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Sample records for anton paier kerli

  1. Anton's Syndrome and Eugenics

    PubMed Central

    Frahm-Falkenberg, Siska

    2011-01-01

    Anton's syndrome is arguably the most striking form of anosognosia. Patients with this syndrome behave as if they can see despite their obvious blindness. Although best known for his description of asomatognosia and visual anosognosia, Gabriel Anton (1858-1933) made other significant contributions to the clinical neurosciences, including pioneering work in neurosurgery, neuropsychology, and child psychiatry. However, it has not been recognized in the English literature that Anton was also a dedicated advocate of eugenics and racial hygiene. This paper provides a case of Anton's syndrome and puts the works of Gabriel Anton into their historic context. PMID:21779298

  2. Die Kosmogonie Anton von Zachs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosche, P.

    In his "Cosmogenische Betrachtungen" (1804), Anton von Zach rediscovered - probably independently - some aspects of the theories of Kant and Laplace. More originally, he envisaged also the consequences of an era of heavy impacts in the early history of the Earth.

  3. Registration of Anton Hard White Winter Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Anton’ (Reg. No. CV PI 651043) hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the USDA-ARS and the Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station and released in December, 2007. "Anton" was selected from the cross WA691213-27/N86L177//‘Platte’. Anton primarily was released for its lo...

  4. Anton Chekhov: Yalta Years, 1899-1904.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkle, Lydle

    Anton Pavlovich Chekhov spent 6 of the last 7 years of his life at Yalta (located on the Crimean Peninsula) where he had a house constructed in order that he might live in a climate favorable to his failing health. During these years Chekhov married the actress Olga Knipper and met Leo Tolstoy, who was near the end of his life. Chekhov also…

  5. Anton's Syndrome due to Bilateral Ischemic Occipital Lobe Strokes

    PubMed Central

    Zukić, Sanela; Sinanović, Osman; Hodžić, Renata; Mujagić, Svjetlana; Smajlović, Edina

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of a patient with Anton's syndrome (i.e., visual anosognosia with confabulations), who developed bilateral occipital lobe infarct. Bilateral occipital brain damage results in blindness, and patients start to confabulate to fill in the missing sensory input. In addition, the patient occasionally becomes agitated and talks to himself, which indicates that, besides Anton's syndrome, he might have had Charles Bonnet syndrome, characterized by both visual loss and hallucinations. Anton syndrome, is not so frequent condition and is most commonly caused by ischemic stroke. In this particular case, the patient had successive bilateral occipital ischemia as a result of massive stenoses of head and neck arteries. PMID:25530893

  6. Anton's Syndrome due to Bilateral Ischemic Occipital Lobe Strokes.

    PubMed

    Zukić, Sanela; Sinanović, Osman; Zonić, Lejla; Hodžić, Renata; Mujagić, Svjetlana; Smajlović, Edina

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of a patient with Anton's syndrome (i.e., visual anosognosia with confabulations), who developed bilateral occipital lobe infarct. Bilateral occipital brain damage results in blindness, and patients start to confabulate to fill in the missing sensory input. In addition, the patient occasionally becomes agitated and talks to himself, which indicates that, besides Anton's syndrome, he might have had Charles Bonnet syndrome, characterized by both visual loss and hallucinations. Anton syndrome, is not so frequent condition and is most commonly caused by ischemic stroke. In this particular case, the patient had successive bilateral occipital ischemia as a result of massive stenoses of head and neck arteries. PMID:25530893

  7. The Distribution of Accommodation Rates in St. Anton, Austria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eysberg, Cees D.

    1984-01-01

    For use in college geography courses which teach spatial analysis, this case study investigated whether hotel rates in the ski resort of St. Anton, Austria, are affected by the hotel's proximity to ski lifts and apres ski establishments. Results showed that tourists are sensitive to distance; spatial behavior is predictable. (RM)

  8. IN MEMORIAM: Hermann Anton Haus, 1925 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-08-01

    Photograph Hermann Anton Haus, an Institute Professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), was to have been a Keynote Speaker at the Fluctuations and Noise in Photonics and Quantum Optics Conference, from which the papers in this special issue derive. Sadly, on May 21, 2003 - less than two weeks before the conference - Professor Haus succumbed to a heart attack after arriving home in Lexington, Massachusetts, from his regular, 15-mile commute by bicycle from MIT. He was 77. Throughout his lengthy and illustrious career, Professor Haus had repeatedly and very successfully addressed problems of fluctuations and noise, with special focus on the fundamental issues that arise in quantum optics. To honour Professor Haus' legacy to our technical community, this special issue of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics is dedicated to his memory. Professor Haus was born in Ljubljana, Slovenia, in the former Yugoslavia, on 8 August 1925. After attending the Technische Hochschule, Graz, and the Technische Hochschule, Wien, in Austria, he received his Bachelor of Science degree from Union College in Schenectady, New York in 1949. In 1951, he graduated from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute with a Master of Science in Electrical Engineering, and came to MIT, where he earned his Doctorate of Science and joined the faculty in 1954. He was promoted to Associate Professor in 1958, to Professor in 1962, and to Elihu Thomson Professor in 1973. In 1986, he was conferred the honour of Institute Professor. Professor Haus had a lifelong fascination with noise. While still an undergraduate at Union College, he became aware of Norbert Wiener's theories of statistical phenomena - the new mathematics needed to understand and quantify the random fluctuations we refer to as noise. So it was that noise theory formed the core of Professor Haus' research during the 1950s: noise in electron beams, noise in microwave amplifiers, and noise in amplifier cascades. Two of

  9. IN MEMORIAM: Hermann Anton Haus, 1925 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-08-01

    Photograph Hermann Anton Haus, an Institute Professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), was to have been a Keynote Speaker at the Fluctuations and Noise in Photonics and Quantum Optics Conference, from which the papers in this special issue derive. Sadly, on May 21, 2003 - less than two weeks before the conference - Professor Haus succumbed to a heart attack after arriving home in Lexington, Massachusetts, from his regular, 15-mile commute by bicycle from MIT. He was 77. Throughout his lengthy and illustrious career, Professor Haus had repeatedly and very successfully addressed problems of fluctuations and noise, with special focus on the fundamental issues that arise in quantum optics. To honour Professor Haus' legacy to our technical community, this special issue of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics is dedicated to his memory. Professor Haus was born in Ljubljana, Slovenia, in the former Yugoslavia, on 8 August 1925. After attending the Technische Hochschule, Graz, and the Technische Hochschule, Wien, in Austria, he received his Bachelor of Science degree from Union College in Schenectady, New York in 1949. In 1951, he graduated from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute with a Master of Science in Electrical Engineering, and came to MIT, where he earned his Doctorate of Science and joined the faculty in 1954. He was promoted to Associate Professor in 1958, to Professor in 1962, and to Elihu Thomson Professor in 1973. In 1986, he was conferred the honour of Institute Professor. Professor Haus had a lifelong fascination with noise. While still an undergraduate at Union College, he became aware of Norbert Wiener's theories of statistical phenomena - the new mathematics needed to understand and quantify the random fluctuations we refer to as noise. So it was that noise theory formed the core of Professor Haus' research during the 1950s: noise in electron beams, noise in microwave amplifiers, and noise in amplifier cascades. Two of

  10. [Benedetto Croce and the Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn].

    PubMed

    Borrelli, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the family of Benedetto Croce and that of Anton Dohrn were always characterized by cordiality and mutual respect. Both houses were international meeting places of artists, intellectuals and scientists. The narrowest and most lasting relationship was that between the philosopher and Reinhard Dohrn, from 1909 to 1965 director of the Zoological Station, a long period, marked, among other things, by the two World Wars. Both events caused major problems in the life of the institution. Starting in the twenties, their relationship continued until 1952, the year of Croce's death. In the years immediately following World War I Croce strove, with his prestige and authority, to preserve the Zoological Station's nature as a private entity, directed by Dohrn. As Minister of Education, on 30 September, 1920, he issued a decree-law which repealed that of 26 May, 1918, which had aimed at the 'Italianisation' of the Zoological Station. Croce instead transformed the Station into a "non-profit organization under the supervision of the Ministry of Education". The new decree sparked a lively debate in the Parliament and in the press, between supporters and opponents of the measure. On 9 December, a major discussion took place in the Senate, published in the same year under the title On the Zoological Station in Naples. The discussion revolved around two fundamental political concepts: is it legitimate to take, for reasons of culture, civilization and the law of war, possession of the "the fruit of the talent of others"? is it legitimate "to replace with a state organization'' what had been created as a private activity, and was the result of the enthusiasm and interest of individuals? Croce's victory, however, was not lasting. During the Fascist era, with the decree of 21 October 1923, the Zoological Station was again transformed into an Italian state body. PMID:26013198

  11. An appreciation of Christiane Groehen: the correspondence between Charles Darwin and Anton Dohrn.

    PubMed

    Browne, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Anton Dohrn was introduced to Darwinism by Ernst Haeckel during his student years at Jena, and became an eager disciple of Charles Darwin's work. He founded the Stazione Zoologica in 1872. Darwin became a patron of Dohrn's Stazione, and the two naturalists corresponded regularly. This article discusses their relationship and the contributions of Christiane Groeben to its elucidation. PMID:26013199

  12. Paint and Pedagogy: Anton Ehrenzweig and the Aesthetics of Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Anton Ehrenzweig's work training art teachers at Goldsmiths College in London was groundbreaking in its field. The work of the studio fed back into Ehrenzweig's writings through his reflections on teaching and the work produced in end of year shows. In "The Hidden Order of Art" (1967), he theorised the creative process in psychoanalytic terms and…

  13. Questions Biology Teachers Are Asking: An Interview with Anton E. Lawson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardellini, Liberato

    2005-01-01

    A well-known educator and researcher Anton E. Lawson highlights critical points on effective teaching, meaningful learning, and problem solving. He feels that every citizen should know that science is a collective enterprise that seeks to explain nature based on the open generation and test of ideas.

  14. Anton Makarenko: The "John Dewey of the U.S.S.R."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, Thom; Bowers, Fredalene B.; Wright, Randall

    2005-01-01

    There are a few correctional educators whose work is historically so influential that it is difficult to summarize in an article. Anton Makarenko was among this very select group; this is merely an attempt to outline his work. One way to introduce Makarenko to correctional educators is to focus on some of the seemingly incongruous elements of his…

  15. Seismology at the Australian National University; an interview with Anton L. Hales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, H.

    1980-01-01

    Dr. Anton L. Hales is a leading seismologist who has just retired as Director of the Research School of Earth Sciences at the Australian National University (ANU), Canberra. Prior to that, he headed the Geosciences Division at the University of Texas at Dallas, and, before that, he was Director of the Bernard Price Institute of Geophysical Research at the University of the Witwatersrand Johannesburg, South Africa. he is about to step down as President of the International Geodynamics Commission. Dr. Hales' research has involved marine geophysics, the travel times of seismic waves, and the structure of the Earth's crust and upper mantle. 

  16. Thermal Properties of Capparis Decidua (ker) Fiber Reinforced Phenol Formaldehyde Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, G. P.; Mangal, Ravindra; Bhojak, N.; Dixit, Manasvi; Saxena, N. S.

    2010-06-29

    Simultaneous measurement of effective thermal conductivity ({lambda}), effective thermal diffusivity ({kappa}) and specific heat of Ker fiber reinforced phenol formaldehyde composites have been studied by transient plane source (TPS) technique. The samples of different weight percentage typically (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%) have been taken. It is found that values of effective thermal conductivity and effective thermal diffusivity of the composites decrease, as compared to pure phenol formaldehyde, as the fraction of fiber loading increases. Experimental data is fitted on Y. Agari model. Values of thermal conductivity of composites are calculated with two models (Rayleigh, Maxwell and Meredith-Tobias model). Good agreement between theoretical and experimental result has been found.

  17. Molecular characterization of a novel type II keratin gene (sseKer3) in the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis): Differential expression of keratin genes by salinity.

    PubMed

    Infante, Carlos; Ponce, Marian; Asensio, Esther; Zerolo, Ricardo; Manchado, Manuel

    2011-09-01

    Keratins make up the largest subgroup of intermediate filaments and, in chordates, represent the most abundant proteins in epithelial cells. Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) is a commercially important flatfish in which only two type I keratin genes, sseKer1 and sseKer2, have been described. We obtained the entire cDNAs encoding for a novel type II keratin, referred to as sseKer3. Main features and sequence identities with other fish and mammalian type II keratins are described. Expression profiles during larval development and in juvenile tissues were analyzed using a real-time PCR approach. In juvenile fish, sseKer3 was strongly expressed in gills, intestine, skin and stomach. During metamorphosis climax a drop in sseKer3 expression was observed. Transcriptional regulation of sseKer3 by thyroid hormones (THs) was also evaluated. Larvae exposed to the goitrogen thiourea (TU) exhibited higher mRNA levels than untreated control. Moreover, adding exogenous T4 hormone to TU-treated larvae restored or even reduced the sseKer3 transcript levels with respect to the untreated control. The possible role of keratins in osmotic stress response was evaluated in juvenile gills exposed to three different water salinities (15, 37 and 60psu). Whereas no significant changes in sseKer2 expression were detected; sseKer1 was early (12h) up-regulated at hypo-osmotic conditions and sseKer3 was down-regulated both at low and high salinity after 24h and 48h. Their possible role is discussed. PMID:21536146

  18. Fast TracKer: A fast hardware track trigger for the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandini, Carlo

    2016-07-01

    The trigger system at the ATLAS experiment is designed to lower the event rate occurring from the nominal bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz to about 1 kHz for a LHC luminosity of the order of 1034cm-2s-1. To achieve high background rejection while maintaining good efficiency for interesting physics signals, sophisticated algorithms are needed which require an extensive use of tracking information. The Fast TracKer (FTK) trigger system, part of the ATLAS trigger upgrade program, is a highly parallel hardware device designed to perform track-finding at 100 kHz. Modern, powerful Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) form an important part of the system architecture, and the combinatorial problem of pattern recognition is solved by 8000 standard-cell ASICs used to implement an Associative Memory architecture. The availability of the tracking and subsequent vertex information within a short latency ensures robust selections and allows improved trigger performance for the most difficult signatures, such as b-jets and τ leptons.

  19. Chemical constituents in n-butanol fractions of Castus afer ker Gawl leaf and stem

    PubMed Central

    Anyasor, Godswill Nduka; Funmilayo, Onajobi; Odutola, Osilesi; Olugbenga, Adebawo; Oboutor, Efere Martins

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to investigate the bioactive compounds in Costus afer Ker Gawl, an indigenous African medicinal plant whose leaf and stem extracts are used in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases, especially rheumatism and arthritis. Materials and Methods: The bioactive compounds present in the n-butanol fractions of C. afer leaf and stem were identified using qualitative phytochemical evaluation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analytical method, comparing the mass spectra of the identified compounds with those of the National Institute of Standards and Technology database library. Results: Qualitative analysis detected alkaloids, saponins, diterpenes, triterpenes, phytosterol, phlobatannins, and tannins in both n-butanol fractions of C. afer leaf and stem. Phenols were detected in leaves alone while flavonoids were present in stem alone. GC/MS data showed that the bioactive compounds in n-butanol fraction of C. afer leaf were indolizine, 2-methoxy-4 vinylphenol, phytol, hexadecanoic acid-methyl ester, n-hexadecanoic acid, 9,12-octadecanoic acid-methyl ester, eicosane, cis-vaccenic acid and oleic acid while n-butanol fraction of C. afer stem contain benzofuran,2,3-dihydro,2-methoxy-4 vinylphenol, 9-octadecenoic acid (Z)-2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl) ethyl ester, campesterol, stigmasterol, hexadecanoic acid-methyl ester, n-hexadecanoic acid, and cis-vaccenic acid. Conclusion: The bioactive compounds identified in the n-butanol fractions of C. afer leaves and stem may explain the folkloric use of C. afer plant in the treatment of chronic inflammatory and oxidative stress related diseases. PMID:26401352

  20. Association football and the representation of homosexuality by the print media: a case study of Anton Hysén.

    PubMed

    Cleland, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    In March 2011, Anton Hysén (a semiprofessional footballer currently playing in the Swedish fourth division) became only the second association football (soccer) player of any professional disposition to publicly declare his homosexuality while still playing the game. This article provides a textual analysis of the print media's reaction to Hysén coming out and examines whether, in 2011, they portray more inclusive notions toward homosexuality than they did in 1990 when British footballer Justin Fashanu came out. The results advance inclusive masculinity theory as a number of print media sources (mostly British) interview Hysén in the weeks immediately after he came out and publish articles that challenge homophobia. Highlighting a change since 1990, a significant number of articles stress the need for the key stakeholders in football (players, fans, clubs, agents, the authorities, and the media) to accept gay players. PMID:24871942

  1. Known unknowns, Google Earth, plate tectonics and Mt Bellenden Ker: some thoughts on locality data.

    PubMed

    Mesibov, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Latitude/longitude data in locality records should be published with spatial uncertainties, datum(s) used and indications of how the data were obtained. Google Earth can be used to locate sampling sites, but the underlying georegistration of the satellite image should be checked. The little-known relabelling of a set of landmarks on Mt Bellenden Ker, a scientifically important collecting locality in tropical north Queensland, Australia, is documented as an example of the importance of checking records not accompanied by appropriately accurate latitude/longitude data. PMID:23275756

  2. Preliminary study of the antioxidant properties of flowers and roots of Pyrostegia venusta (Ker Gawl) Miers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Free radical stress leads to tissue injury and can eventually to arthritis, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, neurodegenerative diseases and carcinogenesis. Several studies are ongoing worldwide to find natural antioxidants of plant origin. We assessed the in-vitro antioxidant activities and screened the phytochemical constituents of methanolic extracts of Pyrostegia venusta (Ker Gawl) Miers. Methods We evaluated the antioxidant potential and phytochemical constituents of P. venusta using 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2, 2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) studies were also undertaken to assess the phytochemical composition of the flower extracts. Results Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of terpenoids, alkaloids, tannins, steroids, and saponins. The reducing ability of both extracts was in the range (in μm Fe(II)/g) of 112.49-3046.98 compared with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT; 63.56 ± 2.62), catechin (972.02 ± 0.72 μm) and quercetin 3208.27 ± 31.29. A significant inhibitory effect of extracts of flowers (IC50 = 0.018 ± 0.69 mg/ml) and roots (IC50 = 0.026 ± 0.94 mg/ml) on ABTS free radicals was detected. The antioxidant activity of the extracts of flowers (95%) and roots (94%) on DPPH radicals was comparable with that of ascorbic acid (98.9%) and BHT (97.6%). GC-MS study revealed the presence of myoinositol, hexadecanoic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid and oleic acid in the flower extracts. Conclusion These data suggest that P. venusta is a natural source of antioxidants. The extracts of flowers and roots of P. venusta contain significant amounts of phytochemicals with antioxidative properties and could serve as inhibitors or scavengers of free radicals. P. venusta could be exploited as a potential source for plant-based pharmaceutical products. These results could form a sound basis for further

  3. Neutron diffraction study on the two-dimensional Ising system KEr(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Mat'as, Slavomir; Dudzik, Esther; Feyerherm, Ralf; Gerischer, Sebastian; Klemke, Sebastian; Prokes, Karel; Orendacova, Alzbeta

    2010-11-01

    The magnetic properties of the two-dimensional Ising antiferromagnet KEr(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} have been investigated below and above transition temperature T{sub N}{approx}0.95 K in zero field and in fields up to 6.5 T by means of elastic neutron-diffraction, heat-capacity, and magnetization measurements. The low-temperature signal recorded at 0.34 K by neutron diffraction is explained within a noncollinear magnetic structure model. However, additional contribution is also present when applying the external magnetic field along the c axis even at temperatures well above the magnetic transition temperature T{sub N}. Various explanations are discussed.

  4. In the shadow of Darwin: Anton de Bary's origin of myxomycetology and a molecular phylogeny of the plasmodial slime molds.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, T; Kutschera, U

    2010-06-01

    In his Origin of Species (John Murray, London, 1859), Charles Darwin described the theory of descent with modification by means of natural selection and postulated that all life may have evolved from one or a few simple kinds of organisms. However, Darwin's concept of evolutionary change is entirely based on observations of populations of animals and plants. He briefly mentioned 'lower algae', but ignored amoebae, bacteria and other micro-organisms. In 1859, Anton de Bary, the founder of mycology and plant pathology, published a seminal paper on the biology and taxonomy of the plasmodial slime molds (myxomycetes). These heterotrophic protists are known primarily as a large composite mass, the plasmodium, in which single nuclei are suspended in a common 'naked' cytoplasm that is surrounded by a plasma membrane. Here we summarize the contents of de Bary's 1859 publication and highlight the significance of this scientific classic with respect to the establishment of the kingdom Protoctista (protists such as amoebae), the development of the protoplasmic theory of the cell, the introduction of the concept of symbiosis and the rejection of the dogma of spontaneous generation. We describe the life cycle of the myxomycetes, present new observations on the myxamoebae and propose a higher-order phylogeny based on elongation factor-1 alpha gene sequences. Our results document the congruence between the morphology-based taxonomy of the myxomycetes and molecular data. In addition, we show that free-living amoebae, common protists in the soil, are among the closest living relatives of the myxomycetes and conclude that de Bary's 'Amoeba-hypothesis' on the evolutionary origin of the plasmodial slime molds may have been correct. PMID:19997788

  5. 4C-ker: A Method to Reproducibly Identify Genome-Wide Interactions Captured by 4C-Seq Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Raviram, Ramya; Rocha, Pedro P.; Müller, Christian L.; Miraldi, Emily R.; Badri, Sana; Fu, Yi; Swanzey, Emily; Proudhon, Charlotte; Snetkova, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    4C-Seq has proven to be a powerful technique to identify genome-wide interactions with a single locus of interest (or “bait”) that can be important for gene regulation. However, analysis of 4C-Seq data is complicated by the many biases inherent to the technique. An important consideration when dealing with 4C-Seq data is the differences in resolution of signal across the genome that result from differences in 3D distance separation from the bait. This leads to the highest signal in the region immediately surrounding the bait and increasingly lower signals in far-cis and trans. Another important aspect of 4C-Seq experiments is the resolution, which is greatly influenced by the choice of restriction enzyme and the frequency at which it can cut the genome. Thus, it is important that a 4C-Seq analysis method is flexible enough to analyze data generated using different enzymes and to identify interactions across the entire genome. Current methods for 4C-Seq analysis only identify interactions in regions near the bait or in regions located in far-cis and trans, but no method comprehensively analyzes 4C signals of different length scales. In addition, some methods also fail in experiments where chromatin fragments are generated using frequent cutter restriction enzymes. Here, we describe 4C-ker, a Hidden-Markov Model based pipeline that identifies regions throughout the genome that interact with the 4C bait locus. In addition, we incorporate methods for the identification of differential interactions in multiple 4C-seq datasets collected from different genotypes or experimental conditions. Adaptive window sizes are used to correct for differences in signal coverage in near-bait regions, far-cis and trans chromosomes. Using several datasets, we demonstrate that 4C-ker outperforms all existing 4C-Seq pipelines in its ability to reproducibly identify interaction domains at all genomic ranges with different resolution enzymes. PMID:26938081

  6. Investigations of the methanolic leaf extract of Costus afer. Ker for pharmacological activities in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Anaga, A O; Njoku, C J; Ekejiuba, E S; Esiaka, M N; Asuzu, I U

    2004-02-01

    The methanolic leaf extract of Costus afer. Ker (family: Zingiberaceae) was investigated for some pharmacological effects in vivo and in vitro. Brine shrimp lethality test showed that the extract was significantly (p < 0.05) cytotoxic with LC50 of 21.3 ppm. The extract showed moderate local anesthetic property, about twice less than lignocaine of the same concentration, on guinea pig wheal test. The extract contracted the guinea pig ileum in a concentration-dependent manner, but had no effect on pleuripara and nullipara non-gravid uteri at progestogenic and estrogenic phases respectively. The contractile effect on the guinea pig ileum was partially inhibited by atropine but completely reversed by adrenaline. The extract induced expulsion of whole fetuses still enveloped within the placental membrane at the 3rd trimester of pregnancy. The extract exhibited a biphasic antihyperglycemic activity. At 200 mg/kg body wt., p.o., it decreased the blood glucose level by 50% in Streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia in male rats in 60 minutes post dosing. However, doses above 200 mg/kg body wt., p.o., caused increase in blood glucose level, potentiating the action of STZ. At 10 microg/ml the extract induced about 98% glucose uptake in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes when compared with insulin (340 nm). PMID:15070179

  7. Improved catalytic efficiency, thermophilicity, anti-salt and detergent tolerance of keratinase KerSMD by partially truncation of PPC domain.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhen; Zhang, Juan; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The keratinase from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (KerSMD) is known for its high activity and pH stability in keratin degradation. However, catalytic efficiency and detergent tolerability need to be improved in order to be used for industrial application. In this work, we obtained several keratinase variants with enhanced catalytic efficiency, thermophilicity, and anti-salt and detergent tolerability by partially truncating the PPC domain of KerSMD. The variants all showed improved catalytic efficiency to synthetic substrate AAPF, with the V355 variant having the highest kcat /Km value of 143.6 s(-1) mM(-1). The truncation of keratinase had little effect on alkaline stability but obviously decreased collagenase activity, developing its potential application in leather treatment. The variants V380, V370, and V355 were thermophilic, with a 1.7-fold enhancement of keratinlytic activity at 60 °C when compared to the wild type. The entire truncation of PPC domain obtained the variant V355 with improved tolerance to alkalinity, salt, chaotropic agents, and detergents. The V355 variant showed more than a 40% improvement in activity under 15% (w/v) NaCl or 4% (w/v) SDS solution, showing excellent stability under harsh washing and unhairing conditions. Our work investigated how protein engineering affects the function of PPC domain of KerSMD. PMID:27298079

  8. Improved catalytic efficiency, thermophilicity, anti-salt and detergent tolerance of keratinase KerSMD by partially truncation of PPC domain

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Zhen; Zhang, Juan; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The keratinase from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (KerSMD) is known for its high activity and pH stability in keratin degradation. However, catalytic efficiency and detergent tolerability need to be improved in order to be used for industrial application. In this work, we obtained several keratinase variants with enhanced catalytic efficiency, thermophilicity, and anti-salt and detergent tolerability by partially truncating the PPC domain of KerSMD. The variants all showed improved catalytic efficiency to synthetic substrate AAPF, with the V355 variant having the highest kcat /Km value of 143.6 s−1 mM−1. The truncation of keratinase had little effect on alkaline stability but obviously decreased collagenase activity, developing its potential application in leather treatment. The variants V380, V370, and V355 were thermophilic, with a 1.7-fold enhancement of keratinlytic activity at 60 °C when compared to the wild type. The entire truncation of PPC domain obtained the variant V355 with improved tolerance to alkalinity, salt, chaotropic agents, and detergents. The V355 variant showed more than a 40% improvement in activity under 15% (w/v) NaCl or 4% (w/v) SDS solution, showing excellent stability under harsh washing and unhairing conditions. Our work investigated how protein engineering affects the function of PPC domain of KerSMD. PMID:27298079

  9. Anton permselective membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, S. S.; Hodgdon, R. B.; Waite, W. A.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental composite membranes were synthesized on a lab scale consisting of a thin layer of anion permselective resin supported by and bonded to a porous physically strong and conductive substrate film. These showed good selectivity and also substantially lower electrical resistivities than the homogenous candidate membranes optimized in the previous contract. A wide range of resin porosities were examined for three candidate membrane systems, CDIL, CP4L, and A3L to identify the formulation giving the best overall redox cell performance. Candidate anion membranes showed large increases in resistivity after a short time of immersion in concentrated FeCl/HCl solution. Largely on the basis of resistance stability the CDIL formulation was selected as prime candidate and about thirty-five membranes (one foot square) were produced for experimental static and dynamic evaluation.

  10. The hybrid expert in the 'bergstaat': Anton von Ruprecht as a professor of chemistry and mining and as a mining official, 1779-1814.

    PubMed

    Konecný, Peter

    2012-07-01

    In the course of the 18th century a new type of scientifically educated functional elites developed, who were trained to administer mines. The educational project that led to the formation of a corps of mining engineers was part of a programme of administrative and economic reforms that led to a new configuration of bonds between state, economy and science. At the same time the status of this new group of experts was predicated substantially by the new emerging corpora of the scientific, technological and cameralist knowledge of the period between 1760 and 1800. The aim of this paper is to discuss this group using the example of a leading expert in the context of the mining and metallurgy of this period. Anton von Ruprecht (1748-1814) was strongly grounded in the social and epistemic context of the Habsburg mining bureaucracy, which employed his scientific and technical savoir faire to serve their mercantile goals in several areas of mining expertise. PMID:23057216

  11. Benthic Assemblages of the Anton Dohrn Seamount (NE Atlantic): Defining Deep-Sea Biotopes to Support Habitat Mapping and Management Efforts with a Focus on Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Davies, Jaime S; Stewart, Heather A; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E; Jacobs, Colin; Spicer, John; Golding, Neil; Howell, Kerry L

    2015-01-01

    In 2009 the NW and SE flanks of Anton Dohrn Seamount were surveyed using multibeam echosounder and video ground-truthing to characterise megabenthic biological assemblages (biotopes) and assess those which clearly adhere to the definition of Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems, for use in habitat mapping. A combination of multivariate analysis of still imagery and video ground-truthing defined 13 comprehensive descriptions of biotopes that function as mapping units in an applied context. The data reveals that the NW and SE sides of Anton Dohrn Seamount (ADS) are topographically complex and harbour diverse biological assemblages, some of which agree with current definitions of 'listed' habitats of conservation concern. Ten of these biotopes could easily be considered Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems; three coral gardens, four cold-water coral reefs, two xenophyophore communities and one sponge dominated community, with remaining biotopes requiring more detailed assessment. Coral gardens were only found on positive geomorphic features, namely parasitic cones and radial ridges, found both sides of the seamount over a depth of 1311-1740 m. Two cold-water coral reefs (equivalent to summit reef) were mapped on the NW side of the seamount; Lophelia pertusa reef associated with the cliff top mounds at a depth of 747-791 m and Solenosmilia variabilis reef on a radial ridge at a depth of 1318-1351 m. Xenophyophore communities were mapped from both sides of the seamount at a depth of 1099-1770 m and were either associated with geomorphic features or were in close proximity (< 100 m) to them. The sponge dominated community was found on the steep escarpment either side of the seamount over at a depth of 854-1345 m. Multivariate diversity revealed the xenophyophore biotopes to be the least diverse, and a hard substratum biotope characterised by serpulids and the sessile holothurian, Psolus squamatus, as the most diverse. PMID:25992572

  12. Benthic Assemblages of the Anton Dohrn Seamount (NE Atlantic): Defining Deep-Sea Biotopes to Support Habitat Mapping and Management Efforts with a Focus on Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Jaime S.; Stewart, Heather A.; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E.; Jacobs, Colin; Spicer, John; Golding, Neil; Howell, Kerry L.

    2015-01-01

    In 2009 the NW and SE flanks of Anton Dohrn Seamount were surveyed using multibeam echosounder and video ground-truthing to characterise megabenthic biological assemblages (biotopes) and assess those which clearly adhere to the definition of Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems, for use in habitat mapping. A combination of multivariate analysis of still imagery and video ground-truthing defined 13 comprehensive descriptions of biotopes that function as mapping units in an applied context. The data reveals that the NW and SE sides of Anton Dohrn Seamount (ADS) are topographically complex and harbour diverse biological assemblages, some of which agree with current definitions of ‘listed’ habitats of conservation concern. Ten of these biotopes could easily be considered Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems; three coral gardens, four cold-water coral reefs, two xenophyophore communities and one sponge dominated community, with remaining biotopes requiring more detailed assessment. Coral gardens were only found on positive geomorphic features, namely parasitic cones and radial ridges, found both sides of the seamount over a depth of 1311–1740 m. Two cold-water coral reefs (equivalent to summit reef) were mapped on the NW side of the seamount; Lophelia pertusa reef associated with the cliff top mounds at a depth of 747–791 m and Solenosmilia variabilis reef on a radial ridge at a depth of 1318-1351 m. Xenophyophore communities were mapped from both sides of the seamount at a depth of 1099–1770 m and were either associated with geomorphic features or were in close proximity (< 100 m) to them. The sponge dominated community was found on the steep escarpment either side of the seamount over at a depth of 854-1345 m. Multivariate diversity revealed the xenophyophore biotopes to be the least diverse, and a hard substratum biotope characterised by serpulids and the sessile holothurian, Psolus squamatus, as the most diverse. PMID:25992572

  13. Some unpublished documents and unusual portraits of Anton von Tröltsch (1828-1890), one of the founders of this journal.

    PubMed

    Mudry, Albert; von Deuster, Christian; Peinhardt, Juliane

    2016-05-01

    Anton Friedrich Baron von Tröltsch (1829-1890) was a very famous German otologist in Würzburg in the second part of the 19th century. The aim of this study is to present some unpublished documents related to his biography: a 4-page autobiographical unsigned text probably written for his habilitation in 1861, a 4-page autobiographical letter sent by von Tröltsch to the editors of the Brockhaus-Conversations-Lexikon in 1872, a unique album of portraits of the main otologists of the second part of the 19th century, collected for his 1886 Privat Docent jubilee anniversary, and a portrait of unknown origin. They are discussed with other unusual portraits. These new documents demonstrate at least two major points. One, von Tröltsch was aware of his qualities and the importance of his work in otology but he was not boastful. Two, he was really loved and respected by its colleagues, nearly 150 of them came just for a one-day ovation in Würzburg for his 25th Privat Docent Jubilee and his retirement from his otological practice. Von Tröltsch was and remains an example for all otologists. PMID:26589899

  14. [Anton Nyström: the first practitioner in dermatology in Sweden and the controversy about his book on skin disorders].

    PubMed

    Thyresson, N

    1994-01-01

    Anton Nyström (1842-1931), practitioner and author, was at the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century a well-known but also controversial personage in Swedish cultural and intellectual life. The posterity remembers him mainly for having introduced the philosophical system of Auguste Comte and founded a Society for Positivism in Sweden as well as having founded an institution ("Arbetarinstitutet") in Stockholm with the purpose to give an all-round education to the working classes through lectures by leading personalities in the world of culture and science. In numerous publications he treated besides medical topics also religious, cultural, social, political and historical themes. Immediately after his medical graduation in May 1868, he went abroad to study dermatology and stayed for this purpose for nearly one and a half years in Vienna, Paris and London. Back in Sweden in the autumn of 1869, he began writing a book with the title "Theoretical and practical essays on skin disorders." This book is for us today interesting because it illustrates the different views of that time on skin diseases held by Hebra in Vienna, Bazin and Hardy in Paris and Wilson and Tilbury Fox in London. In Paris Nyström had been fascinated by Bazin's and Hardy's theories on constitutional diseases and diathetic states and had, as he says, "embraced the doctrines of Bazin". In Vienna, however, he had disapproved of Hebra's way to reject speculations on internal etiology for skin diseases and to look upon them as having mainly an external cause and of his method to treat skin diseases preferably with local remedies. In London he was on very friendly terms with Tilbury Fox, who to his satisfaction also sympathized with the opinions held by Bazin. ... PMID:11640361

  15. [The tribute of the pioneer of hypnotherapy--Franz Anton Mesmer, MD, PhD in the history of psychotherapy and medicine].

    PubMed

    Radovancević, Ljubomir

    2009-01-01

    Modern hypnosis started with the Austrian physician Franz Anton Mesmer (1734-1815), who believed that the phenomenon known as mesmerism, or animal magnetism, or fluidum was related to an invisible substance--a fluid that runs within the subject or between the subject and the therapist, that is, the hypnotist, or the "magnetizer". The term hypnosis was introduced in the 1840s by a Scottish surgeon James Braid (1795-1860), who believed the subject to be in a particular state of sleep--a trance. In the late 19th century, a French neurologist Jean Martin Charcot (1825-1893) thought hypnotism to be a special physiological state, and his contemporary Hyppotite-Marie Bernheim (1840-1919) believed it to be a psychological state of heightened suggestibility. Sigmund Freud, who studied with Charcot, used hypnosis early in his career to help patients recover repressed memories. He noted that patients would relive traumatic events while under hypnosis, a process know as abreaction. Freud later replaced hypnosis with the technique of free associations. Today, hypnosis is used as a form of therapy (hypnotherapy), a method of investigation to recover lost memories, and research tool. According to Caplan & Sadock, F.A. Mesmer is generally thought of as the fons et origo of modern psychotherapy; and from the early techniques of mesmerism, it is said, have evolved the more elaborate and sophisticated therapeutic measures of the analyst and his colleagues. Although Mesmer was certainly dealing with individuals suffering from a variety of neurotic disorders, and though the clinical successes he achieved were the result of psychological processes that his procedures induced in his patients, Mesmer's theoretical formulations, his understanding of the nature of the treatment he developed, and his specific procedures were all totally different from those of the 20th century analyst. He was one of the corne stones in the development of psychoanalysis through hypnosis mainly of hysterical

  16. Anton Chekhov (1860-1904). Writer, physician and tuberculosis patient.

    PubMed

    Dubovsky, H

    1979-04-21

    Chekhov chose writing as a career after a childhood of hardship and poverty. Tuberculosis manifested soon after medical graduation and caused his death at the age of 44. Essentially a short story writer, he used simplicity and impressionism to portray sympathetically the psychology of the common man. Similarly his plays, popular today, written in a light and ethereal style, while static, have an inner psychological evolution. The best example is The Cherry Orchard. PMID:380022

  17. Magnetic anisotropy study of a columnar basalt from San Anton, Morelos, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    1982-03-01

    Anisotrophy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) results from 27 specimens drilled from the top and two sides of a single columnar basalt segment are presented. The magnetic foliation plane is nearly horizontal for all parts of the column, which is consistent with a primary magma flow pattern, without evidence of local convection or differentiative processes. The shape of AMS ellipsoids is however predominantly prolate, which may be indicative of increased magnetic grain elongation due to crystal growth or grain realignment normal to a vertical stress field (due to thermal contraction). Apparent systematic variations related to column shape are found in bulk susceptibility, anisotropy degree and degree of lineation and foliation; some of the variation may also be related to weathering effects. The results are consistent with a primary AMS pattern resulting from thermal contractive stresses during column formation. Comparison of results from previous studies of columnar basalts reveals that there is a relatively large variation in AMS properties. There appears to exist a number of factors which may locally control the magnetic anisotropy of columns and very likely some of their other characteristics.

  18. Nobel laureates at the Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn: phenomenology and paths to discovery in neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Groeben, Christiane; de Sio, Fabio

    2006-12-01

    The practice of science usually involves more than a solitary genius in a solitary room, coping with the problem of her/his life. From the second half of the 19th century onwards, scientific research, especially in the field of the Natural Sciences, has grown into a more and more complex practice, which often entangles very special needs, in terms of research objects, techniques, sources, and perspectives. A few special places, such as the Stazione Zoologica di Napoli, have represented in this period the focal points of an ever growing international scientific network, promoting independent research, exchange and diffusion of novel practices and techniques and unrestricted confrontation. The so-called "Naples experience" has been cited by a large number of renowned scientists of the last two centuries as a key moment in their scientific life. Here we have tried to test it against the experience of three great scientists par excellence, i.e. three Nobel laureates (T. H. Morgan, Otto Warburg, J. D. Watson). The different experiences they have had at Naples represent, in our view, three different moments of the professional life of almost every scientist. Therefore, we have chosen to present them as a phenomenology. The final section is dedicated to a survey of the Zoological Station's contribution to neurosciences, especially to the Naples experience of the Nobel Prize winner Sir Bernard Katz and his assistant Ricardo Miledi, between 1965 and 1970. Their work on the squid at Naples allowed probing and quantitative refinement of results already obtained on different animals and contributed to reinforce the long lasting neurophysiological tradition of the institute. PMID:16997765

  19. Materials Data on KEr3F10 (SG:225) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  20. Materials Data on KEr2F7 (SG:33) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  1. Materials Data on KEr(PO3)4 (SG:4) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-04

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  2. Evapotranspiration-based Irrigation Scheduling for Container-grown Viburnum odoratissium (L.) Ker Gawl

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The capacity for evapotranspiration (ET)-based irrigation scheduling to reduce runoff volume and nutrient leaching was tested in Fall 2004 and Spring 2005. Runoff (container leachate plus unintercepted irrigation and precipitation) was collected continuously for 17 weeks during production of sweet ...

  3. Software Reviews: "Pow! Zap! Ker-plunk! The Comic Book Maker" (Pelican Software).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Bernajean

    1990-01-01

    Reviews the newest addition to Pelican's Creative Writing Series of instructional software, which uses the comic book format to provide a unique writing environment for satire, symbolism, sequencing, and combining text and graphics to communicate ideas. (SR)

  4. Science, evolution and natural selection: in praise of Darwin at the Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn of Naples.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    Copernicus, Galileo, Newton and other physical scientists ushered in a conception of the universe as matter in motion governed by natural laws. Their discoveries brought about a fundamental revolution, namely a commitment to the postulate that the universe obeys immanent laws that can account for natural phenomena. The workings of the universe were brought into the realm of science: explanation through natural laws. Darwin completed the Copernican revolution by extending it to the living world. Darwin demonstrated the evolution of organisms. More important yet is that he discovered natural selection, the process that explains the 'design' of organisms. The adaptations and diversity of organisms, the origin of novel and complex species, even the origin of mankind, could now be explained by an orderly process of change governed by natural laws. The origin of species and the exquisite features of organisms had previously been explained as special creations of an omniscient God. Darwin brought them into the domain of science. PMID:26013200

  5. Pyrostegia venusta (Ker Gawl.) Miers Crude Extract and Fractions: Prevention of Dental Biofilm Formation and Immunomodulatory Capacity

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Mayara Brito; Júnior, José Otávio Carrera Silva; Barbosa, Wagner Luiz Ramos; da Silva Valério, Erika; da Mata Lima, Andriele; de Araújo, Marlon Heggdorne; Muzitano, Michelle Frazão; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo; Teixeira, Francisco Martins

    2016-01-01

    Background: Caries and periodontal diseases remain as important diseases in the Brazilian population. One important pathogen associated with this situation is Streptococcus mutans and other important factor is this pathogen's ability to adhere firmly to the tooth surface leading to dental biofilm formation and caries development. Objectives: Determine the antibacterial and other biological activities of P. venusta related to its potential to be used in the treatment of caries and periodontal disease. Methods: The growth inhibition by P. venusta of Streptococcus mutans, S. mitis, S. oralis and Candida albicans was determined using the broth microdilution method. In addition, the effect of the samples in adherence and reducing production of acids by S. mutans, and germ-tube formation of C. albicans was analysed. The Nitric Oxide (NO) production and cytotoxicity of P. venusta to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and RAW 264.7 Cell Line Murine Macrophage from Blood were assessed. Results: The crude extract (CE) and ethyl-acetate (AF) and n-butanol (BF) fractions showed antibacterial activity. The ethyl-acetate (AF) fraction showed the highest inhibition percentage against the adherence of S. mutans and C. albicans cells without budding, beyond NO production inhibition. There was not any cytotoxicity in the murine macrophages RAW 264.7 cells. Conclusion: Our results suggest that P. venusta presents potential to be used as a preliminary source of compounds that can provide helpful activity when used in prophylaxis or treatment of caries or periodontal disease. SUMMARY Biological activities of Pyrostegia venusta and its potential for use in formulations for the prevention of oral diseases. Abbreviations used: NO: Nitric oxide, PBMC: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells, CE: Crude extract, AF: Ethyl-acetate fraction, BF: n-butanol fraction, HF: Hexane fraction, WF: Water fraction, MIC: Minimum inhibitory concentration, MBC: Minimum bactericidal concentration, ATCC: American Type Culture Collection, CFU: Colony-forming units, BHI: Brain heart infusion, RPMI: Roswell Park Memorial Institute, MOPS: 3-(N-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid, DMEM: Dulbecco's modified Eagle's médium, LPS: Lipopolysacharide, MTT: 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide, OD: Optical density, AC: Acteoside, PMID:27279710

  6. The Hybrid Expert in the "Bergstaat": Anton Von Ruprecht as a Professor of Chemistry and Mining and as a Mining Official, 1779-1814

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konecny, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In the course of the 18th century a new type of scientifically educated functional elites developed, who were trained to administer mines. The educational project that led to the formation of a corps of mining engineers was part of a programme of administrative and economic reforms that led to a new configuration of bonds between state, economy…

  7. Cellulose, Chitosan, and Keratin Composite Materials. Controlled Drug Release

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A method was developed in which cellulose (CEL) and/or chitosan (CS) were added to keratin (KER) to enable [CEL/CS+KER] composites to have better mechanical strength and wider utilization. Butylmethylimmidazolium chloride ([BMIm+Cl–]), an ionic liquid, was used as the sole solvent, and because the [BMIm+Cl–] used was recovered, the method is green and recyclable. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results confirm that KER, CS, and CEL remain chemically intact in the composites. Tensile strength results expectedly show that adding CEL or CS into KER substantially increases the mechanical strength of the composites. We found that CEL, CS, and KER can encapsulate drugs such as ciprofloxacin (CPX) and then release the drug either as a single or as two- or three-component composites. Interestingly, release rates of CPX by CEL and CS either as a single or as [CEL+CS] composite are faster and independent of concentration of CS and CEL. Conversely, the release rate by KER is much slower, and when incorporated into CEL, CS, or CEL+CS, it substantially slows the rate as well. Furthermore, the reducing rate was found to correlate with the concentration of KER in the composites. KER, a protein, is known to have secondary structure, whereas CEL and CS exist only in random form. This makes KER structurally denser than CEL and CS; hence, KER releases the drug slower than CEL and CS. The results clearly indicate that drug release can be controlled and adjusted at any rate by judiciously selecting the concentration of KER in the composites. Furthermore, the fact that the [CEL+CS+KER] composite has combined properties of its components, namely, superior mechanical strength (CEL), hemostasis and bactericide (CS), and controlled drug release (KER), indicates that this novel composite can be used in ways which hitherto were not possible, e.g., as a high-performance bandage to treat chronic and ulcerous wounds. PMID:25548871

  8. Applicability of rapid and on-site measured enzyme activity for surface water quality monitoring in an agricultural catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadler, Philipp; Farnleitner, Andreas H.; Sommer, Regina; Kumpan, Monika; Zessner, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    For the near real time and on-site detection of microbiological fecal pollution of water, the measurement of beta-D- Glucuronidase (GLUC) enzymatic activity has been suggested as a surrogate parameter and has been already successfully operated for water quality monitoring of ground water resources (Ryzinska-Paier et al. 2014). Due to possible short measure intervals of three hours, this method has high potential as a water quality monitoring tool. While cultivation based standard determination takes more than one working day (Cabral 2010) the potential advantage of detecting the GLUC activity is the high temporal measuring resolution. Yet, there is still a big gap of knowledge on the fecal indication capacity of GLUC (specificity, sensitivity, persistence, etc.) in relation to potential pollution sources and catchment conditions (Cabral 2010, Ryzinska-Paier et al. 2014). Furthermore surface waters are a big challenge for automated detection devices in a technical point of view due to the high sediment load during event conditions. This presentation shows results gained form two years of monitoring in an experimental catchment (HOAL) dominated by agricultural land use. Two enzymatic measurement devices are operated parallel at the catchment outlet to test the reproducibility and precision of the method. Data from continuous GLUC monitoring under both base flow and event conditions is compared with reference samples analyzed by standardized laboratory methods for fecal pollution detection (e.g. ISO 16649-1, Colilert18). It is shown that rapid enzymatic on-site GLUC determination can successfully be operated from a technical point of view for surface water quality monitoring under the observed catchment conditions. The comparison of enzyme activity with microbiological standard analytics reveals distinct differences in the dynamic of the signals during event conditions. Cabral J. P. S. (2010) "Water Microbiology. Bacterial Pathogens and Water" International Journal of

  9. Too Little too Soon: The Literature of Deaf Education in 17th-Century Britain (Part II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoolihan, Christopher

    1985-01-01

    The article describes the growth in literature on deaf education in 17th century Britain. Noted is the work of John Wallis, William Holder, George Dalgarno, Anton Deusing, and Johann Conrad Amman. (CL)

  10. Expedition 29 Crew Profile

    NASA Video Gallery

    The six members of Expedition 29 are profiled and interviewed. NASA astronauts Mike Fossum and Dan Burbank; JAXA astronaut Satoshi Furukawa; and cosmonauts Anton Shkaplerov and Anatoly Ivanishin di...

  11. Elevated Ornithine Decarboxylase Levels Activate ATM - DNA Damage Signaling in Normal Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Gang; DeFeo, Karen; Hayes, Candace S.; Woster, Patrick M.; Mandik-Nayak, Laura; Gilmour, Susan K.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effect of increased expression of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), a key rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, on cell survival in primary cultures of keratinocytes isolated from the skin of K6/ODC transgenic mice (Ker/ODC) and their normal littermates (Ker/Norm). Although elevated levels of ODC and polyamines stimulate proliferation of keratinocytes, Ker/ODC undergo apoptotic cell death within days of primary culture unlike Ker/Norm that continue to proliferate. Phosphorylation of ATM and its substrate p53 are significantly induced both in Ker/ODC and in K6/ODC transgenic skin. ChIP analyses show that the increased level of p53 in Ker/ODC is accompanied by increased recruitment of p53 to the Bax proximal promoter. ATM activation is polyamine-dependent since DFMO, a specific inhibitor of ODC activity, blocks its phosphorylation. Ker/ODC also display increased generation of H2O2, acrolein-lysine conjugates, and protein oxidation products as well as polyamine-dependent DNA damage, as measured by the comet assay and the expression of the phosphorylated form of the histone variant γH2AX. Both ROS generation and apoptotic cell death of Ker/ODC may, at least in part, be due to induction of a polyamine catabolic pathway that generates both H2O2 and cytotoxic aldehydes, since spermine oxidase (SMO) levels are induced in Ker/ODC. In addition, treatment with MDL 72,527, an inhibitor of SMO, blocks the production of H2O2 and increases the survival of Ker/ODC. These results demonstrate a novel activation of the ATM/DNA damage signaling pathway in response to increased ODC activity in nontumorigenic keratinocytes. PMID:18381427

  12. Electron Localization in Molecular Fragmentation of H2 by Carrier-Envelope Phase Stabilized Laser Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremer, Manuel; Fischer, Bettina; Feuerstein, Bernold; de Jesus, Vitor L. B.; Sharma, Vandana; Hofrichter, Christian; Rudenko, Artem; Thumm, Uwe; Schröter, Claus Dieter; Moshammer, Robert; Ullrich, Joachim

    2009-11-01

    Fully differential data for H2 dissociation in ultrashort (6 fs, 760 nm), linearly polarized, intense (0.44PW/cm2) laser pulses with a stabilized carrier-envelope phase (CEP) were recorded with a reaction microscope. Depending on the CEP, the molecular orientation, and the kinetic energy release (KER), we find asymmetric proton emission at low KERs (0-3 eV), basically predicted by Roudnev and Esry, and much stronger than reported by Kling et al. Wave packet propagation calculations reproduce the salient features and discard, together with the observed KER-independent electron asymmetry, the first ionization step to be the reason for the asymmetric proton emission.

  13. Tracing direct and sequential two-photon double ionization of D{sub 2} in femtosecond extreme-ultraviolet laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Y. H.; Kurka, M.; Kuehnel, K. U.; Ergler, Th.; Schroeter, C. D.; Moshammer, R.; Rudenko, A.; Foucar, L.; Plesiat, E.; Perez-Torres, J. F.; Martin, F.; Herrwerth, O.; Lezius, M.; Kling, M. F.; Titze, J.; Jahnke, T.; Doerner, R.; Sanz-Vicario, J. L.; Schoeffler, M.; Tilborg, J. van

    2010-02-15

    Two-photon double ionization (TPDI) of D{sub 2} is studied for 38-eV photons at the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH). Based on model calculations, instantaneous and sequential absorption pathways are identified as separated peaks in the measured D{sup +}+D{sup +} fragment kinetic energy release (KER) spectra. The instantaneous process appears at high KER, corresponding to ionization at the molecule's equilibrium distance, in contrast to sequential ionization mainly leading to low-KER contributions. Measured fragment angular distributions are in good agreement with theory.

  14. What Causes Aplastic Anemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to aplastic anemia. Examples include Fanconi anemia , Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, dyskeratosis (DIS-ker-ah-TO-sis) congenita, and Diamond-Blackfan anemia. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video ...

  15. Controlling the formation of excited neutral D* fragments of D2 using intense ultrashort laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feizollah, Peyman; Berry, Ben; Severt, T.; Jochim, Bethany; Zohrabi, M.; Kanaka Raju, P.; Rajput, Jyoti; Carnes, K. D.; Esry, B. D.; Ben-Itzhak, I.

    2016-05-01

    Excited neutral D* fragments (n >> 1) are produced by the interaction of strong-field laser pulses with D2 molecules. In this work, we focus on the formation of low kinetic energy release (KER) D* fragments, which are relatively unstudied, using NIR (800-nm) and UV (400-nm) laser pulses. The KER spectrum is found to be very sensitive to the laser parameters, including laser chirp. By changing the chirp of the UV laser pulses, two separate low-KER peaks are generated instead of a single peak. Moreover, the ratio between these peaks can be controlled with the chirp. Similarly, by chirping the NIR pulses, the low-KER peak is attenuated and shifted to lower energy. This work was supported by the Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U. S. Department of Energy. BJ was also supported in part by DOE-SCGF (DE-AC05-06OR23100).

  16. Four new records and two new species of Phytoseiidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) from Turkey, with a key to the Turkish species.

    PubMed

    Döker, Ismail; Stathakis, Theodoros I; Kazak, Cengiz; Karut, Kamil; Papadoulis, Georgios Th

    2014-01-01

    Four species of phytoseiid mites namely Neoseiulus knappi Zannou, Moraes, Ueckermann & Oliveira, Typhlodromus (Typhlodromus) octogenipilus Kreiter, Tixier & Duso, Typhlodromus (T.) phialatus Athias-Henriot, and Typhloseiella isotricha (Athias-Henriot) are recorded for the first time from Turkey. Two new species Neoseiulus sekeroglui Döker & Stathakis n. sp. and Typhlodromus (Typhlodromus) antakyaensis Stathakis & Döker n. sp. are described and illustrated. A key to the all known phytoseiid species for the Turkish fauna is also provided. PMID:25081163

  17. Electron-impact dissociative double ionization of N2 and CO: Dependence of transition probability on impact energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, A.; Kumar, P.; Banerjee, S. B.; Subramanian, K. P.; Bapat, B.

    2016-04-01

    We present an experimental and computational analysis of dissociative double ionization of N2 and CO molecules under electron impact. Experiments are performed at three energies, viz. 1, 3, and 5 keV, in order to observe the effect of impact energy on the dissociative ionization kinematics. We compare the kinetic energy release (KER) distributions of the charge symmetric dissociation channels of N22 + and CO2 + at these impact energies. An approximately linear trend between the transition energy and the expected KER values is inferred on the basis of the calculated potential energy curves of the dications. Experimentally, the normalized differential KER cross sections for these channels show an increasing trend in the low KER range and a decreasing trend in the high KER range as the electron-impact energy is increased. This observation indicates that the transition probability for excitation to different molecular ion states is not only a function of energy difference between the ground and excited states, but also a complicated function of the impact energy. In addition, nature of the observed trend in the differential KER cross sections differs significantly from their differential transition probability, which are calculated using inelastic collision model for fast-electron-impact case.

  18. Subtilisin-γ-glutamyl transpeptidase: a novel combination as ungual enhancer for prospective topical application.

    PubMed

    Tiwary, Ekta; Gupta, Rani

    2010-12-01

    A feather degrading strain of Bacillus licheniformis ER-15 was isolated which also degraded α-keratin of hooves. A detailed analysis revealed that a novel monomeric γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT(30)), a proteolytic product of heterodimeric 67 kDa γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT(67)), assists subtilisin during its action on α keratin. An equimolar combination of subtilisin and GGT(30) was designated as KerN and was used as ungual enhancer for topical application. KerN was effective in releasing proteins from nail plate surface and 300 µg of enzyme could release 41 µg protein/mg of nail after 24 h treatment. Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) revealed loosening of nail matrix confirming the action of KerN on nail keratin. Drug permeation studies revealed permeation of clotrimazole through both enzymatically pretreated nail plates and also through nail plates in presence of KerN. Nearly 58% drug could be retained by nail plates after 24 h of 300 µg/mL KerN which further enhanced up to 97% by prolonging the enzyme application. The enzyme was found to be stable in presence of drug even after 72 h. Thus, KerN can be used as an additive in formulation of topical drug for onchomycosis. PMID:20572051

  19. Accurate and fast DFT calculations with the AM05 functional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsson, Ann E.

    2008-03-01

    The AM05 functional [1] has the same excellent performance for solids as the hybrid density functionals tested in Paier et. al. (J. Chem. Phys 124, 154709 (2006); ibid 125, 249901 (2006)). This confirms the original finding that AM05 performs exceptionally well for solids and surfaces. While hybrid functionals are computationally expensive, preveting them from being used in large systems and/or long molecular dynamics simulations, the AM05 functional is on a regular semi-local GGA form with corresponding computational cost. The performance of AM05 is even superior to an `informed choice' between LDA and PBE. By comparing data from different electronic-structure codes we have determined that the numerical errors in this study are equal to or smaller than corresponding experimental uncertainties. Results for other systems will also be presented. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. [1] R. Armiento and A. E. Mattsson, Phys. Rev. B 72, 085108 (2005).

  20. Synthesis, structure and antimicrobial property of green composites from cellulose, wool, hair and chicken feather.

    PubMed

    Tran, Chieu D; Prosencyes, Franja; Franko, Mladen; Benzi, Gerald

    2016-10-20

    Novel composites between cellulose (CEL) and keratin (KER) from three different sources (wool, hair and chicken feather) were successfully synthesized in a simple one-step process in which butylmethylimidazolium chloride (BMIm(+)Cl(-)), an ionic liquid, was used as the sole solvent. The method is green and recyclable because [BMIm(+)Cl(-)] used was recovered for reuse. Spectroscopy (FTIR, XRD) and imaging (SEM) results confirm that CEL and KER remain chemically intact and homogeneously distributed in the composites. KER retains some of its secondary structure in the composites. Interestingly, the minor differences in the structure of KER in wool, hair and feather produced pronounced differences in the conformation of their corresponding composites with wool has the highest α-helix content and feather has the lowest content. These results correlate well with mechanical and antimicrobial properties of the composites. Specifically, adding CEL into KER substantially improves mechanical strength of [CEL+KER] composites made from all three different sources, wool, hair and chicken feathers i.e., [CEL+wool], [CEL+hair] and [CEL+feather]. Since mechanical strength is due to CEL, and CEL has only random structure, [CEL+feather] has, expectedly, the strongest mechanical property because feather has the lowest content of α-helix. Conversely, [CEL+wool] composite has the weakest mechanical strength because wool has the highest α-helix content. All three composites exhibit antibacterial activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The antibacterial property is due not to CEL but to the protein and strongly depends on the type of the keratin, namely, the bactericidal effect is strongest for feather and weakest for wool. These results together with our previous finding that [CEL+KER] composites can control release of drug such as ciprofloxacin clearly indicate that these composites can potentially be used as wound dressing. PMID:27474680

  1. The Democratic School and the Pedagogy of Janusz Korczak: A Model of Early Twentieth Century Reform in Modern Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Liba H.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the history and pedagogy of Janusz Korczak within the context of his contemporary early Twentieth-Century European Innovative Educators which include Maria Montessori, Homer Lane, A.S. Neill, and Anton Semyonovitch Makarenko. The pedagogies of the aforementioned are compared and contrasted within the literature.

  2. York Papers in Linguistics 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlow, S. J., Ed.; Warner, A. R., Ed.

    Papers on a variety of linguistic topics include six papers from a Festschrift and nine others, as follows: "Attitudes Towards English as a Possible Lingua Franca in Switzerland" (Urs Durmuller); "Functional Stability and Structural Levelling of Dialects: The Case of Maastricht" (Anton M. Hagen, Henk Munstermann); "On the Limits of Auditory…

  3. A comet in the lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland, Phil A.; Kearsley, Anton T.; Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Burchell, M. J.; Gounelle, M.; Zolensky, M. E.; Genge, Matt J.

    2007-12-01

    What have Stardust samples told us about the early solar system? Phil A Bland, Anton T Kearsley, P J Wozniakiewicz, M J Burchell, M Gounelle, M E Zolensky and Matt J Genge have some of the answers - and a few more questions.

  4. The Way of the Drum: When Earth Becomes Heart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antone, Grafton; Turchetti, Lois Provost

    Two Native people describe their respective journeys to healing, journeys that involved the rediscovery of language and culture. In Part I, "Healing the Tears of Yesterday by the Drum Today: The Oneida Language Is a Healing Medicine" (Grafton Antone), the first narrator taught the Oneida language to adult students at a community center. Lacking…

  5. State of the Modern Information Professional, 1992-1993. An International View of the State of the Information Professional and the Information Profession in 1992-1993. FID Occasional Paper 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation for Information and Documentation, The Hague (Netherlands).

    The following 14 papers are provided: (1) "Perfil del profesional de la informacion en Venezuela" with a synopsis in English: "Profile of the Information Professional in Venezuela" (A. D. Anton and M. S. de Arenas); (2) "The Modern Information Professional in the Caribbean Setting" (D. Douglas); (3) "Development of Information Professionals and…

  6. Integrative Education: Teaching Psychology with the Use of Literature and Informational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toom, Anna

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a new method of teaching psychology based on the union of scientific, artistic, and information-technological knowledge is presented. The author teaches Cognitive Development in Early Childhood analyzing Anton Chekhov's short story "Grisha" and uses both traditional and computerized instructional methodology. In the authors' two…

  7. 17. 'BIRDSEYEVIEW, PRESIDIO OF MONTEREY, CAL., JAN. 1938.' No signature, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. 'BIRDSEYEVIEW, PRESIDIO OF MONTEREY, CAL., JAN. 1938.' No signature, photographer probably Anton C. Heidrick. This panoramic view looks west over Soldier Field from the upper floor or roof of the gymnasium. Original cool toned silver gelatin print measures 85.1 cm by 22.4 cm, flush mounted on mat board. - Presidio of Monterey, Soldier Field, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  8. A Communicative Analysis of Chekhovian Drama as Portrayed in "The Sea Gull."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellweg, John D.; Hellweg, Susan A.

    The precision and poetic logic of the language used by Anton Chekhov in his plays, particularly "The Sea Gull," can be explored through an analysis of his use of dialogue, characterization, and imagery. Measuring the nature of a relationship, rather than providing a direct literal interchange, the dialogue is both social, when individual…

  9. Effectiveness of Graduate Training in School Psychology: Perspectives of Graduate Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satchwell, Mary Susan

    2013-01-01

    While trends in graduate training in school psychology indicate a movement towards an increasing emphasis on consultation and decreasing emphasis on assessment (Anton-LaHart & Rosenfield, 2004), there remains a gap between training and practice for professional school psychologists (Harrison, et al., 2004). The present study provided an…

  10. Teaching Translation and Interpreting in Slovakia: Is There Anything Other than Levý and Popovic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biloveský, Vladimír; Djovcoš, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Institutional translation and interpreting training has a long lasting tradition in Slovakia mainly thanks to such significant translation scholars as Anton Popovic, František Miko, Ján Vilikovský and many others. However the situation has changed after the Velvet Revolution in 1989 and the education needed to start adapting to the new market…

  11. Remembering Johann Gregor Mendel: a human, a Catholic priest, an Augustinian monk, and abbot.

    PubMed

    Richter, Father Clemens

    2015-11-01

    Johann Mendel (Gregor was the name given to him only later by his Augustinian order, Fig. 1) was born on July 20, 1822 to an ethnic German family, Anton and Rosina Mendel (Fig. 2), in Heinzendorf in the Austrian Empire at the Moravian-Silesian border (now Hynčice, Czech Republic). PMID:26740939

  12. Franklin, Lavoisier, and Mesmer: origin of the controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Herr, Harry W

    2005-01-01

    In 1784, a Royal Commission headed by Benjamin Franklin and Antoine Lavoisier designed a series of ingenious experiments to debunk France's greatest medical rogue, Anton Mesmer, and his bizarre healing of illnesses based on his bogus theory of animal magnetism. Using intentional subject ignorance and sham interventions to investigate mesmerism, Franklin's commission provided a model for the controlled clinical trial. PMID:16144669

  13. Cysteic Acid in Dietary Keratin is Metabolized to Glutathione and Liver Taurine in a Rat Model of Human Digestion

    PubMed Central

    Wolber, Frances M.; McGrath, Michelle; Jackson, Felicity; Wylie, Kim; Broomfield, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Poultry feathers, consisting largely of keratin, are a low-value product of the poultry industry. The safety and digestibility of a dietary protein produced from keratin (KER) was compared to a cysteine-supplemented casein-based diet in a growing rat model for four weeks. KER proved to be an effective substitute for casein at 50% of the total dietary protein, with no changes in the rats’ food intake, weight gain, organ weight, bone mineral density, white blood cell counts, liver glutathione, or blood glutathione. Inclusion of KER in the diet reduced total protein digestibility from 94% to 86% but significantly increased total dietary cysteine uptake and subsequent liver taurine levels. The KER diet also significantly increased caecum weight and significantly decreased fat digestibility, resulting in a lower proportion of body fat, and induced a significant increase in blood haemoglobin. KER is therefore a safe and suitable protein substitute for casein, and the cysteic acid in keratin is metabolised to maintain normal liver and blood glutathione levels. PMID:26907334

  14. Cysteic Acid in Dietary Keratin is Metabolized to Glutathione and Liver Taurine in a Rat Model of Human Digestion.

    PubMed

    Wolber, Frances M; McGrath, Michelle; Jackson, Felicity; Wylie, Kim; Broomfield, Anne

    2016-02-01

    Poultry feathers, consisting largely of keratin, are a low-value product of the poultry industry. The safety and digestibility of a dietary protein produced from keratin (KER) was compared to a cysteine-supplemented casein-based diet in a growing rat model for four weeks. KER proved to be an effective substitute for casein at 50% of the total dietary protein, with no changes in the rats' food intake, weight gain, organ weight, bone mineral density, white blood cell counts, liver glutathione, or blood glutathione. Inclusion of KER in the diet reduced total protein digestibility from 94% to 86% but significantly increased total dietary cysteine uptake and subsequent liver taurine levels. The KER diet also significantly increased caecum weight and significantly decreased fat digestibility, resulting in a lower proportion of body fat, and induced a significant increase in blood haemoglobin. KER is therefore a safe and suitable protein substitute for casein, and the cysteic acid in keratin is metabolised to maintain normal liver and blood glutathione levels. PMID:26907334

  15. Kinetic energy distributions in ion-induced CO fragmentation: Signature of shallow states in multiply charged CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajput, Jyoti; Safvan, C. P.

    2007-06-01

    Ion-induced molecular fragmentation of CO has been studied using time-of-flight mass spectroscopy with position sensitive detectors in multihit coincidence mode. Ar8+ ions having a velocity of 1.1 a.u. were used as projectiles. The features observed in the kinetic energy release (KER) spectra for all the detected fragmentation channels are discussed in light of the existing and calculated ab initio potential energy curves. The preference of the symmetric breakup over the asymmetric one is clearly observed. For fragmentation channels originating from the same parent molecular ion, it is observed that the most probable KER value is higher for the dissociation channel having a higher charge on the oxygen ion. Occurrence of sharp peaks in KER spectra of some of the fragmentation channels hints towards the existence of shallow (possibly metastable) excited states of COq+ (q=4,5) molecular ions and calls for further theoretical investigations.

  16. Electron Localization in Molecular Fragmentation of H{sub 2} by Carrier-Envelope Phase Stabilized Laser Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Kremer, Manuel; Fischer, Bettina; Feuerstein, Bernold; Sharma, Vandana; Hofrichter, Christian; Schroeter, Claus Dieter; Moshammer, Robert; Ullrich, Joachim; Jesus, Vitor L. B. de; Rudenko, Artem; Thumm, Uwe

    2009-11-20

    Fully differential data for H{sub 2} dissociation in ultrashort (6 fs, 760 nm), linearly polarized, intense (0.44 PW/cm{sup 2}) laser pulses with a stabilized carrier-envelope phase (CEP) were recorded with a reaction microscope. Depending on the CEP, the molecular orientation, and the kinetic energy release (KER), we find asymmetric proton emission at low KERs (0-3 eV), basically predicted by Roudnev and Esry, and much stronger than reported by Kling et al. Wave packet propagation calculations reproduce the salient features and discard, together with the observed KER-independent electron asymmetry, the first ionization step to be the reason for the asymmetric proton emission.

  17. Chitosan scaffolds containing chicken feather keratin nanoparticles for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, S; Sameera, D K; Moorthi, A; Selvamurugan, N

    2013-11-01

    Chicken feathers are considered as major waste from poultry industry. They are mostly constituted by a protein called keratin. In this study, keratin was prepared from chicken feathers and from where keratin nanoparticles (nKer) were synthesized. Since chitosan has excellent properties like controlled biodegradation and biocompatibility, we used keratin nanoparticles along with chitosan matrix as scaffolds (CS/nKer) and they were characterized by SEM, FT-IR and XRD analyses. There was a porous architecture in the scaffolds in the range to support cell infiltration and tissue ingrowth. The keratin nanoparticles had interaction with chitosan matrix and did not alter the semi crystalline nature of chitosan scaffolds. The biodegradation and protein adsorption of the scaffolds were significantly increased upon addition of keratin nanoparticles. The scaffolds were also found to be non-cytotoxic to human osteoblastic cells. Thus, CS/nKer scaffolds could serve as a potential biomimetic substrate for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:24095711

  18. Renormalized second-order perturbation theory for the electron correlation energy: Concept, implementation, and benchmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xinguo; Rinke, Patrick; Scuseria, Gustavo E.; Scheffler, Matthias

    2013-07-01

    We present a renormalized second-order perturbation theory (rPT2), based on a Kohn-Sham (KS) reference state, for the electron correlation energy that includes the random-phase approximation (RPA), second-order screened exchange (SOSEX), and renormalized single excitations (rSE). These three terms all involve a summation of certain types of diagrams to infinite order, and can be viewed as ``renormalization'' of the second-order direct, exchange, and single-excitation (SE) terms of Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory based on a KS reference. In this work, we establish the concept of rPT2 and present the numerical details of our SOSEX and rSE implementations. A preliminary version of rPT2, in which the renormalized SE (rSE) contribution was treated approximately, has already been benchmarked for molecular atomization energies and chemical reaction barrier heights and shows a well-balanced performance [J. Paier , New J. Phys.1367-263010.1088/1367-2630/14/4/043002 14, 043002 (2012)]. In this work, we present a refined version of rPT2, in which we evaluate the rSE series of diagrams rigorously. We then extend the benchmark studies to noncovalent interactions, including the rare-gas dimers, and the S22 and S66 test sets, as well as the cohesive energy of small copper clusters, and the equilibrium geometry of 10 diatomic molecules. Despite some remaining shortcomings, we conclude that rPT2 gives an overall satisfactory performance across different electronic situations, and is a promising step towards a generally applicable electronic-structure approach.

  19. 2015 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Presents the 2015 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association. In his introduction, President Barry Anton describes how 2015 was among APA's most challenging. Although 2015 ushered in an era of greater transparency within the association and enhanced communications to members and the public, it also required painful self-reflection stemming from the revelations of an independent review by an outside law firm. The review examined the question of whether APA played any role related to the Bush administration's use of abusive interrogation techniques during the war on terror. Anton's introduction also discusses (1) the APA convention, (2) representing APA at a White House meeting with health care providers and insurance companies, (3) APA's effort to increase the number of APA-accredited internships, (4) international activities, and (5) the global summit on psychology and integrated care. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27504583

  20. Detection of fungal damaged popcorn using image property covariance features

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Covariance-matrix-based features were applied to the detection of popcorn infected by a fungus that cause a symptom called “blue-eye.” This infection of popcorn kernels causes economic losses because of their poor appearance and the frequently disagreeable flavor of the popped kernels. Images of ker...

  1. A comparative study of Dissociative Ionization of N2 and CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Amrendra; Bapat, B.; Shamsundar, K. R.

    2014-04-01

    A comparative study on the properties of charge symmetric dissociation (CSD) and charge asymmetric dissociation (CAD) of doubly ionized N2 and CO is performed. Kinetic energy release (KER) distributions resulting from the dissociation of doubly charged molecular ions are explained on the basis of calculated potential energy curves.

  2. Low Cost Real-Time Sorting of in Shell Pistachio Nuts from Kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high speed sorter for separating pistachio nuts with (in shell) and without (kernels) shells is reported. Testing indicates 95% accuracy in removing kernels from the in shell stream with no false positive results out of 1000 kernels tested. Testing with 1000 each of in shell, shell halves, and ker...

  3. "The Road from Coorain": A Journey of Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Sandra

    "The Road from Coorain" is the autobiographical story of Jill Ker Conway, the first woman president of Smith College. The story traces Conway's journey from powerlessness to power. Born in the outback of Australia, where all people were powerless in the face of the vacillations of nature, forced off the land into a city life to which she was…

  4. The Road from Coorain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Jill Ker

    This autobiography is concerned with the early years and young womanhood of Jill Ker Conway, the first female president of Smith College and a noted historian specializing in the experience of women in America. The book tells the story of Conway's journey from a girlhood on an isolated sheep farm in the Australian grasslands where she studied by…

  5. Catholic Women's Colleges in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schier, Tracy, Ed.; Russett, Cynthia, Ed.

    The chapters in this collection provide a comprehensive history of Catholic women's colleges in the United States and how they have met the challenges of broader educational change. The chapters are: (1) "Faith, Knowledge, and Gender" (Jill Ker Conway); (2) "Colleges of Religious Women's Congregations: The Spiritual Heritage" (Monika K. Hellwig);…

  6. Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) for a Mutagenic Mode of Action for Cancer: AFB1 and Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    AOPs provide a framework to describe a sequence of measureable key events (KEs), beginning with a molecular initiating event (MIE), followed by a series of identified KEs linked to one another by KE Relationships (KERs), all anchored by a specific adverse outcome (AO). Each KE/KE...

  7. Discriminating Nonpareil marketing group almond cultivars through multivariate analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The California almond industry produces over 80% of the world’s almonds with nearly 2 billion pounds harvested in 2011. Several dozen cultivars are grown, but the Nonpareil cultivar is dominant in both acreage and tonnage. Almond cultivars are categorized into defined marketing groups based on ker...

  8. Variability of Winter Extreme Heat Flux Events in Kuroshio Extension and Gulf Stream Extension Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, X.; Chang, P.; Wu, D.; Lin, X.

    2012-12-01

    We analyzed extreme surface heat flux events, defined by daily sensible (latent) heat flux greater than 80 percentile value (hereafter referred to as high-flux events) associated with boreal winter (NDJFM) cold-air outbreaks (CAOs) in the Kuroshio Extension Region (KER) of the Northwestern Pacific, using the high-resolution NCEP-CFSR (1979-2009) and NCEP-NCAR (1948-2009) reanalysis, and compared the results to those in the Gulf Stream Region (GSR) of the Northwestern Atlantic. The average accumulated number of days of the Pacific high-flux events, which typically last fewer than 3 days, is only less than 20% of the winter period but contributes significantly (>30%) to the total sensible and latent heat fluxes during the entire winter season in the KER. These high flux events are characterized by "cold storms" with a positive geopotential height anomaly (anti-cyclone) over Japan and a negative geopotential height anomaly (cyclone) further downstream, in between which there is an anomalous northerly wind that brings cold and dry air from the Eurasian continent to the KER. In contrast, non-event days are characterized by "warm storms" that have a cyclone (an anti-cyclone) to the west (east) of the KER, bringing warm and moist air from the subtropics to the KER. There are important differences between the Pacific and Atlantic CAOs. Generally, the Atlantic CAOs occur more frequently with stronger intensity and shorter duration than those in the Pacific. The "cold storms" in the KER also differ from those in the GSR in terms of their detailed structure and orientation relative to geographic location. However, in both the Pacific and Atlantic, interannual and longer term variations of sensible and latent heat flux are determined by the high flux events, suggesting that extreme winter storm events play an important role in the mid-latitude climate system. In the Pacific basin, decadal variability dominates the low-frequency variability of total and event-day sensible and

  9. 14. 'TROOP A, OREGON CAVALRY IN CAMP AT PRESIDIO OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. 'TROOP A, OREGON CAVALRY IN CAMP AT PRESIDIO OF MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA, 1915.' Anton C. Heidrick, photographer. This panoramic view looks west from the lower end of Soldier Field, before construction of walls and roads. Original warm toned silver gelatin print measures 94.9 cm by 19.7 cm, flush mounted on mat board. - Presidio of Monterey, Soldier Field, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  10. E-Pals: Examining a Cross-Cultural Writing/Literature Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClanahan, Lauren G.

    This paper reports on a case study of a U.S. high school literature class during an e-mail exchange with a high school literature class in Moscow (Russia). During this project, the students in both classrooms read short stories by Anton Chekhov and O'Henry. By using the stories as a catalyst, the students' goal was to help their distant partner to…

  11. 16. 'EXCELLENT NEW PARADE GROUND BEST SINCE POST ESTABLISHED. STARTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. 'EXCELLENT NEW PARADE GROUND BEST SINCE POST ESTABLISHED. STARTED BY COL. RALPH PARKER, FINISHED BY COL. TROUPE MILLER, PRESIDIO OF MONTEREY CALIFORNIA.' No date, probably ca. 1936. No signature, photographer probably Anton C. Heidrick. This panoramic view looks east over Soldier Field to the Bay, from the cannons at the west end. Original hand tinted silver gelatin print measures 90.4 cm by 20.2 cm, flush mounted on mat board. - Presidio of Monterey, Soldier Field, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  12. Accretion of the Archean Slave province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusky, T. M.

    1989-01-01

    Continental rift models have long been applied to the Archean Slave province of northwestern Canada. A reassessment of these models shows them to be incompatible with observed geological relations and suggests that contractional tectonic models may be more appropriate than extensional ones. Regions composed of different rock suites (e.g., orthogneisses vs. mafic volcanics) are separated by high-strain zones recording large displacements. It is proposed that the high-strain zones separate four distinct terranes that have been juxtaposed during collisional orogenesis. From west to east, these include the Anton terrane, interpreted as an Archean microcontinent; the Sleepy Dragon terrane, possibly an exhumed more eastern part of the Anton terrane; the Contwoyto terrane, a westward-verging fold and thrust belt containing tectonic slivers of greenstone volcanics; and the Hackett River volcanic terrane, interpreted as an Archean island arc. The Contwoyto and Hackett River terranes represent a paired accretionary prism and island-arc system that formed above an east-dipping subduction zone. These collided with the Anton microcontinent, producing a basement nappe, expressed as the Sleepy Dragon terrane, during the main accretion event within the Slave province. The whole tectonic assemblage was intruded by late-kinematic to postkinematic granitoids.

  13. Frequency-resolved optical gating technique for retrieving the amplitude of a vibrational wavepacket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabekawa, Yasuo; Furukawa, Yusuke; Okino, Tomoya; Amani Eilanlou, A.; Takahashi, Eiji J.; Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2015-06-01

    We propose a novel method to determine the complex amplitude of each eigenfunction composing a vibrational wavepacket of / molecular ions evolving with a ~10 fs time scale. We find that the two-dimensional spectrogram of the kinetic energy release (KER) of H+/D+ fragments plotted against the time delay of the probe pulse is equivalent to the spectrogram used in the frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) technique to retrieve the complex amplitude of an ultrashort optical pulse. By adapting the FROG algorithm to the delay-KER spectrogram of the vibrational wavepacket, we have successfully reconstructed the complex amplitude. The deterioration in retrieval accuracy caused by the bandpass filter required to process actual experimental data is also discussed.

  14. Fragmentation dynamics in O2q+ and COq+ molecules in intense laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrakvelidze, M.; Aikens, C. M.; Thumm, U.

    2011-05-01

    We investigate influence of non-adiabatic couplings on the dissociation and Coulomb-explosion (CE) dynamics of diatomic molecules in intense laser fields. To identify electronic states that contribute to the molecular dynamics, we first calculate adiabatic potential curves and electric dipole-coupling (DC) elements with the quantum chemistry code GAMESS. Next we calculate fragment-kinetic-energy-release (KER) spectra as a function of time and quantum-beat frequency for one molecular potential curve at a time and compare calculated revival times and beat frequencies with experimental data. After identifying relevant electronic states we include laser-induced DCs in improved wave-packet propagation calculations including two (or more) electronic states and again compare KER spectra with experimental results. We apply this scheme to O2 and CO. Supported by the US DOE and NSF.

  15. Dynamic modification of the fragmentation of COq+ excited states generated with high-order harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, W.; de, S.; Singh, K. P.; Chen, S.; Schöffler, M. S.; Alnaser, A. S.; Bocharova, I. A.; Laurent, G.; Ray, D.; Zherebtsov, S.; Kling, M. F.; Ben-Itzhak, I.; Litvinyuk, I. V.; Belkacem, A.; Osipov, T.; Rescigno, T.; Cocke, C. L.

    2010-10-01

    The dynamic process of fragmentation of COq+ excited states is investigated using a pump-probe approach. EUV radiation (32-48 eV) generated by high-order harmonics was used to ionize and excite CO molecules and a time-delayed infrared (IR) pulse (800 nm) was used to influence the evolution of the dissociating multichannel wave packet. Two groups of states, separable experimentally by their kinetic-energy release (KER), are populated by the EUV and lead to C+-O+ fragmentation: direct double ionization of the neutral molecule and fragmentation of the cation leading to C+-O*, followed by autoionization of O*. The IR pulse was found to modify the KER of the latter group in a delay-dependent way which is explained with a model calculation.

  16. Ultrafast Extreme Ultraviolet Induced Isomerization of Acetylene Cations

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Y.; Rudenko, Artem; Herrwerth, O.; Foucar, L.; Kurka, M.; Kuhnel, K.; Lezius, M.; Kling, Matthias; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Belkacem, Ali; Ueda, K.; Dusterer, S.; Treusch, R.; Schroter, Claus-Dieter; Moshammer, Robbert; Ullrich, Joachim

    2011-06-17

    Ultrafast isomerization of acetylene cations ([HC = CH]{sup +}) in the low-lying excited A{sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +} state, populated by the absorption of extreme ultraviolet (XUV) photons (38 eV), has been observed at the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg, (FLASH). Recording coincident fragments C{sup +} + CH{sub 2}{sup +} as a function of time between XUV-pump and -probe pulses, generated by a split-mirror device, we find an isomerization time of 52 {+-} 15 fs in a kinetic energy release (KER) window of 5.8 < KER < 8 eV, providing clear evidence for the existence of a fast, nonradiative decay channel.

  17. Frequency-resolved optical gating technique for retrieving the amplitude of a vibrational wavepacket

    PubMed Central

    Nabekawa, Yasuo; Furukawa, Yusuke; Okino, Tomoya; Amani Eilanlou, A.; Takahashi, Eiji J.; Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel method to determine the complex amplitude of each eigenfunction composing a vibrational wavepacket of / molecular ions evolving with a ~10 fs time scale. We find that the two-dimensional spectrogram of the kinetic energy release (KER) of H+/D+ fragments plotted against the time delay of the probe pulse is equivalent to the spectrogram used in the frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) technique to retrieve the complex amplitude of an ultrashort optical pulse. By adapting the FROG algorithm to the delay-KER spectrogram of the vibrational wavepacket, we have successfully reconstructed the complex amplitude. The deterioration in retrieval accuracy caused by the bandpass filter required to process actual experimental data is also discussed. PMID:26068640

  18. Dynamic modification of the fragmentation of CO{sup q+} excited states generated with high-order harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, W.; De, S.; Singh, K. P.; Chen, S.; Laurent, G.; Ray, D.; Ben-Itzhak, I.; Cocke, C. L.; Schoeffler, M. S.; Belkacem, A.; Osipov, T.; Rescigno, T.; Alnaser, A. S.; Bocharova, I. A.; Zherebtsov, S.; Kling, M. F.; Litvinyuk, I. V.

    2010-10-15

    The dynamic process of fragmentation of CO{sup q+} excited states is investigated using a pump-probe approach. EUV radiation (32-48 eV) generated by high-order harmonics was used to ionize and excite CO molecules and a time-delayed infrared (IR) pulse (800 nm) was used to influence the evolution of the dissociating multichannel wave packet. Two groups of states, separable experimentally by their kinetic-energy release (KER), are populated by the EUV and lead to C{sup +}-O{sup +} fragmentation: direct double ionization of the neutral molecule and fragmentation of the cation leading to C{sup +}-O*, followed by autoionization of O*. The IR pulse was found to modify the KER of the latter group in a delay-dependent way which is explained with a model calculation.

  19. Ultrafast Extreme Ultraviolet Induced Isomerization of Acetylene Cations

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Y. H.; Kurka, M.; Kuehnel, K. U.; Schroeter, C. D.; Moshammer, R.; Rudenko, A.; Foucar, L.; Herrwerth, O.; Lezius, M.; Kling, M. F.; Tilborg, J. van; Belkacem, A.; Ueda, K.; Duesterer, S.; Treusch, R.; Ullrich, J.

    2010-12-31

    Ultrafast isomerization of acetylene cations ([HC=CH]{sup +}) in the low-lying excited A{sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +} state, populated by the absorption of extreme ultraviolet (XUV) photons (38 eV), has been observed at the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg, (FLASH). Recording coincident fragments C{sup +}+CH{sub 2}{sup +} as a function of time between XUV-pump and -probe pulses, generated by a split-mirror device, we find an isomerization time of 52{+-}15 fs in a kinetic energy release (KER) window of 5.8<KER<8 eV, providing clear evidence for the existence of a fast, nonradiative decay channel.

  20. The effects of isolation on the mechanics of the human heel pad.

    PubMed

    Aerts, P; Ker, R F; de Clercq, D; Ilsley, D W

    1996-04-01

    In previous studies on the mechanical properties of the human heel pad (Bennett & Ker, 1990; Aerts et al. 1995) the fat pad and part of the calcaneus was removed from amputated test specimens. The present study tested whether this procedure influences the mechanical behaviour of the sample. Intact amputated feet were therefore mounted on steel rods driven through the calcaneus and placed in a mechanical test situation (pendulum or servohydraulic material tester). The mechanical properties of the pad were determined for a series of experiments in which the pad was gradually freed from the foot in the way done by Bennett & Ker (1990) and Aerts et al. (1995). The results showed no observable differences in the mechanics of the pad by isolating it from the rest of the foot. Thus, in relation to human locomotion, the load-deformation relation of heel pads as described by Aerts et al. (1995) is the most appropriate to date. PMID:8621341

  1. Double-ionization mechanisms of the argon dimer in intense laser fields

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, B.; Vredenborg, A.; Malakzadeh, A.; Meckel, M.; Cole, K.; Jahnke, T.; Doerner, R.; Smolarski, M.; Chang, Z.

    2010-07-15

    We have measured the two-site double ionization of argon dimers by ultrashort laser pulses leading to fragmentation into two singly charged argon ions. Contrary to the expectations from a pure Coulomb explosion following rapid removal of one electron from each of the atoms, we find three distinct peaks in the kinetic energy release (KER) distribution. By measuring the angular distribution of the fragment ions and the vector momentum of one of the emitted electrons for circular and linear laser polarization, we are able to unravel the ionization mechanisms leading to the three features in the KER. The most abundant one results from tunnel ionization at one site followed by charge-enhanced tunnel ionization of the second atom. The second mechanism, which leads to a higher KER we identify as sequential tunnel ionization of both atoms accompanied by excitation. The third mechanism is present with linearly polarized light only. It is most likely a frustrated triple ionization, where the third electron does not escape but is trapped in a Rydberg state.

  2. Construction of a Rapid Feather-Degrading Bacterium by Overexpression of a Highly Efficient Alkaline Keratinase in Its Parent Strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens K11.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lian; Wang, Hui; Lv, Yi; Bai, Yingguo; Luo, Huiying; Shi, Pengjun; Huang, Huoqing; Yao, Bin

    2016-01-13

    Keratinase is essential to degrade the main feather component, keratin, and is of importance for wide industrial applications. In this study, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain K11 was found to have significant feather-degrading capacity (completely degraded whole feathers within 24 h). The keratinase encoding gene, kerK, was expressed in Bacillus subtilis SCK6. The purified recombinant KerK showed optimal activity at 50 °C and pH 11.0 and degraded whole feathers within 0.5 h in the presence of DTT. The recombinant plasmids harboring kerK were extracted from B. subtilis SCK6 and transformed into B. amyloliquefaciens K11. As a result, the recombinant B. amyloliquefaciens K11 exhibited enhanced feather-degrading capacity with shortened reaction time within 12 h and increased keratinolytic activity (1500 U/mL) by 6-fold. This efficient and rapid feather-degrading character makes the recombinant strain of B. amyloliquefaciens K11 have potential for applications in feather meal preparation and waste feather disposal. PMID:26671753

  3. Imaging the radical channel in acetaldehyde photodissociation: Competing mechanisms at energies close to the triplet exit barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Amaral, G. A.; Arregui, A.; Rodriguez, J. D.; Banares, L.; Rubio-Lago, L.

    2010-08-14

    The photodissociation of acetaldehyde in the radical channel has been studied at wavelengths between 315 and 325 nm using the velocity-map imaging technique. Upon one-photon absorption at 315 nm, the molecule is excited to the first singlet excited state S{sub 1}, which, in turn, undergoes intersystem crossing to the first excited triplet state T{sub 1}. On the triplet surface, the molecule dissociates into CH{sub 3} and HCO radicals with large kinetic energy release (KER), in accordance with the well characterized exit barrier on T{sub 1}. However, at longer wavelengths (>320 nm), which correspond to excitation energies just below the triplet barrier, a sudden change in KER is observed. At these photolysis wavelengths, there is not enough energy to surpass the exit barrier on the triplet state, which leaves the possibility of unimolecular dissociation on S{sub 0} after internal conversion from S{sub 1}. We have characterized the fragments' KER at these wavelengths, as well as determined the energy partitioning for the radical fragments. A new accurate estimate of the barrier height on T{sub 1} is presented.

  4. Auger decay of 1{sigma}{sub g} and 1{sigma}{sub u} hole states of the N{sub 2} molecule. II. Young-type interference of Auger electrons and its dependence on internuclear distance

    SciTech Connect

    Cherepkov, N. A.; Semenov, S. K.; Schoeffler, M. S.; Titze, J.; Petridis, N.; Jahnke, T.; Cole, K.; Schmidt, L. Ph. H.; Czasch, A.; Jagutzki, O.; Schmidt-Boecking, H.; Doerner, R.; Akoury, D.; Williams, J. B.; Landers, A. L.; Osipov, T.; Lee, S.; Prior, M. H.; Belkacem, A.; Weber, Th.

    2010-08-15

    Theoretical two-center interference patterns produced (i) by the K-shell photoionization process of the N{sub 2} molecule and (ii) by the Auger decay process of the K-shell hole state of the N{sub 2} molecule are compared for the case of equal photo- and Auger-electron energies of about 360 eV. The comparison shows that both the angular distribution of the photoelectrons and the angular distribution of the Auger electrons of equal energy in the molecular frame are primarily defined by the Young interference. The experimental data for the angular resolved K-shell Auger electrons as a function of the kinetic-energy release (KER) obtained earlier [Phys. Rev. A 81, 043426 (2010)] have been renormalized in order to visualize the angular variation in the regions of low Auger-electron intensities. That renormalized data are compared with the corresponding theoretical results. From the known behavior of the potential energy curves, the connection between the KER and the internuclear distance can be established. Since the Young interference pattern is sensitive to the internuclear distance in the molecule, from the measured KER dependence of the Young interference pattern one can trace the behavior of the Auger-electron angular distribution for different molecular terms as a function of internuclear distance. The results of that analysis are in a good agreement with the corresponding theoretical predictions.

  5. Structural inheritance and selective reactivation in the central Andes: Cenozoic deformation guided by pre-Andean structures in southern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Nicholas D.; Horton, Brian K.; Carlotto, Victor

    2016-03-01

    Structural, stratigraphic, and geochronologic constraints from the Eastern Cordillera in the central Andean plateau of southern Peru (14-15°S) demonstrate the existence and position of major pre-Andean structures that controlled the accumulation of Triassic synrift fill and guided subsequent Cenozoic deformation. The timing of initial clastic deposition of the Triassic Mitu Group is here constrained to ~ 242-233 Ma on the basis of detrital and volcanic zircon U-Pb geochronology. Regionally distinct provenance variations, as provided by U-Pb age populations from localized synrift accumulations, demonstrate Triassic erosion of multiple diagnostic sources from diverse rift-flank uplifts. Stratigraphic correlations suggest synchronous initiation of extensional basins containing the Mitu Group, in contrast with previous interpretations of southward rift propagation. Triassic motion along the NE-dipping San Anton normal fault accommodated up to 7 km of throw and hanging-wall deposition of a synrift Mitu succession > 2.5 km thick. The contrasting orientation of a non-reactivated Triassic normal fault suggests selective inversion of individual structures in the Eastern Cordillera was dependent on fault dip and strike. Selective preservation of a ~ 4 km thick succession of Carboniferous-Permian strata in the down-dropped San Anton hanging wall, beneath the synrift Mitu Group, suggests large-scale erosional removal in the uplifted footwall. Field and map observations identify additional pre-Andean thrust faults and folds attributed to poorly understood Paleozoic orogenic events preserved in the San Anton hanging wall. Selective thrust reactivation of normal and reverse faults during later compression largely guided Cenozoic deformation in the Eastern Cordillera. The resulting structural compartmentalization and across-strike variations in kinematics and deformation style highlight the influence of inherited Paleozoic structures and Triassic normal faults on the long

  6. Darwin: German mystic or French rationalist?

    PubMed

    Ghiselin, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    The notion that Charles Darwin embraced the German Romantic tradition seems plausible, given the early influence of Alexander von Humboldt. But this view fails to do justice to other scientific traditions. Darwin was a protégé of the Englishman John Stevens Henslow and was a follower of the Scott Charles Lyell. He had important debts to French scientists, notably Henri Milne-Edwards, Etienne and Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, and Alphonse de Candolle. Many Germans were quite supportive of Darwin, but not all of these were encumbered by idealistic metaphysical baggage. Both Darwin and Anton Dohrn treated science as very much a cosmopolitan enterprise. PMID:25515143

  7. Pigment characterization of important golden age panel paintings of the 17th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pięta, Ewa; Proniewicz, Edyta; Szmelter-Fausek, Bożena; Olszewska-Świetlik, Justyna; Proniewicz, Leonard M.

    2015-02-01

    Samples were obtained from two world-famous 17th century panel paintings of the Gdańsk school of panting: 'Seven Acts of Charity' (1607, in St. Mary's Church in Gdańsk, Poland) by Anton Möller and 'Angelic Concert' (1611, in Diocesan Museum in Pelplin, Poland) by Hermann Han. Micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS), optical microscopy (OM), and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy studies of the samples were performed to characterize the pigments present in the individual painting layers (a rich palette of white, black, blue, red, and yellow pigments) and the pictorial techniques used by the artists.

  8. The first use of self-hypnosis: Mesmer mesmerizes Mesmer.

    PubMed

    Gravitz, M A

    1994-07-01

    Self-hypnosis is an important modern therapeutic method. This article traces its initial use in either 1778 or 1779 by Franz Anton Mesmer, the founder of animal magnetism, which, in turn, led to the present modality of hypnosis. According to a contemporary account written by a colleague, Mesmer successfully treated himself for a condition described as a blockage in the lower part of his body. He may have also taught the method of self-magnetization to others in his clinic. PMID:8085546

  9. Music and biology at the Naples Zoological Station.

    PubMed

    Fantini, Bernardino

    2015-01-01

    Anton Dohrn projected the Stazione Zoologica as composed of two complementary halves: nature and culture. This attitude was not only expression of the general cultural background of the nineteenth century cultural elite, for Dohrn both formed a coherent and organized whole. In my essay I will analyse the different levels of the relationship between music and biology. In particular, I will demonstrate that both share similar "styles of thought". In the last part I will show that Dohrn's most important scientific contribution, the concept or "principle" of Functionswechsel, provides evidence for the link he had established between music and biology. PMID:26013193

  10. ACADEMIC FREEDOM: Political Scientist Becomes Cause Celebre.

    PubMed

    Koenig, R

    2000-08-11

    On 11 May, a criminal court in Vienna found one of Austria's most prominent political scientists, Anton Pelinka, guilty of defaming former Freedom Party leader Jörg Haider. Haider, an outspoken populist who has made questionable comments about Nazism, accused Pelinka of defaming him for asserting in an interview on Italian television in May 1999 that some Haider statements had "trivialized" Nazism. In the 3 months since the judgment, an array of academic and human rights groups have rushed to Pelinka's defense. PMID:17839148

  11. Global motions exhibited by proteins in micro- to milliseconds simulations concur with anisotropic network model predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gur, M.; Zomot, E.; Bahar, I.

    2013-09-01

    The Anton supercomputing technology recently developed for efficient molecular dynamics simulations permits us to examine micro- to milli-second events at full atomic resolution for proteins in explicit water and lipid bilayer. It also permits us to investigate to what extent the collective motions predicted by network models (that have found broad use in molecular biophysics) agree with those exhibited by full-atomic long simulations. The present study focuses on Anton trajectories generated for two systems: the bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, and an archaeal aspartate transporter, GltPh. The former, a thoroughly studied system, helps benchmark the method of comparative analysis, and the latter provides new insights into the mechanism of function of glutamate transporters. The principal modes of motion derived from both simulations closely overlap with those predicted for each system by the anisotropic network model (ANM). Notably, the ANM modes define the collective mechanisms, or the pathways on conformational energy landscape, that underlie the passage between the crystal structure and substates visited in simulations. In particular, the lowest frequency ANM modes facilitate the conversion between the most probable substates, lending support to the view that easy access to functional substates is a robust determinant of evolutionarily selected native contact topology.

  12. Volumetric Properties, Viscosities, and Refractive Indices of the Binary Systems 1-Butanol + PEG 200, + PEG 400, and + TEGDME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Živković, N.; Šerbanović, S.; Kijevčanin, M.; Živković, E.

    2013-06-01

    Densities, viscosities, and refractive indices of three binary systems consisting of 1-butanol with polyethylene glycols of different molecular weights (PEG 200 and PEG 400) or tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME) were measured at ten temperatures (288.15, 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, 313.15, 318.15, 323.15, 328.15, and 333.15) K and atmospheric pressure. Densities of the selected binary mixtures were measured with an Anton Paar DMA 5000 digital vibrating U-tube densimeter, refractive indices were measured with an automatic Anton Paar RXA-156 refractometer, while for viscosity measurements, a digital Stabinger SVM 3000/G2 viscometer was used. From these data, excess molar volumes were calculated and fitted to the Redlich-Kister equation. The obtained results have been analyzed in terms of specific molecular interactions and mixing behavior between mixture components, as well as the influence of temperature on them. Viscosity data were also correlated by Grunberg-Nissan, Eyring-UNIQUAC, three-body McAlister, and Eyring-NRTL models.

  13. Embryos in evolution: evo-devo at the Naples Zoological Station in 1874.

    PubMed

    Hall, Brian K

    2009-03-01

    Eighteen seventy-four was a high point in evolutionary embryology. Thanks to Charles Darwin, the theory of evolution by natural selection provided a revolutionary new way of viewing the relationships and origins of organisms on Earth. Thanks to Ernst Haeckel, embryos were the way to study evolution (Haeckel in Generelle morphologie der organismen, vols 1, 2. Verlag Georg Reimer, Berlin, 1866)-it really was embryos in evolution-and recapitulation was in the air. Thanks to Anton Dohrn, a new research facility was on the ground, designed, located and structured to facilitate the study of embryos in evolution. Anton Dohrn devised, designed, financed, supervised the construction and then administered the Naples Zoological Station specifically so that researchers from all nations would have a facility where Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection could be tested. The zoologists who took advantage of the brand new facility within weeks of its opening late in 1873 established lines of research into evolutionary embryology, the field we now know as evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo), the study of embryos in evolution. I examine the approach taken by Ambrosius Hubrecht, the first Dutch embryologist to undertake research at the station, and then evaluate the research of three British zoologists-E. Ray Lankester, Albert Dew-Smith, and Francis Maitland (Frank) Balfour. All four sought insights into origins, especially vertebrate origins that rested on comparative embryology, homology, germ layers, and a Darwinian approach to origins. PMID:19214616

  14. Early modern experimentation on live animals.

    PubMed

    Bertoloni Meli, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    Starting from the works by Aselli (De lactibus sive lacteis venis, 1627) on the milky veins and Harvey (1628, translated in 1993) on the motion of the heart and the circulation of the blood, the practice of vivisection witnessed a resurgence in the early modern period. I discuss some of the most notable cases in the century spanning from Aselli's work to the investigations of fluid pressure in plants and animals by Stephen Hales (Vegetable Staticks, 1727). Key figures in my study include Johannes Walaeus, Jean Pecquet, Marcello Malpighi, Reinier de Graaf, Richard Lower, Anton Nuck, and Anton de Heide. Although vivisection dates from antiquity, early modern experimenters expanded the range of practices and epistemic motivations associated with it, displaying considerable technical skills and methodological awareness about the problems associated with the animals being alive and the issue of generalizing results to humans. Many practitioners expressed great discomfort at the suffering of the animals; however, many remained convinced that their investigations were not only indispensable from an epistemic standpoint but also had potential medical applications. Early modern vivisection experiments were both extensive and sophisticated and cannot be ignored in the literature of early modern experimentation or of experimentation on living organisms across time. PMID:22684270

  15. Heredity, evolution and development in their (epistemic) environment at the turn of the nineteenth century.

    PubMed

    Colonna, Federica Turriziani

    2016-03-01

    During the early 1870s a young zoologist who worked as a Privatdozent delivering lectures at different Prussian universities invested much of his family wealth and solicited his fellows' contributions to establish a research facility by the sea. The young zoologist happened to be called Anton Dohrn. From the time it opened its doors, the Anton Dohrn Zoological Station - or Naples Zoological Station, as it was originally called - played a crucial role in shaping life sciences as it facilitated research aimed at explaining the mechanics of inheritance. During the last quarter of the nineteenth century and the first decades of the twentieth, zoologists attempted to explain how evolutionary changes occur within a population and become stabilized. In so doing, they looked at developmental processes as well as environmental pressure, coming up with different hypotheses to explain inheritance. In some cases, their research was highly speculative, whereas in other cases they conducted cytological observations to identify the material basis of heredity. Research on evolution and development has been carried out in different places, and zoological stations like the one in Naples have played a major role in this story. However, numerous biological institutions active at the turn of the twentieth century have not received much attention from historians. PMID:26979817

  16. Distribution of Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV in the Sub-Antarctic Kerguelen Islands and Characterization of Two New Luteovirus Species

    PubMed Central

    Svanella-Dumas, Laurence; Candresse, Thierry; Hullé, Maurice; Marais, Armelle

    2013-01-01

    A systematic search for viral infection was performed in the isolated Kerguelen Islands, using a range of polyvalent genus-specific PCR assays. Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) was detected in both introduced and native grasses such as Poa cookii. The geographical distribution of BYDV and its prevalence in P. cookii were analyzed using samples collected from various sites of the archipelago. We estimate the average prevalence of BYDV to be 24.9% in P. cookii, with significant variability between sites. BYDV genetic diversity was assessed using sequence information from two genomic regions: the P3 open reading frame (ORF) (encoding the coat protein) and the hypervariable P6 ORF region. The phylogenetic analysis in the P3 region showed that BYDV sequences segregate into three major lineages, the most frequent of which (Ker-I cluster) showed close homology with BYDV-PAV-I isolates and had very low intra-lineage diversity (0.6%). A similarly low diversity was also recorded in the hypervariable P6 region, suggesting that Ker-I isolates derive from the recent introduction of BYDV-PAV-I. Divergence time estimation suggests that BYDV-PAV-I was likely introduced in the Kerguelen environment at the same time frame as its aphid vector, Rhopalosiphum padi, whose distribution shows good overlap with that of BYDV-Ker-I. The two other lineages show more than 22% amino acid divergence in the P3 region with other known species in the BYDV species complex, indicating that they represent distinct BYDV species. Using species-specific amplification primers, the distribution of these novel species was analyzed. The high prevalence of BYDV on native Poaceae and the presence of the vector R. padi, raises the question of its impact on the vulnerable plant communities of this remote ecosystem. PMID:23825645

  17. Fragmentation of multiply charged hydrocarbon molecules C{sub n}H{sup q+} (n{<=} 4, q{<=} 9) produced in high-velocity collisions: Branching ratios and kinetic energy release of the H{sup +} fragment

    SciTech Connect

    Beroff, K.; Pino, T.; Carpentier, Y.; Van-Oanh, N. T.; Chabot, M.; Tuna, T.; Martinet, G.; Le Padellec, A.; Lavergne, L.

    2011-09-15

    Fragmentation branching ratios for channels involving H{sup +} emission and associated kinetic energy release of the H{sup +} fragment [KER(H{sup +})] have been measured for multicharged C{sub n}H{sup q+} molecules produced in high velocity (3.6 a.u.) collisions between C{sub n}H{sup +} projectiles and helium atoms. For CH{sup q+} (q{<=} 4) molecules, measured KER(H{sup +}) were found well below predictions of the simple point charge Coulomb model (PCCM) for all q values. Multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) calculations for ground as well as electronic excited states were performed which allowed a perfect interpretation of the CH{sup q+} experimental results for low charges (q = 2-3) as well as for the highest charge (q = 4). In this last case we could show, on the basis of ionization cross sections calculations and experimental measurements performed on the same systems at slightly higher velocity (4.5 a.u.), the prominent role played by inner-shell ionization followed by Auger relaxation and could extract the lifetime of this Auger relaxation giving rise to the best agreement between the experiment and the calculations. For dissociation of C{sub 2}H{sup q+} and C{sub 3}H{sup q+} with the highest charges (q{>=} 5), inner-shell ionization contributed in a prominent way to the ion production. In these two cases it was shown that measured KER(H{sup +}) were in good agreement with PCCM predictions when those were corrected for Auger relaxation with the same Auger lifetime value as in CH{sup 3+}.

  18. Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) Development I: Strategies and Principles

    PubMed Central

    Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Crump, Doug; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Hecker, Markus; Hutchinson, Thomas H.; LaLone, Carlie A.; Landesmann, Brigitte; Lettieri, Teresa; Munn, Sharon; Nepelska, Malgorzata; Ottinger, Mary Ann; Vergauwen, Lucia; Whelan, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    An adverse outcome pathway (AOP) is a conceptual framework that organizes existing knowledge concerning biologically plausible, and empirically supported, links between molecular-level perturbation of a biological system and an adverse outcome at a level of biological organization of regulatory relevance. Systematic organization of information into AOP frameworks has potential to improve regulatory decision-making through greater integration and more meaningful use of mechanistic data. However, for the scientific community to collectively develop a useful AOP knowledgebase that encompasses toxicological contexts of concern to human health and ecological risk assessment, it is critical that AOPs be developed in accordance with a consistent set of core principles. Based on the experiences and scientific discourse among a group of AOP practitioners, we propose a set of five fundamental principles that guide AOP development: (1) AOPs are not chemical specific; (2) AOPs are modular and composed of reusable components—notably key events (KEs) and key event relationships (KERs); (3) an individual AOP, composed of a single sequence of KEs and KERs, is a pragmatic unit of AOP development and evaluation; (4) networks composed of multiple AOPs that share common KEs and KERs are likely to be the functional unit of prediction for most real-world scenarios; and (5) AOPs are living documents that will evolve over time as new knowledge is generated. The goal of the present article was to introduce some strategies for AOP development and detail the rationale behind these 5 key principles. Consideration of these principles addresses many of the current uncertainties regarding the AOP framework and its application and is intended to foster greater consistency in AOP development. PMID:25466378

  19. Estimation of rain kinetic energy from radar reflectivity and/or rain rate based on a scaling formulation of the raindrop size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Nan; Boudevillain, Brice; Delrieu, Guy; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2012-04-01

    This study offers an approach to estimate the rainfall kinetic energy (KE) by rain intensity (R) and radar reflectivity factor (Z) separately or jointly on the basis of a one- or two-moment scaled raindrop size distribution (DSD) formulation, which contains (1) R and/or Z observations and (2) the dimensionless probability density function (pdf) of a scaled raindrop diameter. The key point is to explain all variability of the DSD by the evolution of the explaining moments (R and Z); hence the pdf is considered as constant. A robust method is proposed to estimate the climatological values of the parameters with a 28 month DSD data set collected in the Cévennes-Vivarais region of France. Three relationships (KE-R, KE-Z, and KE-RZ), which link the observations (R and/or Z) to rainfall kinetic energy (KE), are established. As expected, the assessment using the disdrometer data indicates that (1) because of the proximity of the moment orders, the KE-Z relationship exhibits less variability than the KE-R relationship and (2) the combination of R and Z yields a significant improvement of the estimation of KE compared to the single-moment formulations. Subsequently, a first attempt to spatialize the kinetic energy using radar and rain gauge measurements is presented for a convective event, showing a promising potential for erosion process studies. Different from the application with the disdrometer data, the performance of the KE-Z relationship degrades compared to the KE-R relationship as a result of a bias and/or the sampling characteristics of the radar data.

  20. Adverse outcome pathway (AOP) development I: strategies and principles.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, Daniel L; Crump, Doug; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Hecker, Markus; Hutchinson, Thomas H; LaLone, Carlie A; Landesmann, Brigitte; Lettieri, Teresa; Munn, Sharon; Nepelska, Malgorzata; Ottinger, Mary Ann; Vergauwen, Lucia; Whelan, Maurice

    2014-12-01

    An adverse outcome pathway (AOP) is a conceptual framework that organizes existing knowledge concerning biologically plausible, and empirically supported, links between molecular-level perturbation of a biological system and an adverse outcome at a level of biological organization of regulatory relevance. Systematic organization of information into AOP frameworks has potential to improve regulatory decision-making through greater integration and more meaningful use of mechanistic data. However, for the scientific community to collectively develop a useful AOP knowledgebase that encompasses toxicological contexts of concern to human health and ecological risk assessment, it is critical that AOPs be developed in accordance with a consistent set of core principles. Based on the experiences and scientific discourse among a group of AOP practitioners, we propose a set of five fundamental principles that guide AOP development: (1) AOPs are not chemical specific; (2) AOPs are modular and composed of reusable components-notably key events (KEs) and key event relationships (KERs); (3) an individual AOP, composed of a single sequence of KEs and KERs, is a pragmatic unit of AOP development and evaluation; (4) networks composed of multiple AOPs that share common KEs and KERs are likely to be the functional unit of prediction for most real-world scenarios; and (5) AOPs are living documents that will evolve over time as new knowledge is generated. The goal of the present article was to introduce some strategies for AOP development and detail the rationale behind these 5 key principles. Consideration of these principles addresses many of the current uncertainties regarding the AOP framework and its application and is intended to foster greater consistency in AOP development. PMID:25466378

  1. The dynamic Auger Doppler effect in HF and DF: control of fragment velocities in femtosecond dissociation through photon energy detuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesner, K.; Naves de Brito, A.; Sorensen, S. L.; Burmeister, F.; Gisselbrecht, M.; Svensson, S.; Björneholm, O.

    2002-03-01

    The Auger-Doppler effect in the experimental spectra of HF and DF is presented, and the dynamics of ultra-fast dissociation in the core-excited state are discussed. The Doppler splitting of the atomic Auger peak is calculated and simulated using a classical model and a very good agreement is found between experiment and simulation. It is shown that the difference in photon energy relative to the resonance is transferred completely into the kinetic energy release (KER). This is expected to be a general phenomenon, but is clearly illuminated in the HF/DF case. Thus the fragment velocity can be controlled through photon energy detuning.

  2. Phenylpropanoid derivatives from edible canna, Canna edulis.

    PubMed

    Yun, Young Sook; Satake, Motoyoshi; Katsuki, Shigeki; Kunugi, Akira

    2004-07-01

    Two phenylpropanoid sucrose esters were isolated from dry rhizomes of Canna edulis Ker Gawl., along with a known phenylpropanoid sucrose ester and four known phenylpropanoids. On the basis of analysis of spectroscopic data and chemical evidence, these two phenylpropanoid sucrose esters were shown to be 3-O-p-coumaroyl-6-O-feruloyl-beta-D-fructofuranosyl 6-O-acetyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside and 3,6-di-O-p-coumaroyl-beta-D-fructofuranosyl 6-O-acetyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside. PMID:15279991

  3. Dissociation dynamics of diatomic molecules in intense fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrakvelidze, Maia

    We study the dynamics of diatomic molecules (dimers) in intense IR and XUV laser fields theoretically and compare the results with measured data in collaboration with different experimental groups worldwide. The first three chapters of the thesis cover the introduction and the background on solving time-independent and time-dependent Schrodinger equation. The numerical results in this thesis are presented in four chapters, three of which are focused on diatomic molecules in IR fields. The last one concentrates on diatomic molecules in XUV pulses. The study of nuclear dynamics of H2 or D2 molecules in IR pulses is given in Chapter 4. First, we investigate the optimal laser parameters for observing field-induced bond softening and bond hardening in D2+. Next, the nuclear dynamics of H2 + molecular ions in intense laser fields are investigated by analyzing their fragment kinetic-energy release (KER) spectra as a function of the pump-probe delay τ Lastly, the electron localization is studied for long circularly polarized laser pulses. Chapter 5 covers the dissociation dynamics of O2+ in an IR laser field. The fragment KER spectra are analyzed as a function of the pump-probe delay τ Within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, we calculate ab-initio adiabatic potential-energy curves and their electric dipole couplings, using the quantum chemistry code GAMESS. In Chapter 6, the dissociation dynamics of the noble gas dimer ions He 2+, Ne2+, Ar2 +, Kr2+, and Xe2 + is investigated in ultrashort pump and probe laser pulses of different wavelengths. We observe a striking "delay gap" in the pump-probe-delay-dependent KER spectrum only if the probe-pulse wavelength exceeds the pump-pulse wavelength. Comparing pump-probe-pulse-delay dependent KER spectra for different noble gas dimer cations, we quantitatively discuss quantum-mechanical versus classical aspects of the nuclear vibrational motion as a function of the nuclear mass. Chapter 7 focuses on diatomic molecules in XUV

  4. ATCA-based ATLAS FTK input interface system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Y.; Liu, T.; Olsen, J.; Iizawa, T.; Mitani, T.; Korikawa, T.; Yorita, K.; Annovi, A.; Beretta, M.; Gatta, M.; Sotiropoulou, C.-L.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Kordas, K.; Kimura, N.; Cremonesi, M.; Yin, H.; Xu, Z.

    2015-04-01

    The first stage of the ATLAS Fast TracKer (FTK) is an ATCA-based input interface system, where hits from the entire silicon tracker are clustered and organized into overlapping η-phi trigger towers before being sent to the tracking engines. First, FTK Input Mezzanine cards receive hit data and perform clustering to reduce data volume. Then, the ATCA-based Data Formatter system will organize the trigger tower data, sharing data among boards over full mesh backplanes and optic fibers. The board and system level design concepts and implementation details, as well as the operation experiences from the FTK full-chain testing, will be presented.

  5. Bless me reader for I have sinned: physicians and confessional writing.

    PubMed

    Wear, Delese; Jones, Therese

    2010-01-01

    From the poetry of William Carlos Williams, the novels of Walker Percy, and the short stories of Anton Chekov to the contemporary essays of Atul Gawande, physicians' contributions to literary genres have been significant. This article explores the specific form of confessional writing offered by physicians during the past half century, writing that often exposes medical error or negative feelings towards patients. A history of confessional practices as a legal tool, as religious practice, and as literary genre is offered, followed by analyses of selected confessional writings by physicians, many of them found in clinical journals such as Journal of the American Medical Association, Annals of Internal Medicine, and the Lancet. The authors of the narratives described here are engaged in several or all elements of the confessional sequence, which may offer them some resolution through the exposure and acknowledgment of their shared humanity with their patients and their expression of regret for any harm done. PMID:20495259

  6. Jacques Loeb (1859-1924) and His Forgotten Contributions to Electrolyte and Acid-Base Physiology in The Organism as a Whole.

    PubMed

    Sgambato, Francesco; Sgambato, Ester; De Santo, Natale Gaspare

    2016-02-01

    Jacques Loeb (1859-1924) was the founder of the Journal of General Physiology which he co-directed in association with W.J.V. Osterhout in the years 1918-1924. Having worked (1889-1891)at the Marine Zoological Station of Naples, newly founded by Anton Dohrn, he was imprinted for life. A strong investigator used to perform the experiments personally. Loeb was engaged lifelong in the explanation of life on physico-chemical basis. He touched various fields (being a creative scientist full of ideas), and centered on the exchanges of electrolytes, acids and bases between the body and sea water in fish. He identified two equations: {[K+]+[Na+]}: {[Ca++]+[Mg++]} (Loebs 1st equation) {[K+]+[Na+]}: {[H+]+[Ca++]+[Mg++]} (Loebs final equation) Even nowadays these equations may have applications in a wide list of electrolyte and acid-base disturbances. Unfortunately his heredity has been dissipated. PMID:26913896

  7. The New Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Gordon

    2009-08-01

    Introduction Gordon Fraser; Part I. Matter and the Universe: 1. Cosmology Wendy Freedman and Rocky Kolb; 2. Gravity Ronald Adler; 3. Astrophysics Arnon Dar; 4. Particles and the standard model Chris Quigg; 5. Superstrings Michael Green; Part II. Quantum Matter: 6. Atoms and photons Claude Cohen-Tannoudji and Jean Dalibard; 7. The quantum world of ultra-cold atoms Christopher Foot and William Phillips; 8. Superfluidity Henry Hall; 9. Quantum phase transitions Subir Sachdev; Part III. Quanta in Action: 10. Quantum entanglement Anton Zeilinger; 11. Quanta, ciphers and computers Artur Ekert; 12. Small-scale structure and nanoscience Yoseph Imry; Part IV. Calculation and Computation: 13. Nonlinearity Henry Abarbanel; 14. Complexity Antonio Politi; 15. Collaborative physics, e-science and the grid Tony Hey and Anne Trefethen; Part V. Science in Action: 16. Biophysics Cyrus Safinya; 17. Medical physics Nicolaj Pavel; 18. Physics and materials Robert Cahn; 19. Physics and society Ugo Amaldi.

  8. The New Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Gordon

    2006-04-01

    Introduction Gordon Fraser; Part I. Matter and the Universe: 1. Cosmology Wendy Freedman and Rocky Kolb; 2. Gravity Ronald Adler; 3. Astrophysics Arnon Dar; 4. Particles and the standard model Chris Quigg; 5. Superstrings Michael Green; Part II. Quantum Matter: 6. Atoms and photons Claude Cohen-Tannoudji and Jean Dalibard; 7. The quantum world of ultra-cold atoms Christopher Foot and William Phillips; 8. Superfluidity Henry Hall; 9. Quantum phase transitions Subir Sachdev; Part III. Quanta in Action: 10. Quantum entanglement Anton Zeilinger; 11. Quanta, ciphers and computers Artur Ekert; 12. Small-scale structure and nanoscience Yoseph Imry; Part IV. Calculation and Computation: 13. Nonlinearity Henry Abarbanel; 14. Complexity Antonio Politi; 15. Collaborative physics, e-science and the grid Tony Hey and Anne Trefethen; Part V. Science in Action: 16. Biophysics Cyrus Safinya; 17. Medical physics Nicolaj Pavel; 18. Physics and materials Robert Cahn; 19. Physics and society Ugo Amaldi.

  9. The power of a musical instrument: Franklin, the Mozarts, Mesmer, and the glass armonica.

    PubMed

    Gallo, D A; Finger, S

    2000-11-01

    In 1761 Benjamin Franklin invented the armonica (often referred to as the glass harmonica), an instrument designed to simplify the playing of the musical glasses. The instrument immediately became popular and inspired compositions by Wolfgang Mozart, who had the opportunity to hear and play one at the house of Franz Anton Mesmer. Armonica music was used by Mesmer in his séances, because he felt it could promote healing by propagating a mystical fluid that he called animal magnetism through the body. After Mesmer's theories were debunked by a highly respected panel of scientists, the armonica fell out of vogue. Because Franklin was on the panel that examined the discredited mesmerism, he indirectly contributed to his own invention's demise. PMID:11855437

  10. [The case of Maria Theresia Paradis (1759-1824). On the treatment of (hysterical?) amaurosis in a musician with music and suggestion].

    PubMed

    Evers, S

    1991-08-01

    The musician and composer Maria Theresia Paradis (1759-1824) blind since her earliest childhood was treated in 1777 by the physician Dr. Franz-Anton Mesmer (1734-1815). The treatment he used was the so-called "magnetic therapy". This was a suggestive psychotherapeutical method by which, as he thought, the amaurosis could be cured. The most essential agency of this "magnetic therapy" was music. However, the resistance of both his colleagues and the patient's family forced him to break off the therapy. Maria Theresia Paradis remained blind till the end of her life. The genesis of the amaurosis, the problem of a real therapeutical influence by Mesmer and, especially, the relationship between the music as a therapeutical medium and the musical personality of the patient are discussed in detail. The whole care cannot be cleared up definitively. There are many indications that Mesmer succeeded in improving temporarily a hysterical amaurosis of Maria Theresia Paradis. PMID:1960933

  11. [The attempts of Bishop Ivan Sintić (1792-1837) to treat snake and other animal bites: from intuition to scientific dispute].

    PubMed

    Velcic, Franjo

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript describes an attempt to treat snake and other animal bites using an ointment made of a plant Aster atticus (sternkraut, of the family Aster). The recipe for this ointment had passed from an Istrian Bernardo Alessandri to bishop Ivan Anton Sintić at the end of the 18th century. At the request by the Austrian administration of the Province of Zadar, Sintić published a booklet on how to prepare the plant and use it, and the administration distributed the booklet to local practitioners. Encouraged by the new therapy, physician Srećko Randić of Bakar, took it for the subject of his doctoral dissertation, an published it in Vienna in 1840. However, the efficiency of this therapy was disputed by the new island of Krk physician Ivan Krstitelj Kubić after years of follow up and investigation. PMID:23094844

  12. Quotable physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chomet, Seweryn

    2008-03-01

    Anton Capri is an alumnus of Princeton University, where he specialized in quantum field theory, and, since 1998, has been a distinguished professor emeritus at the University of Alberta in Canada. Since his nominal retirement he has devoted much of his time to writing and has now published, among other things, two linked books that present a variety of anecdotes involving famous physicists, as well as useful biographical sketches of them. The origin of these books is clearly defined by their author. "I have not any pretensions to having produced a 'scholarly' work," he writes. "Some of the stories recorded here are gossip, or physics folklore. I have tried to verify as many of the stories as I could, but I have not hesitated to include all stories that I heard and noted down."

  13. "Franklin: Science, Politics and France"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClellan, James E., III

    2003-04-01

    This presentation traces Benjamin Franklin's career as a "civic scientist" in Old-Regime France. It outlines the initial - and not always positive - reception of Franklin's work on electricity by the community of French scientists in the 1750s. It sketches Franklin's subsequent elevation into the pantheon of French Enlightenment heros, and it details his work as a "civic scientist" while American envoy to France in the 1770s and 1780s, notably his service on the government-sponsored commissions that repudiated the scientific and medical claims of Franz Anton Mesmer. This presentation concludes by examining a few features of Franklin's career that are not completely congruent with our notion of what a "civic scientist" might be, a contrast that is intended to illuminate both Franklin and the concept of "civic scientist."

  14. A review of the Magnus effect in aeronautics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, Jost

    2012-11-01

    The Magnus effect is well-known for its influence on the flight path of a spinning ball. Besides ball games, the method of producing a lift force by spinning a body of revolution in cross-flow was not used in any kind of commercial application until the year 1924, when Anton Flettner invented and built the first rotor ship Buckau. This sailboat extracted its propulsive force from the airflow around two large rotating cylinders. It attracted attention wherever it was presented to the public and inspired scientists and engineers to use a rotating cylinder as a lifting device for aircraft. This article reviews the application of Magnus effect devices and concepts in aeronautics that have been investigated by various researchers and concludes with discussions on future challenges in their application.

  15. The historical role of hypnosis in the theoretical origins of transference.

    PubMed

    Gravitz, Melvin A

    2004-04-01

    There has been a gradual evolution of the important construct of transference from ancient to modern times. Long before Franz Anton Mesmer, there were philosophers, theorists, and health professionals who emphasized the impact of interpersonal relationships on well-being and illness. While basically conceptualizing animal magnetism as a dynamic physical fluid, Mesmer was also aware of the impact of rapport and affect in the enhancement of magnetic treatment. Later neo-mesmerists, notably Puységur and Deleuze, built on such theories. That emphasis continued through the 19th century to the time of Freud, whose construct of transference was derived from his personal experience with hypnosis and which has since become an integral part of modern psychodynamic theory and treatment. PMID:15115058

  16. [Between "aryanization" and liquidation. The fate of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Association after the "Anschluss" in March 1938].

    PubMed

    Rothländer, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    The "Anschluss" of Austria into Hitler-Germany was the temporary end of the Vienna Association (WPV). It was closed by the Gestapo, Hans Ehlich from the SD becoming the special commissioner and the chemist Anton Sauerwald the provisional administrator. The WPV's only chance to avoid losing all its property was to ask their colleagues of the German Psychoanalytic Society (DPG) for help. They were to take over the trusteeship of the WPV and incorporate it into the so-called Goring Institute. Carl Müller-Braunschweig was sent to Vienna as a representative of the DPG. This attempt failed because of the resistance of Rudolf Ramm, head of the Austrian Medical Association, of psychiatrist Heinrich von Kogerer and of Ehlich. In April 1938 Ehlich and Ramm decided on the liquidation of the WPV. PMID:19230390

  17. [Saint Trophymus of Arles, the patron of sufferers from podagra

    PubMed

    Marson, P.

    2001-01-01

    Among the large number of saints patronizing the sufferers from gout, St. Trophymus of Arles, that lived in the first times of Christianity, is a very interesting figure, by enjoying a particular devotion in Rome during the XVII/XVIII centuries. Such a veneration, as widely described by Anton Maria Bonucci in the agiographic essay "Istoria di S. Trofimo, Arcivescovo di Arles, Primate in Francia, e Avvocato de' Podagrosi" (1711), was promoted by the Roman Congregation of the Five Wounds of Jesus Christ and practised at the San Filippo Neri's Church in via Giulia. In the present study, besides some biographical notes, it has been told how the cult of gouty subjects to St. Trophymus has been founded in Rome and displayed in a solemn fashion. PMID:12461582

  18. Corporeal elements and principles in the learned German chymical tradition.

    PubMed

    Klein, Joel A

    2014-11-01

    This paper explores diverse conceptions of the physicality and tangibility of elements and principles in early modern chymistry. By tracing the development of natural philosophical and corpuscular ideas about material elements and principles among several physicans and chymists, including Thomas Erastus, Andreas Libavius, Daniel Sennert, and Anton Günther Billich, this article locates a learned tradition that developed predominantly in Germany, and which directly challenged a common understanding of matter held by major Paracelsians as well as authors from the French textbook tradition. Likewise, conceptions of incorporeal elements or principles are shown to have developed from the ideas of Paracelsus and Petrus Severinus, whereas authors in the learned tradition emphasised a particular interpretation of Aristotle. The article concludes by suggesting that chymical interpretations of material composition had an important influence throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and that this provides further evidence that the so-called "compositional revolution" in chemistry was well underway prior to the eighteenth century. PMID:25509634

  19. Liquid Densities of Fluorinated Ethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazawa, Noriaki; Sako, Takeshi; Nakane, Takashi; Sekiya, Akira; Kawamura, Mitsutaka; Sato, Masahito; Mochizuki, Yuji; Takada, Naoto; Yasumoto, Masahiko

    The liquid densities of thirteen fluorinated ethers which are expected as promising candidates of CFC alternatives were measured at temperatures from 278 K to 323 K and atmospheric pressure. The fluorinated ethers used in this study are 1-difluoromethoxy-1,1, 2- trifluoroethane, 1-methoxy-1, 1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane, 1-methoxy-2,2 ,3 ,3- tetrafluoropropane, 1-methoxy-1-trifluoromethy1-2,2 ,2- trifluoroethane, 1-methoxy-1,1,2,2, 3-hexafluoropropane,1-difluoromethoxy-2,2, 3, 3 -tetrafluoropropane, 1-methoxy-heptafluoropropane,1-difluoromethoxy-2, 2, 3, 3, 3-pentafluoropropane, 1- (2, 2, 2-trifruoroethoxy) -1, 1, 2,2-tetrafluoroethane, 1-pentafluoroethoxy-1, 1, 2, 2-tetrafluoroethane,2-trifluoromethoxy-1, 1, 1,2-tetrafluorobutane, 1-proxynonafluorobutane, and 1-ethoxy-undecafluoropentane. The liquid density has been measured by the vibrating tube densitometer (ANTON PARR, DMA 602) within an error of 0.07%. The liquid densities decrease monotonically with increase of temperature.

  20. Hidden images of holography: wavefront reconstruction of abnormalities within pulsed holographic recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Martin

    2014-02-01

    Unplanned images recorded within holographic space are of candid interest that can reshape audience definition crossing intellectual boundaries. This paper details three examples of off-axis Pulsed Laser transmission holograms that involve holographic portraits. These are movie director Martin Scorsese, former Royal Photographic Society President Mike Austin and a unique recently discovered early pulsed recording of Nick Phillips together with Anton Furst recorded in 1977. Each example was made when operating conditions for the pulsed ruby lasers were optimum, offering a coherence of several meters time-compressed into 25 ns. This gave rise to not only the portrait capture but also others present during the recording session inside the room. This optimum condition captured more than was intended resulting in images that, until now, have remained un-documented.

  1. Research on data from the ATLAS experiment at CERN

    SciTech Connect

    Purohit, Milind V.

    2015-07-31

    In this report senior investigator Prof. Milind V. Purohit describes research done with data from the ATLAS experiment at CERN. This includes preparing papers on the performance of the CSC detector, searches for SUSY using a new modern ''big data'' technique, and a search for supersymmetry (SUSY) using the "zero leptons razor" (0LRaz) technique. The prediction of the W=Z+jets background processes by the ATLAS simulation prior to the fit is found to be overestimated in the phase space of interest. In all new signal regions presented in this analysis the number of events observed is consistent with the post-fit SM expectations. Assuming R-parity conservation, the limit on the gluino mass exceeds 1150 GeV at 95% confidence level, for an LSP mass smaller than 100 GeV. Other USC personnel who participated in this project during the period of this grant were a graduate student, Anton Kravchenko.

  2. On the history of dissociative identity disorders in Germany: the doctor Justinus Kerner and the girl from Orlach, or possession as an "exchange of the self".

    PubMed

    Peter, Burkhard

    2011-01-01

    The history of hypnosis is closely linked to the theme of possession; one such link is that the forerunner of hypnosis, animal magnetism, replaced exorcism in 1775 when Franz Anton Mesmer testified against Father Johann Joseph Gassner's exorcism. Modern authors have noted remarkable similarities between states of possession and dissociation. The treatment of possession by animal magnetism and exorcism represents the special romantic-magnetic therapy of the German medical doctor Justinus Kerner in the early 19th century. This article describes the man, his methods, and his thinking and presents one of his most famous case studies, the girl from Orlach, which, by today's standards, was a true case of dissociative identity disorder (DID). This article describes how contemporary principles of treatment were used and controversial issues about the nature and causes of DID were discussed 175 years ago. PMID:21104486

  3. [A nosology for supernatural phenomena and the construction of the 'possessed' brain in the nineteenth century].

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Valeria Portugal; Ortega, Francisco

    2013-06-01

    At the end of the twentieth century, supernatural phenomena such as so called trances and possession by spirits received a scientific classification, which includes the numerous diagnoses of the dominant psychiatry. At the end of the nineteenth century we can observe a process of scientific categorization of phenomena considered to have originated in superstition or popular imagination. In this work we show how trances and spiritual possession were studied by Franz Anton Mesmer and his followers when developing the concept of magnetism; by James Braid during the creation of his theory of hypnosis; and by Jean Martin Charcot, which marked the entry of hysteria into nosological classification. Despite the differences between these schools, we identify the use of the brain and cerebral metaphors as the foundation of theories of the mind. PMID:23739806

  4. The New Physics and Cosmology - Dialogues with the Dalai Lama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajonc, Arthur; Houshmand, Zara

    2004-03-01

    What happens when the Dalai Lama meets with leading physicists and a historian? This book is the carefully edited record of the fascinating discussions at a Mind and Life conference in which five leading physicists and a historian (David Finkelstein, George Greenstein, Piet Hut, Arthur Zajonc, Anton Zeilinger, and Tu Weiming) discussed with the Dalai Lama current thought in theoretical quantum physics, in the context of Buddhist philosophy. A contribution to the science-religion interface, and a useful explanation of our basic understanding of quantum reality, couched at a level that intelligent readers without a deep involvement in science can grasp. In the tradition of other popular books on resonances between modern quantum physics and Zen or Buddhist mystical traditions--notably The Dancing Wu Li Masters and The Tao of Physics , this book gives a clear and useful update of the genuine correspondences between these two rather disparate approaches to understanding the nature of reality.

  5. Identification of two new keratinolytic proteases from a Bacillus pumilus strain using protein analysis and gene sequencing.

    PubMed

    Fellahi, Soltana; Chibani, Abdelwaheb; Feuk-Lagerstedt, Elisabeth; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2016-12-01

    The Bacillus strain (CCUG 66887) has a high capacity to excrete keratinase with the ability to degrade both alpha- and beta keratin. In this study we aimed to show the characteristics of the keratinolytic protease and to identify its gene by using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry methods (nanoHPLC-ESI-MS/MS) followed by Mascot data base search. The results showed that the enzyme in fact consists of two different keratinases, both with a molecular mass of 38 kDa. Further, DNA sequencing generated the open reading frame (ORF) of one of the genes (Ker1), and de novo genome sequencing identified the ORF of the second gene (Ker2). The two keratinase genes contain 1153 base pairs each and have a gene similarity of 67 %. In addition, the Bacillus strain was classified as Bacillus pumilus and its genes were annotated in the GeneBank at NCBI (accession: CP011109.1). Amino acid sequences alignment with known B. pumilus proteases indicated that the two keratinases of B. pumilus strain C4 are subtilisin-like serine proteases belonging to the Protease S8 family. Taken together, these result suggest the two keratinases as promising candidates for enzymatic processing of keratinous wastes in waste refinery. PMID:27363997

  6. High-throughput microarray mapping of cell wall polymers in roots and tubers during the viscosity-reducing process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuhong; Willats, William G; Lange, Lene; Jin, Yanling; Fang, Yang; Salmeán, Armando A; Pedersen, Henriette L; Busk, Peter Kamp; Zhao, Hai

    2016-03-01

    Viscosity reduction has a great impact on the efficiency of ethanol production when using roots and tubers as feedstock. Plant cell wall-degrading enzymes have been successfully applied to overcome the challenges posed by high viscosity. However, the changes in cell wall polymers during the viscosity-reducing process are poorly characterized. Comprehensive microarray polymer profiling, which is a high-throughput microarray, was used for the first time to map changes in the cell wall polymers of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), cassava (Manihot esculenta), and Canna edulis Ker. over the entire viscosity-reducing process. The results indicated that the composition of cell wall polymers among these three roots and tubers was markedly different. The gel-like matrix and glycoprotein network in the C. edulis Ker. cell wall caused difficulty in viscosity reduction. The obvious viscosity reduction of the sweet potato and the cassava was attributed to the degradation of homogalacturonan and the released 1,4-β-d-galactan and 1,5-α-l-arabinan. PMID:25757626

  7. Theoretical study of the photodissociation of Li2+ in one-color intense laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuanjun; Jiang, Wanyi; Khait, Yuriy G.; Hoffmann, Mark R.

    2011-05-01

    A theoretical treatment of the photodissociation of the molecular ion Li2+ in one-color intense laser fields, using the time-dependent wave packet approach in a Floquet Born-Oppenheimer representation, is presented. Six electronic states 1,2 2Σg+, 1,2 2Σu+, 1 2Πg, and 1 2Πu are of relevance in this simulation and have been included. The dependences of the fragmental dissociation probabilities and kinetic energy release (KER) spectra on pulse width, peak intensity, polarization angle, wavelength, and initial vibrational level are analyzed to interpret the influence of control parameters of the external field. Three main dissociation channels, 1 2Σg+ (m = -1), 2 2Σg+ (m = -2), and 2 2Σu+ (m = -3), are seen to dominate the dissociation processes under a wide variety of laser conditions and give rise to well separated groups of KER features. Different dissociation mechanisms for the involved Floquet channels are discussed.

  8. Kinetic-energy release in N{sub 2} fragmentation by charge-changing collisions of 2-MeV C{sup +} ions

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuno, T.; Yamada, T.; Tsuchida, H.; Itoh, A.; Nakai, Y.

    2010-11-15

    Collision-induced fragmentation of N{sub 2} was investigated for 2-MeV C{sup +} ions under charge-changing conditions of C{sup +{yields}}C{sup q+} (q=0,2,3). Coincidence measurement of fragment ions was performed by means of a momentum three-dimensional imaging technique at scattering angles of {theta}=0 and 1.0 mrad. Kinetic-energy release (KER) obtained for a fragmentation channel of N{sub 2}{sup 2+{yields}}N{sup +}+N{sup +} was found to differ significantly in electron loss and capture collisions. In two-electron-loss collisions (C{sup +{yields}}C{sup 3+}), KER spectra were essentially identical for {theta}=0 and 1.0 mrad. It is concluded that the energy level of dissociating excited states of N{sub 2}{sup 2+} may be saturated when the interaction strength, defined as (q/vb), exceeds 0.65, where q and v are the charge and the velocity, respectively, of an incident ion, and b is the impact parameter.

  9. Dissipative and nonunitary solutions of operator commutation relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, K. A.; Tsekanovskii, E.

    2016-01-01

    We study the (generalized) semi-Weyl commutation relations UgAU* g = g(A) on Dom(A), where A is a densely defined operator and G ∋ g ↦ Ug is a unitary representation of the subgroup G of the affine group G, the group of affine orientation-preserving transformations of the real axis. If A is a symmetric operator, then the group G induces an action/flow on the operator unit ball of contracting transformations from Ker(A* - iI) to Ker(A* + iI). We establish several fixed-point theorems for this flow. In the case of one-parameter continuous subgroups of linear transformations, self-adjoint (maximal dissipative) operators associated with the fixed points of the flow yield solutions of the (restricted) generalized Weyl commutation relations. We show that in the dissipative setting, the restricted Weyl relations admit a variety of representations that are not unitarily equivalent. For deficiency indices (1, 1), the basic results can be strengthened and set in a separate case.

  10. Rydberg and valence state excitation dynamics: a velocity map imaging study involving the E-V state interaction in HBr.

    PubMed

    Zaouris, Dimitris; Kartakoullis, Andreas; Glodic, Pavle; Samartzis, Peter C; Rafn Hróðmarsson, Helgi; Kvaran, Ágúst

    2015-04-28

    Photoexcitation dynamics of the E((1)Σ(+)) (v' = 0) Rydberg state and the V((1)Σ(+)) (v') ion-pair vibrational states of HBr are investigated by velocity map imaging (VMI). H(+) photoions, produced through a number of vibrational and rotational levels of the two states were imaged and kinetic energy release (KER) and angular distributions were extracted from the data. In agreement with previous work, we found the photodissociation channels forming H*(n = 2) + Br((2)P3/2)/Br*((2)P1/2) to be dominant. Autoionization pathways leading to H(+) + Br((2)P3/2)/Br*((2)P1/2) via either HBr(+)((2)Π3/2) or HBr(+)*((2)Π1/2) formation were also present. The analysis of KER and angular distributions and comparison with rotationally and mass resolved resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectra revealed the excitation transition mechanisms and characteristics of states involved as well as the involvement of the E-V state interactions and their v' and J' dependence. PMID:25801122

  11. Revisiting molecular ionization: Does a molecule like to share?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, C. B.; Esry, B. D.

    2012-06-01

    The ever-increasing detail obtained in strong-field experiments calls for a deeper understanding of the laser-molecule interaction. For instance, recent measurements reported in PRL 107, 143004 (2011) reveal a limitation in understanding strong-field ionization dynamics in terms of the strong-field approximation. We have addressed the question of how the electron and the nuclei share the energy when H2^+ breaks up in the presence of an intense IR field via the process: H2^++nφ->p+p+e^-. Solving the time-dependent Schr"odinger equation and calculating the ionization probability resolved as a function of the asymptotic electron energy and the nuclear kinetic energy release (KER) allow us to give an answer. The energy sharing is non-trivial and plays an important role in the prediction of, for instance, the KER. We also address the limitations of current understanding of molecular ionization by comparing to models like the strong-field approximation and the Floquet picture. Such benchmarking may be facilitated by XUV+IR pump-probe schemes and carrier-envelope-phase control that allow for time-resolved and spatial probing of the dynamics.

  12. Fragmentation dynamics of Ar2^+ dimers in intense laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrakvelidze, M.; Wu, J.; Dörner, R.; Thumm, U.

    2012-06-01

    We studied the fragmentation dynamics of the Ar2 dimers in 790 nm pump and 1400 nm probe pulses with intensities of 10^14 W/cm^2 by analyzing kinetic energy release (KER) spectra as a function of the pump probe delay. The KER spectra are measured by detecting Ar-ion fragments in a COLTRIMS [1] setup and are compared with model calculations based on the numerical propagations of the time-dependent Schr"odinger equation [2]. The measured spectra are best reproduced by two-state calculations that include the adiabatic electronic states I(1/2)u and II(1/2)g of Ar2^+, dipole coupled in the pump- and probe-laser electric fields. [4pt] [1] J. Wu, A. Vredenborg, B. Ulrich, L. Ph. H. Schmidt, M. Meckel, S. Voss, H. Sann, H. Kim, T. Jahnke, and R. D"orner, PRA 83, 061403(R) (2011) [0pt] [2] M. Magrakvelidze, F. He, Th. Niederhausen, I. V. Litvinyuk, and U. Thumm, PRA 79, 033410 (2009).

  13. Anti-genotoxic hydrazide from Crinum defixum.

    PubMed

    Bordoloi, Manobjyoti; Kotoky, Rumi; Mahanta, Jiban J; Sarma, Tarun C; Kanjilal, Purnendu B

    2009-06-01

    Crinum defixum Ker-Gawl popularly known as Bon-naharu (meaning wild garlic) in Assam. It is found abundantly growing wild on riverbanks of Dhansiri River in Golaghat District of Assam. It is used as ethnomedicine in this part of India for a number of ailments. Bioassay guided chemical investigation of the bulbs of Crinum defixum Ker-Gawl afforded to isolate a new hydrazide derivative and its structure was determined as (E)-N'-[(E)-2-butenoyl]-2-butenoylhydrazide by spectroscopic methods. The compound was assayed for anti-genotoxic activity by onion root tip assay (by observing different types of chromosomal aberrations such as chromosomal bridges, stickiness, delayed anaphase, polyploidy and vagrant chromosome). The phyto-compound was found to have anti-genotoxic activity and imparted a clear dose dependent protective effect against the genotoxic effect of H(2)O(2). Further, the compound seems to be more effective against clastogenic aberrations than physiological aberration at the highest concentration used (250 ppm). PMID:18995928

  14. Adverse Outcome Pathway Development II: Best Practices

    PubMed Central

    Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Crump, Doug; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Hecker, Markus; Hutchinson, Thomas H.; LaLone, Carlie A.; Landesmann, Brigitte; Lettieri, Teresa; Munn, Sharon; Nepelska, Malgorzata; Ottinger, Mary Ann; Vergauwen, Lucia; Whelan, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Organization of existing and emerging toxicological knowledge into adverse outcome pathway (AOP) descriptions can facilitate greater application of mechanistic data, including those derived through high-throughput in vitro, high content omics and imaging, and biomarker approaches, in risk-based decision making. The previously ad hoc process of AOP development is being formalized through development of internationally harmonized guidance and principles. The goal of this article was to outline the information content desired for formal AOP description and some rules of thumb and best practices intended to facilitate reuse and connectivity of elements of an AOP description in a knowledgebase and network context. For example, key events (KEs) are measurements of change in biological state that are indicative of progression of a perturbation toward a specified adverse outcome. Best practices for KE description suggest that each KE should be defined as an independent measurement made at a particular level of biological organization. The concept of “functional equivalence” can help guide both decisions about how many KEs to include in an AOP and the specificity with which they are defined. Likewise, in describing both KEs and evidence that supports a causal linkage or statistical association between them (ie, a key event relationship; KER), best practice is to build from and contribute to existing KE or KER descriptions in the AOP knowledgebase rather than creating redundant descriptions. The best practices proposed address many of the challenges and uncertainties related to AOP development and help promote a consistent and reliable, yet flexible approach. PMID:25466379

  15. Convergence and reproducibility in molecular dynamics simulations of the DNA duplex d(GCACGAACGAACGAACGC)

    PubMed Central

    Galindo-Murillo, Rodrigo; Roe, Daniel R.; Cheatham, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The structure and dynamics of DNA are critically related to its function. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations augment experiment by providing detailed information about the atomic motions. However, to date the simulations have not been long enough for convergence of the dynamics and structural properties of DNA. Methods MD simulations performed with AMBER using the ff99SB force field with the parmbsc0 modifications, including ensembles of independent simulations, were compared to long timescale MD performed with the specialized Anton MD engine on the B-DNA structure d(GCACGAACGAACGAACGC). To assess convergence, the decay of the average RMSD values over longer and longer time intervals was evaluated in addition to assessing convergence of the dynamics via the Kullback-Leibler divergence of principal component projection histograms. Results These MD simulations —including one of the longest simulations of DNA published to date at ~44 μs—surprisingly suggest that the structure and dynamics of the DNA helix, neglecting the terminal base pairs, are essentially fully converged on the ~1–5 μs timescale. Conclusions We can now reproducibly converge the structure and dynamics of B-DNA helices, omitting the terminal base pairs, on the μs time scale with both the AMBER and CHARMM C36 nucleic acid force fields. Results from independent ensembles of simulations starting from different initial conditions, when aggregated, match the results from long timescale simulations on the specialized Anton MD engine. General Significance With access to large-scale GPU resources or the specialized MD engine “Anton” it is possibly for a variety of molecular systems to reproducibly and reliably converge the conformational ensemble of sampled structures. PMID:25219455

  16. Estimation of Rainfall Kinetic Energy by Rain Intensity and/or Radar Reflectivity Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, N.; Delrieu, G.; Boudevillain, B.; Hazenberg, P.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2011-12-01

    This study presents an approach to estimate the rainfall kinetic energy (KE) by rain intensity (R) and radar reflectivity factor (Z) separately, or jointly, on the basis of a one- or two-moment scaled formulation. This formulation considers the raindrop size distribution (DSD) as a combination of bulk rainfall variable(s) (R or/and Z) and an intrinsic distribution g(x), which is in function of the scaled raindrop diameter x. Results from previous studies showed that g(x) remains more or less constant, hence the variability of DSD is mainly explained by the bulk rainfall variable(s). In this study, the Gamma probability density function (pdf) with two parameters is used to model the g(x). Considered the self-consistent relationships between parameters, a robust method is proposed to estimate three climatological g(x), in R-, Z- and RZ-scaled formulation respectively, with a 28-month DSD dataset collected in the Cevennes-Vivarais region, France. Three relationships (KE-R, KE-Z and KE-(R,Z)), which link the observations (R and/or Z) to rainfall kinetic energy (KE), are established based on three climatological g(x). As expected, the combination of R and Z yields a significant improvement of the estimation of KE compared to the single-moment formulations. And Z yields a better performance in KE estimating compared to the KE-R relationship. In terms of the application of these relationships based on real radar reflectivity factors and/or rain gauge measurements, the combination of R and Z yields also the best performance in estimation of KE among the three relationships. Different from the application of the disdrometer data, the performance of the real KE-Z relationship degrades compared to the real KE-R relationship, which is probably due to the sampling error of radar. However, KE estimated by radar possess the advantages in spatialization of kinetic energy over that based on rain gauge stations. This study was supported financially by the HYDRATE project of the

  17. Panel Discussion I. Star Formation in Galaxies: How Do We Continue?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapen, J. H.

    2008-06-01

    This is the written account of the first of two panel discussions, on Star formation in galaxies: how do we continue? The chair of the panel was Phil James, and panel members were John Beckman, Torsten Böker, Daniela Calzetti, Angeles Díaz, and Rob Kennicutt. The panel and audience discussed the following four questions: 1) What are the most critically needed techniques to give accurate measurements of total rates and efficiencies of star formation? 2) Do we understand the form of the initial mass function and its variation as a function of redshift and environment? 3) Are there multiple modes of star formation in galaxies (bulge vs disk, burst vs continuous) or does the Schmidt law explain everything? 4) How do we bring together our understanding of star formation in our Galaxy and in external systems?

  18. Measurement of optical modulation functions in sparsely sampled mosaic focal plane arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, J. B.; Thurlow, P. E.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that the measurement of optical modulation functions for detectors in focal plane arrays may be somewhat more difficult under 'full-up' systems conditions as compared to ideal laboratory conditions. An idealized optical modulation test arrangement is considered along with a full-up scanned system involving an earth mapper in polar orbit. In testing the system in full-up condition, a problem arises with respect to the acquisition of knife edge response data. In order to overcome this problem, a preferred method is developed for obtaining KER data on a single scan. A special 'phased edge' reticle is developed for use in the test set-up. Attention is given to aspects of knife edge reconstruction.

  19. Decay dynamics of N2O under the impact of fast electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Arnab; Misra, Deepankar

    2016-03-01

    We experimentally investigate the two- and three-body breakup dynamics of N2O{}q+ (q=2,3) under the impact of fast (5 keV) electrons using a coincidence momentum spectroscopy technique. The kinetic energy release (KER) distributions have been derived from the measured momenta for various breakup channels. The present values are found to be quite different from a previously reported high energy electron impact study. From the measured momentum vectors, the geometry of the precursor molecular ion prior to the fragmentation has been reconstructed. The three-body decay dynamics of N2O3+ has been studied using Dalitz plots and Newton diagrams with a view of concerted and sequential decay mechanisms. It is found that the sequential process is present along with the concerted process for the N2O3+ \\to N+ + NO2+ \\quad \\to N+ + N+ + O+ channel.

  20. Eigenvalues of the Neumann Laplacian in symmetric regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrocos, Marcus A. M.; Pereira, Antônio L.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we are concerned with the multiplicity of the eigenvalues of the Neumann Laplacian in regions of ℝn which are invariant under the natural action of a compact subgroup G of O(n). We give a partial positive answer (in the Neumann case) to a conjecture of Arnol'd [Funct. Anal. Appl. 6, 94-101 (1972)] on the transversality of the transformation given by the Dirichlet integral to the stratification in the space of quadratic forms according to the multiplicities of the eigenvalues. We show, for some classes of subgroups of O(n) that, generically in the set of G - invariant, C 2 -regions, the action is irreducible in each eigenspace Ker(Δ + λ). These classes include finite subgroups with irreducible representations of dimension not greater than 2 and, in the case n = 2, any compact subgroup of O(2). We also obtain some partial results for general compact subgroups of O(n).

  1. Massive gravity as a quantum gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigore, D. R.; Scharf, G.

    2005-06-01

    We present a new point of view on the quantization of the massive gravitational field, namely we use exclusively the quantum framework of the second quantization. The Hilbert space of the many-gravitons system is a Fock space F+ (Hgraviton) where the one-particle Hilbert space Hgraviton carries the direct sum of two unitary irreducible representations of the Poincaré group corresponding to two particles of mass m > 0 and spins 2 and 0, respectively. This Hilbert space is canonically isomorphic to a space of the type Ker(Q)/Im(Q) where Q is a gauge charge defined in an extension of the Hilbert space Hgraviton generated by the gravitational field hμν and some ghosts fields uμ, ũμ (which are vector Fermi fields) and vμ (which is a vector Bose field).

  2. Design of a hardware track finder (Fast Tracker) for the ATLAS trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavaliere, V.; Adelman, J.; Albicocco, P.; Alison, J.; Ancu, L. S.; Anderson, J.; Andari, N.; Andreani, A.; Andreazza, A.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Asbah, N.; Atkinson, M.; Baines, J.; Barberio, E.; Beccherle, R.; Beretta, M.; Bertolucci, F.; Biesuz, N. V.; Blair, R.; Bogdan, M.; Boveia, A.; Britzger, D.; Bryant, P.; Burghgrave, B.; Calderini, G.; Camplani, A.; Cavasinni, V.; Chakraborty, D.; Chang, P.; Cheng, Y.; Citraro, S.; Citterio, M.; Crescioli, F.; Dawe, N.; Dell'Orso, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Drake, G.; Gadomski, S.; Gatta, M.; Gentsos, C.; Giannetti, P.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Gramling, J.; Howarth, J. W.; Iizawa, T.; Ilic, N.; Jiang, Z.; Kaji, T.; Kasten, M.; Kawaguchi, Y.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Klimkovich, T.; Kolb, M.; Kordas, K.; Krizka, K.; Kubota, T.; Lanza, A.; Li, H. L.; Liberali, V.; Lisovyi, M.; Liu, L.; Love, J.; Luciano, P.; Luongo, C.; Magalotti, D.; Maznas, I.; Meroni, C.; Mitani, T.; Nasimi, H.; Negri, A.; Neroutsos, P.; Neubauer, M.; Nikolaidis, S.; Okumura, Y.; Pandini, C.; Petridou, C.; Piendibene, M.; Proudfoot, J.; Rados, P.; Roda, C.; Rossi, E.; Sakurai, Y.; Sampsonidis, D.; Saxon, J.; Schmitt, S.; Schoening, A.; Shochet, M.; Shojaii, S.; Soltveit, H.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Stabile, A.; Swiatlowski, M.; Tang, F.; Taylor, P. T.; Testa, M.; Tompkins, L.; Vercesi, V.; Volpi, G.; Wang, R.; Watari, R.; Webster, J.; Wu, X.; Yorita, K.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zeng, J. C.; Zhang, J.; Zou, R.

    2016-02-01

    The use of tracking information at the trigger level in the LHC Run II period is crucial for the trigger and data acquisition system and will be even more so as contemporary collisions that occur at every bunch crossing will increase in Run III. The Fast TracKer is part of the ATLAS trigger upgrade project; it is a hardware processor that will provide every Level-1 accepted event (100 kHz) and within 100μs, full tracking information for tracks with momentum as low as 1 GeV . Providing fast, extensive access to tracking information, with resolution comparable to the offline reconstruction, FTK will help in precise detection of the primary and secondary vertices to ensure robust selections and improve the trigger performance.

  3. Characterization of starch from two ecotypes of andean achira roots (Canna edulis).

    PubMed

    Cisneros, Fausto H; Zevillanos, Roberto; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2009-08-26

    Starches from two ecotypes of achira roots (Canna edulis Ker-Gawler) were characterized and compared to commercial potato and corn starches. This included scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of starch granules and amylose content determination of starch. Starch solutions or gels were tested by rotational viscometry, Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA), and texture analysis. Some starch samples were subjected to various treatments: pH reduction, autoclaving at high temperature, and high shear before testing by rotational viscometry. Achira starch showed some unusual properties, such as very large oblong granules (approximately 45-52 microm major axis and approximately 33-34 microm minor axis) and relatively high amylose content (approximately 33-39%). The San Gaban achira ecotype formed high-consistency gels upon cooling, both in RVA study (5% starch) and in texture analysis (8% starch), compared to other starch gels and also exhibited higher thermal resistance to viscosity breakdown. PMID:19627148

  4. Unimolecular reactions of halogeno phenylarsenium ions: Kinetic energy release during the elimination of halogen hydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchhoff, Dirk; Grützmacher, Hans-Friedrich; Grützmacher, Hansjörg

    2006-03-01

    The four dihalogeno phenylarsanes C6H5AsF2, 1, C6H5AsCl2, 2, C6H5AsBr2, 3, and C6H5AsI2, 4, produce in the 70 eV-EI mass spectra by loss of a halogen atom abundant halogeno phenylarseniun ions C6H5As+-X, 1a+-4a+. The further fragmentation reactions of ions 1a+-4a+ are elimination of a molecule halogen hydride HX and/or loss of a halogen atom X. The preferred route of fragmentation depends clearly on the strength of the As-X bond. The metastable fluoro ion 1a+ and chloro ion 2a+, respectively, fragment only by loss of HF and HCl, the metastable bromo derivative 3a+ exhibits losses of HBr and Br of about equal intensity, and the metastable iodo ion 4a+ fragments only by loss of an I atom. The loss of HX is associated with a large kinetic energy release (KER) which yield a dish-topped peak in the MIKE spectrum of 1a+ ( = 845 meV) and 2a+ ( = 550 meV) and a broad round-topped peak on the MIKE spectrum of 3a+ ( = 369 meV). Theoretical calculations (UBHLYP/6-311 + G(2d,p)/-/UBHLYP/6-31 + G(d)) confirm that the elimination of HX requires an enthalpy of activation [Delta]H#, and that in the case of 3a+ this [Delta]H# and the reaction enthalpy for loss of Br are of similar size. The [Delta]H# of HX elimination is also responsible for the reverse enthalpy of activation and the KER during this process. The observed amounts to 78% (1a+), 55% (2a+), and 40% (3a+) of the calculated value of . Thus, the KER as well as the distribution of the KER (KERD) and the competition between elimination of HX and loss of X are very specific for the halogen ligand at the As atom. Metastable (4-fluorophenyl) arsenium ions 1b+, F-C6H4As+-H, and (4-chlorophenyl) arsenium ions 2b+, Cl-C6H4As+-H+, eliminate HF or HCl with virtually identical KERD as metastable 1a+ or 2a+, C6H5As+-Cl, proving an identical transition state for both isomers. Accordingly, 1b+ and 2b+ rearrange to 1a+ and 2a+ prior to HCl elimination. Such a rearrangement by a reductive elimination/oxidative insertion of

  5. Investigation of electronically excited indole relaxation dynamics via photoionization and fragmentation pump-probe spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, T. J.; Yu, Hui; Ullrich, Susanne

    2014-07-28

    The studies herein investigate the involvement of the low-lying {sup 1}L{sub a} and {sup 1}L{sub b} states with {sup 1}ππ{sup *} character and the {sup 1}πσ{sup *} state in the deactivation process of indole following photoexcitation at 201 nm. Three gas-phase, pump-probe spectroscopic techniques are employed: (1) Time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (TR-PES), (2) hydrogen atom (H-atom) time-resolved kinetic energy release (TR-KER), and (3) time-resolved ion yield (TR-IY). Each technique provides complementary information specific to the photophysical processes in the indole molecule. In conjunction, a thorough examination of the electronically excited states in the relaxation process, with particular focus on the involvement of the {sup 1}πσ{sup *} state, is afforded. Through an extensive analysis of the TR-PES data presented here, it is deduced that the initial excitation of the {sup 1}B{sub b} state decays to the {sup 1}L{sub a} state on a timescale beyond the resolution of the current experimental setup. Relaxation proceeds on the {sup 1}L{sub a} state with an ultrafast decay constant (<100 femtoseconds (fs)) to the lower-lying {sup 1}L{sub b} state, which is found to possess a relatively long lifetime of 23 ± 5 picoseconds (ps) before regressing to the ground state. These studies also manifest an additional component with a relaxation time of 405 ± 76 fs, which is correlated with activity along the {sup 1}πσ{sup *} state. TR-KER and TR-IY experiments, both specifically probing {sup 1}πσ{sup *} dynamics, exhibit similar decay constants, further validating these observations.

  6. Pathways for nonsequential and sequential fragmentation of CO2 3 + investigated by electron collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Enliang; Shan, Xu; Shen, Zhenjie; Gong, Maomao; Tang, Yaguo; Pan, Yi; Lau, Kai-Chung; Chen, Xiangjun

    2015-05-01

    We report nonsequential and sequential fragmentation dynamics of CO2 3 + investigated by electron collision at an impact energy of 500 eV. The dissociation mechanisms are clearly distinguished by combined use of the Dalitz plot together with momentum correlation spectra. The angular distributions and kinetic-energy releases (KERs) of different fragmentation processes are obtained. The dissociation channels of higher excited states of the CO2 3 + molecular ion are opened, which are quite different from the previous studies of heavy-ion collision [N. Neumann, D. Hant, L. Ph. H. Schmidt, J. Titze, T. Jahnke, A. Czasch, M. S. Schöffler, K. Kreidi, O. Jagutzki, H. Schmidt-Böcking, and R. Dörner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 103201 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.103201] and intense laser field [C. Wu, C. Wu, D. Song, H. Su, Y. Yang, Z. Wu, X. Liu, H. Liu, M. Li, Y. Deng, Y. Liu, L.-Y. Peng, H. Jiang, and Q. Gong, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 103601 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.103601]. By analyzing KERs together with the help of potential-energy curves exploration at the multireference configuration interaction level, we conclude that the sequential fragmentation occurs in the 2Π ,4Π , and 2Σ+ states of the CO2 3 + ion. The bond length and bond angle are also determined based on the linear fragmentation, indicating that electron impact fragmentation is a potential method to precisely reconstruct the geometry of neutral molecules.

  7. Probing calculated O2+ potential-energy curves with an XUV-IR pump-probe experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cörlin, Philipp; Fischer, Andreas; Schönwald, Michael; Sperl, Alexander; Mizuno, Tomoya; Thumm, Uwe; Pfeifer, Thomas; Moshammer, Robert

    2015-04-01

    We study dissociative photoionization of molecular oxygen in a kinematically complete XUV-IR pump-probe experiment. Detecting charged fragments and photoelectrons in coincidence using a reaction microscope, we observe a pump-probe delay-dependent yield of very low energetic O+ ions which oscillates with a period of 40 fs . This feature is caused by a time-dependent vibrational wave packet in the potential of the binding O2+(a Π4u) state, which is probed by resonant absorption of a single infrared photon to the weakly repulsive O2+(f Π4g) state. By quantitative comparison of the experimental kinetic-energy-release (KER) and quantum-beat (QB) spectra with the results of a coupled-channel simulation, we are able to discriminate between the calculated adiabatic O2+ potential-energy curves (PECs) of Marian et al. [Marian, Marian, Peyerimhoff, Hess, Buenker, and Seger, Mol. Phys. 46, 779 (1982), 10.1080/00268978200101591] and Magrakvelidze et al. [Magrakvelidze, Aikens, and Thumm, Phys. Rev. A 86, 023402 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevA.86.023402]. In general, we find a good agreement between experimental and simulated KER and QB spectra. However, we could not reproduce all features of the experimental data with these PECs. In contrast, adjusting a Morse potential to the experimental data, most features of the experimental spectra are well reproduced by our simulation. By comparing this Morse potential to theoretically predicted PECs, we demonstrate the sensitivity of our experimental method to small changes in the shape of the binding potential.

  8. Regulation of DCIS to invasive breast cancer progression by Singleminded-2s (SIM2s).

    PubMed

    Scribner, K C; Behbod, F; Porter, W W

    2013-05-23

    Singleminded-2s (SIM2s) is a member of the bHLH/PAS family of transcription factors and a key regulator of mammary epithelial cell differentiation. SIM2s is highly expressed in mammary epithelial cells and downregulated in human breast cancer. Loss of Sim2s causes aberrant mouse mammary ductal development, with features suggestive of malignant transformation, whereas overexpression of SIM2s promotes precocious alveolar differentiation in nulliparous mouse mammary glands, suggesting that SIM2s is required for establishing and enhancing mammary gland differentiation. To test the hypothesis that SIM2s regulates tumor cell differentiation, we analyzed SIM2s expression in human primary breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) samples and found that SIM2s is lost with progression from DCIS to invasive ductal cancer (IDC). Using a MCF10DCIS.COM progression model, we have shown that SIM2s expression is decreased in MCF10DCIS.COM cells compared with MCF10A cells, and reestablishment of SIM2s in MCF10DCIS.COM cells significantly inhibits growth and invasion both in vitro and in vivo. Analysis of SIM2s-MCF10DCIS.com tumors showed that SIM2s promoted a more differentiated tumor phenotype including the expression of a broad range of luminal markers (CSN2 (β-casein), CDH1 (E-cadherin), and KER18 (keratin-18)) and suppressed genes associated with stem cell maintenance and a basal phenotype (SMO (smoothened), p63, SLUG (snail-2), KER14 (keratin-14) and VIM (vimentin)). Furthermore, loss of SIM2s expression in MCF10DCIS.COM xenografts resulted in a more invasive phenotype and increased lung metastasis likely due to an increase in Hedgehog signaling and matrix metalloproteinase expression. Together, these exciting new data support a role for SIM2s in promoting human breast tumor differentiation and maintaining epithelial integrity. PMID:22777354

  9. The Zach family in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargha, Magda

    The Zach Family moved to Hungary. In the first decades of the 18th century the population was so low in Hungary that thousands of people moved into an almost empty country. In 1740 the physician Joseph Zach (1714-1792) came from Moravia to Esztergom which at that time had only 10 000 inhabitants. Soon he became the city doctor. It is very probable, that this was the place where he met Klara Sonntag, who became his wife. In any case, Zach moved to Pest, where he became the city doctor in 1746. The Invalide-Hospital built by Martinelli in 1726 was the biggest and most elegant house in Pest at that time - and it was giving shelter to 4000 invalids, whilst the city itself had only 11 000 inhabitants. There Zach became the ``protomedicus''. In 1751 Austrian Empress Maria Theresia visited this military hospital. She was so impressed by Zach's work that she honoured him with Hungarian nobility in 1765. From the corresponding official paper we know that he had three sons and three daughters. In 1791 he received citizenship in Pest. The Hungarian Magnates favoured the talented physician. The Lord Chief Justice Count György Fekete was also among his patients. His thirteen year-old son Count János Fekete became the godfather of Zach's son Franz Xaver Zach in 1754. It is very likely that Voltairian Count János Fekete influenced the personality of Franz Xaver von Zach. Galicia became Austrian Territory in 1772. Pater Liesganig was nominated to lead the Land-Survey Office of Galicia. Anton von Zach and Franz Xaver Zach were his co-workers in this very important task. At the same time Franz Zach became a professor of mechanics at Lemberg University and in its observatory he began his life-long astronomical observations. It is very probable that he joined the Freemasons here together with his godfather, now General, Jänos Fekete. Later they stayed in the same cities very often. The military and scientific works of the two Zach brothers Anton and Franz were so highly

  10. Mapping the isotopic signature of methane in South-Eastern Spain: complementing biogeochemical long-term research with short term observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Àgueda, Alba; Morguí, Josep Anton; Vazquez Garcia, Eusebi; Curcoll, Roger; Lowry, David; Fisher, Rebecca E.; Nisbet, Euan G.

    2016-04-01

    will be helpful in the validation of transport models. *Corresponding author: Josep Anton Morguí - josep-anton.morgui@ic3.cat "The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) in the InGOS project under grant agreement n° 284274''

  11. Slide-and-exchange mechanism for rapid and selective transport through the nuclear pore complex.

    PubMed

    Raveh, Barak; Karp, Jerome M; Sparks, Samuel; Dutta, Kaushik; Rout, Michael P; Sali, Andrej; Cowburn, David

    2016-05-01

    Nucleocytoplasmic transport is mediated by the interaction of transport factors (TFs) with disordered phenylalanine-glycine (FG) repeats that fill the central channel of the nuclear pore complex (NPC). However, the mechanism by which TFs rapidly diffuse through multiple FG repeats without compromising NPC selectivity is not yet fully understood. In this study, we build on our recent NMR investigations showing that FG repeats are highly dynamic, flexible, and rapidly exchanging among TF interaction sites. We use unbiased long timescale all-atom simulations on the Anton supercomputer, combined with extensive enhanced sampling simulations and NMR experiments, to characterize the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of FG repeats and their interaction with a model transport factor. Both the simulations and experimental data indicate that FG repeats are highly dynamic random coils, lack intrachain interactions, and exhibit significant entropically driven resistance to spatial confinement. We show that the FG motifs reversibly slide in and out of multiple TF interaction sites, transitioning rapidly between a strongly interacting state and a weakly interacting state, rather than undergoing a much slower transition between strongly interacting and completely noninteracting (unbound) states. In the weakly interacting state, FG motifs can be more easily displaced by other competing FG motifs, providing a simple mechanism for rapid exchange of TF/FG motif contacts during transport. This slide-and-exchange mechanism highlights the direct role of the disorder within FG repeats in nucleocytoplasmic transport, and resolves the apparent conflict between the selectivity and speed of transport. PMID:27091992

  12. Lab experiments on the innovative rapid thick strip casting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Richard; Senk, Dieter

    2012-05-01

    Rapid thick strip casting (RTSC) by Anton Hulek, Inventmetall®, is an innovative concept for the production of hot strips with a final as-cast thickness of about 25 mm before rolling. The innovation of the mechanism consists in a vertical mould performing a caterpillar motion. This moving mould has an unconventional parallelogram-shaped cross-section. The conventional rectangular shape is formed in the shaping machine, which is placed straight below the mould. Further elements of the technology are state-of-the-art. For the investigation of this new casting system theoretical calculations were complemented with practical experiments. The investigation focused mainly on two key aspects: the characteristics of the mould and the shaping process. For the practical analysis a static mould with three pairs of elements in laboratory scale was developed and commissioned by the Dept. of Ferrous Metallurgy @ RWTH Aachen University. The shaping experiments were carried out in model scale with two different materials and in variable boundary conditions. The results of these experiments delivered important mechanical as well as thermal informations about the casting system.

  13. Doctors in Court, Honour, and Professional Ethics: Two Scandals in Imperial Germany*

    PubMed Central

    Maehle, Andreas-Holger

    2013-01-01

    Summary Comparing two public medical affairs which involved disciplinary proceedings and libel actions, one from Bavaria and one from Prussia, this article analyzes the dynamics behind legal conflicts over doctors’ professional ethics in Imperial Germany. In both the case of Dr Maurice Hutzler, who committed suicide after conflicts with senior colleagues at the Gisela Children’s Hospital and a sentence of the court of honour of the Munich Medical District Society, and the Berlin ‘patient trade’ affair, in which the medical professors Ernst von Leyden, Hermann Senator, Karl Anton Ewald and Carl Posner were accused of having made payments to middlemen for bringing them lucrative private patients, notions of personal and professional honour played a central role. The Munich case highlighted shortcomings of the Bavarian medical court of honour system, which was less developed than its Prussian counterpart. The analysis of the two cases suggests that the ethics of medical practice in early twentieth-century Germany should be viewed as part of a culture of honour. PMID:22303773

  14. The new IAA Light Scattering Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, O.; Moreno, F.; Molina, A.; Guirado, D.; Ramos, J. L.; López, A.; Girela, F.; Costillo, L. P.

    2005-05-01

    We are building up a light scattering setup at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA), Granada, Spain. The design of this new setup is based on the well known apparatus currently located at the Astronomical Institute "Anton Pannekoek", University of Amsterdam, The Neteherlands [1],[2]. By using a polarization modulation technique, all scattering matrix elements as function of the scattering angle are obtained from 8 separate measurement runs. In this new setup we use an Argon-Kripton laser (483 nm, 488 nm, 514 nm, 568 nm, and 647 nm) as light source. The detectors are mounted on dove tails that allow their movement backward and forward. In addition, the detectors have been designed to minimize blockage of the laser beam at positions close to the forward and backward directions. In this way we intend to do measurements covering an angle range from 3 to 177 degrees. The alignment of the optics is automatically done and controlled from the computer reducing the measurement time.

  15. Coming of Age With Quantum Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    1. Letters to David Baker; 2. Letters to Howard Baker; 3. Letters to Howard Barnum; 4. Letters to Paul Benioff; 5. Letters to Charlie Bennett; 6. Letters to Herb Bernstein; 7. Letters to Doug Bilodeau; 8. Letters to Gilles Brassard; 9. Letters to Jeffrey Bub; 10. Letters to Carlton Caves; 11. Letters to Greg Comer; 12. Letters to Charles Enz; 13. Letters to Henry Folse; 14. Letters to Bob Griffiths; 15. Letters to Adrian Kent; 16. Letters to Rolf Landauer; 17. Letters to Hideo Mabuchi; 18. Letters to David Mermin; 19. Letters to David Meyer; 20. Letters to Jeff Nicholson; 21. Letters to Michael Nielsen; 22. Letters to Asher Peres; 23. Diary of a carefully worded paper: more letters to Asher Peres; 24. Letters to John Preskill; 25. Letters to Joseph Renes; 26. Letters to Mary Beth Ruskai; 27. Letters to Rüdiger Schack; 28. Letters to Robert Schumann; 29. Letters to Abner Shimony; 30. Letters to Jon Waskan; 31. Letters to Bill Wootters; 32. Letters to Anton Zeilinger; 33. Other letters; Index.

  16. Dancing with chemical formulae of antivirals: A panoramic view (Part 2).

    PubMed

    De Clercq, Erik

    2013-11-15

    In this second part of "Dancing with antivirals as chemical formulae" I will focus on a number of chemical compounds that in the last few years have elicited more than common attraction from a commercial viewpoint: (i) favipiravir (T-705), as it is active against influenza, but also several other RNA viruses; (ii) neuraminidase inhibitors such as zanamivir and oseltamivir; (iii) peramivir and laninamivir octanoate, which might be effective against influenza virus following a single (intravenous or inhalation) administration; (iv) sofosbuvir, the (anticipated) cornerstone for the interferon-free therapy of HCV infections; (v) combinations of DAAs (direct antiviral agents) to achieve, in no time, a sustained virus response (SVR) against HCV infection; (vi) HIV protease inhibitors, the latest and most promising being darunavir; (vii) the integrase inhibitors (INIs) (raltegravir, elvitegravir, dolutegravir), representing a new dimension in the anti-HIV armamentarium; (viii), a new class of helicase primase inhibitors (HPIs) that may exceed acyclovir and the other anti-herpes compounds in both potency and safety; (ix) CMX-001, as the latest of Dr. Antonín Holý's legacy for its activity against poxviruses and CMV infections, and (x) noroviruses for which the ideal antiviral compounds are still awaited for. PMID:24070654

  17. “Colossal” Breakthrough: The Callosal Puncture as a Precursor to Third Ventriculostomy

    PubMed Central

    Chesler, D. A.; Pendleton, C.; Jallo, G. I.; Quiñones-Hinojosa, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background In 1908, Anton and von Bramann proposed the Balkenstich method, a corpus callosum puncture which created a communication between the ventricle and subarachnoid space. This method offered the benefit of providing continuous CSF diversion without the implantation of cannula or other shunting devices, yet it received only slight reference in the literature of the time. It remained a novel and perhaps underutilized approach at the time Cushing began expanding his neurosurgical practice at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Materials and Methods Following IRB approval, and through the courtesy of the Alan Mason Chesney Archives, the surgical records of the Johns Hopkins Hospital for the period 1896–1912 were reviewed. Patients operated upon by Harvey Cushing were selected. Results 7 patients underwent puncture of the corpus callosum for treatment of hydrocephalus. 6 patients were treated for obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to presumed intracranial lesions. 1 patient was treated for congenital hydrocephalus. Conclusion The series reported here documents Cushing’s early use of the corpus callosum puncture to divert CSF in patients with obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to intracranial tumors, as well as an attempt to use the procedure in a pediatric patient with congenital hydrocephalus. Notably, 3 patients developed new onset left-sided weakness post-operatively, possibly due to retraction injury upon the supplementary motor intra-operative manipulations. PMID:22278787

  18. The design and analysis of new musical bells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLachlan, Neil M.

    2001-05-01

    The design and analysis of a series of new musical bells will be presented in this paper. Modal analysis of a wide range of bell-like geometries using FEA revealed the presence and significance of transverse axial modes in unconstrained bell models, leading to a new understanding of the relationships between bell geometry and modal behavior. This understanding was used to adjust simple parametric models of bell geometry to arrive at appropriate geometries to begin numerical shape optimization for the design of bells with a range of desired overtone tunings. Pitch salience is well known to depend on the degree of harmonic relationships between pure tones in complex stimuli. Bells intended to produce a single, highly salient pitch were designed and manufactured with up to the first 7 overtones tuned to the harmonic series. Other bells with overtones tuned to subsets of two or three harmonic series were also designed and manufactured. These bells were intended to produce multiple pitch perceptions of approximately equal strength. Spectral analysis and range of numerical psycho-acoustic models are used to evaluate the sounds of manufactured bells against these design objectives. [I would like to acknowledge the close collaboration of Dr. Anton Hasell of Australian Bell.

  19. An Equation of State for Hypersaline Water in Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naftz, D.L.; Millero, F.J.; Jones, B.F.; Green, W.R.

    2011-01-01

    Great Salt Lake (GSL) is one of the largest and most saline lakes in the world. In order to accurately model limnological processes in GSL, hydrodynamic calculations require the precise estimation of water density (??) under a variety of environmental conditions. An equation of state was developed with water samples collected from GSL to estimate density as a function of salinity and water temperature. The ?? of water samples from the south arm of GSL was measured as a function of temperature ranging from 278 to 323 degrees Kelvin (oK) and conductivity salinities ranging from 23 to 182 g L-1 using an Anton Paar density meter. These results have been used to develop the following equation of state for GSL (?? = ?? 0.32 kg m-3): ?? - ??0 = 184.01062 + 1.04708 * S - 1.21061*T + 3.14721E - 4*S2 + 0.00199T2 where ??0 is the density of pure water in kg m-3, S is conductivity salinity g L-1, and T is water temperature in degrees Kelvin. ?? 2011 U.S. Government.

  20. [Oswald Schwarz: a pioneer in psychosomatic urology and sexual medicine].

    PubMed

    Berberich, H J; Schultheiss, D; Kieser, B

    2015-01-01

    Oswald Schwarz, a urologist from Vienna, was a scholar of Anton Ritter von Frisch and Hans Rubritius. As a physician during World War I, he was confronted with numerous bullet wounds to the spinal cord. In 1919, he completed his professorial thesis"Bladder dysfunction as a result of bullet wounds to the spinal cord". Oswald Schwarz was known as a committed surgeon. As an urologist he also treated patients with sexual dysfunction. Besides his practical and scientific urology-related work, he was also interested in psychology and philosophy. He held lectures on both subjects earning himself the nickname, the Urosoph. In the 1920s, Oswald Schwarz belonged to the inner circle of Alfred Adler, the founder of Individual Psychology, and was editor of the first psychosomatic textbook published in German, "Psychological origin and psychotherapy of physical symptoms" (1925). In addition, Schwarz wrote numerous articles and several books on sexual medicine. He also made many valuable contributions to the development of medical anthropology. Altogether, his work includes over 130 publications. Faced with the rise of fascism and National Socialism in Europe, Oswald Schwarz, who was of Jewish origin, emigrated to England in 1934. There he died in 1949. Unfortunately his scientific work has largely been forgotten. The aim of the following article is to remind us of his important contributions to the field. PMID:25537746

  1. Helgoland und die Erforschung der marinen Benthosalgen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollenhauer, D.; Lüning, K.

    1988-09-01

    Early phycological research on the island of Helgoland was performed by amateur phycologists from the adjacent coastal regions of Germany (Bremen, Hamburg, Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein). These pioneers were followed by professionals, and by collectors from the mainland universities, particularly from Berlin. This second phase group includes the naturalist Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg, the zoologists Johannes Müller, Ernst Haeckel and Anton Dohrn, and the botanists Alexander Braun, Nathanael Pringsheim, and Ferdinand Cohn. The leading marine phycologist in Germany, towards the end of the 19th century, was Johannes Reinke, who finally worked at the University of Kiel. Paul Kuckuck's doctoral thesis had been supervised by Reinke who recommended him for the post of the first curator of botany at the Biological Station of Helgoland, which was founded in 1892. Kuckuck worked on the island from 1892 to 1914. After World War I, and after Kuckuck's untimely death, Wilhelm Nienburg became the second curator of botany on Helgoland, from 1921 to 1923. The next permanent phycologist on the island, from 1925 to 1936, was Ernst Schreiber. He was followed in 1936 by Peter Kornmann, who retired in 1972 but still continues as a research worker, together with Paul-Heinz Sahling, who started to work as a technical assistant under the guidance of Ernst Schreiber in 1927.

  2. Characterization of a Venom Peptide from a Crassispirid Gastropod

    PubMed Central

    Cabang, April B.; Imperial, Julita S.; Gajewiak, Joanna; Watkins, Maren; Corneli, Patrice Showers; Olivera, Baldomero M.; Concepcion, Gisela P.

    2011-01-01

    The crassispirids are a large branch of venomous marine gastropods whose venoms have not been investigated previously. We demonstrate that crassispirids comprise a major group of toxoglossate snails in a clade distinct from all turrids whose venoms have been analyzed. The isolation and biochemical definition of the first venom component from any crassispirid is described. Crassipeptide cce9a from Crassispira cerithina (Anton, 1838) was purified from crude venom by following biological activity elicited in young mice, lethargy and a lack of responsiveness to external stimuli. Using Edman sequencing and mass spectrometry, the purified peptide was shown to be 29 amino acid residues long, with the sequence: GSCGLPCHENRRCGWACYCDDGICKPLRV. The sequence assignment was verified through the analysis of a cDNA clone encoding the peptide. The peptide was chemically synthesized and folded; the synthetic peptide was biologically active and coelution with the native venom peptide was demonstrated. When injected into mice of various ages, the peptide elicited a striking shift in behavioral phenotype between 14 and 16 days, from lethargy to hyperactivity. PMID:21939682

  3. Folding Simulations for Proteins with Diverse Topologies Are Accessible in Days with a Physics-Based Force Field and Implicit Solvent

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The millisecond time scale needed for molecular dynamics simulations to approach the quantitative study of protein folding is not yet routine. One approach to extend the simulation time scale is to perform long simulations on specialized and expensive supercomputers such as Anton. Ideally, however, folding simulations would be more economical while retaining reasonable accuracy, and provide feedback on structure, stability and function rapidly enough if partnered directly with experiment. Approaches to this problem typically involve varied compromises between accuracy, precision, and cost; the goal here is to address whether simple implicit solvent models have become sufficiently accurate for their weaknesses to be offset by their ability to rapidly provide much more precise conformational data as compared to explicit solvent. We demonstrate that our recently developed physics-based model performs well on this challenge, enabling accurate all-atom simulated folding for 16 of 17 proteins with a variety of sizes, secondary structure, and topologies. The simulations were carried out using the Amber software on inexpensive GPUs, providing ∼1 μs/day per GPU, and >2.5 ms data presented here. We also show that native conformations are preferred over misfolded structures for 14 of the 17 proteins. For the other 3, misfolded structures are thermodynamically preferred, suggesting opportunities for further improvement. PMID:25255057

  4. Long-term nipple shrinkage following augmentation by an autologous rib cartilage transplant in free DIEP-flaps.

    PubMed

    Heitland, A; Markowicz, M; Koellensperger, E; Allen, R; Pallua, N

    2006-01-01

    Aesthetically pleasing nipple-areola reconstruction is a satisfying part of a two-stage breast reconstruction. The up to 50% [Banducci DR, Le TK, Hughes KC. Long-term follow-up of a modified Anton-Hartrampf nipple reconstruction. Ann Plast Surg 1999;43(5):467-9; discussion 469-70] postoperative shrinkage following a conventional nipple reconstruction is a well-known problem. Augmentation of the nipple with autologous banked cartilage seems to be a promising solution. From 2000-2003, 17 patients underwent a nipple-areola-complex reconstruction following secondary breast reconstruction using free perforator flaps. The rib cartilage harvested during the preparation of the internal thoracic vessels was banked subcutaneously and six months later replanted under the 'arrow flap' after contouring it in a 'mushroom' shape. One year later the shrinkage of the nipple in comparison to the intraoperative status was measured. In addition, patients were asked about their personal palpation impression and the aesthetic outcome. The average height decreased one year postoperatively about 25%. Thirteen of 17 patients judged the aesthetic outcome as very good, 16 nipples healed without cartilage protrusion and no patient felt discomfortable stiffness of the nipple. Our concept of a nipple augmentation with rib cartilage improves the projection and allows a more correct judgement of the later nipple shrinkage. We consider this technique to be an aesthetically satisfying and safe method, which could be used with any kind of breast reconstruction. PMID:16996429

  5. Projected and hidden Markov models for calculating kinetics and metastable states of complex molecules.

    PubMed

    Noé, Frank; Wu, Hao; Prinz, Jan-Hendrik; Plattner, Nuria

    2013-11-14

    Markov state models (MSMs) have been successful in computing metastable states, slow relaxation timescales and associated structural changes, and stationary or kinetic experimental observables of complex molecules from large amounts of molecular dynamics simulation data. However, MSMs approximate the true dynamics by assuming a Markov chain on a clusters discretization of the state space. This approximation is difficult to make for high-dimensional biomolecular systems, and the quality and reproducibility of MSMs has, therefore, been limited. Here, we discard the assumption that dynamics are Markovian on the discrete clusters. Instead, we only assume that the full phase-space molecular dynamics is Markovian, and a projection of this full dynamics is observed on the discrete states, leading to the concept of Projected Markov Models (PMMs). Robust estimation methods for PMMs are not yet available, but we derive a practically feasible approximation via Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). It is shown how various molecular observables of interest that are often computed from MSMs can be computed from HMMs/PMMs. The new framework is applicable to both, simulation and single-molecule experimental data. We demonstrate its versatility by applications to educative model systems, a 1 ms Anton MD simulation of the bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor protein, and an optical tweezer force probe trajectory of an RNA hairpin. PMID:24320261

  6. Projected and hidden Markov models for calculating kinetics and metastable states of complex molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noé, Frank; Wu, Hao; Prinz, Jan-Hendrik; Plattner, Nuria

    2013-11-01

    Markov state models (MSMs) have been successful in computing metastable states, slow relaxation timescales and associated structural changes, and stationary or kinetic experimental observables of complex molecules from large amounts of molecular dynamics simulation data. However, MSMs approximate the true dynamics by assuming a Markov chain on a clusters discretization of the state space. This approximation is difficult to make for high-dimensional biomolecular systems, and the quality and reproducibility of MSMs has, therefore, been limited. Here, we discard the assumption that dynamics are Markovian on the discrete clusters. Instead, we only assume that the full phase-space molecular dynamics is Markovian, and a projection of this full dynamics is observed on the discrete states, leading to the concept of Projected Markov Models (PMMs). Robust estimation methods for PMMs are not yet available, but we derive a practically feasible approximation via Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). It is shown how various molecular observables of interest that are often computed from MSMs can be computed from HMMs/PMMs. The new framework is applicable to both, simulation and single-molecule experimental data. We demonstrate its versatility by applications to educative model systems, a 1 ms Anton MD simulation of the bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor protein, and an optical tweezer force probe trajectory of an RNA hairpin.

  7. The astrological roots of mesmerism.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Simon

    2010-06-01

    Franz Anton Mesmer's 1766 thesis on the influence of the planets on the human body, in which he first publicly presented his account of the harmonic forces at work in the microcosm, was substantially copied from the London physician Richard Mead's early eighteenth century tract on solar and lunar effects on the body. The relation between the two texts poses intriguing problems for the historiography of medical astrology: Mesmer's use of Mead has been taken as a sign of the Vienna physician's enlightened modernity while Mead's use of astro-meteorology has been seen as evidence of the survival of antiquated astral medicine in the eighteenth century. Two aspects of this problem are discussed. First, French critics of mesmerism in the 1780s found precedents for animal magnetism in the work of Paracelsus, Fludd and other early modern writers; in so doing, they began to develop a sophisticated history for astrology and astro-meteorology. Second, the close relations between astro-meteorology and Mead's project illustrate how the environmental medical programmes emerged. The making of a history for astrology accompanied the construction of various models of the relation between occult knowledge and its contexts in the enlightenment. PMID:20513627

  8. The Dide-Botcazo syndrome: forgotten and misunderstood.

    PubMed

    Lazzarino De Lorenzo, Lucio G; Ffytche, Dominic H; Di Camillo, Eva; Buiatti, Tania

    2014-07-01

    Bilateral infarcts of the posterior cerebral arteries are associated with a range of visual and memory deficits. In 1902, Dide and Botcazo presented a clinico-pathological case study linking visual field defects, topographical disorientation, retro-anterograde amnesia and alexia with bilateral medial occipito-temporal lesions. Based on the findings they suggested the occipital lobe and inferior longitudinal fasciculus played an important role in memory. The combination of deficits was subsequently referred to on occasion as Dide-Botcazo syndrome but the term was largely forgotten until revived in the 1980s. More recently, some authors have included visual anosognosia--Anton's syndrome--in the syndrome, a feature that was not in the original case report. Here we present a historical review of Dide-Botcazo syndrome, illustrated with a recent case with almost identical clinical features to that described by Dide and Botcazo. Although Dide and Botcazo's theory of occipital amnesia has been superseded by developments in our understanding of the neurobiology of memory, it seems fitting to remember in some way their description of a clinical association of visual and memory deficits. We suggest Dide-Botcazo syndrome be used to describe a variant of vascular dementia, where visual field deficits are associated with memory impairment and, depending on the location of the vascular lesions, visual perceptual dysfunction, topographic, imagery or dreaming deficits. PMID:23473855

  9. AIDS and Africa. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Kopelman, Loretta M; van Niekerk, Anton A

    2002-04-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is the epicenter of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and in this issue of the Journal, seven authors discuss the moral, social and medical implications of having 70% of those stricken living in this area. Anton A. van Niekerk considers complexities of plague in this region (poverty, denial, poor leadership, illiteracy, women's vulnerability, and disenchantment of intimacy) and the importance of finding responses that empower its people. Solomon Benatar reinforces these issues, but also discusses the role of global politics in sub-Saharan Africa, especially discrimination, imperialism and its exploitation by first world countries. Given the public health crisis, Udo Schüklenk and Richard E. Ashcroft defend compulsory licensing of essential HIV/AIDS medications on consequentialist grounds. Keymanthri Moodley discusses the importance of conducting research and the need to understand a moderate form of communitarianism, also referred to as "ubuntu" or "communalism", to help some Africans understand research as an altruistic endeavour. Godfrey B. Tangwa also defends traditional African values of empathy and ubuntu, discussing how they should be enlisted to fight this pandemic. Loretta M. Kopelman criticizes the tendency among those outside Africa to dismiss the HIV/AIDS pandemic, attributing one source to the ubiquitous and misguided punishment theory of disease. The authors conclude that good solutions must be cooperative ventures among countries within and outside of sub-Saharan Africa with far more support from wealthy countries. PMID:11961693

  10. Doctors in court, honour, and professional ethics: two scandals in Imperial Germany.

    PubMed

    Maehle, Andreas-Holger

    2011-01-01

    Comparing two public medical affairs which involved disciplinary proceedings and libel actions, one from Bavaria and one from Prussia, this article analyzes the dynamics behind legal conflicts over doctors' professional ethics in Imperial Germany. In both the case of Dr Maurice Hutzler, who committed suicide after conflicts with senior colleagues at the Gisela Children's Hospital and a sentence of the court of honour of the Munich Medical District Society, and the Berlin "patient trade" affair, in which the medical professors Ernst von Leyden, Hermann Senator, Karl Anton Ewald and Carl Posner were accused of having made payments to middlemen for bringing them lucrative private patients, notions of personal and professional honour played a central role. The Munich case highlighted shortcomings of the Bavarian medical court of honour system, which was less developed than its Prussian counterpart. The analysis of the two cases suggests that the ethics of medical practice in early twentieth-century Germany should be viewed as part of a culture of honour. PMID:22303773

  11. Rheological Characterization and Cluster Classification of Iranian Commercial Foods, Drinks and Desserts to Recommend for Esophageal Dysphagia Diets

    PubMed Central

    ZARGARAAN, Azizollaah; OMARAEE, Yasaman; RASTMANESH, Reza; TAHERI, Negin; FADAVI, Ghasem; FADAEI, Morteza; MOHAMMADIFAR, Mohammad Amin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background In the absence of dysphagia-oriented food products, rheological characterization of available food items is of importance for safe swallowing and adequate nutrient intake of dysphagic patients. In this way, introducing alternative items (with similar ease of swallow) is helpful to improve quality of life and nutritional intake of esophageal cancer dysphagia patients. The present study aimed at rheological characterization and cluster classification of potentially suitable foodstuffs marketed in Iran for their possible use in dysphagia diets. Methods In this descriptive study, rheological data were obtained during January and February 2012 in Rheology Lab of National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute Tehran, Iran. Steady state and oscillatory shear parameters of 39 commercial samples were obtained using a Physica MCR 301 rheometer (Anton-Paar, GmbH, Graz, Austria). Matlab Fuzzy Logic Toolbox (R2012 a) was utilized for cluster classification of the samples. Results Using an extended list of rheological parameters and fuzzy logic methods, 39 commercial samples (drinks, main courses and desserts) were divided to 5 clusters and degree of membership to each cluster was stated by a number between 0 and 0.99. Conclusion Considering apparent viscosity of foodstuffs as a single criterion for classification of dysphagia-oriented food products is shortcoming of current guidelines in dysphagia diets. Authors proposed to some revisions in classification of dysphagia-oriented food products and including more rheological parameters (especially, viscoelastic parameters) in the classification. PMID:26060647

  12. Microwave Irradiation on Halloysite-Polypropylene Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espino, Omar; Yust, Brian; Chipara, Dorina; Ajayan, Pullickel; Chipara, Alin; Chipara, Mircea; Utrgv Collaboration; Rice Collaboration

    Halloysite is an unique cyllindrical nanoclay characterized by poor electrical and thermal conductivity, which may become the filler of choice for the reinforcement of polymeric matrix, where electrical or thermal insulation are required. The main limits in the use of halloysite as replacement for carbon nanotube (CNT) are: 1. Smaller aspect ratio as halloysites are typically shorter than CNTs. 2. Smaller Young modulus of halloysites compared with CNTs. 3. Reduced thermal stability due to the loss of water upon heating. A research on halloysite dispersed within isotactic polypropylene is reported. To improve the interface between the halloysite and the polymeric matrix a microwave irradiation step has been considered. The local heating of the halloysite nanotubes is mediated by the absorbed/structural water content of the nanoclay. Nanocomposites loaded by various amounts of halloysite ranging from 0 % to 20 % wt. have been prepared by melt mixing by using a Haake RheoMixer. The as obtained nanocomposites have been subjected to microwave irradiation at 75 W in an Anton Paar Monowave 300 system and various irradiation times ranging from 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes. The effect of microwave irradiation has been studied by Raman and FTIR spectroscopy

  13. Rheological Properties of Nanoparticle Silica-Surfactant Stabilized Crude Oil Emulsions: Influence of Temperature, Nanoparticle Concentration and Water Volume Fraction"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsey, Erin; Pales, Ashley; Li, Chunyan; Mu, Linlin; Bai, Lingyun; Clifford, Heather; Darnault, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Oil in water emulsions occur during oil extraction due to the presence of water, naturally-occurring surface-active agents and mechanical mixing in pipelines or from oil spillage. Emulsions present difficulties for use of oil in fuel and their rheological properties are important to treat environmental impacts of spills. The objective of this study is to assess the rheological characteristics of oil in water emulsions stabilized by 5% NaCl brine, Tween 20 surfactant and silica nanoparticles to gain knowledge about the behavior of oil flow in pipelines and characterize them for environmental applications. Rheological behaviors such as shear rate, shear stress, and viscosity of Prudhoe Bay crude oil emulsions were analyzed with varying percent of water volume fractions (12.5, 25 and 50%), varying weight percent of silica nanoparticles (0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 weight %), with and without 2 CMC Tween 20 nonionic surfactant. Emulsions with varying water volume fractions were analyzed at 20, 40 and 60 degrees Celsius. Flow curve analysis of the emulsions was performed using an Anton-Paar rheometer. Preliminary findings indicate that increased temperature and increasing the concentration of nanoparticles both produced lower shear stress and that the addition of surfactant decreased the viscosity and shear stress of the emulsions.

  14. Preparation and properties of environmental-friendly coatings based on carboxymethyl cellulose nitrate ester & modified alkyd.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hongtao; Shao, Ziqiang; Zhao, Ming; Zhou, Zhenwen

    2016-02-10

    Amphipathic coating basic film-forming material carboxymethyl cellulose nitrate ester (CMCN) was synthesized and characterizations of CMCN with different ratio of functional groups were studied. Ratios of functional groups on each repeating units of CMCN have great importance in the decision of CMCN properties using as an amphipathic coating basic film-forming material and ratios of functional groups were the most concerned of the study. Ratios of functional groups on each repeating units of CMCN were measured by elemental analyzer and calculated. Series of experiments were conducted using different ratios of functional groups of CMCN. Thermal properties of CMCN were measured by FT-IR and TG. Densities of CMCN powders were measured. Aqueous coatings based on CMCN/alkyd (after chemical modified by coconut oil) were prepared and morphology & rheology of CMCN hydrophilic dispersions were measured using an Anton-Paar-Strasse 20A-8054 Graz analyzer. Contact angles between films based on CMCN and deionized water were recorded. Other properties of films were measured. CMCN with the etherification of carboxymethyl groups at 0.35-0.40, nitrate ester groups at 1.96-2.19 and hydroxyl groups at 0.46-0.64 per d-glucose was considered as the best film forming material. PMID:26686109

  15. Motility of the diplomonad fish parasite Spironucleus vortens through thixotropic solid media.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, David; Lewis, Iwan B; Williams, Catrin F; Hayes, Anthony J; Symons, Hannah; Hill, Edward C

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of a series of nutrient-supplemented thixotropic gels at successive dilutions that impede the trajectories of a highly vigorous motile flagellated protist, Spironucleus vortens, provides insights into both its swimming characteristics and a means for its immobilization. The progress of movement of this organism through the solidified growth medium was monitored by the in situ reductive production of a formazan chromophore from a dissolved tetrazolium salt. The physical properties of the gels were measured using an Anton Paar rheometer. The test parameters and measurements included: angular frequency, complex viscosity, complex shear modulus, shear rate and rotational recovery. These rheological characteristics affected the forward velocity of the organism through the gels, during and after multiple resetting, information potentially useful for determination of the dynamic characteristics of flagellar movement and propulsion rates of the organism. Application to separation of single cells, individuals of distinct sizes or the differing species from mixed cultures of motile and non-motile organisms or less actively swimming species was evident. These applications can be used when isolating the parasite from the intestinal contents of its host or from faecal pellets. PMID:25406450

  16. A Compendium of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Released By Human Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Filipiak, Wojciech; Mochalski, Pawel; Filipiak, Anna; Ager, Clemens; Cumeras, Raquel; Davis, Cristina E; Agapiou, Agapios; Unterkofler, Karl; Troppmair, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) offer unique insights into ongoing biochemical processes in healthy and diseased humans. Yet, their diagnostic use is hampered by the limited understanding of their biochemical or cellular origin and their frequently unclear link to the underlying diseases. Major advancements are expected from the analyses of human primary cells, cell lines and cultures of microorganisms. In this review, a database of 125 reliably identified VOCs previously reported for human healthy and diseased cells was assembled and their potential origin is discussed. The majority of them have also been observed in studies with other human matrices (breath, urine, saliva, feces, blood, skin emanations). Moreover, continuing improvements of qualitative and quantitative analyses, based on the recommendations of the ISO-11843 guidelines, are suggested for the necessary standardization of analytical procedures and better comparability of results. The data provided contribute to arriving at a more complete human volatilome and suggest potential volatile biomarkers for future validation. Dedication:This review is dedicated to the memory of Prof. Dr. Anton Amann, who sadly passed away on January 6, 2015. He was motivator and motor for the field of breath research. PMID:27160536

  17. The effect of temperature on rheological properties of endodontic sealers

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Roshni U.; Singbal, Kiran P.; Parekh, Vaishali

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate temperature-dependent rheological properties of three endodontic sealers MTA Fillapex (Angelus, Brazil), AH Plus (Dentsply, Germany), and EndoREZ (Ultradent, USA). Materials and Methods: Five samples of each group of endodontic sealers (n = 30) were freshly mixed and placed on the plate of a rheometer (MCR 301, AntonPaar, Physica) and examined at 25°C and 37°C temperature, respectively. Rheological properties of the sealers were calculated according to the loss modulus (G″), storage modulus (G′), loss factor (Tan δ), and complex viscosity (η*) using dynamic oscillatory shear tests. Results: Statistical analysis (Wilcoxon signed-rank test) demonstrated that MTA Fillapex exhibited higher loss modulus (G″ > G′) and a crossover region. AH Plus and EndoREZ had a higher storage modulus (G′ > G″) at both temperatures. Loss factor (Tan δ) of MTA Fillapex was the highest compared to AH Plus, followed by EndoREZ. With a temperature change from 25°C to 37°C, MTA Fillapex exhibited a decrease while AH Plus exhibited an increase and, EndoREZ exhibited the least change, in complex viscosity (η*). Conclusions: EndoREZ exhibited better rheological properties compared to the other two test sealers. PMID:27099414

  18. Nephrological excerpts from the Encyclopédie of Diderot and d'Alembert.

    PubMed

    De Santo, Natale Gaspare; Cirillo, Massimo; Bisaccia, Carmela; Richet, Gabriel; Eknoyan, Garabed

    2011-05-01

    The Encyclopédie of Denis Diderot (1713-1784) and Jean-Baptiste le Rond d'Alembert (1717-1783), a 35-volume work published between 1751 and 1780, is the most representative work of the Enlightenment in France. Written to explain truths based on experiment, detected by the senses, and analyzed by reason, it was meant to be an inclusive systematic dictionary of the sciences, arts, and crafts. Medicine, considered an experimental but practical science based on measurement, is not mentioned in the frontispiece, but is covered in the text based on the work of several illustrious scientists and clinicians of the period. The renal entries describe kidney structure and function, normal and pathologic urine, diabetes, anuria, polyuria, dysuria, stranguria, incontinence, kidney stones, edema, diuretics, and nephritis. The contributions of Marcello Malpighi (1628-1698), Herman Boerhaave (1668-1738), and Guichard-Joseph Duverney (1648-1730) are highlighted. Accompanying illustrations of unique perfection show the position of the kidneys according to Albrecht Haller (1708-1777); their innervation according to Raymond Vieussens (1641-1715); their structure according to Anton Nuck (1650-1692), Exupère Joseph Bertin (1712-1781), and Frederick Ruysch (1638-1731); and the genitourinary tract according to Duverney. Overall, the Encyclopédie provides a unique summary of what was known about kidney structure, function, and disease in the 18th century. PMID:21420773

  19. Densities and excess molar volumes of binary mixtures containing propylene carbonate + chlorohydrocarbons at 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Comelli, F.; Francesconi, R.

    1995-11-01

    Densities and excess molar volumes, V{sub m}{sup E}, for binary mixtures containing propylene carbonate + 10 chlorohydrocarbons (dichloromethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,3-dichloropropane, 1,4-dichlorobuthane, 1,6-dichlorohexane, 1,10-dichlorodecane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, trans-1,2-dichloroethene, and trichloroethene) have been measured at 298.15 K and at atmospheric pressure using an Anton Paar digital vibrating tube density meter. The results are fitted to the Redlich-Kister equation. The values of V{sub m}{sup E} for the mixtures containing dichloroalkanes show an increasing trend with the increase of the chain length and vary from a minimum of {minus}0.24 cm{sup 3}/mol for dichloromethane up to a maximum of +0.31 cm{sup 3}/mol for 1,10-dichlorodecane. The excess molar volumes for the other mixtures are negative over the entire range of composition. Results are qualitatively discussed in terms of molecular interactions.

  20. Microwave Irradiation on Graphene Dispersed Within Polymeric Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisneros, Jorge; Yust, Brian; Chipara, Mircea

    Graphene is a two dimensional nanomaterial with high thermal and electric conductivity and Young modulus. These features make graphene an ideal reinforcement for polymeric matrices. However, the mechanical features of polymer-carbon nanostructured composites are limited by the dispersion of the filler and by the delamination or microcracks initiated at the interface between the polymeric matrix and nanofiller. This last weakness can be addressed by improving the interface via chemical and physical methods. Microwave heating of graphite is a very efficient approach if the polymeric matrix does not also have a strong absorption. During the irradiation, the nanofiller is preferentially heated; the local melting of the polymer at the interface improves the interface by filling the microcracks and delaminations. Nanocomposites of polystyrene-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-polystyrene loaded by various amounts of graphene ranging from 0 % to 20 % wt. have been prepared by solution mixing using chloroform as solvent. The as obtained nanocomposites have been subjected to microwave irradiation in an Anton Paar Monowave 300 system operating at 75 W, for various irradiation times 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes. The effect of microwave irradiation has been studied by Raman spectroscopy.

  1. The adverse outcome pathway for rodent liver tumor promotion by sustained activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    PubMed

    Becker, Richard A; Patlewicz, Grace; Simon, Ted W; Rowlands, J Craig; Budinsky, Robert A

    2015-10-01

    An Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) represents the existing knowledge of a biological pathway leading from initial molecular interactions of a toxicant and progressing through a series of key events (KEs), culminating with an apical adverse outcome (AO) that has to be of regulatory relevance. An AOP based on the mode of action (MOA) of rodent liver tumor promotion by dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) has been developed and the weight of evidence (WoE) of key event relationships (KERs) evaluated using evolved Bradford Hill considerations. Dioxins and DLCs are potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) ligands that cause a range of species-specific adverse outcomes. The occurrence of KEs is necessary for inducing downstream biological responses and KEs may occur at the molecular, cellular, tissue and organ levels. The common convention is that an AOP begins with the toxicant interaction with a biological response element; for this AOP, this initial event is binding of a DLC ligand to the AHR. Data from mechanistic studies, lifetime bioassays and approximately thirty initiation-promotion studies have established dioxin and DLCs as rat liver tumor promoters. Such studies clearly show that sustained AHR activation, weeks or months in duration, is necessary to induce rodent liver tumor promotion--hence, sustained AHR activation is deemed the molecular initiating event (MIE). After this MIE, subsequent KEs are 1) changes in cellular growth homeostasis likely associated with expression changes in a number of genes and observed as development of hepatic foci and decreases in apoptosis within foci; 2) extensive liver toxicity observed as the constellation of effects called toxic hepatopathy; 3) cellular proliferation and hyperplasia in several hepatic cell types. This progression of KEs culminates in the AO, the development of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas and cholangiolar carcinomas. A rich data set provides both qualitative and quantitative knowledge of the progression of

  2. A comparison of different synchronization measures in electroencephalogram during propofol anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhenhu; Ren, Ye; Yan, Jiaqing; Li, Duan; Voss, Logan J; Sleigh, Jamie W; Li, Xiaoli

    2016-08-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) synchronization is becoming an essential tool to describe neurophysiological mechanisms of communication between brain regions under general anesthesia. Different synchronization measures have their own properties to reflect the changes of EEG activities during different anesthetic states. However, the performance characteristics and the relations of different synchronization measures in evaluating synchronization changes during propofol-induced anesthesia are not fully elucidated. Two-channel EEG data from seven volunteers who had undergone a brief standardized propofol anesthesia were then adopted to calculate eight synchronization indexes. We computed the prediction probability (P K ) of synchronization indexes with Bispectral Index (BIS) and propofol effect-site concentration (C eff ) to quantify the ability of the indexes to predict BIS and C eff . Also, box plots and coefficient of variation were used to reflect the different synchronization changes and their robustness to noise in awake, unconscious and recovery states, and the Pearson correlation coefficient (R) was used for assessing the relationship among synchronization measures, BIS and C eff . Permutation cross mutual information (PCMI) and determinism (DET) could predict BIS and follow C eff better than nonlinear interdependence (NI), mutual information based on kernel estimation (KerMI) and cross correlation. Wavelet transform coherence (WTC) in α and β frequency bands followed BIS and C eff better than that in other frequency bands. There was a significant decrease in unconscious state and a significant increase in recovery state for PCMI and NI, while the trends were opposite for KerMI, DET and WTC. Phase synchronization based on phase locking value (PSPLV) in δ, θ, α and γ1 frequency bands dropped significantly in unconscious state, whereas it had no significant synchronization in recovery state. Moreover, PCMI, NI, DET correlated closely with each other and they

  3. A comparative study of the word sugar and of its equivalents in Hindustani as traceable to Chinese.

    PubMed

    Mahdihassan, S

    1981-01-01

    Etymology enables words to deliver past facts and can become an independent source of knowledge. Here the word sugar is traced to the Chinese term Sha-Che, literally "Sand-Sugar plant," signifying a sand-like product from the sugar plant, which is sugar. Sha-Che underwent the following phonetic changes: Sha-Che = Sha-Ke = Shar-Ker = Sharkera, which became the Sanskrit word for sugar, with the variant Sha-Kera. Its popular vernacular form became Shak-Ker. This entered Arabic as Al-Shakker, changing into Al-Sukker, pronounced as "Assuker." Muslims in Spain gave the Spanish their word when Assuker = Azucar (Spanish). Sukker, the real Arabic word, entered Old French as Suker-e, Italian as Zuker-o or Zucckero, and German as Zucker. When "k" is emphasized it can become aspirated as "kh" or doubled as "kk," or mutate into "g." Sukker then changed into Sugar with the "s" further mutating into "sh," giving the final form Shugar, written as Sugar. The Greeks directly borrowed the popular vernacular word Shakker. It was Hellenized as Sakkharon, mentioned by Discoredes in 56 A.D. From the Greek it passed into Latin as Saccharum. In India the large crystalline form of sugar is called Misri. Its Chinese original is Mi-Sha-Li, "sweet-pebble-glassy," a sweet crystalline (glassy) substance the size of pebbles. Another form of sugar is in small crystals, which in a heap appear opaque-white or porcelain-white rather than transparent salt-white. Porcelain-white sugar was called Cheeni, where Cheeni = Porcelain. Thus, Cheeni does not mean Chinese sugar, nor Misri Egyptian sugar. Both these forms of sugar were sweetening agents not intended to be directly consumed. But a sweet, composed of sugar and an article of food, was known in Chinese as Kan-Di, "Sweet-Drop." This became Candy in English, Qand in Arabic, Khanda in Sanskrit and Khand in vernaculars. PMID:6764089

  4. Experiences on Altimeter Calibration at Ibiza Island and Cape of Begur (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Benjamin, J. J.; Martinez Harcia, M.; Ortiz Castello, M. A.; Talaya, J.; Baron, A.; Rodriguez Velasco, G.; Martín Davila, J.; Garate, J.; Bonnefond, P.; Garcia, C.

    2006-07-01

    Three preliminary camp aigns for TOPEX /POSEIDON (T/P) wer e made in March 1999 and July 2000 and for JASON-1 in August 2002, in the NW Mediterran ean Sea at th e Begur Cape area. Dir ect abso lute altimeter calibration , and mapping of the sea surface, w ere made in these camp aigns from dir ect overflights using GPS buoys with a toroidal design performed at the I CC based in the orig inal design of the Univ ersity of Colorado at Boulder and a estimation of the TOPEX A lt- B bias w as made. A Spanish JASON-1 geoid gradien t campaign with Fench support has been made in June 2003 at the Ibiza island in the NW Mediterr anean Sea. Th e main objectiv e has b een to map w ith a new d esign ed, builded and calibrated GPS catamar an, the lo cal geoid gradien t in three ar eas around Ibiza island under the ascending (187) and descending (248) Jason-1ground tracks. The catamaran equ ipped with two GPS antennas to perform continuous sea lev el measur ements was towed by the Patro l Dev a from th e Span ish N avy. Five GPS reference stations were dep loyed on Ibiza island: one in Portinatx, two in San Anton io and two in Ibiza. The marin e geo id has been used to relate the coastal tide gauge data from Ibiza and San An tonio h arbours to off- shore altimetric data. In th e framework of the campaign, the levelling of the Ibiza and San Anton io tide gauges to the r espective GPS mark ers w as p erformed. We present synth esis of the resu lts obtained from Topex/Poseidon and th e first r esults on Jason-1 altimeter calibration using the direct measurements from GPS buoys and the derived marin e geoid. Th e Ibiza results agree relativ ely w ell with resu lts ob tained at Corsica, Harvest and Bass Strait calibration permanen t sites. Moreov er, the geod etic activities (e.g., GPS, levelling) has p ermitted to build a very accurate (few mm) local n etwork link ed to th e European one, w ith a reference frame compatible with th e satellite altimetry missions (ITRF2000). The GPS

  5. FOREWORD: The XXV IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems marks half a century tradition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susan-Resiga, Romeo

    2010-05-01

    'Politehnica' of Timisoara in 1923 'It is not the walls that make a school, but the spirit living inside'. A particular trademark of the 'Politehnica' of Timisoara was the continuous effort to answer industrial problems by training the students not only on theoretical aspects but also in design and manufacturing, as well as in laboratory works. Developing modern laboratories, where students can observe and understand first hand the engineering applications along the years a priority for Timisoara 'Politehnica' University. The School of Hydraulic Machinery within the 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara was established in early 1930 by Professor Aurel Barglazan (1905-1960), and further developed by Professor Ioan Anton (born 1924), both members of the Romanian Academy. The Laboratory of Hydraulic Machines from Timisoara (LMHT) started back in 1928 in a small hut, with a test rig for Francis and Kaplan turbines manufactured by J M Voith. LMHT was continuously developed and was officially recognized in 1959 as being one of the leading research and developing laboratories in Romania. It was the foundation of the Romanian efforts of designing and manufacturing hydraulic turbines starting in 1960 at the Resita Machine Building Factory. Under the leadership of Professor Ioan Anton, the Timisoara School in Hydraulic Machinery has focused the basic and development research activities on the following main topics: (i) Turbine Hydrodynamics, (ii) Hydrofoil Cascade Hydrodynamics, (iii) Cavitation in Hydraulic Machines and Equipments, (iv) Scale-up Effects in Hydraulic Machines. With the establishment in the year 2000 of the National Center for Engineering of Systems with Complex Fluids, within the 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara, the research in turbomachinery hydrodynamics and cavitation included high performance computing for flows in hydraulic machines, as well as the development of novel technologies to mitigate the self-induced flow instabilities in hydraulic turbines operated

  6. Peer review statement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-08-01

    All papers published in this Volume 12 of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the editors of the 25th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems proceedings, Professor Romeo Susan-Resiga, Dr Sebastian Muntean and Dr Sandor Bernad. Reviews were conducted by expert referees from the Scientific Committee to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing. The members of the Scientific Committee who selected and reviewed the papers included in the Proceedings of the 25th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems are: Anton ANTONTechnical University of Civil Engineering, BucharestRomania François AVELLANEcole Polytechnique Fédérale de LausanneSwitzerland Fidel ARZOLAEDELCAVenezuela Thomas ASCHENBRENNERVoith Hydro Gmb H & Co. KG, HeidenheimGermany Anton BERGANTLitostroj Power d.o.o., LjubljanaSlovenia Gerard BOISENSAM, LilleFrance Hermod BREKKENTNU, TrondheimNorway Stuart COULSON Voith Hydro Inc., YorkUSA Eduard EGUSQUIZAPolytechnical University Catalonia BarcelonaSpain Arpad FAYUniversity of MiskolczHungary Richard FISHERVoith Hydro Inc., York USA Regiane FORTES-PATELLAInstitut Polytechnique de GrenobleFrance Aleksandar GAJICUniversity of BelgradeSerbia Arno GEHRERAndritz Hydro GrazAustria José GONZÁLEZUniversidad de OviedoSpain François GUIBAULTEcole Polytechnique de MontrealCanada Chisachi KATOUniversity of TokyoJapan Kwang-Yong KIMInha University, IncheonKorea Jiri KOUTNIKVoith Hydro Gmb H & Co. KG, HeidenheimGermany Adrian LUNGUDunarea de Jos University of GalatiRomania Christophe NICOLETPower Vision Engineering Sàrl, LausanneSwitzerland Torbjøm K. NIELSENNTNU, TrodheimNorway Michihiro NISHIKyushu Institute of TechnologyJapan Maryse PAGEHydro Quebec IREQ, VarennesCanada Etienne PARKINSONAndritz Hydro LtdSwitzerland František POCHYLYBrno UniversityCzech Republic Stefan RIEDELBAUCHVoith Hydro Gmb H & Co. KG

  7. Tracing ultrafast molecular transitions in C2H4 using two­color XUV pump­ XUV probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, D.; Sturm, F. P.; Wright, T. W.; Shivaram, N.; Bocharova, I.; Belkacem, A.; Weber, Th.

    2014-05-01

    We present the study of the ultrafast energy transfer near a conical intersection in C2H4, using an extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pump XUV probe scheme. The high harmonic pulses, which have sufficiently high flux to split into both pump and probe arms, are generated in a noble gas by IR pulses from our state of the art 30 mJ, 50 Hz laser system. The pulses are overlapped with the supersonic jet in our Momentum Imaging for TimE Resolved Studies (MISTERS) setup. The C2H4 is pumped by the 13.5 eV XUV pulses (9th harmonic) to populate the excited valence state (π*)2 orbitals. The double ionization of these molecular cations from this transient state is triggered by the 15th harmonic (22.5 eV) as the probe. The ionic fragments are imaged with the reaction microscope. The MISTERS setup allows us to do an ion-ion coincidence detection in full 3D momentum space. The Kinetic Energy Release (KER) distributions are studied as a function of pump probe delay to trace the evolution of the transient states. Supported by the Director, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, and by the Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences of the U.S. Department of Energy at LBNL under Contract No. DE­AC02­05CH11231.

  8. Anopheles (Kerteszia) lepidotus (Diptera: Culicidae), not the malaria vector we thought it was: Revised male and female morphology; larva, pupa, and male genitalia characters; and molecular verification

    PubMed Central

    HARRISON, BRUCE A.; RUIZ-LOPEZ, FREDDY; FALERO, GUILLERMO CALDERON; SAVAGE, HARRY M.; PECOR, JAMES E.; WILKERSON, RICHARD C.

    2015-01-01

    The name Anopheles (Kerteszia) lepidotus Zavortink, commonly used for an important malaria vector in the eastern cordillera of the Andes, is here corrected to An. pholidotus Zavortink. We discovered that An. (Ker.) specimens from Peru, and reared-associated specimens from Ecuador, had unambiguous habitus characters that matched those on the male holotype of An. lepidotus. However, the specimens do not exhibit characters of the female allotype and female paratypes of An. lepidotus, which are actually An. pholidotus. Our specimens are the first correctly associated females of An. lepidotus, which allow us to provide a new morphological interpretation for the adult habitus of this species. This finding is also corroborated by molecular data from a portion of the Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) gene and ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (rDNA ITS2). The pupal stage of An. lepidotus is described for the first time, and additional larval characters are also noted. Diagnostic morphological characters for the adult, pupal, and larval stages of An. pholidotus are provided to separate the two species. All stages of An. lepidotus are easily separated from other currently known species in subgenus Kerteszia and a new key to the females of An. (Kerteszia) is given. Previously published distribution, bionomics, and medical significance data are corrected and enhanced. PMID:26726290

  9. Resistive wall mode feedback control in EXTRAP T2R with improved steady-state error and transient response

    SciTech Connect

    Brunsell, P. R.; Olofsson, K. E. J.; Frassinetti, L.; Drake, J. R.

    2007-10-15

    Experiments in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch [P. R. Brunsell, H. Bergsa ring ker, M. Cecconello et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 43, 1457 (2001)] on feedback control of m=1 resistive wall modes (RWMs) are compared with simulations using the cylindrical linear magnetohydrodynamic model, including the dynamics of the active coils and power amplifiers. Stabilization of the main RWMs (n=-11,-10,-9,-8,+5,+6) is shown using modest loop gains of the order G{approx}1. However, other marginally unstable RWMs (n=-2,-1,+1,+2) driven by external field errors are only partially canceled at these gains. The experimental system stability limit is confirmed by simulations showing that the latency of the digital controller {approx}50 {mu}s is degrading the system gain margin. The transient response is improved with a proportional-plus-derivative controller, and steady-state error is improved with a proportional-plus-integral controller. Suppression of all modes is obtained at high gain G{approx}10 using a proportional-plus-integral-plus-derivative controller.

  10. A novel keratinase from Bacillus tequilensis strain Q7 with promising potential for the leather bating process.

    PubMed

    Zaraî Jaouadi, Nadia; Rekik, Hatem; Ben Elhoul, Mouna; Zohra Rahem, Fatma; Hila, Chiraz Gorgi; Ben Aicha, Houda Slimene; Badis, Abdelmalek; Toumi, Abdessatar; Bejar, Samir; Jaouadi, Bassem

    2015-08-01

    The present paper reports on the purification and characterization of an extracellular keratinase (KERQ7) newly purified from Bacillus tequilensis Q7. Pure protein was obtained after ammonium sulfate fractionation (30-60%), followed by Mono S Sepharose cation-exchange chromatography. MALDI-TOF/MS analysis revealed that the purified enzyme was a monomer with a molecular mass of 28,355.07-Da. The sequence of the 21 N-terminal residues of KERQ7 showed high homology with those of Bacillus keratinases. Optimal activity was achieved at pH 7 and 30°C. KERQ7 was completely inhibited by PMSF and DFP, which suggests that it belongs to the serine keratinase family. KERQ7 displayed higher levels of hydrolysis and catalytic efficiency than Basozym(®) CS 10, Koropon(®) SC 5K, and Pyrase(®) 250 MP. The kerQ7 gene encoding KERQ7 was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)pLysS. The biochemical properties of the extracellular purified recombinant enzyme (rKERQ7) were similar to those of native KERQ7. The deduced amino acid sequence showed strong homology with other Bacillus keratinases. The highest sequence identity value (97%) was obtained with KERUS from Brevibacillus brevis US575, with only 7 aa of difference. These properties make KERQ7 a potential promising and eco-friendly enzymatically enhanced process for animal hide bating in the leather processing industry. PMID:26086793

  11. Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) IN PERIDOMICILIARY AREA DURING ASYMPTOMATIC MALARIA TRANSMISSION IN THE ATLANTIC FOREST: MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF BLOOD-MEAL SOURCES INDICATES HUMANS AS PRIMARY INTERMEDIATE HOSTS

    PubMed Central

    Kirchgatter, Karin; Tubaki, Rosa Maria; Malafronte, Rosely dos Santos; Alves, Isabel Cristina; Lima, Giselle Fernandes Maciel de Castro; Guimarães, Lilian de Oliveira; Zampaulo, Robson de Almeida; Wunderlich, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii has been implicated as the primary vector of human and simian malarias out of the Brazilian Amazon and specifically in the Atlantic Forest regions. The presence of asymptomatic human cases, parasite-positive wild monkeys and the similarity between the parasites infecting them support the discussion whether these infections can be considered as a zoonosis. Although many aspects of the biology of An. cruzii have already been addressed, studies conducted during outbreaks of malaria transmission, aiming at the analysis of blood feeding and infectivity, are missing in the Atlantic Forest. This study was conducted in the location of Palestina, Juquitiba, where annually the majority of autochthonous human cases are notified in the Atlantic Forest of the state of São Paulo. Peridomiciliary sites were selected for collection of mosquitoes in a perimeter of up to 100 m around the residences of human malaria cases. The mosquitoes were analyzed with the purpose of molecular identification of blood-meal sources and to examine the prevalence of Plasmodium. A total of 13,441 females of An. (Ker.) cruzii were collected. The minimum infection rate was calculated at 0.03% and 0.01%, respectively, for P. vivax and P. malariae and only human blood was detected in the blood-fed mosquitoes analyzed. This data reinforce the hypothesis that asymptomatic human carriers are the main source of anopheline infection in the peridomiciliary area, making the probability of zoonotic transmission less likely to happen. PMID:25229220

  12. The Core Pattern Analysis on Chinese Herbal Medicine for Sjögren's syndrome: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Mao; Chu, Hsueh-Ting; Wei, Yau-Huei; Chen, Fang-Pey; Wang, Shengwen; Wu, Po-Chang; Yen, Hung-Rong; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chang, Hen-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This large-scale survey aimed to evaluate frequencies and patterns of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) used for Sjögren's syndrome (SS) in Taiwan by analyzing the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) for cases in which CHM was used as an alternative therapy to Western medicine for improving patients' discomforts. We analyzed cases of SS principal diagnosis (ICD-9:710.2) with a catastrophic illness certificate (CIC) in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient clinics from three cohorts of the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID) in the NHIRD between 2002 and 2011. CHM prescription patterns for SS were evaluated from claimed visitation files and corresponding prescription files. There were 15,914 SS patients with CIC (SS/CIC), and we found only 130 SS/CIC cases visiting TCM clinics in LHID2000, 133 in LHID2005, and 126 in LHID2010. After removing duplicate data, 366 SS/CIC and 4,867 visits were analyzed. The 50-59 year age group showed the highest ratio (29.51%) in both women and men. "Qi-Ju-Di-Huang-Wan" and "Xuan-Shen" (Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl.) was the most commonly used formula and single herb, respectively. "Qi-Ju-Di-Huang-Wan, Gan-Lu-Yin, Xuan-Shen, Mai-Men-Dong (Ophiopogon japonicus (L. f.) Ker-Gawl.), and Sheng-Di-Huang (raw Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch)" were the core pattern prescriptions in treating SS/CIC. PMID:25923413

  13. On the quantization of the linearized gravitational field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigore, D. R.

    2000-01-01

    We present a new point of view on the quantization of the gravitational field, namely we use exclusively the quantum framework of the second quantization. More explicitly, we take as one-particle Hilbert space, H_{graviton} the unitary irreducible representation of the Poincarégroup corresponding to a massless particle of helicity 2 and apply the second quantization procedure with Einstein-Bose statistics. The resulting Hilbert space F + (H_{graviton}) is, by definition, the Hilbert space of the gravitational field. Then we prove that this Hilbert space is canonically isomorphic to a space of the type Ker(Q ) / Im(Q ) where Q is a supercharge defined in an extension of the Hilbert space F + (H_{graviton}) by the inclusion of ghosts: some fermion ghosts u µ , tildeu µ which are vector fields and a bosonic ghost Φ which is a scalar field. This has to be contrasted with the usual approaches where only the fermion ghosts are considered. However, a rigorous proof that this is, indeed, possible seems to be lacking in the literature.

  14. Fluorescent Aptamer Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hui William; Kim, Youngmi; Meng, Ling; Mallikaratchy, Prabodhika; Martin, Jennifer; Tang, Zhiwen; Shangguan, Dihua; O'Donoghue, Meghan; Tan, Weihong

    Aptamers are single-stranded nucleic acid probes that can be evolved to have high specificity and affinity for different targets. These targets include biomar-ker proteins, small molecules, and even whole live cells that express a variety of surface proteins of interest. Aptamers offer several advantages over protein-based molecular probes such as low immunogenic activity, flexible modification, and in vitro synthesis. In addition, aptamers used as molecular probes can be made with easy signaling for binding with their corresponding targets. There are a few different fluorescence-based signal transduction mechanisms, such as direct fluorophore labeling, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), fluorescence quenching, fluorescence anisotropy, and light-switching excimers. These signaling processes in combination with various labeling strategies of nucleic acid aptamers contribute to simple, rapid, sensitive, and selective biological assays. In this chapter, we discuss the optical signaling of aptamers for single proteins such as α-thrombin and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). We also present detailed discussion about fluorescent aptamers developed from cell-based systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) for the recognition of different target tumor cells.

  15. Agreeableness accounts for the factor structure of the youth psychopathic traits inventory.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Emily D; Lynam, Donald R; Heyde, Brianne

    2014-04-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between the Five-Factor Model (FFM) and the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI; Andershed, Ker, Stattin, & Levander, 2002) in an undergraduate sample. It was hypothesized that Agreeableness would saturate the lower- and higher-order scales of the YPI, and that taking Agreeableness into account would reduce the intercorrelations among the three factors of the YPI. These hypotheses were explored in a sample of 466 undergraduates who completed the YPI and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992). Results demonstrated that Agreeableness was the strongest, most consistent correlate of the lower-order scales and three higher-order factors of the YPI. Additionally, analyses showed that Agreeableness accounted for large portions of the three YPI factors, as well as the overlap among factors, helping explain their intercorrelations. Current results underscore the centrality of Agreeableness to the assessment and understanding of psychopathy, particularly as measured by the YPI. PMID:24344841

  16. Far infrared spectrum of Methanol-D2 in the lowest torsional state (e0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Indra

    2016-03-01

    The infrared (IR) and far infrared (FIR) absorption spectra have been measured for the Methanol-D1 and D2 species in the wave number range of 20-1200 cm-1 at the Justus Liebig Universität in Giessen, Germany using a Brüker Fourier Transform spectrometer at a resolution of 0.002 cm-1. The spectra looked very complicated but analyses were possible for the lower lying states. At higher wave number regions spectra of few vibrational fundamental modes were visible. In this communication, the details of the assignments and analyses of the lowest lying internal rotational state (e0) for Methanol-D2 are reported. A catalog of about 900 assigned spectral lines has been prepared and is made available from the author to conserve space. As application of this work, it was possible to assign some optically pumped FIR laser lines to quantum states. The results should be useful for "radio astronomers" and in the field of optically pumped FIR and Sub-millimeter Wave (SMMW) lasers which are used in Tokamaks for plasma diagnostics and as local oscillators in radio detection from space.

  17. Expression and characterization of extreme alkaline, oxidation-resistant keratinase from Bacillus licheniformis in recombinant Bacillus subtilis WB600 expression system and its application in wool fiber processing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baihong; Zhang, Juan; Li, Ben; Liao, Xiangru; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-05-01

    A keratin-degrading bacterium of Bacillus licheniformis BBE11-1 was isolated and its ker gene encoding keratinase with native signal peptide was cloned and expressed in Bacillus subtilis WB600 under the strong P HpaII promoter of the pMA0911 vector. In the 3-L fermenter, the recombinant keratinase was secreted with 323 units/mL when non-induced after 24 h at 37 °C. And then, keratinase was concentrated and purified by hydrophobic interaction chromatography using HiTrap Phenyl-Sepharose Fast Flow. The recombinant keratinase had an optimal temperature and the pH at 40 °C and 10.5, respectively, and was stable at 10-50 °C and pH 7-11.5. We found this enzyme can retained 80 % activity after treated 5 h with 1 M H2O2, it was activated by Mg(2+), Co(2+) and could degraded broad substrates such as degraded feather, bovine serum albumin, casein, gelatin, the keratinase was considered to be a serine protease. Coordinate with Savinase, the keratinase could efficient prevent shrinkage and eliminate fibres of wool, which showed its potential in textile industries and detergent industries. PMID:23264133

  18. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition induced by keratinocyte growth conditions is overcome by E6 and E7 from HPV16, but not HPV8 and HPV38: Characterization of global transcription profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Azzimonti, Barbara; Dell'Oste, Valentina; Borgogna, Cinzia; Mondini, Michele; Gugliesi, Francesca; De Andrea, Marco; Chiorino, Giovanna; Scatolini, Maria; Ghimenti, Chiara; Landolfo, Santo; Gariglio, Marisa

    2009-06-05

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth properties of primary human keratinocytes expressing E6 and E7 proteins, which are from either the beta- or alpha-genotypes, under different culture conditions. We demonstrated that keratinocytes expressing E6 and E7, from both HPV8 and 38, irreversibly underwent the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) when grown on plastic with FAD medium (F12/DMEM/5%FBS). Expression of E6/E7 from HPV16 was capable of fully overcoming the FAD-induced EMT. Immortalization was only observed in HPV16-transduced cell lines, while the more proliferating phenotype of both KerHPV8 and 38 was mainly related to FAD-induced EMT. Microarray analysis of exponentially growing cells identified 146 cellular genes that were differentially regulated in HPV16 compared to HPV8- and 38-transduced cells. A large accumulation of transcripts associated with epidermal development and differentiation was observed in HPV16-transduced cells, whereas transcripts of genes involved in the extracellular matrix, multicellular organismal processes, and inflammatory response were affected in HPV8 and 38-transduced cells.

  19. Hematopoietic plakophilin-3 regulates acute tissue-specific and systemic inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Sklyarova, Tatyana; van Hengel, Jolanda; Van Wonterghem, Elien; Libert, Claude; van Roy, Frans; Vandenbroucke, Roosmarijn E

    2015-10-01

    Plakophilin-3 (PKP3) is a member of the armadillo protein family, which is important in cell-cell contacts and signaling during development and tumorigenesis. In conventional facilities, PKP3-deficient mice (PKP3(-/-)) develop spontaneous dermatitis, indicating a possible involvement of PKP3 in inflammatory responses. Here, we show that PKP3 deficiency sensitizes mice to irritant contact dermatitis induced by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). This sensitization occurred in mice with PKP3 deficiency in the hematopoietic system (PKP3(-/-hem)), but not if the deficiency was specific to skin keratinocytes (PKP3(-/-ker)). In a model of dextran sulfate sodium induced colitis, ubiquitous PKP3 deletion, but not intestinal epithelial PKP3 deficiency (PKP3(-/-IEC)), impaired survival from disease. Interestingly, PKP3(-/-hem) mice also displayed increased sensitivity to dextran sulfate sodium induced colitis. Finally, PKP3(-/-) mice were more sensitive to the lethality of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection than wild-type (WT) mice, and this phenotype was associated with increased intestinal permeability. PKP3(-/-IEC) mice did not reproduce the enhanced endotoxin reactivity of PKP3(-/-) mice, in contrast to PKP3(-/-hem) mice. Finally, in vitro stimulation of WT neutrophils with LPS or PMA increased Pkp3 expression. In conclusion, our data highlight a novel role for hematopoietic PKP3 in the regulation of both locally and systemically induced immune responses. Nonetheless, further research is needed to unravel the underlying mechanism. PMID:26173741

  20. Attosecond time delays in the nuclear dynamics of strong-field molecular dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Greg; Ultrafast Molecular Physics Group Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The relative time delay in the photoemission from neighboring atomic valence sub-shells has become an area of considerable recent interest, with delays of tens of attoseconds reported in pump-probe experiments for a number of atomic targets. Such delays may be extracted, for example, from phase differences in the photoelectron energy spectra for the different sub-shells as a function of delay between pump and probe pulses. The focus of such experiments has, to date, been atomic targets, on the assumption that only electronic motion can lead to delays on the attosecond scale.We investigate the molecular analogue of such studies by calculating the kinetic-energy release (KER) spectrum for neighboring vibrational states as a function of pump-probe delay time. In particular, we focus on molecular targets where electronic excitation is negligible, and show that attosecond time delays are also possible for purely nuclear motion. We will present evidence of these attosecond delays derived from both numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation and experiment. We analyze and understand the observed shifts using the photon-phase formalism. G.S.J. Armstrong, J. McKenna, B. Gaire, M. Zohrabi, B. Berry, B. Jochim, Kanaka Raju, P., P. Feizollah, K.D. Carnes, Ben-Itzhak, B.D. Esry.

  1. On the Right Hamiltonian for Singular Perturbations:. General Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neidhardt, Hagen; Zagrebnov, Valentin

    Let the pair of self-adjoint operators {A≥0,W≤0} be such that: (a) there is a dense domain { D} subseteqdom (A)∩ dom(W) such that ˙ {H}=(A+W)|{ D} is semibounded from below (stability domain), (b) the symmetric operator ˙ {H} is not essentially self-adjoint (singularity of the perturbation), (c) the Friedrichs extension hat {A} of ˙ {A}=A|{ D} is maximal with respect to W, i.e., dom(√ {-W})∩ ker (˙ {A}*-{η }I)=\\{0\\}. η < 0. Let \\{Wn\\}∞ n=1 be a regularizing sequence of bounded operators which tends in the strong resolvent sense to W. The abstract problem of the right Hamiltonian is: (i) to give conditions such that the limit H of self-adjoint regularized Hamiltonians ˜ {H}n=˜ {A}+W_n exists and is unique for any self-adjoint extension ˜ {A} of ˙ {A}, (ii) to describe the limit H. We show that under the conditions (a)-(c) there is a regularizing sequence \\{Wn\\}∞ n=1 such that ˜ {H}n=˜ {A}+W_n tends in the strong resolvent sense to unique (right Hamiltonian) hat {H}=hat {A}.+W, otherwise the limit is not unique.

  2. Multiscale seismic attributes: source-corrected wavelet response and application to high-resolution seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ker, Stephan; Le Gonidec, Yves; Gibert, Dominique

    2012-09-01

    A wavelet-based method was presented in a previous work to introduce multiscale seismic attributes for high-resolution seismic data. Because of the limited frequency bandwidth of the seismic source, we observed distortions in the seismic attributes based on the wavelet response of the subsurface discontinuities (Le Gonidec et al.). In this paper, we go further in the seismic source-correction by considering Lévy alpha-stable distributions introduced in the formalism of the continuous wavelet transform (CWT). The wavelets are Gaussian derivative functions (GDF), characterized by a derivative order. We show that a high-resolution seismic source, after a classical signature processing, can be taken into account with a GDF. We demonstrate that in the framework of the Born approximation, the CWT of a seismic trace involving such a finite frequency bandwidth can be made equivalent to the CWT of the impulse response of the subsurface and is defined for a reduced range of dilations. We apply the method for the SYSIF seismic device (Marsset et al.; Ker et al.) and show that the source-corrections allow to define seismic attributes for layer thicknesses in the range [24; 115 cm]. We present the analysis for two seismic reflectors identified on a SYSIF profile, and we show that the source-corrected multiscale analysis quantifies their complex geometries.

  3. Orientation dependence of the ionization of CO and NO in an intense femtosecond two-color laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Ray, Dipanwita; de, Sankar; Cao, Wei; Laurent, Guillaume; Wang, Zhenhua; Thu Le, Anh; Cocke, C. Lewis; Znakovskaya, Irina; Kling, Matthias

    2012-06-01

    Two-color (800 nm and 400 nm) ultrashort (30±10 fs) laser pulses were used to ionize and dissociate CO and NO. The emission of C^+q, N^+q and O^+ fragments were measured with a velocity-map-imaging (VMI) system. The data show that the ionization rate is dependent on the orientation of the molecules with respect to the laser polarization. Both molecules ionize more easily when the electric field points from C to O in CO and from N to O in NO. The asymmetry of emission is much higher for CO than for NO. The sign of the asymmetry is not strongly dependent on kinetic energy release (KER). The favored ionization orientation is in agreement with the expectation of the molecular orbital Ammosov-Delone-Krainov (MO-ADK) [1] theory and with a Stark-corrected version of a strong-field-approximation (SFA) calculation [2]. [4pt] [1] X.M. Tong, et al., Phys. Rev. A 66, 033402 (2002).[0pt] [2] H. Li, et al., Phys. Rev. A 84, 043429 (2011).

  4. Kinetics of linear rouleaux formation studied by visual monitoring of red cell dynamic organization.

    PubMed

    Barshtein, G; Wajnblum, D; Yedgar, S

    2000-05-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) in the presence of plasma proteins or other macromolecules may form aggregates, normally in rouleaux formations, which are dispersed with increasing blood flow. Experimental observations have suggested that the spontaneous aggregation process involves the formation of linear rouleaux (FLR) followed by formation of branched rouleaux networks. Theoretical models for the spontaneous rouleaux formation were formulated, taking into consideration that FLR may involve both "polymerization," i.e., interaction between two single RBCs (e + e) and the addition of a single RBC to the end of an existing rouleau (e + r), as well as "condensation" between two rouleaux by end-to-end addition (r + r). The present study was undertaken to experimentally examine the theoretical models and their assumptions, by visual monitoring of the spontaneous FLR (from singly dispersed RBC) in plasma, in a narrow gap flow chamber. The results validate the theoretical model, showing that FLR involves both polymerization and condensation, and that the kinetic constants for the above three types of intercellular interactions are the same, i.e., k(ee) = k(er) = k(rr) = k, and for all tested hematocrits (0.625-6%) k < 0.13 +/- 0.03 s(-1). PMID:10777743

  5. Decomposition of nitroimidazole ions: experiment and theory.

    PubMed

    Feketeová, Linda; Postler, Johannes; Zavras, Athanasios; Scheier, Paul; Denifl, Stephan; O'Hair, Richard A J

    2015-05-21

    Nitroimidazoles are important compounds with chemotherapeutic applications as antibacterial drugs or as radiosensitizers in radiotherapy. Despite their use in biological applications, little is known about the fundamental properties of these compounds. Understanding the ionization reactions of these compounds is crucial in evaluating the radiosensitization potential and in developing new and more effective drugs. Thus, the present study investigates the decomposition of negative and positive ions of 2-nitroimidazole and 4(5)-nitroimidazole using low- and high-energy Collision-Induced Dissociation (CID) and Electron-Induced Dissociation (EID) by two different mass spectrometry techniques and is supported by quantum chemistry calculations. EID of [M+H](+) leads to more extensive fragmentation than CID and involves many radical cleavages including loss of H˙ leading to the formation of the radical cation, M˙(+). The stability (metastable decay) and the fragmentation (high-energy CID) of the radical cation M˙(+) have been probed in a crossed-beam experiment involving primary electron ionization of the neutral nitroimidazole. Thus, fragments in the EID spectra of [M+H](+) that come from further dissociation of radical cation M˙(+) have been highlighted. The loss of NO˙ radical from M˙(+) is associated with a high Kinetic Energy Release (KER) of 0.98 eV. EID of [M-H](-) also leads to additional fragments compared to CID, however, with much lower cross section. Only EID of [M+H](+) leads to a slight difference in the decomposition of 2-nitroimidazole and 4(5)-nitroimidazole. PMID:25899156

  6. Formation of excited neutral D* fragments from D2 by a strong laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Ben; Zohrabi, M.; Jochim, Bethany; Severt, T.; Ablikim, U.; Hayes, D.; Rajput, Jyoti; Kanaka Raju, P.; Feizollah, Peyman; Carnes, K. D.; Esry, B. D.; Ben-Itzhak, I.

    2015-05-01

    Excited neutral D* fragments from D2 are produced by intense, ultra-short laser pulses (5-85 fs). The kinetic energy release (KER) upon fragmentation is found to be very sensitive to laser parameters such as chirp, peak intensity, and pulse duration. Furthermore, using field ionization of highly excited D* fragments, we are able to determine the n population in a range of excited states (17 <= n <= 44). Due to the long flight time to the detector (tens of μs), much of the initial excited population decays by spontaneous emission. We simulate this process in order to link the measured population to that created by the laser. On the technical side, we also present a scheme for determining the detection efficiency of an MCP detector for excited neutral atoms. This work was supported by the Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy. BJ is also supported by DOE-SCGF (DE-AC05-06OR23100).

  7. Correlation between Organic Matter Degradation and the Rheological Performance of Waste Sludge During Anaerobic Digestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, Evangelina S.; Hernández-Hernándes, José A.; Méndez-Contreras, Juan M.; Cantú-Lozano, Denis

    2008-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion has demonstrated to be a good possibility to reduce the organic matter contents in waste activated sludge resulting in the effluents treatment. An anaerobic digestion was carried out in a 3.5 L reactor at 35 °C for a period of 20 days. An electronic thermostat controlled the temperature. The reactor was agitated at a rate of 200 rpm. The study of the rheological behavior of the waste activated sludge was done with an Anton Paar™ rheometer model MCR301 with a peltier plate for temperature control. Four-blade vane geometry was used with samples of 37 mL for determining rheological properties. Sampling (two samples) was taken every four days of anaerobic digestion through a peristaltic pump. The samples behavior was characterized by the Herschel-Bulkley model, with R2>0.99 for most cases. In all samples were found an apparent viscosity (ηap) and yield stress (τo) decrement when organic matter content diminishes. This demonstrates a relationship between rheological properties and organic matter concentration (% volatile solids). Also the flow activation energy (Ea) was calculated using the Ahrrenius correlation and samples of waste activated sludge before anaerobic digestion. In this case, samples were run in the rheometer at 200 rpm and a temperature range of 25 to 75 °C with an increment rate of 2 °C per minute. The yield stress observed was in a range of 0.93-0.18 Pa, the apparent viscosity was in a range of 0.0358-0.0010 Pa.s, the reduction of organic matter was in a range of 62.57-58.43% volatile solids and the average flow activation energy was 1.71 Calṡg-mol-1.

  8. Large-Scale Production of High-Quality Helper-Dependent Adenoviral Vectors Using Adherent Cells in Cell Factories

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Masataka; Cela, Racel; Clarke, Christian; Bertin, Terry K.; Mouriño, Susana

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The most efficient and widely used system for generating helper-dependent adenoviral vectors (HDAds) is the Cre/loxP system developed by Graham and co-workers (Parks, R.J., Chen, L., Anton, M., Sankar, U., Rudnicki, M.A., and Graham, F.L. [1996]. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 93, 13565–13570). Alternative systems have been developed for HDAd production, but all are limited by the technical complexity of a three-component vector production system for reproducibly generating large quantities of adenovirus with high infectivity and low helper virus (HV) contamination. Recently, these problems were addressed by Ng and co-workers (Palmer, D., and Ng, P. [2003]. Mol Ther. 8, 846–852), who developed an improved system that combines the use of a suspension-adapted producer cell line expressing high levels of Cre recombinase, a HV resistant to mutation, and a refined purification protocol. With this system, >1 × 1013 highly infectious vector particles are easily produced without vector genome rearrangements and having very low HV contamination levels. However, the Ng system incorporates a spinner flask culture system that involves considerable time, effort, and tissue culture medium to produce HDAds. We have an alternative system to obtain comparable quantities with equivalent quality to the spinner flask approach but requiring reduced labor and lower volumes of medium. This method utilizes a 10-chamber cell factory with adherent cells to produce high infectivity of HDAds with minimal HV contamination while improving yield and reducing technical complexity, effort, and medium requirements. This system is easily translatable to the production of clinical-grade HDAds for human trials. PMID:19719388

  9. PREFACE: Eurotherm Seminar 102: Thermal Management of Electronic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punch, J.; Walsh, E.

    2014-07-01

    About EUROTHERM The aim of the EUROTHERM Committee (www.eurothermcommittee.eu) is to promote and foster European cooperation in Thermal Sciences and Heat Transfer by gathering together scientists and engineers working in specialized areas. The Committee consists of members representing and appointed by national bodies in the EU countries. The current President of EUROTHERM is Professor Anton van Steenhoven from the University of Eindhoven (The Netherlands). The Committee organizes and coordinates European scientific events such as the EUROTHERM Seminars (about 4 per year) and the European Thermal Sciences Conference (every 4 years). About EUROTHERM Seminar 102 (www.eurothermseminar102.com) This seminar, part of the long-running series of European seminars on the thermal sciences, took place in June 2014 at the University of Limerick in Limerick, Ireland. The seminar addressed the topic of 'Thermal Management of Electronic Systems', a critical contemporary application area which represents a vibrant challenge for practitioners of the thermal sciences. We convey special thanks to the reviewers who have evaluated these papers. We also thank the scientific committee, consisting of internationally recognized experts. Their role has been to manage the evaluation of abstracts and the papers selection process as co-coordinators for specific topics. This seminar was hosted by the Stokes Institute at the University of Limerick. It could not have been organized without the efficient help of our administrators and technicians for IT support. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes 27 articles presented at the seminar. Dr. Jeff Punch, Chair Stokes Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland Email: jeff.punch@ul.ie Prof. Edmond Walsh, Co-Chair Associate Professor, Osney Laboratories, Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, UK Email: edmond.walsh@bnc.ox.ac.uk

  10. PREFACE: 6th European Thermal Sciences Conference (Eurotherm 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Daniel; Le Niliot, Christophe

    2012-11-01

    About EUROTHERM The aim of the EUROTHERM Committee (www.eurothermcommittee.eu) is to promote and foster European cooperation in Thermal Sciences and Heat Transfer by gathering together scientists and engineers working in specialized areas. The Committee consists of members representing and appointed by national bodies in the EU countries. The current President of EUROTHERM is Professor Anton van Steenhoven from the University of Eindhoven (The Netherlands). The Committee organizes and coordinates European scientific events such as the EUROTHERM Seminars (about 4 per year) and the European Thermal Sciences Conference (every 4 years). About the conference This sixth in the series of European Thermal Sciences Conferences (www.eurotherm2012.com) took place in France, in the Conference Centre of Poitiers, Futuroscope. We address special thanks to the 225 reviewers, coming from different European countries, who have evaluated these papers. We also thank the scientific committee, consisting of some EUROTHERM Committee members together with other internationally recognized experts. Their role has been to manage the evaluation of abstracts and the papers selection process as co-coordinators for specific topics. This conference is the joint effort of two laboratories: the PPRIME Institute in Poitiers and the IUSTI laboratory in Marseille. It could not be organized without the efficient help of our secretaries and our technician for the IT support. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes 180 articles presented at the conference. Professor Daniel PETIT Chairman, PPRIME Poitiers, France Institut P'(UPR CNRS 3346) ENSMA 1 av. Clément Ader - BP40109 86961 Futuroscope-Chasseneuil France daniel.petit@ensma.fr Professor Christophe LE NILIOT Co-chairman, IUSTI Marseille, France Laboratoire IUSTI UMR CNRS 6595 Technopôle de Chateau-Gombert 5, rue Enrico Fermi 13 453 MARSEILLE CEDEX 13 France christophe.leniliot@polytech.univ-mrs.fr

  11. Relative response of the alanine dosimeter to medium energy x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, M.; Büermann, L.

    2015-08-01

    The response of the alanine dosimeter to kilovoltage x-rays with respect to the dose to water was measured, relative to the response to Co-60 radiation. Two series of x-ray qualities were investigated, one ranging from 30 kV to 100 kV tube voltage (TW series), the other one ranging from 70 kV to 280 kV (TH series). Due to the use of the water calorimeter as a primary standard, the uncertainty of the delivered dose is significantly lower than for other published data. The alanine response was measured as described in a previous publication (Anton et al 2013 Phys. Med. Biol. 58 3259-82). The uncertainty component due to the alanine measurement and analysis is ⩽0.4%, the major part of the combined uncertainty of the relative response originates from the uncertainty of the delivered dose. The relative uncertainties of the relative response vary from ⩽2% for the TW series to ⩽1.1% for the TH series. Different from the behaviour of the alanine dosimeter for megavoltage x-rays or electrons, the relative response drops significantly from unity for Co-60 radiation to less than 64% for the TW quality with a tube voltage of 30 kV. In order to reproduce this behaviour through Monte Carlo simulations, not only the ratio of the absorbed dose to alanine to the absorbed dose to water has to be known, but also the intrinsic efficiency, i.e. the dependence of the number of free radicals generated per unit of absorbed dose on the photon energy. This quantity is not yet accessible for the TW series. For a possible use of the alanine dosimeter for kilovoltage x-rays, for example in electronic brachytherapy, users should rely on the measured data for the relative response which have become available with this publication.

  12. Energy landscape of LeuT from molecular simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gur, Mert; Zomot, Elia; Cheng, Mary Hongying; Bahar, Ivet

    2015-12-01

    The bacterial sodium-coupled leucine transporter (LeuT) has been broadly used as a structural model for understanding the structure-dynamics-function of mammalian neurotransmitter transporters as well as other solute carriers that share the same fold (LeuT fold), as the first member of the family crystallographically resolved in multiple states: outward-facing open, outward-facing occluded, and inward-facing open. Yet, a complete picture of the energy landscape of (sub)states visited along the LeuT transport cycle has been elusive. In an attempt to visualize the conformational spectrum of LeuT, we performed extensive simulations of LeuT dimer dynamics in the presence of substrate (Ala or Leu) and co-transported Na+ ions, in explicit membrane and water. We used both conventional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations (with Anton supercomputing machine) and a recently introduced method, collective MD, that takes advantage of collective modes of motions predicted by the anisotropic network model. Free energy landscapes constructed based on ˜40 μs trajectories reveal multiple substates occluded to the extracellular (EC) and/or intracellular (IC) media, varying in the levels of exposure of LeuT to EC or IC vestibules. The IC-facing transmembrane (TM) helical segment TM1a shows an opening, albeit to a smaller extent and in a slightly different direction than that observed in the inward-facing open crystal structure. The study provides insights into the spectrum of conformational substates and paths accessible to LeuT and highlights the differences between Ala- and Leu-bound substates.

  13. Participation of D.O. Muhleman as a Co-Investigator on the Mars Observer Laser Altimeter (MOLA) Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muhleman, Duane O.

    2004-01-01

    The Co-I has been a principle member of the MOLA Team since the beginning of the Mars Observer Project and the MOLA Team formation. The basic area of research for the Co-I involved the interactions of the MOLA laser beam with the Mars atmosphere, ice fields and surface in general. The Co-I was assisted by one graduate student, and later a research assistant, Anton Ivanov, throughout the reporting period. Dr. Ivanov received a PhD from Caltech in 2000 from research involving the MOLA project. Dr. Ivanov continued with the MOLA project after receiving his degree as a research assistant to Professor Muhleman. Most of the funding from this grant was used to support Dr. Ivanov during the later years. The primary results of these investigations included the measurement of Mars atmospheric opacity at the 1 micron wavelength of the laser, the effects of dust within the craters and canyons of Mars, and a detailed study of the North Polar Ice Cap in terms of ice sublimation and the current structure of that ice cap. We were able to show that the sublimation of the ice on the polar cap would create the current average shape of the norther cap. Extensive data collection and study were made of the Mars surface 1 micron reflectivity until the laser mechanically failed during the reporting period. Reflectivity maps of Mars were produced although there were serious problems of the laser echo signal strength calibration. After that event the efforts were mainly to complete the older investigations. All of the work supported by this grant was theoretical in nature and did not lead to any patents.

  14. Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Koekemoer, Anton M.

    2011-02-01

    Participants; Preface Mario Livio and Anton Koekemoer; 1. Black holes, entropy, and information G. T. Horowitz; 2. Gravitational waves from black-hole mergers J. G. Baker, W. D. Boggs, J. M. Centrella, B. J. Kelley, S. T. McWilliams and J. R. van Meter; 3. Out-of-this-world physics: black holes at future colliders G. Landsberg; 4. Black holes in globular clusters S. L. W. McMillan; 5. Evolution of massive black holes M. Volonteri; 6. Supermassive black holes in deep multiwavelength surveys C. M. Urry and E. Treister; 7. Black-hole masses from reverberation mapping B. M. Peterson and M. C. Bentz; 8. Black-hole masses from gas dynamics F. D. Macchetto; 9. Evolution of supermassive black holes A. Müller and G. Hasinger; 10. Black-hole masses of distant quasars M. Vestergaard; 11. The accretion history of supermassive black holes K. Brand and the NDWFS Boötes Survey Teams; 12. Strong field gravity and spin of black holes from broad iron lines A. C. Fabian; 13. Birth of massive black-hole binaries M. Colpi, M. Dotti, L. Mayer and S. Kazantzidis; 14. Dynamics around supermassive black holes A. Gualandris and D. Merritt; 15. Black-hole formation and growth: simulations in general relativity S. L. Shapiro; 16. Estimating the spins of stellar-mass black holes J. E. McClintock, R. Narayan and R. Shafee; 17. Stellar relaxation processes near the Galactic massive black hole T. Alexander; 18. Tidal disruptions of stars by supermassive black holes S. Gezari; 19. Where to look for radiatively inefficient accretion flows in low-luminosity AGN M. Chiaberge; 20. Making black holes visible: accretion, radiation, and jets J. H. Krolik.

  15. [Self-assessment questionnaire of alcoholic craving (ECCA Questionnaire: Behavior and Cognition in Relation to Alcohol: French translation and validation of the Obsessive-Compulsive Drinking Scale].

    PubMed

    Chignon, J M; Jacquesy, L; Mennad, M; Terki, A; Huttin, F; Martin, P; Chabannes, J P

    1998-01-01

    Clinical, neurobiological and neuropsychological hypotheses suggest that the dimension of alcohol craving includes the concept of both obsessive thoughts about alcohol use and compulsive behaviors toward drinking. Anton et al. (1995) developed a 14 items self-rating scale, the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) which includes items for assessing three dimensions: global, and the obsessive and the compulsive subdimensions. In this study, we included 156 patients, 105 men and 51 women, who met DSM IV diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependence. The mean age of our population was 39.1 +/- 11.2 years without difference between sexes. We did not found any correlation between the CAGE score and the OCDS total score or the obsessive and compulsive subscores (respectively, r = .15, r = .10 et r = .18). Moreover, we did not found any correlation between OCDS scores and mean daily alcohol consumption (r = .18, r = .16, r = .19). This could indicate that the dimension measured by the scale was somewhat independent of actual drinking. As such, it might act as an independent measure of the "state of illness" for alcohol-dependent patients. The test-retest correlation for the OCDS total score was .95 and the obsessive and compulsive subscales test-retest correlations were .93 and .89 respectively. The internal consistency of the items of the OCDS was high (alpha = .89). Principal component analysis had identified in the french version of the OCDS, three factors accounting for 63.5% of the total variance. These results indicate that the french version of the OCDS seems to validly measure a dimension of alcohol dependence. The ease of administration, reliability, and concurrent validity of the OCDS makes it particularly useful as an outcome measurement tool for various clinical therapeutic protocols in alcoholism. PMID:9850816

  16. Quantitative comparisons of numerical models of brittle deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buiter, S.

    2009-04-01

    Numerical modelling of brittle deformation in the uppermost crust can be challenging owing to the requirement of an accurate pressure calculation, the ability to achieve post-yield deformation and localisation, and the choice of rheology (plasticity law). One way to approach these issues is to conduct model comparisons that can evaluate the effects of different implementations of brittle behaviour in crustal deformation models. We present a comparison of three brittle shortening experiments for fourteen different numerical codes, which use finite element, finite difference, boundary element and distinct element techniques. Our aim is to constrain and quantify the variability among models in order to improve our understanding of causes leading to differences between model results. Our first experiment of translation of a stable sand-like wedge serves as a reference that allows for testing against analytical solutions (e.g., taper angle, root-mean-square velocity and gravitational rate of work). The next two experiments investigate an unstable wedge in a sandbox-like setup which deforms by inward translation of a mobile wall. All models accommodate shortening by in-sequence formation of forward shear zones. We analyse the location, dip angle and spacing of thrusts in detail as previous comparisons have shown that these can be highly variable in numerical and analogue models of crustal shortening and extension. We find that an accurate implementation of boundary friction is important for our models. Our results are encouraging in the overall agreement in their dynamic evolution, but show at the same time the effort that is needed to understand shear zone evolution. GeoMod2008 Team: Markus Albertz, Michele Cooke, Susan Ellis, Taras Gerya, Luke Hodkinson, Kristin Hughes, Katrin Huhn, Boris Kaus, Walter Landry, Bertrand Maillot, Christophe Pascal, Anton Popov, Guido Schreurs, Christopher Beaumont, Tony Crook, Mario Del Castello and Yves Leroy

  17. Relative response of the alanine dosimeter to medium energy x-rays.

    PubMed

    Anton, M; Büermann, L

    2015-08-01

    The response of the alanine dosimeter to kilovoltage x-rays with respect to the dose to water was measured, relative to the response to Co-60 radiation.Two series of x-ray qualities were investigated, one ranging from 30 kV to 100 kV tube voltage (TW series), the other one ranging from 70 kV to 280 kV (TH series). Due to the use of the water calorimeter as a primary standard, the uncertainty of the delivered dose is significantly lower than for other published data. The alanine response was measured as described in a previous publication (Anton et al 2013 Phys. Med. Biol. 58 3259-82). The uncertainty component due to the alanine measurement and analysis is ⩽0.4%, the major part of the combined uncertainty of the relative response originates from the uncertainty of the delivered dose. The relative uncertainties of the relative response vary from ⩽2% for the TW series to ⩽1.1% for the TH series.Different from the behaviour of the alanine dosimeter for megavoltage x-rays or electrons, the relative response drops significantly from unity for Co-60 radiation to less than 64% for the TW quality with a tube voltage of 30 kV. In order to reproduce this behaviour through Monte Carlo simulations, not only the ratio of the absorbed dose to alanine to the absorbed dose to water has to be known, but also the intrinsic efficiency, i.e. the dependence of the number of free radicals generated per unit of absorbed dose on the photon energy. This quantity is not yet accessible for the TW series.For a possible use of the alanine dosimeter for kilovoltage x-rays, for example in electronic brachytherapy, users should rely on the measured data for the relative response which have become available with this publication. PMID:26216572

  18. On behalf of tradition: An analysis of medical student and physician beliefs on how anatomy should be taught.

    PubMed

    Marom, Assaf; Tarrasch, Ricardo

    2015-11-01

    ." -From "A Boring Story: From the Notebook of an Old Man" by Anton Chekhov. PMID:26362503

  19. Determination of osmium concentrations and (187)Os/(188)Os of crude oils and source rocks by coupling high-pressure, high-temperature digestion with sparging OsO(4) into a multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Sen, Indra S; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard

    2014-03-18

    The (187)Os/(188)Os ratio that is based on the β(-)-decay of (187)Re to (187)Os (t1/2 = 41.6 billion years) is widely used to investigate petroleum system processes. Despite its broad applicability to studies of hydrocarbon deposits worldwide, a suitable matrix-matched reference material for Os analysis does not exist. In this study, a method that enables Os isotope measurement of crude oil with in-line Os separation and purification from the sample matrix is proposed. The method to analyze Os concentration and (187)Os/(187)Os involves sample digestion under high pressure and high temperature using a high pressure asher (HPA-S, Anton Paar), sparging of volatile osmium tetroxide from the sample solution, and measurements using multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). This methods significantly reduced the total procedural time compared to conventional Carius tube digestion followed by Os separation and purification using solvent extraction, microdistillation and N-TIMS analysis. The method yields Os concentration (28 ± 4 pg g(-1)) and (187)Os/(188)Os (1.62 ± 0.15) of commercially available crude oil reference material NIST 8505 (1 S.D., n = 6). The reference material NIST 8505 is homogeneous with respect to Os concentration at a test portion size of 0.2 g. Therefore, (187)Os/(188)Os composition and Os concentration of NIST 8505 can serve as a matrix-matched reference material for Os analysis. Data quality was assessed by repeated measurements of the USGS shale reference material SCo-1 (sample matrix similar to petroleum source rock) and the widely used Liquid Os Standard solution (LOsSt). The within-laboratory reproducibility of (187)Os/(188)Os for a 5 pg of LOsSt solution, analyzed with this method over a period of 12 months was ∼1.4% (1 S.D., n = 26), respectively. PMID:24552484

  20. The lost origin of chemical ecology in the late 19th century

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The origin of plant chemical ecology generally dates to the late 1950s, when evolutionary entomologists recognized the essential role of plant secondary metabolites in plant–insect interactions and suggested that plant chemical diversity evolved under the selection pressure of herbivory. However, similar ideas had already flourished for a short period during the second half of the 19th century but were largely forgotten by the turn of the century. This article presents the observations and studies of three protagonists of chemical ecology: Anton Kerner von Marilaun (1831–1898, Innsbruck, Austria, and Vienna, Austria), who mainly studied the impact of geological, climatic, and biotic factors on plant distribution and survival; Léo Errera (1858–1906, Brussels, Belgium), a plant physiologist who analyzed the localization of alkaloids in plant cells and tissues histochemically; and Ernst Stahl (1848–1919, Jena, Germany), likely the first experimental ecologist and who performed feeding studies with snails and slugs that demonstrated the essential role of secondary metabolites in plant protection against herbivores. All three, particularly Stahl, suggested that these “chemical defensive means” evolved in response to the relentless selection pressure of the heterotrophic community that surrounds plants. Although convincingly supported by observations and experiments, these ideas were forgotten until recently. Now, more than 100 years later, molecular analysis of the genes that control secondary metabolite production underscores just how correct Kerner von Marilaun, Errera, and, particularly, Stahl were in their view. Why their ideas were lost is likely a result of the adamant rejection of all things “teleological” by the physiologists who dominated biological research at the time. PMID:18218780

  1. Magneto-optical and rheological behaviors of oil-based ferrofluids and magnetorheological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getzie, Travis

    The magneto-optical and rheological behaviors of magnetic fluids and magnetorheological (MR) fluids have been investigated. A magneto-optical apparatus was constructed which enabled us to investigate the birefringence and dichroism of ferrofluids at various levels of applied magnetic field. Specifically, the effects of the film thickness of oil-based ferrofluids and the concentration of surfactant in the oil-based ferrofluids on their magneto-optical behavior were investigated. A commercial magneto-rheological instrument (Physica MCR 301, Anton Paar) equipped with a cone-and-plate fixture was employed to investigate the transient and steady-state shear flow of both ferrofluids and MR fluids as a function of shear rate at various levels of applied magnetic fields. The rheological investigation has enabled us to determine the effect of applied magnetic field on the shear viscosity and yield stress of ferrofluids and MR fluids. A special ferrofluid was prepared by filtering out nearly all of the surfactant and small particles in an oil-based ferrofluid. We then compared its magneto-optical and rheological behaviors with those of an unfiltered ferrofluid. Further, we have found that the ferrofluid with a lower concentration of surfactant gave rise to larger birefringence and yield stress, and stronger shear thinning behavior than the ferrofluid containing a higher concentration of surfactant. This observation has lead us to conclude that an increase in unbound surfactant in a ferrofluid hindered chain formation of magnetic particles, leading to a decrease in the optical and rheological behaviors of the ferrofluid. Optical microscopy confirmed no visible chain formation of magnetic particles in the ferrofluid having a high concentration of surfactant owing to weak yield stress, birefringence, and shear thinning. On the other hand, we observed from optical microscopy that the filtered ferrofluid gave rise to larger yield stress, birefringence, and stronger shear thinning

  2. The Archiv für Ohrenheilkunde (Archive of Otology): a structural analysis of the first 50 years (1864-1914).

    PubMed

    Peinhardt, Juliane; Plontke, Stefan K; Mudry, Albert; Steger, Florian

    2015-06-01

    In 1864, Anton von Tröltsch in Würzburg, Hermann Schwartze in Halle/Saale, and Adam Politzer in Vienna founded the Archiv für Ohrenheilkunde (Archive of Otology), the ancestor of the European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology and Head and Neck. It was the world's first journal solely devoted to otology, and thus to otorhinolaryngology. The aim of this study was to analyse the structure of this journal and its contents during the first 50 years of its publication, until it definitively became an otorhinolaryngological journal in 1915. A total of 2,271 articles were registered during this time. They were classified according to content topic, article type, and the number of figures and graphs that they contained. Almost three-quarters of the articles were related to purely otological topics, as implied by the journal's title. Until the turn of the twentieth century, the majority of the articles were original papers or case reports. The number of original papers declined over the decades in favour of case reports. One-third of each volume usually consisted of a vast variety of items, such as congress announcements, conference proceedings, and book reviews. The journal also maintained a wide variety of scientific and current social and political subjects. Otological reviews and conference proceedings were key landmarks of the journal. All of these various papers provided an overview of the historical organisation and development of otology between 1864 and 1914. At that time, the Archiv für Ohrenheilkunde was a leading national and international journal. PMID:25693880

  3. Ion conduction and conformational flexibility of a bacterial voltage-gated sodium channel.

    PubMed

    Boiteux, Céline; Vorobyov, Igor; Allen, Toby W

    2014-03-01

    Voltage-gated Na(+) channels play an essential role in electrical signaling in the nervous system and are key pharmacological targets for a range of disorders. The recent solution of X-ray structures for the bacterial channel NavAb has provided an opportunity to study functional mechanisms at the atomic level. This channel's selectivity filter exhibits an EEEE ring sequence, characteristic of mammalian Ca(2+), not Na(+), channels. This raises the fundamentally important question: just what makes a Na(+) channel conduct Na(+) ions? Here we explore ion permeation on multimicrosecond timescales using the purpose-built Anton supercomputer. We isolate the likely protonation states of the EEEE ring and observe a striking flexibility of the filter that demonstrates the necessity for extended simulations to study conduction in this channel. We construct free energy maps to reveal complex multi-ion conduction via knock-on and "pass-by" mechanisms, involving concerted ion and glutamate side chain movements. Simulations in mixed ionic solutions reveal relative energetics for Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+) within the pore that are consistent with the modest selectivity seen experimentally. We have observed conformational changes in the pore domain leading to asymmetrical collapses of the activation gate, similar to proposed inactivated structures of NavAb, with helix bending involving conserved residues that are critical for slow inactivation. These structural changes are shown to regulate access to fenestrations suggested to be pathways for lipophilic drugs and provide deeper insight into the molecular mechanisms connecting drug activity and slow inactivation. PMID:24550503

  4. PREFACE: 2nd International School and Conference Saint-Petersburg OPEN on Optoelectronics, Photonics, Engineering and Nanostructures (SPbOPEN2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-11-01

    The 2nd International School and Conference ''Saint Petersburg OPEN 2015'' on Optoelectronics, Photonics, Engineering and Nanostructures was held on April 6 - 8, 2015 at St. Petersburg Academic University. The School and Conference included a series of invited talks given by leading professors with the aim to introduce young scientists with actual problems and major advances in physics and technology. The keynote speakers were Mikhail V. Maximov (Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute RAS, Russia) Vladimir G. Dubrovskii (St. Petersburg Academic University and St. Petersburg State University, Russia) Anton Yu. Egorov (JSC Connector Optics, Russia) Victor V. Luchinin (St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University, Russia) Vladislav E. Bugrov (St. Petersburg University of Internet Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, Russia) Vitali A. Schukin (VI Systems, Germany) Yuri P. Svirko (University of Eastern Finland, Finland) During the poster session all undergraduate and graduate students attending the conference presented their works. A sufficiently large number of participants, with more than 170 student attendees from all over the world, allowed the Conference to provide a fertile ground for fruitful discussions between the young scientists as well as to become a perfect platform for valuable discussions between student authors and highly experienced scientists. The best student papers, which were selected by the Program Committee and by the invited speakers basing on the theses and their poster presentation, were awarded with diplomas of the conference - see the photos. This year ''Saint Petersburg OPEN 2015'' is organized by St. Petersburg Academic University in cooperation with Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University. The School and Conference is supported by Russian Science Foundation, SPIE (The International Society for Optics and Photonics), OSA (The Optical Society) and by Skolkovo Foundation. It is a continuation of the annual schools and seminars for

  5. Modeling and Assessing Insect Disturbance on Boreal Forests in the Krasnoyarsk region of Russia by Employing the FAREAST Gap Model and Local Forest Inventory and Disturbance Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erler, A. E.; Shuman, J. K.; Soukhavolosky, V.; Kovalev, A.; Stevens, T.; Shugart, H. H.

    2008-12-01

    FAREAST: an individual-based forest dynamics model was initially developed to simulate the forested region around Changbai Mountain in northern China. In recent years the model has been expanded across Siberia. The model output for biomass (tCha-1) has been verified against forest inventory data for a number of sites across Russia. With this success, an additional module for the model was written by Anton Kovalev to predict the impact of insect disturbance on the Boreal forests. This model predicts the probability of an insect outbreak occurring, and then, by assessing each individual tree in a modeled stand, predicts whether a tree will be killed as a result of insect predation. From this, a disturbance index is calculated that includes lost biomass as a result of insect disturbance and subsequent species composition. This disturbance "fingerprint" is being compared to forest inventory and insect disturbance data from the Usolsky forests in the Krasnoyarsk region of central Siberia. Silkworm disturbance is expressed in this geo- database as a percentage of trees damaged or killed in a stand. The forest inventory data allows us to calculate a biomass estimate that will be compared to the biomass outputs generated by the model post insect disturbance. The validation of simulated biomass with independent inventory data confirms that FAREAST is a robust model of Russian forest dynamics. Effective validation of the insect disturbance model will allow us to generate a more complete picture of the changing ecology of the Siberian Boreal landscape. The economic cost of lumber lost as a result of Silkworm damage has been enormous, if verified, FAREAST will afford us the opportunity to estimate the extent of that loss and predict the changing ecological dynamics of the Boreal forest system under the worlds evolving climate.

  6. Doctor Chekhov's doctors.

    PubMed

    Crommelynck, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Anton Chekhov (1860-1904) was both a writer and a doctor, as well as a patient. In spite of his literary success, he did not turn away from medicine until 1897, at the age of 37, when his tuberculosis became too serious. During his medical studies in Moscow, he wrote short stories, at night, under various pseudonyms to provide money for his family; all his life, Chekhov was his parents' financial support. It was Alexei Suvorin (1834-1912), the powerful director of Novoye Vremya (New Times), and the well-known writer Dimitry Grigorovich (1822-1899) who persuaded him that he had exceptional literary talent and requested him to abandon pseudonyms and sign his articles. So, for all his life, he practiced medicine as a district doctor and wrote plays and short stories. In each of his plays, except The Cherry Orchard, Chekhov introduced characters of doctors, principally Yevgeny Konstantinovich Lvov in Ivanov and Mikhail Lvovich Astrov in Uncle Vanya, as well as Khrushchev in The Wood Demon, Dorn in The Seagull, Tcheboutykin in The Three Sisters, and Triletski in Platonov. In his countless short stories, there are numerous doctors, for instance Professor Stepanovich (A Dreary Story), Doctors Kirilov (Enemies), Sobol (My Wife), Outchinnikov (An Inconvenience), Dymov (The Grasshopper), Startsvev (Ionitch), and others. Chekhov's main interest in psychiatry was clearly visible in The Nervous Breakdown, The Black Monk, The Man in a Case, A Doctor's Visit, and WardNo. 6 with Dr. Ragin. In his short stories as in his plays, Chekhov relied on his knowledge of provincial life; his doctor's characters were not professors, academicians, or Moscow's great physicians, but instead exhausted hard workers, with no effective diagnostic and therapeutic means, and poorly paid. Unlike himself, none of Chekhov's doctors was a writer or breadwinner, and Chekhov did not like to lay emphasis on the disease. PMID:23485905

  7. Analysis of the IMS Location Accuracy in Northern Eurasia and North America Using Regional and Global Pn Travel-time Tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    United States Calibration Working Group, Russian Federation/

    - Joint Research Program of Seismic Calibration of the International Monitoring System (IMS) in Northern Eurasia and North America has been signed by the Nuclear Treaty Programs Office (NTPO), Department of Defense USA, and the Special Monitoring Service (SMS) of the Ministry of Defense, Russian Federation (RF). Under the Program historical data from nuclear and large chemical explosions of known location and shot time, together with appropriate geological and geophysical data, has been used to derive regional Pn/P travel-time tables for seismic event location within the lower 48 States of the USA and the European part of the RF. These travel-time tables are up to 5seconds faster in shields than the IASPEI91 tables, and up to 5seconds slower in the Western USA. Relocation experiments using the regional Pn travel-time curves and surrogate networks for the IMS network generally improved locations for regional seismic events. The distance between true and estimated location (mislocation) was decreased from an average of 18.8km for the IASPEI91 tables to 10.1km for the regional Pn travel-time tables. However, the regional travel-time table approach has limitations caused by travel-time variations inside major tectonic provinces and paths crossing several tectonic provinces with substantially different crustal and upper mantle velocity structure.The RF members of the Calibration Working Group (WG): Colonel Vyacheslav Gordon (chairman); Dr. Prof. Marat Mamsurov, and Dr. Nikolai Vasiliev. The US members of the WG: Dr. Anton Dainty (chairman), Dr. Douglas Baumgardt, Mr. John Murphy, Dr. Robert North, and Dr. Vladislav Ryaboy.

  8. Microgravity can activate signals urging cells to S-phase entry during tissue and organ regeneration in Urodele amphibians exposed to real and simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, E.; Anton, H.-J.; Mitashov, V.

    Regenerative response following local injury or tissue removal in urodele amphibians is dependent on cell cycle entry of cells sources for regeneration in the remaining tissue. In a number of our experiments performed aboard biosatellites in orbital flights and fast rotated clinostat we found enhanced proliferative activity and, as a result, regeneration quicker than that in controls. In each investigated case an activity of cell proliferation evaluated by 3H-thymidine radioautography and BrdU assay at the early stages of lens, retina, forelimb and tail regeneration in newts was about 1,2-1,7 fold higher both under conditions of real and physiological weightlessness as compared with controls. Faster S-phase entry under conditions of micro- g was demonstrated by cycling multipotent cells as well as by differentiated postmitotic cells both participated in regeneration. Important, that cycling cells outside areas of regeneration were also found as displayed faster cellular growth. In our papers (1,2,3,4) we offered some hypothesis that could explain mechanisms of low g stimulating effect upon cell growth in regeneration in Urodela. In particular, changes in expression of some growth factors and their receptors, as well as the synthesis of specific range of generalized stress proteins (AGSPs) were proposed. However, in fact, molecular mechanisms of micro- g effect upon cell proliferation are mediated by changes on organismic level induced by micro- g environment. Some of them which are able to trigger off signaling changes on the cellular level that, in turn, evoke cells to grow faster would be represented in our report. 1. Mitashov V. et al. Adv. Space Res. 1996. 17 (6/7): 241-255 2. Anton H.-J. et al. Adv. Space Res. 1996. 17 (6/7): 55-65 3. Grigoryan E. et al. Adv. Space Res. 1998. 22 (2): 293-301 4. Grigoryan E. et al. Adv. Space Res. 2002. 30 (4): 757-764

  9. Energy landscape of LeuT from molecular simulations.

    PubMed

    Gur, Mert; Zomot, Elia; Cheng, Mary Hongying; Bahar, Ivet

    2015-12-28

    The bacterial sodium-coupled leucine transporter (LeuT) has been broadly used as a structural model for understanding the structure-dynamics-function of mammalian neurotransmitter transporters as well as other solute carriers that share the same fold (LeuT fold), as the first member of the family crystallographically resolved in multiple states: outward-facing open, outward-facing occluded, and inward-facing open. Yet, a complete picture of the energy landscape of (sub)states visited along the LeuT transport cycle has been elusive. In an attempt to visualize the conformational spectrum of LeuT, we performed extensive simulations of LeuT dimer dynamics in the presence of substrate (Ala or Leu) and co-transported Na(+) ions, in explicit membrane and water. We used both conventional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations (with Anton supercomputing machine) and a recently introduced method, collective MD, that takes advantage of collective modes of motions predicted by the anisotropic network model. Free energy landscapes constructed based on ∼40 μs trajectories reveal multiple substates occluded to the extracellular (EC) and/or intracellular (IC) media, varying in the levels of exposure of LeuT to EC or IC vestibules. The IC-facing transmembrane (TM) helical segment TM1a shows an opening, albeit to a smaller extent and in a slightly different direction than that observed in the inward-facing open crystal structure. The study provides insights into the spectrum of conformational substates and paths accessible to LeuT and highlights the differences between Ala- and Leu-bound substates. PMID:26723619

  10. Changes in visual and sensory-motor resting-state functional connectivity support motor learning by observing.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Heather R; Gribble, Paul L

    2015-07-01

    Motor learning occurs not only through direct first-hand experience but also through observation (Mattar AA, Gribble PL. Neuron 46: 153-160, 2005). When observing the actions of others, we activate many of the same brain regions involved in performing those actions ourselves (Malfait N, Valyear KF, Culham JC, Anton JL, Brown LE, Gribble PL. J Cogn Neurosci 22: 1493-1503, 2010). Links between neural systems for vision and action have been reported in neurophysiological (Strafella AP, Paus T. Neuroreport 11: 2289-2292, 2000; Watkins KE, Strafella AP, Paus T. Neuropsychologia 41: 989-994, 2003), brain imaging (Buccino G, Binkofski F, Fink GR, Fadiga L, Fogassi L, Gallese V, Seitz RJ, Zilles K, Rizzolatti G, Freund HJ. Eur J Neurosci 13: 400-404, 2001; Iacoboni M, Woods RP, Brass M, Bekkering H, Mazziotta JC, Rizzolatti G. Science 286: 2526-2528, 1999), and eye tracking (Flanagan JR, Johansson RS. Nature 424: 769-771, 2003) studies. Here we used a force field learning paradigm coupled with resting-state fMRI to investigate the brain areas involved in motor learning by observing. We examined changes in resting-state functional connectivity (FC) after an observational learning task and found a network consisting of V5/MT, cerebellum, and primary motor and somatosensory cortices in which changes in FC were correlated with the amount of motor learning achieved through observation, as assessed behaviorally after resting-state fMRI scans. The observed FC changes in this network are not due to visual attention to motion or observation of movement errors but rather are specifically linked to motor learning. These results support the idea that brain networks linking action observation and motor control also facilitate motor learning. PMID:25995349