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Sample records for antithrombin iii human

  1. Antithrombin III blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... AT III) is a protein that helps control blood clotting. A blood test can determine the amount of ... may mean you have an increased risk of blood clotting. This can occur when there is not enough ...

  2. Antithrombin III blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... be due to: Bone marrow transplant Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) AT III deficiency, an inherited condition Liver ... Schmaier AH, Miller JL. Coagulation and fibrinolysis. In: McPherson ... Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  3. 21 CFR 864.7060 - Antithrombin III assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Antithrombin III assay. 864.7060 Section 864.7060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7060 Antithrombin...

  4. 21 CFR 864.7060 - Antithrombin III assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Antithrombin III assay. 864.7060 Section 864.7060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7060 Antithrombin...

  5. 21 CFR 864.7060 - Antithrombin III assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Antithrombin III assay. 864.7060 Section 864.7060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7060 Antithrombin...

  6. 21 CFR 864.7060 - Antithrombin III assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Antithrombin III assay. 864.7060 Section 864.7060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7060 Antithrombin...

  7. 21 CFR 864.7060 - Antithrombin III assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antithrombin III assay. 864.7060 Section 864.7060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7060 Antithrombin...

  8. [Role of antithrombin iii in cardiac surgery].

    PubMed

    Muedra, V; Barettino, D; D'Ocón, P

    2013-11-01

    Coagulation of blood is of multidisciplinary interest. Cardiac surgery produces major changes in the delicate balance between pro-and anti-coagulant serum factors. The role of antithrombin iii has been analysed after finding evidence that associated decreased levels of protein activity to postoperative morbidity and mortality. Supplementing exogenous antithrombin is considered with the aim of optimising outcomes. Its intrinsic anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory properties have stimulated a growing interest, and suggests new lines of research. PMID:23228672

  9. Antithrombin III and its interaction with heparin. Comparison of the human, bovine, and porcine proteins by /sup 1/H NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gettins, P.

    1987-03-10

    /sup 1/H NMR has been used to characterize and compare the structures of antithrombin III from human, bovine, and porcine plasma as well as to investigate the interactions of each of these proteins with heparin fragments of defined length. The amino acid compositions of the three proteins are very similar, which is reflected in the gross features of their /sup 1/H NMR spectra. Human antithrombin III has five histidine residues, bovine has six, and porcine has five. The C(2) proton from each of these residues gives a narrow resonance and titrates with pH; the pK/sub a/'s are in the range 5.15-7.25. It is concluded that all histidines in each protein are surface residues with considerable independent mobility. The carbohydrate chains in each protein also give sharp resonances consistent with a surface location and motional flexibility. The /sup 1/H spectra are sensitive to heparin binding. Although heparin resonances obscure protein resonances in the region 3.2-6.0 ppm, difference spectra between antithrombin III with and without heparin show clear perturbation of a small number of aromatic and aliphatic protein protons. For human antithrombin III, it was shown that heparin fragments 8, 10, and 16 sugar residues in length result in almost identical perturbations to the protein. In contrast, tetrasaccharide results in fewer perturbations. Significantly, intact high molecular weight heparin causes the same spectral perturbations as the 16-residue fragment. These data are discussed in terms of requirements for heparin binding.

  10. Acquired antithrombin III deficiency: laboratory diagnosis, incidence, clinical implications, and treatment with antithrombin III concentrate.

    PubMed

    Büller, H R; ten Cate, J W

    1989-09-11

    Antithrombin III (ATIII) is the predominant naturally occurring inhibitor of serine proteases generated during blood coagulation [Rosenberg RD: Annu Rev Med 1978; 29: 367-378]. Since 1965, several assays have been developed that allow rapid and precise determination of ATIII in plasma. As a consequence, the existence of acquired ATIII deficiency in many pathologic conditions has been described. Acquired ATIII deficiency is based on decreased synthesis, increased loss or increased consumption, or induced by drugs. An inherited ATIII deficiency is associated with a lifelong tendency to venous thromboembolism. In contrast, the clinical significance of acquired ATIII deficiency has been less well defined. A precise estimate of the risk of thromboembolism in the acquired ATIII deficiency state cannot easily be provided, owing to the lack of studies in consecutive patients. In 1978, a purified human ATIII concentrate became available for clinical investigation. Despite numerous small studies, the value of ATIII replacement therapy in patients with acquired deficiency remains to be demonstrated. PMID:2679070

  11. Neuraxial anesthesia for labor and cesarean delivery in a parturient with hereditary antithrombin deficiency on recombinant human antithrombin infusion therapy.

    PubMed

    Pamnani, Anup; Rosenstein, Megan; Darwich, Alaeldin; Wolfson, Alexander

    2010-09-01

    A recombinant human antithrombin (rhAT; generic name: antithrombin Alfa) has recently been developed. A 37 year-old parturient with hereditary antithrombin deficiency, receiving rhAT infusion therapy, who successfully received an epidural catheter for analgesia and anesthesia during labor and cesarean delivery, is presented. PMID:20868967

  12. Acquired antithrombin III deficiency in patients with glomerular proteinuria.

    PubMed

    Thaler, E; Balzar, E; Kopsa, H; Pinggera, W F

    1978-01-01

    Antithrombin III (AT II/III) was determined immunologically and by means of a heparin cofactor assay in plasma samples and 24-hour urine of 15 patients with various degrees of proteinuria, being predominantly of glomerular origin. In urine the AT II/III concentrations were significantly correlated to the concentrations of albumin, plasminogen and IgG. One third of the patients had AT II/III plasma levels below the normal range. The plasma levels showed a significant inverse correlation to the AT II/III and albumin clearance rates. Similarily, the plasminogen concentrations in plasma were decreased in two thirds of the patients, being inversely correlated to the renal plasminogen clearance values. It is proposed that AT II/III deficiency in the nephrotic syndrome is an important pathogenetic factor in venous thrombosis. PMID:689489

  13. Decrease in antithrombin III and prothrombin serum levels contribute to coagulation disorders during leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Luis G V; Filho, Antonio F S; Souza, Gisele O; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Romero, Eliete C; Nascimento, Ana L T O

    2016-08-01

    Pathogenic bacteria of the genus Leptospira are the causative agent of leptospirosis, an emergent infectious disease that affects humans and animals worldwide. Severe forms of the disease in humans include jaundice, multiple organ failure and intense haemorrhage. Up to now, mechanisms associated with the haemorrhage foci are poorly understood. We report in this work that, despite the low levels of antithrombin III in convalescent human serum samples, virulent, culture-attenuated and saprophyte strains of Leptospira are unable to bind and/or degrade this thrombin inhibitor, suggesting an indirect mechanism of pathogenesis. Lower levels of prothrombin were found in serum samples at the onset and convalescent phase of the disease when compared to normal human sera. The concomitant decreased levels of antithrombin III and prothrombin suggest a process of stimulated coagulation, which is corroborated by the increase of prothrombin fragment F1+2 in the serum samples. Data obtained with hamsters experimentally infected with virulent Leptospira interrogans serovars Kennewicki and Canicola strongly point out that haemorrhage is correlated with decreased levels of thrombin inhibitors and prothrombin. Activated coagulation might lead to an overconsumption of coagulation factors ultimately leading to bleeding and organ failure. PMID:27260249

  14. Recombinant Human Antithrombin in Pregnant Patients with Hereditary Antithrombin Deficiency: Integrated Analysis of Clinical Data.

    PubMed

    Paidas, Michael J; Triche, Elizabeth W; James, Andra H; DeSancho, Maria; Robinson, Christopher; Lazarchick, John; Ornaghi, Sara; Frieling, Johan

    2016-03-01

    Objectives The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the use of recombinant human antithrombin (rhAT) in preventing venous thromboembolism (VTE) in pregnant patients with hereditary AT deficiency (HATD). Study Design Data from two clinical trials were pooled. Dosing of rhAT was based on body weight and baseline AT activity, started up to 24 hours before scheduled induction or cesarean delivery, or at the onset of labor. Results A total of 21 pregnant HATD patients were enrolled. Mean rhAT therapy duration was 4.3 days and dose was 245.1 IU/kg/day. All patients achieved target mean AT activity (80-120% of normal) during rhAT therapy. There were no confirmed VTEs during rhAT treatment or within 7 ( ± 1) days after dosing. Two VTE events (one deep vein thrombosis and one pulmonary embolism) occurred 11 and 14 days after discontinuation of rhAT, in patients managed with prophylactic doses of heparin or low-molecular-weight heparin following delivery. Conclusion rhAT was safe and effective in pregnant HATD patients when administered during the peripartum period, the period of highest VTE risk and a time when anticoagulation therapy is normally withheld. Pregnant HATD patients may benefit from therapeutic, rather than prophylactic, doses of anticoagulation after delivery to protect against postpartum VTE. PMID:26461927

  15. Targeted mutagenesis of zebrafish antithrombin III triggers disseminated intravascular coagulation and thrombosis, revealing insight into function

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Kretz, Colin A.; Maeder, Morgan L.; Richter, Catherine E.; Tsao, Philip; Vo, Andy H.; Huarng, Michael C.; Rode, Thomas; Hu, Zhilian; Mehra, Rohit; Olson, Steven T.; Joung, J. Keith

    2014-01-01

    Pathologic blood clotting is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world, underlying deep vein thrombosis, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Genetic predisposition to thrombosis is still poorly understood, and we hypothesize that there are many additional risk alleles and modifying factors remaining to be discovered. Mammalian models have contributed to our understanding of thrombosis, but are low throughput and costly. We have turned to the zebrafish, a tool for high-throughput genetic analysis. Using zinc finger nucleases, we show that disruption of the zebrafish antithrombin III (at3) locus results in spontaneous venous thrombosis in larvae. Although homozygous mutants survive into early adulthood, they eventually succumb to massive intracardiac thrombosis. Characterization of null fish revealed disseminated intravascular coagulation in larvae secondary to unopposed thrombin activity and fibrinogen consumption, which could be rescued by both human and zebrafish at3 complementary DNAs. Mutation of the human AT3-reactive center loop abolished the ability to rescue, but the heparin-binding site was dispensable. These results demonstrate overall conservation of AT3 function in zebrafish, but reveal developmental variances in the ability to tolerate excessive clot formation. The accessibility of early zebrafish development will provide unique methods for dissection of the underlying mechanisms of thrombosis. PMID:24782510

  16. Heparin binding domain of antithrombin III: Characterization using a synthetic peptide directed polyclonal antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.W.; Dey, B.; Knauer, D.J. )

    1990-09-25

    Antithrombin III (ATIII) is a plasma-borne serine protease inhibitor that apparently forms covalent complexes with thrombin. The interaction between ATIII and thrombin is enhanced several thousandfold by the glycosaminoglycan, heparin. The authors have previously proposed that the heparin binding site of ATIII residues within a region extending from amino acid residues 114-156. Computer-assisted analysis of this region revealed the presence of a 22 amino acid domain (residues 124-145), part of which shows a strong potential for the formation of an amphipathic helix: hydrophobic on one face and highly positively charged on the other. In the presence studies, polyclonal antisera were generated against a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 124-145 in native human ATIII. Affinity-purified IgG from these antisera, as well as monovalent Fab's derived from them, specifically blocked the binding of heparin to ATIII. Additionally, occupancy of the heparin binding site by these same monovalent and bivalent IgG's at least partially substituted for heparin, accelerating linkage formation between ATIII and thrombin. These results provide the first immunological evidence that region 124-145 is directly involved in the binding of heparin to ATIII and that an antibody-induced conformational change within this region can mediate ATIII activation.

  17. Microheterogeneity of antithrombin III: effect of single amino acid substitutions and relationship with functional abnormalities.

    PubMed

    De Stefano, V; Leone, G; Mastrangelo, S; Lane, D A; Girolami, A; de Moerloose, P; Sas, G; Abildgaard, U; Blajchman, M; Rodeghiero, F

    1994-02-01

    Microheterogeneity of antithrombin III (AT-III) was investigated by crossed immunoelectrofocusing (CIEF) on eleven molecular variants. A normal pattern was found in five variants while two different abnormal CIEF patterns were found in the other four and two variants, respectively. Point mutations causing a major pI change (exceeding 4.0) of the amino acid substituted lead to alterations in the overall microheterogeneity. The variants thus substituted share a first type of abnormal CIEF pattern with alterations throughout the pH range, regardless of the location of the mutation (reactive site and adjacent regions or heparin binding region). Minor amino acid pI changes in these regions do not alter the AT-III overall microheterogeneity, whatever the resulting functional defect. However, if the mutation is placed in the region around positions 404 or 429, then even minor changes of the amino acid pI seem able to alter the overall charge, leading to a second type of abnormal CIEF pattern with the main alteration at pH 4.8-4.6. Neuraminidase treatment leads to disappearance of microheterogeneity except for the variants with the Arg393 to Cys substitution. Addition of thrombin induces CIEF modifications specifically related to the functional defect. A normal formation of thrombin-antithrombin complexes induces a shift towards the more acid pH range, whereas in the variants substituted at the reactive site the CIEF pattern is substantially unaffected by thrombin; variants substituted at positions 382-384 show a maximal thrombin-induced increase of the isoforms at pI 4.8-4.6. Therefore mutant antithrombins with different functional abnormalities but sharing a common CIEF pattern were well distinguished.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8180341

  18. Antithrombin III and fibrinogen degradation product (fragment E) in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Chan, V; Yeung, C K; Chan, T K

    1982-06-01

    Plasma antithrombin III (AtIII), serum fragment E (FgE) and urine AtIII and FgE were measured in 25 diabetic patients with proteinuria above 1 g per day and compared to that in 25 patients with non-diabetic nephropathy, matched for the degree of proteinuria. Plasma AtIII concentrations were normal in both groups but FgE concentrations were increased. The level of plasma AtIII was directly related to HbA1 concentrations in the diabetics. For the same degree of proteinuria, the diabetic patients lost more AtIII and FgE in the urine. Urine AtIII was found to be mostly bound to activated procoagulants. Both urine AtIII and urine FgE correlated inversely with creatinine clearance. It was concluded that intraglomerular thrombosis probably contributes to the deteriorating renal function in diabetic nephropathy and is reflected in the concentrations of urine AtIII and FgE. PMID:7085916

  19. Antithrombin III and fibrinogen degradation product (fragment E) in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, V; Yeung, C K; Chan, T K

    1982-01-01

    Plasma antithrombin III (AtIII), serum fragment E (FgE) and urine AtIII and FgE were measured in 25 diabetic patients with proteinuria above 1 g per day and compared to that in 25 patients with non-diabetic nephropathy, matched for the degree of proteinuria. Plasma AtIII concentrations were normal in both groups but FgE concentrations were increased. The level of plasma AtIII was directly related to HbA1 concentrations in the diabetics. For the same degree of proteinuria, the diabetic patients lost more AtIII and FgE in the urine. Urine AtIII was found to be mostly bound to activated procoagulants. Both urine AtIII and urine FgE correlated inversely with creatinine clearance. It was concluded that intraglomerular thrombosis probably contributes to the deteriorating renal function in diabetic nephropathy and is reflected in the concentrations of urine AtIII and FgE. Images PMID:7085916

  20. Antithrombin III-beta associates more readily than antithrombin III-alpha with uninjured and de-endothelialized aortic wall in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Witmer, M.R.; Hatton, M.W. )

    1991-05-01

    The properties of two isoforms, alpha and beta, of rabbit antithrombin III (ATIII) were compared in the presence of undamaged or de-endothelialized rabbit aortic wall. Similar quantities of ATIII-alpha and ATIII-beta bound to and rapidly saturated the endothelium in vitro, but the rate of transendothelial passage of ATIII-beta exceeded that of ATIII-alpha by 22%. Furthermore, ATIII-beta was adsorbed approximately twice as rapidly as ATIII-alpha by the subendothelium of the de-endothelialized aorta. Binding of both isoforms was decreased (ATIII-beta more than ATIII-alpha) by pretreating the subendothelial surface with heparitinase. Also, subendothelium-bound ATIII-beta was desorbed more readily than bound ATIII-alpha by thrombin. In vivo, the rate of uptake of iodine-131-labeled ATIII-beta from the circulation by the aortic wall and the major organs was 30-50% faster than that of iodine-125-labeled ATIII-alpha. In contrast, the uptake of {sup 131}I-ATIII-beta by the de-endothelialized aorta in vivo was three times faster than that of {sup 125}I-ATIII-alpha. By these criteria, ATIII-beta is the more active of the two isoforms. We surmise that plasma and, consequently, vessel wall levels of ATIII-beta may be vital for controlling thrombogenic events caused by injury to the vascular wall.

  1. Low molecular weight heparin restores antithrombin III activity from hyperglycemia induced alterations.

    PubMed

    Ceriello, A; Marchi, E; Palazzni, E; Quatraro, A; Giugliano, D

    1990-01-01

    Alteration of antithrombin III (ATIII) activity, glycemia level dependent, exists in diabetes mellitus. In this study the ability of a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) (Fluxum, Alfa-Wassermann S.p.A., Bologna, Italy), as well as unfractioned héparin, to preserve ATIII activity from glucose-induced alterations, both in vitro and in vivo, is reported. The subcutaneous and intravenous LMWH and heparin administration increases basal depressed ATIII activity in diabetic patients. Heparin shows an equivalent effect on both anti-IIa and anti-Xa activity of ATIII, while LMWH is more effective in preserving the anti-Xa activity. Similarity, heparin preserves ATIII activity from hyperglycemia-induced alterations, during hyperglycemic clamp, and LMWH infusion is able to preserve a significant amount of anti-Xa activity from glucose-induced alterations. Since diabetic patients show a high incidence of thrombotic accidents, LMWH appears to be a promising innovation for the prevention of diabetic thrombophylia. PMID:2196192

  2. Formation of thrombin-antithrombin III complex using polyamide and hemophan dialyzers.

    PubMed

    Schultze, G; Hollmann, S; Sinah, P

    1992-06-01

    The recently developed ELISA for the thrombin-antithrombin III complex (TAT) is a sensitive, specific, and simplified means of detecting intravascular coagulation. For further evaluation of the thrombogenicity of a polyamide (P) and a Hemophan (H) hollow-fibre dialyzer a cross-over study was done in ten stable patients on maintenance hemodialysis. At the same doses of heparin (mean bolus of 30 U/kg bw and maintenance doses of 86 U/kg bw), thrombin time and partial thromboplastin time were significantly lower using H. At the end of dialysis TAT was significantly higher in H (mean +/- SEM before HD 3.57 +/- .56, at 240 min 14.9 +/- 6.5 ng/ml, p less than 0.05, Wilcoxon-test) than in P (before HD 4.36 +/- .98, at 240 min 8.95 +/- 3.0 ng/ml, p less than 0.05 H 240 vs. P 240, Wilcoxon-test). Visible clotting was more pronounced in the H filter. Among other favourable features of blood compatibility the polyamide/polyvinylpyrrolidone copolymer with a hydrophilic/hydrophobic microdomain structure has less thrombogenicity. The modified cellulosic membrane H has advantages in complement activation and leukocyte depression, but thrombogenicity seems less favourable since the incorporated diethyl-amino-ethyl groups with their positive charge bind and inactivate negatively charged heparin. PMID:1639530

  3. Regions flanking exon 1 regulate constitutive expression of the human antithrombin gene.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Rachubinski, F A; Weiner, J H; Blajchman, M A

    1996-11-15

    We have identified cis-acting elements and trans-acting factors that regulate constitutive expression of the human antithrombin gene. The activity of the sequences flanking the first exon of the gene was investigated using a luciferase-based reporter assay in transiently transfected HepG2, COS1, BSC40, and HeLa cells. Deletion analysis allowed the mapping of two elements able to promote antithrombin gene transcription in HepG2 and COS1 cells. The first element is located upstream of the first exon (-150/+68 nucleotides). The second element is in the first intervening sequence (+300/+700 nucleotides) and functions in an orientation opposite to that of the first. Footprint analysis showed three protected areas in the 5' upstream element at -92/-68 (element A), -14/+37 (element B), and -126/-100 nucleotides (element C). These elements acted as enhancers in luciferase reporter assays. Gel retardation analysis demonstrated that two liver-enriched transcription factors, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (HNF4) and CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (C/EBPa), bound to the 5' upstream element. HNF4 bound to elements A and C, whereas C/EBPa bound to element B. Element A also interacted with the ubiquitous nuclear hormone receptors chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor 1 (COUP-TF1), thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TRalpha), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha(PPARalpha), and retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha). In HepG2 and BSC40 cells, HNF4, C/EBPalpha, and RXRalpha activated luciferase expression from a reporter construct containing the 5'-upstream minimal antithrombin gene promoter, while COUP-TF1, TRalpha, and HNF3 (alpha or beta) repressed such expression. Our results show that constitutive expression of the human antithrombin gene depends in part upon the interplay of these transcription factors and suggest that signaling pathways regulated by these factors can modulate antithrombin gene transcription. PMID:8910619

  4. Characterization of Thrombate III®, a pasteurized and nanofiltered therapeutic human antithrombin concentrate.

    PubMed

    Cai, Kang; Osheroff, Wendy P; Buczynski, Greg; Hotta, JoAnn; Lang, John; Elliott, Eric; Lee, Douglas C; Roth, Nathan J

    2014-05-01

    Thrombate III(®) is a highly purified antithrombin concentrate that has been used by clinicians worldwide for more than two decades for the treatment of hereditary antithrombin deficiency. The manufacturing process is based on heparin-affinity chromatography and pasteurization. To modernize the process and to further enhance the pathogen safety profile of the final product, despite the absence of infectious disease transmission, a nanofiltration step was added. The biochemical characterization and pathogen safety evaluation of Thrombate III(®) manufactured using the modernized process are presented. Bioanalytical data demonstrate that the incorporation of nanofiltration has no impact on the antithrombin content, potency, and purity of the product. Scaledown models of the manufacturing process were used to assess virus and prion clearance under manufacturing setpoint conditions. Additionally, robustness of virus clearance was evaluated at or slightly outside the manufacturing operating limits. The results demonstrate that pasteurization inactivated both enveloped and non-enveloped viruses. The addition of nanofiltration substantially increased clearance capacities for both enveloped and non-enveloped viruses by approximately 4-6 log10. In addition, the process achieves 6.0 log10 ID50 prion infectivity clearance. Thus, the introduction of nanofiltration increased the pathogen safety margin of the manufacturing process without impacting the key biochemical characteristics of the product. PMID:24477183

  5. Resolution of preoperative portal vein thrombosis after administration of antithrombin III in living donor liver transplantation: case report.

    PubMed

    Imai, H; Egawa, H; Kajiwara, M; Nakajima, A; Ogura, Y; Hatano, E; Ueda, M; Kawaguchi, Y; Kaido, T; Takada, Y; Uemoto, S

    2009-11-01

    A 59-year-old man with hepatitis C virus-associated liver cirrhosis was transferred to our hospital to undergo living donor liver transplantation. Coagulation was impaired (prothrombin time [International Normalized Ratio], 3.27), and antithrombin III (AT-III) activity was 23% (normal, 87%-115%). Contrast-enhanced computed tomography scans revealed portal vein thrombosis (PVT) from the junction between the splenic and superior mesenteric vein to the porta hepatica; the portal vein was completely obstructed (PVT). To prevent further development of PVT, 1500 U of AT-III was administered for 3 days, elevating the AT-III activity to 50%. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan obtained 9 days after AT-III administration showed resolution of PVT. Living donor liver transplantation was safely performed without portal vein grafting. Thus, a low AT-III concentration may have an important role in the pathogenesis of PVT in patients with cirrhosis. PMID:19917415

  6. Purification of proplatelet formation (PPF) stimulating factor: thrombin/antithrombin III complex stimulates PPF of megakaryocytes in vitro and platelet production in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Y; Yano, K; Ito, T; Shigematus, H; Sasaki, K; Kondo, S; Kuriya, S

    2001-02-01

    In this study, the protein which stimulates proplatelet formation (PPF) of megakaryocytes was purified from normal human plasma using 7 steps procedures. Two different protease inhibitors were identified based on their amino acid sequences, i.e. antithrombin III (AT III) and C1 inhibitor. They were included in high density lipoprotein (HDL). HDL was necessary for AT III to be active in PPF in vitro. The biological effects of the AT III/HDL or thrombin-AT III (TAT)/HDL were studied in vitro. PPF of murine megakaryocytes was stimulated by negative control (BSA) (1.8 +/- 0.3%), AT III (2.0 +/- 0.4%), HDL (1.2 +/- 0.9%), AT III/HDL (14.8 +/- 2.1%) or TAT/HDL (23.3 +/- 3.5%), respectively. TAT/HDL also had a synergistic effect with the mpl ligand, judging by the acetylcholinesterase (AchE) expression of murine megakaryocytes (2.7 fold increase). In vivo subcutaneous administration of AT III alone or TAT for 3 days significantly stimulated thrombocytosis (136% and 144%, respectively, p<0.05) and AT III/HDL showed rapid and further stimulation (150%, p <0.01). These results and the previous studies indicate that megakaryocytopoiesis is regulated by the mpl ligand, while a protease/protease inhibitor complex such as TAT, which is involved in the coagulation cascade associated with platelet consumption, might be one of the regulators in platelet production. PMID:11246559

  7. Antithrombin Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... deficiency. (For more about excessive clotting (such as deep vein thrombosis, DVT) and antithrombin deficiency, see the " ... affected person may bleed and/or clot. DVT (deep vein thrombosis – a blood clot usually in a ...

  8. Effect of the oral contraceptive pill on protein S and antithrombin-III levels in Malaysian women.

    PubMed

    Wong, K K; Ng, S C; Koong, P L

    Studies focusing on the relationship between oral contraceptive (OC) usage and occurrence of thromboembolism have been conducted for over 3 decades. Those studies centered on the effects OC use has on blood proteins and on measurable physiological changes that occurred in women with venous thrombosis. This article reports the findings of a study that investigated the effects of OC use on the levels of the anticoagulants antithrombin-III (AT-III), protein C (PC), and protein S (PS) in a group of Asian women. Previous studies had mostly been based on Caucasian women. Of the 21 women studied, 16 were Malaysian, 3 were Chinese, and 2 were Indian. Low-dose OCs containing 30 mcg of ethinyl estradiol and 150 mcg of either desogestrel or levonorgestrel were used. Blood was tested before OC use and 3 and 6 months after starting OC use. Levels of AT-III and PS were measured using the Laurell rocket immunoelectrophoresis technique. Statistical analysis was performed using the paired Student's t-test and an analysis of variance test. No statistically significant differences were found for the mean levels of AT-III and total PS when comparing the pre-OC with the 3- and 6-month post-OC values. Earlier studies based mostly on Caucasian women have reported lower levels of both total PS and free PS in OC users. PMID:12288974

  9. Developmental expression of chicken antithrombin III is regulated by increased RNA abundance and intracellular processing.

    PubMed

    Amrani, D L; Rosenberg, J; Samad, F; Bergtrom, G; Banfield, D K

    1993-01-23

    We isolated and sequenced a 432 bp cDNA to cAT-III, that encoded 115 nucleotides of 5' untranslated sequence, a 17 amino acid long signal peptide and residues 1-88 of the mature protein, and used it to prepare a probe for measuring and correlating the developmental changes of steady-state cAT-III mRNA levels with known changes in antigen levels. Densitometric analysis of nuclease protection (n = 2), Northern blot (n = 4), and slot blots (n = 3) of total RNA from chick livers of 16-day-old embryos to 6-day-old chicks showed a 2.6 +/- 0.5-fold increase in steady-state cAT-III mRNA levels. Assay of functional mRNA levels by in vitro translation of poly(A)+ RNA and specific immunoprecipitation of 35S-Met-labelled cAT-III was comparable to RNA analysis (16-day-old embryos vs. 10-day-old hatchlings). We evaluated whether there were developmental differences in post-translational secretion which may also contribute to the regulation of the circulating level of this protein. Pulse-chase studies of freshly-isolated hepatocytes from 16-day-old embryos and 10-day-old hatchlings maintained in suspension demonstrated a approx. 5.0-5.5-fold increase in cAT-III levels at steady-state secretion. The above findings indicate that changes in circulating cAT-III levels during late embryonic development are primarily due to increased abundance of cAT-III mRNA. In addition, we postulate that post-translational intracellular processing may account for further differences in circulating protein levels. PMID:8424948

  10. In Vivo Anti-HIV Activity of the Heparin-Activated Serine Protease Inhibitor Antithrombin III Encapsulated in Lymph-Targeting Immunoliposomes

    PubMed Central

    Asmal, Mohammed; Whitney, James B.; Luedemann, Corinne; Carville, Angela; Steen, Robert; Letvin, Norman L.; Geiben-Lynn, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Endogenous serine protease inhibitors (serpins) are anti-inflammatory mediators with multiple biologic functions. Several serpins have been reported to modulate HIV pathogenesis, or exhibit potent anti-HIV activity in vitro, but the efficacy of serpins as therapeutic agents for HIV in vivo has not yet been demonstrated. In the present study, we show that heparin-activated antithrombin III (hep-ATIII), a member of the serpin family, significantly inhibits lentiviral replication in a non-human primate model. We further demonstrate greater than one log10 reduction in plasma viremia in the nonhuman primate system by loading of hep-ATIII into anti-HLA-DR immunoliposomes, which target tissue reservoirs of viral replication. We also demonstrate the utility of hep-ATIIII as a potential salvage agent for HIV strains resistant to standard anti-retroviral treatment. Finally, we applied gene-expression arrays to analyze hep-ATIII-induced host cell interactomes and found that downstream of hep-ATIII, two independent gene networks were modulated by host factors prostaglandin synthetase-2, ERK1/2 and NFκB. Ultimately, understanding how serpins, such as hep-ATIII, regulate host responses during HIV infection may reveal new avenues for therapeutic intervention. PMID:23133620

  11. Magnetic particles as affinity matrix for purification of antithrombin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercês, A. A. D.; Maciel, J. C.; Carvalho Júnior, L. B.

    2015-11-01

    Immobilization of biomolecules onto insoluble supports is an important tool for the fabrication of a diverse range of functional materials. It provides advantages: enhanced stability and easy separation. In this work two different magnetic composites were synthesized (MAG-PANI-HS and mDAC-HS) to human antithrombin purification. The magnetic particles (MAG) were obtained by co-precipitation method of iron salts II and III and subsequently coated with polyaniline (MAG-PANI particles). Dacron (polyethylene terephthalate) suffered a hydrazinolysis reaction to obtain a powder (Dacron hydrazide) which was subsequently magnetized (mDAC particles) also by co-precipitation method. Heparan sulfate (HS) was immobilized to MAG-PANI and mDAC retained respectively 35μg and 38.6μg per of support. The magnetic composite containing HS immobilized (MAG-PANI-HS and mDAC-HS) was incubated with human blood plasma (1mL) and then washed with NaCl gradients. Electrophoresis of proteins present in eluates showed bands of antithrombin (58kDa). A reduction in the antithrombin activity was detected in plasma that were incubated in the composites magnetic with HS immobilized, suggesting that the antithrombin was removed of the human blood plasma and then purified. Therefore, the above results suggest that both preparations: MAG-PANI-HS and mDAC-HS are able to affinity purify antithrombin, an important component of blood coagulation.

  12. Use of quantitative affinity chromatography for characterizing high-affinity interactions: binding of heparin to antithrombin III.

    PubMed

    Hogg, P J; Jackson, C M; Winzor, D J

    1991-02-01

    The versatility of quantitative affinity chromatography (QAC) for evaluating the binding of macromolecular ligands to macromolecular acceptors has been increased substantially as a result of the derivation of the equations which describe the partitioning of acceptor between matrix-bound and soluble forms in terms of total, rather than free, ligand concentrations. In addition to simplifying the performance of the binding experiments, this development makes possible the application of the technique to systems characterized by affinities higher than those previously amenable to investigation by QAC. Addition of an on-line data acquisition system to monitor the concentration of partitioning solute in the liquid phase as a function of time has permitted the adoption of an empirical approach for determining the liquid-phase concentration of acceptor in the system at partition equilibrium, a development which decreases significantly the time required to obtain a complete binding curve by QAC. The application of these new QAC developments is illustrated by the determination of binding constants for the interactions of high-affinity heparin (Mr 20,300) with antithrombin III at three temperatures. Association constants of 8.0 +/- 2.2 x 10(7), 3.4 +/- 0.3 x 10(7), and 1.0 +/- 0.2 x 10(7) M-1 were observed at 15, 25, and 35 degrees C, respectively. The standard enthalpy change of -4.2 +/- 0.6 kcal/mol that is calculated from these data is in good agreement with a reported value obtained from fluorescence quenching measurements. PMID:2035830

  13. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor anti-thrombin III complexes are decreased in bladder cancer patient serum: complex formation as a mechanism of inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Siegler, Katherine L.; Cox, Jacob; Leng, Lin; Bucala, Richard; Vera, Pedro L.

    2009-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that the proinflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) may serve as an important link between chronic inflammation and carcinogenesis as evidenced by the increase in serum MIF found in patients with various cancers. The present study identifies anti-thrombin III (ATIII) as an endogenous MIF binding protein, which reduces MIF biological activity. Serum MIF in bladder cancer patients (TCC stage II, n=50) was increased when compared to normal patients (n=50), while ATIII-MIF complexes were decreased in bladder cancer patient serum. These data suggest that increased circulating levels of bioactive MIF are present in bladder cancer patient serum. PMID:19762145

  14. Antithrombin Attenuates Vascular Leakage via Inhibiting Neutrophil Activation in Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Rehberg, Sebastian; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Sousse, Linda E.; Jonkam, Collette; Zhu, Yong; Traber, Lillian D.; Cox, Robert A.; Prough, Donald S.; Traber, Daniel L.; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that restoration of antithrombin plasma concentrations attenuates vascular leakage by inhibiting neutrophil activation through syndecan-4 receptor inhibition in an established ovine model of acute lung injury. Design Randomized controlled laboratory experiment. Setting University animal research facility. Subjects Eighteen chronically instrumented sheep. Interventions Following combined burn and smoke inhalation injury (40% of total body surface area, third-degree flame burn; 4 × 12 breaths of cold cotton smoke), chronically instrumented sheep were randomly assigned to receive an IV infusion of 6 IU/kg/hr recombinant human antithrombin III or normal saline (n = 6 each) during the 48-hour study period. In addition, six sham animals (not injured, continuous infusion of vehicle) were used to obtain reference values for histological and immunohistochemical analyses. Measurements and Main Results Compared to control animals, recombinant human antithrombin III reduced the number of neutrophils per hour in the pulmonary lymph (p < 0.01 at 24 and 48 hr), alveolar neutrophil infiltration (p = 0.04), and pulmonary myeloperoxidase activity (p = 0.026). Flow cytometric analysis revealed a significant reduction of syndecan-4-positive neutrophils (p = 0.002 vs control at 24 hr). Treatment with recombinant human antithrombin III resulted in a reduction of pulmonary nitrosative stress (p = 0.002), airway obstruction (bronchi: p = 0.001, bronchioli: p = 0.013), parenchymal edema (p = 0.044), and lung bloodless wet-to-dry-weight ratio (p = 0.015). Clinically, recombinant human antithrombin III attenuated the increased pulmonary transvascular fluid flux (12–48 hr: p ≤ 0.001 vs control each) and the deteriorated pulmonary gas exchange (12–48 hr: p < 0.05 vs control each) without increasing the risk of bleeding. Conclusions The present study provides evidence for the interaction between antithrombin and neutrophils in vivo, its pathophysiological

  15. Congenital antithrombin III deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... LE, Heslop HE, Weitz JI, Anastasi J, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... Nanda, MD, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Section of Hematology/Oncology, University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, IL. Review ...

  16. Enhancement by heparin of thrombin-induced antithrombin III proteolysis: its relation to the molecular weight and anticoagulant activity of heparin

    SciTech Connect

    Marciniak, E.; Gora-Maslak, G.

    1982-11-01

    Previous findings indicated that binding of heparin to antithrombin III (AT III) facilitates thrombin-induced proteolysis of the inhibitor. Researchers now studied this property of heparin in regard to its molecular weight and anticoagulant activity. Commercial heparin was resolved on Sephadex G-200 into six fractions of decreasing molecular weight. From each fraction high affinity (HA) heparin was isolated by chromatography on AT III-Sepharose and examined in reaction of alpha-thrombin with a molar excess of /sup 125/I AT III. Proteolysis of the inhibitor was assessed by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In the presence of the HA heparin from 18% to 38% of AT III participating in reaction appeared in the form of inactive 50,000-dalton fragment, as opposed to 7% of AT III fragmented in the absence of heparin. Although the ability to potentiate proteolysis was at its peak in the medium-molecular-size heparin fraction, the amount of degraded inhibitor relative to anticoagulant activity increased with decreasing molecular weight of the polysaccharide. These findings are consistent with the possibility that the ability of bound heparin to facilitate the cleavage of AT III by thrombin is generally less contingent upon secondary characteristics of the polysaccharide than the anticoagulant activity.

  17. Comparison of biological activities of human antithrombins with high-mannose or complex-type nonfucosylated N-linked oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Kanda, Yutaka; Takayama, Makoto; Hashimoto, Akitoshi; Sugihara, Tsutomu; Satoh-Kubota, Ai; Suzuki-Takanami, Eri; Yano, Keiichi; Iida, Shigeru; Satoh, Mitsuo

    2016-05-01

    The structure of the N-linked oligosaccharides attached to antithrombin (AT) has been shown to affect its anticoagulant activity and pharmacokinetics. Human AT has biantennary complex-type oligosaccharides with the unique feature of lacking a core fucose, which affects its biological activities by changing its heparin-binding affinity. In human plasma, AT circulates as a mixture of the α-form bearing four oligosaccharides and the β-form lacking an oligosaccharide at Asn135. However, it remains unclear how the immature high-mannose-type oligosaccharides produced by mammalian cells affect biological activities of AT. Here, we succeeded in directly comparing the activities between the high-mannose and complex types. Interestingly, although there were no substantial differences in thrombin inhibitory activity, the high-mannose type showed higher heparin-binding affinity. The anticoagulant activities were increased by heparin and correlated with the heparin-binding affinity, resulting in the strongest anticoagulant activity being displayed in the β-form with the high-mannose type. In pharmacokinetic profiling, the high-mannose type showed a much shorter plasma half-life than the complex type. The β-form was found to have a prolonged plasma half-life compared with the α-form for the high-mannose type; conversely, the α-form showed a longer half-life than the β-form for the complex-type. The present study highlights that AT physiological activities are strictly controlled not only by a core fucose at the reducing end but also by the high-mannose-type structures at the nonreducing end. The β-form with the immature high-mannose type appears to function as a more potent anticoagulant than the AT typically found in human plasma, once it emerges in the blood. PMID:26747427

  18. Investigating changes in the gas-phase conformation of Antithrombin III upon binding of Arixtra using traveling wave ion mobility spectrometry (TWIMS).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuejie; Singh, Arunima; Li, Lingyun; Linhardt, Robert J; Xu, Yongmei; Liu, Jian; Woods, Robert J; Amster, I Jonathan

    2015-10-21

    We validate the utility of ion mobility to measure protein conformational changes induced by the binding of glycosaminoglycan ligands, using the well characterized system of Antithrombin III (ATIII) and Arixtra, a pharmaceutical agent with heparin (Hp) activity. Heparin has been used as a therapeutic anticoagulant drug for several decades through its interaction with ATIII, a serine protease inhibitor that plays a central role in the blood coagulation cascade. This interaction induces conformational changes within ATIII that dramatically enhance the ATIII-mediated inhibition rate. Arixtra is the smallest synthetic Hp containing the specific pentasaccharide sequence required to bind with ATIII. Here we report the first travelling wave ion mobility mass spectrometry (TWIMS) investigation of the conformational changes in ATIII induced by its interaction with Arixtra. Native electrospray ionization mass spectrometry allowed the gentle transfer of the native topology of ATIII and ATIII-Arixtra complex. IM measurements of ATIII and ATIII-Arixtra complex showed a single structure, with well-defined collisional cross section (CCS) values. An average 3.6% increase in CCS of ATIII occurred as a result of its interaction with Arixtra, which agrees closely with the theoretical estimation of the change in CCS based on protein crystal structures. A comparison of the binding behavior of ATIII under both denaturing and non-denaturing conditions confirmed the significance of a folded tertiary structure of ATIII for its biological activity. A Hp oligosaccharide whose structure is similar to Arixtra but missing the 3-O sulfo group on the central glucosamine residue showed a dramatic decrease in binding affinity towards ATIII, but no change in the mobility behavior of the complex, consistent with prior studies that suggested that 3-O sulfation affects the equilibrium constant for binding to ATIII, but not the mode of interaction. In contrast, nonspecific binding by a Hp

  19. Investigating changes in the gas-phase conformation of Antithrombin III upon binding of Arixtra using traveling wave ion mobility spectrometry (TWIMS)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuejie; Singh, Arunima; Li, Lingyun; Linhardt, Robert J.; Xu, Yongmei; Liu, Jian; Woods, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    We validate the utility of ion mobility to measure protein conformational changes induced by the binding of glycosaminoglycan ligands, using the well characterized system of Antithrombin III (ATIII) and Arixtra, a pharmaceutical agent with heparin (Hp) activity. Heparin has been used as a therapeutic anticoagulant drug for several decades through its interaction with ATIII, a serine protease inhibitor that plays a central role in the blood coagulation cascade. This interaction induces conformational changes within ATIII that dramatically enhance the ATIII-mediated inhibition rate. Arixtra is the smallest synthetic Hp containing the specific pentasaccharide sequence required to bind with ATIII. Here we report the first travelling wave ion mobility mass spectrometry (TWIMS) investigation of the conformational changes in ATIII induced by its interaction with Arixtra. Native electrospray ionization mass spectrometry allowed the gentle transfer of the native topology of ATIII and ATIII–Arixtra complex. IM measurements of ATIII and ATIII–Arixtra complex showed a single structure, with well-defined collisional cross section (CCS) values. An average 3.6% increase in CCS of ATIII occurred as a result of its interaction with Arixtra, which agrees closely with the theoretical estimation of the change in CCS based on protein crystal structures. A comparison of the binding behavior of ATIII under both denaturing and non-denaturing conditions confirmed the significance of a folded tertiary structure of ATIII for its biological activity. A Hp oligosaccharide whose structure is similar to Arixtra but missing the 3-O sulfo group on the central glucosamine residue showed a dramatic decrease in binding affinity towards ATIII, but no change in the mobility behavior of the complex, consistent with prior studies that suggested that 3-O sulfation affects the equilibrium constant for binding to ATIII, but not the mode of interaction. In contrast, nonspecific binding by a Hp

  20. Antithrombin deficiency in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Durai, Shivani; Tan, Lay Kok; Lim, Serene

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a 39-year-old, gravida 3 para 2, Chinese female with a history of inherited type 1 Antithrombin deficiency and multiple prior episodes of venous thromboembolism. She presented at 29+4 weeks' gestation with severe pre-eclampsia complicated by haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet (HELLP) syndrome. She subsequently underwent an emergency caesarean section for non-reassuring fetal status, which was complicated by postpartum haemorrhage secondary to uterine atony, requiring a B-Lynch suture intraoperatively. PMID:27207982

  1. Interaction of thrombin des-ETW with antithrombin III, the Kunitz inhibitors, thrombomodulin and protein C. Structural link between the autolysis loop and the Tyr-Pro-Pro-Trp insertion of thrombin.

    PubMed

    Le Bonniec, B F; Guinto, E R; Esmon, C T

    1992-09-25

    X-ray diffraction studies of human thrombin revealed that compared with trypsin, two insertions (B and C) potentially limit access to the active site groove. When amino acids Glu146, Thr147, and Trp148, adjacent to the C-insertion (autolysis loop), are deleted the resulting thrombin (des-ETW) has dramatically altered interaction with serine protease inhibitors. Whereas des-ETW resists antithrombin III inactivation with a rate constant (Kon) approximately 350-fold slower than for thrombin, des-ETW is remarkably sensitive to the Kunitz inhibitors, with inhibition constants (Ki) decreased from 2.6 microM to 34 nM for the soybean trypsin inhibitor and from 52 microM to 1.8 microM for the bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor. The affinity for hirudin (Ki = 5.6 pM) is weakened at least 30-fold compared with recombinant thrombin. The mutation affects the charge stabilizing system and the primary binding pocket of thrombin as depicted by a decrease in Kon for diisopropylfluorophosphate (9.5-fold) and for N alpha-p-tosyl-L-lysine-chloromethyl ketone (51-fold) and a 39-fold increase in the Ki for benzamidine. With peptidyl p-nitroanilide substrates, the des-ETW deletion results in changes in the Michaelis (Km) and/or catalytic (kcat) constants, worsened as much as 85-fold (Km) or 100-fold (kcat). The specific clotting activity of des-ETW is less than 5% that of thrombin and the kcat/Km for protein C activation in the absence of cofactor less than 2%. Thrombomodulin binds to des-ETW with a dissociation constant of approximately 2.5 nM and partially restores its ability to activate protein C since, in the presence of the cofactor, kcat/Km rises to 6.5% that of thrombin. This study suggests that the ETW motif of thrombin prevents (directly or indirectly) its interaction with the two Kunitz inhibitors and is not essential for the thrombomodulin-mediated enhancement of protein C activation. PMID:1326550

  2. Antithrombin activities in childhood malnutrition.

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, R A; Jiménez, E; Ingram, G I; Mora, L A; Atmetlla, F; Carrillo, J M; Vargas, W

    1979-01-01

    Antithrombin activities in 30 severely malnourished children and 40 normal children were estimated in clotting tests by thrombin neutralisation as anti-Xa and by a heparin antithrombin assay; and by immunodiffusion as alpha 2-globulin and alpha 1-antitrypsin. The patients' mean alpha 2-globulin was severely depressed, and there were less marked depletions in mean values for thrombin neutralisation, anti-Xa, and in the heparin antithrombin assay (which showed the flat curve thought to reflect a thrombotic tendency). The alpha 1-antitrypsin values were normal. The findings support the concept of antithrombin as the summation of alpha 2-globulin and alpha 1-antitrypsin (with alpha 2-macroglobulin); and the low values may be related to the high incidence of thrombosis reported in childhood malnutrition, although it was not seen in these patients. PMID:118190

  3. A role for pericellular proteoglycan in the binding of thrombin or antithrombin III by the blood vessel endothelium? The effects of proteoglycan-degrading enzymes and glycosaminoglycan-binding proteins on 125I-thrombin binding by the rabbit thoracic aorta in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hatton, M W; Moar, S L

    1985-04-22

    Rabbit thoracic aorta segments were treated with either proteoglycan-degrading enzymes or with glycosaminoglycan-binding proteins to examine the nature of the endothelial and subendothelial binding sites of 125I-thrombin. Treatment (5-30 min) with enzymes (heparitinase, chondroitinases AC or ABC) caused a decrease in 125I-thrombin binding by the endothelium (30-70%) and by the subendothelial (intima-media) layer (20-50%); a low-specificity protease destroyed endothelial binding almost entirely and reduced binding to the subendothelium by approximately 60% over a similar period. Of the glycosaminoglycan-binding proteins, pretreatment of the aorta wall with protamine caused a 30% decrease in thrombin binding to the endothelium whereas lipoprotein lipase (present during 125I-thrombin uptake) decreased binding by up to 40%. Pretreatment with antithrombin III did not significantly affect binding of either 125I-thrombin or 125I-FPR-inactivated thrombin. In contrast to thrombin, 125I-antithrombin III was not readily uptaken by the aorta segments. These observations indicate that, whereas the minimal binding by 125I-antithrombin III probably does not involve endothelial proteoglycan, a strong case can be made for endothelial and subendothelial proteoglycan binding sites for thrombin. PMID:4024034

  4. Interstitial deletion of chromosome 1q [del(1)(q24q25.3)] identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization and gene dosage analysis of apolipoprotein A-II, coagulation factor V, and antithrombin III

    SciTech Connect

    Takano, Takako; Yamanouchi, Yasuko; Mori, Yosuke

    1997-01-20

    We report on a 12-month-old Japanese boy with an interstitial deletion of the long-arm of chromosome 1 and meningomyelocele, hydrocephalus, anal atresia, atrial septal defect, left renal agenesis, bilateral cryptorchidism, talipes equinovarus, low birth weight, growth/developmental retardation, and many minor anomalies. By conventional GTG-banding, his karyotype was first interpreted as 46,XY,de1(1)(q23q24), but it was corrected as 46,XY.ish del(1)(q24q25.3) by fluorescence in situ hybridization using 11 known cosmid clones as probes. His serum levels of apolipoprotein A-II (gene symbol: APOA2, previously assigned to 1q21-q23) and coagulation factor V (F5, 1q21-q25) were normal, while serum concentration and activity of antithrombin III (AT3, 1q23-q25.1) was low. The results indicated that localization of APOA2 and F5 are proximal to the deleted region and AT3 is located within the deletion extent in the patient. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Antithrombin in the treatment of burn trauma.

    PubMed

    Kowal-Vern, Areta; Orkin, Bruce A

    2016-02-01

    Antithrombin (AT) is a natural anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory properties that has demonstrated value in sepsis, disseminated intravascular coagulation and in burn and inhalation injury. With high doses, AT may decrease blood loss during eschar excision, reducing blood transfusion requirements. There are no human randomized, placebo-controlled studies, which have tested the true benefit of this agent in these conditions. Two main forms of AT are either plasma-derived AT (phAT) and recombinant AT (rhAT). Major ovine studies in burn and smoke inhalation injury have utilized rhAT. There have been no studies which have either translated the basic rhAT research in burn trauma, or determined the tolerance and pharmacokinetics of rhAT concentrate infusions in burn patients. Advantages of rhAT infusions are no risk of blood borne diseases and lower cost. However, the majority of human burn patient studies have been conducted utilizing phAT. Recent Japanese clinical trials have started using phAT in abdominal sepsis successfully. This review examines the properties of both phAT and rhAT, and analyzes studies in which they have been utilized. We believe that it is time to embark on a randomized placebo-controlled multi-center trial to establish the role of AT in both civilian and military patients with burn trauma. PMID:26855890

  6. Antithrombin in the treatment of burn trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kowal-Vern, Areta; Orkin, Bruce A

    2016-01-01

    Antithrombin (AT) is a natural anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory properties that has demonstrated value in sepsis, disseminated intravascular coagulation and in burn and inhalation injury. With high doses, AT may decrease blood loss during eschar excision, reducing blood transfusion requirements. There are no human randomized, placebo-controlled studies, which have tested the true benefit of this agent in these conditions. Two main forms of AT are either plasma-derived AT (phAT) and recombinant AT (rhAT). Major ovine studies in burn and smoke inhalation injury have utilized rhAT. There have been no studies which have either translated the basic rhAT research in burn trauma, or determined the tolerance and pharmacokinetics of rhAT concentrate infusions in burn patients. Advantages of rhAT infusions are no risk of blood borne diseases and lower cost. However, the majority of human burn patient studies have been conducted utilizing phAT. Recent Japanese clinical trials have started using phAT in abdominal sepsis successfully. This review examines the properties of both phAT and rhAT, and analyzes studies in which they have been utilized. We believe that it is time to embark on a randomized placebo-controlled multi-center trial to establish the role of AT in both civilian and military patients with burn trauma. PMID:26855890

  7. Antithrombin, an Important Inhibitor in Blood Clots.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Cong, Qing-Wei; Liu, Yue; Wan, Chun-Ling; Yu, Tao; He, Guang; He, Lin; Cai, Lei; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Blood coagulation is healthy and lifesaving because it can stop bleeding. It can, however, be a troublemaker as well, causing serious medical problems including heart attack and stroke. Body has complex blood coagulation cascade to modulate the blood clots. In the environment of plasma, the blood coagulation cascade is regulated by antithrombin, which is deemed one of the most important serine protease inhibitors. It inhibits thrombin; it can inhibit factors IXa and Xa as well. Interestingly, its inhibitory ability will be significantly increased with the existence of heparin. In this minireview paper, we are to summarize the structural features of antithrombin, as well as its heparin binding modes and anti-coagulation mechanisms, in hopes that the discussion and analysis presented in this paper can stimulate new strategies to find more effective approaches or compounds to modulate the antithrombin. PMID:26411319

  8. Acceleration of thrombin-antithrombin complex formation in rat hindquarters via heparinlike molecules bound to the endothelium.

    PubMed Central

    Marcum, J A; McKenney, J B; Rosenberg, R D

    1984-01-01

    We have examined the role of heparinlike molecules in the regulation of coagulation by perfusing rat hindquarters with purified human thrombin and with its plasma inhibitor, antithrombin. Our data indicate that contact of the hemostatic components with the endothelium enhances the rate of thrombin-antithrombin complex formation by as much as 19-fold over the uncatalyzed rate of enzyme-inhibitor interaction. Heparinlike molecules are responsible for the antithrombin accelerating activity. The amount of thrombin-antithrombin complex generated within the hindlimb preparation after pretreatment of the vasculature with purified Flavobacterium heparinase or with addition of platelet Factor IV to the hemostatic components, was equal to the uncatalyzed levels. These heparinlike molecules appear to be tightly bound to the luminal surface of the endothelium, since they could not be detected within the physiologic buffer that was perfused through the animal. The above mucopolysaccharides function in a manner similar to commercial heparin, since modification of antithrombin at a site critical for heparin-dependent acceleration of the protease inhibitor resulted in a level of interaction product identical to the uncatalyzed amount. Finally, addition of diisofluorophosphate-thrombin to the enzyme perfusion stream reduced the amount of thrombin-antithrombin complex formed in the animal by 30-40%, which suggested that thrombin bound to the endothelium as well as enzyme free in solution are accessible to antithrombin that has interacted with heparinlike molecules present on the endothelium. PMID:6746897

  9. Antithrombin Dublin (p.Val30Glu): a relatively common variant with moderate thrombosis risk of causing transient antithrombin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Fernández, José; de la Morena-Barrio, María Eugenia; Padilla, José; Miñano, Antonia; Bohdan, Nataliya; Águila, Sonia; Martínez-Martínez, Irene; Sevivas, Teresa S; de Cos, Carmen; Fernández-Mosteirín, Nuria; Llamas, Pilar; Asenjo, Susana; Medina, Pilar; Souto, Juan Carlos; Overvad, Kim; Kristensen, Søren R; Corral, Javier; Vicente, Vicente

    2016-07-01

    The key haemostatic role of antithrombin and the risk of thrombosis associated with its deficiency support that the low incidence of antithrombin deficiency among patients with thrombosis might be explained by underestimation of this disorder. It was our aim to identify mutations in SERPINC1 causing transient antithrombin deficiency. SERPINC1 was sequenced in 214 cases with a positive test for antithrombin deficiency, including 67 with no deficiency in the sample delivered to our laboratory. The p.Val30Glu mutation (Antithrombin Dublin) was identified in five out of these 67 cases, as well as in three out of 127 cases with other SERPINC1 mutations. Genotyping in 1593 patients with venous thrombosis and 2592 controls from two populations, revealed a low prevalent polymorphism (0.3 %) that moderately increased the risk of venous thrombosis (OR: 2.9; 95 % CI: 1.07-8.09; p= 0.03) and identified one homozygous patient with an early thrombotic event. Carriers had normal anti-FXa activity, and plasma antithrombin was not sensitive to heat stress or proteolytic cleavage. Analysis of one sample with transient deficit revealed a type I deficiency, without aberrant or increased latent forms. The recombinant variant, which lacked the two amino-terminal residues, had reduced secretion from HEK-EBNA cells, formed hyperstable disulphide-linked polymers, and had negligible activity. In conclusion, p.Val30Glu by affecting the cleavage of antithrombin's signal peptide, results in a mature protein lacking the N-terminal dipeptide with no functional consequences in normal conditions, but that increases the sensitivity to be folded intracellularly into polymers, facilitating transient antithrombin deficiency and the subsequent risk of thrombosis. PMID:27098529

  10. Characterization of Human RNA Polymerase III Identifies Orthologues for Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA Polymerase III Subunits

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ping; Wu, Si; Sun, Yuling; Yuan, Chih-Chi; Kobayashi, Ryuji; Myers, Michael P.; Hernandez, Nouria

    2002-01-01

    Unlike Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase III, human RNA polymerase III has not been entirely characterized. Orthologues of the yeast RNA polymerase III subunits C128 and C37 remain unidentified, and for many of the other subunits, the available information is limited to database sequences with various degrees of similarity to the yeast subunits. We have purified an RNA polymerase III complex and identified its components. We found that two RNA polymerase III subunits, referred to as RPC8 and RPC9, displayed sequence similarity to the RNA polymerase II RPB7 and RPB4 subunits, respectively. RPC8 and RPC9 associated with each other, paralleling the association of the RNA polymerase II subunits, and were thus paralogues of RPB7 and RPB4. Furthermore, the complex contained a prominent 80-kDa polypeptide, which we called RPC5 and which corresponded to the human orthologue of the yeast C37 subunit despite limited sequence similarity. RPC5 associated with RPC53, the human orthologue of S. cerevisiae C53, paralleling the association of the S. cerevisiae C37 and C53 subunits, and was required for transcription from the type 2 VAI and type 3 human U6 promoters. Our results provide a characterization of human RNA polymerase III and show that the RPC5 subunit is essential for transcription. PMID:12391170

  11. Human Development Program: Level III Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bessell, Harold

    The curriculum guide presents the activities component of the Human Development Program for the third grade. The Human Development Program (HDP) is an affective curricular approach developed by psychologists to help teachers instill responsibility and self-confidence in children. Following a brief overview of the HDP and explanation of the Magic…

  12. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary antithrombin deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... legs. This type of clot is called a deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Affected individuals also have an increased risk of ... III Deficiency Health Topic: Blood Clots Health Topic: Deep Vein Thrombosis Health Topic: Pulmonary Embolism Genetic and Rare Diseases ...

  13. Human Requirements of Flight. Aviation and Spaceflight. Aerospace Education III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coard, E. A.

    This book, one in the series on Aerospace Education III, deals with the general nature of human physiology during space flights. Chapter 1 begins with a brief discussion of the nature of the atmosphere. Other topics examined in this chapter include respiration and circulation, principles and problems of vision, noise and vibration, and…

  14. Inherited antithrombin deficiency and anabolic steroids: a risky combination.

    PubMed

    Choe, Hannah; Elfil, Mohamed; DeSancho, Maria T

    2016-09-01

    A 20-year-old male with asymptomatic inherited type 1 antithrombin deficiency and a family history of thrombosis started injecting himself with testosterone 250 mg intramuscularly twice weekly for 5 weeks. He presented to the hospital with progressive dyspnea on exertion, chest pain and hemoptysis. Workup revealed bilateral submassive pulmonary embolism and proximal right lower extremity deep vein thrombosis. He was treated with intravenous (IV) unfractionated heparin and underwent catheter-directed thrombolysis with alteplase to the main pulmonary arteries. Postprocedure, he remained on IV alteplase infusion for 24 h and unfractionated heparin in the intensive care unit. Concomitantly he received plasma-derived antithrombin concentrate. He was transitioned to subcutaneous enoxaparin twice daily and discharged from the hospital on oral rivaroxaban 15 mg twice a day. This case highlights the heightened thrombogenic effect of anabolic steroids in the setting of underlying thrombophilia especially in younger subjects. PMID:26588446

  15. Antithrombin controls tumor migration, invasion and angiogenesis by inhibition of enteropeptidase

    PubMed Central

    Luengo-Gil, Ginés; Calvo, María Inmaculada; Martín-Villar, Ester; Águila, Sonia; Bohdan, Nataliya; Antón, Ana I.; Espín, Salvador; Ayala de la Peña, Francisco; Vicente, Vicente; Corral, Javier; Quintanilla, Miguel; Martínez-Martínez, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Antithrombin is a key inhibitor of the coagulation cascade, but it may also function as an anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, anti-viral and anti-apoptotic protein. Here, we report a novel function of antithrombin as a modulator of tumor cell migration and invasion. Antithrombin inhibited enteropeptidase on the membrane surface of HT-29, A549 and U-87 MG cells. The inhibitory process required the activation of antithrombin by heparin, and the reactive center loop and the heparin binding domain were essential. Surprisingly, antithrombin non-covalently inhibited enteropeptidase, revealing a novel mechanism of inhibition for this serpin. Moreover, as a consequence of this inhibition, antithrombin was cleaved, resulting in a molecule with anti-angiogenic properties that reduced vessel-like formation of endothelial cells. The addition of antithrombin and heparin to U-87 MG and A549 cells reduced motility in wound healing assays, inhibited the invasion in transwell assays and the degradation of a gelatin matrix mediated by invadopodia. These processes were controlled by enteropeptidase, as demonstrated by RNA interference experiments. Carcinoma cell xenografts in nude mice showed in vivo co-localization of enteropeptidase and antithrombin. Finally, treatment with heparin reduced experimental metastasis induced by HT29 cells in vivo. In conclusion, the inhibition of enteropeptidase by antithrombin may have a double anti-tumor effect through inhibiting a protease involved in metastasis and generating an anti-angiogenic molecule. PMID:27270881

  16. Antithrombin controls tumor migration, invasion and angiogenesis by inhibition of enteropeptidase.

    PubMed

    Luengo-Gil, Ginés; Calvo, María Inmaculada; Martín-Villar, Ester; Águila, Sonia; Bohdan, Nataliya; Antón, Ana I; Espín, Salvador; Ayala de la Peña, Francisco; Vicente, Vicente; Corral, Javier; Quintanilla, Miguel; Martínez-Martínez, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Antithrombin is a key inhibitor of the coagulation cascade, but it may also function as an anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, anti-viral and anti-apoptotic protein. Here, we report a novel function of antithrombin as a modulator of tumor cell migration and invasion. Antithrombin inhibited enteropeptidase on the membrane surface of HT-29, A549 and U-87 MG cells. The inhibitory process required the activation of antithrombin by heparin, and the reactive center loop and the heparin binding domain were essential. Surprisingly, antithrombin non-covalently inhibited enteropeptidase, revealing a novel mechanism of inhibition for this serpin. Moreover, as a consequence of this inhibition, antithrombin was cleaved, resulting in a molecule with anti-angiogenic properties that reduced vessel-like formation of endothelial cells. The addition of antithrombin and heparin to U-87 MG and A549 cells reduced motility in wound healing assays, inhibited the invasion in transwell assays and the degradation of a gelatin matrix mediated by invadopodia. These processes were controlled by enteropeptidase, as demonstrated by RNA interference experiments. Carcinoma cell xenografts in nude mice showed in vivo co-localization of enteropeptidase and antithrombin. Finally, treatment with heparin reduced experimental metastasis induced by HT29 cells in vivo. In conclusion, the inhibition of enteropeptidase by antithrombin may have a double anti-tumor effect through inhibiting a protease involved in metastasis and generating an anti-angiogenic molecule. PMID:27270881

  17. Cleavage and activation of human factor IX by serine proteases

    SciTech Connect

    Enfield, D.L.; Thompson, A.R.

    1984-10-01

    Human factor IX circulates as a single-chain glycoprotein. Upon activation in vitro, it is cleaved into disulfide-linked light and heavy chains and an activation peptide. After reduction of activated /sup 125/I-factor IX, the heavy and light chains are readily identified by gel electrophoresis. A direct, immunoradiometric assay for factor IXa was developed to assess activation of factor IX for proteases that cleaved it. The assay utilized radiolabeled antithrombin III with heparin to identify the active site and antibodies to distinguish factor IX. After cleavage of factor IX by factor XIa, factor VIIa-tissue thromboplastin complex, or the factor X-activating enzyme from Russell's viper venom, antithrombin III bound readily to factor IXa. Cleavage of /sup 125/I-factor IX by trypsin, chymotrypsin, and granulocyte elastase in the presence of calcium yielded major polypeptide fragments of the sizes of the factor XIa-generated light and heavy chains. When the immunoradiometric assay was used to assess trypsin-cleaved factor IX, the product bound antithrombin III, but not maximally. After digesting with insolubilized trypsin, clotting activity confirmed activation. In evaluating activation of factor IX, physical evidence of activation cleavages does not necessarily correlate with generation of an active site.

  18. Identification of Regulatory Mutations in SERPINC1 Affecting Vitamin D Response Elements Associated with Antithrombin Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Toderici, Mara; de la Morena-Barrio, María Eugenia; Padilla, José; Miñano, Antonia; Antón, Ana Isabel; Iniesta, Juan Antonio; Herranz, María Teresa; Fernández, Nuria; Vicente, Vicente; Corral, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Antithrombin is a crucial anticoagulant serpin whose even moderate deficiency significantly increases the risk of thrombosis. Most cases with antithrombin deficiency carried genetic defects affecting exons or flanking regions of SERPINC1.We aimed to identify regulatory mutations inSERPINC1 through sequencing the promoter, intron 1 and 2 of this gene in 23 patients with antithrombin deficiency but without known genetic defects. Three cases with moderate antithrombin deficiency (63–78%) carried potential regulatory mutations. One located 200 bp before the initiation ATG and two in intron 1. These mutations disrupted two out of five potential vitamin D receptor elements (VDRE) identified in SERPINC1 with different software. One genetic defect, c.42-1060_-1057dupTTGA, was a new low prevalent polymorphism (MAF: 0.01) with functional consequences on plasma antithrombin levels. The relevance of the vitamin D pathway on the regulation of SERPINC1 was confirmed in a cell model. Incubation of HepG2 with paricalcitol, a vitamin D analog, increased dose-dependently the levels of SERPINC1transcripts and antithrombin released to the conditioned medium. This study shows further evidence of the transcriptional regulation of SERPINC1 by vitamin D and first describes the functional and pathological relevance of mutations affecting VDRE of this gene. Our study opens new perspectives in the search of new genetic defects involved in antithrombin deficiency and the risk of thrombosis as well as in the design of new antithrombotic treatments. PMID:27003919

  19. Identification of dipeptidyl peptidase III in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, J; Yamamoto, Y; Kurosawa, H; Nishimura, K; Hazato, T

    2000-07-01

    We have found activity of dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) III, one of the most important enkephalin-degrading enzymes in the central nervous system, in human neutrophils. HPLC analysis of the peptide fragments produced by treatment of leucine-enkephalin with isolated neutrophils in the presence of inhibitors of other enkephalin-degrading enzymes revealed that the enzyme in human neutrophils cleaved dipeptides from the NH(2) terminus of leucine-enkephalin, suggesting the presence of DPPIII activity in human neutrophils. Using a specific synthesized substrate and proteinase inhibitors, it was found that the neutrophils have 19.2 +/- 3.6 microM/h/5 x 10(6) cells of beta-naphthylamine for the enzyme. It was also confirmed that spinorphin and tynorphin, both reported to inhibit the activities of enkephalin-degrading enzymes, had potent inhibitory activities (IC(50): 4.0 and 0.029 microg/ml, respectively) against the enzyme. The presence of DPPIII activity in human neutrophils suggests that the biologically active peptides which are associated with enkephalin play a physiological role in regulating enkephalin or inflammatory mechanisms in peripheral tissues. PMID:10873616

  20. Transgenic silkworms produce recombinant human type III procollagen in cocoons.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Masahiro; Munetsuna, Hiroto; Sato, Tsutomu; Adachi, Takahiro; Hino, Rika; Hayashi, Masahiro; Shimizu, Katsuhiko; Nakamura, Namiko; Tamura, Toshiki; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi

    2003-01-01

    We describe the generation of transgenic silkworms that produce cocoons containing recombinant human collagen. A fusion cDNA was constructed encoding a protein that incorporated a human type III procollagen mini-chain with C-propeptide deleted, a fibroin light chain (L-chain), and an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). This cDNA was ligated downstream of the fibroin L-chain promoter and inserted into a piggyBac vector. Silkworm eggs were injected with the vectors, producing worms displaying EGFP fluorescence in their silk glands. The cocoons emitted EGFP fluorescence, indicating that the promoter and fibroin L-chain cDNAs directed the synthesized products to be secreted into cocoons. The presence of fusion proteins in cocoons was demonstrated by immunoblotting, collagenase-sensitivity tests, and amino acid sequencing. The fusion proteins from cocoons were purified to a single electrophoretic band. This study demonstrates the viability of transgenic silkworms as a tool for producing useful proteins in bulk. PMID:12483223

  1. Heparanase Activates Antithrombin through the Binding to Its Heparin Binding Site

    PubMed Central

    Águila, Sonia; Teruel-Montoya, Raúl; Vicente, Vicente; Corral, Javier; Martínez-Martínez, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Heparanase is an endoglycosidase that participates in morphogenesis, tissue repair, heparan sulphates turnover and immune response processes. It is over-expressed in tumor cells favoring the metastasis as it penetrates the endothelial layer that lines blood vessels and facilitates the metastasis by degradation of heparan sulphate proteoglycans of the extracellular matrix. Heparanase may also affect the hemostatic system in a non-enzymatic manner, up-regulating the expression of tissue factor, which is the initiator of blood coagulation, and dissociating tissue factor pathway inhibitor on the cell surface membrane of endothelial and tumor cells, thus resulting in a procoagulant state. Trying to check the effect of heparanase on heparin, a highly sulphated glycosaminoglycan, when it activates antithrombin, our results demonstrated that heparanase, but not proheparanase, interacted directly with antithrombin in a non-covalent manner. This interaction resulted in the activation of antithrombin, which is the most important endogenous anticoagulant. This activation mainly accelerated FXa inhibition, supporting an allosteric activation effect. Heparanase bound to the heparin binding site of antithrombin as the activation of Pro41Leu, Arg47Cys, Lys114Ala and Lys125Alaantithrombin mutants was impaired when it was compared to wild type antithrombin. Intrinsic fluorescence analysis showed that heparanase induced an activating conformational change in antithrombin similar to that induced by heparin and with a KD of 18.81 pM. In conclusion, under physiological pH and low levels of tissue factor, heparanase may exert a non-enzymatic function interacting and activating the inhibitory function of antithrombin. PMID:27322195

  2. A capillary zone electrophoresis method to detect conformers and dimers of antithrombin in therapeutic preparations.

    PubMed

    Marie, Anne-Lise; Tran, Nguyet Thuy; Saller, François; Abdou, Youmna Mohamed; Zeau, Pascal; Plantier, Jean-Luc; Urbain, Rémi; Borgel, Delphine; Taverna, Myriam

    2016-07-01

    Antithrombin (AT) is a human plasma glycoprotein that possesses anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the native (active) form of AT is unstable and undergoes conformational changes, leading to latent, cleaved, and heterodimeric forms. The presence of these alternative forms mostly inactive can highly impact the quality and therapeutic activity of pharmaceutical AT preparations. We developed a capillary zone electrophoresis method, based on a neutral polyethylene oxide-coated capillary and a buffer close to physiological conditions, enabling the separation of more than eight forms of AT. Several peaks were identified as native, latent, and heterodimeric forms. The CZE method was reproducible with intraday relative standard deviations less than 0.5 and 2% for migration times and peak areas, respectively. The method was applied to the comparison of AT preparations produced by five competitive pharmaceutical companies, and statistical tests were performed. Important differences in the proportion of each form were highlighted. In particular, one AT preparation was shown to contain a high quantity of heterodimer, and two preparations contained high quantities of latent form. In addition, one AT preparation exhibited additional forms, not yet identified. PMID:26989842

  3. Different duplex/quadruplex junctions determine the properties of anti-thrombin aptamers with mixed folding.

    PubMed

    Russo Krauss, Irene; Spiridonova, Vera; Pica, Andrea; Napolitano, Valeria; Sica, Filomena

    2016-01-29

    Mixed duplex/quadruplex oligonucleotides have attracted great interest as therapeutic targets as well as effective biomedical aptamers. In the case of thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA), the addition of a duplex motif to the G-quadruplex module improves the aptamer resistance to biodegradation and the affinity for thrombin. In particular, the mixed oligonucleotide RE31 is significantly more effective than TBA in anticoagulation experiments and shows a slower disappearance rate in human plasma and blood. In the crystal structure of the complex with thrombin, RE31 adopts an elongated structure in which the duplex and quadruplex regions are perfectly stacked on top of each other, firmly connected by a well-structured junction. The lock-and-key shape complementarity between the TT loops of the G-quadruplex and the protein exosite I gives rise to the basic interaction that stabilizes the complex. However, our data suggest that the duplex motif may have an active role in determining the greater anti-thrombin activity in biological fluids with respect to TBA. This work gives new information on mixed oligonucleotides and highlights the importance of structural data on duplex/quadruplex junctions, which appear to be varied, unpredictable, and fundamental in determining the aptamer functional properties. PMID:26673709

  4. Different duplex/quadruplex junctions determine the properties of anti-thrombin aptamers with mixed folding

    PubMed Central

    Russo Krauss, Irene; Spiridonova, Vera; Pica, Andrea; Napolitano, Valeria; Sica, Filomena

    2016-01-01

    Mixed duplex/quadruplex oligonucleotides have attracted great interest as therapeutic targets as well as effective biomedical aptamers. In the case of thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA), the addition of a duplex motif to the G-quadruplex module improves the aptamer resistance to biodegradation and the affinity for thrombin. In particular, the mixed oligonucleotide RE31 is significantly more effective than TBA in anticoagulation experiments and shows a slower disappearance rate in human plasma and blood. In the crystal structure of the complex with thrombin, RE31 adopts an elongated structure in which the duplex and quadruplex regions are perfectly stacked on top of each other, firmly connected by a well-structured junction. The lock-and-key shape complementarity between the TT loops of the G-quadruplex and the protein exosite I gives rise to the basic interaction that stabilizes the complex. However, our data suggest that the duplex motif may have an active role in determining the greater anti-thrombin activity in biological fluids with respect to TBA. This work gives new information on mixed oligonucleotides and highlights the importance of structural data on duplex/quadruplex junctions, which appear to be varied, unpredictable, and fundamental in determining the aptamer functional properties. PMID:26673709

  5. Small Molecule Probes That Perturb A Protein-protein Interface In Antithrombin.

    PubMed

    Xin, Dongyue; Holzenburg, Andreas; Burgess, Kevin

    2014-12-01

    Small molecule probes for perturbing protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in vitro can be useful if they cause the target proteins to undergo biomedically relevant changes to their tertiary and quaternary structures. Application of the Exploring Key Orientations (EKO) strategy (J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2013, 135, 167 - 173) to a piperidinone-piperidine chemotype 1 indicated specific derivatives were candidates to perturb a protein-protein interface in the α-antithrombin dimer; those particular derivatives of 1 were prepared and tested. In the event, most of them significantly accelerated oligomerization of monomeric α-antithrombin, which is metastable in its oligomeric state. This assertion is supported by data from gel electrophoresis (non-denaturing PAGE; throughout) and probe-induced loss of α-antithrombin's inhibitor activity in a reaction catalyzed by thrombin. Kinetics of α-antithrombin oligomerization induced by the target compounds were examined. It was found that probes with O-benzyl-protected serine side-chains are the most active catalysts in the series, and reasons for this, based on modeling experiments, are proposed. Overall, this study reveals one of the first examples of small molecules designed to act at a protein-protein interface relevant to oligomerization of a serpin (ie α-antithrombin). The relevance of this to formation of oligomeric serpin fibrils, associated with the disease states known as "serpinopathies", is discussed. PMID:25396040

  6. Antithrombin is protective against myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingying; Wang, Yanqing; Wang, Jinli; Gao, Junjie; Tong, Chao; Manithody, Chandrashekhara; Li, Ji; Rezaie, Alireza R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Antithrombin (AT) is a plasma serpin inhibitor that regulates the proteolytic activity of procoagulant proteases of the clotting cascade. In addition to its anticoagulant activity, AT also possesses potent antiinflammatory properties. Objectives The objective of this study is to investigate the antiinflammatory activity of wild-type AT (AT-WT) and a reactive center loop mutant of AT (AT-RCL) which is not capable of inhibiting thrombin. Methods Cardioprotective activities of AT-WT and AT-RCL were monitored in a mouse model of ischemia/reperfusion injury in which the left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded and then released. Results We demonstrate that AT markedly reduces myocardial infarct size by a mechanism that is independent of its anticoagulant activity. Thus, AT-RCL attenuated myocardial infarct size to the same extent as AT-WT in this acute injury model. Further studies revealed that AT binds to vascular heparan sulfate proteoglycans via its heparin-binding domain to exert its protective activity as evidenced by the therapeutic AT-binding pentasaccharide (fondaparinux) abrogating the cardioprotective activity of AT and a heparin-site mutant of AT exhibiting no cardioprotective property. We further demonstrate that AT up-regulates production of prostacyclin in myocardial tissues and inhibits expression of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 in vivo by attenuating ischemia/reperfusion-induced JNK and NF-κB signaling pathways. Conclusions Our results suggest that both AT and the non-anticoagulant AT-RCL, through their antiinflammatory signaling effects, elicit potent cardioprotective responses. Thus, AT may have therapeutic potential for treating cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:23582062

  7. Contributions of in vitro transcription to the understanding of human RNA polymerase III transcription

    PubMed Central

    Dumay-Odelot, Hélène; Durrieu-Gaillard, Stéphanie; El Ayoubi, Leyla; Parrot, Camila; Teichmann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Human RNA polymerase III transcribes small untranslated RNAs that contribute to the regulation of essential cellular processes, including transcription, RNA processing and translation. Analysis of this transcription system by in vitro transcription techniques has largely contributed to the discovery of its transcription factors and to the understanding of the regulation of human RNA polymerase III transcription. Here we review some of the key steps that led to the identification of transcription factors and to the definition of minimal promoter sequences for human RNA polymerase III transcription. PMID:25764111

  8. Factor VIIa-antithrombin complexes in patients with arterial and venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Spiezia, Luca; Rossetto, Valeria; Campello, Elena; Gavasso, Sabrina; Woodhams, Barry; Tormene, Daniela; Simioni, Paolo

    2010-06-01

    Antithrombin (AT), in the presence of heparin, is able to inhibit the catalytic activity of factor VIIa bound to tissue factor (TF) on cell surfaces. The clinical meaning of FVIIa-AT complexes plasma levels is unknown. It was the objective of this study to evaluate FVIIa-AT complexes in subjects with thrombosis. Factor VIIa-AT complexes plasma levels in 154 patients consecutively referred to our Department with arterial or venous thrombosis and in a group of 154 healthy subjects, were measured. Moreover, FVIIa-AT complexes were determined in: i) n = 53 subjects belonging to 10 families with inherited factor VII deficiency; ii) n = 58 subjects belonging to seven families with AT deficiency; iii) n = 49 patients undergoing oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT). Factor VIIa-AT levels were determined by a specific ELISA kit (R&D, Diagnostica Stago, Gennevilliers, France). Factor VIIa-AT complexes mean plasma levels were lower in patients with either acute arterial (136 +/- 40 pM) or venous (142 +/- 53 pM) thrombosis than subjects with previous thrombosis (arterial 164 +/- 33 pM and venous 172 +/- 61 pM, respectively) and than healthy controls (156 +/- 63 pM). Differences between acute and previous thrombosis, were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Subjects with inherited and acquired (under OAT) factor VII deficiency had statistically significant lower FVIIa-AT complexes plasma levels (80 +/- 23 pM and 55 +/- 22 pM, respectively) than controls (150 +/- 51 pM, p < 0.0001 and 156 +/- 63 pM, p < 0.00001, respectively). Factor VIIa-AT complexes are positively correlated with plasma factor VII/VIIa levels. Further investigations are needed to verify the possible role of higher FVIIa-AT complex plasma levels in predicting hypercoagulable states and thrombosis. PMID:20431847

  9. Maf1, a New Player in the Regulation of Human RNA Polymerase III Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Nouria

    2006-01-01

    Background Human RNA polymerase III (pol III) transcription is regulated by several factors, including the tumor suppressors P53 and Rb, and the proto-oncogene c-Myc. In yeast, which lacks these proteins, a central regulator of pol III transcription, called Maf1, has been described. Maf1 is required for repression of pol III transcription in response to several signal transduction pathways and is broadly conserved in eukaryotes. Methodology/Principal Findings We show that human endogenous Maf1 can be co-immunoprecipitated with pol III and associates in vitro with two pol III subunits, the largest subunit RPC1 and the α-like subunit RPAC2. Maf1 represses pol III transcription in vitro and in vivo and is required for maximal pol III repression after exposure to MMS or rapamycin, treatments that both lead to Maf1 dephosphorylation. Conclusions/Significance These data suggest that Maf1 is a major regulator of pol III transcription in human cells. PMID:17205138

  10. Sequence of human hexokinase III cDNA and assignment of the human hexokinase III gene (HK3) to chromosome band 5q35.2 by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Furuta, Hiroto; Le Beau, M.M.; Fernald, A.A.

    1996-08-15

    Complementary DNA clones encoding human hexokinase III were isolated from a liver cDNA library. There was 84.7% identity between the amino acid sequences of human and rat hexokinase III. RNA blotting showed the presence of hexokinase III mRNA in liver and lung. Fluorescence in situ hybridization localized the human hexokinase III gene (HK3) to chromosome 5, band q35.2. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Infection of monocyte/macrophages by human T lymphotropic virus type III.

    PubMed Central

    Ho, D D; Rota, T R; Hirsch, M S

    1986-01-01

    Normal blood-derived monocyte/macrophages were found to be susceptible to infection in vitro by human T lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III), the etiologic agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In addition, HTLV-III was recovered from monocyte/macrophages of patients infected with this virus. The above findings raise the possibility that HTLV-III-infected monocyte/macrophages may serve as a vehicle for the dissemination of virus to target organs and as a reservoir for viral persistence, as has been shown for other lentiviruses including visna virus and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus. PMID:2422213

  12. Small Molecule Probes That Perturb A Protein-protein Interface In Antithrombin

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Dongyue; Holzenburg, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Small molecule probes for perturbing protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in vitro can be useful if they cause the target proteins to undergo biomedically relevant changes to their tertiary and quaternary structures. Application of the Exploring Key Orientations (EKO) strategy (J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2013, 135, 167 – 173) to a piperidinone-piperidine chemotype 1 indicated specific derivatives were candidates to perturb a protein-protein interface in the α-antithrombin dimer; those particular derivatives of 1 were prepared and tested. In the event, most of them significantly accelerated oligomerization of monomeric α-antithrombin, which is metastable in its oligomeric state. This assertion is supported by data from gel electrophoresis (non-denaturing PAGE; throughout) and probe-induced loss of α-antithrombin’s inhibitor activity in a reaction catalyzed by thrombin. Kinetics of α-antithrombin oligomerization induced by the target compounds were examined. It was found that probes with O-benzyl-protected serine side-chains are the most active catalysts in the series, and reasons for this, based on modeling experiments, are proposed. Overall, this study reveals one of the first examples of small molecules designed to act at a protein-protein interface relevant to oligomerization of a serpin (ie α-antithrombin). The relevance of this to formation of oligomeric serpin fibrils, associated with the disease states known as “serpinopathies”, is discussed. PMID:25396040

  13. Human erythrocytes and neuroblastoma cells are affected in vitro by Au(III) ions

    SciTech Connect

    Suwalsky, Mario; Gonzalez, Raquel; Villena, Fernando; Aguilar, Luis F.; Sotomayor, Carlos P.; Bolognin, Silvia; Zatta, Paolo

    2010-06-25

    Gold compounds are well known for their neurological and nephrotoxic implications. However, haematological toxicity is one of the most serious toxic and less studied effects. The lack of information on these aspects of Au(III) prompted us to study the structural effects induced on cell membranes, particularly that of human erythrocytes. AuCl{sub 3} was incubated with intact erythrocytes, isolated unsealed human erythrocyte membranes (IUM) and molecular models of the erythrocyte membrane. The latter consisted of multibilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine, phospholipids classes located in the outer and inner monolayers of the human erythrocyte membrane, respectively. This report presents evidence that Au(III) interacts with red cell membranes as follows: (a) in scanning electron microscopy studies on human erythrocytes it was observed that Au(III) induced shape changes at a concentration as low as 0.01 {mu}M; (b) in isolated unsealed human erythrocyte membranes Au(III) induced a decrease in the molecular dynamics and/or water content at the glycerol backbone level of the lipid bilayer polar groups in a 5-50 {mu}M concentration range, and (c) X-ray diffraction studies showed that Au(III) in the 10 {mu}m-1 mM range induced increasing structural perturbation only to dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine bilayers. Additional experiments were performed in human neuroblastoma cells SH-SY5Y. A statistically significant decrease of cell viability was observed with Au(III) ranging from 0.1 {mu}M to 100 {mu}M.

  14. Fine Arts and Humanities: Grade 7. Cluster III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Olivia H.

    A curriculum guide for Grade 7, the document is devoted to the occupational cluster "Fine Arts and Humanities." It is divided into five units: drama and literature, music, dance, art, and crafts. Each unit is introduced by a statement of the topic, the unit's purpose, main ideas, quests, and a list of career opportunities (positions)available in…

  15. Sulfamate proton solvent exchange in heparin oligosaccharides: evidence for a persistent hydrogen bond in the antithrombin-binding pentasaccharide Arixtra.

    PubMed

    Langeslay, Derek J; Young, Robert P; Beni, Szabolcs; Beecher, Consuelo N; Mueller, Leonard J; Larive, Cynthia K

    2012-09-01

    Sulfamate groups (NHSO(3)(-)) are important structural elements in the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) heparin and heparan sulfate (HS). In this work, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) line-shape analysis is used to explore the solvent exchange properties of the sulfamate NH groups within heparin-related mono-, di-, tetra- and pentasaccharides as a function of pH and temperature. The results of these experiments identified a persistent hydrogen bond within the Arixtra (fondaparinux sodium) pentasaccharide between the internal glucosamine sulfamate NH and the adjacent 3-O-sulfo group. This discovery provides new insights into the solution structure of the Arixtra pentasaccharide and suggests that 3-O-sulfation of the heparin N-sulfoglucosamine (GlcNS) residues pre-organize the secondary structure in a way that facilitates binding to antithrombin-III. NMR studies of the GlcNS NH groups can provide important information about heparin structure complementary to that available from NMR spectral analysis of the carbon-bound protons. PMID:22593556

  16. Comparison of Hybrid-III and postmortem human surrogate response to simulated underbody blast loading.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Ann Marie; Christopher, John J; Salzar, Robert S; Brozoski, Frederick

    2015-05-01

    Response of the human body to high-rate vertical loading, such as military vehicle underbody blast (UBB), is not well understood because of the chaotic nature of such events. The purpose of this research was to compare the response of postmortem human surrogates (PMHS) and the Hybrid-III anthropomorphic test device (ATD) to simulated UBB loading ranging from 100 to 860 g seat and floor acceleration. Data from 13 whole body PMHS tests were used to create response corridors for vertical loading conditions for the pelvis, T1, head, femur, and tibia; these responses were compared to Hybrid-III responses under matched loading conditions. PMID:25751733

  17. Acetylcholinesterase in the human erythron. III. Regulation of differentiation.

    PubMed

    Barr, R D; Koekebakker, M

    1990-08-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is present in both primitive and mature erythroid cells, but a role for the enzyme in human hematopoiesis has not been defined. This prospect represented the primary objective of the following study. In clonal culture of normal human bone marrow cells, a "wave" of AChE activity was demonstrated, rising from undetectable levels to a peak (of 1.48 femto-moles per min per cell) at 10 days in the course of progressive erythroid clonogenesis. At concentrations of enzyme inhibitor that clearly reduced AChE activity in a dose-dependent fashion, there was no overall effect on erythropoiesis in vitro, but the clones were generally smaller and significantly more often multi-focal than in control cultures. Furthermore, in the presence of AChE inhibitors, a concentration-dependent increase in the myeloid-erythroid ratios of the culture harvests was observed. Likewise, a clear reduction in hemoglobination was revealed, in cells of 10 day cultures, from a mean hemoglobin concentration of 35.0 pg per cell in controls to 20.1 pg per cell in the presence of the maximal concentration of the inhibitor (10(-6) M eserine). These data point to a role for AChE in the regulation of differentiation in the human erythron. PMID:2368693

  18. Inactivation of human T-cell lymphotropic virus, type III by heat, chemicals, and irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Quinnan, G.V. Jr.; Wells, M.A.; Wittek, A.E.; Phelan, M.A.; Mayner, R.E.; Feinstone, S.; Purcell, R.H.; Epstein, J.S.

    1986-09-01

    Infectivity of human T-cell lymphotropic virus, Type III (HTLV-III) was inactivated by heat more rapidly if in liquid medium than if lyophilized and more rapidly at 60 than 56/sup 0/C. When HTLV-III was added to factor VIII suspension, then lyophilized and heated at 60/sup 0/C for 2 hours or longer there was elimination of 1 X 10(6) in vitro infectious units (IVIU) of virus. Much of the viral inactivation appeared to result from lyophilization. The application of water-saturated chloroform to the lyophilized material containing virus also resulted in elimination of infectivity. HTLV-III was efficiently inactivated by formalin, beta-propiolactone, ethyl ether, detergent, and ultraviolet light plus psoralen. The results are reassuring regarding the potential safety of various biological products.

  19. Chromium III histidinate exposure modulates antioxidant gene expression in HaCaT human keratinocytes exposed to oxidative stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While the toxicity of hexavalent chromium is well established, trivalent Cr (Cr(III)) is an essential nutrient involved in insulin and glucose homeostasis. Recently, antioxidant effects of chromium (III) histidinate (Cr(III)His) were reported in HaCaT human keratinocytes exposed to oxidative stress...

  20. Mechanism of poly(acrylic acid) acceleration of antithrombin inhibition of thrombin: implications for the design of novel heparin mimics.

    PubMed

    Monien, Bernhard H; Cheang, Kai I; Desai, Umesh R

    2005-08-11

    The bridging mechanism of antithrombin inhibition of thrombin is a dominant mechanism contributing a massive approximately 2500-fold acceleration in the reaction rate and is also a key reason for the clinical usage of heparin. Our recent study of the antithrombin-activating properties of a carboxylic acid-based polymer, poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), demonstrated a surprisingly high acceleration in thrombin inhibition (Monien, B. H.; Desai, U. R. J. Med. Chem. 2005, 48, 1269). To better understand this interesting phenomenon, we have studied the mechanism of PAA-dependent acceleration in antithrombin inhibition of thrombin. Competitive binding studies with low-affinity heparin and a heparin tetrasaccharide suggest that PAA binds antithrombin in both the pentasaccharide- and the extended heparin-binding sites, and these results are corroborated by molecular modeling. The salt-dependence of the K(D) of the PAA-antithrombin interaction shows the formation of five ionic interactions. In contrast, the contribution of nonionic forces is miniscule, resulting in an interaction that is significantly weaker than that observed for heparins. A bell-shaped profile of the observed rate constant for antithrombin inhibition of thrombin as a function of PAA concentration was observed, suggesting that inhibition proceeds through the "bridging" mechanism. The knowledge gained in this mechanistic study highlights important rules for the rational design of orally available heparin mimics. PMID:16078853

  1. Inhibition of thrombin generation in plasma by fibrin formation (Antithrombin I).

    PubMed

    de Bosch, N B; Mosesson, M W; Ruiz-Sáez, A; Echenagucia, M; Rodriguez-Lemoin, A

    2002-08-01

    The adsorption of thrombin to fibrin during clotting defines "Antithrombin I" activity. We confirmed that thrombin generation in afibrinogenemic or in Reptilase defibrinated normal plasma was higher than in normal plasma. Repletion of these fibrinogen-deficient plasmas with fibrinogen 1 (gamma A/gamma A), whose fibrin has two "low affinity" non-substrate thrombin binding sites, resulted in moderately reduced thrombin generation by 29-37%. Repletion with fibrinogen 2 (gamma'/gamma A), which in addition to low affinity thrombin-binding sites in fibrin, has a "high affinity" non-substrate thrombin binding site in the carboxy-terminal region of its gamma' chain, was even more effective and reduced thrombin generation by 57-67%. Adding peptides that compete for thrombin binding to fibrin [S-Hir53-64 (hirugen) or gamma'414-427] caused a transient delay in the onset of otherwise robust thrombin generation, indicating that fibrin formation is necessary for full expression of Antithrombin I activity. Considered together, 1) the increased thrombin generation in afibrinogenemic or fibrinogen-depleted normal plasma that is mitigated by fibrinogen replacement; 2) evidence that prothrombin activation is increased in afibrinogenemia and normalized by fibrinogen replacement; 3) the severe thrombophilia that is associated with defective thrombin-binding in dysfibrinogenemias Naples I and New York I, and 4) the association of afibrinogenemia or hypofibrinogenemia with venous or arterial thromboembolism, indicate that Antithrombin I (fibrin) modulates thromboembolic potential by inhibiting thrombin generation in blood. PMID:12195697

  2. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in the patient with multiple sclerosis associated with congenital antithrombin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kanaya, Yuhei; Takamatsu, Kazuhiro; Shimoe, Yutaka; Niimi, Hideki; Kitajima, Isao; Kuriyama, Masaru

    2016-04-28

    We report the case of a 25-year-old man with multiple sclerosis (MS) who had severe headache and unconsciousness. He suffered from optic neuritis that had started at age 6. From the age of 12 years, he had suffered from multiple sclerosis (MS) cerebral lesions that relapsed three times over for 5 years. At age 25, he showed a new lesion in the cerebellar cortex, suggesting an exacerbation of the MS. However, magnetic resonance imaging findings the next day showed cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. His laboratory findings showed low antithrombin activity. Genetic analysis revealed a single-base substitution (C>T) at the codon 359 (Arg to STOP) in the 5th exon portion of the antithrombin gene, heterozygote. In the literature review, 17 cases of multiple sclerosis associated with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, which occurred after the lumbar puncture and the treatment with high-dose methylpredonisolone in 11 of these cases. In our case, antithrombin deficiency, hyperhomocystinemia, infection, and lumbar puncture were suggested as the risk factors. PMID:27010094

  3. Human DNA Ligase III Recognizes DNA Ends by Dynamic Switching between Two DNA-Bound States

    SciTech Connect

    Cotner-Gohara, Elizabeth; Kim, In-Kwon; Hammel, Michal; Tainer, John A.; Tomkinson, Alan E.; Ellenberger, Tom

    2010-09-13

    Human DNA ligase III has essential functions in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA replication and repair and contains a PARP-like zinc finger (ZnF) that increases the extent of DNA nick joining and intermolecular DNA ligation, yet the bases for ligase III specificity and structural variation among human ligases are not understood. Here combined crystal structure and small-angle X-ray scattering results reveal dynamic switching between two nick-binding components of ligase III: the ZnF-DNA binding domain (DBD) forms a crescent-shaped surface used for DNA end recognition which switches to a ring formed by the nucleotidyl transferase (NTase) and OB-fold (OBD) domains for catalysis. Structural and mutational analyses indicate that high flexibility and distinct DNA binding domain features in ligase III assist both nick sensing and the transition from nick sensing by the ZnF to nick joining by the catalytic core. The collective results support a 'jackknife model' in which the ZnF loads ligase III onto nicked DNA and conformational changes deliver DNA into the active site. This work has implications for the biological specificity of DNA ligases and functions of PARP-like zinc fingers.

  4. Human DNA ligase III recognizes DNA ends by dynamic switching between two DNA-bound states.

    PubMed

    Cotner-Gohara, Elizabeth; Kim, In-Kwon; Hammel, Michal; Tainer, John A; Tomkinson, Alan E; Ellenberger, Tom

    2010-07-27

    Human DNA ligase III has essential functions in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA replication and repair and contains a PARP-like zinc finger (ZnF) that increases the extent of DNA nick joining and intermolecular DNA ligation, yet the bases for ligase III specificity and structural variation among human ligases are not understood. Here combined crystal structure and small-angle X-ray scattering results reveal dynamic switching between two nick-binding components of ligase III: the ZnF-DNA binding domain (DBD) forms a crescent-shaped surface used for DNA end recognition which switches to a ring formed by the nucleotidyl transferase (NTase) and OB-fold (OBD) domains for catalysis. Structural and mutational analyses indicate that high flexibility and distinct DNA binding domain features in ligase III assist both nick sensing and the transition from nick sensing by the ZnF to nick joining by the catalytic core. The collective results support a "jackknife model" in which the ZnF loads ligase III onto nicked DNA and conformational changes deliver DNA into the active site. This work has implications for the biological specificity of DNA ligases and functions of PARP-like zinc fingers. PMID:20518483

  5. Defining the RNA polymerase III transcriptome: Genome-wide localization of the RNA polymerase III transcription machinery in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Canella, Donatella; Praz, Viviane; Reina, Jaime H.; Cousin, Pascal; Hernandez, Nouria

    2010-01-01

    Our view of the RNA polymerase III (Pol III) transcription machinery in mammalian cells arises mostly from studies of the RN5S (5S) gene, the Ad2 VAI gene, and the RNU6 (U6) gene, as paradigms for genes with type 1, 2, and 3 promoters. Recruitment of Pol III onto these genes requires prior binding of well-characterized transcription factors. Technical limitations in dealing with repeated genomic units, typically found at mammalian Pol III genes, have so far hampered genome-wide studies of the Pol III transcription machinery and transcriptome. We have localized, genome-wide, Pol III and some of its transcription factors. Our results reveal broad usage of the known Pol III transcription machinery and define a minimal Pol III transcriptome in dividing IMR90hTert fibroblasts. This transcriptome consists of some 500 actively transcribed genes including a few dozen candidate novel genes, of which we confirmed nine as Pol III transcription units by additional methods. It does not contain any of the microRNA genes previously described as transcribed by Pol III, but reveals two other microRNA genes, MIR886 (hsa-mir-886) and MIR1975 (RNY5, hY5, hsa-mir-1975), which are genuine Pol III transcription units. PMID:20413673

  6. Cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of Cr(VI), Cr(III)-nitrate and Cr(III)-EDTA complex in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells.

    PubMed

    Novotnik, Breda; Ščančar, Janez; Milačič, Radmila; Filipič, Metka; Žegura, Bojana

    2016-07-01

    Chromium (Cr) and ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) are common environmental pollutants and can be present in high concentrations in surface waters at the same time. Therefore, chelation of Cr with EDTA can occur and thereby stable Cr(III)-EDTA complex is formed. Since there are no literature data on Cr(III)-EDTA toxicity, the aim of our work was to evaluate and compare Cr(III)-EDTA cytotoxic and genotoxic activity with those of Cr(VI) and Cr(III)-nitrate in human hepatoma (HepG2) cell line. First the effect of Cr(VI), Cr(III)-nitrate and Cr(III)-EDTA on cell viability was studied in the concentration range from 0.04 μg mL(-1) to 25 μg mL(-1) after 24 h exposure. Further the influence of non-cytotoxic concentrations of Cr(VI), Cr(III)-nitrate and Cr(III)-EDTA on DNA damage and genomic stability was determined with the comet assay and cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome assay, respectively. Cell viability was decreased only by Cr(VI) at concentrations above 1.0 μg mL(-1). Cr(VI) at ≥0.2 μg mL(-1) and Cr(III) at ≥1.0 μg mL(-1) induced DNA damage, while after Cr(III)-EDTA exposure no formation DNA strand breaks was determined. Statistically significant formation of micronuclei was induced only by Cr(VI) at ≥0.2 μg mL(-1), while no influence on the frequency of nuclear buds nor nucleoplasmic bridges was observed at any exposure. This study provides the first evidence that Cr(III)-EDTA did not induce DNA damage and had no influence on the genomic stability of HepG2 cells. PMID:27043378

  7. Substrate complexes of human dipeptidyl peptidase III reveal the mechanism of enzyme inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Prashant; Reithofer, Viktoria; Reisinger, Manuel; Wallner, Silvia; Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Macheroux, Peter; Gruber, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Human dipeptidyl-peptidase III (hDPP III) is a zinc-dependent hydrolase cleaving dipeptides off the N-termini of various bioactive peptides. Thus, the enzyme is likely involved in a number of physiological processes such as nociception and is also implicated in several forms of cancer. We present high-resolution crystal structures of hDPP III in complex with opioid peptides (Met-and Leu-enkephalin, endomorphin-2) as well as with angiotensin-II and the peptide inhibitor IVYPW. These structures confirm the previously reported large conformational change of the enzyme upon ligand binding and show that the structure of the closed conformation is independent of the nature of the bound peptide. The overall peptide-binding mode is also conserved ensuring the correct positioning of the scissile peptide bond with respect to the catalytic zinc ion. The structure of the angiotensin-II complex shows, how longer peptides are accommodated in the binding cleft of hDPP III. Differences in the binding modes allow a distinction between real substrates and inhibitory peptides or “slow” substrates. The latter displace a zinc bound water molecule necessitating the energetically much less favoured anhydride mechanism as opposed to the favoured promoted-water mechanism. The structural data also form the necessary framework for the design of specific hDPP III inhibitors. PMID:27025154

  8. RNA polymerase III dependence of the human L1 promoter and possible participation of the RNA polymerase II factor YY1 in the RNA polymerase III transcription system.

    PubMed Central

    Kurose, K; Hata, K; Hattori, M; Sakaki, Y

    1995-01-01

    From the general views of the eukaryotic transcription systems, L1 (or L1-like) retrotransposons that encode some proteins are unusual. L1, unlike other protein-coding elements, is transcribed through an internal promoter. And the L1 internal promoter, unlike other internal promoters, is thought to be RNA polymerase II (pol II) dependent, because the L1 transcript has a large size (approximately 6 kb), protein coding capacity and a 3' terminal polyadenylation signal followed by a poly(A) tail, and also because transcription from the promoter of Drosophila L1-like element jockey was highly sensitive to alpha-amanitin. However, our in vitro transcription study reveals that transcription from the human L1 promoter is highly sensitive to tagetitoxin, a selective inhibitor of RNA polymerase III (pol III), but insensitive to 1 micrograms/ml of alpha-amanitin, indicating that the human L1 promoter is pol III-dependent. The pol III dependence is further supported by our observation that L1 and pol III-dependent tRNA gene promoters share a common nuclear factor YY1. There is evidence that YY1 is also a pol II transcription factor. We thus propose that YY1 is a possible member of the pol III transcription system. Images PMID:7479000

  9. Human TOP3: a single-copy gene encoding DNA topoisomerase III.

    PubMed Central

    Hanai, R; Caron, P R; Wang, J C

    1996-01-01

    A human cDNA encoding a protein homologous to the Escherichia coli DNA topoisomerase I subfamily of enzymes has been identified through cloning and sequencing. Expressing the cloned human cDNA in yeast (delta)top1 cells lacking endogenous DNA topoisomerase I yielded an activity in cell extracts that specifically reduces the number of supercoils in a highly negatively supercoiled DNA. On the basis of these results, the human gene containing the cDNA sequence has been denoted TOP3, and the protein it encodes has been denoted DNA topoisomerase III. Screening of a panel of human-rodent somatic hybrids and fluorescence in situ hybridization of cloned TOP3 genomic DNA to metaphase chromosomes indicate that human TOP3 is a single-copy gene located at chromosome 17p11.2-12. Images Fig. 2 PMID:8622991

  10. Effects of resistant starch type III polymorphs on human colon microbiota and short chain fatty acids in human gut models.

    PubMed

    Lesmes, Uri; Beards, Emma J; Gibson, Glenn R; Tuohy, Kieran M; Shimoni, Eyal

    2008-07-01

    This study probed the possible effects of type III resistant starch (RS) crystalline polymorphism on RS fermentability by human gut microbiota and the short chain fatty acids production in vitro. Human fecal pH-controlled batch cultures showed RS induces an ecological shift in the colonic microbiota with polymorph B inducing Bifidobacterium spp. and polymorph A inducing Atopobium spp. Interestingly, polymorph B also induced higher butyrate production to levels of 0.79 mM. In addition, human gut simulation demonstrated that polymorph B promotes the growth of bifidobacteria in the proximal part of the colon and double their relative proportion in the microbiota in the distal colon. These findings suggest that RS polymorph B may promote large bowel health. While the findings are limited by study constraints, they do raise the possibility of using different thermal processing to delineate differences in the prebiotic capabilities of RS, especially its butryrogenicity in the human colon. PMID:18543927

  11. Building human resources capability in health care: a global analysis of best practice--Part III.

    PubMed

    Zairi, M

    1998-01-01

    This is the last part of a series of three papers which discussed very comprehensively best practice applications in human resource management by drawing special inferences to the healthcare context. It emerged from parts I and II that high performing organisations plan and intend to build sustainable capability through a systematic consideration of the human element as the key asset and through a continuous process of training, developing, empowering and engaging people in all aspects of organisational excellence. Part III brings this debate to a close by demonstrating what brings about organisational excellence and proposes a road map for effective human resource development and management, based on world class standards. Healthcare human resource professionals can now rise to the challenge and plan ahead for building organisational capability and sustainable performance. PMID:10346320

  12. Thermal stability of type I and type III procollagens from normal human fibroblasts and from a patient with osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Peltonen, L; Palotie, A; Hayashi, T; Prockop, D J

    1980-01-01

    Type I and type III procollagens were isolated from the medium of human fibroblast cultures in amounts adequate for examination by circular dichroism. Type I procollagen had a spectrum similar to that of type I procollagen and collagen from chicken embryos. The human type III procollagen showed a red shift not seen in type III collagen from calf skin. The midpoint (tm) for the helix-to-coil transition for both human procollagens was 40 degrees C. the same tm values were obtained with type I and type III procollagens synthesized by fibroblasts from a patient with osteogenesis imperfecta. Type I procollagen synthesized by the patient's fibroblasts, however, tended to aggregate more readily than type I procollagen from normal human fibroblasts, apparently because of a structural alteration of the protein. PMID:6928611

  13. New strategy for expression of recombinant hydroxylated human collagen α1(III) chains in Pichia pastoris GS115.

    PubMed

    He, Jing; Ma, Xiaoxuan; Zhang, Fenglong; Li, Linbo; Deng, Jianjun; Xue, Wenjiao; Zhu, Chenhui; Fan, Daidi

    2015-01-01

    Type III collagen is one of the most abundant proteins in the human body, which forms collagen fibrils and provides the stiff, resilient characteristics of many tissues. In this paper, a new method for secretory expression of recombinant hydroxylated human collagen α1(III) chain in Pichia pastoris GS115 was applied. The gene encoding for full-length human collagen α1(III) chain (COL3A1) without N-terminal propeptide and C-terminal propeptide was cloned in the pPIC9K expression vector. The prolyl 4-hydroxylase (P4H, EC 1.14.11.2) α-subunit (P4Hα) and β-subunit (P4Hβ) genes were cloned in the same expression vector, pPICZB. Fluorogenic quantitative PCR indicates that COL3A1 and P4H genes have been expressed in mRNA level. SDS-PAGE shows that secretory expression of recombinant human collagen α1(III) chain was successfully achieved in P. pastoris GS115. In addition, the result of amino acids composition analysis shows that the recombinant human collagen α1(III) chain contains hydroxyproline by coexpression with the P4H. Furthermore, liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry analysis demonstrates that proline residues of the recombinant human collagen α1(III) chain were hydroxylated in the X or Y positions of Gly-X-Y triplets. PMID:24953863

  14. Human recombinant interleukin-1 beta- and tumor necrosis factor alpha-mediated suppression of heparin-like compounds on cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, M.; Shimada, K.; Ozawa, T. )

    1990-09-01

    Cytokines are known to tip the balance of the coagulant-anticoagulant molecules on the endothelial cell surface toward intravascular coagulation. Their effects on endothelial cell surface-associated heparin-like compounds have not been examined yet. Incorporation of (35S)sulfate into heparan sulfate on cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells was suppressed by human recombinant interleukin-1 beta (rIL-1 beta) or tumor necrosis factor alpha (rTNF alpha) in a dose- and time-dependent manner with little effect on cell number, protein content, and (3H)leucine incorporation of cells. Maximal inhibition was achieved by incubation of cells with 100 ng/ml of rIL-1 beta or 5 ng/ml of rTNF alpha for 12-24 hours, resulting in a reduction of the synthesis of heparan sulfate on the cell surface by approximately 50%. The dose dependency was consistent with that seen in the stimulation of endothelial cell procoagulant activity by each cytokine. The suppression of heparan sulfate synthesis was sustained for at least 48 hours after pretreatment of cells with cytokines and was unchanged after the addition of indomethacin or polymyxin B. The rate of degradation of prelabeled 35S-heparan sulfate on the cell surface was not altered by cytokine treatments. Neither the size, the net negative charge, nor the proportion of the molecule with high affinity for antithrombin III of endothelial cell heparan sulfate was changed by cytokines. Furthermore, specific binding of 125I-labeled antithrombin III to the endothelial cell surface was reduced to 40-60% of control by cytokines. In parallel with reduction in binding, antithrombin III cofactor activity was partially diminished in cytokine-treated endothelial cells. Thus, cytokine-mediated suppression of heparin-like substance on endothelial cells appears to be another cytokine-inducible endothelial effects affecting coagulation.

  15. RNA Polymerase III Transcriptomes in Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, and Relationships with Pluripotency Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Alla, Ravi K.; Cairns, Bradley R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent genomic approaches have revealed that the repertoire of RNA Pol III-transcribed genes varies in different human cell types, and that this variation is likely determined by a combination of the chromatin landscape, cell-specific DNA-binding transcription factors, and collaboration with RNA Pol II. Although much is known about this regulation in differentiated human cells, there is presently little understanding of this aspect of the Pol III system in human ES cells. Here, we determine the occupancy profiles of Pol III components in human H1 ES cells, and also induced pluripotent cells, and compare to known profiles of chromatin, transcription factors, and RNA expression. We find a relatively large fraction of the Pol III repertoire occupied in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). In ES cells we find clear correlations between Pol III occupancy and active chromatin. Interestingly, we find a highly significant fraction of Pol III-occupied genes with adjacent binding events by pluripotency factors in ES cells, especially NANOG. Notably, in human ES cells we find H3K27me3 adjacent to but not overlapping many active Pol III loci. We observe in all such cases, a peak of H3K4me3 and/or RNA Pol II, between the H3K27me3 and Pol III binding peaks, suggesting that H3K4me3 and Pol II activity may “insulate” Pol III from neighboring repressive H3K27me3. Further, we find iPSCs have a larger Pol III repertoire than their precursors. Finally, the active Pol III genome in iPSCs is not completely reprogrammed to a hESC like state and partially retains the transcriptional repertoire of the precursor. Together, our correlative results are consistent with Pol III binding and activity in human ES cells being enabled by active/permissive chromatin that is shaped in part by the pluripotency network of transcription factors and RNA Pol II activity. PMID:24465633

  16. Iron (III) reduction: A novel activity of the human NAD(P)H:oxidoreductase

    SciTech Connect

    Onyenwoke, Rob U.; Wiegel, Juergen . E-mail: jwiegel@uga.edu

    2007-02-09

    NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1; EC 1.6.99.2) catalyzes a two-electron transfer involved in the protection of cells from reactive oxygen species. These reactive oxygen species are often generated by the one-electron reduction of quinones or quinone analogs. We report here on the previously unreported Fe(III) reduction activity of human NQO1. Under steady state conditions with Fe(III) citrate, the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (K{sub m}{sup app}) was {approx}0.3nM and the apparent maximum velocity (V{sub max}{sup app}) was 16Umg{sup -1}. Substrate inhibition was observed above 5nM. NADH was the electron donor, K{sub m}{sup app}=340{mu}M and V{sub max}{sup app}=46Umg{sup -1}. FAD was also a cofactor with a K{sub m}{sup app} of 3.1{mu}M and V{sub max}{sup app} of 89Umg{sup -1}. The turnover number for NADH oxidation was 25s{sup -1}. Possible physiological roles of the Fe(III) reduction by this enzyme are discussed.

  17. The Association of Human Apolipoprotein C-III Sialylation Proteoforms with Plasma Triglycerides

    PubMed Central

    Yassine, Hussein N.; Trenchevska, Olgica; Ramrakhiani, Ambika; Parekh, Aarushi; Koska, Juraj; Walker, Ryan W.; Billheimer, Dean; Reaven, Peter D.; Yen, Frances T.; Nelson, Randall W.; Goran, Michael I.; Nedelkov, Dobrin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) regulates triglyceride (TG) metabolism. In plasma, apoC-III exists in non-sialylated (apoC-III0a without glycosylation and apoC-III0b with glycosylation), monosialylated (apoC-III1) or disialylated (apoC-III2) proteoforms. Our aim was to clarify the relationship between apoC-III sialylation proteoforms with fasting plasma TG concentrations. Methods In 204 non-diabetic adolescent participants, the relative abundance of apoC-III plasma proteoforms was measured using mass spectrometric immunoassay. Results Compared with the healthy weight subgroup (n = 16), the ratios of apoC-III0a, apoC-III0b, and apoC-III1 to apoC-III2 were significantly greater in overweight (n = 33) and obese participants (n = 155). These ratios were positively correlated with BMI z-scores and negatively correlated with measures of insulin sensitivity (Si). The relationship of apoC-III1 / apoC-III2 with Si persisted after adjusting for BMI (p = 0.02). Fasting TG was correlated with the ratio of apoC-III0a / apoC-III2 (r = 0.47, p<0.001), apoC-III0b / apoC-III2 (r = 0.41, p<0.001), apoC-III1 / apoC-III2 (r = 0.43, p<0.001). By examining apoC-III concentrations, the association of apoC-III proteoforms with TG was driven by apoC-III0a (r = 0.57, p<0.001), apoC-III0b (r = 0.56. p<0.001) and apoC-III1 (r = 0.67, p<0.001), but not apoC-III2 (r = 0.006, p = 0.9) concentrations, indicating that apoC-III relationship with plasma TG differed in apoC-III2 compared with the other proteoforms. Conclusion We conclude that apoC-III0a, apoC-III0b, and apoC-III1, but not apoC- III2 appear to be under metabolic control and associate with fasting plasma TG. Measurement of apoC-III proteoforms can offer insights into the biology of TG metabolism in obesity. PMID:26633899

  18. Human uroporphyrinogen III synthase: NMR-based mapping of the active site.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Luis; Kuti, Miklos; Bishop, David F; Mezei, Mihaly; Zeng, Lei; Zhou, Ming-Ming; Desnick, Robert J

    2008-05-01

    Uroporphyrinogen III synthase (URO-synthase) catalyzes the cyclization and D-ring isomerization of hydroxymethylbilane (HMB) to uroporphyrinogen (URO'gen) III, the cyclic tetrapyrrole and physiologic precursor of heme, chlorophyl, and corrin. The deficient activity of human URO-synthase results in the autosomal recessive cutaneous disorder, congenital erythropoietic porphyria. Mapping of the structural determinants that specify catalysis and, potentially, protein-protein interactions is lacking. To map the active site and assess the enzyme's possible interaction in a complex with hydroxymethylbilane-synthase (HMB-synthase) and/or uroporphyrinogen-decarboxylase (URO-decarboxylase) by NMR, an efficient expression and purification procedure was developed for these cytosolic enzymes of heme biosynthesis that enabled preparation of special isotopically-labeled protein samples for NMR characterization. Using an 800 MHz instrument, assignment of the URO-synthase backbone (13)C(alpha) (100%), (1)H(alpha) (99.6%), and nonproline (1)H(N) and (15)N resonances (94%) was achieved as well as 85% of the side-chain (13)C and (1)H resonances. NMR analyses of URO-synthase titrated with competitive inhibitors N(D)-methyl-1-formylbilane (NMF-bilane) or URO'gen III, revealed resonance perturbations of specific residues lining the cleft between the two major domains of URO synthase that mapped the enzyme's active site. In silico docking of the URO-synthase crystal structure with NMF-bilane and URO'gen III was consistent with the perturbation results and provided a 3D model of the enzyme-inhibitor complex. The absence of chemical shift changes in the (15)N spectrum of URO-synthase mixed with the homogeneous HMB-synthase holoenzyme or URO-decarboxylase precluded occurrence of a stable cytosolic enzyme complex. PMID:18004775

  19. Human dipeptidyl peptidase III regulates G-protein coupled receptor-dependent Ca2+ concentration in human embryonic kidney 293T cells.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Subhash C; Singh, Ratnakar; Chauhan, Shyam S

    2016-06-01

    The precise biological function of human dipeptidyl peptidase III (hDPP III) is poorly understood. Using luciferase reporter constructs responsive to change in Ca2+ and/or cAMP and Fura 2-AM fluorometric assay, we show a significant decrease in intracellular Ca2+ following hDPP III overexpression and angiotensin II stimulation in angiotensin II type 1 receptor (G-protein coupled receptor, GPCR) expressing HEK293T cells. Silencing the expression of hDPP III by siRNA reversed the effect of hDPP III overexpression with a concomitant increase in Ca2+. These results, for the first time, show involvement of hDPP III in GPCR dependent Ca2+ regulation in HEK293T cells. PMID:26887037

  20. Comparative cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of cobalt (II, III) oxide, iron (III) oxide, silicon dioxide, and aluminum oxide nanoparticles on human lymphocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rajiv, S; Jerobin, J; Saranya, V; Nainawat, M; Sharma, A; Makwana, P; Gayathri, C; Bharath, L; Singh, M; Kumar, M; Mukherjee, A; Chandrasekaran, N

    2016-02-01

    Despite the extensive use of nanoparticles (NPs) in various fields, adequate knowledge of human health risk and potential toxicity is still lacking. The human lymphocytes play a major role in the immune system, and it can alter the antioxidant level when exposed to NPs. Identification of the hazardous NPs was done using in vitro toxicity tests and this study mainly focuses on the comparative in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of four different NPs including cobalt (II, III) oxide (Co3O4), iron (III) oxide (Fe2O3), silicon dioxide (SiO2), and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) on human lymphocytes. The Co3O4 NPs showed decrease in cellular viability and increase in cell membrane damage followed by Fe2O3, SiO2, and Al2O3 NPs in a dose-dependent manner after 24 h of exposure to human lymphocytes. The oxidative stress was evidenced in human lymphocytes by the induction of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and depletion of catalase, reduced glutathione, and superoxide dismutase. The Al2O3 NPs showed the least DNA damage when compared with all the other NPs. Chromosomal aberration was observed at 100 µg/ml when exposed to Co3O4 NPs and Fe2O3 NPs. The alteration in the level of antioxidant caused DNA damage and chromosomal aberration in human lymphocytes. PMID:25829403

  1. Molecular mechanisms of antithrombin-heparin regulation of blood clotting proteinases. a paradigm for understanding proteinase regulation by serpin family protein proteinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Steven T.; Richard, Benjamin; Izaguirre, Gonzalo; Schedin-Weiss, Sophia; Gettins, Peter G. W.

    2010-01-01

    Serpin family protein proteinase inhibitors regulate the activity of serine and cysteine proteinases by a novel conformational trapping mechanism that may itself be regulated by cofactors to provide a finely-tuned time and location-dependent control of proteinase activity. The serpin, antithrombin, together with its cofactors, heparin and heparan sulfate, perform a critical anticoagulant function by preventing the activation of blood clotting proteinases except when needed at the site of a vascular injury. Here, we review the detailed molecular understanding of this regulatory mechanism that has emerged from numerous X-ray crystal structures of antithrombin and its complexes with heparin and target proteinases together with mutagenesis and functional studies of heparin-antithrombin-proteinase interactions in solution. Like other serpins, antithrombin achieves specificity for its target blood clotting proteinases by presenting recognition determinants in an exposed reactive center loop as well as in exosites outside the loop. Antithrombin reactivity is repressed in the absence of its activator because of unfavorable interactions that diminish the favorable RCL and exosite interactions with proteinases. Binding of a specific heparin or heparan sulfate pentasaccharide to antithrombin induces allosteric activating changes that mitigate the unfavorable interactions and promote template bridging of the serpin and proteinase. Antithrombin has thus evolved a sophisticated means of regulating the activity of blood clotting proteinases in a time and location-dependent manner that exploits the multiple conformational states of the serpin and their differential stabilization by glycosaminoglycan cofactors. PMID:20685328

  2. Dynamic properties of the native free antithrombin from molecular dynamics simulations: computational evidence for solvent- exposed Arg393 side chain.

    PubMed

    Tóth, László; Fekete, Attila; Balogh, Gábor; Bereczky, Zsuzsanna; Komáromi, István

    2015-09-01

    While antithrombin (AT) has small basal inhibitory activity, it reaches its full inhibitory potential against activated blood coagulation factors, FXa, FIXa, and FIIa (thrombin), via an allosteric and/or template (bridging) mechanism by the action of heparin, heparan sulfate, or heparin-mimetic pentasaccharides (PS). From the numerous X-ray structures available for different conformational states of AT, only indirect and incomplete conclusions can be drawn on the inherently dynamic properties of AT. As a typical example, the basal inhibitory activity of AT cannot be interpreted on the basis of "non-activated" free antithrombin X-ray structures since the Arg393 side chain, playing crucial role in antithrombin-proteinase interaction, is not exposed. In order to reveal the intrinsic dynamic properties and the reason of basal inhibitory activity of antithrombin, 2 μs molecular dynamics simulations were carried out on its native free-forms. It was shown from the simulation trajectories that the reactive center loop which is functioning as "bait" for proteases, even without any biasing potential can populate conformational state in which the Arg393 side chain is solvent exposed. It is revealed from the trajectory analysis that the peptide sequences correspond to the helix D extension, and new helix P formation can be featured with especially large root-mean-square fluctuations. Mutual information analyses of the trajectory showed remarkable (generalized) correlation between those regions of antithrombin which changed their conformations as the consequence of AT-PS complex formation. This suggests that allosteric information propagation pathways are present even in the non-activated native form of AT. PMID:25483839

  3. Accumulation of properly folded human type III procollagen molecules in specific intracellular membranous compartments in the yeast Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Keizer-Gunnink, I; Vuorela, A; Myllyharju, J; Pihlajaniemi, T; Kivirikko, K I; Veenhuis, M

    2000-02-01

    It was recently reported that co-expression of the proalpha1(III) chain of human type III procollagen with the subunits of human prolyl 4-hydroxylase in Pichia pastoris produces fully hydroxylated and properly folded recombinant type III procollagen molecules (Vuorela, A., Myllyharju, J., Nissi, R., Pihlajaniemi, T., Kivirikko, K.I., 1997. Assembly of human prolyl 4-hydroxylase and type III collagen in the yeast Pichia pastoris: formation of a stable enzyme tetramer requires coexpression with collagen and assembly of a stable collagen requires coexpression with prolyl 4-hydroxylase. EMBO J. 16, 6702-6712). These properly folded molecules accumulated inside the yeast cell, however, only approximately 10% were found in the culture medium. We report here that replacement of the authentic signal sequence of the human proalpha1(III) with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha mating factor prepro sequence led only to a minor increase in the amount secreted. Immunoelectron microscopy studies indicated that the procollagen molecules accumulate in specific membranous vesicular compartments that are closely associated with the nuclear membrane. Prolyl 4-hydroxylase, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumenal enzyme, was found to be located in the same compartments. Non-helical proalpha1(III) chains produced by expression without recombinant prolyl 4-hydroxylase likewise accumulated within these compartments. The data indicate that properly folded recombinant procollagen molecules accumulate within the ER and do not proceed further in the secretory pathway. This may be related to the large size of the procollagen molecule. PMID:10686423

  4. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III infection of the central nervous system: a preliminary in situ analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stoler, M.H.; Eskin, T.A.; Benn, S.; Angerer, R.C.; Angerer, L.M.

    1986-11-07

    Patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are subject to a spectrum of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Recent evidence implicates the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) in the pathogenesis of some of these illnesses, although the cells infected by the virus have yet to be identified. Using in situ hybridization, the authors examined brain tissue from two patients with AIDS encephalopathy for the presence of HTLV-III RNA. In both cases, viral RNA was detected and concentrated in, though not limited to, the white matter. The CNS cells most frequently infected included macrophages, pleomorphic microglia, and multinucleated giant cells. Less frequently, cells morphologically consistent with astrocytes, oligodendroglia, and rarely neurons were also infected. The findings strengthen the association of HTLV-III with the pathogenesis of AIDS encephalopathy. In situ hybridization can be applied to routinely prepared biopsy tissue in the diagnosis of HTLV-III infection of the CNS.

  5. Estimation of Group B Streptococcus Type III Polysaccharide-Specific Antibody Concentrations in Human Sera Is Antigen Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Bhushan, Reva; Anthony, Bascom F.; Frasch, Carl E.

    1998-01-01

    The presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against group B streptococcus (GBS) type III polysaccharide (PS) has been correlated with protection against GBS disease. The GBS type III PS is structurally similar to the pneumococcal type 14 PS, differing only in the presence of sialic acid residues. Four different preparations of GBS type III PS were evaluated for their specificity in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): free PS, free PS mixed with methylated human serum albumin (mHSA), PS conjugated to biotin and PS conjugated to human serum albumin. Three groups of human sera were used to evaluate these PS preparations: sera from recipients of a GBS PS vaccine, sera from women receiving a GBS type III PS-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine, and sera from nonimmunized healthy women of childbearing age. Estimated antibody concentrations were different depending on the PS preparation used. Using any of the four preparations, we were able to measure ≤0.05 μg of IgG antibody to the GBS type III PS per ml. The specificity of the assay was determined by competitive inhibition with homologous and heterologous PS. The pneumococcal type 14 PS did not inhibit binding of antibody to the native GBS type III PS in sera from adults receiving the GBS PS vaccine or in sera from nonimmunized adults (except serum G9). The pneumococcal type 14 PS inhibited 50% in sera from recipients of GBS type III conjugate vaccine and in serum G9 when GBS type III PS conjugated to biotin or to HSA was used as antigen in ELISA. These data show that free GBS type III PS or PS mixed with mHSA is a sensitive and specific antigen for ELISA and that conjugation can alter the antigenic specificity of a PS. PMID:9826364

  6. Passive Ca transport in human red blood cell ghosts measured with entrapped arsenazo III

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    The rate of Ca influx into ghosts containing arsenazo III changes with time, being most rapid during the first 5 min after Ca is added to the outside and declining thereafter. The rate of Ca influx is a nonlinear function of extracellular Ca and plateaus as the latter is increased above 1 mM. The rate of Ca influx was measured as a function of the transmembrane gradients of Na and K and changes in the permeability of the membrane to K and Cl produced by valinomycin and SITS (4-acetamido- 4'-isothiocyano-stilbene-2-2'-disulfonic acid), respectively. Changes in the rate of Ca influx are consistent with expected effects of these treatments on the membrane potential. Oligomycin (10 micrograms/ml) and quinidine (1 mM) inhibit the rate of Ca uptake by inhibiting Ca-induced changes in the K permeability. At constant membrane potential, furosemide produced a slight (15%) consistent increase in Ca uptake. Other experiments show that resealed ghosts are heterogeneous in their passive permeability to Ca and that A23187 can be used to effectively eliminate such differences. The results of this paper show that resealed human red cell ghosts containing arsenazo III can be used to continuously monitor intracellular free Ca and to study the factors that influence the permeability of the red cell membrane to Ca. PMID:6319541

  7. The structural and optical properties of type III human collagen biosynthetic corneal substitutes.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Sally; Lewis, Phillip; Islam, M Mirazul; Doutch, James; Sorensen, Thomas; White, Tomas; Griffith, May; Meek, Keith M

    2015-10-01

    The structural and optical properties of clinically biocompatible, cell-free hydrogels comprised of synthetically cross-linked and moulded recombinant human collagen type III (RHCIII) with and without the incorporation of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) were assessed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray scattering, spectroscopy and refractometry. These findings were examined alongside similarly obtained data from 21 human donor corneas. TEM demonstrated the presence of loosely bundled aggregates of fine collagen filaments within both RHCIII and RHCIII-MPC implants, which X-ray scattering showed to lack D-banding and be preferentially aligned in a uniaxial orientation throughout. This arrangement differs from the predominantly biaxial alignment of collagen fibrils that exists in the human cornea. By virtue of their high water content (90%), very fine collagen filaments (2-9 nm) and lack of cells, the collagen hydrogels were found to transmit almost all incident light in the visible spectrum. They also transmitted a large proportion of UV light compared to the cornea which acts as an effective UV filter. Patients implanted with these hydrogels should be cautious about UV exposure prior to regrowth of the epithelium and in-growth of corneal cells into the implants. PMID:26159106

  8. Human NAIP and mouse NAIP1 recognize bacterial type III secretion needle protein for inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jieling; Zhao, Yue; Shi, Jianjin; Shao, Feng

    2013-08-27

    Inflammasome mediated by central nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLR) protein is critical for defense against bacterial infection. Here we show that type III secretion system (T3SS) needle proteins from several bacterial pathogens, including Salmonella typhimurium, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, and Burkholderia spp., can induce robust inflammasome activation in both human monocyte-derived and mouse bone marrow macrophages. Needle protein activation of human NRL family CARD domain containing 4 (NLRC4) inflammasome requires the sole human neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (hNAIP). Among the seven mouse NAIPs, NAIP1 functions as the mouse counterpart of hNAIP. We found that NAIP1 recognition of T3SS needle proteins was more robust in mouse dendritic cells than in bone marrow macrophages. Needle proteins, as well as flagellin and rod proteins from five different bacteria, exhibited differential and cell type-dependent inflammasome-stimulating activity. Comprehensive profiling of the three types of NAIP ligands revealed that NAIP1 sensing of the needle protein dominated S. flexneri-induced inflammasome activation, particularly in dendritic cells. hNAIP/NAIP1 and NAIP2/5 formed a large oligomeric complex with NLRC4 in the presence of corresponding bacterial ligands, and could support reconstitution of the NLRC4 inflammasome in a ligand-specific manner. PMID:23940371

  9. The structural and optical properties of type III human collagen biosynthetic corneal substitutes

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Sally; Lewis, Phillip; Islam, M. Mirazul; Doutch, James; Sorensen, Thomas; White, Tomas; Griffith, May; Meek, Keith M.

    2015-01-01

    The structural and optical properties of clinically biocompatible, cell-free hydrogels comprised of synthetically cross-linked and moulded recombinant human collagen type III (RHCIII) with and without the incorporation of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) were assessed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray scattering, spectroscopy and refractometry. These findings were examined alongside similarly obtained data from 21 human donor corneas. TEM demonstrated the presence of loosely bundled aggregates of fine collagen filaments within both RHCIII and RHCIII-MPC implants, which X-ray scattering showed to lack D-banding and be preferentially aligned in a uniaxial orientation throughout. This arrangement differs from the predominantly biaxial alignment of collagen fibrils that exists in the human cornea. By virtue of their high water content (90%), very fine collagen filaments (2–9 nm) and lack of cells, the collagen hydrogels were found to transmit almost all incident light in the visible spectrum. They also transmitted a large proportion of UV light compared to the cornea which acts as an effective UV filter. Patients implanted with these hydrogels should be cautious about UV exposure prior to regrowth of the epithelium and in-growth of corneal cells into the implants. PMID:26159106

  10. Finite element comparison of human and Hybrid III responses in a frontal impact.

    PubMed

    Danelson, Kerry A; Golman, Adam J; Kemper, Andrew R; Gayzik, F Scott; Clay Gabler, H; Duma, Stefan M; Stitzel, Joel D

    2015-12-01

    The improvement of finite element (FE) Human Body Models (HBMs) has made them valuable tools for investigating restraint interactions compared to anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of various combinations of safety restraint systems on the sensitivity of thoracic injury criteria using matched ATD and Human Body Model (HBM) simulations at two crash severities. A total of seven (7) variables were investigated: 3-point belt with two (2) load limits, frontal airbag, knee bolster airbag, a buckle pretensioner, and two (2) delta-v's - 40kph and 50kph. Twenty four (24) simulations were conducted for the Hybrid III ATD FE model and repeated with a validated HBM for 48 total simulations. Metrics tested in these conditions included sternum deflection, chest acceleration, chest excursion, Viscous Criteria (V*C) criteria, pelvis acceleration, pelvis excursion, and femur forces. Additionally, chest band deflection and rib strain distribution were measured in the HBM for additional restraint condition discrimination. The addition of a frontal airbag had the largest effect on the occupant chest metrics with an increase in chest compression and acceleration but a decrease in excursion. While the THUMS and Hybrid III occupants demonstrated the same trend in the chest compression measurements, there were conflicting results in the V*C, acceleration, and displacement metrics. Similarly, the knee bolster airbag had the largest effect on the pelvis with a decrease in acceleration and excursion. With a knee bolster airbag the simulated occupants gave conflicting results, the THUMS had a decrease in femur force and the ATD had an increase. Preferential use of dummies or HBM's is not debated; however, this study highlights the ability of HBM metrics to capture additional chest response metrics. PMID:26432065

  11. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III infection in a cohort of homosexual men in New York City

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, C.E.; Taylor, P.E.; Zang, E.A.; Morrison, J.M.; Harley, E.J.; de Cordoba, S.R.; Bacino, C.; Ting, R.C.; Bodner, A.J.; Sarngadharan, M.G.; Gallo, R.C.

    1986-04-25

    Using blood samples collected since 1978, the authors investigated the epidemiology of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III), the etiologic agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, in a group of 378 homosexually active men who have resided in New York City since the acquire immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic began. The anti-HTLV-III prevalence was 6.6% in sera from 1978 or 1979, and the subsequent annual incidence of seroconversion among susceptible men ranged between 5.5% and 10.6%. The highest incidences were in recent years, even though these men reported a decrease in their sexual activity during this time. These data demonstrate the continuing risk of HTLV-III infections in the homosexual population studied and emphasize the need for more effective prevention of transmission. The year during which antibody was first present was the only factor identified that was associated with altered cell-mediated immunity in antibody-positive men.

  12. Effects of Preoperative Glycyrrhizin Infusion for the Prevention of Venous Thrombosis on the Tissue Expression of Antithrombin in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Kira, Yukimi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Using a thrombus model prepared by ligation of the inferior vena cava (IVC), the influences of the glycoside, glycyrrhizin, on plasma antithrombin levels and antithrombin mRNA expression levels in the liver and IVC with the inhibition of venous thrombosis were investigated. Materials and Methods: The rat IVC was exposed and ligated for 24 h immediately after the intravenous administration of 300 mg/kg glycyrrhizin. Among antithrombotic drugs, the Xa inhibitor, fondaparinux sodium, was used as a control drug. Results: The mean thrombus weight was significantly smaller in the glycyrrhizin-treated group (18.3 mg) than in the saline-treated group (34.3 mg). In contrast, the inhibition of thrombosis was not observed in the fondaparinux-treated group. Antithrombin mRNA expression levels in the liver were significantly higher in the ligated groups than in the baseline control group. The mean plasma antithrombin level was significantly lower in the glycyrrhizin group (96.6%) than in the saline group (114.4%), but was not significantly different from that in the baseline control group (102.4%). Conclusion: The pretreatment with glycyrrhizin inhibited venous thrombosis, and antithrombin mRNA expression levels in the liver and IVC as well as plasma antithrombin levels were significantly lower than those in the saline group. PMID:27375802

  13. Molecular-size-dependent variations in the proportions of chains with high binding affinities for antithrombin in rat skin heparin proteoglycans.

    PubMed Central

    Horner, A A

    1989-01-01

    Approximately half of all rat skin heparin proteoglycans have polysaccharide chains that have no sites with high binding affinity for antithrombin. The rest have chains with high-affinity antithrombin-binding-site densities ranging from zero to five sites per chain, with a high degree of variation. Proteoglycans vary in size because of diversity in the number of chains per molecule; the relationship between proteoglycan size and high-affinity antithrombin-binding-site density has not been studied previously. Polydisperse heparin proteoglycans from rat skin, labelled biosynthetically with 35S, were fractionated by gel filtration on Bio-Gel A-150m and arbitrarily divided into five fractions of decreasing average molecular size. Fractionation of these products on antithrombin-agarose showed that the proportion of proteoglycans with high affinity for antithrombin decreased from 39% to 25% as molecular size decreased. However, as the molecular size of high-affinity proteoglycans decreased, the proportion of their chains that had high affinity increased from 29% to 59%. Therefore molecular size is a significant factor in determining the proportion of high-affinity chains in heparin proteoglycans. A model of heparin biosynthesis is proposed in which areas of specific enzyme activity that control the synthesis of the antithrombin-binding-site sequence are sparsely and nonrandomly distributed on mast-cell Golgi membranes. It is postulated that the likelihood of a developing proteoglycan encountering one of these hypothetical areas is molecular-size-dependent. Images Fig. 1. PMID:2590178

  14. Human Retroviruses and AIDS. A compilation and analysis of nucleic acid and amino acid sequences: I--II; III--V

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, G.; Korber, B.; Wain-Hobson, S.; Smith, R.F.; Pavlakis, G.N.

    1993-12-31

    This compendium and the accompanying floppy diskettes are the result of an effort to compile and rapidly publish all relevant molecular data concerning the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) and related retroviruses. The scope of the compendium and database is best summarized by the five parts that it comprises: (I) HIV and SIV Nucleotide Sequences; (II) Amino Acid Sequences; (III) Analyses; (IV) Related Sequences; and (V) Database Communications. Information within all the parts is updated at least twice in each year, which accounts for the modes of binding and pagination in the compendium.

  15. Type III Interferons Produced by Human Placental Trophoblasts Confer Protection against Zika Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Avraham; Lennemann, Nicholas J; Ouyang, Yingshi; Bramley, John C; Morosky, Stefanie; Marques, Ernesto Torres De Azeved; Cherry, Sara; Sadovsky, Yoel; Coyne, Carolyn B

    2016-05-11

    During mammalian pregnancy, the placenta acts as a barrier between the maternal and fetal compartments. The recently observed association between Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during human pregnancy and fetal microcephaly and other anomalies suggests that ZIKV may bypass the placenta to reach the fetus. This led us to investigate ZIKV infection of primary human trophoblasts (PHTs), which are the barrier cells of the placenta. We discovered that PHT cells from full-term placentas are refractory to ZIKV infection. In addition, medium from uninfected PHT cells protects non-placental cells from ZIKV infection. PHT cells constitutively release the type III interferon (IFN) IFNλ1, which functions in both a paracrine and autocrine manner to protect trophoblast and non-trophoblast cells from ZIKV infection. Our data suggest that for ZIKV to access the fetal compartment, it must evade restriction by trophoblast-derived IFNλ1 and other trophoblast-specific antiviral factors and/or use alternative strategies to cross the placental barrier. PMID:27066743

  16. Immunohistochemical expression of types I and III collagen antibodies in the temporomandibular joint disc of human foetuses

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, L.O.C.; Lodi, F.R.; Gomes, T.S.; Marques, S.R.; Oshima, C.T.F.; Lancellotti, C.L.P.; Rodríguez-Vázquez, J.F.; Mérida-Velasco, J.R.; Alonso, L.G.

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to study the morphology of the articular disc and analyse the immunohistochemical expression of types I and III collagen markers in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc of human foetuses of different gestational ages. Twenty TMJ from human foetuses supplied by Universidade Federal de Uberaba with gestational ages from 17 to 24 weeks were studied. The gestational age of the foetuses was determined by measuring the crown-rump (CR) length. Macroscopically, the foetuses were fixed in 10% formalin solution and dissected by removing the skin and subcutaneous tissue and exposing the deep structures. Immunohistochemical markers of type I and III were used to characterize the existence of collagen fibres. Analysis of the immunohistochemical markers of types I and III collagen revealed the presence of heterotypical fibril networks. PMID:22073371

  17. New polymorphic microsatellite markers in the human MHC class III region.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaka, Y; Makino, S; Nakajima, K; Tomizawa, M; Oka, A; Bahram, S; Kulski, J K; Tamiya, G; Inoko, H

    2001-05-01

    The human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region spanning approximately 760 kb is characterized by a remarkably high gene density with 59 expressed genes (one gene every 12.9 kb). Recently, susceptibility loci to numerous diseases, such as Graves disease, Crohn disease, and SLE have been suggested to be localized to this region, as assessed by associations mainly with genetic polymorphisms of TNF and TNF-linked microsatellite loci. However, it has been difficult to precisely localize these susceptibility loci to a single gene due to a paucity to date of polymorphic markers in the HLA class III region. To facilitate disease mapping within this region, we have analyzed 2 approximately 5 bases short tandem repeats (microsatellites) in this region. A total of 297 microsatellites were identified from the genomic sequence, consisting of 69 di-, 62 tri-, 107 tetra-, and 59 penta-nucleotide repeats. It was noted that among them as many as 17 microsatellites were located within the coding sequence of expressed genes (NOTCH4, PBX2, RAGE, G16, LPAAT, PPT2, TNXB, P450-CYP21B, G9a, HSP70-2, HSP70-1, HSP-hom, MuTSH5 and BAT2). Eight microsatellite repeats were collected as polymorphic markers due to their high number of alleles (11.9 on average) as well as their high polymorphic content value (PIC) (0.63). By combining the 38 and the 22 polymorphic microsatellites we have previously collected in the HLA class I and class II regions, respectively, we have now established a total of 68 novel genetic markers which are uniformly interspersed with a high density of one every 63.3 kb throughout the HLA region. This collection of polymorphic microsatellites will enable us to search for the location of any disease susceptible loci within the HLA region by association analysis. PMID:11556964

  18. A recurrent deletion in the antithrombin gene, AT106-108(-6 bp), identified by DNA heteroduplex detection

    SciTech Connect

    Olds, R.J.; Thein, S.L. ); Lane, D.A. ); Beresford, C.H.; Hughes, P.M. ); Abildgaard, U. )

    1993-04-01

    Antithrombin is the major physiological inhibitor of the activated serine proteinases of the coagulation system. Hereditary deficiency of the inhibitor is transmitted in an autosomal dominant pattern and is associated with a risk of venous thromboembotic disease in affected individuals. In the classical form of deficiency, type Ia, plasma antithrombin is reduced to approximately half normal in both functional and immunological assays. The authors report here the identification of a recurrent mutation as the basis for type Ia deficiency in two independent kindreds, one from New Zealand and the other from Norway, and demonstrate the utility of DNA heteroduplex detection as a method for screening for the presence of mutations. Standard functional and immunological assays for plasma antithrombin showed levels of approximately half normal in several members of both kindreds, consistent with the classification as type Ia deficiency. The plasma of the proband from the Norwegian kindred was examined by crossed immunoelectrophoresis, in the presence or absence of heparin in the first dimension, and an abnormal component that may have represented a variant form of the inhibitor was not identified. In both families affected members have had episodes of venous thrombosis, although some carriers of the abnormal allele, as confirmed in the current study, so far have not had clinical thrombotic disease. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Basement-membrane heparan sulphate with high affinity for antithrombin synthesized by normal and transformed mouse mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Pejler, G; David, G

    1987-01-01

    Basement-membrane proteoglycans, biosynthetically labelled with [35S]sulphate, were isolated from normal and transformed mouse mammary epithelial cells. Proteoglycans synthesized by normal cells contained mainly heparan sulphate and, in addition, small amounts of chondroitin sulphate chains, whereas transformed cells synthesized a relatively higher proportion of chondroitin sulphate. Polysaccharide chains from transformed cells were of lower average Mr and of lower anionic charge density compared with chains isolated from the untransformed counterparts, confirming results reported previously [David & Van den Berghe (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 7338-7344]. A large proportion of the chains isolated from normal cells bound with high affinity to immobilized antithrombin, and the presence of 3-O-sulphated glucosamine residues, previously identified as unique markers for the antithrombin-binding region of heparin [Lindahl, Bäckström, Thunberg & Leder (1980) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77, 6551-6555], could be demonstrated. A significantly lower proportion of the chains derived from transformed cells bound with high affinity to antithrombin, and a corresponding decrease in the amount of incorporated 3-O-sulphate was observed. PMID:2963617

  20. Rational development and characterization of humanized anti–EGFR variant III chimeric antigen receptor T cells for glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Laura A.; Scholler, John; Ohkuri, Takayuki; Kosaka, Akemi; Patel, Prachi R.; McGettigan, Shannon E.; Nace, Arben K.; Dentchev, Tzvete; Thekkat, Pramod; Loew, Andreas; Boesteanu, Alina C.; Cogdill, Alexandria P.; Chen, Taylor; Fraietta, Joseph A.; Kloss, Christopher C.; Posey, Avery D.; Engels, Boris; Singh, Reshma; Ezell, Tucker; Idamakanti, Neeraja; Ramones, Melissa H.; Li, Na; Zhou, Li; Plesa, Gabriela; Seykora, John T.; Okada, Hideho; June, Carl H.; Brogdon, Jennifer L.; Maus, Marcela V.

    2015-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are synthetic molecules designed to redirect T cells to specific antigens. CAR-modified T cells can mediate long-term durable remissions in B cell malignancies, but expanding this platform to solid tumors requires the discovery of surface targets with limited expression in normal tissues. The variant III mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRvIII) results from an in-frame deletion of a portion of the extracellular domain, creating a neoepitope. We chose a vector backbone encoding a second-generation CAR based on efficacy of a murine scFv–based CAR in a xenograft model of glioblastoma. Next, we generated a panel of humanized scFvs and tested their specificity and function as soluble proteins and in the form of CAR-transduced T cells; a low-affinity scFv was selected on the basis of its specificity for EGFRvIII over wild-type EGFR. The lead candidate scFv was tested in vitro for its ability to direct CAR-transduced T cells to specifically lyse, proliferate, and secrete cytokines in response to antigen-bearing targets. We further evaluated the specificity of the lead CAR candidate in vitro against EGFR-expressing keratinocytes and in vivo in a model of mice grafted with normal human skin. EGFRvIII-directed CAR T cells were also able to control tumor growth in xenogeneic subcutaneous and orthotopic models of human EGFRvIII+ glioblastoma. On the basis of these results, we have designed a phase 1 clinical study of CAR T cells transduced with humanized scFv directed to EGFRvIII in patients with either residual or recurrent glioblastoma (NCT02209376). PMID:25696001

  1. Streptococcus agalactiae isolates of serotypes Ia, III and V from human and cow are able to infect tilapia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Wang, Rui; Luo, Fu-Guang; Huang, Yan; Liang, Wan-Wen; Huang, Ting; Lei, Ai-Ying; Gan, Xi; Li, Li-Ping

    2015-10-22

    Recent studies have shown that group B streptococcus (GBS) may be infectious across hosts. The purpose of this study is to investigate the pathogenicity of clinical GBS isolates with serotypes Ia, III and V from human and cow to tilapia and the evolutionary relationship among these GBS strains of different sources. A total of 27 clinical GBS isolates from human (n=10), cow (n=2) and tilapia (n=15) were analyzed using serotyping, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Among them, 15 isolates were tested for their pathogenicity to tilapia. The results showed that five human GBS strains (2 serotype III, 2 serotype Ia and 1 serotype V) infected tilapia with mortality rate ranging from 56.67% to 100%, while the other five human GBS strains tested were unable to infect tilapia. In addition, two cow GBS strains C001 and C003 of serotype III infected tilapia. However, they had significantly lower pathogenicity than the five human strains. Furthermore, human GBS strains H005 and H008, which had very strong ability to infect tilapia, had the same PFGE pattern. MLST analysis showed that the five human and the two cow GBS strains that were able to infect tilapia belonged to clonal complexes CC19, CC23 and CC103. The study for the first time confirmed that human or cow GBS clonal complexes CC19, CC23 and CC103 containing strains with serotypes Ia, III and V could infect tilapia and induce clinical signs under experimental conditions. PMID:26255553

  2. Human DNA ligase III bridges two DNA ends to promote specific intermolecular DNA end joining

    PubMed Central

    Kukshal, Vandna; Kim, In-Kwon; Hura, Gregory L.; Tomkinson, Alan E.; Tainer, John A.; Ellenberger, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian DNA ligase III (LigIII) functions in both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA metabolism. In the nucleus, LigIII has functional redundancy with DNA ligase I whereas LigIII is the only mitochondrial DNA ligase and is essential for the survival of cells dependent upon oxidative respiration. The unique LigIII zinc finger (ZnF) domain is not required for catalytic activity but senses DNA strand breaks and stimulates intermolecular ligation of two DNAs by an unknown mechanism. Consistent with this activity, LigIII acts in an alternative pathway of DNA double strand break repair that buttresses canonical non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and is manifest in NHEJ-defective cancer cells, but how LigIII acts in joining intermolecular DNA ends versus nick ligation is unclear. To investigate how LigIII efficiently joins two DNAs, we developed a real-time, fluorescence-based assay of DNA bridging suitable for high-throughput screening. On a nicked duplex DNA substrate, the results reveal binding competition between the ZnF and the oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding domain, one of three domains constituting the LigIII catalytic core. In contrast, these domains collaborate and are essential for formation of a DNA-bridging intermediate by adenylated LigIII that positions a pair of blunt-ended duplex DNAs for efficient and specific intermolecular ligation. PMID:26130724

  3. Structural peculiarity and antithrombin binding region profile of mucosal bovine and porcine heparins.

    PubMed

    Naggi, Annamaria; Gardini, Cristina; Pedrinola, Giacomo; Mauri, Lucio; Urso, Elena; Alekseeva, Anna; Casu, Benito; Cassinelli, Giuseppe; Guerrini, Marco; Iacomini, Marcello; Baigorria, Valentina; Torri, Giangiacomo

    2016-01-25

    The major compositional differences between bovine mucosal heparin (BMH) and the currently employed porcine mucosal heparin (PMH) have been reported to essentially consist of reduced 6-O-sulfation of the glucosamine residues in BMH and somewhat lower 2-O-sulfation of the iduronate residues in PMH. The present work is based on direct comparison of several BMH and PMH commercial preparations. A combined study by 2D (heteronuclear single quantum coherence, HSQC) NMR and ion-pair reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (IPRP-HPLC) coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) on the heparins, extended to the analysis of their heparinases digests and fractions separated by affinity chromatography on antithrombin (AT), confirmed the previously reported lower degree of 6-O-sulfation and showed lower 3-O-sulfated glucosamine content in BMH. More detailed studies allowed the identification of structural variants of AT-binding region (ATBR) structural variants, showing higher content of the N-sulfated components in BMH than in PMH. PMID:26512999

  4. Human dipeptidyl peptidase III mRNA variant I and II are expressed concurrently in multiple tumor derived cell lines and translated at comparable efficiency in vitro.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Subhash C; Chauhan, Shyam S

    2016-06-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase III (DPP III) is an emerging biomarker of human cancers. Expression, specificity, and function of human DPP III (hDPP III) mRNA variant I (V-I), II (V-II), and III (V-III) are poorly understood. Here, we investigated expression of these variants in multiple human tumor derived cell lines. DNA sequencing revealed concurrent expression of hDPP III V-I and V-II in U87MG (glioblastoma), SCC4 (squamous cell carcinoma), SiHa (carcinoma of uterus) cells. In SKOV1 cells, a cell line derived from ovarian carcinoma where a positive correlation between histological aggressiveness of the malignancy and hDPP III expression has previously been established, only V-II could be detected. Human DPP III V-III, which lacks an in-frame coding sequence, could not be detected in any of these cell lines. 5' untranslated region (UTR) of hDPP III V-II contains nucleotides GCA (-12 to -10 bp) upstream to the translation initiator codon (AUG). These nucleotides are absent from V-I and V-III, however, both V-I and V-II encode for the same hDPP III protein isoform-I. In vitro transcription coupled translation assay using hDPP III V-I and V-II expression vectors which contained full length V-I and V-II cDNA including the variable 5' UTR cloned under T7 promoter, respectively revealed a comparable translational efficiency for both the variants, abrogating involvement of nucleotides GCA (-12 to -10 bp) in translation of the variants. Our results, for the first time, demonstrate concurrent expression in multiple tumor derived cell lines and a comparable in vitro translational efficiency for hDPP III V-I and II. PMID:27153830

  5. Occupant kinematics in low-speed frontal sled tests: Human volunteers, Hybrid III ATD, and PMHS.

    PubMed

    Beeman, Stephanie M; Kemper, Andrew R; Madigan, Michael L; Franck, Christopher T; Loftus, Stephen C

    2012-07-01

    A total of 34 dynamic matched frontal sled tests were performed, 17 low (2.5g, Δv=4.8kph) and 17 medium (5.0g, Δv=9.7kph), with five male human volunteers of approximately 50th percentile height and weight, a Hybrid III 50th percentile male ATD, and three male PMHS. Each volunteer was exposed to two impulses at each severity, one relaxed and one braced prior to the impulse. A total of four tests were performed at each severity with the ATD and one trial was performed at each severity with each PMHS. A Vicon motion analysis system, 12 MX-T20 2 megapixel cameras, was used to quantify subject 3D kinematics (±1mm) (1kHz). Excursions of select anatomical regions were normalized to their respective initial positions and compared by test condition and between subject types. The forward excursions of the select anatomical regions generally increased with increasing severity. The forward excursions of relaxed human volunteers were significantly larger than those of the ATD for nearly every region at both severities. The forward excursions of the upper body regions of the braced volunteers were generally significantly smaller than those of the ATD at both severities. Forward excursions of the relaxed human volunteers and PMHSs were fairly similar except the head CG response at both severities and the right knee and C7 at the medium severity. The forward excursions of the upper body of the PMHS were generally significantly larger than those of the braced volunteers at both severities. Forward excursions of the PMHSs exceeded those of the ATD for all regions at both severities with significant differences within the upper body regions. Overall human volunteers, ATD, and PMHSs do not have identical biomechanical responses in low-speed frontal sled tests but all contribute valuable data that can be used to refine and validate computational models and ATDs used to assess injury risk in automotive collisions. PMID:22342960

  6. Effects of Caramel Colour III on the number of blood lymphocytes: a human study on Caramel Colour III immunotoxicity and a comparison of the results with data from rat studies.

    PubMed

    Houben, G F; van Dokkum, W; van Loveren, H; Penninks, A H; Seinen, W; Spanhaak, S; Ockhuizen, T

    1992-05-01

    Administration of the colour additive Ammonia Caramel Colour (Caramel Colour III) to rats has been associated with decreased lymphocyte counts, specifically in rats fed a diet low in vitamin B6. This effect is rapidly reversible and is caused by an imidazole derivative (THI) in Caramel Colour III. In the present paper, the conduct of a human study with Caramel Colour III is outlined and the results of blood lymphocyte counts are presented. No decrease in the number of blood lymphocytes occurred in marginally vitamin B6-deficient humans who consumed Caramel Colour III at the acceptable daily intake level (200 mg/kg body weight/day) for 7 days. These data are discussed in relation to the effects of Caramel Colour III and THI on blood lymphocyte numbers in rats. PMID:1644384

  7. PROTEIN III, A NEURON-SPECIFIC PHOSPHOPROTEIN: VARIANT FORMS FOUND IN HUMAN BRAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent work in the laboratory has shown the presence of many neuron-specific phosphoproteins in the mammalian nervous system. Two of these proteins, Protein III and Synapsin I, are specifically associated with synaptic vesicles in neurons throughout the brain. Protein III consist...

  8. A minimal RNA polymerase III transcription system from human cells reveals positive and negative regulatory roles for CK2.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ping; Wu, Si; Hernandez, Nouria

    2003-09-01

    In higher eukaryotes, RNA polymerase (pol) III is known to use different transcription factors to recognize three basic types of promoters, but in no case have these transcription factors been completely defined. We show that a highly purified pol III complex combined with the recombinant transcription factors SNAP(c), TBP, Brf2, and Bdp1 directs multiple rounds of transcription initiation and termination from the human U6 promoter. The pol III complex contains traces of CK2, and CK2 associates with the U6 promoter region in vivo. Transcription requires CK2 phosphorylation of the pol III complex. In contrast, CK2 phosphorylation of TBP, Brf2, and Bdp1 combined is inhibitory. The results define a minimum core machinery, the ultimate target of regulatory mechanisms, capable of directing all steps of the transcription process-initiation, elongation, and termination-by a metazoan RNA polymerase, and suggest positive and negative regulatory roles for CK2 in transcription by pol III. PMID:14527415

  9. Relationships of plasma factor VIIa-antithrombin complexes to manifest and future cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Angela; Scanavini, Daniela; Boquist, Susanna; Ericsson, Carl-Göran; Hellénius, Mai-Lis; Leander, Karin; de Faire, Ulf; Öhrvik, John; Woodhams, Barry; Morrissey, James H.; Hamsten, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Background Low levels of free activated coagulation factor VII (VIIa) are normally present in plasma to prime the coagulation of blood in normal hemostasis and during thrombus formation. VIIa also circulates in inactive form, in complex with antithrombin (VIIaAT) formed when VIIa is bound to tissue factor (TF). This study evaluated VIIaAT in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods We determined the plasma VIIaAT concentration in samples from the Stockholm Coronary Atherosclerosis Risk Factor (SCARF) study, a population-based case-control study of myocardial infarction (MI) and in samples from the Stockholm study of 60-years-old individuals, a prospective study of CVD. VIIaAT was measured with a sandwich ELISA that captures the complex between a monoclonal antibody to VIIa and a polyclonal antibody to AT. Results In the SCARF study (200 post-MI cases, 340 controls), VIIaAT was statistically significantly associated with patient status [odds ratio (95% confidence interval (CI)] 1.51 (1.09–2.08), p=0.0126). The case-control differences were however small, with VIIaAT values that largely overlap between the two groups. When a nested case-control design (211 incident CVD cases and 633 matched controls) was applied on 5- to 7-year follow-up results of the Stockholm prospective study of 60-year-olds, plasma VIIaAT concentration was not associated with incident CVD (odds ratio (95% CI) 1.001 (0.997–1.005), p=0.5447). Conclusions Plasma VIIaAT concentration had no predictive value for future CVD in our study population. Slightly increased plasma VIIaAT concentrations observed after MI may reflect processes that occur in connection with the acute event when TF and VIIa availability is increased. PMID:21925715

  10. Antithrombin Up-regulates AMP-activated Protein Kinase Signaling during Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yina; Wang, Jinli; Gao, Junjie; Yang, Hui; Wang, Yanqing; Manithody, Chandrashekhara; Li, Ji; Rezaie, Alireza R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Antithrombin (AT) is a protein of the serpin superfamily involved in regulation of the proteolytic activity of the serine proteases of the coagulation system. AT is known to exhibit anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective properties when it binds to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) on vascular cells. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important cardioprotective role during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). To determine whether the cardioprotective signaling function of AT is mediated through the AMPK pathway, we evaluated the cardioprotective activities of wild-type AT and its two derivatives, one having high affinity and the other no affinity for heparin, in an acute I/R injury model in C57BL/6J mice in which the left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded. The serpin derivatives were given 5 min before reperfusion. The results showed that AT-WT can activate AMPK in both in vivo and ex vivo conditions. Blocking AMPK activity abolished the cardioprotective function of AT against I/R injury. The AT derivative having high affinity for heparin was more effective in activating AMPK and in limiting infraction, but the derivative lacking affinity for heparin was inactive in eliciting AMPK-dependent cardioprotective activity. Activation of AMPK by AT inhibited the inflammatory c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) pathway during I/R. Further studies revealed that the AMPK activity induced by AT also modulates cardiac substrate metabolism by increasing glucose oxidation but inhibiting fatty acid oxidation during I/R. These results suggest that AT binds to HSPGs on heart tissues to invoke a cardioprotective function by triggering cardiac AMPK activation, thereby attenuating JNK inflammatory signaling pathways and modulating substrate metabolism during I/R. PMID:25230600

  11. Biological Variations of Lupus Anticoagulant, Antithrombin, Protein C, Protein S, and von Willebrand Factor Assays.

    PubMed

    Shou, Weiling; Chen, Qian; Wu, Wei; Cui, Wei

    2016-02-01

    The results of lupus anticoagulant (LA), antithrombin (AT), protein C (PC), and protein S (PS) testing, and the values of von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF:Ag) are important in diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of thrombosis and hemostasis diseases. Till now, no published study has focused on the biological variations in LA testing, and only a few studies have examined the biological variations of AT, PC, PS, and VWF:Ag. With the latest fully automated instruments and improved reagents, the analytical, within-subject, and between-subject biological variations were estimated for these five coagulant parameters in a cohort of 25 apparently healthy subjects. Blood specimens were collected at 8:00 am, 12:00 pm, and 4:00 pm on days 1, 3, and 5. The analytical biological variation (CV(A)) values of all the parameters were less than 3%. The within-subject biological variation (CV(W)) and between-subject biological variation (CV(G)) values of the LA normalized ratio were 4.64 and 6.83%, respectively. No significant differences were observed in the intraday and interday biological variations of LA tests, or in AT, PC, PS, and VWF:Ag values. Additionally, the utility of the conventional population-based reference intervals of the five coagulation parameters was evaluated by the index of individuality, and data on CV(W) and CV(A) were used to calculate the reference change value to identify the significance of changes in serial results from the same individual. PMID:26516946

  12. Effects of the colour additive caramel colour III on the immune system: a study with human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Houben, G F; Abma, P M; van den Berg, H; van Dokkum, W; van Loveren, H; Penninks, A H; Seinen, W; Spanhaak, S; Vos, J G; Ockhuizen, T

    1992-09-01

    Administration of the colour additive Caramel Colour III to rats has been associated with decreased numbers of lymphocytes and several other changes in the immune system, as well as in immune function parameters, specifically in animals fed a diet with a relatively low vitamin B6 content. The effects are caused by the imidazole derivative 2-acetyl-4(5)-tetrahydroxybutylimidazole (THI). Caramel Colour III is commonly used in food products such as bakery products, soya-bean sauces, brown sauces, gravies, soup aromas, brown (dehydrated) soups, brown malt caramel blend for various applications, vinegars and beers, and effects in humans on dietary intake cannot be excluded. Elderly male volunteers with a marginal deficit in vitamin B6 were considered a relevant and potentially sensitive group to study possible effects of Caramel Colour III on blood lymphocyte numbers (total and within subsets) or on proliferative responses of lymphocytes to mitogenic stimulation. In addition, several other haematological parameters, as well as serum immunoglobulin levels and immunoglobulin production in vitro by pokeweed mitogen-stimulated mononuclear blood cells were studied. The results of this double-blind intervention study demonstrated that in a selected test group of apparently healthy elderly male volunteers with a biochemically marginally deficient vitamin B6 status, Caramel Colour III containing 23 (commercial sample) or 143 (research sample) ppm THI and administered at the level of the current acceptable daily intake of 200 mg/kg body weight/day for 7 days did not affect any of the factors investigated. PMID:1427513

  13. mu-1,2-Peroxobridged di-iron(III) dimer formation in human H-chain ferritin.

    PubMed Central

    Bou-Abdallah, Fadi; Papaefthymiou, Georgia C; Scheswohl, Danielle M; Stanga, Sean D; Arosio, Paolo; Chasteen, N Dennis

    2002-01-01

    Biomineralization of the ferritin iron core involves a complex series of events in which H(2)O(2) is produced during iron oxidation by O(2) at a dinuclear centre, the 'ferroxidase site', located on the H-subunit of mammalian proteins. Rapid-freeze quench Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to probe the early events of iron oxidation and mineralization in recombinant human ferritin containing 24 H-subunits. The spectra reveal that a mu-1,2-peroxodiFe(III) intermediate (species P) with Mössbauer parameters delta (isomer shift)=0.58 mm/s and DeltaE(Q) (quadrupole splitting)=1.07 mm/s at 4.2 K is formed within 50 ms of mixing Fe(II) with the apoprotein. This intermediate accounts for almost all of the iron in the sample at 160 ms. It subsequently decays within 10 s to form a mu-oxodiFe(III)-protein complex (species D), which partially vacates the ferroxidase sites of the protein to generate Fe(III) clusters (species C) at a reaction time of 10 min. The intermediate peroxodiFe(III) complex does not decay under O(2)-limiting conditions, an observation suggesting inhibition of decay by unreacted Fe(II), or a possible role for O(2) in ferritin biomineralization in addition to that of direct oxidation of iron(II). PMID:11988076

  14. Kinetics of allopregnanolone formation catalyzed by human 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type III (AKR1C2).

    PubMed

    Trauger, John W; Jiang, Alice; Stearns, Brian A; LoGrasso, Philip V

    2002-11-12

    Allopregnanolone is a neurosteroid which exhibits anxiolytic and anticonvulsant activities through potentiation of the GABA(A) receptor. The reduction of 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone (5alpha-DHP), the last step in allopregnanolone biosynthesis, is catalyzed by 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (3alpha-HSDs). While the mechanism of action of allopregnanolone and the physiological and pharmacological modulation of allopregnanolone concentrations in vivo have been extensively studied, there has been little characterization of the kinetics of human 3alpha-HSD catalyzed allopregnanolone formation. We report here determination of the kinetic mechanism for 5alpha-DHP reduction catalyzed by human 3alpha-HSD type III by using steady-state kinetics studies and assessment of the ability of fluoxetine and various other small molecules to activate 3alpha-HSD type III catalyzed allopregnanolone formation. Enzyme-catalyzed 5alpha-DHP reduction yielded two products, allopregnanolone and 5alpha,20alpha-tetrahydroprogesterone, as measured by using a radiometric thin-layer chromatography assay, while 5beta-DHP reduction yielded the neurosteroid pregnanolone as the only product. 5Beta-DHP reduction proceeded with a catalytic efficiency 10 times higher than that of 5alpha-DHP reduction. Two-substrate kinetic analysis and dead-end inhibition studies for 5alpha-DHP reduction and allopregnanolone oxidation indicated that 3alpha-HSD type III utilized a ternary complex (sequential) kinetic mechanism, with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide cofactor binding before steroid substrate and leaving after steroid product. Since previous reports suggested that fluoxetine and certain other small molecules increased allopregnanolone concentrations in vivo by activating 3alpha-HSD type III, we investigated whether these small molecules were able to activate human 3alpha-HSD type III. Our results showed that, at concentrations up to 50 microM, fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, norfluoxetine

  15. Zinc protects human peripheral blood lymphocytes from Cr(III)(phenanthroline){sub 3}-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sankaramanivel, Sundararaj; Rajaram, Anantanarayanan; Rajaram, Rama

    2010-03-15

    We have studied the effect of Cr(III)(phen){sub 3} [(tris(1,10-phenanthroline) chromium(III) chloride)] on lymphocytes in order to find out if metallothioneins (MTs) are produced in the process. We also investigated whether zinc pretreatment is able to protect cells from apoptosis reported to occur for this compound. Our results indicate that MT synthesis is induced by Cr(III)(phen){sub 3}, and it has been identified as the MT-3 isoform through RT-PCR which has not been reported earlier. By zinc pretreatment, this apoptosis is reversed as inferred from cytotoxicity studies, Annexin-V/PI staining, ethidium bromide/acridine orange staining and DNA fragmentation pattern and ultrastructural investigations using TEM and SEM. The zinc pretreatment reduces the amount of ROS produced by Cr(III)(phen){sub 3} . The MT-1a and 1b synthesized by zinc (also evidenced through RT-PCR experiments) is possibly able to scavenge ROS which is one of the early signaling molecules that lead to apoptosis. Zinc pretreatment also reverses the changes in downstream signaling events such as mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP levels and the activation of caspase-3. This is the first report on the induction of MT-3 in lymphocytes due to a metal stress or any other stimuli. Even though MT-3 is synthesized here, apoptosis still occurs due to ROS production on Cr(III)(phen){sub 3} exposure when the cells have not been primed with zinc.

  16. Human MAF1 targets and represses active RNA polymerase III genes by preventing recruitment rather than inducing long-term transcriptional arrest

    PubMed Central

    Orioli, Andrea; Praz, Viviane; Lhôte, Philippe; Hernandez, Nouria

    2016-01-01

    RNA polymerase III (Pol III) is tightly controlled in response to environmental cues, yet a genomic-scale picture of Pol III regulation and the role played by its repressor MAF1 is lacking. Here, we describe genome-wide studies in human fibroblasts that reveal a dynamic and gene-specific adaptation of Pol III recruitment to extracellular signals in an mTORC1-dependent manner. Repression of Pol III recruitment and transcription are tightly linked to MAF1, which selectively localizes at Pol III loci, even under serum-replete conditions, and increasingly targets transcribing Pol III in response to serum starvation. Combining Pol III binding profiles with EU-labeling and high-throughput sequencing of newly synthesized small RNAs, we show that Pol III occupancy closely reflects ongoing transcription. Our results exclude the long-term, unproductive arrest of Pol III on the DNA as a major regulatory mechanism and identify previously uncharacterized, differential coordination in Pol III binding and transcription under different growth conditions. PMID:26941251

  17. Identification of Small Molecule Inhibitors of Human As(III) S-Adenosylmethionine Methyltransferase (AS3MT)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is the most ubiquitous environmental toxin and carcinogen. Long-term exposure to arsenic is associated with human diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Human As(III) S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) methyltransferases (hAS3MT) methylates As(III) to trivalent mono- and dimethyl species that are more toxic and potentially more carcinogenic than inorganic arsenic. Modulators of hAS3MT activity may be useful for the prevention or treatment of arsenic-related diseases. Using a newly developed high-throughput assay for hAS3MT activity, we identified 10 novel noncompetitive small molecule inhibitors. In silico docking analysis with the crystal structure of an AS3MT orthologue suggests that the inhibitors bind in a cleft between domains that is distant from either the As(III) or SAM binding sites. This suggests the presence of a possible allosteric and regulatory site in the enzyme. These inhibitors may be useful tools for future research in arsenic metabolism and are the starting-point for the development of drugs against hAS3MT. PMID:26577531

  18. A Novel Serpin with Antithrombin-Like Activity in Branchiostoma japonicum: Implications for the Presence of a Primitive Coagulation System

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Yeqing; Fan, Chunxin; Liang, Yujun; Gao, Bei; Zhang, Shicui

    2012-01-01

    Serine protease inhibitors, or serpins, are a group of widely distributed proteins with similar structures that use conformational change to inhibit proteases. Antithrombin (AT) is a member of the serine protease inhibitor superfamily and a major coagulation inhibitor in all vertebrates, but its evolutionary origin remains elusive. In this study we isolated for the first time a cDNA encoding an antithrombin homolog, BjATl, from the protochordate Branchiostoma japonicum. The deduced protein BjATl consisted of 338 amino acids sharing 36.7% to 41.1% identity to known vertebrate ATs. BjATl contains a potential N-linked glycosylation site, two potential heparin binding sites and the reactive center loop with the absolutely conserved sequence Gly-Arg-Ser; all of these are features characteristic of ATs. All three phylogenetic trees constructed using Neighbor-Joining, Maximum-Likelihood and Bayesian-Inference methods also placed BjATl together with ATs. Moreover, BjATl expressed in yeast cells was able to inhibit bovine thrombin activity by forming a SDS-stable BjATl-thrombin complex. It also displays a concentration-dependent inhibition of thrombin that is accelerated by heparin. Furthermore, BjATl was predominantly expressed in the hepatic caecum and hind-gut, agreeing with the expression pattern of AT in mammalian species. All these data clearly demonstrate that BjATl is an ortholog of vertebrate ATs, suggesting that a primitive coagulation system emerged in the protochordate. PMID:22427833

  19. Mutations in the UQCC1-Interacting Protein, UQCC2, Cause Human Complex III Deficiency Associated with Perturbed Cytochrome b Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wijeyeratne, Xiaonan W.; van den Brand, Mariël A. M.; Leenders, Anne M.; Rodenburg, Richard J.; Reljić, Boris; Compton, Alison G.; Frazier, Ann E.; Bruno, Damien L.; Christodoulou, John; Endo, Hitoshi; Ryan, Michael T.; Nijtmans, Leo G.; Huynen, Martijn A.; Thorburn, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is responsible for generating the majority of cellular ATP. Complex III (ubiquinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase) is the third of five OXPHOS complexes. Complex III assembly relies on the coordinated expression of the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, with 10 subunits encoded by nuclear DNA and one by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Complex III deficiency is a debilitating and often fatal disorder that can arise from mutations in complex III subunit genes or one of three known complex III assembly factors. The molecular cause for complex III deficiency in about half of cases, however, is unknown and there are likely many complex III assembly factors yet to be identified. Here, we used Massively Parallel Sequencing to identify a homozygous splicing mutation in the gene encoding Ubiquinol-Cytochrome c Reductase Complex Assembly Factor 2 (UQCC2) in a consanguineous Lebanese patient displaying complex III deficiency, severe intrauterine growth retardation, neonatal lactic acidosis and renal tubular dysfunction. We prove causality of the mutation via lentiviral correction studies in patient fibroblasts. Sequence-profile based orthology prediction shows UQCC2 is an ortholog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae complex III assembly factor, Cbp6p, although its sequence has diverged substantially. Co-purification studies show that UQCC2 interacts with UQCC1, the predicted ortholog of the Cbp6p binding partner, Cbp3p. Fibroblasts from the patient with UQCC2 mutations have deficiency of UQCC1, while UQCC1-depleted cells have reduced levels of UQCC2 and complex III. We show that UQCC1 binds the newly synthesized mtDNA-encoded cytochrome b subunit of complex III and that UQCC2 patient fibroblasts have specific defects in the synthesis or stability of cytochrome b. This work reveals a new cause for complex III deficiency that can assist future patient diagnosis, and provides insight into human complex III assembly by establishing that UQCC1

  20. Arginine 485 of human serum albumin interacts with the benzophenone moiety of ketoprofen in the binding pocket of subdomain III A and III B.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, K; Chuang, V T G; Ito, T; Suenaga, A; Watanabe, H; Maruyama, T; Otagiri, M

    2012-05-01

    Arylpropionic acid nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drusg (NSAIDs) primarily bind to subdomain III A (site II) of human serum albumin (HSA). Ketoprofen (KP), an arylpropionic acid that contains a photoreactive benzophenone moiety, was used to photolabel the binding region of site II. LC/Q-TOF mass spectrometry determination revealed that R485 was the amino acid residue that formed covalent adduct with the benzophenone moiety of KP. Point mutation of arginine 485 to alanine showed a slight decrease in the overall binding percentage of KP when compared to that of native HSA. The induced circular dichroism spectral data of KP with both R485A and native albumin confirmed the photolabeling findings. Interestingly, an increase in the extent of [14C]KP covalent adduct formation with the 11.6 kDa peptide derived from subdomain IIB-IIIA was observed for R485A. In contrast, mutation of arginine 410 caused a significant reduction of binding percentage, confirming the importance of this residue in high affinity binding of arylpropionic acid derivatives. This may indicate that while KP's carboxylate interacts electrostatically with arginine 410, the benzophenone moiety may have swung away from helix 6 in the absence of arginine 485. In this study, photolabeling of native and mutants albumins, R485A and R410C with [14C]KP confirmed that R485 involved in the non-electrostatic interaction with the benzophenone moiety of KP, but not vital to hold KP in the binding pocket of subdomain IIIA. PMID:22764574

  1. Use of synthetic peptides to locate novel integrin alpha2beta1-binding motifs in human collagen III.

    PubMed

    Raynal, Nicolas; Hamaia, Samir W; Siljander, Pia R-M; Maddox, Ben; Peachey, Anthony R; Fernandez, Rafael; Foley, Loraine J; Slatter, David A; Jarvis, Gavin E; Farndale, Richard W

    2006-02-17

    A set of 57 synthetic peptides encompassing the entire triplehelical domain of human collagen III was used to locate binding sites for the collagen-binding integrin alpha(2)beta(1). The capacity of the peptides to support Mg(2+)-dependent binding of several integrin preparations was examined. Wild-type integrins (recombinant alpha(2) I-domain, alpha(2)beta(1) purified from platelet membranes, and recombinant soluble alpha(2)beta(1) expressed as an alpha(2)-Fos/beta(1)-Jun heterodimer) bound well to only three peptides, two containing GXX'GER motifs (GROGER and GMOGER, where O is hydroxyproline) and one containing two adjacent GXX'GEN motifs (GLKGEN and GLOGEN). Two mutant alpha(2) I-domains were tested: the inactive T221A mutant, which recognized no peptides, and the constitutively active E318W mutant, which bound a larger subset of peptides. Adhesion of activated human platelets to GER-containing peptides was greater than that of resting platelets, and HT1080 cells bound well to more of the peptides compared with platelets. Binding of cells and recombinant proteins was abolished by anti-alpha(2) monoclonal antibody 6F1 and by chelation of Mg(2+). We describe two novel high affinity integrin-binding motifs in human collagen III (GROGER and GLOGEN) and a third motif (GLKGEN) that displays intermediate activity. Each motif was verified using shorter synthetic peptides. PMID:16326707

  2. Peptide array-based screening of human mesenchymal stem cell-adhesive peptides derived from fibronectin type III domain

    SciTech Connect

    Okochi, Mina; Nomura, Shigeyuki; Kaga, Chiaki; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2008-06-20

    Human mesenchymal stem cell-adhesive peptides were screened based on the amino acid sequence of fibronectin type III domain 8-11 (FN-III{sub 8-11}) using a peptide array synthesized by the Fmoc-chemistry. Using hexameric peptide library of FN-III{sub 8-11} scan, we identified the ALNGR (Ala-Leu-Asn-Gly-Arg) peptide that induced cell adhesion as well as RGDS (Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser) peptide. After incubation for 2 h, approximately 68% of inoculated cells adhere to the ALNGR peptide disk. Adhesion inhibition assay with integrin antibodies showed that the ALNGR peptide interacts with integrin {beta}1 but not with {alpha}v{beta}3, indicating that the receptors for ALNGR are different from RGDS. Additionally, the ALNGR peptide expressed cell specificities for adhesion: cell adhesion was promoted for fibroblasts but not for keratinocytes or endotherial cells. The ALNGR peptide induced cell adhesion and promoted cell proliferation without changing its property. It is therefore useful for the construction of functional biomaterials.

  3. Temporal uncertainty analysis of human errors based on interrelationships among multiple factors: a case of Minuteman III missile accident.

    PubMed

    Rong, Hao; Tian, Jin; Zhao, Tingdi

    2016-01-01

    In traditional approaches of human reliability assessment (HRA), the definition of the error producing conditions (EPCs) and the supporting guidance are such that some of the conditions (especially organizational or managerial conditions) can hardly be included, and thus the analysis is burdened with incomprehensiveness without reflecting the temporal trend of human reliability. A method based on system dynamics (SD), which highlights interrelationships among technical and organizational aspects that may contribute to human errors, is presented to facilitate quantitatively estimating the human error probability (HEP) and its related variables changing over time in a long period. Taking the Minuteman III missile accident in 2008 as a case, the proposed HRA method is applied to assess HEP during missile operations over 50 years by analyzing the interactions among the variables involved in human-related risks; also the critical factors are determined in terms of impact that the variables have on risks in different time periods. It is indicated that both technical and organizational aspects should be focused on to minimize human errors in a long run. PMID:26360211

  4. A human β-III-spectrin spinocerebellar ataxia type 5 mutation causes high-affinity F-actin binding

    PubMed Central

    Avery, Adam W.; Crain, Jonathan; Thomas, David D.; Hays, Thomas S.

    2016-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 5 (SCA5) is a human neurodegenerative disease that stems from mutations in the SPTBN2 gene encoding the protein β-III-spectrin. Here we investigated the molecular consequence of a SCA5 missense mutation that results in a L253P substitution in the actin-binding domain (ABD) of β-III-spectrin. We report that the L253P substitution in the isolated β-III-spectrin ABD causes strikingly high F-actin binding affinity (Kd = 75.5 nM) compared to the weak F-actin binding affinity of the wild-type ABD (Kd = 75.8 μM). The mutation also causes decreased thermal stability (Tm = 44.6 °C vs 59.5 °C). Structural analyses indicate that leucine 253 is in a loop at the interface of the tandem calponin homology (CH) domains comprising the ABD. Leucine 253 is predicted to form hydrophobic contacts that bridge the CH domains. The decreased stability of the mutant indicates that these bridging interactions are probably disrupted, suggesting that the high F-actin binding affinity of the mutant is due to opening of the CH domain interface. These results support a fundamental role for leucine 253 in regulating opening of the CH domain interface and binding of the ABD to F-actin. This study indicates that high-affinity actin binding of L253P β-III-spectrin is a likely driver of neurodegeneration. PMID:26883385

  5. A human β-III-spectrin spinocerebellar ataxia type 5 mutation causes high-affinity F-actin binding.

    PubMed

    Avery, Adam W; Crain, Jonathan; Thomas, David D; Hays, Thomas S

    2016-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 5 (SCA5) is a human neurodegenerative disease that stems from mutations in the SPTBN2 gene encoding the protein β-III-spectrin. Here we investigated the molecular consequence of a SCA5 missense mutation that results in a L253P substitution in the actin-binding domain (ABD) of β-III-spectrin. We report that the L253P substitution in the isolated β-III-spectrin ABD causes strikingly high F-actin binding affinity (Kd = 75.5 nM) compared to the weak F-actin binding affinity of the wild-type ABD (Kd = 75.8 μM). The mutation also causes decreased thermal stability (Tm = 44.6 °C vs 59.5 °C). Structural analyses indicate that leucine 253 is in a loop at the interface of the tandem calponin homology (CH) domains comprising the ABD. Leucine 253 is predicted to form hydrophobic contacts that bridge the CH domains. The decreased stability of the mutant indicates that these bridging interactions are probably disrupted, suggesting that the high F-actin binding affinity of the mutant is due to opening of the CH domain interface. These results support a fundamental role for leucine 253 in regulating opening of the CH domain interface and binding of the ABD to F-actin. This study indicates that high-affinity actin binding of L253P β-III-spectrin is a likely driver of neurodegeneration. PMID:26883385

  6. A histone arginine methylation localizes to nucleosomes in satellite II and III DNA sequences in the human genome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Applying supervised learning/classification techniques to epigenomic data may reveal properties that differentiate histone modifications. Previous analyses sought to classify nucleosomes containing histone H2A/H4 arginine 3 symmetric dimethylation (H2A/H4R3me2s) or H2A.Z using human CD4+ T-cell chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) data. However, these efforts only achieved modest accuracy with limited biological interpretation. Here, we investigate the impact of using appropriate data pre-processing —deduplication, normalization, and position- (peak-) finding to identify stable nucleosome positions — in conjunction with advanced classification algorithms, notably discriminatory motif feature selection and random forests. Performance assessments are based on accuracy and interpretative yield. Results We achieved dramatically improved accuracy using histone modification features (99.0%; previous attempts, 68.3%) and DNA sequence features (94.1%; previous attempts, <60%). Furthermore, the algorithms elicited interpretable features that withstand permutation testing, including: the histone modifications H4K20me3 and H3K9me3, which are components of heterochromatin; and the motif TCCATT, which is part of the consensus sequence of satellite II and III DNA. Downstream analysis demonstrates that satellite II and III DNA in the human genome is occupied by stable nucleosomes containing H2A/H4R3me2s, H4K20me3, and/or H3K9me3, but not 18 other histone methylations. These results are consistent with the recent biochemical finding that H4R3me2s provides a binding site for the DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt3a) that methylates satellite II and III DNA. Conclusions Classification algorithms applied to appropriately pre-processed ChIP-Seq data can accurately discriminate between histone modifications. Algorithms that facilitate interpretation, such as discriminatory motif feature selection, have the added potential to impart information about underlying

  7. Cellular localization of type I III and IV procollagen gene transcripts in normal and fibrotic human liver.

    PubMed Central

    Milani, S.; Herbst, H.; Schuppan, D.; Surrenti, C.; Riecken, E. O.; Stein, H.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have determined the cell types producing alpha 1 (I), alpha 2 (I), alpha 1 (III), and alpha 1 (IV) procollagen gene transcripts in adult human liver by in situ hybridization with [35S]-labeled RNA probes. The liver specimens comprised a total of 20 biopsies with normal histology and biopsies with fibrosis or cirrhosis at different clinical stages and of heterogeneous origins. In normal liver, procollagen type I, III, and IV transcripts were detected in stromal and vascular mesenchymal cells of portal tracts and central veins, as well as in some perisinusoidal cells of the lobule. In fibrotic liver, increased levels of these procollagen mRNAs were observed in the same locations, and particularly enhanced in stromal cells of fibrotic septa and portal tracts, as well as in perisinusoidal cells. Expression of alpha 1 (IV) procollagen RNA was additionally found in some vascular endothelial and bile duct epithelial cells. Although previously suggested as the major source of liver collagens, hepatocytes showed no significant procollagen transcript levels in any of our samples. Thus, procollagen synthesis does not appear to be a function of hepatocytes, but rather of mesenchymal, endothelial, and bile duct epithelial cells in adult human liver. These findings may have implications for the development of specifically targeted antifibrotic therapies. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:2372043

  8. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Modified with a Single-Chain Antibody against EGFRvIII Successfully Inhibit the Growth of Human Xenograft Malignant Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Balyasnikova, Irina V.; Ferguson, Sherise D.; Sengupta, Sadhak; Han, Yu; Lesniak, Maciej S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Glioblastoma multiforme is the most lethal brain tumor with limited therapeutic options. Antigens expressed on the surface of malignant cells are potential targets for antibody-mediated gene/drug delivery. Principal Findings In this study, we investigated the ability of genetically modified human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) expressing a single-chain antibody (scFv) on their surface against a tumor specific antigen, EGFRvIII, to enhance the therapy of EGFRvIII expressing glioma cells in vivo. The growth of U87-EGFRvIII was specifically delayed in co-culture with hMSC-scFvEGFRvIII. A significant down-regulation was observed in the expression of pAkt in EGFRvIII expressing glioma cells upon culture with hMSC-scFvEGFRvIII vs. controls as well as in EGFRvIII expressing glioma cells from brain tumors co-injected with hMSC-scFvEGFRvIII in vivo. hMSC expressing scFvEGFRvIII also demonstrated several fold enhanced retention in EGFRvIII expressing flank and intracranial glioma xenografts vs. control hMSCs. The growth of U87-EGFRvIII flank xenografts was inhibited by 50% in the presence of hMSC-scFvEGFRvIII (p<0.05). Moreover, animals co-injected with U87-EGFRvIII and hMSC-scFvEGFRvIII intracranially showed significantly improved survival compared to animals injected with U87-EGFRvIII glioma cells alone or with control hMSCs. This survival was further improved when the same animals received an additional dosage of hMSC-scFvEGFRvIII two weeks after initial tumor implantation. Of note, EGFRvIII expressing brain tumors co-injected with hMSCs had a lower density of CD31 expressing blood vessels in comparison with control tumors, suggesting a possible role in tumor angiogenesis. Conclusions/Significance The results presented in this study illustrate that genetically modified MSCs may function as a novel therapeutic vehicle for malignant brain tumors. PMID:20305783

  9. Comprehensive safety assessment of a human inactivated diploid enterovirus 71 vaccine based on a phase III clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Kong, Yujia; Jiang, Zhiwei; Li, Chanjuan; Wang, Ling; Xia, Jielai

    2016-04-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). In a previous phase III trial in children, a human diploid cell-based inactivated EV71 vaccine elicited EV71 specific immune responses and protection against EV71 associated HFMD. This study aimed to assess the factors influencing the severity of adverse events observed in this previous trial. This was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, phase III clinical trial of a human diploid vaccine carried out in 12,000 children in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01569581). Solicited events were recorded for 7 days and unsolicited events were reported for 28 days after each injection. Age trend analysis of adverse reaction was conducted in each treatment group. Multiple logistic regression models were built to identify factors influencing the severity of adverse reactions. Fewer solicited adverse reactions were observed in older participants within the first 7 days after vaccination (P < 0.0001), except local pain and pruritus. More severe adverse reactions were observed after the initial injection than after the booster injection. Serious cold or respiratory tract infections (RTI) were observed more often in children aged 6-36 months than in older children. Only the severity of local swelling was associated with body mass index. Children with throat discomfort before injection had a higher risk of serious cold or RTI. These results indicated that the human diploid cell-based vaccine achieved a satisfactory safety profile. PMID:26837471

  10. The Influences of Arm Resist Motion on a CAR Crash Test Using Hybrid III Dummy with Human-Like Arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yongchul; Youm, Youngil; Bae, Hanil; Choi, Hyeonki

    Safety of the occupant during the crash is very essential design element. Many researches have been investigated in reducing the fatal injury of occupant. They are focusing on the development of a dummy in order to obtain the real human-like motion. However, they have not considered the arm resist motion during the car accident. In this study, we would like to suggest the importance of the reactive force of the arm in a car crash. The influences of reactive force acting on the human upper extremity were investigated using the impedance experimental method with lumped mass model of hand system and a Hybrid III dummy with human-like arm. Impedance parameters (e.g. inertia, spring constant and damping coefficient) of the elbow joint in maximum activation level were measured by free oscillation test using single axis robot. The results showed that without seat belt, the reactive force of human arm reduced the head, chest, and femur injury, and the flexion moment of the neck is higher than that of the conventional dummy.

  11. DNA ligase III and DNA ligase IV carry out genetically distinct forms of end joining in human somatic cells

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sehyun; Harvey, Adam; Zimbric, Jacob; Wang, Yongbao; Nguyen, Thanh; Jackson, Pauline J.; Hendrickson, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Ku-dependent C-NHEJ (classic non-homologous end joining) is the primary DNA EJing (end joining) repair pathway in mammals. Recently, an additional EJing repair pathway (A-NHEJ; alternative-NHEJ) has been described. Currently, the mechanism of A-NHEJ is obscure although a dependency on LIGIII (DNA ligase III) is often implicated. To test the requirement for LIGIII in A-NHEJ we constructed a LIGIII conditionally-null human cell line using gene targeting. Nuclear EJing activity appeared unaffected by a deficiency in LIGIII as, surprisingly, so were random gene targeting integration events. In contrast, LIGIII was required for mitochondrial function and this defined the gene’s essential activity. Human Ku:LIGIII and Ku:LIGIV (DNA ligase IV) double knockout cell lines, however, demonstrated that LIGIII is required for the enhanced A-NHEJ activity that is observed in Ku-deficient cells. Most unexpectedly, however, the majority of EJing events remained LIGIV-dependent. In conclusion, although human LIGIII has an essential function in mitochondrial maintenance, it is dispensable for most types of nuclear DSB repair, except for the A-NHEJ events that are normally suppressed by Ku. Moreover, we describe that a robust Ku-independent, LIGIV-dependent repair pathway exists in human somatic cells. PMID:24837021

  12. Human transcription factor IIIC contains a polypeptide of 55 kDa specifically binding to Pol III genes.

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, H R; Waldschmidt, R; Seifart, K H

    1990-01-01

    Human transcription factor IIIC contains a 55 kDa polypeptide which specifically interacts with the Adenovirus 2 VAI gene promoter and which mimics most of the DNA binding properties of the entire factor. The specificity and affinity of this protein:DNA interaction was demonstrated by: (i) Separation of purified fractions of hTFIIIC by SDS PAGE, electrotransfer to nitrocellulose, renaturation of proteins and their subsequent binding to the VAI gene, (ii) recovery and renaturation of proteins from SDS gels and identification of a fraction of hTFIIIC with a molecular mass less than 68 kDa, which specifically binds to VAI DNA, (iii) correlating the differential binding activity of the renatured 55 kDa component of hTFIIIC to mutated Pol III promoters with the ability of the entire factor to form functional transcription complexes thereon, and finally by (iv) specific crosslinking of the 55 kDa DNA binding component of hTFIIIC to the photoaffinity labeled B-box promoter sequence of the VAI gene. Images PMID:2395640

  13. Biogenic synthesis of selenium nanoparticles and their effect on As(III)-induced toxicity on human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Kumar Suranjit; Selvaraj, Kaliaperumal

    2014-03-01

    A bioreductive capacity of a plant, Terminalia arjuna leaf extract, was utilized for preparation of selenium nanoparticles. The leaf extract worked as good capping as well as stabilizing agent and facilitated the formation of stable colloidal nanoparticles. Resulting nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), respectively. The colloidal solution showed the absorption maximum at 390 nm while TEM and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) indicated the formation of polydispersed, crystalline selenium nanoparticles of size raging from 10 to 80 nm. FT-IR analysis suggested the involvement of O-H, N-H, C=O, and C-O functional group of the leaf extract in particle formation while EDAX analysis indicated the presence of selenium in synthesized nanoparticles. The effect of nanoparticles on human lymphocytes treated with arsenite, As(III), has been studied. Studies on cell viability using MTT assay and DNA damage using comet assay revealed that synthesized selenium nanoparticles showed protective effect against As(III)-induced cell death and DNA damage. Chronic ingestion of arsenic infested groundwater, and prevalence of arsenicosis is a serious public health issue. The synthesized benign nanoselenium can be a promising agent to check the chronic toxicity caused due to arsenic exposure. PMID:24469678

  14. Gold(III)-Dithiocarbamato Peptidomimetics in the Forefront of the Targeted Anticancer Therapy: Preclinical Studies against Human Breast Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Nardon, Chiara; Schmitt, Sara M.; Yang, Huanjie; Zuo, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Since the serendipitous discovery of cisplatin, platinum-based drugs have become well-established antitumor agents, despite the fact that their clinical use is limited by many severe side-effects. In order to both improve the chemotherapeutic index and broaden the therapeutic spectrum of current drugs, our most recent anti-neoplastic agents, Au(III) complexes, were designed as carrier-mediated delivery systems exploiting peptide transporters, which are up-regulated in some cancers. Among all, we focused on two compounds and tested them on human MDA-MB-231 (resistant to cisplatin) breast cancer cell cultures and xenografts, discovering the proteasome as a major target both in vitro and in vivo. 53% inhibition of breast tumor growth in mice was observed after 27 days of treatment at 1.0 mg kg−1 d−1, compared to control. Remarkably, if only the most responsive mice are taken into account, 85% growth inhibition, with some animals showing tumor shrinkage, was observed after 13 days. These results led us to file an international patent, recognizing this class of gold(III) peptidomimetics as suitable candidates for entering phase I clinical trials. PMID:24392119

  15. Hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for the speciation of arsenic (III) and arsenic (V) in fresh waters and human hair extracts.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hongmei; Hu, Bin; Chen, Beibei; Xia, Linbo

    2009-02-16

    A new method of hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME) using ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) as extractant combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) using Pd as permanent modifier has been described for the speciation of As(III) and As(V). In a pH range of 3.0-4.0, the complex of As(III)-APDC complex can be extracted using toluene as the extraction solvent leaving As(V) in the aqueous layer. The post extraction organic phase was directly injected into ETAAS for the determination of As(III). To determine total arsenic in the samples, first As(V) was reduced to As(III) by l-cysteine, and then a microextraction method was performed prior to the determination of total arsenic. As(V) assay was based on subtracting As(III) form the total arsenic. All parameters, such as pH of solution, type of organic solvent, the amount of APDC, stirring rate and extraction time, affecting the separation of As(III) from As(V) and the extraction efficiency of As(III) were investigated, and the optimized extraction conditions were established. Under optimized conditions, a detection limit of 0.12ngmL(-1) with enrichment factor of 78 was achieved. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of the method for five replicate determinations of 5ngmL(-1) As(III) was 8%. The developed method was applied to the speciation of As(III) and As(V) in fresh water and human hair extracts, and the recoveries for the spiked samples are 86-109%. In order to validate the developed method, three certified reference materials such as GBW07601 human hair, BW3209 and BW3210 environmental water were analyzed, and the results obtained were in good agreement with the certified values provided. PMID:19154804

  16. Head Excursion of Restrained Human Volunteers and Hybrid III Dummies in Steady State Rollover Tests

    PubMed Central

    Moffatt, Edward; Hare, Barry; Hughes, Raymond; Lewis, Lance; Iiyama, Hiroshi; Curzon, Anne; Cooper, Eddie

    2003-01-01

    Seatbelts provide substantial benefits in rollover crashes, yet occupants still receive head and neck injuries from contacting the vehicle roof interior when the roof exterior strikes the ground. Prior research has evaluated rollover restraint performance utilizing anthropomorphic test devices (dummies), but little dynamic testing has been done with human volunteers to learn how they move during rollovers. In this study, the vertical excursion of the head of restrained dummies and human subjects was measured in a vehicle being rotated about its longitudinal roll axis at roll rates from 180-to-360 deg/sec and under static inversion conditions. The vehicle’s restraint design was the commonly used 3-point seatbelt with continuous loop webbing and a sliding latch plate. This paper presents an analysis of the observed occupant motion and provides a comparison of dummy and human motion under similar test conditions. Thirty-five tests (eighteen static and seventeen dynamic) were completed using two different sizes of dummies and human subjects in both near and far-side roll directions. The research indicates that far-side rollovers cause the restrained test subjects to have greater head excursion than near-side rollovers, and that static inversion testing underestimates head excursion for far-side occupants. Human vertical head excursion of up to 200 mm was found at a roll rate of 220 deg/sec. Humans exhibit greater variability in head excursion in comparison to dummies. Transfer of seatbelt webbing through the latch plate did not correlate directly with differences in head excursion. PMID:12941241

  17. High-level secretory expression and purification of unhydroxylated human collagen α1(III) chain in Pichia pastoris GS115.

    PubMed

    Li, Linbo; Fan, Daidi; Ma, Xiaoxuan; Deng, Jianjun; He, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant collagen and gelatin have been applied in biomedical materials field because of products from genetically engineered microorganisms with improved safety, traceability, reproducibility, and homogeneous quality. To obtain high-level secretory expression of single-chain full-length human collagen α1(III) chain (COL3A1) without the N and C telopeptides, the cDNA coding for the human COL3A1 gene was cloned into the secretory expression vector pPIC9K and integrated into Pichia pastoris GS115. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting analysis of culture supernatant from the recombinant methylotrophic yeast suggested that the unhydroxylated recombinant human COL3A1 (rhCOL3A1) was secreted into the culture medium, and exhibited an apparent molecular mass of approximately 130 kDa, which is 1.4 times higher than the theoretical one. Finally, the unhydroxylated rhCOL3A1 was purified to greater than 90% purity using a four-step approach. In addition, methylthiazolydiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide experiments indicated that low concentration of rhCOL3A1 could promote Baby hamster kidney cell (BHK21) proliferation effectively. The production and purification of rhCOL3A1 described in this study offer a new method for obtaining high level of rhCOL3A1 in relatively pure form, which is suitable for biomedical materials application. PMID:25231012

  18. Purification of human immunoglobulins A, G and M from Cohn fraction II/III by small peptide affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhuo; Gurgel, Patrick V; Carbonell, Ruben G

    2012-11-01

    This work describes attempts to purify human IgG, IgA and IgM from Cohn fraction II/III using HWRGWV affinity peptide resin. The effects of peptide density and different elution additives on recovery of the three antibodies were investigated. At low peptide density, salting-in salts such as magnesium chloride and calcium chloride facilitated antibody elution. Ethylene glycol, urea and arginine also facilitated elution because of their ability to decrease hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions. However, at high peptide density, no recovery improvements were observed because of increased non-specific hydrophobic interactions. The final elution conditions for each antibody were chosen based on the resulting yields and purities when a 10:2:1mg/mL mixture of human IgG, IgA and IgM was used as starting material. Different pretreatment methods were employed in order to improve the purity of antibodies from Cohn fraction II/III. After pretreatment with caprylic acid precipitation or combination of caprylic acid and polyethylene glycol precipitation, purities over 95% and yields of about 60% were obtained for hIgG, which are comparable to current chromatographic purification methods involving two chromatography steps when hIgG is isolated from plasma fractions. A hIgA-enriched fraction with 42% hIgA and 56% hIgG, as well as a hIgM enriched fraction with 46% hIgM, 28% hIgA and 24% hIgG, were obtained as the by-products. PMID:23026261

  19. Liver proteomic response to hypertriglyceridemia in human-apolipoprotein C-III transgenic mice at cellular and mitochondrial compartment levels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is defined as a triglyceride (TG) plasma level exceeding 150 mg/dl and is tightly associated with atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes and acute pancreatitis. The present study was undertaken to investigate the mitochondrial, sub-mitochondrial and cellular proteomic impact of hypertriglyceridemia in the hepatocytes of hypertriglyceridemic transgenic mice (overexpressing the human apolipoproteinC-III). Methods Quantitative proteomics (2D-DIGE) analysis was carried out on both “low-expressor” (LE) and “high-expressor” (HE) mice, respectively exhibiting moderate and severe HTG, to characterize the effect of the TG plasma level on the proteomic response. Results The mitoproteome analysis has revealed a large-scale phenomenon in transgenic mice, i.e. a general down-regulation of matricial proteins and up-regulation of inner membrane proteins. These data also demonstrate that the magnitude of proteomic changes strongly depends on the TG plasma level. Our different analyses indicate that, in HE mice, the capacity of several metabolic pathways is altered to promote the availability of acetyl-CoA, glycerol-3-phosphate, ATP and NADPH for TG de novo biosynthesis. The up-regulation of several cytosolic ROS detoxifying enzymes has also been observed, suggesting that the cytoplasm of HTG mice is subjected to oxidative stress. Moreover, our results suggest that iron over-accumulation takes place in the cytosol of HE mice hepatocytes and may contribute to enhance oxidative stress and to promote cellular proliferation. Conclusions These results indicate that the metabolic response to HTG in human apolipoprotein C-III overexpressing mice may support a high TG production rate and that the cytosol of hepatocytes is subjected to an important oxidative stress, probably as a result of FFA over-accumulation, iron overload and enhanced activity of some ROS-producing catabolic enzymes. PMID:25047818

  20. Saliva versus Plasma Relative Bioavailability of Tolterodine in Humans: Validation of Class III Drugs of the Salivary Excretion Classification System.

    PubMed

    Idkaidek, N; Najib, N; Salem, I I; Najib, O

    2016-06-01

    Relative bioavailability study of tolterodine in healthy human volunteers was done using saliva and plasma matrices in order to investigate the robustness of using saliva instead of plasma as a surrogate for bioavailability and bioequivalence of class III drugs according to the salivary excretion classification system (SECS). Saliva and plasma samples were collected up to 16 h after 2 mg oral dose. Saliva and plasma pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by non compartmental analysis using Kinetica program V5. Human effective intestinal permeability was optimized by SimCYP program V13. Tolterodine falls into class III (High permeability/Low fraction unbound to plasma proteins) and hence was subjected to salivary excretion. A high pearsons correlation coefficient of 0.97 between mean saliva and plasma concentrations, and saliva/plasma concentrations ratio of 0.33 were observed. In addition, correlation coefficients and saliva/plasma ratios of area under curve and maximum concentration were 0.98, 0.95 and 0.42, 0.34 respectively. On the other hand, time to reach maximum concentration was higher in saliva by 2.37 fold. In addition, inter subject variability values in saliva were slightly higher than plasma leading to need for slightly higher number of subjects to be used in saliva studies (55 vs. 48 subjects). Non-invasive saliva sampling instead of invasive plasma sampling method can be used as a surrogate for bioavailability and bioequivalence of SECS class I drugs when adequate sample size is used. PMID:27011385

  1. Case Studies: Persecution/Genocide. The Human Rights Series. Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litynsky, Walter; And Others

    A continuation of the study of those factors that lead to persecutions and acts of genocide is presented. As students read the materials included in the case studies, they should be referred to the organizing concepts discussed in "Teaching about the Holocaust and Genocide: Introduction. The Human Rights Series, Volume I." Unit 1 in that volume…

  2. ADH IB Expression, but Not ADH III, Is Decreased in Human Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mutka, Sarah C.; Green, Lucia H.; Verderber, Evie L.; Richards, Jane P.; Looker, Doug L.; Chlipala, Elizabeth A.; Rosenthal, Gary J.

    2012-01-01

    Endogenous S-nitrosothiols, including S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), mediate nitric oxide (NO)-based signaling, inflammatory responses, and smooth muscle function. Reduced GSNO levels have been implicated in several respiratory diseases, and inhibition of GSNO reductase, (GSNOR) the primary enzyme that metabolizes GSNO, represents a novel approach to treating inflammatory lung diseases. Recently, an association between decreased GSNOR expression and human lung cancer risk was proposed in part based on immunohistochemical staining using a polyclonal GSNOR antibody. GSNOR is an isozyme of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) family, and we demonstrate that the antibody used in those studies cross reacts substantially with other ADH proteins and may not be an appropriate reagent. We evaluated human lung cancer tissue arrays using monoclonal antibodies highly specific for human GSNOR with minimal cross reactivity to other ADH proteins. We verified the presence of GSNOR in ≥85% of specimens examined, and extensive analysis of these samples demonstrated no difference in GSNOR protein expression between cancerous and normal lung tissues. Additionally, GSNOR and other ADH mRNA levels were evaluated quantitatively in lung cancer cDNA arrays by qPCR. Consistent with our immunohistochemical findings, GSNOR mRNA levels were not changed in lung cancer tissues, however the expression levels of other ADH genes were decreased. ADH IB mRNA levels were reduced (>10-fold) in 65% of the lung cancer cDNA specimens. We conclude that the previously reported results showed an incorrect association of GSNOR and human lung cancer risk, and a decrease in ADH IB, rather than GSNOR, correlates with human lung cancer. PMID:23285246

  3. ADH IB expression, but not ADH III, is decreased in human lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Mutka, Sarah C; Green, Lucia H; Verderber, Evie L; Richards, Jane P; Looker, Doug L; Chlipala, Elizabeth A; Rosenthal, Gary J

    2012-01-01

    Endogenous S-nitrosothiols, including S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), mediate nitric oxide (NO)-based signaling, inflammatory responses, and smooth muscle function. Reduced GSNO levels have been implicated in several respiratory diseases, and inhibition of GSNO reductase, (GSNOR) the primary enzyme that metabolizes GSNO, represents a novel approach to treating inflammatory lung diseases. Recently, an association between decreased GSNOR expression and human lung cancer risk was proposed in part based on immunohistochemical staining using a polyclonal GSNOR antibody. GSNOR is an isozyme of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) family, and we demonstrate that the antibody used in those studies cross reacts substantially with other ADH proteins and may not be an appropriate reagent. We evaluated human lung cancer tissue arrays using monoclonal antibodies highly specific for human GSNOR with minimal cross reactivity to other ADH proteins. We verified the presence of GSNOR in ≥85% of specimens examined, and extensive analysis of these samples demonstrated no difference in GSNOR protein expression between cancerous and normal lung tissues. Additionally, GSNOR and other ADH mRNA levels were evaluated quantitatively in lung cancer cDNA arrays by qPCR. Consistent with our immunohistochemical findings, GSNOR mRNA levels were not changed in lung cancer tissues, however the expression levels of other ADH genes were decreased. ADH IB mRNA levels were reduced (>10-fold) in 65% of the lung cancer cDNA specimens. We conclude that the previously reported results showed an incorrect association of GSNOR and human lung cancer risk, and a decrease in ADH IB, rather than GSNOR, correlates with human lung cancer. PMID:23285246

  4. Structure and unfolding of the third type III domain from human fibronectin.

    PubMed

    Stine, Jessica M; Sun, Yizhi; Armstrong, Geoffrey; Bowler, Bruce E; Briknarová, Klára

    2015-11-10

    Fibronectin is a modular extracellular matrix protein that is essential for vertebrate development. The third type III domain (3FN3) in fibronectin interacts with other parts of fibronectin and with anastellin, a protein fragment that causes fibronectin aggregation. 3FN3 opens readily both as an isolated domain in solution and when part of fibronectin in stretched fibrils, and it was proposed that this opening is important for anastellin binding. We determined the structure of 3FN3 using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and we investigated its stability, folding, and unfolding. Similar to most other FN3 domains, 3FN3 contains two antiparallel β-sheets that are composed of three (A, B, and E) and four (C, D, F, and G) β-strands, respectively, and are held together by a conserved hydrophobic interface. cis-trans isomerization of P847 at the end of β-strand C leads to observable conformational heterogeneity in 3FN3, with a cis peptide bond present in almost one-quarter of the molecules. The chemical stability of 3FN3 is relatively low, but the folding rate constant in the absence of denaturant is in the same range as those of other, more stable FN3 domains. Interestingly, the unfolding rate constant in the absence of denaturant is several orders of magnitude higher than the unfolding rate constants of other FN3 domains investigated to date. This unusually fast rate is comparable to the rate of binding of 3FN3 to anastellin at saturating anastellin concentrations, consistent with the model in which 3FN3 has to unfold to interact with anastellin. PMID:26517579

  5. Lunar precursor missions for human exploration of Mars--III: studies of system reliability and maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendell, W. W.; Heydorn, R. P.

    2004-01-01

    Discussions of future human expeditions into the solar system generally focus on whether the next explorers ought to go to the Moon or to Mars. The only mission scenario developed in any detail within NASA is an expedition to Mars with a 500-day stay at the surface. The technological capabilities and the operational experience base required for such a mission do not now exist nor has any self-consistent program plan been proposed to acquire them. In particular, the lack of an Abort-to-Earth capability implies that critical mission systems must perform reliably for 3 years or must be maintainable and repairable by the crew. As has been previously argued, a well-planned program of human exploration of the Moon would provide a context within which to develop the appropriate technologies because a lunar expedition incorporates many of the operational elements of a Mars expedition. Initial lunar expeditions can be carried out at scales consistent with the current experience base but can be expanded in any or all operational phases to produce an experience base necessary to successfully and safely conduct human exploration of Mars. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Lunar precursor missions for human exploration of Mars--III: studies of system reliability and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Mendell, W W; Heydorn, R P

    2004-01-01

    Discussions of future human expeditions into the solar system generally focus on whether the next explorers ought to go to the Moon or to Mars. The only mission scenario developed in any detail within NASA is an expedition to Mars with a 500-day stay at the surface. The technological capabilities and the operational experience base required for such a mission do not now exist nor has any self-consistent program plan been proposed to acquire them. In particular, the lack of an Abort-to-Earth capability implies that critical mission systems must perform reliably for 3 years or must be maintainable and repairable by the crew. As has been previously argued, a well-planned program of human exploration of the Moon would provide a context within which to develop the appropriate technologies because a lunar expedition incorporates many of the operational elements of a Mars expedition. Initial lunar expeditions can be carried out at scales consistent with the current experience base but can be expanded in any or all operational phases to produce an experience base necessary to successfully and safely conduct human exploration of Mars. PMID:15806749

  7. Human papillomaviruses and cervical cancer in Bangkok. III. The role of husbands and commercial sex workers.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D B; Ray, R M; Kuypers, J; Kiviat, N; Koetsawang, A; Ashley, R L; Qin, Q; Koetsawang, S

    2001-04-15

    Between September 1991 and September 1993, husbands of women with and without cervical neoplasia and commercial sex workers in one brothel and one massage parlor in Bangkok, Thailand, were interviewed; serologic tests for sexually transmitted infections were performed; and cervical and penile scrapings were tested for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA. The risks of cervical carcinoma in monogamous women and of oncogenic HPV in their husbands were associated with the men's having unprotected intercourse with prostitutes. The prevalence of oncogenic HPV was higher in commercial sex workers than in women attending gynecologic and family planning clinics. Oncogenic HPV prevalence declined with age in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative, but not in healthy HIV-positive, commercial sex workers and was weakly associated with hepatitis B antigenemia, suggesting that persistence of HPV infection is due to subtle changes in immunity. Associations of HPV with recent pregnancy and oral contraceptive use suggest that hormonal factors may increase the risk of cervical neoplasia by enhancing persistence of HPV infection. The prevalence of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions was strongly related to oncogenic HPV types and weakly to HIV infection only in their presence. Commercial sex workers in Bangkok are reservoirs of oncogenic HPV, and cervical cancer in monogamous Thai women develops in part as a result of transmission of these viruses to them by their husbands from prostitutes. PMID:11296145

  8. An approach to mapping haplotype-specific recombination sites in human MHC class III

    SciTech Connect

    Levo, A.; Westman, P.; Partanen, J.

    1996-12-31

    Studies of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in mouse indicate that the recombination sites are not randomly distributed and their occurrence is haplotype-dependent. No data concerning haplotype-specific recombination sites in human are available due to the low number of informative families. To investigate haplotype-specific recombination sites in human MHC, we describe an approach based on identification of recombinant haplotypes derived from one conserved haplotype at the population level. The recombination sites were mapped by comparing polymorphic markers between the recombinant and assumed original haplotypes. We tested this approach on the extended haplotype HLA A3; B47; Bf{sup *}F; C4A{sup *}1; C4B{sup *}Q0; DR7, which is most suitable for this analysis. First, it carries a number of rare markers, and second, the haplotype, albeit rare in the general population, is frequent in patients with 21-hydroxylase (21OH) defect. We observed recombinants derived from this haplotype in patients with 21OH defect. All these haplotypes had the centromeric part (from Bf to DR) identical to the original haplotype, but they differed in HLA A and B. We therefore assumed that they underwent recombinations in the segment that separates the Bf and HLA B genes. Polymorphic markers indicated that all break points mapped to two segments near the TNF locus. This approach makes possible the mapping of preferential recombination sites in different haplotypes. 20 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. Neural processing of gravitoinertial cues in humans. III. Modeling tilt and translation responses.

    PubMed

    Merfeld, D M; Zupan, L H

    2002-02-01

    All linear accelerometers measure gravitoinertial force, which is the sum of gravitational force (tilt) and inertial force due to linear acceleration (translation). Neural strategies must exist to elicit tilt and translation responses from this ambiguous cue. To investigate these neural processes, we developed a model of human responses and simulated a number of motion paradigms used to investigate this tilt/translation ambiguity. In this model, the separation of GIF into neural estimates of gravity and linear acceleration is accomplished via an internal model made up of three principal components: 1) the influence of rotational cues (e.g., semicircular canals) on the neural representation of gravity, 2) the resolution of gravitoinertial force into neural representations of gravity and linear acceleration, and 3) the neural representation of the dynamics of the semicircular canals. By combining these simple hypotheses within the internal model framework, the model mimics human responses to a number of different paradigms, ranging from simple paradigms, like roll tilt, to complex paradigms, like postrotational tilt and centrifugation. It is important to note that the exact same mechanisms can explain responses induced by simple movements as well as by more complex paradigms; no additional elements or hypotheses are needed to match the data obtained during more complex paradigms. Therefore these modeled response characteristics are consistent with available data and with the hypothesis that the nervous system uses internal models to estimate tilt and translation in the presence of ambiguous sensory cues. PMID:11826049

  10. Extending the Serum Half-Life of G-CSF via Fusion with the Domain III of Human Serum Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shuqiang; Zhang, Yu; Tian, Hong; Chen, Xiaofei; Cai, Di; Yao, Wenbing; Gao, Xiangdong

    2013-01-01

    Protein fusion technology is one of the most commonly used methods to extend the half-life of therapeutic proteins. In this study, in order to prolong the half-life of Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), the domain III of human serum albumin (3DHSA) was genetically fused to the N-terminal of G-CSF. The 3DHSA-G-CSF fusion gene was cloned into pPICZαA along with the open reading frame of the α-factor signal under the control of the AOX1 promoter. The recombinant expression vector was transformed into Pichia pastoris GS115, and the recombinant strains were screened by SDS-PAGE. As expected, the 3DHSA-G-CSF showed high binding affinity with HSA antibody and G-CSF antibody, and the natural N-terminal of 3DHSA was detected by N-terminal sequencing. The bioactivity and pharmacokinetic studies of 3DHSA-G-CSF were respectively determined using neutropenia model mice and human G-CSF ELISA kit. The results demonstrated that 3DHSA-G-CSF has the ability to increase the peripheral white blood cell (WBC) counts of neutropenia model mice, and the half-life of 3DHSA-G-CSF is longer than that of native G-CSF. In conclusion, 3DHSA can be used to extend the half-life of G-CSF. PMID:24151579

  11. Microimaging FT-IR of oral cavity tumours. Part III: Cells, inoculated tissues and human tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, C.; Ferraris, P.; Giorgini, E.; Pieramici, T.; Possati, L.; Rocchetti, R.; Rubini, C.; Sabbatini, S.; Tosi, G.; Mariggiò, M. A.; Lo Muzio, L.

    2007-05-01

    The biochemistry of healthy and tumour cell cultures, inoculated tissues and oral cavity tissues have been studied by FT-IR Microscopy with the aim to relate spectral patterns with microbiological and histopathological findings. 'Supervised' and 'unsupervised' procedures of data handling afforded a satisfactory degree of accordance between spectroscopic and the other two techniques. In particular, changes in frequency and intensity of proteins, connective and nucleic acids vibrational modes as well as the visualization of biochemical single wave number or band ratio images, allowed an evaluation of the pathological changes. The spectroscopic patterns of inoculated tissues resulted quite similar to human tissues; differences of both types of sections with cellular lines could be explained by the influence of the environment.

  12. Proton Magnetic Resonance and Human Thyroid Neoplasia III. Ex VivoChemical-Shift Microimaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutter, Allison; Künnecke, Basil; Dowd, Susan; Russell, Peter; Delbridge, Leigh; Mountford, Carolyn E.

    1996-03-01

    Magnetic-resonance chemical-shift microimaging, with a spatial resolution of 40 × 40 μm, is a modality which can detect alterations to cellular chemistry and hence markers of pathological processes in human tissueex vivo.This technique was used as a chemical microscope to assess follicular thyroid neoplasms, lesions which are unsatisfactorily investigated using standard histopathological techiques or water-based magnetic-resonance imaging. The chemical-shift images at the methyl frequency (0.9 ppm) identify chemical heterogeneity in follicular tumors which are histologically homogeneous. The observed changes to cellular chemistry, detectable in foci of approximately 100 cells or less, support the existence of a preinvasive state hitherto unidentified by current pathological techniques.

  13. Frequency variations of discrete cranial traits in major human populations. III. Hyperostotic variations

    PubMed Central

    HANIHARA, TSUNEHIKO; ISHIDA, HAJIME

    2001-01-01

    Seven discrete cranial traits usually categorised as hyperostotic characters, the medial palatine canal, hypoglossal canal bridging, precondylar tubercle, condylus tertius, jugular foramen bridging, auditory exostosis, and mylohyoid bridging were investigated in 81 major human population samples from around the world. Significant asymmetric occurrences of the bilateral traits were detected in the medial palatine canal and jugular foramen bridging in several samples. Significant intertrait associations were found between some pairs of the traits, but not consistently across the large geographical samples. The auditory exostosis showed a predominant occurrence in males. With the exception of the auditory exostosis and mylohyoid bridging in a few samples, significant sex differences were slight. The frequency distributions of the traits (except for the auditory exostosis) showed some interregional clinality and intraregional discontinuity, suggesting that genetic drift could have contributed to the observed pattern of variation. PMID:11554504

  14. Group III human metabotropic glutamate receptors 4, 7 and 8: molecular cloning, functional expression, and comparison of pharmacological properties in RGT cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, S; Wright, R A; Rockey, P K; Burgett, S G; Arnold, J S; Rosteck, P R; Johnson, B G; Schoepp, D D; Belagaje, R M

    1998-01-01

    Cloning and expression in a stable mammalian cell line co-transfected with a glutamate transporter (RGT cells) were used as tools for studying the functions and pharmacological properties of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Complementary DNAs (cDNAs) encoding the human mGluR4, human mGluR7, and human mGluR8 were isolated from human cerebellum, fetal brain or retinal cDNA libraries. The human mGluR4, mGluR7 and mGluR8 receptors were 912, 915 and 908 amino acid residues long and share 67-70% amino acid similarity with each other and 42-45% similarity with the members of mGluR subgroups I and II. The human mGluR4 and mGluR7 had amino acid identity of 96% and 99.5% with rat mGluR4 and 7, respectively, whereas the human mGluR8 has 98.8% amino acid identity with the mouse mGluR8. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences in the coding region of human mGluR4 and mGluR7 were found to be identical to the previously published sequences by Flor et al. and Makoff et al. Following stable expression in RGT cells, highly significant inhibitions of forskolin stimulation of cAMP production by group III agonists were found for each receptor. The relative potencies of the group III agonist L-AP4 varied greatly between the group III clones, being mGluR8>mGluR4 > mGluR7. The reported group II mGluR agonist L-CCG-I was a highly potent mGluR8 agonist (EC50=0.35 microM), with significant agonist activities at both mGluR4 (EC50=3.7 microM) and mGluR7 (EC50=47 microM). The antagonist potency of the purported group III mGluR antagonist MPPG also varied among the receptors being human mGluR8 > mGluR4 = mGluR7. The expression and second messenger coupling of human group III mGluRs expressed in the RGT cell line are useful to clearly define the subtype selectivities of mGluR ligands. PMID:9473604

  15. Localization of anticoagulantly active heparan sulfate proteoglycans in vascular endothelium: Antithrombin binding on cultured endothelial cells and perfused rat aorta

    SciTech Connect

    de Agostini, A.I.; Watkins, S.C.; Slayter, H.S.; Youssoufian, H.; Rosenberg, R.D. )

    1990-09-01

    We have studied the interaction of {sup 125}I-antithrombin ({sup 125}I-AT) with microvascular endothelial cells (RFPEC) to localize the cellular site of anticoagulantly active heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG). The radiolabeled protease inhibitor bound specifically to the above HSPG with a Kd of approximately 50 nM. Confluent monolayer RFPEC cultures exhibited a linear increase in the amount of AT bound per cell for up to 16 d, whereas suspension RFPEC cultures possessed a constant number of protease inhibitor binding sites per cell for up to 5 d. These results suggest that monolayer RFPEC cultures secrete anticoagulantly active HSPG, which then accumulate in the extracellular matrix. This hypothesis was confirmed by quantitative light and EM level autoradiography which demonstrated that the AT binding sites are predominantly located in the extracellular matrix with only small quantities of protease inhibitor complexed to the cell surface. We have also pinpointed the in vivo position of anticoagulantly active HSPG within the blood vessel wall. Rat aortas were perfused, in situ, with {sup 125}I-AT, and bound labeled protease inhibitor was localized by light and EM autoradiography. The anticoagulantly active HSPG were concentrated immediately beneath the aortic and vasa vasorum endothelium with only a very small extent of labeling noted on the luminal surface of the endothelial cells. Based upon the above data, we propose a model whereby luminal and abluminal anticoagulantly active HSPG regulate coagulation mechanism activity.

  16. Categorial compositionality III: F-(co)algebras and the systematicity of recursive capacities in human cognition.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Steven; Wilson, William H

    2012-01-01

    Human cognitive capacity includes recursively definable concepts, which are prevalent in domains involving lists, numbers, and languages. Cognitive science currently lacks a satisfactory explanation for the systematic nature of such capacities (i.e., why the capacity for some recursive cognitive abilities-e.g., finding the smallest number in a list-implies the capacity for certain others-finding the largest number, given knowledge of number order). The category-theoretic constructs of initial F-algebra, catamorphism, and their duals, final coalgebra and anamorphism provide a formal, systematic treatment of recursion in computer science. Here, we use this formalism to explain the systematicity of recursive cognitive capacities without ad hoc assumptions (i.e., to the same explanatory standard used in our account of systematicity for non-recursive capacities). The presence of an initial algebra/final coalgebra explains systematicity because all recursive cognitive capacities, in the domain of interest, factor through (are composed of) the same component process. Moreover, this factorization is unique, hence no further (ad hoc) assumptions are required to establish the intrinsic connection between members of a group of systematically-related capacities. This formulation also provides a new perspective on the relationship between recursive cognitive capacities. In particular, the link between number and language does not depend on recursion, as such, but on the underlying functor on which the group of recursive capacities is based. Thus, many species (and infants) can employ recursive processes without having a full-blown capacity for number and language. PMID:22514704

  17. Two initiator-like elements are required for the combined activation of the human apolipoprotein C-III promoter by upstream stimulatory factor and hepatic nuclear factor-4.

    PubMed

    Pastier, Daniele; Lacorte, Jean-Marc; Chambaz, Jean; Cardot, Philippe; Ribeiro, Agnes

    2002-04-26

    Human apoC-III (-890/+24) promoter activity is strongly activated by hepatic nuclear factor (HNF)-4 through its binding to the proximal (-87/-72) element B. This site overlaps the binding site for an activity that we identified as the ubiquitously expressed upstream stimulatory factor (USF) (Ribeiro, A., Pastier, D., Kardassis, D., Chambaz, J., and Cardot, P. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 1216-1225). In the present study, we characterized the relationship between USF and HNF-4 in the activation of human apoC-III transcription. Although USF and HNF-4 binding to element B is mutually exclusive, co-transfection experiments in HepG2 cells surprisingly showed a combined effect of USF and HNF-4 in the transactivation of the (-890/+24) apoC-III promoter. This effect only requires the proximal region (-99/+24) of the apoC-III promoter and depends neither on USF binding to its cognate site in element B nor on a USF-dependent facilitation of HNF-4 binding to its site. By contrast, we found by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and footprinting analysis two USF low affinity binding sites, located within the proximal promoter at positions -58/-31 (element II) and -19/-4 (element I), which are homologous to initiator-like element sequence. Co-transfection experiments in HepG2 cells show that a mutation in element II reduces 2-fold the USF transactivation effect on the proximal promoter of apoC-III and that a mutation in element I inhibits the combined effect of USF and HNF-4. In conclusion, these initiator-like elements are directly involved in the transactivation of the apoC-III promoter by USF and are necessary to the combined effect between USF and HNF-4 for the apoC-III transcription. PMID:11839757

  18. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, electrochemical behavior and computational analysis of mixed diamine ligand gold(III) complexes: antiproliferative and in vitro cytotoxic evaluations against human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Al-Jaroudi, Said S; Monim-ul-Mehboob, M; Altaf, Muhammad; Al-Saadi, Abdulaziz A; Wazeer, Mohammed I M; Altuwaijri, Saleh; Isab, Anvarhusein A

    2014-12-01

    The gold(III) complexes of the type [(DACH)Au(en)]Cl3, 1,2-Diaminocyclohexane ethylenediamine gold(III) chloride [where 1,2-DACH = cis-, trans-1,2- and S,S-1,2diaminocyclohexane and en = ethylenediamine] have been synthesized and characterized using various analytical and spectroscopic techniques including elemental analysis, UV-Vis and FTIR spectra; and solution as well as solid-state NMR measurements. The solid-state (13)C NMR shows that 1,2-diaminocyclohexane (1,2-DACH) and ethylenediamine (en) are strongly bound to the gold(III) center via N donor atoms. The stability of the mixed diamine ligand gold(III) was determined by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra. Their electrochemical behavior was studied by cyclic voltammetry. The structural details and relative stabilities of the four possible isomers of the complexes were also reported at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ level of theory. The coordination sphere of these complexes around gold(III) center adopts distorted square planar geometry. The computational study also demonstrates that trans- conformations is slightly more stable than the cis-conformations. The antiproliferative effects and cytotoxic properties of the mixed diamine ligand gold(III) complexes were evaluated in vitro on human gastric SGC7901 and prostate PC3 cancer cells using MTT assay. The antiproliferative study of the gold(III) complexes on PC3 and SGC7901 cells indicate that complex 1 is the most effective antiproliferative agent among mixed ligand based gold(III) complexes 1-3. The IC50 data reveal that the in vitro cytotoxicity of complexes 1 and 3 against SGC7901 cancer cells are fairly better than that of cisplatin. PMID:25034122

  19. High-affinity recognition of lanthanide(III) chelate complexes by a reprogrammed human lipocalin 2.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Eichinger, Andreas; Skerra, Arne

    2009-03-18

    Human lipocalin 2 (Lcn2), also known as neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), which naturally scavenges bacterial ferric siderophores, has been engineered to specifically bind rare-earth and related metal ions as chelate complexes with [(R)-2-amino-3-(4-aminophenyl)propyl]-trans-(S,S)-cyclohexane-1,2-diaminepentaacetic acid (p-NH(2)-Bn-CHX-A''-DTPA). To this end, 12 amino acid residues in the ligand pocket of Lcn2, which is formed by four loops at the open end of an eight-stranded beta-barrel, were subjected to targeted random mutagenesis, and from the resulting library, variants with binding activity for the Me x DTPA group were selected using the method of bacterial phage display. One promising candidate was further developed in several cycles of in vitro affinity maturation using partial random mutagenesis and selection (via phage display and/or Escherichia coli colony screening) under conditions of increasing stringency. As result, an Lcn2 variant was obtained that binds Y x DTPA with a dissociation constant as low as 400 pM. The Lcn2 variant specifically recognizes the artificial ligand, as exemplified in (competitive) ELISA and real-time surface plasmon resonance analyses. DTPA-complexed Y(3+), Tb(3+), Gd(3+), and Lu(3+) are most tightly bound, comprising metal ions whose isotopes are in common use for radiotherapy and imaging. All of the Lcn2 variants are stably folded and can be functionally produced in high yield in E. coli. X-ray crystallographic analyses show that the new ligand is well-accommodated in the central cavity of the engineered lipocalin, whose fold is largely preserved, but that the mode of binding differs from the one seen with the natural ligand Fe x enterobactin. This structural study reveals analogies but also differences with respect to previously described antibody-metal chelate complexes. Notably, the functionalized side chain of DTPA protrudes from the ligand pocket of the lipocalin in such a way that its conjugates (with

  20. Prospective study of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to influenza and antibodies to human T lymphotropic virus-III in homosexual men. Selective loss of an influenza-specific, human leukocyte antigen-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte response in human T lymphotropic virus-III positive individuals with symptoms of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, G M; Salahuddin, S Z; Markham, P D; Joseph, L J; Payne, S M; Kriebel, P; Bernstein, D C; Biddison, W E; Sarngadharan, M G; Gallo, R C

    1985-01-01

    Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) from 18 homosexual men who did not have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and from 9 heterosexual men were repetitively tested for their ability to generate HLA self-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to influenza virus (flu-self) over a 2-yr period. The sera of the same donors were tested for antibodies to human T lymphotropic virus-III (HTLV-III). Six of the homosexual and none of the heterosexual donors consistently generated weak cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to flu-self. Seven of the homosexual and none of the heterosexual donors were seropositive for antibodies to HTLV-III. No obvious correlation was detected between weak flu-self cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses and antibodies to HTLV-III. However, one homosexual donor generated no detectable cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity to flu-self, although he was a strong responder to HLA-alloantigens. This donor had an OKT4:OKT8 ratio of 0.4 and was seropositive for HTLV-III antigens; HTLV-III virus was identified in his PBL; and he developed AIDS during the course of this study. A second donor with lymphadenopathy and who was seropositive for HTLV-III antigens exhibited marginal cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity to flu-self which he subsequently lost. PBL from two patients, one with Kaposi's sarcoma and one with generalized lymphadenopathy, were also tested for cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to flu-self and to alloantigens. Both donors failed to generate cytotoxic T lymphocyte to flu-self, but generated strong cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to alloantigens. The selective loss of an HLA-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte response without loss of HLA alloantigenic cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity may be an important functional immunologic characteristic in the development of AIDS. PMID:2997287

  1. Studies on the synthesis, characterization, human serum albumin binding and biological activity of single chain surfactant-cobalt(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Vignesh, G; Sugumar, K; Arunachalam, S; Vignesh, S; Arthur James, R; Arun, R; Premkumar, K

    2016-03-01

    The interaction of surfactant-cobalt(III) complexes [Co(bpy)(dien)TA](ClO4)3 · 3H2O (1) and [Co(dien)(phen)TA](ClO4)3 · 4H2O (2), where bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, dien = diethylenetriamine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline and TA = tetradecylamine with human serum albumin (HSA) under physiological conditions was analyzed using steady state, synchronous, 3D fluorescence, UV/visabsorption and circular dichroism spectroscopic techniques. The results show that these complexes cause the fluorescence quenching of HSA through a static mechanism. The binding constant (Kb ) and number of binding-sites (n) were obtained at different temperatures. The corresponding thermodynamic parameters (∆G°, ∆H° and ∆S°) and Ea were also obtained. According to Förster's non-radiation energy transfer theory, the binding distance (r) between the complexes and HSA were calculated. The results of synchronous and 3D fluorescence spectroscopy indicate that the binding process has changed considerably the polarity around the fluorophores, along with changes in the conformation of the protein. The antimicrobial and anticancer activities of the complexes were tested and the results show that the complexes have good activities against pathogenic microorganisms and cancer cells. PMID:26250655

  2. Predictability in orbital reconstruction. A human cadaver study, part III: Implant-oriented navigation for optimized reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Leander; Essig, Harald; Schreurs, Ruud; Jansen, Jesper; Maal, Thomas J J; Gooris, Peter J J; Becking, Alfred G

    2015-12-01

    Navigation-assisted orbital reconstruction remains a challenge, because the surgeon focuses on a two-dimensional multiplanar view in relation to the preoperative planning. This study explored the addition of navigation markers in the implant design for three-dimensional (3D) orientation of the actual implant position relative to the preoperative planning for more fail-safe and consistent results. Pre-injury computed tomography (CT) was performed for 10 orbits in human cadavers, and complex orbital fractures (Class III/IV) were created. The orbits were reconstructed using preformed orbital mesh through a transconjunctival approach under image-guided navigation and navigation by referencing orientating markers in the implant design. Ideal implant positions were planned using preoperative CT scans. Implant placement accuracy was evaluated by comparing the planned and realized implant positions. Significantly better translation (3.53 mm vs. 1.44 mm, p = 0.001) and rotation (pitch: -1.7° vs. -2.2°, P = 0.52; yaw: 10.9° vs. 5.9°, P = 0.02; roll: -2.2° vs. -0.5°, P = 0.16) of the placed implant relative to the planned position were obtained by implant-oriented navigation. Navigation-assisted surgery can be improved by using navigational markers on the orbital implant for orientation, resulting in fail-safe reconstruction of complex orbital defects and consistent implant positioning. PMID:26454321

  3. Scorpion venom component III inhibits cell proliferation by modulating NF-κB activation in human leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    SONG, XIANGFENG; ZHANG, GUOJUN; SUN, AIPING; GUO, JIQIANG; TIAN, ZHONGWEI; WANG, HUI; LIU, YUFENG

    2012-01-01

    Scorpion venom contains various groups of compounds that exhibit anticancer activity against a variety of malignancies through a poorly understood mechanism. While the aberrant activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) has been linked with hematopoietic malignancies, we hypothesized that scorpion venom mediates its effects by modulating the NF-κB signaling pathway. In the present study, we examined the effects of scorpion venom component III (SVCIII) on the human leukemia cell lines THP-1 and Jurkat and focused on the NF-κB signaling pathway. Our results showed that SVCIII inhibited cell proliferation, caused cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and inhibited the expression of cell cycle regulatory protein cyclin D1 in a dose-dependent manner in THP-1 and Jurkat cells. SVCIII also suppressed the constitutive NF-κB activation through inhibition of the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. NF-κB luciferase reporter activity was also inhibited by SVCIII. Our data suggest that SVCIII, a natural compound, may exert its antiproliferative effects by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB and, thus, has potential use in the treatment of hematopoietic malignancies, alone or in combination with other agents. PMID:23060939

  4. Metal complexes as allosteric effectors of human hemoglobin: an NMR study of the interaction of the gadolinium(III) bis(m-boroxyphenylamide)diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid complex with human oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Aime, S; Digilio, G; Fasano, M; Paoletti, S; Arnelli, A; Ascenzi, P

    1999-05-01

    The boronic functionalities on the outer surface of the Gd(III) bis(m-boroxyphenylamide)DTPA complex (Gd(III)L) enable it to bind to fructosamine residues of oxygenated glycated human adult hemoglobin. The formation of the macromolecular adduct can be assessed by NMR spectroscopy via observation of the enhancement of the solvent water proton relaxation rate. Unexpectedly, a strong binding interaction was also observed for the oxygenated unglycated human adult hemoglobin, eventually displaying a much higher relaxation enhancement. From relaxation rate measurements it was found that two Gd(III)L complexes interact with one hemoglobin tetramer (KD = 1.0 x 10(-5) M and 4.6 x 10(-4) M, respectively), whereas no interaction has been observed with monomeric hemoproteins. A markedly higher affinity of the Gd(III)L complex has been observed for oxygenated and aquo-met human adult hemoglobin derivatives with respect to the corresponding deoxy derivative. Upon binding, a net change in the quaternary structure of hemoglobin has been assessed by monitoring the changes in the high-resolution 1H-NMR spectrum of the protein as well as in the Soret absorption band. On the basis of these observations and the 11B NMR results obtained with the diamagnetic La(III)L complex, we suggest that the interaction between the lanthanide complex and deoxygenated, oxygenated, and aquo-met derivatives of human adult hemoglobin takes place at the 2, 3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) binding site, through the formation of N-->B coordinative bonds at His143beta and His2beta residues of different beta-chains. The stronger binding to the oxygenated form is then responsible for a shift of the allosteric equilibrium toward the high-affinity R-state. Accordingly, Gd(III)L affinity for oxygenated human fetal hemoglobin (lacking His143beta) is significantly lower than that observed for the unglycated human adult tetramer. PMID:10233088

  5. Kinematic Comparison of Pediatric Human Volunteers and the Hybrid III 6-Year-Old Anthropomorphic Test Device

    PubMed Central

    Seacrist, Thomas; Balasubramanian, Sriram; García-España, J. Felipe; Maltese, Matthew R.; Arbogast, Kristy B.; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J.; Kent, Richard W.; Tanji, Hiromasa; Higuchi, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    The Hybrid III 6-year-old ATD has been benchmarked against adult-scaled component level tests but the lack of biomechanical data hinders the effectiveness of the procedures used to scale the adult data to the child. Whole body kinematic validation of the pediatric ATD through limited comparison to post mortem human subjects (PMHS) of similar age and size has revealed key differences attributed to the rigidity of the thoracic spine. As restraint systems continue to advance, they may become more effective at limiting peak loads applied to occupants, leading to lower impact environments for which the biofidelity of the ATD is not well established. Consequently, there is a growing need to further enhance the assessment of the pediatric ATD by evaluating its biofidelity at lower crash speeds. To this end, this study compared the kinematic response of the Hybrid III 6 year old ATD against size-matched male pediatric volunteers (PVs) (6–9 yrs) in low-speed frontal sled tests. A 3-D near-infrared target tracking system quantified the position of markers at seven locations on the ATD and PVs (head top, opisthocranion, nasion, external auditory meatus, C4, T1, and pelvis). Angular velocity of the head, seat belt forces, and reaction forces on the seat pan and foot rest were also measured. The ATD exhibited significantly greater shoulder and lap belt, foot rest, and seat pan normal reaction loads compared to the PVs. Contrarily, PVs exhibited significantly greater seat pan shear. The ATD experienced significantly greater head angular velocity (11.4 ± 1.7 rad/s vs. 8.1 ± 1.4 rad/s), resulting in a quicker time to maximum head rotation (280.4 ± 2.5 ms vs 334.2 ± 21.7 ms). The ATD exhibited significantly less forward excursions of the nasion (171.7 ± 7.8 mm vs. 199.5 ± 12.3 mm), external auditory meatus (194.5 ± 11.8 mm vs. 205.7 ± 10.3 mm), C4 (127.0 ± 5.2 mm vs. 183.3 ± 12.8 mm) and T1 (111.1 ± 6.5 mm vs. 153.8 ± 10.5 mm) compared to the PVs. These analyses

  6. Linkage mapping in Papio baboons: Conservation of a syntenic group of six markers on human chromosome 1

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.; Witte, S.M.; Kammerer, C.M.; Hixson, J.E.; MacCluer, J.W.

    1995-07-20

    We have established multipoint genetic linkage among six loci in baboons (Papio hamadryas). Published PCR primers designed to amplify five human microsatellite loci were used to amplify homologous loci in 229 pedigreed baboons. Southern blotting was used to type two RFLPs in a functional gene (anti-thrombin III) in a subset of those animals. All six loci are known to map to human chromosome 1q, a region of the genome predicted by karyotype studies to be conserved in baboons. Pairwise recombination frequencies and lod scores indicate that the six loci are also linked in baboons. Recombination distances among the loci are similar to those reported for humans. Like humans, the baboons exhibit higher rates of recombination in females than in males. This study demonstrates that (1) microsatellite loci first described and characterized in the human genome can be effectively used for genetic linkage mapping in nonhuman primates, (2) a group of genetic loci known to be linked on human chromosome 1q are also linked in the baboon genome, and (3) sex differences in recombination frequencies among loci on human chromosome 1q are also observe din the genome of this Old World monkey. This constitutes the first reported multipoint linkage map in any nonhuman primate. 26 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  7. Pantoea agglomerans: a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part III. Deleterious effects: infections of humans, animals and plants.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Kinga Lemieszek, Marta; Golec, Marcin; Milanowski, Janusz

    2016-06-01

    Pantoea agglomerans, a bacterium associated with plants, is not an obligate infectious agent in humans. However, it could be a cause of opportunistic human infections, mostly by wound infection with plant material, or as a hospital-acquired infection, mostly in immunocompromised individuals. Wound infection with P. agglomerans usually follow piercing or laceration of skin with a plant thorn, wooden splinter or other plant material and subsequent inoculation of the plant-residing bacteria, mostly during performing of agricultural occupations and gardening, or children playing. Septic arthritis or synovitis appears as a common clinical outcome of exogenous infection with P. agglomerans, others include endophthalmitis, periostitis, endocarditis and osteomyelitis. Another major reason for clinical infection with P. agglomerans is exposure of hospitalized, often immunodeficient individuals to medical equipment or fluids contaminated with this bacterium. Epidemics of nosocomial septicemia with fatal cases have been described in several countries, both in adult and paediatric patients. In most cases, however, the clinical course of the hospital-acquired disease was mild and application of the proper antibiotic treatment led to full recovery. Compared to humans, there are only few reports on infectious diseases caused by Pantoea agglomerans in vertebrate animals. This species has been identified as a possible cause of equine abortion and placentitis and a haemorrhagic disease in dolphin fish (Coryphaena hippurus). P. agglomerans strains occur commonly, usually as symbionts, in insects and other arthropods. Pantoea agglomerans usually occurs in plants as an epi- or endophytic symbiont, often as mutualist. Nevertheless, this species has also also been identified as a cause of diseases in a range of cultivable plants, such as cotton, sweet onion, rice, maize, sorghum, bamboo, walnut, an ornamental plant called Chinese taro (Alocasia cucullata), and a grass called onion couch

  8. Circulating microparticles and the risk of thrombosis in inherited deficiencies of antithrombin, protein C and protein S.

    PubMed

    Campello, Elena; Spiezia, Luca; Radu, Claudia M; Bulato, Cristiana; Gavasso, Sabrina; Tormene, Daniela; Woodhams, Barry; Dalla Valle, Fabio; Simioni, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Many subjects carrying inherited thrombophilic defects will never experience venous thromboembolism (VTE) while other individuals developed recurrent VTE with no known additional risk factors. High levels of circulating microparticles (MP) have been associated with increased risk of VTE in patients with factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutation, suggesting a possible contribution of MP in the hypercoagulability of mild genetic thrombophilia. The role of MP as additional risk factor of VTE in carriers of natural clotting inhibitors defects (severe thrombophilia) has never been assessed. Plasma levels of annexin V-MP, endothelial-derived MP (EMP), platelet-derived MP (PMP), tissue factor-bearing MP (TF+) and the MP procoagulant activity (PPL) were measured in 132 carriers of natural anticoagulant deficiencies (25 antithrombin, 63 protein C and 64 protein S defect) and in 132 age and gender-matched healthy controls. Carriers of natural anticoagulant deficiencies, overall and separately considered, presented with higher median levels of annexin V-MP, EMP, PMP, TF+MP and PPL activity than healthy controls (p< 0.001, < 0.001, < 0.01, 0.025 and 0.03, respectively). Symptomatic carriers with a previous episode of VTE had significantly higher median levels of annexin-V MP than those without VTE (p=0.027). Carriers with high levels of annexin V-MP, EMP and PMP had an adjusted OR for VTE of 3.36 (95% CI, 1.59 to 7.11), 9.26 (95% CI, 3.55 to 24.1) and 2.72 (95%CI, 1.16 to 6.38), respectively. Elevated levels of circulating MP can play a role in carriers of mild and severe inherited thrombophilia. The clinical implications of this association remain to be defined. PMID:26354831

  9. Difference in constitutive heterochromatin behaviour between human amniocytes and lymphocytes detected by a sequential in situ exonuclease III digestion-random primer extension procedure.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, J L; Campos, A; López-Fernández, C; Gosálvez, J; Goyanes, V

    1995-01-01

    Fixed chromosomes from human amniotic fluid cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes were digested in situ with exonuclease III and the single stranded DNA obtained was used as template for an in situ random primer extension. Under these conditions an R banding pattern, more evident in lymphocytes than in amniocytes, was obtained. Nevertheless, constitutive heterochromatin of chromosomes 1, 16, Yq, and mainly the pericentromeric region of chromosome 9 was far more intensely labelled in amniocytes than in lymphocytes. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation with a specific classical satellite DNA probe, showed that this differential labelling was dependent on a greater sensitivity of chromosome 9 constitutive heterochromatin to exonuclease III digestion in amniocytes than in lymphocytes, thus indicating qualitative differences in this region between both human cellular materials. Images PMID:7897623

  10. Exposure to monomethylarsonous acid (MMA{sup III}) leads to altered selenoprotein synthesis in a primary human lung cell model

    SciTech Connect

    Meno, Sarah R.; Nelson, Rebecca; Hintze, Korry J.; Self, William T.

    2009-09-01

    Monomethylarsonous acid (MMA{sup III}), a trivalent metabolite of arsenic, is highly cytotoxic and recent cell culture studies suggest that it might act as a carcinogen. The general consensus of studies indicates that the cytotoxicity of MMA{sup III} is a result of increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). A longstanding relationship between arsenic and selenium metabolism has led to the use of selenium as a supplement in arsenic exposed populations, however the impact of organic arsenicals (methylated metabolites) on selenium metabolism is still poorly understood. In this study we determined the impact of exposure to MMA{sup III} on the regulation of expression of TrxR1 and its activity using a primary lung fibroblast line, WI-38. The promoter region of the gene encoding the selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) contains an antioxidant responsive element (ARE) that has been shown to be activated in the presence of electrophilic compounds. Results from radiolabeled selenoproteins indicate that exposure to low concentrations of MMA{sup III} resulted in increased synthesis of TrxR1 in WI-38 cells, and lower incorporation of selenium into other selenoproteins. MMA{sup III} treatment led to increased mRNA encoding TrxR1 in WI-38 cells, while lower levels of mRNA coding for cellular glutathione peroxidase (cGpx) were detected in exposed cells. Luciferase activity of TrxR1 promoter fusions increased with addition of MMA{sup III}, as did expression of a rat quinone reductase (QR) promoter fusion construct. However, MMA{sup III} induction of the TRX1 promoter fusion was abrogated when the ARE was mutated, suggesting that this regulation is mediated via the ARE. These results indicate that MMA{sup III} alters the expression of selenoproteins based on a selective induction of TrxR1, and this response to exposure to organic arsenicals that requires the ARE element.

  11. Role of CD14 and TLR4 in type I, type III collagen expression, synthesis and secretion in LPS-induced normal human skin fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongming; Li, Juncong; Wang, Yihe; Hu, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The primary aim of this study was to investigate the role of CD14 and TLR4 in type I, type III collagen expression, synthesis and secretion in LPS-induced normal human skin fibroblasts. The secondary aim was to provide theoretical basis for the molecular mechanisms of scar formation induced by LPS. Methods: The normal skin fibroblasts cultured in vitro were randomly divided into four groups: 0.1 μg/mL LPS reference group, CD14 pretreatment + LPS, TLR4 pretreatment + LPS, CD14 and TLR4 pretreatment + LPS. The collagen DNA synthesis was assessed by 3H-proline incorporation method. Real-time Quantitative PCR was used to detect type I, type III collagen mRNA expression. Results: Similar results were revealed for mRNA expression levels. The immunofluorescence staining suggested that type I and type III collagen were expressed in all investigated groups and that the expression was differentially downregulated in groups B, C, D. ELISA demonstrated markedly decreased levels in secreting type I, type III collagens and hydroxyproline in groups B, C, D (P<0.05), and the lowest level was detected in group D (P<0.01). Conclusion: Pretreatment with CD14 or TLR4 alone or their combination can significantly reduce the levels of type I and type III collagen expression, synthesis and secretion, with the most notable reduction detected in case of CD14 and TLR4 combined. We could thus conclude that both CD14 and TLR4 are involved in type I and type III collagen expression, synthesis and secretion in LPS-induced skin fibroblasts. PMID:25932184

  12. Mutation of Arg-115 of human class III alcohol dehydrogenase: a binding site required for formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity and fatty acid activation.

    PubMed Central

    Engeland, K; Höög, J O; Holmquist, B; Estonius, M; Jörnvall, H; Vallee, B L

    1993-01-01

    The origin of the fatty acid activation and formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity that distinguishes human class III alcohol dehydrogenase (alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.1) from all other alcohol dehydrogenases has been examined by site-directed mutagenesis of its Arg-115 residue. The Ala- and Asp-115 mutant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography and ion-exchange HPLC. The activities of the recombinant native and mutant enzymes toward ethanol are essentially identical, but mutagenesis greatly decreases the kcat/Km values for glutathione-dependent formaldehyde oxidation. The catalytic efficiency for the Asp variant is < 0.1% that of the unmutated enzyme, due to both a higher Km and a lower kcat value. As with the native enzyme, neither mutant can oxidize methanol, be saturated by ethanol, or be inhibited by 4-methylpyrazole; i.e., they retain these class III characteristics. In contrast, however, their activation by fatty acids, another characteristic unique to class III alcohol dehydrogenase, is markedly attenuated. The Ala mutant is activated only slightly, but the Asp mutant is not activated at all. The results strongly indicate that Arg-115 in class III alcohol dehydrogenase is a component of the binding site for activating fatty acids and is critical for the binding of S-hydroxymethylglutathione in glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity. PMID:8460164

  13. ACRIM III

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-12-30

    ACRIM III Data and Information Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance ... the ACRIMSAT spacecraft on December 20, 1999. ACRIM III data are reprocessed every 90 days to utilize instrument recalibration.   ... ACRIM III Instrument Team Page ACRIM II Data Sets SCAR-B Block:  SCAR-B Products ...

  14. Development and evaluation of a spectrophotometric assay for complex III in isolated mitochondria, tissues and fibroblasts from rats and humans.

    PubMed

    Krähenbühl, S; Talos, C; Wiesmann, U; Hoppel, C L

    1994-10-31

    A spectrophotometric method to assay the activity of complex III in isolated mitochondria, tissues and fibroblasts from patients and rats has been developed and validated. Decylubiquinol was shown to be a suitable substrate with a saturating concentration between 100 and 200 mumol/l. The optimal pH was found to range from 7.4 to 8.0. The enzyme reaction was linear for incubations containing up to 15 micrograms/ml mitochondrial protein, 250 micrograms/ml liver tissue, 375 micrograms/ml skeletal muscle or 100 micrograms/ml fibroblast protein. Intraday and interday variability of the assay for different enzyme sources was below 15% and 10%, respectively. Assessment of complex III activity in liver and fibroblasts from patients with signs of mitochondrial dysfunction revealed the usefulness of the newly developed assay in the diagnosis of complex III deficiency. PMID:7834868

  15. A new label-free fluorescent sensor for human immunodeficiency virus detection based on exonuclease III-assisted quadratic recycling amplification and DNA-scaffolded silver nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen; Tian, Jianniao; Wang, Lijun; Fu, Shui; Huang, Hongyun; Zhao, Yanchun; Zhao, Shulin

    2016-05-10

    A label-free and sensitive fluorescence biosensing platform for human immunodeficiency virus gene (HIV-DNA) detection has been fabricated based on luminescent DNA-scaffolded silver nanoclusters (DNA/AgNCs) and autonomous exonuclease III (Exo III)-assisted recycling signal amplification. One long-chain DNA (X-DNA) molecule can hybridize with two assistant DNA (F-DNA) molecules and one HIV-DNA molecule; after Exo III digests X-DNA to liberate F-DNA and HIV-DNA. F-DNA combines with P-DNA (template of DNA/AgNCs), accordingly, P-DNA is cut and the fluorescence of the system is quenched. This assay can finish in one-step without any labelling of the DNA chain or complex construction, and the strategy is sensitive with the detection limit as low as 35 pM. At the same time, the approach exhibits good selectivity even against a single base mismatch. What's more, the method is able to monitor HIV-DNA in real human serum samples; it holds great potential for early diagnosis in gene-related diseases. PMID:27053438

  16. Structure-function analysis of the human TFIIB-related factor II protein reveals an essential role for the C-terminal domain in RNA polymerase III transcription.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Ashish; Ma, Beicong; Schramm, Laura; Hernandez, Nouria

    2005-11-01

    The transcription factors TFIIB, Brf1, and Brf2 share related N-terminal zinc ribbon and core domains. TFIIB bridges RNA polymerase II (Pol II) with the promoter-bound preinitiation complex, whereas Brf1 and Brf2 are involved, as part of activities also containing TBP and Bdp1 and referred to here as Brf1-TFIIIB and Brf2-TFIIIB, in the recruitment of Pol III. Brf1-TFIIIB recruits Pol III to type 1 and 2 promoters and Brf2-TFIIIB to type 3 promoters such as the human U6 promoter. Brf1 and Brf2 both have a C-terminal extension absent in TFIIB, but their C-terminal extensions are unrelated. In yeast Brf1, the C-terminal extension interacts with the TBP/TATA box complex and contributes to the recruitment of Bdp1. Here we have tested truncated Brf2, as well as Brf2/TFIIB chimeric proteins for U6 transcription and for assembly of U6 preinitiation complexes. Our results characterize functions of various human Brf2 domains and reveal that the C-terminal domain is required for efficient association of the protein with U6 promoter-bound TBP and SNAP(c), a type 3 promoter-specific transcription factor, and for efficient recruitment of Bdp1. This in turn suggests that the C-terminal extensions in Brf1 and Brf2 are crucial to specific recruitment of Pol III over Pol II. PMID:16227591

  17. Structure-Function Analysis of the Human TFIIB-Related Factor II Protein Reveals an Essential Role for the C-Terminal Domain in RNA Polymerase III Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Ashish; Ma, Beicong; Schramm, Laura; Hernandez, Nouria

    2005-01-01

    The transcription factors TFIIB, Brf1, and Brf2 share related N-terminal zinc ribbon and core domains. TFIIB bridges RNA polymerase II (Pol II) with the promoter-bound preinitiation complex, whereas Brf1 and Brf2 are involved, as part of activities also containing TBP and Bdp1 and referred to here as Brf1-TFIIIB and Brf2-TFIIIB, in the recruitment of Pol III. Brf1-TFIIIB recruits Pol III to type 1 and 2 promoters and Brf2-TFIIIB to type 3 promoters such as the human U6 promoter. Brf1 and Brf2 both have a C-terminal extension absent in TFIIB, but their C-terminal extensions are unrelated. In yeast Brf1, the C-terminal extension interacts with the TBP/TATA box complex and contributes to the recruitment of Bdp1. Here we have tested truncated Brf2, as well as Brf2/TFIIB chimeric proteins for U6 transcription and for assembly of U6 preinitiation complexes. Our results characterize functions of various human Brf2 domains and reveal that the C-terminal domain is required for efficient association of the protein with U6 promoter-bound TBP and SNAPc, a type 3 promoter-specific transcription factor, and for efficient recruitment of Bdp1. This in turn suggests that the C-terminal extensions in Brf1 and Brf2 are crucial to specific recruitment of Pol III over Pol II. PMID:16227591

  18. Lack of immunogenicity of ice structuring protein type III HPLC12 preparation administered by the oral route to human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Crevel, R W R; Cooper, K J; Poulsen, L K; Hummelshoj, L; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Burks, A W; Sampson, H A

    2007-01-01

    Before a novel protein can be used in foods, its potential allergenicity must be assessed. In this study, healthy volunteers consumed ice structuring protein (ISP) Type III preparation or a control material 5 days a week for a total of 8 weeks. General measures of health were recorded during the study, and the immunogenicity of the protein was assessed by monitoring the levels of IgG and IgE antibodies specific for ISP Type III. The participants remained in good health throughout the study and during the 4 week follow-up period. No IgG or IgE antibodies specific for ISP Type III were detected in the blood of the participants. Investigations of immunogenicity in man have not been previously applied in the context of safety evaluation and they do not form part of the regimens proposed for the evaluation of protein allergenicity. Consequently no standardised protocols exist for such studies, nor any background against which to interpret the results. Nevertheless, the absence of an immune response using a protocol which could have been expected to result in a response with a strongly immunogenic protein, confirms the conclusions of earlier published work, and attests to the lack of allergenicity of ISP Type III preparation. PMID:17027137

  19. N-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen as a biomarker of anabolic response to recombinant human GH and testosterone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Context: Biomarkers that predict musculoskeletal response to anabolic therapies should expedite drug development. During collagen synthesis in soft lean tissue, N-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (P3NP) is released into circulation. We investigated P3NP as a biomarker of lean body mass (L...

  20. Analysis of the N-glycans of recombinant human Factor IX purified from transgenic pig milk

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Geun-Cheol; Velander, William H; Van Cott, Kevin E

    2008-01-01

    Glycosylation of recombinant proteins is of particular importance because it can play significant roles in the clinical properties of the glycoprotein. In this work, the N-glycan structures of recombinant human Factor IX (tg-FIX) produced in the transgenic pig mammary gland were determined. The majority of the N-glycans of transgenic pig-derived Factor IX (tg-FIX) are complex, bi-antennary with one or two terminal N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) moieties. We also found that the N-glycan structures of tg-FIX produced in the porcine mammary epithelial cells differed with respect to N-glycans from glycoproteins produced in other porcine tissues. tg-FIX contains no detectable Neu5Gc, the sialic acid commonly found in porcine glycoproteins produced in other tissues. Additionally, we were unable to detect glycans in tg-FIX that have a terminal Galα(1,3)Gal disaccharide sequence, which is strongly antigenic in humans. The N-glycan structures of tg-FIX are also compared to the published N-glycan structures of recombinant human glycoproteins produced in other transgenic animal species. While tg-FIX contains only complex structures, antithrombin III (goat), C1 inhibitor (rabbit), and lactoferrin (cow) have both high mannose and complex structures. Collectively, these data represent a beginning point for the future investigation of species-specific and tissue/cell-specific differences in N-glycan structures among animals used for transgenic animal bioreactors. PMID:18456721

  1. Transcriptional activation of RNA polymerase III-dependent genes by the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 tax protein.

    PubMed Central

    Gottesfeld, J M; Johnson, D L; Nyborg, J K

    1996-01-01

    The human T-cell leukemia virus-encoded tax protein is a potent activator of many viral and cellular genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II. We find that both chromatin and cell extracts derived from human T-cell leukemia virus type 1-infected human T lymphocytes support higher levels of 5S rRNA and tRNA gene transcription than chromatin or extracts from uninfected T lymphocytes. The viral protein Tax was likely responsible for this higher level of class II gene transcription, as purified Tax was found to stimulate both genes when added to the uninfected cell extract or in reconstituted systems. Both limiting-component transcription assays and DNA binding assays identified the class III gene transcription factor TFIIIB as the principle target of Tax activity. Surprisingly, we find that Tax increases the effective concentration of active TFIIIB molecules. These data suggest that Tax stimulates RNA polymerase III-dependent gene expression by accelerating the rate and/or extent of transcription initiation complex assembly. PMID:8657153

  2. Differences between Mice and Humans in Regulation and the Molecular Network of Collagen, Type III, Alpha-1 at the Gene Expression Level: Obstacles that Translational Research Must Overcome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lishi; Liu, Hongchao; Jiao, Yan; Wang, Erjian; Clark, Stephen H.; Postlethwaite, Arnold E.; Gu, Weikuan; Chen, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Collagen, type III, alpha-1 (COL3A1) is essential for normal collagen I fibrillogenesis in many organs. There are differences in phenotypes of mutations in the COL3A1 gene in humans and mutations in mice. In order to investigate whether the regulation and gene network of COL3A1 is the same in healthy populations of mice and humans, we compared the quantitative trait loci (QTL) that regulate the expression level of COL3A1 and the gene network of COL3A1 pathways between humans and mice using whole genome expression profiles. Our results showed that, for the regulation of expression of Col3a1 in mice, an eQTL on chromosome (Chr) 12 regulates the expression of Col3a1. However, expression of genes in the syntenic region on human Chr 7 has no association with the expression level of COL3A1. For the gene network comparison, we identified 44 top genes whose expression levels are strongly associated with that of Col3a1 in mice. We next identified 41 genes strongly associated with the expression level of COL3A1 in humans. There are a few but significant differences in the COL3A1 gene network between humans and mice. Several genes showed opposite association with expression of COL3A1. These genes are known to play important roles in development and function of the extracellular matrix of the lung. Difference in the molecular pathway of key genes in the COL3A1 gene network in humans and mice suggest caution should be used in extrapolating results from models of human lung diseases in mice to clinical lung diseases in humans. These differences may influence the efficacy of drugs in humans whose development employed mouse models. PMID:26151842

  3. Differences between Mice and Humans in Regulation and the Molecular Network of Collagen, Type III, Alpha-1 at the Gene Expression Level: Obstacles that Translational Research Must Overcome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lishi; Liu, Hongchao; Jiao, Yan; Wang, Erjian; Clark, Stephen H; Postlethwaite, Arnold E; Gu, Weikuan; Chen, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Collagen, type III, alpha-1 (COL3A1) is essential for normal collagen I fibrillogenesis in many organs. There are differences in phenotypes of mutations in the COL3A1 gene in humans and mutations in mice. In order to investigate whether the regulation and gene network of COL3A1 is the same in healthy populations of mice and humans, we compared the quantitative trait loci (QTL) that regulate the expression level of COL3A1 and the gene network of COL3A1 pathways between humans and mice using whole genome expression profiles. Our results showed that, for the regulation of expression of Col3a1 in mice, an eQTL on chromosome (Chr) 12 regulates the expression of Col3a1. However, expression of genes in the syntenic region on human Chr 7 has no association with the expression level of COL3A1. For the gene network comparison, we identified 44 top genes whose expression levels are strongly associated with that of Col3a1 in mice. We next identified 41 genes strongly associated with the expression level of COL3A1 in humans. There are a few but significant differences in the COL3A1 gene network between humans and mice. Several genes showed opposite association with expression of COL3A1. These genes are known to play important roles in development and function of the extracellular matrix of the lung. Difference in the molecular pathway of key genes in the COL3A1 gene network in humans and mice suggest caution should be used in extrapolating results from models of human lung diseases in mice to clinical lung diseases in humans. These differences may influence the efficacy of drugs in humans whose development employed mouse models. PMID:26151842

  4. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray crystallographic analysis of CofB, the minor pilin subunit of CFA/III from human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Kazuki; Oki, Hiroya; Fukakusa, Shunsuke; Maruno, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Yuji; Motooka, Daisuke; Taniguchi, Tooru; Honda, Takeshi; Iida, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Shota; Ohkubo, Tadayasu

    2015-06-01

    Colonization factor antigen III (CFA/III) is one of the virulence factors of human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) that forms the long, thin, proteinaceous fibres of type IV pili through assembly of its major and minor subunits CofA and CofB, respectively. The crystal structure of CofA has recently been reported; however, the lack of structural information for CofB, the largest among the known type IV pilin subunits, hampers a comprehensive understanding of CFA/III pili. In this study, constructs of wild-type CofB with an N-terminal truncation and the corresponding SeMet derivative were cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals belonged to the rhombohedral space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 103.97, c = 364.57 Å for the wild-type construct and a = b = 103.47, c = 362.08 Å for the SeMet-derivatized form. Although the diffraction quality of these crystals was initially very poor, dehydration of the crystals substantially improved the resolution limit from ∼ 4.0 to ∼ 2.0 Å. The initial phase was solved by the single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) method using a dehydrated SeMet CofB crystal, which resulted in an interpretable electron-density map. PMID:26057791

  5. Synthesis, characterization and theoretical calculations of (1,2-diaminocyclohexane)(1,3-diaminopropane)gold(III) chloride complexes: in vitro cytotoxic evaluations against human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Al-Jaroudi, Said S; Altaf, Muhammad; Al-Saadi, Abdulaziz A; Kawde, Abdel-Nasser; Altuwaijri, Saleh; Ahmad, Saeed; Isab, Anvarhusein A

    2015-10-01

    The gold(III) complexes of the type (1,2-diaminocyclohexane)(1,3-diaminopropane)gold(III) chloride, [(DACH)Au(pn)]Cl3, [where DACH = cis-, trans-1,2- and S,S-1,2-diaminocyclohexane and pn = 1,3-diaminopropane] have been synthesized and characterized using various spectroscopic and analytical techniques including elemental analysis, UV-Vis and FTIR spectroscopy; solution as well as solid-state NMR measurements. The solid-state (13)C NMR shows that 1,2-diaminocyclohexane (1,2-DACH) and 1,3-diaminopropane (pn) are strongly bound to the gold(III) center via N donor atoms. The stability of the mixed diamine ligand gold(III) was checked by UV-Vis spectroscopy and NMR measurements. The molecular structure of compound 1 (containing cis-1,2-DACH) was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The structure of 1 consists of [(cis-DACH)Au(pn)](3+) complex ion and chloride counter ions. Each gold atom in the complex ion adopts a distorted square-planar geometry. The structural details and relative stabilities of the four possible isomers of the complexes were also estimated at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ level of theoretical calculations. The computational study demonstrates that trans- conformations are slightly more stable than the cis- conformations. The antiproliferative effects and cytotoxic properties of the mixed ligand gold(III) complexes were evaluated in vitro on human gastric SGC7901 and prostate PC3 cancer cells using MTT assay. The antiproliferative study of the gold(III) complexes on PC3 and SGC7901 cells indicate that complex 3 (containing 1S,2S-(+)-1,2-(DACH)) is the most effective antiproliferative agent. The IC50 data reveal that the in vitro cytotoxicity of complex 3 against SGC7901 cancer cells manifested similar and very pronounced cytotoxic effects with respect to cisplatin. Moreover, the electrochemical behavior, and the interaction of complex 3 with two well-known model proteins, namely, hen egg white lysozyme and bovine serum albumin is also reported. PMID

  6. Human CHMP6, a myristoylated ESCRT-III protein, interacts directly with an ESCRT-II component EAP20 and regulates endosomal cargo sorting.

    PubMed

    Yorikawa, Chiharu; Shibata, Hideki; Waguri, Satoshi; Hatta, Kazumi; Horii, Mio; Katoh, Keiichi; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Uchiyama, Yasuo; Maki, Masatoshi

    2005-04-01

    CHMP6 (charged multivesicular body protein 6) is a human orthologue of yeast Vps (vacuolar protein sorting) 20, a component of ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport)-III. Various CHMP6 orthologues in organisms ranging from yeast to humans contain the N-myristoylation consensus sequence at each N-terminus. Metabolic labelling of HEK-293 (human embryonic kidney) cells showed the incorporation of [3H]myristate into CHMP6 fused C-terminally to GFP (green fluorescent protein) (CHMP6-GFP). Interactions of CHMP6 with another ESCRT-III component CHMP4b/Shax [Snf7 (sucrose non-fermenting 7) homologue associated with Alix] 1, one of three paralogues of human Vps32/Snf7, and with EAP20 (ELL-associated protein 20), a human counterpart of yeast Vps25 and component of ESCRT-II, were observed by co-immunoprecipitation of epitope-tagged proteins expressed in HEK-293 cells. The in vitro pull-down assays using their recombinant proteins purified from Escherichia coli demonstrated direct physical interactions which were mediated by the N-terminal basic half of CHMP6. Overexpressed CHMP6-GFP in HeLa cells exhibited a punctate distribution throughout the cytoplasm especially in the perinuclear area, as revealed by fluorescence microscopic analysis. Accumulation of LBPA (lysobisphosphatidic acid), a major phospholipid in internal vesicles of an MVB (multivesicular body), was observed in the CHMP6-GFP-localizing area. FLAG-tagged EAP20 distributed diffusely, but exhibited a punctate distribution on co-expression with CHMP6-GFP. Overexpression of CHMP6-GFP caused reduction of transferrin receptors on the plasma membrane surface, but caused their accumulation in the cytoplasm. Ubiquitinated proteins and endocytosed EGF continuously accumulated in CHMP6-GFP-expressing cells. These results suggest that CHMP6 acts as an acceptor for ESCRT-II on endosomal membranes and regulates cargo sorting. PMID:15511219

  7. Rat heparan sulphates. A study of the antithrombin-binding properties of heparan sulphate chains from rat adipose tissue, brain, carcase, heart, intestine, kidneys, liver, lungs, skin and spleen.

    PubMed Central

    Horner, A A

    1990-01-01

    Adult male rats were given [35S]sulphate intraperitoneally. Heparan [35S]sulphate (HS) chains were recovered from adipose tissue, brain, carcase, heart, intestine, kidneys, liver, lungs, skin and spleen by digestion with Pronase, precipitation with cetylpyridinium chloride, digestion with chondroitin ABC lyase and DNAase and gradient elution from DEAE-Sephacel. Purity was confirmed by agarose-gel electrophoresis and degradation with HNO2. Fractionation by gradient elution from antithrombin-agarose indicated that the proportion of HS with high binding affinity for antithrombin (HA-HS) ranged from 4.7% (kidneys) to 21.5% (brain). On a mass basis the major sources of HA-HS were carcase, skin and intestine. HA-HS from intestine was arbitrarily divided into subfractions I-VI, with anticoagulant activities ranging from 1 to 60 units/mg [by amidolytic anti-(Factor IIa) assay] and from 4 to 98 units/mg [by amidolytic anti-(Factor Xa) assay], indicating that the antithrombin-binding-site densities of HA-HS chains covered a wide range, as shown previously for rat HA-heparin chains [Horner, Kusche, Lindahl & Peterson (1988) Biochem. J. 251, 141-145]. HA-HS subfractions II, IV and VI were mixed with samples of HA-[3H]heparin chains and rechromatographed on antithrombin-agarose. Affinity for matrix-bound antithrombin did not correlate with anticoagulant activity, e.g. HA-HS subfraction IV [38 anti-(Factor Xa) units/mg] was co-eluted with HA-heparin chains [127 anti-(Factor Xa) units/mg]. Images Fig. 2. PMID:2138457

  8. SAGE III

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-15

    SAGE III Data and Information The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas ... on the spacecraft. SAGE III produced L1 and L2 scientific data from 5/07/2002 until 12/31/2005. The flight of the second instrument is as ... Guide Documents:  Project Guide Data Products User's Guide  (PDF) Relevant Documents:  ...

  9. The protein kinase CK2 phosphorylates SNAP190 to negatively regulate SNAPC DNA binding and human U6 transcription by RNA polymerase III.

    PubMed

    Gu, Liping; Husain-Ponnampalam, Rhonda; Hoffmann-Benning, Susanne; Henry, R William

    2007-09-21

    Human U6 small nuclear RNA gene transcription by RNA polymerase III requires the general transcription factor SNAP(C), which binds to human small nuclear RNA core promoter elements and nucleates pre-initiation complex assembly with the Brf2-TFIIIB complex. Multiple components in this pathway are phosphorylated by the protein kinase CK2, including the Bdp1 subunit of the Brf2-TFIIIB complex, and RNA polymerase III, with negative and positive outcomes for U6 transcription, respectively. However, a role for CK2 phosphorylation of SNAP(C) in U6 transcription has not been defined. In this report, we investigated the role of CK2 in modulating the transcriptional properties of SNAP(C) and demonstrate that within SNAP(C), CK2 phosphorylates the N-terminal half of the SNAP190 subunit at two regions (amino acids 20-63 and 514-545) that each contain multiple CK2 consensus sites. SNAP190 phosphorylation by CK2 inhibits both SNAP(C) DNA binding and U6 transcription activity. Mutational analyses of SNAP190 support a model wherein CK2 phosphorylation triggers an allosteric inhibition of the SNAP190 Myb DNA binding domain. PMID:17670747

  10. A neurodystrophic syndrome resembling carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome type III.

    PubMed

    Stibler, H; Gylje, H; Uller, A

    1999-04-01

    A 10-month old girl is described with a serum transferrin isoform abnormality of the same kind as in two previously reported girls with carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome type III. This patient presented with joint abnormalities and rapidly developing hypsarrhythmia, hypotonia, psychomotor delay and growth retardation. Fingers, toes, nails and local skin were dysmorphic. She had pale optic discs, thoracic syringomyelia and frontal lobe atrophy at three months. The CDT value in serum was greatly elevated. Several carbohydrate-deficient isoforms were found in transferrin (four), alpha1-antitrypsin (three), antithrombin (two) and thyroxine-binding globulin (four). Mutations in the CDGS 1-gene were excluded. The CDGS III glycoprotein abnormality most probably represents a distinct disorder of glycoprotein metabolism, and needs to be considered in unclear hypsarrhythmia with developmental delay. Dysmorphic features may be added to this syndrome. PMID:10401691

  11. LYRM7/MZM1L is a UQCRFS1 chaperone involved in the last steps of mitochondrial Complex III assembly in human cells.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Ester; Lobo, Teresa; Fox, Jennifer L; Zeviani, Massimo; Winge, Dennis R; Fernández-Vizarra, Erika

    2013-03-01

    The mammalian Complex III (CIII) assembly process is yet to be completely understood. There is still a lack in understanding of how the structural subunits are put together and which additional factors are involved. Here we describe the identification and characterization of LYRM7, a human protein displaying high sequence homology to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein Mzm1, which was recently shown as an assembly factor for Rieske Fe-S protein incorporation into the yeast cytochrome bc(1) complex. We conclude that human LYRM7, which we propose to be renamed MZM1L (MZM1-like), works as a human Rieske Fe-S protein (UQCRFS1) chaperone, binding to this subunit within the mitochondrial matrix and stabilizing it prior to its translocation and insertion into the late CIII dimeric intermediate within the mitochondrial inner membrane. Thus, LYRM7/MZM1L is a novel human CIII assembly factor involved in the UQCRFS1 insertion step, which enables formation of the mature and functional CIII enzyme. PMID:23168492

  12. Fast and sensitive chemiluminescence assay of aminophylline in human serum using luminol-diperiodatoargentate(III) system catalyzed by coated iron nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, B.; Ensafi, Ali A.; Zarei, L.

    2012-05-01

    The CL intensity of luminol-diperiodatoargentate(III) (DPA) system is strongly enhanced by addition of iron nanoparticles (FeNPs) covered with C12E4. On injection of aminophylline into luminol-DPA-FeNPs system, the CL intensity is significantly increased. On this basis, a sensitive CL assay was developed for determination of AmP in human serum. FeNPs could catalyze the oxidation rate of luminol in the present of oxygen. Also, the CL intensity of luminol-DPA-FeNPs system is significantly increased in the presence of aminophylline (AmP). Based on this ruling, a sensitive CL assay was developed for determination of AmP in human serum. The influences of analytical variables on the CL signal were studied and optimized. Under the optimum conditions in the present of FeNPs, the CL intensity is linearly increased with AmP concentration in the range of 1.0 × 10-8-2.0 × 10-6 mol L-1. The detection limit was 9.8 × 10-9 mol L-1 AmP and the relative standard deviation for ten parallel measurements of 8.0 × 10-7 mol L-1 AmP was also 4.8%. The proposed system was successfully applied to determine AmP in human serum samples.

  13. Role of factor VIII-von Willebrand factor and fibronectin in the interaction of platelets in flowing blood with monomeric and fibrillar human collagen types I and III.

    PubMed

    Houdijk, W P; Sakariassen, K S; Nievelstein, P F; Sixma, J J

    1985-02-01

    Platelet adhesion to monomeric collagen types I and III, which were purified from human umbilical arteries, was studied in a perfusion chamber under well defined flow conditions. For this purpose, glass coverslips were coated with 20-30 micrograms/cm2 of collagen types I and III by spraying a solution of these collagens with a retouching air brush. Platelet deposition increased with the time of perfusion. Adhesion to both collagen types was similar in the first 3 min, but increased platelet deposition occurred on collagen type III after 3 min due to thrombus formation. Adhesion at a shear rate of 800 s-1 was strongly impaired with plasma of a patient with von Willebrand's disease or with fibronectin-free plasma. Addition of purified fibronectin to fibronectin-free plasma restored adhesion to the level obtained with normal plasma. Platelet deposition in normal plasma increased with increasing shear rates. Platelet deposition in VWD-plasma was normal at 490 s-1, but there was no increase at higher shear rates. Platelet deposition in fibronectin-free plasma was diminished at all shear rates studied from 490 to 1,300 s-1. Perfusion with a human albumin solution (HAS) to which purified Factor VIII-von Willebrand factor complex (FVIII-VWF) and fibronectin had been added gave similar platelet deposition as with normal plasma. Preincubation of collagen with FVIII-VWF and perfusion with HAS containing fibronectin, or, conversely, preincubation with fibronectin and perfusion with HAS containing FVIII-VWF, also resulted in adhesion similar to that observed in normal plasma. Similar adhesion was also observed after preincubation with both FVIII-VWF and fibronectin and subsequent perfusion with HAS alone. Sequential preincubations with first FVIII-VWF and then fibronectin, or with first fibronectin and then FVIII-VWF followed by perfusion with HAS, also gave a similar adhesion as observed with normal plasma. These data indicate that platelet adhesion to monomeric collagen types

  14. Role of factor VIII-von Willebrand factor and fibronectin in the interaction of platelets in flowing blood with monomeric and fibrillar human collagen types I and III.

    PubMed Central

    Houdijk, W P; Sakariassen, K S; Nievelstein, P F; Sixma, J J

    1985-01-01

    Platelet adhesion to monomeric collagen types I and III, which were purified from human umbilical arteries, was studied in a perfusion chamber under well defined flow conditions. For this purpose, glass coverslips were coated with 20-30 micrograms/cm2 of collagen types I and III by spraying a solution of these collagens with a retouching air brush. Platelet deposition increased with the time of perfusion. Adhesion to both collagen types was similar in the first 3 min, but increased platelet deposition occurred on collagen type III after 3 min due to thrombus formation. Adhesion at a shear rate of 800 s-1 was strongly impaired with plasma of a patient with von Willebrand's disease or with fibronectin-free plasma. Addition of purified fibronectin to fibronectin-free plasma restored adhesion to the level obtained with normal plasma. Platelet deposition in normal plasma increased with increasing shear rates. Platelet deposition in VWD-plasma was normal at 490 s-1, but there was no increase at higher shear rates. Platelet deposition in fibronectin-free plasma was diminished at all shear rates studied from 490 to 1,300 s-1. Perfusion with a human albumin solution (HAS) to which purified Factor VIII-von Willebrand factor complex (FVIII-VWF) and fibronectin had been added gave similar platelet deposition as with normal plasma. Preincubation of collagen with FVIII-VWF and perfusion with HAS containing fibronectin, or, conversely, preincubation with fibronectin and perfusion with HAS containing FVIII-VWF, also resulted in adhesion similar to that observed in normal plasma. Similar adhesion was also observed after preincubation with both FVIII-VWF and fibronectin and subsequent perfusion with HAS alone. Sequential preincubations with first FVIII-VWF and then fibronectin, or with first fibronectin and then FVIII-VWF followed by perfusion with HAS, also gave a similar adhesion as observed with normal plasma. These data indicate that platelet adhesion to monomeric collagen types

  15. Human helicase gene SKI2W in the HLA class III region exhibits striking structural similarities to the yeast antiviral gene SKI2 and to the human gene KIAA0052: emergence of a new gene family.

    PubMed Central

    Dangel, A W; Shen, L; Mendoza, A R; Wu, L C; Yu, C Y

    1995-01-01

    Helicases are essential enzymes for life because DNA replication, DNA repair, recombination, transcription, RNA splicing and translation all involve more than one helicase to unwind DNA or RNA. We have discovered, cloned and partially characterized a novel human helicase gene, SKI2W. The human SKI2W is located between the RD and RP1 genes in the class III region of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6, a genomic region associated with many malignant, genetic and autoimmune diseases. Derived amino acid sequence of human SKI2W showed an open reading frame for 1246 residues. It contains consensus sequences for structural motifs of an RNA helicase with a DEVH box. It has a leucine zipper motif that may be important for protein dimerization, and an RGD motif close to the N-terminus that might serve as a ligand for integrin or cell adhesion molecules. SKI2W shares a striking and extensive similarity to the yeast Ski2p that is involved in the inhibition of translation of poly(A) negative [poly(A)-] RNA, and plays an important role in antiviral activities. Human SKI2W fusion protein expressed in insect cells using a baculovirus vector has ATPase activity. The human SKI2W protein and the yeast Ski2p share extensive sequence similarities to another putative human protein KIAA0052, suggesting the presence of a new gene family that may be involved in translational regulation of cellular and viral RNA. Images PMID:7610041

  16. Rat heparins. A study of the relative sizes and antithrombin-binding characteristics of heparin proteoglycans, chains and depolymerization products from rat adipose tissue, heart, lungs, peritoneal cavity and skin.

    PubMed Central

    Horner, A A

    1986-01-01

    35S-labelled heparins were recovered from adipose tissue, hearts, lungs, peritoneal cavities and skins of rats given H2(35)SO4. Their purification involved incubation with Pronase, precipitation with cetylpyridinium chloride in 1.0 M-NaCl, gradient elution from DEAE-Sephacel and incubation with chondroitinase ABC. Each product was divided into proteoglycan and "depolymerization products' fractions by gel filtration on Bio-Gel A-15m. Heparin chains were released from a portion of each proteoglycan fraction by beta-elimination with NaOH. Proteoglycans, chains and depolymerization products were separated by gradient elution from a column of antithrombin-agarose into fractions with no affinity, low affinity and high affinity for antithrombin. The relative sizes of the products were determined by gel filtration on columns of Bio-Gel A-50m, A-15m, A-1.5m and A-0.5m. Skin was the major source of heparin and contained the largest proteoglycans and the lowest proportion of depolymerization products. Lungs contained the smallest proteoglycans, the smallest depolymerization products and the highest proportion of depolymerization products. The highest proportions of proteoglycans, chains and depolymerization products with high affinity for antithrombin were found in adipose tissue. The lowest proportions of each of these fractions were found in the peritoneal cavity. The data suggest that there was relatively little biosynthesis of sites with high affinity for antithrombin in peritoneal-cavity mast cells and that heparin catabolism was most active in lungs. Each source of heparin was unique with respect to both biosynthesis and subsequent breakdown of its proteoglycans. PMID:3827837

  17. Human development III: bridging brain-mind and body-mind. introduction to "deep" (fractal, poly-ray) cosmology.

    PubMed

    Ventegodt, Søren; Hermansen, Tyge Dahl; Rald, Erik; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Nielsen, Maj Lyck; Clausen, Birgitte; Merrick, Joav

    2006-01-01

    Reality can be interpreted in many ways, but two distinctly different ways are the mental and the emotional interpretation. The traditional way of thinking in science today is the first: an often simple and mechanical interpretation of reality that empowers us to handle the outer physical world with great, often brutal efficiency. The development of a mind that enables us to handle the outer physical world and survive makes a lot of sense from an evolutionary perspective; the problem is that the mental reason and linear logic reduces all phenomena to well-defined interacting objects, which might not exist from a deeper perspective of reality. A more intuitive way to interpret the world makes much more sense, when it comes to our human relations. So to function as a human being, we need both these two ways of seeing the world, and two different modi operandi. In many patients, we find an internalized conflict between logical and mental reasoning on one hand, and emotional and sexual approach to reality and human needs on the other. We speculate that this conflict causes the deep emotional problems that really are the basis of most human diseases. Only by merging brain-mind and body-mind will we be whole and free and truly ourselves. We need to develop our mental understanding, deepen our cosmology, and develop our sexuality and body-mind in order to make them meet and merge. To facilitate this existential healing, we propose a third integrative way of looking at our human nature, which we call "the energetic-informational interpretation of reality". What it does is allows us to look at both brain-mind and body-mind as a highly structured field of "energy and information". Energy and information are actually the same from a scientific point of view; when the world is seen through the body-mind, it looks more like energy; when seen though the brain-mind, it looks more like information. PMID:16830048

  18. Welding III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegheny County Community Coll., Pittsburgh, PA.

    Instructional objectives and performance requirements are outlined in this course guide for Welding III, an advanced course in arc welding offered at the Community College of Allegheny County to provide students with the proficiency necessary for industrial certification. The course objectives, which are outlined first, specify that students will…

  19. LANDVIEW III

    EPA Science Inventory

    LandView III is a desktop mapping system that includes database extracts from the Environmental Protection Agency, the Bureau of the Census, The U.S. Geological Survey, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Department of Transportation, and the Federal Emergency Management Agenc...

  20. Interaction between the Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase and Fusion Glycoproteins of Human Parainfluenza Virus Type III Regulates Viral Growth In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Rui; Palmer, Samantha G.; Porotto, Matteo; Palermo, Laura M.; Niewiesk, Stefan; Wilson, Ian A.; Moscona, Anne

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Paramyxoviruses, enveloped RNA viruses that include human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3), cause the majority of childhood viral pneumonia. HPIV3 infection starts when the viral receptor-binding protein engages sialic acid receptors in the lung and the viral envelope fuses with the target cell membrane. Fusion/entry requires interaction between two viral surface glycoproteins: tetrameric hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion protein (F). In this report, we define structural correlates of the HN features that permit infection in vivo. We have shown that viruses with an HN-F that promotes growth in cultured immortalized cells are impaired in differentiated human airway epithelial cell cultures (HAE) and in vivo and evolve in HAE into viable viruses with less fusogenic HN-F. In this report, we identify specific structural features of the HN dimer interface that modulate HN-F interaction and fusion triggering and directly impact infection. Crystal structures of HN, which promotes viral growth in vivo, show a diminished interface in the HN dimer compared to the reference strain’s HN, consistent with biochemical and biological data indicating decreased dimerization and decreased interaction with F protein. The crystallographic data suggest a structural explanation for the HN’s altered ability to activate F and reveal properties that are critical for infection in vivo. IMPORTANCE Human parainfluenza viruses cause the majority of childhood cases of croup, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia worldwide. Enveloped viruses must fuse their membranes with the target cell membranes in order to initiate infection. Parainfluenza fusion proceeds via a multistep reaction orchestrated by the two glycoproteins that make up its fusion machine. In vivo, viruses adapt for survival by evolving to acquire a set of fusion machinery features that provide key clues about requirements for infection in human beings. Infection of the lung by parainfluenzavirus is determined by

  1. The role of D4 receptor gene exon III polymorphisms in shaping human altruism and prosocial behavior

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yushi; Chew, Soo H.; Ebstein, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    Human beings are an extraordinarily altruistic species often willing to help strangers at a considerable cost (sometimes life itself) to themselves. But as Darwin noted “… he who was ready to sacrifice his life, as many a savage has been, rather than betray his comrades, would often leave no offspring to inherit his noble nature.” Hence, this is the paradox of altruism. Twin studies have shown that altruism and other prosocial behavior show considerable heritability and more recently a number of candidate genes have been identified with this phenotype. Among these first provisional findings are genes encoding elements of dopaminergic transmission. In this article we will review the evidence for the involvement of one of these, the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene, in shaping human prosocial behavior and consider the methodologies employed in measuring this trait, specific molecular genetic findings and finally, evidence from several Gene × Environment (G × E) studies that imply differential susceptibility of this gene to environmental influences. PMID:23717276

  2. Type III Methyltransferase M.NgoAX from Neisseria gonorrhoeae FA1090 Regulates Biofilm Formation and Interactions with Human Cells.

    PubMed

    Kwiatek, Agnieszka; Mrozek, Agnieszka; Bacal, Pawel; Piekarowicz, Andrzej; Adamczyk-Popławska, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the etiological factor of the sexually transmitted gonorrhea disease that may lead, under specific conditions, to systemic infections. The gonococcal genome encodes many restriction modification (RM) systems, which main biological role is to defend the pathogen from potentially harmful foreign DNA. However, RM systems seem also to be involved in several other functions. In this study, we examined the effect of inactivation the N. gonorrhoeae FA1090 ngoAXmod gene encoding M.NgoAX methyltransferase on the global gene expression, biofilm formation, interactions with human epithelial host cells and overall bacterial growth. Expression microarrays showed at least a twofold deregulation of a total of 121 genes in the NgoAX knock-out mutant compared to the wild-type (wt) strain under standard grow conditions. Genes with changed expression levels encoded mostly proteins involved in cell metabolism, DNA replication and repair or regulating cellular processes and signaling (such as cell wall/envelop biogenesis). As determined by the assay with crystal violet, the NgoAX knock-out strain formed a slightly larger biofilm biomass per cell than the wt strain. Live biofilm observations showed that the biofilm formed by the gonococcal ngoAXmod gene mutant is more relaxed, dispersed and thicker than the one formed by the wt strain. This more relaxed feature of the biofilm, in respect to adhesion and bacterial interactions, can be involved in pathogenesis. Moreover, the overall adhesion of mutant bacterial cells to human cells was lower than adhesion of the wt gonococci [adhesion index = 0.672 (±0.2) and 2.15 (±1.53), respectively]; yet, a higher number of mutant than wt bacteria were found inside the Hec-1-B epithelial cells [invasion index = 3.38 (±0.93) × 10(5) for mutant and 4.67 (±3.09) × 10(4) for the wt strain]. These results indicate that NgoAX knock-out cells have lower ability to attach to human cells, but more easily penetrate inside the host

  3. Type III Methyltransferase M.NgoAX from Neisseria gonorrhoeae FA1090 Regulates Biofilm Formation and Interactions with Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kwiatek, Agnieszka; Mrozek, Agnieszka; Bacal, Pawel; Piekarowicz, Andrzej; Adamczyk-Popławska, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the etiological factor of the sexually transmitted gonorrhea disease that may lead, under specific conditions, to systemic infections. The gonococcal genome encodes many restriction modification (RM) systems, which main biological role is to defend the pathogen from potentially harmful foreign DNA. However, RM systems seem also to be involved in several other functions. In this study, we examined the effect of inactivation the N. gonorrhoeae FA1090 ngoAXmod gene encoding M.NgoAX methyltransferase on the global gene expression, biofilm formation, interactions with human epithelial host cells and overall bacterial growth. Expression microarrays showed at least a twofold deregulation of a total of 121 genes in the NgoAX knock-out mutant compared to the wild-type (wt) strain under standard grow conditions. Genes with changed expression levels encoded mostly proteins involved in cell metabolism, DNA replication and repair or regulating cellular processes and signaling (such as cell wall/envelop biogenesis). As determined by the assay with crystal violet, the NgoAX knock-out strain formed a slightly larger biofilm biomass per cell than the wt strain. Live biofilm observations showed that the biofilm formed by the gonococcal ngoAXmod gene mutant is more relaxed, dispersed and thicker than the one formed by the wt strain. This more relaxed feature of the biofilm, in respect to adhesion and bacterial interactions, can be involved in pathogenesis. Moreover, the overall adhesion of mutant bacterial cells to human cells was lower than adhesion of the wt gonococci [adhesion index = 0.672 (±0.2) and 2.15 (±1.53), respectively]; yet, a higher number of mutant than wt bacteria were found inside the Hec-1-B epithelial cells [invasion index = 3.38 (±0.93) × 105 for mutant and 4.67 (±3.09) × 104 for the wt strain]. These results indicate that NgoAX knock-out cells have lower ability to attach to human cells, but more easily penetrate inside the host

  4. Repeated Administrations of Human Umbilical Cord Blood Cells Improve Disease Outcomes in a Mouse Model of Sanfilippo Syndrome Type III B.

    PubMed

    Willing, Alison E; Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana N; Zayko, Olga; Derasari, Hiranya M; Rawls, Ashley E; James, Chris R; Mervis, Ron F; Sanberg, Cyndy D; Kuzmin-Nichols, Nicole; Sanberg, Paul R

    2013-12-30

    Sanfilippo syndrome type III B (MPS III B) is an inherited disorder characterized by a deficiency of ?-N-acetylglucosaminidase (Naglu) enzyme leading to accumulation of heparan sulfate in lysosomes and severe neurological deficits. We have previously shown that a single administration of human umbilical cord mononuclear cells (hUCB MNC) into Nagluknockout mice decreased behavioral abnormalities and tissue pathology. In this study, we tested whether repeated doses of hUCB MNCs would be more beneficial than a single dose of cells. Naglumice at 3 months of age were randomly assigned to either a Media only group, or one of three hUCB MNC treatment groups - single low dose (3x10(6) cells), single high dose (1.8x10(7) cells) or multiple doses (3x10(6) cells monthly for 6 months) delivered intravenously (i.v.); cyclosporine was injected i.p. to immune suppress the mice for the duration of the study. An additional control group of wild type mice was also used. We measured anxiety in an open field test and cognition inactive avoidance test prior to treatment and then at monthly intervals for 6 months. hUCB MNCs restored normal anxiety-like behavior in these mice (p < 0.001). The repeated cell administrations also restored hippocampal cytoarchitecture, protected the dendritic tree, decreased GM3 ganglioside accumulation and decreased microglial activation, particularly in hippocampus and cortex. These data suggest that the neuroprotective effect of hUCB MNCs can be enhanced by repeated cell administrations. PMID:24380668

  5. Homo-trimeric Structure of the Type IVb Minor Pilin CofB Suggests Mechanism of CFA/III Pilus Assembly in Human Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Kazuki; Oki, Hiroya; Fukakusa, Shunsuke; Yoshida, Takuya; Imai, Tomoya; Maruno, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Yuji; Motooka, Daisuke; Iida, Tetsuya; Ohkubo, Tadayasu; Nakamura, Shota

    2016-03-27

    In gram-negative bacteria, the assembly of type IV pilus (T4P) and the evolutionally related pseudopilus of type II secretion system involves specialized structural proteins called pilins and pseudopilins, respectively, and is dynamically regulated to promote bacterial pathogenesis. Previous studies have suggested that a structural "tip"-like hetero-complex formed through the interaction of at least three minor (pseudo) pilins plays an important role in this process, while some members of the pathogenic type IVb subfamily are known to have only one such minor pilin subunit whose function is still unknown. Here, we determined the crystal structure of the type IVb minor pilin CofB of colonization factor antigen/III from human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli at 1.88-Å resolution. The crystal structure, in conjunction with physicochemical analysis in solution, reveals a symmetrical homo-trimeric arrangement distinct from the hetero-complexes of minor (pseudo) pilins observed in other T4P and type II secretion systems. Each CofB monomer adopts a unique three-domain architecture, in which the C-terminal β-sheet-rich lectin domain can effectively initiate trimer association of its pilin-like N-terminal domain through extensive hydrophobic interactions followed by domain swapping at the central hinge-like domain. Deletion of cofB produces a phenotype with no detectable pili formation on the cell surface, while molecular modeling indicates that the characteristic homo-trimeric structure of CofB is well situated at the pilus tip of colonization factor antigen/III formed by the major pilin CofA, suggesting a role for the minor pilin in the efficient initiation of T4P assembly. PMID:26876601

  6. Linkage mapping of the gene for Type III collagen (COL3A1) to human chromosome 2q using a VNTR polymorphism

    SciTech Connect

    Tiller, G.E.; Polumbo, P.A.; Summar, M.L. )

    1994-03-15

    The gene for the [alpha]1(III) chain of type III collagen, COL3A1, has been previously mapped to human chromosome 2q24.3-q31 by in situ hybridization. Physical mapping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis has demonstrated that COL3A1 lies within 35 kb of COL5A2. The authors genotyped the CEPH families at the COL3A2 locus using a pentanucleotide repeat polymorphism within intron 25. They demonstrated significant linkage to 18 anonymous markers as well as the gene for carbamyl phosphate synthetase (CPSI), which had been previously mapped to this region. No recombination was seen between COL3A1 and COL5A2 (Z = 9.93 at [theta] = 0) or D2S24 (Z = 10.55 at [theta] = 0). The locus order is (D2S32-D2S138-D2S148)-(D2S24-COL5A2-COL3A1)-(D2S118-D2S161), with odds of 1:2300 for the next most likely order. These relationships are consistent with the physical mapping of COL3A1 to the distal portion of 2q and place it proximal to CPSI by means of multipoint analysis. These linkage relationships should prove useful in further studies of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV and carbamyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency and provide an additional framework for localizing other genes in this region. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Repeated administrations of human umbilical cord blood cells improve disease outcomes in a mouse model of Sanfilippo syndrome type III B.

    PubMed

    Willing, Alison E; Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana N; Zayko, Olga; Derasari, Hiranya M; Rawls, Ashley E; James, Chris R; Mervis, Ron F; Sanberg, Cyndy D; Kuzmin-Nichols, Nicole; Sanberg, Paul R

    2014-01-01

    Sanfilippo syndrome type III B (MPS III B) is an inherited disorder characterized by a deficiency of α-N-acetylglucosaminidase (Naglu) enzyme leading to accumulation of heparan sulfate in lysosomes and severe neurological deficits. We have previously shown that a single administration of human umbilical cord mononuclear cells (hUCB MNCs) into Naglu knockout mice decreased behavioral abnormalities and tissue pathology. In this study, we tested whether repeated doses of hUCB MNCs would be more beneficial than a single dose of cells. Naglu mice at 3 months of age were randomly assigned to either a Media-only group or one of three hUCB MNC treatment groups--single low dose (3 × 10(6) cells), single high dose (1.8 × 10(7) cells), or multiple doses (3 × 10(6) cells monthly for 6 months) delivered intravenously; cyclosporine was injected intraperitoneally to immune suppress the mice for the duration of the study. An additional control group of wild-type mice was also used. We measured anxiety in an open field test and cognition in an active avoidance test prior to treatment and then at monthly intervals for 6 months. hUCB MNCs restored normal anxiety-like behavior in these mice (p < 0.001). The repeated cell administrations also restored hippocampal cytoarchitecture, protected the dendritic tree, decreased GM3 ganglioside accumulation, and decreased microglial activation, particularly in the hippocampus and cortex. These data suggest that the neuroprotective effect of hUCB MNCs can be enhanced by repeated cell administrations. PMID:25565636

  8. Increased skin collagen extractability and proportions of collagen type III are not normalized after 6 months healing of human excisional wounds.

    PubMed

    Robins, Simon P; Milne, George; Duncan, Alexander; Davies, Claire; Butt, Richard; Greiling, Doris; James, Ian T

    2003-08-01

    In an attempt to identify potential staging markers of effective healing, changes in connective tissue properties were measured in a human skin excisional wound healing model in which tissue was re-excised at intervals up to 6 months after injury. The proportion of collagen III relative to collagen I increased significantly (p<0.001) up to 6 weeks after initial injury and remained elevated up to 6 months, at which time the proportion of collagen III was 70% above baseline values. Extractability of biopsy tissue collagen by pepsin increased significantly throughout the study (baseline, 32.8+/-6.8%; 6 months, 89.1+/-8.9%), with inverse changes in the mature skin cross-link, histidinohydroxylysinonorleucine (baseline, 1.18+/-0.11 mol/mol collagen; 6 months, 0.27+/-0.09 mol/mol collagen). Pyridinoline content increased over the period of the study, although remaining at relatively low concentrations (baseline, 0.037+/-0.011; 6 months, 0.063+/-0.014 mol/mol collagen), and the pyridinoline/deoxypyridinoline ratio was significantly higher (baseline, 3.5+/-0.6; 6 months, 10.3+/-2.2). Elastin content, measured as desmosine cross-links, decreased significantly in the first 3 weeks and continued to decline over the period of study. Overall, the data suggest that remodeling of the wound tissue continues at least up to 6 months after injury. The close inverse correlation between histidinohydroxylysinonorleucine concentrations and extractability by pepsin (r2=0.89, p<0.0001) suggests a causal relationship, consistent with the likely effects of a substantial network of mature, inter-helical bonds in collagen. PMID:12880417

  9. On the contribution of group III and IV muscle afferents to the circulatory response to rhythmic exercise in humans

    PubMed Central

    Amann, Markus; Runnels, Sean; Morgan, David E; Trinity, Joel D; Fjeldstad, Anette S; Wray, D Walter; Reese, Van R; Richardson, Russell S

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the role of skeletal muscle afferent feedback in circulatory control during rhythmic exercise in humans. Nine healthy males performed single leg knee-extensor exercise (15/30/45 watts, 3 min each) under both control conditions (Ctrl) and with lumbar intrathecal fentanyl impairing μ-opioid receptor-sensitive muscle afferents. Cardiac output and femoral blood flow were determined, and femoral arterial/venous blood samples were collected during the final minute of each workload. To rule out cephalad migration of fentanyl to the brainstem, we documented unchanged resting ventilatory responses to different levels of hypercapnia. There were no haemodynamic differences between conditions at rest. However, during exercise cardiac output was ∼20% lower with fentanyl blockade compared to control (P < 0.05), secondary to a 6% and 13% reduction in heart rate and stroke volume, respectively. Throughout exercise mean arterial pressure (MAP) was reduced by 7% (P < 0.01) which is likely to have contributed to the 15% fall in femoral blood flow. However, MAP was not completely responsible for this peripheral haemodynamic change as vascular conductance was also attenuated (∼9%). Evidence of increasing noradrenaline spillover (P = 0.09) implicated an elevation in sympathetic outflow in this response. The attenuated femoral blood flow during exercise with fentanyl was associated with a 17% reduction in leg O2 delivery (P < 0.01) and a concomitant rise in the arteriovenous O2 difference (4–9%), but leg O2 consumption remained 7–13% lower than control (P < 0.05). Our findings reveal an essential contribution of continuous muscle afferent feedback to ensure the appropriate haemodynamic and ultimately metabolic response to rhythmic exercise in humans. PMID:21646407

  10. Molecular evolution of serpins: homologous structure of the human. cap alpha. /sub 1/-antichymotrypsin and. cap alpha. /sub 1/-antitrypsin genes

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, J.; Sifers, R.N.; Kidd, V.J.; Ledley, F.D.; Woo, S.L.C.

    1987-12-01

    ..cap alpha../sub 1/-Antichymotrypsin belongs to a supergene family that includes ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antitrypsin, antithrombin III, ovalbumin, and angiotensinogen. The human chromosomal ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antichymotrypsin gene has been cloned and its molecular structure established. The gene is approximately 12 kb in length and contains five exons and four introns. The locations of the introns within the ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antichymotrypsin gene are identical with those of the human ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antitrypsin and angiotensinogen genes. Other members of this supergene family contain introns located at nonhomologous positions of the genes. The homologous organization of the ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antichymotrypsin and ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antitrypsin genes corresponds with the high degree of homology between their protein sequences and suggest that these loci arose by recent gene duplication. A model is presented for the evolution of both the genomic structure and the protein sequences of the serine protease inhibitor superfamily.

  11. Methods to identify and characterize developmental neurotoxicity for human health risk assessment. III: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations.

    PubMed Central

    Dorman, D C; Allen, S L; Byczkowski, J Z; Claudio, L; Fisher, J E; Fisher, J W; Harry, G J; Li, A A; Makris, S L; Padilla, S; Sultatos, L G; Mileson, B E

    2001-01-01

    We review pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors that should be considered in the design and interpretation of developmental neurotoxicity studies. Toxicologic effects on the developing nervous system depend on the delivered dose, exposure duration, and developmental stage at which exposure occurred. Several pharmacokinetic processes (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) govern chemical disposition within the dam and the nervous system of the offspring. In addition, unique physical features such as the presence or absence of a placental barrier and the gradual development of the blood--brain barrier influence chemical disposition and thus modulate developmental neurotoxicity. Neonatal exposure may depend on maternal pharmacokinetic processes and transfer of the xenobiotic through the milk, although direct exposure may occur through other routes (e.g., inhalation). Measurement of the xenobiotic in milk and evaluation of biomarkers of exposure or effect following exposure can confirm or characterize neonatal exposure. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models that incorporate these and other determinants can estimate tissue dose and biologic response following in utero or neonatal exposure. These models can characterize dose--response relationships and improve extrapolation of results from animal studies to humans. In addition, pharmacologic data allow an experimenter to determine whether exposure to the test chemical is adequate, whether exposure occurs during critical periods of nervous system development, whether route and duration of exposure are appropriate, and whether developmental neurotoxicity can be differentiated from direct actions of the xenobiotic. PMID:11250810

  12. Protein adsorption on low temperature isotropic carbon. III. Isotherms, competitivity, desorption and exchange of human albumin and fibrinogen.

    PubMed

    Feng, L; Andrade, J D

    1994-04-01

    In this paper we consider the adsorption of albumin and fibrinogen on low temperature isotropic carbon (LTIC). A subsequent paper considers the adsorption of other plasma proteins [Feng L, Andrade JD, Colloids and Surfaces (in press)]. Carbon fragments and silica plates were used as adsorbents. Adsorption was carried out by incubating the adsorbents in solutions of 125I-labelled and unlabelled proteins (single component system), or with buffer-diluted human plasma (multicomponent system). Adsorbed proteins then underwent displacement by buffer, by single protein solutions or by dilute plasma. Results show that the LTIC substrate adsorbs a large amount of proteins before saturation, which may be due to multilayer adsorption. LTIC also irreversibly holds adsorbed proteins against the exchange agents used; little adsorbed proteins can be displaced, even after a very short adsorption time. There is no preferential adsorption for either albumin or fibrinogen on LTIC from their binary solutions, suggesting that both proteins have high affinities for the surface. Such strong interactions between LTIC and proteins are not attributed to electrostatic interactions. On the other hand, protein adsorption on the silica surface is selective and reversible, with a much higher affinity for fibrinogen than albumin and an even higher affinity for some other plasma proteins. The paper also discusses the effect of sequential protein addition to a solution on the surface concentration and suppression of adsorption of both proteins in the presence of other plasma proteins. A very important conclusion is that the LTIC surface is very active towards proteins adsorption. PMID:8061122

  13. The type III transporters (PiT-1 and PiT-2) are the major sodium-dependent phosphate transporters in the mice and human brains.

    PubMed

    Inden, Masatoshi; Iriyama, Masaki; Zennami, Miho; Sekine, Shin-Ichiro; Hara, Akira; Yamada, Mitsunori; Hozumi, Isao

    2016-04-15

    PiT-1/SLC20A1 and PiT-2/SLC20A2 are members of the mammalian type-III inorganic phosphate (Pi) transporters encoded by the SLC20 genes. The broad distribution of SLC20A1 and SLC20A2 mRNAs in mammalian tissues is compatible with housekeeping maintenace of intracellular Pi homeostasis by transporting Pi from intrastitial fluid for normal cellular functions. Recently, mutations of SLC20A2 have been found in patients with idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC), also known as Fahr's disease. However, the localization of PiT-1 and PiT-2 in the normal brain has not been clarified yet. The aim of this study was to reveal the distribution of PiT-1 and PiT-2 in the mouse and human brains. As results, gene expressing analysis showed that SLC20A1 and SLC20A2 mRNAs were widely expressed throughout the mouse and human brains, although other Pi transporters encoded by SLC17 and SLC34 mRNAs were hardly detected. The region of cerebellum contained a higher level of SLC20A1 and SLC20A2 mRNAs than the other brain regions. Additionally, the cerebellum in the mouse brain contained higher levels of PiT-1 and PiT-2 than those in the other regions in the brain, respectively. The immonohistochemical studies showed that PiT-1 was recognized in neuron, astrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Similarly to PiT-1 immunopositivity, PiT-2 was clearly recognized in these cells. These results suggest that SLC20 family plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of cellular Pi homeostasis particullary in the brain. The viewpoint is compatible with the finding that calcification in IBGC is recognized only in the brain. This provides us with a novel viewpoint to understand the basic pathophysiology of IBGC through type-III Pi transporters. PMID:26923164

  14. A Human-in-the-Loop Evaluation of Multi-Sector Planning in Mixed Equipage Airspace (MSP III)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Nancy; Prevot, Tom; Kessell, Angela; Homola, Jeff; Lee, Hwasoo; Mercer, Joey; Brasil, Connie; Mainini, Matt; Lee, Paul

    2011-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulation was conducted in May 2010 to determine the feasibility and value 01 conducting multi-sector planning (MSP) operations in a mixed equipage environment. Aircraft were categorized as equipped or unequipped based on the presence or absence of an air-ground data communications (Data Comm) capability for receiving auto-loadable clearances and transfer of communication messages from the air navigation service provider (ANSP). The purpose of the study was to determine the feasibility and possible benefits of introducing multi-sector planning in a mixed equipage context, or whether Data Comm equipage was required for MSP operations. Each test scenario presented one of three different equipage levels to the controllers (10%, 50% or 90% equipped aircraft), so that the operational impact of different equipage levels could be observed. Operational feasibility assessment addressed two related questions: (1) are MSP operations feasible for unequipped aircraft, and (2) are they feasible in a mixed equipage context. Similarly, two categories of potential benefits were explored: (1) system performance improvements (e.g., throughput, workload) associated with MSP at different equipage levels, and (2) the possibility of providing differential service for equipage through MSP operations. Tool requirements (for both planning and controller stations), as well as planning and coordination procedures - within facility (traffic management unit/operational area) and within sector (R-Side/D-Side) - were two other topics addressed in the study. Overall, results suggested that MSP operations were feasible in a mixed equipage environment and that the tools were effective with both equipped and unequipped aircraft. Using the MSP tools, traffic management coordinators were able to manage controller task load, effectively balancing throughput with complexity and controller task load at each of the three equipage levels tested.

  15. Screening of promising chemotherapeutic candidates from plants against human adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (III).

    PubMed

    Nakano, Daisuke; Ishitsuka, Kenji; Kamikawa, Mio; Matsuda, Michika; Tsuchihashi, Ryota; Okawa, Masafumi; Okabe, Hikaru; Tamura, Kazuo; Kinjo, Junei

    2013-10-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a malignancy of mature peripheral T lymphocytes caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I). In our previous paper, 214 extracts from 162 plants were screened to elucidate the anti-proliferative principles against HTLV-I-infected T-cell lines. In this study, 245 extracts from 182 plants belonging to 61 families were further tested against two HTLV-I-infected T-cell lines (MT-1 and MT-2). Potent anti-proliferative effects were exhibited against MT-1 and MT-2 cells by 52 and 60 of the 245 extracts tested, respectively. Of these, two extracts showed strong inhibitory activity (EC₅₀ values 0.1-1 μg/mL; +++) against both cells, 7 extracts showed moderate inhibitory activity (EC5₅₀ values 1-10 μg/mL; ++), and 43 extracts showed weak inhibitory activity (EC₅₀ values 10-100 μg/mL; +), whereas the remaining extracts did not show any activity (EC₅₀ values >100 μg/mL; -) against MT-1 cells. On the other hand, 10 extracts showed moderate inhibitory activit and, 48 extracts showed weak inhibitory activity, whereas the remaining extracts did not show any activity against MT-2 cells. Extracts from the aerial parts of Annona reticulata and A. squamosa showed the most potent inhibitory activity and three aporphine alkaloids were isolated from their extracts as the active principles by activity-guided fractionation. PMID:23397239

  16. DNA ligase III is the major high molecular weight DNA joining activity in SV40-transformed human fibroblasts: normal levels of DNA ligase III activity in Bloom syndrome cells.

    PubMed Central

    Tomkinson, A E; Starr, R; Schultz, R A

    1993-01-01

    The phenotypes of cultured cell lines established from individuals with Bloom syndrome (BLM), including an elevated spontaneous frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), are consistent with a defect in DNA joining. We have investigated the levels of DNA ligase I and DNA ligase III in an SV40-transformed control and BLM fibroblast cell line, as well as clonal derivatives of the BLM cell line complemented or not for the elevated SCE phenotype. No differences in either DNA ligase I or DNA ligase III were detected in extracts from these cell lines. Furthermore, the data indicate that in dividing cultures of SV40-transformed fibroblasts, DNA ligase III contributes > 85% of high molecular weight DNA joining activity. This observation contrasts with previous studies in which DNA ligase I was reported to be the major DNA joining activity in extracts from proliferating mammalian cells. Images PMID:8265359

  17. Significant Type I and Type III Collagen Production from Human Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts in 3D Peptide Scaffolds without Extra Growth Factors

    PubMed Central

    Kumada, Yoshiyuki; Zhang, Shuguang

    2010-01-01

    We here report the development of two peptide scaffolds designed for periodontal ligament fibroblasts. The scaffolds consist of one of the pure self-assembling peptide scaffolds RADA16 through direct coupling to short biologically active motifs. The motifs are 2-unit RGD binding sequence PRG (PRGDSGYRGDS) and laminin cell adhesion motif PDS (PDSGR). RGD and laminin have been previously shown to promote specific biological activities including periodontal ligament fibroblasts adhesion, proliferation and protein production. Compared to the pure RADA16 peptide scaffold, we here show that these designer peptide scaffolds significantly promote human periodontal ligament fibroblasts to proliferate and migrate into the scaffolds (for ∼300 µm/two weeks). Moreover these peptide scaffolds significantly stimulated periodontal ligament fibroblasts to produce extracellular matrix proteins without using extra additional growth factors. Immunofluorescent images clearly demonstrated that the peptide scaffolds were almost completely covered with type I and type III collagens which were main protein components of periodontal ligament. Our results suggest that these designer self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffolds may be useful for promoting wound healing and especially periodontal ligament tissue regeneration. PMID:20421985

  18. Sulfated Escherichia coli K5 Polysaccharide Derivatives Inhibit Dengue Virus Infection of Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells by Interacting with the Viral Envelope Protein E Domain III

    PubMed Central

    Vervaeke, Peter; Alen, Marijke; Noppen, Sam; Schols, Dominique; Oreste, Pasqua; Liekens, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is an emerging mosquito-borne pathogen that causes cytokine-mediated alterations in the barrier function of the microvascular endothelium, leading to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). We observed that DENV (serotype 2) productively infects primary (HMVEC-d) and immortalized (HMEC-1) human dermal microvascular endothelial cells, despite the absence of well-described DENV receptors, such as dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) or the mannose receptor on the cell surface. However, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) were highly expressed on these cells and pre-treatment of HMEC-1 cells with heparinase II or with glycosaminoglycans reduced DENV infectivity up to 90%, suggesting that DENV uses HSPGs as attachment receptor on microvascular endothelial cells. Sulfated Escherichia coli K5 derivatives, which are structurally similar to heparin/heparan sulfate but lack anticoagulant activity, were able to block DENV infection of HMEC-1 and HMVEC-d cells in the nanomolar range. The highly sulfated K5-OS(H) and K5-N,OS(H) inhibited virus attachment and subsequent entry into microvascular endothelial cells by interacting with the viral envelope (E) protein, as shown by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis using the receptor-binding domain III of the E protein. PMID:24015314

  19. Determination of the Distance between the Mo(V) and Fe(III) Heme Centers of Wild Type Human Sulfite Oxidase by Pulsed EPR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Astashkin, Andrei V.; Rajapakshe, Asha; Cornelison, Matthew; Johnson-Winters, Kayunta; Enemark, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Intramolecular electron transfer (IET) between the molybdenum and heme centers of vertebrate sulfite oxidase (SO) is proposed to be a key step in the catalytic cycle of the enzyme. However, the X-ray crystallographic distance between these centers, RMoFe = 32.3 Å, appears to be too long for the rapid IET rates observed in liquid solution. The Mo and heme domains are linked by a flexible tether, and it has been proposed that dynamic interdomain motion brings the two metal centers closer together and thereby facilitates rapid IET. To date there have been no direct distance measurements for SO in solution that would support or contradict this model. In this work, pulsed electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR) and relaxation induced dipolar modulation enhancement (RIDME) techniques were used to obtain information about RMoFe in the Mo(V)Fe(III) state of wild type recombinant human SO in frozen glassy solution. Surprisingly, the data obtained suggest a fixed structure with RMoFe = 32 Å, similar to that determined by X-ray crystallography for chicken SO, although the orientation of the RMoFe radius-vector with respect to the heme center was found to be somewhat different. The implications of these findings for the flexible tether model are discussed. PMID:22229742

  20. Determination of the distance between the Mo(V) and Fe(III) heme centers of wild type human sulfite oxidase by pulsed EPR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Astashkin, Andrei V; Rajapakshe, Asha; Cornelison, Matthew J; Johnson-Winters, Kayunta; Enemark, John H

    2012-02-16

    Intramolecular electron transfer (IET) between the molybdenum and heme centers of vertebrate sulfite oxidase (SO) is proposed to be a key step in the catalytic cycle of the enzyme. However, the X-ray crystallographic distance between these centers, R(MoFe) = 32.3 Å, appears to be too long for the rapid IET rates observed in liquid solution. The Mo and heme domains are linked by a flexible tether, and it has been proposed that dynamic interdomain motion brings the two metal centers closer together and thereby facilitates rapid IET. To date, there have been no direct distance measurements for SO in solution that would support or contradict this model. In this work, pulsed electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR) and relaxation induced dipolar modulation enhancement (RIDME) techniques were used to obtain information about R(MoFe) in the Mo(V)Fe(III) state of wild type recombinant human SO in frozen glassy solution. Surprisingly, the data obtained suggest a fixed structure with R(MoFe) = 32 Å, similar to that determined by X-ray crystallography for chicken SO, although the orientation of the R(MoFe) radius-vector with respect to the heme center was found to be somewhat different. The implications of these findings for the flexible tether model are discussed. PMID:22229742

  1. Human sat III and Drosophila hsrω transcripts: a common paradigm for regulation of nuclear RNA processing in stressed cells

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, Caroline; Lakhotia, Subhash C.

    2006-01-01

    Exposure of cells to stressful conditions elicits a highly conserved defense mechanism termed the heat shock response, resulting in the production of specialized proteins which protect the cells against the deleterious effects of stress. The heat shock response involves not only a widespread inhibition of the ongoing transcription and activation of heat shock genes, but also important changes in post-transcriptional processing. In particular, a blockade in splicing and other post-transcriptional processing has been described following stress in different organisms, together with an altered spatial distribution of the proteins involved in these activities. However, the specific mechanisms that regulate these activities under conditions of stress are little understood. Non-coding RNA molecules are increasingly known to be involved in the regulation of various activities in the cell, ranging from chromatin structure to splicing and RNA degradation. In this review, we consider two non-coding RNAs, the hsrω transcripts in Drosophila and the sat III transcripts in human cells, that seem to be involved in the dynamics of RNA-processing factors in normal and/or stressed cells, and thus provide new paradigms for understanding transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations in normal and stressed cells. PMID:17020918

  2. Activation of RNA polymerase III transcription of human Alu repetitive elements by adenovirus type 5: Requirement for the E1b 58-Kilodalton protein and the products of E4 open reading frames 3 and 6

    SciTech Connect

    Panning, B.; Smiley, J.R. )

    1993-06-01

    Alu elements are the single most abundant class of dispersed repeated sequences in the human genome, comprising 5-10% of the mass of human DNA. This report demonstrates that Ad5 infection strongly stimulates Pol III transcription of human Alu elements in HeLa and 293 cells. In contrast to the cases of Ad5-induced Pol III transcriptional activation, this process requires the E1b 58-kDa protein and the products of E4 open reading frames (ORFs) 3 and 6 in addition to the E1a 289-residue product. These findings suggest novel regulatory properties of the Ad5 E1b and E4 proteins and raise the possibility that analogous cellular trans-acting factors serve to modulate Alu expression in vivo.

  3. A comparative evaluation of assays for markers of activated coagulation and/or fibrinolysis: thrombin-antithrombin complex, D-dimer and fibrinogen/fibrin fragment E antigen.

    PubMed

    Boisclair, M D; Lane, D A; Wilde, J T; Ireland, H; Preston, F E; Ofosu, F A

    1990-04-01

    Measurements were made of levels of D-dimer in plasma and serum, thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT) in plasma and fibrinogen/fibrin fragment E antigen (FgE) in serum in a normal healthy control group and in patients with a range of disorders associated with hypercoagulability. Levels were determined in 31 normal healthy controls, 30 patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), 21 patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT), 27 patients with myocardial infarction (MI), 26 patients with acute leukaemia and 56 patients with liver disease. Considering all subjects, significant correlations were established between the results of all assays. Notably high correlations (r greater than 0.9) were established between plasma and serum levels of D-dimer, between plasma levels of D-dimer and serum levels of FgE, and between serum levels of D-dimer and FgE. All assays showed very high discrimination (sensitivity) between the normal control group and patients with DIC (97-100%), but there were marked differences between the assays in sensitivity for DVT and MI. In general, the FgE assay was more sensitive than the D-dimer assay, whilst both the FgE and D-dimer assays were more sensitive than the TAT assay. The same trends were apparent in the capability of the assays to discriminate between the normal control group and patients with acute leukaemia and liver disease: disorders with an unknown prevalence of activation of coagulation/fibrinolysis. Our results indicated that measurements of fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products (FDPs) in serum were almost unaffected by artefacts. The data further suggested that the broad-spectrum FgE assay was better than the more specific D-dimer assay in detecting clinical hypercoagulability. Our study showed that, in the clinical conditions examined, FDPs were more effective markers of hypercoagulability than TAT. PMID:2189490

  4. Analytical comparison of a US generic enoxaparin with the originator product: The focus on comparative assessment of antithrombin-binding components.

    PubMed

    Mourier, Pierre A J; Herman, Fréderic; Sizun, Philippe; Viskov, Christian

    2016-09-10

    Enoxaparin sodium, a low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) prepared from porcine intestinal heparin, is widely used for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism. The antithrombotic activity of heparin is mediated mainly through its activation of antithrombin (AT) and subsequent inhibition of coagulation factors. Heparin is a complex heteropolymer and the sulfation pattern of its alternating uronic acid and glucosamine sugar units is a major factor influencing its biological activity. The manufacturing process itself is associated with the introduction of exogenous microheterogeneities that may further affect its biological efficacy. This is important since enoxaparin is prepared by depolymerizing the heparin with the aim of optimizing its biological activity and safety. Changes during its manufacture could thus affect its biological activity and safety. The current study was performed to assess potential differences between the originator enoxaparin and a new generic enoxaparin commercialized by Teva. Heparinase digestion, AT affinity chromatography, gel permeation chromatography, anion exchange chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance methodologies were used. The results indicated differences in oligosaccharides related to the cleavage selectivity around the heparin AT-binding sequences of the Teva Enoxaparin Sodium Injection, USP and the originator Sanofi enoxaparin. These differences influence the strength of the AT-binding affinity of the individual oligosaccharides, their ability to activate AT and, therefore, the inhibitory potency on the proteases of the coagulation cascade. This study, together with other published analytical reports, describes specific compositional differences between generics and originator LWMHs. However, it is yet to be established whether such variations might have any clinical relevance. PMID:27497655

  5. Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Have Innate Procoagulant Activity and Cause Microvascular Obstruction Following Intracoronary Delivery: Amelioration by Antithrombin Therapy.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, Birgitta M; Martin, Kenneth; Ali, Mohammed T; Kumar, Arun H S; Pillai, M Gopala-Krishnan; Kumar, Sujith P G; O'Sullivan, John F; Whelan, Derek; Stocca, Alessia; Khider, Wisam; Barry, Frank P; O'Brien, Timothy; Caplice, Noel M

    2015-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are currently under investigation as tools to preserve cardiac structure and function following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, concerns have emerged regarding safety of acute intracoronary (IC) MSC delivery. This study aimed to characterize innate prothrombotic activity of MSC and identify means of its mitigation toward safe and efficacious therapeutic IC MSC delivery post-AMI. Expression of the initiator of the coagulation cascade tissue factor (TF) on MSC was detected and quantified by immunofluorescence, FACS, and immunoblotting. MSC-derived TF antigen was catalytically active and capable of supporting thrombin generation in vitro. Addition of MSCs to whole citrated blood enhanced platelet thrombus deposition on collagen at arterial shear, an effect abolished by heparin coadministration. In a porcine AMI model, IC infusion of 25 × 10(6) MSC during reperfusion was associated with a decrease in coronary flow reserve but not when coadministered with an antithrombin agent (heparin). Heparin reduced MSC-associated thrombosis incorporating platelets and VWF within the microvasculature. Heparin-assisted therapeutic MSC delivery also reduced apoptosis in the infarct border zone at 24 hours, significantly improved infarct size, left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, LV volumes, wall motion, and attenuated histologic evidence of scar formation at 6 weeks post-AMI. Heparin alone or heparin-assisted fibroblast control cell delivery had no such effect. Procoagulant TF activity of therapeutic MSCs is associated with reductions in myocardial perfusion when delivered IC may be successfully managed by heparin coadministration. This study highlights an important mechanistic insight into safety concerns associated with therapeutic IC MSC delivery for AMI. PMID:25969127

  6. X-ray Structure Analysis of Indazolium trans-[Tetrachlorobis(1H-indazole)ruthenate(III)] (KP1019) Bound to Human Serum Albumin Reveals Two Ruthenium Binding Sites and Provides Insights into the Drug Binding Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Bijelic, Aleksandar; Theiner, Sarah; Keppler, Bernhard K; Rompel, Annette

    2016-06-23

    Ruthenium(III) complexes are promising candidates for anticancer drugs, especially the clinically studied indazolium trans-[tetrachlorobis(1H-indazole)ruthenate(III)] (KP1019) and its analogue sodium trans-[tetrachlorobis(1H-indazole)ruthenate(III)] (NKP-1339). Several studies have emphasized the likely role of human serum proteins in the transportation and accumulation of ruthenium(III) complexes in tumors. Therefore, the interaction between KP1019 and human serum albumin was investigated by means of X-ray crystallography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The structural data unambiguously reveal the binding of two ruthenium atoms to histidine residues 146 and 242, which are both located within well-known hydrophobic binding pockets of albumin. The ruthenium centers are octahedrally coordinated by solvent molecules revealing the dissociation of both indazole ligands from the ruthenium-based drug. However, a binding mechanism is proposed indicating the importance of the indazole ligands for binding site recognition and thus their indispensable role for the binding of KP1019. PMID:27196130

  7. X-ray Structure Analysis of Indazolium trans-[Tetrachlorobis(1H-indazole)ruthenate(III)] (KP1019) Bound to Human Serum Albumin Reveals Two Ruthenium Binding Sites and Provides Insights into the Drug Binding Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Ruthenium(III) complexes are promising candidates for anticancer drugs, especially the clinically studied indazolium trans-[tetrachlorobis(1H-indazole)ruthenate(III)] (KP1019) and its analogue sodium trans-[tetrachlorobis(1H-indazole)ruthenate(III)] (NKP-1339). Several studies have emphasized the likely role of human serum proteins in the transportation and accumulation of ruthenium(III) complexes in tumors. Therefore, the interaction between KP1019 and human serum albumin was investigated by means of X-ray crystallography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The structural data unambiguously reveal the binding of two ruthenium atoms to histidine residues 146 and 242, which are both located within well-known hydrophobic binding pockets of albumin. The ruthenium centers are octahedrally coordinated by solvent molecules revealing the dissociation of both indazole ligands from the ruthenium-based drug. However, a binding mechanism is proposed indicating the importance of the indazole ligands for binding site recognition and thus their indispensable role for the binding of KP1019. PMID:27196130

  8. A heparin binding synthetic peptide from human HIP / RPL29 fails to specifically differentiate between anticoagulantly active and inactive species of heparin

    PubMed Central

    Hoke, David E; Carson, Daniel D; Höök, Magnus

    2003-01-01

    Despite extensive progress in determining structures within heparin and heparan sulfate (Hp/HS) and the discovery of numerous proteinaceous binding partners for Hp/HS so far; the only detailed characterization of a specific protein-glycosaminoglycan interaction is antithrombin III (ATIII) binding to a Hp pentasaccharide containing a unique 3-O-sulfated glucosamine residue. Previously, it was reported from our laboratories that a 16 amino acid synthetic peptide derived from the C-terminus of human HIP/RPL29 (HIP peptide-1) enriched for ATIII-dependent anticoagulant activity, presumably by specifically binding the ATIII pentasaccharide. Herein, we demonstrate that HIP peptide-1 cannot enrich ATIII-dependent anticoagulant activity from a starting pool of porcine intestinal mucosa Hp through a bio-specific interaction. However, a HIP peptide-1 column can be used to enrich for anticoagulantly active Hp from a diverse pool of glycosaminoglycans known as Hp byproducts by a mechanism of nonspecific charge interactions. Thus, HIP peptide-1 cannot recognize Hp via bio-specific interactions but binds glycosaminoglycans by non-specific charge interactions. PMID:12659638

  9. Type III Secretion System and Virulence Markers Highlight Similarities and Differences between Human- and Plant-Associated Pseudomonads Related to Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. putida

    PubMed Central

    Mazurier, Sylvie; Merieau, Annabelle; Bergeau, Dorian; Decoin, Victorien; Sperandio, Daniel; Crépin, Alexandre; Barbey, Corinne; Jeannot, Katy; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté; Plésiat, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is commonly considered a saprophytic rhizobacterium devoid of pathogenic potential. Nevertheless, the recurrent isolation of strains from clinical human cases could indicate the emergence of novel strains originating from the rhizosphere reservoir, which could be particularly resistant to the immune system and clinical treatment. The importance of type three secretion systems (T3SSs) in the related Pseudomonas aeruginosa nosocomial species and the occurrence of this secretion system in plant-associated P. fluorescens raise the question of whether clinical isolates may also harbor T3SSs. In this study, isolates associated with clinical infections and identified in hospitals as belonging to P. fluorescens were compared with fluorescent pseudomonads harboring T3SSs isolated from plants. Bacterial isolates were tested for (i) their genetic relationships based on their 16S rRNA phylogeny, (ii) the presence of T3SS genes by PCR, and (iii) their infectious potential on animals and plants under environmental or physiological temperature conditions. Two groups of bacteria were delineated among the clinical isolates. The first group encompassed thermotolerant (41°C) isolates from patients suffering from blood infections; these isolates were finally found to not belong to P. fluorescens but were closely related and harbored highly conserved T3SS genes belonging to the Ysc-T3SS family, like the T3SSs from P. aeruginosa. The second group encompassed isolates from patients suffering from cystic fibrosis; these isolates belonged to P. fluorescens and harbored T3SS genes belonging to the Hrp1-T3SS family found commonly in plant-associated P. fluorescens. PMID:25636837

  10. Type III secretion system and virulence markers highlight similarities and differences between human- and plant-associated pseudomonads related to Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. putida.

    PubMed

    Mazurier, Sylvie; Merieau, Annabelle; Bergeau, Dorian; Decoin, Victorien; Sperandio, Daniel; Crépin, Alexandre; Barbey, Corinne; Jeannot, Katy; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté; Plésiat, Patrick; Lemanceau, Philippe; Latour, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is commonly considered a saprophytic rhizobacterium devoid of pathogenic potential. Nevertheless, the recurrent isolation of strains from clinical human cases could indicate the emergence of novel strains originating from the rhizosphere reservoir, which could be particularly resistant to the immune system and clinical treatment. The importance of type three secretion systems (T3SSs) in the related Pseudomonas aeruginosa nosocomial species and the occurrence of this secretion system in plant-associated P. fluorescens raise the question of whether clinical isolates may also harbor T3SSs. In this study, isolates associated with clinical infections and identified in hospitals as belonging to P. fluorescens were compared with fluorescent pseudomonads harboring T3SSs isolated from plants. Bacterial isolates were tested for (i) their genetic relationships based on their 16S rRNA phylogeny, (ii) the presence of T3SS genes by PCR, and (iii) their infectious potential on animals and plants under environmental or physiological temperature conditions. Two groups of bacteria were delineated among the clinical isolates. The first group encompassed thermotolerant (41°C) isolates from patients suffering from blood infections; these isolates were finally found to not belong to P. fluorescens but were closely related and harbored highly conserved T3SS genes belonging to the Ysc-T3SS family, like the T3SSs from P. aeruginosa. The second group encompassed isolates from patients suffering from cystic fibrosis; these isolates belonged to P. fluorescens and harbored T3SS genes belonging to the Hrp1-T3SS family found commonly in plant-associated P. fluorescens. PMID:25636837

  11. Prevalence of antibody to human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I/II in people of Caribbean origin in Toronto.

    PubMed Central

    Chiavetta, J; Nusbacher, J; Tam, F; Wall, A; Steaffens, J; Lee, H

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of antibody to human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I/II (anti-HTLV-I/II) in people from an HTLV-I/II-endemic area (the Caribbean) living in a nonendemic region (Canada). DESIGN: Cross-sectional household survey. SETTING: Households in Toronto in 1989. PARTICIPANTS: A modified quota sampling method was used to recruit subjects of Caribbean origin as well as other Canadians. Of 2900 people invited to participate in the study 1323, 743 of Caribbean origin, were interviewed about their background and possible exposure to HTLV-I/II. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Blood samples were analysed for anti-HTLV-I/II by means of an enzyme-linked immunoassay, the result being confirmed by the Western blot technique and radioimmunoprecipitation assay. The samples were also analysed for antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and for surrogate markers of non-A, non-B hepatitis. RESULTS: A total of 853 blood samples (64.5%) were analysed, 483 (56.6%) from subjects of Caribbean origin. The proportion of subjects who agreed to give a blood sample was similar for the Caribbean and non-Caribbean strata. Eleven subjects, all of Caribbean origin (2.3% of the Caribbean stratum), were confirmed to be positive for anti-HTLV-I/II. There were no significant differences between the antibody-positive and antibody-negative subjects with respect to sex, age, racial origin or residence in the Caribbean for at least 22 years. All anti-HTLV-I/II-positive subjects were negative for anti-HIV and HBsAg, and four (36.4%) were positive for antibody to HBsAg and to hepatitis B core antigen. CONCLUSIONS: Except for origin, an association between antibody positivity and other factors could not be demonstrated. The findings suggest that blood donor screening might include place of origin in addition to the usual lifestyle or behavioural factors. However, the need to ensure safety of transfusion must be balanced against the

  12. Taiwan cobra cardiotoxin III suppresses EGF/EGFR-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and invasion of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Pei-Chien; Fu, Yaw-Syan; Chang, Long-Sen; Lin, Shinne-Ren

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer is a highly malignant carcinoma and most deaths of breast cancer are caused by metastasis. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has emerged as a pivotal event in the development of the invasive and metastatic potentials of cancer progression. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor, EGFR, play roles in cancer metastasis. CTX III, a basic polypeptide isolated from Naja naja atra venom, has been shown to exhibit anticancer activity; however, the effect of CTX III on the EMT of cancer cells remains elusive. CTX III treatment resulted in morphological changes from elongated and spindle shape to rounded and epithelial-like shape, induced upregulation of E-cadherin and concurrent downregulation of N-cadherin and Vimentin protein levels, corresponding to observed decreases in cell migration and invasion. CTX III treatment also decreased the expression of Snail and Twist in EGF-induced MDA-MB-231 cells. Concurrently, CTX III efficiently inhibited the EGFR phosphorylation and downstream activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and ERK1/2. The EGFR specific inhibitor AG1478 significantly suppressed ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation, cell migration and invasion, as well as the expressional changes associated with EMT markers in EGF-induced MDA-MB-231 cells. CTX III inhibitory effect on EGF-evoked invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells is mediated through suppressing EGF/EGFR activation and EMT process. PMID:26774845

  13. Exploring the Origin of Differential Binding Affinities of Human Tubulin Isotypes αβII, αβIII and αβIV for DAMA-Colchicine Using Homology Modelling, Molecular Docking and Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Dulal; Kunwar, Ambarish

    2016-01-01

    Tubulin isotypes are found to play an important role in regulating microtubule dynamics. The isotype composition is also thought to contribute in the development of drug resistance as tubulin isotypes show differential binding affinities for various anti-cancer agents. Tubulin isotypes αβII, αβIII and αβIV show differential binding affinity for colchicine. However, the origin of differential binding affinity is not well understood at the molecular level. Here, we investigate the origin of differential binding affinity of a colchicine analogue N-deacetyl-N-(2-mercaptoacetyl)-colchicine (DAMA-colchicine) for human αβII, αβIII and αβIV isotypes, employing sequence analysis, homology modeling, molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation and MM-GBSA binding free energy calculations. The sequence analysis study shows that the residue compositions are different in the colchicine binding pocket of αβII and αβIII, whereas no such difference is present in αβIV tubulin isotypes. Further, the molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations results show that residue differences present at the colchicine binding pocket weaken the bonding interactions and the correct binding of DAMA-colchicine at the interface of αβII and αβIII tubulin isotypes. Post molecular dynamics simulation analysis suggests that these residue variations affect the structure and dynamics of αβII and αβIII tubulin isotypes, which in turn affect the binding of DAMA-colchicine. Further, the binding free-energy calculation shows that αβIV tubulin isotype has the highest binding free-energy and αβIII has the lowest binding free-energy for DAMA-colchicine. The order of binding free-energy for DAMA-colchicine is αβIV ≃ αβII >> αβIII. Thus, our computational approaches provide an insight into the effect of residue variations on differential binding of αβII, αβIII and αβIV tubulin isotypes with DAMA-colchicine and may help to design new analogues with higher

  14. Exploring the Origin of Differential Binding Affinities of Human Tubulin Isotypes αβII, αβIII and αβIV for DAMA-Colchicine Using Homology Modelling, Molecular Docking and Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Kumbhar, Bajarang Vasant; Borogaon, Anubhaw; Panda, Dulal; Kunwar, Ambarish

    2016-01-01

    Tubulin isotypes are found to play an important role in regulating microtubule dynamics. The isotype composition is also thought to contribute in the development of drug resistance as tubulin isotypes show differential binding affinities for various anti-cancer agents. Tubulin isotypes αβII, αβIII and αβIV show differential binding affinity for colchicine. However, the origin of differential binding affinity is not well understood at the molecular level. Here, we investigate the origin of differential binding affinity of a colchicine analogue N-deacetyl-N-(2-mercaptoacetyl)-colchicine (DAMA-colchicine) for human αβII, αβIII and αβIV isotypes, employing sequence analysis, homology modeling, molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation and MM-GBSA binding free energy calculations. The sequence analysis study shows that the residue compositions are different in the colchicine binding pocket of αβII and αβIII, whereas no such difference is present in αβIV tubulin isotypes. Further, the molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations results show that residue differences present at the colchicine binding pocket weaken the bonding interactions and the correct binding of DAMA-colchicine at the interface of αβII and αβIII tubulin isotypes. Post molecular dynamics simulation analysis suggests that these residue variations affect the structure and dynamics of αβII and αβIII tubulin isotypes, which in turn affect the binding of DAMA-colchicine. Further, the binding free-energy calculation shows that αβIV tubulin isotype has the highest binding free-energy and αβIII has the lowest binding free-energy for DAMA-colchicine. The order of binding free-energy for DAMA-colchicine is αβIV ≃ αβII > αβIII. Thus, our computational approaches provide an insight into the effect of residue variations on differential binding of αβII, αβIII and αβIV tubulin isotypes with DAMA-colchicine and may help to design new analogues with higher

  15. Evaluation of protection induced by a dengue virus serotype 2 envelope domain III protein scaffold/DNA vaccine in non-human primates.

    PubMed

    McBurney, Sean P; Sunshine, Justine E; Gabriel, Sarah; Huynh, Jeremy P; Sutton, William F; Fuller, Deborah H; Haigwood, Nancy L; Messer, William B

    2016-06-24

    We describe the preclinical development of a dengue virus vaccine targeting the dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV2) envelope domain III (EDIII). This study provides proof-of-principle that a dengue EDIII protein scaffold/DNA vaccine can protect against dengue challenge. The dengue vaccine (EDIII-E2) is composed of both a protein particle and a DNA expression plasmid delivered simultaneously via intramuscular injection (protein) and gene gun (DNA) into rhesus macaques. The protein component can contain a maximum of 60 copies of EDIII presented on a multimeric scaffold of Geobacillus stearothermophilus E2 proteins. The DNA component is composed of the EDIII portion of the envelope gene cloned into an expression plasmid. The EDIII-E2 vaccine elicited robust antibody responses to DENV2, with neutralizing antibody responses detectable following the first boost and reaching titers of greater than 1:100,000 following the second and final boost. Vaccinated and naïve groups of macaques were challenged with DENV2. All vaccinated macaques were protected from detectable viremia by infectious assay, while naïve animals had detectable viremia for 2-7 days post-challenge. All naïve macaques had detectable viral RNA from day 2-10 post-challenge. In the EDIII-E2 group, three macaques were negative for viral RNA and three were found to have detectable viral RNA post challenge. Viremia onset was delayed and the duration was shortened relative to naïve controls. The presence of viral RNA post-challenge corresponded to a 10-30-fold boost in neutralization titers 28 days post challenge, whereas no boost was observed in the fully protected animals. Based on these results, we determine that pre-challenge 50% neutralization titers of >1:6000 correlated with sterilizing protection against DENV2 challenge in EDIII-E2 vaccinated macaques. Identification of the critical correlate of protection for the EDIII-E2 platform in the robust non-human primate model lays the groundwork for further

  16. Effect of FUT3 gene silencing with miRNA on proliferation, invasion and migration abilities of human KATO-III gastric cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Cai, Y-J; Zheng, X-F; Lu, C-H; Jiang, Q; Liu, Q; Xin, Y-H

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of FUT3 gene expression inhibition with miRNA on the proliferation, invasion and migration abilities of KATO-III cells. KATO-III cells were transfected with plasmid pcDNA™6.2-GW/EmGFP-FUT3-miR(FUT3-miRNA) and negative control plasmid in mediation of liposome, respectively, using untransfected cells as blank controls. Forty-eight hours after transfection, FUT3 mRNA levels were tested by RT-PCR. Levels of sLeA proteins were assayed by Western blot. The effects of FUT3-miRNA on the proliferation, invasion and migration of KATO-III cells were determined by CCK8 testing and Transwell assays, respectively. Results indicate that the transfection of FUT3-miRNA may down-regulate sLeA protein expression on the surface of KATO-III cells, and significantly inhibit cell proliferation (p<0.05). As compared to the negative and blank control groups, the number of invasion and migration cells in the FUT3-miRNA group decreased significantly (each p<0.05). Experimental results indicate that the miRNA expression vector which targets the FUT3 gene can effectively inhibit the proliferation, migration and invasion abilities of KATO-III cells. PMID:27453266

  17. Chromium(III), insoluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chromium ( III ) , insoluble salts ; CASRN 16065 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments

  18. Human plasma alpha-cysteine proteinase inhibitor. Purification by affinity chromatography, characterization and isolation of an active fragment.

    PubMed Central

    Gounaris, A D; Brown, M A; Barrett, A J

    1984-01-01

    Human plasma alpha-cysteine proteinase inhibitor (alpha CPI) was purified by a two-stage method: affinity chromatography on S-carboxymethyl-papain-Sepharose, and high-resolution anion-exchange chromatography. The protein was obtained as a form of Mr about 64 000 and material of higher Mr (about 100 000). In sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis with reduction, both forms showed a major component of Mr 64 000. An antiserum was raised against alpha CPI, and 'rocket' immunoassays showed the mean concentration in sera from 19 individuals to be 35.9 mg/dl. Both low-Mr and high-Mr forms of alpha CPI were confirmed to be sialoglycoproteins by the decrease in electrophoretic mobility after treatment with neuraminidase. alpha CPI was shown immunologically to be distinct from antithrombin III and alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, two serine proteinase inhibitors from plasma with somewhat similar Mr values. alpha CPI was also distinct from cystatins A and B, the two intracellular low-Mr cysteine proteinase inhibitors from human liver. Complexes of alpha CPI with papain were detectable in immunoelectrophoresis, but dissociated to free enzyme and intact inhibitor in sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The stoichiometry of binding of papain was close to 1:1 for both low-Mr and high-Mr forms. alpha CPI was found to be a tight-binding inhibitor of papain and human cathepsins H and L (Ki 34 pM, 1.1 nM and 62 pM respectively). By contrast, inhibition of cathepsin B was much weaker, Ki being about 35 microM. Dipeptidyl peptidase I also was weakly inhibited. Digestion of alpha CPI with bromelain gave rise to an inhibitory fragment of Mr about 22 000, which was isolated. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:6548132

  19. Retargeted human avidin-CAR T cells for adoptive immunotherapy of EGFRvIII expressing gliomas and their evaluation via optical imaging

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zhiping; Sun, Haojie; Zhang, Mingzhi; Zhang, Jianning; Liu, Shuang; Hao, Limin; Lu, Guoqiu; Zheng, Kangcheng; Gong, Xikui; Wu, Di; Wang, Fan; Shen, Li

    2015-01-01

    There has been significant progress in the design of chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) for adoptive immunotherapy targeting tumor-associated antigens. However, the challenge of monitoring the therapy in real time has been continually ignored. To address this issue, we developed optical molecular imaging approaches to evaluate a recently reported novel CAR strategy for adoptive immunotherapy against glioma xenografts expressing EGFRvIII. We initially biotinylated a novel anti-EGFRvIII monoclonal antibody (biotin-4G1) to pre-target EGFRvIII+ gliomas and then redirect activated avidin-CAR expressing T cells against the pre-targeted biotin-4G1. By optical imaging study and bio-distribution analysis, we confirmed the specificity of pre-target and target and determined the optimal time for T cells adoptive transfer in vivo. The results showed this therapeutic strategy offered efficient therapy effect to EGFRvIII+ glioma-bearing mice and implied that optical imaging is a highly useful tool in aiding in the instruction of clinical CAR-T cells adoptive transfer in future. PMID:26124178

  20. Proceedings of the EMU Conference on Foreign Languages for Business and the Professions (Dearborn, Michigan, April 5-7, 1984). Part III: Taking the Humanities to Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voght, Geoffrey M., Ed.

    Part III of the proceedings contains 12 presentations. They are: "The Role of Business Language in the Traditional Curriculum" (Michel Rocchi); "Foreign Languages for Business and the Professions Belong in the Liberal Arts" (Robert A. Kreiter); "How Much and How Far? Commercial French and the Student, Instructor, Administrator, and the Business…

  1. Relation of Internal Elastic Lamellar Layer Disruption to Neointimal Cellular Proliferation and Type III Collagen Deposition in Human Peripheral Artery Restenosis.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Prakash; Purushothaman, K-Raman; Purushothaman, Meerarani; Baber, Usman; Tarricone, Arthur; Vasquez, Miguel; Wiley, Jose; Kini, Annapoorna; Sharma, Samin K; O'Connor, William N; Moreno, Pedro R

    2016-04-01

    Smooth muscle cell proliferation and extracellular matrix formation are responsible for disease progression in de novo and restenotic atherosclerosis. Internal elastic lamella (IEL) layer maintains the structural integrity of intima, and disruption of IEL may be associated with alterations in neointima, type III collagen deposition, and lesion progression in restenosis. Nineteen restenotic plaques (12 patients) procured during peripheral interventions were compared with 13 control plaques (12 patients) without restenosis. Hematoxylin & Eosin and elastic trichrome stains were used to measure length and percentage of IEL disruption, cellularity, and inflammation score. Type I and III collagens, smooth muscle cell (smc), fibroblast density, and nuclear proliferation (Ki67) percentage were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. IEL disruption percentage (28 ± 3.6 vs 6.1 ± 2.4; p = 0.0006), type III collagen content (0.33 ± 0.06 vs 0.17 ± 0.07; p = 0.0001), smc density (2014 ± 120 vs 923 ± 150; p = 0.0001), fibroblast density (2,282 ± 297 vs 906 ± 138; p = 0.0001), and Ki67 percentage (21.6 ± 2 vs 8.2 ± 0.65; p = 0.0001) were significantly increased in restenotic plaques compared to de novo plaques. Logistic regression analysis identified significant correlation between IEL disruption and neointimal smc density (r = 0.45; p = 0.01) and with type III collagen deposition (r = 0.61; p = 0.02) in restenosis. Increased IEL disruption may trigger cellular proliferation, altering collagen production, and enhancing restenotic neointima. In conclusion, understanding the pathologic and molecular basis of restenosis and meticulous-guided interventions oriented to minimize IEL damage may aid to reduce neointimal proliferation and the occurrence of restenosis. PMID:26857165

  2. Increased carotid intima-media thickness and reduced distensibility in human class III obesity: independent and differential influences of adiposity and blood pressure on the vasculature.

    PubMed

    Moore, Xiao L; Michell, Danielle; Lee, Sabrina; Skilton, Michael R; Nair, Rajesh; Dixon, John B; Dart, Anthony M; Chin-Dusting, Jaye

    2013-01-01

    Carotid intima-media-thickness (cIMT) and carotid distensibility (distensibility), structural and functional properties of carotid arteries respectively, are early markers, as well as strong predictors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The characteristic of these two parameters in individuals with BMI>40.0 kg/m(2) (Class III obesity), however, are largely unknown. The present study was designed to document cIMT and distensibility in this population and to relate these to other factors with established association with CVD in obesity. The study included 96 subjects (65 with BMI>40.0 kg/m(2) and 31, age- and gender-matched, with BMI of 18.5 to 30.0 kg/m(2)). cIMT and distensibility were measured by non-invasive high resolution ultrasonography, circulatory CD133(+)/KDR(+) angiogenic cells and endothelial microparticles (EMP) by flow cytometry, and plasma levels of adipokines, growth factors and cytokines by Luminex immunoassay kits. The study results demonstrated increased cIMT (0.62±0.11 mm vs. 0.54±0.08 mm, P = 0.0002) and reduced distensibility (22.52±10.79 10(-3)kpa(-1)vs. 29.91±12.37 10(-3)kpa(-1), P<0.05) in individuals with BMI>40.0 kg/m(2). Both cIMT and distensibility were significantly associated with traditional CVD risk factors, adiposity/adipokines and inflammatory markers but had no association with circulating angiogenic cells. We also demonstrated, for the first time, elevated plasma EMP levels in individuals with BMI>40.0 kg/m(2). In conclusion, cIMT is increased and distensibility reduced in Class III obesity with the changes predominantly related to conventional CVD risk factors present in this condition, demonstrating that both cIMT and distensibility remain as CVD markers in Class III obesity. PMID:23342053

  3. Increased Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Reduced Distensibility in Human Class III Obesity: Independent and Differential Influences of Adiposity and Blood Pressure on the Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Xiao L.; Michell, Danielle; Lee, Sabrina; Skilton, Michael R.; Nair, Rajesh; Dixon, John B.; Dart, Anthony M.; Chin-Dusting, Jaye

    2013-01-01

    Carotid intima-media-thickness (cIMT) and carotid distensibility (distensibility), structural and functional properties of carotid arteries respectively, are early markers, as well as strong predictors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The characteristic of these two parameters in individuals with BMI>40.0 kg/m2 (Class III obesity), however, are largely unknown. The present study was designed to document cIMT and distensibility in this population and to relate these to other factors with established association with CVD in obesity. The study included 96 subjects (65 with BMI>40.0 kg/m2 and 31, age- and gender-matched, with BMI of 18.5 to 30.0 kg/m2). cIMT and distensibility were measured by non-invasive high resolution ultrasonography, circulatory CD133+/KDR+ angiogenic cells and endothelial microparticles (EMP) by flow cytometry, and plasma levels of adipokines, growth factors and cytokines by Luminex immunoassay kits. The study results demonstrated increased cIMT (0.62±0.11 mm vs. 0.54±0.08 mm, P = 0.0002) and reduced distensibility (22.52±10.79 10−3kpa−1 vs. 29.91±12.37 10−3kpa−1, P<0.05) in individuals with BMI>40.0 kg/m2. Both cIMT and distensibility were significantly associated with traditional CVD risk factors, adiposity/adipokines and inflammatory markers but had no association with circulating angiogenic cells. We also demonstrated, for the first time, elevated plasma EMP levels in individuals with BMI>40.0 kg/m2. In conclusion, cIMT is increased and distensibility reduced in Class III obesity with the changes predominantly related to conventional CVD risk factors present in this condition, demonstrating that both cIMT and distensibility remain as CVD markers in Class III obesity. PMID:23342053

  4. Molecular modelling and experimental studies of mutation and cell-adhesion sites in the fibronectin type III and whey acidic protein domains of human anosmin-1.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, A; MacColl, G S; Nash, J A; Boehm, M K; Perkins, S J; Bouloux, P M

    2001-01-01

    Anosmin-1, the gene product of the KAL gene, is implicated in the pathogenesis of X-linked Kallmann's syndrome. Anosmin-1 protein expression is restricted to the basement membrane and interstitial matrix of tissues affected in this syndrome during development. The anosmin-1 sequence indicates an N-terminal cysteine-rich domain, a whey acidic protein (WAP) domain, four fibronectin type III (FnIII) domains and a C-terminal histidine-rich region, and shows similarity with cell-adhesion molecules, such as neural cell-adhesion molecule, TAG-1 and L1. We investigated the structural and functional significance of three loss-of-function missense mutations of anosmin-1 using comparative modelling of the four FnIII and the WAP domains based on known NMR and crystal structures. Three missense mutation-encoded amino acid substitutions, N267K, E514K and F517L, were mapped to structurally defined positions on the GFCC' beta-sheet face of the first and third FnIII domains. Electrostatic maps demonstrated large basic surfaces containing clusters of conserved predicted heparan sulphate-binding residues adjacent to these mutation sites. To examine these modelling results anosmin-1 was expressed in insect cells. The incorporation of the three mutations into recombinant anosmin-1 had no effect on its secretion. The removal of two dibasic motifs that may constitute potential physiological cleavage sites for anosmin-1 had no effect on cleavage. Peptides based on the anosmin-1 sequences R254--K285 and P504--K527 were then synthesized in order to assess the effect of the three mutations on cellular adhesion, using cell lines that represented potential functional targets of anosmin-1. Peptides (10 microg/ml) incorporating the N267K and E514K substitutions promoted enhanced adhesion to 13.S.1.24 rat olfactory epithelial cells and canine MDCK1 kidney epithelial cells (P<0.01) compared with the wild-type peptides. This result was attributed to the introduction of a lysine residue adjacent to

  5. Usefulness of human coagulation and fibrinolysis assays in domestic pigs.

    PubMed

    Münster, Anna-Marie Bloch; Olsen, Aage Kristian; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie

    2002-02-01

    Pigs are often used as animal models in research on blood coagulation and fibrinolysis. The usefulness of the assays applied within this field, and the knowledge of reference intervals are therefore essential and of utmost importance. In the study reported here, we investigated the applicability of commercial human coagulation and fibrinolysis assays for use with porcine plasma. In total, 22 functional and immunologic assays were applied to plasma obtained from domestic pigs, and the following blood coagulation and fibrinolysis variables were measured: prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, tissue factor, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, factor VII, protein C, protein S, prothrombin fragment 1+2, antithrombin, thrombin-antithrombin complexes, fibrinogen, soluble fibrin, urokinase-type plasminogen activator, plasmin inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, and D-dimer. We found that 11 of 12 functional assays, but only 3 of 10 immunoassays, were applicable to porcine plasma, and we determined the normal range of these variables. We conclude that human functional assays are useful in porcine plasma, whereas only a few immunologic assays can be used. However, precautions must be taken in interpretation of the results and in extrapolation toward human results because possible differences between porcine and human values can be due to species variations and/or methodologic errors. PMID:11900411

  6. Kinetic and kinematic responses of post mortem human surrogates and the Hybrid III ATD in high-speed frontal sled tests.

    PubMed

    Beeman, Stephanie M; Kemper, Andrew R; Madigan, Michael L; Duma, Stefan M

    2013-06-01

    Despite improvements in vehicle design and safety technologies, frontal automotive collisions continue to result in a substantial number of injuries and fatalities each year. Although a considerable amount of research has been performed on PMHSs and ATDs, matched dynamic whole-body frontal testing with PMHSs and the current ATD aimed at quantifying both kinetic and kinematic data in a single controlled study is lacking in the literature. Therefore, a total of 4 dynamic matched frontal sled tests were performed with three male PMHSs and a Hybrid III 50th percentile male ATD (28.6g, Δv=40 kph). Each subject was restrained using a 4 kN load limiting, driver-side, 3-point seatbelt. Belt force was measured for the lap belt and shoulder belt. Reaction forces were measured at the seat pan, seat back, independent foot plates, and steering column. Linear head acceleration, angular head acceleration, and pelvic acceleration were measured for all subjects. Acceleration of C7, T7, T12, both femurs, and both tibias were also measured for the PMHSs. A Vicon motion analysis system, consisting of 12 MX-T20 2 megapixel cameras, was used to quantify subject 3D motion (±1 mm) at a rate of 1 kHz. Excursions of select anatomical regions were normalized to their respective initial positions and compared by test condition and between subject types. Notable discrepancies were observed in the responses of the PMHSs and the ATD. The reaction forces and belt loading for the ATD, particularly foot plate, seat back, steering column, and lap belt forces, were not in agreement with those of the PMHSs. The forward excursions of the ATD were consistently within those of the PMHSs with the exception of the left upper extremity. This could potentially be due to the known limitations of the Hybrid III ATD shoulder and chest. The results presented herein demonstrate that there are some limitations to the current Hybrid III ATD under the loading conditions evaluated in the current study. Overall

  7. Effects of 5‑fluorouracil and class III phosphoinositide 3‑kinase small interfering RNA combination therapy on SGC7901 human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bao-Song; Sun, Jia-Lei; Gong, Wei; Zhang, Xing-Ding; Wu, Yong-You; Xing, Chun-Gen

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of small interfering RNA‑mediated inhibition of Class III phosphoinositide 3‑kinase (PI3K) signal transduction on the proliferation, apoptosis and autophagy of SGC7901 gastric cancer cells. The present study also aimed to examine the contribution of autophagic inhibition to the antitumor effects of 5‑fluorouracil (5‑FU). A PI3K(III)‑RNA interference (i)‑green fluorescent protein (GFP) recombinant replication adenovirus (AD) and the negative control (NC)‑RNAi‑GFP control AD were constructed and infected into SGC7901 cells. A methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay was used to determine the growth rate of the SGC7901 cells. Immunofluorescent staining was used to detect microtubule‑associated protein 1 light chain 3 expression. The mitochondrial membrane potential was measured using the JC‑1 fluorescent probe. Autophagic expression was monitored with MDC staining and transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed that following combination treatment of the SGC7901 gastric cancer cells with 5‑FU + PI3K(III)‑RNAi‑AD, the optical density absorbance values at 24, 48 and 72 h were 0.17 ± 1.64, 0.13 ± 4.64 and 0.11 ± 3.56%, respectively, with cell viability inhibition ratios of 45.89 ± 6.67, 72.57 ± 9.48 and 87.51 ± 4.65%, respectively. As compared with the other treatment groups, the inhibition rate in the combined treatment group was significantly higher (P<0.05). The percentages of the cells with green fluorescence in the combined treatment group were 74.4 ± 3.86 (24 h), 82.3 ± 1.84 (48 h) and 92.5 ± 1.1% (72 h), which were larger than those of the other groups. The percentage of cells with green fluorescence became larger, which indicated that the mitochondrion membrane potential had been reduced to a greater extent. MDC staining revealed that the number of autophagic vacuoles in the cells (measured at 24, 48 and 72 h) decreased gradually with time, with more autophagic

  8. Grape seed extract targets mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III and induces oxidative and metabolic stress leading to cytoprotective autophagy and apoptotic death in human head and neck cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shrotriya, Sangeeta; Deep, Gagan; Lopert, Pamela; Patel, Manisha; Agarwal, Rajesh; Agarwal, Chapla

    2015-12-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a major killer worldwide and innovative measures are urgently warranted to lower the morbidity and mortality caused by this malignancy. Aberrant redox and metabolic status in HNSCC cells offer a unique opportunity to specifically target cancer cells. Therefore, we investigated the efficacy of grape seed extract (GSE) to target the redox and bioenergetic alterations in HNSCC cells. GSE treatment decreased the mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III activity, increased the mitochondrial superoxide levels and depleted the levels of cellular antioxidant (glutathione), thus resulting in the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in human HNSCC Detroit 562 and FaDu cells. Polyethylene glycol-SOD addition reversed the GSE-mediated apoptosis without restoring complex III activity. Along with redox changes, GSE inhibited the extracellular acidification rate (representing glycolysis) and oxygen consumption rate (indicating oxidative phosphorylation) leading to metabolic stress in HNSCC cells. Molecular studies revealed that GSE activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and suppressed Akt/mTOR/4E-BP1/S6K signaling in both Detroit 562 and FaDu cells. Interestingly, GSE increased the autophagic load specifically in FaDu cells, and autophagy inhibition significantly augmented the apoptosis in these cells. Consistent with in vitro results, in vivo analyses also showed that GSE feeding in nude mice activated AMPK and induced-autophagy in FaDu xenograft tumor tissues. Overall, these findings are innovative as we for the first time showed that GSE targets ETC complex III and induces oxidative and metabolic stress, thereby, causing autophagy and apoptotic death in HNSCC cells. PMID:25557495

  9. Phase III, randomized controlled trial in girls 9-15 years old to evaluate lot consistency of a novel nine-valent human papillomavirus L1 virus-like particle vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Luxembourg, Alain; Moreira, Edson D; Samakoses, Rudiwilai; Kim, Kyung-Hyo; Sun, Xiao; Maansson, Roger; Moeller, Erin; Christiano, Susan; Chen, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    A 9-valent human papillomavirus (6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) VLP (9vHPV) vaccine has recently been proven highly efficacious in preventing disease associated with vaccine HPV types in a pivotal Phase III study. The demonstration of lot-to-lot consistency to confirm the reliability of the manufacturing process is a regulatory requirement for vaccine licensure in the United States. A randomized trial was conducted to demonstrate that three lots of 9vHPV vaccine elicit equivalent antibody response for all 9 vaccine types. The study required thorough planning because it required success on 27 separate statistical comparisons. An innovative statistical approach was used taking into account between-lot variance for more conservative power calculations. The study demonstrated equivalence of three lots of 9vHPV vaccine for all 9 vaccine types. PMID:26086587

  10. Pharmacokinetics of 2-ethyl-1,3-hexanediol. III. In vitro skin penetration comparisons using the excised skin of humans, rats, and rabbits.

    PubMed

    Frantz, S W; Ballantyne, B; Beskitt, J L; Tallant, M J; Greco, R J

    1995-11-01

    Excised skin from Fischer 344 rats, New Zealand White rabbits, and human females (obtained from mammoplasty patients) were compared for their in vitro skin penetration potential with 2-[14C]-ethyl-1,3-hexanediol (EHD). EHD was applied as both an undiluted dose and a 3% v/v aqueous dose using a flowthrough skin penetration chamber design and was analyzed over 0-6 hr. The undiluted dose was equivalent to a 150 mg/kg dose used in vivo with rats (Frantz et al., Drug Metab. Dispos. 20(1), 6-18, 1992), but normalized on a per cm2 surface area basis, and applied under occluded conditions (covered as for in vivo studies). Undiluted applications of EHD did not substantially penetrate skin, with effluent recoveries of approximately 0.9% of the applied dose for human skin, 2-4% for rat skin, and 3-6% for rabbit skin. By comparison, nonoccluded human skin showed lower effluent radioactivity (0.6%), which was attributed to EHD evaporation from skin. With undiluted EHD, approximately 97% of the recovered 14C was an unabsorbed dose for human skin, with 94% for rat skin and 85% for rabbit skin (expressed as a percentage of the recovered dose). Based on HPLC analysis of effluent samples, 99-100% of the undiluted [14C]EHD penetrated rat, rabbit, and human skin in the unmetabolized form. In contrast, approximately 5% of the applied aqueous dose was recovered in the effluents for human skin, while 6-9% appeared in effluents for rat skin; rabbit skin was not evaluated for aqueous doses. The fraction of unabsorbed aqueous EHD dose totaled 53% of the applied dose for human skin and 63% for rat skin. Evaporative loss of undiluted [14C]EHD was also measured (captured on activated charcoal) in separate experiments and compared with a known standard chemical, N,N[14C]diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). Evaporation of EHD was clearly a competing factor with penetration, particularly for human skin preparations, and evaporative losses were similar to those seen in previous studies. Penetration of skin

  11. A host-specific virulence protein of Erwinia herbicola pv. gypsophilae is translocated into human epithelial cells by the Type III secretion system of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Valinsky, Lea; Nisan, Israel; Tu, Xuanlin; Nisan, Gal; Rosenshine, Ilan; Hanski, Emanuel; Barash, Isaac; Manulis, Shulamit

    2002-03-01

    summary HsvG is a virulence factor that determines the host specificity of Erwinia herbicola pathovars gypsophilae and betae on gypsophila. We used the calmodulin adenylate cyclase reporter (CyaA) to demonstrate that HsvG is secreted and translocated into HeLa cells by the type III secretion system (TTSS) of the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). A fusion of HsvG-CyaA containing 271 amino acids of the N-terminus of HsvG were introduced into a wild-type EPEC, espB mutant deficient in translocation and an escV mutant deficient in secretion. A significant secretion was detected in EPEC/HsvG-CyaA and its espB mutant, but not with the escV mutant. Translocation was only observed with the wild-type EPEC, and not with the other two mutants. To localize the secretion and translocation signals of HsvG, fusions containing 39, 11 and 3 amino acids of the N-terminus of HsvG were constructed and expressed in EPEC. A fusion containing the first 39 N-terminal amino acids of HsvG was secreted and translocated at significant level (31-35%) as compared to the original fusion. In contrast, fusions containing the 3 and 11 amino acids failed to be secreted and translocated. PMID:20569314

  12. The metastability of human UDP-galactose 4'-epimerase (GALE) is increased by variants associated with type III galactosemia but decreased by substrate and cofactor binding.

    PubMed

    Pey, Angel L; Padín-Gonzalez, Esperanza; Mesa-Torres, Noel; Timson, David J

    2014-11-15

    Type III galactosemia is an inherited disease caused by mutations which affect the activity of UDP-galactose 4'-epimerase (GALE). We evaluated the impact of four disease-associated variants (p.N34S, p.G90E, p.V94M and p.K161N) on the conformational stability and dynamics of GALE. Thermal denaturation studies showed that wild-type GALE denatures at temperatures close to physiological, and disease-associated mutations often reduce GALE's thermal stability. This denaturation is under kinetic control and results partly from dimer dissociation. The natural ligands, NAD(+) and UDP-glucose, stabilize GALE. Proteolysis studies showed that the natural ligands and disease-associated variations affect local dynamics in the N-terminal region of GALE. Proteolysis kinetics followed a two-step irreversible model in which the intact protein is cleaved at Ala38 forming a long-lived intermediate in the first step. NAD(+) reduces the rate of the first step, increasing the amount of undigested protein whereas UDP-glucose reduces the rate of the second step, increasing accumulation of the intermediate. Disease-associated variants affect these rates and the amounts of protein in each state. Our results also suggest communication between domains in GALE. We hypothesize that, in vivo, concentrations of natural ligands modulate GALE stability and that it should be possible to discover compounds which mimic the stabilising effects of the natural ligands overcoming mutation-induced destabilization. PMID:25150110

  13. Human herpes virus 8-unrelated primary effusion lymphoma-like lymphoma in the pericardium: A case with latency type III Epstein-Barr virus infection showing good prognosis without chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Harumi; Tsuta, Koji; Nakagawa, Takashi; Hirai, Risen; Ota, Yasunori

    2015-12-01

    Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that proliferates in body cavities without detectable masses. PEL is universally associated with human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8) infection and has an aggressive prognosis. Recently, an HHV-8-unrelated PEL-like lymphoma that usually occurs in elderly individuals and follows a more indolent prognosis has been reported, and it is treated as a disease distinct from PEL. However, its pathogenesis and prognostic factors have not been sufficiently clarified. In PEL-like lymphoma accompanied by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, latent infection types are not mentioned in the literature. Herein, we report the case of an 85-year-old Japanese man with pericardial PEL-like lymphoma who showed good improvement in condition for 24 months after pericardiocentesis without chemotherapy. Serological test results were positive for EBV capsid antigen and EBV nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2), but negative for human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus. The disease phenotype and EBV infection mechanism were immunohistochemically investigated by the cellblock prepared from pericardial effusion. Atypical cells were positive for CD20, CD30, CD45, BCL2, MUM1, EBNA2, latent membrane protein 1, and EBV-encoded RNA (on in situ hybridization), but negative for CD3, CD5, CD10, CD138, cytokeratin AE1/AE3, and HHV-8. Accordingly, this case was considered to be a B-cell activated phenotype with a type III latent EBV infection. Type III latent EBV infection is unusual in PEL. PMID:26384578

  14. HUMAN SCALP HAIR: AN ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE INDEX FOR TRACE ELEMENTS. III. SEVENTEEN TRACE ELEMENTS IN BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA AND CHARLOTTE, NORTH CAROLINA (1972)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seventeen trace elements - arsenic (As), barium (Ba), boron, (B), cadmium, (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), lead (Pb), lithium (Li), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), silver (Ag), tin (Sn), vanadium (V), and Zinc (Zn) - were measured in human s...

  15. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Economically Depressed Areas Strand: Human Development. Module III-E-1: Characteristics of Economically Depressed Areas Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Fresno. Dept. of Home Economics.

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on characteristics of economically depressed area families is the first in a set of three modules on human development in economically depressed areas (EDA). (This set is part of a larger set of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and…

  16. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Economically Depressed Areas Strand: Human Development. Module III-E-2: The Child and the Economically Depressed Area Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boogaert, John

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on the child and the economically depressed area family is the second in a set of three modules on human development in economically depressed areas (EDA). (This set is part of a larger set of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking…

  17. Effect of Human and Bovine Serum Albumin on kinetic Chemiluminescence of Mn (III)-Tetrakis (4-Sulfonatophenyl) Porphyrin-Luminol-Hydrogen Peroxide System

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Sayed Yahya; Abedirad, Seyed Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    The present work deals with an attempt to study the effect of human and bovine serum albumin on kinetic parameters of chemiluminescence of luminol-hydrogen peroxide system catalyzed by manganese tetrasulfonatophenyl porphyrin (MnTSPP). The investigated parameters involved pseudo-first-order rise and fall rate constant for the chemiluminescence burst, maximum level intensity, time to reach maximum intensity, total light yield, and values of the intensity at maximum CL which were evaluated by nonlinear least square program KINFIT. Because of interaction of metalloporphyrin with proteins, the CL parameters are drastically affected. The systems resulted in Stern-Volmer plots with kQ values of 3.17 × 105 and 3.7 × 105 M−1 in the quencher concentration range of 1.5 × 10−6 to 1.5 × 10−5 M for human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), respectively. PMID:22645466

  18. IFPA Meeting 2013 Workshop Report III: maternal placental immunological interactions, novel determinants of trophoblast cell fate, dual ex vivo perfusion of the human placenta.

    PubMed

    Abumaree, M H; Brownbill, P; Burton, G; Castillo, C; Chamley, L; Croy, B A; Drewlo, S; Dunk, C; Girard, S; Hansson, S; Jones, S; Jurisicova, A; Lewis, R; Letarte, M; Parast, M; Pehrson, C; Rappolee, D; Schneider, H; Tannetta, D; Varmuza, S; Wadsack, C; Wallace, A E; Zenerino, C; Lash, G E

    2014-02-01

    Workshops are an important part of the IFPA annual meeting as they allow for discussion of specialised topics. At IFPA meeting 2013 there were twelve themed workshops, three of which are summarized in this report. These workshops related to various aspects of placental biology but collectively covered areas of placental function, cell turnover and immunology: 1) immunology; 2) novel determinants of placental cell fate; 3) dual perfusion of human placental tissue. PMID:24321780

  19. SUPERSTARS III: K-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Education, Raleigh.

    SUPERSTARS III is a K-8 program designed as an enrichment opportunity for self-directed learners in mathematics. The basic purpose of SUPERSTARS III is to provide the extra challenge that self-motivated students need in mathematics and to do so in a structured, long-term program that does not impinge on the normal classroom routine or the…

  20. CITY III Player's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Envirometrics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    CITY III is a computer-assisted simulation game in which participants make decisions affecting the economic, governmental, and social conditions of a simulated urban area. In CITY III, the computer stores all the relevant statistics for the area, updates data when changes are made, and prints out yearly reports. The computer also simulates…

  1. CITY III Operator's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Envirometrics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    CITY III is a computer-assisted simulation game of an urban system involving player operation of and interaction with economic, social, and government components. The role of operator in the game is to take the handwritten inputs (decisions) from the CITY III participants, process them, and return output which initiates the next round of…

  2. The Thyroid Hormone-Inactivating Type III Deiodinase Is Expressed in Mouse and Human β-Cells and Its Targeted Inactivation Impairs Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Mayrin C.; Molina, Judith; Gadea, Yelena; Fachado, Alberto; Murillo, Monika; Simovic, Gordana; Pileggi, Antonello; Hernández, Arturo; Edlund, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Deiodinases are selenoproteins that activate or inactivate thyroid hormone. During vertebrate development, these pathways control thyroid hormone action in a cell-specific fashion explaining how systemic thyroid hormone can affect local control of tissue embryogenesis. Here we investigated the role of the thyroid hormone-inactivating deiodinase (D3) in pancreatic islet function and glucose homeostasis. D3 expression was determined by real-time PCR, immunofluorescence, and enzyme activity. Embryonic and adult wild-type mice and Mice with targeted disruption of Dio3 gene (D3KO) as well as human fetal pancreas and adult islets were studied. Insulin secretion was evaluated in adult mouse isolated islets. We found Dio3 gene expression and protein highly expressed in embryonic and adult pancreatic islets, predominantly in β-cells in both humans and mice. However, mRNA levels were barely detectable for both the thyroid hormone-activating deiodinases types 1 and 2. D3KO animals were found to be glucose intolerant due to in vitro and in vivo impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, without changes in peripheral sensitivity to insulin. D3KO neonatal (postnatal day 0) and adult pancreas exhibited reduced total islet area due to reduced β-cell mass, insulin content, and impaired expression of key β-cells genes. D3 expression in perinatal pancreatic β-cells prevents untimely exposure to thyroid hormone, the absence of which leads to impaired β-cell function and subsequently insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. An analogous role is likely in humans, given the similar D3 expression pattern. PMID:21828183

  3. Biotransformation of lovastatin--III. Effect of cimetidine and famotidine on in vitro metabolism of lovastatin by rat and human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Vyas, K P; Kari, P H; Wang, R W; Lu, A Y

    1990-01-01

    The effects of the H2-receptor antagonists, cimetidine and famotidine, on the microsomal metabolism of [14C]lovastatin were investigated. Liver microsomes were prepared from control, phenobarbital- and 3-methylcholanthrene-pretreated rats and humans (male and female). Concentration-dependent inhibition of the metabolism of lovastatin (0.1 mM) was observed with cimetidine (0.1 to 1.0 mM). In contrast, famotidine at a similar concentration was a very weak inhibitor. The formation of 6'beta-hydroxy-lovastatin, the major microsomal metabolite of lovastatin, was similarly inhibited. The results suggest that in vivo metabolic interaction with concomitantly administered lovastatin is less likely with famotidine than with cimetidine. Phenobarbital pretreatment produced 58% stimulation in overall metabolism, whereas 3-methylcholanthrene pretreatment had no effect relative to control rats (5.4 nmol/mg protein/min). Liver microsomes from phenobarbital-pretreated rats produced 67% more of the 6'beta-hydroxy-lovastatin but 63-66% less of the 3''-hydroxy and 6'-exomethylene metabolites. Liver microsomes from 3-methylcholanthrene-treated rats also produced less 3"-hydroxy-lovastatin (49%) but similar quantities of the other two metabolites. 6'beta-Hydroxy-lovastatin was a major metabolite with human liver microsomes. Interestingly with these microsomes, hydroxylation at the 3''-position of the molecule was a negligible pathway and hydrolysis to the hydroxy acid form was not observed. The formation of 6'-exomethylene-lovastatin was also catalyzed by human liver microsomes (0.5 to 0.8 nmol/mg protein/min). PMID:2297361

  4. Bismuth(III) complexes with 2-acetylpyridine- and 2-benzoylpyridine-derived hydrazones: Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities and effects on the clonogenic survival of human solid tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Isabella P; Piló, Elisa D L; Recio-Despaigne, Angel A; Da Silva, Jeferson G; Ramos, Jonas P; Marques, Lucas B; Prazeres, Pedro H D M; Takahashi, Jacqueline A; Souza-Fagundes, Elaine M; Rocha, Willian; Beraldo, Heloisa

    2016-07-01

    Complexes [Bi(2AcPh)Cl2]·0.5H2O (1), [Bi(2AcpClPh)Cl2] (2), [Bi(2AcpNO2Ph)Cl2] (3), [Bi(2AcpOHPh)Cl2]·2H2O (4), [Bi(H2BzPh)Cl3]·2H2O (5), [Bi(H2BzpClPh)Cl3] (6), [Bi(2BzpNO2Ph)Cl2]·2H2O (7) and [Bi(H2BzpOHPh)Cl3]·2H2O (8) were obtained with 2-acetylpyridine phenylhydrazone (H2AcPh), its -para-chloro-phenyl- (H2AcpClPh), -para-nitro-phenyl (H2AcpNO2Ph) and -para-hydroxy-phenyl (H2AcpOHPh) derivatives, as well as with the 2-benzoylpyridine phenylhydrazone analogues (H2BzPh, H2BzpClPh, H2BzpNO2Ph, H2BzpOHPh). Upon coordination to bismuth(III) antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains significantly improved except for complex (4). The cytotoxic effects of the compounds under study were evaluated on HL-60, Jurkat and THP-1 leukemia, and on MCF-7 and HCT-116 solid tumor cells, as well as on non-malignant Vero cells. In general, 2-acetylpyridine-derived hydrazones proved to be more potent and more selective as cytotoxic agents than the corresponding 2-benzoylpyridine-derived counterparts. Exposure of HCT-116 cells to H2AcpClPh, H2AcpNO2Ph and complex (3) led to 99% decrease of the clonogenic survival. The IC50 values of these compounds were three-fold smaller when cells were cultured in soft-agar (3D) than when cells were cultured in monolayer (2D), suggesting that they constitute interesting scaffolds, which should be considered in further studies aiming to develop new drug candidates for the treatment of colon cancer. PMID:27209169

  5. Reduction of misleading ("false") positive results in mammalian cell genotoxicity assays. III: sensitivity of human cell types to known genotoxic agents.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Paul; Smith, Robert; Smith, Katie; Young, Jamie; Jeffrey, Laura; Carmichael, Paul; Kirkland, David; Pfuhler, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    We have demonstrated previously that the seemingly high rate of "false" or "misleading" positive results from in vitro micronucleus assays (MNvit) was greater when rodent derived cell lines and certain toxicity measures, such as relative cell count or replication index, were used. These studies suggested that the use of a human cell type with functional p53 and a toxicity measure that included a function of cell proliferation could dramatically reduce the detection of misleading positive results. A reduced "false positive rate" should not be at the expense of a loss of sensitivity of the assay. Therefore, we have investigated the sensitivity of the MNvit assay to known genotoxic agents using three cell types shown previously to be less prone to misleading positives, namely human lymphocytes (HuLy), TK6 and HepG2 cells. The 17 chemicals are well characterised and are from a list of chemicals known to produce positive results in in vitro mammalian cell assays. These data demonstrated a high sensitivity of the assay in which TK6 and HuLy cells were employed, such that 15 out of the 17 chemicals were correctly identified. By contrast, the use of HepG2 cells resulted in far fewer than expected positive responses. In conclusion, using TK6 and HuLy cells in preference to long established rodent cell lines in order to improve specificity does not compromise the sensitivity of the MNvit to detect known genotoxic agents. PMID:24632063

  6. Human Lung Cancer Risks from Radon – Part III - Evidence of Influence of Combined Bystander and Adaptive Response Effects on Radon Case-Control Studies - A Microdose Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Bobby E.; Thompson, Richard E.; Beecher, Georgia C.

    2012-01-01

    Since the publication of the BEIR VI (1999) report on health risks from radon, a significant amount of new data has been published showing various mechanisms that may affect the ultimate assessment of radon as a carcinogen, in particular the potentially deleterious Bystander Effect (BE) and the potentially beneficial Adaptive Response radio-protection (AR). The case-control radon lung cancer risk data of the pooled 13 European countries radon study (Darby et al 2005, 2006) and the 8 North American pooled study (Krewski et al 2005, 2006) have been evaluated. The large variation in the odds ratios of lung cancer from radon risk is reconciled, based on the large variation in geological and ecological conditions and variation in the degree of adaptive response radio-protection against the bystander effect induced lung damage. The analysis clearly shows Bystander Effect radon lung cancer induction and Adaptive Response reduction in lung cancer in some geographical regions. It is estimated that for radon levels up to about 400 Bq m−3 there is about a 30% probability that no human lung cancer risk from radon will be experienced and a 20% probability that the risk is below the zero-radon, endogenic spontaneous or perhaps even genetically inheritable lung cancer risk rate. The BEIR VI (1999) and EPA (2003) estimates of human lung cancer deaths from radon are most likely significantly excessive. The assumption of linearity of risk, by the Linear No-Threshold Model, with increasing radon exposure is invalid. PMID:22942874

  7. The San Francisco Men's Health Study: III. Reduction in human immunodeficiency virus transmission among homosexual/bisexual men, 1982-86.

    PubMed Central

    Winkelstein, W; Samuel, M; Padian, N S; Wiley, J A; Lang, W; Anderson, R E; Levy, J A

    1987-01-01

    The prevalence and incidence of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been under study in a cohort of 1,034 single men recruited by area probability sampling from a six kilometer square area of San Francisco where the epidemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been most severe. Prevalence of infection among homosexual/bisexual study subjects increased from an estimated 22.8 per cent during the last half of 1982 to 48.6 per cent during the period July through December 1984. During three subsequent six-month periods, prevalence remained stable at approximately 50 per cent. Annual infection rates, measured by seroconversion among seronegative study subjects, decreased from an estimated 18.4 per cent per year from 1982 to 1984, to 5.4 and 3.1 per cent during the first and second halves of 1985, and to 4.2 per cent during the first six months of 1986. These declines were associated with reductions of 60 per cent or more in the prevalence of high-risk sexual practices associated with both acquiring and disseminating infection by the human immunodeficiency virus. PMID:3646848

  8. Characterization of the clotting activities of structurally different forms of activated factor IX. Enzymatic properties of normal human factor IXa alpha, factor IXa beta, and activated factor IX Chapel Hill.

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, M J; Breitkreutz, L; Trapp, H; Briet, E; Noyes, C M; Lundblad, R L; Roberts, H R

    1985-01-01

    Two structurally different forms of activated human Factor IX (Factor IXa alpha and IXa beta) have been previously reported to have essentially identical clotting activity in vitro. Although it has been shown that activated Factor IX Chapel Hill, an abnormal Factor IX isolated from the plasma of a patient with mild hemophilia B, and normal Factor IXa alpha are structurally very similar, the clotting activity of activated Factor IX Chapel Hill is much lower (approximately fivefold) than that of normal Factor IXa beta. In the present study we have prepared activated Factor IX by incubating human Factor IX with calcium and Russell's viper venom covalently bound to agarose. Fractionation of the activated Factor IX by high-performance liquid chromatography demonstrated the presence of both Factors IXa alpha and IXa beta. On the basis of active site concentration, determined by titration with antithrombin III, the clotting activities of activated Factor IX Chapel Hill and IXa alpha were similar, but both activities were less than 20% of the clotting activity of Factor IXa beta. Activated Factor IX activity was also measured in the absence of calcium, phospholipid, and Factor VIII, by determination of the rate of Factor X activation in the presence of polylysine. In the presence of polylysine, the rates of Factor X activation by activated Factor IX Chapel Hill, Factor IXa alpha, and Factor IXa beta were essentially identical. We conclude that the clotting activity of activated Factor IX Chapel Hill is reduced when compared with that of Factor IXa beta but essentially normal when compared with that of Factor IXa alpha. PMID:3871202

  9. Human cytomegalovirus Fcγ binding proteins gp34 and gp68 antagonize Fcγ receptors I, II and III.

    PubMed

    Corrales-Aguilar, Eugenia; Trilling, Mirko; Hunold, Katja; Fiedler, Manuela; Le, Vu Thuy Khanh; Reinhard, Henrike; Ehrhardt, Katrin; Mercé-Maldonado, Eva; Aliyev, Enver; Zimmermann, Albert; Johnson, David C; Hengel, Hartmut

    2014-05-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) establishes lifelong infection with recurrent episodes of virus production and shedding despite the presence of adaptive immunological memory responses including HCMV immune immunoglobulin G (IgG). Very little is known how HCMV evades from humoral and cellular IgG-dependent immune responses, the latter being executed by cells expressing surface receptors for the Fc domain of IgG (FcγRs). Remarkably, HCMV expresses the RL11-encoded gp34 and UL119-118-encoded gp68 type I transmembrane glycoproteins which bind Fcγ with nanomolar affinity. Using a newly developed FcγR activation assay, we tested if the HCMV-encoded Fcγ binding proteins (HCMV FcγRs) interfere with individual host FcγRs. In absence of gp34 or/and gp68, HCMV elicited a much stronger activation of FcγRIIIA/CD16, FcγRIIA/CD32A and FcγRI/CD64 by polyclonal HCMV-immune IgG as compared to wildtype HCMV. gp34 and gp68 co-expression culminates in the late phase of HCMV replication coinciding with the emergence of surface HCMV antigens triggering FcγRIII/CD16 responses by polyclonal HCMV-immune IgG. The gp34- and gp68-dependent inhibition of HCMV immune IgG was fully reproduced when testing the activation of primary human NK cells. Their broad antagonistic function towards FcγRIIIA, FcγRIIA and FcγRI activation was also recapitulated in a gain-of-function approach based on humanized monoclonal antibodies (trastuzumab, rituximab) and isotypes of different IgG subclasses. Surface immune-precipitation showed that both HCMV-encoded Fcγ binding proteins have the capacity to bind trastuzumab antibody-HER2 antigen complexes demonstrating simultaneous linkage of immune IgG with antigen and the HCMV inhibitors on the plasma membrane. Our studies reveal a novel strategy by which viral FcγRs can compete for immune complexes against various Fc receptors on immune cells, dampening their activation and antiviral immunity. PMID:24830376

  10. Investigation of the Role of the Histidine-Aspartate Pair in the Human Exonuclease III-like Abasic Endonuclease, Ape1

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, David F. ); Hoyt, David W. ); Khazi, Fayaz A.; Bagu, John R. ); Lindsey, Andrea G.; Wilson, David M.

    2003-05-30

    Hydrogen bonded histidine-aspartate (His-Asp) pairs are critical constituents in several key enzymatic reactions. To date, the role that these pairs play in catalysis is best understood in serine and trypsin-like proteases, where structural and biochemical NMR studies have revealed important pKa values and hydrogen-bonding patterns within the catalytic pocket. However, the role of the His-Asp pair in metal-assisted catalysis is less clear. Here, we apply liquid state NMR to investigate the role of a critical histidine of apurinic endonuclease 1 (Ape1), a human DNA repair enzyme that cleaves adjacent to abasic sites in DNA using one or more divalent cations and an active site His-Asp pair. The studies within suggest that the Ape1 His- Asp pair functions as neither a general base catalyst nor a metal ligand. Rather, the pair likely stabilizes the pentavalent transition state necessary for phospho-transfer.

  11. Estimation and Preparation of the Hypervariable Regions I/II Templates for Mitochondrial DNA Typing From Human Bones and Teeth Remains Using Singleplex Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    PubMed

    Le, Thien Ngoc; Van Phan, Hieu; Dang, Anh Tuan Mai; Nguyen, Vy Thuy

    2016-09-01

    A method was designed for estimating and sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that effectively and more quickly provides a complete mtDNA profile. In this context, we have developed this novel strategy for typing mtDNA from 10 bones and teeth remains (3 months to 44 years). The quantification of mtDNA was achieved by singleplex real-time polymerase chain reaction of the hypervariable region I fragment (445 bp) and hypervariable region II fragment (617 bp). Combined with the melting curve analysis, we have determined as little as 10 pg of mtDNA template that is suitable for sequence analysis. Furthermore, quantitative polymerase chain reaction products were directly used for following step of mtDNA typing by Sanger sequencing. This method allows the profile to be completely provided for faster human identification. PMID:27356010

  12. M.I.T./Canadian vestibular experiments on the Spacelab-1 mission. III - Effects of prolonged weightlessness on a human otolith-spinal reflex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watt, D. G. D.; Money, K. E.; Tomi, L. M.

    1986-01-01

    Reflex responses that depend on human otolith organ sensitivity were measured before, during and after a 10 day space flight. Otolith-spinal reflexes were elicited by means of sudden, unexpected falls. In weightlessness, 'falls' were achieved using elastic cords running from a torso harness to the floor. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded from gastrocnemius-soleus. The EMG response occurring in the first 100-120 ms of a fall, considered to be predominantly otolith-spinal in origin, decreased in amplitude immediately upon entering weightlessness, and continued to decline throughout the flight, especially during the first two mission days. The response returned to normal before the first post-flight testing session. The results suggest that information coming from the otolith organs is gradually ignored by the nervous system during prolonged space flight, although the possibility that otolith-spinal reflexes are decreased independent of other otolith output pathways cannot by ruled out.

  13. Conservation of salivary glycoprotein-interacting and human immunoglobulin G-cross-reactive domains of antigen I/II in oral streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    Moisset, A; Schatz, N; Lepoivre, Y; Amadio, S; Wachsmann, D; Schöller, M; Klein, J P

    1994-01-01

    In this study we localized more precisely the salivary glycoprotein-interacting and the human immunoglobulin G (hIgG)-cross-reacting domains on the SR molecule, an antigen I/II-related protein from S. mutans serotype f. Mapping of the SR molecule with polypeptides expressed by subclones covering the entire molecule and with synthetic peptides demonstrates that the salivary glycoprotein-binding domain is located in the N-terminal alanine-rich repeats of the SR molecule. In order to investigate the degree of conservation of both regions in various oral streptococci, we tested the reactivity of 8 representative strains of the mutans group and 11 nonmutans oral Streptococcus strains (S. anginosus, S. milleri, S. constellatus, S. intermedius, S. mitis, S. sanguis, S. gordonii, S. salivarius, and S. mitis strains) with antipeptide antibodies in a whole-cell enzyme linked immunosorbent assay together with colony hybridization analysis using DNA probes designed to map these two regions. All the mutans group strains except S. rattus and the 11 nonmutans streptococcal strains showed a high conservation of the C-terminal part of the SR molecule, especially the hIgG-cross-reacting domain, and less homology for the N-terminal salivary glycoprotein-binding region. Almost all of the sera from patients with rheumatic disease reacted strongly with SR from S. mutans serotype f, P1 from S. mutans serotype c, and four peptides located in the hIgG-cross-reacting region and not with peptides located at the C and N termini and in the proline-rich repeats. These results confirm that epitopes located within this region are immunogenic in humans and could lead to the synthesis of natural anti-IgG antibodies. PMID:8262626

  14. Regulation of CHMP4/ESCRT-III function in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 budding by CC2D1A.

    PubMed

    Usami, Yoshiko; Popov, Sergei; Weiss, Eric R; Vriesema-Magnuson, Christie; Calistri, Arianna; Göttlinger, Heinrich G

    2012-04-01

    The detachment of human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) virions depends on CHPM4 family members, which are late-acting components of the ESCRT pathway that mediate the cleavage of bud necks from the cytosolic side. We now show that in human cells, CHMP4 proteins are to a considerable extent bound to two high-molecular-weight proteins that we have identified as CC2D1A and CC2D1B. Both proteins bind to the core domain of CHMP4B, which has a strong propensity to polymerize and to inhibit HIV-1 budding. Further mapping showed that CC2D1A binds to an N-terminal hairpin within the CHMP4 core that has been implicated in polymerization. Consistent with a model in which CC2D1A and CC2D1B regulate CHMP4 polymerization, the overexpression of CC2D1A inhibited both the release of wild-type HIV-1 and the CHMP4-dependent rescue of an HIV-1 L domain mutant by exogenous ALIX. Furthermore, small interfering RNA against CC2D1A or CC2D1B increased HIV-1 budding under certain conditions. CC2D1A and CC2D1B possess four Drosophila melanogaster 14 (DM14) domains, and we demonstrate that these constitute novel CHMP4 binding modules. The DM14 domain that bound most avidly to CHMP4B was by itself sufficient to inhibit the function of ALIX in HIV-1 budding, indicating that the inhibition occurred through CHMP4 sequestration. However, N-terminal fragments of CC2D1A that did not interact with CHMP4B nevertheless retained a significant level of inhibitory activity. Thus, CC2D1A may also affect HIV-1 budding in a CHMP4-independent manner. PMID:22258254

  15. ACTG 260: a Randomized, Phase I-II, Dose-Ranging Trial of the Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Activity of Delavirdine Monotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Para, Michael F.; Meehan, Patricia; Holden-Wiltse, Jeanne; Fischl, Margaret; Morse, Gene; Shafer, Robert; Demeter, Lisa M.; Wood, Kenneth; Nevin, Tom; Virani-Ketter, Nzeera; Freimuth, William W.

    1999-01-01

    ACTG 260 was an open-label, four-arm trial designed to study the safety and anti-human immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV) activity of delavirdine monotherapy at three ranges of concentrations in plasma compared to those of control therapy with zidovudine or didanosine. Delavirdine doses were adjusted weekly until subjects were within their target trough concentration range (3 to 10, 11 to 30, or 31 to 50 μM). A total of 113 subjects were analyzed. At week 2, the mean HIV type 1 (HIV-1) RNA level declines among the subjects in the three delavirdine arms were similar (0.87, 1.08, and 1.02 log10 for the low, middle, and high target arms, respectively), but by week 8, the subjects in the pooled delavirdine arms showed only a 0.10 log10 reduction. In the subjects in the nucleoside arm, mean HIV-1 RNA level reductions at weeks 2 and 8 were 0.67 and 0.55 log10, respectively. Because viral suppression by delavirdine was not maintained, the trial was stopped early. Rash, which was usually self-limited, developed in 36% of subjects who received delavirdine. Delavirdine monotherapy has potent anti-HIV activity at 2 weeks, but its activity is time limited due to the rapid emergence of drug resistance. PMID:10348755

  16. Human factors analysis and design methods for nuclear waste retrieval systems. Volume III. User's guide for the computerized event-tree analysis technique. [CETAT computer program

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, S.M.; Deretsky, Z.

    1980-08-01

    This document provides detailed instructions for using the Computerized Event-Tree Analysis Technique (CETAT), a program designed to assist a human factors analyst in predicting event probabilities in complex man-machine configurations found in waste retrieval systems. The instructions contained herein describe how to (a) identify the scope of a CETAT analysis, (b) develop operator performance data, (c) enter an event-tree structure, (d) modify a data base, and (e) analyze event paths and man-machine system configurations. Designed to serve as a tool for developing, organizing, and analyzing operator-initiated event probabilities, CETAT simplifies the tasks of the experienced systems analyst by organizing large amounts of data and performing cumbersome and time consuming arithmetic calculations. The principal uses of CETAT in the waste retrieval development project will be to develop models of system reliability and evaluate alternative equipment designs and operator tasks. As with any automated technique, however, the value of the output will be a function of the knowledge and skill of the analyst using the program.

  17. Integrating sphere effect in whole-bladder wall photodynamic therapy: III. Fluence multiplication, optical penetration and light distribution with an eccentric source for human bladder optical properties.

    PubMed

    van Staveren, H J; Keijzer, M; Keesmaat, T; Jansen, H; Kirkel, W J; Beek, J F; Star, W M

    1996-04-01

    Whole-bladder-wall (WBW) photodynamic therapy (PDT) is performed using approximately 630 nm light emitted by an isotropic light source centered in the bladder cavity. The phenomenon of an increased fluence rate in this spherical geometry, due to light scattering, is denoted as the integrating sphere effect. The fluence rate and the optical penetration depth depend on a single tissue optical parameter, namely the reduced albedo. The optical properties of (diseased) human bladder tissue, i.e. absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, anisotropy factor and refractive index, were determined in vitro in the wavelength range of 450-880 nm. The integrating sphere effect and optical penetration depth were calculated with diffusion theory and compared to Monte Carlo (MC) computer simulations using approximately 630 nm optical properties. With increasing albedo, the integrating sphere effect calculated with diffusion approximation is increasingly larger than that found with MC simulations. Calculated and simulated optical penetration depths are in reasonable agreement. The smaller the integrating sphere effect for a given tissue absorption, the larger the optical penetration depth into the bladder wall, as the effective attenuation coefficient decreases. Optical penetration depths up to approximately 7.5 mm (definition dependent) can be responsible for unintended tissue damage beyond the bladder tissue. MC simulations were also performed with an eccentric light source and the uniformity of the light distribution at the bladder wall was assessed. The simulations show that even for a small eccentricity, the extremes in deviation from the mean fluence rate are large. All these results indicate that WBW PDT should be performed with some kind of in situ light dosimetry. PMID:8730658

  18. Silica-based cerium (III) chloride nanoparticles prevent the fructose-induced glycation of α-crystallin and H₂O₂-induced oxidative stress in human lens epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin; Cai, Lei; Zhang, Sen; Zhu, Xiangjia; Zhou, Peng; Lu, Yi

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether silica-cerium (III) chloride (CeCl3) nanoparticles could inhibit the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and reduce oxidative stress. Silica-CeCl3 nanoparticles were synthesised by adsorption and embedment with micro-silica materials, forming uniform nanoparticles with a diameter of approximately 130 nm. Chaperone activity assays and AGEs formation assays, and intracellular reactive assays were adopted in this study to evaluate CeCl3 nanoparticles effect. UV-visible spectrometry showed that silica-CeCl3 nanoparticles at low concentrations rapidly formed tentatively stable conjugations with α-crystallin, greatly enhancing the chaperone activity of α-crystallin. Moreover, silica-CeCl3 nanoparticles markedly inhibited the fructose-induced glycation of α-crystallin, showing an advantage over the control drugs aminoguanidine and carnosine. Silica-CeCl3 nanoparticles also reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species production and restored glutathione levels in H2O2-treated human lens epithelial cells. These findings suggest that silica-CeCl3 may be used as a novel agent for the prevention of cataractogenesis. PMID:23828754

  19. Genome sequesnce of lineage III Listeria monocytogenes strain HCC23

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 98% of reported human listeriosis cases are caused by Listeria monocytogenes serotypes within lineages I and II. Serotypes within lineage III (4a and 4c) are commonly isolated from environmental and food specimens. We report the first complete genome sequence of a lineage III isolate, HCC2...

  20. GMP production and characterization of the bivalent anti-human T cell immunotoxin, A-dmDT390-bisFv(UCHT1) for phase I/II clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jung Hee; Liu, Jen-Sing; Kang, Soo Hyun; Singh, Ravibhushan; Park, Seong Kyu; Su, Yunpeng; Ortiz, Janelle; Neville, David M; Willingham, Mark C; Frankel, Arthur E

    2008-03-01

    The bivalent anti-T cell immunotoxin, A-dmDT390-bisFv(UCHT1), was developed for treatment of T-cell leukemia, autoimmune diseases and tolerance induction for transplantation. To obtain clinical grade bivalent anti-T cell immunotoxin for phase I/II clinical trials, a single batch of 120 L bioreactor culture was performed using the Pichia pastoris mutEF2JC307-8(2) strain expressing the bivalent anti-T cell immunotoxin. After 162 h induction of the culture by methanol, the culture medium was harvested by a 0.1 microm hollow-fiber microfiltration step. The recombinant protein was purified by a 3-step purification procedure (Butyl 650 M capturing step, borate anion exchange step and final Poros anion exchange step). The final material was filter sterilized, aseptically vialed, and stored at -80 degrees C. Expression level was 207 mg/L of culture supernatant and the final production yield was 69.6% or 144.2mg/L of culture supernatant. The final product was characterized by multiple assays. Vialed product was sterile. The drug concentration was 0.8 mg/mL in 150 mM NaCl, 5% glycerol, 1mM EDTA, and 5mM Tris (pH 8.0). Purity by SDS-PAGE was 98%. Aggregates by Superdex 200 HPLC were <1%. Potency revealed a 20 h IC(50) of 17f M on Jurkat cells. Endotoxin level was 0.02 U/mg. Chemical and biologic assays confirmed the purity, composition, and functional activities of the molecule. The drug did not react with tested frozen human tissue sections except for T cells. LD(10) in mice was between 500 and 75 0microg/kg. There was no evidence of loss of solubility, proteolysis, aggregation, or loss of potency over 1.5 year at -80 degrees C. The scalable synthesis of this protein drug should be useful for production for phase I/II clinical trials and can be applicable for other diphtheria toxin fusion drugs for clinical development. PMID:18160309

  1. Topically applied vitamin C enhances the mRNA level of collagens I and III, their processing enzymes and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 in the human dermis.

    PubMed

    Nusgens, B V; Humbert, P; Rougier, A; Colige, A C; Haftek, M; Lambert, C A; Richard, A; Creidi, P; Lapière, C M

    2001-06-01

    Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is a cofactor required for the function of several hydroxylases and monooxygenases. It is not synthesized in humans and some other animal species and has to be provided by diet or pharmacologic means. Its absence is responsible for scurvy, a condition related in its initial phases to a defective synthesis of collagen by the reduced function of prolylhydroxylase and production of collagen polypeptides lacking hydroxyproline, therefore, they are unable to assemble into stable triple-helical collagen molecules. In fibroblast cultures, vitamin C also stimulates collagen production by increasing the steady-state level of mRNA of collagen types I and III through enhanced transcription and prolonged half-life of the transcripts. The aim of the experimental work has been to evaluate the effect on dermal cells of a preparation of vitamin C topically applied on one side vs placebo on the other side of the dorsal face of the upper forearm of postmenopausal women. Biopsies were collected on both sides and the level of mRNA measured by non competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction made quantitative by the simultaneous transcription and amplification of synthetic RNA used as internal standards. The mRNA of collagen type I and type III were increased to a similar extent by vitamin C and that of three post-translational enzymes, the carboxy- and amino-procollagen proteinases and lysyloxidase similarly increased. The mRNA of decorin was also stimulated, but elastin, and fibrillin 1 and 2 were not modified by the vitamin. The expression of matrix metalloproteinases 1, 2, and 9 was not significantly changed, but an increased level of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 mRNA was observed without modification of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 2 mRNA. The stimulating activity of topical vitamin C was most conspicuous in the women with the lowest dietary intake of the vitamin and unrelated to the level of actinic damage

  2. Effects of recombinant human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in grade III open tibia fractures treated with unreamed nails-A clinical and health-economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Alt, Volker; Borgman, Benny; Eicher, Alexander; Heiss, Christian; Kanakaris, Nikolaos K; Giannoudis, Peter V; Song, Fujian

    2015-11-01

    Recombinant human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (rhBMP-2) is licensed in Europe for open tibia fractures treated with unreamed nails. However, there is limited data available on the specific use of rhBMP-2 in combination with unreamed nails for open tibia fractures. The intention of the current study was to evaluate the medical and health-economic effects of rhBMP-2 in Gustilo-Anderson grade III open tibia fractures treated with unreamed nails based on individual patient data from two previously published studies. Linear regression analysis was performed on raw data of 90 patients that were either treated by standard of care with soft tissue management and unreamed nailing (SOC group) (n=50) or with rhBMP-2 in addition to soft tissue management and unreamed nailing (rhBMP-2 group) (n=40). For all types of revision, a significant lower percentage of patients (27.5%) of the rhBMP-2 group had to be revised compared to 48% of the patients of the SOC group (p=0.04). When only invasive secondary interventions such as bone grafting and nail exchange were considered, there was also a statistically significant reduction in the rhBMP-2 group with a revision rate of 10.0% (4 of 40 patients) compared to the SOC group with a revision rate of 28.0% (14 of 50 patients) (p=0.01). Mean fracture healing time of 228 days in the rhBMP-2 compared to 266 days in the SOC group was not statistically significant (p=0.24). Health-economic analysis based on a societal perspective with calculation of overall treatment costs after initial surgery and including productivity losses revealed savings of €6,239 per patient for Germany and €4,752 for the UK in favour of rhBMP-2 which was mainly driven by reduction of productivity losses. In conclusion, rhBMP-2 reduces secondary interventions in patients with grade III open tibia fractures treated with an unreamed nail and its use leads to financial savings for Germany and the UK from a societal perspective. PMID:26374949

  3. Fusion Power Demonstration III

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.D.

    1985-07-01

    This is the third in the series of reports covering the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) design study. This volume considers the FPD-III configuration that incorporates an octopole end plug. As compared with the quadrupole end-plugged designs of FPD-I and FPD-II, this octopole configuration reduces the number of end cell magnets and shortens the minimum ignition length of the central cell. The end-cell plasma length is also reduced, which in turn reduces the size and cost of the end cell magnets and shielding. As a contiuation in the series of documents covering the FPD, this report does not stand alone as a design description of FPD-III. Design details of FPD-III subsystems that do not differ significantly from those of the FPD-II configuration are not duplicated in this report.

  4. Timosaponin A-III reverses multi-drug resistance in human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562/ADM cells via downregulation of MDR1 and MRP1 expression by inhibiting PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie-Ru; Jia, Xiu-Hong; Wang, Hong; Yi, Ying-Jie; Wang, Jian-Yong; Li, You-Jie

    2016-05-01

    One of the major causes of failure in chemotherapy for patients with human chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is the acquisition of multidrug resistance (MDR). MDR is often associated with the overexpression of drug efflux transporters of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein family. Timosaponin A-III (TAIII), a saponin isolated from the rhizome of Anemarrhena asphodeloides, has previously demonstrated the ability to suppress certain human tumor processes and the potential to be developed as an anticancer agent. Nevertheless, the ability of TAIII to reverse MDR has not yet been explored. In this study, the adriamycin (ADM) resistance reversal effect of TAIII in human CML K562/ADM cells and the underlying mechanism was investigated. The Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay showed that TAIII had a reversal effect on the drug resistance of K562/ADM cells. Flow cytometry assay showed increased intracellular accumulation of ADM after cells were pretreated with TAIII, and the changes in the accumulation of rhodamine-123 (Rho-123) and 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA) dye in K562/ADM cells were determined to be similar to the changes of intracellular accumulation of ADM. After pretreatment of cells with TAIII, the decreasing expression of P-gp and MRP1 mRNA was examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Western blotting showed TAIII inhibiting P-gp and MRP1 expression depended on the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway by decreasing the activity of p-Akt. Moreover, wortmannin an inhibitor of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway has a strong inhibitory effect on the expression of p-Akt, P-gp and MRP1. Besides, the combined treatment with TAIII did not have an affect on wortmannin downregulation of p-Akt, P-gp and MRP1. Taken together, our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that TAIII induced MDR reversal through inhibition of P-gp and MRP1 expression and function with regained adriamycin sensitivity which might mainly correlate to the regulation of PI3K

  5. Pioneer III Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    Looking more like surgeons, these technicians wearing 'cleanroom' attire inspect the Pioneer III probe before shipping it to Cape Canaveral, Florida. Pioneer III was launched on December 6, 1958 aboard a Juno II rocket at the Atlantic Missile Range, Cape Canaveral, Florida. The mission objectives were to measure the radiation intensity of the Van Allen radiation belt, test long range communication systems, the launch vehicle and other subsystems. The Juno II failed to reach proper orbital escape velocity. The probe re-entered the Earth's atmosphere on December 7th ending its brief mission.

  6. Combination of a SAW-biosensor with MALDI mass spectrometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Treitz, G; Gronewold, T M A; Quandt, E; Zabe-Kühn, M

    2008-05-15

    A S-sens K5 surface acoustic wave biosensor was coupled with mass spectrometry (SAW-MS) for the analysis of a protein complex consisting of human blood clotting cascade factor alpha-thrombin and human antithrombin III, a specific blood plasma inhibitor of thrombin. Specific binding of antithrombin III to thrombin was recorded as a function of time with a S-sens K5 biosensor. Two out of five elements of the sensor chip were used as references. To the remaining three elements coated with RNA anti-thrombin aptamers, thrombin and antithrombin III were bound consecutively. The biosensor measures mass changes on the chip surface showing that 20% of about 400fmol/cm2 thrombin formed a complex with the 1.7-times larger antithrombin III. Mass spectrometry (MS) was applied to identify the bound proteins. Sensor chips with aptamer-captured (1) thrombin and (2) thrombin-antithrombin III complex (TAT-complex) were digested with proteases on the sensor element and subsequently identified by peptide mass fingerprint (PMF) with matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-ToF) mass spectrometry. A significant identification of thrombin was achieved by measuring the entire digest with MALDI-ToF MS directly from the sensor chip surface. For the significant identification of both proteins in the TAT-complex, the proteolytic peptides had to be separated by nano-capillary-HPLC prior to MALDI-ToF MS. SAW-MS is applicable to protein interaction analysis as in functional proteomics and to miniaturized diagnostics. PMID:18316185

  7. Apoprotein C-III: A review of its clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jing-Lu; Guo, Yuan-Lin; Li, Jian-Jun

    2016-09-01

    Apoprotein C-III (apoC-III), originating from the apoA-I/C-III/A-IV gene cluster affected by multiple regulating factors, has been demonstrated to have a validated link with hypertriglyceridemia in humans. Following genome studies establishing the impact of apoC-III on both plasma triglyceride (TG) level and cardiovascular disease (CVD), apoC-III offers us a novel explanation attempting to resolve the long-existing confusion with regard to the atherogenic effect of TG. Notably, apoC-III exerts its atherogenic effect by means of not only intervening in the function and metabolism of various lipid molecules, but also accelerating pro-inflammatory effects between monocytes and endothelial cells. Data have suggested that diabetes, a common endocrine disease, also correlates closely with apoC-III in its apoptosis process of islet βcells. In fact, apoC-III genes, with various mutations among individuals, are also found to have relevance to other diseases, including fatty liver disease. Fortunately, besides present day therapeutic strategies, such as lifestyle changes and lipid-lowering drug treatments, a promising new antisense drug specifically targeting on apoC-III gene expression opens up new avenues. This article mainly summarizes the clinical implication of apoC-III and its future directions of treatment. PMID:27318213

  8. Summary of Session III

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, M.A.

    2002-06-19

    This is a summary of the talks presented in Session III ''Simulations of Electron-Cloud Build Up'' of the Mini-Workshop on Electron-Cloud Simulations for Proton and Positron Beams ECLOUD-02, held at CERN, 15-18 April 2002.

  9. The Apple III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditlea, Steve

    1982-01-01

    Describes and evaluates the features, performance, peripheral devices, available software, and capabilities of the Apple III microcomputer. The computer's operating system, its hardware, and the commercially produced software it accepts are discussed. Specific applications programs for financial planning, accounting, and word processing are…

  10. CITY III Director's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Envirometrics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    CITY III is a computer-assisted simulation game which allows the participants to make decisions affecting various aspects of the economic, governmental, and social sectors of a simulated urban area. The game director selects one of five possible starting city configurations, may set a number of conditions in the city before the start of play, and…

  11. Type III Secretion System of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Affects Matrix Metalloproteinase 12 (MMP-12) and MMP-13 Expression via Nuclear Factor κB Signaling in Human Carcinoma Epithelial Cells and a Pneumonia Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Won; Kim, Yong-Jae; Shin, In-Sik; Kwon, Ok-Kyoung; Hong, Ju Mi; Shin, Na-Rae; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Ha, Un-Hwan; Kim, Jae-Hong; Ahn, Kyung-Seop

    2016-09-15

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been linked to severe disease and poor clinical outcomes in animal and human studies. We aimed to investigate whether the ExoS and ExoT effector proteins of P. aeruginosa affect the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP-12) and MMP-13 via nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways. To understand the T3SS, we used ΔExoS, ΔExoT, and ExsA::Ω mutants, as well as P. aeruginosa strain K (PAK)-stimulated NCI-H292 cells. We investigated the effects of ΔExoS, ΔExoT, and ExsA::Ω on the development of pneumonia in mouse models. We examined the effects of ΔExoS, ΔExoT, and ExsA::Ω on MMP-12 and MMP-13 production in NCI-H292 cells. ΔExoS and ΔExoT markedly decreased the neutrophil count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, with a reduction in proinflammatory mediators, MMP-12, and MMP-13. ΔExoS and ΔExoT reduced NF-κB phosphorylation, together with MMP-12 and MMP-13 expression in PAK-infected mouse models and NCI-H292 cells. To conclude, P. aeruginosa infection induced the expression of MMPs, and P. aeruginosa T3SS appeared to be a key player in MMP-12 and MMP-13 expression, which is further controlled by NF-κB signaling. These findings might be useful in devising a novel therapeutic approach to chronic pulmonary infections that involves decreasing the ExoS and ExoT levels. PMID:27377745

  12. Hyper III on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Hyper III was a full-scale lifting-body remotely piloted research vehicle (RPRV) built at what was then the NASA Flight Research Center located at Edwards Air Force Base in Southern California. The Flight Research Center (FRC--as Dryden was named from 1959 until 1976) already had experience with testing small-scale aircraft using model-airplane techniques, but the first true remotely piloted research vehicle was the Hyper III, which flew only once in December 1969. At that time, the Center was engaged in flight research with a variety of reentry shapes called lifting bodies, and there was a desire both to expand the flight research experience with maneuverable reentry vehicles, including a high-performance, variable-geometry craft, and to investigate a remotely piloted flight research technique that made maximum use of a research pilot's skill and experience by placing him 'in the loop' as if he were in the cockpit. (There have been, as yet, no female research pilots assigned to Dryden.) The Hyper III as originally conceived was a stiletto-shaped lifting body that had resulted from a study at NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. It was one of a number of hypersonic, cross-range reentry vehicles studied at Langley. (Hypersonic means Mach 5--five times the speed of sound--or faster; cross-range means able to fly a considerable distance to the left or right of the initial reentry path.) The FRC added a small, deployable, skewed wing to compensate for the shape's extremely low glide ratio. Shop personnel built the 32-foot-long Hyper III and covered its tubular frame with dacron, aluminum, and fiberglass, for about $6,500. Hyper III employed the same '8-ball' attitude indicator developed for control-room use when flying the X-15, two model-airplane receivers to command the vehicle's hydraulic controls, and a telemetry system (surplus from the X-15 program) to transmit 12 channels of data to the ground not only for display and control but for data

  13. Integrating an HTLV-III Screening Program into a Community Based Family Health Service Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klausmeier, Walter W.; Henshaw, Beverly

    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has become one of the most serious epidemic disease problems in recent years. In 1985 the Public Health Service recommended establishment of test sites where individuals might be tested for Human T Lymphotropic Virus III (HTLV-III) antibody. An HTLV-III antibody screening program was integrated into a…

  14. Cloning and sequence of a cDNA coding for the human beta-migrating endothelial-cell-type plasminogen activator inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Ny, T; Sawdey, M; Lawrence, D; Millan, J L; Loskutoff, D J

    1986-01-01

    A lambda gt11 expression library containing cDNA inserts prepared from human placental mRNA was screened immunologically using an antibody probe developed against the beta-migrating plasminogen activator inhibitor (beta-PAI) purified from cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells. Thirty-four positive clones were isolated after screening 7 X 10(5) phages. Three clones (lambda 1.2, lambda 3, and lambda 9.2) were randomly picked and further characterized. These contained inserts 1.9, 3.0, and 1.9 kilobases (kb) long, respectively. Escherichia coli lysogenic for lambda 9.2, but not for lambda gt11, produced a fusion protein of 180 kDa that was recognized by affinity-purified antibodies against the bovine aortic endothelial cell beta-PAI and had beta-PAI activity when analyzed by reverse fibrin autography. The largest cDNA insert was sequenced and shown to be 2944 base pairs (bp) long. It has a large 3' untranslated region [1788 bp, excluding the poly(A) tail] and contains the entire coding region of the mature protein but lacks the initiation codon and part of the signal peptide coding region at the 5' terminus. The two clones carrying the 1.9-kb cDNA inserts were partially sequenced and shown to be identical to the 3.0-kb cDNA except that they were truncated, lacking much of the 3' untranslated region. Blot hybridization analysis of electrophoretically fractionated RNA from the human fibrosarcoma cell line HT-1080 was performed using the 3.0-kb cDNA as hybridization probe. Two distinct transcripts, 2.2 and 3.0 kb, were detected, suggesting that the 1.9-kb cDNA may have been copied from the shorter RNA transcript. The amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA was aligned with the NH2-terminal sequence of the human beta-PAI. Based on this alignment, the mature human beta-PAI is 379 amino acids long and contains an NH2-terminal valine. The deduced amino acid sequence has extensive (30%) homology with alpha 1-antitrypsin and antithrombin III, indicating that the beta

  15. Fueling type III secretion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Pei-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Type III secretion systems are complex nanomachines that export proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm across the cell envelope in a single step. They are at the core of the machinery used to assemble the bacterial flagellum, and the needle complex many Gram-negative pathogens use to inject effector proteins into host cells and cause disease. Several models have been put forward to explain how this export is energized, and the mechanism has been the subject of considerable debate. Here we present an overview of these models and discuss their relative merits. Recent evidence suggests that the proton motive force is the primary energy source for type III secretion, although contribution from refolding of secreted proteins has not been ruled out. The mechanism, by which the proton motive force is converted to protein export, remains enigmatic. PMID:25701111

  16. Cranial mononeuropathy III - diabetic type

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/000692.htm Cranial mononeuropathy III - diabetic type To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cranial mononeuropathy III -- diabetic type -- is usually a complication of diabetes that causes ...

  17. Migration Type III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artymowicz, Pawel

    2004-03-01

    Migration type IIIMigration of objects embedded in disks (and the accompanying eccentricity evolution) is becoming a major theme in planetary system formation.The underlying physics can be distilled into the notion of disk-planet coupling via Lindblad resonances, which launch waves, sometimes spectacular spiral shock waves in gas disks. The wave pattern exchanges angular momentum with the planet. That causes (i) migration, (ii) eccentricity evolution, and (iii) gap opening by sufficiently massive planets.A competing source of disk-planet interaction, the corotationaltorques, are much less conspicuous (corotation does not produce easilydetectable waves, as galaxy observers can attest) and have often been missed in the analysis of planet migration. If spiral waves are like waves at Goleta beach, then the corotation acts more like a stealthy riptide. Corotationalflows lie at the basis of a new, surprisingly rapid, mode of migration (type III),superseding the standard type II migration (with a gap), and revising the speed of type I migration (without a gap). The talk will contain results obtained at KITP, e.g., an analytical derivation of da/dt in type III motion. It will be illustrated by videos of high-resolution numerical simulations obtained with different implementations of the Piecewise Parabolic Method hydrodynamics.

  18. Effects of thrombin on the integrity of monolayers of cultured human endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Galdal, K.S.; Evensen, S.A.; Brosstad, F.

    1982-09-01

    /sup 51/Cr-prelabelled endothelial cells (EC) in confluent monolayers were incubated in RPMI 1640 + foetal calf serum 20% (v/v) to which purified thrombin was added. Thrombin (greater than or equal to 0.1 NIH U/ml) significantly accelerated /sup 51/Cr-release and caused extensive but reversible cell contraction. Thrombin-exposed EC reacted to a new dose of thrombin with no appreciable shape change, but /sup 51/Cr-efflux was again accelerated. EC exposed to thrombin pretreated with N-bromosuccinimide (modifying the macromolecular site) or phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (blocking the serine site) retained normal morphology and did not leak excess amounts of /sup 51/Cr. Antithrombin III also inhibited the effect of thrombin. Pretreatment of EC with either indomethacin, aspirin, sulfinpyrazone, pronase or neuraminidase did not influence the effect of subsequent thrombin exposure.

  19. Expression of Secretogranin III in Chicken Endocrine Cells

    PubMed Central

    Morikawa, Satomi; Shinmura, Naoki; Moki, Hiroaki; Yasui, Tadashi; Tsukise, Azuma; Torii, Seiji; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Maeda, Yoshinori; Hosaka, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    The expression of secretogranin III (SgIII) in chicken endocrine cells has not been investigated. There is limited data available for the immunohistochemical localization of SgIII in the brain, pituitary, and pancreatic islets of humans and rodents. In the present study, we used immunoblotting to reveal the similarities between the expression patterns of SgIII in the common endocrine glands of chickens and rats. The protein–protein interactions between SgIII and chromogranin A (CgA) mediate the sorting of CgA/prohormone core aggregates to the secretory granule membrane. We examined these interactions using co-immunoprecipitation in chicken endocrine tissues. Using immunohistochemistry, we also examined the expression of SgIII in a wide range of chicken endocrine glands and gastrointestinal endocrine cells (GECs). SgIII was expressed in the pituitary, pineal, adrenal (medullary parts), parathyroid, and ultimobranchial glands, but not in the thyroid gland. It was also expressed in GECs of the stomach (proventriculus and gizzard), small and large intestines, and pancreatic islet cells. These SgIII-expressing cells co-expressed serotonin, somatostatin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide-1, glucagon, or insulin. These results suggest that SgIII is expressed in the endocrine cells that secrete peptide hormones, which mature via the intragranular enzymatic processing of prohormones and physiologically active amines in chickens. PMID:25673289

  20. Efficacy and Safety of 1-Hour Infusion of Recombinant Human Atrial Natriuretic Peptide in Patients With Acute Decompensated Heart Failure: A Phase III, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Trial.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guogan; Wang, Pengbo; Li, Yishi; Liu, Wenxian; Bai, Shugong; Zhen, Yang; Li, Dongye; Yang, Ping; Chen, Yu; Hong, Lang; Sun, Jianhui; Chen, Junzhu; Wang, Xian; Zhu, Jihong; Hu, Dayi; Li, Huimin; Wu, Tongguo; Huang, Jie; Tan, Huiqiong; Zhang, Jian; Liao, Zhongkai; Yu, Litian; Mao, Yi; Ye, Shaodong; Feng, Lei; Hua, Yihong; Ni, Xinhai; Zhang, Yuhui; Wang, Yang; Li, Wei; Luan, Xiaojun; Sun, Xiaolu; Wang, Sijia

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 1-h infusion of recombinant human atrial natriuretic peptide (rhANP) in combination with standard therapy in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF).This was a phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Eligible patients with ADHF were randomized to receive a 1-h infusion of either rhANP or placebo at a ratio of 3:1 in combination with standard therapy. The primary endpoint was dyspnea improvement (a decrease of at least 2 grades of dyspnea severity at 12 h from baseline). Reduction in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) 1 h after infusion was the co-primary endpoint for catheterized patients. Overall, 477 patients were randomized: 358 (93 catheterized) patients received rhANP and 118 (28 catheterized) received placebo. The percentage of patients with dyspnea improvement at 12 h was higher, although not statistically significant, in the rhANP group than in the placebo group (32.0% vs 25.4%, odds ratio=1.382, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.863-2.212, P = 0.17). Reduction in PCWP at 1 h was significantly greater in patients treated with rhANP than in patients treated with placebo (-7.74 ± 5.95 vs -1.82 ± 4.47 mm Hg, P < 0.001). The frequencies of adverse events and renal impairment within 3 days of treatment were similar between the 2 groups. Mortality at 1 month was 3.1% in the rhANP group vs 2.5% in the placebo group (hazard ratio = 1.21, 95% CI: 0.34-4.26; P > 0.99).1-h rhANP infusion appears to result in prompt, transient hemodynamic improvement with a small, nonsignificant, effect on dyspnea in ADHF patients receiving standard therapy. The safety of 1-h infusion of rhANP seems to be acceptable. (WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform [ICTRP] number, ChiCTR-IPR-14005719.). PMID:26945407

  1. Efficient identification of photolabelled amino acid residues by combining immunoaffinity purification with MS: revealing the semotiadil-binding site and its relevance to binding sites for myristates in domain III of human serum albumin.

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Kohichi; Kuniyasu, Akihiko; Masuda, Katsuyoshi; Ishiguro, Masaji; Nakayama, Hitoshi

    2002-01-01

    To identify photoaffinity-labelled amino acid residue(s), we devised an effective method utilizing immunoaffinity purification of photolabelled fragments, followed by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) MS and nanoelectrospray ionization tandem MS (nano-ESI-MS/MS) analysis. Human serum albumin (HSA) was photolabelled with an azidophenyl derivative of semotiadil, FNAK [(+)-(R)-3,4-dihydro-2-[5-methoxy-2-[3-[N-methyl-N-[2-(3-azidophenoxy)-ethyl]amino]propoxyl]phenyl]-4-methyl-2H-1,4-benzothiazin-3-(4H)-one], since HSA is a major binding protein for semotiadil in serum. After lysyl endopeptidase digestion, photolabelled HSA fragments were adsorbed selectively on to Sepharose beads on which an anti-semotiadil antibody was immobilized, and fractions were eluted quantitatively by 50% acetonitrile/10 mM HCl. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of the eluted fraction showed that it contained two photolabelled fragments of m/z 2557.54 (major) and 1322.44 (minor), corresponding to Lys-414-Lys-432 and Ala-539-Lys-545, respectively. Further nano-ESI-MS/MS analysis revealed that Lys-414 was the photolabelled amino acid residue in fragment 414-432 and Lys-541 was a likely candidate in fragment 539-545. Based on the photolabelling results, we constructed a three-dimensional model of the FNAK-HSA complex, revealing that FNAK resides in a pocket that overlaps considerably with myristate (Myr)-binding sites, Myr-3 and -4, by comparison with crystallographic data of HSA-Myr complexes described in Curry, Mandelkow, Brick and Franks (1998) Nat. Struct. Biol. 5, 827-835. Moreover, addition of Myr increased photo-incorporation into Lys-414, whereas incorporation into Lys-541 decreased under conditions of [Myr]/[HSA]<1. Further addition of Myr, however, uniformly decreased photo-incorporation into both Lys residues. These results indicate that FNAK labelling can also be used to monitor Myr binding in domain III. An interpretation for the concomitant local

  2. Regulation of factor IXa in vitro in human and mouse plasma and in vivo in the mouse. Role of the endothelium and the plasma proteinase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, H.E.; Trapp, H.G.; Griffith, M.J.; Roberts, H.R.; Pizzo, S.V.

    1984-06-01

    The regulation of human Factor IXa was studied in vitro in human and mouse plasma and in vivo in the mouse. In human plasma, approximately 60% of the /sup 125/I-Factor IXa was bound to antithrombin III (ATIII) by 2 h, with no binding to alpha 2-macroglobulin or alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor, as assessed by gel electrophoresis and IgG- antiproteinase inhibitor-Sepharose beads. In the presence of heparin, virtually 100% of the /sup 125/I-Factor IXa was bound to ATIII by 1 min. The distribution of /sup 125/I-Factor IXa in mouse plasma was similar. The clearance of /sup 125/I-Factor IXa was rapid (50% clearance in 2 min) and biphasic and was inhibited by large molar excesses of ATIII-thrombin and alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor-trypsin, but not alpha 2-macro-globulin-trypsin; it was also inhibited by large molar excesses of diisopropylphosphoryl - (DIP-) Factor Xa, DIP-thrombin, and Factor IX, but not by prothrombin or Factor X. The clearance of Factor IX was also rapid (50% clearance in 2.5 min) and was inhibited by a large molar excess of Factor IX, but not by large molar excesses of Factor X, prothrombin, DIP-Factor Xa, or DIP-thrombin. Electrophoresis and IgG- antiproteinase inhibitor-Sepharose bead studies confirmed that by 2 min after injection into the murine circulation, 60% of the /sup 125/I-Factor IXa was bound to ATIII. Organ distribution studies with /sup 125/I-Factor IXa demonstrated that most of the radioactivity was in the liver. These studies suggest that Factor IXa binds to at least two classes of binding sites on endothelial cells. One site apparently recognizes both Factors IX and IXa, but not Factor X, Factor Xa, prothrombin, or thrombin. The other site recognizes thrombin, Factor Xa, and Factor IXa, but not the zymogen forms of these clotting factors. After this binding, Factor IXa is bound to ATIII and the complex is cleared from the circulation by hepatocytes.

  3. POPULATION III HYPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Smidt, Joseph; Whalen, Daniel J.; Wiggins, Brandon K.; Even, Wesley; Fryer, Chris L.; Johnson, Jarrett L.

    2014-12-20

    Population III supernovae have been of growing interest of late for their potential to directly probe the properties of the first stars, particularly the most energetic events that are visible near the edge of the observable universe. Until now, hypernovae, the unusually energetic Type Ib/c supernovae that are sometimes associated with gamma-ray bursts, have been overlooked as cosmic beacons at the highest redshifts. In this, the latest of a series of studies on Population III supernovae, we present numerical simulations of 25-50 M {sub ☉} hypernovae and their light curves done with the Los Alamos RAGE and SPECTRUM codes. We find that they will be visible at z = 10-15 to the James Webb Space Telescope and z = 4-5 to the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope, tracing star formation rates in the first galaxies and at the end of cosmological reionization. If, however, the hypernova crashes into a dense shell ejected by its progenitor, it is expected that a superluminous event will occur that may be seen at z ∼ 20 in the first generation of stars.

  4. School Library Resources, Textbooks, and Other Instructional Materials. Title II, ESEA. Strengthening Instruction in Science, Mathematics, Foreign Languages, and the Humanities and Arts; Title III, NDEA. Fifth Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of School Systems (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Office of Libraries and Learning Resources.

    Two federal educational programs are covered in this annual report for FY 1969: Title II of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act and Title III of the National Defense Education Act. The first report describes how the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, the Virgin Islands, and…

  5. School Library Resources, Textbooks and Other Instructional Materials: Title II, ESEA [and] Strengthening Instruction in Science, Mathematics, Foreign Languages and the Humanities and Arts: Title III, NDEA. Annual Report, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of School Systems (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Office of Libraries and Learning Resources.

    Annual reports of two federal education programs for FY 1970 comprise this document: Title II of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act and Title III of the National Defense Education Act. Both reports describe how the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, the Trust Territory of the Pacific…

  6. Ammonium diphosphitoindate(III)

    PubMed Central

    Hamchaoui, Farida; Rebbah, Houria; Le Fur, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, NH4[In(HPO3)2], is built up from InIII cations (site symmetry 3m.) adopting an octa­hedral environment and two different phosphite anions (each with site symmetry 3m.) exhibiting a triangular–pyramidal geometry. Each InO6 octa­hedron shares its six apices with hydrogen phosphite groups. Reciprocally, each HPO3 group shares all its O atoms with three different metal cations, leading to [In(HPO3)2]− layers which propagate in the ab plane. The ammonium cation likewise has site symmetry 3m.. In the structure, the cations are located between the [In(HPO3)2]− layers of the host framework. The sheets are held together by hydrogen bonds formed between the NH4 + cations and the O atoms of the framework. PMID:23633983

  7. Ammonium diphosphitoindate(III).

    PubMed

    Hamchaoui, Farida; Rebbah, Houria; Le Fur, Eric

    2013-04-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, NH4[In(HPO3)2], is built up from In(III) cations (site symmetry 3m.) adopting an octa-hedral environment and two different phosphite anions (each with site symmetry 3m.) exhibiting a triangular-pyramidal geometry. Each InO6 octa-hedron shares its six apices with hydrogen phosphite groups. Reciprocally, each HPO3 group shares all its O atoms with three different metal cations, leading to [In(HPO3)2](-) layers which propagate in the ab plane. The ammonium cation likewise has site symmetry 3m.. In the structure, the cations are located between the [In(HPO3)2](-) layers of the host framework. The sheets are held together by hydrogen bonds formed between the NH4 (+) cations and the O atoms of the framework. PMID:23633983

  8. Pseudo Class III malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hummayani, Fadia M.

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of deep anterior crossbite is technically challenging due to the difficulty of placing traditional brackets with fixed appliances. This case report represents a none traditional treatment modality to treat deep anterior crossbite in an adult pseudo class III malocclusion complicated by severely retruded, supraerupted upper and lower incisors. Treatment was carried out in 2 phases. Phase I treatment was performed by removable appliance “modified Hawley appliance with inverted labial bow,” some modifications were carried out to it to suit the presented case. Positive overbite and overjet was accomplished in one month, in this phase with minimal forces exerted on the lower incisors. Whereas, phase II treatment was performed with fixed appliances (braces) to align teeth and have proper over bite and overjet and to close posterior open bite, this phase was accomplished within 11 month. PMID:27052290

  9. Force constants of phosphorus (III) cyanide and arsenic (III) cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, H. G. M.; Fawcett, V.

    The force constants of phosphorus (III) cyanide and arsenic (III) cyanide have been calculated using a simple valence force-field approximation with interaction constants. Several revisions are proposed to the existing vibrational assignments for the As(CN) 3 species and the vibrational assignments for P(CN) 3 are confirmed.

  10. Identification of Catalytic Residues in the As(III) S-Adenosylmethionine Methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Marapakala, Kavitha; Qin, Jie; Rosen, Barry P.

    2012-01-01

    The enzyme As(III) S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.137) (ArsM or AS3MT) is found in members of every kingdom, from bacteria to humans. In these enzymes, there are three conserved cysteine residues at positions 72, 174, and 224 in the CmArsM orthologue from the thermophilic eukaryotic alga Cyanidioschyzon sp. 5508. Substitution of any of the three led to loss of As(III) methylation. In contrast, a C72A mutant still methylated trivalent methylarsenite [MAs(III)]. Protein fluorescence of a single-tryptophan mutant reported binding of As(III) or MAs(III). As(GS)3 and MAs(GS)2 bound significantly faster than As(III), suggesting that the glutathionylated arsenicals are preferred substrates for the enzyme. Protein fluorescence also reported binding of Sb(III), and the purified enzyme methylated and volatilized Sb(III). The results suggest that all three cysteine residues are necessary for the first step in the reaction, As(III) methylation, but that only Cys174 and Cys224 are required for the second step, methylation of MAs(III) to dimethylarsenite [DMAs(III)]. The rate-limiting step was identified as the conversion of DMAs(III) to trimethylarsine, and DMAs(III) accumulates as the principal product. PMID:22257120

  11. Title III in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Title III Quarterly, 1972

    1972-01-01

    The journal on special education programs funded under Title III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act contains articles on three projects, abstracts of other projects, a picture story on San Diego Schools' outdoor classroom for special education, and a state by state listing of all Title III special education projects. The programs…

  12. SUPERSTARS III: 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Education, Raleigh.

    SUPERSTARS III is a K-8 program designed as an enrichment opportunity for self-directed learners in mathematics. The basic purpose of SUPERSTARS III is to provide the extra challenge that self-motivated students need in mathematics and to do so in a structured, long-term program that does not impinge on the normal classroom routine or the…

  13. SUPERSTARS III: 6-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Education, Raleigh.

    SUPERSTARS III is a K-8 program designed as an enrichment opportunity for self-directed learners in mathematics. The basic purpose of SUPERSTARS III is to provide the extra challenge that self-motivated students need in mathematics and to do so in a structured, long-term program that does not impinge on the normal classroom routine or the…

  14. BEIR-III controverly

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1980-06-01

    How certain of the areas addressed by the Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) have attempted to deal with the scientific basis for establishing appropriate radiation protection guides is discussed, and what effect this may have on decision-making for the regulation of societal activities concerned with the health effects in human populations exposed to low-level radiation. (ACR)

  15. Kinesiology III, 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    This booklet contains five research works on kinesiology, the study of the principles of mechanics and anatomy in relation to human movement. The first article explains the use of Web graphics in isolating five movements: effort, force, balance, flexibility, and swing. The process for pinpointing values on the Web grid is presented in two sheets…

  16. Targeting ApoC-III to Reduce Coronary Disease Risk.

    PubMed

    Khetarpal, Sumeet A; Qamar, Arman; Millar, John S; Rader, Daniel J

    2016-09-01

    Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) are causal contributors to the risk of developing coronary artery disease (CAD). Apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) is a component of TRLs that elevates plasma triglycerides (TGs) through delaying the lipolysis of TGs and the catabolism of TRL remnants. Recent human genetics approaches have shown that heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in APOC3, the gene encoding apoC-III, lower plasma TGs and protect from CAD. This observation has spawned new interest in therapeutic efforts to target apoC-III. Here, we briefly review both currently available as well as developing therapies for reducing apoC-III levels and function to lower TGs and cardiovascular risk. These therapies include existing options including statins, fibrates, thiazolidinediones, omega-3-fatty acids, and niacin, as well as an antisense oligonucleotide targeting APOC3 currently in clinical development. We review the mechanisms of action by which these drugs reduce apoC-III and the current understanding of how reduction in apoC-III may impact CAD risk. PMID:27443326

  17. PREFACE: Quantum Optics III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orszag, M.; Retamal, J. C.; Saavedra, C.; Wallentowitz, S.

    2007-06-01

    All the 50 years of conscious pondering did not bring me nearer to an answer to the question `what is light quanta?'. Nowadays, every rascal believes, he knows it, however, he is mistaken. (A Einstein, 1951 in a letter to M Besso) Quantum optics has played a key role in physics in the last several decades. On the other hand, in these early decades of the information age, the flow of information is becoming more and more central to our daily life. Thus, the related fields of quantum information theory as well as Bose-Einstein condensation have acquired tremendous importance in the last couple of decades. In Quantum Optics III, a fusion of these fields appears in a natural way. Quantum Optics III was held in Pucón, Chile, in 27-30 of November, 2006. This beautiful location in the south of Chile is near the lake Villarrica and below the snow covered volcano of the same name. This fantastic environment contributed to a relaxed atmosphere, suitable for informal discussion and for the students to have a chance to meet the key figures in the field. The previous Quantum Optics conferences took place in Santiago, Chile (Quantum Optics I, 2000) and Cozumel, Mexico (Quantum Optics II, 2004). About 115 participants from 19 countries attended and participated in the meeting to discuss a wide variety of topics such as quantum-information processing, experiments related to non-linear optics and squeezing, various aspects of entanglement including its sudden death, correlated twin-photon experiments, light storage, decoherence-free subspaces, Bose-Einstein condensation, discrete Wigner functions and many more. There was a strong Latin-American participation from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela and Mexico, as well as from Europe, USA, China, and Australia. New experimental and theoretical results were presented at the conference. In Latin-America a quiet revolution has taken place in the last twenty years. Several groups working in quantum optics and

  18. Structure of the CFA/III major pilin subunit CofA from human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli determined at 0.90 Å resolution by sulfur-SAD phasing.

    PubMed

    Fukakusa, Shunsuke; Kawahara, Kazuki; Nakamura, Shota; Iwashita, Takaki; Baba, Seiki; Nishimura, Mitsuhiro; Kobayashi, Yuji; Honda, Takeshi; Iida, Tetsuya; Taniguchi, Tooru; Ohkubo, Tadayasu

    2012-10-01

    CofA, a major pilin subunit of colonization factor antigen III (CFA/III), forms pili that mediate small-intestinal colonization by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). In this study, the crystal structure of an N-terminally truncated version of CofA was determined by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) phasing using five sulfurs in the protein. Given the counterbalance between anomalous signal strength and the undesired X-ray absorption of the solvent, diffraction data were collected at 1.5 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. These data were sufficient to elucidate the sulfur substructure at 1.38 Å resolution. The low solvent content (29%) of the crystal necessitated that density modification be performed with an additional 0.9 Å resolution data set to reduce the phase error caused by the small sulfur anomalous signal. The CofA structure showed the αβ-fold typical of type IVb pilins and showed high structural homology to that of TcpA for toxin-coregulated pili of Vibrio cholerae, including spatial distribution of key residues critical for pilin self-assembly. A pilus-filament model of CofA was built by computational docking and molecular-dynamics simulation using the previously reported filament model of TcpA as a structural template. This model revealed that the CofA filament surface was highly negatively charged and that a 23-residue-long loop between the α1 and α2 helices filled the gap between the pilin subunits. These characteristics could provide a unique binding epitope for the CFA/III pili of ETEC compared with other type IVb pili. PMID:22993096

  19. Rationale and design of the allogeneiC human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) in patients with aging fRAilTy via intravenoUS delivery (CRATUS) study: A phase I/II, randomized, blinded and placebo controlled trial to evaluate the safety and potential efficacy of allogeneic human mesenchymal stem cell infusion in patients with aging frailty

    PubMed Central

    Golpanian, Samuel; DiFede, Darcy L.; Pujol, Marietsy V.; Lowery, Maureen H.; Levis-Dusseau, Silvina; Goldstein, Bradley J.; Schulman, Ivonne H.; Longsomboon, Bangon; Wolf, Ariel; Khan, Aisha; Heldman, Alan W.; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Pascal J.; Hare, Joshua M.

    2016-01-01

    Frailty is a syndrome associated with reduced physiological reserves that increases an individual's vulnerability for developing increased morbidity and/or mortality. While most clinical trials have focused on exercise, nutrition, pharmacologic agents, or a multifactorial approach for the prevention and attenuation of frailty, none have studied the use of cell-based therapies. We hypothesize that the application of allogeneic human mesenchymal stem cells (allo-hMSCs) as a therapeutic agent for individuals with frailty is safe and efficacious. The CRATUS trial comprises an initial non-blinded phase I study, followed by a blinded, randomized phase I/II study (with an optional follow-up phase) that will address the safety and pre-specified beneficial effects in patients with the aging frailty syndrome. In the initial phase I protocol, allo-hMSCs will be administered in escalating doses via peripheral intravenous infusion (n=15) to patients allocated to three treatment groups: Group 1 (n=5, 20 million allo-hMSCs), Group 2 (n=5, 100 million allo-hMSCs), and Group 3 (n=5, 200 million allo-hMSCs). Subsequently, in the randomized phase, allo-hMSCs or matched placebo will be administered to patients (n=30) randomly allocated in a 1:1:1 ratio to one of two doses of MSCs versus placebo: Group A (n=10, 100 million allo-hMSCs), Group B (n=10, 200 million allo-hMSCs), and Group C (n=10, placebo). Primary and secondary objectives are, respectively, to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of allo-hMSCs administered in frail older individuals. This study will determine the safety of intravenous infusion of stem cells and compare phenotypic outcomes in patients with aging frailty. PMID:26933813

  20. Chemical Properties And Toxicity of Chromium(III) Nutritional Supplements

    SciTech Connect

    Levina, A.; Lay, P.A.

    2009-05-19

    The status of Cr(III) as an essential micronutrient for humans is currently under question. No functional Cr(III)-containing biomolecules have been definitively described as yet, and accumulated experience in the use of Cr(III) nutritional supplements (such as [Cr(pic){sub 3}], where pic = 2-pyridinecarboxylato) has shown no measurable benefits for nondiabetic people. Although the use of large doses of Cr(III) supplements may lead to improvements in glucose metabolism for type 2 diabetics, there is a growing concern over the possible genotoxicity of these compounds, particularly of [Cr(pic){sub 3}]. The current perspective discusses chemical transformations of Cr(III) nutritional supplements in biological media, with implications for both beneficial and toxic actions of Cr(III) complexes, which are likely to arise from the same biochemical mechanisms, dependent on concentrations of the reactive species. These species include: (1) partial hydrolysis products of Cr(III) nutritional supplements, which are capable of binding to biological macromolecules and altering their functions; and (2) highly reactive Cr(VI/V/IV) species and organic radicals, formed in reactions of Cr(III) with biological oxidants. Low concentrations of these species are likely to cause alterations in cell signaling (including enhancement of insulin signaling) through interactions with the active centers of regulatory enzymes in the cell membrane or in the cytoplasm, while higher concentrations are likely to produce genotoxic DNA lesions in the cell nucleus. These data suggest that the potential for genotoxic side-effects of Cr(III) complexes may outweigh their possible benefits as insulin enhancers, and that recommendations for their use as either nutritional supplements or antidiabetic drugs need to be reconsidered in light of these recent findings.

  1. Binding of Chromium(III) to Transferrin Could Be Involved in Detoxification of Dietary Chromium(III) Rather than Transport of an Essential Trace Element.

    PubMed

    Levina, Aviva; Pham, T H Nguyen; Lay, Peter A

    2016-07-01

    Cr(III) binding to transferrin (Tf; the main Fe(III) transport protein) has been postulated to mediate cellular uptake of Cr(III) to facilitate a purported essential role for this element. Experiments using HepG2 (human hepatoma) cells, which were chosen because of high levels of the transferrin receptor, showed that Cr(III) binding to vacant Fe(III) -binding sites of human Tf effectively blocks cellular Cr(III) uptake. Through bio-layer interferometry studies of the Tf cycle, it was found that both exclusion and efflux of Cr2 (III) Tf from cells was caused by 1) relatively low Cr2 Tf affinity to cell-surface Tf receptors compared to Fe2 Tf, and 2) disruption of metal release under endosomal conditions and post-endosomal Tf dissociation from the receptor. These data support mounting evidence that Cr(III) is not essential and that Tf binding is likely to be a natural protective mechanism against the toxicity and potential genotoxicity of dietary Cr through blocking Cr(III) cellular accumulation. PMID:27197571

  2. Cranial mononeuropathy III - diabetic type

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetic third nerve palsy; Pupil-sparing third cranial nerve palsy ... Cranial mononeuropathy III - diabetic type -- is a mononeuropathy . This means that only one nerve is damaged. The condition affects the third cranial (oculomotor) ...

  3. The MAX III storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjöström, M.; Wallén, E.; Eriksson, M.; Lindgren, L.-J.

    2009-04-01

    One of the primary goals of the 700 MeV MAX III synchrotron radiation source is to test and gain experience with new magnet and accelerator technology. Each magnet cell is machined out of two solid iron blocks that are then sandwiched together after coil and quadrupole installation. The MAX III ring makes extensive use of combined function magnets to obtain a compact lattice. In order to obtain flexibility in machine tuning pole face current strips are used in the main dipoles, which also contain the horizontally defocusing gradients. Commissioning finished in 2007 and MAX III is now going into user operation. Over the last year, MAX III has been characterized in order to both obtain calibrated models for operation purposes as well as evaluating the magnet technology. The characterization results will be described in this paper.

  4. 75 FR 14575 - Voting Equipment Evaluations Phase III

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology Voting Equipment Evaluations Phase III AGENCY: National... Development Committee Resolution 05-05, Human Performance-Based Standards and Usability Testing. NIST...

  5. Assessment of hoist failure rate for Payload Transporter III

    SciTech Connect

    Demmie, P.N.

    1994-02-01

    Assessment of the hoist failure rate for the Payload Transporter Type III (PT-III) hoist was completed as one of the ground transportation tasks for the Minuteman II (MMIII) Weapon System Safety Assessment. The failures of concern are failures that lead to dropping a reentry system (RS) during hoist operations in a silo or the assembly, storage, and inspection building for a MMIII wing. After providing a brief description of the PT-III hoist system, the author summarizes his search for historical data from industry and the military services for failures of electric hoist systems. Since such information was not found, the strategy for assessing a failure rate was to consider failure mechanisms which lead to load-drop accidents, estimate their rates, and sum the rates for the PT-III hoist failure rate. The author discusses failure mechanisms and describes his assessment of a chain failure rate that is based on data from destructive testing of a chain of the type used for the PT-III hoist and projected usage rates for hoist operations involving the RS. The main result provides upper bounds for chain failure rates that are based on these data. No test data were found to estimate failure rates due to mechanisms other than chain failure. The author did not attempt to quantify the effects of human factors on the PT-III hoist failure rate.

  6. Overview of the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flittner, David; Pitts, Michael; Zawodny, Joe; Hill, Charles; Damadeo, Robert; Moore, Randy; Cisewski, Michael

    2012-07-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III is the fourth generation of solar occultation instruments operated by NASA, the first coming under a different acronym, to investigate the Earth's upper atmosphere. Three flight-ready SAGE III instruments were built by Ball Aerospace in the late 1990s, with one launched aboard the former Russian Avaiation and Space Agency (now known as Roskosmos) Meteor-3M (M3M) platform on 10 December 2001 (continuing until the platform lost power in 2006). Another of the original instruments was manifested for the International Space Station (ISS) in the 2004 time frame, but was delayed because of budgetary considerations. Fortunately, that SAGE III/ISS mission was restarted in 2009 with a major focus upon filling an anticipated gap in ozone and aerosol observations in the second half of this decade. This exciting mission utilizes contributions from both the Science Mission Directorate and the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the European Space Agency to enable scientific measurements that will provide the basis for the analysis of five of the nine critical constituents identified in the U.S. National Plan for Stratospheric Monitoring. A related paper by Anderson et al. discusses the. Presented here is an overview of the mission architecture, its implementation and the data that will be produced by SAGE III/ISS, including their expected accuracy and coverage. The 52-degree inclined orbit of the ISS is well-suited for solar occultation and provides near-global observations on a monthly basis with excellent coverage of low and mid-latitudes. This is similar to that of the SAGE II mission (1985-2005), whose data set has served the international atmospheric science community as a standard for stratospheric ozone and aerosol measurements. The nominal science products include vertical profiles of trace gases, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide and water

  7. Antiviral activity of bovine type III interferon against foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interferons (IFN) are the first line of defense against viral infections. Recently a new family of IFNs, type III, has been identified in humans, mice, swine and chickens. Here we report the identification and characterization of a member of the bovine type III IFN family, boIFN-lambda3, also known...

  8. 21 CFR 866.5440 - Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system. 866.5440 Section 866.5440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the beta-2-glycoprotein III (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of...

  9. 21 CFR 866.5440 - Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system. 866.5440 Section 866.5440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the beta-2-glycoprotein III (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of...

  10. 21 CFR 866.5440 - Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system. 866.5440 Section 866.5440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the beta-2-glycoprotein III (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of...

  11. 21 CFR 866.5440 - Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system. 866.5440 Section 866.5440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the beta-2-glycoprotein III (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of...

  12. The START III bargaining space

    SciTech Connect

    Karas, T.H.

    1998-08-01

    The declining state of the Russian military and precarious Russian economic condition will give the US considerable advantages at the START III bargaining table. Taking the US-RF asymmetries into account, this paper discusses a menu of START III measures the US could ask for, and measures it could offer in return, in attempting to negotiate an equitable treaty. Measures the US might seek in a START III treaty include: further reductions in deployed strategic nuclear warheads, irreversibility of reductions through warhead dismantlement; beginning to bring theater nuclear weapons under mutual control, and increased transparency into the Russian nuclear weapons complex. The US may, however, wish to apply its bargaining advantages to attempting to achieve the first steps toward two long-range goals that would enhance US security: bringing theater nuclear weapons into the US-RF arms control arena, and increasing transparency into the Russian nuclear weapons complex. In exchange for measures relating to these objectives, the US might consider offering to Russia: Further strategic weapons reductions approaching levels at which the Russians believe they could maintain a degree of parity with the US; Measures to decrease the large disparities in potential deliver-system uploading capabilities that appear likely under current START II/START III scenarios; and Financial assistance in achieving START II/START III reductions as rapidly as is technically possible.

  13. Thermal and optical properties of Tb(III), Eu(III) and Tb(III)/Eu(III) co-complexed silicone fluorinated acrylate copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Yinfeng; Xie, Hongde; Cai, Haijun; Cai, Peiqing; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2015-07-01

    Tb(III), Eu(III) and Tb(III)/Eu(III) activated silicone fluorinated acrylate (SFA) have been successfully synthesized using the method of semi-continuous emulsion polymerization. The copolymers are characterized by flourier transform infrared (FT-IR), thermal gravity analysis (TGA), photoluminescence excitation (PLE) and emission (PL) spectroscopy. The copolymer containing Tb(III) and Eu(III) ions display green and red luminescent colors under UV light excitation, respectively. The TGA curves show the thermal decomposition temperatures of the copolymers are up to about 300 °C. The PL spectra show a strong green emission at 546 nm (5D4 → 7F5) of Tb(III) complexed copolymers, and show a prominent red emission at 615 nm (5D0 → 7F2) of Eu(III) complexed copolymers. Different concentrations of Eu(III) and Tb(III) ions are introduced into the copolymer and the energy transfer from Tb(III) to Eu(III) ions in the copolymer was found. Thus, based on the results it can be suggested that SFA:Eu(III), SFA:Tb(III) and SFA:Tb(III)/Eu(III) can be used potentially as luminescent materials.

  14. In vitro growth characteristics of simian T-lymphotropic virus type III.

    PubMed Central

    Kannagi, M; Yetz, J M; Letvin, N L

    1985-01-01

    The type C retrovirus simian T-lymphotropic virus type III (STLV-III) has been isolated recently from immunodeficient macaque monkeys at the New England Regional Primate Research Center. The present studies were done to define the in vitro growth characteristics of this agent. STLV-III replicates efficiently in interleukin 2-dependent T-cell cultures of macaque peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), less efficiently in such cultures of human and gibbon PBL, and inefficiently in baboon PBL. No replication, as assessed by measuring reverse transcriptase activity in these culture supernatants, could be detected in similarly maintained cultures of chimpanzee, squirrel monkey, and cotton-top tamarin PBL. Like the human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) virus, human T-cell lymphotropic virus III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV), STLV-III replicates in T4+ but not T8+ lymphocytes and its infection of macaque and human lymphocytes can be blocked with monoclonal anti-T4 antibodies. STLV-III differs from the human AIDS virus, however, in its apparent inability to grow in the Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B lymphocytes tested, the differing range of nonhuman primate T-cell populations that support its growth, and its less striking toxicity for T lymphocytes. These studies provide further characterization of an agent that will be extremely important in facilitating the development of vaccines and antiviral therapy for AIDS. PMID:2996002

  15. III-Nitride nanowire optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Songrui; Nguyen, Hieu P. T.; Kibria, Md. G.; Mi, Zetian

    2015-11-01

    Group-III nitride nanowire structures, including GaN, InN, AlN and their alloys, have been intensively studied in the past decade. Unique to this material system is that its energy bandgap can be tuned from the deep ultraviolet (~6.2 eV for AlN) to the near infrared (~0.65 eV for InN). In this article, we provide an overview on the recent progress made in III-nitride nanowire optoelectronic devices, including light emitting diodes, lasers, photodetectors, single photon sources, intraband devices, solar cells, and artificial photosynthesis. The present challenges and future prospects of III-nitride nanowire optoelectronic devices are also discussed.

  16. Connective tissue-activating peptide III (CTAP-III): cloning the synthetic gene and characterization of the protein expressed in E. coli

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.H.; Castor, C.W.; Walz, D.A.

    1986-05-01

    CTAP-III, an ..cap alpha..-granule protein secreted by human platelets, is known to stimulate mitogenesis, extracellular matrix synthesis, and plasminogen activator synthesis in human fibroblast cultures. From its primary sequence, a synthetic gene was constructed to code for a methionine-free derivative (Leu substituted for Met-21), then cloned and expressed in E. coli using a new expression vector containing regulatory elements of the colicin E1 operon. Partially purified recombinant CTAP-III showed a line of identity with CTAP-III by immunodiffusion against rabbit antibody to platelet-derived CTAP-III. Immunodetection of the reduced protein after SDS-PAGE electrophoresis showed a molecular weight (mobility) in agreement with the natural form. Biologic activity of rCTAP-III eluted from an antiCTAP-III immunoaffinity column was measured in human synovial cell bioassay systems. rCTAP-III stimulated synovial cell synthesis of /sup 14/C-hyaluronic acid approximately 13-fold; significant (P < 0.001) mitogenesis was also observed. These studies indicate that a sufficient quantity of bioactive peptide can be obtained for a more comprehensive study of its biologic properties.

  17. [A population-genetics approach to the problem of nonspecific biological resistance of the human body. III. The ABO and rhesus blood group systems of healthy and sick children and their mothers].

    PubMed

    Kurbatova, O L; Botvin'ev, O K; Altukhov, Iu P

    1984-04-01

    ABO and Rhesus blood types have been specified in 2047 diseased newborns, diseased infants and children who died before the age of one, as well as in their mothers. 527 healthy children and their mothers were investigated as a control group. A significant difference in the ABO phenotype frequencies has been revealed between: i) healthy and dead children, ii) mothers of diseased newborns and mothers of healthy children, iii) dead children and their mothers. The significant increase in the incidence of maternal Rhesus-negative phenotype, as compared with the control group, was shown in the groups of diseased newborns, diseased infants and dead children. In the same groups, mothers differ significantly from their children with respect to the frequency of Rhesus phenotypes. The incidence of Rhesus-incompatible mother-child pairs in the groups of diseased newborns, diseased infants and dead children was shown to be two times higher than the respective frequency in the control group and the expected frequency. A certain increase in the frequency of ABO-incompatible pairs was revealed in the groups of diseased newborns and dead children, but the difference, as compared to the control group, did not prove to be statistically significant. A hypothesis was advanced to the effect that the mother-child incompatibility for Rhesus and ABO antigens may result not only in fetal wastage and haemolytic disease of newborns, but also in the decrease of child's resistance to diseases of different origin. PMID:6427064

  18. ApoC-III: a potent modulator of hypertriglyceridemia and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Kohan, Alison B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize the recent epidemiological, basic science, and pharmaceutical research linking apoC-III with the development and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Recent findings ApoC-III is an important emerging target linking hypertriglyceridemia with cardiovascular disease (CVD). ApoC-III is a potent modulator of many established CVD risk factors, and is found on chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, and HDL particles. Recent studies show that in humans, apoC-III levels are an independent risk factor for CVD, and its presence on lipoproteins may promote their atherogenicity. This year, two large-scale epidemiological studies have linked mutations in apoC-III with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease and hypertriglyceridemia. ApoC-III raises plasma triglycerides through inhibition of LPL, stimulation of VLDL secretion, and is a novel factor in modulating intestinal triglyceride trafficking. ApoC-III also stimulates inflammatory processes in the vasculature and in the pancreas. The combination of raising plasma triglycerides and independently stimulating inflammatory processes makes apoC-III a valuable target for reducing the residual CVD risk in patients already on statin therapy, or for whom triglycerides are poorly controlled. Clinical trials on apoC-III antisense oligonucleotides are in progress. Summary ApoC-III is a potent direct modulator of established cardiovascular disease risk factors: plasma triglycerides and inflammation. Recent findings show that changes in apoC-III levels are directly associated with changes in cardiovascular risk, and with the atherogenicity of the lipoproteins on which apoC-III resides. Emerging roles of apoC-III include a role in directing the atherogenicity of HDL, intestinal dietary triglyceride trafficking, and modulating pancreatic β-cell survival. The combination of these roles makes apoC-III an important therapeutic target for the management and prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:25692924

  19. Epidermal growth factor receptor variant III mutations in lung tumorigenesis and sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hongbin; Zhao, Xiaojun; Yuza, Yuki; Shimamura, Takeshi; Li, Danan; Protopopov, Alexei; Jung, Boonim L; McNamara, Kate; Xia, Huili; Glatt, Karen A; Thomas, Roman K; Sasaki, Hidefumi; Horner, James W; Eck, Michael; Mitchell, Albert; Sun, Yangping; Al-Hashem, Ruqayyah; Bronson, Roderick T; Rabindran, Sridhar K; Discafani, Carolyn M; Maher, Elizabeth; Shapiro, Geoffrey I; Meyerson, Matthew; Wong, Kwok-Kin

    2006-05-16

    The tyrosine kinase inhibitors gefitinib (Iressa) and erlotinib (Tarceva) have shown anti-tumor activity in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Dramatic and durable responses have occurred in NSCLC tumors with mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In contrast, these inhibitors have shown limited efficacy in glioblastoma, where a distinct EGFR mutation, the variant III (vIII) in-frame deletion of exons 2-7, is commonly found. In this study, we determined that EGFRvIII mutation was present in 5% (3/56) of analyzed human lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) but was not present in human lung adenocarcinoma (0/123). We analyzed the role of the EGFRvIII mutation in lung tumorigenesis and its response to tyrosine kinase inhibition. Tissue-specific expression of EGFRvIII in the murine lung led to the development of NSCLC. Most importantly, these lung tumors depend on EGFRvIII expression for maintenance. Treatment with an irreversible EGFR inhibitor, HKI-272, dramatically reduced the size of these EGFRvIII-driven murine tumors in 1 week. Similarly, Ba/F3 cells transformed with the EGFRvIII mutant were relatively resistant to gefitinib and erlotinib in vitro but proved sensitive to HKI-272. These findings suggest a therapeutic strategy for cancers harboring the EGFRvIII mutation. PMID:16672372

  20. CK2 phosphorylation of Bdp1 executes cell cycle-specific RNA polymerase III transcription repression.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ping; Samudre, Kalpana; Wu, Si; Sun, Yuling; Hernandez, Nouria

    2004-10-01

    RNA polymerase III (pol III) transcription from the human U6 snRNA promoter can be reconstituted with the recombinant factors SNAPc and Brf2-TFIIIB combined with purified pol III. In this system, CK2 treatment of the pol III complex is required for transcription, whereas treatment of Brf2-TFIIIB is inhibitory. Here we show that CK2 inhibits Brf2-TFIIIB by specifically phosphorylating its Bdp1 component. Bdp1 is phosphorylated by CK2 during mitosis, and this is accompanied by Bdp1 dissociation from the U6 promoter and from chromatin in general and by transcription repression. Remarkably, whereas inhibition of CK2 in mitotic extracts restores pol III transcription, inhibition of CK2 in active S phase extracts debilitates transcription. Thus, CK2 is directed to phosphorylate different targets within the basal pol III transcription machinery at different times during the cell cycle, with opposite transcriptional effects. PMID:15469824

  1. Molecular cloning and expression of the canine metallothionein-III gene.

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, S; Shimada, A; Kodan, A; Kobayashi, K; Morita, T; Yamano, Y; Umemura, T

    1998-01-01

    We have isolated and determined the complete nucleotide sequence of canine metallothionein-III (MT-III) cDNA. The predicted amino acid sequence of the canine MT-III showed a high homology (93%, 87% identity) to that of human and mouse MT-III. The canine MT-III had 2 insertions relative to known mammalian MT-I and MT-II: a threonine after the 4th amino acid and a block of 6 amino acids near the carboxyl terminus. Expression of the canine MT-III mRNA was found exclusively in the central nervous system, where neurons in the olfactory bulb, hippocampus and cerebral cortex showed predominant signals. Images Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:9553716

  2. HTLV-III infection in Canada in 1985.

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, P W; Benning, B J; Robinson, D G; Gilmore, N; O'Shaughnessy, M V

    1986-01-01

    More than 25 000 serum specimens have been tested for antibody to human T-lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) at the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control, Ottawa, since August 1984. In 1985 the prevalence rates of antibody positivity among selected risk groups were as follows: patients with Kaposi's sarcoma, 77%; patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS-related complex (ARC), 66%; patients with hemophilia, 65%; symptomatic homosexual men, 48%; cohabitants of patients with AIDS, ARC or antibody to HTLV-III, 24%; and intravenous drug abusers, 13%. No case of accidental parenteral exposure has resulted in seroconversion. Eight cases of AIDS, all in antibody-positive patients, have been associated with blood transfusions. A testing protocol based on risk-group information is proposed for diagnostic laboratories. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3461870

  3. Organometallic neptunium(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, Michał S; Farnaby, Joy H; Apostolidis, Christos; Colineau, Eric; Walter, Olaf; Magnani, Nicola; Gardiner, Michael G; Love, Jason B; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; Caciuffo, Roberto; Arnold, Polly L

    2016-08-01

    Studies of transuranic organometallic complexes provide a particularly valuable insight into covalent contributions to the metal-ligand bonding, in which the subtle differences between the transuranium actinide ions and their lighter lanthanide counterparts are of fundamental importance for the effective remediation of nuclear waste. Unlike the organometallic chemistry of uranium, which has focused strongly on U(III) and has seen some spectacular advances, that of the transuranics is significantly technically more challenging and has remained dormant. In the case of neptunium, it is limited mainly to Np(IV). Here we report the synthesis of three new Np(III) organometallic compounds and the characterization of their molecular and electronic structures. These studies suggest that Np(III) complexes could act as single-molecule magnets, and that the lower oxidation state of Np(II) is chemically accessible. In comparison with lanthanide analogues, significant d- and f-electron contributions to key Np(III) orbitals are observed, which shows that fundamental neptunium organometallic chemistry can provide new insights into the behaviour of f-elements. PMID:27442286

  4. Terrain Perception for DEMO III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manduchi, R.; Bellutta, P.; Matthies, L.; Owens, K.; Rankin, A.

    2000-01-01

    The Demo III program has as its primary focus the development of autonomous mobility for a small rugged cross country vehicle. In this paper we report recent progress on both stereo-based obstacle detection and terrain cover color-based classification.

  5. Title III hazardous air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, R.

    1995-12-31

    The author presents an overview of the key provisions of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The key provisions include the following: 112(b) -- 189 Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP); 112(a) -- Major Source: 10 TPY/25 TPY; 112(d) -- Application of MACT; 112(g) -- Modifications; 112(I) -- State Program; 112(j) -- The Hammer; and 112(r) -- Accidental Release Provisions.

  6. Efficacy and safety of liraglutide, a once-daily human glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue, in Latino/Hispanic patients with type 2 diabetes: post hoc analysis of data from four phase III trials.

    PubMed

    Davidson, J A; Ørsted, D D; Campos, C

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide in Latino/Hispanic individuals with type 2 diabetes, in addition to comparing its treatment effects with those observed in non-Latino/Hispanic individuals. Analyses were performed on patient-level data from a subset of individuals self-defined as Latino/Hispanic from four phase III studies, the LEAD-3, LEAD-4, LEAD-6 and 1860-LIRA-DPP-4 trials. Endpoints included change in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and body weight from baseline. In Latino/Hispanic patients (n = 505; 323 treated with liraglutide) after 26 weeks, mean HbA1c reductions were significantly greater with both liraglutide 1.2 and 1.8 mg versus comparator or placebo in the LEAD-3 and LEAD-4 studies, and with 1.8 mg liraglutide in the 1860-LIRA-DPP-4 trial. In LEAD-3 both doses led to significant differences in body weight change among Latino/Hispanic patients versus the comparator. With 1.8 mg liraglutide, difference in weight change was significant only in the 1860-LIRA-DPP-4 trial versus sitagliptin. For both endpoints Latino/Hispanic and non-Latino/Hispanic patients responded to liraglutide similarly. In summary, liraglutide is efficacious for treatment of type 2 diabetes in Latino/Hispanic patients, with a similar efficacy to that seen in non-Latino/Hispanic patients. PMID:26936426

  7. Results of space experiment program "Interferon". I. Production of interferon in vitro by human lymphocytes aboard space laboratory Solyut-6 ("Interferon I") and influence of space flight on lymphocyte functions of cosmonauts ("Interferon III").

    PubMed

    Tálas, M; Bátkai, L; Stöger, I; Nagy, L; Hiros, L; Konstantinova, I; Rykova, M; Mozgovaya, I; Guseva, O; Kozharinov, V

    1983-01-01

    The results of the biological space experiment "Interferon" performed by two international cosmonaut crews aboard the space laboratory Solyut-6 are reported. Human lymphocytes separated from the blood of healthy donors and placed into "Interferon I" equipment could be kept for 7 days in suspension culture under spaceflight conditions. Interferon production could be induced in human lymphocytes by preparations of different origin, such as virus, synthetic polyribonucleotides, bacterial protein and plant pigment. An increased lymphocyte interferon production was observed in the space laboratory as compared to the ground control. A decrease of induced interferon production and natural killer cell activity was observed in the cosmonauts' lymphocytes on the 1st day on Earth after 7 days spaceflight. PMID:6659855

  8. Autonomous mobile robot research using the HERMIES-III robot

    SciTech Connect

    Pin, F.G.; Beckerman, M.; Spelt, P.F.; Robinson, J.T.; Weisbin, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the status and future directions in the research, development and experimental validation of intelligent control techniques for autonomous mobile robots using the HERMIES-III robot at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced research (CESAR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). HERMIES-III is the fourth robot in a series of increasingly more sophisticated and capable experimental test beds developed at CESAR. HERMIES-III is comprised of a battery powered, onmi-directional wheeled platform with a seven degree-of-freedom manipulator arm, video cameras, sonar range sensors, laser imaging scanner and a dual computer system containing up to 128 NCUBE nodes in hypercube configuration. All electronics, sensors, computers, and communication equipment required for autonomous operation of HERMIES-III are located on board along with sufficient battery power for three to four hours of operation. The paper first provides a more detailed description of the HERMIES-III characteristics, focussing on the new areas of research and demonstration now possible at CESAR with this new test-bed. The initial experimental program is then described with emphasis placed on autonomous performance of human-scale tasks (e.g., valve manipulation, use of tools), integration of a dexterous manipulator and platform motion in geometrically complex environments, and effective use of multiple cooperating robots (HERMIES-IIB and HERMIES- III). The paper concludes with a discussion of the integration problems and safety considerations necessarily arising from the set-up of an experimental program involving human-scale, multi-autonomous mobile robots performance. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Analysis of thymic stromal cell subpopulations grown in vitro on extracellular matrix in defined medium. III. Growth conditions of human thymic epithelial cells and immunomodulatory activities in their culture supernatant.

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, L; Eshel, I; Meilin, A; Sharabi, Y; Shoham, J

    1991-01-01

    We report here on a new approach to the cultivation of human thymic epithelial (HTE) cells, which apparently allows more faithful preservation of cell function. This approach, previously developed by us for mouse thymic epithelial (MTE) cells, is based on the use of culture plates coated with extracellular matrix (ECM), and on the use of serum-free, growth factor-supplemented medium. The nutritional requirements of HTE and MTE are somewhat different. Although both are critically dependent on ECM and insulin, they differ in their dependency on other growth factors: selenium and transferrin are much more important for HTE cells, whereas epidermal growth factor and hydrocortisone play a more essential role in MTE cultures. The epithelial nature of the cultured cells is indicated by positive staining with anti-keratin antibodies and by the presence of desmosomes and tonofilaments. The ultrastructural appearance of the cells further suggests high metabolic and secretory activities, not usually found in corresponding cell lines. The culture supernatant (CS) of HTE cells exhibited a strong enhancing effect on thymocyte response to Con A stimulation, as measured by cell proliferation and lymphokine production. The effect was observed on both human and mouse thymocytes, but was much stronger in the homologous combination. Thymic factors tested in parallel did not have such a differential effect. The dose-effect relationships were in the form of a bell-shaped curve, with fivefold enhancement of response at the peak and a measurable effect even with 1:1000 dilution, when human thymocytes were used. The responding thymocytes were those which do not bind peanut agglutinin and are resistant to hydrocortisone. The culture system described here may have advantages for the in vitro study of thymic stromal cell function. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1783421

  10. Space Radiation Analysis for the Mark III Spacesuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, Bill; Boeder, Paul; Ross, Amy

    2013-01-01

    NASA has continued the development of space systems by applying and integrating improved technologies that include safety issues, lightweight materials, and electronics. One such area is extravehicular (EVA) spacesuit development with the most recent Mark III spacesuit. In this paper the Mark III spacesuit is discussed in detail that includes the various components that comprise the spacesuit, materials and their chemical composition that make up the spacesuit, and a discussion of the 3-D CAD model of the Mark III spacesuit. In addition, the male (CAM) and female (CAF) computerized anatomical models are also discussed in detail. We combined the spacesuit and the human models, that is, we developed a method of incorporating the human models in the Mark III spacesuit and performed a ray-tracing technique to determine the space radiation shielding distributions for all of the critical body organs. These body organ shielding distributions include the BFO (Blood-Forming Organs), skin, eye, lungs, stomach, and colon, to name a few, for both the male and female. Using models of the trapped (Van Allen) proton and electron environments, radiation exposures were computed for a typical low earth orbit (LEO) EVA mission scenario including the geostationary (GEO) high electron environment. A radiation exposure assessment of these mission scenarios is made to determine whether or not the crew radiation exposure limits are satisfied, and if not, the additional shielding material that would be required to satisfy the crew limits.

  11. Selective expression of latency-associated peptide (LAP) and IL-1 receptor type I/II (CD121a/CD121b) on activated human FOXP3+ regulatory T cells allows for their purification from expansion cultures

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, John; Hardwick, Donna; Bebris, Lolita; Illei, Gabor G.

    2009-01-01

    Although adoptive transfer of regulatory T cells (Foxp3+ Tregs) has proven to be efficacious in the prevention and treatment of autoimmune diseases and graft-versus-host disease in rodents, a major obstacle for the use of Treg immunotherapy in humans is the difficulty of obtaining a highly purified preparation after ex vivo expansion. We have identified latency-associated peptide (LAP) and IL-1 receptor type I and II (CD121a/CD121b) as unique cell-surface markers that distinguish activated Tregs from activated FOXP3− and FOXP3+ non-Tregs. We show that it is feasible to sort expanded FOXP3+ Tregs from non-Tregs with the use of techniques for magnetic bead cell separation based on expression of these 3 markers. After separation, the final product contains greater than 90% fully functional FOXP3+ Tregs. This novel protocol should facilitate the purification of Tregs for both cell-based therapies as well as detailed studies of human Treg function in health and disease. PMID:19299332

  12. Synthesis, spectroscopic, thermal and anticancer studies of metal-antibiotic chelations: Ca(II), Fe(III), Pd(II) and Au(III) chloramphenicol complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Khodir, Fatima A. I.; Refat, Moamen S.

    2016-09-01

    Four Ca(II), Fe(III), Pd(II) and Au(III) complexes of chloramphenicol drug have been synthesized and well characterized using elemental analyses, (infrared, electronic, and 1H-NMR) spectra, magnetic susceptibility measurement, and thermal analyses. Infrared spectral data show that the chloramphenicol drug coordinated to Ca(II), Pd(II) and Au(III) metal ions through two hydroxyl groups with 1:1 or 1:2 M ratios, but Fe(III) ions chelated towards chloramphenicol drug via the oxygen and nitrogen atoms of amide group with 1:2 ratio based on presence of keto↔enol form. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were used to identify the nano-size particles of both iron(III) and gold(III) chloramphenicol complexes. The antimicrobial assessments of the chloramphenicol complexes were scanned and collected the results against of some kind of bacteria and fungi. The cytotoxic activity of the gold(III) complex was tested against the human colon carcinoma (HCT-116) and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG-2) tumor cell lines.

  13. Precipitates of Al(III), Sc(III), and La(III) at the muscovite-water interface.

    PubMed

    Saslow Gomez, Sarah A; Geiger, Franz M

    2014-11-20

    The interaction of Al(III), Sc(III), and La(III) with muscovite-water interfaces was studied at pH 4 and 10 mM NaCl using second harmonic generation (SHG) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). SHG data for Sc(III) and La(III) suggest complete and/or partial irreversible adsorption that is attributed by XPS to the growth of Sc(III) and La(III) hydroxides/oxides on the muscovite surface. Al(III) adsorption appears to coincide with the growth of gibbsite (Al(OH)3) deposits on the muscovite surface, as indicated by the magnitude of the interfacial potential computed from the SHG data. This interpretation of the data is consistent with previous studies reporting the epitaxial growth of gibbsite on the muscovite surface under similar conditions. The implication of our findings is that the surface charge density of mica may change (and in the case of Al(III), even flip sign from negative (mica) to positive (gibbsite)) when Al(III), Sc(III), or La(III) is present in aqueous phases in contact with heterogeneous geochemical media rich in mica-class minerals, even at subsaturation conditions. PMID:25380548

  14. NIF Title III engineering plan

    SciTech Connect

    Deis, G

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to define the work that must be accomplished by the NIF Project during Title III Engineering. This definition is intended to be sufficiently detailed to provide a framework for yearly planning, to clearly identify the specific deliverables so that the Project teams can focus on them, and to provide a common set of objectives and processes across the Project. This plan has been preceded by similar documents for Title I and Title II design and complements the Site Management Plan, the Project Control Manual, the Quality Assurance Program Plan, the RM Parsons NIF Title III Configuration Control Plan, the Integrated Project Schedule, the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report, the Configuration Management Plan, and the Transition Plan.

  15. DSN tracking system: Mark III-77

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaney, W. D.

    1977-01-01

    The Deep Space Network tracking system is described. Revisions of subsystem Mark III-75 are briefly outlined, and the currently used multimission support subsystem Mark III-77 is described. Tracking functions performed are given as well.

  16. Silver europium(III) polyphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Ayadi, Mounir; Férid, Mokhtar; Moine, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Europium(III) silver polyphosphate, AgEu(PO3)4, was prepared by the flux method. The atomic arrangement is built up by infinite (PO3)n chains (periodicity of 4) extending along the c axis. These chains are joined to each other by EuO8 dodeca­hedra. The Ag+ cations are located in the voids of this arrangement and are surrounded by five oxygen atoms in a distorted [4+1] coordination. PMID:21582031

  17. Mark III Space Suit Mobility: A Reach Evaluation Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaxton, Sherry S.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Onady, Elizabeth A.; Rajulu, Sudhakar L.

    2007-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the reach envelope and field of vision (FOV) for a subject wearing a Mark III space suit was requested for use in human-machine interface design of the Science Crew Operations and Utility Testbed (SCOUT) vehicle. The reach and view of two suited and unsuited subjects were evaluated while seated in the vehicle using 3-dimensional position data collected during a series of reaching motions. Data was interpolated and displayed in orthogonal views and cross-sections. Compared with unsuited conditions, medio-lateral reach was not strongly affected by the Mark III suit, whereas vertical and antero-posterior reach were inhibited by the suit. Lateral FOV was reduced by approximately 40 deg. in the suit. The techniques used in this case study may prove useful in human-machine interface design by providing a new means of developing and displaying reach envelopes.

  18. Organometallic neptunium(III) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutkiewicz, Michał S.; Farnaby, Joy H.; Apostolidis, Christos; Colineau, Eric; Walter, Olaf; Magnani, Nicola; Gardiner, Michael G.; Love, Jason B.; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; Caciuffo, Roberto; Arnold, Polly L.

    2016-08-01

    Studies of transuranic organometallic complexes provide a particularly valuable insight into covalent contributions to the metal–ligand bonding, in which the subtle differences between the transuranium actinide ions and their lighter lanthanide counterparts are of fundamental importance for the effective remediation of nuclear waste. Unlike the organometallic chemistry of uranium, which has focused strongly on UIII and has seen some spectacular advances, that of the transuranics is significantly technically more challenging and has remained dormant. In the case of neptunium, it is limited mainly to NpIV. Here we report the synthesis of three new NpIII organometallic compounds and the characterization of their molecular and electronic structures. These studies suggest that NpIII complexes could act as single-molecule magnets, and that the lower oxidation state of NpII is chemically accessible. In comparison with lanthanide analogues, significant d- and f-electron contributions to key NpIII orbitals are observed, which shows that fundamental neptunium organometallic chemistry can provide new insights into the behaviour of f-elements.

  19. Glycosaminoglycans and mucopolysaccharidosis type III.

    PubMed

    Jakobkiewicz-Banecka, Joanna; Gabig-Ciminska, Magdalena; Kloska, Anna; Malinowska, Marcelina; Piotrowska, Ewa; Banecka-Majkutewicz, Zyta; Banecki, Bogdan; Wegrzyn, Alicja; Wegrzyn, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III), or Sanfilippo syndrome, is a lysosomal storage disease in which heparan sulfate is accumulated in lysosomes, as well as outside of cells, as the primary storage material. This disease is a complex of four conditions caused by dysfunctions of one of genes coding for lysosomal enzymes involved in degradation of heparan sulfate: SGSH (coding for heparan N-sulfatase) - causing MPS IIIA, NAGLU (coding for alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase) - causing MPS IIIB, HGSNAT (coding for acetyl CoA alpha-glucosaminide acetyltransferase) - causing MPS IIIC), and GNS (coding for N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulfatase) - causing MPS IIID. The primary storage is responsible for some disease symptoms, but other arise as a result of secondary storage, including glycosphingolipids, and subsequent processes, like oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Central nervous system is predominantly affected in all subtypes of MPS III. Heparan sulfate and its derivatives are the most commonly used biomarkers for diagnosis and prediction procedures. Currently, there is no therapy for Sanfilippo syndrome, however, clinical trials are ongoing for enzyme replacement therapy, gene therapy and substrate reduction therapy (particularly gene expression-targeted isoflavone therapy). PMID:27100513

  20. Human plasma protein N-glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Clerc, Florent; Reiding, Karli R; Jansen, Bas C; Kammeijer, Guinevere S M; Bondt, Albert; Wuhrer, Manfred

    2016-06-01

    Glycosylation is the most abundant and complex protein modification, and can have a profound structural and functional effect on the conjugate. The oligosaccharide fraction is recognized to be involved in multiple biological processes, and to affect proteins physical properties, and has consequentially been labeled a critical quality attribute of biopharmaceuticals. Additionally, due to recent advances in analytical methods and analysis software, glycosylation is targeted in the search for disease biomarkers for early diagnosis and patient stratification. Biofluids such as saliva, serum or plasma are of great use in this regard, as they are easily accessible and can provide relevant glycosylation information. Thus, as the assessment of protein glycosylation is becoming a major element in clinical and biopharmaceutical research, this review aims to convey the current state of knowledge on the N-glycosylation of the major plasma glycoproteins alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, alpha-1-antitrypsin, alpha-1B-glycoprotein, alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein, alpha-2-macroglobulin, antithrombin-III, apolipoprotein B-100, apolipoprotein D, apolipoprotein F, beta-2-glycoprotein 1, ceruloplasmin, fibrinogen, immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgG, IgM, haptoglobin, hemopexin, histidine-rich glycoprotein, kininogen-1, serotransferrin, vitronectin, and zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein. In addition, the less abundant immunoglobulins D and E are included because of their major relevance in immunology and biopharmaceutical research. Where available, the glycosylation is described in a site-specific manner. In the discussion, we put the glycosylation of individual proteins into perspective and speculate how the individual proteins may contribute to a total plasma N-glycosylation profile determined at the released glycan level. PMID:26555091

  1. Nuclear EGFRvIII resists hypoxic microenvironment induced apoptosis via recruiting ERK1/2 nuclear translocation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hui; Yang, Jinfeng; Xing, Wenjing; Dong, Yucui; Ren, Huan

    2016-02-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive type of primary brain tumor. Its interaction with the tumor microenvironment promotes tumor progression. Furthermore, GBM bearing expression of EGFRvIII displays more adaptation to tumor microenvironment related stress. But the mechanisms were poorly understood. Here, we presented evidence that in the human U87MG glioblastoma tumor model, EGFRvIII overexpression led aberrant kinase activation and nuclear translocation of EGFRvIII/ERK1/2 under hypoxia, which induced growth advantage by resisting apoptosis. Additionally, EGFRvIII defective in nuclear entry impaired this capacity in hypoxia adaptation, and partially interrupted ERK1/2 nuclear translocation. Pharmacology or genetic interference ERK1/2 decreased hypoxia resistance triggered by EGFRvIII expression, but not EGFRvIII nuclear translocation. In summary, this study identified a novel role for EGFRvIII in hypoxia tolerance, supporting an important link between hypoxia and subcellular localization alterations of the receptor. PMID:26742423

  2. Modular variations of the human major histocompatibility complex class III genes for serine/threonine kinase RP, complement component C4, steroid 21-hydroxylase CYP21, and tenascin TNX (the RCCX module). A mechanism for gene deletions and disease associations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Z; Mendoza, A R; Welch, T R; Zipf, W B; Yu, C Y

    1999-04-23

    The frequent variations of human complement component C4 gene size and gene numbers, plus the extensive polymorphism of the proteins, render C4 an excellent marker for major histocompatibility complex disease associations. As shown by definitive RFLPs, the tandemly arranged genes RP, C4, CYP21, and TNX are duplicated together as a discrete genetic unit termed the RCCX module. Duplications of the RCCX modules occurred by the addition of genomic fragments containing a long (L) or a short (S) C4 gene, a CYP21A or a CYP21B gene, and the gene fragments TNXA and RP2. Four major RCCX structures with bimodular L-L, bimodular L-S, monomodular L, and monomodular S are present in the Caucasian population. These modules are readily detectable by TaqI RFLPs. The RCCX modular variations appear to be a root cause for the acquisition of deleterious mutations from pseudogenes or gene segments in the RCCX to their corresponding functional genes. In a patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, we discovered a TNXB-TNXA recombinant with the deletion of RP2-C4B-CYP21B. Elucidation of the DNA sequence for the recombination breakpoint region and sequence analyses yielded definitive proof for an unequal crossover between TNXA from a bimodular chromosome and TNXB from a monomodular chromosome. PMID:10207042

  3. Application of capillary electrophoresis-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to comparative studying of the reactivity of antitumor ruthenium(III) complexes differing in the nature of counter-ion toward human serum proteins.

    PubMed

    Połeć-Pawlak, Kasia; Abramski, Jan K; Ferenc, Julia; Foteeva, Lidia S; Timerbaev, Andrei R; Keppler, Bernhard K; Jarosz, Maciej

    2008-05-30

    Varying the counter-ion is a highly supportive practice in tackling the problem of poor water-solubility of metal complexes of pharmaceutical importance. As a matter of fact, the relevant structural modification may alter the metabolic pathways and possibly the mode of action of a drug. To prove that this does not take place for one of the lead anticancer metal-based developmental compounds, indazolium trans-[RuCl(4)(1H-indazole)(2)] (KP1019), its reactivity toward human serum proteins was assessed under simulated physiological conditions and compared to that of a much more soluble analogue, sodium trans-[RuCl(4)(1H-indazole)(2)] (KP1339). For such kinetic assaying, capillary electrophoresis (CE) interfaced online with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to specifically monitor changes in the metal speciation following the formation of ruthenium-protein adducts was applied. The rate constants of interaction with albumin and transferrin were determined at pharmacologically fitting drug-to-protein ratios as on average 0.0319+/-0.0021 min(-1) and 0.0931+/-0.0019 min(-1) (KP1019) and 0.0316+/-0.0018 min(-1) and 0.0935+/-0.0053 min(-1) (KP1339), respectively. The results of this brief study showed that changing from organic to inorganic counter-ion at the stage of formulation could commonly be recommended for improving ruthenium-based drug solubility and bioavailability. PMID:18433763

  4. Optical and relaxometric properties of monometallic (Eu(III), Tb(III), Gd(III)) and heterobimetallic (Re(I)/Gd(III)) systems based on a functionalized bipyridine-containing acyclic ligand.

    PubMed

    Leygue, Nadine; Boulay, Alexandre; Galaup, Chantal; Benoist, Eric; Laurent, Sophie; Vander Elst, Luce; Mestre-Voegtlé, Béatrice; Picard, Claude

    2016-05-17

    A series of lanthanide complexes of [LnL(H2O)](2-) composition where Ln = Eu(III), Tb(III) or Gd(III) has been studied for determining their photophysical and relaxometric properties in aqueous solution. The bifunctional ligand L (H5BPMNTA) is an acyclic chelator based on a central functionalized 2,2'-bipyridine core and two iminodiacetate coordinating arms. The mono-aqua Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes display attractive spectroscopic properties with an excitation wavelength at 316 nm, similar excited state lifetimes and overall quantum yields (in the ranges 0.5-0.6 ms and 10-13%, respectively) in Tris buffer (pH 7.4). The proton longitudinal relaxivity, r1, of the Gd(III) complex is 4.4 mM(-1) s(-1) at 20 MHz and 310 K, which is comparable to that of the clinically used Gd-DTPA (Magnevist®). Interestingly, the water exchange rate between the coordination site and the bulk solvent is very fast (Kex = 2.6 × 10(8) s(-1) at 310 K). The ability of the complex to bind non-covalently to human serum albumin (HSA) was also examined by relaxometric measurements. We also report the synthesis and properties of a bimetallic complex based on Gd-BPMNTA and Re(I)(bpy)(CO)3 components. In this system, the Re core exhibits interesting photophysical properties (λem = 588 nm, Φ = 1.4%) and the Gd-BPMNTA core displays improved relaxivity (r1 = 6.6 mM(-1) s(-1) at 20 MHz and 310 K), due to an increase of the rotational correlation time. Besides these appealing optical and relaxometric properties, the presence of a reactive function on the structure proposes this potential dual imaging probe for conjugation to biomolecules or nanomaterials. PMID:27109253

  5. A clinical study of canine collagen type III glomerulopathy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Collagen type III glomerulopathy (Col3GP), also known as collagenofibrotic glomerulonephropathy, is a rare renal disease with unknown pathogenesis that occurs in animals and humans. We recently described a naturally occurring canine autosomal recessive model of Col3GP, and the aim of the present work was to study the clinical features of canine Col3GP and compare with the human phenotype. In humans two different clinical syndromes with different age at onset (child- or adulthood) have been observed. In children a more aggressive course with familial occurrence is described, characterized by progressively increasing proteinuria, nephrotic syndrome, hypertension and chronic renal failure. A markedly increased serum level of the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) is considered a useful marker for the disease. Since Col3GP and concurrent hypocomplementemia have been observed in humans, we also aimed to investigate if hypocomplementemia was present in Col3GP affected dogs. A litter consisting of seven puppies, four Col3GP affected and three healthy unaffected, was observed from the day of birth until the affected puppies developed a mild or moderate renal azotemia. Results During the period of observation growth retardation, increasing blood pressure, progressive proteinuria, azotemia, hypoalbuminemia, hypercholesterolemia and increased serum PIIINP were observed in all the affected dogs. Hypocomplementemia was not detected. Affected dogs were euthanized between 109 and 144 days of age, and pathological examinations revealed ascites and massive glomerular accumulations of collagen type III, consistent with Col3GP. Conclusions Dogs with Col3GP develop juvenile chronic renal failure, preceded by nephrotic syndrome, elevated serum PIIINP and hypertension, thus have similar clinical features as the juvenile Col3GP in humans. Further studies of this naturally occurring canine phenotype may provide more information on the pathogenesis and

  6. Electrostatic and potential cation-pi forces may guide the interaction of extracellular loop III with Na+ and bile acids for human apical Na+-dependent bile acid transporter.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Antara; Hussainzada, Naissan; Khandelwal, Akash; Swaan, Peter W

    2008-03-01

    The hASBT (human apical Na(+)-dependent bile acid transporter) constitutes a key target of anti-hypercholesterolaemic therapies and pro-drug approaches; physiologically, hASBT actively reclaims bile acids along the terminal ileum via Na(+) co-transport. Previously, TM (transmembrane segment) 7 was identified as part of the putative substrate permeation pathway using SCAM (substitute cysteine accessibility mutagenesis). In the present study, SCAM was extended through EL3 (extracellular loop 3; residues Arg(254)-Val(286)) that leads into TM7 from the exofacial matrix. Activity of most EL3 mutants was significantly hampered upon cysteine substitution, whereas ten (out of 31) were functionally inactive (<10% activity). Since only E282C lacked plasma membrane expression, EL3 amino acids predominantly fulfill critical functional roles during transport. Oppositely charged membrane-impermeant MTS (methanethiosulfonate) reagents {MTSET [(2-trimethylammonium) ethyl MTS] and MTSES [(2-sulfonatoethyl) MTS]} produced mostly similar inhibition profiles wherein only middle and descending loop segments (residues Thr(267)-Val(286)) displayed significant MTS sensitivity. The presence of bile acid substrate significantly reduced the rates of MTS modification for all MTS-sensitive mutants, suggesting a functional association between EL3 residues and bile acids. Activity assessments at equilibrative [Na(+)] revealed numerous Na(+)-sensitive residues, possibly performing auxiliary functions during transport such as transduction of protein conformational changes during translocation. Integration of these data suggests ligand interaction points along EL3 via electrostatic interactions with Arg(256), Glu(261) and probably Glu(282) and a potential cation-pi interaction with Phe(278). We conclude that EL3 amino acids are essential for hASBT activity, probably as primary substrate interaction points using long-range electrostatic attractive forces. PMID:18028035

  7. The gelation mechanism of chromium(III)

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, P.

    1988-05-01

    Chromium(III) is commonly used crosslinker for preparing profile control gels with polymers having carboxylate and amide functionalities. Cr(III) is applied in many forms. For example, it can be used in the form of simple chromic salts of chloride and sulfate, or as complexed Cr(III) used in leather tanning, or as in-situ generated Cr(III) from the redox reaction of dichromate and bisulfite or thiourea. The gelation rate, and gel quality, doped on which form of Cr(III) is used. The author has found that the Cr olates, produced by hydrolysis of Cr(III) ions, are the reactive crosslinking species. The different gelation rates are due to the different degrees of olation. Furthermore, by controlling the degree of hydrolysis Cr(III) derived from various sources mentioned above can exhibit the same gelation rate.

  8. A conserved RNA polymerase III promoter required for gammaherpesvirus TMER transcription and microRNA processing

    PubMed Central

    Diebel, Kevin W.; Claypool, David J.; van Dyk, Linda F.

    2014-01-01

    Canonical RNA polymerase III (pol III) type 2 promoters contain a single A and B box and are well documented for their role in tRNA and SINE transcription in eukaryotic cells. The genome of Murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) contains eight polycistronic tRNA-microRNA encoded RNA (TMER) genes that are transcribed from a RNA pol III type 2-like promoter containing triplicated A box elements. Here, we demonstrate that the triplicated A box sequences are required in their entirety to produce functional MuHV-4 miRNAs. We also identify that these RNA pol III type 2-like promoters are conserved in eukaryotic genomes. Human and mouse predicted tRNA genes containing these promoters also show enrichment of alternative RNA pol III transcription termination sequences and are predicted to give rise to longer tRNA primary transcripts. PMID:24747015

  9. Novel Luminescent Probe Based on a Terbium(III) Complex for Hemoglobin Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yegorova, A. V.; Leonenko, I. I.; Aleksandrova, D. I.; Scrypynets, Yu. V.; Antonovich, V. P.; Ukrainets, I. V.

    2014-09-01

    We have studied the spectral luminescent properties of Tb(III) and Eu(III) complexes with a number of novel derivatives of oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid amides (L1-L5 ). We have observed quenching of the luminescence of 1:1 Tb(III)-L1-5 complexes by hemoglobin (Hb), which is explained by resonance energy transfer of electronic excitation from the donor (Tb(III)-L1-5 ) to the acceptor (Hb). Using the novel luminescent probe Tb(III)-L1, we have developed a method for determining Hb in human blood. The calibration Stern-Volmer plot is linear in the Hb concentration range 0.6-36.0 μg/mL, detection limit 0.2 μg/mL (3·10-9 mol/L).

  10. Titan III-C Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This photograph shows a Titan III-C launch vehicle. Titan vehicles are designed to carry payloads equal to the size and weight of those on the space shuttle. The Titan IV Centaur can put 10,000 pound payloads into geosynchronous orbit, 22,300 miles above Earth. For more information about Titan and Centaur, please see chapters 4 and 8, respectively, in Roger Launius and Dennis Jenkins' book To Reach the High Frontier published by The University Press of Kentucky in 2002.

  11. The Mark III vertex chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, J.; Bolton, T.; Bunnell, K.; Cassell, R.; Cheu, E.; Freese, T.; Grab, C.; Mazaheri, G.; Mir, R.; Odian, A.

    1987-07-01

    The design and construction of the new Mark III vertex chamber is described. Initial tests with cosmic rays prove the ability of track reconstruction and yield triplet resolutions below 50 ..mu..m at 3 atm using argon/ethane (50:50). Also performed are studies using a prototype of a pressurized wire vertex chamber with 8 mm diameter straw geometry. Spatial resolution of 35mm was obtained using dimethyl ether (DME) at 1 atm and 30 ..mu..m using argon/ethane (50/50 mixture) at 4 atm. Preliminary studies indicate the DME to adversely affect such materials as aluminized Mylar and Delrin.

  12. Implementing Title III -- Air toxics

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, B.W.

    1995-12-31

    The South Coast Air Quality Management District (AQMD) is taking three basic approaches to implementing the new National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) from the Title III program: accept and implement, as written, the NESHAPs where few sources are located in the South Coast Air Basin; incorporate with simplification of the NESHAP requirements into AQMD rules when many sources are involved; then seek equivalency by the US EPA; and incorporate with a market-based rule (VOC RECLAIM), part of many NESHAPs which control volatile organic compound as HAPs. Whatever the approach, emphasis will be placed on: streamlining and simplification; helping sources understand requirements and comply; and common sense.

  13. Biological and protein-binding studies of newly synthesized polymer-cobalt(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Vignesh, G; Pradeep, I; Arunachalam, S; Vignesh, S; Arthur James, R; Arun, R; Premkumar, K

    2016-03-01

    The polymer-cobalt(III) complexes, [Co(bpy)(dien)BPEI]Cl3 · 4H2O (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, dien = diethylentriamine, BPEI = branched polyethyleneimine) were synthesized and characterized. The interaction of these complexes with human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated under physiological conditions using various physico-chemical techniques. The results reveal that the fluorescence quenching of serum albumins by polymer-cobalt(III) complexes took place through static quenching. The binding of these complexes changed the molecular conformation of the protein considerably. The polymer-cobalt(III) complex with x = 0.365 shows antimicrobial activity against several human pathogens. This complex also induces cytotoxicity against MCF-7 through apoptotic induction. However, further studies are needed to decipher the molecular mode of action of polymer-cobalt(III) complex and for its possible utilization in anticancer therapy. PMID:26278128

  14. Interaction of Eu(III) with mammalian cells: Cytotoxicity, uptake, and speciation as a function of Eu(III) concentration and nutrient composition.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Susanne; Heller, Anne; Weiss, Stephan; Bok, Frank; Bernhard, Gert

    2015-10-01

    In case of the release of lanthanides and actinides into the environment, knowledge about their behavior in biological systems is necessary to assess and prevent adverse health effects for humans. We investigated the interaction of europium with FaDu cells (human squamous cell carcinoma cell line) combining analytical methods, spectroscopy, and thermodynamic modeling with in-vitro cell experiments under defined conditions. Both the cytotoxicity of Eu(III) onto FaDu cells and its cellular uptake are mainly concentration-dependent. Moreover, they are governed by its chemical speciation in the nutrient medium. In complete cell culture medium, i.e., in the presence of fetal bovine serum, Eu(III) is stabilized in solution in a wide concentration range by complexation with serum proteins resulting in low cytotoxicity and cellular Eu(III) uptake. In serum-free medium, Eu(III) precipitates as hardly soluble phosphate species, exhibiting a significantly higher cytotoxicity and slightly higher cellular uptake. The presence of a tenfold excess of citrate in serum-free medium causes the formation of Eu(HCit)2(3-) complexes in addition to the dominating Eu(III) phosphate species, resulting in a decreased Eu(III) cytotoxicity and cellular uptake. The results of this study underline the crucial role of a metal ion's speciation for its toxicity and bioavailability. PMID:26055652

  15. Zinc in +III oxidation state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Devleena; Jena, Puru

    2012-02-01

    The possibility of Group 12 elements, such as Zn, Cd, and Hg existing in an oxidation state of +III or higher has fascinated chemists for decades. Significant efforts have been made in the past to achieve higher oxidation states for the heavier congener mercury (since the 3^rd ionization potential of the elements decrease as we go down the periodic table). It took nearly 20 years before experiment could confirm the theoretical prediction that Hg indeed can exist in an oxidation state of +IV. While this unusual property of Hg is attributed to the relativistic effects, Zn being much lighter than Hg has not been expected to have an oxidation state higher than +II. Using density functional theory we show that an oxidation state of +III for Zn can be realized by choosing specific ligands with large electron affinities i.e. superhalogens. We demonstrate this by a systematic study of the interaction of Zn with F, BO2, and AuF6 ligands whose electron affinities are progressively higher, namely, 3.4 eV, 4.4 eV, and 8.4 eV, respectively. Discovery of higher oxidation states of elements can help in the formulation of new reactions and hence in the development of new chemistry.

  16. BREATHER (PENTA 16) short-cycle therapy (SCT) (5 days on/2 days off) in young people with chronic human immunodeficiency virus infection: an open, randomised, parallel-group Phase II/III trial.

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Karina; Inshaw, Jamie; Ford, Deborah; Bernays, Sarah; Scott, Karen; Kenny, Julia; Klein, Nigel; Turkova, Anna; Harper, Lynda; Nastouli, Eleni; Paparini, Sara; Choudhury, Rahela; Rhodes, Tim; Babiker, Abdel; Gibb, Diana

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND For human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adolescents facing lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART), short-cycle therapy (SCT) with long-acting agents offers the potential for drug-free weekends, less toxicity, better adherence and cost savings. OBJECTIVES To determine whether or not efavirenz (EFV)-based ART in short cycles of 5 days on and 2 days off is as efficacious (in maintaining virological suppression) as continuous EFV-based ART (continuous therapy; CT). Secondary objectives included the occurrence of new clinical HIV events or death, changes in immunological status, emergence of HIV drug resistance, drug toxicity and changes in therapy. DESIGN Open, randomised, non-inferiority trial. SETTING Europe, Thailand, Uganda, Argentina and the USA. PARTICIPANTS Young people (aged 8-24 years) on EFV plus two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and with a HIV-1 ribonucleic acid level [viral load (VL)] of < 50 copies/ml for > 12 months. INTERVENTIONS Young people were randomised to continue daily ART (CT) or change to SCT (5 days on, 2 days off ART). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Follow-up was for a minimum of 48 weeks (0, 4 and 12 weeks and then 12-weekly visits). The primary outcome was the difference between arms in the proportion with VL > 50 copies/ml (confirmed) by 48 weeks, estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method (12% non-inferiority margin) adjusted for region and age. RESULTS In total, 199 young people (11 countries) were randomised (n = 99 SCT group, n = 100 CT group) and followed for a median of 86 weeks. Overall, 53% were male; the median age was 14 years (21% ≥ 18 years); 13% were from the UK, 56% were black, 19% were Asian and 21% were Caucasian; and the median CD4% and CD4 count were 34% and 735 cells/mm(3), respectively. By week 48, only one participant (CT) was lost to follow-up. The SCT arm had a 27% decreased drug exposure as measured by the adherence questionnaire and a MEMSCap(™) Medication Event

  17. Fibrates downregulate apolipoprotein C-III expression independent of induction of peroxisomal acyl coenzyme A oxidase. A potential mechanism for the hypolipidemic action of fibrates.

    PubMed Central

    Staels, B; Vu-Dac, N; Kosykh, V A; Saladin, R; Fruchart, J C; Dallongeville, J; Auwerx, J

    1995-01-01

    Epidemiological and transgenic animal studies have implicated apo C-III as a major determinant of plasma triglyceride metabolism. Since fibrates are very efficient in lowering triglycerides, it was investigated whether fibrates regulate apo C-III gene expression. Different fibrates lowered rat liver apo C-III mRNA levels up to 90% in a dose- and time-dependent manner, whereas intestinal apo C-III mRNA remained constant. This decrease in liver apo C-III mRNA was rapid (1 d) and reversible, since it was restored to control levels within 1 wk after cessation of treatment. In addition, fenofibrate treatment abolished the developmental rise of hepatic apo C-III mRNA observed during the suckling-weaning period. Administration of fibrates to rats induced liver and intestinal expression of the acyl CoA oxidase gene, the rate-limiting enzyme for peroxisomal beta-oxidation of fatty acids. In primary cultures of rat and human hepatocytes, fenofibric acid lowered apo C-III mRNA in a time- and dose-dependent manner. This reduction in apo C-III mRNA levels was accompanied by a decreased secretion of apo C-III in the culture medium of human hepatocytes. In rat hepatocytes fenofibric acid induced acyl CoA oxidase gene expression, whereas acyl CoA oxidase mRNA remained unchanged in human hepatocytes. Nuclear run-on and transient transfection experiments of a reporter construct driven by the human apo C-III gene promoter indicated that fibrates downregulate apo C-III gene expression at the transcriptional level. In conclusion, these studies demonstrate that fibrates decrease rat and human liver apo C-III gene expression. In humans the mechanisms appears to be independent of the induction of peroxisomal enzymes. This downregulation of liver apo C-III gene expression by fibrates may contribute to the hypotriglyceridemic action of these drugs. Images PMID:7860752

  18. Close association of RNA polymerase II and many transcription factors with Pol III genes.

    PubMed

    Raha, Debasish; Wang, Zhong; Moqtaderi, Zarmik; Wu, Linfeng; Zhong, Guoneng; Gerstein, Mark; Struhl, Kevin; Snyder, Michael

    2010-02-23

    Transcription of the eukaryotic genomes is carried out by three distinct RNA polymerases I, II, and III, whereby each polymerase is thought to independently transcribe a distinct set of genes. To investigate a possible relationship of RNA polymerases II and III, we mapped their in vivo binding sites throughout the human genome by using ChIP-Seq in two different cell lines, GM12878 and K562 cells. Pol III was found to bind near many known genes as well as several previously unidentified target genes. RNA-Seq studies indicate that a majority of the bound genes are expressed, although a subset are not suggestive of stalling by RNA polymerase III. Pol II was found to bind near many known Pol III genes, including tRNA, U6, HVG, hY, 7SK and previously unidentified Pol III target genes. Similarly, in vivo binding studies also reveal that a number of transcription factors normally associated with Pol II transcription, including c-Fos, c-Jun and c-Myc, also tightly associate with most Pol III-transcribed genes. Inhibition of Pol II activity using alpha-amanitin reduced expression of a number of Pol III genes (e.g., U6, hY, HVG), suggesting that Pol II plays an important role in regulating their transcription. These results indicate that, contrary to previous expectations, polymerases can often work with one another to globally coordinate gene expression. PMID:20139302

  19. DOE/NNSA perspective safeguard by design: GEN III/III+ light water reactors and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Paul Y

    2010-12-10

    An overview of key issues relevant to safeguards by design (SBD) for GEN III/IV nuclear reactors is provided. Lessons learned from construction of typical GEN III+ water reactors with respect to SBD are highlighted. Details of SBD for safeguards guidance development for GEN III/III+ light water reactors are developed and reported. This paper also identifies technical challenges to extend SBD including proliferation resistance methodologies to other GEN III/III+ reactors (except HWRs) and GEN IV reactors because of their immaturity in designs.

  20. Dens invaginatus (Type III B)

    PubMed Central

    Kallianpur, Shreenivas; Sudheendra, US; Kasetty, Sowmya; Joshi, Prathamesh

    2012-01-01

    Dens invaginatus or ‘dens in dente’ is a developmental malformation of the tooth resulting from infolding of the dental papilla before calcification. This article presents a case of dens invaginatus occurring in maxillary right lateral incisor of a 45-year-old male patient. The patient presented with pain and clinically missing maxillary right canine. The tooth was found to be non-vital. Radiographic examination revealed the tooth-in-tooth appearance of lateral incisor with a dilated pulp chamber. The crown of impacted canine was found within the pulp chamber of lateral incisor. Owing to this unique clinical presentation, both the lateral incisor and the impacted canine were extracted. Histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of Dens invaginatus Type III B. A brief review on etiopathogenesis, radiographic features and treatment of dens invaginatus has also been included. PMID:22923901

  1. Molecular genetic investigations on Austria's patron saint Leopold III

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Christiane Maria; Bodner, Martin; Niederstätter, Harald; Niederwieser, Daniela; Huber, Gabriela; Hatzer-Grubwieser, Petra; Holubar, Karl; Parson, Walther

    2013-01-01

    The successful marriage policy of margrave Leopold III increased the importance of the House of Babenberg in late medieval Austria (12th century). Historical documentation is inconclusive in providing evidence whether or not his eldest son Adalbert derived from an earlier relationship or from the marriage with King Henry IV's daughter Agnes of Waiblingen, with whom Leopold is considered to have had 17 children. As a matter of fact Adalbert was ignored in the line of succession in favor of a younger brother, Leopold IV, which has led to long term historical discussions. Human remains attributed to these individuals were subjected to DNA analysis. Autosomal, Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA analyses brought successful results, which suggested that Leopold III, Agnes and Adalbert were related in parent–son constellation, in contrast to historical considerations. A possible mix-up of Adalbert's remains with those of his younger brother Ernst could not be confirmed by DNA analysis. PMID:23142176

  2. Molecular genetic investigations on Austria's patron saint Leopold III.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Christiane Maria; Bodner, Martin; Niederstätter, Harald; Niederwieser, Daniela; Huber, Gabriela; Hatzer-Grubwieser, Petra; Holubar, Karl; Parson, Walther

    2013-02-01

    The successful marriage policy of margrave Leopold III increased the importance of the House of Babenberg in late medieval Austria (12th century). Historical documentation is inconclusive in providing evidence whether or not his eldest son Adalbert derived from an earlier relationship or from the marriage with King Henry IV's daughter Agnes of Waiblingen, with whom Leopold is considered to have had 17 children. As a matter of fact Adalbert was ignored in the line of succession in favor of a younger brother, Leopold IV, which has led to long term historical discussions. Human remains attributed to these individuals were subjected to DNA analysis. Autosomal, Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA analyses brought successful results, which suggested that Leopold III, Agnes and Adalbert were related in parent-son constellation, in contrast to historical considerations. A possible mix-up of Adalbert's remains with those of his younger brother Ernst could not be confirmed by DNA analysis. PMID:23142176

  3. Comparative adsorption of Eu(III) and Am(III) on TPD.

    PubMed

    Fan, Q H; Zhao, X L; Ma, X X; Yang, Y B; Wu, W S; Zheng, G D; Wang, D L

    2015-09-01

    Comparative adsorption behaviors of Eu(III) and Am(III) on thorium phosphate diphosphate (TPD), i.e., Th4(PO4)4P2O7, have been studied using a batch approach and surface complexation model (SCM) in this study. The results showed that Eu(III) and Am(III) adsorption increased to a large extent with the increase in TPD dose. Strong pH-dependence was observed in both Eu(III) and Am(III) adsorption processes, suggesting that inner-sphere complexes (ISCs) were possibly responsible for the adsorption of Eu(III) and Am(III). Meanwhile, the adsorption of Eu(III) and Am(III) decreased to a different extent with the increase in ion strength, which was possibly related to outer-sphere complexes and/or ion exchange. In the presence of fulvic acid (FA), the adsorption of Eu(III) and Am(III) showed high enhancement mainly due to the ternary surface complexes of TPD-FA-Eu(3+) and TPD-FA-Am(3+). The SCM showed that one ion exchange (≡S3Am/Eu) and two ISCs (≡(XO)2Am/EuNO3 and ≡(YO)2Am/EuNO3) seemed more reasonable to quantitatively describe the adsorption edges of both Eu(III) and Am(III). Our findings obviously showed that Eu(III) could be a good analogue to study actinide behaviors in practical terms. However, it should be kept in mind that there are still obvious differences between the characteristics of Eu(III) and Am(III) in some special cases, for instance, the complex ability with organic matter and adsorption affinity to a solid surface. PMID:26198355

  4. Characterization of ribonuclease III from Brucella.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chang-Xian; Xu, Xian-Jin; Zheng, Ke; Liu, Fang; Yang, Xu-Dong; Chen, Chuang-Fu; Chen, Huan-Chun; Liu, Zheng-Fei

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial ribonuclease III (RNase III) is a highly conserved endonuclease, which plays pivotal roles in RNA maturation and decay pathways by cleaving double-stranded structure of RNAs. Here we cloned rncS gene from the genomic DNA of Brucella melitensis, and analyzed the cleavage properties of RNase III from Brucella. We identified Brucella-encoding small RNA (sRNA) by high-throughput sequencing and northern blot, and found that sRNA of Brucella and Homo miRNA precursor (pre-miRNA) can be bound and cleaved by B.melitensis ribonuclease III (Bm-RNase III). Cleavage activity of Bm-RNase III is bivalent metal cations- and alkaline buffer-dependent. We constructed several point mutations in Bm-RNase III, whose cleavage activity indicated that the 133th Glutamic acid residue was required for catalytic activity. Western blot revealed that Bm-RNase III was differently expressed in Brucella virulence strain 027 and vaccine strain M5-90. Collectively, our data suggest that Brucella RNase III can efficiently bind and cleave stem-loop structure of small RNA, and might participate in regulation of virulence in Brucella. PMID:26778206

  5. Space Phase III - The commercial era dawns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allnutt, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    After the 'Phase I' of space activities, the period bounded by Sputnik and Apollo, 'Phase II', has been entered, a phase in which concerns over the use and the protection of space assets which support national security predominate. However, it is only when the commercial motive becomes prominent that human activity in new regions truly prospers and enters periods of exponential growth. It is believed that there are increasing signs that such a period, called 'Space Phase III', may be coming soon. A description is presented of developments and results upon which this conclusion is based. Since 1980, there have been three developments of great importance for the future of space activities. Six highly successful flights have demonstrated that the Space Shuttle concept works. A series of Soviet missions are related to the emergence of a capability to construct and service modular space stations. Successful tests of the European Ariane 1 indicate an end to U.S. monopoly with respect to the provision of launch services to the Western World.

  6. Human Protothecosis

    PubMed Central

    Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Mayr, Astrid

    2007-01-01

    Human protothecosis is a rare infection caused by members of the genus Prototheca. Prototheca species are generally considered to be achlorophyllic algae and are ubiquitous in nature. The occurrence of protothecosis can be local or disseminated and acute or chronic, with the latter being more common. Diseases have been classified as (i) cutaneous lesions, (ii) olecranon bursitis, or (iii) disseminated or systemic manifestations. Infections can occur in both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients, although more severe and disseminated infections tend to occur in immunocompromised individuals. Prototheca wickerhamii and Prototheca zopfii have been associated with human disease. Usually, treatment involves medical and surgical approaches; treatment failure is not uncommon. Antifungals such as ketoconazole, itraconazole, fluconazole, and amphotericin B are the most commonly used drugs to date. Among them, amphotericin B displays the best activity against Prototheca spp. Diagnosis is largely made upon detection of characteristic structures observed on histopathologic examination of tissue. PMID:17428884

  7. The tumor proteasome as a novel target for gold(III) complexes: implications for breast cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Milacic, Vesna; Dou, Q. Ping

    2009-01-01

    Although cisplatin plays a vital role in the treatment of several types of human cancer, its wide use is limited by the development of drug resistance and associated toxic side effects. Gold and gold complexes have been used to treat a wide range of ailments for many centuries. In recent years, the use of gold(III) complexes as an alternative to cisplatin treatment was proposed due to the similarities of gold and platinum. Gold(III) is isoelectronic with platinum(II) and gold(III) complexes have the same square-planar geometries as platinum(II) complexes, such as cisplatin. Although it was originally thought that gold(III) complexes might have the same molecular target as cisplatin, several lines of data indicated that proteins, rather than DNA, are targeted by gold complexes. We have recently evaluated cytotoxic and anti-cancer effects of several gold(III) dithiocarbamates against human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We have identified the tumor proteasome as an important target for gold(III) complexes and have shown that proteasome inhibition by gold(III) complexes is associated with apoptosis induction in breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, treatment of human breast tumor-bearing nude mice with a gold(III) dithiocarbamate complex was associated with tumor growth inhibition, supporting the significance of its potential development for breast cancer treatment. PMID:20047011

  8. Plants and Photosynthesis: Level III, Unit 3, Lesson 1; The Human Digestive System: Lesson 2; Functions of the Blood: Lesson 3; Human Circulation and Respiration: Lesson 4; Reproduction of a Single Cell: Lesson 5; Reproduction by Male and Female Cells: Lesson 6; The Human Reproductive System: Lesson 7; Genetics and Heredity: Lesson 8; The Nervous System: Lesson 9; The Glandular System: Lesson 10. Advanced General Education Program. A High School Self-Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.

    This self-study program for the high-school level contains lessons in the following subjects: Plants and Photosynthesis; The Human Digestive System; Functions of the Blood; Human Circulation and Respiration; Reproduction of a Single Cell; Reproduction by Male and Female Cells; The Human Reproductive System; Genetics and Heredity; The Nervous…

  9. A direct thrombin inhibitor suppresses protein C activation and factor Va degradation in human plasma: Possible mechanisms of paradoxical enhancement of thrombin generation.

    PubMed

    Kamisato, Chikako; Furugohri, Taketoshi; Morishima, Yoshiyuki

    2016-05-01

    We have demonstrated that antithrombin (AT)-independent thrombin inhibitors paradoxically increase thrombin generation (TG) in human plasma in a thrombomodulin (TM)- and protein C (PC)-dependent manner. We determined the effects of AT-independent thrombin inhibitors on the negative-feedback system, activation of PC and production and degradation of factor Va (FVa), as possible mechanisms underlying the paradoxical enhancement of TG. TG in human plasma containing 10nM TM was assayed by means of the calibrated automated thrombography. As an index of PC activation, plasma concentration of activated PC-PC inhibitor complex (aPC-PCI) was measured. The amounts of FVa heavy chain and its degradation product (FVa(307-506)) were examined by western blotting. AT-independent thrombin inhibitors, melagatran and dabigatran (both at 25-600nM) and 3-30μg/ml active site-blocked thrombin (IIai), increased peak levels of TG. Melagatran, dabigatran and IIai significantly decreased plasma concentration of aPC-PCI complex at 25nM or more, 75nM or more, and 10 and 30μg/ml, respectively. Melagatran (300nM) significantly increased FVa and decreased FVa(307-506). In contrast, a direct factor Xa inhibitor edoxaban preferentially inhibited thrombin generation (≥25nM), and higher concentrations were required to inhibit PC activation (≥150nM) and FVa degradation (300nM). The present study suggests that the inhibitions of protein C activation and subsequent degradation of FVa and increase in FVa by antithrombin-independent thrombin inhibitors may contribute to the paradoxical TG enhancement, and edoxaban may inhibit PC activation and FVa degradation as a result of TG suppression. PMID:26974491

  10. Regulation of the innate immune response by fibronectin: synergism between the III-1 and EDA domains.

    PubMed

    Kelsh, Rhiannon; You, Ran; Horzempa, Carol; Zheng, Mingzhe; McKeown-Longo, Paula J

    2014-01-01

    Fibronectin is a critical component of the extracellular matrix and alterations to its structure will influence cellular behavior. Matrix fibronectin is subjected to both mechanical and biochemical regulation. The Type III domains of fibronectin can be unfolded in response to increased cellular contractility, included or excluded from the molecule by alternative splicing mechanisms, or released from the matrix by proteolysis. Using Inflammatory Cytokine microarrays we found that the alternatively spliced fibronectin Type III domain, FnEDA, and the partially unfolded III-1 domain, FnIII-1c, induced the expression of a multitude of pro-inflammatory cytokines in human dermal fibroblasts, most notably CXCL1-3, IL-8 and TNF-α. FnIII-1c, a peptide representing an unfolded intermediate structure of the first Type III domain has been shown to initiate the toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4)-NFκB-dependent release of cytokines from human dermal fibroblasts (You, et al., J. Biol. Chem., 2010). Here we demonstrate that FnIII-1c and the alternatively spliced FnEDA domain induce a TLR4 dependent activation of p38 MAP kinase and its downstream effector, MAPKAP Kinase-2 (MK-2), to regulate cytokine expression in fibroblasts. RT-qPCR analysis indicated that the p38-MK-2 pathway regulates IL-8 mRNA stability. Interestingly, addition of FnIII-1c and FnEDA synergistically enhanced TLR4-dependent IL-8 release. These data indicate that Fn contains two Type III domains which can activate TLR signaling to induce an inflammatory response in fibroblasts. Furthermore, our data identifies the NF-κB and p38/MK2 signaling pathways as transducers of signals initiated in response to structural changes in fibronectin. PMID:25051083

  11. Regulation of the Innate Immune Response by Fibronectin: Synergism between the III-1 and EDA Domains

    PubMed Central

    Kelsh, Rhiannon; You, Ran; Horzempa, Carol; Zheng, Mingzhe; McKeown-Longo, Paula J.

    2014-01-01

    Fibronectin is a critical component of the extracellular matrix and alterations to its structure will influence cellular behavior. Matrix fibronectin is subjected to both mechanical and biochemical regulation. The Type III domains of fibronectin can be unfolded in response to increased cellular contractility, included or excluded from the molecule by alternative splicing mechanisms, or released from the matrix by proteolysis. Using Inflammatory Cytokine microarrays we found that the alternatively spliced fibronectin Type III domain, FnEDA, and the partially unfolded III-1 domain, FnIII-1c, induced the expression of a multitude of pro-inflammatory cytokines in human dermal fibroblasts, most notably CXCL1-3, IL-8 and TNF-α. FnIII-1c, a peptide representing an unfolded intermediate structure of the first Type III domain has been shown to initiate the toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4)-NFκB-dependent release of cytokines from human dermal fibroblasts (You, et al., J. Biol. Chem., 2010). Here we demonstrate that FnIII-1c and the alternatively spliced FnEDA domain induce a TLR4 dependent activation of p38 MAP kinase and its downstream effector, MAPKAP Kinase-2 (MK-2), to regulate cytokine expression in fibroblasts. RT-qPCR analysis indicated that the p38-MK-2 pathway regulates IL-8 mRNA stability. Interestingly, addition of FnIII-1c and FnEDA synergistically enhanced TLR4-dependent IL-8 release. These data indicate that Fn contains two Type III domains which can activate TLR signaling to induce an inflammatory response in fibroblasts. Furthermore, our data identifies the NF-κB and p38/MK2 signaling pathways as transducers of signals initiated in response to structural changes in fibronectin. PMID:25051083

  12. EXPOSURE OF HUMANS TO VOLATILE ORGANIC MIXTURE. III. INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A set of symptoms has been described during the past two decades which has been called the "sick building syndrome." hese symptoms include eye, nose, and throat irritation; headache; mental fatigue; and respiratory distress. t is likely that volatile organic compounds (VOC) prese...

  13. Mechanisms of Sb(III) Photooxidation by the Excitation of Organic Fe(III) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Kong, Linghao; He, Mengchang

    2016-07-01

    Organic Fe(III) complexes are widely distributed in the aqueous environment, which can efficiently generate free radicals under light illumination, playing a significant role in heavy metal speciation. However, the potential importance of the photooxidation of Sb(III) by organic Fe(III) complexes remains unclear. Therefore, the photooxidation mechanisms of Sb(III) were comprehensively investigated in Fe(III)-oxalate, Fe(III)-citrate and Fe(III)-fulvic acid (FA) solutions by kinetic measurements and modeling. Rapid photooxidation of Sb(III) was observed in an Fe(III)-oxalate solution over the pH range of 3 to 7. The addition of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) as an ·OH scavenger quenched the Sb(III) oxidation, suggesting that ·OH is an important oxidant for Sb(III). However, the incomplete quenching of Sb(III) oxidation indicated the existence of other oxidants, presumably an Fe(IV) species in irradiated Fe(III)-oxalate solution. In acidic solutions, ·OH may be formed by the reaction of Fe(II)(C2O4) with H2O2, but a hypothetical Fe(IV) species may be generated by the reaction of Fe(II)(C2O4)2(2-) with H2O2 at higher pH. Kinetic modeling provides a quantitative explanation of the results. Evidence for the existence of ·OH and hypothetical Fe(IV) was also observed in an irradiated Fe(III)-citrate and Fe(III)-FA system. This study demonstrated an important pathway of Sb(III) oxidation in surface waters. PMID:27267512

  14. Organoantimony(III)-Containing Tungstoarsenates(III): From Controlled Assembly to Biological Activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng; Bassil, Bassem S; Lin, Zhengguo; Haider, Ali; Alfaro-Espinoza, Gabriela; Ullrich, Matthias S; Silvestru, Cristian; Kortz, Ulrich

    2015-10-26

    A family of three sandwich-type, phenylantimony(III)-containing tungstoarsenates(III), [(PhSb(III) ){Na(H2 O)}As(III) 2 W19 O67 (H2 O)](11-) (1), [(PhSb(III) )2 As(III) 2 W19 O67 (H2 O)](10-) (2), and [(PhSb(III) )3 (B-α-As(III) W9 O33 )2 ](12-) (3), have been synthesized by one-pot procedures and isolated as hydrated alkali metal salts, Cs3 K3.5 Na4.5 [(PhSb(III) ){Na(H2 O)}As(III) 2 W19 O67 (H2 O)]⋅41H2 O (CsKNa-1), Cs4.5 K5.5 [(PhSb(III) )2 As(III) 2 W19 O67 (H2 O)]⋅35H2 O (CsK-2), and Cs4.5 Na7.5 [(PhSb(III) )3 (B-α-As(III) W9 O33 )2 ]⋅42H2 O (CsNa-3). The number of incorporated {PhSb(III) } units could be selectively tuned from one to three by careful control of the reaction parameters. The three compounds were characterized in the solid state by single-crystal XRD, IR spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The aqueous solution stability of sandwich polyanions 1-3 was also studied by multinuclear ((1) H, (13) C, (183) W) NMR spectroscopy. Effective inhibitory activity against six different kinds of bacteria was identified for all three polyanions, for which the activity increased with the number of incorporated {PhSb(III) } groups. PMID:26368119

  15. Grant Administration Manual for Title III Coordinators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathis, Emily Duncan; Ashmore, Frances W.

    Guidelines for coordinators of programs under Title III of the Higher Education Act of 1965 are presented, based on a national survey of Title III program coordinators. The responsibilities of the coordinator and information on administering the Strengthening Developing Institutions Program (SDIP) grant are covered. The program can either be a…

  16. Preparation of III-V semiconductor nanocrystals

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A.P.; Olshavsky, M.A.

    1996-04-09

    Nanometer-scale crystals of III-V semiconductors are disclosed. They are prepared by reacting a group III metal source with a group V anion source in a liquid phase at elevated temperature in the presence of a crystallite growth terminator such as pyridine or quinoline. 4 figs.

  17. Synthesis, spectroscopic and antimicrobial studies of La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) Metformin HCl chelates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refat, Moamen S.; Al-Azab, Fathi M.; Al-Maydama, Hussein M. A.; Amin, Ragab R.; Jamil, Yasmin M. S.; Kobeasy, Mohamed I.

    2015-05-01

    Metal complexes of Metformin hydrochloride were prepared using La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III). The resulting complexes were discussed and synthesized to serve as potential insulin-mimetic. Some physical properties and analytical data of the four complexes were checked. The elemental analysis shows that La(III), Ce(III) Sm(III) and Y(III) formed complexes with Metformin in 1:3 (metal:MF) molar ratio. All the synthesized complexes are white and possess high melting points. These complexes are soluble in dimethylsulfoxide and dimethylformamide, partially soluble in hot methanol and insoluble in water and some other organic solvents. From the spectroscopic (infrared, UV-vis and florescence), effective magnetic moment and elemental analyses data, the formula structures are suggested. The results obtained suggested that Metformin reacted with metal ions as a bidentate ligand through its two imino groups. The molar conductance measurements proved that the Metformin complexes are slightly electrolytic in nature. The kinetic thermodynamic parameters such as: E∗, ΔH∗, ΔS∗ and ΔG∗ were estimated from the DTG curves. The antibacterial evaluations of the Metformin and their complexes were also performed against some gram positive, negative bacteria as well as fungi.

  18. The case of King Richard III.

    PubMed

    Skrziepietz, A

    2011-11-01

    In this short essay we will discuss the possible diseases of King Richard III according to the descriptions in Shakespeare's plays King Richard III and Henry VI. Furthermore, it is shown that the description of the defeated enemy as physically and mentally deformed is part of a long tradition which has its roots in Ancient Greece. PMID:22089046

  19. Genes, genetics, and Class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Xue, F; Wong, R W K; Rabie, A B M

    2010-05-01

    To present current views that are pertinent to the investigation of the genetic etiology of Class III malocclusion. Class III malocclusion is thought to be a polygenic disorder that results from an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental factors. However, research on family pedigrees has indicated that Class III malocclusion might also be a monogenic dominant phenotype. Recent studies have reported that genes that encode specific growth factors or other signaling molecules are involved in condylar growth under mechanical strain. These genes, which include Indian hedgehog homolog (IHH), parathyroid-hormone like hormone (PTHLH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and variations in their levels of expression play an important role in the etiology of Class III malocclusion. In addition, genome-wide scans have revealed chromosomal loci that are associated with Class III malocclusion. It is likely that chromosomal loci 1p36, 12q23, and 12q13 harbor genes that confer susceptibility to Class III malocclusion. In a case-control association study, we identified erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1 (EPB41) to be a new positional candidate gene that might be involved in susceptibility to mandibular prognathism. Most of the earlier studies on the genetic etiology of Class III malocclusion have focused on the patterns of inheritance of this phenotype. Recent investigations have focused on understanding the genetic variables that affect Class III malocclusion and might provide new approaches to uncovering the genetic etiology of this phenotype. PMID:20477965

  20. Synthesis and in vitro microbial evaluation of La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) metal complexes of vitamin B6 drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refat, Moamen S.; Al-Azab, Fathi M.; Al-Maydama, Hussein M. A.; Amin, Ragab R.; Jamil, Yasmin M. S.

    2014-06-01

    Metal complexes of pyridoxine mono hydrochloride (vitamin B6) are prepared using La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III). The resulting complexes are investigated. Some physical properties, conductivity, analytical data and the composition of the four pyridoxine complexes are discussed. The elemental analysis shows that the formed complexes of La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) with pyridoxine are of 1:2 (metal:PN) molar ratio. All the synthesized complexes are brown in color and possess high melting points. These complexes are partially soluble in hot methanol, dimethylsulfoxide and dimethylformamide and insoluble in water and some other organic solvents. Elemental analysis data, spectroscopic (IR, UV-vis. and florescence), effective magnetic moment in Bohr magnetons and the proton NMR suggest the structures. However, definite particle size is determined by invoking the X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy data. The results obtained suggested that pyridoxine reacted with metal ions as a bidentate ligand through its phenolate oxygen and the oxygen of the adjacent group at the 4‧-position. The molar conductance measurements proved that the pyridoxine complexes are electrolytic in nature. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters such as: Ea, ΔH*, ΔS* and ΔG* were estimated from the DTG curves. The antibacterial evaluation of the pyridoxine and their complexes were also performed against some gram positive, negative bacteria as well as fungi.

  1. Preparation of III-V semiconductor nanocrystals

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Olshavsky, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    Nanometer-scale crystals of III-V semiconductors are disclosed, They are prepared by reacting a group III metal source with a group V anion source in a liquid phase at elevated temperature in the presence of a crystallite growth terminator such as pyridine or quinoline.

  2. FATE OF CHROMIUM (III) IN CHLORINATED WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The oxidation of trivalent chromium, Cr(III), to the more toxic Cr(VI) in chlorinated water is thermodynamically feasible and was the subject of the study. The study found that free available chlorine (FAC) readily converts Cr(III) to Cr(VI) at a rate that is highly dependent upo...

  3. CpG mutations in the reactive site of human C1 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Skriver, K; Radziejewska, E; Silbermann, J A; Donaldson, V H; Bock, S C

    1989-02-25

    C1 inhibitor plays an important role in the regulation of vascular permeability through its ability to inactivate enzymes which release polypeptide kinins. Dysfunctional C1 inhibitor molecules are present in the plasma of affected members of the Da and Ri hereditary angioneurotic edema kindreds. We constructed genomic libraries from Da and Ri patient DNAs which had been cleaved with BclI to generate a fragment containing 21 kilobases of the C1 inhibitor locus. C1 inhibitor gene-containing recombinants originating from mutant Da and Ri alleles were differentiated from those derived from normal alleles by linkage analysis using the intragenic HgiAI restriction fragment length polymorphism. Nucleotide sequencing of the complete protein-coding regions of the mutant alleles identified two different mutations in a CpG dinucleotide corresponding to the first two bases of arginine codon 444. These single base mutations changed the identity of the functionally critical P1 reactive site residue from arginine to cysteine (Da) or histidine (Ri). The additional cysteine residue in C1 inhibitor Da suggests how it is covalently bound to albumin in plasma. The presence of CpG dinucleotides in the codons specifying the P1 arginines of C1 inhibitor and antithrombin III explains the high incidence of histidine and cysteine substitutions observed among dysfunctional mutants of these serine protease inhibitors. PMID:2563376

  4. III-V arsenide-nitride semiconductor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Major, Jo S. (Inventor); Welch, David F. (Inventor); Scifres, Donald R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    III-V arsenide-nitride semiconductor are disclosed. Group III elements are combined with group V elements, including at least nitrogen and arsenic, in concentrations chosen to lattice match commercially available crystalline substrates. Epitaxial growth of these III-V crystals results in direct bandgap materials, which can be used in applications such as light emitting diodes and lasers. Varying the concentrations of the elements in the III-V materials varies the bandgaps, such that materials emitting light spanning the visible spectra, as well as mid-IR and near-UV emitters, can be created. Conversely, such material can be used to create devices that acquire light and convert the light to electricity, for applications such as full color photodetectors and solar energy collectors. The growth of the III-V material can be accomplished by growing thin layers of elements or compounds in sequences that result in the overall lattice match and bandgap desired.

  5. Title III and toxic torts

    SciTech Connect

    Rodnehausen, G.A.

    1989-07-01

    In July the second annual Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) report under Section 313 of Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), and the computerized, national TRI data-base will be issued. Although the Environmental Protection Agency will not be able to aggregate the July, 1989 reports and issue its own annual report until early next year, we can expect political attention to focus quickly on whether total releases to air, land and water, and in particular total emissions to the air, have increased or decreased from 1987 to 1988. Because the reporting threshold for chemical manufacturing and processing facilities will drop from 75,000 to 50,000 pounds per year, the number of facilities reporting and number of chemicals reported should increase significantly, forcing up total releases. Bringing the totals down will be waste and release reduction efforts already underway in the chemical industry and elsewhere, and perhaps improved accuracy in measurement and estimation of releases. Additions to and deletions from the list of reportable chemicals will also have an effect. Nevertheless, any significant increase in aggregate totals, no matter what the explanation, will be bound to have a political impact on air toxics legislation, and spur public concern with the health risks of air pollution.

  6. Standards in neurosonology. Part III

    PubMed Central

    Tomczyk, Tomasz; Luchowski, Piotr; Kozera, Grzegorz; Kaźmierski, Radosław; Stelmasiak, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents standards related to ultrasound imaging of the cerebral vasculature and structures. The aim of this paper is to standardize both the performance and description of ultrasound imaging of the extracranial and intracranial cerebral arteries as well as a study of a specific brain structure, i.e. substantia nigra hyperechogenicity. The following aspects are included in the description of standards for each ultrasonographic method: equipment requirements, patient preparation, study technique and documentation as well as the required elements of ultrasound description. Practical criteria for the diagnosis of certain pathologies in accordance with the latest literature were also presented. Furthermore, additional comments were included in some of the sections. Part I discusses standards for the performance, documentation and description of different ultrasound methods (Duplex, Doppler). Part II and III are devoted to standards for specific clinical situations (vasospasm, monitoring after the acute stage of stroke, detection of a right-to-left shunts, confirmation of the arrest of the cerebral circulation, an assessment of the functional efficiency of circle of Willis, an assessment of the cerebrovascular vasomotor reserve as well as the measurement of substantia nigra hyperechogenicity). PMID:27446600

  7. Doublet III Big Dee Project

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, L.G.; Luxon, J.L.

    1985-05-01

    The Doublet III tokamak is presently being reconfigured into a new larger dee-shaped plasma configuration. Experiments will begin in 1986 with a goal of high current, high beta plasma operation at moderate magnetic field. The existing toroidal field coil, Ohmic heating coil, and innermost plasma shaping coils will be retained. A new water-cooled vacuum vessel is being fabricated using a corrugated Inconel sandwich wall construction. Six new water-cooled copper poloidal field coils are also being fabricated. The resultant device along with additional power supplies will provide a capability for plasma currents of 3.5 MA for 1.5 s during the first phase of operations; the tokamak systems are designed for 5 MA operation with additional power systems. The four existing 80 keV, 3 MW neutral beam lines are being modified for optimum torus access and 0.7 s operation. These injectors will be upgraded to allow 5 s operation with new sources in 1987. The device has been designed to accommodate an additional 20 MW of ICRH and ECH power in the future. Limiters and vessel wall protection will be provided for initial operation with up to 40 MJ of input energy. Future installation of additional thermal armor will allow operation with up to 200 MJ of input energy over a 10 s period. Most of the existing diagnostics will be modified as required and reinstalled on the new vessel.

  8. Standards in neurosonology. Part III.

    PubMed

    Wojczal, Joanna; Tomczyk, Tomasz; Luchowski, Piotr; Kozera, Grzegorz; Kaźmierski, Radosław; Stelmasiak, Zbigniew

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents standards related to ultrasound imaging of the cerebral vasculature and structures. The aim of this paper is to standardize both the performance and description of ultrasound imaging of the extracranial and intracranial cerebral arteries as well as a study of a specific brain structure, i.e. substantia nigra hyperechogenicity. The following aspects are included in the description of standards for each ultrasonographic method: equipment requirements, patient preparation, study technique and documentation as well as the required elements of ultrasound description. Practical criteria for the diagnosis of certain pathologies in accordance with the latest literature were also presented. Furthermore, additional comments were included in some of the sections. Part I discusses standards for the performance, documentation and description of different ultrasound methods (Duplex, Doppler). Part II and III are devoted to standards for specific clinical situations (vasospasm, monitoring after the acute stage of stroke, detection of a right-to-left shunts, confirmation of the arrest of the cerebral circulation, an assessment of the functional efficiency of circle of Willis, an assessment of the cerebrovascular vasomotor reserve as well as the measurement of substantia nigra hyperechogenicity). PMID:27446600

  9. A Child's Brain: Part III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylwester, Robert

    1982-01-01

    This article, the last in a series about the human brain, focuses on the skin and its importance for the brain. Physiological functions of the skin, concerning touch and body protection, are explained, as well as its social role in nonverbal communication. Suggestions for student discussions are given. (PP)

  10. Efficient artificial mineralization route to decontaminate Arsenic(III) polluted water - the Tooeleite Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakar, Arindam; Das, Bidisa; Islam, Samirul; Meneghini, Carlo; de Giudici, Giovanni; Merlini, Marco; Kolen’Ko, Yury V.; Iadecola, Antonella; Aquilanti, Giuliana; Acharya, Somobrata; Ray, Sugata

    2016-05-01

    Increasing exposure to arsenic (As) contaminated ground water is a great threat to humanity. Suitable technology for As immobilization and removal from water, especially for As(III) than As(V), is not available yet. However, it is known that As(III) is more toxic than As(V) and most groundwater aquifers, particularly the Gangetic basin in India, is alarmingly contaminated with it. In search of a viable solution here, we took a cue from the natural mineralization of Tooeleite, a mineral containing Fe(III) and As(III)ions, grown under acidic condition, in presence of SO42‑ ions. Complying to this natural process, we could grow and separate Tooeleite-like templates from Fe(III) and As(III) containing water at overall circumneutral pH and in absence of SO42‑ ions by using highly polar Zn-only ends of wurtzite ZnS nanorods as insoluble nano-acidic-surfaces. The central idea here is to exploit these insoluble nano-acidic-surfaces (called as INAS in the manuscript) as nucleation centres for Tooeleite growth while keeping the overall pH of the aqueous media neutral. Therefore, we propose a novel method of artificial mineralization of As(III) by mimicking a natural process at nanoscale.

  11. Efficient artificial mineralization route to decontaminate Arsenic(III) polluted water - the Tooeleite Way

    PubMed Central

    Malakar, Arindam; Das, Bidisa; Islam, Samirul; Meneghini, Carlo; De Giudici, Giovanni; Merlini, Marco; Kolen’ko, Yury V.; Iadecola, Antonella; Aquilanti, Giuliana; Acharya, Somobrata; Ray, Sugata

    2016-01-01

    Increasing exposure to arsenic (As) contaminated ground water is a great threat to humanity. Suitable technology for As immobilization and removal from water, especially for As(III) than As(V), is not available yet. However, it is known that As(III) is more toxic than As(V) and most groundwater aquifers, particularly the Gangetic basin in India, is alarmingly contaminated with it. In search of a viable solution here, we took a cue from the natural mineralization of Tooeleite, a mineral containing Fe(III) and As(III)ions, grown under acidic condition, in presence of SO42− ions. Complying to this natural process, we could grow and separate Tooeleite-like templates from Fe(III) and As(III) containing water at overall circumneutral pH and in absence of SO42− ions by using highly polar Zn-only ends of wurtzite ZnS nanorods as insoluble nano-acidic-surfaces. The central idea here is to exploit these insoluble nano-acidic-surfaces (called as INAS in the manuscript) as nucleation centres for Tooeleite growth while keeping the overall pH of the aqueous media neutral. Therefore, we propose a novel method of artificial mineralization of As(III) by mimicking a natural process at nanoscale. PMID:27189251

  12. Efficient artificial mineralization route to decontaminate Arsenic(III) polluted water - the Tooeleite Way.

    PubMed

    Malakar, Arindam; Das, Bidisa; Islam, Samirul; Meneghini, Carlo; De Giudici, Giovanni; Merlini, Marco; Kolen'ko, Yury V; Iadecola, Antonella; Aquilanti, Giuliana; Acharya, Somobrata; Ray, Sugata

    2016-01-01

    Increasing exposure to arsenic (As) contaminated ground water is a great threat to humanity. Suitable technology for As immobilization and removal from water, especially for As(III) than As(V), is not available yet. However, it is known that As(III) is more toxic than As(V) and most groundwater aquifers, particularly the Gangetic basin in India, is alarmingly contaminated with it. In search of a viable solution here, we took a cue from the natural mineralization of Tooeleite, a mineral containing Fe(III) and As(III)ions, grown under acidic condition, in presence of SO4(2-) ions. Complying to this natural process, we could grow and separate Tooeleite-like templates from Fe(III) and As(III) containing water at overall circumneutral pH and in absence of SO4(2-) ions by using highly polar Zn-only ends of wurtzite ZnS nanorods as insoluble nano-acidic-surfaces. The central idea here is to exploit these insoluble nano-acidic-surfaces (called as INAS in the manuscript) as nucleation centres for Tooeleite growth while keeping the overall pH of the aqueous media neutral. Therefore, we propose a novel method of artificial mineralization of As(III) by mimicking a natural process at nanoscale. PMID:27189251

  13. BRF1 mutations alter RNA polymerase III-dependent transcription and cause neurodevelopmental anomalies.

    PubMed

    Borck, Guntram; Hög, Friederike; Dentici, Maria Lisa; Tan, Perciliz L; Sowada, Nadine; Medeira, Ana; Gueneau, Lucie; Thiele, Holger; Kousi, Maria; Lepri, Francesca; Wenzeck, Larissa; Blumenthal, Ian; Radicioni, Antonio; Schwarzenberg, Tito Livio; Mandriani, Barbara; Fischetto, Rita; Morris-Rosendahl, Deborah J; Altmüller, Janine; Reymond, Alexandre; Nürnberg, Peter; Merla, Giuseppe; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Katsanis, Nicholas; Cramer, Patrick; Kubisch, Christian

    2015-02-01

    RNA polymerase III (Pol III) synthesizes tRNAs and other small noncoding RNAs to regulate protein synthesis. Dysregulation of Pol III transcription has been linked to cancer, and germline mutations in genes encoding Pol III subunits or tRNA processing factors cause neurogenetic disorders in humans, such as hypomyelinating leukodystrophies and pontocerebellar hypoplasia. Here we describe an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cerebellar hypoplasia and intellectual disability, as well as facial dysmorphic features, short stature, microcephaly, and dental anomalies. Whole-exome sequencing revealed biallelic missense alterations of BRF1 in three families. In support of the pathogenic potential of the discovered alleles, suppression or CRISPR-mediated deletion of brf1 in zebrafish embryos recapitulated key neurodevelopmental phenotypes; in vivo complementation showed all four candidate mutations to be pathogenic in an apparent isoform-specific context. BRF1 associates with BDP1 and TBP to form the transcription factor IIIB (TFIIIB), which recruits Pol III to target genes. We show that disease-causing mutations reduce Brf1 occupancy at tRNA target genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and impair cell growth. Moreover, BRF1 mutations reduce Pol III-related transcription activity in vitro. Taken together, our data show that BRF1 mutations that reduce protein activity cause neurodevelopmental anomalies, suggesting that BRF1-mediated Pol III transcription is required for normal cerebellar and cognitive development. PMID:25561519

  14. Class III β-Tubulin Is a Component of the Mitotic Spindle in Multiple Cell Types

    PubMed Central

    Jouhilahti, Eeva-Mari; Peltonen, Sirkku; Peltonen, Juha

    2008-01-01

    The findings of this study show that Class III β-tubulin is a component of the mitotic spindle in multiple cell types. Class III β-tubulin has been widely used as a neuron-specific marker, but it has been detected also in association with breast and pancreatic cancers. In this study, we describe a novel finding of Class III β-tubulin in a subpopulation of cells in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor. The findings of this study also show that Class III β-tubulin is expressed by normal mesenchymal and epithelial cells (fibroblasts and keratinocytes), two transitional cell carcinoma cell lines, and neurofibroma Schwann cells, as shown by immunolabeling and Western transfer analysis using two different Tuj-1 antibodies that are specific for Class III β-tubulin. The corresponding mRNA was detected using RT-PCR and whole human genome microarrays. Both antibodies localized Class III β-tubulin to the mitotic spindle and showed a colocalization with α-tubulin. The immunoreaction became visible in early prophase, and the most intense immunoreaction was detected during metaphase and anaphase when microtubules were connected to the kinetochores on chromosomes. Class III β-tubulin–specific immunoreaction lasted to the point when the midbody of cytokinesis became detectable. (J Histochem Cytochem 56:1113–1119, 2008) PMID:18796406

  15. Large Hexadecametallic {Mn(III) -Ln(III) } Wheels: Synthesis, Structural, Magnetic, and Theoretical Characterization.

    PubMed

    Vignesh, Kuduva R; Langley, Stuart K; Moubaraki, Boujemaa; Murray, Keith S; Rajaraman, Gopalan

    2015-11-01

    The synthesis, gas sorption studies, magnetic properties, and theoretical studies of new molecular wheels of core type {Mn(III) 8 Ln(III) 8 } (Ln=Dy, Ho, Er, Y and Yb), using the ligand mdeaH2 , in the presence of ortho-toluic or benzoic acid are reported. From the seven wheels studied the {Mn8 Dy8 } and {Mn8 Y8 } analogues exhibit SMM behavior as determined from ac susceptibility experiments in a zero static magnetic field. From DFT calculations a S=16 ground state was determined for the {Mn8 Y8 } complex due to weak ferromagnetic Mn(III) -Mn(III) interactions. Ab initio CASSCF+RASSI-SO calculations on the {Mn8 Dy8 } wheel estimated the Mn(III) -Dy(III) exchange interaction as -0.1 cm(-1) . This weak exchange along with unfavorable single-ion anisotropy of Dy(III) /Mn(III) ions, however, led to the observation of SMM behavior with fast magnetic relaxation. The orientation of the g-anisotropy of the Dy(III) ions is found to be perpendicular to the plane of the wheel and this suggests the possibility of toroidal magnetic moments in the cluster. The {Mn8 Ln8 } clusters reported here are the largest heterometallic Mn(III) Ln(III) wheels and the largest {3d-4f} wheels to exhibit SMM behavior reported to date. PMID:26403264

  16. Mechanisms of Eu(III) and Cm(III) Association With Chlorella Vulgaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, T.; Kimura, T.; Ohnuki, T.; Francis, A. J.

    2002-12-01

    Association of Eu(III) and Cm(III) with Chlorella vulgaris and cellulose was studied by a batch method, time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). The kinetics study performed by a batch method showed that the maximum adsorption of Eu(III) and Cm(III) on C. vulgaris was attained within three minutes of contact time, and afterwards the percentage adsorption decreased with time due to exudates released from C. vulgaris with affinity for Eu(III) and Cm(III). TRLFS showed that the short-term adsorption of Eu(III) on C. vulgaris was attributed to their coordination with the cell wall components comprised of cellulose. TRLFS also demonstrated that Eu(III) coordinated with the functional groups of cellulose very weakly in spite of the large distribution coefficients observed. EXAFS analysis showed the local structure around the Eu(III) adsorbed on cellulose and with C. vulgaris was similar. These results indicate that the reactions both at cell surfaces through the adsorption as well as in solution phases through chelation with the exudates are important in estimating the environmental behavior of Eu(III) and Cm(III) in aqueous environments.

  17. Separation studies of As(III), Sb(III) and Bi(III) by reversed-phase paper chromatographic technique

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, B.; Shinde, V.M.

    1987-07-01

    Reversed-phase paper chromatographic separations of As(III), Sb(III) and Bi(III) have been carried out on Whatman No 1 filter paper impregnated with triphenylphosphine oxide as stationary phase and using organic complexing agents such as sodium acetate, sodium succinate and sodium malonate solutions as active mobile phases. Results for the separation of binary and ternary mixtures are reported and the method has been successfully applied to the separation and detection of these elements present in real samples and at ppm level concentration.

  18. Anaerobic mineralization of vinyl chloride in Fe(III)-reducing, aquifer sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1996-01-01

    Within anaerobic aquifer systems, reductive dehalogenation of polychlorinated ethenes commonly results in the accumulation of vinyl chloride, which is highly toxic and carcinogenic to humans. Anaerobic reduction of vinyl chloride is considered to be slow and incomplete. Here, we provide the first evidence for anaerobic oxidation of vinyl chloride under Fe(III)reducing conditions. Addition of chelated Fe(III) (as Fe-EDTA) to anaerobic aquifer microcosms resulted in mineralization of up to 34% of [1,2- 14C]vinyl chloride within 84 h. The results indicate that vinyl chloride can be mineralized under anaerobic, Fe(III)-reducing conditions and that the bioavailability of Fe(III) is an important factor affecting the rates of mineralization.

  19. Rapid photooxidation of Sb(III) in the presence of different Fe(III) species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Linghao; He, Mengchang; Hu, Xingyun

    2016-05-01

    The toxicity and mobility of antimony (Sb) are strongly influenced by the redox processes associated with Sb. Dissolved iron (Fe) is widely distributed in the environment as different species and plays a significant role in Sb speciation. However, the mechanisms of Sb(III) oxidation in the presence of Fe have remained unclear because of the complexity of Fe and Sb speciation. In this study, the mechanisms of Sb(III) photooxidation in the presence of different Fe species were investigated systematically. The photooxidation of Sb(III) occurred over a wide pH range, from 1 to 10. Oxygen was not a predominant or crucial factor in the Sb(III) oxidation process. The mechanism of Sb(III) photooxidation varied depending on the Fe(III) species. In acidic solution (pH 1-3), dichloro radicals (radCl2-) and hydroxyl radicals (radOH) generated by the photocatalysis of FeCl2+ and FeOH2+ were the main oxidants for Sb(III) oxidation. Fe(III) gradually transformed into the colloid ferric hydroxide (CFH) and ferrihydrite in circumneutral and alkaline solutions (pH 4-10). Photooxidation of Sb(III) occurred through electron transfer from Sb(III) to Fe(III) along with the reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II) through a ligand-to-metal charge-transfer (LMCT) process. The photocatalysis of different Fe(III) species may play an important role in the geochemical cycle of Sb(III) in surface soil and aquatic environments.

  20. Neptunium(III) application in extraction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Guérin, Nicolas; Nadeau, Kenny; Larivière, Dominic

    2011-12-15

    This paper describes a novel strategy for actinide separation by extraction chromatography with Np(III) valence adjustment. Neptunium(IV) was reduced to Np(III) using Cr(II) and then selectively separated from uranium (IV) on a TEVA resin. After elution, Np(III) was retained on a DGA resin in order to remove any detrimental chromium impurities. Neptunium(III) formation was demonstrated by the complete and selective elution of Np from TEVA resin (99 ± 7%) in less than 12 mL of 9M HCl from U(IV) (0.7 ± 0.7%). It was determined by UV-visible and kinetic studies that Cr(II) was the only species responsible for the elution of Np(IV) as Np(III) and that the Cr(II) solution could be prepared from 2 to 30 min before its use without the need of complex degassing systems to prevent the oxidation of Np(III) by oxygen. The methodology proposed here with TEVA/DGA resins provides removal of Cr(III) impurities produced at high decontamination factors (2.8 × 10(3) and 7.3 × 10(4) respectively). PMID:22099641

  1. Timely management of developing class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Yelampalli, M R; Rachala, M R

    2012-01-01

    Timing of orthodontic treatment, especially for children with developing class III malocclusions, has always been somewhat controversial, and definitive treatment tends to be delayed for severe class III cases. Developing class III patients with moderate to severe anterior crossbite and deep bite may need early intervention in some selected cases. Class III malocclusion may develop in children as a result of an inherent growth abnormality, i.e. true class III malocclusion, or as a result of premature occlusal contacts causing forward functional shift of the mandible, which is known as pseudo class III malocclusion. These cases, if not treated at the initial stage of development, interfere with normal growth of the jaw bases and may result in severe facial deformities. The treatment should be carried out as early as possible for permitting normal growth of the skeletal bases. This paper deals with the selection of an appropriate appliance from the various current options available for early intervention in developing class III malocclusion through two case reports. PMID:22565523

  2. Photodetectors using III-V nitrides

    DOEpatents

    Moustakas, Theodore D.; Misra, Mira

    1997-01-01

    A photodetector using a III-V nitride and having predetermined electrical properties is disclosed. The photodetector includes a substrate with interdigitated electrodes formed on its surface. The substrate has a sapphire base layer, a buffer layer formed from a III-V nitride and a single crystal III-V nitride film. The three layers are formed by electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (ECR-assisted MBE). Use of the ECR-assisted MBE process allows control and predetermination of the electrical properties of the photodetector.

  3. Photodetectors using III-V nitrides

    DOEpatents

    Moustakas, T.D.; Misra, M.

    1997-10-14

    A photodetector using a III-V nitride and having predetermined electrical properties is disclosed. The photodetector includes a substrate with interdigitated electrodes formed on its surface. The substrate has a sapphire base layer, a buffer layer formed from a III-V nitride and a single crystal III-V nitride film. The three layers are formed by electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (ECR-assisted MBE). Use of the ECR-assisted MBE process allows control and predetermination of the electrical properties of the photodetector. 24 figs.

  4. Erythrocyte Lysis and Xenopus laevis Oocyte Rupture by Recombinant Plasmodium falciparum Hemolysin III

    PubMed Central

    Moonah, Shannon; Sanders, Natalie G.; Persichetti, Jason K.

    2014-01-01

    Malaria kills more than 1 million people per year worldwide, with severe malaria anemia accounting for the majority of the deaths. Malaria anemia is multifactorial in etiology, including infected erythrocyte destruction and decrease in erythrocyte production, as well as destruction or clearance of noninfected erythrocytes. We identified a panspecies Plasmodium hemolysin type III related to bacterial hemolysins. The identification of a hemolysin III homologue in Plasmodium suggests a potential role in host erythrocyte lysis. Here, we report the first characterization of Plasmodium falciparum hemolysin III, showing that the soluble recombinant P. falciparum hemolysin III is a pore-forming protein capable of lysing human erythrocytes in a dose-, time-, and temperature-dependent fashion. The recombinant P. falciparum hemolysin III-induced hemolysis was partially inhibited by glibenclamide, a known channel antagonist. Studies with polyethylene glycol molecules of different molecular weights indicated a pore size of approximately 3.2 nm. Heterologous expression of recombinant P. falciparum hemolysin III in Xenopus oocytes demonstrated early hypotonic lysis similar to that of the pore-forming aquaporin control. Live fluorescence microscopy localized transfected recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged P. falciparum hemolysin III to the essential digestive vacuole of the P. falciparum parasite. These transfected trophozoites also possessed a swollen digestive vacuole phenotype. Native Plasmodium hemolysin III in the digestive vacuole may contribute to lysis of the parasitophorous vacuole membrane derived from the host erythrocyte. After merozoite egress from infected erythrocytes, remnant P. falciparum hemolysin III released from digestive vacuoles could potentially contribute to lysis of uninfected erythrocytes to contribute to severe life-threatening anemia. PMID:25148832

  5. The lipid composition of Legionella dumoffii membrane modulates the interaction with Galleria mellonella apolipophorin III.

    PubMed

    Palusińska-Szysz, Marta; Zdybicka-Barabas, Agnieszka; Reszczyńska, Emilia; Luchowski, Rafał; Kania, Magdalena; Gisch, Nicolas; Waldow, Franziska; Mak, Paweł; Danikiewicz, Witold; Gruszecki, Wiesław I; Cytryńska, Małgorzata

    2016-07-01

    Apolipophorin III (apoLp-III), an insect homologue of human apolipoprotein E (apoE), is a widely used model protein in studies on protein-lipid interactions, and anti-Legionella activity of Galleria mellonella apoLp-III has been documented. Interestingly, exogenous choline-cultured Legionella dumoffii cells are considerably more susceptible to apoLp-III than non-supplemented bacteria. In order to explain these differences, we performed, for the first time, a detailed analysis of L. dumoffii lipids and a comparative lipidomic analysis of membranes of bacteria grown without and in the presence of exogenous choline. (31)P NMR analysis of L. dumoffii phospholipids (PLs) revealed a considerable increase in the phosphatidylcholine (PC) content in bacteria cultured on choline medium and a decrease in the phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) content in approximately the same range. The interactions of G. mellonella apoLp-III with lipid bilayer membranes prepared from PLs extracted from non- and choline-supplemented L. dumoffii cells were examined in detail by means of attenuated total reflection- and linear dichroism-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Furthermore, the kinetics of apoLp-III binding to liposomes formed from L. dumoffii PLs was analysed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy using fluorescently labelled G. mellonella apoLp-III. Our results indicated enhanced binding of apoLp-III to and deeper penetration into lipid membranes formed from PLs extracted from the choline-supplemented bacteria, i.e. characterized by an increased PC/PE ratio. This could explain, at least in part, the higher susceptibility of choline-cultured L. dumoffii to G. mellonella apoLp-III. PMID:27094351

  6. Erythrocyte lysis and Xenopus laevis oocyte rupture by recombinant Plasmodium falciparum hemolysin III.

    PubMed

    Moonah, Shannon; Sanders, Natalie G; Persichetti, Jason K; Sullivan, David J

    2014-10-01

    Malaria kills more than 1 million people per year worldwide, with severe malaria anemia accounting for the majority of the deaths. Malaria anemia is multifactorial in etiology, including infected erythrocyte destruction and decrease in erythrocyte production, as well as destruction or clearance of noninfected erythrocytes. We identified a panspecies Plasmodium hemolysin type III related to bacterial hemolysins. The identification of a hemolysin III homologue in Plasmodium suggests a potential role in host erythrocyte lysis. Here, we report the first characterization of Plasmodium falciparum hemolysin III, showing that the soluble recombinant P. falciparum hemolysin III is a pore-forming protein capable of lysing human erythrocytes in a dose-, time-, and temperature-dependent fashion. The recombinant P. falciparum hemolysin III-induced hemolysis was partially inhibited by glibenclamide, a known channel antagonist. Studies with polyethylene glycol molecules of different molecular weights indicated a pore size of approximately 3.2 nm. Heterologous expression of recombinant P. falciparum hemolysin III in Xenopus oocytes demonstrated early hypotonic lysis similar to that of the pore-forming aquaporin control. Live fluorescence microscopy localized transfected recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged P. falciparum hemolysin III to the essential digestive vacuole of the P. falciparum parasite. These transfected trophozoites also possessed a swollen digestive vacuole phenotype. Native Plasmodium hemolysin III in the digestive vacuole may contribute to lysis of the parasitophorous vacuole membrane derived from the host erythrocyte. After merozoite egress from infected erythrocytes, remnant P. falciparum hemolysin III released from digestive vacuoles could potentially contribute to lysis of uninfected erythrocytes to contribute to severe life-threatening anemia. PMID:25148832

  7. Genetics Home Reference: mucolipidosis III alpha/beta

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions mucolipidosis III alpha/beta mucolipidosis III alpha/beta Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... PDF Open All Close All Description Mucolipidosis III alpha/beta is a slowly progressive disorder that affects ...

  8. Complexation of N4-Tetradentate Ligands with Nd(III) and Am(III)

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, Mark D.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Meier, G. Patrick; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Nash, Kenneth L.

    2012-12-06

    To improve understanding of aza-complexants in trivalent actinide–lanthanide separations, a series of tetradentate N-donor ligands have been synthesized and their complexation of americium(III) and neodymium(III) investigated by UV–visible spectrophotometry in methanolic solutions. The six pyridine/alkyl amine/imine ligands are N,N0-bis(2-methylpyridyl)-1,2-diaminoethane, N,N0-bis(2-methylpyridyl)-1,3-diaminopropane, trans-N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,2-diaminocyclohexane (BPMDAC), N,N’-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)piperazine, N,N’-bis-[pyridin-2-ylmethylene]ethane-1,2-diamine, and trans-N,Nbis-([pyridin-2-ylmethylene]-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine. Each ligand has two pyridine groups and two aliphatic amine/imine N-donor atoms arranged with different degrees of preorganization and structural backbone rigidity. Conditional stability constants for the complexes of Am(III) and Nd(III) by these ligands establish the selectivity patterns. The overall selectivity of Am(III) over Nd(III) is similar to that reported for the terdentate bis(dialkyltriazinyl)pyridine molecules. The cyclohexane amine derivative (BPMDAC) is the strongest complexant and shows the highest selectivity for Am(III) over Nd(III) while the imines appear to prefer a bridging arrangement between two cations. These results suggest that this series of ligands could be employed to develop an enhanced actinide(III)– lanthanide(III) separation system.

  9. Extraction chromatographic separation of Am(III) and Eu(III) by TPEN-immobilized gel

    SciTech Connect

    Takeshita, K.; Ogata, T.; Oaki, H.; Inaba, Y.; Mori, A.; Yaita, T.; Koyama, S.I.

    2013-07-01

    A TPEN derivative with 4 vinyl groups, N,N,N',N' -tetrakis-(4-propenyloxy-2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPPEN) was synthesized for the separation of trivalent minor actinides (Am(III)) and lanthanides (Eu(III)). A co-polymer gel with TPPEN and N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) showed a high separation factor of Am(III) over Eu(III) (SF[Am/Eu]), which was evaluated to be 26 at pH=5. Thin film of NIPA-TPPEN gel (average thickness: 2-40 nm) was immobilized on the pore surface in porous silica particles (particle diameter : 50 μm, average pore diameter : 50 and 300 nm) and a chromatographic column (diameter: 6 mm, height: 11 mm) packed with the gel-coated particles was prepared. A small amount of weakly acidic solution (pH=4) containing Am(III) and Eu(III) was supplied in the column and the elution tests of Am(III) and Eu(III) were carried out. Eu(III) was recovered separately by a weakly acidic eluent (pH=4) at 313 K and Am(III) by a highly acidic eluent (pH=2) at 298 K. These results suggest that the contentious separation of minor actinides and lanthanides is attainable by a new extraction chromatographic process with two columns adjusted to 298 K and 313 K. (authors)

  10. A Novel In vitro Model for Studying the Interactions Between Human Whole Blood and Endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Nordling, Sofia; Nilsson, Bo; Magnusson, Peetra U.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of all known diseases are accompanied by disorders of the cardiovascular system. Studies into the complexity of the interacting pathways activated during cardiovascular pathologies are, however, limited by the lack of robust and physiologically relevant methods. In order to model pathological vascular events we have developed an in vitro assay for studying the interaction between endothelium and whole blood. The assay consists of primary human endothelial cells, which are placed in contact with human whole blood. The method utilizes native blood with no or very little anticoagulant, enabling study of delicate interactions between molecular and cellular components present in a blood vessel. We investigated functionality of the assay by comparing activation of coagulation by different blood volumes incubated with or without human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Whereas a larger blood volume contributed to an increase in the formation of thrombin antithrombin (TAT) complexes, presence of HUVEC resulted in reduced activation of coagulation. Furthermore, we applied image analysis of leukocyte attachment to HUVEC stimulated with tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) and found the presence of CD16+ cells to be significantly higher on TNFα stimulated cells as compared to unstimulated cells after blood contact. In conclusion, the assay may be applied to study vascular pathologies, where interactions between the endothelium and the blood compartment are perturbed. PMID:25489671

  11. Potentiometry: A Chromium (III) -- EDTA Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoppe, J. I.; Howell, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment that involves the preparation of a chromium (III)-EDTA compound, a study of its infrared spectrum, and the potentiometric determination of two successive acid dissociation constants. (Author/GS)

  12. Synthesis, thermal and spectroscopic behaviors of metal-drug complexes: La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) amoxicillin trihydrate antibiotic drug complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refat, Moamen S.; Al-Maydama, Hussein M. A.; Al-Azab, Fathi M.; Amin, Ragab R.; Jamil, Yasmin M. S.

    2014-07-01

    The metal complexes of Amoxicillin trihydrate with La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) are synthesized with 1:1 (metal:Amox) molar ratio. The suggested formula structures of the complexes are based on the results of the elemental analyses, molar conductivity, (infrared, UV-visible and fluorescence) spectra, effective magnetic moment in Bohr magnetons, as well as the thermal analysis (TG), and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results obtained suggested that Amoxicillin reacted with metal ions as tridentate ligands, coordinating the metal ion through its amino, imino, and β-lactamic carbonyl. The kinetic thermodynamic parameters such as: Ea, ΔH*, ΔS* and ΔG* were estimated from the DTG curves.

  13. SAGE III/Meteor - 3M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Full view of the SAGE III Bench Checkout Unit, Collimated Source Bench (CSB), Portable Image Generator (PIG) on tripod, and Stratospheric Aerosol Gastropheric Experiment (SAGE)/Meteor - 3M flight instrument. Photographed in building 1250, 40 foot clean room.

  14. SAGE III/Meteor - 3M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Back view of the SAGE III Bench Checkout Unit, Portable Image Generator (PIG) on tripod, and the Stratospheric Aerosol Gastropheric Experiment (SAGE)/Meteor - 3M flight instrument. Photographed in building 1250, 40 foot clean room.

  15. Sorption of indium (III) onto carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Alguacil, F J; Lopez, F A; Rodriguez, O; Martinez-Ramirez, S; Garcia-Diaz, I

    2016-08-01

    Indium has numerous applications in different industrial sectors and is not an abundant element. Therefore appropriate technology to recover this element from various process wastes is needed. This research reports high adsorption capacity of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) for In(III). The effects of pH, kinetics, isotherms and adsorption mechanism of MWCNT on In(III) adsorption were investigated and discussed in detail. The pH increases improves the adsorption capacity for In(III). The Langmuir adsorption model is the best fit with the experimental data. For the kinetic study, the adsorption onto MWCNT could be fitted to pseudo second-order. The adsorption of indium(III) can be described to a mechanism which consists of a film diffusion controlled process. Metal desorption can be achieved with acidic solutions. PMID:27085001

  16. SAGE III capabilities and global change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. Patrick

    1991-01-01

    The science objectives of the satellite-borne SAGE III are presented as they pertain to detecting global change. SAGE III is the proposed follow on and improved version of SAM II, SAGE I and SAGE II which have measured stratospheric and, in some cases, tropospheric species since late 1978. Specifically, SAGE III will measure profiles of aerosols, ozone, water vapor, nitrogen dioxide and trioxide, neutral density, temperature, clouds, and chlorine dioxide using the solar and lunar occultation techniques. These techniques are inherently self-calibrating, provide high vertical resolution, and use well-behaved data retrievals making them ideal for trend detection and global change studies. The potential capabilities of SAGE III are illustrated by using data and results from SAM II, SAGE I and SAGE II.

  17. SAGE III solar ozone measurements: Initial results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Hsiang-Jui; Cunnold, Derek M.; Trepte, Chip; Thomason, Larry W.; Zawodny, Joseph M.

    2006-01-01

    Results from two retrieval algorithms, o3-aer and o3-mlr , used for SAGE III solar occultation ozone measurements in the stratosphere and upper troposphere are compared. The main differences between these two retrieved (version 3.0) ozone are found at altitudes above 40 km and below 15 km. Compared to correlative measurements, the SAGE II type ozone retrievals (o3-aer) provide better precisions above 40 km and do not induce artificial hemispheric differences in upper stratospheric ozone. The multiple linear regression technique (o3_mlr), however, can yield slightly more accurate ozone (by a few percent) in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere. By using SAGE III (version 3.0) ozone from both algorithms and in their preferred regions, the agreement between SAGE III and correlative measurements is shown to be approx.5% down to 17 km. Below 17 km SAGE III ozone values are systematically higher, by 10% at 13 km, and a small hemispheric difference (a few percent) appears. Compared to SAGE III and HALOE, SAGE II ozone has the best accuracy in the lowest few kilometers of the stratosphere. Estimated precision in SAGE III ozone is about 5% or better between 20 and 40 km and approx.10% at 50 km. The precision below 20 km is difficult to evaluate because of limited coincidences between SAGE III and sondes. SAGE III ozone values are systematically slightly larger (2-3%) than those from SAGE II but the profile shapes are remarkably similar for altitudes above 15 km. There is no evidence of any relative drift or time dependent differences between these two instruments for altitudes above 15-20 km.

  18. The Mark III Hypercube-Ensemble Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John C.; Tuazon, Jesus O.; Lieberman, Don; Pniel, Moshe

    1988-01-01

    Mark III Hypercube concept applied in development of series of increasingly powerful computers. Processor of each node of Mark III Hypercube ensemble is specialized computer containing three subprocessors and shared main memory. Solves problem quickly by simultaneously processing part of problem at each such node and passing combined results to host computer. Disciplines benefitting from speed and memory capacity include astrophysics, geophysics, chemistry, weather, high-energy physics, applied mechanics, image processing, oil exploration, aircraft design, and microcircuit design.

  19. Population III Stars Around the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komiya, Yutaka; Suda, Takuma; Fujimoto, Masayuki Y.

    2016-03-01

    We explore the possibility of observing Population III (Pop III) stars, born of primordial gas. Pop III stars with masses below 0.8 M⊙ should survive to date though are not yet observed, but the existence of stars with low metallicity as [{{Fe}}/{{H}}]\\lt -5 in the Milky Way halo suggests the surface pollution of Pop III stars with accreted metals from the interstellar gas after birth. In this paper, we investigate the runaway of Pop III stars from their host mini-halos, considering the ejection of secondary members from binary systems when their massive primaries explode as supernovae. These stars save them from surface pollution. By computing the star formation and chemical evolution along with the hierarchical structure formation based on the extended Press-Schechter merger trees, we demonstrate that several hundreds to tens of thousands of low-mass Pop III stars escape from the building blocks of the Milky Way. The second and later generations of extremely metal-poor stars also escaped from the mini-halos. We discuss the spatial distributions of these escaped stars by evaluating the distances between the mini-halos in the branches of merger trees under the spherical collapse model of dark matter halos. It is demonstrated that the escaped stars distribute beyond the stellar halo with a density profile close to the dark matter halo, while Pop III stars are slightly more centrally concentrated. 6%-30% of the escaped stars leave the Milky Way and go out into the intergalactic space. Based on the results, we discuss the feasibility of observing the Pop III stars with the pristine surface abundance.

  20. COX7A2L Is a Mitochondrial Complex III Binding Protein that Stabilizes the III2+IV Supercomplex without Affecting Respirasome Formation.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pérez, Rafael; Lobo-Jarne, Teresa; Milenkovic, Dusanka; Mourier, Arnaud; Bratic, Ana; García-Bartolomé, Alberto; Fernández-Vizarra, Erika; Cadenas, Susana; Delmiro, Aitor; García-Consuegra, Inés; Arenas, Joaquín; Martín, Miguel A; Larsson, Nils-Göran; Ugalde, Cristina

    2016-08-30

    Mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) complexes I, III, and IV associate into a variety of supramolecular structures known as supercomplexes and respirasomes. While COX7A2L was originally described as a supercomplex-specific factor responsible for the dynamic association of complex IV into these structures to adapt MRC function to metabolic variations, this role has been disputed. Here, we further examine the functional significance of COX7A2L in the structural organization of the mammalian respiratory chain. As in the mouse, human COX7A2L binds primarily to free mitochondrial complex III and, to a minor extent, to complex IV to specifically promote the stabilization of the III2+IV supercomplex without affecting respirasome formation. Furthermore, COX7A2L does not affect the biogenesis, stabilization, and function of the individual oxidative phosphorylation complexes. These data show that independent regulatory mechanisms for the biogenesis and turnover of different MRC supercomplex structures co-exist. PMID:27545886

  1. Lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) derivatives with dithiocarbamates derived from α-amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Anita; Sengupta, Soumitra K.; Pandey, Om P.

    2006-06-01

    Lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) complexes with dithiocarbamates have been synthesized by the reactions of lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) chloride with barium dithiocarbamate and complexes of type [LnCl(L)H 2O] n have been obtained (where Ln = La(III) or Pr(III); L = barium salt of dithiocarbamate derived from glycine, L-leucine, L-valine, DL-alanine). The complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, electronic absorption and fluorescence, infrared, far infrared, 1H NMR spectral studies. The presence of coordinated water molecule is inferred from thermogravimetric analysis which indicates the loss of one water molecule at 150-170 °C. The oscillator strength, Judd-Ofelt intensity parameter, stimulated emission cross-section, etc. have been obtained for different transitions of Pr 3+.

  2. Gallium(iii) and iron(iii) complexes of quinolone antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Mjos, Katja Dralle; Cawthray, Jacqueline F; Polishchuk, Elena; Abrams, Michael J; Orvig, Chris

    2016-08-16

    Iron is an essential nutrient for many microbes. According to the "Trojan Horse Hypothesis", biological systems have difficulties distinguishing between Fe(3+) and Ga(3+), which constitutes the antimicrobial efficacy of the gallium(iii) ion. Nine novel tris(quinolono)gallium(iii) complexes and their corresponding iron(iii) analogs have been synthesized and fully characterized. Quinolone antimicrobial agents from three drug generations were used in this study: ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, fleroxacin, levofloxacin, lomefloxacin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, oxolinic acid, and pipemidic acid. The antimicrobial efficacy of the tris(quinolono)gallium(iii) complexes was studied against E. faecalis and S. aureus (both Gram-positive), as well as E. coli, K. pneumonia, and P. aeruginosa (all Gram-negative) in direct comparison to the tris(quinolono)iron(iii) complexes and the corresponding free quinolone ligands at various concentrations. For the tris(quinolono)gallium(iii) complexes, no combinational antimicrobial effects between Ga(3+) and the quinolone antimicrobial agents were observed. PMID:27315225

  3. Level III Apprenticeship in Portugal--Notes on a Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saboga, Ana Rute

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the results of research into how young trainees in the level III apprenticeship system formulate their educational and professional plans, what expectations they have of obtaining socially and professionally recognised qualifications, and in what way enterprises see such training as a strategy for providing human resources…

  4. 75 FR 67054 - Listing of Approved Drug Products Containing Dronabinol in Schedule III

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ...\\ 51 FR 17476 (May 13, 1986). DEA subsequently transferred the FDA-approved Marinol formulation from schedule II to schedule III. 64 FR 35928 (July 2, 1999). Recently, firms have submitted to FDA ANDAs for... Health and Human Services (DHHS) with requests for scientific and medical evaluation and...

  5. Readings in Educational Media Theory and Research; Volume III. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, William H.

    This compilation of readings in educational media and research makes accessible published and unpublished documents relevant to designers and users of educational media. Volume III includes part 6, "Learner Characteristics," and part 7, the "Conditions of Media Use.""Learner Characteristics" relates the nature of human aptitude to instructional…

  6. Challenges and Opportunities of Information Technology in the 90s. Track III: Organization and Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUSE, Boulder, CO.

    Five papers from the 1990 CAUSE conference's Track III, Organization and Personnel are presented. The papers share ways in which professionals are preparing organizationally for the challenges and opportunities of managing information technology in the future, including such subjects as the kinds and availability of human resources that are…

  7. Deficiencies of Natural Anticoagulants, Protein C, Protein S, and Antithrombin

    MedlinePlus

    ... V Leiden . Circulation . 2003 ; 107 : e94 – e97 FREE Full Text 2. ↵ Varga EA , Moll S . Prothrombin 20210 mutation (factor II mutation) . Circulation . 2004 ; 110 : e15 – e18 FREE Full Text CiteULike Delicious Digg Facebook Google+ Mendeley Reddit StumbleUpon ...

  8. Design of Integrated III-Nitride/Non-III-Nitride Tandem Photovoltaic Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Toledo, N. G.; Friedman, D.J.; Farrell, R. M.; Perl, E. E.; Lin, C. T.; Bowers, J. E.; Speck, J. S.; Mishra, U. K.

    2012-03-01

    The integration of III-nitride and non-III-nitride materials for tandem solar cell applications can improve the efficiency of the photovoltaic device due to the added power contributed by the III-nitride top cell to that of high-efficiency multi-junction non-III-nitride solar cells if the device components are properly designed and optimized. The proposed tandem solar cell is comprised of a III-nitride top cell bonded to a non-III-nitride, series-constrained, multi-junction subcell. The top cell is electrically isolated, but optically coupled to the underlying subcell. The use of a III-nitride top cell is potentially beneficial when the top junction of a stand-alone non-III-nitride subcell generates more photocurrent than the limiting current of the non-III-nitride subcell. Light producing this excess current can either be redirected to the III-nitride top cell through high energy photon absorption, redirected to the lower junctions through layer thickness optimization, or a combination of both, resulting in improved total efficiency. When the non-III-nitride cell's top junction is the limiting junction, the minimum power conversion efficiency that the III-nitride top cell must contribute should compensate for the spectrum filtered from the multi-junction subcell for this design to be useful. As the III-nitride absorption edge wavelength, {lambda}{sub N}, increases, the performance of the multi-junction subcell decreases due to spectral filtering. In the most common spectra of interest (AM1.5G, AM1.5 D, and AM0), the technology to grow InGaN cells with {lambda}{sub N}<520 nm is found to be sufficient for III-nitride top cell applications. The external quantum efficiency performance, however, of state-of-the-art InGaN solar cells still needs to be improved. The effects of surface/interface reflections are also presented. The management of these reflection issues determines the feasibility of the integrated III-nitride/non-III-nitride design to improve overall cell

  9. The Course of Life: Psychoanalytic Contributions Toward Understanding Personality Development. Vol. III: Adulthood and the Aging Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenspan, Stanley I., Ed.; Pollock, George H., Ed.

    The volumes that make up "The Course of Life" series represent original contributions from international scientists and clinicians who have produced much current knowledge about the phases of human personality development. The chapters in Volume III discuss adulthood from various perspectives. Contributions cover the continuum of human development…

  10. 21 CFR 176.160 - Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine. 176.160 Section 176.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD...

  11. 21 CFR 176.160 - Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine. 176.160 Section 176.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD...

  12. 21 CFR 176.160 - Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine. 176.160 Section 176.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD...

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype III, Multilocus Sequence Type 283 Strain SG-M1

    PubMed Central

    Mehershahi, Kurosh S.; Hsu, Li Yang; Koh, Tse Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus) is a common commensal strain in the human gastrointestinal tract that can also cause invasive disease in humans and other animals. We report here the complete genome sequence of S. agalactiae SG-M1, a serotype III, multilocus sequence type 283 strain, isolated from a Singaporean patient suffering from meningitis. PMID:26494662

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype III, Multilocus Sequence Type 283 Strain SG-M1.

    PubMed

    Mehershahi, Kurosh S; Hsu, Li Yang; Koh, Tse Hsien; Chen, Swaine L

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus) is a common commensal strain in the human gastrointestinal tract that can also cause invasive disease in humans and other animals. We report here the complete genome sequence of S. agalactiae SG-M1, a serotype III, multilocus sequence type 283 strain, isolated from a Singaporean patient suffering from meningitis. PMID:26494662

  15. Organometallic rhodium(III) and iridium(III) cyclopentadienyl complexes with curcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin co-ligands.

    PubMed

    Pettinari, Riccardo; Marchetti, Fabio; Pettinari, Claudio; Condello, Francesca; Petrini, Agnese; Scopelliti, Rosario; Riedel, Tina; Dyson, Paul J

    2015-12-21

    A series of half-sandwich cyclopentadienyl rhodium(III) and iridium(III) complexes of the type [Cp*M(curc/bdcurc)Cl] and [Cp*M(curc/bdcurc)(PTA)][SO3CF3], in which Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl, curcH = curcumin and bdcurcH = bisdemethoxycurcumin as O^O-chelating ligands, and PTA = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane, is described. The X-ray crystal structures of three of the complexes, i.e. [Cp*Rh(curc)(PTA)][SO3CF3] (5), [Cp*Rh(bdcurc)(PTA)][SO3CF3] (6) and [Cp*Ir(bdcurc)(PTA)][SO3CF3] (8), confirm the expected "piano-stool" geometry. With the exception of 5, the complexes are stable under pseudo-physiological conditions and are moderately cytotoxic to human ovarian carcinoma (A2780 and A2780cisR) cells and also to non-tumorigenic human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells, but lack the cancer cell selectivity observed for related arene ruthenium(II) complexes. PMID:26548708

  16. Satellite III non-coding RNAs show distinct and stress-specific patterns of induction

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, Sonali; Parihar, Rashmi; Ganesh, Subramaniam

    2009-04-24

    The heat shock response in human cells is associated with the transcription of satellite III repeats (SatIII) located in the 9q12 locus. Upon induction, the SatIII transcripts remain associated with the locus and recruit several transcription and splicing factors to form the nuclear stress bodies (nSBs). The nSBs are thought to modulate epigenetic changes during the heat shock response. We demonstrate here that the nSBs are induced by a variety of stressors and show stress-specific patterns of induction. While the transcription factor HSF1 is required for the induction of SatIII locus by the stressors tested, its specific role in the transcriptional process appears to be stress dependent. Our results suggest the existence of multiple transcriptional loci for the SatIII transcripts and that their activation might depend upon the type of stressors. Thus, induction of SatIII transcripts appears to be a generic response to a variety of stress conditions.

  17. Impaired complex III assembly associated with BCS1L gene mutations in isolated mitochondrial encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Vizarra, Erika; Bugiani, Marianna; Goffrini, Paola; Carrara, Franco; Farina, Laura; Procopio, Elena; Donati, Alice; Uziel, Graziella; Ferrero, Iliana; Zeviani, Massimo

    2007-05-15

    We investigated two unrelated children with an isolated defect of mitochondrial complex III activity. The clinical picture was characterized by a progressive encephalopathy featuring early-onset developmental delay, spasticity, seizures, lactic acidosis, brain atrophy and MRI signal changes in the basal ganglia. Both children were compound heterozygotes for novel mutations in the human bc1 synthesis like (BCS1L) gene, which encodes an AAA mitochondrial protein putatively involved in both iron homeostasis and complex III assembly. The pathogenic role of the mutations was confirmed by complementation assays, using a DeltaBcs1 strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By investigating complex III assembly and the structural features of the BCS1L gene product in skeletal muscle, cultured fibroblasts and lymphoblastoid cell lines from our patients, we have demonstrated, for the first time in a mammalian system, that a major function of BCS1L is to promote the maturation of complex III and, more specifically, the incorporation of the Rieske iron-sulfur protein into the nascent complex. Defective BCS1L leads to the formation of a catalytically inactive, structurally unstable complex III. We have also shown that BCS1L is contained within a high-molecular-weight supramolecular complex which is clearly distinct from complex III intermediates. PMID:17403714

  18. Redox Signaling by the RNA Polymerase III TFIIB-Related Factor Brf2

    PubMed Central

    Gouge, Jerome; Satia, Karishma; Guthertz, Nicolas; Widya, Marcella; Thompson, Andrew James; Cousin, Pascal; Dergai, Oleksandr; Hernandez, Nouria; Vannini, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Summary TFIIB-related factor 2 (Brf2) is a member of the family of TFIIB-like core transcription factors. Brf2 recruits RNA polymerase (Pol) III to type III gene-external promoters, including the U6 spliceosomal RNA and selenocysteine tRNA genes. Found only in vertebrates, Brf2 has been linked to tumorigenesis but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We have solved crystal structures of a human Brf2-TBP complex bound to natural promoters, obtaining a detailed view of the molecular interactions occurring at Brf2-dependent Pol III promoters and highlighting the general structural and functional conservation of human Pol II and Pol III pre-initiation complexes. Surprisingly, our structural and functional studies unravel a Brf2 redox-sensing module capable of specifically regulating Pol III transcriptional output in living cells. Furthermore, we establish Brf2 as a central redox-sensing transcription factor involved in the oxidative stress pathway and provide a mechanistic model for Brf2 genetic activation in lung and breast cancer. PMID:26638071

  19. Redox Signaling by the RNA Polymerase III TFIIB-Related Factor Brf2.

    PubMed

    Gouge, Jerome; Satia, Karishma; Guthertz, Nicolas; Widya, Marcella; Thompson, Andrew James; Cousin, Pascal; Dergai, Oleksandr; Hernandez, Nouria; Vannini, Alessandro

    2015-12-01

    TFIIB-related factor 2 (Brf2) is a member of the family of TFIIB-like core transcription factors. Brf2 recruits RNA polymerase (Pol) III to type III gene-external promoters, including the U6 spliceosomal RNA and selenocysteine tRNA genes. Found only in vertebrates, Brf2 has been linked to tumorigenesis but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We have solved crystal structures of a human Brf2-TBP complex bound to natural promoters, obtaining a detailed view of the molecular interactions occurring at Brf2-dependent Pol III promoters and highlighting the general structural and functional conservation of human Pol II and Pol III pre-initiation complexes. Surprisingly, our structural and functional studies unravel a Brf2 redox-sensing module capable of specifically regulating Pol III transcriptional output in living cells. Furthermore, we establish Brf2 as a central redox-sensing transcription factor involved in the oxidative stress pathway and provide a mechanistic model for Brf2 genetic activation in lung and breast cancer. PMID:26638071

  20. Subunit compositions of Arabidopsis RNA polymerases I and III reveal Pol I- and Pol III-specific forms of the AC40 subunit and alternative forms of the C53 subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Ream, Thomas S.; Haag, Jeremy R.; Pontvianne, Frederic; Nicora, Carrie D.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2015-05-02

    Using affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we identified the subunits of Arabidopsis thaliana multisubunit RNA Polymerases I and III (abbreviated as Pol I and Pol III), providing the first description of their physical compositions in plants. AC40 and AC19 subunits are typically common to Pol I (a.k.a. Pol A) and Pol III (a.k.a. Pol C) and are encoded by single genes whose mutation, in humans, is a cause of the craniofacial disorder, Treacher-Collins Syndrome. Surprisingly, A. thaliana, and related species, express two distinct AC40 paralogs, one of which assembles into Pol I and the other of which assembles into Pol III. Changes at eight amino acid positions correlate with this functional divergence of Pol I and Pol III-specific AC40 paralogs. Two genes encode homologs of the yeast C53 subunit, and either variant can assemble into Pol III. By contrast, only one of two potential C17 variants, and one of two potential C31 variants were detected in Pol III. We introduce a new nomenclature system for plant Pol I and Pol III subunits in which the twelve subunits that are structurally and functionally homologous among Pols I through V are assigned equivalent numbers.

  1. Subunit compositions of Arabidopsis RNA polymerases I and III reveal Pol I- and Pol III-specific forms of the AC40 subunit and alternative forms of the C53 subunit

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ream, Thomas S.; Haag, Jeremy R.; Pontvianne, Frederic; Nicora, Carrie D.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2015-05-02

    Using affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we identified the subunits of Arabidopsis thaliana multisubunit RNA Polymerases I and III (abbreviated as Pol I and Pol III), providing the first description of their physical compositions in plants. AC40 and AC19 subunits are typically common to Pol I (a.k.a. Pol A) and Pol III (a.k.a. Pol C) and are encoded by single genes whose mutation, in humans, is a cause of the craniofacial disorder, Treacher-Collins Syndrome. Surprisingly, A. thaliana, and related species, express two distinct AC40 paralogs, one of which assembles into Pol I and the other of which assembles into Polmore » III. Changes at eight amino acid positions correlate with this functional divergence of Pol I and Pol III-specific AC40 paralogs. Two genes encode homologs of the yeast C53 subunit, and either variant can assemble into Pol III. By contrast, only one of two potential C17 variants, and one of two potential C31 variants were detected in Pol III. We introduce a new nomenclature system for plant Pol I and Pol III subunits in which the twelve subunits that are structurally and functionally homologous among Pols I through V are assigned equivalent numbers.« less

  2. A1BG and C3 are overexpressed in patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia III

    PubMed Central

    CANALES, NORMA ANGÉLICA GALICIA; MARINA, VICENTE MADRID; CASTRO, JORGE SALMERÓN; JIMÉNEZ, ALFREDO ANTÚNEZ; MENDOZA-HERNÁNDEZ, GUILLERMO; McCARRON, ELIZABETH LANGLEY; ROMAN, MARGARITA BAHENA; CASTRO-ROMERO, JULIETA IVONE

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to analyze sera proteins in females with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, grade III (CIN III) and in healthy control females, in order to identify a potential biomarker which detects lesions that have a greater probability of cervical transformation. The present study investigated five sera samples from females who were Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) 16+ and who had been histopathologically diagnosed with CIN III, as well as five sera samples from healthy control females who were HPV-negative. Protein separation was performed using two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis and the proteins were stained with Colloidal Coommassie Blue. Quantitative analysis was performed using ImageMaster 2D Platinum 6.0 software. Peptide sequence identification was performed using a nano-LC ESIMS/MS system. The proteins with the highest Mascot score were validated using western blot analysis in an additional 55 sera samples from the control and CIN III groups. The eight highest score spots that were found to be overexpressed in the CIN III sera group were identified as α-1-B glycoprotein (A1BG), complement component 3 (C3), a pro-apolipoprotein, two apolipoproteins and three haptoglobins. Only A1BG and C3 were validated using western blot analysis, and the bands were compared between the two groups using densitometry analysis. The relative density of the bands of A1BG and C3 was found to be greater in all of the serum samples from the females with CIN III, compared with those of the individuals in the control group. In summary, the present study identified two proteins whose expression was elevated in females with CIN III, suggesting that they could be used as biomarkers for CIN III. However, further investigations are required in order to assess the expression of A1BG and C3 in different pre-malignant lesions. PMID:25009667

  3. D25V apolipoprotein C-III variant causes dominant hereditary systemic amyloidosis and confers cardiovascular protective lipoprotein profile.

    PubMed

    Valleix, Sophie; Verona, Guglielmo; Jourde-Chiche, Noémie; Nédelec, Brigitte; Mangione, P Patrizia; Bridoux, Frank; Mangé, Alain; Dogan, Ahmet; Goujon, Jean-Michel; Lhomme, Marie; Dauteuille, Carolane; Chabert, Michèle; Porcari, Riccardo; Waudby, Christopher A; Relini, Annalisa; Talmud, Philippa J; Kovrov, Oleg; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Stoppini, Monica; Christodoulou, John; Hawkins, Philip N; Grateau, Gilles; Delpech, Marc; Kontush, Anatol; Gillmore, Julian D; Kalopissis, Athina D; Bellotti, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein C-III deficiency provides cardiovascular protection, but apolipoprotein C-III is not known to be associated with human amyloidosis. Here we report a form of amyloidosis characterized by renal insufficiency caused by a new apolipoprotein C-III variant, D25V. Despite their uremic state, the D25V-carriers exhibit low triglyceride (TG) and apolipoprotein C-III levels, and low very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)/high high-density lipoprotein (HDL) profile. Amyloid fibrils comprise the D25V-variant only, showing that wild-type apolipoprotein C-III does not contribute to amyloid deposition in vivo. The mutation profoundly impacts helical structure stability of D25V-variant, which is remarkably fibrillogenic under physiological conditions in vitro producing typical amyloid fibrils in its lipid-free form. D25V apolipoprotein C-III is a new human amyloidogenic protein and the first conferring cardioprotection even in the unfavourable context of renal failure, extending the evidence for an important cardiovascular protective role of apolipoprotein C-III deficiency. Thus, fibrate therapy, which reduces hepatic APOC3 transcription, may delay amyloid deposition in affected patients. PMID:26790392

  4. D25V apolipoprotein C-III variant causes dominant hereditary systemic amyloidosis and confers cardiovascular protective lipoprotein profile

    PubMed Central

    Valleix, Sophie; Verona, Guglielmo; Jourde-Chiche, Noémie; Nédelec, Brigitte; Mangione, P. Patrizia; Bridoux, Frank; Mangé, Alain; Dogan, Ahmet; Goujon, Jean-Michel; Lhomme, Marie; Dauteuille, Carolane; Chabert, Michèle; Porcari, Riccardo; Waudby, Christopher A.; Relini, Annalisa; Talmud, Philippa J.; Kovrov, Oleg; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Stoppini, Monica; Christodoulou, John; Hawkins, Philip N.; Grateau, Gilles; Delpech, Marc; Kontush, Anatol; Gillmore, Julian D.; Kalopissis, Athina D.; Bellotti, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein C-III deficiency provides cardiovascular protection, but apolipoprotein C-III is not known to be associated with human amyloidosis. Here we report a form of amyloidosis characterized by renal insufficiency caused by a new apolipoprotein C-III variant, D25V. Despite their uremic state, the D25V-carriers exhibit low triglyceride (TG) and apolipoprotein C-III levels, and low very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)/high high-density lipoprotein (HDL) profile. Amyloid fibrils comprise the D25V-variant only, showing that wild-type apolipoprotein C-III does not contribute to amyloid deposition in vivo. The mutation profoundly impacts helical structure stability of D25V-variant, which is remarkably fibrillogenic under physiological conditions in vitro producing typical amyloid fibrils in its lipid-free form. D25V apolipoprotein C-III is a new human amyloidogenic protein and the first conferring cardioprotection even in the unfavourable context of renal failure, extending the evidence for an important cardiovascular protective role of apolipoprotein C-III deficiency. Thus, fibrate therapy, which reduces hepatic APOC3 transcription, may delay amyloid deposition in affected patients. PMID:26790392

  5. Association of Eu(III) and Cm(III) With Halophiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, T.; Takenaka, Y.; Ohnuki, T.; Gillow, J. B.; Francis, A. J.

    2003-12-01

    Halophiles live in high ionic strength brine. The mechanisms of metal association with these microorganisms are poorly understood. In this study, we determined the distribution of Eu(III) and Cm(III) on halophiles, Halomonas sp. (WIPP1A) which was isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository in Carlsbad, US., Halomonas elongata (ATCC33173), Halobacterium salinarum (ATCC19700), and Halobacterium halobium (ATCC43214) and examined the coordination environment of Eu(III) adsorbed on the cells by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). The cells of Halomonas sp. and H. elongata were grown in media containing 10 - 15 w/v% and 3.5 - 30 w/v% NaCl, respectively. Halobacterium salinarum and H. halobium were grown in media containing 25 w/v% NaCl. The logarithmic distribution coefficient (log Kd) was measured by using the cells at the late exponential phase. After washing the cells with the same concentrations of NaCl, the cells were mixed with 1x10-6 mol dm-3 Eu(III) and 1x10-8 mol dm-3 Cm(III) at pH 5 in the same concentrations of NaCl and log Kd of Eu(III) and Cm(III) was determined. For Halomonas sp. and H. elongata, log Kd was determined as a function of NaCl concentrations. The coordination environment of Eu(III) adsorbed on the cells was estimated by TRLFS. For TRLFS measurements, samples were prepared by adding cells to a solution of 1x10-3 mol dm-3 Eu(III) with the same concentrations of NaCl as the culture media. For Halomonas sp. and H. elongata, log Kd of Cm(III) was apparently larger than that of Eu(III) at all the NaCl concentrations examined. On the other hand, log Kd of Eu(III) and Cm(III) for H. salinarum and H. halobium was almost identical. Our previous study demonstrated that non-halophiles, Chlorella vulgaris, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas fluorescens show no preferences between these elements. Chemical properties of Eu(III) and Cm(III) are almost identical. Our findings suggest that the difference in log Kd

  6. Sparkle/PM3 Parameters for the Modeling of Neodymium(III), Promethium(III), and Samarium(III) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Freire, Ricardo O; da Costa, Nivan B; Rocha, Gerd B; Simas, Alfredo M

    2007-07-01

    The Sparkle/PM3 model is extended to neodymium(III), promethium(III), and samarium(III) complexes. The unsigned mean error, for all Sparkle/PM3 interatomic distances between the trivalent lanthanide ion and the ligand atoms of the first sphere of coordination, is 0.074 Å for Nd(III); 0.057 Å for Pm(III); and 0.075 Å for Sm(III). These figures are similar to the Sparkle/AM1 ones of 0.076 Å, 0.059 Å, and 0.075 Å, respectively, indicating they are all comparable models. Moreover, their accuracy is similar to what can be obtained by present-day ab initio effective potential calculations on such lanthanide complexes. Hence, the choice of which model to utilize will depend on the assessment of the effect of either AM1 or PM3 on the quantum chemical description of the organic ligands. Finally, we present a preliminary attempt to verify the geometry prediction consistency of Sparkle/PM3. Since lanthanide complexes are usually flexible, we randomly generated 200 different input geometries for the samarium complex QIPQOV which were then fully optimized by Sparkle/PM3. A trend appeared in that, on average, the lower the total energy of the local minima found, the lower the unsigned mean errors, and the higher the accuracy of the model. These preliminary results do indicate that attempting to find, with Sparkle/PM3, a global minimum for the geometry of a given complex, with the understanding that it will tend to be closer to the experimental geometry, appears to be warranted. Therefore, the sparkle model is seemingly a trustworthy semiempirical quantum chemical model for the prediction of lanthanide complexes geometries. PMID:26633229

  7. Vanadium(III)-L-cysteine protects cisplatin-induced nephropathy through activation of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Basu, Abhishek; Singha Roy, Somnath; Bhattacharjee, Arin; Bhuniya, Avishek; Baral, Rathindranath; Biswas, Jaydip; Bhattacharya, Sudin

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin (CDDP) is one of the first-line anticancer drugs; however, the major limitation of CDDP therapy is development of nephrotoxicity (25-35% cases), whose precise mechanism mainly involves oxidative stress, inflammation and cell death. Therefore, in search of a potential chemoprotectant, an organovanadium complex, viz., vanadium(III)-L-cysteine (VC-III) was evaluated against CDDP-induced nephropathy in mice. CDDP was administered intraperitoneally (5 mg/kg b.w.) and VC-III was given by oral gavage (1 mg/kg b.w.) in concomitant and pre-treatment schedule. The results showed that VC-III administration reduced (p < 0.001) serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels, suggesting amelioration of renal dysfunction. VC-III treatment also significantly (p < 0.001) prevented CDDP-induced generation of reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, and onset of lipid peroxidation in kidney tissues of the experimental mice. In addition, VC-III also substantially (p < 0.001) restored CDDP-induced depleted activities of the renal antioxidant enzymes such as, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, and glutathione (reduced) level. Furthermore, histopathological study also confirmed the renoprotective efficacy of VC-III. Western blotting analysis appended by immunohistochemical data showed that VC-III treatment quite effectively reduced the expression of proinflammatory mediators such as, NFκβ, COX-2 and IL-6. VC-III administration also stimulated Nrf2-mediated antioxidant defense system by promotion of downstream antioxidant enzymes, such as HO-1. Moreover, treatment with VC-III significantly (p < 0.001) enhanced CDDP-mediated cytotoxicity in MCF-7 and NCI-H520 human cancer cell lines. Thus, VC-III can serve as a suitable chemoprotectant and increase the therapeutic window of CDDP in cancer patients. PMID:26573721

  8. The Berkeley SETI Program: SERENDIP III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, C.; Bowyer, S.; Werthimer, D.; Ng, D.; Cobb, J.

    1993-05-01

    The Berkeley SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) program, named SERENDIP, was begun in the late 1970's. It is aimed at detecting narrow band radio signals from extraterrestrial civilizations. The SERENDIP I, II and III systems have operated autonomously in a piggyback search mode, conducting unobtrusive, long-term observations on the world's largest radio telescopes. The latest generation SERENDIP instrument, SERENDIP III, is a four million channel FFT-based spectrum analyzer operating at 0.6 Hz resolution with a 1.7 second integration time. SERENDIP III has been operating at the NAIC Arecibo Observatory since April, 1992. Several independent criteria suggest that this search is the most sensitive SETI search in operation. To date SERENDIP III has accumulated over 3600 hours of high quality telescope time, observing 75% of the sky visible by the Arecibo telescope. Over this period SERENDIP III has analyzed over 30 trillion spectral bins, and recorded information on 110 million strong narrow band signals in the 424--435 MHz band. A handful of these signals have survived our RFI rejection and signal detection algorithms, and have thus been added to our list of ETI candidate signals. A follow-up observation program will be conducted next year in an attempt to verify each of these candidate signals. This work has been supported by NASA grant NAGW-2722.

  9. Stoichiometries of arsenazo III-Ca complexes.

    PubMed Central

    Palade, P; Vergara, J

    1983-01-01

    The equilibrium interactions of the metallochromic indicator arsenazo III with calcium at physiological ionic strength and pH were investigated spectrophotometrically and with the aid of a calcium electrode. Evidence suggests the formation of more than one dye-calcium complex. The analysis of data obtained over a 10,000-fold range of dye concentrations concludes that at the concentrations used for in vitro biochemical studies (10--100 microM), arsenazo III absorbance changes in response to calcium binding primarily involve the formation of a complex involving two dye molecules and two calcium ions. At millimolar dye concentrations, typical of physiological calcium transient determinations in situ, a second complex involving two arsenazo III molecules and one calcium ion is additionally formed. A third complex, involving one arsenazo III molecule and one calcium ion, is formed at very low dye concentrations. The results reported here suggest that equilibrium calibration of the dye with calcium cannot be used directly to satisfactorily relate transient absorbance changes in physiological preparations to calcium concentration changes since several stoichiometrically distinct complexes with different absorbances could be formed at different rates. The results of this study do not permit the elucidation of a unique kinetic scheme of arsenazo III complexation with calcium; for this, in vitro kinetic analysis is required. Results of similar analysis of the dye interaction with magnesium are also reported, and these appear compatible with a much simpler model of complexation. PMID:6626673

  10. A semisimultaneous inversion algorithm for SAGE III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Dale M.

    2002-12-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III instrument was successfully launched into orbit on 10 December 2001. The planned operational species separation inversion algorithm will utilize a stepwise retrieval strategy. This paper presents an alternative, semisimultaneous species separation inversion that simultaneously retrieves all species over user-specified vertical intervals or blocks. By overlapping these vertical blocks, retrieved species profiles over the entire vertical range of the measurements are obtained. The semisimultaneous retrieval approach provides a more straightforward method for evaluating the error coupling that occurs among the retrieved profiles due to various types of input uncertainty. Simulation results are presented to show how the semisimultaneous inversion can enhance understanding of the SAGE III retrieval process. In the future, the semisimultaneous inversion algorithm will be used to help evaluate the results and performance of the operational inversion. Compared to SAGE II, SAGE III will provide expanded and more precise spectral measurements. This alone is shown to significantly reduce the uncertainties in the retrieved ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and aerosol extinction profiles for SAGE III. Additionally, the well-documented concern that SAGE II retrievals are biased by the level of volcanic aerosol is greatly alleviated for SAGE III.

  11. Hybrid III-V/silicon lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspar, P.; Jany, C.; Le Liepvre, A.; Accard, A.; Lamponi, M.; Make, D.; Levaufre, G.; Girard, N.; Lelarge, F.; Shen, A.; Charbonnier, P.; Mallecot, F.; Duan, G.-H.; Gentner, J.-.; Fedeli, J.-M.; Olivier, S.; Descos, A.; Ben Bakir, B.; Messaoudene, S.; Bordel, D.; Malhouitre, S.; Kopp, C.; Menezo, S.

    2014-05-01

    The lack of potent integrated light emitters is one of the bottlenecks that have so far hindered the silicon photonics platform from revolutionizing the communication market. Photonic circuits with integrated light sources have the potential to address a wide range of applications from short-distance data communication to long-haul optical transmission. Notably, the integration of lasers would allow saving large assembly costs and reduce the footprint of optoelectronic products by combining photonic and microelectronic functionalities on a single chip. Since silicon and germanium-based sources are still in their infancy, hybrid approaches using III-V semiconductor materials are currently pursued by several research laboratories in academia as well as in industry. In this paper we review recent developments of hybrid III-V/silicon lasers and discuss the advantages and drawbacks of several integration schemes. The integration approach followed in our laboratory makes use of wafer-bonded III-V material on structured silicon-on-insulator substrates and is based on adiabatic mode transfers between silicon and III-V waveguides. We will highlight some of the most interesting results from devices such as wavelength-tunable lasers and AWG lasers. The good performance demonstrates that an efficient mode transfer can be achieved between III-V and silicon waveguides and encourages further research efforts in this direction.

  12. Failures in Phase III: Causes and Consequences.

    PubMed

    Seruga, Bostjan; Ocana, Alberto; Amir, Eitan; Tannock, Ian F

    2015-10-15

    Phase III randomized controlled trials (RCT) in oncology fail to lead to registration of new therapies more often than RCTs in other medical disciplines. Most RCTs are sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry, which reflects industry's increasing responsibility in cancer drug development. Many preclinical models are unreliable for evaluation of new anticancer agents, and stronger evidence of biologic effect should be required before a new agent enters the clinical development pathway. Whenever possible, early-phase clinical trials should include pharmacodynamic studies to demonstrate that new agents inhibit their molecular targets and demonstrate substantial antitumor activity at tolerated doses in an enriched population of patients. Here, we review recent RCTs and found that these conditions were not met for most of the targeted anticancer agents, which failed in recent RCTs. Many recent phase III RCTs were initiated without sufficient evidence of activity from early-phase clinical trials. Because patients treated within such trials can be harmed, they should not be undertaken. The bar should also be raised when making decisions to proceed from phase II to III and from phase III to marketing approval. Many approved agents showed only better progression-free survival than standard treatment in phase III trials and were not shown to improve survival or its quality. Introduction of value-based pricing of new anticancer agents would dissuade the continued development of agents with borderline activity in early-phase clinical trials. When collaborating with industry, oncologists should be more critical and better advocates for cancer patients. PMID:26473191

  13. 46 CFR 50.30-20 - Class III pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class III pressure vessels. 50.30-20 Section 50.30-20... Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-20 Class III pressure vessels. (a) Class III pressure vessels shall be subject... specifically exempted by other regulations in this subchapter. (b) For Class III welded pressure vessels,...

  14. 46 CFR 50.30-20 - Class III pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class III pressure vessels. 50.30-20 Section 50.30-20... Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-20 Class III pressure vessels. (a) Class III pressure vessels shall be subject... specifically exempted by other regulations in this subchapter. (b) For Class III welded pressure vessels,...

  15. 46 CFR 50.30-20 - Class III pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Class III pressure vessels. 50.30-20 Section 50.30-20... Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-20 Class III pressure vessels. (a) Class III pressure vessels shall be subject... specifically exempted by other regulations in this subchapter. (b) For Class III welded pressure vessels,...

  16. 46 CFR 50.30-20 - Class III pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Class III pressure vessels. 50.30-20 Section 50.30-20... Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-20 Class III pressure vessels. (a) Class III pressure vessels shall be subject... specifically exempted by other regulations in this subchapter. (b) For Class III welded pressure vessels,...

  17. 46 CFR 50.30-20 - Class III pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Class III pressure vessels. 50.30-20 Section 50.30-20... Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-20 Class III pressure vessels. (a) Class III pressure vessels shall be subject... specifically exempted by other regulations in this subchapter. (b) For Class III welded pressure vessels,...

  18. Psychometric Testing of the FACES III with Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ide, Bette; Dingmann, Colleen; Cuevas, Elizabeth; Meehan, Maurita

    2010-01-01

    This study tests the validity and reliability of the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale III (FACES III) in two samples of rural adolescents. The underlying theory is the linear 3-D circumplex model. The FACES III was administered to 1,632 adolescents in Grades 7 through 12 in two counties in a rural western state. The FACES III Scale and the…

  19. Molten-Salt-Based Growth of Group III Nitrides

    DOEpatents

    Waldrip, Karen E.; Tsao, Jeffrey Y.; Kerley, Thomas M.

    2008-10-14

    A method for growing Group III nitride materials using a molten halide salt as a solvent to solubilize the Group-III ions and nitride ions that react to form the Group III nitride material. The concentration of at least one of the nitride ion or Group III cation is determined by electrochemical generation of the ions.

  20. Genetic Modification of Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Express a Single-Chain Antibody Against EGFRvIII on the Cell Surface

    PubMed Central

    Balyasnikova, Irina V.; Franco-Gou, Rosa; Mathis, J. Michael; Lesniak, Maciej S.

    2010-01-01

    Human adult mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) are under active investigation as cellular carriers for gene therapy. hMSC possess natural tropism toward tumors, however, the targeting of hMSC to specific cell populations within tumors is unexplored. In the case of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), at least half of the tumors express EGFRvIII on the cell surface, an ideal target for antibody-mediated gene/drug delivery. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of genetically modifying hMSC to express a single-chain antibody (scFv) to EGFRvIII on their surface. Nucleofection was used to transfect hMSC with cDNA encoding scFv EGFRvIII fused with PDGFR or human B7-1 transmembrane domains. The expression of scFv EGFRvIII on the cell surface was assessed by FACS. A stable population of scFv EGFRvIII-expressing hMSC was selected based on antibiotic resistance and enriched using FACS. We found that nucleofection allows the efficient expression of scFv EGFRvIII on the cell surface of hMSC. hMSCs transfected with the construct encoding scFv EGFRvIII as a fusion with PDGFRtm showed scFv EGFRvIII expression in up to 86% of cells. Most importantly, human MSC expressing scFv against EGFRvIII demonstrated enhanced binding to U87-EGFRvIII cells in vitro and at least 7-fold increased retention in human U87-EGFRvIII expressing tumors in vivo. In summary, we provide the first conclusive evidence of genetic modification of hMSC with a single-chain antibody against an antigen expressed on the surface of tumor cells, thereby opening up a new venue for enhanced delivery of gene therapy applications in the context of malignant brain cancer. PMID:19937911