levels in registration, for multilevel DOE components. High energy (100 KeV) EBL is used to provide high quality pattern definition. The e-beam sensitive resist, ZEP-320-37 (Nagase Chemical) in dilution, together with a top film layer of TQV-501 serves as a bilevel resist system and is used for patterning the desired image before definition of the nickel mask through

  9. Human abilities.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, R J; Kaufman, J C

    1998-01-01

    This chapter reviews recent literature, primarily from the 1990s, on human abilities. The review opens with a consideration of the question of what intelligence is, and then considers some of the major definitions of intelligence, as well as implicit theories of intelligence around the world. Next, the chapter considers cognitive approaches to intelligence, and then biological approaches. It proceeds to psychometric or traditional approaches to intelligence, and then to broad, recent approaches. The different approaches raise somewhat different questions, and hence produce somewhat different answers. They have in common, however, the attempt to understand what kinds of mechanisms lead some people to adapt to, select, and shape environments in ways that match particularly well the demands of those environments. PMID:9496630

  10. Effect of Nb Concentration on Thermal Stability and Glass-Forming Ability of Soft Magnetic (Fe,Co)-Gd-Nb-B Glassy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Jia, Fei; Zhang, Xingguo; Xie, Guoqiang; Inoue, Akihisa

    2010-07-01

    Addition of a small amount of Nb to the (Fe,Co)-Gd-B glassy alloy in (Fe0.9Co0.1)71.5- x Nb x Gd3.5B25 increased the stabilization of supercooled liquid. The largest supercooled liquid region of 104 K was obtained for the x = 2 alloy. A distinct two-stage-like glass transition was observed with further incresing Nb content. The nanoscale (Fe,Co)23B6 phase precipitated in the glassy matrix after annealing, while the two-stage-like glass transition disappeared, indicating that the anomalous glass transition behavior originates from the exothermic reaction for the formation of the (Fe,Co)23B6 phase in the supercooled liquid region. The glass-forming ability (GFA) also increased by addition of Nb, leading to formation of the bulk glass form for the Nb-doped alloys. The best GFA with a diameter of over 3 mm was achieved for the x = 4 alloy. The (Fe,Co)-Gd-Nb-B glassy alloys exhibited good magnetic properties, i.e., rather high saturation magnetization of 0.81 to 1.22 T, low coercive force of 2.5 to 5.8 A/m, and low saturated magnetostriction of 9 to 19 × 10-6. In addition, the glassy alloys also possessed very high compressive fracture strength of 3842 to 3916 MPa and high Vickers hardness of 1025 to 1076.

  11. AgrAbility Project

    MedlinePlus

    About Us Search Search for: AgrAbility Assisting farmers and ranchers with disabilities. Menu Skip to content Home About AgrAbility Newsletters (old) AT Resources AT Database Staff Development Archive Contact Us We ...

  12. Competence and ability.

    PubMed

    Vogelstein, Eric

    2014-06-01

    It is nearly universally thought that the kind of decision-making competence that gives one a strong prima facie right to make one's own medical decisions essentially involves having an ability (or abilities) of some sort, or having a certain level or degree of ability (or abilities). When put under philosophical scrutiny, however, this kind of theory does not hold up. I will argue that being competent does not essentially involve abilities, and I will propose and defend a theory of decision-making competence according to which one is competent only if one possesses a certain kind of rationality in making treatment decisions. PMID:22845798

  13. Scientific Ability and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Kurt A.

    2007-01-01

    Following an introductory definition of "scientific ability and creativity", product-oriented, personality and social psychological approaches to studying scientific ability are examined with reference to competence and performance. Studies in the psychometric versus cognitive psychological paradigms are dealt with in more detail. These two…

  14. Measuring creative imagery abilities

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska, Dorota M.; Karwowski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative visual imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA), developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail), originality (the ability to produce unique imagery), and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery). TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of nine studies on a total sample of more than 1700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument's validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science. PMID:26539140

  15. Measuring creative imagery abilities.

    PubMed

    Jankowska, Dorota M; Karwowski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative visual imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA), developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail), originality (the ability to produce unique imagery), and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery). TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of nine studies on a total sample of more than 1700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument's validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science. PMID:26539140

  16. AgrAbility Project

    MedlinePlus

    ... About AgrAbility State Projects Directory The Toolbox AT Database Resources Veterans & Beginning Farmers Communities of Interest News ... 800) 825-4264 Home About The Toolbox AT Database Resources Online Training Contact Us You are here: ...

  17. Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…

  18. Transformation Problem Solving Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmel, Sarah Jane

    The relationship between transformation problem performance and Guilford Structure of Intellect (SI) abilities is explored. During two group sessions 42 females and 35 males, age 18-39, were administered 12 Guilford SI tests exemplifying all five symbolic content (numeric) operations, and three contents in the divergent production area. Logical…

  19. Conservatism and Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankov, Lazar

    2009-01-01

    Conservatism and cognitive ability are negatively correlated. The evidence is based on 1254 community college students and 1600 foreign students seeking entry to United States' universities. At the individual level of analysis, conservatism scores correlate negatively with SAT, Vocabulary, and Analogy test scores. At the national level of…

  20. Measuring Divergent Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sefer, Jasmina

    The validity and reliability of the Yugoslavian (Beograd) version of the Hungarian adaptation of the Torrance Divergent Capacities Test (HAT-DAT) were tested, with a view toward improving the methodology of scoring the creative abilities test and determining standards for Yugoslavia. The test, based on the work of J. P. Guilford (1977), examines…

  1. A Specific Calculating Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mike; O'Connor, Neil; Hermelin, Beate

    1998-01-01

    Studied the calculating ability used by a low IQ savant to identify prime numbers in two experiments comparing him to control subjects, one involving reaction time and the other involving inspection time. Concludes that this individual uses a complex computational algorithm to identify primes and discusses the apparent contradiction of his low IQ.…

  2. Music and nonmusical abilities.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, E G

    2001-06-01

    Reports that exposure to music causes benefits in nonmusical domains have received widespread attention in the mainstream media. Such reports have also influenced public policy. The so-called "Mozart effect" actually refers to two relatively distinct phenomena. One concerns short-term increases in spatial abilities that are said to occur from listening to music composed by Mozart. The other refers to the possibility that formal training in music yields nonmusical benefits. A review of the relevant findings indicates that the short-term effect is small and unreliable. Moreover, when it is evident, it can be explained by between-condition differences in the listener's mood or levels of cognitive arousal. By contrast, the effect of music lessons on nonmusical aspects of cognitive development is still an open question. Several studies have reported positive associations between formal music lessons and abilities in nonmusical (e.g., linguistic, mathematical, and spatial) domains. Nonetheless, compelling evidence for a causal link remains elusive. PMID:11458841

  3. Quantum Thermal Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joulain, Karl; Drevillon, Jérémie; Ezzahri, Younès; Ordonez-Miranda, Jose

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate that a thermal transistor can be made up with a quantum system of three interacting subsystems, coupled to a thermal reservoir each. This thermal transistor is analogous to an electronic bipolar one with the ability to control the thermal currents at the collector and at the emitter with the imposed thermal current at the base. This is achieved by determining the heat fluxes by means of the strong-coupling formalism. For the case of three interacting spins, in which one of them is coupled to the other two, that are not directly coupled, it is shown that high amplification can be obtained in a wide range of energy parameters and temperatures. The proposed quantum transistor could, in principle, be used to develop devices such as a thermal modulator and a thermal amplifier in nanosystems.

  4. Quantum Thermal Transistor.

    PubMed

    Joulain, Karl; Drevillon, Jérémie; Ezzahri, Younès; Ordonez-Miranda, Jose

    2016-05-20

    We demonstrate that a thermal transistor can be made up with a quantum system of three interacting subsystems, coupled to a thermal reservoir each. This thermal transistor is analogous to an electronic bipolar one with the ability to control the thermal currents at the collector and at the emitter with the imposed thermal current at the base. This is achieved by determining the heat fluxes by means of the strong-coupling formalism. For the case of three interacting spins, in which one of them is coupled to the other two, that are not directly coupled, it is shown that high amplification can be obtained in a wide range of energy parameters and temperatures. The proposed quantum transistor could, in principle, be used to develop devices such as a thermal modulator and a thermal amplifier in nanosystems. PMID:27258859

  5. Different Dimensions of Spatial Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, John; Hauptman, Anna

    1981-01-01

    Indicates that spatial ability describes a variety of different behaviors and briefly reviews efforts to define intelligence factors and identify processes involved in solving tasks requiring spatial ability. (DS)

  6. Dynamic thermal environment and thermal comfort.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y; Ouyang, Q; Cao, B; Zhou, X; Yu, J

    2016-02-01

    Research has shown that a stable thermal environment with tight temperature control cannot bring occupants more thermal comfort. Instead, such an environment will incur higher energy costs and produce greater CO2 emissions. Furthermore, this may lead to the degeneration of occupants' inherent ability to combat thermal stress, thereby weakening thermal adaptability. Measured data from many field investigations have shown that the human body has a higher acceptance to the thermal environment in free-running buildings than to that in air-conditioned buildings with similar average parameters. In naturally ventilated environments, occupants have reported superior thermal comfort votes and much greater thermal comfort temperature ranges compared to air-conditioned environments. This phenomenon is an integral part of the adaptive thermal comfort model. In addition, climate chamber experiments have proven that people prefer natural wind to mechanical wind in warm conditions; in other words, dynamic airflow can provide a superior cooling effect. However, these findings also indicate that significant questions related to thermal comfort remain unanswered. For example, what is the cause of these phenomena? How we can build a comfortable and healthy indoor environment for human beings? This article summarizes a series of research achievements in recent decades, tries to address some of these unanswered questions, and attempts to summarize certain problems for future research. PMID:26171688

  7. Individual differences in auditory abilities.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Gary R; Watson, Charles S; Gygi, Brian

    2007-07-01

    Performance on 19 auditory discrimination and identification tasks was measured for 340 listeners with normal hearing. Test stimuli included single tones, sequences of tones, amplitude-modulated and rippled noise, temporal gaps, speech, and environmental sounds. Principal components analysis and structural equation modeling of the data support the existence of a general auditory ability and four specific auditory abilities. The specific abilities are (1) loudness and duration (overall energy) discrimination; (2) sensitivity to temporal envelope variation; (3) identification of highly familiar sounds (speech and nonspeech); and (4) discrimination of unfamiliar simple and complex spectral and temporal patterns. Examination of Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores for a large subset of the population revealed little or no association between general or specific auditory abilities and general intellectual ability. The findings provide a basis for research to further specify the nature of the auditory abilities. Of particular interest are results suggestive of a familiar sound recognition (FSR) ability, apparently specialized for sound recognition on the basis of limited or distorted information. This FSR ability is independent of normal variation in both spectral-temporal acuity and of general intellectual ability. PMID:17614500

  8. Assessing Highly-Creative Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowdroy, Rob; de Graaff, Erik

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a psychological perspective of the educational dilemma of assessing highly (high-level) creative ability (with some connections to contemporary philosophical debate). Assessment of highly-creative ability is a topic of longstanding debate involving questions of what constitutes creativity; whether the creative mental process is…

  9. Diver First Class Reading Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, E. C., III; Berghage, T. E.

    The Nelson-Denny reading test was administered to thirty Navy first class diver candidates to evaluate the group's vocabulary, reading comprehension, reading rate and over-all reading ability. Reading rate and comprehension were at the twelfth grade level, while vocabulary ability was equal to the college freshman norm. (Author)

  10. Egocentrism and Map Reading Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towler, John O.

    Egocentrism was investigated as an influencing factor in the development of the perceptual abilities needed to understand and interpret topographic maps. Attainment of an adequate concept of space, and the ability to accurately perceive spatial relationships (perspectives) are considered fundamental. Piaget and Inhelder identified three stages of…

  11. Implicit Learning as an Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Scott Barry; DeYoung, Caroline G.; Gray, Jeremy R.; Jimenez, Luis; Brown, Jamie; Mackintosh, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    The ability to automatically and implicitly detect complex and noisy regularities in the environment is a fundamental aspect of human cognition. Despite considerable interest in implicit processes, few researchers have conceptualized implicit learning as an ability with meaningful individual differences. Instead, various researchers (e.g., Reber,…

  12. Ability Measurement: Conventional or Adaptive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David J.; Betz, Nancy E.

    Research to date on adaptive (sequential, branched, individualized, tailored, programmed, response-contingent) ability testing is reviewed and summarized, following a brief review of problems inherent in conventional individual and group approaches to ability measurement. Research reviewed includes empirical, simulation and theoretical studies of…

  13. The Measurement of Translation Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Variables that constitute translation ability are discussed, based on a two-year development and validation study of job-related tests of translation ability for the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The project involved the development of two parallel forms of the Spanish into English Verbatim Translation Exam (SEVTE). (five references) (LB)

  14. Thermal expansion in nanoresonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancardo Viotti, Agustín; Monastra, Alejandro G.; Moreno, Mariano F.; Florencia Carusela, M.

    2016-08-01

    Inspired by some recent experiments and numerical works related to nanoresonators, we perform classical molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the thermal expansion and the ability of the device to act as a strain sensor assisted by thermally-induced vibrations. The proposed model consists in a chain of atoms interacting anharmonically with both ends clamped to thermal reservoirs. We analyze the thermal expansion and resonant frequency shifts as a function of temperature and the applied strain. For the transversal modes the shift is approximately linear with strain. We also present analytical results from canonical calculations in the harmonic approximation showing that thermal expansion is uniform along the device. This prediction also works when the system operates in a nonlinear oscillation regime at moderate and high temperatures.

  15. [Driving ability with multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Küst, J; Dettmers, C

    2014-07-01

    Driving is an important issue for young patients, especially for those whose walking capacity is impaired. Driving might support the patient's social and vocational participation. The question as to whether a patient with multiple sclerosis (MS) is restricted in the ability to drive a car depends on neurological and neuropsychological deficits, self-awareness, insight into deficits and ability to compensate for loss of function. Because of the enormous variability of symptoms in MS the question is highly individualized. A practical driving test under supervision of a driving instructor (possibly accompanied by a neuropsychologist) might be helpful in providing both patient and relatives adequate feedback on driving abilities. PMID:24906536

  16. Numerical ability predicts mortgage default.

    PubMed

    Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan

    2013-07-01

    Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one's mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage. PMID:23798401

  17. Numerical ability predicts mortgage default

    PubMed Central

    Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one’s mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage. PMID:23798401

  18. Does Environmental Heterogeneity Promote Cognitive Abilities?

    PubMed

    González-Gómez, Paulina L; Razeto-Barry, Pablo; Araya-Salas, Marcelo; Estades, Cristian F

    2015-09-01

    In the context of global change the possible loss of biodiversity has been identified as a major concern. Biodiversity could be seriously threatened as a direct consequence of changes in availability of food, changing thermal conditions, and loss and fragmentation of habitat. Considering the magnitude of global change, an understanding of the mechanisms involved in coping with a changing environment is urgent. We explore the hypothesis that species and individuals experiencing highly variable environments are more likely to develop a wider range of responses to handle the different and unpredictable conditions imposed by global change. In the case of vertebrates, the responses to the challenges imposed by unpredictable perturbations ultimately are linked to cognitive abilities allowing the solving of problems, and the maximization of energy intake. Our models were hummingbirds, which offer a particularly compelling group in which to examine the functional and mechanistic links between behavioral and energetic strategies in individuals experiencing different degrees of social and environmental heterogeneity. PMID:26082484

  19. Inhibitory Control Predicts Grammatical Ability

    PubMed Central

    Ibbotson, Paul; Kearvell-White, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We present evidence that individual variation in grammatical ability can be predicted by individual variation in inhibitory control. We tested 81 5-year-olds using two classic tests from linguistics and psychology (Past Tense and the Stroop). Inhibitory control was a better predicator of grammatical ability than either vocabulary or age. Our explanation is that giving the correct response in both tests requires using a common cognitive capacity to inhibit unwanted competition. The implications are that understanding the developmental trajectory of language acquisition can benefit from integrating the developmental trajectory of non-linguistic faculties, such as executive control. PMID:26659926

  20. Thermal Properties Measurement Report

    SciTech Connect

    Carmack, Jon; Braase, Lori; Papesch, Cynthia; Hurley, David; Tonks, Michael; Zhang, Yongfeng; Gofryk, Krzysztof; Harp, Jason; Fielding, Randy; Knight, Collin; Meyer, Mitch

    2015-08-01

    The Thermal Properties Measurement Report summarizes the research, development, installation, and initial use of significant experimental thermal property characterization capabilities at the INL in FY 2015. These new capabilities were used to characterize a U3Si2 (candidate Accident Tolerant) fuel sample fabricated at the INL. The ability to perform measurements at various length scales is important and provides additional data that is not currently in the literature. However, the real value of the data will be in accomplishing a phenomenological understanding of the thermal conductivity in fuels and the ties to predictive modeling. Thus, the MARMOT advanced modeling and simulation capability was utilized to illustrate how the microstructural data can be modeled and compared with bulk characterization data. A scientific method was established for thermal property measurement capability on irradiated nuclear fuel samples, which will be installed in the Irradiated Material Characterization Laboratory (IMCL).

  1. Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, H. H.; Maree, J. G.; Sibanda, E.

    2006-01-01

    While exceptional leaders share certain qualities like a strong personal ethic and a compelling vision of the future, research has failed to provide conclusive "proof" of the link between a leader's effectiveness and his/ her emotional intelligence (defined from a cognitive perspective, as a set of abilities). Given the increased recognition of…

  2. Performance Equals Ability and What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunnette, Marvin D.

    The results of several research studies designed to evaluate different theories of work motivation are presented. Graen (1967), through hiring 169 high school girls to do a clerical task, showed that ability measures can account for far more performance variance than motivation variables such as expectancy and instrumentality. Similar results were…

  3. The Structure of Mathematical Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furneaux, W. D.; Rees, Ruth

    1978-01-01

    A mathematics test and the Thurstone PMA Battery were administered to 225 technical students. The item/item correlations were analyzed using both a principal components and a maximum-likelihood method. After varimax rotation, the same structure emerged from both. Results suggest a "mathematical ability" factor independent of "g." (Author/SJL)

  4. Challenging High-Ability Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scager, Karin; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Pilot, Albert; Wubbels, Theo

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature on indicators of an optimal learning environment for high-ability students frequently discusses the concept of challenge. It is, however, not clear what, precisely, constitutes appropriate challenge for these students. In this study, the authors examined an undergraduate honours course, Advanced Cell Biology, which has…

  5. Community Influences on Cognitive Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coon, Hilary; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Associations between community environment and cognitive ability were studied in 167 adoptive and 175 nonadoptive Colorado families. Seven families were omitted. A proposed model, tested by census measures, finds several aspects of communities showing environmental relationships with child IQ over parental influences. Rural communities have a…

  6. Ability Grouping and Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1994

    This collection of articles is intended to demonstrate that there is solid research to justify both ability grouping and cooperative learning with gifted students and that each approach should be used judiciously to address particular student needs. Introductory material describes the philosophy and program policy of the Center for Talented Youth…

  7. Technology and Motor Ability Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin; Lang, Yong; Luo, Zhongmin

    2014-01-01

    As a new member joining the technology family, active video games have been developed to promote physical exercise. This working-in-progress paper shares an ongoing project on examining the basic motor abilities that are enhanced through participating in commercially available active video games. [For the full proceedings see ED557181.

  8. The Assessment of Mathematical Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Herbert H.

    1983-01-01

    A test was given to 322 secondary students to develop a profile of mathematical ability based on four components: computation, pattern recognition, logical reasoning, and symbolic manipulation. These profiles were compared to mathematics test scores; the results verified hypotheses about individual differences in mental processes and knowledge…

  9. Competence: Commodification of Human Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Soonghee

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the meaning and presumptions of competence in the concrete context of knowledge capitalism. First, the nature of competence as a "commodification of human ability" that obtains a standardized monetary value to sell in the labor market, is elucidated by applying Karl Marx's critical theory. Second, it is…

  10. Cognitive Abilities of Maltreated Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viezel, Kathleen D.; Freer, Benjamin D.; Lowell, Ari; Castillo, Jenean A.

    2015-01-01

    School psychologists should be aware of developmental risk factors for children who have been abused or neglected. The present study used the "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition" to examine the cognitive abilities of 120 children in foster care subsequent to maltreatment. Results indicated that, compared to a…

  11. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  12. Visual Discriminatory Ability Among Prereaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, John Raymond; Ryckman, David B.

    The ability of 50 lower middle-class and 25 upper middle-class prereading children to discriminate between pairs of uppercase alphabet letters was tested. A set of 3x5 cards with a sample stimulus in the upper center section of each card and two alternative choice stimuli just below and to the right and left of the sample was used. The 650 total…

  13. Relative thermalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Rio, Lídia; Hutter, Adrian; Renner, Renato; Wehner, Stephanie

    2016-08-01

    Locally thermal quantum systems may contradict traditional thermodynamics: heat can flow from a cold body to a hotter one, if the two are highly entangled. We show that to recover thermodynamic laws, we must use a stronger notion of thermalization: a system S is thermal relative to a reference R if S is both locally thermal and uncorrelated with R . Considering a general quantum reference is particularly relevant for a thermodynamic treatment of nanoscale quantum systems. We derive a technical condition for relative thermalization in terms of conditional entropies. Established results on local thermalization, which implicitly assume a classical reference, follow as special cases.

  14. Relative thermalization.

    PubMed

    Del Rio, Lídia; Hutter, Adrian; Renner, Renato; Wehner, Stephanie

    2016-08-01

    Locally thermal quantum systems may contradict traditional thermodynamics: heat can flow from a cold body to a hotter one, if the two are highly entangled. We show that to recover thermodynamic laws, we must use a stronger notion of thermalization: a system S is thermal relative to a reference R if S is both locally thermal and uncorrelated with R. Considering a general quantum reference is particularly relevant for a thermodynamic treatment of nanoscale quantum systems. We derive a technical condition for relative thermalization in terms of conditional entropies. Established results on local thermalization, which implicitly assume a classical reference, follow as special cases. PMID:27627243

  15. Thermal engine

    SciTech Connect

    Karnes, T.E.; Trupin, R.J.

    1984-01-03

    A thermal engine utilizing a strip of nitinol material or other thermally responsive shape memory effect material to drive a reciprocating output shaft, said strip of material forming a common wall between two different alternating temperature sources which thermally cycle the material.

  16. [Rheumatic diseases and work ability].

    PubMed

    Minisola, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Musculoskeletal diseases are tile most frequent cause of pain in the working population. Rheumatic diseases are chronic illnesses, cause of functional impairnment, relevant working disability and absence from work; however, affected patients maintain a significant functional ability. In this context, the "Fit for work" project, operating in Italy since 2012, promotes the management of chronic musculoskeletal conditions through the realization, also in our country, of a rheumatic medical assistance network in behalf of workers affected by rheumatic diseases and other musculoskeletal disabiliting conditions. PMID:25558722

  17. Polymeric additives for antistatic treatment of sheet molding composites (SMC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedan-Smolka, Michaela; Schubert, Katrin; Taeger, Antje; Marks, Hagen

    2016-03-01

    Novel oligomeric/polymeric additives with ionic units were synthesized in a one pot procedure in order to enhance the specific surface resistivity of SMC-materials. In contrast to industrially used inorganic salts or carbon materials, such as carbon black or CNT's, these substances are nearly colorless and matrix compatible and, resulting from that, easy to homogenize with the SMC-matrix. Furthermore, it was found, that additives which can be covalently bonded to the matrix during the molding procedure are preferred compared to physically mixed substances. The effectiveness of chemically bonded substances regarding with the lowering of the specific surface resistivity is higher and selected additives do not change the reactivity and resulting mechanical properties of the molded material.

  18. Low intelligence and special abilities.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, N; Hermelin, B

    1988-07-01

    In summary, our research enables us to conclude that specific talents are found in people who differ widely in general intelligence levels and such talents should therefore be regarded as at least partly intelligence-independent. However, between normal and mentally handicapped populations and even within the idiot savant group, general cognitive capacity plays some part in determining the manner in which talents manifest themselves. Idiot savant special abilities can neither be regarded as the sole consequence of practice and training, nor are such skills based only on an efficient rote memory. Instead, idiots savants use strategies which are founded on the deduction and application of rules governing the material upon which their special ability operates. They also generate novel or new examples of such rule based structures just as we do in our use of language. Because of the much greater prevalence of idiots savants in the autistic than in the mentally handicapped population, some characteristic common to both autism and specific giftedness might be assumed. An obsessional pre-occupation with a limited section of the environment might be a common factor to both. It may be this rather than autism itself which is relevant to the idiot savant phenomenon. PMID:3063716

  19. Assessing Algebraic Solving Ability: A Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lian, Lim Hooi; Yew, Wun Thiam

    2012-01-01

    Algebraic solving ability had been discussed by many educators and researchers. There exists no definite definition for algebraic solving ability as it can be viewed from different perspectives. In this paper, the nature of algebraic solving ability in terms of algebraic processes that demonstrate the ability in solving algebraic problem is…

  20. Thermal Lens Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Kenji; Hibara, Akihide; Kimura, Hiroko; Sawada, Tsuguo; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2000-09-01

    We developed a novel laser microscope based on the thermal lens effect induced by a coaxial beam comprised of excitation and probe beams. The signal generation mechanism was confirmed to be an authentic thermal lens effect from the measurement of signal and phase dependences on optical configurations between the sample and the probe beam focus, and therefore, the thermal lens effect theory could be applied. Two-point spatial resolution was determined by the spot size of the excitation beam, not by the thermal diffusion length. Sensitivity was quite high, and the detection ability, evaluated using a submicron microparticle containing dye molecules, was 0.8 zmol/μm2, hence a distribution image of trace chemical species could be obtained quantitatively. In addition, analytes are not restricted to fluorescent species, therefore, the thermal lens microscope is a promising analytical microscope. A two-dimensional image of a histamine molecule distribution, which was produced in mast cells at the femtomole level in a human nasal mucous polyp, was obtained.

  1. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafiz Abd Malek, Muhamad; Hayati Saad, Nor; Kiyai Abas, Sunhaji; Mohd Shah, Noriyati

    2013-06-01

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  2. Cardioprotective abilities of white wine.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jianhua; Tosaki, Arpad; Cordis, Gerald A; Bertelli, Alberto A E; Bertelli, Aldo; Maulik, Nilanjana; Das, Dipak K

    2002-05-01

    To study if white wines, like red wine, can also protect the heart from ischemia reperfusion injury, ethanol-free extracts of three different white wines (WW1, WW2 and WW3) (100 mg/100 g body weight) were given orally to Sprague Dawley rats (200 g body weight) for three weeks. Control rats were given water only for the same period of time. After three weeks, rats were anesthetized and sacrificed, and the hearts excised for the preparation of isolated working rat heart. All hearts were subjected to 30 min global ischemia followed by two hours of reperfusion. The results demonstrated that among the three different white wines, only WW2 showed cardioprotection as evidenced by improved post-ischemic ventricular recovery compared to control. The amount of malonaldehyde production in white wine-fed rat hearts were lower compared to that found in control hearts indicating reduced formation of the reactive oxygen species. In vitro studies using chemiluminescence technique revealed that these white wines scavenged both superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals. The results of our study demonstrated that only WW2 white wine provided cardioprotection as evidenced by the improved the post-ischemic contractile recovery and reduced myocardial infarct size. The cardioprotective effect of this white wine may be attributed, at least in part, from its ability to function as an in vivo antioxidant. PMID:12074987

  3. Thermal Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutgers, Norman

    The role that a good thermal environment plays in the educational process is discussed. Design implications arise from an analysis of the heating and ventilating principles as apply to vocational-technical facilities. The importance of integrating thermal components in the total design is emphasized. (JS)

  4. Innovative Allies: Spatial and Creative Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coxon, Steve V.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial and creative abilities are important for innovations in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields, but talents are rarely developed from these abilities by schools, including among gifted children and adolescents who have a high potential to become STEM innovators. This article provides an overview of each ability and makes…

  5. A Structural Theory of Spatial Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttman, Ruth; And Others

    1990-01-01

    After a brief review of the contributions of factor analysis and regional analysis to the elaboration of the structures of spatial abilities, a facet design and regional model for spatial abilities are presented. A cylindrical-wedge model is proposed to represent the correlational structure of spatial ability tests. (SLD)

  6. Explaining High Abilities of Nobel Laureates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shavinina, Larisa

    2004-01-01

    Although the Nobel Prize is associated with a rare, superior degree of intellectually creative achievement, high abilities of Nobel laureates are far from well explained. This paper argues that Nobel laureates' high abilities are determined in part by their extracognitive abilities, that is, specific feelings, preferences, beliefs and intuitive…

  7. Predicting Academic Achievement with Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Treena Eileen; Thompson, Lee Anne

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explain variation in academic achievement with general cognitive ability and specific cognitive abilities. Grade point average, Wide Range Achievement Test III scores, and SAT scores represented academic achievement. The specific cognitive abilities of interest were: working memory, processing speed, and…

  8. The Effect of Core Configuration on Thermal Barrier Thermal Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMange, Jeffrey J.; Bott, Robert H.; Druesedow, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal barriers and seals are integral components in the thermal protection systems (TPS) of nearly all aerospace vehicles. They are used to minimize heat transfer through interfaces and gaps and protect underlying temperature-sensitive components. The core insulation has a significant impact on both the thermal and mechanical properties of compliant thermal barriers. Proper selection of an appropriate core configuration to mitigate conductive, convective and radiative heat transfer through the thermal barrier is challenging. Additionally, optimization of the thermal barrier for thermal performance may have counteracting effects on mechanical performance. Experimental evaluations have been conducted to better understand the effect of insulation density on permeability and leakage performance, which can significantly impact the resistance to convective heat transfer. The effect of core density on mechanical performance was also previously investigated and will be reviewed. Simple thermal models were also developed to determine the impact of various core parameters on downstream temperatures. An extended understanding of these factors can improve the ability to design and implement these critical TPS components.

  9. Thermal Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Commercially known as Solimide, Temptronics, Inc.'s thermal insulation has application in such vehicles as aircraft, spacecraft and surface transportation systems (i.e. rapid transit cars, trains, buses, and ships) as acoustical treatment for door, wall, and ceiling panels, as a means of reducing vibrations, and as thermal insulation (also useful in industrial equipment). Product originated from research conducted by Johnson Space Center on advanced flame-resistant materials for minimizing fire hazard in the Shuttle and other flight vehicles.

  10. Thermal Expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Guglielmo; Perfetti, Mauro

    All solid materials, when cooled to low temperatures experience a change in physical dimensions which called "thermal contraction" and is typically lower than 1 % in volume in the 4-300 K temperature range. Although the effect is small, it can have a heavy impact on the design of cryogenic devices. The thermal contraction of different materials may vary by as much as an order of magnitude: since cryogenic devices are constructed at room temperature with a lot of different materials, one of the major concerns is the effect of the different thermal contraction and the resulting thermal stress that may occur when two dissimilar materials are bonded together. In this chapter, theory of thermal contraction is reported in Sect. 1.2 . Section 1.3 is devoted to the phenomenon of negative thermal expansion and its applications.

  11. Thermal modeling and optimization of a thermally matched energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boughaleb, J.; Arnaud, A.; Cottinet, P. J.; Monfray, S.; Gelenne, P.; Kermel, P.; Quenard, S.; Boeuf, F.; Guyomar, D.; Skotnicki, T.

    2015-08-01

    The interest in energy harvesting devices has grown with the development of wireless sensors requiring small amounts of energy to function. The present article addresses the thermal investigation of a coupled piezoelectric and bimetal-based heat engine. The thermal energy harvester in question converts low-grade heat flows into electrical charges by achieving a two-step conversion mechanism for which the key point is the ability to maintain a significant thermal gradient without any heat sink. Many studies have previously focused on the electrical properties of this innovative device for energy harvesting but until now, no thermal modeling has been able to describe the device specificities or improve its thermal performances. The research reported in this paper focuses on the modeling of the harvester using an equivalent electrical circuit approach. It is shown that the knowledge of the thermal properties inside the device and a good comprehension of its heat exchange with the surrounding play a key role in the optimization procedure. To validate the thermal modeling, finite element analyses as well as experimental measurements on a hot plate were carried out and the techniques were compared. The proposed model provided a practical guideline for improving the generator design to obtain a thermally matched energy harvester that can function over a wide range of hot source temperatures for the same bimetal. A direct application of this study has been implemented on scaled structures to maintain an important temperature difference between the cold surface and the hot reservoir. Using the equations of the thermal model, predictions of the thermal properties were evaluated depending on the scaling factor and solutions for future thermal improvements are presented.

  12. Setting properties and sealing ability of hydraulic temporary sealing materials.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Yoko; Katsuumi, Ichiroh

    2008-09-01

    This study sought to investigate the setting progress and sealing ability of hydraulic temporary sealing materials used in endodontic treatment: Lumicon, Caviton, and HY-Seal. To evaluate setting progress, the materials were filled into glass tubes with one end sealed and immersed in water. After immersion, a measurement apparatus was inserted from the non-immersed end and the set area was determined by subtracting the unset area from the sample thickness. To evaluate sealing ability, materials were filled into glass tubes and divided into four groups based on different immersion times. Thermal cycling and dye penetration were performed. At 7 days, the setting depths of HY-Seal and Caviton were almost equivalent to full sample thickness, while that of Lumicon was only half of full sample thickness (p < 0.01). On sealing ability, Lumicon ranked the highest followed by Caviton, whereas HY-Seal was unstable (p < 0.01). These results suggested that there was no correlation between setting progress and sealing ability. PMID:18972791

  13. Face recognition: a model specific ability

    PubMed Central

    Wilmer, Jeremy B.; Germine, Laura T.; Nakayama, Ken

    2014-01-01

    In our everyday lives, we view it as a matter of course that different people are good at different things. It can be surprising, in this context, to learn that most of what is known about cognitive ability variation across individuals concerns the broadest of all cognitive abilities; an ability referred to as general intelligence, general mental ability, or just g. In contrast, our knowledge of specific abilities, those that correlate little with g, is severely constrained. Here, we draw upon our experience investigating an exceptionally specific ability, face recognition, to make the case that many specific abilities could easily have been missed. In making this case, we derive key insights from earlier false starts in the measurement of face recognition’s variation across individuals, and we highlight the convergence of factors that enabled the recent discovery that this variation is specific. We propose that the case of face recognition ability illustrates a set of tools and perspectives that could accelerate fruitful work on specific cognitive abilities. By revealing relatively independent dimensions of human ability, such work would enhance our capacity to understand the uniqueness of individual minds. PMID:25346673

  14. Face recognition: a model specific ability.

    PubMed

    Wilmer, Jeremy B; Germine, Laura T; Nakayama, Ken

    2014-01-01

    In our everyday lives, we view it as a matter of course that different people are good at different things. It can be surprising, in this context, to learn that most of what is known about cognitive ability variation across individuals concerns the broadest of all cognitive abilities; an ability referred to as general intelligence, general mental ability, or just g. In contrast, our knowledge of specific abilities, those that correlate little with g, is severely constrained. Here, we draw upon our experience investigating an exceptionally specific ability, face recognition, to make the case that many specific abilities could easily have been missed. In making this case, we derive key insights from earlier false starts in the measurement of face recognition's variation across individuals, and we highlight the convergence of factors that enabled the recent discovery that this variation is specific. We propose that the case of face recognition ability illustrates a set of tools and perspectives that could accelerate fruitful work on specific cognitive abilities. By revealing relatively independent dimensions of human ability, such work would enhance our capacity to understand the uniqueness of individual minds. PMID:25346673

  15. Accessing gelling ability of vegetable proteins using rheological and fluorescence techniques.

    PubMed

    Batista, Ana Paula; Portugal, Carla A M; Sousa, Isabel; Crespo, João G; Raymundo, Anabela

    2005-08-01

    This work aims to present a comprehensive study about the macroscopic characteristics of globular vegetable proteins, in terms of their gelling ability, by understanding their molecular behaviour, when submitted to a thermal gelling process. The gels of soy, pea and lupin proteins were characterized by rheological techniques. Gelation kinetics, mechanical spectra, as well as the texture of these gels were analyzed and compared. Additionally, capillary viscometry, steady-state fluorescence and fluorescence anisotropy were used to monitor the structural changes induced by the thermal denaturation, which constitutes the main condition for the formation of a gel structure. Based on these techniques it was possible to establish a relationship between the gelling ability of each protein isolate and their structural resistance to thermal unfolding, enabling us to explain the weakest and the strongest gelling ability observed for lupin and soy proteins isolates, respectively. PMID:15996729

  16. Graphic Abilities in Relation to Mathematical and Scientific Ability in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavridou, Fotini; Kakana, Domna

    2008-01-01

    Background: The study investigated a small range of cognitive abilities, related to visual-spatial intelligence, in adolescents. This specific range of cognitive abilities was termed "graphic abilities" and defined as a range of abilities to visualise and think in three dimensions, originating in the domain of visual-spatial intelligence, and…

  17. Developing and Demonstrating Knowledge: Ability and Non-Ability Determinants of Learning and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beier, Margaret E.; Campbell, Madeline; Crook, Amy E.

    2010-01-01

    Ability and non-ability traits were examined as predictors of learning, operationalized as the development of knowledge structure accuracy, and exam performance in a semester-long course. As predicted by investment theories of intellectual development, both cognitive ability and non-ability traits were important determinants of learning and exam…

  18. Thermally actuated piston micromirror arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, William D.; Bright, Victor M.

    1997-07-01

    This paper reports design and characterization testing of thermally actuated piston micromirror arrays. The micromirrors were fabricated in the DARPA-sponsored MUMPs polysilicon surface micromachining process. The power averaging characteristic of thermal actuation is exploited in a novel line addressing scheme which reduces wiring for an n2 array to 2n wires. Mirror deflections were measured with a microscope laser interferometer system equipped with a vacuum chamber. Data presented includes device uniformity, frequency response, and deflection versus drive power for varied ambient pressure. Initial test results confirm that thermally actuated piston micromirrors offer several advantages over more common electrostatic designs. Thermally actuated micromirrors offer greater deflections at drive voltages compatible with CMOS circuitry. Measured thermal piston micromirror deflection versus drive voltage is nonlinear, but does not exhibit the 'snap through instability' characteristic of electrostatic devices. Operation of thermally actuated devices in rarefied ambient significantly decreases power dissipation. For a given deflection range, the power reduction facilitated by vacuum operation makes large arrays feasible. Frequency response of thermally actuated devices is limited by the ability of the device to dissipate heat, but operation at 1 kHz rates is feasible.

  19. Thermal defoliation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The negative perception some consumers hold regarding agricultural chemicals has resulted in an increased demand for organic foods and fibers, and in increasing political pressure for the regulation of agricultural production practices. This has revived interest in thermal defoliation of cotton and ...

  20. Thermal Effects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Panyue; Ye, Jie; Zeng, Guangming

    2015-10-01

    This review focuses on the research literatures published in 2014 relating to topics of thermal effects in water pollution control. This review is divided into the following sections: anaerobic wastewater and sludge treatment, biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal, membrane biological treatment, sewage sludge pyrolysis, natural treatment, resource recovery, electrolysis, oxidation and adsorption treatment. PMID:26420108

  1. Thermal effects

    SciTech Connect

    Harrelson, M.E.; Talmadge, S.S.; Cravens, J.B.

    1984-06-01

    A literature review is presented of recent studies on the role of temperature effects and change in temperature caused by thermal power plants on aquatic life. Several of these studies involve the use of models that allow testing of hypotheses concerning the effects of temperature on fish and insects. 91 references.

  2. THERMAL DEFOLIATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An apparatus designed to defoliate cotton with hot air was tested in two varieties and two field conditions. Cotton defoliation using hot air was as effective as defoliation using tyical chemicals under some conditions. Aphid populations were eliminated by the thermal treatment, reducing the risk ...

  3. Work Ability of Finnish Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Hirvensalo, Mirja

    2015-01-01

    In the physical education (PE) teachers' profession, physical tasks comprise a large part of the job. PE teachers identify their health as good, and they are satisfied with their job. Nevertheless, the work ability of PE teachers may be decreasing. Purpose: The purpose of this article was to explore the work ability of Finnish PE teachers. What…

  4. Contour Line Portraits: Excited about Artistic Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Kari Gertz

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a self-portrait project that encouraged students, boosted their self-confidence, and got them excited about their artistic abilities--while producing amazing results. This lesson effectively develops artistic ability by compelling students to see that drawing is quite simply breaking down objects into the…

  5. Improvisation as Ability, Culture, and Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Lee; Mantie, Roger

    2013-01-01

    We argue in this article for greater role for improvisation in the music classroom. Based on an extensive examination of scholarship about improvisational practices, we propose three conceptualizations--ability, culture, experience--that can serve to guide the teaching of improvisation. When considered as an "ability," improvisation is a…

  6. The Learning Effect of Modeling Ability Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Shu-Nu

    2008-01-01

    To achieve the goal of scientific literacy, besides conveying science and technology concepts, cultivating students' modeling ability has become important. However, in-service teachers face the difficulty that their teaching load increases while they are still bound by limited teaching hours. Teachers may know of modeling ability, life related…

  7. Sex Differences in Spatial Ability: A Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clear, Sarah-Jane

    1978-01-01

    Explores (1) problems of the validity of tests of spatial ability, and (2) problems of the recessive gene influence theory of the origin of sex differences in spatial ability. Studies of cognitive strategies in spatial problem solving are suggested as a way to further investigate recessive gene influence. (Author/RH)

  8. Ability Explorer: A Review and Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Anne

    The Ability Explorer (AE) is a newly developed self-report inventory of abilities that is appropriate for group or individual administration. There are machine-scorable and hand-scorable versions of the test, and there are two levels. Level 1 is for students from junior high to high school, and Level 2 is for high school students and adults.…

  9. Reading Abilities and Strategies: A Short Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Feng

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a short analysis of reading abilities and reading strategies. Much research has been done to investigate the nature of reading, though it's had to exactly define reading abilities and strategies. Different kinds of readings are discussed in this paper and distinctions are made between first language reading and second or foreign…

  10. Developing the Ability for Making Evaluative Judgements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, John

    2010-01-01

    It is suggested that a more specific emphasis should be placed in undergraduate education on the explicit development of the ability to make evaluative judgements. This higher level cognitive ability is highlighted as the foundation for much sound and successful personal and professional development throughout education, and in lifelong…

  11. Cultural Studies, Pedagogy, and Response-Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossiter, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    A few years ago, in a tutorial in an advanced level undergraduate subject that she teaches--"Emotions, Culture and Community"--the author was a witness and participant in a pedagogical event that moved and provoked the class: It incited response-ability. This article is about that event, the meaning of response-ability, and the window that it…

  12. IRT Models for Ability-Based Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ernesto San; del Pino, Guido; De Boeck, Paul

    2006-01-01

    An ability-based guessing model is formulated and applied to several data sets regarding educational tests in language and in mathematics. The formulation of the model is such that the probability of a correct guess does not only depend on the item but also on the ability of the individual, weighted with a general discrimination parameter. By so…

  13. 45 CFR 1616.7 - Language ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... § 1616.7 Language ability. In areas where a significant number of clients speak a language other than English as their principal language, a recipient shall adopt employment policies that insure that legal... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Language ability. 1616.7 Section 1616.7...

  14. 45 CFR 1616.7 - Language ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... § 1616.7 Language ability. In areas where a significant number of clients speak a language other than English as their principal language, a recipient shall adopt employment policies that insure that legal... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Language ability. 1616.7 Section 1616.7...

  15. 45 CFR 1616.7 - Language ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Language ability. 1616.7 Section 1616.7 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION ATTORNEY HIRING § 1616.7 Language ability. In areas where a significant number of clients speak a language other than English as their principal language, a...

  16. 45 CFR 1616.7 - Language ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... § 1616.7 Language ability. In areas where a significant number of clients speak a language other than English as their principal language, a recipient shall adopt employment policies that insure that legal... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Language ability. 1616.7 Section 1616.7...

  17. Does Classmate Ability Influence Students' Social Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Empirically, the link between classmate ability and individual-level student achievement has been established. And yet, within the scope of this body of literature, there is a dearth of studies examining if a relationship also persists between classmate ability and non-achievement outcomes--that is, social skills. This article fills this research…

  18. Psycholinguistic Abilities of Children with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Natalia F.; Heinze, Elena Garayzabal; Giacheti, Celia M.; Goncalves, Oscar F.; Sampaio, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the psycholinguistic abilities of children with Williams syndrome (WS) and typically developing children using the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA). Performance on the ITPA was analysed in a group with WS (N=20, mean age=8.5 years, SD=1.62) and two typically developing groups,…

  19. Does Spatial Training Improve Children's Mathematics Ability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yi-Ling; Mix, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    The authors' primary aim was to investigate a potential causal relationship between spatial ability and math ability. To do so, they used a pretest-training-posttest experimental design in which children received short-term spatial training and were tested on problem solving in math. They focused on first and second graders because earlier studies…

  20. 45 CFR 1616.7 - Language ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Language ability. 1616.7 Section 1616.7 Public... § 1616.7 Language ability. In areas where a significant number of clients speak a language other than English as their principal language, a recipient shall adopt employment policies that insure that...

  1. Overview of Research on Ability Grouping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raze, Nasus

    Although over 77 percent of American school districts use ability grouping, or tracking, research overwhelmingly indicates that the practice benefits only the gifted. High schools commonly have two or three tracks. Regardless of the methods used to place students, the effects of ability grouping are uniform; furthermore, placement in low ability…

  2. Thermal Hardware for the Thermal Analyst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinfeld, David

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will be given at the 26th Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015) hosted by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545). NCTS 21070-1. Most Thermal analysts do not have a good background into the hardware which thermally controls the spacecraft they design. SINDA and Thermal Desktop models are nice, but knowing how this applies to the actual thermal hardware (heaters, thermostats, thermistors, MLI blanketing, optical coatings, etc...) is just as important. The course will delve into the thermal hardware and their application techniques on actual spacecraft. Knowledge of how thermal hardware is used and applied will make a thermal analyst a better engineer.

  3. Why do spatial abilities predict mathematical performance?

    PubMed

    Tosto, Maria Grazia; Hanscombe, Ken B; Haworth, Claire M A; Davis, Oliver S P; Petrill, Stephen A; Dale, Philip S; Malykh, Sergey; Plomin, Robert; Kovas, Yulia

    2014-05-01

    Spatial ability predicts performance in mathematics and eventual expertise in science, technology and engineering. Spatial skills have also been shown to rely on neuronal networks partially shared with mathematics. Understanding the nature of this association can inform educational practices and intervention for mathematical underperformance. Using data on two aspects of spatial ability and three domains of mathematical ability from 4174 pairs of 12-year-old twins, we examined the relative genetic and environmental contributions to variation in spatial ability and to its relationship with different aspects of mathematics. Environmental effects explained most of the variation in spatial ability (~70%) and in mathematical ability (~60%) at this age, and the effects were the same for boys and girls. Genetic factors explained about 60% of the observed relationship between spatial ability and mathematics, with a substantial portion of the relationship explained by common environmental influences (26% and 14% by shared and non-shared environments respectively). These findings call for further research aimed at identifying specific environmental mediators of the spatial-mathematics relationship. PMID:24410830

  4. [Visual perceptual abilities of children with low motor abilities--a pilot study].

    PubMed

    Werpup-Stüwe, Lina; Petermann, Franz

    2015-01-01

    The results of many studies show visual perceptual deficits in children with low motor abilities. This study aims to indicate the correlation between visual-perceptual and motor abilities. The correlation of visual-perceptual and motor abilities of 41 children is measured by using the German versions of the Developmental Test of Visual Perception--Adolescent and Adult (DTVP-A) and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children--Second Edition (M-ABC-2). The visual-perceptual abilities of children with low motor abilities (n=21) are also compared to the visual-perceptual abilities of children with normal motor abilities (the control group, n=20). High correlations between the visual-perceptual and motor abilities are found. The perceptual abilities of the groups differ significantly. Nearly half of the children with low motor abilities show visual-perceptual deficits. Visual perceptual abilities of children suffering coordination disorders should always be assessed. The DTVP-A is useful, because it provides the possibilities to compare motor-reduced visual-perceptual abilities and visualmotor integration abilities and to estimate the deficit's degree. PMID:26493482

  5. Natural selection on thermal performance in a novel thermal environment

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Michael L.; Cox, Robert M.; Calsbeek, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Tropical ectotherms are thought to be especially vulnerable to climate change because they are adapted to relatively stable temperature regimes, such that even small increases in environmental temperature may lead to large decreases in physiological performance. One way in which tropical organisms may mitigate the detrimental effects of warming is through evolutionary change in thermal physiology. The speed and magnitude of this response depend, in part, on the strength of climate-driven selection. However, many ectotherms use behavioral adjustments to maintain preferred body temperatures in the face of environmental variation. These behaviors may shelter individuals from natural selection, preventing evolutionary adaptation to changing conditions. Here, we mimic the effects of climate change by experimentally transplanting a population of Anolis sagrei lizards to a novel thermal environment. Transplanted lizards experienced warmer and more thermally variable conditions, which resulted in strong directional selection on thermal performance traits. These same traits were not under selection in a reference population studied in a less thermally stressful environment. Our results indicate that climate change can exert strong natural selection on tropical ectotherms, despite their ability to thermoregulate behaviorally. To the extent that thermal performance traits are heritable, populations may be capable of rapid adaptation to anthropogenic warming. PMID:25225361

  6. Natural selection on thermal performance in a novel thermal environment.

    PubMed

    Logan, Michael L; Cox, Robert M; Calsbeek, Ryan

    2014-09-30

    Tropical ectotherms are thought to be especially vulnerable to climate change because they are adapted to relatively stable temperature regimes, such that even small increases in environmental temperature may lead to large decreases in physiological performance. One way in which tropical organisms may mitigate the detrimental effects of warming is through evolutionary change in thermal physiology. The speed and magnitude of this response depend, in part, on the strength of climate-driven selection. However, many ectotherms use behavioral adjustments to maintain preferred body temperatures in the face of environmental variation. These behaviors may shelter individuals from natural selection, preventing evolutionary adaptation to changing conditions. Here, we mimic the effects of climate change by experimentally transplanting a population of Anolis sagrei lizards to a novel thermal environment. Transplanted lizards experienced warmer and more thermally variable conditions, which resulted in strong directional selection on thermal performance traits. These same traits were not under selection in a reference population studied in a less thermally stressful environment. Our results indicate that climate change can exert strong natural selection on tropical ectotherms, despite their ability to thermoregulate behaviorally. To the extent that thermal performance traits are heritable, populations may be capable of rapid adaptation to anthropogenic warming. PMID:25225361

  7. Thermal Clothing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Gateway Technologies, Inc. is marketing and developing textile insulation technology originally developed by Triangle Research and Development Corporation. The enhanced thermal insulation stems from Small Business Innovation Research contracts from NASA's Johnson Space Center and the U.S. Air Force. The effectiveness of the insulation comes from the microencapsulated phase-change materials originally made to keep astronauts gloved hands warm. The applications for the product range from outer wear, housing insulation, and blankets to protective firefighting gear and scuba diving suits. Gateway has developed and begun marketing thermal regulating products under the trademark, OUTLAST. Products made from OUTLAST are already on the market, including boot and shoe liners, winter headgear, hats and caps for hunting and other outdoor sports, and a variety of men's and women's ski gloves.

  8. Thermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The University of Georgia used NASTRAN, a COSMIC program that predicts how a design will stand up under stress, to develop a model for monitoring the transient cooling of vegetables. The winter use of passive solar heating for poultry houses is also under investigation by the Agricultural Engineering Dept. Another study involved thermal analysis of black and green nursery containers. The use of NASTRAN has encouraged student appreciation of sophisticated computer analysis.

  9. Thermal Effects.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ming; Zhang, Panyue; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-10-01

    This review focuses on the research literatures published in 2015 relating to topics of thermal effects in water pollution control. This review is divided into the following sections: biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal, wastewater treatment for organic conversion, industrial wastewater treatment, anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and solid waste, sludge biochar preparation and application, pyrolysis of sewage sludge, reduction heavy metal in sewage sludge and soil, and other issues of wastewater and sludge treatment. PMID:27620109

  10. Spatial Abilities of Expert Clinical Anatomists: Comparison of Abilities between Novices, Intermediates, and Experts in Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Ruth; Dror, Itiel E.; Smith, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Spatial ability has been found to be a good predictor of success in learning anatomy. However, little research has explored whether spatial ability can be improved through anatomy education and experience. This study had two aims: (1) to determine if spatial ability is a learned or inherent facet in learning anatomy and (2) to ascertain if there…

  11. Idiot Savants: A Categorization of Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, A. Lewis

    1974-01-01

    Reported from a search of 52 sources are categories of special abilities such as fine sensory discriminations and calendar calculations demonstrated by idiot savants (retarded persons exhibiting an unusually developed skill in some special task). (CL)

  12. Adults' ability to detect children's lying.

    PubMed

    Crossman, Angela M; Lewis, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Adults are poor deception detectors when examining lies told by adults, on average. However, there are some adults who are better at detecting lies than others. Children learn to lie at a very young age, a behavior that is socialized by parents. Yet, less is known about the ability to detect children's lies, particularly with regard to individual differences in the ability to detect this deception. The current study explored adult raters' ability to discern honesty in children who lied or told the truth about committing a misdeed. Results showed that adults are no better at detecting children's lies than they are with adult lies. In particular, adults were very poor at identifying children's honest statements. However, individual differences did emerge, suggesting that the ability to detect lying in children might be facilitated by relevant experience working with children. Implications for legal and mental health contexts are discussed. PMID:17016813

  13. Videogame interventions and spatial ability interactions.

    PubMed

    Redick, Thomas S; Webster, Sean B

    2014-01-01

    Numerous research studies have been conducted on the use of videogames as tools to improve one's cognitive abilities. While meta-analyses and qualitative reviews have provided evidence that some aspects of cognition such as spatial imagery are modified after exposure to videogames, other evidence has shown that matrix reasoning measures of fluid intelligence do not show evidence of transfer from videogame training. In the current work, we investigate the available evidence for transfer specifically to nonverbal intelligence and spatial ability measures, given recent research that these abilities may be most sensitive to training on cognitive and working memory tasks. Accordingly, we highlight a few studies that on the surface provide evidence for transfer to spatial abilities, but a closer look at the pattern of data does not reveal a clean interpretation of the results. We discuss the implications of these results in relation to research design and statistical analysis practices. PMID:24723880

  14. Everyday Cognition: Age and Intellectual Ability Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Allaire, Jason C.; Marsiske, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the relationship between a new battery of everyday cognition measures, which assessed 4 cognitive abilities within 3 familiar real-world domains, and traditional psychometric tests of the same basic cognitive abilities. Several theoreticians have argued that everyday cognition measures are somewhat distinct from traditional cognitive assessment approaches, and the authors investigated this assertion correlationally in the present study. The sample consisted of 174 community-dwelling older adults from the Detroit metropolitan area, who had an average age of 73 years. Major results of the study showed that (a) each everyday cognitive test was strongly correlated with the basic cognitive abilities; (b) several basic abilities, as well as measures of domain-specific knowledge, predicted everyday cognitive performance; and (c) everyday and basic measures were similarly related to age. The results suggest that everyday cognition is not unrelated to traditional measures, nor is it less sensitive to age-related differences. PMID:10632150

  15. Videogame interventions and spatial ability interactions

    PubMed Central

    Redick, Thomas S.; Webster, Sean B.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous research studies have been conducted on the use of videogames as tools to improve one’s cognitive abilities. While meta-analyses and qualitative reviews have provided evidence that some aspects of cognition such as spatial imagery are modified after exposure to videogames, other evidence has shown that matrix reasoning measures of fluid intelligence do not show evidence of transfer from videogame training. In the current work, we investigate the available evidence for transfer specifically to nonverbal intelligence and spatial ability measures, given recent research that these abilities may be most sensitive to training on cognitive and working memory tasks. Accordingly, we highlight a few studies that on the surface provide evidence for transfer to spatial abilities, but a closer look at the pattern of data does not reveal a clean interpretation of the results. We discuss the implications of these results in relation to research design and statistical analysis practices. PMID:24723880

  16. Self-Fulfilling Prophecies in Ability Settings.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Jason; Filson Moses, Jennifer; Snyder, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that one person's expectations can influence the behavior of another person, thereby creating a self-fulfilling prophecy. This study examined the effects of ability-based expectations in an experiment in which some participants ("coaches") were assigned false expectations of the basketball free-throw shooting ability of other participants ("players"). Coaches allocated more opportunities to players for whom the false expectation was positive, and fewer shots to players for whom the false expectation was negative. In turn, players who were allocated more shots made a higher percentage of them, thereby confirming their coaches' expectations about their shooting ability, and were more confident in their shooting ability following the task, than players who were allocated fewer shots. PMID:26214717

  17. AgrAbility: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... About AgrAbility State Projects Directory The Toolbox AT Database Resources Veterans & Beginning Farmers Communities of Interest News ... 800) 825-4264 Home About The Toolbox AT Database Resources Online Training Contact Us You are here: ...

  18. AgrAbility: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... the location of the incident. How can I contact someone for help? If you are interested in ... as price, shipping costs, etc. Who do I contact? AgrAbility provides resources to farmers and ranchers with ...

  19. Dissociating the ability and propensity for empathy.

    PubMed

    Keysers, Christian; Gazzola, Valeria

    2014-04-01

    Neuroimaging suggests psychopaths have reduced vicarious activations when simply witnessing pain but less so when asked to empathize. This inspired us to distinguish the ability from the propensity to empathize. We argue that (i) this ability-propensity distinction is crucial to characterizing empathy in psychiatric disorders such as psychopathy and autism, (ii) that costly helping might be best predicted by the propensity for empathy, and (iii) suggest how social neuroscientists can start exploring this distinction. PMID:24484764

  20. Thermal insulator

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, R.; Asada, Y.; Matsuo, Y.; Mikoda, M.

    1985-07-16

    A thermal insulator comprises an expanded resin body having embedded therein an evacuated powder insulation portion which consists of fine powder and a container of film-like plastics or a film-like composite of plastics and metal for enclosing the powder. The resin body has been expanded by a Freon gas as a blowing agent. Since a Freon gas has a larger molecular diameter than the constituent gases of air, it is less likely to permeate through the container than air. Thus present invention provides a novel composite insulator which fully utilizes the benefits of vacuum insulation without necessitating a strong and costly material for a vacuum container.

  1. Cognitive Ability and the Demand for Redistribution

    PubMed Central

    Mollerstrom, Johanna; Seim, David

    2014-01-01

    Empirical research suggests that the cognitively able are politically more influential than the less able, by being more likely to vote and to assume leadership positions. This study asks whether this pattern matters for public policy by investigating what role a person's cognitive ability plays in determining his preferences for redistribution of income among citizens in society. To answer this question, we use a unique Swedish data set that matches responses to a tailor-made questionnaire to administrative tax records and to military enlistment records for men, with the latter containing a measure of cognitive ability. On a scale of 0 to 100 percent redistribution, a one-standard-deviation increase in cognitive ability reduces the willingness to redistribute by 5 percentage points, or by the same amount as a $35,000 increase in mean annual income. We find support for two channels mediating this economically strong and statistically significant relation. First, higher ability is associated with higher income. Second, ability is positively correlated with the view that economic success is the result of effort, rather than luck. Both these factors are, in turn, related to lower demand for redistribution. PMID:25343713

  2. Gender differences in multitasking reflect spatial ability.

    PubMed

    Mäntylä, Timo

    2013-04-01

    Demands involving the scheduling and interleaving of multiple activities have become increasingly prevalent, especially for women in both their paid and unpaid work hours. Despite the ubiquity of everyday requirements to multitask, individual and gender-related differences in multitasking have gained minimal attention in past research. In two experiments, participants completed a multitasking session with four gender-fair monitoring tasks and separate tasks measuring executive functioning (working memory updating) and spatial ability (mental rotation). In both experiments, males outperformed females in monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability mediated gender differences in multitasking. Menstrual changes accentuated these effects, such that gender differences in multitasking (and spatial ability) were eliminated between males and females who were in the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle but not between males and females who were in the luteal phase. These findings suggest that multitasking involves spatiotemporal task coordination and that gender differences in multiple-task performance reflect differences in spatial ability. PMID:23462757

  3. Impaired musical ability in people with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hatada, Sanae; Sawada, Ken; Akamatsu, Masanori; Doi, Erina; Minese, Masayoshi; Yamashita, Motoshi; Thornton, Allen E.; Honer, William G.; Inoue, Shimpei

    2014-01-01

    Background Assessment of the musical ability of people with schizophrenia has attracted little interest despite the diverse and substantive findings of impairments in sound perception and processing and the therapeutic effect of music in people with the illness. The present study investigated the musical ability of people with schizophrenia and the association with psychiatric symptoms and cognition. Methods We recruited patients with chronic schizophrenia and healthy controls for participation in our study. To measure musical ability and cognitive function, we used the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA) and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). We carried out a mediation analysis to investigate a possible pathway to a deficit in musical ability. Results We enrolled 50 patients and 58 controls in the study. The MBEA global score in patients with schizophrenia was significantly lower than that in controls (p < 0.001), and was strongly associated with both the composite cognitive function score (r = 0.645, p < 0.001) and the negative symptom score (r = −0.504, p < 0.001). Further analyses revealed direct and indirect effects of negative symptoms on musical ability. The indirect effects were mediated through cognitive impairment. Limitations The relatively small sample size did not permit full evaluation of the possible effects of age, sex, education, medication and cultural influences on the results. Conclusion Examining the associations between musical deficits, negative symptoms and cognitive imapirment in patients with schizophrenia may identify shared biological mechanisms. PMID:24119791

  4. Spatial ability in radiologists: a necessary prerequisite?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Visuospatial ability is fundamental to the cognitive understanding of the three-dimensional environment and is widely recognized as an important skill in the performance of challenging visuospatial tasks. Its contribution to attainment and performance in a variety of professional disciplines is recognized, but there is relatively little known in relation to its relevance in radiological practice. On the basis of a review of the existing cognitive psychological literature and on the basis of the author's own observations, and on the assumption that spatial ability is of increasing and fundamental importance to high-level performance as a radiologist, it is proposed that consideration should be given to the testing of visuospatial ability as part of the selection process for prospective applicants to radiology training programmes. PMID:25756868

  5. Does verbal and gestural expression ability predict comprehension ability in cerebral palsy?

    PubMed

    Pueyo, Roser; Ariza, Mar; Narberhaus, Ana; Ballester-Plané, Júlia; Laporta-Hoyos, Olga; Junqué, Carme; Vendrell, Pere

    2013-04-01

    Some people with cerebral palsy have motor and associated impairments that may hinder verbal and gestural expression to various extents. This study explores whether the ability to produce verbal or gestural expressions may be related to the comprehension of verbal communications and gestures. The influence of severity of motor impairment, general cognitive performance, and age on comprehension ability was also explored. Forty people with cerebral palsy were assigned to different groups according to their verbal and gestural expression abilities. A neuropsychological assessment of comprehension abilities and general cognitive performance was carried out. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to identify the possible influence of expression abilities on comprehension abilities and also to detect the possible contribution of severity of motor impairment, general cognitive performance, and age. Results indicate that verbal and gestural comprehension was mainly predicted by general cognitive performance. Severity of motor impairment and age did not contribute to predicting comprehension abilities. Only verbal grammar comprehension was significantly predicted by verbal expression ability. Verbal expression ability may be an important marker for cerebral palsy therapies. In non-ambulant patients with bilateral cerebral palsy, impaired gestural expression should not be taken as an indicator of impaired gestural comprehension. PMID:24032327

  6. Emotional Intelligence: New Ability or Eclectic Traits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, John D.; Salovey, Peter; Caruso, David R.

    2008-01-01

    Some individuals have a greater capacity than others to carry out sophisticated information processing about emotions and emotion-relevant stimuli and to use this information as a guide to thinking and behavior. The authors have termed this set of abilities emotional intelligence (EI). Since the introduction of the concept, however, a schism has…

  7. Basic Structure of Work-Relevant Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prediger, Dale J.

    This study sought to determine whether the dimensions underlying a comprehensive set of 15 work-relevant abilities were similar to the Data/Ideas and Things/People Work Task Dimensions (D. J. Prediger, 1996) underlying J. L. Holland's (1997) hexagonal model of interest and occupational types. The work task dimensions and a general ability…

  8. Learning ability in children with Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Elefant, Cochavit; Wigram, Tony

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to present results of a research study examining learning ability in individuals with Rett syndrome. The material for this article was drawn from a more extensive doctoral study, designed to investigate intentional communication in this population, through the use of songs in music therapy. Rett syndrome is a neurological disorder resulting from an X-linked mutation, affecting mainly females, and found across racial and ethnic groups worldwide. One of the main areas affecting functioning in individuals with Rett syndrome is a severe impairment of receptive and expressive communication. This creates difficulties when attempting to reveal their potential learning abilities. This population has been observed as very responsive to music hence music therapy intervention has been advocated in promoting and motivating them to communicate and to learn. Seven girls with Rett syndrome, between ages 4 and 10 participated in the study. A single subject, multiple probe design was applied during 30-min trials, three times per week and lasted 8 months. During the trials the participants were asked to choose from a selection of 18 familiar and unfamiliar songs, while their ability to learn was observed and measured. Findings revealed that all seven girls demonstrated an ability to learn and to sustain learning over time. This intervention demonstrated that individuals with Rett syndrome could be promoted and motivated to communicate and learn when therapeutically employed by a trained music therapists. PMID:16182495

  9. Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Diane F.

    This book examines the science and politics of cognitive sex differences, reflecting theories and research in the area over the past several years. Eight chapters discuss: (1) "Introduction and Overview" (e.g., theoretical approaches, values and science, and terminology); (2) "Searching for Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities" (e.g., the need…

  10. Second Language Ability and Emotional Prosody Perception

    PubMed Central

    Bhatara, Anjali; Laukka, Petri; Boll-Avetisyan, Natalie; Granjon, Lionel; Anger Elfenbein, Hillary; Bänziger, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines the effect of language experience on vocal emotion perception in a second language. Native speakers of French with varying levels of self-reported English ability were asked to identify emotions from vocal expressions produced by American actors in a forced-choice task, and to rate their pleasantness, power, alertness and intensity on continuous scales. Stimuli included emotionally expressive English speech (emotional prosody) and non-linguistic vocalizations (affect bursts), and a baseline condition with Swiss-French pseudo-speech. Results revealed effects of English ability on the recognition of emotions in English speech but not in non-linguistic vocalizations. Specifically, higher English ability was associated with less accurate identification of positive emotions, but not with the interpretation of negative emotions. Moreover, higher English ability was associated with lower ratings of pleasantness and power, again only for emotional prosody. This suggests that second language skills may sometimes interfere with emotion recognition from speech prosody, particularly for positive emotions. PMID:27253326

  11. Effects of Infant Starvation on Learning Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Pnina S.

    Explored were the effects of starvation during infancy on the learning abilities of 50 children when evaluated between 5 and 14 years of age. All Ss had suffered from pyloric stenosis, a condition which prevents passage of food from the stomach, in infancy for periods ranging from 2 days to 3 weeks. Ss were given five tests of various learning…

  12. 21st Century Conceptions of Musical Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallam, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This study explored conceptions of musical ability using an inventory derived from previous qualitative research. Participants included 102 musicians, 95 educators, 132 adult amateur musicians, 60 adults who were not actively engaged in making music, 193 children actively engaged in making music in addition to their engagement with the school…

  13. Do High Ability Students Have Mathematics Anxiety?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Kai Kow Joseph

    2004-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates the level of mathematics anxiety among 116 high ability Secondary Two students. These students were from the top 10% of the Secondary Two students in Singapore. Mathematics Anxiety was measured using the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Anxiety Scale (MAS) (Fennema & Sherman, 1978) which consisted of twelve items…

  14. Benchmarking Year Five Students' Reading Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Chang Kuan; Eng, Lin Siew; Mohamed, Abdul Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Reading and understanding a written text is one of the most important skills in English learning.This study attempts to benchmark Year Five students' reading abilities of fifteen rural schools in a district in Malaysia. The objectives of this study are to develop a set of standardised written reading comprehension and a set of indicators to inform…

  15. Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Diane F.

    2011-01-01

    The fourth edition of "Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities" critically examines the breadth of research on this complex and controversial topic, with the principal aim of helping the reader to understand where sex differences are found--and where they are not. Since the publication of the third edition, there have been many exciting and…

  16. Spatial Ability through Engineering Graphics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marunic, Gordana; Glazar, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability has been confirmed to be of particular importance for successful engineering graphics education and to be a component of human intelligence that can be improved through instruction and training. Consequently, the creation and communication by means of graphics demand careful development of spatial skills provided by the balanced…

  17. Spatial Ability and Cerebral Sensory Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federico, Pat-Anthony

    To provide converging support that the proper integration of analog and propositional representational systems is associated with spatial ability, the visual, auditory, and bimodal brain event-related potentials were recorded from 50 right-handed Caucasian males. Sensory interaction indices were derived for these subjects who had taken the Surface…

  18. Nine Actions to Build Students' Mathematics Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Kenna

    2010-01-01

    The author was asked to develop a list of actions that teachers could take to build students' mathematics abilities. Too many students fail to graduate and fail to pass state assessments as a result of weak mathematics skills. Even many students who do graduate leave high school lacking sufficient understanding of mathematics to pass college…

  19. Assessing Postgraduate Students' Critical Thinking Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Javed, Muhammad; Nawaz, Muhammad Atif; Qurat-Ul-Ain, Ansa

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses to assess the critical thinking ability of postgraduate students. The target population was the male and female students at University level in Pakistan. A small sample of 45 male and 45 female students were selected randomly from The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Cornell Critical Thinking Test Series, The…

  20. Do mental speed and musical abilities interact?

    PubMed

    Gruhn, Wilfried; Galley, Niels; Kluth, Christine

    2003-11-01

    The relation between mental speed and musical ability was investigated. Seventeen subjects aged 3-7 years were divided into two subgroups: one (G1; n = 9) consisted of children who participated in an early childhood music program and who received informal musical guidance, but no special training; the other (G2; n = 8) consisted of highly talented young violin players who received intensive parental support and special training by daily deliberate practice. Mental and musical abilities of both groups were controlled by standardized tests (Kaufman's ABC and Gordon's PMMA) and compared with data taken from recordings of saccadic eye movement using online identification from an electrooculogram (EOG). Results of EOG measurement are referred to as "mental speed," which correlates highly with general mental abilities (intelligence). These results were compared with EOG scores taken from a larger sample of children of the same age range (n = 82) who received no music instruction. The grand average of their scores served as a reference line for mental speed, which is normally expected to be performed by an equivalent age group. Data in the two experimental groups did not differ statistically; however, all musically experienced children had a highly significant advantage in mental age (P <0.01) compared to the reference line of the normal population who did not exhibit any effect of training and practice. This indicates strong interaction between mental speed and music ability, which can be interpreted in terms of the expertise model and cognitive transfer effects. PMID:14681172

  1. Informal Assessment of Older Readers' Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siedow, Mary Dunn

    1991-01-01

    Explores the utility of an informal reading inventory for assessing the reading abilities of college students. Determines the amount and kinds of information that can be learned from an informal reading inventory. Determines whether information gained from the Advanced Reading Inventory differed qualitatively from that obtained from the Nelson…

  2. Adaptive Assessment of Spatial Abilities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bejar, Isaac I.

    This report summarizes the results of research designed to study the psychometric and technological feasibility of adaptive testing to assess spatial ability. Data was collected from high school students on two types of spatial items: three-dimensional cubes and hidden figure items. The analysis of the three-dimensional cubes focused on the fit of…

  3. Young Children's Time and Intellectual Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falbo, Toni; Cooper, Catherine R.

    1980-01-01

    Examines assumptions of the confluence model of the effects of family structure on children's intelligence. Subjects were 24 preschool children. Findings indicate that individual differences in intellectual ability are associated with the amount of time children spend in certain activities and with certain people. (Author/RH)

  4. Response Ability Pathways: A Curriculum for Connecting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, Nancy; Seger, Vikki

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a new training curriculum for educators, youth workers, and mentors which draws from research and best practices in positive youth development and positive behavior support. Response Ability Pathways or RAP focuses on three practical interventions: connect to others for support, clarify challenging problems, and restore…

  5. Synaptic Transmission Correlates of General Mental Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRorie, Margaret; Cooper, Colin

    2004-01-01

    Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and efficiency of synaptic transmission are two possible biological mechanisms that may underpin intelligence. Direct assessments of NCV, without synaptic transmission, show few substantial or reliable correlations with cognitive abilities ["Intelligence" 16 (1992) 273]. We therefore assessed the latencies of…

  6. Narrative Abilities of Children with Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strekas, Amy; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Berl, Madison; Gaillard, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is a noticeable publication gap in the speech-language pathology literature regarding the language abilities of children with common types of epilepsy. This paper reviews studies that suggest a high frequency of undetected language problems in this population, and it proposes the need for pragmatically based assessment of…

  7. Kinesthetic Ability in Children with Spastic Hemiplegia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrysagis, Nikolaos K.; Skordilis, Emmanouil K.; Koutsouki, Dimitra; Evans, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The purpose was to examine the differences in kinesthetic ability, at the elbow joint, between children with (n = 15) and without (n = 15) spastic hemiplegia. The Kin Com 125 AP isokinetic dynamometer Configuration Chattanooga was used. Results revealed significant (p less than 0.05) interaction between participant groups and side which was a…

  8. Psycholinguistic Abilities in Children with Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Isser, Aldine

    1977-01-01

    The Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities was administered to 22 children (mean age=90 months) with petit mal epilepsy and 28 children (mean age=85 months) evidencing mixed seizures to determine whether any differences would be found when these two groups were compared either with each other or with a randomly selected group of nonepileptic…

  9. Identities of Dis/Ability and Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Michael; Ridley, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Centring on a small-scale capability-based case study of music provision for adults with profound dis/abilities, this paper considers the significance of music and music education in people's lives. It offers a philosophical defence of music's importance in enjoying a truly human life and then, drawing on an overview of the work of dis/abled…

  10. Haplogroups as Evolutionary Markers of Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rindermann, Heiner; Woodley, Michael A.; Stratford, James

    2012-01-01

    Studies investigating evolutionary theories on the origins of national differences in intelligence have been criticized on the basis that both national cognitive ability measures and supposedly evolutionarily informative proxies (such as latitude and climate) are confounded with general developmental status. In this study 14 Y chromosomal…

  11. Ability of Slovakian Pupils to Identify Birds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Rodak, Rastislav

    2009-01-01

    A pupil's ability to identify common organisms is necessary for acquiring further knowledge of biology. We investigated how pupils were able to identify 25 bird species following their song, growth habits, or both features presented simultaneously. Just about 19% of birds were successfully identified by song, about 39% by growth habit, and 45% of…

  12. Does Listening to Mozart Affect Listening Ability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Becki J.; Punyanunt-Carter, Narissra; Cheah, Tsui Yi; Watson, W. Joe; Rubin, Rebecca B.

    2007-01-01

    Considerable research has been conducted testing Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky's (1993) Mozart Effect (ME). This study attempts to replicate, in part, research that tested the ME on listening comprehension abilities. Also included in this study is an examination of control group issues in current day research. We hypothesized that students who listen to…

  13. Dis/Ability through Artists' Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Suesi; Gervais, Julie; Dase, Monica; Griseta, Lynn

    2005-01-01

    An individual's concept of disability depends upon one's experience, based on personal, physical, mental, and emotional knowledge (Linton, 1998; Wendell, 1996). The United Nations (United Nations, 2005) defines disability as any restriction or deficiency of ability to perform within the range of what is considered normal for an individual. A…

  14. Enhancing Readers' Analysis-by-Synthesis Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Margaret E.

    A variety of techniques for improving readers' analysis-by-synthesis abilities (rapid, efficient reading typical of highly skilled readers) are presented in this paper. The techniques discussed in the first part emphasize improving reading comprehension and include the following: (1) modifications of the cloze procedure (encouraging readers to use…

  15. Spatial Ability Improvement and Curriculum Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Patrick E.

    2009-01-01

    There has been a significant history of research on spatial ability and visualization improvement and related curriculum content presented by members of the Engineering Design Graphics Division over the past decade. Recently, interest in this topic has again been heightened thanks to the work of several division members on research such as the…

  16. Children's Abilities in Topographic Map Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carswell, Ronald J. B.

    Although over 40 studies have been done since 1925 on map reading, there is little understanding of children's ability to comprehend maps or the mental processes involved. Children's inability to read maps is well document, as are their improved skills after instruction. Yet map skills are part of the elementary curriculum. Success in teaching map…

  17. On Developing Students' Spatial Visualisation Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risma, Dwi Afrini; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Hartono, Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    This research aims at studying on how students develop their spatial visualisation abilities. In this paper, one of five activities in an ongoing classroom activity is discussed. This paper documents students' learning activity in exploring the building blocks. The goal of teaching experiment is to support the development of students' spatial…

  18. Improving Spatial Ability with Mentored Sketching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohler, James L.; Miller, Craig L.

    2008-01-01

    As the result of a qualitative investigation into spatial ability, a teaching technique called mentored sketching was found to be effective for teaching visualization skills to freshman engineering students. This contribution describes the technique, how it evolved, and comments made by students as to its effectiveness. While mentored sketching…

  19. Development of Network Synchronization Predicts Language Abilities.

    PubMed

    Doesburg, Sam M; Tingling, Keriann; MacDonald, Matt J; Pang, Elizabeth W

    2016-01-01

    Synchronization of oscillations among brain areas is understood to mediate network communication supporting cognition, perception, and language. How task-dependent synchronization during word production develops throughout childhood and adolescence, as well as how such network coherence is related to the development of language abilities, remains poorly understood. To address this, we recorded magnetoencephalography while 73 participants aged 4-18 years performed a verb generation task. Atlas-guided source reconstruction was performed, and phase synchronization among regions was calculated. Task-dependent increases in synchronization were observed in the theta, alpha, and beta frequency ranges, and network synchronization differences were observed between age groups. Task-dependent synchronization was strongest in the theta band, as were differences between age groups. Network topologies were calculated for brain regions associated with verb generation and were significantly associated with both age and language abilities. These findings establish the maturational trajectory of network synchronization underlying expressive language abilities throughout childhood and adolescence and provide the first evidence for an association between large-scale neurophysiological network synchronization and individual differences in the development of language abilities. PMID:26401810

  20. Unmasking Abilities Hidden by Developmental Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallik, Kalisankar, Ed.; Shaver, Elaine M., Ed.

    This document contains 16 papers that were scheduled to be presented at a conference (which was canceled) on approaches and programs for helping developmentally disabled persons to be more self-sufficient. The book is divided into three sections: (1) unmasking vocational abilities, (2) enhancing functional independence, and (3) medical and…

  1. The Development of Symbol Processing Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnham-Diggory, Sylvia

    Visual and auditory stimuli were presented to children to measure symbol processing abilities. Slides which required matching the similarities in two objects in a group of three were presented. At times the matching criteria varied between function, color, and form. Reaction time was quicker when matching by color than by function, which was…

  2. ABILITY, FAMILY SOCIOECONOMIC LEVEL, AND ADVANCED EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SCHOENFELDT, LYLE F.

    TWO GROUPS OF NURSES OF COMPARABLE ABILITY AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT WERE STUDIED TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTS OF FAMILY BACKGROUND ON DECISIONS TO CONTINUE EDUCATION AFTER HIGH SCHOOL. BECAUSE FUTURE NURSES MAY ENROLL IN DIFFERENT KINDS OF TRAINING PROGRAMS, IT WAS FELT THAT USING THESE STUDENTS AS SUBJECTS WOULD ENABLE MORE POSITIVE IDENTIFICATION OF…

  3. Why Do Spatial Abilities Predict Mathematical Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosto, Maria Grazia; Hanscombe, Ken B.; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Davis, Oliver S. P.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Dale, Philip S.; Malykh, Sergey; Plomin, Robert; Kovas, Yulia

    2014-01-01

    Spatial ability predicts performance in mathematics and eventual expertise in science, technology and engineering. Spatial skills have also been shown to rely on neuronal networks partially shared with mathematics. Understanding the nature of this association can inform educational practices and intervention for mathematical underperformance.…

  4. Auditory Temporal Pattern Discrimination and Reading Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAnally, Ken I.; Castles, Anne; Bannister, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The relation between reading ability and performance on an auditory temporal pattern discrimination task was investigated in children who were either good or delayed readers. The stimuli in the primary task consisted of sequences of tones, alternating between high and low frequencies. The threshold interstimulus interval (ISI) for discrimination…

  5. Rasch Based Analysis of Reading Ability Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Yuji

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the results of a questionnaire on reading ability in English by Japanese college students, which was formerly analyzed using raw scores, from the viewpoint of Rasch measured scores. In the Rasch analysis, the basic requirements for measuring are the following: (1) reduction of experience to one dimensional abstraction; (2)…

  6. Spatial Abilities across the Adult Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borella, Erika; Meneghetti, Chiara; Ronconi, Lucia; De Beni, Rossana

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates age-related effects across the adult life span on spatial abilities (testing subabilities based on a distinction between spatial visualization, mental rotation, and perspective taking) and spatial self-assessments. The sample consisted of 454 participants (223 women and 231 men) from 20 to 91 years of age. Results showed…

  7. Neurophysiology of Skin Thermal Sensations.

    PubMed

    Filingeri, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Undoubtedly, adjusting our thermoregulatory behavior represents the most effective mechanism to maintain thermal homeostasis and ensure survival in the diverse thermal environments that we face on this planet. Remarkably, our thermal behavior is entirely dependent on the ability to detect variations in our internal (i.e., body) and external environment, via sensing changes in skin temperature and wetness. In the past 30 years, we have seen a significant expansion of our understanding of the molecular, neuroanatomical, and neurophysiological mechanisms that allow humans to sense temperature and humidity. The discovery of temperature-activated ion channels which gate the generation of action potentials in thermosensitive neurons, along with the characterization of the spino-thalamo-cortical thermosensory pathway, and the development of neural models for the perception of skin wetness, are only some of the recent advances which have provided incredible insights on how biophysical changes in skin temperature and wetness are transduced into those neural signals which constitute the physiological substrate of skin thermal and wetness sensations. Understanding how afferent thermal inputs are integrated and how these contribute to behavioral and autonomic thermoregulatory responses under normal brain function is critical to determine how these mechanisms are disrupted in those neurological conditions, which see the concurrent presence of afferent thermosensory abnormalities and efferent thermoregulatory dysfunctions. Furthermore, advancing the knowledge on skin thermal and wetness sensations is crucial to support the development of neuroprosthetics. In light of the aforementioned text, this review will focus on the peripheral and central neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning skin thermal and wetness sensations in humans. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1279-1294, 2016.2016. PMID:27347898

  8. The genetic basis of music ability.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yi Ting; McPherson, Gary E; Peretz, Isabelle; Berkovic, Samuel F; Wilson, Sarah J

    2014-01-01

    Music is an integral part of the cultural heritage of all known human societies, with the capacity for music perception and production present in most people. Researchers generally agree that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the broader realization of music ability, with the degree of music aptitude varying, not only from individual to individual, but across various components of music ability within the same individual. While environmental factors influencing music development and expertise have been well investigated in the psychological and music literature, the interrogation of possible genetic influences has not progressed at the same rate. Recent advances in genetic research offer fertile ground for exploring the genetic basis of music ability. This paper begins with a brief overview of behavioral and molecular genetic approaches commonly used in human genetic analyses, and then critically reviews the key findings of genetic investigations of the components of music ability. Some promising and converging findings have emerged, with several loci on chromosome 4 implicated in singing and music perception, and certain loci on chromosome 8q implicated in absolute pitch and music perception. The gene AVPR1A on chromosome 12q has also been implicated in music perception, music memory, and music listening, whereas SLC6A4 on chromosome 17q has been associated with music memory and choir participation. Replication of these results in alternate populations and with larger samples is warranted to confirm the findings. Through increased research efforts, a clearer picture of the genetic mechanisms underpinning music ability will hopefully emerge. PMID:25018744

  9. The genetic basis of music ability

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yi Ting; McPherson, Gary E.; Peretz, Isabelle; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Wilson, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Music is an integral part of the cultural heritage of all known human societies, with the capacity for music perception and production present in most people. Researchers generally agree that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the broader realization of music ability, with the degree of music aptitude varying, not only from individual to individual, but across various components of music ability within the same individual. While environmental factors influencing music development and expertise have been well investigated in the psychological and music literature, the interrogation of possible genetic influences has not progressed at the same rate. Recent advances in genetic research offer fertile ground for exploring the genetic basis of music ability. This paper begins with a brief overview of behavioral and molecular genetic approaches commonly used in human genetic analyses, and then critically reviews the key findings of genetic investigations of the components of music ability. Some promising and converging findings have emerged, with several loci on chromosome 4 implicated in singing and music perception, and certain loci on chromosome 8q implicated in absolute pitch and music perception. The gene AVPR1A on chromosome 12q has also been implicated in music perception, music memory, and music listening, whereas SLC6A4 on chromosome 17q has been associated with music memory and choir participation. Replication of these results in alternate populations and with larger samples is warranted to confirm the findings. Through increased research efforts, a clearer picture of the genetic mechanisms underpinning music ability will hopefully emerge. PMID:25018744

  10. College Major Choice and Ability: Why Is General Ability Not Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolj, Tjasa; Polanec, Saso

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the impact of cognitive ability on college major choices using an administrative data set for full-time students enrolled in four-year business and economics programs offered by the largest Slovenian university. In contrast to existing studies, we are able to distinguish between general ability, measured with high school…

  11. Predictive Ability of the General Ability Index (GAI) versus the Full Scale IQ among Gifted Referrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Ellen W.; Kingsley, Jessica M.; Thompson, Dawna F.

    2010-01-01

    The General Ability Index (GAI) is a composite ability score for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) that minimizes the impact of tasks involving working memory and processing speed. The goal of the current study was to compare the degree to which the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) and the GAI predict academic achievement…

  12. Predicting Student Performance in Sonographic Scanning Using Spatial Ability as an Ability Determinent of Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clem, Douglas Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Spatial ability refers to an individual's capacity to visualize and mentally manipulate three dimensional objects. Since sonographers manually manipulate 2D and 3D sonographic images to generate multi-viewed, logical, sequential renderings of an anatomical structure, it can be assumed that spatial ability is central to the perception and…

  13. Predicting student performance in sonographic scanning using spatial ability as an ability determinent of skill acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clem, Douglas Wayne

    Spatial ability refers to an individual's capacity to visualize and mentally manipulate three dimensional objects. Since sonographers manually manipulate 2D and 3D sonographic images to generate multi-viewed, logical, sequential renderings of an anatomical structure, it can be assumed that spatial ability is central to the perception and interpretation of these medical images. Using Ackerman's theory of ability determinants of skilled performance as a conceptual framework, this study explored the relationship of spatial ability and learning sonographic scanning. Beginning first year sonography students from four different educational institutions were administered a spatial abilities test prior to their initial scanning lab coursework. The students' spatial test scores were compared with their scanning competency performance scores. A significant relationship between the students' spatial ability scores and their scanning performance scores was found. This result suggests that the use of spatial ability tests for admission to sonography programs may improve candidate selection, as well as assist programs in adjusting instruction and curriculum for students who demonstrate low spatial ability.

  14. CEQATR Thermal Test Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balusek, Alan R.

    2009-01-01

    A thermal test overview of the Constellation Environmental Qualification and Acceptance Test Requirement (CEQATR) is presented. The contents include: 1) CEQATR Thermal Test Overview; 2) CxP Environments; 3) CEQATR Table 1.2-1; 4) Levels of Assembly; 5) Definitions for Levels of Assembly; 6) Hardware Applicability; 7) CEQATR Thermal-Related Definitions; 8) Requirements for unit-level thermal testing; 9) Requirements for major assembly level thermal testing; 10) General thermal testing requirements; 11) General thermal cycle, thermal vacuum profiles; 12) Test tolerances; 13) Vacuum vs Ambient; 14) Thermal Gradient; 15) Sequence of Testing; 16) Alternative Strategies; 17) Protoflight; 18) Halt/Hass; 19) Humidity; and 20) Tailoring.

  15. Thermal mapping of Hawaiian volcanoes with ASTER satellite data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patrick, Matthew R.; Witzke, Coral-Nadine

    2011-01-01

    Thermal mapping of volcanoes is important to determine baseline thermal behavior in order to judge future thermal activity that may precede an eruption. We used cloud-free kinetic temperature images from the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) sensor obtained between 2000 and 2010 to produce thermal maps for all five subaerial volcanoes in Hawai‘i that have had eruptions in the Holocene (Kīlauea, Mauna Loa, Hualālai, Mauna Kea, and Haleakalā). We stacked the images to provide time-averaged thermal maps, as well as to analyze temperature trends through time. Thermal areas are conspicuous at the summits and rift zones of Kīlauea and Mauna Loa, and the summit calderas of these volcanoes contain obvious arcuate, concentric linear thermal areas that probably result from channeling of rising gas along buried, historical intracaldera scarps. The only significant change in thermal activity noted in the study period is the opening of the Halema‘uma‘u vent at Kīlauea's summit in 2008. Several small thermal anomalies are coincident with pit craters on Hualālai. We suspect that these simply result from the sheltered nature of the depression, but closer inspection is warranted to determine if genuine thermal activity exists in the craters. Thermal areas were not detected on Haleakalā or Mauna Kea. The main limitation of the study is the large pixel size (90 m) of the ASTER images, which reduces our ability to detect subtle changes or to identify small, low-temperature thermal activity. This study, therefore, is meant to characterize the broad, large-scale thermal features on these volcanoes. Future work should study these thermal areas with thermal cameras and thermocouples, which have a greater ability to detect small, low-temperature thermal features.

  16. Tolerance for error and computational estimation ability.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Thomas P; Wyckoff, Laurie A; Krebs, Paul; Jones, William; Fitzgerald, Mark P

    2004-06-01

    Previous investigators have suggested that the personality variable tolerance for error is related to success in computational estimation. However, this suggestion has not been tested directly. This study examined the relationship between performance on a computational estimation test and scores on the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, a measure of the Big Five personality traits, including Openness, an index of tolerance for ambiguity. Other variables included SAT-I Verbal and Mathematics scores and self-rated mathematics ability. Participants were 65 college students. There was no significant relationship between the tolerance variable and computational estimation performance. There was a modest negative relationship between Agreeableness and estimation performance. The skepticism associated with the negative pole of the Agreeableness dimension may be important to pursue in further understanding of estimation ability. PMID:15362423

  17. Valued life abilities among veteran cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Karel, Michele J.; Mulligan, Elizabeth A.; Walder, Annette; Martin, Lindsey A.; Moye, Jennifer; Naik, Aanand D.

    2016-01-01

    Background When patients have multiple chronic illnesses, it is not feasible to provide disease-based care when treatments for one condition adversely affect another. Instead, health-care delivery requires a broader person-centred treatment plan based on collaborative, patient-oriented values and goals. Objective We examined the individual variability, thematic content, and sociodemographic correlates of valued life abilities and activities among multimorbid veterans diagnosed with life-altering cancer. Setting and participants Participants were 144 veterans in the ‘Vet-Cares’ study who completed a health-care values and goals scale 12 months after diagnosis of head and neck, gastro-oesophageal, or colorectal cancer. They had mean age of 65 years and one quarter identified as Hispanic and/or African American. Design At twelve months post-diagnosis, participants rated 16 life abilities/activities in their importance to quality of life on a 10-point Likert scale, during an in-person interview. Scale themes were validated via exploratory factor analysis and examining associations with sociodemographic variables. Results Participants rated most life abilities/activities as extremely important. Variability in responses was sufficient to identify three underlying values themes in exploratory factor analysis: self-sufficiency, enjoyment/comfort, and connection to family, friends and spirituality. Veterans with a spouse/partner rated self-sufficiency as less important. African American veterans rated connection as more important than did White veterans. Conclusions It is feasible yet challenging to ask older, multimorbid patients to rate relative importance of values associated with life abilities/activities. Themes related to self-sufficiency, enjoyment/comfort in daily life and connection are salient and logically consistent with sociodemographic traits. Future studies should explore their role in goal-directed health care. PMID:25645124

  18. Spatial Ability Development in the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, T. K.; Hall-Wallace, M. K.

    2003-12-01

    We designed an experiment to evaluate change in students' spatial skills as a result of completing an earth science course. Our test subjects included high school students in earth science classes, college level non-science majors enrolled in large enrollment introductory geoscience courses and introductory level geoscience majors. They also varied as to whether their course had a hand-on laboratory experience or used supplemental Geographic Information System (GIS) based activities. We measured all students' ability to mentally rotate three-dimensional objects and to construct a three-dimensional object from a two-dimensional representation before and after taking the earth science course. Results show an improvement in spatial skills for all groups after completing the science course. We also observed a consistent improvement in spatial skills overall from high school level science to courses for majors, which is possibly related to their increased exposure to science. A subgroup of the test subjects among both high school and the college non-science majors completed supplementary GIS activities. The GIS implementation at the high school level was more extensive and resulted in significant improvements in both categories of spatial ability. At the college level, the non-science majors that used the GIS curriculum showed no significant difference from those that did not, probably because the time spent on the curriculum was too short. At the college level, the geoscience majors had nearly three times the improvement of non-science majors in both categories of spatial ability. This can most likely be attributed to hands-on, weekly laboratory experiences, which were not part of the course for non-science majors. Students choosing science majors typically have much higher spatial skills than the average first or second year non-science major, however there were large variations in spatial ability within all groups. These results suggest that we evaluate teaching

  19. Effects of thermal fluctuations on thermal inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Hiramatsu, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yuhei; Yokoyama, Jun’ichi

    2015-03-12

    The mechanism of thermal inflation, a relatively short period of accelerated expansion after primordial inflation, is a desirable ingredient for a certain class of particle physics models if they are not to be in contention with the cosmology of the early Universe. Though thermal inflation is most simply described in terms of a thermal effective potential, a thermal environment also gives rise to thermal fluctuations that must be taken into account. We numerically study the effects of these thermal fluctuations using lattice simulations. We conclude that though they do not ruin the thermal inflation scenario, the phase transition at the end of thermal inflation proceeds through phase mixing and is therefore not accompanied by the formations of bubbles nor appreciable amplitude of gravitational waves.

  20. Effects of thermal fluctuations on thermal inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiramatsu, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yuhei; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2015-03-01

    The mechanism of thermal inflation, a relatively short period of accelerated expansion after primordial inflation, is a desirable ingredient for a certain class of particle physics models if they are not to be in contention with the cosmology of the early Universe. Though thermal inflation is most simply described in terms of a thermal effective potential, a thermal environment also gives rise to thermal fluctuations that must be taken into account. We numerically study the effects of these thermal fluctuations using lattice simulations. We conclude that though they do not ruin the thermal inflation scenario, the phase transition at the end of thermal inflation proceeds through phase mixing and is therefore not accompanied by the formations of bubbles nor appreciable amplitude of gravitational waves.

  1. The mouth and dis/ability.

    PubMed

    Liddiard, K; Goodley, D

    2016-06-01

    Our aims in this paper are threefold. First, to understand how the mouth reveals the kinds of human beings that are de/valued in specific national locations and in global discourses with special attention on disability. Second, to subject the mouth to analysis from critical disability studies, specifically, an approach we describe as dis/ability studies. Third, to ask how the mouth might work as a site of resistance for disabled people. The paper begins by providing an introduction to critical disability studies, a perspective that foregrounds disability as the primary focus for thinking through the ways in which the body and society are shaped together. We move in this literature review towards a dis/ability studies approach that recognises the simultaneous processes of disablism (the exclusion of people with impairments) and ableism (the system by which standards of human autonomy and capability are made as key indicators of human worth). We then analyse the mouth in relation to pathologisation, human enhancement and resistance. We conclude with some final thoughts on the offerings of a dis/ability studies approach to those of interested with the intersections of the mouth and society. PMID:27352472

  2. Implicit theories and ability emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Rosario; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that people differ in their implicit theories about the essential characteristics of intelligence and emotions. Some people believe these characteristics to be predetermined and immutable (entity theorists), whereas others believe that these characteristics can be changed through learning and behavior training (incremental theorists). The present study provides evidence that in healthy adults (N = 688), implicit beliefs about emotions and emotional intelligence (EI) may influence performance on the ability-based Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Adults in our sample with incremental theories about emotions and EI scored higher on the MSCEIT than entity theorists, with implicit theories about EI showing a stronger relationship to scores than theories about emotions. Although our participants perceived both emotion and EI as malleable, they viewed emotions as more malleable than EI. Women and young adults in general were more likely to be incremental theorists than men and older adults. Furthermore, we found that emotion and EI theories mediated the relationship of gender and age with ability EI. Our findings suggest that people's implicit theories about EI may influence their emotional abilities, which may have important consequences for personal and professional EI training. PMID:26052309

  3. Relative sound localisation abilities in human listeners

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Katherine C.; Bizley, Jennifer K.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial acuity varies with sound-source azimuth, signal-to-noise ratio, and the spectral characteristics of the sound source. Here, the spatial localisation abilities of listeners were assessed using a relative localisation task. This task tested localisation ability at fixed angular separations throughout space using a two-alternative forced-choice design across a variety of listening conditions. Subjects were required to determine whether a target sound originated to the left or right of a preceding reference in the presence of a multi-source noise background. Experiment 1 demonstrated that subjects' ability to determine the relative location of two sources declined with less favourable signal-to-noise ratios and at peripheral locations. Experiment 2 assessed performance with both broadband and spectrally restricted stimuli designed to limit localisation cues to predominantly interaural level differences or interaural timing differences (ITDs). Predictions generated from topographic, modified topographic, and two-channel models of sound localisation suggest that for low-pass stimuli, where ITD cues were dominant, the two-channel model provides an adequate description of the experimental data, whereas for broadband and high frequency bandpass stimuli none of the models was able to fully account for performance. Experiment 3 demonstrated that relative localisation performance was uninfluenced by shifts in gaze direction. PMID:26328685

  4. Effects of fetal testosterone on visuospatial ability.

    PubMed

    Auyeung, Bonnie; Knickmeyer, Rebecca; Ashwin, Emma; Taylor, Kevin; Hackett, Gerald; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated whether fetal testosterone (FT) measured from second trimester amniotic fluid was related to specific aspects of visuospatial ability, in children aged 7-10 years (35 boys, 29 girls). A series of tasks were used: the children's Embedded Figures Test (EFT) (a test of attention to detail), a ball targeting task (measuring hand-eye coordination), and a computerized mental rotation task (measuring rotational ability). FT was a significant predictor for EFT scores in both boys and girls, with boys also showing a clear advantage for this task. No significant sex differences were observed in targeting. Boys scored higher than girls on mental rotation. However, no significant relationships were observed between FT and targeting or mental rotation. Girls' performance on the mental rotation and targeting tasks was significantly related to age, indicating that these tasks may have been too difficult for the younger children. These results indicate that FT has a significant role in some aspects of cognitive development but that further work is needed to understand its effect on the different aspects of visuospatial ability. PMID:22033667

  5. Event Segmentation Ability Uniquely Predicts Event Memory

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, Jesse Q.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Hambrick, David Z.; Zacks, Rose T.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Bailey, Heather R.; Eisenberg, Michelle L.; Beck, Taylor M.

    2013-01-01

    Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79 years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan. PMID:23942350

  6. On the Evolution of Calculation Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    Some numerical knowledge, such as the immediate recognition of small quantities, is observed in animals. The development of arithmetical abilities found in man's evolution as well as in child's development represents a long process following different stages. Arithmetical abilities are relatively recent in human history and are clearly related with counting, i.e., saying aloud a series of number words that correspond to a collection of objects. Counting probably began with finger sequencing, and that may explain the 10-base found in most numerical systems. From a neuropsychological perspective, there is a strong relationship between numerical knowledge and finger recognition, and both are impaired in cases of left posterior parietal damage (angular or Gerstmann's syndrome). Writing numbers appeared earlier in human history than written language. Positional digit value is clearly evident in Babylonians, and around 1,000 BC the zero was introduced. Contemporary neuroimaging techniques, specifically fMRI, have demonstrated that the left parietal lobe, particularly the intraparietal sulcus, is systematically activated during a diversity of tasks; other areas, particularly the frontal lobe, are also involved in processing numerical information and solving arithmetical problems. It can be conjectured that numerical abilities continue evolving due to advances in mathematical knowledge and the introduction of new technologies. PMID:20725520

  7. Transport optimization considering the node aggregation ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gang; Li, Lian; Guo, Jiawei; Li, Zheng

    2015-10-01

    Using the theories of complex networks and gravitational field, we study the dynamic routing process under the framework of node gravitational field, define the equation of gravitation of travel path to data package and introduce two parameters α and γ for adjusting the dependences of transmission data on the unblocked degree of node, the transmission capacity of node and the path length. Based on the path's attraction, a gravitational field routing strategy under node connection ability constraint is proposed with considering the affect of node aggregation ability to transport process, and a parameter is used to adjust the control strength of routing process to node aggregation ability. In order to clarify the efficiency of suggested method, we introduce an order parameter η to measure the throughput of the network by the critical value of phase transition from free state to congestion state, and analyze the distribution of betweenness centrality and traffic jam. Simulation results show that, compared with the traditional shortest path routing strategy, our method greatly improve the throughput of a network, balance the network traffic load and most of the network nodes are used efficiently. Moreover, the network throughput is maximized under μ = -1, and the transmission performance of the algorithm is independent of the values of α and γ, which indicate the routing strategy is stable and reliable.

  8. Seasonal thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.; Kannberg, L.D.; Raymond, J.R.

    1984-05-01

    This report describes the following: (1) the US Department of Energy Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program, (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology, (3) alternative STES technology, (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage, and (5) economic assessment.

  9. Quantitative thermal diffusivity imaging of disbonds in thermal protective coatings using inductive heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, D. M.; Winfree, William P.

    1990-01-01

    An inductive heating technique for making thermal diffusivity images of disbonds between thermal protective coatings and their substrates is presented. Any flaw in the bonding of the coating and the substrate shows as an area of lowered values in the diffusivity image. The benefits of the inductive heating approach lie in its ability to heat the conductive substrate without directly heating the dielectric coating. Results are provided for a series of samples with fabricated disbonds, for a range of coating thicknesses.

  10. A SINDA thermal model using CAD/CAE technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Jose A.; Spencer, Steve

    1992-01-01

    The approach to thermal analysis described by this paper is a technique that incorporates Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) to develop a thermal model that has the advantages of Finite Element Methods (FEM) without abandoning the unique advantages of Finite Difference Methods (FDM) in the analysis of thermal systems. The incorporation of existing CAD geometry, the powerful use of a pre and post processor and the ability to do interdisciplinary analysis, will be described.

  11. LDCM Preliminary Thermal Trades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert; Pagnutti, Mary; Blonski, Slawomir; Spruce, Joe

    2001-01-01

    The expected cost of adding thermal bands to the next generation Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) could be significant. This viewgraph presentation investigates both traditional cooled cross-track scanners and new architectures (cooled and uncooled) which could enable a low cost thermal capability. The presentation includes surveys of applications of Landsat thermal data and the architecture of thermal instruments. It also covers new thermal architecture sensor trades, ALI Architecture with Uncooled TIR Detectors, and simulated thermal imagery.

  12. Thermally cascaded thermoelectric generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flaherty, R.

    1970-01-01

    High efficiency thermoelectric generator utilizes a high-temperature thermoelectric material in thermal series with a low-temperature material. A thermally cascaded generator increases system efficiency.

  13. Thermal conductivity of zirconia thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinwiddie, R. B.; Beecher, S. C.; Nagaraj, B. A.; Moore, C. S.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) applied to the hot gas components of turbine engines lead to enhanced fuel efficiency and component reliability. Understanding the mechanisms which control the thermal transport behavior of the TBC's is of primary importance. Physical vapor description (PVD) and plasma spraying (PS) are the two most commonly used coating techniques. These techniques produce coatings with unique microstructures which control their performance and stability. The PS coatings were applied with either standard power or hollow sphere particles. The hollow sphere particles yielded a lower density and lower thermal conductivity coating. The thermal conductivity of both fully and partially stabilized zirconia, before and after thermal aging, will be compared. The thermal conductivity of the coatings permanently increase upon being exposed to high temperatures. These increases are attributed to microstructural changes within the coatings. Sintering of the as fabricated plasma sprayed lamellar structure is observed by scanning electron microscopy of coatings isothermally heat treated at temperatures greater than 1100 C. During this sintering process the planar porosity between lamella is converted to a series of small spherical pores. The change in pore morphology is the primary reason for the observed increase in thermal conductivity. This increase in thermal conductivity can be modeled using a relationship which depends on both the temperature and time of exposure. Although the PVD coatings are less susceptible to thermal aging effects, preliminary results suggest that they have a higher thermal conductivity than PS coatings, both before and after thermal aging. The increases in thermal conductivity due to thermal aging for partially stabilized plasma sprayed zirconia have been found to be less than for fully stabilized plasma sprayed zirconia coatings. The high temperature thermal diffusivity data indicates that if these coatings reach a temperature above

  14. Thermal conductivity of zirconia thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinwiddie, R. B.; Beecher, S. C.; Nagaraj, B. A.; Moore, C. S.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) applied to the hot gas components of turbine engines lead to enhanced fuel efficiency and component reliability. Understanding the mechanisms which control the thermal transport behavior of the TBC's is of primary importance. Physical vapor deposition (PVD) and plasma spraying (PS) are the two most commonly used coating techniques. These techniques produce coatings with unique microstructures which control their performance and stability. The PS coatings were applied with either standard powder or hollow sphere particles. The hollow sphere particles yielded a lower density and lower thermal conductivity coating. The thermal conductivity of both fully and partially stabilized zirconia, before and after thermal aging, will be compared. The thermal conductivity of the coatings permanently increases upon exposed to high temperatures. These increases are attributed to microstructural changes within the coatings. Sintering of the as-fabricated plasma sprayed lamellar structure is observed by scanning electron microscopy of coatings isothermally heat treated at temperatures greater than 1100 C. During this sintering process the planar porosity between lamella is converted to a series of small spherical pores. The change in pore morphology is the primary reason for the observed increase in thermal conductivity. This increase in thermal conductivity can be modeled using a relationship which depends on both the temperature and time of exposure. Although the PVD coatings are less susceptible to thermal aging effects, preliminary results suggest that they have a higher thermal conductivity than PS coatings, both before and after thermal aging. The increases in thermal conductivity due to thermal aging for partially stabilized plasma sprayed zirconia have been found to be less than for fully stabilized plasma sprayed zirconia coatings. The high temperature thermal diffusivity data indicate that if these coatings reach a temperature above 1100 C

  15. Thermal Ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettcher, Philipp Andreas

    Accidental ignition of flammable gases is a critical safety concern in many industrial applications. Particularly in the aviation industry, the main areas of concern on an aircraft are the fuel tank and adjoining regions, where spilled fuel has a high likelihood of creating a flammable mixture. To this end, a fundamental understanding of the ignition phenomenon is necessary in order to develop more accurate test methods and standards as a means of designing safer air vehicles. The focus of this work is thermal ignition, particularly auto-ignition with emphasis on the effect of heating rate, hot surface ignition and flame propagation, and puffing flames. Combustion of hydrocarbon fuels is traditionally separated into slow reaction, cool flame, and ignition regimes based on pressure and temperature. Standard tests, such as the ASTM E659, are used to determine the lowest temperature required to ignite a specific fuel mixed with air at atmospheric pressure. It is expected that the initial pressure and the rate at which the mixture is heated also influences the limiting temperature and the type of combustion. This study investigates the effect of heating rate, between 4 and 15 K/min, and initial pressure, in the range of 25 to 100 kPa, on ignition of n-hexane air mixtures. Mixtures with equivalence ratio ranging from 0.6 to 1.2 were investigated. The problem is also modeled computationally using an extension of Semenov's classical auto-ignition theory with a detailed chemical mechanism. Experiments and simulations both show that in the same reactor either a slow reaction or an ignition event can take place depending on the heating rate. Analysis of the detailed chemistry demonstrates that a mixture which approaches the ignition region slowly undergoes a significant modification of its composition. This change in composition induces a progressive shift of the explosion limit until the mixture is no longer flammable. A mixture that approaches the ignition region

  16. Communication-Related Abilities and Upward Mobility: A Longitudinal Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sypher, Beverly Davenport; Zorn, Theodore E., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Studies relationships among four measures of communication abilities, and between these abilities and job level and upward mobility in a selected insurance company. Concludes that communication abilities are important to the success of individuals in organizations. (MS)

  17. Concept Car Design and Ability Training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Jiefeng; Lu, Hairong

    The concept design as a symbol of creative design thinking, reflecting on the future design of exploratory and prospective, as a vehicle to explore the notion of future car design, design inspiration and creativity is not only a bold display, more through demonstrate the concept, reflects the company's technological strength and technological progress, and thus enhance their brand image. Present Chinese automobile design also has a very big disparity with world level, through cultivating students' concept design ability, to establish native design features and self-reliant brand image is practical and effective ways, also be necessary and pressing.

  18. Genetic component in learning ability in bees.

    PubMed

    Kerr, W E; Moura Duarte, F A; Oliveira, R S

    1975-10-01

    Twenty-five bees, five from each of five hives, were trained to collect food at a table. When the bee reached the table, time was recorded for 12 visits. Then a blue and yellow pan was substituted for the original metal pan, and time and correct responses were recorded for 30 trips (discrimination phase). Finally, food was taken from the pan and extinction was recorded as incorrect responses for 20 visits. Variance analysis was carried out, and genetic variance was undetected for discrimination, but was detected for extinction. It is concluded that learning is very important for bees, so that any impairment in such ability affects colony survival. PMID:1191157

  19. Language Experience Changes Language and Cognitive Ability

    PubMed Central

    Poarch, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    The sustained use of two languages by bilinguals has been shown to induce broad changes in language and cognitive abilities across the lifespan. The largest changes are seen as advantages in executive control, a set of processes responsible for controlled attention, inhibition, and shifting. Moreover, there is evidence that these executive control advantages mitigate cognitive decline in older age and contribute to cognitive reserve. In this paper, we examine some of the evidence for these findings and explain their relation to bilingual language use. These effects are considered in terms of their implications for our understanding of cognitive and brain plasticity. Some implications for social policy are discussed. PMID:25435805

  20. Effect of a cavitation treatment of coals on their physicochemical properties and ability for thermal dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Yu. F. Patrakov; N.I. Fedorova; S.A. Semenova

    2007-08-15

    It was found that the cavitation treatment of low-metamorphized coals from the Kuznetsk Basin resulted in not only their mechanical degradation but also changes in the chemical composition of the surface layers of coal particles due to the occurrence of oxidation-hydrolysis reactions with water in a supercritical state under cavitation conditions.

  1. Nature versus Nurture in Determining Athletic Ability.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xu; Papadimitriou, Ioannis; Lidor, Ronnie; Eynon, Nir

    2016-01-01

    This overview provides a general discussion of the roles of nature and nurture in determining human athletic ability. On the nature (genetics) side, a review is provided with emphasis on the historical research and on several areas which are likely to be important for future research, including next-generation sequencing technologies. In addition, a number of well-designed training studies that could possibly reveal the biological mechanism ('cause') behind the association between gene variants and athletic ability are discussed. On the nurture (environment) side, we discuss common environmental variables including deliberate practice, family support, and the birthplace effect, which may be important in becoming an elite athlete. Developmental effects are difficult to disassociate with genetic effects, because the early life environment may have long-lasting effects in adulthood. With this in mind, the fetal programming hypothesis is also briefly reviewed, as fetal programming provides an excellent example of how the environment interacts with genetics. We conclude that the traditional argument of nature versus nurture is no longer relevant, as it has been clearly established that both are important factors in the road to becoming an elite athlete. With the availability of the next-generation genetics (sequencing) techniques, it is hoped that future studies will reveal the relevant genes influencing performance, as well as the interaction between those genes and environmental (nurture) factors. PMID:27287074

  2. Phishing IQ Tests Measure Fear, Not Ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandpara, Vivek; Dingman, Andrew; Jakobsson, Markus; Liu, Debin; Roinestad, Heather

    We argue that phishing IQ tests fail to measure susceptibility to phishing attacks. We conducted a study where 40 subjects were asked to answer a selection of questions from existing phishing IQ tests in which we varied the portion (from 25% to 100%) of the questions that corresponded to phishing emails. We did not find any correlation between the actual number of phishing emails and the number of emails that the subjects indicated were phishing. Therefore, the tests did not measure the ability of the subjects. To further confirm this, we exposed all the subjects to existing phishing education after they had taken the test, after which each subject was asked to take a second phishing test, with the same design as the first one, but with different questions. The number of stimuli that were indicated as being phishing in the second test was, again, independent of the actual number of phishing stimuli in the test. However, a substantially larger portion of stimuli was indicated as being phishing in the second test, suggesting that the only measurable effect of the phishing education (from the point of view of the phishing IQ test) was an increased concern—not an increased ability.

  3. Psychopathology and the Ability to Do Otherwise

    PubMed Central

    Pickard, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    When philosophers want an example of a person who lacks the ability to do otherwise, they turn to psychopathology. Addicts, agoraphobics, kleptomaniacs, neurotics, obsessives, and even psychopathic serial murderers, are all purportedly subject to irresistible desires that compel the person to act: no alternative possibility is supposed to exist. I argue that this conception of psychopathology is false and offer an empirically and clinically informed understanding of disorders of agency which preserves the ability to do otherwise. First, I appeal to standard clinical treatment for disorders of agency and argue that it undermines this conception of psychopathology. Second, I offer a detailed discussion of addiction, where our knowledge of the neurobiological mechanisms underpinning the disorder is relatively advanced. I argue that neurobiology notwithstanding, addiction is not a form of compulsion and I explain how addiction can impair behavioural control without extinguishing it. Third, I step back from addiction, and briefly sketch what the philosophical landscape more generally looks like without psychopathological compulsion: we lose our standard purported real-world example of psychologically determined action. I conclude by reflecting on the centrality of choice and free will to our concept of action, and their potency within clinical treatment for disorders of agency. PMID:25929318

  4. Hearing ability decreases in ageing locusts.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Shira D; Windmill, James F C

    2015-07-01

    Insects display signs of ageing, despite their short lifespan. However, the limited studies on senescence emphasize longevity or reproduction. We focused on the hearing ability of ageing adult locusts, Schistocerca gregaria. Our results indicate that the youngest adults (2 weeks post-maturity) have a greater overall neurophysiological response to sound, especially for low frequencies (<10 kHz), as well as a shorter latency to this neural response. Interestingly, when measuring displacement of the tympanal membrane that the receptor neurons directly attach to, we found movement is not directly correlated with neural response. Therefore, we suggest the enhanced response in younger animals is due to the condition of their tissues (e.g. elasticity). Secondly, we found the sexes do not have the same responses, particularly at 4 weeks post-adult moult. We propose female reproductive condition reduces their ability to receive sounds. Overall our results indicate older animals, especially females, are less sensitive to sounds. PMID:25944922

  5. THERMAL ENVIRONMENT AND LEARNING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LANE, W.R.

    RESEARCH ON THERMAL ENVIRONMENT IN SCHOOLS IS SUMMARIZED AND THE STATUS OF "THERMAL ENVIRONMENT AND LEARNING" RESEARCH COMPLETED AND/OR UNDERWAY IN THE IOWA CENTER FOR RESEARCH IN SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION IS REPORTED. RESULTS ARE--(1) CHILDREN DID LEARN BETTER UNDER MODEL THERMAL CONDITIONS, (2) TEACHERS MUST BECOME MORE AWARE OF THERMAL CONDITIONS,…

  6. Thermal barrier research

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, K.G.

    1990-03-07

    The thermal barrier region in the TARA device is a complex arrangement combining ion-plugging by sloshing ions with an ECRH-generated thermal barrier plasma. An axisymmetric, high-mirror-ratio magnetic field, adjacent to the central cell, provides the confinement of the thermal barrier plasma and sloshing ions. This paper discusses research being done in this thermal barrier region.

  7. Thermal conductivity of zirconia thermal barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Dinwiddie, R.B.; Beecher, S.C.; Nagaraj, B.A.; Moore, C.S.

    1995-10-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBC`s) applied to the hot gas components of turbine engines lead to enhanced fuel efficiency and component reliability. Understanding the mechanisms which control the thermal transport behavior of the TBC`s is of primary importance. Physical vapor deposition (PVD) and plasma spraying (PS) are the two most commonly used coating techniques. These techniques produce coatings with unique microstructures which control their performance and stability. The PS coatings were applied with either standard powder or hollow sphere particles. The hollow sphere particles yielded a lower density and lower thermal conductivity coating. The thermal conductivity of both fully and partially stabilized zirconia, before and after thermal aging, will be compared. The thermal conductivity of the coatings permanently increases upon exposed to high temperatures. These increases are attributed to microstructural changes within the coatings. Sintering of the as-fabricated plasma sprayed lamellar structure is observed by scanning electron microscopy of coatings isothermally heat treated at temperatures greater than 1100 C. During this sintering process the planar porosity between lamella is converted to a series of small spherical pores. The change in pore morphology is the primary reason for the observed increase in thermal conductivity. This increase in thermal conductivity can be modeled using a relationship which depends on both the temperature and time of exposure. Although the PVD coatings are less susceptible to thermal aging effects, preliminary results suggest that they have a higher thermal conductivity than PS coatings, both before and after thermal aging. The increases in thermal conductivity due to thermal aging for partially stabilized plasma sprayed zirconia have been found to be less than for fully stabilized plasma sprayed zirconia coatings.

  8. Thermal Protection and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Effie E.

    2013-01-01

    During all phases of a spacecraft's mission, a Thermal Protection System (TPS) is needed to protect the vehicle and structure from extreme temperatures and heating. When designing TPS, low weight and cost while ensuring the protection of the vehicle is highly desired. There are two main types of TPS, ablative and reusable. The Apollo missions needed ablators due to the high heat loads from lunar reentry. However, when the desire for a reusable space vehicle emerged, the resultant_ Space Shuttle program propelled a push for the development of reusable TPS. With the growth of reqsable TPS, the need for ablators declined, triggering a drop off of the ablator industry. As a result, the expertise was not heavily maintained within NASA or the industry. When the Orion Program initiated a few years back, a need. for an ablator reemerged. Yet, due to of the lack of industry capability, redeveloping the ablator material took several years and came at a high cost. As NASA looks towards the future with both the Orion and Commercial Crew Programs, a need to preserve reusable, ablative, and other TPS technologies is essential. Research of the different TPS materials alongside their properties, capabilities, and manufacturing process was performed, and the benefits of the materials were analyzed alongside the future of TPS. Knowledge of the different technologies has the ability to help us know what expertise to maintain and ensure a lack in the industry does not occur again.

  9. Manipulating Steady Heat Conduction by Sensu-shaped Thermal Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Han, Tiancheng; Bai, Xue; Liu, Dan; Gao, Dongliang; Li, Baowen; Thong, John T. L.; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The ability to design the control of heat flow has innumerable benefits in the design of electronic systems such as thermoelectric energy harvesters, solid-state lighting, and thermal imagers, where the thermal design plays a key role in performance and device reliability. In this work, we employ one identical sensu-unit with facile natural composition to experimentally realize a new class of thermal metamaterials for controlling thermal conduction (e.g., thermal concentrator, focusing/resolving, uniform heating), only resorting to positioning and locating the same unit element of sensu-shape structure. The thermal metamaterial unit and the proper arrangement of multiple identical units are capable of transferring, redistributing and managing thermal energy in a versatile fashion. It is also shown that our sensu-shape unit elements can be used in manipulating dc currents without any change in the layout for the thermal counterpart. These could markedly enhance the capabilities in thermal sensing, thermal imaging, thermal-energy storage, thermal packaging, thermal therapy, and more domains beyond. PMID:25974383

  10. Numerical approximation abilities correlate with and predict informal but not formal mathematics abilities

    PubMed Central

    Libertus, Melissa E.; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has found a relationship between individual differences in children’s precision when nonverbally approximating quantities and their school mathematics performance. School mathematics performance emerges from both informal (e.g., counting) and formal (e.g., knowledge of mathematics facts) abilities. It remains unknown whether approximation precision relates to both of these types of mathematics abilities. In the present study we assessed the precision of numerical approximation in 85 3- to 7-year-old children four times over a span of two years. Additionally, at the last time point, we tested children’s informal and formal mathematics abilities using the Test of Early Mathematics Ability (TEMA-3; Ginsburg & Baroody, 2003). We found that children’s numerical approximation precision correlated with and predicted their informal, but not formal, mathematics abilities when controlling for age and IQ. These results add to our growing understanding of the relationship between an unlearned, non-symbolic system of quantity representation and the system of mathematical reasoning that children come to master through instruction. PMID:24076381

  11. Experimental understanding of the viscosity reduction ability of TLCPs with different PEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Youhong; Zuo, Min; Gao, Ping

    2014-08-01

    In this study, two thermotropic liquid crystalline polyesters (TLCPs) synthesized by polycondensation of p-hydroxybenzoic acid /hydroquinone/ poly dicarboxylic acid were used as viscosity reduction agents for polyethylene (PE). The TLCPs had different thermal, rheological and other physical properties that were quantitatively characterized. The two TLCPs were blended with high density PE (HDPE) and high molecular mass PE (HMMPE) by simple twin screw extrusion under the same weight ratio of 1.0 wt% and were each rheologically characterized at 190°C. The TLCPs acted as processing modifiers for the PEs and the bulk viscosity of the blends decreased dramatically. However, the viscosity reduction ability was not identical: one TLCP had obviously higher viscosity reduction ability on the HDPE, with a maximum viscosity reduction ratio of 68.1%, whereas the other TLCP had higher viscosity reduction ability on the HMMPE, with a maximum viscosity reduction ratio of 98.7%. Proposed explanations for these differences are evaluated.

  12. Cortical activity patterns predict speech discrimination ability

    PubMed Central

    Engineer, Crystal T; Perez, Claudia A; Chen, YeTing H; Carraway, Ryan S; Reed, Amanda C; Shetake, Jai A; Jakkamsetti, Vikram; Chang, Kevin Q; Kilgard, Michael P

    2010-01-01

    Neural activity in the cerebral cortex can explain many aspects of sensory perception. Extensive psychophysical and neurophysiological studies of visual motion and vibrotactile processing show that the firing rate of cortical neurons averaged across 50–500 ms is well correlated with discrimination ability. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that primary auditory cortex (A1) neurons use temporal precision on the order of 1–10 ms to represent speech sounds shifted into the rat hearing range. Neural discrimination was highly correlated with behavioral performance on 11 consonant-discrimination tasks when spike timing was preserved and was not correlated when spike timing was eliminated. This result suggests that spike timing contributes to the auditory cortex representation of consonant sounds. PMID:18425123

  13. TIE: An Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Śmieja, Magdalena; Orzechowski, Jarosław; Stolarski, Maciej S.

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE) is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions. PMID:25072656

  14. Pharmacy Students’ Ability to Think About Thinking

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Eric F.; Vuk, Jasna; Stowe, Cindy D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To investigate students’ metacognitive skills to distinguish what they know from what they do not know, to assess students’ prediction of performance on a summative examination, and to compare student-identified incorrect questions with actual examination performance in order to improve exam quality. Methods. Students completed a test-taking questionnaire identifying items perceived to be incorrect and rating their test-taking ability. Results. Higher performing students evidenced better metacognitive skills by more accurately identifying incorrect items on the exam. Most students (86%) underpredicted their performance on the summative examination (actual=73.6 ± 7.1 versus predicted=63.7 ± 10.5, p<0.05). Student responses helped refine items and resulted in examination changes. Conclusion. Metacognition is important to the development of life-long learning in pharmacy students. Students able to monitor what they know and what they do not know can improve their performance. PMID:25386013

  15. Familial aggregation patterns in mathematical ability.

    PubMed

    Wijsman, Ellen M; Robinson, Nancy M; Ainsworth, Kathryn H; Rosenthal, Elisabeth A; Holzman, Ted; Raskind, Wendy H

    2004-01-01

    Mathematical talent is an asset in modern society both at an individual and a societal level. Environmental factors such as quality of mathematics education undoubtedly affect an individual's performance, and there is some evidence that genetic factors also may play a role. The current study was performed to investigate the feasibility of undertaking genetics studies on mathematical ability. Because the etiology of low ability in mathematics is likely to be multifactorial and heterogeneous, we evaluated families ascertained through a proband with high mathematical performance in grade 7 on the SAT to eliminate, to some degree, adverse environmental factors. Families of sex-matched probands, selected for high verbal performance on the SAT, served as the comparison group. We evaluated a number of proxy measures for their usefulness in the study of clustering of mathematical talent. Given the difficulty of testing mathematics performance across developmental ages, especially with the added complexity of decreasing exposure to formal mathematics concepts post schooling, we also devised a semiquantitative scale that incorporated educational, occupational, and avocational information as a surrogate for an academic mathematics measure. Whereas several proxy measures showed no evidence of a genetic basis, we found that the semiquantitative scale of mathematical talent showed strong evidence of a genetic basis, with a differential response as a function of the performance measure used to select the proband. This observation suggests that there may be a genetic basis to specific mathematical talent, and that specific, as opposed to proxy, investigative measures that are designed to measure such talent in family members could be of benefit for this purpose. PMID:14739696

  16. Change in Cognitive Abilities in Older Latinos.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Robert S; Capuano, Ana W; Marquez, David X; Amofa, Priscilla; Barnes, Lisa L; Bennett, David A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare patterns of cognitive decline in older Latinos and non-Latinos. At annual intervals for a mean of 5.7 years, older Latino (n=104) and non-Latino (n=104) persons of equivalent age, education, and race completed a battery of 17 cognitive tests from which previously established composite measures of episodic memory, semantic memory, working memory, perceptual speed, and visuospatial ability were derived. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, and education, performance declined over time in each cognitive domain, but there were no ethnic group differences in initial level of function or annual rate of decline. There was evidence of retest learning following the baseline evaluation, but neither the magnitude nor duration of the effect was related to Latino ethnicity, and eliminating the first two evaluations, during which much of retest learning occurred, did not affect ethnic group comparisons. Compared to the non-Latino group, the Latino group had more diabetes (38.5% vs. 25.0; χ2[1]=4.4; p=.037), fewer histories of smoking (24.0% vs. 39.4%, χ2[1]=5.7; p=.017), and lower childhood household socioeconomic level (-0.410 vs. -0.045, t[185.0]=3.1; p=.002), but controlling for these factors did not affect results. Trajectories of cognitive aging in different abilities are similar in Latino and non-Latino individuals of equivalent age, education, and race. (JINS, 2016, 22, 58-65). PMID:26553103

  17. How Spatial Abilities Enhance, and Are Enhanced by, Dental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegarty, Mary; Keehner, Madeleine; Khooshabeh, Peter; Montello, Daniel R.

    2009-01-01

    In two studies with a total of 324 participants, dentistry students were assessed on psychometric measures of spatial ability, reasoning ability, and on new measures of the ability to infer the appearance of a cross-section of a three-dimensional (3-D) object. We examined how these abilities and skills predict success in dental education programs,…

  18. Linking Abilities, Interests, and Sex via Latent Class Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; Bouchard, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    The few studies that have examined associations between measured interests and abilities have suffered from small sample sizes, restricted ranges of ability and background, preconceived groupings of interests, and measures of ability that confound general and specific cognitive abilities. In this study of 425 adults from diverse backgrounds, the…

  19. Is Approximate Number Precision a Stable Predictor of Math Ability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libertus, Melissa E.; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Previous research shows that children's ability to estimate numbers of items using their Approximate Number System (ANS) predicts later math ability. To more closely examine the predictive role of early ANS acuity on later abilities, we assessed the ANS acuity, math ability, and expressive vocabulary of preschoolers twice, six months apart. We…

  20. Comment on Goldhammer's "Measuring Ability, Speed, or Both"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    The answer to the question, "Ability, speed, or both?" may be "both at once" if speed is simply a manifestation of ability. If differences in speed are manifestations of differences in ability, then both speed and ability may reflect a single dimension best characterized by a single score. While measurement of speed has proven…

  1. MEMS thermal switch for spacecraft thermal control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, Matthew A.; Firebaugh, Samara L.; Edwards, Richard L.; Keeney, Allen C.; Osiander, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Small satellites with their low thermal capacitance are vulnerable to rapid temperature fluctuations. Therefore, thermal control becomes important, but the limitations on mass and electrical power require new approaches. Possible solutions to actively vary the heat rejection of the satellite in response to variations in the thermal load and environmental condition are the use of a variable emissivity coating (VEC), micro-machined shutters and louvers, or thermal switches. An elegant way the radiate heat is to switch the thermal contact between the emitting surface and the radiator electrostatically. This paper describes the design and fabrication of an active radiator for satellite thermal control based on such a micro electromechanical (MEMS) thermal switch. The switch operates by electrostatically moving a high emissivity surface layer in and out of contact with the radiator. The electromechanical model and material considerations for the thermal design of the MEMS device are discussed. The design utilizes a highly thermal conductive gold membrane supported by low-conductance SU-8 posts. The fabrication process is described. Measured actuation voltages were consistent with the electrostatic model, ranging from 8 to 25 volts.

  2. Spaceborne Thermal Infrared Measurements of Volcanic Thermal Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, R. G.; Hook, S. J.; Davies, A. G.

    2006-12-01

    Thermal Infrared (TIR) remote sensing measurements of high-temperature volcanic features improve our understanding of volcanic processes and our ability to identify renewed volcanic activity, forecast eruptions, and assess hazards. We will present a time-series analysis of ASTER TIR data acquired over 3 different volcanoes that span a range of temperatures typical of volcanic features: 1) crater lake at Mount Ruapehu; 2) dacite dome at Mount St. Helens, and 3) lava lake at Mount Erebus. The goals of this study were to determine a baseline for the thermal behavior of these volcanoes by characterizing non-volcanic background temperature variations as well as identify how temporal changes in the ASTER-derived temperatures relate to dynamic volcanic processes. Also, one of the on-going and future goals of this work is to develop background thermal variation models for many volcanoes to help identify changes that may occur prior to eruptions. Measuring the temporal thermal behavior of well-monitored active volcanoes provides insights on how to interpret TIR data over other volcanoes that are more remote and less well-studied. At Mount Ruapehu, 34 nighttime ASTER-derived temperatures (integrated over 90-m pixels) from Apr 2001 to Mar 2006 ranged from 10 to 34 C, reflecting regular seasonal variations, with some thermal anomalies that possibly relate to increased fumarolic activity on the crater floor beneath the lake. At Mount St Helens, 19 nighttime ASTER-derived temperatures from Mar 2000 to Feb 2006 ranged from -10 to 96 C. They varied seasonally before the most recent eruption (Oct 2004), and tracked with dome growth after the eruption, relating to dome volume and morphology changes. At Mount Erebus, 115 nighttime ASTER-derived temperatures from Mar 2001 to July 2006 ranged from 0 to 90 C. The sub-pixel sized lava lake showed a large range of retrieved temperatures but no systematic variability, possibly due to steam frequently condensing over the lake. Currently

  3. Thermal responses of Symbiodinium photosynthetic carbon assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oakley, Clinton A.; Schmidt, Gregory W.; Hopkinson, Brian M.

    2014-06-01

    The symbiosis between hermatypic corals and their dinoflagellate endosymbionts, genus Symbiodinium, is based on carbon exchange. This symbiosis is disrupted by thermally induced coral bleaching, a stress response in which the coral host expels its algal symbionts as they become physiologically impaired. The disruption of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) supply or the thermal inactivation of Rubisco have been proposed as sites of initial thermal damage that leads to the bleaching response. Symbiodinium possesses a highly unusual Form II ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), which exhibits a lower CO2:O2 specificity and may be more thermally unstable than the Form I Rubiscos of other algae and land plants. Components of the CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM), which supplies inorganic carbon for photosynthesis, may also be temperature sensitive. Here, we examine the ability of four cultured Symbiodinium strains to acquire and fix DIC across a temperature gradient. Surprisingly, the half-saturation constant of photosynthesis with respect to DIC concentration ( K P), an index of CCM function, declined with increasing temperature in three of the four strains, indicating a greater potential for photosynthetic carbon acquisition at elevated temperatures. In the fourth strain, there was no effect of temperature on K P. Finding no evidence for thermal inhibition of the CCM, we conclude that CCM components are not likely to be the primary sites of thermal damage. Reduced photosynthetic quantum yields, a hallmark of thermal bleaching, were observed at low DIC concentrations, leaving open the possibility that reduced inorganic carbon availability is involved in bleaching.

  4. Results of accelerated thermal cycle tests of solar cells modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, P.; Mueller, R.; Salama, M.; Yasui, R.

    1976-01-01

    Various candidate solar panel designs were evaluated, both theoretically and experimentally, with respect to their thermal cycling survival capability, and in particular with respect to an accelerated simulation of thermal cycles representative of Viking '75 mission requirements. The experimental results were obtained on 'mini-panels' thermally cycled in a newly installed automated test facility herein described. The resulting damage was analyzed physically and theoretically, and on the basis of these analyses the panel design was suitably modified to significantly improve its ability to withstand the thermal environment. These successful modifications demonstrate the value of the complementary theoretical-experimental approach adopted, and discussed in detail in this paper.

  5. Small spacecraft power and thermal subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eakman, D.; Lambeck, R.; Mackowski, M.; Slifer, L., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    This white paper provides a general guide to the conceptual design of satellite power and thermal control subsystems with special emphasis on the unique design aspects associated with small satellites. The operating principles of these technologies are explained and performance characteristics of current and projected components are provided. A tutorial is presented on the design process for both power and thermal subsystems, with emphasis on unique issues relevant to small satellites. The ability of existing technology to meet future performance requirements is discussed. Conclusions and observations are presented that stress cost-effective, high-performance design solutions.

  6. Educational Attainment as a Proxy for Cognitive Ability in Selection: Effects on Levels of Cognitive Ability and Adverse Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Christopher M.; Gruys, Melissa L.; Sackett, Paul R.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the differences in mean level of cognitive ability and adverse impact that can be expected when selecting employees solely on educational attainment as a proxy for cognitive ability versus selecting employees directly on cognitive ability. Selection using cognitive ability worked as a more efficient cognitive screen. Imposing…

  7. Characterization of thermal spray coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Schorr, B.S.; Stein, K.J.; Marder, A.R.

    1999-02-01

    The ability to characterize fully the microstructure of a coating is paramount for understanding the in-service properties and eventual optimization of the coating. This article discusses sample preparation and subsequent analytical techniques (LOM, SEM, XRD, WDS, and QIA) for several cermet thermal spray coatings and provides a detailed analysis of as-sprayed microstructures in addition to processing trends for several FeCrAIY-carbide coatings. It was found that the splats produced in these high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) coatings tended to exhibit a predominantly dendritic structure most likely retained from the gas atomization process that produced the original powder. Chemical analysis showed that the carbides tend to break down during spraying producing a complex mixture of oxides and various carbides. Finally, image analysis revealed that as the carbides in the pre-sprayed powder were increased, more carbides and oxides with less FeCrAIY and thinner coatings were found. These techniques allow the thorough characterization of thermal spray cermet coatings, which in turn should further the understanding of the thermal spray processes and help provide superior coatings in the future.

  8. "Please Mr. Hay, What Are My Poss(Abilities)?": Legitimation of Ability through Physical Education Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Peter J.; Lisahunter

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides two vignettes that draw on data from projects that interrogate how a student can be positioned by practices within physical education (PE) and directed by the PE teacher in relation to their valued or legitimated ability. Through the use of Pierre Bourdieu's conceptual tools of field, habitus and capital we investigate the…

  9. Exploring Visuospatial Thinking in Learning about Mineralogy: Spatial Orientation Ability and Spatial Visualization Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Gokhan

    2010-01-01

    This mixed-method research attempted to clarify the role of visuospatial abilities in learning about mineralogy. Various sources of data--including quantitative pre- and postmeasures of spatial visualization and spatial orientation tests and achievement scores on six measures and qualitative unstructured observations, interviews, and field trip…

  10. A Detailed Analysis of DanceAbility's Contribution to Mixed-Abilities Dance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Amanda; Chatfield, Steven

    2010-01-01

    In the 1960s a visible shift in the ideology of contemporary dancers and choreographers took place. A desire for a dance language that rejected the need for the classical dancerly body paved the way for dance that was open to a more diverse population of participants. DanceAbility emerged in that late 1980s as a method of making dance accessible…

  11. Comparing Creative Thinking Abilities and Reasoning Ability of Deaf and Hearing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebrahim, Fawzy

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on comparing the creative thinking and reasoning abilities of deaf and hearing children. Two groups of deaf (N = 210) and hearing children (N = 200) were chosen based on specific criteria. Two instruments were used in the study: the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking-Figural, Form A and Matrix Analogies Test. Canonical…

  12. Thermal physiology in a changing thermal world

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Michal; Kenny, Glen P; McAllen, Robin M; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2015-01-01

    This editorial focuses on articles submitted to the Temperature call “Thermal Physiology in a Changing Thermal World.” It highlights an array of topics related to thermoregulatory and metabolic functions in adverse environments, and the complexity and adaptability of the systems to changing climatic conditions, at various levels of body organization. PMID:27226998

  13. Sleep loss and "divergent" thinking ability.

    PubMed

    Horne, J A

    1988-12-01

    Although much is known about the impact of sleep loss on many aspects of psychological performance, the effects on divergent ("creative") thinking has received little attention. Twelve subjects went 32 h without sleep, and 12 others acted as normally sleeping controls. All subjects were assessed on the figural and verbal versions of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. As compared with the control condition, sleep loss impaired performance on all test scales (e.g., "flexibility," the ability to change strategy, and "originality," generation of unusual ideas) for both versions, even on an initial 5-min test component. In an attempt at further understanding of whether these findings might be explained solely by a loss of motivation, two additional short and stimulating tests were also used--a word fluency task incorporating high incentive to do well and a challenging nonverbal planning test. Performance at these tasks was still significantly impaired by sleep loss. Increased perseveration was clearly apparent. Apparently, 1 night of sleep loss can affect divergent thinking. This contrasts with the outcome for convergent thinking tasks, which are more resilient to short-term sleep loss. PMID:3238256

  14. Complexity and Ability in Ising Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Ayax; George, Michael

    2008-03-01

    In previous work [1, 2], we discussed various facets of designs in games, and considered the evolution [2] of Ising games. The traditional aspect of game theory, with its focus on rational decisions, was not considered in this work. Instead, there was a predominant interest in the time evolution of design toward a goal design, and resulting levels of frustration. There was also a concern with time- reversal properties. In the new work, our goal is to consider the molecular structureof the Ising model as it evolves, and to associate this molecular structure with feedback into the structure that can be understood in algorithmic terms. We develop an analogy with the famous Malthusian argument concerning exponential population increase, associating ability to cope with complexity, and algorithmic complexity, and discuss biological implications of the ideas associated with these games. [1] M. George, A nonequilibrium statistical model based on latin squares, paper presented at WorldComp'07, Las Vegas, Nevada, June 25-28, 2007. [2] M. George, Classical and quantum Ising games, paper presented at Fourth International Conference in Applied Mathematics and Computing, Plovdiv, Bulgaria, August, 2007.

  15. Children's abilities to distinguish novel languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Z. S.; Stockmal, Verna

    2005-04-01

    When adults hear spoken samples of a language which they do not know, they can often identify it and discriminate between languages even when produced by the same talkers. Children have much less experience making metalinguistic judgments. How do children respond to languages which they do not know? We have conducted three experiments examining the abilities of 4-year old and 8-year old children to discriminate between spoken samples of different languages produced by bilingual talkers. We constructed listening tests from 5-second phrases excerpted from fluent reading provided by the talkers. In the three experiments, we progressively simplified the response mode employed by the children as well as the cognitive load of the task. Even in the simplest version, only a third of the 4-year-olds could do the task while the 8-year old children performed above chance in all three experiments. The younger children tended to respond different more than same, as if their criterion for same was identify.

  16. Fossilization processes in siliceous thermal springs: trends in preservation along thermal gradients.

    PubMed

    Cady, S L; Farmer, J D

    1996-01-01

    To enhance our ability to extract palaeobiological and palaeoenvironmental information from ancient thermal spring deposits, we have studied the processes responsible for the development and preservation of stromatolites in modern subaerial thermal spring systems in Yellowstone National Park (USA). We investigated specimens collected from silica-depositing thermal springs along the thermal gradient using petrographic techniques and scanning electron microscopy. Although it is known that thermophilic cyanobacteria control the morphogenesis of thermal spring stromatolites below 73 degrees C, we have found that biofilms which contain filamentous thermophiles contribute to the microstructural development of subaerial geyserites that occur along the inner rims of thermal spring pools and geyser effluents. Biofilms intermittently colonize the surfaces of subaerial geyserites and provide a favoured substrate for opaline silica precipitation. We have also found that the preservation of biotically produced microfabrics of thermal spring sinters reflects dynamic balances between rates of population growth, decomposition of organic matter, silica deposition and early diagenesis. Major trends in preservation of thermophilic organisms along the thermal gradient are defined by differences in the mode of fossilization, including replacement, encrustation and permineralization. PMID:9243015

  17. Fossilization processes in siliceous thermal springs: trends in preservation along thermal gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cady, S. L.; Farmer, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    To enhance our ability to extract palaeobiological and palaeoenvironmental information from ancient thermal spring deposits, we have studied the processes responsible for the development and preservation of stromatolites in modern subaerial thermal spring systems in Yellowstone National Park (USA). We investigated specimens collected from silica-depositing thermal springs along the thermal gradient using petrographic techniques and scanning electron microscopy. Although it is known that thermophilic cyanobacteria control the morphogenesis of thermal spring stromatolites below 73 degrees C, we have found that biofilms which contain filamentous thermophiles contribute to the microstructural development of subaerial geyserites that occur along the inner rims of thermal spring pools and geyser effluents. Biofilms intermittently colonize the surfaces of subaerial geyserites and provide a favoured substrate for opaline silica precipitation. We have also found that the preservation of biotically produced microfabrics of thermal spring sinters reflects dynamic balances between rates of population growth, decomposition of organic matter, silica deposition and early diagenesis. Major trends in preservation of thermophilic organisms along the thermal gradient are defined by differences in the mode of fossilization, including replacement, encrustation and permineralization.

  18. Thermal ecology of the fiddler crab Uca panacea: Thermal constraints and organismal responses.

    PubMed

    Darnell, M Zachary; Nicholson, Haley S; Munguia, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    Temperature is one of the primary environmental variables limiting organismal performance, fitness, and species distributions. Yet, understanding temperature effects requires thorough exploration of thermal constraints and organismal responses that can translate to fitness and non-lethal long-term consequences under both constant and changing thermal regimes. We examined the thermal ecology of the fiddler crab Uca panacea, including critical thermal limits, thermal sensitivity of locomotion, operative environmental temperatures, preferred body temperatures, and acclimation ability. Operative environmental temperatures frequently reached the critical thermal maximum (41.8±0.8°C, mean ± s.e.m.), especially in unvegetated microhabitats, indicating the need for behavioral thermoregulation to maintain diurnal activity patterns. Preferred body temperatures (21.1-28.6°C) were substantially below the thermal optimum (30-40°C), although further research is needed to determine the driver of this mismatch. Critical thermal limits shifted 2-4°C in response to exposure to low (20°C) or high (35°C) temperatures, with full acclimation occurring in approximately 9d. This capacity for rapid acclimation, combined with the capacity for behavioral thermoregulation, is a strong candidate mechanism that explains the broad habitat use and could help explain the successful pantropical distribution of fiddler crabs. PMID:26267510

  19. Solar Thermal Rocket Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sercel, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Paper analyzes potential of solar thermal rockets as means of propulsion for planetary spacecraft. Solar thermal rocket uses concentrated Sunlight to heat working fluid expelled through nozzle to produce thrust.

  20. Automatic thermal switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, L. D.; Cunningham, J. W. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An automatic thermal switch to control heat flow includes a first thermally conductive plate, a second thermally conductive plate and a thermal transfer plate pivotally mounted between the first and second plates. A phase change power unit, including a plunger connected to the transfer plate, is in thermal contact with the first thermally conductive plate. A biasing element, connected to the transfer plate, biases the transfer plate in a predetermined position with respect to the first and second plates. When the phase change power unit is actuated by an increase in heat transmitted through the first plate, the plunger extends and pivots the transfer plate to vary the thermal conduction between the first and second plates through the transfer plate. The biasing element, transfer plate and piston can be arranged to provide either a normally closed or normally open thermally conductive path between the first and second plates.

  1. Thermal Remote Anemometer Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S.; Heath, D. Michele; Winfree, William P.; Miller, William E.; Welch, Christopher S.

    1988-01-01

    Thermal Remote Anemometer Device developed for remote, noncontacting, passive measurement of thermal properties of sample. Model heated locally by scanning laser beam and cooled by wind in tunnel. Thermal image of model analyzed to deduce pattern of airflow around model. For materials applications, system used for evaluation of thin films and determination of thermal diffusivity and adhesive-layer contact. For medical applications, measures perfusion through skin to characterize blood flow and used to determine viabilities of grafts and to characterize tissues.

  2. Thermal expansion measurements of metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, Stephen S.; Dries, Gregory A.

    1988-01-01

    The laser-interferometric-dilatometer system currently operational at NASA-Langley is described. The system, designed to characterize metal matrix composites, features high precision, automated data acquisition, and the ability to test a wide variety of specimen geometries over temperature ranges within 80-422 K. The paper presents typical thermal-expansion measurement data for a Gr/Al rod; Gr/Al and Gr/Mg unidirectional laminates; and a Gr/Mg (+ or -8)s laminate.

  3. Thermal neutron detection system

    DOEpatents

    Peurrung, Anthony J.; Stromswold, David C.

    2000-01-01

    According to the present invention, a system for measuring a thermal neutron emission from a neutron source, has a reflector/moderator proximate the neutron source that reflects and moderates neutrons from the neutron source. The reflector/moderator further directs thermal neutrons toward an unmoderated thermal neutron detector.

  4. Thermal Performance Benchmarking (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, G.

    2014-11-01

    This project will benchmark the thermal characteristics of automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Recent vehicle systems will be benchmarked to establish baseline metrics, evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management systems, and identify areas of improvement to advance the state-of-the-art.

  5. Spacecraft thermal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Guidance for the assessment and control of spacecraft temperatures is provided with emphasis on unmanned spacecraft in the space environment. The heat balance, elements of thermal design, and thermal control are discussed along with thermal testing, design criteria, and recommended practices.

  6. Latent ability: grades and test scores systematically underestimate the intellectual ability of negatively stereotyped students.

    PubMed

    Walton, Gregory M; Spencer, Steven J

    2009-09-01

    Past research has assumed that group differences in academic performance entirely reflect genuine differences in ability. In contrast, extending research on stereotype threat, we suggest that standard measures of academic performance are biased against non-Asian ethnic minorities and against women in quantitative fields. This bias results not from the content of performance measures, but from the context in which they are assessed-from psychological threats in common academic environments, which depress the performances of people targeted by negative intellectual stereotypes. Like the time of a track star running into a stiff headwind, such performances underestimate the true ability of stereotyped students. Two meta-analyses, combining data from 18,976 students in five countries, tested this latent-ability hypothesis. Both meta-analyses found that, under conditions that reduce psychological threat, stereotyped students performed better than nonstereotyped students at the same level of past performance. We discuss implications for the interpretation of and remedies for achievement gaps. PMID:19656335

  7. Motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities and visual-motor integration abilities of Chinese learning children.

    PubMed

    Lai, Mun Yee; Leung, Frederick Koon Shing

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities and visual-motor integration abilities of Chinese learning children by employing the Developmental Test of Visual Perception (Hammill, Pearson, & Voress, 1993), in which both abilities are measured in a single test. A total of 72 native Chinese learners of age 5 participated in this study. The findings indicated that the Chinese learners scored much higher in the visual-motor integration tasks than in motor-reduced visual perceptual tasks. The results support the theory of autonomous systems of motor-reduced visual perception and visual-motor integration and query current beliefs about the prior development of the former to the latter for the Chinese learners. To account for the Chinese participants' superior performance in visual-motor integration tasks over motor-reduced visual perceptual tasks, the visual-spatial properties of Chinese characters, general handwriting theories, the motor control theory and the psychogeometric theory of Chinese character-writing are referred to. The significance of the findings is then discussed. PMID:22663773

  8. Thermal history sensing with thermographic phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyes, A. L.; Rabhiou, A.; Feist, J. P.; Kempf, A.

    2013-09-01

    The ability to measure temperatures on high thermal loaded components in gas turbines and similar prime movers is critical during the design phase if the performance of cooling strategies is to be confirmed. Restricted access and the extreme environment mean that on-line temperature measurement is not always possible and that off-line temperature techniques employing thermal history sensors are sometimes necessary. The authors have developed a new type of sensor based on ceramic phosphors. These show bright narrow band emission that is easily detected and distinguished from the background. Crystallization, phase change and diffusion are all temperature dependent processes that affect the emission characteristics and that, with proper calibration, can be used to form a phosphor based thermal history sensor. Results from the calibration of crystallization in Y2SiO5:Tb and its application in the form of a temperature indicating paint are reviewed. A new embodiment of the phosphor thermal history sensor concept is then presented comprising a YSZ/YAG:Dy composite applied using air plasma spraying in the form of a thermal barrier coating. The coating is shown to function as a thermal history sensor albeit with a limited dynamic range.

  9. Extending Our Understanding of Compliant Thermal Barrier Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demange, Jeffrey J.; Finkbeiner, Joshua R.; Dunlap, Patrick H.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal barriers and seals are integral components in the thermal protection systems (TPS) of nearly all aerospace vehicles. They are used to minimize the flow of hot gases through interfaces and protect underlying temperature-sensitive components and systems. Although thermal barriers have been used extensively on many aerospace vehicles, the factors affecting their thermal and mechanical performance are not well-understood. Because of this, vehicle TPS designers are often left with little guidance on how to properly design and optimize these barriers. An ongoing effort to better understand thermal barrier performance and develop models and design tools is in progress at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Testing has been conducted to understand the degree to which insulation density influences structural performance and permeability. In addition, the development of both thermal and mechanical models is ongoing with the goal of providing an improved ability to design and implement these critical TPS components.

  10. Thermal Management and Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasnain, Aqib

    2016-01-01

    During my internship in the Thermal Design Branch (ES3), I contributed to two main projects: i) novel passive thermal management system for future human exploration, ii) AVCOAT undercut thermal analysis. i) As NASA prepares to further expand human and robotic presence in space, it is well known that spacecraft architectures will be challenged with unprecedented thermal environments. Future exploration activities will have the need of thermal management systems that can provide higher reliability, mass and power reduction and increased performance. In an effort to start addressing the current technical gaps the NASA Johnson Space Center Passive Thermal Discipline has engaged in technology development activities. One of these activities was done through an in-house Passive Thermal Management System (PTMS) design for a lunar lander. The proposed PTMS, functional in both microgravity and gravity environments, consists of three main components: a heat spreader, a novel hybrid wick Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP), and a radiator. The aim of this PTMS is to keep electronics on a vehicle within their temperature limits (0 and 50 C for the current design) during all mission phases including multiple lunar day/night cycles. The VCHP was tested to verify its thermal performance. I created a thermal math model using Thermal Desktop (TD) and analyzed it to predict the PTMS performance. After testing, the test data provided a means to correlate the thermal math model. This correlation took into account conduction and convection heat transfer, representing the actual benchtop test. Since this PTMS is proposed for space missions, a vacuum test will be taking place to provide confidence that the system is functional in space environments. Therefore, the model was modified to include a vacuum chamber with a liquid nitrogen shroud while taking into account conduction and radiation heat transfer. Infrared Lamps were modelled and introduced into the model to simulate the sun

  11. Thermal Effusivity Tomography from Pulsed Thermal Imaging

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-12-01

    The software program generates 3D volume distribution of thermal effusivity within a test material from one-sided pulsed thermal imaging data. Thsi is the first software capable of accurate, fast and automated thermal tomographic imaging of inhomogeneous materials to produce 3D images similar to those obtained from 3D X-ray CT (all previous thermal-imaging software can only produce 2D results). Because thermal effusivity is an intrisic material property that is related to material constituent, density, conductivity, etc.,more » quantitative imaging of effusivity allowed direct visualization of material's internal constituent/structure and damage distributions, thereby potentially leading to quantitative prediction of other material properties such as strength. I can be therefre be used for 3D imaging of material structure in fundamental material studies, nondestructive characterization of defects/flaws in structural engineering components, health monitoring of material damage and degradation during service, and medical imaging and diagnostics. This technology is one-sided, non contact and sensitive to material's thermal property and discontinuity. One major advantage of this tomographic technology over x-ray CT and ultrasounds is its natural efficiency for 3D imaging of the volume under a large surface area. This software is implemented with a method for thermal computed tomography of thermal effusivity from one-sided pulsed thermal imaging (or thermography) data. The method is based on several solutions of the governing heat transfer equation under pulsed thermography test condition. In particular, it consists of three components. 1) It utilized the thermal effusivity as the imaging parameter to construct the 3D image. 2) It established a relationship between the space (depth) and the time, because thermography data are in the time domain. 3) It incorporated a deconvolution algorithm to solve the depth porfile of the material thermal effusivity from the measured

  12. Motivation and Math Anxiety for Ability Grouped College Math Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helming, Luralyn

    2013-01-01

    The author studied how math anxiety, motivation, and ability group interact to affect performance in college math courses. This clarified the effects of math anxiety and ability grouping on performance. It clarified the interrelationships between math anxiety, motivation, and ability grouping by considering them in a single analysis. It introduces…

  13. 48 CFR 18.107 - AbilityOne specification changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false AbilityOne specification... AbilityOne specification changes. Contracting officers are not held to the notification required when changes in AbilityOne specifications or descriptions are required to meet emergency needs. (See 8.712(d).)...

  14. Self-Efficacy, Reasoning Ability, and Achievement in College Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Anton E.; Banks, Debra L.; Logvin, Marshall

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the relationships of self-efficacy and reasoning ability to achievement in introductory college biology. Based on the hypothesis that developing formal and postformal reasoning ability is a primary factor influencing self-efficacy, a significant positive correlation was predicted between reasoning ability and degree of…

  15. Educators' Ability to Detect True and False Bullying Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez-Garibello, Carlos; Saykaly, Christine; Moore, Kelsey; Talwar, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    The majority of research investigating children's lie-telling behavior has focused on lay people and legal professionals' abilities to detect deception. Fewer researchers have assessed educators' abilities to evaluate the veracity of children's reports of bullying. In this study, educators' abilities to detect true and false accounts of bullying…

  16. Computerized Ability Testing, 1972-1975. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David J.

    Three and one-half years of research on computerized ability testing are summarized. The original objectives of the research were: (1) to develop and implement the stratified computer-based ability test; (2) to compare, on psychometric criteria, the various approaches to computer-based ability testing, including the stratified computerized test,…

  17. Narrative Fiction and Expository Nonfiction Differentially Predict Verbal Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mar, Raymond A.; Rain, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Although reading is known to be an important contributor to language abilities, it is not yet well established whether different text genres are uniquely associated with verbal abilities. We examined how exposure to narrative fiction and expository nonfiction predict language ability among university students. Exposure was measured both with…

  18. Visuo-Spatial Ability in Colonoscopy Simulator Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Buzink, Sonja N.; Verwey, Willem B.; Jakimowicz, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    Visuo-spatial ability is associated with a quality of performance in a variety of surgical and medical skills. However, visuo-spatial ability is typically assessed using "Visualization" tests only, which led to an incomplete understanding of the involvement of visuo-spatial ability in these skills. To remedy this situation, the current study…

  19. Visuospatial Ability Factors and Performance Variables in Laparoscopic Simulator Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Verwey, Willem B.; Burie, Remke

    2012-01-01

    Visuospatial ability has been shown to be important to several aspects of laparoscopic performance, including simulator training. Only a limited subset of visuospatial ability factors however has been investigated in such studies. Tests for different visuospatial ability factors differ in stimulus complexity, in their emphasis on identifying…

  20. Intonation Abilities of Children with Williams Syndrome: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stojanovik, Vesna; Setter, Jane; van Ewijk, Lizet

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The authors investigated expressive and receptive intonation abilities in children with Williams syndrome (WS) and the relation of these abilities to other linguistic abilities. Method: Fourteen children with WS, 14 typically developing children matched to the WS group for receptive language (LA), and 15 typically developing children…

  1. Ability Requirement Implications of Job Design: An Interdisciplinary Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campion, Michael A.

    1989-01-01

    Measured multiple approaches to job design and examined relationships with ability requirements, using two distinctly different samples (total N=213 jobs), different measures of job design, and ability requirements. Found that motivational attributes of jobs related positively to mental ability requirements; other approaches to job design related…

  2. Differentiation of Cognitive Abilities across the Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2009-01-01

    Existing representations of cognitive ability structure are exclusively based on linear patterns of interrelations. However, a number of developmental and cognitive theories predict that abilities are differentially related across ages (age differentiation-dedifferentiation) and across levels of functioning (ability differentiation). Nonlinear…

  3. Clinical Competence: General Ability or Case-Specific?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimmers, Paul F.; Splinter, Ted A. W.; Hancock, Gregory R.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Before the 1970s, research into the development of clinical competence was mainly focused on general problem-solving abilities. The scope of research changed when Elstein and colleagues discovered that individual ability to solve clinical problems varies considerably across cases. It was concluded that problem solving abilities are…

  4. Thermal testing of solid neutron shielding materials

    SciTech Connect

    Boonstra, R.H. )

    1990-03-01

    The GA-4 and GA-9 spent fuel shipping casks employ a solid neutron shielding material. During a hypothetical thermal accident, any combustion of the neutron shield must not compromise the ability of the cask to contain the radioactive contents. A two-phase thermal testing program was carried out to assist in selecting satisfactory shielding materials. In the first phase, small-scale screening tests were performed on nine candidate materials using ASTM procedures. From these initial results, three of the nine candidates were chosen for inclusion in the second phase of testing, These materials were Bisco Products NS-4-FR, Reactor Experiments 201-1, and Reactor Experiments 207. In the second phase, each selected material was fabricated into a test article which simulated a full-scale of neutron shield from the cask. The test article was heated in an environmental prescribed by NRC regulations. Results of this second testing phase showed that all three materials are thermally acceptable.

  5. Thermal spray manual for machinery components

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, R.; Ginther, C.; Herbstritt, M.; Herbstritt, J.

    1995-12-31

    The Thermal Spray Manual For Machinery Components is a National Shipbuilding Research (SP-7) Project. This Manual is being developed by Puget Sound Naval Shipyard with the help of other government thermal spray facilities and SP-7 panel members. The purpose of the manual is to provide marine repair facilities with a ``how to do`` document that will be ``user friendly`` and known to be technically sound through production experience. The manual`s intent is to give marine repair facilities the ability to maximize the thermal spray process as a repair method for machinery components and to give these facilities guidelines on how to become qualified to receive certification that they meet the requirements of Military Standard 1687A.

  6. Preschoolers' Dot Enumeration Abilities Are Markers of Their Arithmetic Competence

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Sarah A.; Reeve, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    The abilities to enumerate small sets of items (e.g., dots) and to compare magnitudes are claimed to be indexes of core numerical competences that scaffold early math development. Insofar as this is correct, these abilities may be diagnostic markers of math competence in preschoolers. However, unlike magnitude comparison abilities, little research has examined preschoolers' ability to enumerate small sets, or its significance for emerging math abilities; which is surprising since dot enumeration is a marker of school-aged children's math competence. It is nevertheless possible that general cognitive functions (working memory, response inhibition in particular) are associated with preschoolers' math abilities and underlie nascent dot enumeration abilities. We investigated whether preschoolers' dot enumeration abilities predict their non-verbal arithmetic ability, over and above the influence of working memory and response inhibition. Two measures of dot enumeration ability were examined—inverse efficiency and paradigm specific (response time profiles) measures—to determine which has the better diagnostic utility as a marker of math competence. Seventy-eight 42-to-57 month-olds completed dot enumeration, working memory, response inhibition, and non-verbal addition and subtraction tasks. Dot enumeration efficiency predicted arithmetic ability over and above the influence of general cognitive functions. While dot enumeration efficiency was a better predictor of arithmetic ability than paradigm specific response time profiles; the response time profile displaying the smallest subitizing range and steepest subitizing slope, also displayed poor addition abilities, suggesting a weak subitizing profile may have diagnostic significance in preschoolers. Overall, the findings support the claim that dot enumeration abilities and general cognitive functions are markers of preschoolers' math ability. PMID:24714052

  7. What is Recognised as Ability in Physical Education? A Systematic Appraisal of How Ability and Ability Differences Are Socially Constructed within Mainstream Secondary School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Shaun; Littlefair, David; Barlow-Meade, Linda

    2013-01-01

    In sport, schools and physical education (PE) ability has invariably been understood as an inherent and relatively immutable capacity, amendable to varying degrees by interventions such as training regimes and education. Differences in achievement are assumed to be an inevitable consequence of natural variations in ability and an indication of…

  8. Thermal Effusivity Tomography from Pulsed Thermal Imaging

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2008-11-05

    The software program generates 3D volume distribution of thermal effusivity within a test material from one—sided pulsed thermal imaging data. Thsi is the first software capable of accurate, fast and automated thermal tomographic imaging of inhomogeneoirs materials to produce 3D images similar to those obtained from 3D X—ray CT (all previous thepnal—imaging software can only produce 20 results) . Because thermal effusivity is an Intrisic material property that is related to material constituent, density, conductivity,more » etc., quantitative imaging of eftusivity allowed direct visualization of material’s internal constituent/structure and damage distributions, thereby potentially leading to quantitative prediction of other material properties such as strength. I can be therefre be used for 3D imaging of material structure in fundamental material studies, nondestructive characterization of defects/flaws in structural engineering components, health monitoring of material damage and degradation during service, and medical imaging and diagnostics. This technology is one—sided, non contact and sensitive to material’s thermal property and discontinuity. One major advantage of this tomographic technology over x-ray CT and ultrasounds is its natural efficiency for 3D imaging of the volume under a large surface area. This software is implemented with a method for thermal computed tomography of thermal effusivity from one—sided pulsed thermal imaging (or thermography) data. The method is based on several solutions of the governing heat transfer equation under pulsed thermography test condition. In particular, it consists of three components. 1) It utilized the thermal effusivity as the imaging parameter to construct the 3D image. 2) It established a relationship between the space (depth) and the time, because thermography data are in the time domain. 3) It incorporated a deconvolution algorithm to solve the depth porfile of the material thermal effusivity from the

  9. Childhood cognitive ability accounts for associations between cognitive ability and brain cortical thickness in old age.

    PubMed

    Karama, S; Bastin, M E; Murray, C; Royle, N A; Penke, L; Muñoz Maniega, S; Gow, A J; Corley, J; Valdés Hernández, M del C; Lewis, J D; Rousseau, M-É; Lepage, C; Fonov, V; Collins, D L; Booth, T; Rioux, P; Sherif, T; Adalat, R; Starr, J M; Evans, A C; Wardlaw, J M; Deary, I J

    2014-05-01

    Associations between brain cortical tissue volume and cognitive function in old age are frequently interpreted as suggesting that preservation of cortical tissue is the foundation of successful cognitive aging. However, this association could also, in part, reflect a lifelong association between cognitive ability and cortical tissue. We analyzed data on 588 subjects from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 who had intelligence quotient (IQ) scores from the same cognitive test available at both 11 and 70 years of age as well as high-resolution brain magnetic resonance imaging data obtained at approximately 73 years of age. Cortical thickness was estimated at 81 924 sampling points across the cortex for each subject using an automated pipeline. Multiple regression was used to assess associations between cortical thickness and the IQ measures at 11 and 70 years. Childhood IQ accounted for more than two-third of the association between IQ at 70 years and cortical thickness measured at age 73 years. This warns against ascribing a causal interpretation to the association between cognitive ability and cortical tissue in old age based on assumptions about, and exclusive reference to, the aging process and any associated disease. Without early-life measures of cognitive ability, it would have been tempting to conclude that preservation of cortical thickness in old age is a foundation for successful cognitive aging when, instead, it is a lifelong association. This being said, results should not be construed as meaning that all studies on aging require direct measures of childhood IQ, but as suggesting that proxy measures of prior cognitive function can be useful to take into consideration. PMID:23732878

  10. CFD Analysis of Thermal Control System Using NX Thermal and Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortier, C. R.; Harris, M. F. (Editor); McConnell, S. (Editor)

    2014-01-01

    The Thermal Control Subsystem (TCS) is a key part of the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) for the International Space Station (ISS). The purpose of this subsystem is to provide thermal control, mainly cooling, to the other APH subsystems. One of these subsystems, the Environmental Control Subsystem (ECS), controls the temperature and humidity of the growth chamber (GC) air to optimize the growth of plants in the habitat. The TCS provides thermal control to the ECS with three cold plates, which use Thermoelectric Coolers (TECs) to heat or cool water as needed to control the air temperature in the ECS system. In order to optimize the TCS design, pressure drop and heat transfer analyses were needed. The analysis for this system was performed in Siemens NX Thermal/Flow software (Version 8.5). NX Thermal/Flow has the ability to perform 1D or 3D flow solutions. The 1D flow solver can be used to represent simple geometries, such as pipes and tubes. The 1D flow method also has the ability to simulate either fluid only or fluid and wall regions. The 3D flow solver is similar to other Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) software. TCS performance was analyzed using both the 1D and 3D solvers. Each method produced different results, which will be evaluated and discussed.

  11. Synchrotron X-ray measurement techniques for thermal barrier coated cylindrical samples under thermal gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, Sanna F.; Knipe, Kevin; Manero, Albert; Raghavan, Seetha; Meid, Carla; Wischek, Janine; Bartsch, Marion; Okasinski, John; Almer, Jonathan; Karlsson, Anette M.

    2013-08-15

    Measurement techniques to obtain accurate in situ synchrotron strain measurements of thermal barrier coating systems (TBCs) applied to hollow cylindrical specimens are presented in this work. The Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition coated specimens with internal cooling were designed to achieve realistic temperature gradients over the TBC coated material such as that occurring in the turbine blades of aeroengines. Effects of the circular cross section on the x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements in the various layers, including the thermally grown oxide, are investigated using high-energy synchrotron x-rays. Multiple approaches for beam penetration including collection, tangential, and normal to the layers, along with variations in collection parameters are compared for their ability to attain high-resolution XRD data from the internal layers. This study displays the ability to monitor in situ, the response of the internal layers within the TBC, while implementing a thermal gradient across the thickness of the coated sample. The thermal setup maintained coating surface temperatures in the range of operating conditions, while monitoring the substrate cooling, for a controlled thermal gradient. Through variation in measurement location and beam parameters, sufficient intensities are obtained from the internal layers which can be used for depth resolved strain measurements. Results are used to establish the various techniques for obtaining XRD measurements through multi-layered coating systems and their outcomes will pave the way towards goals in achieving realistic in situ testing of these coatings.

  12. Synchrotron X-ray measurement techniques for thermal barrier coated cylindrical samples under thermal gradients.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Sanna F; Knipe, Kevin; Manero, Albert; Meid, Carla; Wischek, Janine; Okasinski, John; Almer, Jonathan; Karlsson, Anette M; Bartsch, Marion; Raghavan, Seetha

    2013-08-01

    Measurement techniques to obtain accurate in situ synchrotron strain measurements of thermal barrier coating systems (TBCs) applied to hollow cylindrical specimens are presented in this work. The Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition coated specimens with internal cooling were designed to achieve realistic temperature gradients over the TBC coated material such as that occurring in the turbine blades of aeroengines. Effects of the circular cross section on the x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements in the various layers, including the thermally grown oxide, are investigated using high-energy synchrotron x-rays. Multiple approaches for beam penetration including collection, tangential, and normal to the layers, along with variations in collection parameters are compared for their ability to attain high-resolution XRD data from the internal layers. This study displays the ability to monitor in situ, the response of the internal layers within the TBC, while implementing a thermal gradient across the thickness of the coated sample. The thermal setup maintained coating surface temperatures in the range of operating conditions, while monitoring the substrate cooling, for a controlled thermal gradient. Through variation in measurement location and beam parameters, sufficient intensities are obtained from the internal layers which can be used for depth resolved strain measurements. Results are used to establish the various techniques for obtaining XRD measurements through multi-layered coating systems and their outcomes will pave the way towards goals in achieving realistic in situ testing of these coatings. PMID:24007076

  13. Modeling the thermal conductivity of fiber-reinforced ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Beecher, S.C.; Dinwiddie, R.B.

    1993-06-01

    A review of models for the prediction of the thermal conductivity of uni-directional fiber-reinforced composites will be presented. The ability of these models to give an accurate prediction of the composite thermal conductivity depends on the amount of information known about the constituent phase properties under the assumption that these properties do not change as a result of processing. Also presented are models that take into account the effects of fiber coatings.

  14. The ABCs of Math: A Genetic Analysis of Mathematics and Its Links with Reading Ability and General Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Sara A.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Thompson, Lee A.; Plomin, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this first major report from the Western Reserve Reading Project Math component is to explore the etiology of the relationship among tester-administered measures of mathematics ability, reading ability, and general cognitive ability. Data are available on 314 pairs of monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twins analyzed across 5 waves of…

  15. Planning Ability across Ranges of Intellectual Ability: An Examination of the Luria-Das Information-Processing Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallum, R. Steve; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Based on Luria-Das information processing theory, hypothesized that 26 educable mentally retarded children would score significantly less well on relatively pure measures of planning ability than would 13 younger average ability students after students were matched on cognitive processing ability. Hypothesis was not supported by study. (Author/NB)

  16. Sex Differences in Latent Cognitive Abilities Ages 5 to 17: Evidence from the Differential Ability Scales--Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Roberts, Lisa G.; Winter, Amanda L.; Austin, Cynthia A.

    2011-01-01

    Sex differences in the latent general and broad cognitive abilities underlying the Differential Ability Scales, Second Edition were investigated for children and youth ages 5 through 17. Multi-group mean and covariance structural equation modeling was used to investigate sex differences in latent cognitive abilities as well as changes in these…

  17. Early numerical abilities and cognitive skills in kindergarten children.

    PubMed

    Passolunghi, Maria Chiara; Lanfranchi, Silvia; Altoè, Gianmarco; Sollazzo, Nadia

    2015-07-01

    In this study, a unitary path analysis model was developed to investigate the relationship between cognitive variables (derived from published studies) and early numerical abilities in children attending the last year of kindergarten. We tested 100 children starting their last year of kindergarten on the following cognitive abilities: intelligence, phonological abilities, counting, verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and working memory, processing speed, and early numerical abilities. The same children were tested again on early numerical abilities at the end of the same year. The children's early numerical abilities at the beginning of the final year of kindergarten were found to be directly related to their verbal intelligence, phonological abilities, processing speed, and working memory and to be indirectly related to their nonverbal intelligence. Early numerical abilities at the end of the same year are directly related not only to early numerical abilities assessed at the beginning of the year but also to working memory and phonological abilities as well as have an indirect relationship with verbal and nonverbal intelligence. Overall, our results showed that both general and specific abilities are related to early mathematic learning in kindergarten-age children. PMID:25818537

  18. A photon thermal diode.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen; Wong, Carlaton; Lubner, Sean; Yee, Shannon; Miller, John; Jang, Wanyoung; Hardin, Corey; Fong, Anthony; Garay, Javier E; Dames, Chris

    2014-01-01

    A thermal diode is a two-terminal nonlinear device that rectifies energy carriers (for example, photons, phonons and electrons) in the thermal domain, the heat transfer analogue to the familiar electrical diode. Effective thermal rectifiers could have an impact on diverse applications ranging from heat engines to refrigeration, thermal regulation of buildings and thermal logic. However, experimental demonstrations have lagged far behind theoretical proposals. Here we present the first experimental results for a photon thermal diode. The device is based on asymmetric scattering of ballistic energy carriers by pyramidal reflectors. Recent theoretical work has predicted that this ballistic mechanism also requires a nonlinearity in order to yield asymmetric thermal transport, a requirement of all thermal diodes arising from the second Law of Thermodynamics, and realized here using an 'inelastic thermal collimator' element. Experiments confirm both effects: with pyramids and collimator the thermal rectification is 10.9 ± 0.8%, while without the collimator no rectification is detectable (<0.3%). PMID:25399761

  19. Understanding glass-forming ability through sluggish crystallization of atomically thin metallic glassy films

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y. T.; Cao, C. R.; Huang, K. Q.; Zhao, N. J.; Gu, L. E-mail: dzheng@iphy.ac.cn Zheng, D. N. E-mail: dzheng@iphy.ac.cn Wang, W. H. E-mail: dzheng@iphy.ac.cn

    2014-08-04

    The glass-forming ability (GFA) of an alloy, closely related to its ability to resist crystallization, is a crucial issue in condensed matter physics. So far, the studies on GFA are mostly statistical and empirical guides. Benefiting from the ultrahigh thermal stability of ultrathin metallic glassy film and high resolution spherical aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope, the crystallization of atomically thin ZrCu and its microalloyed ZrCuAl glasses with markedly different GFA was investigated at the atomic scale. We find the Zr diffusivity estimated from the density of nuclei is dramatically decreased by adding of Al, which is the major reason for the much better GFA of the ZrCuAl metallic glass.

  20. Advanced Thermal Energy Storage: Novel Tuning of Critical Fluctuations for Advanced Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-01

    HEATS Project: NAVITASMAX is developing a novel thermal energy storage solution. This innovative technology is based on simple and complex supercritical fluids— substances where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist, and tuning the properties of these fluid systems to increase their ability to store more heat. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in NAVITASMAX’s system during the day and released at night—when the sun is not shining—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in NAVITASMAX’s system at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours.

  1. High-Thermal-Conductivity Fabrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chibante, L. P. Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Heat management with common textiles such as nylon and spandex is hindered by the poor thermal conductivity from the skin surface to cooling surfaces. This innovation showed marked improvement in thermal conductivity of the individual fibers and tubing, as well as components assembled from them. The problem is centered on improving the heat removal of the liquid-cooled ventilation garments (LCVGs) used by astronauts. The current design uses an extensive network of water-cooling tubes that introduces bulkiness and discomfort, and increases fatigue. Range of motion and ease of movement are affected as well. The current technology is the same as developed during the Apollo program of the 1960s. Tubing material is hand-threaded through a spandex/nylon mesh layer, in a series of loops throughout the torso and limbs such that there is close, form-fitting contact with the user. Usually, there is a nylon liner layer to improve comfort. Circulating water is chilled by an external heat exchanger (sublimator). The purpose of this innovation is to produce new LCVG components with improved thermal conductivity. This was addressed using nanocomposite engineering incorporating high-thermalconductivity nanoscale fillers in the fabric and tubing components. Specifically, carbon nanotubes were added using normal processing methods such as thermoplastic melt mixing (compounding twin screw extruder) and downstream processing (fiber spinning, tubing extrusion). Fibers were produced as yarns and woven into fabric cloths. The application of isotropic nanofillers can be modeled using a modified Nielsen Model for conductive fillers in a matrix based on Einstein s viscosity model. This is a drop-in technology with no additional equipment needed. The loading is limited by the ability to maintain adequate dispersion. Undispersed materials will plug filtering screens in processing equipment. Generally, the viscosity increases were acceptable, and allowed the filled polymers to still be

  2. Nanoscale Thermal Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baloch, Kamal; Brintlinger, Todd; Qi, Yi; Goldhaber-Gordon, David; Cumings, John

    2007-03-01

    We present real time, in-situ, high resolution thermal imaging of metallic nanowires. The nanowires are grown on the front-side of silicon nitride membranes. Resistive heating along the wires produces thermal gradients which melt/freeze 20-200nm diameter indium islands deposited by thermal evaporation on the back-side of the membrane. These transitions can be imaged using a transmission electron microscope operating in dark-field mode such that contrast corresponds to the phase of an individual island. Global changes in temperature can be used to calibrate the melting point of individual islands and to account for the presence of the ˜100nm thick silicon nitride membrane. Thermal modeling confirms the imaged thermal behavior. This technique could be generally employed for thermal imaging of nanowires and nanotubes, wherein the nanoscale systems are imaged in-situ and under electrical bias. Results of local resistive heating in a carbon nanotube device will also be shown

  3. HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-E’s HEATS program, short for “High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage,” seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

  4. Scanning thermal plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpace, F. L.; Madding, R. P.; Green, T., III

    1975-01-01

    Over a three-year period 800 thermal line scans of power plant plumes were made by an airborne scanner, with ground truth measured concurrently at the plants. Computations using centered finite differences in the thermal scanning imagery show a lower bound in the horizontal temperature gradient in excess of 1.6 C/m. Gradients persist to 3 m below the surface. Vector plots of the velocity of thermal fronts are constructed by tracing the front motion in successive thermal images. A procedure is outlined for the two-point ground calibration of a thermal scanner from an equation describing the scanner signal and the voltage for two known temperatures. The modulation transfer function is then calculated by input of a thermal step function and application of digital time analysis techniques using Fast Fourier Transforms to the voltage output. Field calibration tests are discussed. Data accuracy is limited by the level of ground truth effort chosen.

  5. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    DOEpatents

    Kulkarni, Anand A.; Campbell, Christian X.; Subramanian, Ramesh

    2009-06-02

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  6. Seasonal thermal energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. D.; Kannberg, L. D.; Raymond, J. R.

    1984-05-01

    Seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) using heat or cold available from surplus, waste, climatic, or cogeneration sources show great promise to reduce peak demand, reduce electric utility load problems, and contribute to establishing favorable economics for district heating and cooling systems. Heated and chilled water can be injected, stored, and recovered from aquifers. Geologic materials are good thermal insulators, and potentially suitable aquifers are distributed throughout the United States. Potential energy sources for use in an aquifer thermal energy storage system include solar heat, power plant cogeneration, winter chill, and industrial waste heat source. Topics covered include: (1) the U.S. Department of Energy seasonal thermal energy storage program; (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology; (3) alternative STES technology; (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage; and (5) economic assessment.

  7. Single mode thermal emission.

    PubMed

    Fohrmann, Lena Simone; Petrov, Alexander Yu; Lang, Slawa; Jalas, Dirk; Krauss, Thomas F; Eich, Manfred

    2015-10-19

    We report on the properties of a thermal emitter which radiates into a single mode waveguide. We show that the maximal power of thermal radiation into a propagating single mode is limited only by the temperature of the thermal emitter and does not depend on other parameters of the waveguide. Furthermore, we show that the power of the thermal emitter cannot be increased by resonant coupling. For a given temperature, the enhancement of the total emitted power is only possible if the number of excited modes is increased. Either a narrowband or a broadband thermal excitation of the mode is possible, depending on the properties of the emitter. We finally discuss an example system, namely a thermal source for silicon photonics. PMID:26480429

  8. Thermally Activated Driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinard, William H.; Murray, Robert C.; Walsh, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    Space-qualified, precise, large-force, thermally activated driver (TAD) developed for use in space on astro-physics experiment to measure abundance of rare actinide-group elements in cosmic rays. Actinide cosmic rays detected using thermally activated driver as heart of event-thermometer (ET) system. Thermal expansion and contraction of silicone oil activates driver. Potential applications in fluid-control systems where precise valve controls are needed.

  9. TFAWS: Ares Thermal Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, John R.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a Constellation session at the 2007 Thermal & Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS), an overview of the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and Lunar Lander systems will be given. This presentation provides a general description of the CLV (also known as Ares-I)and Ares-V vehicles portion of the session. The presentation will provide an overview of the thermal requirements, design environments, challenges and thermal modeling examples.

  10. Solid state thermal rectifier

    DOEpatents

    None

    2016-07-05

    Thermal rectifiers using linear nanostructures as core thermal conductors have been fabricated. A high mass density material is added preferentially to one end of the nanostructures to produce an axially non-uniform mass distribution. The resulting nanoscale system conducts heat asymmetrically with greatest heat flow in the direction of decreasing mass density. Thermal rectification has been demonstrated for linear nanostructures that are electrical insulators, such as boron nitride nanotubes, and for nanostructures that are conductive, such as carbon nanotubes.

  11. Processing of space, time, and number contributes to mathematical abilities above and beyond domain-general cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Skagerlund, Kenny; Träff, Ulf

    2016-03-01

    The current study investigated whether processing of number, space, and time contributes to mathematical abilities beyond previously known domain-general cognitive abilities in a sample of 8- to 10-year-old children (N=133). Multiple regression analyses revealed that executive functions and general intelligence predicted all aspects of mathematics and overall mathematical ability. Working memory capacity did not contribute significantly to our models, whereas spatial ability was a strong predictor of achievement. The study replicates earlier research showing that non-symbolic number processing seems to lose predictive power of mathematical abilities once the symbolic system is acquired. Novel findings include the fact that time discrimination ability was tied to calculation ability. Therefore, a conclusion is that magnitude processing in general contributes to mathematical achievement. PMID:26637947

  12. Thermal-Wave Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert E.; Kramarchuk, Ihor; Williams, Wallace D.; Pouch, John J.; Gilbert, Percy

    1989-01-01

    Computer-controlled thermal-wave microscope developed to investigate III-V compound semiconductor devices and materials. Is nondestructive technique providing information on subsurface thermal features of solid samples. Furthermore, because this is subsurface technique, three-dimensional imaging also possible. Microscope uses intensity-modulated electron beam of modified scanning electron microscope to generate thermal waves in sample. Acoustic waves generated by thermal waves received by transducer and processed in computer to form images displayed on video display of microscope or recorded on magnetic disk.

  13. Solar Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on Solar Thermal Propulsion (STP). Some of the topics include: 1) Ways to use Solar Energy for Propulsion; 2) Solar (fusion) Energy; 3) Operation in Orbit; 4) Propulsion Concepts; 5) Critical Equations; 6) Power Efficiency; 7) Major STP Projects; 8) Types of STP Engines; 9) Solar Thermal Propulsion Direct Gain Assembly; 10) Specific Impulse; 11) Thrust; 12) Temperature Distribution; 13) Pressure Loss; 14) Transient Startup; 15) Axial Heat Input; 16) Direct Gain Engine Design; 17) Direct Gain Engine Fabrication; 18) Solar Thermal Propulsion Direct Gain Components; 19) Solar Thermal Test Facility; and 20) Checkout Results.

  14. Thermal-Radiation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Gordon

    1993-01-01

    Thermal Radiation Analyzer System (TRASYS) computer program is software program having generalized capability to solve equations of radiation-related aspects of thermal-analysis problems. Computes total thermal-radiation environment for spacecraft in orbit. Software calculates internode-radiation-interchange data as well as data on rates of incidence and absorption of heat originating from environmental radiant sources. Provides data of both types in format directly usable by such thermal-analyzer programs as SINDA '85/FLUINT (available from COSMIC, program number MSC-21528). CRAY version of TRASYS (P25) written in FORTRAN 77. Other versions available upon request.

  15. Thermal comfort following immersion.

    PubMed

    Guéritée, Julien; Redortier, Bernard; House, James R; Tipton, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Unlike thermal comfort in air, little research has been undertaken exploring thermal comfort around water sports. We investigated the impact of swimming and cooling in air after swimming on thermal comfort. After 10 min of swimming-and-resting cycles in 28°C water, volunteers wearing two types of garments or in swim briefs, faced winds in 24°C air, at rest or when stepping. Thermal comfort was significantly higher during swimming than resting. Post-immersion, following maximum discomfort, in 45 of 65 tests thermal comfort improved although mean skin temperature was still cooling (0.26 [SD 0.19] °C·min(-1) - max was 0.89°C·min(-1)). When thermal comfort was re-established mean skin temperature was lower than at maximal discomfort in 39 of 54 tests (0.81 [SD 0.58] °C - max difference was 2.68°C). The reduction in thermal discomfort in this scenario could be due to the adaptation of thermoreceptors, or to reductions in cooling rates to levels where discomfort was less stimulated. The relief from the recent discomfort may explain why, later, thermal comfort returned to initial levels in spite of poorer thermal profiles. PMID:25485520

  16. Electronic Equipment Thermal Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, R. L.; Jenkins, L. C.

    An assessment is made of the importance of thermal management in electronic equipment design, illustrating the ways in which CAD technology may be used to improve electronic equipment thermal management programs. Attention is given to the Electronic Equipment Thermal Management portion of the aircraft system-level Thermal Management Control (TMC) program. TMC establishes the process by which the airframe's environmental control system and the electronic equipment are integrated to optimize system reliability through life cycle cost minimization, by allocating available cooling capacity to system elements on the basis of derived benefits.

  17. Thermal power loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottschlich, Joseph M.; Richter, Robert

    1991-01-01

    The concept of a thermal power loop (TPL) to transport thermal power over relatively large distances is presented as an alternative to heat pipes and their derivatives. The TPL is compared to heat pipes, and capillary pumped loops with respect to size, weight, conservation of thermal potential, start-up, and 1-g testing capability. Test results from a proof of feasibility demonstrator at the NASA JPL are discussed. This analysis demonstrates that the development of specific thermal power loops will result in substantial weight and cost savings for many spacecraft.

  18. Space thermal control development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, M. J.; Grodzka, P. G.; Oneill, M. J.

    1971-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations on a number of various phase change materials (PCMs) and PCMs in combination with metals and other materials are reported. The evaluations include the following PCM system performance characteristics: PCM and PCM/filler thermal diffusivities, the effects of long-term thermal cycling, PCM-container compatibility, and catalyst effectiveness and stability. Three PCMs demonstrated performance acceptable enough to be considered for use in prototype aluminum thermal control devices. These three PCMs are lithium nitrate trihydrate with zinc hydroxy nitrate catalyst, acetamide, and myristic acid. Of the fillers tested, aluminum honeycomb filler was found to offer the most increase in system thermal diffusivity.

  19. Mars Thermal Inertia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image shows the global thermal inertia of the Martian surface as measured by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument on the Mars Global Surveyor. The data were acquired during the first 5000 orbits of the MGS mapping mission. The pattern of inertia variations observed by TES agrees well with the thermal inertia maps made by the Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper experiment, but the TES data shown here are at significantly higher spatial resolution (15 km versus 60 km).

    The TES instrument was built by Santa Barbara Remote Sensing and is operated by Philip R. Christensen, of Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ.

  20. Thermal testing of solid neutron shielding materials

    SciTech Connect

    Boonstra, R.H.

    1992-09-01

    Two legal-weight truck casks the GA-4 and GA-9, will carry four PWR and nine BWR spent fuel assemblies, respectively. Each cask has a solid neutron shielding material separating the steel body and the outer steel skin. In the thermal accident specified by NRC regulations in 10CFR Part 71, the cask is subjected to an 800[degree]C environment for 30 minutes. The neutron shield need not perform any shielding function during or after the thermal accident, but its behavior must not compromise the ability of the cask to contain the radioactive contents. In May-June 1989 the first series of full-scale thermal tests was performed on three shielding materials: Bisco Products NS-4-FR, and Reactor Experiments RX-201 and RX-207. The tests are described in Thermal Testing of Solid Neutron Shielding Materials, GA-AL 9897, R. H. Boonstra, General Atomics (1990), and demonstrated the acceptability of these materials in a thermal accident. Subsequent design changes to the cask rendered these materials unattractive in terms of weight or adequate service temperature margin. For the second test series, a material specification was developed for a polypropylene based neutron shield with a softening point of at least 280[degree]F. The neutron shield materials tested were boronated (0.8--4.5%) polymers (polypropylene, HDPE, NS-4). The Envirotech and Bisco materials are not polypropylene, but were tested as potential backup materials in the event that a satisfactory polypropylene could not be found.

  1. Thermal testing of solid neutron shielding materials

    SciTech Connect

    Boonstra, R.H.

    1992-09-01

    Two legal-weight truck casks the GA-4 and GA-9, will carry four PWR and nine BWR spent fuel assemblies, respectively. Each cask has a solid neutron shielding material separating the steel body and the outer steel skin. In the thermal accident specified by NRC regulations in 10CFR Part 71, the cask is subjected to an 800{degree}C environment for 30 minutes. The neutron shield need not perform any shielding function during or after the thermal accident, but its behavior must not compromise the ability of the cask to contain the radioactive contents. In May-June 1989 the first series of full-scale thermal tests was performed on three shielding materials: Bisco Products NS-4-FR, and Reactor Experiments RX-201 and RX-207. The tests are described in Thermal Testing of Solid Neutron Shielding Materials, GA-AL 9897, R. H. Boonstra, General Atomics (1990), and demonstrated the acceptability of these materials in a thermal accident. Subsequent design changes to the cask rendered these materials unattractive in terms of weight or adequate service temperature margin. For the second test series, a material specification was developed for a polypropylene based neutron shield with a softening point of at least 280{degree}F. The neutron shield materials tested were boronated (0.8--4.5%) polymers (polypropylene, HDPE, NS-4). The Envirotech and Bisco materials are not polypropylene, but were tested as potential backup materials in the event that a satisfactory polypropylene could not be found.

  2. Children with Williams syndrome: Developmental trajectories for intellectual abilities, vocabulary abilities, and adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Mervis, Carolyn B; Pitts, C Holley

    2015-06-01

    To examine longitudinal trajectories of intellectual abilities, single-word vocabulary abilities, and adaptive behavior for 76 children with Williams syndrome (WS) aged 4-15 years, we compared their standard scores (SSs) at two time points approximately 3 years apart on the same standardized measures. At the group level, mean SS declined significantly for 8 of the 12 measures and showed a slight (nonsignificant) increase or decrease for 4 measures. However, for most measures significant changes in SS were found for only a small proportion of the children, with some children evidencing significant declines and a smaller proportion evidencing significant increases. Significant SS changes were most common for adaptive behavior. For all measures, the mean magnitude of SS change was smaller for older children (>7.5 years at Time 1) than for younger children (<7.5 years at Time 1). Furthermore, correlations between Time 1 and Time 2 SSs were larger for the older cohort than for the younger cohort, indicating that SS stability was greater for older children than for younger children. Although mean SSs declined for most measures, indicating that children with WS as a group were not making the expected amount of progress relative to their general population peers who earned the same SS at Time 1, there was little evidence either of regression (loss of skills) or stagnation (failure to increase raw scores). The relations of these results to those of previous smaller-sample longitudinal studies of children with WS and the implications of the findings are considered. PMID:25989316

  3. Children with Williams Syndrome: Developmental Trajectories for Intellectual Abilities, Vocabulary Abilities, and Adaptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Mervis, Carolyn B.; Pitts, C. Holley

    2016-01-01

    To examine longitudinal trajectories of intellectual abilities, single-word vocabulary abilities, and adaptive behavior for 76 children with Williams syndrome (WS) aged 4 – 15 years, we compared their standard scores (SSs) at two time points approximately 3 years apart on the same standardized measures. At the group level, mean SS declined significantly for 8 of the 12 measures and showed a slight (nonsignificant) increase or decrease for 4 measures. However, for most measures significant changes in SS were found for only a small proportion of the children, with some children evidencing significant declines and a smaller proportion evidencing significant increases. Significant SS changes were most common for adaptive behavior. For all measures, the mean magnitude of SS change was smaller for older children (> 7.5 years at Time 1) than for younger children (< 7.5 years at Time 1). Furthermore, correlations between Time 1 and Time 2 SSs were larger for the older cohort than for the younger cohort, indicating that SS stability was greater for older children than for younger children. Although mean SSs declined for most measures, indicating that children with WS as a group were not making the expected amount of progress relative to their general population peers who earned the same SS at Time 1, there was little evidence either of regression (loss of skills) or stagnation (failure to increase raw scores). The relations of these results to those of previous smaller-sample longitudinal studies of children with WS and the implications of the findings are considered. PMID:25989316

  4. Probe on training the practical ability of undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiaohui; Meng, Xiuxia; Leng, Bing

    2010-07-01

    Practical ability means physical and psychological characteristics that ensure the individual to make use of the knowledge and skills to solve the practical problems smoothly. Only with practical ability, the man can sum up experience from practice, at the same time he can identify problems and make innovation. This article describes the meaning and characteristics of practice and introduces how to build the capacity of the practical ability of students in foreign university. As well as the article put forward how to set up a practical training teaching system which can improve practical ability of college students and a series of training programs to help Chinese universities students to improve the student's practical ability and cultivate student's with a strong practical ability and high-quality talent.

  5. [Methodological challenges in measurements of functional ability in gerontological research].

    PubMed

    Avlund, E K

    1997-10-20

    This article addresses the advantages and disadvantages of different methods in measuring functional ability with its main focus on frame of reference, operationalization, practical procedure, validity, discriminatory power, and responsiveness. When measuring functional ability it is recommended: 1) Always to consider the theoretical frame of reference as part of the validation process. 2) Always to assess the content validity of items before they are combined into an index and before performing tests for construct validity. 3) Not to combine mobility, PADL and IADL in the same index/scale. 4) Not to use IADL as a health-related functional ability measure or, if used, to ask whether problems with IADL or non-performance of IADL are caused by health-related factors. 5) Always to analyse functional ability separately for men and women. 6) To exclude the dead in analyses of change in functional ability if the focus is on predictors of deterioration in functional ability. PMID:9411957

  6. Thermal Properties, Thermal Shock, and Thermal Cycling Behavior of Lanthanum Zirconate-Based Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xingye; Lu, Zhe; Jung, Yeon-Gil; Li, Li; Knapp, James; Zhang, Jing

    2016-06-01

    Lanthanum zirconate (La2Zr2O7) coatings are newly proposed thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems which exhibit lower thermal conductivity and potentially higher thermal stability compared to other traditional thermal barrier systems. In this work, La2Zr2O7 and 8 wt pct yttria stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) single-layer and double-layer TBC systems were deposited using the air plasma spray technique. Thermal properties of the coatings were measured. Furnace heat treatment and jet engine thermal shock tests were implemented to evaluate coating performance during thermal cycling. The measured average thermal conductivity of porous La2Zr2O7 coating ranged from 0.59 to 0.68 W/m/K in the temperature range of 297 K to 1172 K (24 °C to 899 °C), which was approximately 25 pct lower than that of porous 8YSZ (0.84 to 0.87 W/m/K) in the same temperature range. The coefficients of thermal expansion values of La2Zr2O7 were approximately 9 to 10 × 10-6/K from 400 K to 1600 K (127 °C to 1327 °C), which were about 10 pct lower than those of porous 8YSZ. The double-layer coating system consisting of the porous 8YSZ and La2Zr2O7 layers had better thermal shock resistance and thermal cycling performance than those of single-layer La2Zr2O7 coating and double-layer coating with dense 8YSZ and La2Zr2O7 coatings. This study suggests that porous 8YSZ coating can be employed as a buffer layer in La2Zr2O7-based TBC systems to improve the overall coating durability during service.

  7. Thermal Properties, Thermal Shock, and Thermal Cycling Behavior of Lanthanum Zirconate-Based Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xingye; Lu, Zhe; Jung, Yeon-Gil; Li, Li; Knapp, James; Zhang, Jing

    2016-03-01

    Lanthanum zirconate (La2Zr2O7) coatings are newly proposed thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems which exhibit lower thermal conductivity and potentially higher thermal stability compared to other traditional thermal barrier systems. In this work, La2Zr2O7 and 8 wt pct yttria stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) single-layer and double-layer TBC systems were deposited using the air plasma spray technique. Thermal properties of the coatings were measured. Furnace heat treatment and jet engine thermal shock tests were implemented to evaluate coating performance during thermal cycling. The measured average thermal conductivity of porous La2Zr2O7 coating ranged from 0.59 to 0.68 W/m/K in the temperature range of 297 K to 1172 K (24 °C to 899 °C), which was approximately 25 pct lower than that of porous 8YSZ (0.84 to 0.87 W/m/K) in the same temperature range. The coefficients of thermal expansion values of La2Zr2O7 were approximately 9 to 10 × 10-6/K from 400 K to 1600 K (127 °C to 1327 °C), which were about 10 pct lower than those of porous 8YSZ. The double-layer coating system consisting of the porous 8YSZ and La2Zr2O7 layers had better thermal shock resistance and thermal cycling performance than those of single-layer La2Zr2O7 coating and double-layer coating with dense 8YSZ and La2Zr2O7 coatings. This study suggests that porous 8YSZ coating can be employed as a buffer layer in La2Zr2O7-based TBC systems to improve the overall coating durability during service.

  8. Thermal High- and Low-Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Thick Thermal Barrier Coating Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings have received increasing attention for advanced gas turbine and diesel engine applications because of their ability to provide thermal insulation to engine components. However, the durability of these coatings under the severe thermal cycling conditions encountered in a diesel engine (ref. 1) still remains a major issue. In this research at the NASA Lewis Research Center, a high-power laser was used to investigate the thermal fatigue behavior of a yttria-stabilized zirconia coating system under simulated diesel engine conditions. The mechanisms of fatigue crack initiation and propagation, and of coating failure under complex thermal low-cycle fatigue (LCF, representing stop/start cycles) and thermal high-cycle fatigue (HCF, representing operation at 1300 rpm) are described. Continuous wave and pulse laser modes were used to simulate pure LCF and combined LCF/HCF, respectively (ref. 2). The LCF mechanism was found to be closely related to the coating sintering and creep at high temperatures. These creep strains in the ceramic coating led to a tensile stress state during cooling, thus providing the major driving force for crack growth under LCF conditions. The combined LCF/HCF tests induced more severe coating surface cracking, microspallation, and accelerated crack growth than did the pure LCF test. HCF thermal loads also facilitated lateral crack branching and ceramic/bond coat interface delaminations. HCF is associated with the cyclic stresses originating from the high-frequency temperature fluctuation at the ceramic coating surface. The HCF thermal loads act on the crack by a wedging mechanism (ref. 1), resulting in continuous crack growth at temperature. The HCF stress intensity factor amplitude increases with the interaction depth and temperature swing, and decreases with the crack depth. HCF damage also increases with the thermal expansion coefficient and the Young's modulus of the ceramic coating (refs. 1 and 3).

  9. Mental ability and common sense in an artificial society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malarz, Krzysztof; Kułakowski, Krzysztof

    2014-07-01

    Having equally valid premises pro and contra, what does a rational human being prefer? The answer is: nothing. We designed a test of this kind and applied it to an artificial society, characterized by a given level of mental ability. A stream of messages from media is supplemented by ongoing interpersonal communication. The result is that high ability leads to wellbalanced opinions, while low ability produces extreme opinions.

  10. Intracavitary ultrasound phased arrays for thermal therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, Erin

    Currently, the success of hyperthermia and thermal surgery treatments is limited by the technology used in the design and fabrication of clinical heating devices and the completeness of the thermometry systems used for guidance. For both hyperthermia and thermal surgery, electrically focused ultrasound generated by phased arrays provides a means of controlling localized energy deposition in body tissues. Intracavitary applicators can be used to bring the energy source close to a target volume, such as the prostate, thereby minimizing normal tissue damage. The work performed in this study was aimed at improving noninvasive prostate thermal therapies and utilized three research approaches: (1) Acoustic, thermal and optimization simulations, (2) Design and fabrication of multiple phased arrays, (3) Ex vivo and in vivo experimental testing of the heating capabilities of the phased arrays. As part of this study, a novel aperiodic phased array design was developed which resulted in a 30- 45% reduction in grating lobe levels when compared to conventional phased arrays. Measured acoustic fields generated by the constructed aperiodic arrays agreed closely with the fields predicted by the theoretical simulations and covered anatomically appropriate ranges. The power capabilities of these arrays were demonstrated to be sufficient for the purposes of hyperthermia and thermal surgery. The advantage of using phased arrays in place of fixed focus transducers was shown by demonstrating the ability of electronic scanning to increase the size of the necrosed tissue volume while providing a more uniform thermal dose, which can ultimately reduce patient treatment times. A theoretical study on the feasibility of MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) thermometry for noninvasive temperature feedback control was investigated as a means to improve transient and steady state temperature distributions achieved in hyperthermia treatments. MRI guided ex vivo and in vivo experiments demonstrated

  11. Failure mechanisms of thermal barrier systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tao

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are widely used in turbines for propulsion and power generation. The benefit results from their ability to sustain high thermal gradients in the presence of adequate backside cooling. Lowering the temperature of the metal substrate prolongs the life of the component: whether from environmental attack, creep rupture, or fatigue. Thermal barrier systems exhibit multiple failure mechanisms, depends on the deposition methods of the TBCs, chemical composition of the bond coats, and their working environments. Some of the most prevalent are studied in this thesis. There are two types of thermal barrier systems based on the chemical composition of the bond coats: Pt-aluminide and NiCoCrAlY bond coats. Ratcheting happens the most in the systems with Pt-aluminide bond coats; while edge delamination is considered a possible failure mechanism for the systems with NiCoCrAlY bond coats. Ratcheting is motivated by displacement instability in the thermally grown oxide (TGO). Interactions between cracks induced in TBCs upon thermal cycling have been calculated. Cracks that converge from neighboring imperfections exhibit a minimum energy release rate prior to coalescence. Equating this minimum to the toughness of the TBC provides a criterion for coalescence and failure. Imposing this criterion allows the change in crack length upon cycling and the number of cycles to failure to be ascertained. This simulation capability is used to explore various influences on durability. Samples with NiCoCrAlY bond coat are studied after subjected to thermal cycling in a burner rig. In each case, a dominant delamination has been identified, that extends primarily along the interface between the TGO and the bond coat. Calculations of the delamination energy release rate, upon comparison with the interface toughness, reveals a critical TGO thickness, (h tgo)c ≈ 3mum, comparable to that found experimentally.

  12. Cognitive Ability: Social Correlates and Consequences in Contemporary China*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guoying; Xie, Yu; Xu, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the measurement of cognitive ability in the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), especially for verbal skill, mathematical skill, memory, and quantitative reasoning. The available CFPS cognitive measurements can be useful for studies on the importance of cognitive ability in many substantive domains of interest. Using the CFPS data, we show that measures of cognitive ability are clearly related to key demographic and social characteristics, such as age, gender, education, and hukou status. We also illustrate how cognitive ability influences school performance and deviant behaviors among children, income and political capital among adults, and daily functioning among the elderly. PMID:27570709

  13. COMPETITIVE ABILITY IN MALE HOUSE MICE (Mus musculus): GENETIC INFLUENCES

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Christopher B.; Ruff, James S.; Chase, Kevin; Potts, Wayne K.; Carrier, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Conspecifics of many animal species physically compete to gain reproductive resources and thus fitness. Despite the importance of competitive ability across the animal kingdom, specific traits that influence or underpin competitive ability are poorly characterized. Here, we investigate whether there are genetic influences on competitive ability within male house mice. Additionally, we examined if litter demographics (litter size and litter sex ratio) influence competitive ability. We phenotyped two generations for a male s ability to possess a reproductive resource--a prime nesting site--using semi-natural enclosures with mixed sex groupings. We used the animal model coupled with an extensive pedigree to estimate several genetic parameters. Competitive ability was found to be highly heritable, but only displayed a moderate genetic correlation to body mass. Interestingly, litter sex ratio had a weak negative influence on competitive ability. Litter size had no significant influence on competitive ability. Our study also highlights how much remians unknown about the proximal causes of competitive ability. PMID:23291957

  14. Is Approximate Number Precision a Stable Predictor of Math Ability?

    PubMed Central

    Libertus, Melissa E.; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Previous research shows that children’s ability to estimate numbers of items using their Approximate Number System (ANS) predicts later math ability. To more closely examine the predictive role of early ANS acuity on later abilities, we assessed the ANS acuity, math ability, and expressive vocabulary of preschoolers twice, six months apart. We also administered attention and memory span tasks to ask whether the previously reported association between ANS acuity and math ability is ANS-specific or attributable to domain-general cognitive skills. We found that early ANS acuity predicted math ability six months later, even when controlling for individual differences in age, expressive vocabulary, and math ability at the initial testing. In addition, ANS acuity was a unique concurrent predictor of math ability above and beyond expressive vocabulary, attention, and memory span. These findings of a predictive relationship between early ANS acuity and later math ability add to the growing evidence for the importance of early numerical estimation skills. PMID:23814453

  15. Subjective workload and individual differences in information processing abilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damos, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes several experiments examining the source of individual differences in the experience of mental workload. Three sources of such differences were examined: information processing abilities, timesharing abilities, and personality traits/behavior patterns. On the whole, there was little evidence that individual differences in information processing abilities or timesharing abilities are related to perceived differences in mental workload. However, individuals with strong Type A coronary prone behavior patterns differed in both single- and multiple-task performance from individuals who showed little evidence of such a pattern. Additionally, individuals with a strong Type A pattern showed some dissociation between objective performance and the experience of mental workload.

  16. Paradoxes of Thermal Radiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besson, U.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the thermal behaviour of objects exposed to a solar-type flux of thermal radiation. It aims to clarify certain apparent inconsistencies between theory and observation, and to give a detailed exposition of some critical points that physics textbooks usually treat in an insufficient or incorrect way. In particular,…

  17. Solar Thermal Propulsion Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Harnessing the Sun's energy through Solar Thermal Propulsion will propel vehicles through space by significantly reducing weight, complexity, and cost while boosting performance over current conventional upper stages. Another solar powered system, solar electric propulsion, demonstrates ion propulsion is suitable for long duration missions. Pictured is an artist's concept of space flight using solar thermal propulsion.

  18. Thermal Writing 1987

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peckham, Robert F.

    1987-04-01

    The creating of intelligent marks on a substrate by means of thermal energy has been in use for thousands of years, e.g., branding of livestock and burning images onto wood. During the past 30 years, this type of imaging has been significantly refined. Recent advances allow the creation of color images, 16 shades of gray and letter quality printing on white substrates. Permanent images are now being written with direct thermal processes. The foregoing make thermal writing very attractive for numerous applications. The general technology of how thermal writing is accomplished today, its applications, and why society should use thermal writing are the topics of this paper. To attempt to cover in great technical detail all of the current advancements in thermal writing is beyond our scope here. What is intended is the proposition that THERMAL WRITING is a superior form of creating images on paper substrates for Society's on demand hard copy requirements. First let's look at how thermal writing is being accomplished with today's technologies.

  19. THERMAL DESORPTION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thermal desorption is an ex situ means to physically separate volatile and some semivolatile contaminants from soil, sediments, sludges, and filter cakes. or wastes containing up to 10% organics or less, thermal desorption can be used alone for site remediation. t also may find a...

  20. Thermal energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The planning and implementation of activities associated with lead center management role and the technical accomplishments pertaining to high temperature thermal energy storage subsystems are described. Major elements reported are: (1) program definition and assessment; (2) research and technology development; (3) industrial storage applications; (4) solar thermal power storage applications; and (5) building heating and cooling applications.

  1. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Gloria A.; Elder, Michael G.; Kemme, Joseph E.

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus which thermally protects sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components to a heat sink such as ice.

  2. Nuclear thermal propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    This document is presented in viewgraph form, and the topics covered include the following: (1) the direct fission-thermal propulsion process; (2) mission applications of direct fission-thermal propulsion; (3) nuclear engines for rocket vehicles; (4) manned mars landers; and (5) particle bed reactor design.

  3. Thermally actuated wedge block

    DOEpatents

    Queen, Jr., Charles C.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an automatically-operating wedge block for maintaining intimate structural contact over wide temperature ranges, including cryogenic use. The wedging action depends on the relative thermal expansion of two materials having very different coefficients of thermal expansion. The wedge block expands in thickness when cooled to cryogenic temperatures and contracts in thickness when returned to room temperature.

  4. Thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Abdala, Ahmed (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A modified graphite oxide material contains a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g, wherein the thermally exfoliated graphite oxide displays no signature of the original graphite and/or graphite oxide, as determined by X-ray diffraction.

  5. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, G.A.; Elder, M.G.; Kemme, J.E.

    1984-03-20

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for thermally protecting sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components such as electronics to a heat sink such as ice.

  6. A thermal ground cloak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tianzhi; Wu, Qinghe; Xu, Weikai; Liu, Di; Huang, Lujun; Chen, Fei

    2016-02-01

    The thermal cloak has been a long-standing scientific dream of researchers and engineers. Recently thermal metamaterials with man-made micro-structure have been presented based on the principle of transformation optics (TO). This new concept has received considerable attention, which is a powerful tool for manipulating heat flux in thermal imaging systems. However, the inherent material singularity has long been a captivation of experimental realization. As an alternative method, the scattering-cancellation-based cloak (or bi-layer thermal cloak) has been presented to remove the singularity for achieving the same cloaking performance. Nevertheless, such strategy needs prerequisite knowledge (geometry and conductivity) of the object to be cloaked. In this paper, a new thermal ground cloak is presented to overcome the limitations. The device is designed, fabricated and measured to verify the thermal cloaking performance. We experimentally show that the remarkably low complexity of the device can fully and effectively be manipulated using realizable transformation thermal devices. More importantly, this thermal ground cloak is designed to exclude heat flux without knowing the information of the cloaked object.

  7. Spacecraft Thermal Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birur, Gajanana C.; Siebes, Georg; Swanson, Theodore D.; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Thermal control of the spacecraft is typically achieved by removing heat from the spacecraft parts that tend to overheat and adding heat to the parts that tend get too cold. The equipment on the spacecraft can get very hot if it is exposed to the sun or have internal heat generation. The pans also can get very cold if they are exposed to the cold of deep space. The spacecraft and instruments must be designed to achieve proper thermal balance. The combination of the spacecraft's external thermal environment, its internal heat generation (i.e., waste heat from the operation of electrical equipment), and radiative heat rejection will determine this thermal balance. It should also be noted that this is seldom a static situation, external environmental influences and internal heat generation are normally dynamic variables which change with time. Topics discussed include thermal control system components, spacecraft mission categories, spacecraft thermal requirements, space thermal environments, thermal control hardware, launch and flight operations, advanced technologies for future spacecraft,

  8. Low Thermal Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming

    2003-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are used extensively in modern gas turbine engines to thermally insulate air-cooled metallic components from the hot gases in the engine. These coatings typically consist of a zirconia-yttria ceramic that has been applied by either plasma spraying or physical vapor deposition. Future engines will rely even more heavily on TBCs and will require materials that have even higher temperature capability with improved insulation (i.e., lower thermal conductivity even after many hours at high temperature). This report discusses new TBCs that have been developed with these future requirements in mind. The Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology Program at the NASA Glenn Research Center is funding this effort, which has been conducted primarily at Glenn with contractor support (GE and Howmet) for physical vapor deposition. As stated, the new TBC not only had to be more insulating but the insulation had to persist even after many hours of exposure-that is, the new TBC had to have both lower conductivity and improved sintering resistance. A new type of test rig was developed for this task. This new test approach used a laser to deliver a known high heat flux in an essentially uniform pattern to the surface of the coating, thereby establishing a realistic thermal gradient across its thickness. This gradient was determined from surface and backside pyrometry; and since the heat flux and coating thickness are known, this permitted continuous monitoring of thermal conductivity. Thus, this laser rig allowed very efficient screening of candidate low-conductivity, sinter-resistant TBCs. The coating-design approach selected for these new low-conductivity TBCs was to identify oxide dopants that had the potential to promote the formation of relatively large and stable groupings of defects known as defect clusters. This approach was used because it was felt that such clusters would reduce conductivity while enhancing stability. The approach proved to be

  9. Thermal neutron scattering in graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Qasir, Iyad Ibrahim

    Generation IV Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) concepts, are graphite moderated and gas cooled thermal spectrum reactors. The characteristics of the low energy (E < 1 eV) neutron spectrum in these reactors will be dictated by the process of neutron slowing-down and thermalization in the graphite moderator. The ability to accurately predict this process in these reactors can have significant neutronic and safety implications. In reactor design calculations, thermal neutron scattering cross section libraries are needed for the prediction of the thermal neutron environment in the core. Currently used libraries (ENDF/B-VII) are a product of the 1960s and remain based on many physical approximations. In addition, these libraries show noticeable discrepancies with experimental data. In this work, investigation of thermal neutron scattering in graphite as a function of temperature was performed. The fundamental input for the calculation of thermal neutron scattering cross sections, i.e., the phonon frequency distribution and/or the dispersion relations, was generated using a modern approach that is based on quantum mechanical electronic structure (ab initio) simulations combined with a lattice dynamics direct method supercell approach. The calculations were performed using the VASP and PHONON codes. The VASP calculations used the local density approximation, and the projector augmented-wave pseudopotential. A supercell of 144 atoms was used; and the integration over the Brillouin zone was confined to a 3x3x4 k-mesh generated by the Monkhorst-Pack scheme. A plane-wave basis set with an energy cutoff of 500 eV was applied. The corresponding dispersion relations, heat capacity, and phonon frequency distribution show excellent agreement with experimental data. Despite the use of the above techniques to produce more accurate input data, the examination of the results indicated persistence of the inconsistencies between calculations and measurements at neutron energies

  10. Lecture on Thermal Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Brian R.

    2006-01-01

    This lecture will cover solar thermal radiation, particularly as it relates to the high energy solar processes that are the subject of this summer school. After a general review of thermal radiation from the Sun and a discussion of basic definitions, the various emission and absorption mechanisms will be described including black-body emission, bremsstrahlung, free-bound, and atomic line emissions of all kinds. The bulk of the time will be spent discussing the observational characteristics of thermal flare plasma and what can be learned about the flare energy release process from observations of the thermal radiation at all wavelengths. Information that has been learned about the morphology, temperature distribution, and composition of the flare plasma will be presented. The energetics of the thermal flare plasma will be discussed in relation to the nonthermal energy of the particles accelerated during the flare. This includes the total energy, the radiated and conductive cooling processes, and the total irradiated energy.

  11. Microsecond switchable thermal antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe Benisty, Henri; Besbes, Mondher

    2014-07-21

    We propose a thermal antenna that can be actively switched on and off at the microsecond scale by means of a phase transition of a metal-insulator material, the vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}). This thermal source is made of a periodically patterned tunable VO{sub 2} nanolayer, which support a surface phonon-polariton in the infrared range in their crystalline phase. Using electrodes properly registered with respect to the pattern, the VO{sub 2} phase transition can be locally triggered by ohmic heating so that the surface phonon-polariton can be diffracted by the induced grating, producing a highly directional thermal emission. Conversely, when heating less, the VO{sub 2} layers cool down below the transition temperature, the surface phonon-polariton cannot be diffracted anymore so that thermal emission is inhibited. This switchable antenna could find broad applications in the domain of active thermal coatings or in those of infrared spectroscopy and sensing.

  12. Solar thermal aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  13. Thermal treatment wall

    DOEpatents

    Aines, Roger D.; Newmark, Robin L.; Knauss, Kevin G.

    2000-01-01

    A thermal treatment wall emplaced to perform in-situ destruction of contaminants in groundwater. Thermal destruction of specific contaminants occurs by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation at temperatures achievable by existing thermal remediation techniques (electrical heating or steam injection) in the presence of oxygen or soil mineral oxidants, such as MnO.sub.2. The thermal treatment wall can be installed in a variety of configurations depending on the specific objectives, and can be used for groundwater cleanup, wherein in-situ destruction of contaminants is carried out rather than extracting contaminated fluids to the surface, where they are to be cleaned. In addition, the thermal treatment wall can be used for both plume interdiction and near-wellhead in-situ groundwater treatment. Thus, this technique can be utilized for a variety of groundwater contamination problems.

  14. Low thermal conductivity oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Wei; Phillpot, Simon R.; Wan, Chunlei; Chernatynskiy, Aleksandr; Qu, Zhixue

    2012-10-09

    Oxides hold great promise as new and improved materials for thermal-barrier coating applications. The rich variety of structures and compositions of the materials in this class, and the ease with which they can be doped, allow the exploration of various mechanisms for lowering thermal conductivity. In this article, we review recent progress in identifying specific oxides with low thermal conductivity from both theoretical and experimental perspectives. We explore the mechanisms of lowering thermal conductivity, such as introducing structural/chemical disorder, increasing material density, increasing the number of atoms in the primitive cell, and exploiting the structural anisotropy. We conclude that further systematic exploration of oxide crystal structures and chemistries are likely to result in even further improved thermal-barrier coatings.

  15. Space Suit Thermal Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Anthony B.; Nair, Satish S.; Miles, John B.; Iovine, John V.; Lin, Chin H.

    1998-01-01

    The present NASA space suit (the Shuttle EMU) is a self-contained environmental control system, providing life support, environmental protection, earth-like mobility, and communications. This study considers the thermal dynamics of the space suit as they relate to astronaut thermal comfort control. A detailed dynamic lumped capacitance thermal model of the present space suit is used to analyze the thermal dynamics of the suit with observations verified using experimental and flight data. Prior to using the model to define performance characteristics and limitations for the space suit, the model is first evaluated and improved. This evaluation includes determining the effect of various model parameters on model performance and quantifying various temperature prediction errors in terms of heat transfer and heat storage. The observations from this study are being utilized in two future design efforts, automatic thermal comfort control design for the present space suit and design of future space suit systems for Space Station, Lunar, and Martian missions.

  16. Tunable thermal link

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Majumdar, Arunava; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2014-07-15

    Disclosed is a device whereby the thermal conductance of a multiwalled nanostructure such as a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) can be controllably and reversibly tuned by sliding one or more outer shells with respect to the inner core. As one example, the thermal conductance of an MWCNT dropped to 15% of the original value after extending the length of the MWCNT by 190 nm. The thermal conductivity returned when the tube was contracted. The device may comprise numbers of multiwalled nanotubes or other graphitic layers connected to a heat source and a heat drain and various means for tuning the overall thermal conductance for applications in structure heat management, heat flow in nanoscale or microscale devices and thermal logic devices.

  17. Multiwall thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, L. R. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Multiwall insulating sandwich panels are provided for thermal protection of hypervelocity vehicles and other enclosures. In one embodiment, the multiwall panels are formed of alternate layers of dimpled and flat metal (titanium alloy) foil sheets and beaded scarfed edge seals to provide enclosure thermal protection up to 1000 F. An additional embodiment employs an intermediate fibrous insulation for the sandwich panel to provide thermal protection up to 2000 F. A third embodiment employs a silicide coated columbium waffle as the outer panel skin and fibrous layered intermediate protection for thermal environment protection up to 2500 F. The use of multiple panels on an enclosure facilitate repair and refurbishment of the thermal protection system due to the simple support provided by the tab and clip attachment for the panels.

  18. PATRAN and P/THERMAL applications for thermal modeling. [SP-100 Ground Engineering Station

    SciTech Connect

    Valdiviez, R.; Crea, B.A.

    1991-07-01

    The standard that has been established over the last decade or so in performing numerical modeling for analysis purposes is to make creation of the computational grid and results presentation less time and effort consuming than the analysis function itself. Software packages known as pre- and post-processors have been developed and made available in various forms and sizes for the engineering analyst's use. These packages reduce the effort and time required of the analyst to perform pre- and post-operations on a given model. PATRAN is one such pre- and post-processing software package. PATRAN provides a large array of capabilities to enable geometric representation and creation of the analysis model. This software package also incorporates interfacing routines which enable a model created in PATRAN to be translated into the input format of many other analysis codes. This paper discusses the use of PATRAN as a pre- and post-processor and the software package P/THERMAL as the analysis code for the steady state and transient thermal analysis of a vacuum vessel. The design objective of the vessel is to duplicate the conditions of outer space and provide containment for a test nuclear reactor designed for space application. This objective creates a challenging thermal analysis effort. The use of P/THERMAL in meeting this challenge is also discussed. P/THERMAL's ability to facilitate and perform thermal analysis is recognized in this analysis task. 2 figs.

  19. Language Ability Predicts the Development of Behavior Problems in Children

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Isaac T.; Bates, John E.; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Coyne, Claire A.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Van Hulle, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies have suggested, but not fully established, that language ability is important for regulating attention and behavior. Language ability may have implications for understanding attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorders, as well as subclinical problems. This article reports findings from two longitudinal studies to test (a) whether language ability has an independent effect on behavior problems, and (b) the direction of effect between language ability and behavior problems. In Study 1 (N = 585), language ability was measured annually from ages 7 to 13 years by language subtests of standardized academic achievement tests administered at the children’s schools. Inattentive-hyperactive (I-H) and externalizing (EXT) problems were reported annually by teachers and mothers. In Study 2 (N = 11,506), language ability (receptive vocabulary) and mother-rated I-H and EXT problems were measured biannually from ages 4 to 12 years. Analyses in both studies showed that language ability predicted within-individual variability in the development of I-H and EXT problems over and above the effects of sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and performance in other academic and intellectual domains (e.g., math, reading comprehension, reading recognition, and short-term memory [STM]). Even after controls for prior levels of behavior problems, language ability predicted later behavior problems more strongly than behavior problems predicted later language ability, suggesting that the direction of effect may be from language ability to behavior problems. The findings suggest that language ability may be a useful target for the prevention or even treatment of attention deficits and EXT problems in children. PMID:23713507

  20. Systems analysis of thermal storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copeland, R. J.

    1981-08-01

    Analyses were conducted on thermal storage concepts for solar thermal applications. These studies include estimates of both the obtainable costs of thermal storage concepts and their worth to a user (i.e., value). Based on obtainable costs and performance, an in-depth study evaluated thermal storage concepts for water/steam, organic fluid, and gas/Brayton solar thermal receivers. Promising and nonpromising concepts were identified. Thermal storage concepts were evaluated for a liquid metal receiver. The value of thermal storage in a solar thermal industrial process heat application was analyzed. Several advanced concepts studied, include ground-mounted thermal storage for parabolic dishes with Stirling engines.

  1. Development and Fatigue Testing of Ceramic Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Choi, Sung R.; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings will play an increasingly important role in future gas turbine engines because of their ability to effectively protect the engine components and further raise engine temperatures. Durability of the coating systems remains a critical issue with the ever-increasing temperature requirements. Thermal conductivity increase and coating degradation due to sintering and phase changes are known to be detrimental to coating performance. There is a need to characterize the coating thermal fatigue behavior and temperature limit, in order to potentially take full advantage of the current coating capability. In this study, thermal conductivity and cyclic fatigue behaviors of plasma-sprayed ZrO2-8wt%Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings were evaluated under high temperature, large thermal gradient and thermal cycling conditions. The coating degradation and failure processes were assessed by real-time monitoring of the coating thermal conductivity under the test conditions. The ceramic coating crack initiation and propagation driving forces and failure modes under the cyclic thermal loads will be discussed in light of the high temperature mechanical fatigue and fracture testing results.

  2. Near-field radiative thermal control with graphene covered on different materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ao; Zheng, Zhiheng; Xuan, Yimin

    2016-09-01

    Based on the structure of double-layer parallel plates, this paper demonstrates that thermal radiation in near field is greatly enhanced due to near-field effects, exceeding Planck‧s blackbody radiation law. To study the effect of graphene on thermal radiation in near field, the authors add graphene layer into the structure and analyze the ability of graphene to control near-field thermal radiation with different materials. The result indicates that the graphene layer effectively suppresses the near-field thermal radiation between metal plates or polar-dielectric plates, having good ability of thermal insulation. But for doped-silicon plates, depending on the specific models, graphene has different control abilities, suppressing or enhancing, and the control abilities mainly depend on the material graphene is attached to. The authors also summarize some common rules about the different abilities of graphene to control the near-field thermal radiation. In consideration of the thickness of 0.34 nm of monolayer graphene, this paper points out that graphene plays a very important role in controlling the near-field thermal radiation.

  3. Infrared scanners detect thermal gradients in building walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantsios, A. G.

    1979-01-01

    Presents study on ability of infrared scanner used to detect thermal gradients in outside walls of two homes in Virginia Beach, Virginia under joint effort of Langley Research Center, Virginia Energy Office and Virginia Beach Energy Conservation Pilot Project. Details how study can be used to help minimize energy loss.

  4. Analysis of Thermal Radiation Effects on Temperatures in Turbine Engine Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, Robert; Spuckler, Charles M.

    1998-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings are important, and in some instances a necessity, for high temperature applications such as combustor liners, and turbine vanes and rotating blades for current and advanced turbine engines. Some of the insulating materials used for coatings, such as zirconia that currently has widespread use, are partially transparent to thermal radiation. A translucent coating permits energy to be transported internally by radiation, thereby increasing the total energy transfer and acting like an increase in thermal conductivity. This degrades the insulating ability of the coating. Because of the strong dependence of radiant emission on temperature, internal radiative transfer effects are increased as temperatures are raised. Hence evaluating the significance of internal radiation is of importance as temperatures are increased to obtain higher efficiencies in advanced engines.

  5. Failure Mechanisms and Life Prediction of Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings under Thermal Gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zju, Dongming; Ghosn, Louis J.; Miller, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) will play an increasingly important role in gas turbine engines because of their ability to further raise engine temperatures. However, the issue of coating durability is of major concern under high-heat-flux conditions. In particular, the accelerated coating delamination crack growth under the engine high heat-flux conditions is not well understood. In this paper, a laser heat flux technique is used to investigate the coating delamination crack propagation under realistic temperature-stress gradients and thermal cyclic conditions. The coating delamination mechanisms are investigated under various thermal loading conditions, and are correlated with coating dynamic fatigue, sintering and interfacial adhesion test results. A coating life prediction framework may be realized by examining the crack initiation and propagation driving forces for coating failure under high-heat-flux test conditions.

  6. Coupled thermal/chemical/mechanical modeling of insensitive explosives in thermal environments

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, A.L. III

    1996-05-01

    The ability to predict the response of a weapon system that contains insensitive explosives to elevated temperatures is important in understanding its safety characteristics. To model such a system at elevated temperatures in a finite element computer code requires a variety of capabilities. These modeling capabilities include thermal diffusion and convection to transport the heat to the explosives in the weapon system, temperature based chemical reaction modeling of the decomposition of the explosive materials, and mechanical modeling of both the metal casing and the unreacted and decomposed explosive. The Chemical TOPAZ code has been developed to model coupled thermal/chemical problems where we do not need to model the mass motion. We have also developed the LYNX2D code, based on PALM2D and Chemical TOPAZ, which is an implicit, two-dimensional coupled thermal/chemical/mechanical finite element model computer code. Some representative examples are shown. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Effects of General and Broad Cognitive Abilities on Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Gordon E.; Keith, Timothy Z.; Floyd, Randy G.; Mcgrew, Kevin S.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the direct and indirect effects of general intelligence and 7 broad cognitive abilities on mathematics achievement. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the simultaneous effects of both general and broad cognitive abilities on students' mathematics achievement. A hierarchical model of intelligence derived…

  8. Laterality and Intellectual Ability: A Just Not Noticeable Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardyck, C.

    1977-01-01

    Research on laterality and intellectual abilities suggests that left-handed persons may be divided into two categories: one not discriminably different from those who are right-handed, and one deficient in intellectual and cognitive abilities. 7688 children were tested on handedness, intellectual performance, and scholastic aptitude in order to…

  9. Abilities and Skill Acquisition: A Latent Growth Curve Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voelkle, Manuel C.; Wittmann, Werner W.; Ackerman, Phillip L.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between abilities and skill acquisition has been the subject of numerous controversies in psychology. However, while most researchers implicitly or explicitly accept the idea that abilities and skill acquisition should be related, empirical research has failed to provide evidence for a consistently strong correlation between the…

  10. Cognitive Modeling of Learning Abilities: A Status Report of LAMP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyllonen, Patrick C.; Christal, Raymond E.

    Research activities underway as part of the Air Force's Learning Abilities Measurement Program (LAMP) are described. A major objective of the program is to devise new models of the nature and organization of human abilities, that could be applied to improve personnel selection and classification systems. The activities of the project have been…

  11. Sex Differences in Infants' Ability to Represent Complex Event Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweinle, Amy; Wilcox, Teresa

    2004-01-01

    Prior research suggests that when very simple event sequences are used, 4.5-month-olds demonstrate the ability to individuate objects based on the continuity or disruption of their speed of motion (Wilcox & Schweinle, 2003). However, infants demonstrate their ability to individuate objects in an event-monitoring task (i.e., infants must keep track…

  12. Children's Ability to Recognise Toxic and Non-Toxic Fruits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2011-01-01

    Children's ability to identify common plants is a necessary prerequisite for learning botany. However, recent work has shown that children lack positive attitudes toward plants and are unable to identify them. We examined children's (aged 10-17) ability to discriminate between common toxic and non-toxic plants and their mature fruits presented in…

  13. My Convictions about the Nature of Abilities, Gifts, and Talents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Francoys

    1999-01-01

    Presents a set of 22 sequentially structured statements on the nature and origin of human abilities, gifts, and talents. The statements are grouped into three sections: the nature of human abilities, individual differences and their origins, and the specific case of gifts and talents. (Author/CR)

  14. Profiling Communication and Symbolic Abilities in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetherby, Amy M.; Prizant, Barry M.

    1993-01-01

    This article discusses strategies for sampling communication and symbolic abilities in young children who are not yet talking or who are at early language stages, placing emphasis on caregiver involvement. The paper points out that profiling a young child's communication and symbolic abilities can contribute to the early identification of language…

  15. What the Nose Knows: Olfaction and Cognitive Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danthiir, Vanessa; Roberts, Richard D.; Pallier, Gerry; Stankov, Lazar

    2001-01-01

    Studied the role of olfactory processes within the theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence by testing 107 Australian college students with a battery of psychometric and olfactory tests. Results indicate the likely existence of an olfactory memory ability that is structurally independent of established higher-order abilities and not related…

  16. Language and Academic Abilities in Children with Selective Mutism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowakowski, Matilda E.; Cunningham, Charles E.; McHolm, Angela E.; Evans, Mary Ann; Edison, Shannon; St. Pierre, Jeff; Boyle, Michael H.; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2009-01-01

    We examined receptive language and academic abilities in children with selective mutism (SM; n = 30; M age = 8.8 years), anxiety disorders (n = 46; M age = 9.3 years), and community controls (n = 27; M age = 7.8 years). Receptive language and academic abilities were assessed using standardized tests completed in the laboratory. We found a…

  17. 12 CFR 1026.51 - Ability to pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Applicable to Credit Card Accounts and Open-End Credit Offered to College Students § 1026.51 Ability to pay. (a) General rule. (1)(i) Consideration of ability to pay. A card issuer must not open a credit card... any information about a consumer's income, assets, or current obligations, or to issue a credit...

  18. 12 CFR 1026.51 - Ability to pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Applicable to Credit Card Accounts and Open-End Credit Offered to College Students § 1026.51 Ability to pay. (a) General rule—(1)(i) Consideration of ability to pay. A card issuer must not open a credit card... any information about a consumer's income, assets, or current obligations, or to issue a credit...

  19. 12 CFR 1026.51 - Ability to Pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Applicable to Credit Card Accounts and Open-End Credit Offered to College Students § 1026.51 Ability to Pay. (a) General rule—(1)(i) Consideration of ability to pay. A card issuer must not open a credit card... credit card to a consumer who does not have any income or assets. (2) Minimum periodic payments....

  20. 20 CFR 604.4 - Application-ability to work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application-ability to work. 604.4 Section... ELIGIBILITY FOR UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION § 604.4 Application—ability to work. (a) A State may consider an individual to be able to work during the week of unemployment claimed if the individual is able to work...

  1. 50 CFR 253.13 - Ability and experience requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ability and experience requirements. 253.13 Section 253.13 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Obligation Guarantee Program § 253.13 Ability and experience requirements. A notemaker and the majority...

  2. The Allocation of Educational Environment, Ability Grouping, and the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Frank; Smith, Elsie

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the implications of ability grouping in relation to equal educational opportunity as provided for by the "equal protection clause" of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. In view of the disproportionate numbers of minorities assigned to low ability groups, is grouping legal? (Author/JM)

  3. Map Skills Instruction and the Child's Developing Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Judith M. W.

    1973-01-01

    A hierarchial sequence for map skills instruction is proposed and related to existing programs. Emphasis in this sequential structure is placed on gradual development of the student's ability to use grid reference systems and orient himself satisfactorily on maps, as well as the gradual acquisition of certain measurement abilities. (SM)

  4. Underlying Reading-Related Skills and Abilities among Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellard, Daryl F.; Woods, Kari L.; Md Desa, Z. Deana; Vuyk, M. Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study identified underlying skill and ability differences among subgroups of adolescent and young adult struggling readers (N = 290) overall and in relation to a fluency-based instructional grouping method. We used principal axis factoring of participants' scores on 18 measures of reading-related skills and abilities identified in…

  5. Brightness discrimination ability in the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus).

    PubMed

    Griebel, U; Schmid, A

    1997-06-01

    Two manatees were tested on their ability to discriminate brightness using a series of 30 shades of grey varying from white to black. The animals were trained to discriminate between different shades of grey in a twofold simultaneous-choice situation. Their ability to discern brightness differences correlates with Werber's law, and the calculated Werber fraction is 0.35. PMID:9202447

  6. An Investigation into the Sex-Race-Ability Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauch, Barry

    In a recent article Jensen proposed the existence of what was termed the sex x race x ability interaction in which the differences in mental ability between the black sexes were larger than the corresponding differences among whites. Three large sources of data that were analyzed failed to reveal the interaction. Since Jensen's own work suggested…

  7. Tracking, Ability Grouping and the Gifted. PAGE Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiedler-Brand, Ellen; Lange, Richard E.; Winebrenner, Susan

    This brief bulletin addresses seven "myths" of tracking or ability grouping with gifted students in response to what is seen as a current movement against both ability grouping and tracking, which are characterized by the "anti-tracking" movement as inflexible and unaccommodating of a varied schedule. The following myths are countered: (1)…

  8. Ability and Learning: A Theoretical and Empirical Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haertel, Geneva D.; Walberg, Herbert J.

    To gauge the relationship between intellectual ability and learning, the authors review the work of 20 theorists and analyze empirical correlations at both the elementary and secondary school levels. Intellectual ability is defined in the paper as including intelligence, prior learning, special aptitudes, and other cognitive characteristics. The…

  9. A Twin Study of the Etiology of High Reading Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boada, Richard; Willcutt, Erik G.; Tunick, Rachel A.; Chhabildas, Nomita A.; Olson, Richard K.; DeFries, John C.; Pennington, Bruce F.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the etiology of high reading ability in twin pairs. Suggests that reading ability and its cognitive correlates are on a continuous distribution, with both extremes of the distribution being similarly heritable. Supports the hypothesis that the same cognitive processes that are associated with dyslexia are important for the development of…

  10. Early Childhood Stunting and Later Fine Motor Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Susan M.; Walker, Susan P.; Grantham-McGregor, Sally; Powell, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of early childhood stunting (height for age 2SD or more below reference values) and interventions on fine motor abilities at 11 to 12 years, and the relationship between fine motor abilities and school achievement and intelligence. Method: A cohort of stunted children who had participated in…

  11. Mental Abilities of Children from Different Cultural Backgrounds in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burg, Blanka; Belmont, Ira

    1990-01-01

    Examines pattern of mental abilities exhibited by first-grade, Israeli-born children whose parents emigrated from Europe, Iraq, North Africa, and Yemen. Results indicate that the groups of culturally different children tended to exhibit different patterns of cognitive abilities. Concludes that historical-cultural background of a population has a…

  12. Spatial Abilities of Medical Graduates and Choice of Residency Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langlois, Jean; Wells, George A.; Lecourtois, Marc; Bergeron, Germain; Yetisir, Elizabeth; Martin, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Spatial abilities have been related in previous studies to three-dimensional (3D) anatomy knowledge and the performance in technical skills. The objective of this study was to relate spatial abilities to residency programs with different levels of content of 3D anatomy knowledge and technical skills. The hypothesis was that the choice of residency…

  13. 22 CFR 41.55 - Aliens with extraordinary ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aliens with extraordinary ability. 41.55... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.55 Aliens with extraordinary ability. (a) Requirements for O classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of INA...

  14. 22 CFR 41.55 - Aliens with extraordinary ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aliens with extraordinary ability. 41.55... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.55 Aliens with extraordinary ability. (a) Requirements for O classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of INA...

  15. 22 CFR 41.55 - Aliens with extraordinary ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aliens with extraordinary ability. 41.55... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.55 Aliens with extraordinary ability. (a) Requirements for O classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of INA...

  16. 22 CFR 41.55 - Aliens with extraordinary ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aliens with extraordinary ability. 41.55... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.55 Aliens with extraordinary ability. (a) Requirements for O classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of INA...

  17. Indicators of Teacher Ability to Relate to Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Dene R.

    The purpose of this study was to find teacher behaviors which correlate significantly with a criterion measure of teacher ability to relate to students. Videotapes of 50 teacher interns were shown to 100 high school students of three different ethnic backgrounds--white, black and oriental. Teachers were rated on ability to relate to students.…

  18. Ability Climates in Europe as Socially Represented Notability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Roland S.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study whether ability climate was a useful construct in exploring the possible pattern by which abilities were valued in the countries and cultures of Europe. Based on Moscovici's theory of social representations lists of famous and notable individuals published by the "Wikipedia Encyclopedia" were analyzed.…

  19. Spatial Ability in Relatives of Reading-Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Sadie N.

    A Study was conducted to test the hypothesis proposed by J. S. Symmes and J. L. Rapoport that a sex-linked recessive gene might account for the good spatial ability found among dyslexic readers, the familial pattern of the disorder, and the frequently reported sex ratio of three affected males to one female. Spatial/reasoning ability scores were…

  20. Making the Most of Ability Grouping. Research in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Laurie

    This summary presents the major findings of recent research carried out at the Center for Research on Elementary and Middle Schools at Johns Hopkins University and published in "Ability Grouping and Student Achievement in Elementary Schools: A Best-Evidence Synthesis." The center examined more than 100 studies of five ability-grouping plans…

  1. The Study of Drawing and Painting Abilities in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dulama, Maria Eliza; Iovu, Mihai-Bogdan; Rus, Andreea

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is two-fold: first, to offer preschool children new learning situations in order to develop their drawing and painting abilities and second, to learn new techniques in a shorter period of time. The paper is grounded in the theory of creativity. Creativity is defined as the ability to propose something new, original and…

  2. Resisting Having Learning Disabilities by Managing Relative Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McVittie, Chris; Goodall, Karen E.; McKinlay, Andy

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has shown that identities and the attributes from which identities are inferred are negotiated within social interaction and language. The identity of having learning disabilities is commonly associated with ascriptions of lesser abilities than other people, and in turn might be inferred from such abilities. This study examines…

  3. Spatial Ability: A Neglected Talent in Educational and Occupational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kell, Harrison J.; Lubinski, David

    2013-01-01

    For over 60 years, longitudinal research on tens of thousands of high ability and intellectually precocious youth has consistently revealed the importance of spatial ability for hands-on creative accomplishments and the development of expertise in science, technology, engineering, and mathematical (STEM) disciplines. Yet, individual differences in…

  4. The Use of Situation Tests as Measures of Communicative Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffaldini, Tina

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the ACTFL/ETS Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI) in relation to current models of communicative skills and argues that the OPI fails to measure important aspects of communicative ability. Two Situation Tests, one written and one oral, are described as alternative measures of communicative ability. Examples are given in Appendices.…

  5. Lessons Learned from Working with High-Ability Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Steven I.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses three lessons that stand out as particularly poignant in the author's career working with high-ability students. The author recounts personal and professional experiences that influenced his thinking. The three lessons are that identifying high-ability students is not an easy business, the development of talent requires more…

  6. Genetic Architecture of Verbal Abilities in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoekstra, Rosa A.; Bartels, Meike; van Leeuwen, Marieke; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2009-01-01

    The etiology of individual differences in general verbal ability, verbal learning and letter and category fluency were examined in two independent samples of 9- and 18-year-old twin pairs and their siblings. In both age groups, we observed strong familial resemblance for general verbal ability and moderate familial resemblance for verbal learning,…

  7. Teacher Verbal Ability and School Outcomes: Where Is the Evidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aloe, Ariel M.; Becker, Betsy Jane

    2009-01-01

    Many have claimed that teachers' verbal ability is among the most important predictors of school outcomes. Teachers' verbal ability has been thought to predict student achievement ever since the relationship was found in the classic "Equality of Educational Opportunity" (EEO) study by Coleman et al. By way of meta-analysis the authors examine the…

  8. Differential V-Q Ability: Twenty Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, S. Viterbo

    1975-01-01

    The initial portion of this paper addresses itself to some of the methodological concerns associated with Verbal-Quantitative (V-Q) research. The second section focuses on studies using differential V-Q ability as an independent variable. The final section focuses on reasearch using V-Q ability measures as dependent variables. (Author/BJG)

  9. DNA Markers Associated with General and Specific Cognitive Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrill, Stephen A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Data on specific cognitive abilities for 86 children ages 6 to 12 from an allelic association study found three DNA markers significantly associated with specific cognitive ability scales after the effects of general intelligence were removed. These preliminary results support the hierarchical model predicted by genetic research. (SLD)

  10. The Dimensionality of Language Ability in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pentimonti, Jill; O'Connell, Ann; Justice, Laura; Cain, Kate

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically examine the dimensionality of language ability for young children (4-8 years) from prekindergarten to third grade (n = 915), theorizing that measures of vocabulary and grammar ability will represent a unitary trait across these ages, and to determine whether discourse skills represent an additional…

  11. A Study on Improving Information Processing Abilities Based on PBL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Du Gyu; Lee, JaeMu

    2014-01-01

    This study examined an instruction method for the improvement of information processing abilities in elementary school students. Current elementary students are required to develop information processing abilities to create new knowledge for this digital age. There is, however, a shortage of instruction strategies for these information processing…

  12. Emotion Recognition Abilities and Empathy of Victims of Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Sarah; Wolke, Dieter; Nowicki, Stephen; Hall, Lynne

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Bullying is a form of systematic abuse by peers with often serious consequences for victims. Few studies have considered the role of emotion recognition abilities and empathic behaviour for different bullying roles. This study investigated physical and relational bullying involvement in relation to basic emotion recognition abilities,…

  13. The Development of Inferencing Abilities in Grades Two through Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasinoff, Shelley

    A study examined whether the basic skills performances of children in the primary grades were responsive to their inferencing abilities. It was hypothesized that the three components (informational, causal, and evaluative) of the second and third grade inferencing abilities tests would constitute a hierarchy of inferencing and that the impact of…

  14. Developing Emotional Intelligence Abilities through Team-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    A few studies have appeared in the literature suggesting that team learning might be an effective means for developing emotional intelligence (EI) abilities in the workplace. This study investigated the effects of attending a one-day emotional intelligence training session followed by participating in team-based learning on ability-based measures…

  15. 20 CFR 604.4 - Application-ability to work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application-ability to work. 604.4 Section... ELIGIBILITY FOR UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION § 604.4 Application—ability to work. (a) A State may consider an individual to be able to work during the week of unemployment claimed if the individual is able to work...

  16. Measurement of Spatial Ability in an Introductory Graphic Communications Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Walter F., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Published articles on spatial ability can be found in the fields of psychology and graphics education. In the "Engineering Design Graphics Journal" for 1936-1978, six articles concerning visualization (spatial ability) were listed. As published graphics research increased, the journal (1975-1996) listed 28 articles in the visualization…

  17. Crop competitive ability contributes to herbicide performance in sweet corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop variety effect on herbicide performance is not well characterized, particularly for sweet corn, a crop that varies greatly among hybrids in competitive ability with weeds. Field studies were used to determine the effect of crop competitive ability on season-long herbicide performance in sweet c...

  18. Speed of Reasoning and Its Relation to Reasoning Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhammer, Frank; Klein Entink, Rinke H.

    2011-01-01

    The study investigates empirical properties of reasoning speed which is conceived as the fluency of solving reasoning problems. Responses and response times in reasoning tasks are modeled jointly to clarify the covariance structure of reasoning speed and reasoning ability. To determine underlying abilities, the predictive validities of two…

  19. 22 CFR 41.55 - Aliens with extraordinary ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aliens with extraordinary ability. 41.55... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.55 Aliens with extraordinary ability. (a) Requirements for O classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of INA...

  20. Spatial and Numerical Abilities without a Complete Natural Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Daniel C.; Winkler-Rhoades, Nathan; Lee, Sang-Ah; Izard, Veronique; Shapiro, Kevin A.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the cognitive abilities of a 13-year-old deaf child, deprived of most linguistic input from late infancy, in a battery of tests designed to reveal the nature of numerical and geometrical abilities in the absence of a full linguistic system. Tests revealed widespread proficiency in basic symbolic and non-symbolic numerical computations…

  1. Perspective Ability and Map Conceptualization in Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Russell L.; Stoltman, Joseph P.

    This study examines the relationship between development of a child's ability to coordinate perspective and his ability to conceptualize spatial relations on a map. One hundred and four school children from inner city, urban fringe, and suburban schools, grades K-6, were administered a Test of Coordination of Perspectives and a Test of Map…

  2. Cognitive Ability, Learning Approaches and Personality Correlates of General Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Swami, Viren; Arteche, Adriane; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between general knowledge (GK) and cognitive ability (IQ and abstract reasoning), learning approaches, and personality ("big five" traits and typical intellectual engagement) was investigated in a sample of 101 British undergraduates. As predicted, GK was positively correlated with cognitive ability (more so with IQ than with…

  3. Are Spatial Visualization Abilities Relevant to Virtual Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chwen Jen

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of virtual reality (VR)-based learning environment on learners of different spatial visualization abilities. The findings of the aptitude-by-treatment interaction study have shown that learners benefit most from the Guided VR mode, irrespective of their spatial visualization abilities. This indicates that…

  4. Perceived versus Measured Communication Ability of Deaf College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Barbara G.; And Others

    Approximately 290 deaf college freshmen participated in a study of the relationship between perceived and actual abilities in eight communication modes (including reading, writing, speech reading with and without sound, and reception of manual and simultaneous communication). Ss rated their abilities before and after a communication course. Actual…

  5. Correlates of the Ability to Use Context Clues in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dulin, Kenneth L.

    Results of two studies of the ability to use specific context clues and possible academic correlates of this ability are reported. In the first study, a five-form data-gathering instrument, using categories of context clues derived from Artley, Betts, and McCullough, was administered to 315 tenth-grade students in Seattle, Washington. Simulated…

  6. Children and the Aged: Attitudes, Contact, and Discriminative Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Shirley M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Assessed attitudes toward older versus younger persons, age discrimination performance, and seriation ability in 68 three- to six-year-old children. Results showed children preferred young people over old people in all situations. A significant relationship was found between children's ability to discriminate old from young people and their…

  7. Semantic and Inferencing Abilities in Children with Communication Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botting, Nicola; Adams, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Background: Semantic and inferencing abilities have not been fully examined in children with communication difficulties. Aims: To investigate the inferential and semantic abilities of children with communication difficulties using newly designed tasks. Methods & Procedures: Children with different types of communication disorder were compared with…

  8. The Role of Cognitive Abilities in Laparoscopic Simulator Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groenier, M.; Schraagen, J. M. C.; Miedema, H. A. T.; Broeders, I. A. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Learning minimally invasive surgery (MIS) differs substantially from learning open surgery and trainees differ in their ability to learn MIS. Previous studies mainly focused on the role of visuo-spatial ability (VSA) on the learning curve for MIS. In the current study, the relationship between spatial memory, perceptual speed, and general…

  9. Making a Difference? Education and "Ability" in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, John

    2004-01-01

    This paper brings a speculative, sociological perspective to the nature of "ability" in physical education (PE) and asks why this aspect of embodiment, with notable exceptions, has received so little critical attention in the professional discourse of PE and associated research in recent years. It is suggested that thinking about "ability" has…

  10. The Tracking and Ability Grouping Debate. Volume 2, Number 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveless, Tom

    Tracking and ability grouping are common practices that are often harshly criticized. Both practices group students of similar achievement levels for instruction, but they differ in how this task is accomplished. Elementary schools typically use ability grouping in reading instruction, with instruction targeted to the reading level of each group.…

  11. The Antilogos Ability to Evaluate Information Supporting Arguments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassner, Amnon; Schwarz, Baruch B.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to critically evaluate whether information presented actually supports a given claim is essential for cognitive and social development. This paper presents a study focusing on developmental and contextual aspects of this ability (called antilogos). We tested antilogos for different variables: age group (Grades 8 and 10), direction of…

  12. Modeling Ability Differentiation in the Second-Order Factor Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molenaar, Dylan; Dolan, Conor V.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we present factor models to test for ability differentiation. Ability differentiation predicts that the size of IQ subtest correlations decreases as a function of the general intelligence factor. In the Schmid-Leiman decomposition of the second-order factor model, we model differentiation by introducing heteroscedastic residuals,…

  13. High Ability Students' Voice on Learning Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garn, Alex C.; Jolly, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    This study used a self-determination theory lens to investigate high ability learners' motivational experiences. Participants were 15 high ability youth involved in a summer learning camp for gifted students. Two major themes emerged from qualitative data analysis: (a) "The Fun Factor of Learning" and (b) "The Rewards and…

  14. The Illiteracy Myth. A Comparative Study of Prisoner Literacy Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Stephen; And Others

    Illiteracy is seen to be a feature of the Australian prisoner population. This belief has remained largely untested. A study compared the literacy abilities of prisoners to those found in the adult general population. Additionally, the study compared male and female prisoner literacy abilities. Assessments were made on a profile of literacy…

  15. Drawing as Visual-Perceptual and Spatial Ability Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orde, Barbara J.

    This paper illustrates and explains the relationship between drawing ability and spatial and visual-perceptual ability; it defines those terms and explores their connection to intelligence and information processing as well as their potential implications for education and training. Discussion covers results of recent studies, which suggest that…

  16. Cognitive Trait Modelling: The Case of Inductive Reasoning Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinshuk, Taiyu Lin; McNab, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have regarded inductive reasoning as one of the seven primary mental abilities that account for human intelligent behaviours. Researchers have also shown that inductive reasoning ability is one of the best predictors for academic performance. Modelling of inductive reasoning is therefore an important issue for providing adaptivity in…

  17. Get Smarty Pants: Cognitive Ability, Personality, and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eugene; Glomb, Theresa M.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on the victim precipitation model, this study provides an empirical investigation of the relationship between cognitive ability and victimization at work. We propose that people high in cognitive ability are more prone to victimization. In this study, we also examine the direct and moderating effects of victims' personality traits,…

  18. The Ability of Children to Generalize Selected Science Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Kemal Bin; Lowell, Walter E.

    1981-01-01

    Reports results of a study to assess ability of children from different age groups (N=144) to generalize two hierarchically related concepts (Insect and Animal) with and without instruction in the form of a mental set. Also examined effects of age, I.Q., and sex on ability to generalize these concepts. (Author/JN)

  19. 48 CFR 18.107 - AbilityOne specification changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false AbilityOne specification changes. 18.107 Section 18.107 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... changes in AbilityOne specifications or descriptions are required to meet emergency needs. (See 8.712(d).)...

  20. 48 CFR 18.107 - AbilityOne specification changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false AbilityOne specification changes. 18.107 Section 18.107 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... changes in AbilityOne specifications or descriptions are required to meet emergency needs. (See 8.712(d).)...

  1. 48 CFR 18.107 - AbilityOne specification changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false AbilityOne specification changes. 18.107 Section 18.107 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... changes in AbilityOne specifications or descriptions are required to meet emergency needs. (See 8.712(d).)...

  2. Cognitive Process Modeling of Spatial Ability: The Assembling Objects Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Jennifer L.; Embretson, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Spatial ability tasks appear on many intelligence and aptitude tests. Although the construct validity of spatial ability tests has often been studied through traditional correlational methods, such as factor analysis, less is known about the cognitive processes involved in solving test items. This study examines the cognitive processes involved in…

  3. The Perceptual Abilities Project. Technical Report No. 1988-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethscheider, Janine K.

    An experimental test battery designed to measure several perceptual abilities was administered to 1,368 (51.8% male) paying clients of the Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation (JOCRF) in an effort to identify and measure three perceptual abilities: (1) flexibility of closure; (2) speed of closure; and (3) spatial scanning. Subjects, who ranged in…

  4. Longitudinal Stability of Cognitive Ability in the Colorado Adoption Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Laura A.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Measures of general cognitive ability in one- and two-year-old adopted and nonadopted infants and their parents were subjected to path analysis to estimate the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to short-term stability of mental ability. (Author/RH)

  5. Latent Structure of Motor Abilities in Pre-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vatroslav, Horvat

    2011-01-01

    The theoretical and practical knowledge which have so far been acquired through work with pre-school children pointed to the conclusion that the structures of the latent dimensions of the motor abilities differ greatly from such a structure, in pre-school children and adults alike. Establishing the latent structure of the motor abilities in…

  6. Trainee Multicultural Case Conceptualization Ability and Couples Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schomburg, Allison M.; Prieto, Loreto R.

    2011-01-01

    Previous literature on the assessment of multicultural counseling competence has been concerned only with counselors' abilities when working with individual clients. We expanded this line of research by investigating trainees' multicultural case conceptualization ability in the context of working with couples. Despite the fact that trainees…

  7. Relationship among Demographic Variables and Pupils' Reasoning Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tella, Adeyinka; Tella, Adedeji; Adika, L. O.; Toyobo, Majekodunmi Oluwole

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Pupils reasoning ability is a sine-qua-non to the evaluation of their performance in learning and an indicator of their potential predictors of future performance. Method: The study examined the relationship among demographic variables and reasoning ability of primary school pupils. It drew four hundred pupils from ten (10)…

  8. Language Ability Groups in Bilingual Children: A Latent Profile Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapantzoglou, Maria; Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Gray, Shelley; Thompson, Marilyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Classifying children into two language ability groups, with and without language impairment, may underestimate the number of groups with distinct language ability patterns, or, alternatively, there may be only a single group characterized by a continuum of language performance. The purpose of the current study was to identify the number…

  9. Faculty Evaluation of Standardized Tests of Writing Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Robert

    Standardized tests of writing ability have individual and shared limitations and deficiencies that should be acknowledged by test designers and users. Most institutions use the portions of standardized tests that test ability to proofread and edit, but they do not use the optional essay sections that actually require students to write. To assure…

  10. Intellectual Abilities That Discriminate Good and Poor Problem Solvers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Ruth Ann

    1981-01-01

    This study compared good and poor fourth-grade problem solvers on a battery of 19 "reference" tests for verbal, induction, numerical, word fluency, memory, perceptual speed, and simple visualization abilities. Results suggest verbal, numerical, and especially induction abilities are important to successful mathematical problem solving. (MP)

  11. Thermally-related safety issues associated with thermal batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Guidotti, Ronald Armand

    2006-06-01

    Thermal batteries can experience thermal runaway under certain usage conditions. This can lead to safety issues for personnel and cause damage to associated test equipment if the battery thermally self destructs. This report discusses a number of thermal and design related issues that can lead to catastrophic destruction of thermal batteries under certain conditions. Contributing factors are identified and mitigating actions are presented to minimize or prevent undesirable thermal runaway.

  12. Apollo telescope mount thermal systems unit thermal vacuum test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trucks, H. F.; Hueter, U.; Wise, J. H.; Bachtel, F. D.

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount's thermal systems unit was utilized to conduct a full-scale thermal vacuum test to verify the thermal design and the analytical techniques used to develop the thermal mathematical models. Thermal vacuum test philosophy, test objectives configuration, test monitoring, environment simulation, vehicle test performance, and data correlation are discussed. Emphasis is placed on planning and execution of the thermal vacuum test with particular attention on problems encountered in conducting a test of this maguitude.

  13. Thermal scanning probe microscopy in the development of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xuan; Moffat, Jonathan G; Wood, John; Reading, Mike

    2012-04-01

    The ability to characterize the physical and chemical properties of dosage forms is crucial to a more complete understanding of how vehicles for drug delivery behave and therefore how effective they are. Spatially resolved characterization that enables the visualization of properties on the nanoscale is particularly powerful. The usefulness of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) in the field of drug delivery is becoming increasingly well established and the use of thermal probes offers new capabilities thus enabling SPM to provide more and sometimes unique information. One type of measurement enabled by thermal probes is determining transition temperatures by means of local thermal analysis. The ability to identify and characterize materials in this way has found applications in characterizing a wide range of dosage forms. A complimentary thermal probe technique is photothermal infrared microspectroscopy (PTMS). PTMS offers a variety of advantages over more conventional approaches including the ability analyze compacts without the need for thin sections. It is also able to achieve sub-micron spatial resolution. Thermal probe techniques can characterize pharmaceutical dosage forms in terms of their physical properties and their chemical composition. PMID:21856345

  14. Hydroimidazolone Modification of Human αA-Crystallin: Effect on the Chaperone Function and Protein Refolding Ability

    PubMed Central

    Gangadhariah, Mahesha H.; Wang, Benlian; Linetsky, Mikhail; Henning, Christian; Spanneberg, Robert; Glomb, Marcus A.; Nagaraj, Ram H.

    2010-01-01

    Alpha A-crystallin is a molecular chaperone; it prevents aggregation of denaturing proteins. We have previously demonstrated that upon modification by a metabolic α-dicarbonyl compound, methylglyoxal (MGO), αA-crystallin becomes a better chaperone. Alpha A-crystallin also assists in refolding of denatured proteins. Here, we have investigated the effect of mild modification of αA-crystallin by MGO (with 20-500 μM) on the chaperone function and its ability to refold denatured proteins. Under the conditions used, mildly modified protein contained mostly hydroimidazolone modifications. The modified protein exhibited an increase in chaperone function against thermal aggregation of βL- and γ-crystallins, citrate synthase (CS), malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and chemical aggregation of insulin. The ability of the protein to assist in refolding of chemically denatured βL- and γ-crystallins, MDH and LDH, and to prevent thermal inactivation of CS were unchanged after mild modification by MGO. Prior binding of catalytically inactive, thermally denatured MDH or the hydrophobic probe, 2-p-toluidonaphthalene-6-sulfonate (TNS) abolished the ability of αA-crystallin to assist in the refolding of denatured MDH. However, MGO-modification of chaperone-null TNS-bound αA-crystallin resulted in partial regain of the chaperone function. Taken together, these results demonstrate that: 1) hydroimidazolone modifications are sufficient to enhance the chaperone function of αA-crystallin but such modifications do not change its ability to assist in refolding of denatured proteins, 2) the sites on the αA-crystallin responsible for the chaperone function and refolding are the same in the native αA-crystallin and 3) additional hydrophobic sites exposed upon MGO modification, which are responsible for the enhanced chaperone function, do not enhance αA-crystallin's ability to refold denatured proteins. PMID:20085807

  15. Analysis of Large- Capacity Water Heaters in Electric Thermal Storage Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Alan L.; Anderson, David M.; Winiarski, David W.; Carmichael, Robert T.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Fisher, Andrew R.

    2015-03-17

    This report documents a national impact analysis of large tank heat pump water heaters (HPWH) in electric thermal storage (ETS) programs and conveys the findings related to concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large-tank heat pump water heaters to provide electric thermal storage services.

  16. 7 CFR Exhibit D to Subpart A of... - Thermal Performance Construction Standards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to a space by design or by heat losses occurring from energy-consuming systems or components.... Definitions A. British thermal unit (Btu) means the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one... of the outdoors. C. “R” value, thermal resistence, is a unit of measure of the ability to resist...

  17. A program to assess a thermal discharge on Trinity Bay, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaitzeff, J. B.; Whitehead, V. S.

    1972-01-01

    The application of a two dimensional mathematical model to the analysis of the thermal discharge to verify its ability to predict the temperature distribution of Trinity Bay in the vicinity of the water outfall. Basic data consist of aerial thermal infrared and in situ measurements.

  18. Thermal barrier coating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecura, S.; Leibert, C. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A coating system which contains a bond coating and a thermal barrier coating is applied to metal surfaces such as turbine blades and provides both low thermal conductivity and improved adherence when exposed to high temperature gases or liquids. The bond coating contains NiCrAlY and the thermal barrier coating contains a reflective oxide. The reflective oxides ZrO2-Y2O3 and ZrO2-MgO have demonstrated significant utility in high temperature turbine applications.

  19. Thermal energy transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdahl, C. M.; Thiele, C. L. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    For use in combination with a heat engine, a thermal energy transformer is presented. It is comprised of a flux receiver having a first wall defining therein a radiation absorption cavity for converting solar flux to thermal energy, and a second wall defining an energy transfer wall for the heat engine. There is a heat pipe chamber interposed between the first and second walls having a working fluid disposed within the chamber and a wick lining the chamber for conducting the working fluid from the second wall to the first wall. Thermal energy is transferred from the radiation absorption cavity to the heat engine.

  20. Thermal Skin fabrication technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milam, T. B.

    1972-01-01

    Advanced fabrication techniques applicable to Thermal Skin structures were investigated, including: (1) chemical machining; (2) braze bonding; (3) diffusion bonding; and (4) electron beam welding. Materials investigated were nickel and nickel alloys. Sample Thermal Skin panels were manufactured using the advanced fabrication techniques studied and were structurally tested. Results of the program included: (1) development of improved chemical machining processes for nickel and several nickel alloys; (2) identification of design geometry limits; (3) identification of diffusion bonding requirements; (4) development of a unique diffusion bonding tool; (5) identification of electron beam welding limits; and (6) identification of structural properties of Thermal Skin material.

  1. Thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlinson, J.J. ); Kannberg, L.D. )

    1990-09-01

    This paper discusses how thermal energy storage (TES) can aid in the efficient use and provision of thermal energy, wherever there is a mismatch between energy generation and use. Three fundamental types of thermal energy storage processes (sensible, latent, and thermochemical) can be used, and many different media are available within each type. Various subsets of these processes are being researched and developed to accelerate TES implementation, focusing on applications in building heating and cooling, industrial energy efficiency, and utility and space power systems. TES can contribute significantly to meeting society's needs for more efficient, environmentally benign energy use in these and other sectors.

  2. Thermal energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodzka, P. G.; Picklesimer, E. A.

    1978-01-01

    The general scope of study on thermal energy storage development includes: (1) survey and review possible concepts for storing thermal energy; (2) evaluate the potentials of the surveyed concepts for practical applications in the low and high temperature ranges for thermal control and storage, with particular emphasis on the low temperature range, and designate the most promising concepts; and (3) determine the nature of further studies required to expeditiously convert the most promising concept(s) to practical applications. Cryogenic temperature control by means of energy storage materials was also included.

  3. Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    In order to reduce heat transfer between a hot gas heat source and a metallic engine component, a thermal insulating layer of material is placed between them. This thermal barrier coating is applied by plasma spray processing the thin films. The coating has been successfully employed in aerospace applications for many years. Lewis Research Center, a leader in the development engine components coating technology, has assisted Caterpillar, Inc. in applying ceramic thermal barrier coatings on engines. Because these large engines use heavy fuels containing vanadium, engine valve life is sharply decreased. The barrier coating controls temperatures, extends valve life and reduces operating cost. Additional applications are currently under development.

  4. Thermal insulation protection means

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dotts, R. L.; Smith, J. A.; Strouhal, G. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A system for providing thermal insulation for portions of a spacecraft which do not exceed 900 F during ascent or reentry relative to the earth's atmosphere is described. The thermal insulation is formed of relatively large flexible sheets of needled Nomex felt having a flexible waterproof coating. The thickness of the felt is sized to protect against projected temperatures and is attached to the structure by a resin adhesive. Vent holes in the sheets allow ventilation while maintaining waterproofing. The system is heat treated to provide thermal stability.

  5. Thermal radiative properties: Coatings.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Touloukian, Y. S.; Dewitt, D. P.; Hernicz, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    This volume consists, for the most part, of a presentation of numerical data compiled over the years in a most comprehensive manner on coatings for all applications, in particular, thermal control. After a moderately detailed discussion of the theoretical nature of the thermal radiative properties of coatings, together with an overview of predictive procedures and recognized experimental techniques, extensive numerical data on the thermal radiative properties of pigmented, contact, and conversion coatings are presented. These data cover metallic and nonmetallic pigmented coatings, enamels, metallic and nonmetallic contact coatings, antireflection coatings, resin coatings, metallic black coatings, and anodized and oxidized conversion coatings.

  6. Thermal Protection Materials Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna; Cox, Michael

    1998-01-01

    The main portion of this contract year was spent on the development of materials for high temperature applications. In particular, thermal protection materials were constantly tested and evaluated for thermal shock resistance, high-temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to hostile environmental effects. The analytical laboratory at the Thermal Protection Materials Branch (TPMB), NASA-Ames played an integral part in the process of materials development of high temperature aerospace applications. The materials development focused mainly on the determination of physical and chemical characteristics of specimens from the various research programs.

  7. Thermal decomposition of energetic materials viewed via dynamic x-ray radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Smilowitz, L.; Henson, B. F.; Romero, J. J.; Oschwald, D.

    2014-01-13

    We describe the evolution of solid density, leading up to ignition in the slow thermal decomposition of the solid organic secondary explosive octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine. This work describes an x-ray radiographic diagnostic, allowing the study of solid density in a fully encased explosive heated to thermal explosion. The result of this study is the ability to observe and manipulate the ignition volume in a thermal explosion.

  8. Characterization of Contact and Bulk Thermal Resistance of Laminations for Electric Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Cousineau, J. Emily; Bennion, Kevin; DeVoto, Doug; Mihalic, Mark; Narumanchi, Sreekant

    2015-06-30

    The ability to remove heat from an electric machine depends on the passive stack thermal resistances within the machine and the convective cooling performance of the selected cooling technology. This report focuses on the passive thermal design, specifically properties of the stator and rotor lamination stacks. Orthotropic thermal conductivity, specific heat, and density are reported. Four materials commonly used in electric machines were tested, including M19 (29 and 26 gauge), HF10, and Arnon 7 materials.

  9. The Effect of Fluid Ability, Visual Ability, and Visual Placement within the Screen on a Simple Concept Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Russ A.

    This exploratory study was conducted to investigate the potential interaction between the media attribute, horizontal screen placement, and a learner's cognitive aptitudes, fluid ability, and visualization. The primary hypothesis tested was that low-ability learners who are without well-developed assembly and control operations should perform…

  10. Further Explorations of Perceptual Speed Abilities in the Context of Assessment Methods, Cognitive Abilities, and Individual Differences during Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Phillip L.; Beier, Margaret E.

    2007-01-01

    Measures of perceptual speed ability have been shown to be an important part of assessment batteries for predicting performance on tasks and jobs that require a high level of speed and accuracy. However, traditional measures of perceptual speed ability sometimes have limited cost-effectiveness because of the requirements for administration and…

  11. Structuring Collaboration in Mixed-Ability Groups to Promote Verbal Interaction, Learning, and Motivation of Average-Ability Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleh, Mohammad; Lazonder, Ard W.; Jong, Ton de

    2007-01-01

    Average-ability students often do not take full advantage of learning in mixed-ability groups because they hardly engage in the group interaction. This study examined whether structuring collaboration by group roles and ground rules for helping behavior might help overcome this participatory inequality. In a plant biology course, heterogeneously…

  12. The Nature of Preschool Phonological Processing Abilities and Their Relations to Vocabulary, General Cognitive Abilities, and Print Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonigan, Christopher J.; Anthony, Jason L.; Phillips, Beth M.; Purpura, David J.; Wilson, Shauna B.; McQueen, Jessica D.

    2009-01-01

    The development of reading-related phonological processing abilities represents an important developmental milestone in the process of learning to read. In this cross-sectional study, confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the structure of phonological processing abilities in 129 younger preschoolers (M = 40.88 months, SD = 4.65) and 304…

  13. The Effect of Perceptually Oriented Physical Education on Perceptual Motor Ability and Academic Ability of Kindergarten and First Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Robert G.

    The effects of a perceptually oriented physical education program (PPE) on perceptual-motor ability and academic ability were studied using kindergarten and first-grade children. The four groups of kindergarten children varied the number of periods of PPE per week which then met--0, 1, 2, and 3 times per week. The four groups of first-grade…

  14. Multilayer thermal barrier coating systems

    DOEpatents

    Vance, Steven J.; Goedjen, John G.; Sabol, Stephen M.; Sloan, Kelly M.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention generally describes multilayer thermal barrier coating systems and methods of making the multilayer thermal barrier coating systems. The thermal barrier coating systems comprise a first ceramic layer, a second ceramic layer, a thermally grown oxide layer, a metallic bond coating layer and a substrate. The thermal barrier coating systems have improved high temperature thermal and chemical stability for use in gas turbine applications.

  15. Thermal History and Mantle Dynamics of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsui, Albert T.

    1997-01-01

    One objective of this research proposal is to develop a 3-D thermal history model for Venus. The basis of our study is a finite-element computer model to simulate thermal convection of fluids with highly temperature- and pressure-dependent viscosities in a three-dimensional spherical shell. A three-dimensional model for thermal history studies is necessary for the following reasons. To study planetary thermal evolution, one needs to consider global heat budgets of a planet throughout its evolution history. Hence, three-dimensional models are necessary. This is in contrasts to studies of some local phenomena or local structures where models of lower dimensions may be sufficient. There are different approaches to treat three-dimensional thermal convection problems. Each approach has its own advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, the choice of the various approaches is subjective and dependent on the problem addressed. In our case, we are interested in the effects of viscosities that are highly temperature dependent and that their magnitudes within the computing domain can vary over many orders of magnitude. In order to resolve the rapid change of viscosities, small grid spacings are often necessary. To optimize the amount of computing, variable grids become desirable. Thus, the finite-element numerical approach is chosen for its ability to place grid elements of different sizes over the complete computational domain. For this research proposal, we did not start from scratch and develop the finite element codes from the beginning. Instead, we adopted a finite-element model developed by Baumgardner, a collaborator of this research proposal, for three-dimensional thermal convection with constant viscosity. Over the duration supported by this research proposal, a significant amount of advancements have been accomplished.

  16. Parametric thermal evaluations of waste package emplacement

    SciTech Connect

    Bahney, R.H. III; Doering, T.W.

    1996-02-01

    Parametric thermal evaluations of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) waste packages (WPs) emplaced in the potential repository were performed to determine the impact of thermal loading, WP spacing, drift diameter, SNF aging, backfill, and relocation on the design of the Engineered Barrier System. Temperatures in the WP and near-field host rock are key to radionuclide containment, as they directly affect oxidation rates of the metal barriers and the ability of the rock to impede particle movement which must be demonstrated for a safe and licensable repository. Maximum allowable temperatures are based on material performance criteria and are specified as the following design goals for the WP/EBS design: SNF cladding 350{degrees}C, drift wall 200{degrees}C, and TSw3 rock 115{degrees}C.

  17. Model Comparison for Electron Thermal Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, Gregory; Chenhall, Jeffrey; Cao, Duc; Delettrez, Jacques

    2015-11-01

    Four electron thermal transport models are compared for their ability to accurately and efficiently model non-local behavior in ICF simulations. Goncharov's transport model has accurately predicted shock timing in implosion simulations but is computationally slow and limited to 1D. The iSNB (implicit Schurtz Nicolai Busquet electron thermal transport method of Cao et al. uses multigroup diffusion to speed up the calculation. Chenhall has expanded upon the iSNB diffusion model to a higher order simplified P3 approximation and a Monte Carlo transport model, to bridge the gap between the iSNB and Goncharov models while maintaining computational efficiency. Comparisons of the above models for several test problems will be presented. This work was supported by Sandia National Laboratory - Albuquerque and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

  18. Development of Mitsubishi High Thermal Performance Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Kazuo; Hoshi, Masaya

    Mitsubishi has developed a new zircalloy grid spacer for PWR fuel with higher thermal performance. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) evaluation method has been applied for designing of the new lower pressure loss and higher Departure from Nucleate Boiling (DNB) benefit grid spacer. Reduction of pressure loss of grid structures has been examined by CFD. Also, CFD has been developed as a design tool to predict the coolant mixing ability of vane structures, which is to compare the relative peak spot temperatures around fuel rods at the same heat flux condition. Prototype grids were manufactured and several tests, which were pressure loss measurements, cross-flow measurements and freon DNB tests, were conducted to verify CFD predictions. It is concluded that the applicability of the CFD evaluation method for the thermal hydraulic design of the grid is confirmed.

  19. Do People Have Insight Into Their Abilities? A Metasynthesis.

    PubMed

    Zell, Ethan; Krizan, Zlatan

    2014-03-01

    Having insight into one's abilities is essential, yet it remains unclear whether people generally perceive their skills accurately or inaccurately. In the present analysis, we examined the overall correspondence between self-evaluations of ability (e.g., academic ability, intelligence, language competence, medical skills, sports ability, and vocational skills) and objective performance measures (e.g., standardized test scores, grades, and supervisor evaluations) across 22 meta-analyses, in addition to considering factors that moderate this relationship. Although individual meta-analytic effects ranged from .09 to .63, the mean correlation between ability self-evaluations and performance outcomes across meta-analyses was moderate (M = .29, SD = .11). Further, the relation was stronger when self-evaluations were specific to a given domain rather than broad and when performance tasks were objective, familiar, or low in complexity. Taken together, these findings indicate that people have only moderate insight into their abilities but also underscore the contextual factors that enable accurate self-perception of ability. PMID:26173249

  20. Creativity and technical innovation: spatial ability's unique role.

    PubMed

    Kell, Harrison J; Lubinski, David; Benbow, Camilla P; Steiger, James H

    2013-09-01

    In the late 1970s, 563 intellectually talented 13-year-olds (identified by the SAT as in the top 0.5% of ability) were assessed on spatial ability. More than 30 years later, the present study evaluated whether spatial ability provided incremental validity (beyond the SAT's mathematical and verbal reasoning subtests) for differentially predicting which of these individuals had patents and three classes of refereed publications. A two-step discriminant-function analysis revealed that the SAT subtests jointly accounted for 10.8% of the variance among these outcomes (p < .01); when spatial ability was added, an additional 7.6% was accounted for--a statistically significant increase (p < .01). The findings indicate that spatial ability has a unique role in the development of creativity, beyond the roles played by the abilities traditionally measured in educational selection, counseling, and industrial-organizational psychology. Spatial ability plays a key and unique role in structuring many important psychological phenomena and should be examined more broadly across the applied and basic psychological sciences. PMID:23846718

  1. Incremental validity of emotional intelligence ability in predicting academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Lanciano, Tiziana; Curci, Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    We tested the incremental validity of an ability measure of emotional intelligence (El) in predicting academic achievement in undergraduate students, controlling for cognitive abilities and personality traits. Academic achievement has been conceptualized in terms of the number of exams, grade point average, and study time taken to prepare for each exam. Additionally, gender differences were taken into account in these relationships. Participants filled in the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, the reduced version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and academic achievement measures. Results showed that El abilities were positively related to academic achievement indices, such as the number of exams and grade point average; total El ability and the Perceiving branch were negatively associated with the study time spent preparing for exams. Furthermore, El ability adds a percentage of incremental variance with respect to cognitive ability and personality variables in explaining scholastic success. The magnitude of the associations between El abilities and academic achievement measures was generally higher for men than for women. Jointly considered, the present findings support the incremental validity of the MSCEIT and provide positive indications of the importance of El in students' academic development. The helpfulness of El training in the context of academic institutions is discussed. PMID:25603581

  2. Parenting practices and intergenerational associations in cognitive ability

    PubMed Central

    Byford, M; Kuh, D; Richards, M

    2012-01-01

    Background Cognitive ability is an important contributor to life chances, with implications for cycles of advantage or disadvantage across generations. Parenting practices are known to influence offspring cognitive development, but the extent to which these mediate intergenerational continuities and discontinuities in cognitive ability has not been adequately studied. Methods We used factor analysis to derive summary measures of parenting practices, and regression analyses and path modelling to test associations between these and cognitive function at age 8 years in 1690 first offspring of the British 1946 birth cohort. Analyses allowed for direct and indirect effects of parental original and achieved social circumstances, educational attainment and own childhood cognitive ability. Additional covariates were provided by indicators of parental physical and mental health. Results Regression analyses revealed that three aspects of parenting, intellectual home environment, parental aspiration and cognitive stimulation, were positively and independently associated with offspring childhood cognitive ability, whereas coercive discipline was negatively and independently associated. Path modelling was appropriate for intellectual environment, which also revealed direct and indirect effects of parental cognitive ability and educational and occupational attainment on offspring cognitive ability. Conclusion Parenting practices, particularly provision of an intellectual environment, were directly associated with offspring cognitive development. These data add to the relatively few studies that examine intergenerational continuity and discontinuity in cognitive ability. PMID:22422461

  3. Thermal atmospheric models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Hollis Ralph

    1987-01-01

    The static thermal atmosphere is described and its predictions are compared to observations both to test the validity of the classic assumptions and to distinguish and describe those spectral features with diagnostic value.

  4. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP)

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's history with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) technology goes back to the earliest days of the Agency. The Manned Lunar Rover Vehicle and the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications p...

  5. Space tug thermal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    The future development of full capability Space Tug will impose strict requirements upon the thermal design. While requiring a reliable and reusable design, Space Tug must be capable of steady-state and transient thermal operation during any given mission for mission durations of up to seven days and potentially longer periods of time. Maximum flexibility and adaptability of Space Tug to the mission model requires that the vehicle operate within attitude constraints throughout any specific mission. These requirements were translated into a preliminary design study for a geostationary deploy and retrieve mission definition for Space Tug to determine the thermal control design requirements. Results of the study are discussed with emphasis given to some of the unique avenues pursued during the study, as well as the recommended thermal design configuration.

  6. Tungsten thermal neutron dosimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, L. L.; Richardson, P. J.; Sheibley, D. W.

    1969-01-01

    Tungsten-185 activity, which is produced by neutron activation of tungsten-184, determines thermal neutron flux. Radiochemical separation methods and counting techniques for irradiated tungsten provide accurate determination of the radiation exposure.

  7. Thermal Expansion "Paradox."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakhruddin, Hasan

    1993-01-01

    Describes a paradox in the equation for thermal expansion. If the calculations for heating a rod and subsequently cooling a rod are determined, the new length of the cool rod is shorter than expected. (PR)

  8. INNOVATIVE THERMAL TREATMENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper contains discussions of several innovative thermal processes for treating or destroying hazardous wastes. Processes discussed can be included in the categories wet oxidation, molten glass, fluidized bed incineration, pyrolysis, molten salt, electric reactors, and plasma...

  9. Cryogenic thermal diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, Brandon R.; Batty, J. C.; Agren, John

    2000-01-01

    Space based cryogenic thermal management systems for advanced infrared sensor platforms are a critical failure mode to the spacecraft missions they are supporting. Recent advances in cryocooler technologies have increased the achievable cooling capacities and decreased the operating temperatures of these systems, but there is still a fundamental need for redundancy in these systems. Cryogenic thermal diodes act as thermal switches, allowing heat to flow through them when in a conduction mode and restricting the flow of heat when in an isolation mode. These diodes will allow multiple cryocoolers to cool a single infrared focal plane array. The Space Dynamics Laboratory has undertaken an internal research and development effort to develop this innovative technology. This paper briefly describes the design parameters of several prototype thermal diodes that were developed and tested. .

  10. Thermal cloak-concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xiangying; Li, Ying; Jiang, Chaoran; Ni, Yushan; Huang, Jiping

    2016-07-01

    For macroscopically manipulating heat flow at will, thermal metamaterials have opened a practical way, which possesses a single function, such as either cloaking or concentrating the flow of heat even though environmental temperature varies. By developing a theory of transformation heat transfer for multiple functions, here we introduce the concept of intelligent thermal metamaterials with a dual function, which is in contrast to the existing thermal metamaterials with single functions. By assembling homogeneous isotropic materials and shape-memory alloys, we experimentally fabricate a kind of intelligent thermal metamaterials, which can automatically change from a cloak (or concentrator) to a concentrator (or cloak) when the environmental temperature changes. This work paves an efficient way for a controllable gradient of heat, and also provides guidance both for arbitrarily manipulating the flow of heat and for efficiently designing similar intelligent metamaterials in other fields.

  11. Thermal Analysis Of Reluctant Glass Formers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, Edwin C.; Curreri, Peter A.

    1989-01-01

    Thermocouple holds sample and monitors temperature during cooling. Ellipsoidal furnace provides controlled cooling rates for studies of thermal properties of reluctant glass formers. Glass tube inserted into furnace and used to blow helium on specimen to cool rapidly. Cooling curve analyzed to determine rate of cooling and such properties of sample as nucleation and recalescence temperatures at cooling rate. Continuous-cooling-crystallization boundaries determined empirically from plots of nucleation time vs. nucleation temperature from runs at large number of different rates of cooling. Apparatus used to examine glass-formation ability of material and critical cooling rate to form glass.

  12. Thermal barrier coating life prediction model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillery, R. V.

    1984-01-01

    In order to fully exploit thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) on turbine components and achieve the maximum performance benefit, the knowledge and understanding of TBC failure mechanisms must be increased and the means to predict coating life developed. The proposed program will determine the predominant modes of TBC system degradation and then develop and verify life prediction models accounting for those degradation modes. The successful completion of the program will have dual benefits: the ability to take advantage of the performance benefits offered by TBCs, and a sounder basis for making future improvements in coating behavior.

  13. Fast differential thermal analysis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wunderlich, B.; Wolpert, S. M.

    1972-01-01

    A study is conducted of the limits of time-dependent differential thermal analysis (DTA). Applications of DTA to the hysteresis phenomena of glasses are also reported. The computation of DTA sample temperatures is discussed, giving attention to feasible heating rates, transient effects to be measured, and the simulation of DTA responses to changes in thermal diffusivity similar to hysteresis phenomena in glasses. The reproducibility of temperature recording is checked with zone-refined organic chemicals.

  14. Thermal coupling measurement method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenthal, L. A.; Menichelli, V. J.

    1974-01-01

    Heat flow from an embedded heated wire responds to a change in the ambient environment. The wire is part of a self-balancing bridge system, and heat flow is measured directly in watts. Steady-state and transient thermal coupling can be measured directly and is an indication of the thermal resistance and diffusivity for the system under study. The method is applied to an aerospace electroexplosive component.

  15. Photovoltaic-thermal collectors

    DOEpatents

    Cox, III, Charles H.

    1984-04-24

    A photovoltaic-thermal solar cell including a semiconductor body having antireflective top and bottom surfaces and coated on each said surface with a patterned electrode covering less than 10% of the surface area. A thermal-absorbing surface is spaced apart from the bottom surface of the semiconductor and a heat-exchange fluid is passed between the bottom surface and the heat-absorbing surface.

  16. Thermally sprayed coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, D.J.; Blann, G.A. )

    1991-05-01

    Standardization of specimen preparation for microstructural evaluation of thermally sprayed coatings is considered. Metallographic specimen preparation procedures including sectioning, encapsulation, planar grinding, and power lapping of thermally sprayed coatings are described. A Co-Ni-Cr-W coating on an AISI 410 stainless steel substrate is used as a control sample. Specimen-preparation techniques have been evaluated through scanning electron microscopy for determining the percentage of apparent porosity and energy dispersive spectroscopy for determining elemental composition.

  17. Thermal energy effects on articular cartilage: a multidisciplinary evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Lee D.; Ernsthausen, John; Ionescu, Dan S.; Studer, Rebecca K.; Bradley, James P.; Chu, Constance R.; Fu, Freddie H.; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2002-05-01

    Partial thickness articular cartilage lesions are commonly encountered in orthopedic surgery. These lesions do not have the ability to heal by themselves, due to lack of vascular supply. Several types of treatment have addressed this problem, including mechanical debridement and thermal chondroplasty. The goal of these treatments is to provide a smooth cartilage surface and prevent propagation of the lesions. Early thermal chondroplasty was performed using lasers, and yielded very mixed results, including severe damage to the cartilage, due to poor control of the induced thermal effects. This led to the development (including commercial) of probes using radiofrequency to generate the thermal effects desired for chondroplasty. Similar concerns over the quantitative aspects and control ability of the induced thermal effects in these treatments led us to test the whole range of complex issues and parameters involved. Our investigations are designed to simultaneously evaluate clinical conditions, instrument variables for existing radiofrequency probes (pressure, speed, distance, dose) as well as the associated basic science issues such as damage temperature and controllability (down to the subcellular level), damage geometry, and effects of surrounding conditions (medium, temperature, flow, pressure). The overall goals of this work are (1) to establish whether thermal chondroplasty can be used in a safe and efficacious manner, and (2) provide a prescription for multi-variable optimization of the way treatments are delivered, based on quantitative analysis. The methods used form an interdisciplinary set, to include precise mechanical actuation, high accuracy temperature and temperature gradient control and measurement, advanced imaging approaches and mathematical modeling.

  18. Nanoscale thermal probing

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Yanan; Wang, Xinwei

    2012-01-01

    Nanoscale novel devices have raised the demand for nanoscale thermal characterization that is critical for evaluating the device performance and durability. Achieving nanoscale spatial resolution and high accuracy in temperature measurement is very challenging due to the limitation of measurement pathways. In this review, we discuss four methodologies currently developed in nanoscale surface imaging and temperature measurement. To overcome the restriction of the conventional methods, the scanning thermal microscopy technique is widely used. From the perspective of measuring target, the optical feature size method can be applied by using either Raman or fluorescence thermometry. The near-field optical method that measures nanoscale temperature by focusing the optical field to a nano-sized region provides a non-contact and non-destructive way for nanoscale thermal probing. Although the resistance thermometry based on nano-sized thermal sensors is possible for nanoscale thermal probing, significant effort is still needed to reduce the size of the current sensors by using advanced fabrication techniques. At the same time, the development of nanoscale imaging techniques, such as fluorescence imaging, provides a great potential solution to resolve the nanoscale thermal probing problem. PMID:22419968

  19. Hermes thermal control concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moscatelli, Antonio; Bottaccini, Massimiliano; Ferro, Claudio

    1991-12-01

    The Hermes Space Vehicle is made up of the reusable Hermes Spaceplane (HSP) itself and an expendable rear Hermes Resource Module (HRM). Both the HSP and HRM contain pressurized (habitable) compartments and unpressurized compartments. The complex configuration of the space vehicle and the mission profile require the adoption of a particularly flexible thermal control system which can satisfy the different requirements of the HSP and the HRM together with stringent safety and reliability requirements. All these aspects led to a thermal control design concept which uses active and passive means distributed through all compartments of the space vehicle. The ACTS (Active Thermal Control Section) is dedicated to the control of very high and concentrated thermal loads. It is based on a dual loop concept for heat collection (water and Freon R114 cooling loops), transportation and rejection through dedicated devicers. The PTCS (Passive Thermal Control Section) controls low heat fluxes spread on large surfaces. It relies on different concepts of insulation together with a system of temperature sensors and heaters, to control the thermal excursions of the space plane components and internal structural parts.

  20. Dynamic validation of the Planck-LFI thermal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasi, M.; Cappellini, B.; Gregorio, A.; Colombo, F.; Lapolla, M.; Terenzi, L.; Morgante, G.; Bersanelli, M.; Butler, R. C.; Galeotta, S.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Mennella, A.; Valenziano, L.; Zacchei, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) is an array of cryogenically cooled radiometers on board the Planck satellite, designed to measure the temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave backgrond (CMB) at 30, 44 and 70 GHz. The thermal requirements of the LFI, and in particular the stringent limits to acceptable thermal fluctuations in the 20 K focal plane, are a critical element to achieve the instrument scientific performance. Thermal tests were carried out as part of the on-ground calibration campaign at various stages of instrument integration. In this paper we describe the results and analysis of the tests on the LFI flight model (FM) performed at Thales Laboratories in Milan (Italy) during 2006, with the purpose of experimentally sampling the thermal transfer functions and consequently validating the numerical thermal model describing the dynamic response of the LFI focal plane. This model has been used extensively to assess the ability of LFI to achieve its scientific goals: its validation is therefore extremely important in the context of the Planck mission. Our analysis shows that the measured thermal properties of the instrument show a thermal damping level better than predicted, therefore further reducing the expected systematic effect induced in the LFI maps. We then propose an explanation of the increased damping in terms of non-ideal thermal contacts.