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Sample records for anttila jyri hmlinen

  1. Collisional evolution of rotating, non-identical particles. [in Saturn rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salo, H.

    1987-01-01

    Hameen-Anttila's (1984) theory of self-gravitating collisional particle disks is extended to include the effects of particle spin. Equations are derived for the coupled evolution of random velocities and spins, showing that friction and surface irregularity both reduce the local velocity dispersion and transfer significant amounts of random kinetic energy to rotational energy. Results for the equilibrium ratio of rotational energy to random kinetic energy are exact not only for identical nongravitating mass points, but also if finite size, self-gravitating forces, or size distribution are included. The model is applied to the dynamics of Saturn's rings, showing that the inclusion of rotation reduces the geometrical thickness of the layer of cm-sized particles to, at most, about one-half, with large particles being less affected.

  2. An ultrastructural and histochemical study of the flexor tibialis muscle fiber types in male and female stick insects (Eurycantha calcarata, L).

    PubMed

    Pilehvarian, Ali Asghar

    2015-10-01

    In this study the ultrastructural and histochemical characteristics of the flexor tibialis muscle fibers of the specialized metathoracic legs in the male and those of homologous and unspecialized ones in the female stick insects, Eurycantha calcarata, L, were examined. For the ultrastructural analysis, the muscle was divided longitudinally and vertically to produce a total of 12 sample parts e.g., anterior-dorsal-distal (ADD), posterior-ventral-medial (PVM) and so on. Light and electron microscopes were used to observe the muscle tissue. The methods for myosin adenosine triphosphatase (mATPase) and nicotine adenine dinucleotide- tetrazolium (NADH-TR) staining were modified from the methods of (Stokes et al., '79; Anttila et al., 2009; Anttila and Manttari, 2009). Sections with thickness of 22 μm, were cut from the anterior and the posterior surfaces of the muscle, using a cryostat. The histochemical and ultrastructural results showed that the muscles of both the male and the female were mixtures of physiological fiber types, with predominantly fast fibers. The muscles were composed of fibers with different staining properties for both mATPase and NADH-TR activities. The population of fibers within the muscles was heterogeneous. The differences between the population of the male and that of the female were significant. The means of most criteria e.g., mitochondrial amount and sarcoplasmic reticulum area predicted that the muscle of the male contained more fast fibers than the female. The histochemical examination also showed that the muscle of the male contained more fibers stained darkly for mATPase and lightly for NADH-TR. PMID:26173440

  3. The GIS Database of floods in Northern Portugal, between 1865 and 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Monica; Bateira, Carlos; Hermenegildo, Carlos; Matos, Fátima

    2014-05-01

    Natural hazards, such as floods, cause considerable damage to the human life, material and functional damages every year. Thus, we created a GIS (Geographic Information System) database of floods recorded in the Northern Region of Portugal between 1865 and 2011. The research focused on the study of occurrences in newspapers of national and regional reference that caused some kind of damage. The results show that of the total of 1867 records in 147 years in analysis, 27% of occurrences have resulted in direct consequences on the population, i.e., killed, injured, missing, displaced or evacuated. These occurrences, 65% correspond to river flooding, 16% to flash floods and 18% to urban flooding. In period of analyses, there were 201 killed, 58 injured, 34 missing, 1813 evacuated, and 15924 displaced. By the natural breaks method of classification of data, we can divide the data series into 3 classes: until 1930, 1931-1971 and 1972-2011. Until 1930, the average number of occurrences per year is 5. Thereafter, until 1971, there was a significant increase for 24 occurrences per year. In the period 1972-2011, the average number of occurrences is 13.5 per year. The entire series, we highlight the years 1909, 1939, 1955 and 2001 with over 80 occurrences / year. We applied the Mann-Kendall (Kendall, 1976; Salmi, Määttä, Anttila, Ruoho-Airola, & Amnell, 2002) non-parametric test to detect long term trends in the occurrences. In order to estimate the magnitude of the trends, we used the algorithm that corresponds to an extension of the original test put forward by Theil (1950) and Sen (1968)(Sen, 1968). The results suggest a small upward trend, statistically significant, between 1865 and 2011, an increase of 0,066 occurrences per year. However, this general trend presents significant oscillations, when analysed over shorter periods of time. In terms of geographical distribution, the urban centres and the areas along major rivers concentrate most of the occurrences. The

  4. New particle formation events as a source for cloud condensation nuclei in an urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wonaschütz, Anna; Burkart, Julia; Wagner, Robert; Reischl, Georg; Steiner, Gerhard; Hitzenberger, Regina

    2014-05-01

    composition of particles < 100 nm, Atmos. Environ., 54, 583-591, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.01.063, 2012. Kerminen V.-M., Paramonov, M., Anttila, T., Riipinen, I., Fountoukis, C., Korhonen, H., Asmi, E., Laakso, L., Lihavainen, H., Swietlicki, E., Svenningsson, B., Asmi, A., Pandis, S. N., Kulmala, M., and Petäjä, T.: Cloud condensation nuclei production associated with atmospheric nucleation: a synthesis based on existing literature and new results, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 12037-12059, doi: 10.5194/acp-12-12037-2012, 2012. Levin, E. J. T., Prenni, A. J., Petters, M. D., Kreidenweis, S. M., Sullivan, R. C., Atwood, S. A., Ortega, J., DeMott, P. J., and Smith, J. N.: An annual cycle of size-resolved aerosol hygroscopicity at a forested site in Colorado, J. Geophys. Res., 117, 06201, doi:10.1029/2011JD016854, 2012. Matsui, H., Koike, M., Kondo, Y., Takegawa, N., Wiedensohler, A., Fast, J. D., and Zaveri, R. A.: Impact of new particle formation on the concentrations of aerosols and cloud condensation nuclei around Beijing, J. Geophys. Res., 116, 19208, doi:10.1029/2011JD016025, 2011.

  5. Ozonolysis of a series of biogenic organic volatile compounds and secondary organic aerosol formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, François; Quilgars, Alain; Cazaunau, Mathieu; Grosselin, Benoît.; Daele, Véronique; Mellouki, Abdelwahid; Winterhalter, Richard; Moortgat, Geert K.

    2010-05-01

    obtained will be compared with those from the literature when available and discussed in terms of their atmospheric impact. Berndt, T., O. Böge and F. Stratmann (2003). Gas-phase ozonolysis of a-pinene: gaseous products and particle formation. Atmospheric Environment, 37: 3933-3945. Bonn, B. and G.K. Moortgat (2003). Sesquiterpene ozonolysis: Origin of atmospheric new particle formation from biogenic hydrocarbons. Journal of Geophysical Research, 30(11). Kavouras, I. and E.G. Stephanou (2002). Direct evidence of atmospheric secondary organic aerosol formation in forest atmosphere through heteromolecular nucleation. Environmental Science and Technology, 36: 5083-5091. Koch, S., R. Winterhalter, E. Uherek, A. Kolloff, P. Neeb and G.K. Moortagt (2000). Formation of new particles in the gas-phase ozonolysis of monoterpenes. Atmospheric Environment, 34: 4031-4042. Kulmala, M., V.-M. Kerminen, T. Anttila, A. Laaksonen and C.D. O'Dowd (2004b). Organic aerosol formation via sulphate cluster activation. Journal of Geophysical Research, 109(D04205): 1-7. Kulmala, M., H. Vehkamäki, T. Petäjä, M. Dal Maso, A. Lauri, V.-M. Kerminen, W. Birmili and P.H. McMurry (2004a). Formation and growth rates of ultra-fine atmospheric particles: a review of observations. Journal of Aerosol Science, 35: 143-176. Lee, S. and R.M. Kamens (2005). Particle nucleation from the reaction of a-pinene and O3. Atmospheric Environment, 39: 6822-6832.

  6. Reactor Dosimetry State of the Art 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voorbraak, Wim; Debarberis, Luigi; D'Hondt, Pierre; Wagemans, Jan

    2009-08-01

    Oral session 1: Retrospective dosimetry. Retrospective dosimetry of VVER 440 reactor pressure vessel at the 3rd unit of Dukovany NPP / M. Marek ... [et al.]. Retrospective dosimetry study at the RPV of NPP Greifswald unit 1 / J. Konheiser ... [et al.]. Test of prototype detector for retrospective neutron dosimetry of reactor internals and vessel / K. Hayashi ... [et al.]. Neutron doses to the concrete vessel and tendons of a magnox reactor using retrospective dosimetry / D. A. Allen ... [et al.]. A retrospective dosimetry feasibility study for Atucha I / J. Wagemans ... [et al.]. Retrospective reactor dosimetry with zirconium alloy samples in a PWR / L. R. Greenwood and J. P. Foster -- Oral session 2: Experimental techniques. Characterizing the Time-dependent components of reactor n/y environments / P. J. Griffin, S. M. Luker and A. J. Suo-Anttila. Measurements of the recoil-ion response of silicon carbide detectors to fast neutrons / F. H. Ruddy, J. G. Seidel and F. Franceschini. Measurement of the neutron spectrum of the HB-4 cold source at the high flux isotope reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory / J. L. Robertson and E. B. Iverson. Feasibility of cavity ring-down laser spectroscopy for dose rate monitoring on nuclear reactor / H. Tomita ... [et al.]. Measuring transistor damage factors in a non-stable defect environment / D. B. King ... [et al.]. Neutron-detection based monitoring of void effects in boiling water reactors / J. Loberg ... [et al.] -- Poster session 1: Power reactor surveillance, retrospective dosimetry, benchmarks and inter-comparisons, adjustment methods, experimental techniques, transport calculations. Improved diagnostics for analysis of a reactor pulse radiation environment / S. M. Luker ... [et al.]. Simulation of the response of silicon carbide fast neutron detectors / F. Franceschini, F. H. Ruddy and B. Petrović. NSV A-3: a computer code for least-squares adjustment of neutron spectra and measured dosimeter responses / J. G

  7. Reactor Dosimetry State of the Art 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voorbraak, Wim; Debarberis, Luigi; D'Hondt, Pierre; Wagemans, Jan

    2009-08-01

    Oral session 1: Retrospective dosimetry. Retrospective dosimetry of VVER 440 reactor pressure vessel at the 3rd unit of Dukovany NPP / M. Marek ... [et al.]. Retrospective dosimetry study at the RPV of NPP Greifswald unit 1 / J. Konheiser ... [et al.]. Test of prototype detector for retrospective neutron dosimetry of reactor internals and vessel / K. Hayashi ... [et al.]. Neutron doses to the concrete vessel and tendons of a magnox reactor using retrospective dosimetry / D. A. Allen ... [et al.]. A retrospective dosimetry feasibility study for Atucha I / J. Wagemans ... [et al.]. Retrospective reactor dosimetry with zirconium alloy samples in a PWR / L. R. Greenwood and J. P. Foster -- Oral session 2: Experimental techniques. Characterizing the Time-dependent components of reactor n/y environments / P. J. Griffin, S. M. Luker and A. J. Suo-Anttila. Measurements of the recoil-ion response of silicon carbide detectors to fast neutrons / F. H. Ruddy, J. G. Seidel and F. Franceschini. Measurement of the neutron spectrum of the HB-4 cold source at the high flux isotope reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory / J. L. Robertson and E. B. Iverson. Feasibility of cavity ring-down laser spectroscopy for dose rate monitoring on nuclear reactor / H. Tomita ... [et al.]. Measuring transistor damage factors in a non-stable defect environment / D. B. King ... [et al.]. Neutron-detection based monitoring of void effects in boiling water reactors / J. Loberg ... [et al.] -- Poster session 1: Power reactor surveillance, retrospective dosimetry, benchmarks and inter-comparisons, adjustment methods, experimental techniques, transport calculations. Improved diagnostics for analysis of a reactor pulse radiation environment / S. M. Luker ... [et al.]. Simulation of the response of silicon carbide fast neutron detectors / F. Franceschini, F. H. Ruddy and B. Petrović. NSV A-3: a computer code for least-squares adjustment of neutron spectra and measured dosimeter responses / J. G