Science.gov

Sample records for antonia li editors

  1. Jim, Antonia, and the Wolves: Displacement in Cather's "My Antonia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Robin

    2009-01-01

    In one of the most frequently noted incidents in Willa Cather's "My Antonia", Russian immigrant Pavel reveals on his deathbed that, when driving his friend's wedding party sledge, he saved his own life and companion Peter's by throwing the bride and groom to the attacking wolves. Antonia and Jim are fascinated by this story, and readers are…

  2. The Dating Game: Willa Cather's "My Antonia."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swainbank, Dan

    1999-01-01

    Discusses an activity called "The Dating Game" that is based on Willa Cather's "My Antonia." Explains that students determine the year Jim Burden, one of the main characters, arrived in Nebraska, using historical events in the novel. Reports students learn about life in the plains and national events and trends in the 1880s. (CMK)

  3. ZHE: [Noun] Undefined--An Interview with Performers Antonia Kemi Coker and Tonderai Munyevu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaskan, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    In February 2012, London-based theatre company Collective Artistes previewed "ZHE: [noun] Undefined," a new play created by director Chuck Mike and performers Tonderai Munyevu and Antonia Kemi Coker. The play follows the true life stories of the two performers, both British Africans, living at the intersections of culture, nationality, gender and…

  4. New Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-03-01

    It is an honour and a challenge to take up the editorship of the Messenger at this time of ESO's expanding role in European and worldwide astronomy. In order to mark the change, we have made a few adjustments to the appearance without departing from the overall style that Peter Shaver had evolved during his term as editor. I would like to thank Peter for gen-tly coaching me into the position and Jutta Boxheimer, the technical editor, for the high quality of the layout.

  5. TOAD Editor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingle, Bradford D.; Shea, Anne L.; Hofler, Alicia S.

    1993-01-01

    Transferable Output ASCII Data (TOAD) computer program (LAR-13755), implements format designed to facilitate transfer of data across communication networks and dissimilar host computer systems. Any data file conforming to TOAD format standard called TOAD file. TOAD Editor is interactive software tool for manipulating contents of TOAD files. Commonly used to extract filtered subsets of data for visualization of results of computation. Also offers such user-oriented features as on-line help, clear English error messages, startup file, macroinstructions defined by user, command history, user variables, UNDO features, and full complement of mathematical statistical, and conversion functions. Companion program, TOAD Gateway (LAR-14484), converts data files from variety of other file formats to that of TOAD. TOAD Editor written in FORTRAN 77.

  6. MPS Editor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathews, William S.; Liu, Ning; Francis, Laurie K.; OReilly, Taifun L.; Schrock, Mitchell; Page, Dennis N.; Morris, John R.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Crockett, Thomas M.; Shams, Khawaja S.

    2011-01-01

    Previously, it was time-consuming to hand-edit data and then set up simulation runs to find the effect and impact of the input data on a spacecraft. MPS Editor provides the user the capability to create/edit/update models and sequences, and immediately try them out using what appears to the user as one piece of software. MPS Editor provides an integrated sequencing environment for users. It provides them with software that can be utilized during development as well as actual operations. In addition, it provides them with a single, consistent, user friendly interface. MPS Editor uses the Eclipse Rich Client Platform to provide an environment that can be tailored to specific missions. It provides the capability to create and edit, and includes an Activity Dictionary to build the simulation spacecraft models, build and edit sequences of commands, and model the effects of those commands on the spacecraft. MPS Editor is written in Java using the Eclipse Rich Client Platform. It is currently built with four perspectives: the Activity Dictionary Perspective, the Project Adaptation Perspective, the Sequence Building Perspective, and the Sequence Modeling Perspective. Each perspective performs a given task. If a mission doesn't require that task, the unneeded perspective is not added to that project's delivery. In the Activity Dictionary Perspective, the user builds the project-specific activities, observations, calibrations, etc. Typically, this is used during the development phases of the mission, although it can be used later to make changes and updates to the Project Activity Dictionary. In the Adaptation Perspective, the user creates the spacecraft models such as power, data store, etc. Again, this is typically used during development, but will be used to update or add models of the spacecraft. The Sequence Building Perspective allows the user to create a sequence of activities or commands that go to the spacecraft. It provides a simulation of the activities and

  7. Journal Editors Celebrated at Editors' Evening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panning, Jeanette

    2014-02-01

    At the Fall Meeting, the premiere social event for AGU's many journal editors is the annual Editors' Evening, an opportunity for members to celebrate and to recognize the efforts of retiring editors. At the event, AGU president Carol Finn welcomed all those in attendance and thanked them for volunteering their time for the benefit of AGU and the wider research community.

  8. DNA Align Editor: DNA Alignment Editor Tool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The SNPAlignEditor is a DNA sequence alignment editor that runs on Windows platforms. The purpose of the program is to provide an intuitive, user-friendly tool for manual editing of multiple sequence alignments by providing functions for input, editing, and output of nucleotide sequence alignments....

  9. Being faithful: the ethics of homoaffection in Antonia Forest's Marlow novels.

    PubMed

    Gonda, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the ethical force and function of same-sex relationships in a ten-volume sequence of English children's books, published between 1948 and 1982, by Antonia Forest (pseudonym for Patricia Rubinstein, 1915-2003). From the late 1940s onwards, Forest's fiction articulates what Adrienne Rich theorizes in her classic work of lesbian ethics, "Women and Honor: Some Notes on Lying" (1975): the idea of same-sex bonds as the locus and standard of the ethical. Through the characters of the Marlow family (six sisters, two brothers) and their friends and enemies, Forest explores questions of honesty and self-deception, fidelity (both religious and personal) and betrayal, integrity and duality, performance and the boundaries of the self. Forest's exploration of these questions is persistently inflected by a resistance to heterosexuality and by a privileging of same-sex bonds, whether female or male. Forest's resistance to the pressures of conventional pieties and expected emotions, whether about love, friendship or the family, makes these books particularly important for lesbian readers. PMID:17804372

  10. DNAAlignEditor: DNA alignment editor tool

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Villeda, Hector; Schroeder, Steven; Flint-Garcia, Sherry; Guill, Katherine E; Yamasaki, Masanori; McMullen, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    Background With advances in DNA re-sequencing methods and Next-Generation parallel sequencing approaches, there has been a large increase in genomic efforts to define and analyze the sequence variability present among individuals within a species. For very polymorphic species such as maize, this has lead to a need for intuitive, user-friendly software that aids the biologist, often with naïve programming capability, in tracking, editing, displaying, and exporting multiple individual sequence alignments. To fill this need we have developed a novel DNA alignment editor. Results We have generated a nucleotide sequence alignment editor (DNAAlignEditor) that provides an intuitive, user-friendly interface for manual editing of multiple sequence alignments with functions for input, editing, and output of sequence alignments. The color-coding of nucleotide identity and the display of associated quality score aids in the manual alignment editing process. DNAAlignEditor works as a client/server tool having two main components: a relational database that collects the processed alignments and a user interface connected to database through universal data access connectivity drivers. DNAAlignEditor can be used either as a stand-alone application or as a network application with multiple users concurrently connected. Conclusion We anticipate that this software will be of general interest to biologists and population genetics in editing DNA sequence alignments and analyzing natural sequence variation regardless of species, and will be particularly useful for manual alignment editing of sequences in species with high levels of polymorphism. PMID:18366684

  11. New Journal Editors Appointed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Major, Barbara

    2009-11-01

    New editors have been appointed for Geophysical Research Letters (GRL), Journal of Geophysical Research (JGR)-Solid Earth, Reviews of Geophysics, JGR-Space Physics, Paleoceanography, and Tectonics. At GRL, new editors Noah Diffenbaugh (Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.), Paolo D’Odorico (University of Virginia, Charlottesville), Ruth Harris (U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Menlo Park, Calif.), Wolfgang Knorr (University of Bristol, Bristol, UK), Geoffrey Tyndall (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo.), and Michael Wysession (Washington University, St. Louis, Mo.) have joined Editor-in-Chief Eric Calais and other editors Margaret Chen, Fabio Florindo, Anne Müller, Nikolai Ostgaard, Eric Rignot, and Meric Srokosz.

  12. Boerhaave: Author and Editor *

    PubMed Central

    Lindeboom, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The many facets of Herman Boerhaave's life are presented. He was a renowned teacher, physician, author, and editor. Discussed here are his activities as cataloger of the Vossius Collection, author of books on chemistry, botany, and medicine, and as editor of works by Vesalius and early Greek medical writers. Printing and bookselling in Leiden during Boerhaave's era are described. Images PMID:4596962

  13. Editors' Fall Picks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffert, Barbara; Heilbrun, Margaret; Kuzyk, Raya; Kim, Ann; McCormack, Heather; Katterjohn, Anna; Burns, Ann; Williams, Wilda

    2008-01-01

    From the fall's cascade of great new books, "Library Journal's" editors select their favorites--a dark rendition of Afghan life, a look at the "self-esteem trap," a celebration of Brooklyn activism, and much more.

  14. ISTP CDF Skeleton Editor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chimiak, Reine; Harris, Bernard; Williams, Phillip

    2013-01-01

    Basic Common Data Format (CDF) tools (e.g., cdfedit) provide no specific support for creating International Solar-Terrestrial Physics/Space Physics Data Facility (ISTP/SPDF) standard files. While it is possible for someone who is familiar with the ISTP/SPDF metadata guidelines to create compliant files using just the basic tools, the process is error-prone and unreasonable for someone without ISTP/SPDF expertise. The key problem is the lack of a tool with specific support for creating files that comply with the ISTP/SPDF guidelines. There are basic CDF tools such as cdfedit and skeletoncdf for creating CDF files, but these have no specific support for creating ISTP/ SPDF compliant files. The SPDF ISTP CDF skeleton editor is a cross-platform, Java-based GUI editor program that allows someone with only a basic understanding of the ISTP/SPDF guidelines to easily create compliant files. The editor is a simple graphical user interface (GUI) application for creating and editing ISTP/SPDF guideline-compliant skeleton CDF files. The SPDF ISTP CDF skeleton editor consists of the following components: A swing-based Java GUI program, JavaHelp-based manual/ tutorial, Image/Icon files, and HTML Web page for distribution. The editor is available as a traditional Java desktop application as well as a Java Network Launching Protocol (JNLP) application. Once started, it functions like a typical Java GUI file editor application for creating/editing application-unique files.

  15. PANEL LIBRARY AND EDITOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raible, E.

    1994-01-01

    The Panel Library and Editor is a graphical user interface (GUI) builder for the Silicon Graphics IRIS workstation family. The toolkit creates "widgets" which can be manipulated by the user. Its appearance is similar to that of the X-Windows System. The Panel Library is written in C and is used by programmers writing user-friendly mouse-driven applications for the IRIS. GUIs built using the Panel Library consist of "actuators" and "panels." Actuators are buttons, dials, sliders, or other mouse-driven symbols. Panels are groups of actuators that occupy separate windows on the IRIS workstation. The application user can alter variables in the graphics program, or fire off functions with a click on a button. The evolution of data values can be tracked with meters and strip charts, and dialog boxes with text processing can be built. Panels can be stored as icons when not in use. The Panel Editor is a program used to interactively create and test panel library interfaces in a simple and efficient way. The Panel Editor itself uses a panel library interface, so all actions are mouse driven. Extensive context-sensitive on-line help is provided. Programmers can graphically create and test the user interface without writing a single line of code. Once an interface is judged satisfactory, the Panel Editor will dump it out as a file of C code that can be used in an application. The Panel Library (v9.8) and Editor (v1.1) are written in C-Language (63%) and Scheme, a dialect of LISP, (37%) for Silicon Graphics 4D series workstations running IRIX 3.2 or higher. Approximately 10Mb of disk space is required once compiled. 1.5Mb of main memory is required to execute the panel editor. This program is available on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format for an IRIS, and includes a copy of XScheme, the public-domain Scheme interpreter used by the Panel Editor. The Panel Library Programmer's Manual is included on the distribution media. The Panel Library and

  16. LDAP Browser/Editor

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-07-18

    The LDAP Browser/Editor provides a user-friendly Java-based interface to LDAP databases with tightly integrated browsing and editing capabilities. Entirely written in Java with help of the JFC (Swingset) and JNDI class libraries. It connects to any X.500, LDAP v2 and v3 servers and supports editing of multiple-value attributes.

  17. Editors' Spring Picks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2011

    2011-01-01

    While they do not represent the rainbow of reading tastes American public libraries accommodate, Book Review editors are a wildly eclectic bunch. One look at their bedside tables and ereaders would reveal very little crossover. This article highlights an eclectic array of spring offerings ranging from print books to an audiobook to ebook apps. It…

  18. WRR editor Ronald Cummings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-04-01

    It has been nearly a year since Ronald Cummings took over as policy sciences editor of Water Resources Research (WRR), and in that time he has worked to make the journal live up to its role as “an interdisciplinary journal integrating research in the social and natural sciences of water.” Cummings takes the “interdisciplinary” part seriously. “I'd like to see a much broader range of policy issues presented to readers,” he says. “I would hope it would then stimulate interchange between our colleagues concerning evolving issues of the '80s and '90s.”Cummings brings a solid background as a resource economist to his 4-year term as editor, which began last January and runs until December 1987. Cummings succeeds Jared Cohon as policy sciences editor. Stephen J. Burges is the WRR editor for hydrological, physical, chemical, and biological sciences. Now a Professor of Economics and Director of the Program in Natural Resources Economics at the University of New Mexico, Cummings is a past president of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists. He has been a consultant in matters of water resources management, forestry management, and energy policy for more than a decade, working on projects in both the United States and Latin America. Since joining the faculty at New Mexico in 1975, he has, among other things, worked with engineers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in developing operation'management models for hot, dry rock geothermal systems.

  19. Editors' Fall Picks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilbrun, Margaret; McCormack, Heather; Katterjohn, Anna; Kuzyk, Raya; Roncevic, Mirela; Fox, Bette-Lee; Hoffert, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal's" review editors select fall titles readers won't want to miss--"Waiting on a Train: The Embattled Future of Passenger Rail Service" (James McCommons); "Happy" (Alex Lemon); "Free for All: Joe Papp, the Public, and the Greatest Theater Story Ever Told" (Kenneth Turan & Joseph Papp); "In My Father's Shadow: A Daughter Remembers…

  20. Meet the APS Journal Editors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-05-01

    The Editors of the APS journals invite you to join them for conversation. The Editors will be available to answer questions, hear your ideas, and discuss any comments about the journals. All are welcome. Light refreshments will be served.

  1. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-11-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents The equivalence of mass and energy Peter Stansbury Head of Physics, Christ Church Grammar School, Claremont, Western Australia 6010 Comment on `A simple experiment to study parabolic surfaces' N Gauthier Department of Physics, The Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario K7K 7B4, Canada

  2. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-03-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Criticisms of hands-on pseudoscience David J Fisher 27 Elderberry Road, Cardiff CF5 3RG, UK Measuring varying fields Don Koks Adelaide University, Australia Relativity at A-level: a comment David Sang 3 Ellasdale Road, Bognor Regis, PO21 2SG, UK

  3. ION Configuration Editor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borgen, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    The configuration of ION (Inter - planetary Overlay Network) network nodes is a manual task that is complex, time-consuming, and error-prone. This program seeks to accelerate this job and produce reliable configurations. The ION Configuration Editor is a model-based smart editor based on Eclipse Modeling Framework technology. An ION network designer uses this Eclipse-based GUI to construct a data model of the complete target network and then generate configurations. The data model is captured in an XML file. Intrinsic editor features aid in achieving model correctness, such as field fill-in, type-checking, lists of valid values, and suitable default values. Additionally, an explicit "validation" feature executes custom rules to catch more subtle model errors. A "survey" feature provides a set of reports providing an overview of the entire network, enabling a quick assessment of the model s completeness and correctness. The "configuration" feature produces the main final result, a complete set of ION configuration files (eight distinct file types) for each ION node in the network.

  4. EDITORIAL: Editor's Farewell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, R. P.

    1989-01-01

    The completion of Volume 26, 1989, marked the end of my tenure as Editor of Metrologia. My association with the journal, its parent body the Comité International des Poids et Mesures, its host organization the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, the publishers Springer-Verlag and last (but by no means least) the Editorial Board, has been a pleasant one and I trust that the subscribers will have found the product to be generally satisfactory. There have been, it is true, some disappointments along the way and I shall mention two of these while expressing the hope that the new Editor will enjoy a greater success in their regard. First is the question of circulation, which has stayed dangerously low, although the shrinkage has tapered off in the most recent years. Because of the narrow public support, the costs of production are relatively high and this, through a consequently high subscription rate, tends to enshrine the unsatisfactory state of affairs. Modest schemes to broaden the journal's appeal and bring in a wider readership have foundered upon the first step, namely, that of procuring from staff members of the national standards laboratories the hoped-for articles which would discuss the state of the art in delivering the highest-quality measurement services to the public. However, some very interesting and bolder schemes are presently under discussion. I had also hoped to leaven the journal's content a little by regularly appearing articles on the latest developments within the great national laboratories. But, as with technical review articles, it has proven very difficult to find the right authors who can also spare the time, and only a few laboratories have found it possible to collaborate. In taking my leave, it remains for me to thank all the contributors, referees and readers for their support, to express the hope of an ever brighter future for Metrologia and to wish to the new Editor, Dr D A Blackburn, a happy and successful tenure.

  5. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-09-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Heat and temperature Kevin Carlton Canterbury Christ Church University College, North Holmes Road, Canterbury, Kent CT1 1QU, UK James Bond's shoes J Oliver Linton Head of Physics, Wolverhampton Grammar School, Compton Road, Wolverhampton WV3 9RB, UK Of springs and strings Ronald Newburgh Extension School, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA Clarifying the concept Keith Atkin 14 Cortworth Road, Ecclesall, Sheffield S11 9LP, UK

  6. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-01-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Physics and history Arthur I Miller Department of Science & Technology Studies, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK Physics and history: a reply David Miller Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK Cathode rays, the electron and Thomson's discovery John Harris 33 Glentham Road, London SW13 9JD, UK Vectors: swallow them whole! David Wheeler Mahanakorn University of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand

  7. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-03-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Comment on `Magnetic and electric field strengths of high voltage power lines and household appliances' José Luis Giordano Dept. de Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales y Fluidos, CPSI, Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain Twins paradox S R Carson Norton College, Malton, North Yorkshire, UK On alternative ways of finding the ratio of specific heats of gases Tomas Ficker Physics Department, Technical University of Brno, Czech Republic

  8. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-11-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Narrow-band interference filters for lecture demonstrations A P Ovcharenko, B M Valiyov and V D Yegorenkov Kharkov State University, Ukraine Static electricity and the gas lift chair P Cooke Department of Physics, University of South Australia, Levels Campus, Pooraka, South Australia Relativistic mass Simon Carson Norton College, Langton Road, Norton, Malton, North Yorkshire YO17 9PT, UK Magazine or journal? Philip Britton Head of Physics, Leeds Grammar School, UK

  9. Editors' report, 2012.

    PubMed

    García-Puig, J; Alonso-Vega, G Gaspar; Ríos-Blanco, J J

    2013-01-01

    The editors of Revista Clínica Española (Rev Clin Esp) inform on their editorial activity during the last 12 months: a) objectives and attainments; b) editorial activity; and c) objectives for 2013. In 2012 the most relevant modifications concerning the editorial activity have been: a) revision by the responsible editor of all manuscripts sent to peer review, and b) translation into English of five manuscripts with abstract of each issue. From the first January to the 30th September 2012 we handled 457 manuscripts (50 manuscripts per month) a figure 22.5% higher than in 2011 (40.8 manuscripts per month). We have accepted 27.2% of all manuscripts (originals, 13.0%). We asked for 295 revisions to 241 reviewers and we have received 66.1% of the revisions asked for in less than two weeks (mean time to receive a revision, 11.3 days). The mean time to adopt an editorial decision for all manuscripts («accept»/«reject») has been 23.9 days (31.3 days in 2011; 35.4 in 2010). This figure has been 29.4 days for the original manuscripts (9.5 and 12.3 days less than in 2011 and 2010, respectively). The mean time taken since a manuscript is received to publication has dropped from 203 days in 2010, 168 in 2011 and 115 in 2012 (less than 3 months). The collaboration with the working groups has reported 19 published manuscripts in 2012. We hope that in 2013 both the English version and the digitalization of Rev Clin Esp from 1940 to 1999 (the journal is already digitalized since 2000) will become a reality. The renewal of the actual sections (i.e., clinical conference, an image for a diagnosis) pretends, with the collaboration of all, to make our journal, each day, better. PMID:23261839

  10. Editors in the Electronic Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Robert M., Ed.

    Intended for newspaper writers and editors, this collection of articles includes the following titles and authors: "VDTs, TV Haven't Shocked Editors" by Jay Rogers; "Opinions Vary on Electronics' Effect" by Bob Nordyke; "A Few Kind Words for the Censors" by Hugh A. Mulligan; "Those Awards Have Their Limitations" by Larry Fortner; "Obituaries Are…

  11. Modularized training for technical editors

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, P.W.

    1988-09-08

    This paper outlines the editorial services provided at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), sketches a syllabus of basic training for technical editors, describes the approach being used to develop this cost-effective individualized instruction for editors (experienced or not) new to work at LLNL, and enumerates the advantages of this approach. 8 refs.

  12. HEART handbook for guest editors

    SciTech Connect

    Vittitoe, C.N.

    1991-02-01

    This handbook outlines the basic job of guest editors for the HEART Conference proceedings, published by the DoD Nuclear Information and Analysis Center in the Journal of Radiation Effects, Research and Engineering. Suggestions are offered for procedures to aid the editors, authors, reviewers, and the publisher in assuring that the journal communicates clearly, concisely, and honestly.

  13. Microbial Properties Database Editor Tutorial

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Microbial Properties Database Editor (MPDBE) has been developed to help consolidate microbial-relevant data to populate a microbial database and support a database editor by which an authorized user can modify physico-microbial properties related to microbial indicators and pat...

  14. Message from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stambaugh, Ronald D.

    2014-01-01

    This last year being an odd numbered year, the pages of Nuclear Fusion saw a large influx of expanded papers from the 2012 Fusion Energy Conference in San Diego. Many papers have focused on the scientific and technical challenges posed by ITER. Contributions are steadily increasing from the new superconducting tokamaks in Asia. The ITER Project continues to move ahead. Construction at the Cadarache site is quite remarkable. Buildings completed include the huge Poloidal Field Coils Winding Facility and the Headquarters building, which has been occupied by the ITER staff. Work is progressing on the Assembly building and the Cryostat Workshop. The base of the tokamak complex is being laid. Besides the construction that is taking place and will take place at the site, components from around the world have to navigate the complex route from Marseilles to the site. A test convoy replicating the dimensions and weights of the most exceptional ITER loads successfully traversed that route in 2013. We are pleased to report that the IAEA and ITER have finalized the agreement for ITER authors to publish papers in Nuclear Fusion . Nuclear Fusion is proud to continue its key role in providing the leading forum for the documentation of scientific progress and exchange of research results internationally toward fusion energy. Refereeing The Nuclear Fusion editorial office appreciates greatly the effort made by our referees to sustain the high quality of the journal. Since January 2005, we have been offering the most active referees over the past year a personal subscription to Nuclear Fusion with electronic access for one year, free of charge. We have excluded our Board Members, Guest Editors of special editions and those referees who were already listed in previous years. The following people have been selected: J.M. Canik, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA I.T. Chapman, Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, UK L.-G. Eriksson, Commission of the European Communities, Belgium T. Evans

  15. EDITORIAL: Editor's Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackburn, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    Since its first issue in 1965 Metrologia has had just three editors, a history of tenure which suggests that those who hold the post find in it sufficient to interest, occupy, challenge and amuse them. I see no reason to doubt that this happy circumstance will continue and look forward to my own period as editor with the intention of retaining, insofar as I am able to interpret them, the best traditions the journal has established so far. As I take up my editorial duties I have become aware that surrounding Metrologia there is a small community of authors, reviewers and readers on whose support the success of the journal entirely depends. It is a community in which the roles change daily with some of its members engaged, even simultaneously, as reader, reviewer and author. I am well aware that the goodwill extended to me as I enter this community is in no small part due the efforts of the outgoing editor, Dr Ralph Hudson, whose easy, engaging and courteous, yet firm, relationship with authors and reviewers emerges clearly from editorial correspondence. I thank him for that he has done and wish him an active and happy retirement. A short foray into the records of Metrologia shows - in the first editorial - that four main kinds of article were originally envisaged: research articles likely to contribute to progress in fundamental scientific measurements, reports of experiments or techniques of particular importance or originality in the area of secondary measurement, articles concerning the decisions of the Comité International des Poids et Mesures, and review articles. No balance was specified but a priority was assigned to articles dealing with fundamental metrology. Of the four categories, the first two represent the core of Metrologia's activity and largely determine its reputation as a publication. For this reason, editorial implementation of the policy set by the CIPM is mainly exercised through the operation of a reviewing system which is intentionally strict

  16. GUEST EDITORS' INTRODUCTION: Guest Editors' introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulson, Geoff; de Meer, Jan B.

    1997-03-01

    . Their scheme is embedded in an experimental ATM network with the potential for guaranteed QoS. The system features QoS support mechanisms in both the network and the end systems. Of particular interest is reported experience with a dynamic QoS adaptation protocol implemented in the network and based on video scaling techniques and filtering. In summary, this special issue provides an up to date review of approaches to QoS management and their practical realization. Of course, no claim is made as to comprehensiveness, but the chosen papers do serve as a highly representative sample of current directions in QoS research. The editors are very much obliged to all authors, reviewers and publishers. Without their excellent work, and the contribution of their valuable time this special issue would not have been possible.

  17. From the Editor's Desk

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    One of the admirable aspects of science is that its practitioners accept that advancing the field is an ongoing process. There is always more to be discovered. I view scientific publishing in a similar light. Last month, we instituted several changes to the journal, and I look forward to receiving your feedback. I anticipate some of the changes will be welcomed while others will not. ToxSci relies on the feedback from our readers, authors, and reviewers to assure that we are serving the research community to the highest degree. The editorial staff is dedicated to producing a high-quality journal that features outstanding science like that seen in this issue. In their Forum article, Wu and coworkers describe how increasing dietary diversity can reduce exposure to foodborne toxins. This is an important public health observation that can help mitigate many of the toxic effects described in the pages of the ToxSci. You will also note that we are using a new format for our Letters to the Editor. Rather than appearing at the end of the journal they immediately follow the highlights below. In this issue, the formulation of caroboxyfullerenes is the topic of discussion. I invite you to Look Inside ToxSci for the best original research in the field of toxicology. —Gary W. Miller PMID:25288704

  18. PREFACE: Scientific and Publishing Editors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-02-01

    1.Scientific Editors Section 1: Particle physics Mikhail Skorohvatov - NRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia Section 2: Nuclear physics Mikhail Danilov - ITEP NRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia Section 3: Cosmic rays Arkady Galper - NRNU MEPhI, Moscow, Russia Anatoly Petrukhin - NRNU MEPhI, Moscow, Russia Section 4: Methods of experimental physics Valery Dmitrenko - NRNU MEPhI, Moscow, Russia 2.Publishing Editors Irene Arkhangelskaja - NRNU MEPhI, Moscow, Russia Pavel Buzhan - NRNU MEPhI, Moscow, Russia

  19. Message from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stambaugh, Ronald D.

    2013-01-01

    reviewed five manuscripts in the period November 2011 to December 2012 and provided excellent advice to the authors. We have excluded our Board Members, Guest Editors of special editions and those referees who were already listed in recent years. The following people have been selected: Marina Becoulet, CEA-Cadarache, France Jiaqui Dong, Southwestern Institute of Physics, China Emiliano Fable, Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Germany Ambrogio Fasoli, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Switzerland Eric Fredrickson, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, USA Manuel Garcia-Munoz, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Germany William Heidbrink, California University, USA Katsumi Ida, National Inst. For Fusion Science, Japan Peter Stangeby, Toronto University, Canada James Strachan, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, USA Victor Yavorskij, Ukraine National Academy of Sciences, Ukraine In addition, there is a group of several hundred referees who have helped us in the past year to maintain the high scientific standard of Nuclear Fusion. At the end of this issue we give the full list of all referees for 2012. Our thanks to them!

  20. Research Review: Magazine Editors and Editing Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolliffe, Lee

    1994-01-01

    Reviews and critiques literature in the subfield of magazine editing research, chiefly biographical studies of individual editors and various types of studies of editorial practices, including surveys, magazine content analyses, and close qualitative examinations of editors' relationships with others. (SR)

  1. SIERRA Editor v. 1.2.1

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-03-24

    The SIERRA Editor is a syntax editor for text-based input decks for the SIERRA modeling and simulations codes. The SIERRA Editor provides color coded syntax, error checking, hyperlink navigation to referenced entities (e.g. functions and materials), and visual verification of mesh entity references (blocks, sidesets, and nodesets). The SIERRA Editor helps modeling and simulation analysts who use the SIERRA codes to produce syntactically correct input decks.

  2. New Editors, Editorial Advisory Board for Eos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    2010-11-01

    Eos has two new editors and, with this issue, a revitalized Editorial Advisory Board. Christina M. S. Cohen, of the California Institute of Technology, is the new editor for space sciences. She succeeds Manuel Grande, who had served since 2006. Carol A. Stein, of the University of Illinois at Chicago, is the new editor for solid Earth. She succeeds John W. Geissman, who has been solid Earth editor since 2001; he will continue through the end of 2010.

  3. Portrait of Antonia Ferri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1945-01-01

    After fighting the Nazis as chief of a partisan brigade, Antonio Ferri brought important new information to Langley in 1944 about current German and Italian research in high speed aerodynamics. Photograph published in Engineer in Charge: A History of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, 1917-1958 by James R. Hansen. Page 319.

  4. Learning To Use a Text Editor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, Carole R.; Griffin, Elizabeth A.

    Designed to determine how quickly elementary school children can learn to use a text editor and what editing concepts are difficult for them to master, this study presents preliminary data on children's acquisition of text editor skills and on the kinds of revisions they accomplished with the text editor. Observations were made on a total of 25…

  5. Message from the Editor Message from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Paul

    2012-04-01

    Whilst travelling to Vienna to hand over the Editorship of Nuclear Fusion to Ron Stambaugh, I jotted down a few ideas to put in a farewell message. Somewhat unsurprisingly, I find them almost identical to the remarks that Chris Schueller made in handing over to me five years ago. Both of us served in this role for five years, which seems like a good timescale to replace presidents and editors alike; just to allow a fresh approach. In addition, since I have been directly involved in ITER, I have found it increasingly difficult, due to time pressure, to give the journal the attention that it deserves. Therefore, I am very pleased that Ron Stambaugh has agreed to take over as Editor. Not only does he bring the experience as a leading figure in the US fusion programme but, in addition, he has all the contacts, worldwide, from his leadership of the ITPA. I am completely assured that the journal is in a highly competent pair of hands. Such a farewell should not lack my heartfelt thanks to all of those who have made being Editor of Nuclear Fusion so enjoyable and stimulating; readership, authors, referees, the Editorial Board and the NF Office alike. I wish Ron all the best for his tenure and have offered such help and support as I am able to give.

  6. Line-Editor Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Peter J.

    1989-01-01

    ZED editing program for DEC VAX computer simple, powerful line editor for text, program source code, and nonbinary data. Excels in processing of text by use of procedure files. Also features versatile search qualifiers, global changes, conditionals, online help, hexadecimal mode, space compression, looping, logical combinations of search strings, journaling, visible control characters, and automatic detabbing. Users of Cambridge implementation devised such ZED procedures as chess games, calculators, and programs for evaluating pi. Written entirely in C.

  7. EDITORIAL: Message from the Editor Message from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Paul

    2010-02-01

    November 2009 and provided particularly detailed advice to the authors. The other three have been very helpful in 'minority fields'. We have excluded our Board members, Guest Editors of special editions and those referees who were already listed in the last four years. Guest Editors' work on papers submitted to their Special Issues is also excluded from consideration. The following people have been selected: Tomonori Takizuka, JAEA-Naka Fusion Institute, Japan Rudolf Neu, Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Germany Sibylle Guenter, Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Germany Taik-Soo Hahm, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, United States David R. Mikkelsen, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, United States Peter C. de Vries, EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, United Kingdom Yasuhiro Suzuki, National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Jerzy Wolowski, Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Poland Tetsuo Tanabe, Kyushu University, Japan Yasuyuki Yagi, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan Congratulations and many, many thanks! The Guest Editors of special editions deserve a special mention for the excellent help that they have given us. They are: Taik-Soo Hahm, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, United States, Special Issue on H-Mode Physics and Transport Barriers Yaroslav Kolesnichenko, Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukraine, Special Issue on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems Kimitaka Itoh, National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan and Howard R. Wilson, University of York, UK, Special Issue on Plasma Instabilities Bernhard Unterberg, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Germany, Special Issue on Stochastic Fusion Plasma In addition, there is a group of several hundred referees who have helped us in the past year to maintain the high scientific standard of Nuclear Fusion. At the end of this issue we give the full list of all referees for 2009. Our thanks to them! Authors The winner of the 2009 Nuclear Fusion

  8. Familiarizing with science editors' associations

    PubMed Central

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri

    2011-01-01

    The number of science editors' associations is growing to resolve a variety of professional problems. The main objective of the associations is to educate their members by facilitating dissemination of information, publishing scholarly journals, books, networking of experts, and regular meetings. There are many science editing associations – general and specialized, traditional, and new. The article presents activities of some of these associations, which include upholding standards of science writing, editing, indexing, research reporting, peer review, editorial independence, and other editorial policies. PMID:22180273

  9. 2011 Editors' Citations for Excellence in Refereeing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-12-01

    In the 2 October 2012 issue of Eos, the 2011 Editors' Citations for Excellence in Refereeing were announced (Eos, 93(40), 391-394, doi:10.1029/2012EO400012). The editors' citations recognize this special service to the Union, and these individuals are to be commended for consistently providing constructive and thoughtful reviews. The reviewers listed below were inadvertently omitted from that announcement. They, too, have been cited by editors of AGU journals for excellence in refereeing.

  10. EDITORIAL: Message from the Editor Message from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Paul

    2011-01-01

    As usual, being an even year, the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference took place at Daejeon, Korea. The event was notable not just for the quality of the presentations but also for the spectacular opening ceremony, in the presence of the Prime Minister, Kim Hwang-sik. The Prime Minister affirmed the importance of research into fusion energy research and pledged support for ITER. Such political visibility is good news, of course, but it brings with it the obligation to perform. Fortunately, good performance was much in evidence in the papers presented at the conference, of which a significant proportion contain 'ITER' in the title. Given this importance of ITER and the undertaking by the Nuclear Fusion journal to publish papers associated with Fusion Energy Conference presentations, the Nuclear Fusion Editorial Board has decided to adopt a simplified journal scope that encompasses technology papers more naturally. The scope is available from http://iopscience.iop.org/0029-5515/page/Journal%20information but is reproduced here for clarity: Nuclear Fusion publishes articles making significant advances to the field of controlled thermonuclear fusion. The journal scope includes: the production, heating and confinement of high temperature plasmas; the physical properties of such plasmas; the experimental or theoretical methods of exploring or explaining them; fusion reactor physics; reactor concepts; fusion technologies. The key to scope acceptability is now '....significant advances....' rather than any particular area of controlled thermonuclear fusion research. It is hoped that this will make scope decisions easier for the Nuclear Fusion office, the referees and the Editor.The Nuclear Fusion journal has continued to make an important contribution to the research programme and has maintained its position as the leading journal in the field. This is underlined by the fact that Nuclear Fusion has received an impact factor of 4.270, as listed in ISI's 2009 Science Citation

  11. Examining Editor-Author Ethics: Real-World Scenarios from Interviews with Three Journal Editors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amare, Nicole; Manning, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Those who submit manuscripts to academic journals may benefit from a better understanding of how editors weigh ethics in their interactions with authors. In an attempt to ascertain and to understand editors' ethics, we interviewed 3 current academic journal editors of technical and/or business communication journals. We asked them about the…

  12. ESO Vacancy - Editor (EDG 604)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-09-01

    Assignment: Within the ESO Education and Public Relations Department team, your main tasks and responsibilities will comprise: • Development, update and maintenance of the comprehensive ESO Outreach website in its new look, including preparation of related material (texts, images, etc.) to be displayed; • Design, layout and production of the ESO quarterly journal “The Messenger” (e.g. image selection and processing, technical editing, etc.), in close collaboration with the Messenger editor; • Conception and production of promotional brochures, posters and other EPR products, in close collaboration with the Head of the Education and Public Relations Dept. of ESO Press Releases and various high-level publications, including the ESO Annual Report.

  13. Farewell editorial from the founding editors.

    PubMed

    Izatt, Joseph A; Faris, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The retiring Editor-in-Chief and Deputy Editor provide a brief retrospective of the first six volumes of Biomedical Optics Express, thank the Editorial Board and OSA professional staff, and endorse the new journal leadership and the continued support of the journal by the biomedical optics community. PMID:26819829

  14. Letter to Editor - "Reply to RP Heaney"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A letter to the editor was submitted in reply to a letter written to the editor of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition regarding a recent publication (Hunt, CD. and Johnson, LK. Calcium requirements: new estimations for men and women by cross-sectional statistical analyses of calcium balance...

  15. Linguistic Prescriptivism in Letters to the Editor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukac, Morana

    2016-01-01

    The public's concern with the fate of the standard language has been well documented in the history of the complaint tradition. The print media have for centuries featured letters to the editor on questions of language use. This study examines a corpus of 258 language-related letters to the editor published in the English-speaking print media. By…

  16. 2010 editors' citations for excellence in refereeing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-09-01

    The reviewers listed on these pages have been cited by editors of AGU journals for excellence in refereeing. The editors' citations recognize this special service to the Union. These individuals (photographs provided as available) are to be commended for consistently providing constructive and thoughtful reviews.

  17. 2011 editors' citations for excellence in refereeing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anonymous

    2012-10-01

    The reviewers listed below have been cited by editors of AGU journals for excellence in refereeing. The editors' citations recognize this special service to the Union, and these individuals (photographs provided as available) are to be commended for consistently providing constructive and thoughtful reviews.

  18. EDITORIAL: Message from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Plasmaphysik, Germany) V. Philipps (Forschungszentrum Juelich, Germany) S. Zweben (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, USA) Y. Hirano (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan) Y. Takase (Tokyo University, Japan) In addition there is a group of several hundred referees who have helped us in the past year to maintain the high scientific standard of Nuclear Fusion. At the end of this issue we give the full list of all referees for 2008. Our thanks to them! Authors The winner of the 2007 award was Clemente Angioni for the paper entitled `Density response to central electron heating: theoretical investigations and experimental observations in ASDEX Upgrade' (Nucl. Fusion 44 8277-845). The winner of the 2008 Nuclear Fusion award is Todd Evans et al for the paper `Suppression of large edge localized modes with edge resonant magnetic fields in high confinement DIII-D plasmas' (Nucl. Fusion 45 595-607). The awards were presented by the IAEA Deputy Director General, Werner Burkart, and the Chairman of the Board of Editors, Mitsuru Kikuchi, on 16 October 2008 at the 22nd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Geneva, Switzerland. Given the topicality of these papers for the ITER design, it is a matter of pride to the journal that the work should be published in Nuclear Fusion. Reviews Like many who have worked for a long time in the field, I still make use of Nuclear Fusion Reviews that go back 20 or 30 years. It is particularly useful, therefore, that the Board of Editors has been working to re-activate the review programme. The first fruits will appear in this issue, in the form of `A review of zonal flow experiments', by Akihide Fujisawa. The special procedures for Reviews should be noted: most specifically that they should normally be commissioned by the Board of Editors. However, not only is the Board of Editors working on a programme but I am sure that they would be pleased to consider suggestions for review subjects. Letters The reputation of Nuclear

  19. Editor's Choice Offered as a Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    2010-06-01

    Editor's Choice is now being offered as a service rather than on a subscription basis. As in the past, articles will be selected by collection editors with assistance from advisory panels. The selected articles will be listed on the AGU Web site (http://www.agu.org/pubs/journals/virtual/editors_choice/); these lists will be accessible to anyone. Those who are interested in reading the articles can access them through a personal or institutional subscription or can purchase them either individually or as part of a MultiChoice packet.

  20. Editor profile: Donald H. Eckhardt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    For Don Eckhardt, editor of AGU's Geodynamics book series, the scope of subjects appropriate for inclusion in the series is wide. “ The forces implied in the term ‘geodynamics’ operate on this planet on all scales and from the surface deep into the interior,” he says. The articles collected in the red volumes are often united, he suggests, by “an emphasis on common techniques as much as by subject matter.”Like the potential range of topics in the geodynamics series, the breadth of Eckhardt's professional responsibilities is large. As director of the Earth Sciences Division at the Air Force Geophysical Laboratory (AFGL) at Hanscom Air Force Base near Bedford, Mass., he oversees research and development in geodesy, gravity, seismology, geology, and dynamical astronomy. He administers more than 50 outside contracts while actively conducting theoretical and applied research of his own. In the past year, he has become well-known for his proposition that geophysical measurements made by an AFGL team demonstrate the existence and magnitude of two previously undetected fundamental forces in the universe, supplementing electromagnetism, the strong and weak nuclear forces, and Newtonian gravity.

  1. EDITORIAL: Letter from the Editor Letter from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashinin, Pavel P.

    2013-01-01

    Dear readers, contributors, and members of the world laser physics community. It is a great honour for us to introduce to you our new publishing partner, IOP Publishing, a subsidiary of the Institute of Physics, United Kingdom. IOP Publishing is a world renowned authority in producing journals, magazines, websites and services that enable researchers and research organizations to present their work to a world-wide audience. Laser Physics, the first English-language scientific journal in Russia, was founded in 1990 on the initiative of Alexander M Prokhorov, a pioneer and leader in laser physics research. Professor Prokhorov served as the first Editor-in-Chief of the journal until 2002. We are proud that it is our 23rd year of publishing Laser Physics and our 10th year of publishing Laser Physics Letters. We would like to honour the memory of our friend, late Professor Igor Yevseyev, whose enthusiasm and unwavering dedication to our journals contributed most significantly to their success. It was initially his idea in 2011 to approach IOP with a partnership proposal. We deeply regret that he is no longer with us as we enter this productive alliance. Now, in partnership with IOP, we are turning a new page in providing world-wide access to the cutting-edge research results in our journals, serving our well established global audience. We see new horizons opening for our journals for years to come and hope that our readers share our enthusiasm and aspirations. Please accept our best wishes for all your new scientific endeavors in the exciting field of laser physics.

  2. Sir William Wilde: an enlightened editor.

    PubMed

    O'Doherty, M

    2016-05-01

    This paper examines Sir William Wilde's peculiar genius as editor, his contribution to the Irish Journal of Medical Science in ensuring its endurance and making it a treasure-house of the history of medicine in Ireland. PMID:26969455

  3. Richard Gilbert, Reporter and Assistant City Editor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Larry

    1988-01-01

    Looks at the experiences of Richard Gilbert, reporter and assistant editor for "The Herald Telephone," a daily newspaper in Bloomington, Indiana, and discusses Gilbert's suggested guidelines for high school journalism advisers. (MS)

  4. 2012 Editors' Citations for Excellence in Refereeing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-09-01

    One of the most important services performed for AGU is the conscientious reviewing of submitted papers. Because of the nature of the reviewing process, this service is also one of the least recognized. Every year editors are asked to select the outstanding reviewers from the previous year. The reviewers listed below have been cited by editors of AGU journals and Eos for excellence in refereeing. These individuals are to be commended for consistently providing constructive and thoughtful reviews.

  5. 2013 Editors' Citations for Excellence in Refereeing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-06-01

    One of the most important services performed for AGU is the conscientious reviewing of submitted papers. Because of the nature of the reviewing process, this service is also one of the least recognized. Every year editors are asked to select the outstanding reviewers from the previous year. The reviewers listed below have been cited by editors of AGU journals and Eos for excellence in refereeing. These individuals are to be commended for consistently providing constructive and thoughtful reviews.

  6. DeviceEditor visual biological CAD canvas

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Biological Computer Aided Design (bioCAD) assists the de novo design and selection of existing genetic components to achieve a desired biological activity, as part of an integrated design-build-test cycle. To meet the emerging needs of Synthetic Biology, bioCAD tools must address the increasing prevalence of combinatorial library design, design rule specification, and scar-less multi-part DNA assembly. Results We report the development and deployment of web-based bioCAD software, DeviceEditor, which provides a graphical design environment that mimics the intuitive visual whiteboard design process practiced in biological laboratories. The key innovations of DeviceEditor include visual combinatorial library design, direct integration with scar-less multi-part DNA assembly design automation, and a graphical user interface for the creation and modification of design specification rules. We demonstrate how biological designs are rendered on the DeviceEditor canvas, and we present effective visualizations of genetic component ordering and combinatorial variations within complex designs. Conclusions DeviceEditor liberates researchers from DNA base-pair manipulation, and enables users to create successful prototypes using standardized, functional, and visual abstractions. Open and documented software interfaces support further integration of DeviceEditor with other bioCAD tools and software platforms. DeviceEditor saves researcher time and institutional resources through correct-by-construction design, the automation of tedious tasks, design reuse, and the minimization of DNA assembly costs. PMID:22373390

  7. EDITORIAL: Message from the Editor Message from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Board Members, Guest Editors of special editions and those referees who were already listed in the last years. The following people have been selected: Marina Becoulet, CEA Cadarache, France Russell Doerner, University of California - San Diego, USA Emiliano Fable, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Germany Akihide Fujisawa, Kyushi University, Japan Gerardo Giruzzi, CEA Cadarache, France Grigory Kagan, LANL, USA Morten Lennholm, CCFE, UK Akinobu Matsuyama, NIFS, Japan Peter Stangeby, University of Toronto, Canada Leonid Zakharov, PPPL, USA In addition, there is a group of several hundred referees who have helped us in the past year to maintain the high scientific standard of Nuclear Fusion. At the end of this issue we give the full list of all referees for 2011. Our thanks to them! Authors The winner of the 2011 Nuclear Fusion Award is H. Urano, for the paper 'Dimensionless parameter dependence of H-mode pedestal width using hydrogen and deuterium plasmas in JT-60U' (Nucl. Fusion 48 045008). The award was presented at the Plasma Conference 2011 (Joint meeting of 28th JSPF Annual Meeting, The 29th Symposium on Plasma Processing, and Division of Plasma Physics, 2011 Autumn Meeting of The Physical Society of Japan). This is the sixth year that the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has awarded an annual prize to honour exceptional work published in Nuclear Fusion. IOP Publishing has generously made a contribution of $2500 to the award. The Nuclear Fusion Electronic Archive The journal's electronic archive has been online since the beginning of the year. The archive has been a roaring success and has contributed to the nearly 300 000 downloads of journal papers in 2011. The archive can be accessed via http://iopscience.iop.org/0029-5515/page/Archive. It has direct links to 16 landmark papers, from authors such as Artsimovich and Mercier. The Nuclear Fusion office and IOP Publishing Just as the journal depends on the authors and referees, so its success is also

  8. Report of the editors, 2014.

    PubMed

    García Puig, J; Gaspar Alonso-Vega, G; Ríos Blanco, J J

    2015-01-01

    The editors of Revista Clínica Española(Rev Clin Esp) inform on their editorial activity during the last 12 months: (a) Objectives and attainments in 2014, (b) Editorial activity, 2014, and (c) 2013 impact factor. In 2014 we achieved the 5 planned objectives. We have published the 9 programmed issues and 103% of the planned papers according to the usual fixed sections. We emphasize the publication of 29 editorials, 21 of which are signed by prestigious foreign authors. From the first January to the 30th September 2014 we received 421 manuscripts (46.8 manuscripts per month), a slight lower figure to that obtained in 2013 (50.9 manuscripts per month). The acceptance rate of the 404 manuscripts whose editorial process has been concluded was 32.3% (originals, 22.4%). We asked for 315 revisions to 240 reviewers and we received 53.3% revisions in less than two weeks (10.4 days). The mean time to adopt an editorial decision for all manuscripts («accepted»/«rejected») has been 18,3 (less than half than in 2009). For «originals» this figure has dropped from 56,6 days in 2009 to 26.6 days in 2014. The mean time elapsed from manuscript reception to its on-line publication was 103 days. In 2014 the collaboration with the working groups from the Internal Medicine Spanish Foundation (FEMI) has reported 11 published manuscripts. In July 2014 we were informed that the Journal Citation Reports gave Rev Clin Esp an Impact Factor of 1,314 (year 2013). This Impact Factor without self-citations would have been 0.705 (in 2009 the global impact factor was 0,584). With the Editorial Committee farewell we welcome the new editorial team and we sincerely thank the SEMI Steering Committee, our colleagues, journal officers, reviewers, readers and authors that since 2009 have trusted on our editorial work. PMID:25441406

  9. [Report of the editors, 2013].

    PubMed

    García Puig, J; Gaspar Alonso-Vega, G; Ríos Blanco, J J

    2014-01-01

    The editors of Revista Clínica Española(Rev Clin Esp) inform on their editorial activity during the last 12 months: (a) objectives and attainments, (b) editorial activity, and (c) objectives for 2014. In 2013 the most relevant modification concerning the editorial activity has been the translation into English of the 5 manuscripts with abstract contained in each issue (http://www.revclinesp.es/). From the first January to the 30th September 2013 we received 458 manuscripts (50.9 manuscripts per month), a similar figure to that obtained in 2012 (51.1 manuscripts per month). The acceptance rate of the 443 manuscripts whose editorial process has been concluded was 23.7% (originals, 11.8%). We asked for 253 revisions to 186 reviewers and we received 74.4% revisions in less than 2 weeks (10.9 days). The mean time to adopt an editorial decision for all manuscripts («accepted»/«rejected») has been 20,3 (half than in 2009). For «originals» this figure has dropped from 56.6 days in 2009 to 22.5 days in 2013. The mean time elapsed from manuscript reception to its on-line publication was 94.8 days in 2013 (110.5 in 2012 and 155.8 in 2011). In 2013 the collaboration with the working groups from the Internal Medicine Spanish Foundation has reported 17 published manuscripts. In 2013 we were informed that the Journal Citation Reports excluded Rev Clin Esp from its impact factor journal list due to its elevated self-citations. We have taken a number of actions to reduce self-citations and we expect to be a minority in 2014. Some other data concerning the editorial policy are encouraging. In this sense, manuscript citation to Rev Clin Esp published articles has seen a substantial increase from 19% in 2008 to 29% in 2012. We work to achieve the digitalization of Rev Clin Esp from 1940 to 1999 (the journal is already digitalized since 2000). The continuous renewal of the journal sections and the working groups collaboration are necessary elements to make our journal, each day

  10. EDITORIAL: Letter from the Editor Letter from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauptmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Dear authors and reviewers of articles for Measurement Science and Technology, I would like to thank all those who have published papers with us in 2010, and special thanks go to those of you who have kindly reviewed articles for the journal. I would also like to take this opportunity to update you on some of the developments on the journal and look ahead to 2011. As many of you are no doubt aware, our impact factor (a measure of the average number of times recent papers are referred to by others) is currently 1.317. This is often taken as an indication of the quality and relevance of recently published research, and although as readers we develop our own instinct for journals of high quality, it is gratifying as an Editor to see the data from an independent organization (Thomson ISI) agreeing with my own assessment. Measurement Science and Technology is a journal with a broad scope covering new measurement techniques in all fields of science and engineering. I therefore find it particularly enjoyable to read summaries of recent research in our strong topical review programme as these cover many varied topics of interest. In 2010 several interesting articles by international leaders in their field were published, for example: Single-photon generation and detection, by G S Buller and R J Collins of Heriot-Watt University [1]. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy in life sciences, by Jan Willem Borst and Antonie J W G Visser, from the Microspectroscopy Centre of Wageningen University [2]. Biological and chemical sensors for cancer diagnosis, by Elfriede Simon of Siemens AG [3]. I hope that these articles, and the others published in 2010 and now in 2011, will provide a useful overview for our readers, and be helpful to new researchers. When speaking to young researchers I am particularly aware that having their articles published in a timely fashion is important, and I am pleased that our publication times are highly competitive, with most authors receiving a

  11. AGU Publications Volunteers Feted At Elegant Editors' Evening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panning, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    The 2012 Fall Meeting Editors' Evening, held at the City Club of San Francisco, was hosted by the Publications Committee and is the premier social event for editors and associate editors attending the Fall Meeting. The evening commenced with a welcome from Carol Finn, incoming AGU president, in which she expressed her thanks to the editors and associate editors for volunteering their time to benefit AGU.

  12. Writer/editor and the computer

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.R.

    1985-04-01

    When the computer entered the publications process it created almost seismic shocks all along the line of creation from authoring to editing to composing to layout and to printing. Authors and editors of scientific and engineering documents felt the impact in adverse as well as beneficial ways. In the tradiational system, the writer/editor took from an author a manuscript and, using the powers of wordsmithing and the knowledge of the publications process, created a finished document using nothing more sophisticated than a red pencil for the mechanical process. Once the computer entered the scene, the writer/editor had to learn different hardware systems, try to keep up with the software explosion, and fight against a rising fear that a machine was going to take over. Fortunately, an innate flexibility and specialized knowledge of how to get a document into the best form for its specific audience guaranteed the writer/editor's survival, although there is still a long way to go in this transition phase from red pencil to VDT. This paper reviews the experiences of writer/editors in one scientific laboratory, experiences that typify challenges the forward-moving manager of a technical document production system can expect to encounter.

  13. EDITORIAL: Letter from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauptmann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Dear authors and reviewers of articles for Measurement Science and Technology, I would like to thank all those who have published papers with us in 2007, and special thanks go to those of you who have kindly reviewed articles for the journal this year. I would also like to take this opportunity to update you on some of the developments on the journal. As many of you are no doubt aware, our latest impact factor (a measure of the average number of times recent papers are referred to by others) has risen to 1.228. This is often taken as an indication of the quality and relevance of recently published research, and although as readers we develop our own instinct for journals of high quality, it is gratifying as an Editor to see the data from an independent organization agreeing with my own assessment. The popularity of the journal amongst authors and readers has prompted us to introduce a new subject classification for articles, to make it easier for readers to find articles of interest. The eight subject categories are: Measurement theory and practical developments (e.g. precision measurements, metrology, new measurement principles, signal processing techniques, theory of measurement, calibration); Sensors and sensing systems (based on physical, chemical or biological principles; micro- and nano-scale systems; sensors for physical, chemical and biological quantities); Optical and laser based techniques (e.g. fibre optics, interferometry, etc); Fluid mechanics measurements (e.g. fluid flow, velocimetry, particle sizing, etc); Imaging techniques (e.g. tomography, microscopy, holography, THz, etc); Spectroscopy (e.g. optical, acoustic, dielectric, MS, NMR, ESR, IR, UV-VIS, fluorescence, PCS, x-ray, etc); New and improved techniques for materials evaluation (e.g. non-destructive testing and evaluation, structural measurements); Novel instrumentation. We kindly ask you to assign your paper to a category when you send it to the journal. In order to maintain our rapid

  14. EDITORIAL: Letter from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauptmann, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Marella de Angelis and her colleagues on precision gravimetry using atomic sensors and from Dr Peter Becker on determination of the Avogadro constant via enriched silicon-28. I recommend setting up a free e-mail alert so that you can read them as soon as they are published! As many of you are already aware, our impact factor (a measure of the average number of times recent papers are referred to by others) has risen again to 1.297. This is often taken as an indication of the quality and relevance of recently published research, and although as readers we develop our own instinct for journals of high quality, it is gratifying as an Editor to see the data from an independent organization (Thomson ISI) agreeing with my own assessment. Of course the publication of high quality articles in the journal is dependent both on you the authors who trust us with the publication of your best work and on our referees and Editorial Board Members who we depend on to maintain the high standards you have grown to expect. I must also thank our referees for their rapid response when asked to review papers for Measurement Science and Technology. On average, authors receive a decision on their article in 45 days. Therefore I would like to end this message by saying thank you again to all those who have contributed to our success in the past year, and wish you all the best for a successful 2009!

  15. Panel Discussion With PR/PRL Editors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blume, Martin

    2002-03-01

    Panelists: Peter Adams, Physical Review B Irwin Oppenheim, Physical Review E & Massachsetts Institute of Technology Jack Sandweiss, Physical Review Letters & Yale University Reinhardt Schuhmann, Physical Review Letters The panel will include Editors from Physical Review Letters, Physical Review B, and Physical Review E. They will briefly discuss some current issues facing the journals, such as raising the standards for PRL acceptance and the role of electronic media attachments (e.g., movies) to journal articles. Opinions on these issues from the audience will be solicited. The Editors will also respond to questions and comments from the audience.

  16. EDITORIAL: Letter from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauptmann, Peter

    2006-12-01

    Dear authors and reviewers of articles for Measurement Science and Technology, I would like to thank all those who have published papers with us in 2006, and special thanks go to those of you who have kindly reviewed articles for the journal this year. I would also like to take this opportunity to update you on some of the developments on the journal this year. As many of you are no doubt aware our impact factor (a measure of the average number of times recent papers are referred to by others) has remained above 1 for the second year in a row. This is often taken as an indication of the quality and relevance of recently published research, and although as readers we develop our own instinct for journals of high quality, it is gratifying as an Editor to see the data from an independent organization agreeing with my own assessment. This year we have welcomed several new faces to our Editorial Board and International Advisory Board. We are delighted to welcome Professor Hirofumi Yamada of the University of Kyoto as a representative from Japan. From China we have been joined by Professor Xuzong Chen of Peking University and Professor Zhiyi Wei of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing. Professor Ivan Marusic from University of Minnesota and Dr Paul Williams of the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder have joined as North American representatives. As usual you will be able to submit your articles through them or direct to the Editorial Office in Bristol, UK. As part of our ongoing initiative to give our authors' work the highest visibility, all articles are freely available online for 30 days from the date of publication, allowing all researchers to read and view the latest research as soon as it is published, and this year there have been many interesting articles to read! As regular readers are aware, Measurement Science and Technology publishes special issues and features, which highlight an area of current interest. This year's topics included

  17. Open Simulation Laboratories [Guest editors' introduction

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Alexander, Francis J.; Meneveau, Charles

    2015-09-01

    The introduction for the special issue on open simulation laboratories, the guest editors describe how OSLs will become more common as their potential is better understood and they begin providing access to valuable datasets to much larger segments of the scientific community. Moreover, new analysis tools and ways to do science will inevitably develop as a result.

  18. A Visual Editor in Java for View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansifer, Ryan

    2000-01-01

    In this project we continued the development of a visual editor in the Java programming language to create screens on which to display real-time data. The data comes from the numerous systems monitoring the operation of the space shuttle while on the ground and in space, and from the many tests of subsystems. The data can be displayed on any computer platform running a Java-enabled World Wide Web (WWW) browser and connected to the Internet. Previously a special-purpose program bad been written to display data on emulations of character-based display screens used for many years at NASA. The goal now is to display bit-mapped screens created by a visual editor. We report here on the visual editor that creates the display screens. This project continues the work we bad done previously. Previously we had followed the design of the 'beanbox,' a prototype visual editor created by Sun Microsystems. We abandoned this approach and implemented a prototype using a more direct approach. In addition, our prototype is based on newly released Java 2 graphical user interface (GUI) libraries. The result has been a visually more appealing appearance and a more robust application.

  19. Are Editors Out of the Tenure Process?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    University presses have complained for years that tenure committees unfairly expect their editors to be arbiters of what counts as tenure-worthy work. At the same time, the presses have been caught in a business-side squeeze between dwindling sales (and shrinking subsidies) and the ever-greater pressure on scholars to publish. In this article, the…

  20. Women's Page Editors: Self-Perceived Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Won; And Others

    The focal points of this study are the role perceptions and the environments of women's page editors from daily and weekly newspapers across the United States. In the role perception areas, equal rights, discrimination, and the role of women in journalism are examined. Salaries, education, college major and minor, and years in the profession are…

  1. Editors' Ability and Willingness to Work Effectively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Julie

    1978-01-01

    Suggests that student editors know their jobs, set a good example for the staff, have regular staff meetings, make assignments clear, not "hog" good assignments, be available to the staff, help the staff learn to rewrite, attend all staff or editorial board meetings, and accept decisions of the board. (TJ)

  2. 2009 Editors' Citations for Excellence in Refereeing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-09-01

    The reviewers listed on these pages have been cited by editors of AGU journals for excellence in refereeing. The editors’ citations recognize this special service to the Union. These individuals (photographs provided as available) are commended for consistently providing constructive and thoughtful reviews.

  3. OPM Scheme Editor 2: A graphical editor for specifying object-protocol structures

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, I-Min A.; Markowitz, V.M.; Pang, F.; Ben-Shachar, O.

    1993-07-01

    This document describes an X-window based Schema Editor for the Object-Protocol Model (OPM). OPM is a data model that supports the specification of complex object and protocol classes. objects and protocols are qualified in OPM by attributes that are defined over (associated with) value classes. Connections of object and protocol classes are expressed in OPM via attributes. OPM supports the specification (expansion) of protocols in terms of alternative and sequences of component (sub) protocols. The OPM Schema Editor allows specifying, displaying, modifying, and browsing through OPM schemas. The OPM Schema Editor generates an output file that can be used as input to an OPM schema translation tool that maps OPM schemas into definitions for relational database management systems. The OPM Schema Editor was implemented using C++ and the X11 based Motif toolkit, on Sun SPARCstation under Sun Unix OS 4.1. This document consists of the following parts: (1) A tutorial consisting of seven introductory lessons for the OPM Schema Editor. (2) A reference manual describing all the windows and functions of the OPM Schema Editor. (3) An appendix with an overview of OPM.

  4. From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-04-01

    From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    Dear Colleagues: There has been a significant increase in the number of duplicate submissions and plagiarism cases reported in all major journals, including the journals of the Optical Society of America. Duplicate submissions and plagiarism can take many forms, and all of them are violations of professional ethics, the copyright agreement that an author signs along with the submission of a paper, and OSA's published Author Guidelines. There must be a significant component of new science for a paper to be publishable. The copying of large segments of text from previously published or in-press papers with only minor cosmetic changes is not acceptable and can lead to the rejection of papers. Duplicate submission: Duplicate submission is the most common ethics violation encountered. Duplicate submission is the submission of substantially similar papers to more than one journal. There is a misperception in a small fraction of the scientific community that duplicate submission is acceptable because it sometimes takes a long time to get a paper reviewed and because one of the papers can be withdrawn at any time. This is a clear violation of professional ethics and of the copyright agreement that is signed on submission. Duplicate submission harms the whole community because editors and reviewers waste their time and in the process compound the time it takes to get a paper reviewed for all authors. In cases of duplicate submission, the Editor of the affected OSA journal will consult with the Editor of the other journal involved to determine the proper course of action. Often that action will be the rejection of both papers. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is a serious breach of ethics and is defined as the substantial replication, without attribution, of significant elements of another document already published by the same or other authors. Two types of plagiarism can occur

  5. Editor and Student Views on the Censorship Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raburn, Josephine

    Out of 200 newspaper editors randomly selected from a directory, 64 responded to a questionnaire eliciting their opinions on the subject materials most often censored by groups in the United States. The editors' responses were compared to those of 121 freshmen at Cameron University (Oklahoma). A majority of the editors supported the First…

  6. Science, Politics, and Peer Review: An Editor's Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Describes the controversy that arose over an editor's decision to overrule an ad hoc action editor's acceptance of a journal article and request for additional changes to the manuscript. This controversy played out in various Internet discussion groups. Presents the editor's perspective, highlighting the need to protect the integrity and…

  7. Millard coffin is appointed Eos Tectonophysics editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millard F. Coffin, of the University of Texas Institute for Geophysics (UTIG), has been named the Tectonophysics Editor of Eos for a term extending through 1998. He succeeds Louise Kellogg of the University of California-Davis.Recently, Coffin completed a term as associate editor for the solid Earth section of the Journal of Geophysical Research, and is looking forward to the move from a monthly to a weekly publication. His goal is are to serve the entire tectonophysics community, encompassing marine, terrestrial, and planetary research, through timely and frequent news items, a vigorous idea and results forum, and occasional review articles. He believes that the communication among field workers, experimentalists, and modelers afforded by Eos will benefit tectonophysicists strongly as well as effectively convey tectonophysics results to a broader audience.

  8. Evolutionary theory in letters to the editor.

    PubMed

    Silva, Eric Orion; Lowe, Clayton Cory

    2015-05-01

    This research note presents the results of a content analysis of 234 letters to the editors that discuss evolutionary theory and were published in American newspapers. We find that letters to the editor both support and hinder the cause of teaching evolutionary theory in American secondary schools. On the one hand, anti-evolutionary theory messages are marginalized in the letters section. This marginalization signals a low level of legitimacy for creationism. It might also contribute to the sense of tension that sustains creationist identities. On the other hand, relatively few letters explicitly note the fact that scientists or the scientific community accept evolution. Interestingly, the obscuration of the scientific community's support for evolutionary theory occurs both in letters supporting and opposing evolutionary theory. PMID:25540333

  9. From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-05-01

    Dear Colleagues: There has been a significant increase in the number of duplicate submissions and plagiarism cases reported in all major journals, including the journals of the Optical Society of America. Duplicate submissions and plagiarism can take many forms, and all of them are violations of professional ethics, the copyright agreement that an author signs along with the submission of a paper, and OSA's published Author Guidelines. There must be a significant component of new science for a paper to be publishable. The copying of large segments of text from previously published or in-press papers with only minor cosmetic changes is not acceptable and can lead to the rejection of papers. Duplicate submission: Duplicate submission is the most common ethics violation encountered. Duplicate submission is the submission of substantially similar papers to more than one journal. There is a misperception in a small fraction of the scientific community that duplicate submission is acceptable because it sometimes takes a long time to get a paper reviewed and because one of the papers can be withdrawn at any time. This is a clear violation of professional ethics and of the copyright agreement that is signed on submission. Duplicate submission harms the whole community because editors and reviewers waste their time and in the process compound the time it takes to get a paper reviewed for all authors. In cases of duplicate submission, the Editor of the affected OSA journal will consult with the Editor of the other journal involved to determine the proper course of action. Often that action will be the rejection of both papers. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is a serious breach of ethics and is defined as the substantial replication, without attribution, of significant elements of another document already published by the same or other authors. Two types of plagiarism can occur-self-plagiarism and plagiarism from others' works. Self-plagiarism is the publication of substantially

  10. Four are named Editors of Earth Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eric J. Barron of the Earth System Science Center at The Pennsylvania State University has been named chief editor of the new electronic journal, Earth Interactions. This journal will be co-published by AGU, the American Meteorological Society, and the Association of American Geographers. The three societies jointly agreed on the appointment of Barron. Each of the societies also appointed an editor to the board. George F. Hepner for AAG is from the Department of Geography at the University of Utah, David T. Sandwell for AGU is at the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, and Kevin E. Trenberth for AMS is at the Climate and Global Dynamics Division at the National Center for Atmospheric Research.

  11. New “Editor's choice”: Online journals debut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Stephen

    With all AGU journal articles now published online in advance of the printed journal, AGU members have new options, in terms of how they access the latest research results. An innovative option for those with specific research interests that are covered in several journals is the " Editor's Choice" virtual journal. The first two "Editor's Choice" journals—Biogeosciences and Atmospheric Electricity— debuted in January and are, for a limited time, freely accessible to members on the AGU Web site.An "Editor's Choice" virtual journal is a collection of electronic articles recently published by AGU that have been specially selected for their relevance to a particular topic area. Everett Shock of Washington University St. Louis, is serving as the Collection Editor for "Editor's Choice: Biogeosciences." The "Editor's Choice: Atmospheric Electricity" Collection Editor is Richard E. Orville of Texas A&M University College Station, who is being assisted by advisors David Sentman, University of Alaska, and Vladimir Rakov, University of Florida.

  12. From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-04-01

    From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    Dear Colleagues: There has been a significant increase in the number of duplicate submissions and plagiarism cases reported in all major journals, including the journals of the Optical Society of America. Duplicate submissions and plagiarism can take many forms, and all of them are violations of professional ethics, the copyright agreement that an author signs along with the submission of a paper, and OSA's published Author Guidelines. There must be a significant component of new science for a paper to be publishable. The copying of large segments of text from previously published or in-press papers with only minor cosmetic changes is not acceptable and can lead to the rejection of papers. Duplicate submission: Duplicate submission is the most common ethics violation encountered. Duplicate submission is the submission of substantially similar papers to more than one journal. There is a misperception in a small fraction of the scientific community that duplicate submission is acceptable because it sometimes takes a long time to get a paper reviewed and because one of the papers can be withdrawn at any time. This is a clear violation of professional ethics and of the copyright agreement that is signed on submission. Duplicate submission harms the whole community because editors and reviewers waste their time and in the process compound the time it takes to get a paper reviewed for all authors. In cases of duplicate submission, the Editor of the affected OSA journal will consult with the Editor of the other journal involved to determine the proper course of action. Often that action will be the rejection of both papers. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is a serious breach of ethics and is defined as the substantial replication, without attribution, of significant elements of another document already published by the same or other authors. Two types of plagiarism can occur

  13. MPS Editor - An Integrated Sequencing Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streiffert, Barbara A.; O'Reilly, Taifun; Schrock, Mitchell; Catchen, Jaime

    2010-01-01

    In today's operations environment, the teams are smaller and need to be more efficient while still ensuring the safety and success of the mission. In addition, teams often begin working on a mission in its early development phases and continue on the team through actual operations. For these reasons the operations teams want to be presented with a software environment that integrates multiple needed software applications as well as providing them with context sensitive editing support for entering commands and sequences of commands. At Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Multi-Mission Planning and Sequencing (MPS) Editor provided by the Multi-Mission Ground Systems and Services (MGSS) supports those operational needs.

  14. From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    Dear Colleagues: There has been a significant increase in the number of duplicate submissions and plagiarism cases reported in all major journals, including the journals of the Optical Society of America. Duplicate submissions and plagiarism can take many forms, and all of them are violations of professional ethics, the copyright agreement that an author signs along with the submission of a paper, and OSA's published Author Guidelines. There must be a significant component of new science for a paper to be publishable. The copying of large segments of text from previously published or in-press papers with only minor cosmetic changes is not acceptable and can lead to the rejection of papers. Duplicate submission is the most common ethics violation encountered. Duplicate submission is the submission of substantially similar papers to more than one journal. There is a misperception in a small fraction of the scientific community that duplicate submission is acceptable because it sometimes takes a long time to get a paper reviewed and because one of the papers can be withdrawn at any time. This is a clear violation of professional ethics and of the copyright agreement that is signed on submission. Duplicate submission harms the whole community because editors and reviewers waste their time and in the process compound the time it takes to get a paper reviewed for all authors. In cases of duplicate submission, the Editor of the affected OSA journal will consult with the Editor of the other journal involved to determine the proper course of action. Often that action will be the rejection of both papers. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is a serious breach of ethics and is defined as the substantial replication, without attribution, of significant elements of another document already published by the same or other authors. Two types of plagiarism can occur-self-plagiarism and plagiarism from others' works. Self-plagiarism is the publication of substantially similar scientific content

  15. A Tisket, A Tasket--Out of the Editor's Basket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Kathryn R.

    2001-05-01

    In September 1940, the Journal introduced Out of the Editor's Basket for short items of interest: excerpts from letters, pamphlets, newspapers, and periodicals. By 1950, however, the Editor's Basket had evolved into a bulletin board for descriptions of new products and services, and it now contains almost exclusively press releases about recently marketed items. Now over 60 years old, the Editor's Basket still provides interesting tidbits for the Journal's broad readership.

  16. From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-05-01

    Dear Colleagues: There has been a significant increase in the number of duplicate submissions and plagiarism cases reported in all major journals, including the journals of the Optical Society of America. Duplicate submissions and plagiarism can take many forms, and all of them are violations of professional ethics, the copyright agreement that an author signs along with the submission of a paper, and OSA's published Author Guidelines. There must be a significant component of new science for a paper to be publishable. The copying of large segments of text from previously published or in-press papers with only minor cosmetic changes is not acceptable and can lead to the rejection of papers. Duplicate submission: Duplicate submission is the most common ethics violation encountered. Duplicate submission is the submission of substantially similar papers to more than one journal. There is a misperception in a small fraction of the scientific community that duplicate submission is acceptable because it sometimes takes a long time to get a paper reviewed and because one of the papers can be withdrawn at any time. This is a clear violation of professional ethics and of the copyright agreement that is signed on submission. Duplicate submission harms the whole community because editors and reviewers waste their time and in the process compound the time it takes to get a paper reviewed for all authors. In cases of duplicate submission, the Editor of the affected OSA journal will consult with the Editor of the other journal involved to determine the proper course of action. Often that action will be the rejection of both papers. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is a serious breach of ethics and is defined as the substantial replication, without attribution, of significant elements of another document already published by the same or other authors. Two types of plagiarism can occur-self-plagiarism and plagiarism from others' works. Self-plagiarism is the publication of substantially

  17. From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-04-01

    Dear Colleagues: There has been a significant increase in the number of duplicate submissions and plagiarism cases reported in all major journals, including the journals of the Optical Society of America. Duplicate submissions and plagiarism can take many forms, and all of them are violations of professional ethics, the copyright agreement that an author signs along with the submission of a paper, and OSA's published Author Guidelines. There must be a significant component of new science for a paper to be publishable. The copying of large segments of text from previously published or in-press papers with only minor cosmetic changes is not acceptable and can lead to the rejection of papers. Duplicate submission: Duplicate submission is the most common ethics violation encountered. Duplicate submission is the submission of substantially similar papers to more than one journal. There is a misperception in a small fraction of the scientific community that duplicate submission is acceptable because it sometimes takes a long time to get a paper reviewed and because one of the papers can be withdrawn at any time. This is a clear violation of professional ethics and of the copyright agreement that is signed on submission. Duplicate submission harms the whole community because editors and reviewers waste their time and in the process compound the time it takes to get a paper reviewed for all authors. In cases of duplicate submission, the Editor of the affected OSA journal will consult with the Editor of the other journal involved to determine the proper course of action. Often that action will be the rejection of both papers. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is a serious breach of ethics and is defined as the substantial replication, without attribution, of significant elements of another document already published by the same or other authors. Two types of plagiarism can occur-self-plagiarism and plagiarism from others' works. Self-plagiarism is the publication of substantially

  18. Information Scientists: Between Editors and Data Centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouty, M.; Woelfel, F.; Bruneau, C.; Brunet, C.; Claude, H.; Dubois, P.; Eisele, A.; Genova, F.; Lesteven, S.; Neuville, M.; Ochsenbein, F.; Perret, E.; Vannier, P.; Vonflie, P.; Chassagnard, G.

    2010-10-01

    Since the emergence of electronic publications in the early 1990s, astronomy has played a pioneering role in the development and implementation of new capabilities and services. As a data center, the CDS contributed significantly to this evolution: a synergy between data centers and journal editors started in the 1990s with the publication of large tables and data sets in electronic form and contributed to an efficient linking of publications with existing databases like SIMBAD or NED. This collaborative work, carried out in practice by information scientists, illustrates a new role for us who now have to deal with both editor and database requirements. After a short description of the CDS, we present our peculiar responsibilities related to the publication process: ensuring, prior to publication, that the link from selected objects quoted by the authors in their papers to the SIMBAD database is correct and maintained in the long term, that the tables and their complete descriptions are accessible through VizieR, and that the data and bibliography are correctly entered in SIMBAD. The Dictionary of Nomenclature, which plays an important role in these procedures, is briefly presented. Finally, the skills we developed for these activities are shortly discussed.

  19. EDITORIAL: Incoming Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidström, Suzanne

    2012-04-01

    When Professor Anders Bárány took over as the Executive Editor of Physica Scripta, in 1986, he talked of his trepidation at having to 'dress himself' in his predecessor's 'editorial coveralls'. At that time, they had been worn by Professor Nils Robert Nilsson, a major figure in the physics community, for almost 20 years. Just one year prior to this, Professor Roger Wäppling had been recruited to the position of Subeditor in conjunction with a decision to expand the number of contributions in the field of condensed matter physics, to turn it into one of the dominant subjects in the broad-based journal. Physica Scripta had already gained a reputation for being a high quality journal with wide coverage of both experimental and theoretical physics. Interestingly, in the mid 1980s, the number of papers submitted had been growing and an impressive 250 submissions per year had been attained, with all of the manuscripts being handled in-house. Not many miles away in the town of Uppsala, a group of English students was stepping off a train on a magnificent snowy day in January to embark on their final year projects. A couple of us enjoyed ourselves so much that we stayed on afterwards as PhD students, thereby encountering the mixed pleasure of studying physics in a second language for the first time. I used to copy the notes down meticulously in Swedish, then try to work backwards with a textbook to improve my language skills. One day, returning from a particularly incomprehensible lecture on solid state physics, I showed my roommates my notes and asked if they could please explain what the lecture had been about: 'I don't know', they replied, 'but this bit is about sheep!' Meanwhile, back at Physica Scripta, the journal continued to flourish: 400 submissions were received in 1996, and the march of progress was well underway. Manuscripts could now be sent in on disks and Physica Scripta was available on the World Wide Web. Roger was appointed to manage the journal and

  20. John F. Dewey—Tectonics Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    ‘I want the journal to acquire a reputation for very rapid, fair, and accurate reviewing,’ asserted John F. Dewey, editor-in-chief of AGU's newest journal, Tectonics. Dewey said that he will rule the bimonthly, which will begin publication in February, ‘with a bit of a rod of iron’ to ensure that Tectonics is ‘where only original and important papers are published.’‘I'm going to be very strict with reviewers,’ Dewey explained in his quick British clip. ‘If the review does not come back to me within 10 days to 2 weeks, I'll review the paper myself. I'm also going to have a system whereby, if a paper needs major surgery after being refereed, it will be rejected. Papers will have to be in virtually publishable condition before they are first submitted,’ he said.

  1. The RAE and Publications: A Review of Journal Editors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talib, Ameen Ali

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed editors of academic journals about publication issues related to Britain's Research Assessment Exercise (RAE), a process of grading and funding universities based on published research output. Editors were asked about research quality and output, publication practices, academics' willingness to referee manuscripts, and proliferation of…

  2. How Newspaper Editors Reacted to "Post's" Pulitzer Prize Hoax.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Douglas A.

    1982-01-01

    Reports the findings of a nationwide survey of newspaper editors, revealing that most thought that the Janet Cooke hoax had been poorly handled by the "Washington Post." Notes that most of the editors said their newspapers had systems of review for stories coming from anonymous sources. (FL)

  3. Peer reviews and the role of a journal editor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obtaining peer reviews for manuscripts submitted to scientific journals is becoming increasingly difficult. Changes to the system are necessary, and editors must cultivate and maintain a solid base of reviewers to help evaluate journal submissions. This article outlines some steps editors can and sh...

  4. Editors and author resource centers actively used by attendees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Major, Barbara

    2012-02-01

    At the 2011 Fall Meeting, as in previous years, the Editors Resource Center located on the second floor of Moscone West was buzzing with activity: editors talking with other editors, collaborating with associate editors, speaking with authors, and meeting with students. In addition, several editors took part in "Meet the Editor" informal sessions, a new feature introduced for the 2011 meeting to strengthen the partnership between authors and editors. The map "Where are you from?" (see photo), outside the Editors Resource Center, drew the attention of many attendees who were eager to place their colored dots on the map. The Author Resource Center, located in the AGU Marketplace, became a hub for AGU veteran authors and potential authors alike. Staff were there to answer both editorial and technical questions, especially the most frequent one: What happens after my paper is accepted? The running slideshow that described all aspects of the AGU publications program sparked a myriad of questions, which AGU staff were happy to answer.

  5. Advisers, Editors and Principals Judge First Amendment Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broussard, E. Joseph; Blackmon, C. Robert

    1978-01-01

    A test of the knowledge of 378 high school publications advisers, editors, and principals regarding First Amendment rights revealed that advisers had the most knowledge, followed by editors and then by principals. Characteristics of the most knowledgeable advisers were then identified. (GT)

  6. Technical Writing Style: Preferences of Scientists, Editors, and Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnellan, LaRae M.

    To determine whether scientists and science students would accept a simplified writing style, two studies were conducted. In the first study, respondents--1,089 scientists from agricultural experiment stations, 20 station editors, and 59 editors of scientific journals--answered a questionnaire requesting biographical information and reactions to a…

  7. Journal Editor Perceptions of Universities: Some Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainardes, Emerson Wagner; Raposo, Mario; Alves, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Out of considerations as to the importance of university relationships with their various stakeholders, the primary objective of this research project was to identify the perceptions of academic journal editors regarding universities. Editors were asked to provide their perceptions on: (a) the relevance of universities to academic publications;…

  8. Academic Degradation and the Retreat of the Editors: Academic Irregularities and the Spreading of Academic Corruption from an Editor's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xun, Gong

    2007-01-01

    Against the backdrop of the grave academic crisis in China, editors have become the objects of wooing, favor-currying, connections-seeking, and collusions; they have been targeted for attacks, plots, extortions, and encroachments. Editing and publishing have become avenues for academic irregularities and academic corruption. Editors have the power…

  9. EDITORIAL: Incoming Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidström, Suzanne

    2012-04-01

    When Professor Anders Bárány took over as the Executive Editor of Physica Scripta, in 1986, he talked of his trepidation at having to 'dress himself' in his predecessor's 'editorial coveralls'. At that time, they had been worn by Professor Nils Robert Nilsson, a major figure in the physics community, for almost 20 years. Just one year prior to this, Professor Roger Wäppling had been recruited to the position of Subeditor in conjunction with a decision to expand the number of contributions in the field of condensed matter physics, to turn it into one of the dominant subjects in the broad-based journal. Physica Scripta had already gained a reputation for being a high quality journal with wide coverage of both experimental and theoretical physics. Interestingly, in the mid 1980s, the number of papers submitted had been growing and an impressive 250 submissions per year had been attained, with all of the manuscripts being handled in-house. Not many miles away in the town of Uppsala, a group of English students was stepping off a train on a magnificent snowy day in January to embark on their final year projects. A couple of us enjoyed ourselves so much that we stayed on afterwards as PhD students, thereby encountering the mixed pleasure of studying physics in a second language for the first time. I used to copy the notes down meticulously in Swedish, then try to work backwards with a textbook to improve my language skills. One day, returning from a particularly incomprehensible lecture on solid state physics, I showed my roommates my notes and asked if they could please explain what the lecture had been about: 'I don't know', they replied, 'but this bit is about sheep!' Meanwhile, back at Physica Scripta, the journal continued to flourish: 400 submissions were received in 1996, and the march of progress was well underway. Manuscripts could now be sent in on disks and Physica Scripta was available on the World Wide Web. Roger was appointed to manage the journal and

  10. Martin Stutzmann: Editor, Teacher, Scientist and Friend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, Manuel

    2005-03-01

    On 2 January 1995 Martin Stutzmann became Editor-in-Chief of physica status solidi, replacing Professor E. Gutsche, who had led the journal through the stormy period involving the fall of the Iron Curtain, the unification of Germany and the change in its Eastern part, where physica status solidi was based, from socialism as found in the real world (a German concept) to real world capitalism. In 1995 it was thought that the process had been completed (we should have known better!) and after the retirement of Prof. Gutsche the new owners of physica status solidi (Wiley-VCH) decided that a change in scientific management was desirable to adapt to the new socio-political facts and to insure the scientific continuity of the journal.Martin had moved in 1993 from my department at the Max-Planck-Institute to Munich where he soon displayed a tremendous amount of science man- agement ability during the build-up of the Walter Schottky Institute. The search for a successor as Edi- tor-in-Chief was not easy: the job was not very glamorous after the upheavals which had taken place in the editorial world following the political changes. Somebody in the Editorial Boards must have suggested Martin Stutzmann. I am sure that there was opposition: one usually looks for a well-established person ready to leave his direct involvement in science and take up a new endeavor of a more administrative nature. Nevertheless, the powers that be soon realized that Martin was an excellent, if somewhat unconventional candidate who had enough energy to remain a topnotch scientist and to lead the journal in the difficult times ahead: he was offered the job. In the negotiations that followed, he insisted in getting the administrative structures that would allow him to improve the battered quality of the journal and to continue his scientific productivity. Today we are happy to see that he succeeded in both endeavors. The journal has since grown in size and considerably improved its quality

  11. A Python-based IRAF Task Parameter Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Peña, M. D.

    As part of the development of a new Python-based CL for IRAF tasks by the Science Software Group at STScI, we have developed a GUI-based parameter editor for IRAF tasks using Tkinter. This new parameter editor is intended to provide the equivalent functionality of the IRAF EPAR task, but to make parameter editing easier by using appropriate user interface elements, such as menu choice lists, action buttons, and file browsers. This paper describes the design and functionality of the parameter editor as well as planned enhancements.

  12. Retirement of J. Gary Eden as Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagadish, Chennupati; Jelinkova, Helena; Fainman, Yeshaiahu; Dawson, Martin; Ermers, Ysabel

    2016-01-01

    After nine years of dedicated service as Editor-in-Chief of Progress in Quantum Electronics (PQE), J. Gary Eden has retired at the end of December 2015. During his term as the Editor-in-Chief, PQE has grown significantly in size and quality and he has given generously of his time in advising authors, referees, editors, and the journal staff. Gary is an exceptional scientist and a generous individual who has given so much to the community. He is always very positive in every situation, and has created positive environment and supported people with utmost enthusiasm.

  13. Team of three JGR-Space Physics editors appointed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Three editors from the United States, Europe, and Asia have been appointed to lead JGR-Space Physics into the new millennium. This new team will recognize and foster the substantial contributions that scientists from the international community make to the journal. Janet Luhmann, a Senior Fellow at the Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, will serve as Senior Editor. Luhmann will play a coordinating role for the regional editors, which will be especially important as the Union moves into electronic publishing and adopts new ways of using the technology to publish research findings.

  14. EDITORIAL: Incoming Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB) is a journal that originated in the UK but is now rightly regarded as one of the pre-eminent international journals for the publication of material coming within its remit. It is 50 years old and its maturity is an outcome of the consistent support of high performing authors, a supportive and professional publishing house, dedicated referees, many vigorous and conscientious editorial boards and the collective input of the 10 previous Editors as listed in his incoming editorial (January 2000 issue) by the retiring Editor, Professor Alun Beddoe. The scientific climate and it associated publication modus operandi in the 1950s was very different from that at the current time and the journal has evolved to reflect this. Hence today the scope of content is somewhat broader, the size of the journal is vastly greater, the whole publication process is slicker and more efficient and a paper in PMB is highly prized by its authors and those who look to quality factors and impact. The quality of the journal still relies on the voluntary labour and expertise of its busy international referees and Board members. For many years I have tried to place my own research material in PMB and encourage my teams to do likewise, not only acknowledging the prestige of the journal but also because of the extraordinarily fast turnaround time of all the processes without any loss of quality. This serves us very well and the publishing team are to be congratulated. Some things seem to change more slowly or not at all, however. The prediction, when I started my research career, that books and journals would be dinosaurs by now has manifestly not come true and, whilst most of us are addicted (and why not?) to the electronic ways of doing things that can be done by more traditional ways, PMB and a packet of reprints from time to time arriving by post still has a reassuring feel despite the fact that the papers have been `on-line' for a while before. An incoming

  15. ESDAPT - APT PROGRAMMING EDITOR AND INTERPRETER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premack, T.

    1994-01-01

    ESDAPT is a graphical programming environment for developing APT (Automatically Programmed Tool) programs for controlling numerically controlled machine tools. ESDAPT has a graphical user interface that provides the user with an APT syntax sensitive text editor and windows for displaying geometry and tool paths. APT geometry statement can also be created using menus and screen picks. ESDAPT interprets APT geometry statements and displays the results in its view windows. Tool paths are generated by batching the APT source to an APT processor (COSMIC P-APT recommended). The tool paths are then displayed in the view windows. Hardcopy output of the view windows is in color PostScript format. ESDAPT is written in C-language, yacc, lex, and XView for use on Sun4 series computers running SunOS. ESDAPT requires 4Mb of disk space, 7Mb of RAM, and MIT's X Window System, Version 11 Release 4, or OpenWindows version 3 for execution. Program documentation in PostScript format and an executable for OpenWindows version 3 are provided on the distribution media. The standard distribution medium for ESDAPT is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge (Sun QIC-24) in UNIX tar format. This program was developed in 1992.

  16. Introduction of our new associate editor.

    PubMed

    Desjardins, Annick; Gunawardana, Roshaine

    2014-01-01

    Annick Desjardins, MD, FRCPC, speaks to Roshaine Gunawardana, Managing Commissioning Editor: Annick Desjardins is Associate Professor within the Department of Neurology and is the Director of Clinical Research at The Preston Robert Tisch Brain Tumor Center at Duke. In 2003, Dr Desjardins completed her residency in Adult Neurology at the Universite de Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada. Following a 2-year fellowship in neuro-oncology at The Preston Robert Tisch Brain Tumor Center at Duke, she joined the Center as faculty, in July 2005. She is a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Canada. She has been the Principal Investigator on over 30 therapeutic trials in neuro-oncology, including investigator initiated and international multicenter studies, and has held several Investigational New Drug applications. She has over 80 peer-review publications and six book chapters. She has written invited expert reviews for Hospital Pharmacy Europe, Nature Reviews Neurology, Clinical Care Options and MEDscape CME. She is reviewer for Neuro-Oncology, Cancer, Journal of Neuro-Oncology, Clinical Cancer Research, Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy, Cancer Research, Molecular Cancer Therapeutics and Future Oncology. PMID:25363004

  17. EDITORIAL: Incoming Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB) is a journal that originated in the UK but is now rightly regarded as one of the pre-eminent international journals for the publication of material coming within its remit. It is 50 years old and its maturity is an outcome of the consistent support of high performing authors, a supportive and professional publishing house, dedicated referees, many vigorous and conscientious editorial boards and the collective input of the 10 previous Editors as listed in his incoming editorial (January 2000 issue) by the retiring Editor, Professor Alun Beddoe. The scientific climate and it associated publication modus operandi in the 1950s was very different from that at the current time and the journal has evolved to reflect this. Hence today the scope of content is somewhat broader, the size of the journal is vastly greater, the whole publication process is slicker and more efficient and a paper in PMB is highly prized by its authors and those who look to quality factors and impact. The quality of the journal still relies on the voluntary labour and expertise of its busy international referees and Board members. For many years I have tried to place my own research material in PMB and encourage my teams to do likewise, not only acknowledging the prestige of the journal but also because of the extraordinarily fast turnaround time of all the processes without any loss of quality. This serves us very well and the publishing team are to be congratulated. Some things seem to change more slowly or not at all, however. The prediction, when I started my research career, that books and journals would be dinosaurs by now has manifestly not come true and, whilst most of us are addicted (and why not?) to the electronic ways of doing things that can be done by more traditional ways, PMB and a packet of reprints from time to time arriving by post still has a reassuring feel despite the fact that the papers have been `on-line' for a while before. An incoming

  18. Martin Stutzmann: Editor, Teacher, Scientist and Friend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, Manuel

    2005-02-01

    On 2 January 1995 Martin Stutzmann became Editor-in-Chief of physica status solidi, replacing Professor E. Gutsche, who had led the journal through the stormy period involving the fall of the Iron Curtain, the unification of Germany and the change in its Eastern part, where physica status solidi was based, from socialism as found in the real world (a German concept) to real world capitalism. In 1995 it was thought that the process had been completed (we should have known better!) and after the retirement of Prof. Gutsche the new owners of physica status solidi (Wiley-VCH) decided that a change in scientific management was desirable to adapt to the new socio-political facts and to insure the scientific continuity of the journal.Martin had moved in 1993 from my department at the Max-Planck-Institute to Munich where he soon displayed a tremendous amount of science man- agement ability during the build-up of the Walter Schottky Institute. The search for a successor as Edi- tor-in-Chief was not easy: the job was not very glamorous after the upheavals which had taken place in the editorial world following the political changes. Somebody in the Editorial Boards must have suggested Martin Stutzmann. I am sure that there was opposition: one usually looks for a well-established person ready to leave his direct involvement in science and take up a new endeavor of a more administrative nature. Nevertheless, the powers that be soon realized that Martin was an excellent, if somewhat unconventional candidate who had enough energy to remain a topnotch scientist and to lead the journal in the difficult times ahead: he was offered the job. In the negotiations that followed, he insisted in getting the administrative structures that would allow him to improve the battered quality of the journal and to continue his scientific productivity. Today we are happy to see that he succeeded in both endeavors. The journal has since grown in size and considerably improved its quality

  19. Editorial independence and the editor-owner relationship: good editors never die, they just cross the line.

    PubMed

    Lapeña, J F

    2009-12-01

    The concept of editorial freedom or independence is examined in the light of the editor-owner relationship. Like individual and national freedom or independence, it is a rhetorical concept whose realisation flows from internal achievement as much as it depends on external validation. This freedom entails roles and responsibilities embodied in specific codes of practice for editors, such as the guidelines espoused by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Association of Medical Editors. The calling to embody these guidelines makes editing a vocation that demands isolation and distancing, separation and solitude. It involves bracketing one's biases, prejudgments and preconceptions. With such detachment comes real freedom; one that requires a moral fibre and trustworthiness that uphold truth and right, whether in full view of public scrutiny, or in the aloneness of private secrecy. The stereotypical tension between academic and commercial concerns highlights the editor-owner relationship, and bears directly on editorial independence. In practice, journal owners overstep their prerogatives. The absence of clear contracts defining editorial independence and the lack of established mechanisms governing the editor-owner relationship affect many small- to medium-sized journals in developing countries. Even large journals in developed and democratic nations or totalitarian states and societies are not spared. At the end of the day, editorial freedom exists only insofar as it is tolerated, or until editors cross the line. PMID:20087545

  20. Horatio Alger in the Newsroom: Social Origins of American Editors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Jack R.

    1976-01-01

    Concludes that American newspaper editors of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries came from elite social backgrounds, which is contrary to the rags-to-riches image fostered by previous historians. (RB)

  1. Flagrant Misconduct of Reviewers and Editor: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Kotchoubey, Boris; Bütof, Sarah; Sitaram, Ranganatha

    2015-08-01

    A case of a particularly severe misbehavior in a review process is described. Two reviewers simply copied and pasted their critical comments from their previous reviews without reading the reviewed manuscript. The editor readily accepted the reviewers' opinion and rejected the manuscript. These facts give rise to some general questions about possible factors affecting the ethical behavior of reviewers and editors, as well as possible countermeasures to prevent ethical violations. PMID:25156788

  2. ZED- A LINE EDITOR FOR THE DEC VAX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, P. J.

    1994-01-01

    The ZED editor for the DEC VAX is a simple, yet powerful line editor for text, program source code, and non-binary data. Line editors can be superior to screen editors in some cases, such as executing complex multiple or conditional commands, or editing via slow modem lines. ZED excels in the area of text processing by using procedure files. For example, such procedures can reformat a file of addresses or remove all comment lines from a FORTRAN program. In addition to command files, ZED also features versatile search qualifiers, global changes, conditionals, on-line help, hexadecimal mode, space compression, looping, logical combinations of search strings, journaling, visible control characters, and automatic detabbing. The ZED editor was originally developed at Cambridge University in London and has been continuously enhanced since 1976. Users of the Cambridge implementation have devised such elaborate ZED procedures as chess games, calculators, and programs for evaluating Pi. This implementation of ZED strives to maintain the characteristics of the Cambridge editor. A complete ZED manual is included on the tape. ZED is written entirely in C for either batch or interactive execution on the DEC VAX under VMS 4.X and requires 80,896 bytes of memory. This program was released in 1988 and updated in 1989.

  3. EzEditor: a versatile sequence alignment editor for both rRNA- and protein-coding genes.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yoon-Seong; Lee, Kihyun; Park, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Bong-Soo; Cho, Yong-Joon; Ha, Sung-Min; Chun, Jongsik

    2014-02-01

    EzEditor is a Java-based molecular sequence editor allowing manipulation of both DNA and protein sequence alignments for phylogenetic analysis. It has multiple features optimized to connect initial computer-generated multiple alignment and subsequent phylogenetic analysis by providing manual editing with reference to biological information specific to the genes under consideration. It provides various functionalities for editing rRNA alignments using secondary structure information. In addition, it supports simultaneous editing of both DNA sequences and their translated protein sequences for protein-coding genes. EzEditor is, to our knowledge, the first sequence editing software designed for both rRNA- and protein-coding genes with the visualization of biologically relevant information and should be useful in molecular phylogenetic studies. EzEditor is based on Java, can be run on all major computer operating systems and is freely available from http://sw.ezbiocloud.net/ezeditor/. PMID:24425826

  4. EDITORIAL: Incoming Editor-in-Chief Incoming Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, David

    2012-01-01

    It is a pleasure and an honour for me to be taking over as Editor-in-Chief of Measurement Science and Technology. MST is well known across research communities worldwide as a leading journal in which to publish new techniques and instrumentation. It has gained this enviable position largely because of the excellent guidance of its Editorial Board and dedicated staff at Institute of Physics Publishing over many years. I want to highlight in particular the contribution of the outgoing Editor Peter Hauptmann, and other Editors before him, in making the journal truly international. We thank Peter immensely for all his hard work in leading the journal, having exceptionally served two terms, each of five years. I come into the post of Editor at a very interesting and challenging time for research. The global recession is leading to cuts in research funding in many countries, researchers and their outputs are coming under closer scrutiny than ever before, and more is being expected of them. Journals play a critical role in monitoring and maintaining research standards, but we should be careful not to assume that journal Impact Factor is the sole measure of research quality. Although expediency may sometimes demand it, Impact Factor, as practitioners know, is subject dependent. One of the great things about science and technology for me is its level playing field. The key point is still innovation no matter where the work is done or where it is published. MST has a long pedigree of being the natural home of the highest quality papers from leading researchers wishing to report novel instrumentation and techniques. 2013 will mark the 90th anniversary of MST and we look forward to celebrating in style its sustained success. I recall with pride the first paper I published in Journal of Physics E: Scientific Instruments (as MST was previously titled) back in 1977. The paper reported the design and application of an early fluorescence lifetime spectrometer that I had constructed

  5. SIRE: A Simple Interactive Rule Editor for NICBES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykat, Alex

    1988-12-01

    To support evolution of domain expertise, and its representation in an expert system knowledge base, a user-friendly rule base editor is mandatory. The Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System (NICBES), a prototype of an expert system for the Hubble Space Telescope power storage management system, does not provide such an editor. In the following, a description of a Simple Interactive Rule Base Editor (SIRE) for NICBES is described. The SIRE provides a consistent internal representation of the NICBES knowledge base. It supports knowledge presentation and provides a user-friendly and code language independent medium for rule addition and modification. The SIRE is integrated with NICBES via an interface module. This module provides translation of the internal representation to Prolog-type rules (Horn clauses), latter rule assertion, and a simple mechanism for rule selection for its Prolog inference engine.

  6. Writing filter processes for the SAGA editor, appendix G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirslis, Peter A.

    1985-01-01

    The SAGA editor provides a mechanism by which separate processes can be invoked during an editing session to traverse portions of the parse tree being edited. These processes, termed filter processes, read, analyze, and possibly transform the parse tree, returning the result to the editor. By defining new commands with the editor's user defined command facility, which invoke filter processes, authors of filter can provide complex operations as simple commands. A tree plotter, pretty printer, and Pascal tree transformation program were already written using this facility. The filter processes are introduced, parse tree structure is described and the library interface made available to the programmer. Also discussed is how to compile and run filter processes. Examples are presented to illustrate aspect of each of these areas.

  7. SIRE: A Simple Interactive Rule Editor for NICBES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bykat, Alex

    1988-01-01

    To support evolution of domain expertise, and its representation in an expert system knowledge base, a user-friendly rule base editor is mandatory. The Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System (NICBES), a prototype of an expert system for the Hubble Space Telescope power storage management system, does not provide such an editor. In the following, a description of a Simple Interactive Rule Base Editor (SIRE) for NICBES is described. The SIRE provides a consistent internal representation of the NICBES knowledge base. It supports knowledge presentation and provides a user-friendly and code language independent medium for rule addition and modification. The SIRE is integrated with NICBES via an interface module. This module provides translation of the internal representation to Prolog-type rules (Horn clauses), latter rule assertion, and a simple mechanism for rule selection for its Prolog inference engine.

  8. Ethics and the psychiatry journal editor: responsibilities and dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, David; D Strous, Rael

    2014-01-01

    An array of potential ethical stumbling blocks awaits the editors of scientific journals. There are issues of particular relevance to mental health journals, and others unique to local journals with a relatively small circulation and low impact factor. The blind review system, conflict of interests, redundant publication, fraud and plagiarism, guest and ghost authorship and ghost writing, advertising, language and stigma, patient consent, and "rigging" the Impact Factor are all issues of importance. It is critical that editors are aware and informed of these important issues, and have an accessible forum for evaluating problems as they arise. PMID:25618285

  9. EDITORIAL: New Editor-in-Chief for Nanotechnology New Editor-in-Chief for Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couzin, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology is proud to announce the appointment of Professor Mark Reed, Yale University, as the new Editor-in-Chief from January 2009. Mark Reed holds the Harold Hodgkinson Chair of Engineering and Applied Science at Yale University. He has made significant contributions in the areas of quantum dots, electronic transport in nanoscale and mesoscopic systems, artificially structured materials and devices, and molecular electronics. Professor Reed has been associated with the journal as an Editorial Board member for a number of years and we are delighted that he has agreed to take on the scientific leadership of the journal in its 20th year. We also take the opportunity to thank Professor Mark Welland, Cambridge University, for his work as Editor-in-Chief since 2001, and for presiding over the re-launch and remarkable growth of the journal since then. Nanotechnology is unique in that it was the first peer-reviewed journal in the area of nanoscience, the first issue appearing in 1990. Since then it has established a distinguished publication record and has become a leading journal covering all aspects of nanoscale science and technology, as well as specializing in in-depth, comprehensive articles not seen in letter format journals. Published weekly and featuring subject sections, the journal is truly multidisciplinary in nature and is an excellent medium to quickly deliver your research results to readers worldwide. Nanotechnology is proud to be offering some of the fastest publication times around (less than three months on average from receipt to online publication). We offer free online access to all published papers for 30 days, ensuring that anyone with access to the internet will be able to read your paper. We were also the first journal to give our authors the opportunity to communicate their research to a wider audience through nanotechweb.org and other IOP websites. See the journal's homepage at www.iop.org/Journals/nano for more details. We are looking

  10. Martin Stutzmann: Editor, Teacher, Scientist and Friend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, Manuel

    2005-02-01

    On 2 January 1995 Martin Stutzmann became Editor-in-Chief of physica status solidi, replacing Professor E. Gutsche, who had led the journal through the stormy period involving the fall of the Iron Curtain, the unification of Germany and the change in its Eastern part, where physica status solidi was based, from socialism as found in the real world (a German concept) to real world capitalism. In 1995 it was thought that the process had been completed (we should have known better!) and after the retirement of Prof. Gutsche the new owners of physica status solidi (Wiley-VCH) decided that a change in scientific management was desirable to adapt to the new socio-political facts and to insure the scientific continuity of the journal.Martin had moved in 1993 from my department at the Max-Planck-Institute to Munich where he soon displayed a tremendous amount of science man- agement ability during the build-up of the Walter Schottky Institute. The search for a successor as Edi- tor-in-Chief was not easy: the job was not very glamorous after the upheavals which had taken place in the editorial world following the political changes. Somebody in the Editorial Boards must have suggested Martin Stutzmann. I am sure that there was opposition: one usually looks for a well-established person ready to leave his direct involvement in science and take up a new endeavor of a more administrative nature. Nevertheless, the powers that be soon realized that Martin was an excellent, if somewhat unconventional candidate who had enough energy to remain a topnotch scientist and to lead the journal in the difficult times ahead: he was offered the job. In the negotiations that followed, he insisted in getting the administrative structures that would allow him to improve the battered quality of the journal and to continue his scientific productivity. Today we are happy to see that he succeeded in both endeavors. The journal has since grown in size and considerably improved its quality

  11. Martin Stutzmann: Editor, Teacher, Scientist and Friend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, Manuel

    2005-03-01

    On 2 January 1995 Martin Stutzmann became Editor-in-Chief of physica status solidi, replacing Professor E. Gutsche, who had led the journal through the stormy period involving the fall of the Iron Curtain, the unification of Germany and the change in its Eastern part, where physica status solidi was based, from socialism as found in the real world (a German concept) to real world capitalism. In 1995 it was thought that the process had been completed (we should have known better!) and after the retirement of Prof. Gutsche the new owners of physica status solidi (Wiley-VCH) decided that a change in scientific management was desirable to adapt to the new socio-political facts and to insure the scientific continuity of the journal.Martin had moved in 1993 from my department at the Max-Planck-Institute to Munich where he soon displayed a tremendous amount of science man- agement ability during the build-up of the Walter Schottky Institute. The search for a successor as Edi- tor-in-Chief was not easy: the job was not very glamorous after the upheavals which had taken place in the editorial world following the political changes. Somebody in the Editorial Boards must have suggested Martin Stutzmann. I am sure that there was opposition: one usually looks for a well-established person ready to leave his direct involvement in science and take up a new endeavor of a more administrative nature. Nevertheless, the powers that be soon realized that Martin was an excellent, if somewhat unconventional candidate who had enough energy to remain a topnotch scientist and to lead the journal in the difficult times ahead: he was offered the job. In the negotiations that followed, he insisted in getting the administrative structures that would allow him to improve the battered quality of the journal and to continue his scientific productivity. Today we are happy to see that he succeeded in both endeavors. The journal has since grown in size and considerably improved its quality

  12. Announcement: New Editor-In-Chief, Robert C. Kennicutt, Jr.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, Helmut A.

    1999-06-01

    Effective 1999 July 1, all new manuscripts for Part 1 of The Astrophysical Journal and The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series should be sent to Dr. Robert C. Kennicutt, Jr., Editor-in-Chief The Astrophysical Journal Steward Observatory University of Arizona Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 The other means of contact are telephone, (520) 621-5145 FAX, (520) 621-5153 and e-mail, apj@as.arizona.edu. For express packages please use the street address of 933 North Cherry Avenue. Dr. Kennicutt will be assisted by several of my loyal coworkers, who will move across the street. Manuscripts received before July 1 will be handled by the current editor until most of their problems have been resolved, at which point the remainder will be sent to Dr. Kennicutt's office. Manuscripts for the Letters should, as before, be sent directly to Dr. Alex Dalgarno at the Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA. We are fortunate that a person with as much experience in research and proven good judgment as Dr. Kennicutt is willing to accept this difficult and time-consuming responsibility. He will be only the seventh Managing Editor or Editor-in-Chief that this Journal has had in its 104 years. Please give him the cooperation and help that you have given the current editor. It has been my privilege to work for 28 years with many of the best astrophysicists in the world and to publish their papers. This was done with the help of the AAS Publications Board and AAS officers, the efforts of Peter Boyce and Evan Owens who made the on-line edition of the Journal possible, three Associate Editors, a score of Scientific Editors, a hardworking staff of six in Tucson, up to 25 production controllers and manuscript editors at the University of Chicago Press, and the thousands of astronomers throughout the world who served as referees. The original masthead called this journal ``An International Review of Spectroscopy and Astronomical Physics.'' That subtitle is no longer appropriate because we do not

  13. Announcement: New Editor-In Robert C. Kennicutt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, Helmut A.

    1999-06-01

    Effective 1999 July 1, all new manuscripts for Part 1 of The Astrophysical Journal and The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series should be sent to Dr. Robert C. Kennicutt, Editor-in-Chief The Astrophysical Journal Steward Observatory University of Arizona Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 The other means of contact are telephone, (520) 621-5145 FAX, (520) 621-5153 and e-mail, apj@as.arizona.edu. For express packages please use the street address of 933 North Cherry Avenue. Dr. Kennicutt will be assisted by several of my loyal coworkers, who will move across the street. Manuscripts received before July 1 will be handled by the current editor until most of their problems have been resolved, at which point the remainder will be sent to Dr. Kennicutt's office. Manuscripts for the Letters should, as before, be sent directly to Dr. Alex Dalgarno at the Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA. We are fortunate that a person with as much experience in research and proven good judgment as Dr. Kennicutt is willing to accept this difficult and time-consuming responsibility. He will be only the seventh Managing Editor or Editor-in-Chief that this Journal has had in its 104 years. Please give him the cooperation and help that you have given the current editor. It has been my privilege to work for 28 years with many of the best astrophysicists in the world and to publish their papers. This was done with the help of the AAS Publications Board and AAS officers, the efforts of Peter Boyce and Evan Owens who made the on-line edition of the Journal possible, three Associate Editors, a score of Scientific Editors, a hardworking staff of six in Tucson, up to 25 production controllers and manuscript editors at the University of Chicago Press, and the thousands of astronomers throughout the world who served as referees. The original masthead called this journal ``An International Review of Spectroscopy and Astronomical Physics.'' That subtitle is no longer appropriate because we do not publish

  14. Announcement: New Editor-in-Chief Robert C. Kennicutt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, Helmut A.

    1999-05-01

    Effective 1999 July 1, all new manuscripts for Part 1 of The Astrophysical Journal and The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series should be sent to Dr. Robert C. Kennicutt, Editor-in-Chief The Astrophysical Journal Steward Observatory University of Arizona Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 The other means of contact are telephone, (520) 621-5145 FAX, (520) 621-5153 and e-mail, apj@as.arizona.edu. For express packages please use the street address of 933 North Cherry Avenue. Dr. Kennicutt will be assisted by several of my loyal coworkers, who will move across the street. Manuscripts received before July 1 will be handled by the current editor until most of their problems have been resolved, at which point the remainder will be sent to Dr. Kennicutt's office. Manuscripts for the Letters should, as before, be sent directly to Dr. Alex Dalgarno at the Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA. We are fortunate that a person with as much experience in research and proven good judgment as Dr. Kennicutt is willing to accept this difficult and time-consuming responsibility. He will be only the seventh Managing Editor or Editor-in-Chief that this Journal has had in its 104 years. Please give him the cooperation and help that you have given the current editor. It has been my privilege to work for 28 years with many of the best astrophysicists in the world and to publish their papers. This was done with the help of the AAS Publications Board and AAS officers, the efforts of Peter Boyce and Evan Owens who made the on-line edition of the Journal possible, three Associate Editors, a score of Scientific Editors, a hardworking staff of six in Tucson, up to 25 production controllers and manuscript editors at the University of Chicago Press, and the thousands of astronomers throughout the world who served as referees. The original masthead called this journal ``An International Review of Spectroscopy and Astronomical Physics.'' That subtitle is no longer appropriate because we do not publish

  15. LACE: A Web-Based, Structured Editor for PDS Metadata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, M.; Keller, R.; Sarram, P.

    2015-06-01

    PDS has moved to XML-based metadata, but many scientists are not familiar with XML and find its structure complicated. For these reasons, we have created LACE, an editor for PDS metadata that hides the complexity of XML from the user.

  16. September 2016 Letter to the Editor-in-Chief.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    Letter to the Editor-in-Chief of JOSPT as follows: "One More Cause of Failure to Validate a CPR: Overfitting" with Author's Response J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(9):811-812. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.0202. PMID:27581182

  17. Females' participation in psychopharmacology research as authors, editors, and subjects.

    PubMed

    Poling, Alan; Durgin, Amy; Bradley, Kelly P; Porter, Lindsay K; Van Wagner, Karen; Weeden, Marc; Panos, John J

    2009-04-01

    This study determined the involvement of women as first authors and other authors for every article published in Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, and Psychopharmacology in 1991, 1996, 2001, and 2006. Their involvement as editors also was determined. Women's participation as authors, but not as editors, slightly increased over time. In 2006, 43% of first authors, 38% of other authors, and 24% of editors were women. The gender of subjects was examined for the same years and journals, but could not be determined for 6% and 9% of articles employing nonhuman and human subjects, respectively. In 2006, when subjects' gender could be determined, 77% of articles involving nonhuman subjects used only males, 9% only females, and 14% both males and females. In articles using human subjects in that same year, 17% involved only males, 6% only females, and 77% both males and females. Women researchers clearly make substantial contributions to the psychopharmacology literature, but are nonetheless underrepresented as editors. Findings regarding subjects indicate that there is growing recognition of the importance of gender as a determinant of drug effects, although the vast majority of nonhuman studies continue to involve only male subjects. PMID:19331487

  18. Publishing in Educational Psychology Journals: Comments from Editors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nihalani, Priya K.; Mayrath, Michael C.

    2008-01-01

    The following paper emphasizes the importance of publishing and learning how to publish in educational psychology journals. We have compiled a set of recommendations based on advice from editors in the field and several other sources on how to publish. Additionally, this paper provides a step-by-step guide that graduate students and junior faculty…

  19. Using a Computerized Text-Editor in Freshman Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrard, Lisa

    To determine how useful a computerized text editor would be in helping students to revise their papers, an interactive text manipulation system (Wylbur) was made available to two classes of freshman composition students at the University of California, Los Angeles. Since the course received no advance publicity, students did not know when they…

  20. Most Business Editors Find Journalism Graduates Still Unprepared

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardue, Mary Jane

    2014-01-01

    In 2002, a study was published in "Newspaper Research Journal" that explored the preparedness of graduating journalism students to cover business news. In 2012, a follow-up survey of business editors at the nation's daily newspapers was done to see whether progress had been made in the training of journalism students for the…

  1. An Editor's View of Analytical Chemistry (the Discipline)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Royce W.

    2010-07-01

    The author recounts progress observed in analytical chemistry (the discipline) from the vantage point of a 20-year editor of Analytical Chemistry (the journal). The recounting draws liberally from the journal's monthly editorials. A complete listing of the editorials can be found in Supplemental Material .

  2. IN DEFENSE OF ECORISK ASSESSMENT (LETTER TO EDITOR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dear Editor: We are writing to convey a more accurate portrayal of the status of ecological ("environmental" in Europe) risk assessment that was presented in the recent article by M. Power and L.S. McCarty (Fallacies in Ecological Risk Assessment Practices," August 1997, pp 370A-...

  3. EDITORIAL: Farewell from the outgoing Editor-in-Chief Farewell from the outgoing Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rost, Jan Michael

    2011-01-01

    I am very pleased to announce that Professor Paul Corkum will be taking on the position of Editor-in-Chief at Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (J. Phys. B) from the beginning of January 2011. During my term as Editor-in-Chief atomic, molecular and optical science has continued to change rapidly: we have seen ultracold physics widening its original emphasis on Bose-Einstein condensates to the entanglement of light and matter in the most general sense towards a science of information. At the same time attosecond science and interaction of matter with short x-ray pulses develops rapidly. I am very happy that J. Phys. B with Paul Corkum as Editor-in-Chief will play a central role in publishing exciting results from this field. I would like to thank the publishing team at J. Phys. B for their fantastic job, in particular for the quality of the refereeing system the team has been able to maintain while at the same time bringing down the publication times considerably. I thank them all for the help and support they have given me in the role of Editor-in-Chief and wish them the very best for the future. Last and certainly not least I would like to thank you, the authors, referees and readers, for the support of J. Phys. B.

  4. EDITORIAL: Outgoing Editor-in-Chief Outgoing Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauptmann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    I started in 2002 as Editor-in-Chief of a well established journal—MST (Measurement Science and Technology). It was a time when modern means of communication offered new opportunities for the scientific community—for all scientists and engineers whether at universities, in industry or at other institutions—to access better quality information in a shorter time. This development helped us to be more efficient in our daily scientific work and to anticipate new trends faster than before. A flood of information was created by different search engines. A few online journals or journals published in emerging countries with a similar profile to MST appeared on the market. MST had to provide new answers in response to these developments. In 2002 I postulated two requirements to the journal. Firstly, the publisher has to be up to date. My impression over the years has been that IOPP is excellently organized. That has made it easier for the board members and all our reviewers to concentrate on the scientific aspects of our input to the journal. During all my visits to Bristol or my contacts with the IOPP staff I always met very professional and enthusiastic staff members. They have not only supported and encouraged the ideas and initiatives of the Editorial Board members, but they have also worked hard on establishing one of the most effective journal operations in the field of measurement science and technology. Many authors are well aware of this. Thus I am able to declare that the first requirement for a successful journal has been met. Secondly, the scientific level has to be high and the journal should attract readers from all over the world. This task was the responsibility of the Editorial Board members and of myself. Our strategy was on the one hand to ensure continuity in MST but on the other hand to be open to new trends and developments. Examples of these new aspects of the journal are fields like micro- and nanometrology, measurement techniques for

  5. FLAn: A Free Hypermedia Editor to Create Foreign Language Learning Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilickaya, Ferit, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Glossing words is done via special software called multimedia editors. Foreign Language Annotator (FLAn), created by Thibeault (2011), is one of these multimedia editors. FLAn (Foreign Language Annotator), a free hypermedia editor that works on both Macs and PCs, allows instructors to turn static texts into dynamic learning units by attaching…

  6. PREFACE: Introductory remarks from the Editors Introductory remarks from the Editors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobloch, E.; Meseguer, A.; Marques, F.

    2012-06-01

    The local organizers of the 4th BIFD (Bifurcations and Instabilities in Fluid Dynamics) Symposium held in Barcelona on 18-21 July 2011 would like to thank the editors of Fluid Dynamics Research for offering us the opportunity of publishing a peer-reviewed special issue of the journal with a selection of the contributions presented at this conference. We thank both the authors and the referees for working with us on the rather tight schedule necessary to release the issue within one year of the date of the conference. We also thank the invited speakers, B Eckhardt, L Tuckerman, and J M Vega, for contributing keynote papers to this special issue. The series of BIFD symposia started as a small workshop in Madeira, Portugal, in 2004 with no more than 20 participants. This number increased rapidly during the second and third symposia held in 2006 (Denmark) and 2009 (United Kingdom), with 40 and 110 participants, respectively. The 4th BIFD symposium has consolidated this event as one of the leading conferences in hydrodynamic stability, with nearly 200 participants from around the world. The main goal of this conference is to bring together scientists and engineers from different disciplines directly or indirectly related to fluid dynamics, bifurcation theory and hydrodynamic stability theory. The conference covered many research areas within the aforementioned fields, ranging from thermal, shear and centrifugal flows to biofluids, films, drops, viscoelastic flows and magnetohydrodynamics. The structure of the conference, with invited plenary talks and focused sessions, helped the participants find their home in the conference and share state-of-the-art knowledge within the field of hydrodynamic instabilities. The financial support from MICINN (Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, Grant no FIS2009-08065-E) and UPC (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya) is greatly appreciated. The local organizers would also like to thank ETSAB (Barcelona School of Architecture

  7. From the desk of the Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hei, Tom K.

    2015-07-01

    Life Sciences in Space Research had a prominent presence at the International Congress of Radiation Research (ICRR) meeting held in Kyoto, Japan from May 25th-29th, with seven of the eleven editors attending the meeting. A journal booth was also put up at the pre-ICRR satellite meeting on Space Radiation and Heavy Ions in Therapy (SRHITS) held a few days earlier in Osaka. Since the inception of LSSR last year, the editors and publisher have promoted the journal at a number of major conferences including COSPAR 2014 in Moscow, the annual meeting of the Radiation Research Society and the NASA Space Radiation Investigators Meeting. These efforts have increased awareness of the journal among investigators in space life sciences and related fields. The number of monthly downloads of articles from the journal website averages 2000, a respectable number for a brand new journal.

  8. Wysession begins term as Eos Section Editor for Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysession, Michael

    In mid-April, Michael Wysession, an associate professor in the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences at Washington University, embarked on a 3-year term as section editor of Eos for seismology. Wysession brings to the position a strong background in research and teaching. Below are a few remarks from Wysession.“I recently became the new seismology editor for Eos. I look forward to presenting the many exciting areas of seismological research to the entire geophysical community. I have taught at Washington University since obtaining my Ph.D. at Northwestern University in 1991. My interest in seismology began during my undergraduate years at Brown University (Sc.B., 1984), but my experience as an educator began after I graduated and taught high school math and physics in Staten Island, N.Y.

  9. Towards a document structure editor for software requirements analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalski, Vincent J.; Lekkos, Anthony A.

    1986-01-01

    Of the six or seven phases of the software engineering life cycle, requirements analysis tends to be the least understood and the least formalized. Correspondingly, a scarcity of useful software tools exist which aid in the development of user and system requirements. It is proposed that requirements analysis should culminate in a set of documents similar to those that usually accompany a delivered Software product. The design of a software tool, the Document Structure Editor, which facilitates the development of such documentation.

  10. Statement on Publication Ethics for Editors and Publishers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The digitization and related developments in journal editing and publishing necessitate increasing the awareness of all stakeholders of science communication in the emerging global problems and possible solutions. Journal editors and publishers are frequently encountered with the fast-growing problems of authorship, conflicts of interest, peer review, research misconduct, unethical citations, and inappropriate journal impact metrics. While the number of erroneous and unethical research papers and wasteful, or 'predatory', journals is increasing exponentially, responsible editors are urged to 'clean' the literature by correcting or retracting related articles. Indexers are advised to implement measures for accepting truly influential and ethical journals and delisting sources with predatory publishing practices. Updating knowledge and skills of authors, editors and publishers, developing and endorsing recommendations of global editorial associations, and (re)drafting journal instructions can be viewed as potential tools for improving ethics of academic journals. The aim of this Statement is to increase awareness of all stakeholders of science communication of the emerging ethical issues in journal editing and publishing and initiate a campaign of upgrading and enforcing related journal instructions. PMID:27510376

  11. Statement on Publication Ethics for Editors and Publishers.

    PubMed

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Yessirkepov, Marlen; Voronov, Alexander A; Gorin, Sergey V; Koroleva, Anna M; Kitas, George D

    2016-09-01

    The digitization and related developments in journal editing and publishing necessitate increasing the awareness of all stakeholders of science communication in the emerging global problems and possible solutions. Journal editors and publishers are frequently encountered with the fast-growing problems of authorship, conflicts of interest, peer review, research misconduct, unethical citations, and inappropriate journal impact metrics. While the number of erroneous and unethical research papers and wasteful, or 'predatory', journals is increasing exponentially, responsible editors are urged to 'clean' the literature by correcting or retracting related articles. Indexers are advised to implement measures for accepting truly influential and ethical journals and delisting sources with predatory publishing practices. Updating knowledge and skills of authors, editors and publishers, developing and endorsing recommendations of global editorial associations, and (re)drafting journal instructions can be viewed as potential tools for improving ethics of academic journals. The aim of this Statement is to increase awareness of all stakeholders of science communication of the emerging ethical issues in journal editing and publishing and initiate a campaign of upgrading and enforcing related journal instructions. PMID:27510376

  12. EDITORIAL: Farewell from the outgoing Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Keith

    2005-01-01

    I am very pleased to announce that Professor Jan-Michael Rost will be taking on the position of Editor-in-Chief at Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (J. Phys. B) from the beginning of January 2005. As Editor-in-Chief I have seen the journal respond to the rapid and exciting developments in atomic, molecular and optical physics of recent years. There will, I am sure, be a great deal of new and important science in our field in the years ahead. I am also sure that Jan-Michael will do a fantastic job in guiding the journal through these times. The publishing team at J. Phys. B is a superbly responsive and effective one that does a great job in publishing the science we do. I want to thank them all for the help and support they have given me in the role of Editor-in-Chief and wish them the very best for the future. Last and certainly not least I would like to thank you, the authors, referees and readers, for making J. Phys. B such a great journal to have been a part of.

  13. CMS Configuration Editor: GUI based application for user analysis job

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Cosa, A.

    2011-12-01

    We present the user interface and the software architecture of the Configuration Editor for the CMS experiment. The analysis workflow is organized in a modular way integrated within the CMS framework that organizes in a flexible way user analysis code. The Python scripting language is adopted to define the job configuration that drives the analysis workflow. It could be a challenging task for users, especially for newcomers, to develop analysis jobs managing the configuration of many required modules. For this reason a graphical tool has been conceived in order to edit and inspect configuration files. A set of common analysis tools defined in the CMS Physics Analysis Toolkit (PAT) can be steered and configured using the Config Editor. A user-defined analysis workflow can be produced starting from a standard configuration file, applying and configuring PAT tools according to the specific user requirements. CMS users can adopt this tool, the Config Editor, to create their analysis visualizing in real time which are the effects of their actions. They can visualize the structure of their configuration, look at the modules included in the workflow, inspect the dependences existing among the modules and check the data flow. They can visualize at which values parameters are set and change them according to what is required by their analysis task. The integration of common tools in the GUI needed to adopt an object-oriented structure in the Python definition of the PAT tools and the definition of a layer of abstraction from which all PAT tools inherit.

  14. A perspective on computer documentation: System developer vs. technical editor

    SciTech Connect

    Carnes, E.T.; Truett, L.F.

    1995-12-31

    Between the computer-knowledgeable {open_quotes}techie{close_quotes} and the technical writer is a chasm created by differences in knowledge bases and skills. Although this gap is widened by misunderstandings and misconceptions of system development roles, it is bridged by mutual need and dual appreciation. Often the editor/writer is {open_quotes}behind{close_quotes} from beginning to end. The writer normally joins the team after the programmers are well into system development and do not want to {open_quotes}waste time{close_quotes} discussing fundamentals. The writer is usually excluded from technical discussions because it is assumed that he/she would not understand anyway. Later in the system development cycle, the writer has no time to polish the documentation before a new version of the software is issued which implies that the documentation must be revised. Nevertheless, the editor/writer`s product is critical for the end-user`s appreciation of the software, a fact which promotes unity to complete the comprehensive package of software and documentation. This paper explores the planks in the bridge that spans the chasm between developers and their fundamental PR agents, the technical editors/writers. This paper defines approaches (e.g., The Circling Theory) and techniques (Bold Thrust!) employed for effective communication -- between software developer and technical writer as well as between the software and the end-user.

  15. Greetings from the new Editor-in-Chief, Ronald Stambaugh Greetings from the new Editor-in-Chief, Ronald Stambaugh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stambaugh, Ronald

    2012-04-01

    I am very pleased to join the outstanding leadership team for the journal Nuclear Fusion as Scientific Editor. The journal's high position in the field of fusion energy research derives in no small measure from the efforts of the IAEA team in Vienna, the production and marketing of IOP Publishing, the Board of Editors led by its chairman Mitsuru Kikuchi, the Associate Editor for Inertial Confinement Max Tabak and the outgoing Scientific Editor, Paul Thomas. During Paul's five year tenure submissions have grown by over 40%. The usage of the electronic journal has grown year by year with about 300 000 full text downloads of Nuclear Fusion articles in 2011, an impressive figure due in part to the launch of the full 50 year archive. High quality has been maintained while times for peer review and publishing have been reduced and the journal achieved some of the highest impact factors ever (as high as 4.27). The journal has contributed greatly to building the international scientific basis for fusion. I was privileged to serve from 2003 to 2010 as chairman of the Coordinating Committee for the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) which published in Nuclear Fusion the first ITER Physics Basis (1999) and its later update (2007). The scientific basis that has been developed to date for fusion has led to the construction of major facilities to demonstrate the production of power-plant relevant levels of fusion reactions. We look forward to the journal continuing to play a key role in the international effort toward fusion energy as these exciting major facilities and the various approaches to fusion continue to be developed. It is clear that Nuclear Fusion maintains its position in the field because of the perceived high quality of the submissions, the refereeing and the editorial processes, and the availability and utility of the online journal. The creation of the Nuclear Fusion Prize, led by the Board of Editors chairman Mitsuru Kikuchi, for the most outstanding

  16. EDITORIAL: Greetings from the new Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, P.

    2004-04-01

    On 1 January, 2004, I assumed the position of Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. I will start by saying that I will do my best to justify the confidence of the journal management and publishing staff in my abilities. I was fortunate to have been able to work, as an Editorial Board member, with my predecessor, the previous Editor-in-Chief, Professor Allister Ferguson. Allister has provided a high degree of intellectual stewardship for the journal in the last five years. He has made the job appear a worthy challenge for me. I therefore take this opportunity to thank Allister on behalf of the Editorial Board and publishing staff of the journal. Several other factors contributed to my decision to accept this position. The first is the group of people who actually go about the business of publishing. The Senior Publisher, Nicola Gulley (and her predecessor Sophy Le Masurier); the Managing Editor, Jill Membrey; the Publishing Administrators, Nina Blakesley and Sarah Towell; the Production Editor, Katie Gerrard and their office staff form an amazing group and have managed to make the operation of the journal incredibly efficient. An index of this is the speed with which incoming manuscripts are processed. The average time between the receipt of a manuscript and its web publication, if accepted, is 130 days. This is three to five times shorter than for most other journals. A factor that contributes to this success is a responsive pool of referees that the publishing staff have as a valuable resource. Ultimately, the standard bearers of any journal are the referees. Therefore, a grateful `thank you' is due from all of us at J. Phys. D to all our referees, who diligently perform this honourable task. The Associate Editors of the journal, Professors Lawler, Margaritondo and O'Grady, also provide immense scientific leadership. They help in defining new directions for the journal and in the publishing process. Last, but not least, a remarkable asset of

  17. EDITORIAL: Greetings from the new Editor-in-Chief Greetings from the new Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsch, Kornelius

    2012-01-01

    On 1 January 2012 I will be assuming the position of Editor-in-Chief of the journal Semiconductor Science and Technology (SST). I am flattered by the confidence expressed in my ability to carry out this challenging job and I will try hard to justify this confidence. The previous Editor-in-Chief, Laurens Molenkamp, University of Würzburg, Germany, has worked tirelessly for the last ten years and has done an excellent job for the journal. Everyone at the journal is profoundly grateful for his leadership and for his achievements In 2012 several new members will join the Editorial Board: Professor Deli Wang (University of California, San Diego) with considerable expertise in semiconductor nanowires, Professor Saskia Fischer (Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany) with a background in semiconductor quantum devices, and Professor Erwin Kessels (Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands) with extensive experience in plasma processing of thin films and gate oxides. In particular, I want to express my gratitude to Professor Israel Bar-Joseph (Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel) and Professor Maria Tamargo (The City College of New York, USA), who will leave next year and who have vigorously served the Editorial Board for years. The journal has recently introduced a fast-track option for manuscripts. This option is a high-quality, high-profile outlet for new and important research across all areas of semiconductor research. Authors can expect to receive referee reports in less than 20 days from submission. Once accepted, you can expect the articles to be online within two or three weeks from acceptance and to be published in print in less than a month. Furthermore, all fast-track communications published in 2011 will be free to read for ten years. More detailed information on fast-track publication can be found on the following webpage: http://iopscience.iop.org/0268-1242/page/Fast track communications It is encouraging to see that since the journal introduced pre

  18. EDITORIAL: Greetings from the new Editor-in-Chief Greetings from the new Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsch, Kornelius

    2012-01-01

    On 1 January 2012 I will be assuming the position of Editor-in-Chief of the journal Semiconductor Science and Technology (SST). I am flattered by the confidence expressed in my ability to carry out this challenging job and I will try hard to justify this confidence. The previous Editor-in-Chief, Laurens Molenkamp, University of Würzburg, Germany, has worked tirelessly for the last ten years and has done an excellent job for the journal. Everyone at the journal is profoundly grateful for his leadership and for his achievements In 2012 several new members will join the Editorial Board: Professor Deli Wang (University of California, San Diego) with considerable expertise in semiconductor nanowires, Professor Saskia Fischer (Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany) with a background in semiconductor quantum devices, and Professor Erwin Kessels (Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands) with extensive experience in plasma processing of thin films and gate oxides. In particular, I want to express my gratitude to Professor Israel Bar-Joseph (Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel) and Professor Maria Tamargo (The City College of New York, USA), who will leave next year and who have vigorously served the Editorial Board for years. The journal has recently introduced a fast-track option for manuscripts. This option is a high-quality, high-profile outlet for new and important research across all areas of semiconductor research. Authors can expect to receive referee reports in less than 20 days from submission. Once accepted, you can expect the articles to be online within two or three weeks from acceptance and to be published in print in less than a month. Furthermore, all fast-track communications published in 2011 will be free to read for ten years. More detailed information on fast-track publication can be found on the following webpage: http://iopscience.iop.org/0268-1242/page/Fast track communications It is encouraging to see that since the journal introduced pre

  19. EDITORIAL: Greetings from the new Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Ephrahim

    2008-02-01

    I am Professor Ephrahim Garcia, an Associate Professor at Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. I have been at Cornell University since 2002, spent four years as a Program Manager at the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency from 1998-2002, and before that seven years at the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee. I have served on the Editorial Advisory Board of Smart Materials and Structures (SMS) for the last six years. It is a humbling thing to be asked to take up the post of Editor-in-Chief in a field with so many talented researchers. I would like to say a heartfelt thanks to the members of the Editorial Board and IOP Publishing for their confidence in me. Most importantly, I would like to thank Professor Vijay Varadan of the University of Arkansas and Professor Richard Claus of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University for their efforts in launching the journal 16 years ago. They have been stewards, promoters and, especially Vijay, key to the operation and function of SMS for all these years, and our research community is indebted to them. Professors Varadan and Claus have dedicated their careers to the area of smart materials and structures and we are very grateful for their leadership, mentoring and contribution. SMS is a thriving journal offering papers on all technical areas concerned with smart materials, systems and structures from the micro- and nanoscale to the macroscale. The journal is undergoing some major changes, including the recent transferal of papers to IOP Publishing's peer-review management system. With this new system authors can expect fast publication times of around 4 or 5 months from submission, and excellent author service. In this world of ever changing technology, the Editorial Board and I aim to reduce the time to publication for researchers in this exciting area of science and engineering. I am in the process of

  20. 29 CFR 793.8 - “News editor.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false âNews editor.â 793.8 Section 793.8 Labor Regulations... Exemption § 793.8 “News editor.” A news editor is an employee who gathers, edits and rewrites the news. He may also select and prepare news items for broadcast and present the news on the air. An employee...

  1. 29 CFR 793.8 - “News editor.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false âNews editor.â 793.8 Section 793.8 Labor Regulations... Exemption § 793.8 “News editor.” A news editor is an employee who gathers, edits and rewrites the news. He may also select and prepare news items for broadcast and present the news on the air. An employee...

  2. 29 CFR 793.8 - “News editor.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false âNews editor.â 793.8 Section 793.8 Labor Regulations... Exemption § 793.8 “News editor.” A news editor is an employee who gathers, edits and rewrites the news. He may also select and prepare news items for broadcast and present the news on the air. An employee...

  3. Editorial independence at medical journals owned by professional associations: a survey of editors.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ronald M; Müllner, Marcus

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of editorial independence at a sample of medical journals and the relationship between the journals and their owners. We surveyed the editors of 33 medical journals owned by not-for-profit organizations ("associations"), including 10 journals represented on the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (nine of which are general medical journals) and a random sample of 23 specialist journals with high impact factors that are indexed by the Institute for Scientific Information. The main outcome measures were the authority to hire, fire, and oversee the work of the editor; the editor's tenure and financial compensation; control of the journal's budget; publication of material about the association; and the editor's perceptions about editorial independence and pressure over editorial content. Of the 33 editors, 23 (70%) reported having complete editorial freedom, and the remainder reported a high level of freedom (a score of > or = 8, where 10 equals complete editorial freedom and 1 equals no editorial freedom). Nevertheless, a substantial minority of editors reported having received at least some pressure in recent years over editorial content from the association's leadership (42%), senior staff (30%), or rank-and-file members (39%). The association's board of directors has the authority to hire (48%) or fire (55%) the editor for about half of the journals, and the editor reports to the board for 10 journals (30%). Twenty-three editors (70%) are appointed for a specific term (median term = 5 years). Three-fifths of the journals have no control over their profit, and the majority of journals use the association's legal counsel and/or media relations staff. Stronger safeguards are needed to give editors protection against pressure over editorial content, including written guarantees of editorial freedom and governance structures that support those guarantees. Strong safeguards are also needed because editors

  4. 29 CFR 793.8 - “News editor.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âNews editor.â 793.8 Section 793.8 Labor Regulations... Exemption § 793.8 “News editor.” A news editor is an employee who gathers, edits and rewrites the news. He may also select and prepare news items for broadcast and present the news on the air. An employee...

  5. 29 CFR 793.8 - “News editor.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âNews editor.â 793.8 Section 793.8 Labor Regulations... Exemption § 793.8 “News editor.” A news editor is an employee who gathers, edits and rewrites the news. He may also select and prepare news items for broadcast and present the news on the air. An employee...

  6. Gene targeting, genome editing: from Dolly to editors.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wenfang; Proudfoot, Chris; Lillico, Simon G; Whitelaw, C Bruce A

    2016-06-01

    One of the most powerful strategies to investigate biology we have as scientists, is the ability to transfer genetic material in a controlled and deliberate manner between organisms. When applied to livestock, applications worthy of commercial venture can be devised. Although initial methods used to generate transgenic livestock resulted in random transgene insertion, the development of SCNT technology enabled homologous recombination gene targeting strategies to be used in livestock. Much has been accomplished using this approach. However, now we have the ability to change a specific base in the genome without leaving any other DNA mark, with no need for a transgene. With the advent of the genome editors this is now possible and like other significant technological leaps, the result is an even greater diversity of possible applications. Indeed, in merely 5 years, these 'molecular scissors' have enabled the production of more than 300 differently edited pigs, cattle, sheep and goats. The advent of genome editors has brought genetic engineering of livestock to a position where industry, the public and politicians are all eager to see real use of genetically engineered livestock to address societal needs. Since the first transgenic livestock reported just over three decades ago the field of livestock biotechnology has come a long way-but the most exciting period is just starting. PMID:26847670

  7. Comments on ``Anonymous Reviews'' An Editor's View of Anonymous Reviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, John A.

    I have read with great interest the recent Forum commentaries in Eos by Myrl Beck, Charles Robinove, Robert Criss, and Anne Hofmeister regarding anonymous reviews. I heartily support their position that anonymous reviews should be avoided. I have not written an anonymous review in ages (and regret the few that I did), and have always appreciated and respected greatly anyone who signs a critical review of one of my own papers. However, I would like to add some perspective from the editorial standpoint. I have served as JGR associate editor for 3 years (never anonymously!), and as Eos editor for seismology and tectonophysics for 4. Over the years, I have rejected a fair number of papers, most of those based on anonymous reviews (fortunately, none of the above commentators was one of them). The vast majority of anonymous reviews I received were well considered. While I would wish that all reviews were signed, I don't think we can summarily dismiss the fear that many would have of enmity and reprisal over a critical review. Some of these fears are likely justified. On more than one occasion, have I witnessed overly aggressive responses on the part of authors to anonymous reviews that I considered to be entirely fair and constructive in their criticisms. I do think we need to do all we can to discourage anonymous reviews, but it will be difficult to completely remove that choice from the process.

  8. A Generic Metadata Editor Supporting System Using Drupal CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, J.; Banks, N. G.; Leggott, M.

    2011-12-01

    Metadata handling is a key factor in preserving and reusing scientific data. In recent years, standardized structural metadata has become widely used in Geoscience communities. However, there exist many different standards in Geosciences, such as the current version of the Federal Geographic Data Committee's Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC CSDGM), the Ecological Markup Language (EML), the Geography Markup Language (GML), and the emerging ISO 19115 and related standards. In addition, there are many different subsets within the Geoscience subdomain such as the Biological Profile of the FGDC (CSDGM), or for geopolitical regions, such as the European Profile or the North American Profile in the ISO standards. It is therefore desirable to have a software foundation to support metadata creation and editing for multiple standards and profiles, without re-inventing the wheels. We have developed a software module as a generic, flexible software system to do just that: to facilitate the support for multiple metadata standards and profiles. The software consists of a set of modules for the Drupal Content Management System (CMS), with minimal inter-dependencies to other Drupal modules. There are two steps in using the system's metadata functions. First, an administrator can use the system to design a user form, based on an XML schema and its instances. The form definition is named and stored in the Drupal database as a XML blob content. Second, users in an editor role can then use the persisted XML definition to render an actual metadata entry form, for creating or editing a metadata record. Behind the scenes, the form definition XML is transformed into a PHP array, which is then rendered via Drupal Form API. When the form is submitted the posted values are used to modify a metadata record. Drupal hooks can be used to perform custom processing on metadata record before and after submission. It is trivial to store the metadata record as an actual XML file

  9. Educating science editors: is there a comprehensive strategy?

    PubMed Central

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Yessirkepov, Marlen; Gorin, Sergey V.; Kitas, George D.

    2014-01-01

    The article considers available options to educate science editors in the fast-transforming digital environment. There is no single course or resource that can cover their constantly changing and diversifying educational needs. The involvement in research, writing, and reviewing is important for gaining editing skills, but that is not all. Membership in editorial associations and access to updated scholarly information in the field are mandatory for maintaining editorial credentials. Learned associations offer access to a few widely-recognized periodicals. There are also formal training courses covering issues in science writing and ethical editing, but no high-level evidence data exist to promote any of these. Networking with like-minded specialists within the global and regional editorial associations seems a useful strategy to upgrade editorial skills and resolve problems with the quality control and digitization of scholarly periodicals. PMID:25559840

  10. Automatic adverse drug events detection using letters to the editor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao; Srinivasan, Padmini; Polgreen, Philip M

    2012-01-01

    We present and test the intuition that letters to the editor in journals carry early signals of adverse drug events (ADEs). Surprisingly these letters have not yet been exploited for automatic ADE detection unlike for example, clinical records and PubMed. Part of the challenge is that it is not easy to access the full-text of letters (for the most part these do not appear in PubMed). Also letters are likely underrated in comparison with full articles. Besides demonstrating that this intuition holds we contribute techniques for post market drug surveillance. Specifically, we test an automatic approach for ADE detection from letters using off-the-shelf machine learning tools. We also involve natural language processing for feature definitions. Overall we achieve high accuracy in our experiments and our method also works well on a second new test set. Our results encourage us to further pursue this line of research. PMID:23304379

  11. Automatic Adverse Drug Events Detection Using Letters to the Editor

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chao; Srinivasan, Padmini; Polgreen, Philip M.

    2012-01-01

    We present and test the intuition that letters to the editor in journals carry early signals of adverse drug events (ADEs). Surprisingly these letters have not yet been exploited for automatic ADE detection unlike for example, clinical records and PubMed. Part of the challenge is that it is not easy to access the full-text of letters (for the most part these do not appear in PubMed). Also letters are likely underrated in comparison with full articles. Besides demonstrating that this intuition holds we contribute techniques for post market drug surveillance. Specifically, we test an automatic approach for ADE detection from letters using off-the-shelf machine learning tools. We also involve natural language processing for feature definitions. Overall we achieve high accuracy in our experiments and our method also works well on a second new test set. Our results encourage us to further pursue this line of research. PMID:23304379

  12. Improving systems documentation using an online copy editor

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    For the last three years the author has been using Writers Workbench, a UNIX text-editing tool, to edit computer documentation. In this article the author outlines his experiences using the system, noting both the advantages to explore and pitfalls to avoid in using this tool. Writers Workbench is especially useful for improving a writer's basic skills - punctuation, spelling, and grammar. When used effectively, Writers Workbench can cut down on wordiness and improve the consistency of a manual. It can help in the creation of a table of contents, index, glossary, and bibliography and in checking readability. Furthermore, by creating user-defined dictionaries, authors or editors can customize the tool to fit their purposes and styles. However, Writers Workbench is not good at catching problems relating to organization, focus, and clarity.

  13. Highlighting impact: Do editors' selections identify influential papers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonoyiannakis, Manolis

    A recent trend in scientific publishing is that journal editors highlight each week a select set among the papers published (usually) in their respective journals. The highlighted papers are deemed of higher quality, importance, or interest than the 'average' paper and feature prominently in the publishers' websites. We perform a citation analysis of the highlighted papers for a number of journals from various publishers in physics. By comparing the performance of highlighted papers relative to (a) typical papers and (b) highly cited papers in their source journals and in other journals in the field, we explore whether, and to what extent, the selection process at the time of publication identifies papers that will turn out to be influential. We discuss the broader implications for research assessment.

  14. Advanced software development workstation project: Engineering scripting language. Graphical editor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Software development is widely considered to be a bottleneck in the development of complex systems, both in terms of development and in terms of maintenance of deployed systems. Cost of software development and maintenance can also be very high. One approach to reducing costs and relieving this bottleneck is increasing the reuse of software designs and software components. A method for achieving such reuse is a software parts composition system. Such a system consists of a language for modeling software parts and their interfaces, a catalog of existing parts, an editor for combining parts, and a code generator that takes a specification and generates code for that application in the target language. The Advanced Software Development Workstation is intended to be an expert system shell designed to provide the capabilities of a software part composition system.

  15. The X-windows interactive navigation data editor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinker, G. C.

    1992-01-01

    A new computer program called the X-Windows Interactive Data Editor (XIDE) was developed and demonstrated as a prototype application for editing radio metric data in the orbit-determination process. The program runs on a variety of workstations and employs pull-down menus and graphical displays, which allow users to easily inspect and edit radio metric data in the orbit data files received from the Deep Space Network (DSN). The XIDE program is based on the Open Software Foundation OSF/Motif Graphical User Interface (GUI) and has proven to be an efficient tool for editing radio metric data in the navigation operations environment. It was adopted by the Magellan Navigation Team as their primary data-editing tool. Because the software was designed from the beginning to be portable, the prototype was successfully moved to new workstation environments. It was also itegrated into the design of the next-generation software tool for DSN multimission navigation interactive launch support.

  16. Li(+) solvation in glyme-Li salt solvate ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Kazuhide; Tatara, Ryoichi; Tsuzuki, Seiji; Saito, Soshi; Doi, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Kazuki; Mandai, Toshihiko; Matsugami, Masaru; Umebayashi, Yasuhiro; Dokko, Kaoru; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2015-03-28

    Certain molten complexes of Li salts and solvents can be regarded as ionic liquids. In this study, the local structure of Li(+) ions in equimolar mixtures ([Li(glyme)]X) of glymes (G3: triglyme and G4: tetraglyme) and Li salts (LiX: lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide (Li[TFSA]), lithium bis(pentafluoroethanesulfonyl)amide (Li[BETI]), lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (Li[OTf]), LiBF4, LiClO4, LiNO3, and lithium trifluoroacetate (Li[TFA])) was investigated to discriminate between solvate ionic liquids and concentrated solutions. Raman spectra and ab initio molecular orbital calculations have shown that the glyme molecules adopt a crown-ether like conformation to form a monomeric [Li(glyme)](+) in the molten state. Further, Raman spectroscopic analysis allowed us to estimate the fraction of the free glyme in [Li(glyme)]X. The amount of free glyme was estimated to be a few percent in [Li(glyme)]X with perfluorosulfonylamide type anions, and thereby could be regarded as solvate ionic liquids. Other equimolar mixtures of [Li(glyme)]X were found to contain a considerable amount of free glyme, and they were categorized as traditional concentrated solutions. The activity of Li(+) in the glyme-Li salt mixtures was also evaluated by measuring the electrode potential of Li/Li(+) as a function of concentration, by using concentration cells against a reference electrode. At a higher concentration of Li salt, the amount of free glyme diminishes and affects the electrode reaction, leading to a drastic increase in the electrode potential. Unlike conventional electrolytes (dilute and concentrated solutions), the significantly high electrode potential found in the solvate ILs indicates that the solvation of Li(+) by the glyme forms stable and discrete solvate ions ([Li(glyme)](+)) in the molten state. This anomalous Li(+) solvation may have a great impact on the electrode reactions in Li batteries. PMID:25733406

  17. Letters to the Editor: Public Writing as a Response to Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinehammer, Nora

    A study conducted by the copy editor of a small daily newspaper in Porter County, Indiana examines readers' motivations for writing letters to the editor. Analysis was based on letters that appeared in "The Vidette Messenger" September 16-30, 1992. Of 75 letters, 32 were responses to information published in the paper during the last 2 weeks. All…

  18. Debunking the Mutilated Boy: A Study of Newspaper Editors and an Inflammatory Rumor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lee

    A study examined how newspaper editors resolve issues relating to rumors--that is whether to cover stories which may turn out to be false. The "mutilated boy" rumor was chosen for its antiquity and endurance, its powerful theme, and its ability to create intense anxiety in a community. Thirty-three of the 86 editors who responded to the…

  19. The Student Press under Fire and College Newspaper Editors by Race: A Chronicle Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederman, Douglas; Shea, Christopher

    1993-01-01

    Colleges' student newspapers are criticized for poor coverage of minority groups. Survey reveals that few student editors are minority group members. Table detailing the survey results shows college newspaper editors by race for 111 colleges. Although diversity is cited as a goal, it is not easy to accomplish. Separate sections and minority-group…

  20. Self-Interest and Scholarly Publication: The Dilemma of Researchers, Reviewers, and Editors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calabrese, Raymond L.; Roberts, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Academic misconduct in research is of growing concern to funding agencies, scholars, and academic journal editors. Scholarly publication has ethical implications researchers, reviewers, and journal editors. The theoretical background of the ethics of scholarly publication is explored as well as the use of a case study of an untenured researcher…

  1. Adolescent Sexual Initiation through the Lens of Letters to the Editor Published in Polish Teenage Magazines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopacz, Marek S.; Bajka-Kopacz, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Almost all teenage magazines invite readers to submit questions concerning relationships, published as letters to the editor, popularly called "advice columns," often containing explicit questions about sexuality. This study aims to examine, firstly, how themes related to sexual initiation are presented in letters to the editor published in Polish…

  2. Error Pattern Analysis Applied to Technical Writing: An Editor's Guide for Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monagle, E. Brette

    The use of error pattern analysis can reduce the time and money spent on editing and correcting manuscripts. What is required is noting, classifying, and keeping a frequency count of errors. First an editor should take a typical page of writing and circle each error. After the editor has done a sufficiently large number of pages to identify an…

  3. A "Situational" and "Coorientational" Measure of Specialized Magazine Editors' Perceptions of Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffers, Dennis W.

    A study was undertaken of specialized magazine editors' perceptions of audience characteristics as well as the perceived role of their publications. Specifically, the study examines the relationship between the editors' perceptions of reader problem recognition, level of involvement, constraint recognition, and possession of reference criteria and…

  4. Appropriate roles for the subscriber, publisher, editor, author, and reviewer in the archives of plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun

    2013-11-01

    Authors, editors and reviewers, publishers, and subscribers all play their role in scientific journals. These 5 stakeholders are essential to journals. In this paper, firstly, I briefly summarize the role of each journal stakeholder and their respective goals. Secondly, the status of each participant in the Archives of Plastic Surgery is described. Finally, I propose an appropriate role and plan for each of them. Specific roles and responsibilities include the following: subscribers should welcome and submit the critiques of published papers in letters to the editor. Publishers should trust editors and provide them with adequate financial support for ongoing quality improvement of the journal. The editor-in-chief should be given a sufficient period of time-several years-to build up journal quality and train the incoming editor. The editors, including section editors, are also responsible for increasing the author pool. One editor might be designated a 'devil's referee', that is, a kind of devil's advocate with the responsibility of examining the originality of the manuscript, taking a skeptical view of the manuscript, and looking for holes in the methods and results of reported experiments. Authors' responsibilities include submitting manuscripts with scientific integrity and being ready to take responsibility for their articles even long after publication. Finally, reviewers' responsibilities include identifying similar articles not cited. Reviewers are also welcome to write a discussion on the article they review. PMID:24286037

  5. 29 CFR 793.11 - Combination announcer, news editor and chief engineer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Combination announcer, news editor and chief engineer. 793...)(9) OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Requirements for Exemption § 793.11 Combination announcer, news... as a news editor. In such cases, the primary employment test under the section 13(b)(9)...

  6. 29 CFR 793.11 - Combination announcer, news editor and chief engineer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Combination announcer, news editor and chief engineer. 793...)(9) OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Requirements for Exemption § 793.11 Combination announcer, news... as a news editor. In such cases, the primary employment test under the section 13(b)(9)...

  7. A survey of orthopaedic journal editors determining the criteria of manuscript selection for publication

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To investigate the characteristics of editors and criteria used by orthopaedic journal editors in assessing submitted manuscripts. Methods Between 2008 to 2009 all 70 editors of Medline listed orthopaedic journals were approached prospectively with a questionnaire to determine the criteria used in assessing manuscripts for publication. Results There was a 42% response rate. There was 1 female editor and the rest were male with 57% greater than 60 years of age. 67% of the editors worked in university teaching hospitals and 90% of publications were in English. The review process differed between journals with 59% using a review proforma, 52% reviewing an anonymised manuscript, 76% using a routine statistical review and 59% of journals used 2 reviewers routinely. In 89% of the editors surveyed, the editor was able to overrule the final decision of the reviewers. Important design factors considered for manuscript acceptance were that the study conclusions were justified (80%), that the statistical analysis was appropriate (76%), that the findings could change practice (72%). The level of evidence (70%) and type of study (62%) were deemed less important. When asked what factors were important in the manuscript influencing acceptance, 73% cited an understandable manuscript, 53% cited a well written manuscript and 50% a thorough literature review as very important factors. Conclusions The editorial and review process in orthopaedic journals uses different approaches. There may be a risk of language bias among editors of orthopaedic journals with under-representation of non-English publications in the orthopaedic literature. PMID:21527007

  8. Magazine Article Placement: How Editors, Regular Contributors, and Novice Writers Rate Query Letters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolliffe, Lee

    About 350,000 freelance magazine articles were purchased by magazine editors last year from the 22,000 freelancers and 225,000 would-be freelancers in the United States. A study examined the factors editors judge most important in selecting freelance magazine article proposals, using factor analysis and qualitative examination of persuasive…

  9. 29 CFR 793.11 - Combination announcer, news editor and chief engineer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Combination announcer, news editor and chief engineer. 793.11 Section 793.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT... editor and chief engineer. The 13(b)(9) exemption, as was made clear during the debate on the...

  10. 29 CFR 793.11 - Combination announcer, news editor and chief engineer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Combination announcer, news editor and chief engineer. 793.11 Section 793.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT... editor and chief engineer. The 13(b)(9) exemption, as was made clear during the debate on the...

  11. 29 CFR 793.11 - Combination announcer, news editor and chief engineer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Combination announcer, news editor and chief engineer. 793.11 Section 793.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT... editor and chief engineer. The 13(b)(9) exemption, as was made clear during the debate on the...

  12. Letter to the editor of TAAP, in response to letter from Anders et al.

    EPA Science Inventory

    To the Editor, Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology: We would like to address the letter to the editor submitted by Anders et al. regarding the substantive issues raised regarding our paper "Evaluation of two different metabolic hypotheses for dichloromethane toxicity using physi...

  13. "Clones," Codes, and Conflicts of Interest in Cartooning: Cartoonists and Editors Look at Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riffe, Daniel; And Others

    A study examined differences between political cartoonists and op-ed page editors on both traditional ethical issues (such as conflicts of interest) and the special, style-related concerns of editorial cartoonists. Hypotheses proposed were that editors and cartoonists (1) would condemn "cloning" or copying, reflecting an ethical principle…

  14. EDITORIAL: A word from the new Editor-in-Chief A word from the new Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostowski, Jan

    2011-01-01

    TIn the autumn of 2010 I became the Editor-in Chief of European Journal of Physics (EJP). EJP is a place for teachers, instructors and professors to exchange their views on teaching physics at university level and share their experience. It is general opinion that no good research is possible without connection with good, high-quality teaching, at the university level in particular. Therefore excellence in physics teaching is important to the physics community. European Journal of Physics is proud of its contribution to achieving this goal. As Editor-in-Chief, I will continue to work to this general objective of the journal. We will publish articles on specific topics in physics, stressing originality of presentation and suitability for use in students'laboratories, lectures and physics teaching in general. We will also publish more pedagogical papers presenting the achievements of particular teaching methods. In addition, we will continue to publish special sections on particular areas of physics, as well as the annual special section on physics competitions. European Journal of Physics is in good shape. Due to the work of the previous editors and the publisher, the readership is high and growing steadily, and many excellent papers are being submitted and published. I hope that this positive trend for the journal will continue, and I will do my best to keep to this high standard. A few words about myself. I work in the Institute of Physics in Warsaw, Poland. My main research interests are in theoretical quantum optics and I have published about 80 research papers on this topic. For many years I was involved in teaching physics at university and in high school. I am a co-author of a textbook on physics for high-school students and of a problem book in quantum mechanics. For the last ten years, I have been involved in the International Physics Olympiad and over the last few years I have been a member of the Editorial Board of European Journal of Physics.

  15. THE NEW ONLINE METADATA EDITOR FOR GENERATING STRUCTURED METADATA

    SciTech Connect

    Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Shrestha, Biva; Palanisamy, Giri; Hook, Leslie A; Killeffer, Terri S; Boden, Thomas A; Cook, Robert B; Zolly, Lisa; Hutchison, Viv; Frame, Mike; Cialella, Alice; Lazer, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Nobody is better suited to describe data than the scientist who created it. This description about a data is called Metadata. In general terms, Metadata represents the who, what, when, where, why and how of the dataset [1]. eXtensible Markup Language (XML) is the preferred output format for metadata, as it makes it portable and, more importantly, suitable for system discoverability. The newly developed ORNL Metadata Editor (OME) is a Web-based tool that allows users to create and maintain XML files containing key information, or metadata, about the research. Metadata include information about the specific projects, parameters, time periods, and locations associated with the data. Such information helps put the research findings in context. In addition, the metadata produced using OME will allow other researchers to find these data via Metadata clearinghouses like Mercury [2][4]. OME is part of ORNL s Mercury software fleet [2][3]. It was jointly developed to support projects funded by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). OME s architecture provides a customizable interface to support project-specific requirements. Using this new architecture, the ORNL team developed OME instances for USGS s Core Science Analytics, Synthesis, and Libraries (CSAS&L), DOE s Next Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, and the international Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide ATlas (SOCAT). Researchers simply use the ORNL Metadata Editor to enter relevant metadata into a Web-based form. From the information on the form, the Metadata Editor can create an XML file on the server that the editor is installed or to the user s personal computer. Researchers can also use the ORNL Metadata Editor to modify existing XML metadata files. As an example, an NGEE Arctic scientist use OME to register

  16. Photoionization of Li2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Pindzola, M. S.; Ballance, C. P.; Colgan, J.

    2014-05-01

    Single and double photoionization cross sections for Li2 are calculated using a time-dependent close-coupling method. The correlation between the outer two electrons of Li2 is obtained by relaxation of the close-coupled equations in imaginary time. Propagation of the close-coupled equations in real time yields single and double photoionization cross sections for Li2. The two active electron cross sections are compared with one active electron distorted-wave and close-coupling results for both Li and Li2. This work was supported in part by grants from NSF and US DoE. Computational work was carried out at NERSC in Oakland, California, NICS in Knoxville, Tennessee, and OLCF in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  17. The New Online Metadata Editor for Generating Structured Metadata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devarakonda, R.; Shrestha, B.; Palanisamy, G.; Hook, L.; Killeffer, T.; Boden, T.; Cook, R. B.; Zolly, L.; Hutchison, V.; Frame, M. T.; Cialella, A. T.; Lazer, K.

    2014-12-01

    Nobody is better suited to "describe" data than the scientist who created it. This "description" about a data is called Metadata. In general terms, Metadata represents the who, what, when, where, why and how of the dataset. eXtensible Markup Language (XML) is the preferred output format for metadata, as it makes it portable and, more importantly, suitable for system discoverability. The newly developed ORNL Metadata Editor (OME) is a Web-based tool that allows users to create and maintain XML files containing key information, or metadata, about the research. Metadata include information about the specific projects, parameters, time periods, and locations associated with the data. Such information helps put the research findings in context. In addition, the metadata produced using OME will allow other researchers to find these data via Metadata clearinghouses like Mercury [1] [2]. Researchers simply use the ORNL Metadata Editor to enter relevant metadata into a Web-based form. How is OME helping Big Data Centers like ORNL DAAC? The ORNL DAAC is one of NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) data centers managed by the ESDIS Project. The ORNL DAAC archives data produced by NASA's Terrestrial Ecology Program. The DAAC provides data and information relevant to biogeochemical dynamics, ecological data, and environmental processes, critical for understanding the dynamics relating to the biological components of the Earth's environment. Typically data produced, archived and analyzed is at a scale of multiple petabytes, which makes the discoverability of the data very challenging. Without proper metadata associated with the data, it is difficult to find the data you are looking for and equally difficult to use and understand the data. OME will allow data centers like the ORNL DAAC to produce meaningful, high quality, standards-based, descriptive information about their data products in-turn helping with the data discoverability and

  18. Presence of Li clusters in molten LiCl-Li

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Merwin, Augustus; Phillips, William C.; Williamson, Mark A.; Willit, James L.; Motsegood, Perry N.; Chidambaram, Dev

    2016-05-05

    Molten mixtures of lithium chloride and metallic lithium are of significant interest in various metal oxide reduction processes. These solutions have been reported to exhibit seemingly anomalous physical characteristics that lack a comprehensive explanation. ln the current work, the physical chemistry of molten solutions of lithium chloride and metallic lithium, with and without lithium oxide, was investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra obtained from these solutions were in agreement with the previously reported spectrum of the lithium cluster, Li8. Furthermore, this observation is indicative of a nanofluid type colloidal suspension of Li8, in a molten salt matrix.more » It is suggested that the formation and suspension of lithium clusters in lithium chloride is the cause of various phenomena exhibited by these solutions that were previously unexplainable.« less

  19. Presence of Li Clusters in Molten LiCl-Li

    PubMed Central

    Merwin, Augustus; Phillips, William C.; Williamson, Mark A.; Willit, James L.; Motsegood, Perry N.; Chidambaram, Dev

    2016-01-01

    Molten mixtures of lithium chloride and metallic lithium are of significant interest in various metal oxide reduction processes. These solutions have been reported to exhibit seemingly anomalous physical characteristics that lack a comprehensive explanation. In the current work, the physical chemistry of molten solutions of lithium chloride and metallic lithium, with and without lithium oxide, was investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra obtained from these solutions were in agreement with the previously reported spectrum of the lithium cluster, Li8. This observation is indicative of a nanofluid type colloidal suspension of Li8 in a molten salt matrix. It is suggested that the formation and suspension of lithium clusters in lithium chloride is the cause of various phenomena exhibited by these solutions that were previously unexplainable. PMID:27145895

  20. Presence of Li Clusters in Molten LiCl-Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merwin, Augustus; Phillips, William C.; Williamson, Mark A.; Willit, James L.; Motsegood, Perry N.; Chidambaram, Dev

    2016-05-01

    Molten mixtures of lithium chloride and metallic lithium are of significant interest in various metal oxide reduction processes. These solutions have been reported to exhibit seemingly anomalous physical characteristics that lack a comprehensive explanation. In the current work, the physical chemistry of molten solutions of lithium chloride and metallic lithium, with and without lithium oxide, was investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra obtained from these solutions were in agreement with the previously reported spectrum of the lithium cluster, Li8. This observation is indicative of a nanofluid type colloidal suspension of Li8 in a molten salt matrix. It is suggested that the formation and suspension of lithium clusters in lithium chloride is the cause of various phenomena exhibited by these solutions that were previously unexplainable.

  1. Presence of Li Clusters in Molten LiCl-Li.

    PubMed

    Merwin, Augustus; Phillips, William C; Williamson, Mark A; Willit, James L; Motsegood, Perry N; Chidambaram, Dev

    2016-01-01

    Molten mixtures of lithium chloride and metallic lithium are of significant interest in various metal oxide reduction processes. These solutions have been reported to exhibit seemingly anomalous physical characteristics that lack a comprehensive explanation. In the current work, the physical chemistry of molten solutions of lithium chloride and metallic lithium, with and without lithium oxide, was investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra obtained from these solutions were in agreement with the previously reported spectrum of the lithium cluster, Li8. This observation is indicative of a nanofluid type colloidal suspension of Li8 in a molten salt matrix. It is suggested that the formation and suspension of lithium clusters in lithium chloride is the cause of various phenomena exhibited by these solutions that were previously unexplainable. PMID:27145895

  2. Madame Li Li: Communist Revolutionary, Adult Educator, Lifelong Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boshier, Roger; Huang, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Prior to 1949 the Chinese Communist Party orchestrated innovative and participatory forms of adult education. This article concerns Madame Li Li, a leading Chinese Communist woman adult educator. Western delegates at the International Council for Adult Education 1984 Shanghai symposium on adult education were fascinated by Madame Li Li because,…

  3. Fault Tree, Event Tree, and Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (FEP) editors, Version 4. 0

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, M.K.; Skinner, N.L.; Wood, S.T. )

    1992-05-01

    The Fault Tree, Event Tree, and Piping Instrumentation Diagram (FEP) editors allow the user to graphically build and edit fault trees, event trees, and piping instrumentation diagrams (P IDs). The software is designed to enable the use of graphical-based editors found in the Integrated Reliability and Risk Assessment System (IRRAS). FEP is made up of three separate editors (Fault Tree, Event Tree, and Piping Instrumentation Diagram) and a utility module. This reference manual provides a screen-by-screen walkthrough of the entire FEP System.

  4. Training the unseasoned technical writer-editor: From the trainee's perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    Many unseasoned technical writer-editors who are not adequately trained may become seasoned inadequately trained technical writer-editors. This problem can occur when a trainee is involved in an ineffective training program, but it can be alleviated by the trainer's assessing the unseasoned writer's talents, becoming involved with the trainee's growth in writing and editing skills, and helping him to visualize his potential as a technical writer-editor. Assessment, support, mentoring, and nurturing are important elements in the trainee's growth process and in any good training or internship program. 1 ref.

  5. EDITORIAL: Farewell from the outgoing Editor-in-Chief Farewell from the outgoing Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molenkamp, Laurens W.

    2011-12-01

    At the end of 2011 I will retire as Editor-in-Chief of Semiconductor Science and Technology, and I am very pleased to announce that the job will be taken over by Professor Kornelius Nielsch. In the ten years I have held this position, I have seen many new topics entering the journal: spintronics, organic semiconductors, and Dirac fermion physics, to name just a few. The journal has also witnessed a strong internationalization of the authorship, with an especially strong increase in contributions from the Far East—a growth that is likely to continue in the coming years. I am certain that Kornelius will do an excellent job in guiding the journal through the developments of the coming decade. I would like to thank the publishing team of SST, or rather the three consecutive teams I witnessed during my tenure at the journal, for the help and support they have given me. The people at IOP Publishing are doing a great job in running the journal, and have made it possible to considerably reduce the time to publication for our submissions. I much enjoyed the collaboration with the other members of the Editorial Board; our annual meetings have always been a source of inspiration. Last, but certainly not least, I would like to thank you, the scientific community, authors, referees and readers, for your continuing support of the journal.

  6. The Technical Editor and the Non-Native Speaker of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leki, Ilona

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes current views of second-language acquisition, focusing on the types and origins of the problems of nonnative technical writers. Offers suggestions to help editors avoid or alleviate the problems. (PRA)

  7. Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals. International Committee of Medical Journal Editors.

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    In the 13 years since it was first published the "Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals" (the Vancouver style), developed by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, has been widely accepted by both authors and editors; over 400 journals have stated that they will consider manuscripts that conform to its requirements. This is the fourth edition of the "Uniform requirements." PMID:8287338

  8. Structure of 10,11Li and the reaction 11Li (p , d)10Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortune, H. T.

    2016-09-01

    I examine the properties of 11Li and the low-lying resonances in 10Li, as they relate to neutron removal from 11Li. Comparison with results from a recent 11Li (p , d) reaction strongly suggests that that experiment observed only the 2+ resonance, and not the 1+.

  9. EDITORIAL: Message from the new Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dendy, R.

    2005-01-01

    On 1 January 2005 I become Editor-in-Chief of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion. I look forward to assisting contributors, referees and the Board in maintaining the high standards of this international journal, whose bibliometric impact factor has consistently matched or exceeded that of other journals in the field. The robust, good health of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion reflects that of its user communities. With a decision to proceed to the construction of ITER apparently imminent, magnetic confinement fusion research is preparing to take a major step forwards. A new generation of laser-plasma interaction facilities for inertial fusion research is also rising at key sites around the world. Technical progress in our field is underpinned by scientific excellence, and the publication of results in Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion will, I hope, continue to play its part. The journal will continue to offer the benefits of refereeing by two experts, combined with the rapid turnaround achieved by the highly efficient editorial office at the Institute of Physics Publishing in Bristol. Looking elsewhere, there may be opportunities for gentle incremental broadening of the scientific scope of the journal, in the medium term. One looks in particular to those branches of plasma physics that, in recent years, have become more strongly represented in the series of conferences organized by the Plasma Physics Division of the European Physical Society. The recent special issue of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion (Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 46 (2004) B1--592) provides an indication. Finally, it is a pleasure to thank my predecessor, Professor Ian Hutchinson of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for handing on his role with the journal in such promising condition.

  10. EDITORIAL: Greetings from the new Editor-in-Chief Greetings from the new Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Jason S.

    2012-01-01

    As I begin my tenure as Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter (JPCM), I look upon this opportunity as both an honour and a real challenge. The journal is in great shape thanks to the work of my predecessors, Marshall Stoneham and David Ferry. The journal's solid reputation is based largely on the work these gentlemen have done over the past decade. The other main reason for the success of JPCM is the amazing staff in Bristol; keep up the good work, please. When discussing the journal with scientists from all corners of the globe, one thing is always mentioned—JPCM is a very reliable journal with well-written, high-quality papers, and a fast but rigorous peer-review process that provides fair, detailed and constructive referee reports for the benefit of authors. This is due almost entirely to our great authors and referees; we rely on them every day—thank you. As the new Editor-in-Chief I hope to continue to improve still further the journal's status in condensed matter science. As mentioned above, our reputation is excellent, but the reality is that we live in a world of bibliometrics and rankings. Over the past few years JPCM has been repositioned as a journal at the forefront of condensed matter physics, and the impact of the journal should increase further as a result of continued emphasis on commissioning in cutting-edge areas identified by the Editorial Board and the journal team. In addition to regular papers, JPCM has a number of other content streams that authors and readers can benefit from. Fast track communications (FTCs) offer exceptionally fast publication for work of the highest impact and urgency. By their select nature, FTCs benefit from personal treatment by the Editorial Board and the average receipt-to-first-decision time is just 11 days (the average receipt-to-publication time is just 45 days). Topical reviews in JPCM make the journal one of the most authoritative sources of review content for condensed matter physics

  11. EDITORIAL: Greetings from the new Editor-in-Chief Greetings from the new Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corkum, Paul

    2011-01-01

    As a journal that reports advances in atomic, molecular and optical science (AMO), Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (J. Phys. B) provides the AMO research community with three unique fora: topical reviews, tutorials and special issues. Developed under the leadership of editor Jan Michael Rost and his Editorial Board, these sections have cemented J. Phys. B's reputation as a major journal showcasing the AMO community's advances. For me, an AMO scientist, it is therefore a special pleasure to be entrusted with continuing the tradition of excellence established by Jan Michael and the Editorial Board. I intend to build on this foundation by ensuring that the journal makes full use of these tools. Topical reviews: a unique focus When J. Phys. B becomes the first journal you turn to for initial reviews about important emerging areas in your field, we as an Editorial Board will have succeeded. To us, a topical review is different from a traditional review—a topical review focuses on emerging sub-fields of AMO physics. Its function is to alert and educate our readers about emerging opportunities. Topical reviews can also serve a closely related function for readers: keeping us up-to-date with critical technologies that lie slightly outside our own fields, such as advances in free-electron lasers science, (which will surely affect our field). Our overall goal is to make your research more productive because of the topical reviews you read within the journal. Tutorials J. Phys. B tutorials are aimed at graduate students or researchers venturing into a new field. Just as in my own research group I encourage all graduate students to write their theses in a way that will be useful to both future graduate students and the larger community beyond my group, J. Phys. B has designed tutorials to fill this function on the journal scale. Thus, tutorial authors are able to write in greater depth than can be included in a paper in nature, science or in the

  12. EDITORIAL: Thank you and farewell from the Founding Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskes, Mike

    2005-07-01

    I have been involved with Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering (MSMSE) from the very beginning when it was merely an idea, over 14 years ago, to the current journal that is well supported by the community. During my time as Editor there have been many changes in the journal, including the introduction of electronic submissions, web-based services and free printed colour where it is essential to the article, as well as completely free colour online. The journal has seen excellent growth in the number and quality of submissions and the number of articles published continues to rise, enabling us to expand the journal to eight issues in 2005. Web accesses and downloads have greatly surpassed even my wildest dreams. In my opinion, the emergence of MSMSE as a top materials modelling journal has confirmed the vision of Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP) and the Executive Board that this area of science and engineering was ripe for a specialized journal. I feel that, having seen the journal through the early years and watched it grow into a successful arena for multidisciplinary materials research, it is now an appropriate time for me to hand over the reins. The journal has a great foundation for future growth and development and is supported by an excellent Editorial Board, who have given me a great deal of help and advice over the years. I feel sure that they will continue to support the journal when Bill Curtin, Brown University, takes over on 1 July 2005. Bill has the diverse experience in modelling at the atomic, dislocation, and continuum levels to lead the journal to new heights. Finally I would like to thank all of the readers, authors and referees who have greatly contributed to MSMSE over the years. Thank you for your support and help, and I hope you will continue to support the journal. Last, but not least, I would like to thank the staff at IOPP. Without their expert assistance, the journal could not have been as successful as it is

  13. CHAIRMEN'S PREFACE AND EDITORS' NOTE: Unification of Fundamental Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brink, Lars; Nilsson, Jan S.; Salomonson, Per; Skagerstam, Bo-Sture

    1987-01-01

    Vainshtein. We had hoped that the Nobel Symposium should be a signal for improved relations between East and West, but in this respect we failed. The Symposium was held in the small town of Marstrand, a summer resort on an island outside Göteborg. The idea was to have it relatively close to home and to show the participants perhaps the best part of the local nature. Another motive was to keep the participants semi-isolated to provide ample time for discussions. With the somewhat heavy programme we found that even so, the days were not long enough. This Symposium was the second Nobel Symposium on elementary particle physics. The first one, also organized by our group, was held in 1968. We hope and believe that the next one need not be awaited another 18 years! The Symposium was made possible by a generous grant from the Nobel Foundation. An additional grant from the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences was also essential. A grant from Nordita made it possible to invite some ten Nordic observers. We also gratefully acknowledge help with the organization of the Symposium from the city of Goteborg, the city of Kungälv, Volvo, Skandinaviska Enskilda banken, Ericsson AB and IBM Sweden. We thank all the participants for all their efforts, to come to our remote part of the world, to give excellent talks, to write up their talks astonishingly quickly and to share with us so much of their knowledge and expertise. Last but not least we are indebted to the members of the organizing committee, members of the group and the secretarial staff. Goteborg, August 1986 Editors' NoteIn these Proceedings the lectures are given in the order of their oral presentation at the Symposium. Regrettably, a few contributors could not participate (V. Gribov, A. Linde, V. Ogievetsky, M. Shifman and A. M. Polyakov). Their contributions have been placed close to the end of the Proceedings. As these authors did not have the opportunity of correcting the proofs, responsibility for printing errors must rest with

  14. US health journal editors' opinions and policies on research in race, ethnicity, and health.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, T.; Bhopal, R.

    1998-01-01

    Health research on race and ethnicity has been criticized for lacking rigor in conceptualization, terminology, and analysis. Scientific journals' editorial processes help determine research quality. This survey assessed editors' awareness of current debates, attitudes toward recent recommendations, and involvement in developing editorial policies. Twenty-nine editors of health journals with impact factors of > or = 1 (based on citation ratings) were sent a questionnaire including four key problems identified in research literature and recommendations from federal agencies; 23 (79%) responded. Seven editors relevant policies. Two had read the federal directive on racial and ethnic classification; one was aware of its current review. Most perceived the four key problems as uncommon. The majority agreed with Public Health Service recommendations on race and ethnicity research, except for analyzing effects of racism. Approximately 20% had discussed issues with co-editors, editorial boards, or reviewers. About 40% saw further discussion as beneficial; four planned to draft guidelines. Editors' potential for helping resolve problems in race/ethnicity research is not being realized. Greater participation would be beneficial to public health research and practice. PMID:9685775

  15. STK Integrated Message Production List Editor (SIMPLE) for CEO Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trenchard, Mike; Heydorn, James

    2014-01-01

    Late in fiscal year 2011, the Crew Earth Observations (CEO) team was tasked to upgrade and replace its mission planning and mission operations software systems, which were developed in the Space Shuttle era of the 1980s and 1990s. The impetuses for this change were the planned transition of all workstations to the Windows 7 64-bit operating system and the desire for more efficient and effective use of Satellite Tool Kit (STK) software required for reliable International Space Station (ISS) Earth location tracking. An additional requirement of this new system was the use of the same SQL database of CEO science sites from the SMMS, which was also being developed. STK Integrated Message Production List Editor (SIMPLE) is the essential, all-in-one tool now used by CEO staff to perform daily ISS mission planning to meet its requirement to acquire astronaut photography of specific sites on Earth. The sites are part of a managed, long-term database that has been defined and developed for scientific, educational, and public interest. SIMPLE's end product is a set of basic time and location data computed for an operator-selected set of targets that the ISS crew will be asked to photograph (photography is typically planned 12 to 36 hours out). The CEO operator uses SIMPLE to (a) specify a payload operations planning period; (b) acquire and validate the best available ephemeris data (vectors) for the ISS during the planning period; (c) ingest and display mission-specific site information from the CEO database; (d) identify and display potential current dynamic event targets as map features; (e) compute and display time and location information for each target; (f) screen and select targets based on known crew availability constraints, obliquity constraints, and real-time evaluated constraints to target visibility due to illumination (sun elevation) and atmospheric conditions (weather); and finally (g) incorporate basic, computed time and location information for each selected

  16. First determination of the 8Li valence neutron asymptotic normalization coefficient using the 7Li(8Li,7Li)8Li reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, D.; Davids, B.; Greene, J. P.; Kanungo, R.; Mythili, S.; Ruiz, C.; Ruprecht, G.; Thompson, I. J.

    2013-08-01

    We report here a determination of the asymptotic normalization coefficient of the valence neutron in 8Li from a measurement of the angular distribution of the 7Li(8Li,7Li)8Li reaction at 11 MeV. Using isospin symmetry the 8B ANC has also been calculated and used to infer a value for S17(0) of 20.2 ± 4.4 eV b.

  17. Galactic evolution of 7Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matteucci, Francesca

    2010-04-01

    Lithium represents a key element in cosmology, as it is one of the few nuclei synthesized during the Big Bang. The primordial abundance of 7Li allows us to impose constraints on the primordial nucleosynthesis and on the baryon density of the universe. However, 7Li is not only produced during the Big Bang but also during galactic evolution: measures of stellar Li in our Galaxy suggest an almost constant Li abundance (the so-called Spite plateau) at low metallicities and a subsequent increase in the disk stars, leading to a Li abundance in Population I stars higher by a factor of ten than in Population II stars. This means that there must exist several possible stellar sources of 7Li: asymptotic giant branch stars, supernovae, novae, red giant stars. 7Li is also partly produced in spallation processes while 6Li is entirely produced by such processes. All of these sources have been included in galactic chemical evolution models and constraints have been derived on the primordial 7Li and its evolution, as well on stellar models. I will review these models and their results and what we have learned about 7Li evolution. Some still open problems, such as the disagreement between the primordial 7Li abundance as derived by WMAP and as measured in Population II stars, and the uncertainties about the main sources of stellar 7Li will be discussed.

  18. Transferable Output ASCII Data (TOAD) editor version 1.0 user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingel, Bradford D.; Shea, Anne L.; Hofler, Alicia S.

    1991-01-01

    The Transferable Output ASCII Data (TOAD) editor is an interactive software tool for manipulating the contents of TOAD files. The TOAD editor is specifically designed to work with tabular data. Selected subsets of data may be displayed to the user's screen, sorted, exchanged, duplicated, removed, replaced, inserted, or transferred to and from external files. It also offers a number of useful features including on-line help, macros, a command history, an 'undo' option, variables, and a full compliment of mathematical functions and conversion factors. Written in ANSI FORTRAN 77 and completely self-contained, the TOAD editor is very portable and has already been installed on SUN, SGI/IRIS, and CONVEX hosts.

  19. A Tcl/Tk-Based, Intelligent Graphical Editor for Preparing HST Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asson, D. J.; Bose, A.; Krueger, A.

    The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) built the Proposal Editor (PED) system to be an intelligent graphical editor for creating a detailed observing program for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Previously, users would type in an observing program in a text editor, and then essentially compile it to check for errors. PED gives users an interactive session that provides menus and selections whenever possible, eliminating many possible errors resulting from typos. Multiple choice selections include the invalid values with explanations as to why they are invalid. A declarative constraint mechanism is used to encode legal and illegal values for individual program parts as well as relationships between parts. Error checking is provided on individual parts, as well as on the program as a whole.

  20. An interactive editor for definition of touch-sensitive zones for a graphic display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monroe, Burt L., III; Jones, Denise R.

    1987-01-01

    In the continuing effort to develop more efficient man-machine communications methods, touch displays have shown potential as straightforward input systems. The development of software necessary to handle such systems, however, can become tedious. In order to reduce the need for redundant programming, a touch editor has been developed which allows a programmer to interactively define touch-sensitive areas for a graphic display. The information produced during the editing process is written to a data file, which can be accessed easily when needed by an application program. This paper outlines the structure, logic, and use of the editor, as well as the hardware with which it is presently compatible.

  1. Conflicts of interest for medical publishers and editors: protecting the integrity of scientific scholarship.

    PubMed

    Desai, Sapan S; Shortell, Cynthia K

    2011-09-01

    Competition of interest may exist at all levels in the medical publication process. Ensuring the integrity of scientific scholarship involves protecting editorial independence, promoting the use of scientific arbitration boards, promoting transparency throughout all stages of publication, and protecting the relationship between the publisher and its editors through an effective legal framework. It is incumbent upon the publisher, editors, authors, and readers to ensure that the highest standards of scientific scholarship are upheld. Doing so will help reduce fraud and misrepresentation in medical research and increase the trustworthiness of landmark findings in science. PMID:21872119

  2. Improving the quality of papers submitted to dental journals: Transcription of session for editors, associate editors, publishers and others with an interest in scientific publishing held at IADR meeting in Cape Town on Wednesday, 25 June 2014.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Kenneth A; Giannobile, William V; Sourgen, Deborah L; Balaji, S M; Honkala, Eino; Lynch, Christopher D

    2015-08-01

    This satellite symposium was the fourth in a series for editors, publishers, reviewers and all those with an interest in scientific publishing. It was held on Wednesday 25th June 2014 at the IADR International meeting in Cape Town, South Africa. The symposium attracted more than 180 attendees. This symposium placed an emphasis on how the quality of papers submitted to dental journals could be improved. The panel included representation from editors, researchers and publishers from North America, India and the Gulf States. The symposium identified a number of challenges for editors and publishers, including the poor quality of many papers submitted to dental and other scientific journals, plagiarism, attempted duplicate publication and sometimes fraudulent results. Where possible speakers are identified by name. A subsequent symposium was held during the IADR meeting in Boston on March 11th 2015. Involvement open to editors, associate editors, publishers and others with an interest in scientific publishing. PMID:25748020

  3. EDITORIAL: Editorial from the new Editor-in-Chief for 2014 Editorial from the new Editor-in-Chief for 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, W. G.

    2014-02-01

    I am honoured to take on the leadership of Plasma Sources Science and Technology (PSST) as the successor to Professor Mark J Kushner, with whom I have had the pleasure to work on the journal for many years. Under Mark's insightful and energetic leadership over the last six years, PSST has cemented its position as the journal of choice within its subject area and is now one of the most successful journals in the field. In this first issue of 2014, I would like to reflect on some of the events and achievements of 2013. At the start of the year the PSST Editorial Board, recognizing the vital importance of atomic, molecular and optical (AMO) data to low-temperature plasma physics, agreed that PSST would accept papers reporting such new data, generated through both experiment and theory. Jonathan Tennyson joined the Editorial Board to represent this area. In March Anne Bourdon joined the Associate Editor team and has since then played a key part in the journal's review process alongside our other Editors. During the autumn, PSST moved to a new editorial management system. In December Deborah O'Connell was awarded the 2013 Hershkowitz Early Career Award and Review and joins the Editorial Board as of 2014. I would also like to thank Miles Turner for his work in leading the drafting of a guide on the details necessary in the reporting of the results of computer simulations; the main conclusions of this report have been incorporated into the journal policy. Overall 2013 has been another successful year for PSST; paper submissions were up by 8% on the previous year and there was the highest ever number of downloads of PSST papers in one year. Another noteworthy feature of 2013 was the continuing improvement in publication times while maintaining our high standards for acceptance and providing expert feedback coupled with encouragement particularly to younger researchers and groups. Largely as a result of the hard work of our referees and Associate Editors, the average time

  4. A Study of the Coorientation of High School Principals, Journalism Teachers, and Local Newspaper Editors in Selected Iowa Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jane W.

    A study investigated the extent to which high school journalism teachers, principals, and local newspaper editors in selected Iowa communities have a common understanding of each other and the issues of high school journalism. A questionnaire sent to 187 newspaper editors, high school principals, and journalism teachers was returned by 118…

  5. What Editors and Journalism Educators Expect from Journalism Education; An ANPA News Research Center Survey. News Research Bulletin No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulteng, John L.

    The purpose of this survey was to assemble data about the expectations of editors and journalism educators as to journalism education, with the objective of providing a basis for an informed dialogue about ways to advance and support education for journalism. Some of the findings were: editors much less than educators perceived newly-hired…

  6. Li-Fraumeni syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ossa, Carlos Andrés; Molina, Gustavo; Cock-Rada, Alicia María

    2016-01-01

    The Li-Fraumeni syndrome is characterized clinically by the appearance of tumors in multiple organs generally at an early age. This hereditary condition is caused by germinal mutations in the TP53 gene, which codifies for the tumoural suppressor gene p53. We present the case of a patient aged 31 with clinical and molecular diagnosis of Li-Fraumeni syndrome who presented two synchronous tumors: a leiomyosarcoma on the forearm and a phyllodes breast tumour. She had a family history of cancer, including a son diagnosed with a cortical adrenal carcinoma when he was three years old, who died at five from the disease. Furthermore, her maternal grandmother and great-grandmother died of stomach cancer at 56 and 60 years old, respectively, while her other great-grandmother and a great aunt presented with breast cancer at the ages of 60 and 40, respectively. After genetic counseling, complete sequencing and analysis of duplications and deletions in the TP53 gene were ordered prior to diagnosis. The molecular analysis of a DNA sample taken from peripheral blood lymphocytes revealed the germinal mutation c.527G>T (p.Cys176Phe) on exon 5 of the TP53 gene, a deleterious mutation described previously in tumoural tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first published case in Colombia of Li-Fraumeni syndrome with confirmed molecular diagnosis. The diagnosis and management of Li-Fraumeni syndrome should be performed by a multidisciplinary team, and genetic counselling should be offered to patients and their relatives. PMID:27622479

  7. Referees, editors, and publication practices: Improving the reliability and usefulness of the peer review system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicchetti, Domenic V.

    1997-03-01

    The documented low levels of reliability of the peer review process present a serious challenge to editors who must often base their publication decisions on conflicting referee recommendations. The purpose of this article is to discuss this process and examine ways to produce a more reliable and useful peer review system.

  8. Letter to the Editor Re: Nissensohn M. et al.; Nutrients 2016, 8, 232.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Pêgo, Cíntia; Babio, Nancy; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Dear Editor, We read with interest the recently published original article entitled "Beverage Consumption Habits and Association with TotalWater and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study" by Nissensohn et al. [1] in Nutrients.[...]. PMID:27472360

  9. Print versus Electronic: Editors' Insights on the Costs and Benefits of Online Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angell, Brian D.; Smith, Gabie E.

    1998-01-01

    Responses from 26 of 40 editors of electronic journals indicates that 57% were motivated to go online by creative possibilities; only 42% had existing print-journal counterparts; 34.6% felt they reach a broader or different audience online; and 50% felt online journals were less costly and had the advantage of speed of production. (SK)

  10. An International Call for Democratizing the Academic Journal Culture from a Community of Editors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Carol A.; Pryor, Caroline R.; Browne-Ferrigno, Tricia; Harris, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    In our reflective essay from our multiple perspectives as journal editors, peer reviewers, and published authors, we present ideas about editorial support, democracy, and innovation in the publishing process. As four tenured professors who work in universities in the states of Illinois, Virginia, Texas, and Kentucky, we are a community of editors…

  11. The Creators of "Making Up Megaboy": A Writer/Illustrator/Editor Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Virginia; Roeckelein, Katrina; Jackson, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Presents a conversation between editor Richard Jackson, author Virginia Walter, and illustrator Katrina Roeckelein that traces the creation of "Making Up Megaboy," a story that reconstructs a killing by a 12-year-old boy. Highlights include questions about possible readership, types of illustrations needed, and the artfulness of books. (LRW)

  12. Using letters to the editor to try to bring science to the public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrecht, Gordon

    2009-10-01

    The local paper here, the Delaware Gazette, publishes many letters from global warming skeptics and people ignorant of energy policy. I explain how I attempt to bring some sense to the situation through reply letters to the editor. Scientists need to express scientific views in public as our duty to fellow citizens.

  13. Evolution of Novice Programming Environments: The Structure Editors of Carnegie Mellon University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Philip; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes three projects at Carnegie Mellon University (Pennsylvania) that developed novice programming environments based on structure editors: GNOME, MacGNOME and ACSE (Advanced Computing for Science Education). Tracks the evolution of the programming environments and courses, documenting important lessons and discoveries about novice…

  14. Professional Wisdom and Writing for Publication: Qualitative Interviews with Editors and Authors in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    2013-01-01

    College and university faculty members specializing in early childhood education face some unique challenges in scholarly writing. The purpose of this research was to use open-ended interviews as a way to gather the collective wisdom of a group of key informants about academic writing and publishing in the field. Twenty-two editors and/or authors,…

  15. Improving the Yield of Rural Education Research: An Editor's Swan Song

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coladarci, Theodore

    2007-01-01

    In my 15th and final year as JRRE editor, I identify methodological and substantive shortcomings in the rural education research literature and, in turn, suggest strategies for improvement. I structure my observations around the following considerations: describing the rural context of research, making the rural argument, framing the research…

  16. The Location of Knowledge: A Conversation with the Editors on Knowledge, Experience, and Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Lynette; Kelly, Jennifer; Weber-Pillwax, Cora

    2009-01-01

    As co-editors of this theme issue of this journal, the authors have accepted that knowledge systems and teacher education programs are deeply interconnected. Further, they claim that teacher education programs must incorporate in theory and practice the fact that knowledge systems are a determining factor in the effectiveness of a teacher…

  17. Persnickety editor, Founding Father, Mentor and Friend: The Legacy of Fred Mumpton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a tribute to Dr Fred Munpton, the founder of the International Committee on Natural Zeolites (ICNZ), by one of his students, who later succeed him as president of the ICNZ. The tribute reflects on Dr. Mumpton's skills as an editor and his zeal for the study of natural zeolites.

  18. The Newspaper Editor As Graphic Strategist. ANPA News Research Report No. 27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Mario R.

    This report discusses the graphic strategies available to editors for positioning the day's news. The purposes of the report are: (1) to introduce those in charge of designing the newspaper page to the structural approach to design (the structural approach is defined as incorporating horizontal and vertical structures in the available spaces,…

  19. IFLA General Conference, 1986. Education and Research Division. Section: RT of Editors of Library Journals. Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Presented as part of a roundtable discussion by editors of library journals at the 1986 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference, "Electronic Publishing," by Hirokazu Iwata of Japan, discusses Dai Nippon Printing's response to new media and electronic publishing. Various aspects of the computerized processing and…

  20. More on Lexical Bias: How Efficient Can a "Lexical Editor'" Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nozari, Nazbanou; Dell, Gary S.

    2009-01-01

    The lexical bias effect (the tendency for phonological speech errors to create words more often than nonwords) has been debated for over 30 years. One account attributes the effect to a lexical editor, a strategic component of the production system that examines each planned phonological string, and suppresses it if it is a nonword. The…

  1. SPADE: A Grammar Based Editor for Planning and Debugging Programs. AI Memo 386.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Mark L.; Goldstein, Ira P.

    The Structured Planning and Debugging Editor (SPADE) is a new kind of interactive programming environment in which computer programs are generated by explicitly articulating planning decisions. The design of SPADE is based upon the development of a grammar of plans from a taxonomy of basic planning techniques. The utility of this approach to…

  2. Editorial: Conflict of interest policy for Editors of The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrity in the publication process requires impartiality at all levels of review. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (AJCN) adheres to the policy of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writin...

  3. Learning the Attachment Theory with the CM-ED Concept Map Editor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueda, U.; Arruarte, A.; Elorriaga, J. A.; Herran, E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a study carried out at the University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU with the aim of evaluating the CM-ED (concept map editor) with social education students. Concept mapping is a widely accepted technique that promotes meaningful learning. Graphically representing concepts of the learning domain and relationships between them…

  4. Guidelines for Reviewers and the Editor at the Nuclear Safety Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whetsel, H. B.

    The main purpose of this report is to help novice reviewers accelerate their apprenticeship at the Nuclear Safety Information Center, a computerized information service sponsored by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Guidelines for reviewers are presented in Part 1; Part 2 contains guidelines for the novice editor. The goal of the reviewers and…

  5. Light chain editors of anti-DNA receptors in human B cells

    PubMed Central

    Kalinina, Olga; Wang, Yue; Sia, Kevin; Radic, Marko; Cazenave, Pierre-André

    2014-01-01

    Receptor editing is a mechanism of self-tolerance used in newly generated B cells. The expressed heavy (H) or light (L) chain of an autoreactive receptor is replaced by upstream V genes which eliminate or modify autoreactivity. Editing of anti-DNA receptors has been characterized in anti-DNA transgenic mouse models including 3H9, 3H9/56R, and their revertant 3H9GL. Certain L chains, termed editors, rescue anti-DNA B cells by neutralizing or modifying DNA binding of the H chain. This editing mechanism acts on the natural H chain repertoire; endogenous H chains with anti-DNA features are expressed primarily in combination with editor L chains. We ask whether a similar set of L chains exists in the human repertoire, and if so, do they edit H chains with anti-DNA signatures? We compared the protein sequences of mouse editors to all human L chains and found several human L chains similar to mouse editors. These L chains diminish or veto anti-DNA binding when expressed with anti-DNA H chains. The human H chains expressed with these L chains also have relatively high arginine (Arg) content in the H chain complementarity determining region (H3), suggesting that receptor editing plays a role in establishing tolerance to DNA in humans. PMID:24470445

  6. University-government relationships in the training of technical writers-editors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stohrer, Freda F.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1979-01-01

    Traditional and nontraditional methods of training technical writers-editors are reviewed. Combining work experience with classroom instruction in the form of cooperative education provides a method of strengthening the Federal career service in professional occupations. The NASA Langley experience that successfully introduced students to the special demands of technical writing and editing is described.

  7. Guidelines, editors, pharma and the biological paradigm shift.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajai R; Singh, Shakuntala A

    2007-01-01

    relatively recent survey of 2002, it was found that about 60% of 192 authors of clinical practice guidelines reported they had financial connections with the companies whose drugs were under consideration. There is a strong case for making CPGs based not just on effectivity but cost effectivity. The various ramifications of this need to be spelt out. Work of bodies like the Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation (AGREE) Collaboration and Guidelines Advisory Committee (GAC) are also worth a close look.Even the actions of Foundations that work for disease amelioration have come under scrutiny. The process of setting up 'Best Practices' Guidelines for interactions between the pharmaceutical industry and clinicians has already begun and can have important consequences for patient care. Similarly, Good Publication Practice (GPP) for pharmaceutical companies have also been set up aimed at improving the behaviour of drug companies while reporting drug trialsThe rapidly increasing trend toward influence and control by industry has become a concern for many. It is of such importance that the Association of American Medical Colleges has issued two relatively new documents - one, in 2001, on how to deal with individual conflicts of interest; and the other, in 2002, on how to deal with institutional conflicts of interest in the conduct of clinical research. Academic Medical Centers (AMCs), as also medical education and research institutions at other places, have to adopt means that minimize their conflicts of interest.Both medical associations and research journal editors are getting concerned with individual and institutional conflicts of interest in the conduct of clinical research and documents are now available which address these issues. The 2001 ICMJE revision calls for full disclosure of the sponsor's role in research, as well as assurance that the investigators are independent of the sponsor, are fully accountable for the design and conduct of the trial, have

  8. Understanding Li diffusion in Li-intercalation compounds.

    PubMed

    Van der Ven, Anton; Bhattacharya, Jishnu; Belak, Anna A

    2013-05-21

    Intercalation compounds, used as electrodes in Li-ion batteries, are a fascinating class of materials that exhibit a wide variety of electronic, crystallographic, thermodynamic, and kinetic properties. With open structures that allow for the easy insertion and removal of Li ions, the properties of these materials strongly depend on the interplay of the host chemistry and crystal structure, the Li concentration, and electrode particle morphology. The large variations in Li concentration within electrodes during each charge and discharge cycle of a Li battery are often accompanied by phase transformations. These transformations include order-disorder transitions, two-phase reactions that require the passage of an interface through the electrode particles, and structural phase transitions, in which the host undergoes a crystallographic change. Although the chemistry of an electrode material determines the voltage range in which it is electrochemically active, the crystal structure of the compound often plays a crucial role in determining the shape of the voltage profile as a function of Li concentration. While the relationship between the voltage profile and crystal structure of transition metal oxide and sulfide intercalation compounds is well characterized, far less is known about the kinetic behavior of these materials. For example, because these processes are especially difficult to isolate experimentally, solid-state Li diffusion, phase transformation mechanisms, and interface reactions remain poorly understood. In this respect, first-principles statistical mechanical approaches can elucidate the effect of chemistry and crystal structure on kinetic properties. In this Account, we review the key factors that govern Li diffusion in intercalation compounds and illustrate how the complexity of Li diffusion mechanisms correlates with the crystal structure of the compound. A variety of important diffusion mechanisms and associated migration barriers are sensitive to

  9. Invariant-mass spectroscopy of 10Li and 11Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinser, M.; Humbert, F.; Nilsson, T.; Schwab, W.; Simon, H.; Aumann, T.; Borge, M. J. G.; Chulkov, L. V.; Cub, J.; Elze, Th. W.; Emling, H.; Geissel, H.; Guillemaud-Mueller, D.; Hansen, P. G.; Holzmann, R.; Irnich, H.; Jonson, B.; Kratz, J. V.; Kulessa, R.; Leifels, Y.; Lenske, H.; Magel, A.; Mueller, A. C.; Münzenberg, G.; Nickel, F.; Nyman, G.; Richter, A.; Riisager, K.; Scheidenberger, C.; Schrieder, G.; Stelzer, K.; Stroth, J.; Surowiec, A.; Tengblad, O.; Wajda, E.; Zude, E.

    1997-02-01

    Break-up of secondary 11Li ion beams (280 MeV/nucleon) on C and Pb targets into 9Li and neutrons is studied experimentally. Cross sections and neutron multiplicity distributions are obtained, characterizing different reaction mechanisms. Invariant-mass spectroscopy for 11Li and 10Li is performed. The E1 strength distribution, deduced from electromagnetic excitation of 11Li up to an excitation energy of 4 MeV comprises ˜8% of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn energy-weighted sumrule strength. Two low-lying resonance-like structures are observed for 10Li at decay energies of 0.21(5) and 0.62(10) MeV, the former one carrying 26(10)% of the strength and likely to be associated with an s-wave neutron decay. A strong di-neutron correlation in 11Li can be discarded. Calculations in a quasi-particle RPA approach are compared with the experimental results for 10Li and 11Li.

  10. Charge transfer in Li2+ + He2+ and Li2+ + Li3+ collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bräuning, H.; Trassl, R.; Theiß, A.; Diehl, A.; Salzborn, E.; Keim, M.; Achenbach, A.; Lüdde, H. J.; Kirchner, T.

    2005-07-01

    True one-electron collision systems provide an ideal testing ground for theory. Absolute cross sections for charge transfer in the collision systems Li2+ + He2+ and Li2+ + Li3+ have been measured for centre-of-mass energies between 52 and 148 keV and 6 and 63 keV, respectively. The data are compared with calculations using the two-centre basis generator method. A fair agreement between the experimental data and the calculations is found.

  11. Corrosion of type 316 stainless steel in molten LiF-LiCl-LiBr

    SciTech Connect

    Tortorelli, P.F.; DeVan, J.H.; Keiser, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The properties of LiF-LiCl-LiBr salt make it attractive as a solvent for extracting tritium from a fusion reactor lithium blanket. Consequently, the corrosion of type 316 stainless steel by flowing (about 15 mm/s) LiF-LiCl-LiBr at a maximum temperature of 535/sup 0/C was studied to determine whether compatibility with the structural material would be limiting in such a system. The corrosion rate was found to be low (<2 ..mu..m/year) except immediately after the addition of a small amount of lithium metal to the salt. The lithium addition increased the corrosion rate to approx. 13.5 ..mu..m/year at 535/sup 0/C (approximately that of type 316 stainless steel exposed to lithium flowing at a similar velocity). At the proposed operating temperature (less than or equal to approx. 535/sup 0/C), however, it appears that type 316 stainless steel has acceptable compatibility with the tritium-processing salt LiF-LiCl-LiBr for use with a lithium blanket.

  12. [Co-editors and editors with Jewish origins of the first German journals for anaesthesia. Their fate under National Socialism and an attempt at a biographical appreciation].

    PubMed

    Goerig, M; Goetz, A E

    2010-09-01

    The decision to publish the journals Der Schmerz and Narkose und Anaesthesie in 1928 was an important step towards the professionalization of anaesthesiology in Germany. The appearance of both journals, which for economic reasons merged into Schmerz - Narkose - Anaesthesie 1 year later, was initiated and vehemently supported by Jewish physicians. As editors and co-editors they were deeply involved with the editorial tasks of the journals for years from the early beginnings. When the National Socialistic Party took over the government in Germany many of the Jewish colleagues were forced to quit their editorial tasks, were eliminated and replaced by "Arians", they were persecuted and often arrested, forced to emigrate or decided to commit suicide due to inhumane personal circumstances. It is our intention to recall the biography and the terrible fate of the nearly unknown Jewish members of the editorial board of the first German anaesthesia journals. Moreover the biographic sketches promote a continuous discussion about the victims of an inhumane and barbarous ideology. PMID:20842476

  13. Fault Tree, Event Tree, and Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (FEP) editors, Version 4.0. Reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, M.K.; Skinner, N.L.; Wood, S.T.

    1992-05-01

    The Fault Tree, Event Tree, and Piping & Instrumentation Diagram (FEP) editors allow the user to graphically build and edit fault trees, event trees, and piping & instrumentation diagrams (P & IDs). The software is designed to enable the use of graphical-based editors found in the Integrated Reliability and Risk Assessment System (IRRAS). FEP is made up of three separate editors (Fault Tree, Event Tree, and Piping & Instrumentation Diagram) and a utility module. This reference manual provides a screen-by-screen walkthrough of the entire FEP System.

  14. Lithium salts for advanced lithium batteries: Li-metal, Li-O2, and Li-S

    SciTech Connect

    Younesi, Reza; Veith, Gabriel M.; Johansson, Patrik; Edstrom, Kristina; Vegge, Tejs

    2015-06-01

    Presently lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) is the dominant Li-salt used in commercial rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) based on a graphite anode and a 3-4 V cathode material. While LiPF6 is not the ideal Li-salt for every important electrolyte property, it has a uniquely suitable combination of properties (temperature range, passivation, conductivity, etc.) rendering it the overall best Li-salt for LIBs. However, this may not necessarily be true for other types of Li-based batteries. Indeed, next generation batteries, for example lithium-metal (Li-metal), lithium-oxygen (Li-O2), and lithium sulphur (Li-S), require a re-evaluation of Li-salts due to the different electrochemical and chemical reactions and conditions within such cells. Furthermore, this review explores the critical role Li-salts play in ensuring in these batteries viability.

  15. Lithium salts for advanced lithium batteries: Li-metal, Li-O2, and Li-S

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Younesi, Reza; Veith, Gabriel M.; Johansson, Patrik; Edstrom, Kristina; Vegge, Tejs

    2015-06-01

    Presently lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) is the dominant Li-salt used in commercial rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) based on a graphite anode and a 3-4 V cathode material. While LiPF6 is not the ideal Li-salt for every important electrolyte property, it has a uniquely suitable combination of properties (temperature range, passivation, conductivity, etc.) rendering it the overall best Li-salt for LIBs. However, this may not necessarily be true for other types of Li-based batteries. Indeed, next generation batteries, for example lithium-metal (Li-metal), lithium-oxygen (Li-O2), and lithium sulphur (Li-S), require a re-evaluation of Li-salts due to the different electrochemical and chemical reactions andmore » conditions within such cells. Furthermore, this review explores the critical role Li-salts play in ensuring in these batteries viability.« less

  16. Electronic Properties of LiFePO4 and Li doped LiFePO4

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.L.; Zhuang, G.V.; Ross, P.N.; Guo, J.-H.; Jow, T.R.

    2006-05-31

    LiFePO{sub 4} has several potential advantages in comparison to the transition metal oxide cathode materials used in commercial lithium-ion batteries. However, its low intrinsic electronic conductivity ({approx} 10{sup -9} S/cm) is problematic. We report here a study by soft x-ray absorption/emission spectroscopy of the electronic properties of undoped LiFePO{sub 4} and Li-doped LiFePO{sub 4} in which Li{sup +} ions are substituted for Fe{sup 2+} ions in an attempt to increase the intrinsic electronic conductivity. The conductivities of the Li{sub 1+x}Fe{sub 1-x}PO{sub 4} samples were, however, essentially unchanged from that of the undoped LiFePO{sub 4}. Nonetheless, evidence for changing the electronic properties of LiFePO{sub 4} by doping with excess Li+ was observed by the XAS/XES spectroscopy. New pre-edge features the O-1s XAS spectrum of Li{sub 1.05}Fe{sub 0.95}PO4 is a direct indication that the charge compensation for substitution of Fe{sup 2+} by Li{sup +} resides in the unoccupied O-2p orbitals. A charge transfer (CT) excitation was also observed in the doped material implying that the unoccupied O-2p orbitals created by doping are strongly hybridized with unoccupied Fe-3d orbitals of neighboring sites. However, the strong covalent bonding within the (PO{sub 4}){sup 3-} anions and the large separation of the Fe cations means that the charge created by doping is not delocalized in the manner of electrons or holes in a semiconductor.

  17. Programming the Navier-Stokes computer: An abstract machine model and a visual editor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David; Crockett, Tom; Tomboulian, Sherry

    1988-01-01

    The Navier-Stokes computer is a parallel computer designed to solve Computational Fluid Dynamics problems. Each processor contains several floating point units which can be configured under program control to implement a vector pipeline with several inputs and outputs. Since the development of an effective compiler for this computer appears to be very difficult, machine level programming seems necessary and support tools for this process have been studied. These support tools are organized into a graphical program editor. A programming process is described by which appropriate computations may be efficiently implemented on the Navier-Stokes computer. The graphical editor would support this programming process, verifying various programmer choices for correctness and deducing values such as pipeline delays and network configurations. Step by step details are provided and demonstrated with two example programs.

  18. Are the Editors faced with e-problems performing their duties and responsibilities satisfactorily?

    PubMed

    Ali Jawaid, Shaukat; Jawaid, Masood

    2013-09-01

    Astonishing revolution in information technology, developments in electronic publishing and availability of manuscript management software's has provided lot of facilities to authors, reviewers as well as editors but it has also given birth to lot of e-problems. This communication highlights some of these e-problems besides discussing the manuscript management system practiced by Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences through modified Open Journal System. It also cautions the editors of small journals faced with financial and human resource constraints to keep themselves abreast of all these developments, go for automation in e publishing gradually as all the stake holders i.e. authors, reviewers and office management staff learns these and become used to it. PMID:24353696

  19. Ensuring the Quality, Fairness, and Integrity of Journal Peer Review: A Possible Role of Editors.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B; Elmore, Susan A

    2016-02-01

    A growing body of literature has identified potential problems that can compromise the quality, fairness, and integrity of journal peer review, including inadequate review, inconsistent reviewer reports, reviewer biases, and ethical transgressions by reviewers. We examine the evidence concerning these problems and discuss proposed reforms, including double-blind and open review. Regardless of the outcome of additional research or attempts at reforming the system, it is clear that editors are the linchpin of peer review, since they make decisions that have a significant impact on the process and its outcome. We consider some of the steps editors should take to promote quality, fairness and integrity in different stages of the peer review process and make some recommendations for editorial conduct and decision-making. PMID:25633924

  20. Writing a narrative biomedical review: considerations for authors, peer reviewers, and editors.

    PubMed

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Ayvazyan, Lilit; Blackmore, Heather; Kitas, George D

    2011-11-01

    Review articles comprehensively covering a specific topic are crucial for successful research and academic projects. Most editors consider review articles for special and regular issues of journals. Writing a review requires deep knowledge and understanding of a field. The aim of this review is to analyze the main steps in writing a narrative biomedical review and to consider points that may increase the chances of success. We performed a comprehensive search through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, and Web of Science using the following keywords: review of the literature, narrative review, title, abstract, authorship, ethics, peer review, research methods, medical writing, scientific writing, and writing standards. Opinions expressed in the review are also based on personal experience as authors, peer reviewers, and editors. PMID:21800117

  1. Are Women Underrepresented as Authors and Editors of Educational Psychology Journals?

    PubMed

    Robinson; McKay; Katayama; Fan

    1998-07-01

    To determine the progress women have made in the last 20 years in terms of contributions to the knowledge base (i.e., authorship) and reputations as leading contributors (i.e., appointments as editors and editorial board members) in educational psychology, we analyzed data from six journals: the American Educational Research Journal, Contemporary Educational Psychology, the Educational Psychologist, Educational Psychology Review, the Journal of Experimental Education, and the Journal of Educational Psychology. Results indicated that (a) women's progress in terms of authorships could be predicted by their increasing representation as educational psychologists, (b) opportunities for females to become editorial board members seem to be getting better, and (c) opportunities for females to become editors seem to be getting worse. Copyright 1998 Academic Press. PMID:9665794

  2. 6Li from Solar Flares.

    PubMed

    Ramaty; Tatischeff; Thibaud; Kozlovsky; Mandzhavidze

    2000-05-10

    By introducing a hitherto ignored 6Li producing process, due to accelerated 3He reactions with 4He, we show that accelerated particle interactions in solar flares produce much more 6Li than 7Li. By normalizing our calculations to gamma-ray data, we demonstrate that the 6Li produced in solar flares, combined with photospheric 7Li, can account for the recently determined solar wind lithium isotopic ratio, obtained from measurements in lunar soil, provided that the bulk of the flare-produced lithium is evacuated by the solar wind. Further research in this area could provide unique information on a variety of problems, including solar atmospheric transport and mixing, solar convection and the lithium depletion issue, and solar wind and solar particle acceleration. PMID:10813684

  3. On being the Editor of the Medical Journal of Australia: Living dangerously.

    PubMed

    Van Der Weyden, Martin B

    2012-01-01

    Editorial independence is crucial for the viability of a journal and editors have many masters - the public, the readers, the authors and the owners. Negotiating the resultant minefield requires a purposeful and independent stance. This is particularly so in instances of a relatively modern phenomenon: concerted attempts by clinical groups to influence, or even abort, publication of articles, which may threaten their practice. Moreover, modern social media facilitates this manipulation. PMID:22654390

  4. How is research publishing going to progress in the next 20 years?: transcription of session for editors, associate editors, publishers and others with an interest in scientific publishing held at IADR meeting in Seattle on Wednesday, 20 March 2013.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Kenneth A; Rex Holland, G; Giannobile, William V; Hancocks, Stephen; Robinson, Peter G; Lynch, Christopher D

    2014-03-01

    On March 20th 2013, a one-hour session for Editors, Associate Editors, Publishers and others with an interest in scientific publishing was held at the IADR International Session in Seattle. Organised by Kenneth Eaton and Christopher Lynch (Chair and Secretary, respectively, of the British Dental Editors Forum), the meeting sought to bring together leading international experts in dental publishing, as well as authors, reviewers and students engaged in research. The meeting was an overwhelming success, with more than 100 attendees. A panel involving four leading dental editors led a discussion on anticipated developments in publishing dental research with much involvement and contribution from audience members. This was the third such meeting held at the IADR for Editors, Associate Editors, Publishers and others with an interest in scientific publishing. A follow-up session will take place in Cape Town on 25 June 2014 as part of the annual IADR meeting. The transcript of the Seattle meeting is reproduced in this article. Where possible speakers are identified by name. At the first time of mention their role/position is also stated, thereafter only their name appears. We are grateful to Stephen Hancocks Ltd. for their generous sponsorship of this event. For those who were not able to attend the authors hope this article gives a flavour of the discussions and will encourage colleagues to attend future events. Involvement is open to Editors, Associate Editors, Publishers and others with an interest in scientific publishing. It is a very open group and all those with an interest will be welcome to join in. PMID:24440711

  5. Role of editors and journals in detecting and preventing scientific misconduct: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.

    PubMed

    Marusic, Ana; Katavic, Vedran; Marusic, Matko

    2007-09-01

    Scientific journals have a central place in protecting research integrity because published articles are the most visible documentation of research. We used SWOT analysis to audit (S)trengths and (W)eaknesses as internal and (O)pportunities and (T)hreats as external factors affecting journals' responsibility in addressing research integrity issues. Strengths include editorial independence, authority and expertise, power to formulate editorial policies, and responsibility for the integrity of published records. Weaknesses stem from having no mandate for legal action, reluctance to get involved, and lack of training. Opportunities for editors are new technologies for detecting misconduct, policies by editorial organization or national institutions, and greater transparency of published research. Editors face threats from the lack of legal regulation and culture of research integrity in academic communities, lack of support from stakeholders in scientific publishing, and different pressures. Journal editors cannot be the policing force of the scientific community but they should actively ensure the integrity of the scientific record. PMID:17970252

  6. Recovery of Li from alloys of Al- Li and Li- Al using engineered scavenger compounds

    DOEpatents

    Riley, W. D.; Jong, B. W.; Collins, W. K.; Gerdemann, S. J.

    1994-01-01

    A method of producing lithium of high purity from lithium aluminum alloys using an engineered scavenger compound, comprising: I) preparing an engineered scavenger compound by: a) mixing and heating compounds of TiO2 and Li2CO3 at a temperature sufficient to dry the compounds and convert Li.sub.2 CO.sub.3 to Li.sub.2 O; and b) mixing and heating the compounds at a temperature sufficient to produce a scavenger Li.sub.2 O.3TiO.sub.2 compound; II) loading the scavenger into one of two electrode baskets in a three electrode cell reactor and placing an Al-Li alloy in a second electrode basket of the three electrode cell reactor; III) heating the cell to a temperature sufficient to enable a mixture of KCl-LiCl contained in a crucible in the cell to reach its melting point and become a molten bath; IV) immersing the baskets in the bath until an electrical connection is made between the baskets to charge the scavenger compound with Li until there is an initial current and voltage followed by a fall off ending current and voltage; and V) making a connection between the basket electrode containing engineered scavenger compound and a steel rod electrode disposed between the basket electrodes and applying a current to cause Li to leave the scavenger compound and become electrodeposited on the steel rod electrode.

  7. Reply to B. Meunier's Letter to the Editor Re: Brewer G. J.; Nutrients 2015, 7, 10053-10064.

    PubMed

    Brewer, George J

    2016-01-01

    In a letter to the editor, Meunier [1] apparently attempts to discredit the copper-2 hypothesis for causation of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) epidemic in developed countries proposed by myself in a review in this journal [2].[...]. PMID:27556487

  8. Li-Fraumeni Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Correa, Hernán

    2016-06-01

    Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a cancer predisposition syndrome caused by a germline mutation of the TP53 gene on chromosome 17p13.1. It has an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance with high penetrance. These patients have a very high lifetime cumulative risk of developing multiple malignancies and have a strong family history of early-onset malignancies. The protein p53, encoded by TP53, has a complex set of genome-preserving functions initiated during episodes of cellular stress and DNA damage. In LFS, TP53 gene mutations cause the loss of function of p53, leading to downstream events permissive for development of various malignancies throughout life. The LFS component tumors include soft tissue sarcomas, osteosarcoma, premenopausal breast cancer, brain tumors, and adrenal cortical carcinomas. Multiple types of sarcomas have been reported in association with LFS; this review article will focus on the most frequently encountered pediatric sarcomas associated with TP53 mutations. PMID:27617148

  9. Electron-impact ionization of Li2 and Li2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pindzola, M. S.; Robicheaux, F.; Ballance, C. P.; Colgan, J.

    2008-10-01

    Electron-impact ionization cross sections for Li2 and Li2+ are calculated using a configuration-average distorted-wave method. Bound orbitals for the molecule and its ions are calculated using a single-configuration self-consistent-field method based on a linear combination of Slater-type orbitals. The bound orbitals are transformed onto a two-dimensional lattice (r,θ) , which is variable in the radial coordinate and constant in the angular coordinate, from which Hartree with local exchange potentials are constructed. The single-particle Schrödinger equation is then solved for continuum distorted waves with S -matrix boundary conditions. Total ionization cross sections for Li2 at an equilibrium internuclear separation of R=5.0a.u. and for Li2+ at an equilibrium internuclear separation of R=5.9a.u. are presented.

  10. Electron-impact Ionization Of Li2 And Li+2

    SciTech Connect

    Colgan, James P

    2008-01-01

    Electron-impact ionization cross sections for Li{sub 2} and Li{sup +}{sub 2} are calculated using a configuration-average distorted-wave method. Bound orbitals for the molecule and its ions are calculated using a single configuration self-consistent field method based on a linear combination of Slater-type orbitals. The bound orbitals are transformed onto a two-dimensional lattice ({tau}, {theta}), which is variable in the radial coordinate and constant in the angular coordinate, from which Hartree with local exchange potentials are constructed. The single particle Schrodinger equation is then solved for continuum distorted-waves with S-matrix boundary conditions. Total ionization cross sections for Li{sub 2} at an equilibrium internuclear separation of R = 5.0 and for Li{sup +}{sub 2} at an equilibrium internuclear separation of R = 5.9 are presented.

  11. Outgassing in the LiD/LiOH System

    SciTech Connect

    Schildbach, M; Siekhaus, W; Dinh, L; McLean II, W

    2003-10-17

    Temperature programmed decomposition (TPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were performed on lithium hydroxide (LiOH) polycrystallites and LiD/LiOH composite nanocrystals. Our studies revealed that LiOH grains are thermally decomposed into Li{sub 2}O, releasing water, following a three dimensional phase boundary movement from the surface inward. The rate of H{sub 2}O released is controlled by a rate constant that is expressed as: d{alpha}/dt ={upsilon}.e {sup -E/RT}.f({alpha}) where t is time; {alpha} is the reacted fraction (0 to 1); {upsilon} is the pre-exponential factor which includes many constants describing the initial state of the sample such as three dimensional shape factors of initial particles, molecular mass, density, stoichiometric factors of chemical reaction, active surface and number of lattice imperfections, and so forth; E is the activation energy for the rate controlling process, R is the gas molar constant, and f({alpha}) is an analytical function which is determined by the rate-limiting reaction mechanism (random nucleation, diffusion, phase boundary motion, etc.). Due to fewer neighboring bonds at the surface, surface lithium hydroxide decomposes at low activation energies of {approx} 86-92 kJ/mol with corresponding pre-exponential factors of {approx} 2.7 x 10{sup 6}-1.2 x 10{sup 7} s{sup -1}. Near-surface hydroxide, having bonding much like bulk hydroxide but experiencing more stress/strain, decomposes at activation energies of {approx} 89-108 kJ/mol with corresponding pre-exponential factors of {approx} 9.5 x 10{sup 5}-9.3 x 10{sup 7}s{sup -1}. Bulk lithium hydroxide, however, decomposes at higher activation energies of {approx} 115-142 kJ/mol with corresponding pre-exponential factors of {approx} 4.8 x 10{sup 6}-1.2 x 10{sup 9} s{sup -1}. Bulk lithium hydroxide is very stable if stored at room temperature. However, lithium hydroxide molecules at or near the surface of the grains slowly decompose, in a vacuum

  12. Editor's Note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-10-01

    In the article "Indian summer monsoon rainfall: Dancing with the tunes of the sun", published in New Astronomy 35 (2015) 8, it was omitted to state that at the time this article was submitted the author Dr. Willie Soon received funding from the Southern Company Services under agreement for SAO Proposal PS0182-9-11. We have no indication that this funding has influenced the results presented in the article.

  13. Editor's note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-11-01

    Nordita, the Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics, was founded in 1957 by Niels Bohr and Torsten Gustafsson at Blegdamsvej in Copenhagen, joint to Bohr's legendary Institute. Today, memories of Bohr and his famous visitors -- Albert Einstein, Werner Heisenberg, Lev Landau and many others -- strongly contribute to Nordita's genius loci and inspire next generations of her visitors. Nordita awards ``Nordic Project'' grants to individual Nordic physicists to help conduct a world-class research in Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Island, Norway, and Sweden). Research reported here was generously supported by the Nordic Project "Quasi Periodic Oscillations in Black Hole and Neutron Star sources" awarded in 2005 to Marek Abramowicz. The Project supported the ``Nordita Workdays on QPO" (March 25 -- April 1, 2005) organized by Marek Abramowicz, Axel Brandenburg and Juri Poutanen with help of Hanne Bergen, Helle http://www.nordita.dk/positions/norproject.html

  14. Editors' note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-12-01

    The widespread eutrophication of coastal waters has been the subject to much scientific and management effort, yet we have too few examples where there is a substantive scientific record, and sustained tracking of management actions. In this issue Greening and colleagues review the time courses of ambient conditions, describe what was done to remediate severely eutrophic water quality, and demonstrate the recovery trajectory of a number of variables useful to track ecosystem responses. In addition, a compelling aspect of the paper is that it also describes the social side of the recovery, i.e., what was needed to bring the community and political action to perceive and act upon the issues, and develop a plan to address the problems. The improvement in water quality and environmental conditions currently taking place in Tampa Bay is an excellent example of what can be achieved with the combination of basic understanding of the scientific issues, application of reasonable technological advances, and the marshaling of popular support for action.

  15. Editor's note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-08-01

    Progress in marine sciences often follows the development of new methods. The Invited Feature Article "New Insight into Particulate Mineral and Organic Matter in Coastal Ocean Waters through Optical Inversion" by Xiaodong Zhang, Robert Hans Stavn, Alexander U. Falster, Deric J. Gray, and Richard W. Gould demonstrates a new method that uses scattering and transmissometer data to differentiate between particle size distribution of suspended mineral and that of suspended organic matter. The method helps define the particular groups of phytoplankton that may be dominant, whether organic detritus may be more significant in suspended organic matter, add insight on the dominant size classes of mineral aggregates, and helps differentiate between organic detritus-dominated systems and biogenic-dominated systems.

  16. Editors' Note.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Ellen R; Cason, Jana

    2016-01-01

    The Spring 2016 issue of the International Journal of Telerehabilitation (IJT) presents original and innovative work in three diverse sections: usability, intervention, and pedagogy, followed by a book review on teleaudiology. The contributors to this issue are notably multi-disciplinary and include an audiologist, computer scientists, engineers, an epidemiologist, occupational therapists, a rehabilitation counselor, a physician (physical medicine and rehabilitation), and speechlanguage pathologists. The common thread linking the Journal's authors and their manuscripts, is excellence in telerehabilitation related innovation. PMID:27563385

  17. Section Editors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groep, D. L.; Bonacorsi, D.

    2014-06-01

    1. Data Acquisition, Trigger and Controls Niko NeufeldCERNniko.neufeld@cern.ch Tassos BeliasDemokritosbelias@inp.demokritos.gr Andrew NormanFNALanorman@fnal.gov Vivian O'DellFNALodell@fnal.gov 2. Event Processing, Simulation and Analysis Rolf SeusterTRIUMFseuster@cern.ch Florian UhligGSIf.uhlig@gsi.de Lorenzo MonetaCERNLorenzo.Moneta@cern.ch Pete ElmerPrincetonpeter.elmer@cern.ch 3. Distributed Processing and Data Handling Nurcan OzturkU Texas Arlingtonnurcan@uta.edu Stefan RoiserCERNstefan.roiser@cern.ch Robert IllingworthFNAL Davide SalomoniINFN CNAFDavide.Salomoni@cnaf.infn.it Jeff TemplonNikheftemplon@nikhef.nl 4. Data Stores, Data Bases, and Storage Systems David LangeLLNLlange6@llnl.gov Wahid BhimjiU Edinburghwbhimji@staffmail.ed.ac.uk Dario BarberisGenovaDario.Barberis@cern.ch Patrick FuhrmannDESYpatrick.fuhrmann@desy.de Igor MandrichenkoFNALivm@fnal.gov Mark van de SandenSURF SARA sanden@sara.nl 5. Software Engineering, Parallelism & Multi-Core Solveig AlbrandLPSC/IN2P3solveig.albrand@lpsc.in2p3.fr Francesco GiacominiINFN CNAFfrancesco.giacomini@cnaf.infn.it Liz SextonFNALsexton@fnal.gov Benedikt HegnerCERNbenedikt.hegner@cern.ch Simon PattonLBNLSJPatton@lbl.gov Jim KowalkowskiFNAL jbk@fnal.gov 6. Facilities, Infrastructures, Networking and Collaborative Tools Maria GironeCERNMaria.Girone@cern.ch Ian CollierSTFC RALian.collier@stfc.ac.uk Burt HolzmanFNALburt@fnal.gov Brian Bockelman U Nebraskabbockelm@cse.unl.edu Alessandro de SalvoRoma 1Alessandro.DeSalvo@ROMA1.INFN.IT Helge MeinhardCERN Helge.Meinhard@cern.ch Ray PasetesFNAL rayp@fnal.gov Steven GoldfarbU Michigan Steven.Goldfarb@cern.ch

  18. Editor's note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-02-01

    In the Invited Feature Article in this issue of Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, Ruben Kosyan and Violeta Velikova describe the disastrous anthropogenic impact on the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, and Ukraine over the last 100 years and its inverse correlation with economic development as exemplified by improving water quality during a downturn in the economy. This degradation is now accelerating from the renovation and construction of ports and terminals, the development of resorts, hazardous industrial development, oil and gas exploration, and unsustainable agricultural and fishing practices. There appears to be no enforcement of protected areas. In the absence of scientific research on these issues, coastal zone management appears to be based on 'learning after seeing disastrous effects'. Without recognition of the need for Integrated Coastal Zone Management, the Black Sea coast and the coastal waters will deteriorate, as was observed between the 1970s and the 1990s.

  19. Editor's note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-05-01

    In this issue Fabricius, Logan, Weeks, Lewis, and Brodie report a sophisticated synthesis of remotely sensed data that reveals important features of turbidity affecting the Great Barrier Reef region. This study details sources, geographic distributions, and transport, as well as highlights some processes leading to changing turbidity regimes. It is an excellent example of incisive processing and analysis of large, existing data sets, aiming at novel discovery of important aspects of coastal conditions. The results of course beg for efforts at obtaining and examining further information, on associated nutrient deliveries, particularly of nitrogen, detailing biological effects on food webs and corals, and more on the changing baselines that appear imminent. The results of this study therefore are an impressive basis for further work on important aspects of the largest coral region in the world, and could be an example to emulate elsewhere.

  20. Editor's note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtillot, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We wish to draw the attention of the readers of Comptes rendus Geoscience to two thematic issues of our companion journals Comptes rendus Physique (volume 16, issue No. 1, 2015, pp. 1-138) and Comptes rendus Mecanique (volume 343, issue No. 2, 2015, pp. 75-178), respectively devoted to "Granular Physics" and to "Mechanics of granular and polycrystalline solids". In particular, the issue of snow avalanches, which is of interest to the community of geoscientists, is widely discussed in these two dossiers.

  1. Editor's note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-06-01

    In this issue, Scott F. Jones and colleagues at the University of Louisiana and USGS provide insight into the potential future changes in the structure of the tidal saline wetlands along the Northern Gulf of Mexico in their Invited Feature Article "Tidal Saline Wetland Regeneration of Sentinel Vegetation Types in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: An Overview". They analysed the ability, and the limits to this ability, of the dominant macrophytes to continuously recolonize and establish after disturbance due to natural and anthropogenic alterations of the hydrology. This analysis leads them to identify important knowledge gaps in the scientific literature on the topics most relevant to land managers.

  2. Editors' Note.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Ellen R; Cason, Jana

    2015-01-01

    The Fall 2015 issue of the International Journal of Telerehabilitation (IJT) presents original articles in the areas of Research; Privacy and Security; and Technology Review. As of May 2015, the International Journal of Telerehabilitation (IJT) is live on PubMed Central: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/journals/2411/. Articles from all past issues are indexed, as will be the current and future issues. PMID:27563381

  3. Anion Coordination Interactions in Solvates with the Lithium Salts LiDCTA and LiTDI

    SciTech Connect

    McOwen, Dennis W.; Delp, Samuel A.; Paillard, Elie; Herriot, Cristelle; Han, Sang D.; Boyle, Paul D.; Sommer, Roger D.; Henderson, Wesley A.

    2014-04-17

    Lithium 4,5-dicyano-1,2,3-triazolate (LiDCTA) and lithium 2-trifluoromethyl-4,5-dicyanoimidazole (LiTDI) are two salts proposed for lithium battery electrolyte applications, but little is known about the manner in which the DCTA- and TDI- anions coordinate Li+ cations. To explore this in-depth, crystal structures are reported here for two solvates with LiDCTA: (G2)1:LiDCTA and (G1)1:LiDCTA with diglyme and monoglyme, respectively, and seven solvates with LiTDI: (G1)2:LiTDI, (G2)2:LiTDI, (G3)1:LiTDI, (THF)1:LiTDI, (EC)1:LiTDI, (PC)1:LiTDI and (DMC)1/2:LiTDI with monoglyme, diglyme, triglyme, tetrahydrofuran, ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate, respectively. These latter solvate structures are compared with the previously reported acetonitrile (AN)2:LiTDI structure. The solvates indicate that the LiTDI salt is much less associated than the LiDCTA salt and that the ions in LiTDI, when aggregated in solvates, have a very similar TDI-...Li+ cation mode of coordination through both the anion ring and cyano nitrogen atoms. Such coordination facilitates the formation of polymeric ion aggregates, instead of dimers. Insight into such ion speciation is instrumental for understanding the electrolyte properties of aprotic solvent mixtures with these salts.

  4. Electrolytic LiCl precipitation from LiCl-KCl melt in porous Li-Al anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallet, C. E.; Heatherly, D. E.; Heatherly, L., Jr.; Braunstein, J.

    1983-12-01

    Composition gradients such as those predicted to occur during discharge of porous Li-Al negative electrodes of Li/S batteries with LiCl-KCl eutectic electrolyte were generated and measured in the LiCl-KCl anolyte of an electrolysis cell with Li-Al electrodes. Precipitation of lithium chloride during electrolysis was observed by two-dimensional scanning of electrolyte composition in the front part of quenched porous Li-Al anode sections using SEM/EDX. The distribution of sites of increased or decreased LiCl concentration, LiCl saturation and precipitation was mapped. Cathodic regions were observed near the cell walls. Preliminary results of analysis by Auger spectroscopy confirm LiCl precipitation in the porous anode.

  5. Photoionization of Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colgan, James

    2011-05-01

    The time-dependent close-coupling approach to multiple photoionization of lithium is presented. Double photoionization of lithium can be treated as a two-electron ejection process where the outgoing electrons move in the field of a ``frozen-core'' Li2+ 1 s state. Recent calculations of this process have resulted in total and triple differential cross sections that are in good agreement with other close-coupling approaches. The time-dependent approach can also be extended to treat the interaction of all three lithium electrons, as is required if triple photoionization is examined, that is, the simultaneous ejection of all three electrons from lithium. The most detailed information about this process is found in the fully angular and energy differential cross sections, which provide information as to how the ionized electrons leave the atom. We present our formulation of the fully differential cross section expression, and provide some convergence studies of the angular distributions. The Los Alamos National Laboratory is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC for the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC5206NA25396.

  6. Creating OGC Web Processing Service workflows using a web-based editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jesus, J.; Walker, P.; Grant, M.

    2012-04-01

    The OGC WPS (Web Processing Service) specifies how geospatial algorithms may be accessed in an SOA (Service Oriented Architecture). Service providers can encode both simple and sophisticated algorithms as WPS processes and publish them as web services. These services are not only useful individually but may be built into complex processing chains (workflows) that can solve complex data analysis and/or scientific problems. The NETMAR project has extended the Web Processing Service (WPS) framework to provide transparent integration between it and the commonly used WSDL (Web Service Description Language) that describes the web services and its default SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) binding. The extensions allow WPS services to be orchestrated using commonly used tools (in this case Taverna Workbench, but BPEL based systems would also be an option). We have also developed a WebGUI service editor, based on HTML5 and the WireIt! Javascript API, that allows users to create these workflows using only a web browser. The editor is coded entirely in Javascript and performs all XSLT transformations needed to produce a Taverna compatible (T2FLOW) workflow description which can be exported and run on a local Taverna Workbench or uploaded to a web-based orchestration server and run there. Here we present the NETMAR WebGUI service chain editor and discuss the problems associated with the development of a WebGUI for scientific workflow editing; content transformation into the Taverna orchestration language (T2FLOW/SCUFL); final orchestration in the Taverna engine and how to deal with the large volumes of data being transferred between different WPS services (possibly running on different servers) during workflow orchestration. We will also demonstrate using the WebGUI for creating a simple workflow making use of published web processing services, showing how simple services may be chained together to produce outputs that would previously have required a GIS (Geographic

  7. Multistate Model Builder (MSMB): a flexible editor for compact biochemical models

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Building models of molecular regulatory networks is challenging not just because of the intrinsic difficulty of describing complex biological processes. Writing a model is a creative effort that calls for more flexibility and interactive support than offered by many of today’s biochemical model editors. Our model editor MSMB — Multistate Model Builder — supports multistate models created using different modeling styles. Results MSMB provides two separate advances on existing network model editors. (1) A simple but powerful syntax is used to describe multistate species. This reduces the number of reactions needed to represent certain molecular systems, thereby reducing the complexity of model creation. (2) Extensive feedback is given during all stages of the model creation process on the existing state of the model. Users may activate error notifications of varying stringency on the fly, and use these messages as a guide toward a consistent, syntactically correct model. MSMB default values and behavior during model manipulation (e.g., when renaming or deleting an element) can be adapted to suit the modeler, thus supporting creativity rather than interfering with it. MSMB’s internal model representation allows saving a model with errors and inconsistencies (e.g., an undefined function argument; a syntactically malformed reaction). A consistent model can be exported to SBML or COPASI formats. We show the effectiveness of MSMB’s multistate syntax through models of the cell cycle and mRNA transcription. Conclusions Using multistate reactions reduces the number of reactions need to encode many biochemical network models. This reduces the cognitive load for a given model, thereby making it easier for modelers to build more complex models. The many interactive editing support features provided by MSMB make it easier for modelers to create syntactically valid models, thus speeding model creation. Complete information and the installation package can be

  8. Virtual reality and claustrophobia: multiple components therapy involving game editor virtual environments exposure.

    PubMed

    Malbos, E; Mestre, D R; Note, I D; Gellato, C

    2008-12-01

    The effectiveness of a multiple components therapy regarding claustrophobia and involving virtual reality (VR) will be demonstrated through a trial which immersed six claustrophobic patients in multiple context-graded enclosed virtual environments (VE) using affordable VR apparatus and software. The results of the questionnaires and behavior tests exhibited a significant reduction in fear towards the enclosed space and quality of life improvement. Such gains were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Presence score indicated the patients felt immersed and present inside the game editor VE. PMID:18954278

  9. The RDF Protune Policy Editor: Enabling Users to Protect Data in the Semantic Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Fabian; de Coi, Juri Luca; Henze, Nicola; Koesling, Arne Wolf; Krause, Daniel; Olmedilla, Daniel

    A fine-grained user-aware access control to user profile data is a key requirement for sharing user profiles among applications. Policy languages like Protune can handle access restrictions very well but are too complicated to be used by non-experts. In this paper, we identify policy templates and embed them into a user interface that enables users to specify powerful access policies and makes them aware of the current and future consequences of their policies. In a user study, we proof the effectiveness of our editor.

  10. NGSView: an extensible open source editor for next-generation sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Arner, Erik; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Daub, Carsten O.

    2010-01-01

    Summary:High-throughput sequencing technologies introduce novel demands on tools available for data analysis. We have developed NGSView (Next Generation Sequence View), a generally applicable, flexible and extensible next-generation sequence alignment editor. The software allows for visualization and manipulation of millions of sequences simultaneously on a desktop computer, through a graphical interface. NGSView is available under an open source license and can be extended through a well documented API. Availability: http://ngsview.sourceforge.net Contact: arner@gsc.riken.jp PMID:19855106

  11. Letters to the editor of the local paper: A scientific responsibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrecht, Gordon

    2011-04-01

    Our local papers often contain, from the point of view of the scientist, strange letters to the editor. As part of our duty to fellow citizens, we need to take the opportunity the bad science in the letters proffers to try to explain the scientific view to readers. In many cases, the letter writers minds are already made up; however, other readers whose heads may nod in agreement to the original letter may become more informed and change their ideas in response. I will describe some of my experiences in trying to meet this responsibility.

  12. [A virtual hearing testing system based on the digital music editor software].

    PubMed

    Hao, Nai-Lan; Wang, Sha-Wei; Liu, Yu-Xia; Jin, Xing; Yuang, Qi; Yu, Hao

    2008-11-01

    The digital music editor software "Cool Edit Pro 2.0" is used to design a virtual hearing testing system. This system has following advantages. First, its signal frequency can be set at will. Second, its dynamic range of signal intensity can reach up to 80dB. Third, the measuring accuracy of decibel value may reach 0.1dB. Forth, the system can be used in single and dual channel measurements. Last but not least, it can carry on data processing and drawing along with the same computer. PMID:19253576

  13. Advanced software development workstation. Engineering scripting language graphical editor: DRAFT design document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Engineering Scripting Language (ESL) is a language designed to allow nonprogramming users to write Higher Order Language (HOL) programs by drawing directed graphs to represent the program and having the system generate the corresponding program in HOL. The ESL system supports user generation of HOL programs through the manipulation of directed graphs. The components of this graphs (nodes, ports, and connectors) are objects each of which has its own properties and property values. The purpose of the ESL graphical editor is to allow the user to create or edit graph objects which represent programs.

  14. Avoiding Common Writing Mistakes That Make Your Editors and Reviewers Cringe

    PubMed Central

    Porcino, Antony; Moraska, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Writing for scientific journals is not an inherently simple task for most people. It requires purposeful effort and multiple revisions of the initial manuscript draft. While each author and article has its own individuality, writing well to address the core elements of a scientific report is necessary. As editors of the IJTMB, we often see weaknesses in the core elements of the manuscripts we receive. This editorial summarizes common recurring issues, and provides suggestions on how to avoid these pitfalls in the submission of a research article or case report to the IJTMB. PMID:26668673

  15. Should Authors Submit Previous Peer-Review Reports When Submitting Research Papers? Views of General Medical Journal Editors

    PubMed Central

    Cals, Jochen W. L.; Mallen, Christian D.; Glynn, Liam G.; Kotz, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Publishing research can be time consuming, as papers are often submitted and reviewed by multiple journals before final acceptance. We hypothesized that attaching previous peer-review reports to the next submission of the paper to a different journal (possibly with point-to-point responses and amendments) could decrease the workload for both reviewers and editors and could shorten the time from final draft to actual publication. We therefore performed an online survey to assess the views of the editors-in-chief of all 100 general medical journals from the citation impact factor report category “internal & general medicine” (ISI Web of Knowledge). Of contacted editors, 61% responded. One of 4 journals do currently receive peer-review reports on occasion. Editors recognized potential advantages but also concerns on using previous peer-review reports across 3 themes: scientific community, quality of papers, and the publication process. The use of previous peer-review reports has the potential to facilitate authors, reviewers, and editors in optimizing peer review in general medical science. PMID:23508606

  16. Ionic Pathways in Li13Si4 investigated by (6)Li and (7)Li solid state NMR experiments.

    PubMed

    Dupke, Sven; Langer, Thorsten; Winter, Florian; Pöttgen, Rainer; Winter, Martin; Eckert, Hellmut

    2015-02-01

    Local environments and dynamics of lithium ions in the binary lithium silicide Li13Si4 have been studied by (6)Li MAS-NMR, (7)Li spin-lattice relaxation time and site-resolved (7)Li 2D exchange NMR measurements as a function of mixing time. Variable temperature experiments result in distinct differences in activation energies characterizing the transfer rates between the different lithium sites. Based on this information, a comprehensive picture of the preferred ionic transfer pathways in this silicide has been developed. With respect to local mobility, the results of the present study suggests the ordering Li6/Li7>Li5>Li1>Li4 >Li2/Li3. Mobility within the z=0.5 plane is distinctly higher than within the z=0 plane, and the ionic transfer between the planes is most facile via Li1/Li5 exchange. The lithium ionic mobility can be rationalized on the basis of the type of the coordinating silicide anions and the lithium-lithium distances within the structure. Lithium ions strongly interacting with the isolated Si(4-) anions have distinctly lower mobility than those the coordination of which is dominated by Si2(6-) dumbbells. PMID:25524128

  17. Characteristics of highly successful orthopedic surgeons: a survey of orthopedic chairs and editors

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Guy; Hussain, Nasir; Sprague, Sheila; Mehlman, Charles T.; Dogbey, Godwin; Bhandari, Mohit

    2013-01-01

    Background Highly successful orthopedic surgeons are a small group of individuals who exert a large influence on the orthopedic field. However, the characteristics of these leaders have not been well-described or studied. Methods Orthopedic surgeons who are departmental chairs, journal editors, editorial board members of the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (British edition), or current or past presidents of major orthopedic associations were invited to complete a survey designed to provide insight into their motivations, academic backgrounds and accomplishments, emotional and physical health, and job satisfaction. Results In all, 152 surgeons completed the questionnaire. We identified several characteristics of highly successful surgeons. Many have contributed prolific numbers of publications and book chapters and obtained considerable funding for research. They were often motivated by a “desire for personal development (interesting challenge, new opportunities),” whereas “relocating to a new institution, financial gain, or lack of alternative candidates” played little to no role in their decisions to take positions of leadership. Most respondents were happy with their specialty choice despite long hours and high levels of stress. Despite challenges to their time, successful orthopedic surgeons made a strong effort to maintain their health; compared with other physicians, they exercise more, are more likely to have a primary care physician and feel better physically. Conclusion Departmental chairs, journal editors and presidents of orthopedic associations cope with considerable demands of clinical, administrative, educational and research duties while maintaining a high level of health, happiness and job satisfaction. PMID:23706848

  18. Theoretical investigation of intermediate phases between Li2NH and LiNH2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Feng; Wang, Yan; Chou, Mei-Yin

    2010-03-01

    The cycling between Li imide (Li2NH) and Li amide (LiNH2) represents the key reactions in the Li-N-H hydrogen storage system. It is important to know whether there exist intermediate phases between these two stable compounds in order to fully understand the mechanism of these reactions. We investigate from first principles possible intermediate compounds Li2-xNH1+x and Li1+xNH2-x with x equal to 1/8 and 1/4. Li2-xNH1+x is created by replacing a certain amount of NH^2- with NH2^- in pure Li imide and removing a proper amount of Li^+ to satisfy charge neutrality. Similarly, Li1+xNH2-x is created by replacing a certain amount of NH2^- with NH^2- in Li amide and adding a suitable amount of Li^+. At T=0 K, Li2-xNH1+x is energetically favorable with respect to phase separation into pure Li2NH and LiNH2. On the amide side, Li1+xNH2-x is only slightly less stable than the phase-separated mixture of amide and imide. These findings suggest that the intermediate phases may appear during the cycling reactions at finite temperatures. Electronic signatures for the intermediate phases resulting from the coexistence of NH2^- and NH^2- anions will also be discussed.

  19. Li2 - Li reactive collisions at high initial j

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberry, Mark; Marhatta, Ramesh; Stewart, Brian

    2014-05-01

    Inelastic molecular collisions are a fundamental process in astronomy and chemistry. We are studying collisions of 7Li2 with 7Li in a heat pipe oven, and looking for nuclear parity-changing events that signal a chemical reaction. Previous work in our group studied such reactions for low initial j; we are now working to collect data for the case of high initial j, where quasi-resonant phenomena occur. We have also incorporated new corrections for multiple collisions in our analysis. Quasi-classical trajectory calculations are used to model these reactions and extract physical insight.

  20. Transport properties derived from ion-atom collisions: 6Li-6Li+ and 6Li-7Li+ Cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouledroua, Moncef; Bouchelaghem, Fouzia; LPR Team

    2014-10-01

    This investigation treats quantum-mechanically the ion- atom collisions and computes the transport coefficients, such as the coefficients of mobility and diffusion. For the case of lithium, the calculations start by determining the gerade and ungerade potential curves through which ionic lithium approaches ground lithium. Then, by considering the isotopic effects and nuclear spins, the elastic and charge-transfer cross sections are calculated for the case of 6Li+and7Li+ colliding with 6Li. Finally, the temperature-dependent diffusion and mobility coefficients are analyzed, and the results are contrasted with those obtained from literature. The main results of this work have been recently published in. This work has been realized within the frames of the CNEPRU Project D01120110036 of the Algerian Ministry of Higher Education.

  1. Li2S Film Formation on Lithium Anode Surface of Li-S batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhixiao; Bertolini, Samuel; Balbuena, Perla B; Mukherjee, Partha P

    2016-02-01

    The precipitation of lithium sulfide (Li2S) on the Li metal anode surface adversely impacts the performance of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. In this study, a first-principles approach including density functional theory (DFT) and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations is employed to theoretically elucidate the Li2S/Li metal surface interactions and the nucleation and growth of a Li2S film on the anode surface due to long-chain polysulfide decomposition during battery operation. DFT analyses of the energetic properties and electronic structures demonstrate that a single molecule adsorption on Li surface releases energy forming chemical bonds between the S atoms and Li atoms from the anode surface. Reaction pathways of the Li2S film formation on Li metal surfaces are investigated based on DFT calculations. It is found that a distorted Li2S (111) plane forms on a Li(110) surface and a perfect Li2S (111) plane forms on a Li(111) surface. The total energy of the system decreases along the reaction pathway; hence Li2S film formation on the Li anode surface is thermodynamically favorable. The calculated difference charge density of the Li2S film/Li surface suggests that the precipitated film would interact with the Li anode via strong chemical bonds. AIMD simulations reveal the role of the anode surface structure and the origin of the Li2S formation via decomposition of Li2S8 polysulfide species formed at the cathode side and dissolved in the electrolyte medium in which they travel to the anode side during battery cycling. PMID:26836249

  2. Modification to the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) Visual Editor (MCNPVised) to Read in Computer Aided Design (CAD) Files

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph Schwarz; Leland L. Carter; Alysia Schwarz

    2005-08-23

    Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) is the code of choice for doing complex neutron/photon/electron transport calculations for the nuclear industry and research institutions. The Visual Editor for Monte Carlo N-Particle is internationally recognized as the best code for visually creating and graphically displaying input files for MCNP. The work performed in this grant was used to enhance the capabilities of the MCNP Visual Editor to allow it to read in both 2D and 3D Computer Aided Design (CAD) files, allowing the user to electronically generate a valid MCNP input geometry.

  3. René Marcelle (December 30, 1931-December 18, 2011), the first editor-in-chief of Photosynthesis Research.

    PubMed

    Govindjee; Marcelle, Dominique

    2016-07-01

    This tribute honors the first editor-in-chief of Photosynthesis Research, René Marcelle the Belgian plant physiologist who, with publishers in The Netherlands, launched the journal in 1980. Here, we present a glimpse of René Marcelle's early life, his education and research, as well as his editorial work for the journal and other conferences in plant physiology. He worked on control of photosynthesis, both the biological and environmental aspects, as well as on crassulacean acid metabolism. He is best remembered as a kind-hearted and humane editor. PMID:27052338

  4. Effects of Li content on precipitation in Al-Cu-(Li)-Mg-Ag-Zr alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, B.P.; Zheng, Z.Q.

    1998-01-06

    Although much attention has been paid to Al-Cu-Li-Mg-Ag-Zr alloys, there are sparse reports about the influence of Li on precipitation in these alloys. The aim of the present study is to determine the effects of Li on modifying precipitation in a baseline aluminum alloy 2195 and the accompanying variants with 0--1.6 wt.% Li.

  5. Wikipedia and Medicine: Quantifying Readership, Editors, and the Significance of Natural Language

    PubMed Central

    West, Andrew G

    2015-01-01

    Background Wikipedia is a collaboratively edited encyclopedia. One of the most popular websites on the Internet, it is known to be a frequently used source of health care information by both professionals and the lay public. Objective This paper quantifies the production and consumption of Wikipedia’s medical content along 4 dimensions. First, we measured the amount of medical content in both articles and bytes and, second, the citations that supported that content. Third, we analyzed the medical readership against that of other health care websites between Wikipedia’s natural language editions and its relationship with disease prevalence. Fourth, we surveyed the quantity/characteristics of Wikipedia’s medical contributors, including year-over-year participation trends and editor demographics. Methods Using a well-defined categorization infrastructure, we identified medically pertinent English-language Wikipedia articles and links to their foreign language equivalents. With these, Wikipedia can be queried to produce metadata and full texts for entire article histories. Wikipedia also makes available hourly reports that aggregate reader traffic at per-article granularity. An online survey was used to determine the background of contributors. Standard mining and visualization techniques (eg, aggregation queries, cumulative distribution functions, and/or correlation metrics) were applied to each of these datasets. Analysis focused on year-end 2013, but historical data permitted some longitudinal analysis. Results Wikipedia’s medical content (at the end of 2013) was made up of more than 155,000 articles and 1 billion bytes of text across more than 255 languages. This content was supported by more than 950,000 references. Content was viewed more than 4.88 billion times in 2013. This makes it one of if not the most viewed medical resource(s) globally. The core editor community numbered less than 300 and declined over the past 5 years. The members of this

  6. Reactions of metallic Li or LiC6 with organic solvents for lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Hirobayashi, Yuki; Takayanagi, Yuki; Ohzawa, Yoshimi

    2013-12-01

    DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) study has been made on the reactions of metallic Li or LiC6 with organic solvents for lithium ion battery. Ethylene carbonate (EC) more easily reacts with metallic Li and LiC6 than propylene carbonate (PC). This may be because formation of lithium alkyl carbonate is more difficult for PC than EC. On the other hand, diethyl carbonate (DEC), ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) react with Li in the same manner. Reactions of Li and LiC6 with organic solvents have been discussed based on the results of quantum calculation.

  7. EDITORIAL: A few words from the new Editor-in-Chief A few words from the new Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margaritondo, Giorgio

    2011-04-01

    As I begin my mandate as Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, I can look back with great pleasure at many years of service, as a member of the Editorial Board, to this outstanding instrument of scientific dissemination. Having witnessed the exceptional quantitative and qualitative growth of the journal, I must consider this appointment both an honour and a real challenge. The success of the journal is primarily based on three assets: the authors' talent of course, but also the illuminated leadership of my predecessors at the journal helm and the highly competent, dedicated and responsive staff. I would like to praise, in particular, the leadership of my immediate predecessor and good friend, Pallab Battacharya, the pilot of the years of major qualitative growth. Being Pallab's successor makes my new responsibility even more challenging! The IOP personnel is a key asset for the journal: in my rather broad experience in scientific publishing, I have never seen such a combination of professional experience, commitment and willingness to innovate—a traditional strength of JPD. Regrettably, I cannot acknowledge here all the women and men who contributed to the success of the journal; however, I would like to explicitly acknowledge the outstanding work of Sarah Quin over the past decade. In my new duty, I can fortunately count on her successor, Olivia Roche, whose excellent professional and managerial qualities we can already appreciate. How should we view the future of the journal? In my view, with reasonable optimism. Notwithstanding the tough competition, our journal has a solid reputation and increasing visibility. It has consistently belonged to the small elite group of top journals preferred by applied physics authors worldwide. My program as Editor-in-Chief is both simple and very testing: to continue to enhance this elite status. The challenge comes from a variety of factors: first, 'applied physics' is a continuously evolving notion, even

  8. JOSPT Experiences Tremendous Growth, Change in 14 Years With Editor-in-Chief Simoneau in Charge.

    PubMed

    Nyland, John A

    2015-12-01

    As Editor-in-Chief, Dr Guy G. Simoneau and his editorial board have taken JOSPT from an acceptable US-based journal to a highly influential worldwide force behind contemporary orthopaedic and sports physical therapy research and practice. Today, the bridge Dr Simoneau constructed spans the orthopaedic and sports physical therapy globe for the betterment of clinical practice and research. His work fully supports JOSPT's latest strategic plan to provide value-added knowledge translation, develop a broader authorship and readership, increase global marketing of the JOSPT brand, and expand current relationships to new partners and stakeholders. The bridge places JOSPT on very firm footing, tying its rich history to the promise of an exciting and successful future. PMID:26620640

  9. ESCHER: An interactive mesh-generating editor for preparing finite-element input

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oakes, W. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    ESCHER is an interactive mesh generation and editing program designed to help the user create a finite-element mesh, create additional input for finite-element analysis, including initial conditions, boundary conditions, and slidelines, and generate a NEUTRAL FILE that can be postprocessed for input into several finite-element codes, including ADINA, ADINAT, DYNA, NIKE, TSAAS, and ABUQUS. Two important ESCHER capabilities, interactive geometry creation and mesh archival storge are described in detail. Also described is the interactive command language and the use of interactive graphics. The archival storage and restart file is a modular, entity-based mesh data file. Modules of this file correspond to separate editing modes in the mesh editor, with data definition syntax preserved between the interactive commands and the archival storage file. Because ESCHER was expected to be highly interactive, extensive user documentation was provided in the form of an interactive HELP package.

  10. [Willem Kouwenaar, editor-in-chief of the Dutch Journal of Medicine 1950-1954].

    PubMed

    van 't Hof, S E

    2007-12-15

    Willem Kouwenaar (1891-1954) spent the first part of his career in the Dutch East Indies as a physician of tropical medicine and tropical hygienist. He conducted many comparative epidemiological studies. After returning to The Netherlands in 1946, he became a professor of tropical medicine. Among other accomplishments, he developed a vaccine against yellow fever. In 1950 he became editor-in-chief of the Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde (Dutch Journal ofMedicine). He was of the opinion that 'everything that Dutch physicians are dealing with should also be presented for the information of the subscribers to our Journal,' which also applied to the controversial topics of birth control and contraceptive agents. He died in an airplane accident in 1954. PMID:18232201

  11. Comparison of surrogate reporter systems for enrichment of cells with mutations induced by genome editors.

    PubMed

    He, Zuyong; Shi, Xuan; Liu, Meirui; Sun, Guangjie; Proudfoot, Chris; Whitelaw, C Bruce A; Lillico, Simon G; Chen, Yaosheng

    2016-03-10

    Genome editors are powerful tools that allow modification of the nuclear DNA in eukaryotic cells both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro modified cells are often phenotypically indistinguishable from unmodified cells, hampering their isolation for analysis. Episomal reporters encoding fluorescent proteins can be used for enrichment of modified cells by flow cytometry. Here we compare two surrogate reporters, RGS and SSA, for the enrichment of porcine embryonic fibroblasts containing mutations induced by ZFNs or CRISPR/Cas9. Both systems were effective for enrichment of edited porcine cells with the RGS reporter proving more effective than the SSA reporter. We noted a higher-fold enrichment when editing events were induced by Cas9 compared to those induced by ZFNs, allowing selection at frequencies as high as 70%. PMID:26778541

  12. How to write a medical original article: Advice from an Editor

    PubMed Central

    Shokeir, Ahmed A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To provide guidelines for potential authors on how to increase the chances of their manuscript being accepted, with a review focusing on writing an original medical article. Methods This review reflects the personal experience of the present author, who has extensive experience as an author, reviewer and editor. Results To write an original article successfully, there are three essential requirements, the ‘basic triad’ of an original article. These are subjects worth reporting, knowledge of the basic structure of an article, and knowledge of the essential mechanics of good writing. This review details each of the three items. Conclusions Writing, like every other art, cannot be learned wholly from books or lectures, but can be learned largely by experience. The best training is to start the task and persevere. The act of writing, like surgical techniques, must be learned the hard way, by practice and perseverance. Anyone can start writing but only a good writer can finish the task. PMID:26019929

  13. Publishing bioethics and bioethics--reflections on academic publishing by a journal editor.

    PubMed

    Schüklenk, Udo

    2011-02-01

    This article by one of the Editors of Bioethics, published in the 25th anniversary issue of the journal, describes some of the revolutionary changes academic publishing has undergone during the last decades. Many humanities journals went from typically small print-runs, counting by the hundreds, to on-line availability in thousands of university libraries worldwide. Article up-take by our subscribers can be measured efficiently. The implications of this and other changes to academic publishing are discussed. Important ethical challenges need to be addressed in areas such as the enforcement of plagiarism-related policies, the so-called 'impact factor' and its impact on academic integrity, and the question of whether on-line only publishing can currently guarantee the integrity of academic publishing histories. PMID:21175707

  14. Grammar, Punctuation, and Capitalization: a Handbook for Technical Writers and Editors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccaskill, Mary K.

    1990-01-01

    Writing problems are addressed which are often encountered in technical documents and preferences are indicated (Langley's) when authorities do not agree. It is directed toward professional writers, editors, and proofreaders. Those whose profession lies in other areas (for example, research or management), but who have occasion to write or review others' writing will also find this information useful. A functional attitude toward grammar and punctuation is presented. Chapter 1 on grammar presents grammatical problems related to each part of speech. Chapter 2 on sentence structure concerns syntax, that is, effective arrangement of words, with emphasis on methods of revision to improve writing effectiveness. Chapter 3 addresses punctuation marks, presenting their function, situations when they are required or incorrect, and situations when they are appropriate but optional. Chapter 4 presents capitalization, which is mostly a matter of editorial style and preference rather than a matter of generally accepted rules. An index and glossary are included.

  15. The Electrochemistry of Li-LiCl-Li2O Molten Salt Systems and the Role of Moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gese, Natalie J.

    Uranium can be recovered from uranium-oxide (UO2) spent fuel through the combination of oxide reduction and electrorefining processes. During oxide reduction, the spent fuel is introduced to molten LiCl-Li 2O salt at 650°C, and the UO2 is reduced to uranium metal via two routes: (1) electrochemically, and (2) chemically by lithium metal (Li°) that is produced electrochemically. However, the hygroscopic nature of both LiCl and Li2O leads to the formation of LiOH, contributing hydroxyl anions (OH-), the reduction of which interferes with the Li° generation required for the chemical reduction of UO 2. In order for the oxide reduction process to be an effective method for the treatment of uranium-oxide fuel, the role of moisture in the LiCl-Li 2O system must be understood. The behavior of moisture in the LiCl-Li 2O molten-salt system was studied using cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry, and chronoamperometry while reduction to hydrogen was confirmed with gas chromatography.

  16. Recovery of Li from alloys of Al-Li and Li-Al using engineered scavenger compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, W.D.; Jong, B.W.; Collins, W.K.; Gerdemann, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    The invention relates to a process for obtaining Li metal selectively recovered from Li-Al or Al-Li alloy scrap by: (1) removing Li from aluminum-lithium alloys at temperatures between about 400 C-750 C in a molten salt bath of KC1-LiCl using lithium titanate (Li2O.3TiO2) as an engineered scavenger compound (ESC); and (2) electrodepositing of Li from the loaded ESC to a stainless steel electrode. By use of the second step, the ESC is prepared for reuse. A molten salt bath is required in the invention because of the inability of molten aluminum alloys to wet the ESC.

  17. Prior Publication and Redundancy in Contemporary Science: Are Authors and Editors at the Crossroads?

    PubMed

    de Vasconcelos, Sonia Maria Ramos; Roig, Miguel

    2015-10-01

    We discuss prior publication and redundancy in contemporary science in the context of changing perceptions of originality in the communication of research results. These perceptions have been changing in the publication realm, particularly in the last 15 years. Presenting a brief overview of the literature, we address some of the conflicts that are likely to arise between authors and editors. We illustrate our approach with conference presentations that are later published as journal articles and focus on a recent retraction of an article that had been previously published as a conference proceedings. Although we do not make definitive pronouncements on the matter-as many concepts are evolving-we do argue that conference papers that contain sufficient details for others to attempt a replication and are indexed in scientific databases such as PubMed, challenge some currently held assumptions of prior publication and originality in the sciences. Our view is that these important issues are in need of further clarification and harmonization within the science publishing community. This need is more evident when we consider current notions of research integrity when it comes to communication to peers. Revisiting long-standing views about what constitutes prior publication and developing a clearer set of guidelines for authors and editors to follow should reduce conflicts in the research environment, which already exerts considerable pressure, especially on newcomers in academia. However, while clearer guidelines are timely, developing them is only part of the challenge. The present times seem to call for deeper changes in the research and publication systems. PMID:25341850

  18. Electrochemical behaviors of a Li3N modified Li metal electrode in secondary lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Meifen; Wen, Zhaoyin; Liu, Yu; Wang, Xiuyan; Huang, Lezhi

    2011-10-01

    A lithium conductive Li3N film is successfully prepared on Li metal surface by the direct reaction between Li and N2 gas at room temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), AC impedance, cathodic polarization and galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling tests are applied to characterize the film. The experimental results show that the Li3N protective film is tight and dense with high stability in the electrolyte. Its thickness is more than 159.4 nm and much bigger than that of a native SEI film formed on the lithium surface as received. An exchange current as low as 3.244 × 10-7 A demonstrates the formation of a complete SEI film at the electrode|electrolyte interface with Li3N modification. The SEI film is very effective in preventing the corrosion of the Li electrode in liquid electrolyte, leading to a decreased Li|electrolyte interface resistance and an average short distance of 3.16 × 10-3 cm for Li ion diffusion from electrolyte to Li surface. The Li cycling efficiency depends on N2 exposing time and is obviously enhanced by the Li3N (1 h) modification. After cycling, a dense and homogeneous Li layer deposits on the Li3N (1 h) modified Li surface, instead of a loose and inhomogeneous layer on the Li surface as received.

  19. Publication Criteria and Recommended Areas of Improvement within School Psychology Journals as Reported by Editors, Journal Board Members, and Manuscript Authors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albers, Craig A.; Floyd, Randy G.; Fuhrmann, Melanie J.; Martinez, Rebecca S.

    2011-01-01

    Two online surveys were completed by editors, associate editors, editorial board members, and members or fellows of the Division 16 of the American Psychological Association. These surveys targeted (a) the criteria for a manuscript to be published in school psychology journals, and (b) the components of the peer-review process that should be…

  20. Serials Management in the Electronic Era: Papers in Honor of Peter Gellatly, Founding Editor of "The Serials Librarian."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Jim, Ed.; Williams, James W., Ed.

    This book assesses progress and technical changes in the field of serials management and anticipates future directions and challenges for librarians. The book consists of 18 chapters: (1) "Introduction" (Jim Cole and James W. Williams); (2) "Peter Gellatly--Editor with a Deft Touch" (Ruth C. Carter); (3) "The "Deseret News" Web Edition" (Stewart…

  1. 77 FR 74175 - Solicitation of Review Editors for the Draft Report of the National Climate Assessment and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... Report of the National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee (NCADAC). AGENCY: Office of... editors of the National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee (NCADAC) National Climate... Research Program at email@usgcrp.gov . More information on the National Climate Assessment can be found...

  2. Editor Views of Press Role in U.S. and Europe: Differences Across Cultures, or Differences Within?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olien, Clarice N.; And Others

    To determine whether there are systematic differences in press role between nations or blocs of nations, an exploratory study examined structural differences between United States and European political systems and whether, in light of these differences, press roles may vary in some respects across continents. These editors were interviewed about…

  3. [P. I. Shatilov--original domestic clinician, scientist and teacher, one of the first editors of medical journal "Vrachebnoe Delo"].

    PubMed

    Lesovoĭ, V N; Pertseva, Zh N

    2009-01-01

    The article tells about life and activity of original domestic clinician, scientist and teacher, one of the first managing editors of medical journal "Vrachebnoe Delo". P. I. Shatilov was presented as individuality, who united in himself such moral values as humanism, disinterestedness, faithfulness to physician duty, selflessness, understanding of participation in public activity. PMID:20455462

  4. Sympathetic cooling of {sup 6}Li atoms

    SciTech Connect

    van Abeelen, F.A.; Verhaar, B.J.; Moerdijk, A.J.

    1997-06-01

    We use recently measured cold photoassociation and two-photon data to extract the singlet and triplet accumulated radial phases of interacting ground-state lithium atoms. Using the resulting values we predict scattering lengths, Feshbach resonances, and exchange decay rates for cold collisions between {sup 7}Li and {sup 6}Li atoms that are of interest for the possibility of sympathetic cooling of {sup 6}Li and for the coexistence of the bosonic and fermionic quantum-degenerate phases of {sup 7}Li and {sup 6}Li. In addition, we calculate scattering lengths and exchange decay rates for cold collisions between identical lithium isotopes in different hyperfine states. These quantities are used to examine the possibilities of coexisting {sup 7}Li Bose condensates and of evaporatively cooling coexisting {sup 6}Li subsystems. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  5. Reactive transport modeling of Li isotope fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanner, C.; Sonnenthal, E. L.

    2013-12-01

    The fractionation of Li isotopes has been used as a proxy for interaction processes between silicate rocks and any kind of fluids. In particular, Li isotope measurements are powerful because Li is almost exclusively found in silicate minerals. Moreover, the two stable Li isotopes, 6Li and 7Li, differ by 17% in mass introducing a large mass dependent isotope fractionation even at high temperature. Typical applications include Li isotope measurements along soil profiles and of river waters to track silicate weathering patterns and Li isotope measurements of geothermal wells and springs to assess water-rock interaction processes in geothermal systems. For this contribution we present a novel reactive transport modeling approach for the simulation of Li isotope fractionation using the code TOUGHREACT [1]. It is based on a 6Li-7Li solid solution approach similar to the one recently described for simulating Cr isotope fractionation [2]. Model applications include the simulation of granite weathering along a 1D flow path as well as the simulation of a column experiment related to an enhanced geothermal system. Results show that measured δ7Li values are mainly controlled by (i) the degree of interaction between Li bearing primary silicate mineral phases (e.g., micas, feldspars) and the corresponding fluid, (ii) the Li isotope fractionation factor during precipitation of secondary mineral phases (e.g., clays), (iii) the Li concentration in primary and secondary Li bearing mineral phases and (iv) the proportion of dissolved Li that adsorbs to negatively charged surfaces (e.g., clays, Fe/Al-hydroxides). To date, most of these parameters are not very well constrained. Reactive transport modeling thus currently has to rely on many assumptions. Nevertheless, such models are powerful because they are the only viable option if individual contributions of all potential processes on the resulting (i.e., measured) Li isotopic ratio have to be quantitatively assessed. Accordingly, we

  6. Neutron transfer reactions induced by Li8 on Be9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimarães, V.; Lichtenthäler, R.; Camargo, O.; Barioni, A.; Assunção, M.; Kolata, J. J.; Amro, H.; Becchetti, F. D.; Jiang, Hao; Aguilera, E. F.; Lizcano, D.; Martines-Quiroz, E.; Garcia, H.

    2007-05-01

    Angular distributions for the elastic scattering of Li8 on Be9 and the neutron transfer reactions Be9(Li8,Li7)Be10 and Be9(Li8,Li9)Be8 were measured with a 27 MeV Li8 radioactive nuclear beam. Spectr- oscopic factors for Li8 ⊗n= Li9 and Li7 ⊗n= Li8 bound systems were obtained from the comparison between the experimental differential cross section and finite-range distorted-wave Born approximation calculations with the code FRESCO. The spectroscopic factors obtained were compared to shell model calculations and to other experimental values from (d,p) reactions. Using the present values for the spectroscopic factor, cross sections for the direct neutron-capture reactions Li7(n,γ)Li8 and Li8(n,γ)Li9 were calculated in the framework of a potential model.

  7. Effects of Li concentration and a Mg addition on serrated flow in Al-Li alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zambo, S.J.; Wert, J.A. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1993-12-15

    Serrated flow phenomena have been reported in a variety of precipitation-strengthened aluminum alloys. In the particular case of precipitation-strengthened Al-Li alloys, serrated flow effects of similar character have been reported in binary Al-Li alloys and in commercial-type Al-Li alloys containing multiple alloying elements. Observations of serrated flow in binary Al-Li alloys indicate that the presence of Li alone is sufficient to produce serrated flow. Aging time has been used to probe the mechanisms that cause serrated flow in individual Al-Li alloys, and several investigators have noted that serrated flow disappears when Al-Li alloys are aged to peak strength or overaged. Much of the available experimental evidence supports dislocation-[delta][prime] interactions as the cause of serrated flow in Al-Li alloys, rather than dislocation-solute atom interactions to which serrated flow phenomena are traditionally attributed. Additional support for this conclusion could be provided by comparison of stress-strain curves for a solid solution Al-Li binary alloy of the same composition as the matrix phase of a precipitation-strengthened Al-Li binary alloy. The purpose of the present paper is to show stress--strain curves for Al-1.38Li, Al-1.80Li and Al-1.39Li-1.0Mg alloys, and to interpret the results in terms of the interactions proposed to account for serrated flow in Al-Li alloys.

  8. New Editor-in-Chief for Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics New Editor-in-Chief for Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-04-01

    The Institute of Physics is delighted to announce that the new Editor-in-Chief for Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics will be Professor Giorgio Margaritondo of École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland. Giorgio will, with the help of his world-class Editorial Board, maintain standards of scientific rigour whilst ensuring that research published is of the highest quality. 'I would like to praise, in particular, the leadership of my immediate predecessor and good friend, Pallab Battacharya, the pilot of the years of major qualitative growth.' said Professor Margaritondo. 'Being Pallab's successor makes my new responsibility even more challenging!' Professor Margaritondo received the Laurea Summa cum Laude from the University of Rome in 1969. He has been a full professor of Applied Physics at the EPFL since 1990. In 2001, he became Dean of the EPFL Faculty of Basic Sciences. In 2004, he was nominated Provost and he served until 2010, when he became Dean of Continuing Education. He previously worked at the Italian National Research Council, at Bell Laboratories and at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. His research activity concerns the physics of semiconductors and superconductors (electronic states, surfaces and interfaces) and of biological systems; his main experimental techniques are electron spectroscopy and spectromicroscopy, x-ray imaging and scanning near-field microscopy, including experiments with synchrotron light and with free electron lasers. Author of more than 650 scientific publications and 9 books, he was also coordinator in 1995-98 of the scientific division of the Elettra synchrotron in Trieste. In 1997-2003 he was coordinator of the European Commission Round Table on synchrotron radiation. He is the president of the Council of the European Commission Integrated Initiative on Synchrotron and Free Electron Laser Science (IA-SFS and then ELISA), the largest network in the world in this domain. He is Fellow of the American Physical

  9. Decameric uracil complexes around Li+.

    PubMed

    Zins, Emilie-Laure; Pepe, Claude; Schröder, Detlef

    2010-07-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) in combination with mass spectrometry (MS) experiments were carried out to study decameric uracil complexes cationized with Li(+) ion. A previous study has shown that, under specific experimental conditions, a particularly intense peak of the decamer U(10)Li(+) is formed, which was referred to as an indication for so-called 'magic number' cluster. In order to gain more insight on the structure of this decameric complex, here, we report experimental studies concerning the kinetics of the fragmentation. In accordance with the new experimental data, structural models were constructed and fully optimized using ab initio and density functional theory quantum chemistry calculations. The theoretical study allowed us to propose a stable gas-phase structure which is compatible with all experimental findings. PMID:20564575

  10. Role of native defects in the Li amide/Li imide hydrogen storage reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Khang; van de Walle, Chris G.

    2010-03-01

    Reversible reaction involving Li amide/Li imide (LiNH2 + LiH <-> Li2NH + H2) has been shown to be a potential mechanism for hydrogen storage [1]. Recent synchrotron x-ray diffraction refinement suggests that the transformation between LiNH2 and Li2NH is a bulk reaction that occurs through non-stoichiometric processes [2]. To build a deeper understanding of these processes, we have carried out first-principles studies based on density functional theory of native point defects and defect complexes in LiNH2 and Li2NH. Among the native defects, we find that positively and negatively charged Li and H interstitials and vacancies have the lowest formation energies. Some of the Li-related defects are found to be very mobile, and should be the dominant migratory species in the systems. Our first-principles results suggest specific mechanisms for the role of native defects in the Li amide/Li imide reaction. [1] P. Chen et al., Nature 420, 302 (2002). [2] W. I. F. David et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 1594 (2007).

  11. Ultralong Lifespan and Ultrafast Li Storage: Single-Crystal LiFePO4 Nanomeshes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Hui Juan; Feng, Yang Yang; Fang, Ling; Wang, Yu

    2016-01-27

    A novel LiFePO4 material, in the shape of a nanomesh, has been rationally designed and synthesized based on the low crystal-mismatch strategy. The LiFePO4 nanomesh possesses several advantages in morphology and crystal structure, including a mesoporous structure, its crystal orientation that is along the [010] direction, and a shortened Li-ion diffusion path. These properties are favorable for their application as cathode in Li-ion batteries, as these will accelerate the Li-ion diffusion rate, improve the Li-ion exchange between the LiFePO4 nanomesh and the electrolyte, and reduce the Li-ion capacitive behavior during Li intercalation. So the LiFePO4 nanomesh exhibits a high specific capacity, enhanced rate capability, and strengthened cyclability. The method developed here can also be extended to other similar systems, for instance, LiMnPO4 , LiCoPO4 , and LiNiPO4 , and may find more applications in the designed synthesis of functional materials. PMID:26643716

  12. Diffusion and possible freezing phases of Li-ions in LiFePO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiu, Yuen; Toft-Petersen, Rasmus; Ehlers, Georg; Vaknin, David

    Elastic and inelastic neutron scattering studies of LiFePO4 single crystal reveal new Li-ion diffusion properties relevant to its function as Li-battery materials. In the past decade there has been broad interest in LiFePO4 and its related compounds, largely due to the applications of these materials as cathodes in Li- batteries. This is owing to these materials' high charge-discharge ability and conductivity, both of which are by virtue of the Li-ions' high mobility. In this talk, we present our findings on the temperature and directional dependence of Li-ions' diffusion in LiFePO4. LiFePO4 adopts the olivine structure at room temperature (Space group: Pnma), which contains channels along principal crystalline directions that allow Li-ion motion. Elastic neutron scattering reveals lowering of symmetry from the Pnma structure below room temperature, which can be interpreted as the freezing of Li-ions, and can be subsequently linked to the reported decrease in Li-ion conductivity. Inelastic neutron scattering, in the 35K to 720K temperature range, shows temperature dependence, as well as anisotropy (i.e. along 0K0 versus 00L) of Li-ion diffusion. Ames Laboratory is supported by U.S. DOE, BES, DMSE, under Contract #DE-AC02-07CH11358. Spallation Neutron Source of Oak Ridge National Laboratory is sponsored by U.S. DOE, BES, SUFD.

  13. Thermal stability of LiPF 6 salt and Li-ion battery electrolytes containing LiPF 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Zhuang, Guorong V.; Ross, Philip N.

    The thermal stability of the neat lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF 6) salt and of 1 molal (m) solutions of LiPF 6 in prototypical Li-ion battery solvents was studied with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and on-line Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Pure LiPF 6 salt is thermally stable up to 107 °C in a dry inert atmosphere, and its decomposition path is a simple dissociation producing lithium fluoride (LiF) as solid and PF 5 as gaseous products. In the presence of water (300 ppm) in the carrier gas, its decomposition onset temperature is lowered as a result of direct thermal reaction between LiPF 6 and water vapor to form phosphorous oxyfluoride (POF 3) and hydrofluoric acid (HF). No new products were observed in 1 m solutions of LiPF 6 in ethylene carbonate (EC), dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) by on-line TGA-FTIR analysis. The storage of the same solutions in sealed containers at 85 °C for 300-420 h did not produce any significant quantity of new products as well. In particular, no alkylflurophosphates were found in the solutions after storage at elevated temperature. In the absence of either an impurity like alcohol or cathode active material that may (or may not) act as a catalyst, there is no evidence of thermally induced reaction between LiPF 6 and the prototypical Li-ion battery solvents EC, PC, DMC or EMC.

  14. Measurement of Solubility of Metallic Lithium Dissolved in Molten LiCl-Li2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burak, Adam J.; Simpson, Michael F.

    2016-07-01

    The solubility of lithium metal in molten LiCl-Li2O mixtures has been measured at various concentrations of Li2O ranging from 0 wt.% to 2.7 wt.% at a temperature of approximately 670-680°C. After contacting molten lithium with molten LiCl-Li2O for several hours to achieve equilibrium saturation, samples were taken by freezing the salt onto a room-temperature steel rod and dissolving in water for analysis. Both volume of hydrogen gas generated and volume of titrated HCl were measured to investigate two different approaches to calculating the lithium concentration. There appeared to be no effect of Li2O concentration on the Li solubility in the salt. But the results vary between different methods of deducing the amount of dissolved Li. The H2 collection method is recommended, but care must be taken to ensure all of the H2 has been included.

  15. Letters to the Editor of the AAS Newsletter: A Personal Story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    2006-01-01

    Since 1987 the American Astronomical Society Newsletter has published some 142 Letters to the Editor that provide the personal statements and concerns of astronomers about the policies, priorities, and experiences of being an astronomer. While these Letters do not provide a scientific sampling of the issues, they do provide an illuminating picture of the astronomical scene as seen from the perspectives of our colleagues. I describe the history and policies of the Letters section, then summarize the issues presented and debated in these Letters. The topics (in order of numbers of Letters published) are: (1) publishing and refereeing, (2) how the AAS and IAU conduct their business, (3) jobs and how to get them, (4) support for astronomy, (5) scientific units and time, (6) public policy issues, (7) planning for telescopes and space missions, (8) how astronomers do their work, (9) women in astronomy, (10) the work environment, and (11) other issues. A chronological list of the Letters by title and author is included.

  16. Getting published well requires fulfilling editors' and reviewers' needs and desires.

    PubMed

    Schoenwolf, Gary C

    2013-12-01

    Publication in international scientific journals provides an unparalleled opportunity for authors to showcase their work. Where authors publish affects how the community values the work. This value directly determines the impact of the work on the field-papers must be read and cited to advance the field, and because the scientific literature is vast, only a subset of the literature is widely read and cited. Moreover, the value placed on the work also affects the authors' scientific reputation and career advancement. Consequently, it is essential that manuscripts receive the recognition they deserve by being published in one of the "best" journals that the scientific findings allow. Several factors determine where a paper is published: how well the topic of the paper fits the scope of the journal, the quality of the study and the manuscript describing it, the advance the paper makes in its field, the importance of the advance, and the extent to which the paper impacts the broader community of science. As scientists, we assume that our papers will be assessed objectively using only well defined scientific standards, but editors and reviewers also view papers subjectively, having biases of what defines a high-quality publication based on Western standards. Therefore, scientists trained in other parts of the world can be significantly disadvantaged in getting their papers published in the best journals. Here, I present concrete suggestions for improving the perception of a paper in the reader's minds, increasing the likelihood that it will get published well. PMID:24131034

  17. Representing Nature of Science in a Science Textbook: Exploring author-editor-publisher interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiGiuseppe, Maurice

    2014-05-01

    Current reforms in elementary and secondary science education call for students and teachers to develop more informed views of the nature of science (NOS)-a process in which science textbooks play a significant role. This paper reports on a case study of the development of representations of the NOS in a senior high school chemistry textbook by the book's author, editor, and publisher. The study examines the multiple discourses that arose as the developers reflected on their personal and shared understandings of NOS; squared these with mandated curricula, the educational needs of chemistry students and teachers, and the exigencies of large-scale commercial textbook publishing. As a result, the team developed and incorporated, in the textbook, representations of NOS they believed were the most pedagogically suitable. Analysis of the data in this study indicates that a number of factors significantly influenced the development of representations of NOS, including representational accuracy (the degree to which representations of NOS conformed to informed views of the NOS), representational consistency (the degree to which representations of NOS in different parts of the book conveyed the same meaning), representational appropriateness (the age-, grade-, and reading-level appropriateness of the NOS representations), representational alignment (the degree to which NOS representations aligned with mandated curriculum), representational marketability (the degree to which NOS representations would affect sales of the textbook), and 'Workplace Resources' factors including availability of time, relevant expertise, and opportunities for professional development.

  18. The CROWN Initiative: journal editors invite researchers to develop core outcomes in women’s health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trials, systematic reviews and guidelines compare beneficial and non-beneficial outcomes following interventions. Often, however, various studies on a particular topic do not address the same outcomes, making it difficult to draw clinically useful conclusions when a group of studies is looked at as a whole. This problem was recently thrown into sharp focus by a systematic review of interventions for preterm birth prevention, which found that among 103 randomised trials, no fewer than 72 different outcomes were reported. There is a growing recognition among clinical researchers that this variability undermines consistent synthesis of the evidence, and that what is needed is an agreed standardised collection of outcomes - a "core outcomes set" - for all trials in a specific clinical area. Recognising that the current inconsistency is a serious hindrance to progress in our specialty, the editors of over 50 journals related to women's health have come together to support The CROWN (CoRe Outcomes in WomeN's health) Initiative. PMID:25050130

  19. The CROWN Initiative: journal editors invite researchers to develop core outcomes in women’s health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trials, systematic reviews and guidelines compare beneficial and non-beneficial outcomes following interventions. Often, however, various studies on a particular topic do not address the same outcomes, making it difficult to draw clinically useful conclusions when a group of studies is looked at as a whole. This problem was recently thrown into sharp focus by a systematic review of interventions for preterm birth prevention, which found that among 103 randomised trials, no fewer than 72 different outcomes were reported. There is a growing recognition among clinical researchers that this variability undermines consistent synthesis of the evidence, and that what is needed is an agreed standardised collection of outcomes - a “core outcomes set” - for all trials in a specific clinical area. Recognising that the current inconsistency is a serious hindrance to progress in our specialty, the editors of over 50 journals related to women’s health have come together to support The CROWN (CoRe Outcomes in WomeN’s health) Initiative. PMID:24993666

  20. The CROWN initiative: journal editors invite researchers to develop core outcomes in women’s health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trials, systematic reviews and guidelines compare beneficial and non-beneficial outcomes following interventions. Often, however, various studies on a particular topic do not address the same outcomes, making it difficult to draw clinically useful conclusions when a group of studies is looked at as a whole. This problem was recently thrown into sharp focus by a systematic review of interventions for preterm birth prevention, which found that among 103 randomised trials, no fewer than 72 different outcomes were reported. There is a growing recognition among clinical researchers that this variability undermines consistent synthesis of the evidence, and that what is needed is an agreed standardised collection of outcomes - a "core outcomes set" - for all trials in a specific clinical area. Recognising that the current inconsistency is a serious hindrance to progress in our specialty, the editors of over 50 journals related to women's health have come together to support The CROWN (CoRe Outcomes in WomeN's health) Initiative. PMID:25048583

  1. The CROWN initiative: journal editors invite researchers to develop core outcomes in women’s health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trials, systematic reviews and guidelines compare beneficial and non-beneficial outcomes following interventions. Often, however, various studies on a particular topic do not address the same outcomes, making it difficult to draw clinically useful conclusions when a group of studies is looked at as a whole. This problem was recently thrown into sharp focus by a systematic review of interventions for preterm birth prevention, which found that among 103 randomised trials, no fewer than 72 different outcomes were reported. There is a growing recognition among clinical researchers that this variability undermines consistent synthesis of the evidence, and that what is needed is an agreed standardised collection of outcomes - a “core outcomes set” - for all trials in a specific clinical area. Recognising that the current inconsistency is a serious hindrance to progress in our specialty, the editors of over 50 journals related to women’s health have come together to support The CROWN (CoRe Outcomes in WomeN’s health) Initiative. PMID:24957208

  2. The art and science of publishing: reflections from editors of surgery journals.

    PubMed

    Kibbe, Melina R; Sarr, Michael G; Livingston, Edward H; Freischlag, Julie A; Lillemoe, Keith D; McFadden, David W

    2014-01-01

    During the 8th Annual Academic Surgical Congress held in New Orleans, Louisiana, on February 5-7, 2013, the Association for Academic Surgery (AAS) Presidential Session was dedicated to the topic of publishing. A survey consisting of 37 questions on issues related to publishing was administered to the AAS membership 1 mo before the meeting. The results of the survey were then presented during the 2013 AAS Presidential Session. In addition, a panel of five editors from surgery journals relevant to the membership of the AAS was convened to discuss topics addressed in the results of the survey. These topics included: (1) how to publish in high-impact factor journals; (2) top five reasons why manuscripts get rejected; (3) the do's and don'ts of publishing (i.e., ethics of publishing); (4) how to get on an editorial board; and (5) the future of publishing. This review summarizes the contents of this AAS Presidential Session and provides information relevant for any academician, investigator, or scientist. PMID:24035228

  3. Seven decades of history of science: I. Bernard Cohen (1914-2003), second editor of Isis.

    PubMed

    Dauben, Joseph W; Gleason, Mary Louise; Smith, George E

    2009-03-01

    I. Bernard Cohen (1914-2003), the first American to receive a Ph.D. in history of science, was a Harvard undergraduate ('37) and then a Ph.D. student and protégé of George Sarton, founder of Isis and the History of Science Society. He went on to succeed Sarton as editor of Isis (1952-1958) and, later, president of the Society (1961-1962); he was also a president of the International Union of the History and Philosophy of Science. Cohen was an internationally recognized Newton scholar; his interests were encyclopedic, ranging from science and public policy to the history of computers, with several decades as a special consultant for history of computing with IBM. Among his hundreds of publications were such major books as Franklin and Newton (1956), The Birth of a New Physics (1959; rpt., 1985), The Newtonian Revolution (1980), Revolution in Science (1985), Science and the Founding Fathers (1995), Howard Aiken: Portrait of a Computer Pioneer (1999), and his last book, The Triumph of Numbers (2005), not to mention two jointly authored contributions, the variorum edition and new English translation of Newton's Principia, which will surely still be read a century from now. PMID:19554868

  4. Macedonian journal of chemistry and chemical engineering: open journal systems--editor's perspective.

    PubMed

    Zdravkovski, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    The development and availability of personal computers and software as well as printing techniques in the last twenty years have made a profound change in the publication of scientific journals. Additionally, the Internet in the last decade has revolutionized the publication process to the point of changing the basic paradigm of printed journals. The Macedonian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering in its 40-year history has adopted and adapted to all these transformations. In order to keep up with the inevitable changes, as editor-in-chief I felt my responsibility was to introduce an electronic editorial managing of the journal. The choice was between commercial and open source platforms, and because of the limited funding of the journal we chose the latter. We decided on Open Journal Systems, which provided online submission and management of all content, had flexible configuration--requirements, sections, review process, etc., had options for comprehensive indexing, offered various reading tools, had email notification and commenting ability for readers, had an option for thesis abstracts and was installed locally. However, since there is limited support it requires a moderate computer knowledge/skills and effort in order to set up. Overall, it is an excellent editorial platform and a convenient solution for journals with a low budget or journals that do not want to spend their resources on commercial platforms or simply support the idea of open source software. PMID:25711222

  5. (6)Li, (7)Li Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Investigation of Lithium Coordination in Binary Phosphate Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, T.M.; Boyle, T.J.; Brow, R.K.; Conzone, S.

    1999-02-08

    {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li solid state magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been used to investigate the local coordination environment of lithium in a series of xLi{sub 2}O {center_dot} (1-x)P{sub 2}O{sub 5} glasses, where 0.05 {le} x {le} 0.55. Both the {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li show chemical shift variations with changes in the Li{sub 2}O concentration, but the observed {sup 6}Li NMR chemical shifts closely approximate the true isotropic chemical shift and can provide a measure of the lithium bonding environment. The {sup 6}Li NMR results indicate that in this series of lithium phosphate glasses the Li atoms have an average coordination between four and five. The results for the metaphosphate glass agree with the coordination number and range of chemical shifts observed for crystalline LiPO{sub 3}. An increase in the {sup 6}Li NMR chemical shift with increasing Li{sub 2}O content was observed for the entire concentration range investigated, correlating with increased cross-linking of the phosphate tetrahedral network by O-Li-O bridges. The {sup 6}Li chemical shifts were also observed to vary monotonically through the anomalous glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) minimum. This continuous chemical shift variation shows that abrupt changes in the Li coordination environment do not occur as the Li{sub 2}O concentration is increased, and such abrupt changes can not be used to explain the T{sub g} minimum.

  6. Li-rich anti-perovskite Li3OCl films with enhanced ionic conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, XJ; Wu, G; Howard, JW; Chen, AP; Zhao, YS; Daemen, LL; Jia, QX

    2014-08-13

    Anti-perovskite solid electrolyte films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition, and their room-temperature ionic conductivity can be improved by more than an order of magnitude in comparison with its bulk counterpart. The cyclability of Li3OCl films in contact with lithium was evaluated using a Li/Li3OCl/Li symmetric cell, showing self-stabilization during cycling test.

  7. Li7 NMR Investigation of Li-Li Pair Ordering in the Paraelectric Phase of Weakly Substitutionally Disordered K1-xLixTaO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalar, Boštjan; Lebar, Andrija; Ailion, David C.; Kuzian, R. O.; Kondakova, I. V.; Laguta, V. V.

    2010-11-01

    Breaking of the average cubic symmetry in Li-doped potassium tantalate was observed with quadrupole-perturbed Li7 NMR at temperatures (150-400 K) far above the nominal glass transition temperature (≈50K for Li concentration x=0.03). The observed spectrum consists of contributions from both isolated Li ions (i.e., with no nearest-neighbor Li) and from Li-Li pairs. The isolated Li ions move among six equivalent off-center sites in a potential having cubic symmetry. These have zero average electric field gradient and, hence, exhibit no quadrupole splitting. In addition, very low intensity, but well resolved, quadrupole satellites having a temperature-dependent splitting were observed. This splitting indicates that the various Li-Li pair configurations are not all equally probable. These are the first direct observations of biased Li ion ordering that persists in the paraelectric phase at temperatures high above the glass phase.

  8. Photoemission study of Li@C60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Hajime; Ogasawara, Naoko; Zenki, Masashi; Miyazaki, Takafumi; Hino, Shojun

    2016-05-01

    Ultraviolet and X-ray photoelectron spectra (UPS and XPS) of thin films prepared by either depositing or applying [Li@C60]+(PF6)- on the substrates are presented. The UPS and XPS of [Li@C60]+(PF6)- applied films suggest that PF6- anions come out from the surface by annealing at 250 °C. The UPS and XPS of the deposited thin films indicate that the film does not contain PF6- anion but is composed of only Li@C60. Changing the sublimation temperature reveals that encapsulated Li cations begin to escape from the C60 cage when heated above 550 °C.

  9. Nanoscale LiFePO4 and Li4Ti5O12 for High Rate Li-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Jaiswal, A.; Horne, C.R.; Chang, O.; Zhang, W.; Kong, W.; Wang, E.; Chern, T.; Doeff, M. M.

    2009-08-04

    The electrochemical performances of nanoscale LiFePO4 and Li4Ti5O12 materials are described in this communication. The nanomaterials were synthesized by pyrolysis of an aerosol precursor. Both compositions required moderate heat-treatment to become electrochemically active. LiFePO4 nanoparticles were coated with a uniform, 2-4 nm thick carbon-coating using an organic precursor in the heat treatment step and showed high tap density of 1.24 g/cm3, in spite of 50-100 nm particle size and 2.9 wtpercent carbon content. Li4Ti5O12 nanoparticles were between 50-200 nm in size and showed tap density of 0.8 g/cm3. The nanomaterials were tested both in half cell configurations against Li-metal and also in LiFePO4/Li4Ti5O12 full cells. Nano-LiFePO4 showed high discharge rate capability with values of 150 and 138 mAh/g at C/25 and 5C, respectively, after constant C/25 charges. Nano-Li4Ti5O12 also showed high charge capability with values of 148 and 138 mAh/g at C/25 and 5C, respectively, after constant C/25 discharges; the discharge (lithiation) capability was comparatively slower. LiFePO4/Li4Ti5O12 full cells deliver charge/discharge capacity values of 150 and 122 mAh/g at C/5 and 5C, respectively.

  10. Lithiation of Li2SnO3 and Li2SnS3 in context of Li-ion battery materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Jason; Holzwarth, N. A. W.

    The closed pack layered crystal material (space group 15 (C 2 / c)) Li2 SnO3 has been studied as a possible anode material since the late 1990's. The material undergoes an irreversible decomposition to Li2 O and LiX Sn alloys during the first lithiation cycle. The crystal material Li2 SnS3 of the same structure was recently proposed as an electrolyte material. The question is posed whether Li2 SnS3 would be a good electrolyte or whether it could function as an anode material similar to Li2 SnO3 . In this research a model is proposed for the lithiation process of Li2 SnO3 and Li2 SnS3 ; Li - Li2 SnS3 interfaces are also examined. The results show Li2 SnO3 begins to decompose at approximately Li2 + 0 . 5 SnO3 . In Li2 SnS3 the lithiation process shows it can lithiate to Li2 + 1 SnS3 without significant lattice distortion, volume expansion, or decomposition. Li - Li2 SnS3 interfaces are shown to be unstable, showing the formation of Li2 S . Supported by NSF Grant DMR-1105485 and DMR-1507942.

  11. Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors at the Forefront of Improving the Quality and Indexing Chances of its Member Journals

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Chang-Ok; Oh, Se Jeong

    2013-01-01

    The article overviews some achievements and problems of Korean medical journals published in the highly competitive journal environment. Activities of Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors (KAMJE) are viewed as instrumental for improving the quality of Korean articles, indexing large number of local journals in prestigious bibliographic databases and launching new abstract and citation tracking databases or platforms (eg KoreaMed, KoreaMed Synapse, the Western Pacific Regional Index Medicus [WPRIM]). KAMJE encourages its member journals to upgrade science editing standards and to legitimately increase citation rates, primarily by publishing more great articles with global influence. Experience gained by KAMJE and problems faced by Korean editors may have global implications. PMID:23678253

  12. [Letters to the editor published in Peruvian biomedical journals indexed in SciELO-Peru 2006-2013].

    PubMed

    Montenegro-Idrogo, Juan José; Mejía-Dolores, Jhon William; Chalco-Huamán, Joel L

    2015-01-01

    This bibliometric study describes the characteristics of letters to the editor published between 2006-2013 in biomedical journals indexed in SciELO-Peru.253 letters (10.3% of total publications) were collected. Most letters (139) were in the Peruvian Journal of Experimental Medicine and Public Health, with marked increase throughout those years. 25% of letters submitted included medical student participation. 14% of authors presented with international affiliations and 27% with endogenous affiliation - common in university journals (Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Revista Médica Herediana).The usual criteria justifying the publication of letters were: opinion of medical fact or public domain (35.6%) and discussion of results, methodological flaws or interpretation (22.9%). In biomedical journals indexed in SciELO Peru the letters to the editor comprise a percentage of publications that has increased in recent years, with low publication of letters of findings or primary data, compared with opinion or criticism. PMID:26102113

  13. The effects of an editor serving as one of the reviewers during the peer-review process

    PubMed Central

    Giordan, Marco; Csikasz-Nagy, Attila; Collings, Andrew M.; Vaggi, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Background Publishing in scientific journals is one of the most important ways in which scientists disseminate research to their peers and to the wider public. Pre-publication peer review underpins this process, but peer review is subject to various criticisms and is under pressure from growth in the number of scientific publications. Methods Here we examine an element of the editorial process at eLife, in which the Reviewing Editor usually serves as one of the referees, to see what effect this has on decision times, decision type, and the number of citations. We analysed a dataset of 8,905 research submissions to eLife since June 2012, of which 2,750 were sent for peer review, using R and Python to perform the statistical analysis. Results The Reviewing Editor serving as one of the peer reviewers results in faster decision times on average, with the time to final decision ten days faster for accepted submissions (n=1,405) and 5 days faster for papers that were rejected after peer review (n=1,099). There was no effect on whether submissions were accepted or rejected, and a very small (but significant) effect on citation rates for published articles where the Reviewing Editor served as one of the peer reviewers. Conclusions An important aspect of eLife’s peer-review process is shown to be effective, given that decision times are faster when the Reviewing Editor serves as a reviewer. Other journals hoping to improve decision times could consider adopting a similar approach. PMID:27508056

  14. The effects of an editor serving as one of the reviewers during the peer-review process.

    PubMed

    Giordan, Marco; Csikasz-Nagy, Attila; Collings, Andrew M; Vaggi, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Background Publishing in scientific journals is one of the most important ways in which scientists disseminate research to their peers and to the wider public. Pre-publication peer review underpins this process, but peer review is subject to various criticisms and is under pressure from growth in the number of scientific publications. Methods Here we examine an element of the editorial process at eLife, in which the Reviewing Editor usually serves as one of the referees, to see what effect this has on decision times, decision type, and the number of citations. We analysed a dataset of 8,905 research submissions to eLife since June 2012, of which 2,750 were sent for peer review, using R and Python to perform the statistical analysis. Results The Reviewing Editor serving as one of the peer reviewers results in faster decision times on average, with the time to final decision ten days faster for accepted submissions (n=1,405) and 5 days faster for papers that were rejected after peer review (n=1,099). There was no effect on whether submissions were accepted or rejected, and a very small (but significant) effect on citation rates for published articles where the Reviewing Editor served as one of the peer reviewers. Conclusions An important aspect of eLife's peer-review process is shown to be effective, given that decision times are faster when the Reviewing Editor serves as a reviewer. Other journals hoping to improve decision times could consider adopting a similar approach. PMID:27508056

  15. Solvation of the Li+-Cl--Li+ triple ion in the gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarek, Russell L.; Denson, Stephen C.; Shin, Seung Koo

    1998-09-01

    Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) spectrometry was employed to study solvations of the Li+-Cl--Li+ triple ion with oxygen-donor Lewis bases in the gas phase. The LiClLi+ triple ions were produced in an ICR cell by laser desorption ionization of a lithium chloride/dibenzo-18-crown-6-ether matrix pasted on a Teflon substrate. O-donor Lewis bases include 1,4-dioxane, 1,3-dioxane, tetrahydrofuran (THF), acetone and diethyl ether. All O-donors associate directly with LiClLi+ with the maximum solvation numbers of 3 for 1,4-dioxane, 1,3-dioxane and diethyl ether, and 4 for THF and acetone at room temperature. The rate constants for the stepwise solvations were measured, and the solvent binding energies were determined from van't Hoff plots. The structures and energetics of LiClLi+ and the 1:1 complexes of Li+ and LiClLi+ with the dioxanes, THF, and acetone were calculated at the Hartree-Fock (HF) level with a 6-311G(d,p) basis set, and those of more highly coordinated LiClLi+ complexes were calculated with a 6-31G(d) basis set. Solvation enthalpies and free energies were calculated, and solvent binding energies were compared with experiments. The mechanisms of stepwise solvations of the LiClLi+ triple ion with dioxanes, THF, and acetone are discussed in light of experimental kinetics and binding energies and theoretical structures and solvation energies.

  16. Kinetic measurement and prediction of the hydrogen outgassing from the polycrystalline LiH/Li2O/LiOH system

    SciTech Connect

    Dinh, L N; Grant, D M; Schildbach, M A; Smith, R A; Siekhaus, W J; Balazs, B; Leckey, J H; Kirkpatrick, J; McLean II, W

    2005-04-06

    Due to the exothermic reaction of lithium hydride (LiH) salt with water during transportation and handling, there is always a thin film of lithium hydroxide (LiOH) present on the LiH surface. In dry or vacuum storage, this thin LiOH film slowly decomposes. We have used temperature-programmed reaction/decomposition (TPR) in combination with the isoconversion method of thermal analysis to determine the outgassing kinetics of H{sub 2}O from pure LiOH and H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O from this thin LiOH film. H{sub 2} production via the reaction of LiH with LiOH, forming a lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O) interlayer, is thermodynamically favored, with the rate of further reaction limited by diffusion through the Li{sub 2}O and the stability of the decomposing LiOH. Lithium hydroxide at the LiOH/vacuum interface also decomposes easily to Li{sub 2}O, releasing H{sub 2}O which subsequently reacts with LiH in a closed system to form H{sub 2}. At the onset of dry decomposition, where H{sub 2} is the predominant product, the activation energy for outgassing from a thin LiOH film is lower than that for bulk LiOH. However, as the reactions at the LiH/Li{sub 2}O/LiOH and at the LiOH/vacuum interfaces proceed, the overall activation energy barrier for the outgassing approaches that of bulk LiOH decomposition. The kinetics developed here predicts a hydrogen evolution profile in good agreement with hydrogen release observed during long term isothermal storage.

  17. Kinetic measurement and prediction of the hydrogen outgassing from the polycrystalline LiH/Li 2O/LiOH system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinh, L. N.; Grant, D. M.; Schildbach, M. A.; Smith, R. A.; Siekhaus, W. J.; Balazs, B.; Leckey, J. H.; Kirkpatrick, J. R.; McLean, W.

    2005-12-01

    Due to the exothermic reaction of lithium hydride (LiH) salt with water during transportation and handling, there is always a thin film of lithium hydroxide (LiOH) present on the LiH surface. In dry or vacuum storage, this thin LiOH film slowly decomposes. The technique of temperature-programmed reaction/decomposition (TPR) was employed in combination with the isoconversion method of thermal analysis to determine the outgassing kinetics of H 2O from pure LiOH and H 2 and H 2O from this thin LiOH film. H 2 production via the reaction of LiH with LiOH, forming a lithium oxide (Li 2O) interlayer, is thermodynamically favored, with the rate of further reaction limited by diffusion through the Li 2O and the stability of the decomposing LiOH. Lithium hydroxide at the LiOH/vacuum interface also decomposes easily to Li 2O, releasing H 2O which subsequently reacts with LiH in a closed system to form H 2. At the onset of dry decomposition, where H 2 is the predominant product, the activation energy for outgassing from a thin LiOH film is lower than that for bulk LiOH. However, as the reactions at the LiH/Li 2O/LiOH and at the LiOH/vacuum interfaces proceed, the overall activation energy barrier for the outgassing approaches that of bulk LiOH decomposition. The kinetics developed here predict a hydrogen evolution profile in good agreement with hydrogen release observed during long term isothermal storage.

  18. Response to Comment on "Cycling Li-O₂ batteries via LiOH formation and decomposition".

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Kim, Gunwoo; Carretero-González, Javier; Castillo-Martínez, Elizabeth; Grey, Clare P

    2016-05-01

    We described a lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) battery comprising a graphene electrode, a dimethoxyethane-based electrolyte, and H2O and lithium iodide (LiI) additives, lithium hydroxide (LiOH) being the predominant discharge product. We demonstrate, in contrast to the work of Shen et al., that the chemical reactivity between LiOH and the triiodide ion (I3 (-)) to form IO3 (-) indicates that LiOH can be removed on charging; the electrodes do not clog, even after multiple cycles, confirming that solid products are reversibly removed. PMID:27151859

  19. Stability of the Solid Electrolyte Interface on the Li Electrode in Li-S Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Dong; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Qu, Deyang

    2016-04-27

    By means of high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy, the concentration of sulfur and polysulfides was determined in nonaqueous electrolytes. The stability of sulfur and Li in eight electrolytes was studied quantitatively. It was found that sulfur reacted with Li in most of the commonly used electrolytes for lithium-sulfur batteries. The reaction products between sulfur and Li were qualitatively identified. In some cases, the solid electrolyte interface on the Li can successfully prevent the interaction between S and Li; however, it was found that the solid electrolyte interface was damaged by polysulfide ions. PMID:27045986

  20. Li ion diffusion in LiAlO2 investigated by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qiwei; Lei, Li; Jiang, Xiaodong; Feng, Zhe Chuan; Tang, Mingjun; He, Duanwei

    2014-11-01

    The temperature dependence of Li ions behavior of γ-LiAlO2 has been studied from 78 to 873 K. On heating, the Li ions underwent positional disordering along the structural channels, with the Li ions related modes at 220, 366 and 400 cm-1 broadening and weakening dramatically. An anomalous maximum in the bandwidths of the Li ions related modes is observed. It should be apparent that there are at least two distinct thermally activated processes. A model suggested by Andrade and Porto is used to describe the linewidth of a phonon.

  1. Investigations of Li-containing SiCN(O) ceramics via 7Li MAS NMR.

    PubMed

    Gumann, Sina; Nestle, Nikolaus; Liebau-Kunzmann, Verena; Riedel, Ralf

    2007-04-01

    Lithium-containing silicon (oxy)carbonitride ceramics (SiCN(O):Li) were synthesized via precursor-to-ceramic-transformation of Li-containing (poly)silazanes. The precursors were obtained by lithiation of 2,4,6-trimethyl-2,4,6-trivinylcyclotrisilazane with n-butyllithium and by reaction of a commercial poly(organosilazane) VL20 with metallic lithium. The annealing treatment was carried out at temperatures between 200 and 1400 degrees C in argon (DeltaT=200 degrees C) and yielded Li-containing silicon (oxy)carbonitride. X-ray powder diffraction revealed that the resulting SiCN(O):Li ceramics were basically amorphous up to temperatures of 1000 degrees C and formed LiSi(2)N(3), graphite and silicon carbide as crystalline phases at higher temperatures. (7)Li MAS NMR spectroscopy was carried out to investigate the structure of the Li-containing phases and to study the reaction path of metallic Li with polysilazane. Based on the NMR spectra, there is almost no difference found in the chemical shift of the SiCN(O):Li ceramics obtained at different temperatures. Accordingly, Li is assigned to be mainly coordinated to N and O present as contaminant element. Relaxation time measurements showed that the most mobile Li(+) species seems to be present in the product obtained in the pyrolysis temperature range between 600 and 1000 degrees C. PMID:17418540

  2. Electrochemistry of LiCl-Li2O-H2O Molten Salt Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Natalie J. Gese; Batric Pesic

    2013-03-01

    Uranium can be recovered from uranium oxide (UO2) spent fuel through the combination of the oxide reduction and electrorefining processes. During oxide reduction, the spent fuel is introduced to molten LiCl-Li2O salt at 650 degrees C and the UO2 is reduced to uranium metal via two routes: (1) electrochemically, and (2) chemically by lithium metal (Li0) that is produced electrochemically. However, the hygroscopic nature of both LiCl and Li2O leads to the formation of LiOH, contributing hydroxyl anions (OH-), the reduction of which interferes with the Li0 generation required for the chemical reduction of UO2. In order for the oxide reduction process to be an effective method for the treatment of uranium oxide fuel, the role of moisture in the LiCl-Li2O system must be understood. The behavior of moisture in the LiCl-Li2O molten salt system was studied using cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry and chronoamperometry, while reduction to hydrogen was confirmed with gas chromatography.

  3. Representing the nature of science in a science textbook: Exploring author-editor-publisher interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digiuseppe, Maurizio

    Current reforms in elementary and secondary science education call for students and teachers to develop more informed views of the nature of science---a process in which learning materials like science textbooks play a significant role. This dissertation reports on a case study of the development of representations of the nature of science in one unit of a senior high school chemistry textbook by the book's author, editor, and publisher. The study examines the multiple discourses that arose as the developers reflected on their personal and shared understandings of the nature of science; squared these understandings with mandated curricula, the educational needs of chemistry students and teachers, and the exigencies of large-scale commercial textbook publishing; and developed and incorporated into the textbook representations of the nature of science they believed were the most suitable. Analyses of the data in this study indicate that a number of factors significantly influenced the development of representations of the nature of science, including representational accuracy (the degree to which suggested representations of the nature of science conformed to what the developers believed were contemporary understandings of the nature of science), representational consistency (the degree to which similar representations of the nature of science in different parts of the textbook conveyed the same meaning), representational appropriateness (the age-, grade-, and reading-level suitability of the suggested nature of science representations), representational alignment (the degree to which suggested representations of the nature of science addressed the requirements of mandated curricula), representational marketability (the degree to which textbook developers believed suggested representations of the nature of science would affect sales of the textbook in the marketplace), and a number of "Workplace Resources" factors such as the availability of time, relevant expertise

  4. Cycling Li-O₂ batteries via LiOH formation and decomposition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Leskes, Michal; Yu, Wanjing; Moore, Amy J; Zhou, Lina; Bayley, Paul M; Kim, Gunwoo; Grey, Clare P

    2015-10-30

    The rechargeable aprotic lithium-air (Li-O2) battery is a promising potential technology for next-generation energy storage, but its practical realization still faces many challenges. In contrast to the standard Li-O2 cells, which cycle via the formation of Li2O2, we used a reduced graphene oxide electrode, the additive LiI, and the solvent dimethoxyethane to reversibly form and remove crystalline LiOH with particle sizes larger than 15 micrometers during discharge and charge. This leads to high specific capacities, excellent energy efficiency (93.2%) with a voltage gap of only 0.2 volt, and impressive rechargeability. The cells tolerate high concentrations of water, water being the dominant proton source for the LiOH; together with LiI, it has a decisive impact on the chemical nature of the discharge product and on battery performance. PMID:26516278

  5. Direct observation of Li diffusion in Li-doped ZnO nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guohua; Yu, Lei; Hudak, Bethany M.; Chang, Yao-Jen; Baek, Hyeonjun; Sundararajan, Abhishek; Strachan, Douglas R.; Yi, Gyu-Chul; Guiton, Beth S.

    2016-05-01

    The direct observation of Li diffusion in Li-doped zinc oxide nanowires (NWs) was realized by using in situ heating in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). A continuous increase of low atomic mass regions within a single NW was observed between 200 °C and 600 °C when heated in vacuum, which was explained by the conversion of interstitial to substitutional Li in the ZnO NW host lattice. A kick-out mechanism is introduced to explain the migration and conversion of the interstitial Li (Lii) to Zn-site substitutional Li (LiZn), and this mechanism is verified with low-temperature (11 K) photoluminescence measurements on as-grown and annealed Li-doped zinc oxide NWs, as well as the observation of an increase of NW surface roughing with applied bias.

  6. Response to Comment on "Cycling Li-O₂ batteries via LiOH formation and decomposition".

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Kim, Gunwoo; Carretero-González, Javier; Castillo-Martínez, Elizabeth; Bayley, Paul M; Liu, Zigeng; Grey, Clare P

    2016-05-01

    Lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries cycle reversibly with lithium iodide (LiI) additives in dimethoxyethane (DME) to form lithium hydroxide (LiOH). Viswanathan et al. argue that because the standard redox potential of the four-electron (e(-)) reaction, 4OH(-) ↔ 2H2O + O2 + 4e(-), is at 3.34 V versus Li(+)/Li, LiOH cannot be removed by the triiodide ion (I3(-)). However, under nonaqueous conditions, this reaction will occur at a different potential. LiOH also reacts chemically with I3(-) to form IO3(-), further studies being required to determine the relative rates of the two reactions on electrochemical charge. PMID:27158717

  7. Mixed salts of LiTFSI and LiBOB for stable LiFePO4-based batteries at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xilin; Xu, Wu; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zheng, Jianming; Zhang, Yaohui; Ding, Fei; Qian, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2014-01-01

    To achieve stable long-term cycling stability at elevated temperatures, mixed salts of LiTFSI and LiBOB are used to replace LiPF6 salt in non-aqueous electrolytes for LiFePO4-based batteries. It is found that adding LiBOB in LiTFSI-based electrolytes effectively prevents the severe corrosion to Al current collectors that often is observed in LiTFSI-based electrolytes, which have high thermal stability. The cells using LiTFSI-LiBOB-based electrolytes demonstrate superior high temperature (60 °C) stability and very similar room temperature performance (i.e., cycling stability and rate capability) when compared to cells using the LiPF6-based electrolyte.

  8. Investigation of the role of 10Li resonances in the halo structure of 11Li through the 11Li (p , d)10Li transfer reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanetullaev, A.; Kanungo, R.; Tanaka, J.; Alcorta, M.; Andreoiu, C.; Bender, P.; Chen, A. A.; Christian, G.; Davids, B.; Fallis, J.; Fortin, J. P.; Galinski, N.; Gallant, A. T.; Garrett, P. E.; Hackman, G.; Hadinia, B.; Ishimoto, S.; Keefe, M.; Krücken, R.; Lighthall, J.; McNeice, E.; Miller, D.; Purcell, J.; Randhawa, J. S.; Roger, T.; Rojas, A.; Savajols, H.; Shotter, A.; Tanihata, I.; Thompson, I. J.; Unsworth, C.; Voss, P.; Wang, Z.

    2016-04-01

    The first measurement of the one-neutron transfer reaction 11Li(p,d)10Li performed using the IRIS facility at TRIUMF with a 5.7 A MeV11Li beam interacting with a solid H2 target is reported. The 10Li residue was populated strongly as a resonance peak with energy Er = 0.62 ± 0.04 MeV having a total width Γ = 0.33 ± 0.07 MeV. The angular distribution of this resonance is characterized by neutron occupying the 1p1/2 orbital. A DWBA analysis yields a spectroscopic factor of 0.67 ± 0.12 for p1/2 removal strength from the ground state of 11Li to the region of the peak.

  9. Garnet-type solid-state fast Li ion conductors for Li batteries: critical review.

    PubMed

    Thangadurai, Venkataraman; Narayanan, Sumaletha; Pinzaru, Dana

    2014-07-01

    Batteries are electrochemical devices that store electrical energy in the form of chemical energy. Among known batteries, Li ion batteries (LiBs) provide the highest gravimetric and volumetric energy densities, making them ideal candidates for use in portable electronics and plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles. Conventional LiBs use an organic polymer electrolyte, which exhibits several safety issues including leakage, poor chemical stability and flammability. The use of a solid-state (ceramic) electrolyte to produce all-solid-state LiBs can overcome all of the above issues. Also, solid-state Li batteries can operate at high voltage, thus, producing high power density. Various types of solid Li-ion electrolytes have been reported; this review is focused on the most promising solid Li-ion electrolytes based on garnet-type metal oxides. The first studied Li-stuffed garnet-type compounds are Li5La3M2O12 (M = Nb, Ta), which show a Li-ion conductivity of ∼10(-6) at 25 °C. La and M sites can be substituted by various metal ions leading to Li-rich garnet-type electrolytes, such as Li6ALa2M2O12, (A = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Sr0.5Ba0.5) and Li7La3C2O12 (C = Zr, Sn). Among the known Li-stuffed garnets, Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12 exhibits the highest bulk Li-ion conductivity of 10(-3) S cm(-1) at 25 °C with an activation energy of 0.35 eV, which is an order of magnitude lower than that of the currently used polymer, but is chemically stable at higher temperatures and voltages compared to polymer electrolytes. Here, we discuss the chemical composition-structure-ionic conductivity relationship of the Li-stuffed garnet-type oxides, as well as the Li ion conduction mechanism. PMID:24681593

  10. Investigation of hydrogen absorption in Li7VN4 and Li7MnN4.

    PubMed

    He, Guang; Herbst, J F; Ramesh, T N; Pinkerton, F E; Meyer, M S; Nazar, Linda

    2011-05-21

    The hydrogen storage properties of Li(7)VN(4) and Li(7)MnN(4) were investigated both by experiment and by density functional theory calculations. Li(7)VN(4) did not sorb hydrogen under our experimental conditions. Li(7)MnN(4) was observed to sorb 7 hydrogen atoms through the formation of LiH, Mn(4)N, and ammonia gas. An applied pressurized mixture of H(2)/Ar and H(2)/N(2) gases was helpful to mitigate the release of NH(3) but could not prevent its formation. The introduction of N(2) also caused weight gain of the sample by re-nitriding the absorbed products LiH and Mn(4)N, which correlated with the presence of Li(2)NH, LiNH(2), and Mn(2)N detected by X-ray diffraction. While our observed results for Li(7)VN(4) and Li(7)MnN(4) differ in detail, they are in overall qualitative agreement with our theoretical work, which strongly suggests that both compounds are unlikely to form quaternary hydrides. PMID:21455525

  11. Attainable gravimetric and volumetric energy density of Li-S and li ion battery cells with solid separator-protected Li metal anodes.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, Bryan D

    2015-11-19

    As a result of sulfur's high electrochemical capacity (1675 mA h/gs), lithium-sulfur batteries have received significant attention as a potential high-specific-energy alternative to current state-of-the-art rechargeable Li ion batteries. For Li-S batteries to compete with commercially available Li ion batteries, high-capacity anodes, such as those that use Li metal, will need to be enabled to fully exploit sulfur's high capacity. The development of Li metal anodes has focused on eliminating Coulombically inefficient and dendritic Li cycling, and to this end, an interesting direction of research is to protect Li metal by employing mechanically stiff solid-state Li(+) conductors, such as garnet phase Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO), NASICON-type Li1+xAlxTi2-x(PO4)3 (LATP), and Li2S-P2S5 glasses (LPS), as electrode separators. Basic calculations are used to quantify useful targets for solid Li metal protective separator thickness and cost to enable Li metal batteries in general and Li-S batteries specifically. Furthermore, maximum electrolyte-to-sulfur ratios that allow Li-S batteries to compete with Li ion batteries are calculated. The results presented here suggest that controlling the complex polysulfide speciation chemistry in Li-S cells with realistic, minimal electrolyte loading presents a meaningful opportunity to develop Li-S batteries that are competitive on a specific energy basis with current state-of-the-art Li ion batteries. PMID:26722800

  12. NOTE FROM THE EDITOR: Bayesian and Maximum Entropy Methods Bayesian and Maximum Entropy Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrzynski, L.

    2008-10-01

    The Bayesian and Maximum Entropy Methods are now standard routines in various data analyses, irrespective of ones own preference to the more conventional approach based on so-called frequentists understanding of the notion of the probability. It is not the purpose of the Editor to show all achievements of these methods in various branches of science, technology and medicine. In the case of condensed matter physics most of the oldest examples of Bayesian analysis can be found in the excellent tutorial textbooks by Sivia and Skilling [1], and Bretthorst [2], while the application of the Maximum Entropy Methods were described in `Maximum Entropy in Action' [3]. On the list of questions addressed one finds such problems as deconvolution and reconstruction of the complicated spectra, e.g. counting the number of lines hidden within the spectrum observed with always finite resolution, reconstruction of charge, spin and momentum density distribution from an incomplete sets of data, etc. On the theoretical side one might find problems like estimation of interatomic potentials [4], application of the MEM to quantum Monte Carlo data [5], Bayesian approach to inverse quantum statistics [6], very general to statistical mechanics [7] etc. Obviously, in spite of the power of the Bayesian and Maximum Entropy Methods, it is not possible for everything to be solved in a unique way by application of these particular methods of analysis, and one of the problems which is often raised is connected not only with a uniqueness of a reconstruction of a given distribution (map) but also with its accuracy (error maps). In this `Comments' section we present a few papers showing more recent advances and views, and highlighting some of the aforementioned problems. References [1] Sivia D S and Skilling J 2006 Data Analysis: A Bayesian Tutorial 2nd edn (Oxford: Oxford University Press) [2] Bretthorst G L 1988 Bayesian Spectruim Analysis and Parameter Estimation (Berlin: Springer) [3] Buck B and

  13. Density functional study of Li4NH and Li1.5NH1.5 as intermediary compounds during hydrogenation of Li3N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crivello, J.-C.; Gupta, M.; Černý, R.; Latroche, M.; Chandra, D.

    2010-03-01

    Recent experimental data suggest the formation of two new compounds, namely, Li4NH and Li1.5NH1.5 , during the hydrogenation process of Li3N . The formation of these compounds could modify the hydrogen absorption and desorption characteristics of Li3N . We present here the results of our density functional theory calculations concerning their formation. We find that the direct hydrogenation reaction of Li3N to Li2NH is predominantly favored but the formation of Li4NH is possible through the direct formation involving Li3N and LiH with an enthalpy of reaction much less negative than for the direct formation of Li2NH . The formation of this compound through the release of ammonia is not possible. This compound readily reacts with H2 exothermically with an enthalpy of reaction less negative than for the direct process. We also find that the formation of the intermediate phase Li2-xNH1+x for x=0.5 between imide (x=0) and amide (x=1) is possible. Li1.5NH1.5 is found to form in a cubic Li-vacant-type compound. After full relaxations of several structural models, the Li1.5NH1.5 compound presents a coexistence of ordered [NH]2- and [NH2]- anions. These results are discussed in terms of an analysis of the electronic structures of these compounds.

  14. First Principles Investigation of Li/Fe-Oxide as a High Energy Material for Hybrid All-in-One Li-ion/Li-O2 Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinaci, Alper; Trahey, Lynn; Thackeray, Michael M.; Kirklin, Scott; Wolverton, Christopher; Chan, Maria K. Y.; CenterElectrical Energy Storage Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    We recently introduced a vision for high energy all-in-one electrode/electrocatalyst materials that can be used in hybrid Li-ion/Li-O2 (Li-air) cells. Recent experiments using Li5FeO4 demonstrated substantially smaller voltage polarizations and hence higher energy efficiency compared to standard Li-O2 cells forming Li2O2. The mechanism by which the charge process activates the Li5FeO4, however, is not well understood. Here, we present first principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations to establish the thermodynamic conditions for the extraction of Li/Li +O from Li5FeO4. A step-by-step, history-dependent, removal process has been followed and the stability of the Li and Li +O deficient samples is investigated on the basis of the energies of the extraction reactions. Various stages of Li/Li +O removal are identified, and structural changes and electronic structure evolution, as well as computed XRD, XANES, and PDF characterizations are reported.

  15. Single and double photoionization of Li2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pindzola, M. S.; Li, Ye; Colgan, J.

    2015-01-01

    Time-dependent close-coupling methods are used to study the single and double photoionization of Li2. Formulations for both one-active and two-active electron methods make use of Hartree with local exchange potentials for the core electrons. Both the single and double photoionization cross sections for Li2 are found to be larger for linear polarization than for circular polarization, in sharp contrast to that found before for H2. In particular the double photoionization cross sections for Li2 are found to be approximately five times larger than for H2 and thus more easily observed by future experiments.

  16. A survey of the awareness, knowledge, policies and views of veterinary journal Editors-in-Chief on reporting guidelines for publication of research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Wider adoption of reporting guidelines by veterinary journals could improve the quality of published veterinary research. The aims of this study were to assess the knowledge and views of veterinary Editors-in-Chief on reporting guidelines, identify the policies of their journals, and determine their information needs. Editors-in-Chief of 185 journals on the contact list for the International Association of Veterinary Editors (IAVE) were surveyed in April 2012 using an online questionnaire which contained both closed and open questions. Results The response rate was 36.8% (68/185). Thirty-six of 68 editors (52.9%) stated they knew what a reporting guideline was before receiving the questionnaire. Editors said they had found out about reporting guidelines primarily through articles in other journals, via the Internet and through their own journal. Twenty of 57 respondents (35.1%) said their journal referred to reporting guidelines in its instructions to authors. CONSORT, REFLECT, and ARRIVE were the most frequently cited. Forty-four of 68 respondents (68.2%) believed that reporting guidelines should be adopted by all refereed veterinary journals. Qualitative analysis of the open questions revealed that lack of knowledge, fear, resistance to change, and difficulty in implementation were perceived as barriers to the adoption of reporting guidelines by journals. Editors suggested that reporting guidelines be promoted through communication and education of the veterinary community, with roles for the IAVE and universities. Many respondents believed a consensus policy on guideline implementation was needed for veterinary journals. Conclusions Further communication and education about reporting guidelines for editors, authors and reviewers has the potential to increase their adoption by veterinary journals in the future. PMID:24410882

  17. Anharmonicity in LiBH4-LiI induced by anion exchange and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgschulte, A.; Gremaud, R.; Kato, S.; Stadie, N. P.; Remhof, A.; Züttel, A.; Matsuo, M.; Orimo, S.-I.

    2010-07-01

    The feasibility of spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy probing diffusion multiples as a high-throughput method to study phase transformations in Li-ion conductors is demonstrated. The method is applied to the pseudobinary LiBH4-LiI system, which shows high Li-ion conductivity in the HT-phase of LiBH4. The vibrational properties measured as a function of composition and temperature corroborate the formation of a solid solution of Li(BH4)1-cIc over nearly the entire phase diagram (0

  18. Kinetics Tuning of Li-Ion Diffusion in Layered Li(NixMnyCoz)O2.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yi; Zheng, Jiaxin; Cui, Suihan; Song, Xiaohe; Su, Yantao; Deng, Wenjun; Wu, Zhongzhen; Wang, Xinwei; Wang, Weidong; Rao, Mumin; Lin, Yuan; Wang, Chongmin; Amine, Khalil; Pan, Feng

    2015-07-01

    Using ab initio calculations combined with experiments, we clarified how the kinetics of Li-ion diffusion can be tuned in LiNixMnyCozO2 (NMC, x + y + z = 1) materials. It is found that Li-ions tend to choose oxygen dumbbell hopping (ODH) at the early stage of charging (delithiation), and tetrahedral site hopping (TSH) begins to dominate when more than 1/3 Li-ions are extracted. In both ODH and TSH, the Li-ions surrounded by nickel (especially with low valence state) are more likely to diffuse with low activation energy and form an advantageous path. The Li slab space, which also contributes to the effective diffusion barriers, is found to be closely associated with the delithiation process (Ni oxidation) and the contents of Ni, Co, and Mn. PMID:26098282

  19. Preparation and some properties of Cu-Li alloys containing up to 20 at. % Li

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, M.; Krauss, A.R.; Gruen, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Lithium strongly segregates to the surface of Cu-Li alloys, thus substantially lowering the Cu sputtering yield relative to pure Cu. Use of Cu-Li limiters or divertors in tokamaks can therefore be expected to be beneficial in limiting high-Z plasma impurity influx. A large scale (100-200g) method for the preparation of Cu-Li alloys is described. Analysis reveals that on solidification from the melt stratification occurs which leads to compositional inhomogeneity. The results are discussed in the light of the Cu-Li binary phase diagram and rationalized on the basis of large density differences between Cu and Cu-Li solid solutions. It is concluded that obtaining homogeneous Cu-Li solid solutions is a nontrivial task.

  20. Thermal process dependence of Li configuration and electrical properties of Li-doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Knutsen, K. E.; Merz, T.; Kuznetsov, A. Yu.; Svensson, B. G.; Brillson, L. J.

    2012-01-01

    We used depth-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy (DRCLS) to describe the strong dependence of Li acceptor formation on thermal treatment in Li-doped ZnO. Within a 500-600 °C annealing temperature range, subsequent quenching ZnO leaves Li as interstitial donors, resulting in low room temperature resistivity, while slow cooling in air allows these interstitials to fill Zn vacancies forming Li acceptors 3.0 eV below the conduction band edge. DRCLS reveals an inverse relationship between the optical emission densities of lithium on zinc sites versus zinc vacancy sites, demonstrating the time dependence of Li interstitials to combine with zinc vacancies in order to form substitutional Li acceptors.

  1. First-Principles Studies of Li Nucleation on Graphene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingjie; Kutana, Alex; Liu, Yuanyue; Yakobson, Boris I

    2014-04-01

    We study the Li clustering process on graphene and obtain the geometry, nucleation barrier, and electronic structure of the clusters using first-principles calculations. We estimate the concentration-dependent nucleation barrier for Li on graphene. While the nucleation occurs more readily with increasing Li concentration, possibly leading to the dendrite formation and failure of the Li-ion battery, the existence of the barrier delays nucleation and may allow Li storage on graphene. Our electronic structure and charge transfer analyses reveal how the fully ionized Li adatoms transform to metallic Li during the cluster growth on graphene. PMID:26274475

  2. Reactivity and acidity of Li in LiAlO[sub 2] phases

    SciTech Connect

    Dronskowski, R. )

    1993-01-06

    Nuclear physicists were interested in the [gamma]-modification of LiAlO[sub 2]. Because of its good performance under high neutron and electron radiation, the phase appears to be a promising lithium ceramic suitable as an in situ trituim-breeding material in future fusion reactors. With the help of semiempirical electronic structure calculations, the authors seek to understand why solid [alpha]-LiAlO[sub 2] exchanges Li[sup +] with H[sup +] while in contact with molten benzoic acid but [gamma]-LiAlO[sub 2] does not. After critically examining the structural data for LiAlO[sub 2] modifications, they calculate the binding and both the static and dynamic reactivity and the static and dynamic acidity of [alpha]- and [gamma]-LiAlO[sub 2], with a special interpretative emphasis on the Li ion. The reason for Li being solely extractable in [alpha]-LiAlO[sub 2] is found to arise from (1) a difference in Li electrophilicity between [alpha]- and [gamma]-phase (frontier band argument), (2) a significantly smaller energy for Li binding to its neighboring atoms in [alpha]-compared to [gamma]-phase (thermodynamic argument), and (3) a dramatic difference in energetic behavior upon dislocating a Li atom from its equilibrium position in [alpha]- and [gamma]-phase (kinetic argument). Additionally, the authors show how the movement of a local atomic carrier of reactivity and acidity within a nonequilibrium structure can be easily observed by use of computation. 64 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Line shift, line asymmetry, and the ^6Li/^7Li isotopic ratio determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cayrel, R.; Steffen, M.; Chand, H.; Bonifacio, P.; Spite, M.; Spite, F.; Petitjean, P.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Caffau, E.

    2007-10-01

    Context: Line asymmetries are generated by convective Doppler shifts in stellar atmospheres, especially in metal-poor stars, where convective motions penetrate to higher atmospheric levels. Such asymmetries are usually neglected in abundance analyses. The determination of the ^6Li/^7Li isotopic ratio is prone to suffering from such asymmetries, as the contribution of ^6Li is a slight blending reinforcement of the red wing of each component of the corresponding ^7Li line, with respect to its blue wing. Aims: The present paper studies the halo star HD 74000 and estimates the impact of convection-related asymmetries on the Li isotopic ratio determination. Methods: Two methods are used to meet this aim. The first, which is purely empirical, consists in deriving a template profile from another element that can be assumed to originate in the same stellar atmospheric layers as Li I, producing absorption lines of approximately the same equivalent width as individual components of the ^7Li I resonance line. The second method consists in conducting the abundance analysis based on NLTE line formation in a 3D hydrodynamical model atmosphere, taking into account the effects of photospheric convection. Results: The results of the first method show that the convective asymmetry generates an excess absorption in the red wing of the ^7Li absorption feature that mimics the presence of ^6Li at a level comparable to the hitherto published values. This opens the possibility that only an upper limit on ^6Li/^7Li has thus far been derived. The second method confirms these findings. Conclusions: From this work, it appears that a systematic reappraisal of former determinations of ^6Li abundances in halo stars is warranted. Based on observations carried out at the European Southern Observatory (ESO), under prog. ID 75.D-0600. Tables 1-3, and additional references are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  4. Layered Li-Mn-M-oxides as cathodes for Li-ion batteries:. Recent trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaju, K. M.; Subba Rao, G. V.; Chowdari, B. V. R.

    2002-12-01

    There is an increasing demand for manganese (Mn) based mixed oxides which can effectively replace the presently used LiCoO2 as cathode in Li-ion batteries (LIB). The well-studied spinel, LiMn2O4 and its doped derivatives give a capacity of 100-120 mAh/g, but show capacity-fading on cycling especially above 55°C. The layered LiMnO2, isostructural to LiCoO2 (so called O3-structure) can be a viable cathode. However, studies have shown that it undergoes conversion to spinel structure on cycling and thus gives capacity-fading. Other alternative systems recently studied are: O2-structured layered Li-M-Mn-oxides with the general formula Li(2/3)+x(MyMn1-y)O2, M = Li, Ni, Co; x ≤ 0.33 and y = 0.1-0.67, O3-Li(Ni1/2Mn1/2)O2, Li(NixCo1-2xMnx)O2, and M'-substituted Li2MnO3 (M' = Ni, Co, Cr). Some of them are shown to have stable cycling performance, good rate-capability and structural stability over charge-discharge cycling in the 2.5-4.6 V region. Further, the electrochemical processes in the above mixed oxides have been shown to involve Ni2+/4+ or Cr3+/6+ redox couple, thus invoking novel ideas to develop new cathode materials. A brief review of the work done on the above O2- and O3-layered Li-Mn-M-oxides (M = metal) as cathodes for LIB is presented.

  5. Antiperovskite Li 3 OCl superionic conductor films for solid-state Li-ion batteries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lü, Xujie; Howard, John W.; Chen, Aiping; Zhu, Jinlong; Li, Shuai; Wu, Gang; Dowden, Paul; Xu, Hongwu; Zhao, Yusheng; Jia, Quanxi

    2016-02-02

    We prepared antiperovskite Li3OCl superionic conductor films via pulsed laser deposition using a composite target. A significantly enhanced ionic conductivity of 2.0 × 10-4 S cm-1 at room temperature is achieved, and this value is more than two orders of magnitude higher than that of its bulk counterpart. Moreover, the applicability of Li3OCl as a solid electrolyte for Li-ion batteries is demonstrated.

  6. Deviation from Universality in Collisions of Ultracold Li26 Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tout T.; Heo, Myoung-Sun; Rvachov, Timur M.; Cotta, Dylan A.; Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    Collisions of Li26 molecules with free Li6 atoms reveal a striking deviation from universal predictions based on long-range van der Waals interactions. Li2 closed-channel molecules are formed in the highest vibrational state near a narrow Feshbach resonance and decay via two-body collisions with Li2, Li, and Na. For Li2+Li2 and Li2+Na, the decay rates agree with the universal predictions of the quantum Langevin model. In contrast, the rate for Li2+Li is exceptionally small, with an upper bound 10 times smaller than the universal prediction. This can be explained by the low density of available decay states in systems of light atoms [G. Quéméner, J.-M. Launay, and P. Honvault, Phys. Rev. A 75, 050701 (2007)PLRAAN1050-2947], for which such collisions have not been studied before.

  7. Quantum effects in the case of (6)Li+ and (7)Li+ ions evolving in a neutral (6)Li gas at a wide range of temperatures.

    PubMed

    Bouchelaghem, F; Bouledroua, M

    2014-02-01

    This work deals with the quantum-mechanical calculation of the temperature-dependent mobility of ionic lithium atoms diffusing in their parent gas. The computation of the quantal phase shifts in connection with the gerade and ungerade potential-energy curves, through which Li(+) approaches Li(2s), leads to the computation of the charge-transfer and diffusion cross sections. The behavior of the coefficients of diffusion and mobility with temperature is also examined. Throughout this work, the isotopic effects in the (6)Li(+)-(6)Li and (7)Li(+)-(6)Li collisions are emphasized. PMID:24326775

  8. Power capability improvement of LiBOB/PC electrolyte for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Hiroaki; Sekine, Kyoichi; Takamura, Tsutomu

    Lithium bis(oxalto)borate (LiBOB) is quite effective to prevent vigorous decomposition of propylene carbonate (PC) at the graphite anode of a Li-ion battery during Li insertion. PC is a very good solvent that is inexpensive, has high conductivity and a low melting point; however, the power capability of PC electrolyte containing LiBOB is unsatisfactory. In an attempt to improve the power capability of the LiBOB/PC electrolyte, mixed electrolytes containing both LiBOB and LiClO 4 were examined. An integrated fiber felt of highly graphitized carbon was used as the working electrode and the performance was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), constant current followed by constant voltage charge (CCCV) and constant current discharge. The CV produced a stable peak for Li extraction, but the peak height was as low as half that obtained in a conventional electrolyte such as a 1:1 mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) containing 1 M LiClO 4. However, the peak height in PC, containing 1/49 M LiBOB and 1 M LiClO 4, became 1.5 times higher than that in PC containing 1 M LiBOB. The peak height was increased further using a 1:1 mixture of PC and acetonitrile (AN) containing 1/49 M LiBOB and 1 M LiClO 4, although the cycleability was poor. A similar tendency was observed with the CCCV test. The CV peak height was plotted against the ionic conductivity of several solvents and showed no linear relationship, implying that the reaction activity was influenced by the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formed. The charge transfer resistance was evaluated by impedance spectroscopy. The results revealed that not only the surface film resistance but also the charge transfer resistance was markedly increased in the electrolyte containing LiBOB; however, they were reduced by the addition of LiClO 4.

  9. Ferromagnetism in Li doped ZnO nanoparticles: The role of interstitial Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah Awan, Saif; Hasanain, S. K.; Bertino, Massimo F.; Hassnain Jaffari, G.

    2012-11-01

    ZnO nanoparticles doped with Li (Zn1-yLiyO, y ≤ 0.1) have been investigated with emphasis on the correlation between their magnetic, electronic, and structural properties. In particular, defects such as interstitial Li and Zn atoms, substitutional Li atoms, and oxygen vacancies have been identified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and their respective roles in stabilization of the magnetic moment are discussed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and XPS give clear evidence of Li presence at both substitutional and interstitial sites. XPS studies further show that the amount of substitutional Li defects (Lizn) and interstitial Li defects (Lii) vary non-monotonically with the Li concentration, with the Lii defects being noticeably high for the y = 0.02, 0.08, and 0.10 concentrations, in agreement with the XRD results. Magnetization studies show room temperature ferromagnetism in these nanoparticles with the moment being largest for the particles with high concentration of interstitial lithium and vice versa. Both interstitial Zn (Zni) defects and Zn-O bonds were determined from the Zn LMM Auger peaks; however, the variation of these with Li concentrations was not large. Oxygen vacancies (Vo) concentrations are estimated to be relatively constant over the entire Li concentration range. We relate the Lii and Zni defects to the formation and stabilization of Zn vacancies and thus stabilizing the p-type ferromagnetism predicted for cation (zinc) vacancy in the ZnO type oxides.

  10. Ferromagnetism in chemically reduced LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Tao; Ye, Ning; Xu, Liuwei; Sang, Yuanhua; Chen, Yanxue; Song, Wei; Long, Xifa; Wang, Jiyang; Liu, Hong

    2016-05-01

    The ferromagnetism of bulk LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 at room temperature was investigated for the first time in the present work. The stoichiometric LiNbO3 is non-magnetic, while congruent LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 show very weak ferromagnetism. After chemical reduction in a mixture of zinc and lithium carbonate powders under flowing nitrogen, the ferromagnetic behavior of each sample became clear, with an increased value of magnetization. The saturation magnetization, the magnetic remanence and the coercive field of reduced congruent LiNbO3 are 7.0  ×  10‑3 emu g‑1, 0.65  ×  10‑3 emu g‑1 and 0.050 kOe, respectively. The ferromagnetism of chemically reduced LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 can be explained by considering the intrinsic Li vacancies, the appearance of Nb4+ (or Ta4+) on the surface with non-zero net spin and the oxygen vacancies at the surface.

  11. [100]-Oriented LiFePO4 Nanoflakes toward High Rate Li-Ion Battery Cathode.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaojin; Peng, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Hui; Hu, Tao; Hu, Minmin; Zhu, Kongjun; Wang, Xiaohui

    2016-01-13

    [100] is believed to be a tough diffusion direction for Li(+) in LiFePO4, leading to the belief that the rate performance of [100]-oriented LiFePO4 is poor. Here we report the fabrication of 12 nm-thick [100]-oriented LiFePO4 nanoflakes by a simple one-pot solvothermal method. The nanoflakes exhibit unexpectedly excellent electrochemical performance, in stark contrast to what was previously believed. Such an exceptional result is attributed to a decreased thermodynamic transformation barrier height (Δμb) associated with increased active population. PMID:26694590

  12. NMR study of Li adsorbed on the Si (111) - (3×1) -Li surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromberger, C.; Jänsch, H. J.; Kühlert, O.; Schillinger, R.; Fick, D.

    2004-06-01

    Li adsorption on the (3×1) -Li reconstructed Si(111) surface has been studied by β -nuclear magnetic resonance experiments (measurements of T1 times). A rich variety of temperature, coverage, and magnetic field dependencies were observed, which reflect a metal-semiconductor-metal transition while adsorbing Li with increasing coverage on a (7×7) -reconstructed Si(111) surface in such a way that the (3×1) reconstruction is driven. With the aid of a formulated concept of Li donors localized on a semiconducting surface the temperature dependence of relaxation rates for Li adsorbed at extremely low coverages (up to 0.01 ML ) could be understood consistently. The donor energy of adsorbed Li on the (3×1) surface has been determined to be ED ≈100 meV . This success proves additionally that the theoretical results of a completely ionized Li chain in the (3×1) reconstruction are correct. The observed semiconductor-metal transition for adsorption of 0.14 ML additional Li on the already (3×1) -reconstructed surface points to the existence of an empty state near the Fermi energy (probably the so-called S-1 state). The diffusion energy of Li on the Si (111) - (3×1) surface could be estimated to be Ediff ≈410 meV .

  13. Uniform second Li ion intercalation in solid state ɛ-LiVOPO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wangoh, Linda W.; Sallis, Shawn; Wiaderek, Kamila M.; Lin, Yuh-Chieh; Wen, Bohua; Quackenbush, Nicholas F.; Chernova, Natasha A.; Guo, Jinghua; Ma, Lu; Wu, Tianpin; Lee, Tien-Lin; Schlueter, Christoph; Ong, Shyue Ping; Chapman, Karena W.; Whittingham, M. Stanley; Piper, Louis F. J.

    2016-08-01

    Full, reversible intercalation of two Li+ has not yet been achieved in promising VOPO4 electrodes. A pronounced Li+ gradient has been reported in the low voltage window (i.e., second lithium reaction) that is thought to originate from disrupted kinetics in the high voltage regime (i.e., first lithium reaction). Here, we employ a combination of hard and soft x-ray photoelectron and absorption spectroscopy techniques to depth profile solid state synthesized LiVOPO4 cycled within the low voltage window only. Analysis of the vanadium environment revealed no evidence of a Li+ gradient, which combined with almost full theoretical capacity confirms that disrupted kinetics in the high voltage window are responsible for hindering full two lithium insertion. Furthermore, we argue that the uniform Li+ intercalation is a prerequisite for the formation of intermediate phases Li1.50VOPO4 and Li1.75VOPO4. The evolution from LiVOPO4 to Li2VOPO4 via the intermediate phases is confirmed by direct comparison between O K-edge absorption spectroscopy and density functional theory.

  14. Li + grafting of ion irradiated polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Švorčík, V.; Rybka, V.; Vacík, J.; Hnatowicz, V.; Öchsner, R.; Ryssel, H.

    1999-02-01

    Foils of oriented polyethylene (PE) were irradiated with 63 keV Ar + and 155 keV Xe + ions to different fluences at room temperature and then doped from water solution of LiCl. The as irradiated and irradiated plus doped samples were examined by IR, EPR and neutron depth profiling (NDP) technique. The sheet resistance was also measured by the standard two points method. After Li salt doping of ion modified layer of PE, a reaction between degraded macromolecules and Li occur and thus a new chemical structure C-Li + is formed. Owing to the presence of these cations on the polymer chain, the irradiated plus doped layer exhibits higher electric conductivity compared to as-irradiated ones.

  15. Nanotechnology in Li-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Mukaibo, Hitomi

    2010-06-04

    This is the second of three talks on nanostructures for li-ion batteries. The talks provide an up-to-date review of the issues and challenges facing Li-ion battery research with special focus on how nanostructures/ nanotechnology are being applied to this field. Novel materials reported as prospective candidates for anode, cathode and electrolyte will be summarized. The expected role of nanostructures in improving the performance of Li-ion batteries and the actual pros and cons of using such structures in this device will be addressed. Electrochemical experiments used to study Li-ion batteries will also be discussed. This includes the introduction to the standard experimental set-up and how experimental data (from charge-discharge experiments, cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy, etc) are interpreted.

  16. Triplet state photoassociation of LiNa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rvachov, Timur; Jamison, Alan; Jing, Li; Jiang, Yijun; Zwierlein, Martin; Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2015-05-01

    Ultracold molecules have promise to become a useful tool for studies in quantum simulation and ultracold chemistry. We aim to produce ultracold fermionic 6Li23Na molecules in the triplet ground state. Due to the small mass, small spin-orbit coupling, and fermionic character of LiNa, the triplet ground state is expected to be long lived. We report on photoassociation spectra of LiNa to its triplet excited states from an ultracold mixture. This is the first observation of these excited triplet potentials, which have been previously difficult to observe in heat-pipe experiments due to the small spin-orbit coupling in the system. Determining the excited state potentials is a key milestone towards forming triplet ground state LiNa via two-photon STIRAP. Work supported by the NSF, AFOSR-MURI, ARO-MURI, and NSERC.

  17. Specification For ST-5 Li Ion Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castell, Karen D.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This Specification defines the general requirements for rechargeable Space Flight batteries intended for use in the ST-5 program. The battery chemistry chosen for this mission is lithium ion (Li-Ion).

  18. Unravelling Li-Ion Transport from Picoseconds to Seconds: Bulk versus Interfaces in an Argyrodite Li6PS5Cl-Li2S All-Solid-State Li-Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chuang; Ganapathy, Swapna; de Klerk, Niek J J; Roslon, Irek; van Eck, Ernst R H; Kentgens, Arno P M; Wagemaker, Marnix

    2016-09-01

    One of the main challenges of all-solid-state Li-ion batteries is the restricted power density due to the poor Li-ion transport between the electrodes via the electrolyte. However, to establish what diffusional process is the bottleneck for Li-ion transport requires the ability to distinguish the various processes. The present work investigates the Li-ion diffusion in argyrodite Li6PS5Cl, a promising electrolyte based on its high Li-ion conductivity, using a combination of (7)Li NMR experiments and DFT based molecular dynamics simulations. This allows us to distinguish the local Li-ion mobility from the long-range Li-ion motional process, quantifying both and giving a coherent and consistent picture of the bulk diffusion in Li6PS5Cl. NMR exchange experiments are used to unambiguously characterize Li-ion transport over the solid electrolyte-electrode interface for the electrolyte-electrode combination Li6PS5Cl-Li2S, giving unprecedented and direct quantitative insight into the impact of the interface on Li-ion charge transport in all-solid-state batteries. The limited Li-ion transport over the Li6PS5Cl-Li2S interface, orders of magnitude smaller compared with that in the bulk Li6PS5Cl, appears to be the bottleneck for the performance of the Li6PS5Cl-Li2S battery, quantifying one of the major challenges toward improved performance of all-solid-state batteries. PMID:27511442

  19. Microscopic Structure of Contact Ion Pairs in Concentrated LiCl- and LiClO4-Tetrahydrofuran Solutions Studied by Low-Frequency Isotropic Raman Scattering and Neutron Diffraction with (6)Li/(7)Li Isotopic Substitution Methods.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Yasuo; Ebina, Saki; Amo, Yuko; Usuki, Takeshi; Otomo, Toshiya

    2016-05-26

    Low-frequency isotropic Raman scattering and time-of-flight neutron diffraction measurements were carried out for (6)Li/(7)Li and H/D isotopically substituted *LiCl- and *LiClO4-tetrahydrofuran (*THF) solutions in order to obtain microscopic insight into solvated Li(+), Li(+)···Cl(-) and Li(+)···ClO4(-) contact ion pairs formed in concentrated THF solutions. Symmetrical stretching vibrational mode of solvated Li(+) in LiCl and LiClO4 solutions was observed at ν = 181-184 and 140 cm(-1), respectively. The stretching vibrational mode of Li(+)···Cl(-) and Li(+)···ClO4(-) solvated contact ion pairs formed in 4 mol % (6)LiCl-THF-h8 and (7)LiCl-THF-h8 solutions was found at ν = 469 and 435 cm(-1), respectively. Detailed structural properties of solvated Li(+) and the contact ion pairs were derived from the least-squares fitting analyses of the first-order difference function, ΔLi(Q), obtained from neutron diffraction measurements on (6)Li/(7)Li isotopically substituted THF-d8 solutions. It has been revealed that Li(+) takes 4-fold coordination in the average local structure of Li(+)X(-)(THF)3, X = Cl and ClO4. The nearest neighbor Li(+)···O(THF) distance was determined to be 2.21 ± 0.01 Å and 2.07 ± 0.01 Å for 4 mol % *LiCl- and 10 mol % *LiClO4-THF-d8 solutions, respectively. The Li(+)···anion distances for Li(+)···Cl(-) and Li(+)···O(ClO4(-)) contact ion pairs were determined to be 2.4 ± 0.1 Å and 2.19 ± 0.01 Å, respectively. The nearest neighbor Li(+)···THF interaction is significantly modified by the anion in the first solvation shell. PMID:27157529

  20. Lost in Translation (LiT)

    PubMed Central

    Dollery, Colin T

    2014-01-01

    Translational medicine is a roller coaster with occasional brilliant successes and a large majority of failures. Lost in Translation 1 (‘LiT1’), beginning in the 1950s, was a golden era built upon earlier advances in experimental physiology, biochemistry and pharmacology, with a dash of serendipity, that led to the discovery of many new drugs for serious illnesses. LiT2 saw the large-scale industrialization of drug discovery using high-throughput screens and assays based on affinity for the target molecule. The links between drug development and university sciences and medicine weakened, but there were still some brilliant successes. In LiT3, the coverage of translational medicine expanded from molecular biology to drug budgets, with much greater emphasis on safety and official regulation. Compared with R&D expenditure, the number of breakthrough discoveries in LiT3 was disappointing, but monoclonal antibodies for immunity and inflammation brought in a new golden era and kinase inhibitors such as imatinib were breakthroughs in cancer. The pharmaceutical industry is trying to revive the LiT1 approach by using phenotypic assays and closer links with academia. LiT4 faces a data explosion generated by the genome project, GWAS, ENCODE and the ‘omics’ that is in danger of leaving LiT4 in a computerized cloud. Industrial laboratories are filled with masses of automated machinery while the scientists sit in a separate room viewing the results on their computers. Big Data will need Big Thinking in LiT4 but with so many unmet medical needs and so many new opportunities being revealed there are high hopes that the roller coaster will ride high again. PMID:24428732

  1. On Li-7 production in nova explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starrfield, S.; Truran, J. W.; Sparks, W. M.; Arnould, M.

    1978-01-01

    Calculations of Li-7 production occurring as a concomitant of thermonuclear runaways in hydrogen envelopes of white dwarfs are reported. It is found that sufficient Li-7 can be produced in models displaying fast-nova-like features to suggest that the corresponding objects represent significant contributors to the enrichment of galactic matter. The sensitivities of these results to various assumptions and uncertainties are discussed.

  2. Negative Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, Kim; Zaghib, Karim

    2001-10-01

    Graphitized carbons have played a key role in the successful commercialization of Li-ion batteries. The physicochemical properties of carbon cover a wide range; therefore identifying the optimum active electrode material can be time consuming. The significant physical properties of negative electrodes for Li-ion batteries are summarized, and the relationship of these properties to their electrochemical performance in nonaqueous electrolytes, are discussed in this paper.

  3. LiNbO3 Cylinder Fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kornreich, Philip

    2004-01-01

    We have successfully fabricate optical fiber with a thin layer of LiNbO3 at the boundary of the glass core and clear glass cladding. The construction of this fiber is based on our successful Semiconductor Cylinder Fibers (SCF). A schematic representation of a LiN bo, Cylinder Fiber. These fibers can be used as light modulators, sonar detectors and in other applications. The core diameter of the fiber is sufficiently small compared to the light wavelength and the indices of refraction of the core and cladding glasses are sufficiently close in value so that there is sufficient light at the core cladding boundary to interact with the LiNbO3 layer. This fiber functions best when just a single light mode propagates through the fiber. The idea for a LiNbO3 Cylinder Fiber came from Dr. Tracee Jamison of NASA. The optical properties of LiNbO3 can be changed with strain or the application of an electric field. Thus these fibers can be used as acoustic sensors as for example in a sonar. They can also be used as electric field operated light modulators. However, for this application the fibers would be made with a cross section in the form of a "D". The core with its surrounding LiNbO, layer would be close to the flat portion of the "D" shaped fiber. Two metal contacts would be deposited on the flat portion of the fiber on either side of the core. A voltage applied across these contacts will result in an electric field in the core region that can be used for modulating the optical properties of the LiNbO3 layer. To our knowledge this is the first ever LiNbO3 Cylinder Fiber made.

  4. LiNbO3 Cylinder Fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    We have successfully fabricate optical fiber with a thin layer of LiNbO3 at the boundary of the glass core and dear glass cladding. The construction of this fiber is based on our successful Semiconductor Cylinder Fibers (SCF). A schematic representation of a LiNbO3 Cylinder Fiber is shown. These fibers can be used as light modulators, sonar detectors and in other applications. The core diameter of the fiber is sufficiently small compared to the light wavelength and the indices of refraction of the core and cladding glasses are sufficiently close in value so that there is sufficient light at the core cladding boundary to interact with the LiNbO3 layer. This fiber functions best when just a single light mode propagates through the fiber. The idea for a LiNbO3 Cylinder Fiber came from Dr. Tracee Jamison of NASA. The optical properties of LiNbO3 can be changed with strain or the application of an electric field. Thus these fibers can be used as acoustic sensors as for example in a sonar. They can also be used as electric field operated light modulators. However, for this application the fibers would be made with a cross section in the form of a 'D'. The core with its surrounding LiNbO, layer would be close to the flat portion of the 'D' shaped fiber. Two metal contacts would be deposited on the flat portion of the fiber on either side of the core. A voltage applied across these contacts will result in an electric field in the core region that can be used for modulating the optical properties of the LiNbO, layer. To our knowledge this is the first ever LiNbO, Cylinder Fiber made.

  5. Tracing Waste Water with Li isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millot, R.; Desaulty, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The contribution of human activities such as industries, agriculture and various domestic inputs, becomes more and more significant in the chemical composition of the dissolved load of rivers. Human factors act as a supplementary key process. Therefore the mass-balance for the budget of catchments and river basins include anthropogenic disturbances. In the present study, we investigate waste water tracing by the use of Li isotopes in a small river basin near Orléans in France (l'Egoutier, 15 km² and 5 km long). It is well known that Li has strategic importance for numerous industrial applications including its use in the production of batteries for both mobile devices (computers, tablets, smartphones, etc.) and electric vehicles, but also in pharmaceutical formulations. In the present work, we collected river waters samples before and after the release from a waste water treatment plant connected to an hospital. Lithium isotopic compositions are rather homogeneous in river waters with δ7Li values around -0.5‰ ± 1 along the main course of the stream (n=7). The waste water sample is very different from the natural background of the river basin with Li concentration being twice of the values without pollution and significant heavy lithium contribution (δ7Li = +4‰). These preliminary results will be discussed in relation with factors controlling the distribution of Li and its isotopes in this specific system and compared with the release of other metals such as Pb or Zn.

  6. Li diffusion through doped and defected graphene.

    PubMed

    Das, Deya; Kim, Seungchul; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Singh, Abhishek K

    2013-09-28

    We investigate the effect of nitrogen and boron doping on Li diffusion through defected graphene using first principles based density functional theory. While a high energy barrier rules out the possibility of Li- diffusion through the pristine graphene, the barrier reduces with the incorporation of defects. Among the most common defects in pristine graphene, Li diffusion through the divacancy encounters the lowest energy barrier of 1.34 eV. The effect of nitrogen and boron doping on the Li diffusion through doped defected-graphene sheets has been studied. N-doping in graphene with a monovacancy reduces the energy barrier significantly. The barrier reduces with the increasing number of N atoms. On the other hand, for N doped graphene with a divacancy, Li binds in the plane of the sheet, with an enhanced binding energy. The B doping in graphene with a monovacancy leads to the enhancement of the barrier. However, in the case of B-doped graphene with a divacancy, the barrier reduces to 1.54 eV, which could lead to good kinetics. The barriers do not change significantly with B concentration. Therefore, divacancy, B and N doped defected graphene has emerged as a better alternative to pristine graphene as an anode material for Li ion battery. PMID:23925460

  7. Letter to the Editor: Use of some inappropriate terms in Spanish in Oral Medicine and Pathology.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Urizar, J-M; Mosqueda-Taylor, A

    2016-01-01

    Dear Editor: According to the Dictionary of the Spanish Language of the Royal Spanish Academy (DLERAE) (1) anglicism refers to those words or terms of English language that are used in another. The Spanish language has acquired and uses numerous anglicisms, especially for words that have no option to be translated into Spanish, such as those absent in this language like internet, wifi, whisky, etc. In Medicine there is a lot of anglicisms are inevitably used today in the medical language, such as: stress, test, distress, gold standard, score, shunt, level, etc. Dentistry also commonly uses many anglicisms, such as forceps, bonding, inlays, composite, etc. that would be justified in most cases due to the absence of a fully equivalent word in Spanish. However, in some instances this is debatable, and their use only represents a linguistic simplification. Our intention by sending this letter is to draw attention of the readers of this journal over temptation of giving a Spanish style to certain English words employed in Oral Medicine and Pathology. To illustrate this we present three examples of this inadequate circumstance. The first refers to "disorder", a term widely used in recent years in connection with oral precancer (oral potentially malignant disorders). This word is usually translated as "desorden" ,a word which although may sound very similar in Spanish, does not means exactly the same and it is not justified to use it. According DLERAE (1) when we say "desorden" we mean: 1) confusion and disorderly or 2) disturbance of order and discipline of a group, a meeting, a community of people, or 3) disturbance that alters the tranquility of public, or 4) excess or abuse. Therefore, we consider more appropriate to translate it as "trastorno", whose meanings in DLERAE (1) are: 1) action and effect of modify the permanent features of something or the development of a process, and 2) mild impairment of health. The word "trastornar" has, among others, the meanings: 1

  8. The editor, the publisher, and his mother: the representation of lesbians and gays in the New York Times.

    PubMed

    Chomsky, Daniel; Barclay, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The attention and prominence given to issues in media outlets may affect the importance citizens attribute to them, so the actors who influence mass media coverage decisions may have political power in society generally. This article seeks to measure the relative influence of journalists, social trends, events, government officials, editors, and owners on the New York Times coverage of lesbians and gays from 1960 to 1995. Although many factors affected the nature and frequency of such coverage, the findings of this article show that the owners of the Times exerted decisive influence. Documentary evidence reveals that the Times' owners actively intervened to suppress coverage of lesbians and gays until 1987, even as reporters and editors recognized that increased social visibility made them newsworthy. Statistical analysis confirms that, although some actual events and statements of officials attracted attention from the newspaper throughout the period, they were more likely to generate prominent coverage after 1987 when the stories were consistent with the enthusiasms of the owners. PMID:24059965

  9. "Anti-smoking data are exaggerated" versus "the data are clear and indisputable": examining letters to the editor about tobacco.

    PubMed

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Harris, Jenine K; Israel, Kendre; Schell, Sarah; Mohr, Anneke

    2012-01-01

    Media advocacy plays a unique role in tobacco control policy development. Letters to the editor in particular are an interesting form of media advocacy because they reflect community sentiment regarding the policy agenda and provide insight into the public debate. The authors used ethnographic context analysis to examine the techniques used by writers of 262 tobacco-related letters to the editor published in 61 newspapers across Missouri over a 2-year period when tobacco tax and smoke-free indoor air initiatives were occurring across the state. The authors found that pro-tobacco control letter writers often used didactic strategies, citing numbers and reports, to convey information and presented their training or experience as a health professional (e.g., M.D., Ph.D.) to add legitimacy to their arguments. Anti-tobacco control letter writers, in contrast, used narrative strategies to support their stance, claimed authority as a smoker or small business owner to legitimize their claims by relating to the audience, and used collectivity to capture the attention of policymakers. These results present the importance of strategic media advocacy in tobacco control. Tobacco control advocates should increase their use of narrative strategies and collectivity in order to better connect with the public and policymakers. PMID:22376195

  10. Letter to the Editor: Appropriate selection of dose coefficients in radiological assessments: C-14 and Cl-36

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Harrison, Dr John; Leggett, Richard Wayne

    2016-01-01

    This letter to the editor of Journal of Radiological Protection is in response to a letter to the editor from G. M. Smith and M. C. Thorne of Great Britain concerning the appropriate selection of dose coefficients for ingested carbon-14 and chlorine-36, two of the most important long-lived components of radioactive wastes. Smith and Thorne argue that current biokinetic models of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for carbon and chlorine are overly cautious models from the standpoint of radiation dose estimates for C-14 and Cl-36, and that more realistic models are needed for evaluation of the hazards ofmore » these radionuclides in nuclear wastes. We (Harrison and Leggett) point out that new biokinetic models for these and other elements (developed at ORNL) will soon appear in ICRP Publications. These new models generally are considerably more realistic than current ICRP models. Examples are given for C-14 inhaled as carbon dioxide or ingested in water as bicarbonate, carbonate, or carbon dioxide.« less

  11. LiGa(OTf)(sub 4) as an Electrolyte Salt for Li-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, V. Prakash; Prakash, G. K. Syria; Hu, Jinbo; Yan, Ping; Smart, Marshall; Bugga, ratnakumar; Chin, Keith; Surampudi, Subarao

    2008-01-01

    Lithium tetrakis(trifluoromethane sulfo - nato)gallate [abbreviated "LiGa(OTf)4" (wherein "OTf" signifies trifluoro - methanesulfonate)] has been found to be promising as an electrolyte salt for incorporation into both liquid and polymer electrolytes in both rechargeable and non-rechargeable lithium-ion electrochemical cells. This and other ingredients have been investigated in continuing research oriented toward im proving the performances of rechargeable lithium-ion electrochemical cells, especially at low temperatures. This research at earlier stages, and the underlying physical and chemical principles, were reported in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. As described in more detail in those articles, lithiumion cells most commonly contain nonaqueous electrolyte solutions consisting of lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) dissolved in mixtures of cyclic and linear alkyl carbonates, including ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC), dimethyl carbonate (DMC), diethyl carbonate (DEC), and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC). Although such LiPF6-based electrolyte solutions are generally highly ionically conductive and electrochemically stable, as needed for good cell performance, there is interest in identifying alternate lithium electrolyte salts that, relative to LiPF6, are more resilient at high temperature and are less expensive. Experiments have been performed on LiGa(OTf)4 as well as on several other candidate lithium salts in pursuit of this interest. As part of these experiments, LiGa(OTf)4 was synthesized by the reaction of Ga(OTf)3 with an equimolar portion of LiOTf in a solvent consisting of anhydrous acetonitrile. Evaporation of the solvent yielded LiGa(OTf)4 as a colorless crystalline solid. The LiGa(OTf)4 and the other salts were incorporated into solutions with PC and DMC. The resulting electrolyte solutions exhibited reasonably high ionic conductivities over a relatively wide temperature range down to 40 C (see figure). In cyclic

  12. Li(+) Local Structure in Hydrofluoroether Diluted Li-Glyme Solvate Ionic Liquid.

    PubMed

    Saito, Soshi; Watanabe, Hikari; Ueno, Kazuhide; Mandai, Toshihiko; Seki, Shiro; Tsuzuki, Seiji; Kameda, Yasuo; Dokko, Kaoru; Watanabe, Masayoshi; Umebayashi, Yasuhiro

    2016-04-01

    Hydrofluoroethers have recently been used as the diluent to a lithium battery electrolyte solution to increase and decrease the ionic conductivity and the solution viscosity, respectively. In order to clarify the Li(+) local structure in the 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl 2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropyl ether (HFE) diluted [Li(G4)][TFSA] (G4, tetraglyme; TFSA, bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide) solvate ionic liquid, Raman spectroscopic study has been done with the DFT calculations. It has turned out that the HFE never coordinates to the Li(+) directly, and that the solvent (G4) shared ion pair of Li(+) with TFSA anion (SSIP) and the contact ion pair between Li(+) and TFSA anion (CIP) are found in the neat and HFE diluted [Li(G4)][TFSA] solvate ionic liquid. It is also revealed that the two kinds of the CIP in which TFSA anion coordinates to the Li(+) in monodentate and bidentate manners (hereafter, we call them the monodentate CIP and the bidentate CIP, respectively) exist with the SSIP of predominant [Li(G4)](+) ion-pair species in the neat [Li(G4)][TFSA] solvate ionic liquid, and that the monodentate CIP decreases as diluting with the HFE. To obtain further insight, X-ray total scattering experiments (HEXTS) were carried out with the aid of MD simulations, where the intermolecular force field parameters, mainly partial atomic charges, have been newly proposed for the HFE and glymes. A new peak appeared at around 0.6-0.7 Å(-1) in X-ray structure factors, which was ascribed to the correlation between the [Li(G4)][TFSA] ion pairs. Furthermore, MD simulations were in good agreement with the experiments, from which it is suggested that the terminal oxygen atoms of the G4 in [Li(G4)](+) solvated cation frequently repeat coordinating/uncoordinating to the Li(+), although almost all of the G4 coordinates to the Li(+) to form [Li(G4)](+) solvated cation in the neat and HFE diluted [Li(G4)][TFSA] solvate ionic liquid. PMID:26959344

  13. Li-7 abundances in halo stars: Testing stellar evolution models and the primordial Li-7 abundance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaboyer, Brian; Demarque, P.

    1994-01-01

    A large number of stellar evolution models with (Fe/H) = -2.3 and -3.3 have been calculated in order to determine the primordial Li-7 abundance and to test current stellar evolution models by a comparison to the extensive database of accurate Li abundances in extremely metal-poor halo stars observed by Thorburn (1994). Standard models with gray atmospheres do a very good job of fitting the observed Li abundances in stars hotter than approximately 5600 K. They predict a primordial. Li-7 abundance of log N(Li) = 2.24 +/- 0.03. Models which include microscopic diffusion predict a downward curvature in the Li-7 destruction isochrones at hot temperatures which is not present in the observations. Thus, the observations clearly rule out models which include uninhibited microscopic diffusion of Li-7 from the surface of the star. Rotational mixing inhibits the microscopic diffusion and the (Fe/H) = -2.28 stellar models which include both diffusion and rotational mixing provide an excellent match to the mean trend in T(sub eff) which is present in the observations. Both the plateau stars and the heavily depleted cool stars are well fit by these models. The rotational mixing leads to considerable Li-7 depletion in these models and the primordial Li-7 abundance inferred from these models is log N(Li) = 3.08 +/- 0.1. However, the (Fe/H) = -3.28 isochrones reveal problems with the combined models. These isochrones predict a trend of decreasing log N(Li) with increasing T(sub eff) which is not present in the observations. Possible causes for this discrepancy are discussed.

  14. Li-7 abundances in halo stars: Testing stellar evolution models and the primordial Li-7 abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaboyer, Brian; Demarque, P.

    1994-10-01

    A large number of stellar evolution models with (Fe/H) = -2.3 and -3.3 have been calculated in order to determine the primordial Li-7 abundance and to test current stellar evolution models by a comparison to the extensive database of accurate Li abundances in extremely metal-poor halo stars observed by Thorburn (1994). Standard models with gray atmospheres do a very good job of fitting the observed Li abundances in stars hotter than approximately 5600 K. They predict a primordial. Li-7 abundance of log N(Li) = 2.24 +/- 0.03. Models which include microscopic diffusion predict a downward curvature in the Li-7 destruction isochrones at hot temperatures which is not present in the observations. Thus, the observations clearly rule out models which include uninhibited microscopic diffusion of Li-7 from the surface of the star. Rotational mixing inhibits the microscopic diffusion and the (Fe/H) = -2.28 stellar models which include both diffusion and rotational mixing provide an excellent match to the mean trend in Teff which is present in the observations. Both the plateau stars and the heavily depleted cool stars are well fit by these models. The rotational mixing leads to considerable Li-7 depletion in these models and the primordial Li-7 abundance inferred from these models is log N(Li) = 3.08 +/- 0.1. However, the (Fe/H) = -3.28 isochrones reveal problems with the combined models. These isochrones predict a trend of decreasing log N(Li) with increasing Teff which is not present in the observations. Possible causes for this discrepancy are discussed.

  15. Li-Ion Battery with LiFePO4 Cathode and Li4Ti5O12 Anode for Stationary Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Choi, Daiwon; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-01-01

    i-ion batteries based on commercially available LiFePO4 cathode and Li4Ti5O12 anode were investigated for potential stationary energy storage applications. The full cell that operated at flat 1.85V demonstrated stable cycling for 200 cycles followed by a rapid fade. A significant improvement in cycling stability was achieved via Ketjen black coating of the cathode. A Li-ion full cell with Ketjen black modified LiFePO4 cathode and an unmodified Li4Ti5O12 anode exhibited negligible fade after more than 1200 cycles with a capacity of ~130mAh/g. The improved stability, along with its cost-effectiveness, environmentally benignity and safety, make the LiFePO4/ Li4Ti5O12 Li-ion battery a promising option of storing renewable energy.

  16. forced overdischarge related safety aspects of Li/SO2 and Li/SOCl2 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, K. M.

    1983-01-01

    Results of an experiment investigating overdischarge behavior of two types of Li/SO2 cells are presented. Forced overdischarges of the Li/LiBr, CH3CN/SO2 cell can result in unsafe behavior such as venting with fire and release of toxic gases. The hazards may be minimized or eliminated by careful cell design considerations and practice of high standards of quality contol in cell manufacture. Seemingly safe cells at 25 C when forced overdischarged at -25 C, even at low currents, exhibited incipient signs of hazards. Their cathodes indicated signs of shock sensitivity. Cathode limited Li/SOCl2 cells were safe during forced overdischarge for long periods of time. Lithium limited Li/SOCl2 cells in which practically all Li had been used up before cell reversal did not exhibit hazardous behavior. Anode limited Li/SOCl2 cells, but not Li limited, exhibited detonations, all during overdischarges at relatively low current densities of or = 1 mA/sq cm 2. Anode potentials 4v with large oscillations preceeded the events. The events were confined to the anode and the temperature rose high enough to melt Ni grids.

  17. Association and Diffusion of Li(+) in Carboxymethylcellulose Solutions for Environmentally Friendly Li-ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Casalegno, Mosè; Castiglione, Franca; Passarello, Marco; Mele, Andrea; Passerini, Stefano; Raos, Guido

    2016-07-21

    Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) has been proposed as a polymeric binder for electrodes in environmentally friendly Li-ion batteries. Its physical properties and interaction with Li(+) ions in water are interesting not only from the point of view of electrode preparation-processability in water is one of the main reasons for its environmental friendliness-but also for its possible application in aqueous Li-ion batteries. We combine molecular dynamics simulations and variable-time pulsed field gradient spin-echo (PFGSE) NMR spectroscopy to investigate Li(+) transport in CMC-based solutions. Both the simulations and experimental results show that, at concentrations at which Li-CMC has a gel-like consistency, the Li(+) diffusion coefficient is still very close to that in water. These Li(+) ions interact preferentially with the carboxylate groups of CMC, giving rise to a rich variety of coordination patterns. However, the diffusion of Li(+) in these systems is essentially unrestricted, with a fast, nanosecond-scale exchange of the ions between CMC and the aqueous environment. PMID:27253620

  18. Trimethylsilyl Chloride-Modified Li Anode for Enhanced Performance of Li-S Cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meifen; Wen, Zhaoyin; Jin, Jun; Chowdari, Bobba V R

    2016-06-29

    A facile and effective method to modify Li anode for Li-S cells by exposing Li foils to tetrahydrofuran (THF) solvent, oxygen atmosphere and trimethylsilyl chloride ((CH3)3SiCl) liquid in sequence is proposed. The results of SEM and XPS show the formation of a homogeneous and dense film with a thickness of 84 nm on Li metal surface. AC impedance and polarization test results show the improved interfacial stability. The interfacial resistances as well as polarization potential difference have obviously decreased as compared with that of a pristine Li anode. CV and charge-discharge test results demonstrate that more reversible discharge capacity and higher Coulombic efficiency can be achieved. Specific capacity of 760 mAh g(-1) and an average Coulombic efficiency of 98% are retained after 100 cycles at 0.5C without LiNO3 additive. Additionally, the Li-S cell with a modified Li anode displays a greatly improved rate performance with ∼425 mAh g(-1) at 5C, making it more attractive and competitive in the applications of high-power supply. PMID:27269577

  19. Simulated electrolyte-metal interfaces -- Li3PO4 and Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiao; Du, Yaojun A.; Holzwarth, N. A. W.

    2007-03-01

    There has recently been a lot of interest in solid electrolyte materials such as LiPON developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in Li-ion batteries and other technologies. We report on the results of our model calculations on idealized interfaces between Li3PO4 and Li metal, studying the structural stability and the ion mobility, using first-principles density functional techniques with the PWscf and pwpaw codes. Starting with a supercell constructed from Li3PO4 in its crystalline γ-phase structure and several layers of Li metal, we used optimization and molecular dynamics techniques to find several meta-stable configurations. The qualitative features of the results are consistent with experimental evidence that the electrolyte is quite stable with respect to Li metal. In addition to stability analyses, we plan to study Li-ion diffusion across the interface. J. B. Bates, N. J. Dudney, and co-workers, Solid State Ionics, 53-56, 647-654 (1992). http://www.pwscf.org and http://pwpaw.wfu.edu. N. J. Dudney in Gholam-Abbas Nazri and Gianfranco Pistoia, Eds., Lithium Batteries: Science and Technology, Chapt. 20, pp. 623-642, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. ISBN 1-4020-7628-2.

  20. The anharmonic vibration of Li in lithium amide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paik, B.; Hasegawa, T.; Ishii, I.; Michigoe, A.; Suzuki, T.; Udagawa, M.; Ogita, N.; Ichikawa, T.; Kojima, Y.

    2012-04-01

    A large amplitude rattling-type anharmonic vibration of Li is possible without guest-host type structure, as we report here for tetragonal LiNH2 crystal. The low temperature (0.4-300 K) specific heat capacity and Raman spectroscopy support the phonon model of site-specific Li activities governed by the symmetry of the potential energy distribution around the Li atoms in LiNH2, which yields the anharmonic Li3 vibration (optical) in one direction (either X or Y axis of the crystal), while the Li1 and Li2 atoms remain silent. Our finding may help to correlate ionic conductivity, thermal, and hydrogenation properties of LiNH2.

  1. First Principles Study of Al-Li Intermetallic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hai-li; Duan, Xiao-hui; Ma, Yong-jun; Zeng, Min

    2012-12-01

    The structural properties, heats of formation, elastic properties, and electronic structures of four compositions of binary Al-Li intermetallics, Al3Li, AlLi, Al2Li3, and Al4Li9, are analyzed in detail by using density functional theory. The calculated formation heats indicate a strong chemical interaction between Al and Li for all the Al-Li intermetallics. In particular, in the Li-rich Al-Li compounds, the thermodynamic stability of intermetallics linearly decreases with increasing concentration of Li. According to the computational single crystal elastic constants, all the four Al-Li intermetallic compounds considered here are mechanically stable. The polycrystalline elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio have been deduced by using Voigt, Reuss, and Hill approximations, and the calculated ratios of bulk modulus to shear modulus indicate that the four compositions of binary Al-Li intermetallics are brittle materials. With the increase of Li concentration, the bulk modulus of Al-Li intermetallics decreases in a linear manner.

  2. Characteristic of Absorption Heat Transfer using LiBr+LiI Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimori, Atsushi; Ozaki, Eiichi; Nakao, Kazushige

    LiBr-H20 absorption chiller is widely used in Japan, and many research have been made for absorption characteristic in terms of enhancing heat transfer. Another study have been performed for widening working range with higher crystallization limits, and it was reported that adding LiI salt to LiBr-H20 working fluid provide about 5 [mass%] higher crystallization limit under the condition of absorption pressure range. It is necessary to reveal absorption heat transfer performance to utilize this working fluid pair for absorption chiller. In this study absorption heat transfer characteristic was investigated for horizontal and vertical tube. As a result, it was found that heat transfer coefficient increased as mass flow rate of solution increased and mass concentration of solution decrease and that these characteristic were almost the same as LiBr solution, though this solution gave slightly less heat transfer coefficient than LiBr solution.

  3. Coupling of Li+ relaxators to the soft mode in KTaO3:Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosandeev, S. A.; Trepakov, V. A.; Savinov, M. E.; Kapphan, S. E.

    2001-01-01

    The complex dielectric permittivity of K1-xLixTaO3 (KTL) single crystals with x = 0.006 has been experimentally studied in detail in the temperature interval from 5 to 300 K and at frequencies from 100 Hz to 1 MHz. In agreement with previous studies, a very large effect of the Li impurities on the dielectric response, even for such a small Li concentration, is found. It consists in the appearance of a pronounced low-temperature dielectric dispersion with giant magnitude. This unusually large dielectric response cannot be caused only by the relaxation of the Li+-impurity off-centres themselves, because the Li concentration is too small. Also, the host lattice response itself cannot give such a large dispersion, as evidenced. We present a theoretical model, which considers the coupling of the Li+-related relaxators to the TO soft mode, giving a good description of the experimental data obtained.

  4. A 2D MOT design optimized for dual-species 6 Li-7 Li experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yanping; Evans, Jesse; Wright, Kevin

    2016-05-01

    We have built a 2D MOT optimized for simultaneous capture and cooling of 6 Li and 7 Li. The design includes a vapor source located very close to the capture region, which reduces depletion of the low-velocity part of the oven flux. The source is angled so that the most probable longitudinal velocity of captured atoms is near optimal for transferring to a 3D MOT, even without a push beam. Because 6 Li D2 repump light can impede capture and cooling of 7 Li, we have characterized the system performance with 6 Li repumped on both the D1 and D2 transitions. This design provides ample cold atom flux to load a dual-species 3D MOT for quantum degenerate gas experiments.

  5. The 9Be(8Li,9Be)8Li elastic-transfer reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camargo, O.; Guimarães, V.; Lichtenthäler, R.; Scarduelli, V.; Kolata, J. J.; Bertulani, C. A.; Amro, H.; Becchetti, F. D.; Jiang, Hao; Aguilera, E. F.; Lizcano, D.; Martinez-Quiroz, E.; Garcia, H.

    2008-09-01

    Angular distributions for the 9Be(8Li,9Be)8Li elastic-transfer reaction have been measured with a 27-MeV Li8 radioactive nuclear beam. Spectroscopic factors for the <9Be|8Li+p> bound system were obtained from the comparison between the experimental differential cross sections and finite-range distorted-wave Born approximation calculations made with the code FRESCO. The spectroscopic factors so obtained are compared with shell-model calculations and other experimental values. Using the present value for the spectroscopic factors, cross sections and reaction rates for the 8Li(p,γ)9Be direct proton-capture reaction of astrophysical interest were calculated in the framework of the potential model.

  6. Modeling Li-ion conductivity in LiLa(PO3)4 powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mounir, Ferhi; Karima, Horchani-Naifer; Khaled, Ben Saad; Mokhtar, Férid

    2012-07-01

    Polycrystalline powder and single-crystal of LiLa(PO3)4 are synthesized by solid state reaction and flux technique, respectively. A morphological description of the obtained product was made based on scanning electron microscopy micrographs. The obtained powder was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, FTIR and Raman spectroscopies. Ionic conductivity of the LiLa(PO3)4 powder was measured and evaluated over a temperature range from 553 to 913 K. Single crystals of LiLa(PO3)4 are characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The LiLa(PO3)4 structure was found to be isotypic with LiNd(PO3)4. It crystallizes in the monoclinic system with space group C2/c and cell parameters: a=16.635(6) Å, b=7.130(3) Å, c=9.913(3) Å, β=126.37(4)°, V=946.72(6) Å3 and Z=4. The LiLa(PO3)4 structure was described as an alternation between spiraling chains (PO3)n and (La3+, Li+) cations along the b direction. The small Li+ ions, coordinated to four oxygen atoms, were located in the large connected cavities created between the LaO8 polyhedra and the polyphosphate chains. The jumping of Li+ through tunnels of the crystalline network was investigated using complex impedance spectroscopy. The close value of the activation energies calculated through the analysis of conductivity data and loss spectra indicate that the transport in the investigated system is through hopping mechanism. The correlation between ionic conductivity of LiLa(PO3)4 and its crystallographic structure was investigated and the most probably transport pathway model was determined.

  7. Control of Li configuration and electrical properties of Li-doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Knutsen, K. E.; Merz, T.; Kuznetsov, A. Yu; Svensson, B. G.; Brillson, L. J.

    2012-09-01

    Li-doped ZnO after different thermal treatments was characterized by depth-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy (DRCLS), secondary ion mass spectrometry, surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS), coupled with other surface science techniques. It is found that the Li configuration and electrical properties of Li-doped ZnO could be controlled by different thermal processes. Within a 500-600 °C annealing temperature range, subsequent quenching of ZnO leaves Li as interstitial donors, resulting in n-type low room temperature resistivity. In contrast, slower cooling in air enables these interstitials to fill Zn vacancies, forming Li acceptors 3.0 eV below the conduction band edge. Emergence of this acceptor and the resultant resistivity increase agree with the calculated diffusion lengths based on published diffusion coefficients. In general, these acceptors are compensated by residual intrinsic and extrinsic donors, resulting in a semi-insulating material. DRCL spectra exhibit a 3.0 eV optical signature of the LiZn acceptor and its depth distribution in slow-cooled ZnO. A 3.0 eV SPS absorption feature corresponding to a conduction band-to-acceptor level transition confirms this acceptor assignment. Nanoscale SPS spectra reveal p-type band bending localized near ZnO surface nano-mounds, where VZn and LiZn acceptor densities increase. The slow-cooled and quenched Li-doped ZnO spectra display an inverse relationship between the optical emission densities of lithium on zinc versus zinc vacancy sites, demonstrating the time dependence of Li interstitial diffusion to reach zinc vacancies and form substitutional Li acceptors.

  8. From the Editor's Desk, Editor's Highlights, Letters to the Editor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This issue of Toxicological Sciences features several exciting changes: a redesigned cover, revised category subheadings, and this “Look Inside ToxSci” feature. Together with my esteemed colleagues in the field of green chemistry, we have outlined some exciting opportunities for the field of toxicology in the editorial on green chemistry and toxicology. There are insightful articles on the regulatory challenges regarding mixtures that are being addressed by the European Union and on risk assessment of carbon nanotubes. In the past, we have highlighted a single article from each issue. It has become increasingly difficult to select just one article from the volume of high quality work, so beginning this month we will highlight multiple articles in each issue here in “Look Inside ToxSci.” From solvents, pesticides, and nanoparticles to the microbiome, the highlighted articles span the breadth of our field. Of course, this issue contains something that will never change; our raison d'etre …the best original research in the field of toxicology. —Gary W. Miller PMID:25232149

  9. Historical model for editor and Office of Research Integrity cooperation in handling allegations, investigation, and retraction in a contentious (Abbs) case of research misconduct.

    PubMed

    Price, Alan R; Daroff, Robert B

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation between a journal editor and the federal Office of Research Integrity (ORI) in addressing investigations of research misconduct, each performing their own responsibilities while keeping each other informed of events and evidence, can be critical to the professional and regulatory resolution of a case. This paper describes the history of one of ORI's most contentious investigations that involved falsification of research on Parkinson's disease patients by James Abbs, Professor of Neurology, University of Wisconsin, published in the journal Neurology, which was handled cooperatively by the authors, who were the chief ORI investigator and the Editor-in-Chief of Neurology, respectively. PMID:25397599

  10. Thermodynamic optimization of the Li-Pb system aided by first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chenyang; Guo, Cuiping; Li, Changrong; Du, Zhenmin

    2016-08-01

    The Li-Pb system was optimized using CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagram) method. The enthalpies of formation of eight intermetallic compounds Li4Pb (Li22Pb5), Li7Pb2, Li10Pb3, Li3Pb, Li8Pb3, Li5Pb2, αLiPb and βLiPb at 0 K were calculated from first-principles calculations with DFT + GGA approximations. The liquid phase was treated as (Li,Li0.8Pb0.2,Pb) using an associated solution model because a short-range-order phenomenon was proven to exist in liquid. The solution phases fcc and bcc were described as (Li,Pb) with a simple substitutional model. The intermetallic compounds Li4Pb, Li3Pb and Li5Pb2 were treated as stoichiometric compounds. With certain solubility ranges, the intermetallic compounds Li7Pb2, αLiPb and βLiPb were modeled as Li7(Li,Pb)2, (Li,Pb)(Li,Pb) and (Li,Pb)(Li,Pb) using the two-sublattice model. A set of self-consistent thermodynamic parameters in the Li-Pb system was obtained in the present work.

  11. Anharmonicity and phase stability of antiperovskite Li3OCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Min-Hua; Emly, Alexandra; Van der Ven, Anton

    2015-06-01

    A lattice-dynamics study of the cubic Li3OCl antiperovskite, a candidate solid electrolyte in lithium-ion batteries, reveals the presence of dynamical instabilities with respect to rotations of the Li6O octahedra. Calculated energy landscapes in the subspace of unstable octahedral rotational modes are very shallow with at most a 1 meV per formula unit reduction in energy upon breaking the cubic symmetry. While Li3OCl is not stable relative to decomposition into Li2O and LiCl at 0 K, estimates of the vibrational free energy suggest that Li3OCl antiperovskite should become entropically stabilized above approximately 480 K.

  12. First-Principles Study of LiPON Solid Electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santosh, K. C.; Xiong, Ka; Cho, Kyeongjae

    2011-03-01

    There has been much interest in the thin-film solid electrolyte for solid state battery and ionics applications. LiPON is a representative material developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In this work, we use first principles calculations based on the density functional theory to investigate the Li- ion migration mechanisms of LiPON family materials. We investigate atomic structures, electronic structures and defect formation energies of these materials. To determine the migration path of Li diffusion, the activation energies are calculated. This study helps us to understand fundamental mechanisms of Li-ion migration and to improve Li ion conductivity in the solid electrolytes.

  13. Mechanism of Li intercalation/deintercalation into/from the surface of LiCoO2.

    PubMed

    Moradabadi, Ashkan; Kaghazchi, Payam

    2015-09-21

    Mechanism of Li diffusion at the LiCoO2(101[combining overline]4) surface and in bulk LiCoO2 is studied using density functional theory calculations. We find that there is almost no barrier for the diffusion of Li between the two topmost surface layers. The results show that Li intercalation occurs by the diffusion of Li ions from the first layer to the divacancy of Li sites created by removal of two neighboring Li ions in the first and second layer. However, Li deintercalation occurs by the diffusion of Li ions from the second layer to the missing row of topmost Li sites. The energy barrier for the process of intercalation/deintercalation of Li between the second and third surface layers is also lower than that in the bulk. This finding indicates that nanosized LiCoO2 with a large surface area/volume ratio is a promising cathode material for fast charging/discharging Li-ion batteries. PMID:26267222

  14. Safer Vehicles for People and the Planet: Letter to the Editor

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, Thomas P; Wenzel, Thomas P; Ross, Marc

    2008-05-01

    Letter to the Editors from Leonard Evans, Bloomfield Hills, MI: Single-vehicle crashes, which account for half of occupant fatalities, are not mentioned in 'Safer Vehicles for People and the Planet', by Thomas P. Wenzel and Marc Ross (March-April). Simple physics shows that in such crashes risk declines as vehicle mass increases. The authors write 'driving imported luxury cars carries extremely low risk, for reasons that are not obvious'. The reasons are obvious--the cars are purchased by low-risk drivers. If they swapped vehicles with drivers of sports cars (which have high risk), the risks would stick with the drivers, not the vehicles. The article reflects the American belief that death on our roads can be substantially reduced by making vehicles in which it is safer to crash. From 1979 through 2002, Great Britain, Canada and Australia reduced fatalities by an average of 49 percent, compared with 16 percent in the U.S. Accumulating the differences over this time shows that by merely matching the safety performance of these other countries, about 200,000 fewer Americans would have died. These trends continue. In 2006 the U.S. recorded 42,642 traffic deaths, a modest 22 percent decline from our all-time high. Sweden recorded 445, a reduction of 66 percent from their all-time high. The obsessive focus on vehicles rather than on countermeasures that scientific research shows substantially reduce risk is at the core of our dramatic safety failure. The only way to substantially reduce deaths is to reduce the risk of crashing, not to make it safer to crash. The response from Drs. Wenzel and Ross: Of course Dr. Evans is correct in stating that driver behavior influences crash risk. In our article we made clear that our estimates of risk include how well a vehicle/driver combination avoids a crash, as well as how crash-worthy a vehicle (and robust a driver) is once a crash occurs. We also analyzed two variables that can account for driver behavior: the fraction of all

  15. Formation and reduction behaviors of zirconium oxide compounds in LiCl-Li2O melt at 923 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamura, Yoshiharu; Iizuka, Masatoshi; Kitawaki, Shinichi; Nakayoshi, Akira; Kofuji, Hirohide

    2015-11-01

    The reduction behaviors of ZrO2, Li2ZrO3 and (U,Pu,Zr)O2 in a LiCl-Li2O salt bath at 923 K were investigated. This study was conducted as part of a feasibility study on the pyrochemical treatment of damaged fuel debris generated by severe accidents at light water reactors. It was demonstrated in electrolytic reduction tests that the uranium in synthetic corium specimens of (U,Pu,Zr)O2 with various ZrO2 contents could be reduced to the metallic form and that part of the zirconium was converted to Li2ZrO3. Zirconium metal and Li2ZrO3 were obtained by the reduction of ZrO2. The reduction of Li2ZrO3 did not proceed even in LiCl containing no Li2O. Moreover, the stable chemical forms of the ZrO2-Li2O complex oxide were investigated as a function of the Li2O concentration in LiCl. ZrO2 was converted to Li2ZrO3 at a Li2O concentration of 0.018 wt%. As the Li2O concentration was increased, Li2ZrO3 was converted to Li6Zr2O7 and then to Li8ZrO6. It is suggested that the removal of Li2ZrO3 from the reduction product is a key point in the pyrochemical treatment of corium.

  16. Enhanced electrochemical performance of Li-rich cathode Li[Li0.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13]O2 by surface modification with lithium ion conductor Li3PO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiyuan; Luo, Shaohua; Ren, Jie; Wang, Dan; Qi, Xiwei

    2016-05-01

    Li-rich layered cathode Li[Li0.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13]O2 is prepared via a co-precipitation followed with high-temperature calcination, and then successfully modified with nano-Li3PO4 by ball milling and annealing. The TEM and EDS reveal that Li3PO4 is homogeneously coated on the particle surface of Li[Li0.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13]O2. And the electrochemical performance of Li[Li0.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13]O2 is significantly improved by coating with lithium ion conductor Li3PO4. The Li3PO4-coated sample delivers a high initial discharge capacity of 284.7 mAhg-1 at 0.05 C, and retains 192.6 mAhg-1 after 100 cycles at 0.5 C, which is higher than that of the pristine sample (244 mAhg-1 at 0.05 C and 168.2 mAhg-1 after 100 cycles at 0.5 C). The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) demonstrates that the resistance for Li/Li3PO4-coated Li[Li0.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13]O2 cell was reduced compared to Li/Li[Li0.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13]O2, which indicates the Li3PO4 coating layer with high ionic conductivity (6.6 × 10-8 S cm-1) facilitates the diffusion of lithium ions through the interface between electrode and electrolyte and accelerates the charge transfer process. What is more, the Li3PO4 coating layer can also act as a protection layer to protect the cathode material from encroachment of electrolyte. The two aspects account for the enhanced electrochemical performance of Li3PO4-coated Li[Li0.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13]O2.

  17. Surface characterization of the carbon cathode and the lithium anode of Li-O₂ batteries using LiClO₄ or LiBOB salts.

    PubMed

    Younesi, Reza; Hahlin, Maria; Edström, Kristina

    2013-02-01

    The surface compositions of a MnO₂ catalyst containing carbon cathode and a Li anode in a Li-O₂ battery were investigated using synchrotron-based photoelectron spectroscopy (PES). Electrolytes comprising LiClO₄ or LiBOB salts in PC or EC:DEC (1:1) solvents were used for this study. Decomposition products from LiClO₄ or LiBOB were observed on the cathode surface when using PC. However, no degradation of LiClO₄ was detected when using EC/DEC. We have demonstrated that both PC and EC/DEC solvents decompose during the cell cycling to form carbonate and ether containing compounds on the surface of the carbon cathode. However, EC/DEC decomposed to a lesser degree compared to PC. PES revealed that a surface layer with a thickness of at least 1-2 nm remained on the MnO₂ catalyst at the end of the charged state. It was shown that the detachment of Kynar binder influences the surface composition of both the carbon cathode and the Li anode of Li-O₂ cells. The PES results indicated that in the charged state the SEI on the Li anode is composed of PEO, carboxylates, carbonates, and LiClO₄ salt. PMID:23336349

  18. The high stability of boron-doped lithium clusters Li 5B, Li 6B +/- and Li 7B: A case of the phenomenological shell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Truong Ba; Nguyen, Minh Tho

    2010-04-01

    A quantum chemical investigation of the clusters Li 5B, Li 6B +, Li 6B - and Li 7B was performed using the DFT, MP2 and CCSD(T) methods. The high symmetry structures ( C4v, 1A 1), ( Oh, 1A 1g) and ( D5h, 1A1') turnout to be the global minima for Li 5B, Li 6B + and Li 7B, respectively. These clusters are predicted to be highly stable species with large vertical ionization energies, and large HOMO-LUMO gaps. Chemical bonding of clusters was probed using an electron localizability indicator (ELI) which indicates a large aromatic character. The high stability of these clusters can be accounted for by the phenomenological shell model.

  19. [Johannes Jacobus van Loghem, editor-in-chief of the Dutch Journal of Medicine 1947-1949 and 1954].

    PubMed

    van't Hof, S E

    2007-12-01

    Johannes Jacobus van Loghem (1878-1968) had a multifaceted career in which he combined microbiology, immunology, genetics, epidemiology and hygiene. He first became a professor of Tropical Hygiene and later a professor of Hygiene and Medical Enforcement. He discovered the role of house rats in the dissemination of the plague, which contributed to the fight against an epidemic on Java, then the Netherlands' East Indies, in 1911. He was rector of the University of Amsterdam at the outbreak of the Second World War and was fired because of his anti-German stance. From the offices of the Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde (Dutch Journal of Medicine), he developed plans for reconstructing the university after the war; he later became the university's first post-war rector. Van Loghem contributed to columns in this journal for over 40 years and twice acted as interim editor-in-chief. PMID:18225796

  20. Rika-Shoshi, the First Physics Experiment Textbook Published in Japanese and its Editor, Jun'ichi Udagawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Akabane, Akira; Shozawa, Jun; Tamaki, Toyomi

    The aim of this study is to examine the teaching of physics experiment at elementary and secondary school levels at the time when Japanese science education commenced. In this report, we focused on the first Japanese textbook of physics experiment, Rika-Shoshi, published in 1882 and the editor of the book, Udagawa Jun'ichi. Many experiments in Rika-Shoshi can be performed using low-cost everyday materials. We compare Rika-Shoshi with the original English textbooks and describe Udagawa's physics teaching in the Gunma Normal School based on the documents in the Gunma University archives. We discuss how we can learn from physics education as taught about 130 years ago.

  1. A Medieval Irish Treatise on Astronomy Recalled, with a Memoir of its Translator and Editor, Maura Power (1887-1916)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruck, M. T.; Conway-Piskorski, M.

    1998-01-01

    A 15th century treatise on astronomy in Irish, an adaptation of a Latin translation of an older Arabic text, was transcribed and published together with an English translation and commentaries under the title An Irish Astronomical Tract in 1914. This work is familiar to Celtic language scholars but is little known among astronomers. Here we briefly describe the text, and include a memoir of its editor and translator Maura Power, a young woman who combined a specialist knowledge of the Irish language with an understanding of medieval science. We also recall two other Irish scholars - the geologist Maxwell Close and the astronomer John Ellard Gore - who played their part in recognizing the value of this early Irish scientific text.

  2. Challenges in implementing a knowledge editor for the Arden Syntax: knowledge base maintenance and standardization of database linkages.

    PubMed Central

    Jenders, Robert A.; Dasgupta, Balendu

    2002-01-01

    CONTEXT: Incorporation of research findings into clinical practice lags behind their dissemination in the medical literature. Arden Syntax is a standard that could be used to encode evidence in a clinical decision support system (CDSS). However, dissemination of knowledge is hampered by lack of standard linkages to clinical databases. OBJECTIVE: To create a knowledge editor that facilitates transfer of knowledge from the medical literature to clinical practice via a CDSS. METHODS: Using a Web browser-based application, we implemented linkages to MEDLINE to permit queries on demand and registration of queries to be executed periodically, with results copied into Arden Medical Logic Modules (MLMs). To facilitate standardization of MLMs, database linkages are encoded using emerging HL7 standards such as a data model (virtual medical record). CONCLUSIONS: A Web-based application can facilitate transfer of knowledge into clinical practice and knowledge base maintenance through periodic queries and deployment of standards for knowledge representation. PMID:12463846

  3. [Book review] Ecological Scale - Theory and Applications by D.L. Peterson and V. Thomas Parker, editors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connell, A.F., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Covering the complexity of the scale topic, this volume represents an important compilation of information on a topic that is often misunderstood, and one for which little attention is paid (although, thankfully, this seems to be on the decline). Although technical, this book provides full exposure to the scale issue in ecology and is an important reference for researchers and resource managers who are working to understand and preserve ecological function in parks. The authors and editors have combined to provide a needed examination of a very important topic. In summary, why purchase all those books on scale when just one will do? The mountain of information alone stuffed into this one book should prompt all parks to get a copy and have it on hand as a quick and ready reference.

  4. Long-lived states of antiprotonic lithium pLi {sup +} produced in p+ Li collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Sakimoto, Kazuhiro

    2011-09-15

    Antiproton capture by lithium atoms (p+Li{yields}pLi{sup +}+e) is investigated at collision energies from 0.01 to 10 eV by using a semiclassical (also know as quantum-classical hybrid) method, in which the radial distance between the antiproton and the Li{sup +} ion is treated as a classical variable, and the other degrees of freedom are described by quantum mechanics. Analyzing the wave packet of the emitted electrons and making use of the energy conservation rule enable us to calculate the state distribution of the produced antiprotonic lithium pLi{sup +} atoms and also to distinguish between the capture and ionization ({yields}p+Li{sup +}+e) channels at collisional energies above the ionization threshold. This method is tested for the capture of negative muons by hydrogen atoms, which was rigorously investigated in previous quantum mechanical studies. Most of the pLi{sup +} atoms produced in p+Li are found to be sufficiently stable against Auger decays and are experimentally observable as long-lived states. The present system bears close similarities to the system of p+He(2S). It is therefore expected that long-lived antiprotonic helium pHe{sup +} atoms can be efficiently produced in the p capture by metastable He(2 {sup 3}S) atoms.

  5. NASA Goddards LiDAR, Hyperspectral and Thermal (G-LiHT) Airborne Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Bruce D.; Corp, Lawrence A.; Nelson, Ross F.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Morton, Douglas C.; McCorkel, Joel T.; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Ranson, Kenneth J.; Ly, Vuong; Montesano, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    The combination of LiDAR and optical remotely sensed data provides unique information about ecosystem structure and function. Here, we describe the development, validation and application of a new airborne system that integrates commercial off the shelf LiDAR hyperspectral and thermal components in a compact, lightweight and portable system. Goddard's LiDAR, Hyperspectral and Thermal (G-LiHT) airborne imager is a unique system that permits simultaneous measurements of vegetation structure, foliar spectra and surface temperatures at very high spatial resolution (approximately 1 m) on a wide range of airborne platforms. The complementary nature of LiDAR, optical and thermal data provide an analytical framework for the development of new algorithms to map plant species composition, plant functional types, biodiversity, biomass and carbon stocks, and plant growth. In addition, G-LiHT data enhance our ability to validate data from existing satellite missions and support NASA Earth Science research. G-LiHT's data processing and distribution system is designed to give scientists open access to both low- and high-level data products (http://gliht.gsfc.nasa.gov), which will stimulate the community development of synergistic data fusion algorithms. G-LiHT has been used to collect more than 6,500 km2 of data for NASA-sponsored studies across a broad range of ecoregions in the USA and Mexico. In this paper, we document G-LiHT design considerations, physical specifications, instrument performance and calibration and acquisition parameters. In addition, we describe the data processing system and higher-level data products that are freely distributed under NASA's Data and Information policy.

  6. Asymptotic and near-target direct breakup of 6Li and 7Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkal, Sunil; Simpson, E. C.; Luong, D. H.; Cook, K. J.; Dasgupta, M.; Hinde, D. J.; Carter, I. P.; Jeung, D. Y.; Mohanto, G.; Palshetkar, C. S.; Prasad, E.; Rafferty, D. C.; Simenel, C.; Vo-Phuoc, K.; Williams, E.; Gasques, L. R.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Linares, R.

    2016-04-01

    Background: Li,76 and 9Be are weakly bound against breakup into their cluster constituents. Breakup location is important for determining the role of breakup in above-barrier complete fusion suppression. Recent works have pointed out that experimental observables can be used to separate near-target and asymptotic breakup. Purpose: Our purpose is to distinguish near-target and asymptotic direct breakup of Li,76 in reactions with nuclei in different mass regions. Method: Charged particle coincidence measurements are carried out with pulsed Li,76 beams on 58Ni and 64Zn targets at sub-barrier energies and compared with previous measurements using 208Pb and 209Bi targets. A detector array providing a large angular coverage is used, along with time-of-flight information to give definitive particle identification of the direct breakup fragments. Results: In interactions of 6Li with 58Ni and 64Zn, direct breakup occurs only asymptotically far away from the target. However, in interactions with 208Pb and 209Bi, near-target breakup occurs in addition to asymptotic breakup. Direct breakup of 7Li into α -t is not observed in interactions with 58Ni and 64Zn. However, near-target dominated direct breakup was observed in measurements with 208Pb and 209Bi. A modified version of the Monte Carlo classical trajectory model code platypus, which explicitly takes into account lifetimes associated with unbound states, is used to simulate sub-barrier breakup reactions. Conclusions: Near-target breakup in interactions with Li,76 is an important mechanism only for the heavy targets 208Pb and 209Bi. There is insignificant near-target direct breakup of 6Li and no direct breakup of 7Li in reactions with 58Ni and 64Zn. Therefore, direct breakup is unlikely to suppress the above-barrier fusion cross section in reactions of Li,76 with 58Ni and 64Zn nuclei.

  7. A novel dual-salts of LiTFSI and LiODFB in LiFePO4-based batteries for suppressing aluminum corrosion and improving cycling stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Faqiang; Gong, Yan; Jia, Guofeng; Wang, Qinglei; Peng, Zhengjun; Fan, Wei; Bai, Bing

    2015-11-01

    The strong corrosion behavior at the Al current collector restricts the application range of lithium bis (trifluoromethanesulfonylimide) (LiTFSI), despite its high stability against water and thermal. SEM, LSV and Tafel curves proved that adding LiODFB into LiTFSI-based electrolytes could suppress aluminum corrosion caused by LiTFSI-based electrolytes. The cycling stability and rate capability of LiFePO4-based batteries using LiTFSI0.6-LiODFB0.4-based electrolytes is excellent as compared to LiFePO4-based batteries using LiPF6-based electrolytes.

  8. Role of dopants in LiF:Mg,Cu, LiF:Mg,P and LiF:Mg,Cu,P detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammadi, Kh. Moussavi Zarandi, A.; Afarideh, H.; Shahmaleki, S.

    2013-06-15

    In this study, electronic structure of LiF crystal doped with Mg,Cu,P impurities was studied with WIEN2k code on the basis of FPLAPW+lo method. Results show that in Mg-doped LiF composition, an electronic trap was created with impurity concentration of 1.56% and 3.125%. In this condition, the electronic trap with increasing the percentage of the impurities up to 4.687% is annihilated. It was found, that by doping of Mg and Cu or P simultaneously, a hole-trap is created in valence band. It was realized that in LiF:Mg,Cu, LiF:Mg,P and LiF:Mg,Cu,P, Cu impurity and Li atom, have a key role in creation of levels which lead to create electronic and hole traps. Mg impurity and F atom, only have a role in creation of electronic traps. In addition, P impurity has a main role in creation of the electronic and hole traps in LiF:Mg,Cu,P. The activation energy of electronic and hole trap in LiF:Mg,Cu, LiF:Mg,P and LiF:Mg,Cu,P crystalline lattice were obtained as 0.3 and 5.5 eV, 0.92 and 3.4 eV and 0.75 and 3.1 eV, respectively. - Graphical abstract: Figure (a) and (b) shows changes in electronic structure and band gap energy of LiF crystal due to presence of Mg and Cu, Mg and P ions respectively. - Highlights: • Electronic structure of LiF, LiF:Mg,Cu, LiF:Mg,P and LiF:Mg,Cu,P materials were studied with WIEN2K code. • In LiF:Mg,Cu and LiF:Mg,Cu,P, Li atom and Cu impurity have a key role in creation of levels. • F atom and Mg impurity only have a role in creation of electronic traps. • In LiF:Mg,Cu,P, P impurity has a main role in creation of electronic and hole traps.

  9. Achromatic Cooling Channel with Li Lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Balbekov, V.

    2002-04-29

    A linear cooling channel with Li lenses, solenoids, and 201 MHz RF cavities is considered. A special lattice design is used to minimize chromatic aberrations by suppression of several betatron resonances. Transverse emittance of muon beam decreases from 2 mm to 0.5 mm at the channel of about 110 m length. Longitudinal heating is modest, therefore transmission of the channel is rather high: 96% without decay and 90% with decay. Minimal beam emittance achievable by similar channel estimated as about 0.25 mm at surface field of Li lenses 10 T.

  10. Li Isotope Studies of Olivine in Mantle Xenoliths by SIMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, D. R.; Hervig, R. L.; Buseck, P. R.

    2005-01-01

    Variations in the ratio of the stable isotopes of Li are a potentially powerful tracer of processes in planetary and nebular environments [1]. Large differences in the 7Li/6Li ratio between the terrestrial upper mantle and various crustal materials make Li isotope composition a potentially powerful tracer of crustal recycling processes on Earth [2]. Recent SIMS studies of terrestrial mantle and Martian meteorite samples report intra-mineral Li isotope zoning [3-5]. Substantial Li isotope heterogeneity also exists within and between the components of chondritic meteorites [6,7]. Experimental studies of Li diffusion suggest the potential for rapid isotope exchange at elevated temperatures [8]. Large variations in 7Li, exceeding the range of unaltered basalts, occur in terrestrial mantle-derived xenoliths from individual localities [9]. The origins of these variations are not fully understood.

  11. Hydrogen storage in LiH: A first principle study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banger, Suman; Nayak, Vikas; Verma, U. P.

    2014-04-01

    First principles calculations have been performed on the Lithium hydride (LiH) using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within the framework of density functional theory. We have extended our calculations for LiH+2H and LiH+6H in NaCl structure. The structural stability of three compounds have been studied. It is found that LiH with 6 added Hydrogen atoms is most stable. The obtained results for LiH are in good agreement with reported experimental data. Electronic structures of three compounds are also studied. Out of three the energy band gap in LiH is ˜3.0 eV and LiH+2H and LiH+6H are metallic.

  12. Performance of new 10 kW class MCFC using Li/K and Li/Na electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Mugikura, Yoshihiro; Yoshiba, Fumihiko; Izaki, Yoshiyuki; Watanabe, Takao

    1996-12-31

    The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) uses generally mixture of lithium carbonate and potassium carbonate (Li/K) as the electrolyte. NiO cathode dissolution is one of serious problems for MCFC life. The NiO cathode has been found to dissolve into the electrolyte as Ni{sup 2+} ion which is reduced to metallic Ni by H{sub 2} in the fuel gas and bridges the anode and the cathode. The bridges short circuit and degrade cell performance and shorten cell life. Since solubility of NiO in mixture of lithium carbonate and sodium carbonate (Li/Na) is lower than in Li/K, it takes longer time to take place slowing by NiO cathode dissolution in Li/Na compared with in Li/K. The ionic conductivity of Li/Na is higher than of Li/K, however, oxygen solubility in Li/Na is lower 9 than in Li/K. A new 10 kW class MCFC stack composed of Li/K cells and Li/Na cells, was tested. Basic performance of the Li/K cells and Li/Na cells of the stack was reported.

  13. LiMn2O4-based cathode thin films for Li thin-film batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, Haena; Shin, Dong-Wook; Choi, Ji-Won

    2016-01-01

    Substitution methods for Mn3+ in a spinel lithium manganese oxide with other cations have been used to prevent capacity degradation during the electrochemical charge and discharge of Li-batteries by increasing the average valence of Mn. In particular, in this review we outlin the effects of Sn substitution on the cycling performance of LiMn2O4 thin films that can be used as positive electrode in Li-batteries. The thin films were prepared by using pulsed laser deposition and solution deposition with regard to the structural and the electro-chemical characteristics.

  14. Heating of Li in hydrogen: possible synthesis of LiHx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuno, K.; Matsuoka, T.; Nakagawa, T.; Hirao, N.; Ohishi, Y.; Shimizu, K.; Takahama, K.; Ohta, K.; Sakata, M.; Nakamoto, Y.; Kume, T.; Sasaki, S.

    2015-01-01

    We report the first laser heating experiments on Li in hydrogen at high pressures. X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering measurements suggest the possible formation of polyhydride (temporary named LiH?-II) that is considered to contain H? molecules in its crystal lattice. LiH?-II was found to be a transparent insulator at pressures below 62 GPa. This paper was presented at the LIIth European High Pressure Research Group (EHPRG 52) Meeting in Lyon (France), 7-12 September 2014.

  15. Comment on "Cycling Li-O₂ batteries via LiOH formation and decomposition".

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian; Pande, Vikram; Abraham, K M; Luntz, Alan C; McCloskey, Bryan D; Addison, Dan

    2016-05-01

    Based on a simple thermodynamic analysis, we show that iodide-mediated electrochemical decomposition of lithium hydroxide (LiOH) likely occurs through a different mechanism than that proposed by Liu et al (Research Article, 30 October 2015, p. 530). The mismatch in thermodynamic potentials for iodide/triiodide (I(-)/I3 (-)) redox and O2 evolution from LiOH implies a different active iodine/oxygen electrochemistry on battery charge. It is therefore possible that the system described in Liu et al may not form the basis for a rechargeable lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) battery. PMID:27151860

  16. On Paper or Hypermedia? The Effect of Procedural Information in Digital Video Format in the Learning of a Music Score Editor Program by Novice Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gimenez, Jesus Tejada; Saenz de Jubera, Magdalena

    This study, by means of an experimental design, examines whether the use of an electronic manual is more effective and efficient than a print manual for the training of novice users with a music score editor program. Differences in access to the two types of manuals were looked for, and information on users' perceptions regarding the materials…

  17. Erratum: Letter to the Editor: Exclusion of primary congenital glaucoma (buphthalmos) from two candidate regions of chromosome arm 6p and chromosome 11

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This {open_quotes}Letter to the Editor{close_quotes} is the reprint of a corrected table from a previous paper about the exclusion of primary congenital glaucoma from two candidate regions of chromosome arm 6p and chromosome 11.

  18. Problems of Journalism; Proceedings of the 1975 Annual Convention of the American Society of Newspaper Editors (Washington, D.C., April 16-18, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Society of Newspaper Editors, Easton, PA.

    This document reports the 1975 proceedings of the American Society of Newspaper Editors (ASNE) convention held in Washington, D.C., April 16-18. The contents include a list of officers and directors, past presidents of the society, and a copy of the ASNE Code of Ethics. Also contained in the document are reports on such individual sessions as…

  19. Response to the Letter to the Editor of Crop Science from Donald R. Davis regarding our research article published in Crop Science (2011: 51:2721-2727)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This letter serves as a response to the Letter to the Editor submitted by Donald R. Davis regarding our research article entitled “Mineral Concentration of Broccoli Florets in Relation to Year of Cultivar Release” published in Crop Science (2011, 51:2721-2727). In our manuscript, we clearly stated ...

  20. Sylvia Taylor Johnson, PhD, Editor-in-Chief of "The Journal of Negro Education" (1994-2001): A World-Class Champion Runner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Gerunda B.; Wallace, Michael B.

    2007-01-01

    With characteristic crystal clarity and advanced, sharply honed research skills, Dr. Sylvia T. Johnson was able to take full advantage of holding the position of Editor-in-Chief of "The Journal of Negro Education" from 1994 to 2001. This article summarizes her accomplishments through the many hats she wore.

  1. Letter to The Editor: Setting the record straight: a rebuttal to an erroneous analysis on transgenic insecticidal crops and natural enemies.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A letter to the editor was submitted in reply to an article published in Environmental Entomology by Lovei, Andow and Arpaia entitled “ Transgenic Insecticidal Crops and Natural Enemies: A Detailed Review of Laboratory Studies”. The non-target effects of transgenic insecticidal crops has been a topi...

  2. Single step transformation of sulphur to Li2S2/Li2S in Li-S batteries

    PubMed Central

    Helen, M.; Reddy, M. Anji; Diemant, Thomas; Golla-Schindler, Ute; Behm, R. Jürgen; Kaiser, Ute; Fichtner, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-sulphur batteries have generated tremendous research interest due to their high theoretical energy density and potential cost-effectiveness. The commercial realization of Li-S batteries is still hampered by reduced cycle life associated with the formation of electrolyte soluble higher-order polysulphide (Li2Sx, x = 4–8) intermediates, leading to capacity fading, self-discharge, and a multistep voltage profile. Herein, we have realized a practical approach towards a direct transformation of sulphur to Li2S2/Li2S in lithium-sulphur batteries by alteration of the reaction pathway. A coconut shell derived ultramicroporous carbon-sulphur composite cathode has been used as reaction directing template for the sulphur. The lithiation/delithiation and capacity fading mechanism of microporous carbon confined sulphur composite was revealed by analyzing the subsurface using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. No higher-order polysulphides were detected in the electrolyte, on the surface, and in the subsurface of the cathode composite. The altered reaction pathway is reflected by a single-step profile in the discharge/charge of a lithium-sulphur cell. PMID:26173723

  3. Single step transformation of sulphur to Li2S2/Li2S in Li-S batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helen, M.; Reddy, M. Anji; Diemant, Thomas; Golla-Schindler, Ute; Behm, R. Jürgen; Kaiser, Ute; Fichtner, Maximilian

    2015-07-01

    Lithium-sulphur batteries have generated tremendous research interest due to their high theoretical energy density and potential cost-effectiveness. The commercial realization of Li-S batteries is still hampered by reduced cycle life associated with the formation of electrolyte soluble higher-order polysulphide (Li2Sx, x = 4-8) intermediates, leading to capacity fading, self-discharge, and a multistep voltage profile. Herein, we have realized a practical approach towards a direct transformation of sulphur to Li2S2/Li2S in lithium-sulphur batteries by alteration of the reaction pathway. A coconut shell derived ultramicroporous carbon-sulphur composite cathode has been used as reaction directing template for the sulphur. The lithiation/delithiation and capacity fading mechanism of microporous carbon confined sulphur composite was revealed by analyzing the subsurface using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. No higher-order polysulphides were detected in the electrolyte, on the surface, and in the subsurface of the cathode composite. The altered reaction pathway is reflected by a single-step profile in the discharge/charge of a lithium-sulphur cell.

  4. Single step transformation of sulphur to Li2S2/Li2S in Li-S batteries.

    PubMed

    Helen, M; Reddy, M Anji; Diemant, Thomas; Golla-Schindler, Ute; Behm, R Jürgen; Kaiser, Ute; Fichtner, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-sulphur batteries have generated tremendous research interest due to their high theoretical energy density and potential cost-effectiveness. The commercial realization of Li-S batteries is still hampered by reduced cycle life associated with the formation of electrolyte soluble higher-order polysulphide (Li2Sx, x = 4-8) intermediates, leading to capacity fading, self-discharge, and a multistep voltage profile. Herein, we have realized a practical approach towards a direct transformation of sulphur to Li2S2/Li2S in lithium-sulphur batteries by alteration of the reaction pathway. A coconut shell derived ultramicroporous carbon-sulphur composite cathode has been used as reaction directing template for the sulphur. The lithiation/delithiation and capacity fading mechanism of microporous carbon confined sulphur composite was revealed by analyzing the subsurface using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. No higher-order polysulphides were detected in the electrolyte, on the surface, and in the subsurface of the cathode composite. The altered reaction pathway is reflected by a single-step profile in the discharge/charge of a lithium-sulphur cell. PMID:26173723

  5. Chemical stability enhancement of lithium conducting solid electrolyte plates using sputtered LiPON thin film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, W. C.; Whitacre, J. F.; Lim, J. R.

    2004-01-01

    Sputter deposition of LiPON films directly onto high Li+ conductivity solid electrolyte plates has been investigated as a means to minimize the reactivity of the plates to metallic Li. The LiPON films were shown to effectively passivate the plates in contact with metallic Li, in contrast to unpassivated plates that reacted immediately in contact with Li metal.

  6. GUEST EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION: Guest Editor's introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrysanthis, Panos K.

    1996-12-01

    Computer Science Department, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA This special issue focuses on current efforts to represent and support workflows that integrate information systems and human resources within a business or manufacturing enterprise. Workflows may also be viewed as an emerging computational paradigm for effective structuring of cooperative applications involving human users and access to diverse data types not necessarily maintained by traditional database management systems. A workflow is an automated organizational process (also called business process) which consists of a set of activities or tasks that need to be executed in a particular controlled order over a combination of heterogeneous database systems and legacy systems. Within workflows, tasks are performed cooperatively by either human or computational agents in accordance with their roles in the organizational hierarchy. The challenge in facilitating the implementation of workflows lies in developing efficient workflow management systems. A workflow management system (also called workflow server, workflow engine or workflow enactment system) provides the necessary interfaces for coordination and communication among human and computational agents to execute the tasks involved in a workflow and controls the execution orderings of tasks as well as the flow of data that these tasks manipulate. That is, the workflow management system is responsible for correctly and reliably supporting the specification, execution, and monitoring of workflows. The six papers selected (out of the twenty-seven submitted for this special issue of Distributed Systems Engineering) address different aspects of these three functional components of a workflow management system. In the first paper, `Correctness issues in workflow management', Kamath and Ramamritham discuss the important issue of correctness in workflow management that constitutes a prerequisite for the use of workflows in the automation of the critical organizational/business processes. In particular, this paper examines the issues of execution atomicity and failure atomicity, differentiating between correctness requirements of system failures and logical failures, and surveys techniques that can be used to ensure data consistency in workflow management systems. While the first paper is concerned with correctness assuming transactional workflows in which selective transactional properties are associated with individual tasks or the entire workflow, the second paper, `Scheduling workflows by enforcing intertask dependencies' by Attie et al, assumes that the tasks can be either transactions or other activities involving legacy systems. This second paper describes the modelling and specification of conditions involving events and dependencies among tasks within a workflow using temporal logic and finite state automata. It also presents a scheduling algorithm that enforces all stated dependencies by executing at any given time only those events that are allowed by all the dependency automata and in an order as specified by the dependencies. In any system with decentralized control, there is a need to effectively cope with the tension that exists between autonomy and consistency requirements. In `A three-level atomicity model for decentralized workflow management systems', Ben-Shaul and Heineman focus on the specific requirement of enforcing failure atomicity in decentralized, autonomous and interacting workflow management systems. Their paper describes a model in which each workflow manager must be able to specify the sequence of tasks that comprise an atomic unit for the purposes of correctness, and the degrees of local and global atomicity for the purpose of cooperation with other workflow managers. The paper also discusses a realization of this model in which treaties and summits provide an agreement mechanism, while underlying transaction managers are responsible for maintaining failure atomicity. The fourth and fifth papers are experience papers describing a workflow management system and a large scale workflow application, respectively. Schill and Mittasch, in `Workflow management systems on top of OSF DCE and OMG CORBA', describe a decentralized workflow management system and discuss its implementation using two standardized middleware platforms, namely, OSF DCE and OMG CORBA. The system supports a new approach to workflow management, introducing several new concepts such as data type management for integrating various types of data and quality of service for various services provided by servers. A problem common to both database applications and workflows is the handling of missing and incomplete information. This is particularly pervasive in an `electronic market' with a huge number of retail outlets producing and exchanging volumes of data, the application discussed in `Information flow in the DAMA project beyond database managers: information flow managers'. Motivated by the need for a method that allows a task to proceed in a timely manner if not all data produced by other tasks are available by its deadline, Russell et al propose an architectural framework and a language that can be used to detect, approximate and, later on, to adjust missing data if necessary. The final paper, `The evolution towards flexible workflow systems' by Nutt, is complementary to the other papers and is a survey of issues and of work related to both workflow and computer supported collaborative work (CSCW) areas. In particular, the paper provides a model and a categorization of the dimensions which workflow management and CSCW systems share. Besides summarizing the recent advancements towards efficient workflow management, the papers in this special issue suggest areas open to investigation and it is our hope that they will also provide the stimulus for further research and development in the area of workflow management systems.

  7. GUEST EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION: Guest Editor's introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrysanthis, Panos K.

    1996-12-01

    Computer Science Department, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA This special issue focuses on current efforts to represent and support workflows that integrate information systems and human resources within a business or manufacturing enterprise. Workflows may also be viewed as an emerging computational paradigm for effective structuring of cooperative applications involving human users and access to diverse data types not necessarily maintained by traditional database management systems. A workflow is an automated organizational process (also called business process) which consists of a set of activities or tasks that need to be executed in a particular controlled order over a combination of heterogeneous database systems and legacy systems. Within workflows, tasks are performed cooperatively by either human or computational agents in accordance with their roles in the organizational hierarchy. The challenge in facilitating the implementation of workflows lies in developing efficient workflow management systems. A workflow management system (also called workflow server, workflow engine or workflow enactment system) provides the necessary interfaces for coordination and communication among human and computational agents to execute the tasks involved in a workflow and controls the execution orderings of tasks as well as the flow of data that these tasks manipulate. That is, the workflow management system is responsible for correctly and reliably supporting the specification, execution, and monitoring of workflows. The six papers selected (out of the twenty-seven submitted for this special issue of Distributed Systems Engineering) address different aspects of these three functional components of a workflow management system. In the first paper, `Correctness issues in workflow management', Kamath and Ramamritham discuss the important issue of correctness in workflow management that constitutes a prerequisite for the use of workflows in the automation of the critical organizational/business processes. In particular, this paper examines the issues of execution atomicity and failure atomicity, differentiating between correctness requirements of system failures and logical failures, and surveys techniques that can be used to ensure data consistency in workflow management systems. While the first paper is concerned with correctness assuming transactional workflows in which selective transactional properties are associated with individual tasks or the entire workflow, the second paper, `Scheduling workflows by enforcing intertask dependencies' by Attie et al, assumes that the tasks can be either transactions or other activities involving legacy systems. This second paper describes the modelling and specification of conditions involving events and dependencies among tasks within a workflow using temporal logic and finite state automata. It also presents a scheduling algorithm that enforces all stated dependencies by executing at any given time only those events that are allowed by all the dependency automata and in an order as specified by the dependencies. In any system with decentralized control, there is a need to effectively cope with the tension that exists between autonomy and consistency requirements. In `A three-level atomicity model for decentralized workflow management systems', Ben-Shaul and Heineman focus on the specific requirement of enforcing failure atomicity in decentralized, autonomous and interacting workflow management systems. Their paper describes a model in which each workflow manager must be able to specify the sequence of tasks that comprise an atomic unit for the purposes of correctness, and the degrees of local and global atomicity for the purpose of cooperation with other workflow managers. The paper also discusses a realization of this model in which treaties and summits provide an agreement mechanism, while underlying transaction managers are responsible for maintaining failure atomicity. The fourth and fifth papers are experience papers describing a workflow management system and a l

  8. GUEST EDITORS' INTRODUCTION: Guest Editors' introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerraoui, Rachid; Vinoski, Steve

    1997-09-01

    The organization of a distributed system can have a tremendous impact on its capabilities, its performance, and its ability to evolve to meet changing requirements. For example, the client - server organization model has proven to be adequate for organizing a distributed system as a number of distributed servers that offer various functions to client processes across the network. However, it lacks peer-to-peer capabilities, and experience with the model has been predominantly in the context of local networks. To achieve peer-to-peer cooperation in a more global context, systems issues of scale, heterogeneity, configuration management, accounting and sharing are crucial, and the complexity of migrating from locally distributed to more global systems demands new tools and techniques. An emphasis on interfaces and modules leads to the modelling of a complex distributed system as a collection of interacting objects that communicate with each other only using requests sent to well defined interfaces. Although object granularity typically varies at different levels of a system architecture, the same object abstraction can be applied to various levels of a computing architecture. Since 1989, the Object Management Group (OMG), an international software consortium, has been defining an architecture for distributed object systems called the Object Management Architecture (OMA). At the core of the OMA is a `software bus' called an Object Request Broker (ORB), which is specified by the OMG Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) specification. The OMA distributed object model fits the structure of heterogeneous distributed applications, and is applied in all layers of the OMA. For example, each of the OMG Object Services, such as the OMG Naming Service, is structured as a set of distributed objects that communicate using the ORB. Similarly, higher-level OMA components such as Common Facilities and Domain Interfaces are also organized as distributed objects that can be layered over both Object Services and the ORB. The OMG creates specifications, not code, but the interfaces it standardizes are always derived from demonstrated technology submitted by member companies. The specified interfaces are written in a neutral Interface Definition Language (IDL) that defines contractual interfaces with potential clients. Interfaces written in IDL can be translated to a number of programming languages via OMG standard language mappings so that they can be used to develop components. The resulting components can transparently communicate with other components written in different languages and running on different operating systems and machine types. The ORB is responsible for providing the illusion of `virtual homogeneity' regardless of the programming languages, tools, operating systems and networks used to realize and support these components. With the adoption of the CORBA 2.0 specification in 1995, these components are able to interoperate across multi-vendor CORBA-based products. More than 700 member companies have joined the OMG, including Hewlett-Packard, Digital, Siemens, IONA Technologies, Netscape, Sun Microsystems, Microsoft and IBM, which makes it the largest standards body in existence. These companies continue to work together within the OMG to refine and enhance the OMA and its components. This special issue of Distributed Systems Engineering publishes five papers that were originally presented at the `Distributed Object-Based Platforms' track of the 30th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), which was held in Wailea on Maui on 6 - 10 January 1997. The papers, which were selected based on their quality and the range of topics they cover, address different aspects of CORBA, including advanced aspects such as fault tolerance and transactions. These papers discuss the use of CORBA and evaluate CORBA-based development for different types of distributed object systems and architectures. The first paper, by S Rahkila and S Stenberg, discusses the application of CORBA to telecommunication management networks. In the second paper, P Narasimhan, L E Moser and P M Melliar-Smith present a fault-tolerant extension of an ORB. The third paper, by J Liang, S Sédillot and B Traverson, provides an overview of the CORBA Transaction Service and its integration with the ISO Distributed Transaction Processing protocol. In the fourth paper, D Sherer, T Murer and A Würtz discuss the evolution of a cooperative software engineering infrastructure to a CORBA-based framework. The fifth paper, by R Fatoohi, evaluates the communication performance of a commercially-available Object Request Broker (Orbix from IONA Technologies) on several networks, and compares the performance with that of more traditional communication primitives (e.g., BSD UNIX sockets and PVM). We wish to thank both the referees and the authors of these papers, as their cooperation was fundamental in ensuring timely publication.

  9. GUEST EDITORS' INTRODUCTION: Guest Editors' introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulson, Geoff; de Meer, Jan B.

    1997-03-01

    Quality of Service (QoS) has emerged in the last few years as a topical and challenging research area in distributed systems. For a broad definition of QoS we refer to the ISO's Reference Model for Open Distributed Processing (ISO/IEC IS 10746-2): `The notion of QoS is a system or object property, and consists of a set of quality requirements on the collective behaviour of one or more objects . . .'. In the context of this special issue, QoS is primarily associated with systems such as distributed multimedia application platforms or distributed simulations. The QoS requirements of such systems typically relate to measures of rate and latency of information transfer, probability of a communication being disrupted, probability of system failure, probability of storage failure, etc. The role of QoS management is thus to ensure that applications are able to specify and obtain the quality of service that they require for their correct execution. In general, the functions of QoS management may be subsumed under the following headings: (i) QoS specification and mapping, (ii) QoS negotiation, resource allocation and admission control and (iii) QoS monitoring, adaptation and renegotiation. QoS specification defines the QoS required by an application in terms of both timeliness constraints and guarantees. QoS mapping then translates between QoS representations at different system levels, relieving the user of the necessity of thinking in terms of low-level QoS representations. For example, a user may express a jitter requirement by manipulating a slider in a GUI, and this could be mapped at the lower layers into a requirement for an absolute bound on ATM cell jitter and a jitter smoothing buffer of a certain size. QoS negotiation, resource allocation and admission control are collectively responsible for configuring a system in preparation for the execution of a QoS requiring application. QoS negotiation provides a framework in which the QoS levels supported by individual system components (e.g. file server, operating system and network) are composed to build the required end-to-end service. Providing such a service may well require explicit resource allocation (e.g. of network bandwidth or CPU cycles); admission control may also be required to ensure that requested QoS levels can be met. QoS monitoring, adaptation and renegotiation are concerned with supporting QoS during the run time of an application. QoS monitoring and QoS adaptation are conceptually related in a feedback loop in which current QoS levels are observed and fine grained reconfiguration is triggered as necessary to ensure that the required levels are maintained. An example of such a loop is to be found in Internet tools such as vic or vat which monitor network delay and adapt by adjusting the size of an elastic playout buffer. QoS renegotiation is a coarser grained adaptation, often explicitly initiated by the user, in which required QoS levels are revised at run time. An example could be a user scaling a video display from colour to monochrome so that sufficient resources can be freed to support an additional connection. The papers in this special issue were selected from the fourth QoS Workshop held in Paris in March 1996. To understand the overall evolution of QoS research it is useful to know some background on the series of workshops of which the Paris workshop was a part. The first workshop to be dedicated exclusively to QoS issues was organized in Canada by the European RACE project R2088 (TOPIC) in cooperation with the University of Montreal in June 1994. A European counterpart of this initiating event occurred in the same year in September 1994 in Aachen, Germany. This latter event was held in cooperation with the European Conference on Intelligence in Broadband Services and Networks (IS&N94). A third workshop was then held in conjunction with the IFIP conference on Open Distributed Processing (ICODP95) in Brisbane, Australia in March 1995. By 1996 more independence, and also more recognition of QoS as an independent research area, was achieved in the

  10. Li Diffusion and High-Voltage Cycling Behavior of Thin-Film LiCoO2 Cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Y.-I.

    2001-10-02

    Mass transport and thermodynamic properties of Li{sub x}CoO{sub 2} were studied by the potentiostatic intermittent titration technique (PITT) using solid-state thin-film batteries that provide a well-defined diffusion geometry. Both the chemical diffusion coefficient and the thermodynamic factor have minima at the phase boundaries of the Li/vacancy ordered phase ''Li{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 2}''. The self-diffusion coefficient of Li has a minimum at x = 0.5 associated with the Li/vacancy ordering. As the degree of ordering increases, the nonmonotonic variations become more pronounced when approaching x = 0.5 in Li{sub x}CoO{sub 2}. We also show that thin-film LiCoO{sub 2} cathodes having grains of sub-micrometer size combined with the Li upon electrolyte exhibit excellent capacity retention when charged up to 4.5 V.

  11. Lithium intercalation cells LiMn 2O 4/LiTi 2O 4 without metallic lithium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manickam, M.; Takata, M.

    Rechargeable lithium cells can be made with two different intercalation compounds as the positive and negative electrodes, which are safer than the battery technology using pure Li metal. In this paper, we present our study of the Li ion type battery that uses LiTi 2O 4 as the negative electrode, which is coupled with a strongly oxidizing intercalation compound, spinel LiMn 2O 4, as the positive electrode has been found to solve problems associated with the use of metallic lithium at the expense of lowering the overall cell voltage. Preliminary electrochemical data revealed that this Li ion type battery "LiMn 2O 4/LiTi 2O 4" exhibits a low performance in terms of capacity. Li cycling efficiency is examined with mixed solvents as electrolyte. With improvements in capacity, materials such as these could improve the over all performance of secondary lithium intercalation cells.

  12. Current collectors for rechargeable Li-Air batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Veith, Gabriel M; Dudney, Nancy J

    2011-01-01

    Here we report the negative influence of porous nickel foam for use as current collectors in rechargeable Li-air batteries. Uncoated nickel foam promotes the decomposition of LiPF6-organic carbonate electrolytes under normal charging conditions reported for rechargeable Li-air cells. We have identified Ni free porous carbon supports as more appropriate cathode current collectors.

  13. Li-ion diffusion in Li4Ti5O12 and LiTi2O4 battery materials detected by muon spin spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Jun; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Umegaki, Izumi; Mukai, Kazuhiko; Miwa, Kazutoshi; Shiraki, Susumu; Hitosugi, Taro; Suter, Andreas; Prokscha, Thomas; Salman, Zaher; Lord, James S.; Mânsson, Martin

    2015-07-01

    Lithium diffusion in spinel Li4Ti5O12 and LiTi2O4 compounds for future battery applications has been studied with muon spin relaxation (μ+SR ) . Measurements were performed on both thin-film and powder samples in the temperature range between 25 and 500 K. For Li4Ti5O12 and above about ˜200 K , the field distribution width (Δ ) is found to decrease gradually, while the field fluctuation rate (ν ) increases exponentially with temperature. For LiTi2O4 , on the contrary, the Δ (T ) curve shows a steplike decrease at ˜350 K , around which the ν (T ) curve exhibits a local maximum. These behaviors suggest that Li+ starts to diffuse above around 200 K for both spinels. Assuming a jump diffusion of Li+ at the tetrahedral 8 a site to the vacant octahedral 16 c site, diffusion coefficients of Li+ at 300 K in the film samples are estimated as (3.2 ±0.8 ) ×10-11 cm2/s for Li4Ti5O12 and (3.6 ±1.1 ) ×10-11 cm2/s for LiTi2O4 . Further, some small differences are found in both thermal activation energies and Li-ion diffusion coefficients between the powder and thin-film samples.

  14. Soft X-Ray Irradiation Effects of Li2O2, Li2CO3 and Li2O Revealed by Absorption Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Ruimin; Chuang, Yi-De; Yan, Shishen; Yang, Wanli

    2012-01-01

    Li2O2, Li2CO3, and Li2O are three critical compounds in lithium-air and lithium-ion energy storage systems. Extensive measurements have been carried out to study the chemical species and their evolutions at difference stages of the device operation. While x-ray spectroscopy has been demonstrated to be one of the most powerful tools for such purpose, no systematic study on the irradiation effects have been reported. Here we carry out extensive time, position, and irradiation dependent Li K-edge soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy on these compounds with so far the best energy resolution. The ultra-high resolution in the current study allows the features in the absorption spectra to be well-resolved. The spectral lineshape thus serves as the fingerprints of these compounds, enabling the tracking of their evolution under x-ray irradiation. We found that both Li2O2 and Li2CO3 evidently evolve towards Li2O under the soft x-ray irradiation with Li2CO3 exhibiting a surprisingly higher sensitivity to x-rays than Li2O2. On the other hand, Li2O remains the most stable compound despite experiencing substantial irradiation dose. We thus conclude that high resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy could unambiguously fingerprint different chemical species, but special cautions on irradiation effects would be needed in performing the experiments and interpreting the data properly. PMID:23145116

  15. Formation of small polarons in Li2O2 and implications for Li-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Joongoo; Jung, Yoon-Seok; Wei, Su-Huai; Dillon, Anne

    2012-02-01

    Lithium-air batteries (LABs) have recently been revitalized as a promising electrical energy storage system due to their exceptionally high theoretical energy density. However, its usage is limited by poor rate capability and large polarization in the cell voltage due primarily to the formation of Li2O2 in the air cathode. Here, using hybrid density functional theory, we found that the formation of small polarons in Li2O2 is the origin that limits the electron transport in Li2O2. Consequently, the low electron mobility contributes to the hysteresis in cell voltage and limits the power density of the LABs. We suggest that similar behavior should exist in other peroxides, and p-type doping in Li2O2 could significantly improve the performance of LABs at high current densities.

  16. Diffusion-limited Kinetic Pathway for Hydrogen Release from LiNH2/LiH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolih, Biljana; Ozolins, Vidvuds

    2011-03-01

    From experimental work on decomposition of hydrogen storage materials it has been suggested that bulk diffusion of metal species is the bottleneck for hydrogen release. In this work we study the underlying mechanism for diffusion reactions in the dehydrogenation of Li NH2 . Using first-principle, density functional theory methods we have calculated concentration gradients and diffusivities of neutral and charged defects in Li NH2 and Li 2 NH phases. The overall activation energy is obtained from these calculations. The calculated activation energies are found to agree well with experimental work on the kinetics of Li NH2 decomposition, suggesting that diffusion of metal species is a possible method for dehydrogenation of Lithium Amide.

  17. Probing the failure mechanism of nanoscale LiFePO4 for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Meng; Shi, Wei; Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Zhang, Ji-guang; Wang, Chongmin

    2015-05-01

    LiFePO4 is a high power rate cathode material for lithium ion battery and shows remarkable capacity retention, featuring a 91% capacity retention after 3300 cycles. In this work, we use high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy to study the gradual capacity fading mechanism of LiFePO4 materials. We found that upon prolonged electrochemical cycling of the battery, the LiFePO4 cathode shows surface amorphization and loss of oxygen species, which directly contribute to the gradual capacity fading of the battery. The finding can guide the design and improvement of LiFePO4 cathode for high-energy and high-power rechargeable battery for electric transportation.

  18. Probing the failure mechanism of nanoscale LiFePO₄ for Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Meng; Shi, Wei; Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Zhang, Ji-guang; Wang, Chongmin

    2015-05-18

    LiFePO4 is a high power rate cathode material for lithium ion battery and shows remarkable capacity retention, featuring a 91% capacity retention after 3300 cycles. In this work, we use high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) to study the gradual capacity fading mechanism of LiFePO4 materials. We found that upon prolonged electrochemical cycling of the battery, the LiFePO4 cathode shows surface amorphization and loss of oxygen species, which directly contribute to the gradual capacity fading of the battery. The finding is of great importance for the design and improvement of new LiFePO4 cathode for high-energy and high-power rechargeable battery for electric transportation.

  19. Bulk thermal capacity determination for Li/BCX and Li/SOClN2 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalu, E. E.; White, R. E.; Darcy, E. C.

    1992-01-01

    The bulk heat capacities of Li/BCX and Li/SOClN2 cells were determined at 0 and 100 percent depth-of-discharge for 2.0 V cut-off voltage, in the temperature range 0 to 60 C by a method that did not involve the destruction of the cell nor the contact of cell with a liquid. The heat capacities are found to be dependent on state-of-charge, increasing with depth-of-discharge. The Li/BCX DD-cell has a lower heat capacity than a high rate Li/SOCl2 D-cell. The results obtained by this method compare favorably well with results reported in the literature through other methods. The bulk heat capacities of the cells did not change significantly in the temperature range 0 to 60 C.

  20. Ultrafine LiCoO2 powders derived from electrospun nanofibers for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Yun; Wen, Jingjing; Xu, Haiping; Xie, Shuhong; Li, Jiangyu

    2013-02-01

    Sol-gel based electrospinning has been developed to synthesize phase pure LiCoO2 powders at relatively low temperature with excellent crystallinity and ultrafine particle size. Compared to LiCoO2 powders synthesized from regular sol-gel processes, the nanofiber derived powders possess high initial discharge capacity and good cyclic stability, and the retention of initial capacity is also much higher than bare LiCoO2 nanofibers reported in literature. With additional surface modification of La2O3 coating, the retention of initial capacity is increased to 91% at 30th cycle and 83% at 50th cycle without decreasing its initial capacity, making it attractive for Li-ion batteries.

  1. Multi-spin-state at a Li3PO4/LiCoO2 (104) interface.

    PubMed

    Sumita, Masato; Ohno, Takahisa

    2016-02-14

    We have found the disproportion between the intermediate spin (IS) and low spin (LS) configurations of Co atoms at a Li3PO4/LiCoO2 (104) interface through density functional molecular dynamics (DF-MD). The manifold of the spin state at the interface, however, does not affect the band alignment between the Li3PO4 and LiCoO2 regions. PMID:26812388

  2. On the reduction of generalized polylogarithms to Li n and Li2 ,2 and on the evaluation thereof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frellesvig, Hjalte; Tommasini, Damiano; Wever, Christopher

    2016-03-01

    We give expressions for all generalized polylogarithms up to weight four in terms of the functions log, Li n , and Li2,2, valid for arbitrary complex variables. Furthermore we provide algorithms for manipulation and numerical evaluation of Li n and Li2,2, and add codes in Mathematica and C++ implementing the results. With these results we calculate a number of previously unknown integrals, which we add in appendix C.

  3. Pt and Pd catalyzed oxidation of Li2O2 and DMSO during Li-O2 battery charging.

    PubMed

    Gittleson, Forrest S; Ryu, Won-Hee; Schwab, Mark; Tong, Xiao; Taylor, André D

    2016-05-01

    Rechargeable Li-O2 and Li-air batteries require electrode and electrolyte materials that synergistically promote long-term cell operation. In this study, we investigate the role of noble metals Pt and Pd as catalysts in the Li-O2 oxidation process and their compatibility with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) based electrolytes. We identify a basis for low potential Li2O2 evolution followed by oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte to form carbonate side products. PMID:27111589

  4. Lithium concentration and Li isotopic compositions of carbonatitic complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halama, R.; McDonough, W. F.; Rudnick, R. L.; Ash, R. D.; Keller, J.; Klaudius, J.; Trumbull, R.

    2005-12-01

    To evaluate the Li isotopic signatures of the mantle sources of carbonatites and the influence of magmatic differentiation and post-magmatic processes on δ7Li, we determined the Li concentrations and isotopic compositions of carbonatites and spatially associated silicate rocks, spanning a wide range in composition and age. Natrocarbonatites from Oldoinyo Lengai (1995 and 2000 eruptions) have high Li concentrations (211-292 ppm) and uniform Li isotopic signatures (δ7Li = +4.4 to +5.1 per mil). Associated silicate rocks (melilitite, nephelinite and phonolite) have lower Li concentrations (16-47 ppm) and trend towards lighter Li isotopic values (δ7Li = 0 to +3.5 per mil). Clinopyroxenes from these lavas are significantly lighter than the whole rocks by 1 to 6 per mil. Since the lavas appear to be fresh, this suggests fractionation of Li isotopes between minerals and whole rocks. In comparison to the modern natrocarbonatites, Proterozoic calciocarbonatites from Greenland (Grønnedal-Ika) and Cretaceous calciocarbonatites from Namibia (Kalkfeld) are poor in Li (< 2 ppm) and have more scattered Li isotopic compositions (δ7Li = -1 to +4 and -0.5 to +5 per mil, respectively). The lower δ7Li values may reflect contamination by crustal Li, since the low Li contents in the carbonatites make them susceptible to this. Silicate lavas from Kalkfeld have higher Li concentrations (11-12 ppm) than their associated carbonatites, but overlapping isotopic compositions (δ7Li = +4 to +6 per mil). At Grønnedal-Ika, clinopyroxene separates from nepheline syenites vary considerably in δ7Li from -6 to +5. Since Li is preferentially partitioned into fenitizing fluids [1] and an enrichment of light 6Li in fluids during degassing can be anticipated [2], the trend towards negative δ7Li can be interpreted as a result of variable interaction with metasomatizing fluids. However, fractionation of Li isotopes between minerals and melts may also have played a role. Our preliminary data

  5. 6Li foil thermal neutron detector

    SciTech Connect

    Ianakiev, Kiril D; Swinhoe, Martyn T; Favalli, Andrea; Chung, Kiwhan; Macarthur, Duncan W

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we report on the design of a multilayer thermal neutron detector based on {sup 6}Li reactive foil and thin film plastic scintillators. The {sup 6}Li foils have about twice the intrinsic efficiency of {sup 10}B films and about four times higher light output due to a unique combination of high energy of reaction particles, low self absorption, and low ionization density of tritons. The design configuration provides for double sided readout of the lithium foil resulting in a doubling of the efficiency relative to a classical reactive film detector and generating a pulse height distribution with a valley between neutron and gamma signals similar to {sup 3}He tubes. The tens of microns thickness of plastic scintillator limits the energy deposited by gamma rays, which provides the necessary neutron/gamma discrimination. We used MCNPX to model a multilayer Li foil detector design and compared it with the standard HLNCC-II (18 {sup 3}He tubes operated at 4 atm). The preliminary results of the {sup 6}Li configuration show higher efficiency and one third of the die-away time. These properties, combined with the very short dead time of the plastic scintillator, offer the potential of a very high performance detector.

  6. Observational evidence for a broken Li Spite plateau and mass-dependent Li depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meléndez, J.; Casagrande, L.; Ramírez, I.; Asplund, M.; Schuster, W. J.

    2010-06-01

    We present NLTE Li abundances for 88 stars in the metallicity range -3.5 < [Fe/H] < -1.0. The effective temperatures are based on the infrared flux method with improved E(B-V) values obtained mostly from interstellar Na I D lines. The Li abundances were derived through MARCS models and high-quality UVES+VLT, HIRES+Keck and FIES+NOT spectra, and complemented with reliable equivalent widths from the literature. The less-depleted stars with [Fe/H] < -2.5 and [Fe/H] > -2.5 fall into two well-defined plateaus of ALi = 2.18 (σ = 0.04) and ALi = 2.27 (σ = 0.05), respectively. We show that the two plateaus are flat, unlike previous claims for a steep monotonic decrease in Li abundances with decreasing metallicities. At all metallicities we uncover a fine-structure in the Li abundances of Spite plateau stars, which we trace to Li depletion that depends on both metallicity and mass. Models including atomic diffusion and turbulent mixing seem to reproduce the observed Li depletion assuming a primordial Li abundance ALi = 2.64, which agrees well with current predictions (ALi = 2.72) from standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis. Adopting the Kurucz overshooting model atmospheres increases the Li abundance by +0.08 dex to ALi = 2.72, which perfectly agrees with BBN+WMAP. Based in part on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, the Nordic Optical Telescope on La Palma, and on data from the HIRES/Keck archive and the European Southern Observatory ESO/ST-ECF Science Archive Facility.Table 1 is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  7. Al-Cu-Li and Al-Mg-Li alloys: Phase composition, texture, and anisotropy of mechanical properties (Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betsofen, S. Ya.; Antipov, V. V.; Knyazev, M. I.

    2016-04-01

    The results of studying the phase transformations, the texture formation, and the anisotropy of the mechanical properties in Al-Cu-Li and Al-Mg-Li alloys are generalized. A technique and equations are developed to calculate the amounts of the S1 (Al2MgLi), T1 (Al2CuLi), and δ' (Al3Li) phases. The fraction of the δ' phase in Al-Cu-Li alloys is shown to be significantly higher than in Al-Mg-Li alloys. Therefore, the role of the T1 phase in the hardening of Al-Cu-Li alloys is thought to be overestimated, especially in alloys with more than 1.5% Li. A new model is proposed to describe the hardening of Al-Cu-Li alloys upon aging, and the results obtained with this model agree well with the experimental data. A texture, which is analogous to that in aluminum alloys, is shown to form in sheets semiproducts made of Al-Cu-Li and Al-Mg-Li alloys. The more pronounced anisotropy of the properties of lithium-containing aluminum alloys is caused by a significant fraction of the ordered coherent δ' phase, the deformation mechanism in which differs radically from that in the solid solution.

  8. Li diffusion and substitution in chemically diverse synthetic zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trail, D.

    2015-12-01

    Li concentrations and 7Li/6Li ratios in zircon may potentially trace crustal recycling because continental and mantle-derived zircons yield distinct values (Ushikubo et al. 2008; Bouvier et al. 2012). To some extent, the usefulness of these differences may depend upon the retentively of Li in zircon. Cherniak and Watson (2010) measured relatively high diffusivities for Li; here we sought to discover the scenarios under which Li mobility might be inhibited by charge compensating cations. We conducted "in" diffusion experiments in synthetic Lu-doped (~5000 ppm), P-doped (~250 ppm), and nearly pure zircon following the procedure in Cherniak and Watson (2010). In separate experiments, Li was ion implanted at depth within polished Mud Tank zircon slabs to form a Gaussian Li concentration profile; the relaxed concentration profile was measured after heating the zircon slabs. In all experiments, which ranged from 920 to 650 oC, calculated diffusivities were in agreement with a previously established Arrhenius relationship calibrated on trace element poor Mud Tank zircon (Cherniak and Watson, 2010). We also conducted complementary LA-ICP-MS mapping on the surfaces of P- and Lu-doped synthetic zircon crystals after the Li diffusion results were obtained. This revealed heterogeneous though patterned correlation between Li+Lu in the near surface of the crystal (no strong patterns emerged for P+Li). And finally, we observed that synthetic sector-zoned zircon exhibits near step function Li concentration profiles - correlating with changes in the rare earth element concentrations across these sectors - which allowed us to examine Li diffusion in yet another manner. Re-heating these grains followed by LA-ICP-MS analysis revealed significant Li migration, with no detectable migration of the rare earth elements. While our experiments cannot be considered exhaustive, we have yet to find a scenario where Li mobility in synthetic zircon depends on charge compensating cations.

  9. Capturing and Processing Soil GHG Fluxes Using the LI-COR LI-8100A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Liukang; McDermitt, Dayle; Hupp, Jason; Johnson, Mark; Madsen, Rod

    2015-04-01

    The LI-COR LI-8100A Automated Soil CO2 Flux System is designed to measure soil CO2 efflux using automated chambers and a non-steady state measurement protocol. While CO2 is an important gas in many contexts, it is not the only gas of interest for many research applications. With some simple plumbing modifications, many third party analyzers capable of measuring other trace gases, e.g. N2O, CH4, or 13CO2 etc., can be interfaced with the LI-8100A System, and LI-COR's data processing software (SoilFluxPro™) can be used to compute fluxes for these additional gases. In this paper we describe considerations for selecting an appropriate third party analyzer to interface with the system, how to integrate data into the system, and the procedure used to compute fluxes of additional gases in SoilFluxPro™. A case study is presented to demonstrate methane flux measurements using an Ultra-Portable Greenhouse Gas Analyzer (Ultra-Portable GGA, model 915-0011), manufactured by Los Gatos Research and integrated into the LI-8100A System. Laboratory and field test results show that the soil CO2 efflux based on the time series of CO2 data measured either with the LI-8100A System or with the Ultra-Portable GGA are essentially the same. This suggests that soil GHG fluxes measured with both systems are reliable.

  10. In-house fabrication and testing capabilities for Li and Li-ion 18650 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasubramanian, G.

    2010-04-01

    For over 10 years Sandia Labs have been involved in an US DOE-funded program aimed at developing electric vehicle batteries for transportation applications. Currently this program is called "Advanced Battery Research (ABR)." In this effort we were preparing 18650 cells with electrodes supplied by or purchased from private companies for thermal abuse and electrical characterization studies. Lately, we are coating our own electrodes, building cells and evaluating performance. This paper describes our extensive in-house facilities for slurry making, electrode coating, cell winding etc. In addition, facilities for electrical testing and thermal abuse will be described. This facility allows us to readjust our focus quickly to the changing demands of the still evolving ABR program. Additionally, we continue to make cells for our internal use. We made several 18650 cells both primary (Li-CFx) and secondary (Li-ion) and evaluated performance. For example Li-CFx cells gave ~2.9Ahr capacity at room temperature. Our high voltage Li-ion cells consisting of carbon anode and cathode based on LiNi 0.4Mn 0.3Co 0.3O2 in organic electrolytes exhibited reproducible behavior and gave capacity on the order of 1Ahr. Performance of Li-ion cells at different temperatures and thermal abuse characteristics will be presented.

  11. Quantum chemical treatment of Li/Li+ doped defected carbon nanocapsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peköz, Rengin; Erkoç, Şakir

    2008-06-01

    Structural and electronic properties of nLi and nLi+ ( n=1-3) doped mono-vacancy defected carbon nanocapsule (CNC) systems have been investigated theoretically by performing semi-empirical self-consistent-field (SCF) molecular orbital (MO) and density functional theory (DFT) methods. Semi-empirical SCF MO method at PM3 level has been considered to optimize fully the geometry of the CNCs in their ground states. The total energies of these structures were calculated using B3LYP exchange-correlation functional in DFT method with 6-31G basis set. The studied systems include nLi/nLi+ doped (5,5) and (9,0) single-walled CNCs with mono-atom vacancies. The molecular properties, energies, some selected MO eigenvalues and dipole moments of the studied capsules have been reported. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to study the structural properties and energetics of nLi/nLi+ doped mono-vacancy defected CNCs.

  12. Epitaxial thin film growth of LiH using a liquid-Li atomic template

    SciTech Connect

    Oguchi, Hiroyuki; Ikeshoji, Tamio; Orimo, Shin-ichi; Ohsawa, Takeo; Shiraki, Susumu; Hitosugi, Taro; Kuwano, Hiroki

    2014-11-24

    We report on the synthesis of lithium hydride (LiH) epitaxial thin films through the hydrogenation of a Li melt, forming abrupt LiH/MgO interface. Experimental and first-principles molecular dynamics studies reveal a comprehensive microscopic picture of the crystallization processes, which sheds light on the fundamental atomistic growth processes that have remained unknown in the vapor-liquid-solid method. We found that the periodic structure that formed, because of the liquid-Li atoms at the film/MgO-substrate interface, serves as an atomic template for the epitaxial growth of LiH crystals. In contrast, films grown on the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates indicated polycrystalline films with a LiAlO{sub 2} secondary phase. These results and the proposed growth process provide insights into the preparation of other alkaline metal hydride thin films on oxides. Further, our investigations open the way to explore fundamental physics and chemistry of metal hydrides including possible phenomena that emerge at the heterointerfaces of metal hydrides.

  13. Correlation of anisotropy and directional conduction in β-Li3PS4 fast Li+ conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan; Cai, Lu; Liu, Zengcai; dela Cruz, Clarina R.; Liang, Chengdu; An, Ke

    2015-07-01

    This letter reports the correlation of anisotropy and directional conduction in the fast Li+ conductor β-Li3PS4, one of the low-symmetry crystalline electrolyte candidates. The material has both high conductivity and good stability that serves well for the large-scale energy storage applications of all-solid-state lithium ion batteries. The anisotropic physical properties, demonstrated here by the thermal expansion coefficients, are crucial for compatibility in the solid-state system and battery performance. Neutron and X-ray powder diffraction measurements were done to determine the crystal structure and thermal stability. The crystallographic b-axis was revealed as a fast expansion direction, while negligible thermal expansion was observed along the a-axis around the battery operating temperatures. The anisotropic behavior has its structural origin from the Li+ conduction channels with incomplete Li occupancy and a flexible connection of LiS4 and PS4 tetrahedra within the framework. This indicates a strong correlation in the direction of the ionic transport in the low-symmetry Li+ conductor.

  14. Correlation of anisotropy and directional conduction in β-Li3PS4 fast Li+ conductor

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chen, Yan; Cai, Lu; Liu, Zengcai; dela Cruz, Clarina R.; Liang, Chengdu; An, Ke

    2015-07-06

    Our letter reports the correlation of anisotropy and directional conduction in the fast Li+ conductor β-Li3PS4, one of the low-symmetry crystalline electrolyte candidates. The material has both high conductivity and good stability that serves well for the large-scale energy storage applications of all-solid-state lithium ion batteries. The anisotropic physical properties, demonstrated here by the thermal expansion coefficients, are crucial for compatibility in the solid-state system and battery performance. Neutron and X-ray powder diffraction measurements were done to determine the crystal structure and thermal stability. Moreover, the crystallographic b-axis was revealed as a fast expansion direction, while negligible thermal expansion wasmore » observed along the a-axis around the battery operating temperatures. The anisotropic behavior has its structural origin from the Li+ conduction channels with incomplete Li occupancy and a flexible connection of LiS4 and PS4 tetrahedra within the framework. This indicates a strong correlation in the direction of the ionic transport in the low-symmetry Li+ conductor.« less

  15. Thermal Stability of Li-Ion Cells

    SciTech Connect

    ROTH,EMANUEL P.

    1999-09-17

    The thermal stability of Li-ion cells with intercalating carbon anodes and metal oxide cathodes was measured as a function of state of charge and temperature for two advanced cell chemistries. Cells of the 18650 design with Li{sub x}CoO{sub 2} cathodes (commercial SONY cells) and Li{sub x}Ni{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} cathodes were measured for thermal reactivity in the open circuit cell condition. Accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) was used to measure cell thermal runaway as a function of state of charge (SOC). Microcalorimetry was used to measure the time dependence of heat generating side reactions also as a function of SOC. Components of cells were measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to study the thermal reactivity of the individual electrodes to determine the temperature regimes and conditions of the major thermal reactions. Thermal decomposition of the SEI layer at the anodes was identified as the initiating source for thermal runaway. The cells with Li{sub x}CoO{sub 2} cathodes showed greater sensitivity to SOC and higher accelerating heating rates than seen for the cells with Li{sub x}Ni{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2}cathodes. Lower temperature reactions starting as low as 40 C were also observed that were SOC dependent but not accelerating. These reactions were also measured in the microcalorimeter and observed to decay over time with a power-law dependence and are believed to result in irreversible capacity loss in the cells.

  16. Making Li-air batteries rechargeable: material challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yuyan; Ding, Fei; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Wu; Park, Seh Kyu; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun

    2013-02-25

    A Li-air battery could potentially provide three to five times higher energy density/specific energy than conventional batteries, thus enable the driving range of an electric vehicle comparable to a gasoline vehicle. However, making Li-air batteries rechargeable presents significant challenges, mostly related with materials. Herein, we discuss the key factors that influence the rechargeability of Li-air batteries with a focus on nonaqueous system. The status and materials challenges for nonaqueous rechargeable Li-air batteries are reviewed. These include electrolytes, cathode (electocatalysts), lithium metal anodes, and oxygen-selective membranes (oxygen supply from air). The perspective of rechargeable Li-air batteries is provided.

  17. An Ultra-high-Resolution Survey of the Interstellar 7Li/6Li Isotope Ratio in the Solar Neighborhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knauth, David C.; Federman, S. R.; Lambert, David L.

    2003-03-01

    In an effort to probe the extent of variations in the interstellar 7Li/6Li ratio seen previously, ultra-high-resolution (R~360,000), high signal-to-noise spectra of stars in the Perseus OB2 and Scorpius OB2 associations were obtained. These measurements confirm our earlier findings of an interstellar 7Li/6Li ratio of about 2 toward ο Per, the value predicted from models of Galactic cosmic-ray spallation reactions. Observations of other nearby stars yield limits consistent with the isotopic ratio of ~12 seen in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. If this ratio originally represented the gas toward ο Per, then to decrease the original isotope ratio to its current value an order of magnitude increase in the Li abundance is expected, but it is not seen. The elemental K/Li ratio is not unusual, although Li and K are formed via different nucleosynthetic pathways. Several proposals to account for the low 7Li/6Li ratio were considered, but none seems satisfactory. Analysis of the Li and K abundances from our survey highlighted two sight lines where depletion effects are prevalent. There is evidence for enhanced depletion toward X Per, since both abundances are lower by a factor of 4 when compared to other sight lines. Moreover, a smaller Li/H abundance is observed toward 20 Aql, but the K/H abundance is normal, suggesting enhanced Li depletion (relative to K) in this direction. Our results suggest that the 7Li/6Li ratio has not changed significantly during the last 4.5 billion years and that a ratio of ~12 represents most gas in the solar neighborhood. In addition, there appears to be a constant stellar contribution of 7Li, indicating that one or two processes dominate its production in the Galaxy.

  18. Amorphous Li2 O2 : Chemical Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yelong; Cui, Qinghua; Zhang, Xinmin; McKee, William C; Xu, Ye; Ling, Shigang; Li, Hong; Zhong, Guiming; Yang, Yong; Peng, Zhangquan

    2016-08-26

    When aprotic Li-O2 batteries discharge, the product phase formed in the cathode often contains two different morphologies, that is, crystalline and amorphous Li2 O2 . The morphology of Li2 O2 impacts strongly on the electrochemical performance of Li-O2 cells in terms of energy efficiency and rate capability. Crystalline Li2 O2 is readily available and its properties have been studied in depth for Li-O2 batteries. However, little is known about the amorphous Li2 O2 because of its rarity in high purity. Herein, amorphous Li2 O2 has been synthesized by a rapid reaction of tetramethylammonium superoxide and LiClO4 in solution, and its amorphous nature has been confirmed by a range of techniques. Compared with its crystalline siblings, amorphous Li2 O2 demonstrates enhanced charge-transport properties and increased electro-oxidation kinetics, manifesting itself a desirable discharge phase for high-performance Li-O2 batteries. PMID:27486085

  19. Concentration dependence of Li+/Na+ diffusion in manganese hexacyanoferrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takachi, Masamitsu; Fukuzumi, Yuya; Moritomo, Yutaka

    2016-06-01

    Manganese hexacyanoferrates (Mn-HCFs) with a jungle-gym-type structure are promising cathode materials for Li+/Na+ secondary batteries (LIBs/SIBs). Here, we investigated the diffusion constants D Li/D Na of Li+/Na+ against the Li+/Na+ concentration x Na/x Li and temperature (T) of A 1.32Mn[Fe(CN)6]0.833.6H2O (A = Li and Na). We evaluated the activation energy E\\text{a}\\text{Li}/E\\text{a}\\text{Na} of D Li/D Na against x Na/x Li. We found that E\\text{a}\\text{Na} steeply increases with x Na from 0.41 eV at x Na = 0.69 to 0.7 eV at 1.1. The increase in E\\text{a}\\text{Na} is ascribed to the occupancy effect of the Na+ site. The increase in E\\text{a}\\text{Li} is suppressed, probably because the number of Li+ sites is three times that of Na+ sites.

  20. Thermodynamics and kinetics of defects in Li2S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradabadi, Ashkan; Kaghazchi, Payam

    2016-05-01

    Li2S is the final product of lithiation of sulfur cathodes in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. In this work, we study formation and diffusion of defects in Li2S. It is found that for a wide range of voltages (referenced to metal Li) between 0.17 V and 2.01 V, positively charged interstitial Li (Li+) is the most favorable defect type with a fixed formation energy of 1.02 eV. The formation energy of negatively charged Li vacancy ( VL i - ) is also constant, and it is only 0.13 eV higher than that of Li+. For a narrow range of voltages between 0.00 V and 0.17 V, the formation energy of neutral S vacancy is the lowest and it decreases with decreasing the cell voltage. The energy barrier for Li+ diffusion (0.45 eV), which takes place via an exchange mechanism, is 0.18 eV higher than that for VL i - (0.27 eV), which takes place via a single vacancy hopping. Considering formation energies and diffusion barriers, we find that ionic conductivity in Li2S is due to both Li+ and VL i - , but the latter mechanism being slightly more favorable.