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Sample records for anvendt ved retsmedicinske

  1. Life and consciousness - The Vedāntic view.

    PubMed

    Shanta, Bhakti Niskama

    2015-01-01

    In the past, philosophers, scientists, and even the general opinion, had no problem in accepting the existence of consciousness in the same way as the existence of the physical world. After the advent of Newtonian mechanics, science embraced a complete materialistic conception about reality. Scientists started proposing hypotheses like abiogenesis (origin of first life from accumulation of atoms and molecules) and the Big Bang theory (the explosion theory for explaining the origin of universe). How the universe came to be what it is now is a key philosophical question. The hypothesis that it came from Nothing (as proposed by Stephen Hawking, among others), proves to be dissembling, since the quantum vacuum can hardly be considered a void. In modern science, it is generally assumed that matter existed before the universe came to be. Modern science hypothesizes that the manifestation of life on Earth is nothing but a mere increment in the complexity of matter - and hence is an outcome of evolution of matter (chemical evolution) following the Big Bang. After the manifestation of life, modern science believed that chemical evolution transformed itself into biological evolution, which then had caused the entire biodiversity on our planet. The ontological view of the organism as a complex machine presumes life as just a chance occurrence, without any inner purpose. This approach in science leaves no room for the subjective aspect of consciousness in its attempt to know the world as the relationships among forces, atoms, and molecules. On the other hand, the Vedāntic view states that the origin of everything material and nonmaterial is sentient and absolute (unconditioned). Thus, sentient life is primitive and reproductive of itself - omne vivum ex vivo - life comes from life. This is the scientifically verified law of experience. Life is essentially cognitive and conscious. And, consciousness, which is fundamental, manifests itself in the gradational forms of all

  2. Life and consciousness – The Vedāntic view

    PubMed Central

    Shanta, Bhakti Niskama

    2015-01-01

    In the past, philosophers, scientists, and even the general opinion, had no problem in accepting the existence of consciousness in the same way as the existence of the physical world. After the advent of Newtonian mechanics, science embraced a complete materialistic conception about reality. Scientists started proposing hypotheses like abiogenesis (origin of first life from accumulation of atoms and molecules) and the Big Bang theory (the explosion theory for explaining the origin of universe). How the universe came to be what it is now is a key philosophical question. The hypothesis that it came from Nothing (as proposed by Stephen Hawking, among others), proves to be dissembling, since the quantum vacuum can hardly be considered a void. In modern science, it is generally assumed that matter existed before the universe came to be. Modern science hypothesizes that the manifestation of life on Earth is nothing but a mere increment in the complexity of matter — and hence is an outcome of evolution of matter (chemical evolution) following the Big Bang. After the manifestation of life, modern science believed that chemical evolution transformed itself into biological evolution, which then had caused the entire biodiversity on our planet. The ontological view of the organism as a complex machine presumes life as just a chance occurrence, without any inner purpose. This approach in science leaves no room for the subjective aspect of consciousness in its attempt to know the world as the relationships among forces, atoms, and molecules. On the other hand, the Vedāntic view states that the origin of everything material and nonmaterial is sentient and absolute (unconditioned). Thus, sentient life is primitive and reproductive of itself – omne vivum ex vivo – life comes from life. This is the scientifically verified law of experience. Life is essentially cognitive and conscious. And, consciousness, which is fundamental, manifests itself in the gradational forms of all

  3. A Content Analysis of the VEDS Data Collection and Reporting Procedures Used by the 57 State Boards for Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Rocco P.

    Congress, using Public Law 94-482 entitled Education Amendments of 1976, instructed the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) to develop, implement, and operate the Vocational Education Data System (VEDS). As mandated by legislation, the primary purpose of VEDS is to provide a national reporting system to generate uniform data from the…

  4. ABC and VED Analysis of the Pharmacy Store of a Tertiary Care Teaching, Research and Referral Healthcare Institute of India.

    PubMed

    Devnani, M; Gupta, Ak; Nigah, R

    2010-04-01

    The ABC and VED (vital, essential, desirable) analysis of the pharmacy store of Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India, was conducted to identify the categories of items needing stringent management control. The annual consumption and expenditure incurred on each item of pharmacy for the year 2007-08 was analyzed and inventory control techniques, i.e. ABC, VED and ABC-VED matrix analysis, were applied. The drug formulary of the pharmacy consisted of 421 items. The total annual drug expenditure (ADE) on items issued in 2007-08 was Rs. 40,012,612. ABC analysis revealed 13.78%, 21.85% and 64.37% items as A, B and C category items, respectively, accounting for 69.97%, 19.95% and 10.08% of ADE of the pharmacy. VED analysis showed 12.11%, 59.38% and 28.51% items as V, E, and D category items, respectively, accounting for 17.14%, 72.38% and 10.48% of ADE of the pharmacy. On ABC-VED matrix analysis, 22.09%, 54.63% and 23.28% items were found to be category I, II and III items, respectively, accounting for 74.21%, 22.23% and 3.56% of ADE of the pharmacy. The ABC and VED techniques need to be adopted as a routine practice for optimal use of resources and elimination of out-of-stock situations in the hospital pharmacy. PMID:21264126

  5. Performance of viscoelastic dampers (VED) under various temperatures and application of magnetorheological dampers (MRD) for seismic control of structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, Abdul Qadir

    2013-08-01

    A number of studies have been carried out to investigate the performance of viscoelastic dampers (VEDs) and magnetorheological dampers (MRDs) in controlling the seismic response of buildings, but very few of them regarding the effect of temperature on the behavior of those dampers. The energy absorption properties of the VEDs are dependent on the ambient temperature, excitation frequency and strain amplitude. Several mathematical models have been investigated for reproducing the experimental behavior of single degree of freedom VEDs and MEDs. Of these, only the fractional derivative model can reflect the influence of temperature which is, however, so complex that it is difficult to apply in structural analysis. In order to verify the effect of temperature, two case studies of structural element have been conducted: once using VED and once using MRD. Kelvin-Voigt mathematical model applied, they were investigated and after analyzing the results, the force vs. displacement showed that MRD achieved a high force capacity and a better performance than VED. Furthermore, the effect of the temperature in case of VED observed via plotting the dissipated energy hysteresis at different temperatures. These results validate the effect of the temperature as the lower the temperature the more viscous the dashpot element becomes, hence improving damping, but this is up to a specific low temperature.

  6. Vedāntic view of life: Reply to Gustavo Caetano-Anollés

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The author would like to thank Professor Gustavo Caetano-Anollés from Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois for his interest in his work. We may sometimes observe that there is a noticeable difference between the anecdote people narrate about the implications of a scientific paper and the real conclusion of the paper. Prof. Gustavo Caetano-Anollés's response1 is an ideal example of the same, where he has tried to make great hay about the implications of the article “Life and consciousness – The Vedāntic view.”2 The Vedāntic view subscribes neither to the views of ‘Creationist Movement’/‘Intelligent Design’, nor it supports some splendid anti-science proposal. Vedāntic view refutes the dominant reductionistic view of life in modern biology by proposing a viable alternative concept of ‘Organic Whole’ and thus serves a scientific critique to the nescience (avidyā) that is practiced on the name of science. PMID:27195069

  7. Vedāntic view of life: Reply to Gustavo Caetano-Anollés.

    PubMed

    Shanta, Bhakti Niskama

    2016-01-01

    The author would like to thank Professor Gustavo Caetano-Anollés from Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois for his interest in his work. We may sometimes observe that there is a noticeable difference between the anecdote people narrate about the implications of a scientific paper and the real conclusion of the paper. Prof. Gustavo Caetano-Anollés's response(1) is an ideal example of the same, where he has tried to make great hay about the implications of the article "Life and consciousness - The Vedāntic view."(2) The Vedāntic view subscribes neither to the views of 'Creationist Movement'/'Intelligent Design', nor it supports some splendid anti-science proposal. Vedāntic view refutes the dominant reductionistic view of life in modern biology by proposing a viable alternative concept of 'Organic Whole' and thus serves a scientific critique to the nescience (avidyā) that is practiced on the name of science. PMID:27195069

  8. Terahertz-Regime, Micro-VEDs: Evaluation of Micromachined TWT Conceptual Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booske, John H.; Kory, Carol L.; Gallagher, D.; van der Weide, Daniel W.; Limbach, S; Gustafson, P; Lee, W.-J.; Gallagher, S.; Jain, K.

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given. The Terahertz (THz) region of the electromagnetic spectrum (approx.300-3000 GHz) has enormous potential for high-data-rate communications, spectroscopy, astronomy, space research, medicine, biology, surveillance, remote sensing, industrial process control, etc. The most critical roadblock to full exploitation of the THz band is lack of coherent radiation sources that are powerful (0.01-10.0 W continuous wave), efficient (>1 %), frequency agile (instantaneously tunable over 1% bandwidths or more), reliable, and relatively inexpensive. Micro-machined Vacuum Electron Devices (micro-VEDs) represent a promising solution. We describe prospects for miniature, THz-regime TWTs fabricated using micromachining techniques. Several approx.600 GHz conceptual designs are compared. Their expected performance has been analyzed using SD, 2.51), and 3D TWT codes. A folded waveguide (FWG) TWT forward-wave amplifier design is presented based on a Northrop Grumman (NGC) optimized design procedure. This conceptual device is compared to the simulated performance of a novel, micro-VED helix TWT. Conceptual FWG TWT backward-wave amplifiers and oscillators are also discussed. A scaled (100 GHz) FWG TWT operating at a relatively low voltage (-12 kV) is under development at NGC. Also, actual-size micromachining experiments are planned to evaluate the feasibility of arrays of micro-VED TWTs. Progress and results of these efforts are described. This work was supported, in part by AFOSR, ONR, and NSF.

  9. Feasibility Study of Impact of the Proposed National Vocational Education Data Reporting and Accounting System (VEDS) Forms on Reporting Systems for Secondary Vocational Education in Wisconsin. Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poehlmann, M. M.

    A study was conducted to determine the feasibility of implementing a reporting system, the National Vocational Education Reporting and Accounting System (VEDS), for secondary vocational education in Wisconsin. As proposed by the National Center for Educational Statistics, the VEDS system is a comprehensive information collection package to provide…

  10. Consciousness, cognition and the cognitive apparatus in the vedānta tradition.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, R

    2011-01-01

    A human being is a complex entity consisting of the Self (also known as Consciousness), mind, senses and the body. The Vedānta tradition holds that the mind, the senses and the body are essentially different from the Self or Consciousness. It is through consciousness that we are able to know the things of the world, making use of the medium of the mind and the senses. Furthermore, the mind, though material, is able to reveal things, borrowing the light from consciousness. From the phenomenological point of view, we have to answer the following questions: how does one know the mind/the mental operations/the cogitations of the mind? Does the mind know itself? Is it possible? There is, again, the problem of the intentionality of consciousness. Is consciousness intentional? According to Vedānta, consciousness by its very nature is not intentional, but it becomes intentional through the mind. The mind or the ego is not part of the consciousness; on the contrary, it is transcendent to consciousness. It is difficult to spell out the relation between consciousness and the mind. How does consciousness, which is totally different from the mind, get related to the mind in such a way that it makes the latter capable of comprehending the things of the world? The Vedānta tradition provides the answer to this question in terms of the knower-known relation. Consciousness is pure light, self-luminous by its very nature, that is, although it reveals other objects, it is not revealed by anything else. When Sartre describes it as nothingness, bereft of even ego, it is to show that it is pure light revealing objects outside it. PMID:21694962

  11. Consciousness, Cognition and the Cognitive Apparatus in the Vedānta Tradition

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, R.

    2011-01-01

    A human being is a complex entity consisting of the Self (also known as Consciousness), mind, senses and the body. The Vedānta tradition holds that the mind, the senses and the body are essentially different from the Self or Consciousness. It is through consciousness that we are able to know the things of the world, making use of the medium of the mind and the senses. Furthermore, the mind, though material, is able to reveal things, borrowing the light from consciousness. From the phenomenological point of view, we have to answer the following questions: how does one know the mind/the mental operations/the cogitations of the mind? Does the mind know itself? Is it possible? There is, again, the problem of the intentionality of consciousness. Is consciousness intentional? According to Vedānta, consciousness by its very nature is not intentional, but it becomes intentional through the mind. The mind or the ego is not part of the consciousness; on the contrary, it is transcendent to consciousness. It is difficult to spell out the relation between consciousness and the mind. How does consciousness, which is totally different from the mind, get related to the mind in such a way that it makes the latter capable of comprehending the things of the world? The Vedānta tradition provides the answer to this question in terms of the knower-known relation. Consciousness is pure light, self-luminous by its very nature, that is, although it reveals other objects, it is not revealed by anything else. When Sartre describes it as nothingness, bereft of even ego, it is to show that it is pure light revealing objects outside it. PMID:21694962

  12. A Comparison of Community College Responders and Non-Responders to the VEDS Student Follow-Up Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carifio, James; And Others

    In September 1984, a Vocational Education Data System (VEDS) follow-up survey was conducted of all 5,267 students who had graduated from Massachusetts public community colleges in 1982-83. Of these graduates, 1,881 (35.7%) returned the survey, and 3,386 (64.3%) did not. A subsequent study was conducted to compare the characteristics of survey…

  13. Grasping at ontological straws: overcoming reductionism in the Advaita Vedānta-Neuroscience dialogue.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary neuropsychology reveals that the parietal lobe contains neurons that are specifically attuned to the act of grasping and this act may be fundamental to the establishment of the phenomenal boundaries between subject and object. Furthermore, alterations to this process, such as the hypoactivation of this region during meditation or the hyperactivation associated with schizophrenia, may eliminate or confuse, respectively, the phenomenal boundaries between subject and object. Traversing disciplines, the Advaita Vedānta school of Hinduism traces some of its key terms for subject and object to the verbal root grah, to grasp. The subject is literally the grasper. Furthermore, the practice of asparśa yoga, the yoga of no-touch, is aimed at stopping, hypoactivating, the grasping process in order to transcend all subject-object boundaries. This paper will argue that while we have not uncovered an identity of thought, we have uncovered a confluence of ideas between these two disciplines. We will see that this confluence of ideas has not pitted the believer against the critic-not forced us into the great reductionism debate that has dominated so much of the interchange between religious studies and the sciences. This case study will illuminate some of the methodological ways around this reductionism battle and also the boundaries of both disciplines for the intellectual benefit of each. PMID:20681086

  14. Modelling Aṣṭādhyāyī: An Approach Based on the Methodology of Ancillary Disciplines (Vedāṅga)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Anand

    This article proposes a general model based on the common methodological approach of the ancillary disciplines (Vedāṅga) associated with the Vedas taking examples from Śikṣā, Chandas, Vyākaraṇa and Prātiśā khya texts. It develops and elaborates this model further to represent the contents and processes of Aṣṭādhyāyī. Certain key features are added to my earlier modelling of Pāṇinian system of Sanskrit grammar. This includes broader coverage of the Pāṇinian meta-language, mechanism for automatic application of rules and positioning the grammatical system within the procedural complexes of ancillary disciplines.

  15. Transient response of a vertical electric dipole (VED) on a two-layer medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poh, S. Y.; Kong, J. A.

    The transient electromagnetic radiation by a vertical electric dipole on a two-layer medium is analyzed using the double deformation technique, which is a modal technique based on identification of singularities in the complex frequency and wavenumber planes. Previous application of the double deformation technique to the solution of this problem is incomplete in the early time response. In this paper it is shown that the existence of a pole locus on the negative imaginary frequency axis, which dominates the early time response, proves crucial in obtaining the solution for all times. A variety of combinations of parameters are used to illustrate the double deformation technique, and results will be compared with those obtained via explicit inversion, and a single deformation method.

  16. A Comparison of Community College Responders and Nonresponders to the VEDS Student Follow-Up Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carifio, James; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A survey of respondents and nonrespondents to the Vocational Education Data System's follow-up survey of Massachusetts community college graduates was designed to measure response bias. The survey investigated employment patterns, wages, and degree of job relatedness. Results suggest original data was biased, if at all, toward underestimation, not…

  17. ABC-VED Analysis of a Drug Store in the Department of Community Medicine of a Medical College in Delhi.

    PubMed

    Anand, T; Ingle, G K; Kishore, J; Kumar, R

    2013-01-01

    A matrix based on coupling of cost (always, better and control) analysis and criticality (vital, essential and desirable) analysis was employed for drug inventory containing 129 items of drug store in the Department of Community Medicine of a Medical College in Delhi. The annual drug expenditure incurred on 129 drug items for the year 2010-2011 was found to be Rs. 4,35,847.85. On always, better and control analysis, 18.6, 24.0 and 57.4% drugs were found to be always, better and control category items, respectively, amounting for 69.1, 20.8 and 10.1% of annual drug expenditure. About 13.2 (17), 38.8 (50) and 48.0% (62) items were found to be vital, essential and desirable category items, respectively, amounting for 18.7, 49.5 and 31.8% of annual drug expenditure. Based on always, better and control-vital, essential and desirable matrix analysis there were 37 (28.68%) items in category I, 53 (41.09%) items in category II and 39 (30.23%) items in category III, amounting for 73.0, 22.2 and 4.8% of annual drug expenditure, respectively. To conclude, scientific inventory management tools are needed to be applied in routine for efficient management of the pharmacy stores as it contributes to not only in improvement in patient care but also judicious use of resources as well. PMID:23901172

  18. [Diabetes and alternative medicine: diabetic patients experiences with Ayur-Ved, "clinical ecology" and "cellular nutrition" methods].

    PubMed

    Vanelli, M; Chiari, G; Gugliotta, M; Capuano, C; Giacalone, T; Gruppi, L; Condò, M

    2002-04-01

    In the last two years we discovered that three of our patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (0.8%) suffered an unexpected worsening in their glycemic control due to a reduction of their insulin dosage in favour of some "alternative" diabetes treatments using herbs, vitamins, fantastic diets and trace elements prescribed by non-medical practitioners. The first patient, a 6.6 year old boy, was admitted to hospital because of a severe ketoacidosis with first degree coma as a result of his parents having reduced his insulin dosage by 77% and replacing the insulin with an ayurvedic herbal preparation (Bardana Actium Lapp). The second patient, a 10.4 year old boy, was admitted to hospital after his teachers noticed that he appeared tired, thinner and polyuric. During hospital admission for mild ketoacidosis the mother, reluctant at first, finally confessed that her son was under the care of a "clinical ecologist". Having identified several food allergies this "clinical ecologist" had placed the child on a spartan diet of bread, water and salt, and had reduced his insulin dosage by 68%. The third patient, a 21 year old male, upon transfer to the Adult Diabetic Center, reported that he had been under the care of a pranotherapist for several years. The pranotherapist had prescribed a cellular nutrition preparation (called "Madonna drops"), a meditation program and also a 50% reduction in his insulin dosage. During this period his HbAlc values had increased from 6.4% to 12%. Current orthodox diabetes treatments are considered unsatisfactory by many people and it is thus not surprising that they search for "miracle" cures. It is important, however, that hospital staff do not ridicule the patients or their parents for trying these alternative therapies. Nevertheless, it would be useful for staff to discuss in advance these "therapies" with patients, highlighting their ineffectiveness and strongly discouraging cures that call for a reduction or elimination of the insulin treatment. PMID:11981532

  19. Penile rehabilitation with a vacuum erectile device in an animal model is related to an antihypoxic mechanism: blood gas evidence.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hao-Cheng; Yang, Wen-Li; Zhang, Jun-Lan; Dai, Yu-Tian; Wang, Run

    2013-05-01

    Our previous study showed that vacuum erectile device (VED) therapy has improved erectile function in rats with bilateral cavernous nerve crush (BCNC) injuries. This study was designed to explore the mechanism of VED in penile rehabilitation by analyzing cavernous oxygen saturation (SO2) and to examine the effect of VED therapy on preventing penile shrinkage after BCNC. Thirty adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into three groups: group 1, sham surgery; group 2, BCNC; and group 3, BCNC+VED. Penile length and diameter were measured on a weekly basis. After 4 weeks of therapy, the penile blood was extracted by three methods for blood gas analysis (BGA): method 1, cavernous blood was aspirated at the flaccid state; method 2, cavernous blood was aspirated at the traction state; and method 3, cavernous blood was aspirated immediately after applying VED. SO2 values were tested by the blood gas analyzer. The results showed that VED therapy is effective in preventing penile shrinkage induced by BCNC (Penile shortening: BCNC group 1.9±1.1 mm; VED group 0.3±1.0 mm; P<0.01. Penile diameter reduction: BCNC group 0.28±0.14 mm; VED group 0.04±0.14 mm; P<0.01). The mean SO2±s.d. values were increased by VED application (88.25%±4.94%) compared to the flaccid (76.53%±4.16%) or traction groups (78.93%±2.56%) (P<0.05). The calculated blood constructs in the corpus cavernosum right after VED application were 62% arterial and 38% venous blood. These findings suggest that VED therapy can effectively preserve penile size in rats with BCNC injury. The beneficial effect of VED therapy is related to antihypoxia by increasing cavernous blood SO2. PMID:23564044

  20. Utilizing Federal Reporting Requirements to Generate Useful Data at the Local Level: Creating an Open-Book Data Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carifio, James; Shwedel, Allan

    Various procedures, technologies, and products were developed by the Massachusetts Board of Regents and the Massachusetts Community Colleges in implementing the student followup component of the Vocational Education Data System (VEDS). The Board of Regents took the lead in coordinating the VEDS followup study among the 15 state-supported community…

  1. Structure-permeability relationship analysis of the permeation barrier properties of the stratum corneum and viable epidermis/dermis of rat skin.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Koji; Mitsui, Tetsuya; Aso, Yoshinori; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate structure-permeability relationships for chemicals through stratum corneum (SC) and viable epidermis/dermis (VED). In vitro skin permeation of ten compounds through excised rat skin was analyzed based on a two-layer diffusion model and the diffusion coefficients in SC (D(SC)) and VED (D(VED)) were determined. The relationships between the permeation parameters and the physicochemical parameters (octanol-water partition coefficient (log K(o/w)), and hydrogen bond donor number (HBD)) of the compounds were analyzed. D(SC) increased as lipophilicity increased, whereas D(VED) decreased for log K(o/w) > 2. Increases in log K(o/w) caused a decrease in the permeability coefficient from SC through VED (P(VED/SC)) for log K(o/w) > 1. The simulation study suggests that the in vitro skin permeation of a highly lipophilic compound is strongly controlled by skin thickness due to low diffusivity in VED. The present study suggests that VED act as a considerable permeation barrier for highly lipophilic compounds due to low diffusivity. PMID:18228598

  2. Vacuum therapy in penile rehabilitation after radical prostatectomy: review of hemodynamic and antihypoxic evidence

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Sheng-Qiang; Gao, Liang; Wei, Qiang; Yuan, Jiuhong

    2016-01-01

    Generally, hypoxia is a normal physiological condition in the flaccid penis, which is interrupted by regular nocturnal erections in men with normal erectile function.1 Lack of spontaneous and nocturnal erections after radical prostatectomy due to neuropraxia results in persistent hypoxia of cavernosal tissue, which leads to apoptosis and degeneration of cavernosal smooth muscle fibers. Therefore, overcoming hypoxia is believed to play a crucial role during neuropraxia. The use of a vacuum erectile device (VED) in penile rehabilitation is reportedly effective and may prevent loss of penile length. The corporal blood after VED use is increased and consists of both arterial and venous blood, as revealed by color Doppler sonography and blood gas analysis. A similar phenomenon was observed in negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). However, NPWT employs a lower negative pressure than VED, and a hypoperfused zone, which increases in response to negative pressure adjacent to the wound edge, was observed. Nonetheless, questions regarding ideal subatmospheric pressure levels, modes of action, and therapeutic duration of VED remain unanswered. Moreover, it remains unclear whether a hypoperfused zone or PO2 gradient appears in the penis during VED therapy. To optimize a clinical VED protocol in penile rehabilitation, further research on the mechanism of VED, especially real-time PO2 measurements in different parts of the penis, should be performed. PMID:26289397

  3. Vacuum therapy in penile rehabilitation after radical prostatectomy: review of hemodynamic and antihypoxic evidence.

    PubMed

    Qian, Sheng-Qiang; Gao, Liang; Wei, Qiang; Yuan, Jiuhong

    2016-01-01

    Generally, hypoxia is a normal physiological condition in the flaccid penis, which is interrupted by regular nocturnal erections in men with normal erectile function. [1] Lack of spontaneous and nocturnal erections after radical prostatectomy due to neuropraxia results in persistent hypoxia of cavernosal tissue, which leads to apoptosis and degeneration of cavernosal smooth muscle fibers. Therefore, overcoming hypoxia is believed to play a crucial role during neuropraxia. The use of a vacuum erectile device (VED) in penile rehabilitation is reportedly effective and may prevent loss of penile length. The corporal blood after VED use is increased and consists of both arterial and venous blood, as revealed by color Doppler sonography and blood gas analysis. A similar phenomenon was observed in negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). However, NPWT employs a lower negative pressure than VED, and a hypoperfused zone, which increases in response to negative pressure adjacent to the wound edge, was observed. Nonetheless, questions regarding ideal subatmospheric pressure levels, modes of action, and therapeutic duration of VED remain unanswered. Moreover, it remains unclear whether a hypoperfused zone or PO 2 gradient appears in the penis during VED therapy. To optimize a clinical VED protocol in penile rehabilitation, further research on the mechanism of VED, especially real-time PO 2 measurements in different parts of the penis, should be performed. PMID:26289397

  4. Functional and hierarchical interactions among zebrafish vox/vent homeobox genes.

    PubMed

    Gilardelli, Claudio N; Pozzoli, Ombretta; Sordino, Paolo; Matassi, Giorgio; Cotelli, Franco

    2004-07-01

    The vertebrate Vox/Vent family of transcription factors plays a crucial role in the establishment of the dorsoventral (DV) axis, by repressing organizer genes such as bozozok/dharma, goosecoid, and chordino. In Danio rerio (zebrafish), members of the vox/vent gene family (vox/vega1, vent/vega2, and ved) are thought to share expression patterns and functional properties. Bringing novel insights in the differential activity of the zebrafish vox/vent genes, we propose a critical role for the ved gene in DV patterning of vertebrate embryos. ved is not only expressed as a maternal gene, but it also appears to function as a repressor of dorsal factors involved in organizer formation. At early- and mid-gastrula stage, ved appears to be finely controlled by antagonist crosstalks in a complex regulatory network, involving gradients of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) activity, dorsal factors, and vox/vent family members. We show that ved transcripts are ventrally restricted by BMP factors such as bmp2b, bmp7, smad5, and alk8, and by dorsal factors (chd and gsc). Alteration of ved expression in both vox and vent deletion mutants and vox and vent mRNAs-injected embryos, suggests that vox and vent function downstream of BMP signaling to negatively regulate ved expression. This inhibitory role is emphasized by a vox and vent redundant activity, compared with single gene effects. PMID:15188434

  5. Spontaneous decidualization in pseudopregnant rats with vitamin E deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lang, Nan; Wu, Bin; He, Bin; Wang, Lili; Wang, Jiedong

    2016-05-13

    Successful implantation of an embryo requires adequate depth of invasion in the endometrium, which depends upon decidualization. The aim of the present study was to elucidate why humans experience spontaneous decidualization and menstruation while most other mammals do not. We established a spontaneous decidualization model in pseudopregnant rats with vitamin E deficiency (VED) to investigate mechanisms associated with spontaneous decidualization. Vaginal smears were used to monitor bleeding while vitamin E levels were analyzed with a commercial vitamin E assay kit. Trypan blue staining was used to observe the implantation site at 5.5 days post-coitum (dpc). Uterine morphology, estradiol (E2) and progesterone levels, and the anti-oxidation system were evaluated at 5.5, 7.5, and 9.5 dpc. The proportion of rats in the VED group exhibiting endometrial bleeding gradually increased (5.9%, 32.3%, and 50%) over three consecutive cycles of pseudopregnancy. Vitamin E levels in the VED group were markedly lower compared to the control group in both the plasma and uterus, while the level of vitamin E in the liver did not differ between the control and VED groups. Spontaneous decidualization in the VED group was validated by histological examination and immunohistochemistry. At 5.5 dpc, the mean serum E2 level in the VED group was more than twice that of the control group. The mean total anti-oxidizing capability, catalase level, and glutathione peroxidase activity were significantly reduced in the decidualized portion of the VED group compared to controls, while the malondialdehyde level was also significantly higher in the decidualized portion of the VED group. We hypothesize that the E2 surge at 5.5 dpc and increasing levels of reactive oxygen species are responsible for spontaneous decidualization in VED rats. PMID:27033606

  6. Spontaneous Splenic Rupture in Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Batagini, Nayara Cioffi; Gornik, Heather; Kirksey, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (VEDS) is a rare autosomal dominant collagen vascular disorder. Different from other Ehler-Danlos Syndrome subtypes, VEDS has poor prognosis due to severe fragility of connective tissues and association with life-threatening vascular and gastrointestinal complications. Spontaneous splenic rupture is a rare but hazardous complication related to this syndrome. To date, only 2 cases have been reported in the literature. Here we present another case of this uncommon complication, occurring in a 54-year-old woman in clinical follow-up for VEDS who presented with sudden onset of abdominal pain and hypotension. PMID:26323967

  7. The field of the vertical electric dipole immersed in the heterogeneous half-space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsukov, P. O.; Fainberg, E. B.

    2014-07-01

    The field of the vertical electric dipole (VED) immersed in the heterogeneous conductive halfspace (sea) is analyzed in time domain. In the near field of the source, the amplitudes of the electric and magnetic components of the field are proportional to power 3/2 and power 5/2 of the conductivity of the medium, respectively. After termination of the transmitter pulse, all the VED components decay with time as ˜1/ t 5/2. The possibility of applying the VED field for estimating the electrical properties of the offshore geological sections is demonstrated.

  8. Finiteness of the vacuum energy density in quantum electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoukian, Edward B.

    1983-03-01

    Recent interest in the finiteness problem of the vacuum energy density (VED) in finite QED has motivated us to reexamine this problem in the light of an analysis we have carried out earlier. By a loopwise summation procedure, supplemented by a renormalization-group analysis, we study the finiteness of the VED with α, the renormalized fine-structure constant, fixed in the process as the (infinite order) zero of the eigenvalue condition F[1](x)|x=α=0∞, and with the electron mass totally dynamical of origin. We propose a possible finite solution for the VED in QED which may require only one additional eigenvalue condition for α.

  9. Evaluation of digital halftones image by vector error diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouzaki, Masahiro; Itoh, Tetsuya; Kawaguchi, Takayuki; Tsumura, Norimichi; Haneishi, Hideaki; Miyake, Yoichi

    1998-12-01

    The vector error diffusion (VED) method is applied to proudce the digital halftone images by an electrophotographic printer with 600 dpi. Objective image quality of those obtained images is evaluated and analyzed. As a result, in the color reproduction of halftone image by the VED method, it was clear that there are large color difference between target color and printed color typically in the mid-tone colors. We consider it is due to the printer properties including dot-gain. It was also clear that the color noise of the VED method is larger compared with that of the conventional scalar error diffusion method in some patches. It was remarkable that ununiform patterns are generated by the VED method.

  10. [Abdominal ischemia and lesions of the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Myshanych, T V; Moskal', O M; Arkhiĭ, E Ĭ; Sozoniuk, O V

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of the results of 50 patients with diseases of coronary heart disease (25 pers.) And chronic pancreatitis (25 people) are submitted. Along with the standard test from these patients underwent Doppler-ultrasonography of abdominal aorta and its visceral branches. Conclusions: A characteristic feature of Doppler indices in AIC is to reduce Vps and Ved, and PI BbA, increase Vps, Ved, IR and PI after exercise in chBA, chC and BbA. At patients with CP with IHD feature is the increase in Ved and IR in the chC, and Ved and PI in BbA under act of loading Bleed a feature at CP with IHD must be taken into account for optimization of treatment of IHD at CP. PMID:25796868

  11. Effect of agmatine on experimental vascular endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Nader, M A; Gamiel, N M; El-Kashef, H; Zaghloul, M S

    2016-05-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of agmatine sulfate (AG, CAS2482-00-0) in nicotine (NIC)-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in rabbits. NIC was administered to produce VED in rabbits with or without AG for 6 weeks. Serum lipid profile, serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase generation, serum nitrite/nitrate, serum vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and aortic nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) levels were analyzed.Treatment with AG markedly improves lipid profile and prevented NIC-induced VED and oxidative stress. The mechanism of AG in improving NIC-induced VED may be due to the significant reduction in serum VCAM-1 levels and aortic NF-κB. Thus, it may be concluded that AG reduces the oxidative stress, nitric oxide production, VCAM-1 levels, and aortic NF-κB expression, thereby consequently improving the integrity of vascular endothelium. PMID:26424770

  12. Oral phenotype and scoring of vascular Ehlers–Danlos syndrome: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Michael; Gogly, Bruno; Golmard, Lisa; Naveau, Adrien; Chérifi, Hafida; Emmerich, Joseph; Gaultier, Frédérick; Berdal, Ariane; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Fournier, Benjamin P J

    2012-01-01

    Objective Vascular Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (vEDS) is a rare genetic condition related to mutations in the COL3A1 gene, responsible of vascular, digestive and uterine accidents. Difficulty of clinical diagnosis has led to the design of diagnostic criteria, summarised in the Villefranche classification. The goal was to assess oral features of vEDS. Gingival recession is the only oral sign recognised as a minor diagnostic criterion. The authors aimed to check this assumption since bibliographical search related to gingival recession in vEDS proved scarce. Design Prospective case–control study. Setting Dental surgery department in a French tertiary hospital. Participants 17 consecutive patients with genetically proven vEDS, aged 19–55 years, were compared with 46 age- and sex-matched controls. Observations Complete oral examination (clinical and radiological) with standardised assessment of periodontal structure, temporomandibular joint function and dental characteristics were performed. COL3A1 mutations were identified by direct sequencing of genomic or complementary DNA. Results Prevalence of gingival recession was low among patients with vEDS, as for periodontitis. Conversely, patients showed marked gingival fragility, temporomandibular disorders, dentin formation defects, molar root fusion and increased root length. After logistic regression, three variables remained significantly associated to vEDS. These variables were integrated in a diagnostic oral score with 87.5% and 97% sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Conclusions Gingival recession is an inappropriate diagnostic criterion for vEDS. Several new specific oral signs of the disease were identified, whose combination may be of greater value in diagnosing vEDS. PMID:22492385

  13. Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Without the Characteristic Facial Features

    PubMed Central

    Inokuchi, Ryota; Kurata, Hideaki; Endo, Kiyoshi; Kitsuta, Yoichi; Nakajima, Susumu; Hatamochi, Atsushi; Yahagi, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Abstract As a type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), vascular EDs (vEDS) is typified by a number of characteristic facial features (eg, large eyes, small chin, sunken cheeks, thin nose and lips, lobeless ears). However, vEDs does not typically display hypermobility of the large joints and skin hyperextensibility, which are features typical of the more common forms of EDS. Thus, colonic perforation or aneurysm rupture may be the first presentation of the disease. Because both complications are associated with a reduced life expectancy for individuals with this condition, an awareness of the clinical features of vEDS is important. Here, we describe the treatment of vEDS lacking the characteristic facial attributes in a 24-year-old healthy man who presented to the emergency room with abdominal pain. Enhanced computed tomography revealed diverticula and perforation in the sigmoid colon. The lesion of the sigmoid colon perforation was removed, and Hartmann procedure was performed. During the surgery, the control of bleeding was required because of vascular fragility. Subsequent molecular and genetic analysis was performed based on the suspected diagnosis of vEDS. These analyses revealed reduced type III collagen synthesis in cultured skin fibroblasts and identified a previously undocumented mutation in the gene for a1 type III collagen, confirming the diagnosis of vEDS. After eliciting a detailed medical profile, we learned his mother had a history of extensive bruising since childhood and idiopathic hematothorax. Both were prescribed oral celiprolol. One year after admission, the patient was free of recurrent perforation. This case illustrates an awareness of the clinical characteristics of vEDS and the family history is important because of the high mortality from this condition even in young people. Importantly, genetic assays could help in determining the surgical procedure and offer benefits to relatives since this condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant

  14. Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome without the characteristic facial features: a case report.

    PubMed

    Inokuchi, Ryota; Kurata, Hideaki; Endo, Kiyoshi; Kitsuta, Yoichi; Nakajima, Susumu; Hatamochi, Atsushi; Yahagi, Naoki

    2014-12-01

    As a type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), vascular EDs (vEDS) is typified by a number of characteristic facial features (eg, large eyes, small chin, sunken cheeks, thin nose and lips, lobeless ears). However, vEDs does not typically display hypermobility of the large joints and skin hyperextensibility, which are features typical of the more common forms of EDS. Thus, colonic perforation or aneurysm rupture may be the first presentation of the disease. Because both complications are associated with a reduced life expectancy for individuals with this condition, an awareness of the clinical features of vEDS is important. Here, we describe the treatment of vEDS lacking the characteristic facial attributes in a 24-year-old healthy man who presented to the emergency room with abdominal pain. Enhanced computed tomography revealed diverticula and perforation in the sigmoid colon. The lesion of the sigmoid colon perforation was removed, and Hartmann procedure was performed. During the surgery, the control of bleeding was required because of vascular fragility. Subsequent molecular and genetic analysis was performed based on the suspected diagnosis of vEDS. These analyses revealed reduced type III collagen synthesis in cultured skin fibroblasts and identified a previously undocumented mutation in the gene for a1 type III collagen, confirming the diagnosis of vEDS. After eliciting a detailed medical profile, we learned his mother had a history of extensive bruising since childhood and idiopathic hematothorax. Both were prescribed oral celiprolol. One year after admission, the patient was free of recurrent perforation. This case illustrates an awareness of the clinical characteristics of vEDS and the family history is important because of the high mortality from this condition even in young people. Importantly, genetic assays could help in determining the surgical procedure and offer benefits to relatives since this condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. PMID

  15. Total pleural covering technique for intractable pneumothorax in patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kadota, Yoshihisa; Fukui, Eriko; Kitahara, Naoto; Okura, Eiji; Ohta, Mitsunori

    2016-07-01

    We report a patient with vascular-type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS) who developed pneumothorax and was treated with a total pleural covering technique (TPC). A 24-year-old man developed repeat pneumothorax with intermittent hemo-sputum. Based on unusual radiological manifestations of lung lesions and physical findings, EDS was suspected as an underlying cause of the pneumothorax. Surgical treatment was performed using a mediastinal fat pad and TPC, and no relapse was seen up to 2 years after surgery. TPC is a less invasive surgical approach for selected patients with vEDS. Accurate underlying diagnosis of vEDS and systemic evaluation of vascular complications are necessary before planning surgery. PMID:25512090

  16. Vessel enhancing diffusion: a scale space representation of vessel structures.

    PubMed

    Manniesing, Rashindra; Viergever, Max A; Niessen, Wiro J

    2006-12-01

    A method is proposed to enhance vascular structures within the framework of scale space theory. We combine a smooth vessel filter which is based on a geometrical analysis of the Hessian's eigensystem, with a non-linear anisotropic diffusion scheme. The amount and orientation of diffusion depend on the local vessel likeliness. Vessel enhancing diffusion (VED) is applied to patient and phantom data and compared to linear, regularized Perona-Malik, edge and coherence enhancing diffusion. The method performs better than most of the existing techniques in visualizing vessels with varying radii and in enhancing vessel appearance. A diameter study on phantom data shows that VED least affects the accuracy of diameter measurements. It is shown that using VED as a preprocessing step improves level set based segmentation of the cerebral vasculature, in particular segmentation of the smaller vessels of the vasculature. PMID:16876462

  17. Spontaneous Dissection of the Renal Artery in Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Filipa; Cardoso, Teresa; Sá, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a rare heterogeneous group of connective tissue disorders. The vascular type (vEDS) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by heterozygous mutations in the COL3A1 gene predisposing to premature arterial, intestinal, or uterine rupture. We report a case of a 38-year-old woman with a recent diagnosis of vEDS admitted in the Emergency Department with a suspicion of a pyelonephritis that evolved to a cardiopulmonary arrest. A fatal retroperitoneal hematoma related with a haemorrhagic dissection of the right renal artery was found after emergency surgery. This case highlights the need to be aware of the particular characteristics of vEDS, such as a severe vascular complication that can lead to a fatal outcome. PMID:26175915

  18. Spontaneous Dissection of the Renal Artery in Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Filipa; Cardoso, Teresa; Sá, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a rare heterogeneous group of connective tissue disorders. The vascular type (vEDS) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by heterozygous mutations in the COL3A1 gene predisposing to premature arterial, intestinal, or uterine rupture. We report a case of a 38-year-old woman with a recent diagnosis of vEDS admitted in the Emergency Department with a suspicion of a pyelonephritis that evolved to a cardiopulmonary arrest. A fatal retroperitoneal hematoma related with a haemorrhagic dissection of the right renal artery was found after emergency surgery. This case highlights the need to be aware of the particular characteristics of vEDS, such as a severe vascular complication that can lead to a fatal outcome. PMID:26175915

  19. Effect of rosiglitazone in sodium arsenite-induced experimental vascular endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Tajpreet; Goel, Rajesh Kumar; Balakumar, Pitchai

    2010-04-01

    The present study has been designed to investigate the effect of rosiglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma agonist in sodium arsenite-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in rats. The rats were administered sodium arsenite (1.5 mg/kg/day, i.p., 2 weeks) to induce VED. The development of VED was assessed by employing isolated aortic ring preparation and estimating serum nitrite/nitrate concentration. Further, the integrity of the aortic endothelium was assessed histologically using haematoxylin-eosin staining. Moreover, the oxidative stress was assessed by estimating serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, aortic reactive oxygen species and reduced form of glutathione. The administration of sodium arsenite produced VED by impairing acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation, diminishing the integrity of vascular endothelium and decreasing the serum nitrite/nitrate concentration. In addition, sodium arsenite was noted to produce oxidative stress as it increased serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and aortic reactive oxygen species and consequently decreased glutathione. Treatment with rosiglitazone (3 mg/kg/day, p.o., 2 weeks and 5 mg/kg/day, p.o., 2 weeks) significantly prevented sodium arsenite-induced VED by enhancing acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation, improving the integrity of vascular endothelium, increasing the nitrite/nitrate concentration and decreasing the oxidative stress. However, the vascular protective effect of rosiglitazone was markedly abolished by co-administration of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N-Omega-Nitro-L-Arginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) (25 mg/kg/day, i.p., 2 weeks). Thus, it may be concluded that rosiglitazone reduces oxidative stress, activates eNOS and enhances the generation of nitric oxide to prevent sodium arsenite-induced VED in rats. PMID:20422371

  20. Benfotiamine attenuates nicotine and uric acid-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction in the rat.

    PubMed

    Balakumar, Pitchai; Sharma, Ramica; Singh, Manjeet

    2008-01-01

    The study has been designed to investigate the effect of benfotiamine, a thiamine derivative, in nicotine and uric acid-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in rats. Nicotine (2 mg kg(-1)day(-1), i.p., 4 weeks) and uric acid (150 mg kg(-1)day(-1), i.p., 3 weeks) were administered to produce VED in rats. The development of VED was assessed by employing isolated aortic ring preparation and estimating serum and aortic concentration of nitrite/nitrate. Further, the integrity of vascular endothelium was assessed using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of thoracic aorta. Moreover, the oxidative stress was assessed by estimating serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and aortic superoxide anion generation. The administration of nicotine and uric acid produced VED by impairing the integrity of vascular endothelium and subsequently decreasing serum and aortic concentration of nitrite/nitrate and attenuating acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation. Further, nicotine and uric acid produced oxidative stress, which was assessed in terms of increase in serum TBARS and aortic superoxide generation. However, treatment with benfotiamine (70 mg kg(-1)day(-1), p.o.) or atorvastatin (30 mg kg(-1)day(-1) p.o., a standard agent) markedly prevented nicotine and uric acid-induced VED and oxidative stress by improving the integrity of vascular endothelium, increasing the concentration of serum and aortic nitrite/nitrate, enhancing the acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation and decreasing serum TBARS and aortic superoxide anion generation. Thus, it may be concluded that benfotiamine reduces the oxidative stress and consequently improves the integrity of vascular endothelium and enhances the generation of nitric oxide to prevent nicotine and uric acid-induced experimental VED. PMID:18951979

  1. Vitamin E deficiency ataxia associated with adenoma.

    PubMed

    Benomar, A; Yahyaoui, M; Marzouki, N; Birouk, N; Bouslam, N; Belaidi, H; Amarti, A; Ouazzani, R; Chkili, T

    1999-01-01

    Vitamin E is one of the most important lipid-soluble antioxidant nutrient. Severe vitamin E deficiency (VED) can have a profound effect on the central nervous system. VED causes ataxia and peripheral neuropathy that resembles Friedreich's ataxia. We report here a patient presenting this syndrome, but also a prolactin and FSH adenoma. Both the neurological syndromes and the adenoma regressed after treatment with alpha-tocopherol. Although, the presence of the prolactinoma in this patient may not be related to his vitamin E deficiency, alpha-tocopherol treatment seems to be beneficial and might usefully be tested in patients with hypophyseal secreting other forms of adenoma. PMID:10064178

  2. Cervical artery dissections and type A aortic dissection in a family with a novel missense COL3A1 mutation of vascular type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Makrygiannis, Georgios; Loeys, Bart; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Sakalihasan, Natzi

    2015-11-01

    Cervical artery dissection (CeAD) is a rare condition. One of the causes is the vascular type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS). A novel missense mutation in COL3A1 was found in a young patient with CeAD as the single manifestation of vEDS. This is a heterozygous c.953G > A mutation in exon 14, disrupting the normal Gly-X-Y repeats of type III procollagen, by converting glycine to aspartic acid. PMID:26497932

  3. Exploring the Meaningful Learning of Students in Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keskitalo, Tuulikki; Pyykko, Elli; Ruokamo, Heli

    2011-01-01

    This study reports a case study in which a pedagogical model, namely the Global Virtual Education (GloVEd) model, which is based on the teaching-studying-learning process (TSL process) and the characteristics of meaningful learning, is developed and used to evaluate students' meaningful learning experiences during the Global Virtual Collaboration…

  4. Performance of an array of vertical dipoles over an inhomogeneous ground system

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.J.; Mathur, N.C.

    1983-03-01

    The elevation radiation patterns of a stacked array of vertical electric dipoles (VEDs) over several different azimuthally symmetric inhomogeneous ground systems are studied using an integral formulation. As the ground influences the pattern of each VED differently, there is no known optimum array excitation which can be used to achieve desired beam shaping and steering. Patterns in an array of 21 VEDs spaced 0.1 lambda apart are computed and compared to HF (10 MHz) for three excitation functions: (a) conventional linear spacial phasing, (b) phasing according to the complex conjugate of the field produced by each VED in the direction of steering, and (c) spacially sinusoidal excitation with constant phasing. Results are given for grounds consisting of homogeneous earth, a perfectly conducting ground plane, a perfectly conducting disk on homogeneous earth and 2 lambda long radial wire ground systems on well- and poorly-conducting earth. It is found that the radiation pattern cannot be steered below about 9/sup 0/ in elevation for any of the excitation functions or the ground systems used. For low-angle steering conjugate excitation produces a slightly narrower beam with smaller sidelobes. Highly conducting grounds tend to permit steering to slightly higher elevations with narrower beams.

  5. Embolization of Life-Threatening Arterial Rupture in Patients with Vascular Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Takuya; Frank, Michael; Pellerin, Olivier Primio, Massimiliano Di Angelopoulos, Georgios; Boughenou, Marie-Fazia; Pagny, Jean-Yves; Messas, Emmanuel; Sapoval, Marc

    2013-05-09

    PurposeTo evaluate the safety and efficacy of transarterial embolization of life-threatening arterial rupture in patients with vascular Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (vEDS) in a single tertiary referral center.MethodsWe retrospectively analyzed transarterial embolization for vEDS performed at our institution from 2000 to 2012. The indication of embolization was spontaneous arterial rupture or pseudoaneurysm with acute bleeding. All interventions used a percutaneous approach through a 5F or less introducer sheath. Embolic agents were microcoils and glue in 3 procedures, glue alone in 2, and microcoils alone in 2.ResultsFive consecutive vEDS patients were treated by 7 embolization procedures (4 women, mean age 29.8 years). All procedures were successfully performed. Two patients required a second procedure for newly arterial lesions at a different site from the first procedure. Four of the five patients were still alive after a mean follow-up of 19.4 (range 1–74.7) months. One patient died of multiple organ failure 2 days after procedure. Minor procedural complications were observed in 3 procedures (43 %), all directly managed during the same session. Remote arterial lesions occurred after 3 procedures (43 %); one underwent a second embolization, and the other 2 were observed conservatively. Puncture site complication was observed in only one procedure (14 %).ConclusionEmbolization for vEDS is a safe and effective method to manage life-threatening arterial rupture.

  6. A Culture-Based Model for Strategic Implementation of Virtual Education Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burn, Janice; Thongprasert, Nalinee

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the critical success factors for implementing Virtual Education Delivery (VED) in Thailand, and to identify ways to facilitate such adoption and lead to effective outcomes. The study incorporated an analysis of three specific factors related to Thai culture: high power distance "Bhun Khun", uncertainty…

  7. Types of Empathy and Adolescent Sexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varker, Tracey; Devilly, Grant J.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine general empathy, general victim empathy and own victim empathy in adolescent sexual offenders. Sixteen adolescent sexual offenders completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), the Personal Reaction Inventory, a "general sexual abuse victim" form of the Victim Empathy Distortions Scale (VEDS) and an…

  8. Hearings on Reauthorization of the Vocational Education Act of 1963. Part 10: Vocational Education Data System. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives. Ninety-Seventh Congress. First Session (December 10, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    This is a report of a hearing on December 10, 1981, before the Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, regarding reauthorization of the Vocational Education Act of 1963. It focuses on the vocational education data system known as VEDS. Testimony includes…

  9. Community College Journal for Research and Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Edith H., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    This journal, designed as a forum for the exchange of ideas among research and planning professionals, offers articles of research studies and practices. After Timothy Lightfield highlights upcoming professional association events, Janice S. Ancarrow's article, "The National Vocational Education Data Reporting and Accounting System (VEDS): Its…

  10. Vocational Education. Report by the Secretary of Education to the Congress, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Vocational and Adult Education (ED), Washington, DC.

    This annual report provides an overview of the status of vocational education during school year 1980-81. It includes final data for school year 1979-80 obtained through the Vocational Education Data System (VEDS), the national vocational education reporting and accounting system. Part 1 of the report describes the status of vocational education…

  11. Fenofibrate attenuates nicotine-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction in the rat.

    PubMed

    Chakkarwar, Vishal Arvind

    2011-01-01

    The study has been designed to investigate the effect of fenofibrate on nicotine-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in rats. Nicotine (2 mg/kg/day, i.p., 4 weeks) was administered to produce VED in rats. The development of VED was assessed by employing isolated aortic ring preparation and estimating serum and aortic concentration of nitrite/nitrate. Further, the integrity of vascular endothelium was assessed using the scanning electron microscopy of thoracic aorta. The expression of mRNA for p22phox and eNOS was assessed by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances concentration (TBARS) and aortic superoxide anion concentration were estimated to assess oxidative stress. Moreover, the serum lipid profile was assessed by estimating serum cholesterol, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein. The administration of nicotine induces VED by increased oxidative stress, altered lipid profile and impaired the integrity of vascular endothelium as assessed in terms of decrease in expression of mRNA for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), impairing the integrity of vascular endothelium and subsequently decreasing serum and aortic nitrite/nitrate and attenuating acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation. Further, nicotine produced oxidative stress, assessed in terms of increase in serum TBARS and aortic superoxide anion generation and increase in expression of mRNA for p22phox. Nicotine altered the lipid profile by increasing the serum cholesterol, triglycerides and decreasing the high density lipoprotein. However, treatment with fenofibrate (32 mg/kg, p.o.) markedly prevented nicotine-induced VED by decreasing oxidative stress and improving integrity of vascular endothelium, normalising the altered lipid profile, increasing the concentration of serum and aortic nitrite/nitrate, enhancing the acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation and decreasing serum TBARS and aortic

  12. Electrical activity of corpus cavernosum in vasculogenic and non-vasculogenic erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Atahan, O; Kayigil, O; Metin, A

    1997-12-01

    We aimed to compare the electrical activity of corpus cavernosum before and after intracavernous papaverine injection and to determine the blood lipid profile in vascular and non-vascular erectile dysfunction, and also to assess whether vascular pathology and abnormal blood lipid levels impair cavernosal smooth-muscle relaxation. We determined total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels in peripheral and cavernosal blood in 39 patients with erectile dysfunction. Electromyography of the corpus cavernosum was performed before and after an intracavernous injection with 60 mg of papaverine in all patients. Thirty-nine impotent patients have been divided into two groups: vasculogenic erectile dysfunction (VED) and non-vasculogenic erectile dysfunction (NVED), according to colour Doppler ultrasonic flowmetry, dynamic infusion cavernosometry and the pressure difference between the brachial arterial systolic pressure and cavernosal arterial systolic pressure measurements. Biochemical values and amplitude changes were compared in both groups. The TC level was higher in both peripheral and cavernosal samples of the VED group than in the NVED group (p = 0.000), with no differences between peripheral and cavernosal blood levels within the same groups (p > 0.05). There were no significant changes in TG and HDL levels in any of the groups (p > 0.05). The mean amplitude differences before and after papaverine injection (delta A) were found to be 2.05 +/- 0.78 microV in the VED group and 4.68 +/- 2.53 microV in the NVED group, showing that the relaxation response to papaverine was more significant in the NVED than in the VED group (p = 0.003). The moderate decreases in the amplitude of electrical activity of corpus cavernosum and the higher TC levels found in the VED group can be accepted as the parameters of impairment in the relaxation of corpus cavernosum, showing the role of hypercholesterolaemia and vascular pathologies in erectile

  13. Involvement of Rho-kinase in experimental vascular endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Shah, Dhvanit I; Singh, Manjeet

    2006-02-01

    The present study has been designed to investigate the effect of fasudil (Rho-kinase inhibitor) in diabetes mellitus (DM) and hyperhomocyteinemia (HHcy) induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED). Streptozotocin (55 mg kg(-1), i.v., once only) and methionine (1.7% w/w, p.o., daily for 4 weeks) were administered to rats to produce DM (serum glucose >140 mg dl(-1)) and HHcy (serum homocysteine >10 microM) respectively. VED was assessed using isolated aortic ring, electron microscopy of thoracic aorta, and serum concentration of nitrite/nitrate. Serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentration was estimated to assess oxidative stress. Atorvastatin has been employed in the present study as standard agent to improve vascular endothelial dysfunction. Fasudil (15 mg kg(-1) and 30 mg kg(-1), p.o., daily) and atorvastatin (30 mg kg(-1), p.o., daily) treatments significantly attenuated increase in serum glucose and homocysteine but their concentrations remained markedly higher than sham control value. Fasudil and atorvastatin treatments markedly prevented DM and HHcy-induced (i) attenuation of acetylcholine induced endothelium-dependent relaxation, (ii) impairment of vascular endothelial lining, (iii) decrease in serum nitrite/nitrate concentration, and (iv) increase in serum TBARS. It may be concluded that fasudil prevented DM and HHcy-induced VED partially by decreasing serum glucose and homocysteine concentration due to inhibition of Rho-kinase. Moreover, inhibition of Rho-kinase by fasudil and consequent prevention of oxidative stress may have directly improved VED in diabetic and hyperhomocysteinemic rats. The Rho-kinase appears to be a pivotal target site involved in DM and HHcy-induced VED. PMID:16444602

  14. Is early measles vaccination better than later measles vaccination?

    PubMed

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesário L; Ravn, Henrik; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Whittle, Hilton C; Benn, Christine S

    2015-01-01

    WHO recommends delaying measles vaccination (MV) until maternal antibody has waned. However, early MV may improve child survival by reducing mortality from conditions other than measles infection. We tested whether early MV improves child survival compared with later MV. We found 43 studies comparing measles-vaccinated and measles-unvaccinated children; however, only 16 studies had specific information that MV had been provided at 4-13 months of age, many before 9 months of age. In the 10 best studies (4 randomized trials and 6 observational studies) control children did not receive MV during follow-up. In eight of these studies the vaccine efficacy against death (VED) was 60% or more. In four studies with information on MV provided both before and after 12 months of age, the all-cause mortality reduction was significantly larger for children vaccinated in infancy (VED=74%; 95% CI 51-86%) than for children vaccinated after 12 months of age (VED=29%; CI 8-46%). Prevention of measles explained little of the reduction in mortality. In five studies with information on measles infection, VED was 67% (51-78%) and when measles deaths were excluded, VED was only reduced to 65% (47-77%). One natural experiment compared MV at 4-8 months versus MV at 9-11 months of age and found significantly lower all-cause mortality with early vaccination, the difference being 39% (8-60%). Child mortality may be reduced if MV is given earlier than currently recommended by international organizations. PMID:25573106

  15. Interleukin-27 inhibits vaccine-enhanced pulmonary disease following respiratory syncytial virus infection by regulating cellular memory responses.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ruihong; Zhang, Huixian; Hai, Yan; Cui, Yuxiu; Wei, Lin; Li, Na; Liu, Jianxun; Li, Caixia; Liu, Ying

    2012-04-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of lower respiratory tract disease in young children. In the 1960s, infants vaccinated with formalin-inactivated RSV developed a more severe disease characterized by excessive inflammatory immunopathology in lungs upon natural RSV infection. The fear of causing the vaccine-enhanced disease (VED) is an important obstacle for development of safe and effective RSV vaccines. The recombinant vaccine candidate G1F/M2 immunization also led to VED. It has been proved that cellular memory induced by RSV vaccines contributed to VED. Interleukin-27 (IL-27) and IL-23 regulate Th1, Th17, and/or Th2 cellular immune responses. In this study, mice coimmunized with pcDNA3-IL-27 and G1F/M2 were fully protected and, importantly, did not develop vaccine-enhanced inflammatory responses and immunopathology in lungs after RSV challenge, which was correlated with moderate Th1-, suppressed Th2-, and Th17-like memory responses activated by RSV. In contrast, G1F/M2- or pcDNA3-IL-23+G1F/M2-immunized mice, in which robust Th2- and Th17-like memory responses were induced, developed enhanced pulmonary inflammation and severe immunopathology. Mice coimmunized with G1F/M2 and the two cytokine plasmids exhibited mild inflammatory responses as well as remarkable Th1-, suppressed Th2-, and Th17-like memory responses. These results suggested that Th1-, Th2-, and Th17-like memory responses and, in particular, excessive Th2- and Th17-like memory responses were closely associated with VED; IL-27 may inhibit VED following respiratory syncytial virus infection by regulating cellular memory responses. PMID:22301139

  16. Molecular diagnosis in Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Predicts Pattern of Arterial Involvement and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Shalhub, Sherene; Black, James H; Cecchi, Alana C.; Xu, Zhi; Griswold, Ben F; Safi, Hazim J; Milewicz, Dianna M.; McDonnell, Nazli B.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The management of arterial pathology in individuals with vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS) remains a challenge. Here we describe the correlation between COL3A1 gene mutation type and the clinical phenotype in individuals with vEDS. METHODS Individuals with confirmed molecular diagnoses of vEDS were enrolled in a multi institutional natural history study. Data collected included demographics, clinical and family histories, arterial pathology (aneurysm, dissection, and rupture), operative details, and autopsy reports. Individuals were classified into two cohorts based on the type of COL3A1 mutations and their effect on the amount of normal collagen produced: MIN group had mutations that lead to minimal (10–15%) production of normal type III collagen and HI group had haploinsufficiency mutations that lead to production of half the normal type III collagen. RESULTS A cohort of 68 (72%) individuals from 56 families had arterial pathology (44% male, 13% HI). The HI group was older at the time of their first vascular event (mean 42 years, range 26–58 vs. 33 years, range 8–62, P = .016). The HI group had a higher incidence of aortic pathology compared to the MIN group (56% vs. 21%. P = .025). Visceral arterial pathology was seen in 43 arteries in 23 individuals in the MIN group versus only a single artery in 5 individuals in the HI group. Emergent surgical procedures were more likely to be undertaken when vEDS diagnosis was not known (81% vs. 41%, P = .005) and the majority of these procedures were open surgical repair compared to endovascular repair (81% vs. 19%, P = .019). In the elective setting, there was equal use of open and endovascular repair. Post-operative complications were highest when the diagnosis of vEDS was not known (62% vs. 14%, P < .001) and when procedures were undertaken in an emergency setting (5% vs. 55% P < .001). There was no mortality due to arterial complications in the HI cohort and 21% in the MIN cohort (P = .132

  17. [Vascular-type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome incidentally diagnosed at surgical treatment for hemothorax; report of a case].

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Kazunori; Yoshizu, Akira; Kashizaki, Fumihiro

    2013-02-01

    Vascular-type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome(vEDS) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited disorder of the connective tissue, which often causes arterial ruptures and surgical complications. We report the case of a vEDS patient who was incidentally diagnosed at surgical treatment for hemothorax. A 64-year-old woman with a past history of hysterectomy due to excessive bleeding during childbirth visited our hospital complaining of chest pain. Chest computed tomography revealed right pleural effusion suspected of hemothorax and a high density area behind the right anterior chest wall. Emergency thoracoscopy revealed bloody spots throughout the mediastinal pleura, suggestive of bleeding from the right internal thoracic artery. During thoracoscopy, easy bruising of the tissue by surgical manipulation was noted which led us to suspect connective tissue disease. A biochemical analysis by cultured dermal fibroblasts and molecular biological examination established the diagnosis of vEDS. PMID:23381370

  18. Micromachined TWTs for THz Radiation Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booske, John H.; vanderWeide, Daniel W.; Kory, Carol L.; Limbach, S.; Downey, Alan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Terahertz (THz) region of the electromagnetic spectrum (about 300 - 3000 GHz in frequency or about 0.1 - 1 mm free space wavelength) has enormous potential for high-data-rate communications, spectroscopy, astronomy, space research, medicine, biology, surveillance, remote sensing, industrial process control, etc. It has been characterized as the most scientifically rich, yet under-utilized, region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The most critical roadblock to full exploitation of the THz band is lack of coherent radiation sources that are powerful (0.001 - 1.0 W continuous wave), efficient (> 1%), frequency agile (instantaneously tunable over 1% bandwidths or more), reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. To develop vacuum electron device (VED) radiation sources satisfying these requirements, fabrication and packaging approaches must be heavily considered to minimize costs, in addition to the basic interaction physics and circuit design. To minimize size of the prime power supply, beam voltage must be minimized, preferably 10 kV. Solid state sources satisfy the low voltage requirement, but are many orders of magnitude below power, efficiency, and bandwidth requirements. On the other hand, typical fast-wave VED sources in this regime (e.g., gyrotrons, FELs) tend to be large, expensive, high voltage and very high power devices unsuitable for most of the applications cited above. VEDs based on grating or inter-digital (ID) circuits have been researched and developed. However, achieving forward-wave amplifier operation with instantaneous fractional bandwidths > 1% is problematic for these devices with low-energy (< 15 kV) electron beams. Moreover, the interaction impedance is quite low unless the beam-circuit spacing is kept particularly narrow, often leading to significant beam interception. One solution to satisfy the THz source requirements mentioned above is to develop micromachined VEDs, or "micro-VEDs". Among other benefits, micro-machining technologies

  19. Melatonin ameliorates vascular endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and atherosclerosis by suppressing the TLR4/NF-κB system in high-fat-fed rabbits.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ze-Ping; Fang, Xiao-Ling; Fang, Nan; Wang, Xiao-Bian; Qian, Hai-Yan; Cao, Zhong; Cheng, Yuan; Wang, Bang-Ning; Wang, Yuan

    2013-11-01

    Vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) and inflammation contribute to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Melatonin (MLT) normalizes lipid profile, improves endothelial function, and possesses anti-inflammatory properties. However, the precise mechanisms are still unclear. This study investigated whether MLT could ameliorate VED, inflammation, and atherosclerosis by suppressing the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) system in high-fat-fed rabbits. Rabbits were randomly divided into three groups that received a standard diet (control group), high-cholesterol diet (atherosclerosis group), or high-cholesterol diet plus 10 mg/kg/day MLT (MLT group) for 12 wk. After treatment, high-fat diet significantly increased serum lipid and inflammatory markers in rabbits in atherosclerosis group compared with that in control group. In addition, high-fat diet also induced VED and typical atherosclerotic plaque formation and increased intima/media thickness ratio, which were significantly improved by MLT therapy as demonstrated in MLT group. Histological and immunoblot analysis further showed that high-fat diet enhanced the expressions of TLR4, myeloid differentiation primary response protein (MyD88), and NF-κB p65, but decreased inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) expression. By contrast, MLT therapy decreased the expressions of TLR4, MyD88, and NF-κB p65 and increased IκB expression. This study has demonstrated that MLT ameliorates lipid metabolism, VED, and inflammation and inhibits the progression of atherosclerosis in high-fat-fed rabbits. Moreover, our study indicates for the first time that suppression of the TLR4/NF-κB system in local vasculature with atherosclerotic damage is important for the protective effects of MLT. PMID:24006943

  20. Optimum connecting dampers to reduce the seismic responses of parallel structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, H. P.; Ge, D. D.; Huang, X.

    2011-04-01

    Parameters of connecting dampers between two adjacent structures and twin-tower structure with large podium are optimized through theoretical analysis. The connecting visco-elastic damper (VED) is represented by the Kelvin model and the connecting viscous fluid damper (VFD) is represented by the Maxwell model. Two optimization criteria are selected to minimize the vibration energy of the primary structure and to minimize the vibration energy of both structures. Two representative numerical examples of adjacent structures and one three-dimensional finite element model of a twin-tower with podium structure are used to verify the correctness of the theoretical approach. On the one hand, by means of theoretical analysis, the first natural circular frequencies and total mass of the two structures can be taken as parameters in the general formula to get the optimal parameters of the coupling dampers. On the other hand, using the Kanai-Tajimi filtered white-noise ground motion model and several actual earthquake records, the appropriate parameters of two types of linking dampers are obtained through extensive parametric studies. By comparison, it can be found that the results of parametric studies are consistent with the results of theoretical studies for the two types of dampers under the two optimization criteria. The effectiveness of VED and VFD is investigated in terms of the seismic response reduction of the neighboring structures. The numerical results demonstrate that the seismic response and vibration energy of parallel structures are mitigated significantly. The performances of VED and VFD are comparable to one another. The explicit formula of VED and VFD can help engineers in application of coupled structure control strategies.

  1. The novel role of fenofibrate in preventing nicotine- and sodium arsenite-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jagdeep; Reddy, Krishna; Balakumar, Pitchai

    2010-09-01

    The present study investigated the effect of fenofibrate, an agonist of PPAR-alpha, in nicotine- and sodium arsenite-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in rats. Nicotine (2 mg/kg/day, i.p., 4 weeks) and sodium arsenite (1.5 mg/kg/day, i.p., 2 weeks) were administered to produce VED in rats. The scanning electron microscopy study in thoracic aorta revealed that administration of nicotine or sodium arsenite impaired the integrity of vascular endothelium. Further, administration of nicotine or sodium arsenite significantly decreased serum and aortic concentrations of nitrite/nitrate and subsequently reduced acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation. Moreover, nicotine or sodium arsenite produced oxidative stress by increasing serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and aortic superoxide generation. However, treatment with fenofibrate (30 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or atorvastatin (30 mg/kg/day p.o., a standard agent) significantly prevented nicotine- and sodium arsenite-induced VED and oxidative stress by improving the integrity of vascular endothelium, increasing the concentrations of serum and aortic nitrite/nitrate, enhancing the acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation and decreasing serum TBARS and aortic superoxide anion generation. Conversely, co-administration of L-NAME (25 mg/kg/day, i.p.), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, markedly attenuated these vascular protective effects of fenofibrate. The administration of nicotine or sodium arsenite altered the lipid profile by increasing serum cholesterol and triglycerides and consequently decreasing high-density lipoprotein levels, which were significantly prevented by treatment with fenofibrate or atorvastatin. It may be concluded that fenofibrate improves the integrity and function of vascular endothelium, and the vascular protecting potential of fenofibrate in preventing the development of nicotine- and sodium arsenite-induced VED may be attributed to its

  2. Reduction in visceral adiposity is highly related to improvement in vascular endothelial dysfunction among obese women: an assessment of endothelial function by radial artery pulse wave analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Si-Hoon; Shim, Kyung-Won

    2005-08-31

    Because obesity is frequently complicated by other cardiovascular risk factors, the impact of a reduction in visceral adiposity on vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in obese patients is difficult to determine. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of a reduction in visceral adiposity on VED in obese women. Thirty-six premenopausal obese women (BMI >/= 25 kg/m2) without complications were enrolled in the study. VED was evaluated by determining the augmentation index (AIx) from radial artery pulse waves obtained by applanation tonometry. Changes in AIx in response to nitroglycerin- induced endothelium-independent vasodilatation (DeltaAIx-NTG) and in response to salbutamol administration (DeltaAIx-Salb) were determined before and after weight reduction. After a 12-week weight reduction program, the average weight loss was 7.96 +/- 3.47 kg, with losses of 21.88 +/- 20.39 cm2 in visceral fat areas (p < 0.001). Pulse wave analysis combined with provocative pharmacological testing demonstrated preserved endothelium-independent vasodilation in healthy premenopausal obese women (DeltaAIx-NTG: 31.36 +/- 9.80% before weight reduction vs. 28.25 +/- 11.21% after weight reduction, p > 0.1) and an improvement in endothelial-dependent vasodilation following weight reduction (DeltaAIx-Salb: 10.03 +/- 6.49% before weight reduction vs. 19.33 +/- 9.28% after reduction, p < 0.001). A reduction in visceral adipose tissue was found to be most significantly related to an increase in DeltaAIx-Salb (beta=-0.57, p < 0.001). A reduction in visceral adiposity was significantly related to an improvement in VED. This finding suggests that reduction of visceral adiposity may be as important as the control of other major risk factors in the prevention of atherosclerosis in obese women. PMID:16127776

  3. Astronomy of the Vedic Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ôhashi, Yukio

    Aryans who produced Vedic literature migrated to India in the middle of the second millennium BC. After this, they gradually developed astronomical knowledge which was associated with local climate, agriculture, and their predecessors' culture. Toward the end of the Vedic period, sometime around the middle of the first millennium BC, the Vedic calendrical astronomy text entitled Jyotiṣa-vedāṅga was created.

  4. The Immune Response to Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis in Mice Is Modulated by Dietary Vitamin E12

    PubMed Central

    Sheridan, Patricia A.; Beck, Melinda A.

    2008-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) is the most common fatal sporadic encephalitis in humans. HSE is primarily caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 infection of the brain. HSE results in increased levels of oxidative stress, including the production of reactive oxygen species, free radicals, and neuroinflammation. The most biologically active form of vitamin E (VE) is α-tocopherol (α-TOC). In cellular membranes, α-TOC prevents lipid peroxidation by scavenging free radicals and functioning as an antioxidant. Supplementation with VE has been shown to decrease immunosenescence, improve immune function, and may be neuroprotective. To determine how VE deficiency and VE supplementation would alter the pathogenesis of HSE, we placed weanling male BALB/cByJ mice on VE-deficient (VE-D), VE-adequate (VE-A), or 10× VE-supplemented diets for 4 wk, and then infected the mice intranasally with HSV-1. VE-D mice had more severe symptoms of encephalitis than VE-A mice, including weight loss, keratitis, hunched posture, and morbidity. VE-D mice had increased cytokine and chemokine expression in the brain and increased viral titers. In contrast, VE supplementation failed to decrease cytokine production and had no effect on viral titer. We demonstrated that adequate levels of VE are important in limiting HSE pathology and that 10× supplementation does not enhance protection. PMID:18156415

  5. Estimation of skin concentrations of topically applied lidocaine at each depth profile.

    PubMed

    Oshizaka, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Keisuke; Kadhum, Wesam R; Todo, Hiroaki; Hatanaka, Tomomi; Wierzba, Konstanty; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2014-11-20

    Skin concentrations of topically administered compounds need to be considered in order to evaluate their efficacies and toxicities. This study investigated the relationship between the skin permeation and concentrations of compounds, and also predicted the skin concentrations of these compounds using their permeation parameters. Full-thickness skin or stripped skin from pig ears was set on a vertical-type diffusion cell, and lidocaine (LID) solution was applied to the stratum corneum (SC) in order to determine in vitro skin permeability. Permeation parameters were obtained based on Fick's second law of diffusion. LID concentrations at each depth of the SC were measured using tape-stripping. Concentration-depth profiles were obtained from viable epidermis and dermis (VED) by analyzing horizontal sections. The corresponding skin concentration at each depth was calculated based on Fick's law using permeation parameters and then compared with the observed value. The steady state LID concentrations decreased linearly as the site became deeper in SC or VED. The calculated concentration-depth profiles of the SC and VED were almost identical to the observed profiles. The compound concentration at each depth could be easily predicted in the skin using diffusion equations and skin permeation data. Thus, this method was considered to be useful for promoting the efficient preparation of topically applied drugs and cosmetics. PMID:25158219

  6. A Recombinant G Protein Plus Cyclosporine A-Based Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine Elicits Humoral and Regulatory T Cell Responses against Infection without Vaccine-Enhanced Disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaofan; Zhou, Xian; Zhong, Yiwei; Li, Changgui; Dong, Aihua; He, Zhonghuai; Zhang, Shuren; Wang, Bin

    2016-02-15

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection can cause severe disease in the lower respiratory tract of infants and older people. Vaccination with a formalin-inactivated RSV vaccine (FI-RSV) and subsequent RSV infection has led to mild to severe pneumonia with two deaths among vaccinees. The vaccine-enhanced disease (VED) was recently demonstrated to be due to an elevated level of Th2 cell responses following loss of regulatory T (Treg) cells from the lungs. To induce high levels of neutralizing Abs and minimize pathogenic T cell responses, we developed a novel strategy of immunizing animals with a recombinant RSV G protein together with cyclosporine A. This novel vaccine induced not only a higher level of neutralizing Abs against RSV infection, but, most importantly, also significantly higher levels of Treg cells that suppressed VED in the lung after RSV infection. The induced responses provided protection against RSV challenge with no sign of pneumonia or bronchitis. Treg cell production of IL-10 was one of the key factors to suppress VED. These finding indicate that G protein plus cyclosporine A could be a promising vaccine against RSV infection in children and older people. PMID:26792805

  7. Resistance of nanofill and nanohybrid resin composites to toothbrush abrasion with calcium carbonate slurry.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toshimitsu; Kyoizumi, Hideaki; Finger, Werner J; Kanehira, Masafumi; Endo, Tatsuo; Utterodt, Andreas; Hisamitsu, Hisashi; Komatsu, Masashi

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the wear of four nanofilled resin composites using simulated toothbrushing for 50,000 cycles with calcium carbonate slurry. The depth of abrasion and roughness (Ra) were measured after each 10,000 brushing cycle. The surface texture of the worn samples was examined by SEM.The wear depths of the nanofill Filtek Supreme XT (FIL), the nanohybrides Grandio (GRA), Tetric EvoCeram (TET), and Venus Diamond (VED) increased linearly with numbers of brushing cycles or approximately 80, 12, 600, and 60 mum, respectively after 50,000 strokes. Surface roughness showed virtually no change between 10,000 and 50,000 brushing cycles; the ranking order was TET < FIL < GRA < VED. FIL showed rather uniform abrasion with nanoclusters protruding from the surface. TET was very smoothly abraded without signs of debonding of the prepolymerized particles, whereas GRA and VED showed pronounced wear of the matrix polymer surrounding larger glass filler particles. PMID:20019422

  8. Transvenous Embolization for Carotid-Cavernous Fistula in a Patient with Vascular Type of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome—Direct Superior Ophthalmic Vein Approach: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    TANAKA, Teppei; HAYAKAWA, Motoharu; SADATO, Akiyo; ADACHI, Kazuhide; WATABE, Takeya; MAEDA, Shingo; OHMURA, Masahiro; HIROSE, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    The vascular type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS) is an autosomal dominant hereditary disease characterized by connective tissue fragility throughout the body, including the arteries, viscera, and gastrointestinal tract. We report a case in which we performed transvenous embolization (TVE) via direct superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) approach to treat a direct carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) in a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). The patient was a 37-year-old woman who developed tinnitus in her left ear and a headache during examination in the outpatient clinic of another hospital in order to make a definitive diagnosis of vEDS, and she was referred to our hospital and examined. Based on the results of all of the studies she was diagnosed with a CCF. Conservative treatment was attempted, but was not very effective. Because of progressing aphasia, TVE was performed via the SOV direct cut. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. It has been reported that cerebral angiography is generally contraindicated in vEDS and that the morbimortality associated with endovascular treatment is very high. When performing treatment it is necessary to be sufficiently aware of the risks it entails. PMID:24418783

  9. Possible involvement of PPARγ-associated eNOS signaling activation in rosuvastatin-mediated prevention of nicotine-induced experimental vascular endothelial abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Kathuria, Sonam; Mahadevan, Nanjaian; Balakumar, Pitchai

    2013-02-01

    Nicotine exposure via cigarette smoking and tobacco chewing is associated with vascular complications. The present study investigated the effect of rosuvastatin in nicotine (2 mg/kg/day, i.p., 4 weeks)-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in rats. The development of VED was assessed by employing isolated aortic ring preparation and estimating aortic and serum nitrite/nitrate concentration. Further, scanning electron microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin staining of thoracic aorta were performed to assess the vascular endothelial integrity. Moreover, oxidative stress was assessed by estimating aortic superoxide anion generation and serum thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. The nicotine administration produced VED by markedly reducing acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation, impairing the integrity of vascular endothelium, decreasing aortic and serum nitrite/nitrate concentration, increasing oxidative stress, and inducing lipid alteration. However, treatment with rosuvastatin (10 mg/kg/day, i.p., 4 weeks) markedly attenuated nicotine-induced vascular endothelial abnormalities, oxidative stress, and lipid alteration. Interestingly, the co-administration of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) antagonist, GW9662 (1 mg/kg/day, i.p., 2 weeks) submaximally, significantly prevented rosuvastatin-induced improvement in vascular endothelial integrity, endothelium-dependent relaxation, and nitrite/nitrate concentration in rats administered nicotine. However, GW9662 co-administration did not affect rosuvastatin-associated vascular anti-oxidant and lipid-lowering effects. The incubation of aortic ring, isolated from rosuvastatin-treated nicotine-administered rats, with L-NAME (100 μM), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), significantly attenuated rosuvastatin-induced improvement in acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation. Rosuvastatin prevents nicotine-induced vascular endothelial abnormalities by activating

  10. Usefulness of visceral obesity (waist/hip ratio) in predicting vascular endothelial function in healthy overweight adults.

    PubMed

    Brook, R D; Bard, R L; Rubenfire, M; Ridker, P M; Rajagopalan, S

    2001-12-01

    Vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) is associated with obesity; however, its etiology remains controversial. By determining the predictors of fasting and postprandial endothelial function in overweight adults without other cardiovascular risk factors, we were able to investigate novel mechanisms directly linking obesity to VED. Thirty-two healthy adults (body mass index [BMI] > or =27 kg/m(2)) underwent determination of fasting low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle size, high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, anthropometric measurements, and endothelial function by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery. Postprandial lipemia and FMD were measured 4 hours after ingestion of a high-fat meal. Blood pressures and fasting levels of lipoproteins, glucose, insulin, and fatty acids were within normal limits in all subjects. An abdominal fat pattern, as determined by an increased waist/hip ratio (WHR), was the sole significant predictor of FMD (r = -0.58, p = 0.001), despite no significant correlation between whole body obesity (BMI) and FMD. At comparable levels of BMI, obese subjects with a WHR > or =0.85 had a significantly blunted FMD compared with those with a WHR <0.85 (3.93 +/- 2.85% vs 8.34 +/- 5.47%, p = 0.016). Traditional coronary risk factors, C-reactive protein, postprandial lipemia, and LDL particle size did not predict FMD. We found no appreciable alteration in the postprandial state from fasting FMD (6.31 +/- 4.62% vs 6.25 +/- 5.47%, p = 0.95). The same results were found when women were analyzed alone. Increased abdominal adiposity determined by a simple WHR is a strong independent predictor of VED even in healthy overweight adults; this is a finding unexplained by alterations in conventional risk factors, systemic inflammation, or the atherogenic lipoprotein pattern. PMID:11728354

  11. On the electromagnetic fields produced by marine frequency domain controlled sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chave, Alan D.

    2009-12-01

    In recent years, marine controlled source electromagnetics (CSEM) has found increasing use in hydrocarbon exploration due to its ability to detect thin resistive zones beneath the seafloor. Although it must be recognized that the quantitative interpretation of marine CSEM data over petroleum-bearing formations will typically require 2-D surveys and 2-D or 3-D modelling, the use of the 1-D approximation is useful under some circumstances and provides considerable insight into the physics of marine CSEM. It is the purpose of this paper to thoroughly explore the 1-D solutions for all four fundamental source types-vertical and horizontal, electric and magnetic dipole (VED, HED, VMD and HMD)-using a set of canonical reservoir models that encompass brine to weak to strong hydrocarbon types. The paper introduces the formalism to solve the Maxwell equations for a 1-D structure in terms of independent and unique toroidal and poloidal magnetic modes that circumscribe the salient diffusion physics. Green's functions for the two modes from which solutions for arbitrary source current distributions can be constructed are derived and used to obtain the electromagnetic (EM) fields produced by finite VED, HED, VMD and HMD sources overlying an arbitrary 1-D electrical structure. Field behaviour is analysed using the Poynting vector that represents the time-averaged flow of energy through the structure and a polarization ellipse decomposition of the triaxial seafloor EM field that is a complete field description. The behaviour of the two EM modes using unimodal VED and VMD sources is presented. The paper closes by extending these results to the bimodal HED and HMD sources.

  12. Computational simulations of vorticity enhanced diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vold, Erik L.

    1999-11-01

    Computer simulations are used to investigate a phenomenon of vorticity enhanced diffusion (VED), a net transport and mixing of a passive scalar across a prescribed vortex flow field driven by a background gradient in the scalar quantity. The central issue under study here is the increase in scalar flux down the gradient and across the vortex field. The numerical scheme uses cylindrical coordinates centered with the vortex flow which allows an exact advective solution and 1D or 2D diffusion using simple numerical methods. In the results, the ratio of transport across a localized vortex region in the presence of the vortex flow over that expected for diffusion alone is evaluated as a measure of VED. This ratio is seen to increase dramatically while the absolute flux across the vortex decreases slowly as the diffusion coefficient is decreased. Similar results are found and compared for varying diffusion coefficient, D, or vortex rotation time, τv, for a constant background gradient in the transported scalar vs an interface in the transported quantity, and for vortex flow fields constant in time vs flow which evolves in time from an initial state and with a Schmidt number of order unity. A simple analysis shows that for a small diffusion coefficient, the flux ratio measure of VED scales as the vortex radius over the thickness for mass diffusion in a viscous shear layer within the vortex characterized by (Dτv)1/2. The phenomenon is linear as investigated here and suggests that a significant enhancement of mixing in fluids may be a relatively simple linear process. Discussion touches on how this vorticity enhanced diffusion may be related to mixing in nonlinear turbulent flows.

  13. Initial validation of a novel rat model of vasculogenic erectile dysfunction with generalized atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Park, K; Son, H; Kim, S W; Paick, J-S

    2005-01-01

    Although rats have been widely used in evaluating various causes of vasculogenic erectile dysfunction (VED), the atherosclerotic rat model has seldom been tried probably due to its inherent tolerance to a cholesterol diet. To enhance endothelial sensitivity to cholesterol diet, we tested the effects of transient interruption of nitric oxide synthase on atherogenesis induced by cholesterol diet in a rat model. Rats with atherosclerosis (AS group) received 1% cholesterol diet for 6 weeks. During the initial 2 weeks, they drank water that contained N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (3 mg/ml). After 6 weeks, we carried out histologic and hemodynamic evaluation to confirm pelvic atherosclerosis and erectile dysfunction, respectively, and the results were compared with those of cholesterol only (Chol) group and normal control (C) group. Compared to the C or Chol group, the mean intima/media (I/M) of the internal pudendal artery, which contributes approximately 70% of the total resistance of the penile vasculature, was markedly increased by the treatment (1.82+/-0.25 vs 0.77+/-0.13, P<0.05). Correspondingly, significantly diminished erectile function was observed. Combined treatment for 2 weeks elicited early atherosclerotic changes in proximal arteries and erectile impairment and further 4 weeks of cholesterol diet spread overt atherosclerosis to the periphery. The Chol group showed no arterial pathology, although they showed mild VED. A correlation study showed that atherosclerosis of the distal artery was better correlated with erectile dysfunction than the proximal artery. Based on these results, our study demonstrates that combination treatment of cholesterol diet with L-NAME would be used as a rapid, effective protocol of developing atherosclerotic rat model of VED. PMID:15889122

  14. Effects of chronic methamphetamine exposure on heart function in uninfected and retrovirus-infected mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qianli; Montes, Sergio; Larson, Douglas F; Watson, Ronald R

    2002-07-12

    Methamphetamine (MA) increases catecholamine levels, which have detrimental effects on heart function through vasoconstriction, myocardial hypertrophy, and fibrosis. Murine retrovirus infection induces dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The present study investigated the cardiovascular effects of chronic MA treatment on uninfected and retrovirus-infected mice. C57BL/6 mice were studied after 12 weeks treatment. The four study groups were (group I) uninfected, MA placebo; (group II) infected, MA placebo; (group III) uninfected, MA treatment; and (group IV) infected and MA treatment. MA injections were given i.p. once a day for 5 days/week with a increasing dose from 15 mg/kg to 40 mg/kg. Left ventricular mechanics were measured in situ a using Millar conductance catheter system for pressure-volume loop analysis. Cardiac pathology was determined with histological analysis. In the uninfected mice, the load independent contractile parameters, pre-load recruitable stroke work (PRSW) and dP/dt(max) vs. Ved, significantly decreased by 32% and 35% in MA treated mice when compared to the saline injected mice. In retrovirus-infected mice, although there were no significant difference in Ees, PRSW, and dP/dt(max) vs. Ved due to MA treatment, they were increased 45%, 15% and 42% respectively when compared to saline treated mice. No further lowered heart function during murine AIDS may be due to the counteraction of the retroviral DCM and the MA induced myocardial fibrosis and hypertrophy (thickening of the ventricular walls). This is supported by increases in the End-diastolic volume (Ved, 38%) and End-systolic volume (Ves, 84%) in the retrovirus-infected saline injected mice, the decreases of 33% and 17% in the uninfected MA-treated mice, but no significant changes in the retrovirus-infected MA treated mice when compared to uninfected saline injected mice. These data suggest that MA induced myocardial cellular changes compensate for retrovirus induced DCM. PMID:12084392

  15. Numerical simulation and experimental results of ultrasonic waves scattering on a model of the artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcik, J.; Powalowski, T.; Trawinski, Z.

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare the results of the mathematical modeling and experimental results of the ultrasonic waves scattering in the inhomogeneous dissipative medium. The research was carried out for an artery model (a pipe made of a latex), with internal diameter of 5 mm and wall thickness of 1.25 mm. The numerical solver was created for calculation of the fields of ultrasonic beams and scattered fields under different boundary conditions, different angles and transversal displacement of ultrasonic beams with respect to the position of the arterial wall. The investigations employed the VED ultrasonic apparatus. The good agreement between the numerical calculation and experimental results was obtained.

  16. Myosin light chain kinase inhibitor ML7 improves vascular endothelial dysfunction via tight junction regulation in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaowen; Wang, Xiaobian; Wan, Yufeng; Zhou, Qing; Zhu, Huaqing; Wang, Yuan

    2015-09-01

    Vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) is an important factor in the initiation and development of atherosclerosis (AS). Previous studies have demonstrated that endothelial permeability is increased in diet‑induced AS. However, the precise underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The present study aimed to analyze whether the myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor ML7 is able to improve VED and AS by regulating the expression of the tight junction (TJ) proteins zona occludens (ZO)‑1 and occludin via mechanisms involving MLCK and MLC phosphorylation in high‑fat diet‑fed rabbits. New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: Control group, AS group and ML7 group. The rabbits were fed a standard diet (control group), a high‑fat diet (AS group) or a high‑fat diet supplemented with 1 mg/kg/day ML7 (ML7 group). After 12 weeks, endothelium‑dependent relaxation and endothelium‑independent relaxation were measured using high-frequency ultrasound. Administration of a high‑fat diet significantly increased the levels of serum lipids and inflammatory markers in the rabbits in the AS group, as compared with those in the rabbits in the control group. Furthermore, a high‑fat diet contributed to the formation of a typical atherosclerotic plaque, as well as an increase in endothelial permeability and VED. These symptoms of AS were significantly improved following treatment with ML7, as demonstrated in the ML7 group. Hematoxylin & eosin and immunohistochemical staining indicated that ML7 was able to decrease the expression of MLCK and MLC phosphorylation in the arterial wall of rabbits fed a high‑fat diet. A similar change was observed for the TJ proteins ZO‑1 and occludin. In addition, western blot analysis demonstrated that ML7 increased the expression levels of occludin in the precipitate, but reduced its expression in the supernatant of lysed aortas. These results indicated that occludin, which is a dynamic protein at the TJ

  17. Myosin light chain kinase inhibitor ML7 improves vascular endothelial dysfunction via tight junction regulation in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    CHENG, XIAOWEN; WANG, XIAOBIAN; WAN, YUFENG; ZHOU, QING; ZHU, HUAQING; WANG, YUAN

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) is an important factor in the initiation and development of atherosclerosis (AS). Previous studies have demonstrated that endothelial permeability is increased in diet-induced AS. However, the precise underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The present study aimed to analyze whether the myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor ML7 is able to improve VED and AS by regulating the expression of the tight junction (TJ) proteins zona occludens (ZO)-1 and occludin via mechanisms involving MLCK and MLC phosphorylation in high-fat diet-fed rabbits. New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: Control group, AS group and ML7 group. The rabbits were fed a standard diet (control group), a high-fat diet (AS group) or a high-fat diet supplemented with 1 mg/kg/day ML7 (ML7 group). After 12 weeks, endothelium-dependent relaxation and endothelium-independent relaxation were measured using high-frequency ultrasound. Administration of a high-fat diet significantly increased the levels of serum lipids and inflammatory markers in the rabbits in the AS group, as compared with those in the rabbits in the control group. Furthermore, a high-fat diet contributed to the formation of a typical atherosclerotic plaque, as well as an increase in endothelial permeability and VED. These symptoms of AS were significantly improved following treatment with ML7, as demonstrated in the ML7 group. Hematoxylin & eosin and immunohistochemical staining indicated that ML7 was able to decrease the expression of MLCK and MLC phosphorylation in the arterial wall of rabbits fed a high-fat diet. A similar change was observed for the TJ proteins ZO-1 and occludin. In addition, western blot analysis demonstrated that ML7 increased the expression levels of occludin in the precipitate, but reduced its expression in the supernatant of lysed aortas. These results indicated that occludin, which is a dynamic protein at the TJ, is associated with

  18. Clinical presentation and cardiovascular risk profiles in patients with left main coronary artery disease in a middle eastern country.

    PubMed

    Gehani, A A; El-Menyar, Ayman; Elgendy, Islam; Abuzaid, Ahmed; Ahmed, Emad; Haque, Saiful

    2013-04-01

    We evaluated the prevalence and clinical profile of patients with left main coronary artery disease (LMCA) in Qatar between 2006 and 2010. Patients were divided into 2 groups: patients with LMCA and patients without LMCA but had severe 3-vessel disease (VeD) eligible for surgical revascularization. Among 7000 patients who underwent coronary angiography, 210 patients had significant LMCA and 200 patients with severe 3VeD were matched for age and sex. Diabetes mellitus and hypertension were comparable in the 2 groups. Presentations with myocardial infarction or heart failure were comparable in both groups. Isolated LMCA was 4-fold higher in women (P = .02). Dyslipidemia and smoking were more prevalent in patients with distal and proximal lesions, respectively. Renal failure was independent predictor of LMCA (adjusted odds ratio: 2.6; 95% confidence interval: 1.43-4.69). One-year mortality was higher in LMCA (P = .01). The LMCA carries high mortality. Certain cardiovascular risk factors were important predictors of stenosis site. PMID:22492251

  19. Salvianolic acid A protects against vascular endothelial dysfunction in high-fat diet fed and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiu-Ying; Qiang, Gui-Fen; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Shou-Bao; Sun, Lan; Yang, Hai-Guang; Du, Guan-Hua

    2011-10-01

    Salvianolic acid A (SalA) is one of the main active ingredients of Salvia miltiorrhizae. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of SalA on the diabetic vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED). The rats were given a high-fat and high-sucrose diet for 1 month followed by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (30 mg/kg). The diabetic rats were treated with SalA (1 mg/kg, 90% purity) orally for 10 weeks after modeling, and were given a high-fat diet. Contractile and relaxant responses of aorta rings as well as the serum indications were measured. Our results indicated that SalA treatment decreased the level of serum Von Willebrand factor and ameliorated acetylcholine-induced relaxation and KCl-induced contraction in aorta rings of the diabetic rats. SalA treatment also reduced the serum malondialdehyde, the content of aortic advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity as well as the expression of endothelial NOS protein in the rat aorta. Exposure of EA.hy926 cells to AGEs decreased the cell viability and changed the cell morphology, whereas SalA had protective effect on AGEs-induced cellular vitality. Our data suggested that SalA could protect against vascular VED in diabetes, which might attribute to its suppressive effect on oxidative stress and AGEs-induced endothelial dysfunction. PMID:21972802

  20. Exploration of resistive targets within shallow marine environments using the circular electrical dipole and the differential electrical dipole methods: a time-domain modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haroon, Amir; Mogilatov, Vladimir; Goldman, Mark; Bergers, Rainer; Tezkan, Bülent

    2016-05-01

    Two novel transient controlled source electromagnetic methods called circular electrical dipole (CED) and differential electrical dipole (DED) are theoretically analysed for applications in shallow marine environments. 1-D and 3-D time-domain modelling studies are used to investigate the detectability and applicability of the methods when investigating resistive layers/targets representing hydrocarbon-saturated formations. The results are compared to the conventional time-domain horizontal electrical dipole (HED) and vertical electrical dipole (VED) sources. The applied theoretical modelling studies demonstrate that CED and DED have higher signal detectability towards resistive targets compared to TD-CSEM, but demonstrate significantly poorer signal amplitudes. Future CED/DED applications will have to solve this issue prior to measuring. Furthermore, the two novel methods have very similar detectability characteristics towards 3-D resistive targets embedded in marine sediments as VED while being less susceptible towards non-verticality. Due to the complex transmitter design of CED/DED the systems are prone to geometrical errors. Modelling studies show that even small transmitter inaccuracies have strong effects on the signal characteristics of CED making an actual marine application difficult at the present time. In contrast, the DED signal is less affected by geometrical errors in comparison to CED and may therefore be more adequate for marine applications.

  1. Medical store management: an integrated economic analysis of a tertiary care hospital in central India.

    PubMed

    Mahatme, Ms; Dakhale, Gn; Hiware, Sk; Shinde, At; Salve, Am

    2012-04-01

    Economic analysis plays a pivotal role in the management of medical store. The main objectives of this study were to consider always better control-vital, essential and desirable (ABC-VED) analysis with economic order quantity (EOQ), comparison of indexed cost and the actual cost, and to assess the expenditure for the forthcoming years. Based on cost and criticality, a matrix of nine groups by combining ABC and VED analysis was formulated. Drug categories were narrowed down for prioritization to direct supervisory monitoring. The subgroups AE and AV of the categories category I and II should be ordered based on EOQ. The difference between the actual annual drug expenditure (ADE) and the derived indexed cost using the cost inflation index (CII) was calculated. Linear regression was used to assess the expenditure for the forth coming years. The total ADE for the financial year of 2010-2011 was Rs. 1,91,44,253 which was only 7.68% of annual hospital expenditure. Using the inflation index, the indexed cost of acquisition of ADE for year 2010-2011 was Rs. 1,95,10,387. The difference between the two was estimated to be 2.11%. Thus, the CII justifies the demand of increased budget for next year and prompts us for cautious use of drugs. By taking into consideration the ADE of last 10 years, we have forecasted the budget for forthcoming years which will help significantly for making policies according to the available budget. PMID:22754264

  2. Is apolipoprotein-(a) an important indicator of vasculogenic erectile dysfunction?

    PubMed

    Atahan, O; Kayigil, O; Hizel, N; Metin, A

    1998-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether high peripheral and cavernosal plasma levels of apolipoprotein-(a) [Lp (a)] is an indicator for vasculogenic erectile dysfunction. We determined Lp (a), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels in peripheral and cavernosal blood in 39 patients with erectile dysfunction. Thirty-nine impotent patients have been divided into two groups: vasculogenic erectile dysfunction (VED) and nonvasculogenic erectile dysfunction (NVED), according to colour Doppler ultrasonic flowmetry, dynamic infusion cavernosometry, and the pressure difference between the brachial arterial systolic pressure and cavernosal arterial systolic pressure measurements. Biochemical values were compared in both groups. Lp (a) and TC levels were higher in both peripheral and cavernosal samples of VED group than in NVED group, with no differences between peripheral and cavernosal blood levels within the same groups. There were no significant changes in TG and HDL levels in either group. The detection of more than 31 mg/dl in Lp (a) level solely shows the vascular origin with a sensitivity and specificity of 95 and 82.3%, respectively. High Lp (a) levels can be considered an indicator of vasculogenic erectile dysfunction. PMID:9607890

  3. Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: a case with fatal outcome.

    PubMed

    Morais, Paulo; Mota, Alberto; Eloy, Catarina; Lopes, José Manuel; Torres, Fátima; Palmeiro, Aida; Tavares, Purificação; Azevedo, Filomena

    2011-01-01

    A 13-year-old boy, born prematurely and hypotonic, from non-consanguineous healthy parents, was referred to our department because of easy bruising. A slightly extensible, thin and translucent skin, associated with dysmorphic facies, acrogeria, multiple ecchymoses, hypermobility of the small joints, dorsal kyphosis, genu valgum, flat feet, elongated upper limbs, and low muscle tone were all evident. A history of learning disability and bilateral inguinal hernia was present. Blood and imaging studies were unremarkable. A skin biopsy disclosed an unremarkable dermis; electron microscopy showed abnormalities in the diameter, contour, and shape of collagen fibrils/fibers. Genetic analysis revealed heterozygosity for a novel mutation in COL3A1 gene (c.3527G>A), confirming the diagnosis of vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (VEDS). The patient died at 15 years of age because of aortic dissection. Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a rare, life-threatening, autosomal dominant variant of EDS, resulting from mutations in COL3A1 gene. Affected individuals are prone to serious and potentially fatal complications, especially vascular, intestinal, and uterine ruptures. Delay in diagnosis is common, even when the clinical presentation is typical. Therefore, dermatologists should be familiar with VEDS features because the skin findings may be the first signs. Early diagnosis will improve management of visceral complications and allow early genetic counseling. PMID:21549076

  4. Spontaneous colon perforations associated with a vascular type of ehlers-danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Akira; Okada, Kazuya; Okubo, Hitoshi; Matsuo, Mitsutoshi; Kishikawa, Hiroki; Naing, Banyar Than; Watanabe, Atsushi; Shimada, Takashi

    2014-05-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, vascular type (vEDS) (MIM #130050) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutation in the type III collagen gene, COL3A1, leading to fragility of blood vessels, bowel and uterus that leads to spontaneous rupture. We report a previously undiagnosed vEDS patient with bowel complications. A 20-year-old female patient was referred to our hospital with abdominal pain. Computed tomography showed notable dilatation of the sigmoid colon with intraperitoneal fluid. Laparotomy revealed dilatation of the sigmoid colon, breakdown of serosa and muscularis propria of the sigmoid colon with impending perforation, and intra-abdominal hemorrhage caused by breakdown of the mesenterium. Resection of the sigmoid colon with Hartmann's pouch and an end colostomy were performed. Physical examination showed joint hypermobility, translucent skin with venous prominence and facial structure abnormalities. Genetic analysis using cDNA extracted from the patient's fibroblasts by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction direct sequencing showed a missense mutation within the triple helix region of COL3A1 (c.2150 G>A; Gly717Asp). PMID:24932165

  5. Assessment of Ganga river ecosystem at Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India with reference to water quality indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhutiani, R.; Khanna, D. R.; Kulkarni, Dipali Bhaskar; Ruhela, Mukesh

    2016-06-01

    The river Ganges is regarded as one of the most holy and sacred rivers of the world from time immemorial. The evaluation of river water quality is a critical element in the assessment of water resources. The quality/potability of water that is consumed defines the base line of protection against many diseases and infections. The present study aimed to calculate Water Quality Index (WQI) by the analysis of sixteen physico-chemical parameters on the basis of River Ganga index of Ved Prakash, weighted arithmetic index and WQI by National sanitation foundation (NSF) to assess the suitability of water for drinking, irrigation purposes and other human uses. These three water quality indices have been used to assess variation in the quality of the River Ganga at monitored locations over an 11-year period. Application of three different indexes to assess the water quality over a period of 11 years shows minor variations in water quality. Index values as per River Ganga Index by Ved Prakash et al. from 2000 to 2010 ranged between medium to good, Index values as per NSF Index for years 2000-2010 indicate good water quality, while Index values as per the weighted arithmetic index method for the study period indicate poor water quality.

  6. Quantitative wear and wear damage analysis of composite resins in vitro.

    PubMed

    Koottathape, Natthavoot; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Iwasaki, Naohiko; Kanehira, Masafumi; Finger, Werner J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate volume loss and worn surfaces' morphologies of eight composite resins: Durafill VS (DUR), Clearfil AP-X (APX), Filtek Z250 (Z250), Filtek Supreme XT (FIL), Kalore (KAL), MI Flow (MFL), Venus Diamond (VED) and Venus Pearl (VEP). Disc-shaped specimens were fabricated and mounted in a ball-on-disc wear testing machine and abraded in water or with the third-body media, poppy seed slurry and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) slurry. Volume loss (n=5) was determined after 50k sliding cycles, and analyzed using two-way ANOVA (α=0.05). The worn surfaces were examined with SEM. Two-way ANOVA suggested significant interaction between composite and wear condition. DUR, KAL and MFL showed low wear in water. DUR, Z250 and FIL showed moderate wear with PMMA slurry, whereas APX, KAL and MFL were deeper abraded. Under the action of poppy seed slurry DUR proved high volume loss. SEM showed that Z250, FIL and MFL were uniformly abraded in water. KAL and MFL with poppy seed were heavily destructed, whereas VED and VEP appeared very smooth. KAL and MFL abraded with PMMA slurry showed many cracks, but VEP remained crack-free and smooth. Volume loss and worn surfaces' morphologies varied with type of composite and third-body media used. PMID:24219861

  7. Extending color primary set in spectral vector error diffusion by multilevel halftoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norberg, Ole; Nyström, Daniel

    2013-02-01

    Ever since its origin in the late 19th century, a color reproduction technology has relied on a trichromatic color reproduction approach. This has been a very successful method and also fundamental for the development of color reproduction devices. Trichromatic color reproduction is sufficient to approximate the range of colors perceived by the human visual system. However, tricromatic systems only have the ability to match colors when the viewing illumination for the reproduction matches that of the original. Furthermore, the advancement of digital printing technology has introduced printing systems with additional color channels. These additional color channels are used to extend the tonal range capabilities in light and dark regions and to increase color gamut. By an alternative approach the addition color channels can also be used to reproduce the spectral information of the original color. A reproduced spectral match will always correspond to original independent of lighting situation. On the other hand, spectral color reproductions also introduce a more complex color processing by spectral color transfer functions and spectral gamut mapping algorithms. In that perspective, spectral vector error diffusion (sVED) look like a tempting approach with a simple workflow where the inverse color transfer function and halftoning is performed simultaneously in one single operation. Essential for the sVED method are the available color primaries, created by mixing process colors. Increased numbers of as well as optimal spectral characteristics of color primaries are expected to significantly improve the color accuracy of the spectral reproduction. In this study, sVED in combination with multilevel halftoning has been applied on a ten channel inkjet system. The print resolution has been reduced and the underlying physical high resolution of the printer has been used to mix additional primaries. With ten ink channels and halfton cells built-up by 2x2 micro dots where each

  8. Optical properties of soot particles: measurement - model comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forestieri, S.; Lambe, A. T.; Lack, D.; Massoli, P.; Cross, E. S.; Dubey, M.; Mazzoleni, C.; Olfert, J.; Freedman, A.; Davidovits, P.; Onasch, T. B.; Cappa, C. D.

    2013-12-01

    Soot, a product of incomplete combustion, plays an important role in the earth's climate system through the absorption and scattering of solar radiation. In order to accurately model the direct radiative impact of black carbon (BC), the refractive index and shape dependent scattering and absorption characteristics must be known. At present, the assumed shape remains highly uncertain because BC particles are fractal-like, being agglomerates of smaller (20-40 nm) spherules, yet traditional optical models such as Mie theory typically assume a spherical particle morphology. To investigate the ability of various optical models to reproduce observed BC optical properties, we measured light absorption and extinction coefficients of methane and ethylene flame soot particles. Optical properties were measured by multiple instruments: absorption by a dual cavity ringdown photoacoustic spectrometer (CRD-PAS), absorption and scattering by a 3-wavelength photoacoustic/nephelometer spectrometer (PASS-3) and extinction and scattering by a cavity attenuated phase shift spectrometer (CAPS). Soot particle mass was quantified using a centrifugal particle mass analyzer (CPMA) and mobility size was measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Measurements were made for nascent soot particles and for collapsed soot particles following coating with dioctyl sebacate or sulfuric acid and thermal denuding to remove the coating. Wavelength-dependent refractive indices for the sampled particles were derived by fitting the observed absorption and extinction cross-sections to spherical particle Mie theory and Rayleigh-Debye-Gans theory. The Rayleigh-Debye-Gans approximation assumes that the absorption properties of soot are dictated by the individual spherules and neglects interaction between them. In general, Mie theory reproduces the observed absorption and extinction cross-sections for particles with volume equivalent diameters (VED) < ~160 nm, but systematically predicts lower

  9. Identification of GI cancers utilising rapid mid-infrared spectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nallala, Jayakrupakar; Lloyd, Gavin R.; Kendall, Catherine; Barr, Hugh; Shepherd, Neil; Stone, Nick

    2016-03-01

    Pathologists find it notoriously difficult to provide both inter- and intra-observer agreement on a diagnosis of early gastrointestinal cancers. Vibrational spectroscopic approaches have shown their value in providing molecular compositional data from tissue samples and therefore enabling the identification of disease specific changes, when combined with multivariate techniques. Mid-infrared microscopic imaging is undergoing rapid developments in sources, detectors and spectrometers. Here we explore the use of high magnification FTIR for GI cancers and consider how the MINERVA (MId- to NEaR infrared spectroscopy for improVed medical diAgnostics) project, which is developing discrete frequency IR imaging tools will enable histopathologists to obtain rapid molecular images form unstained tissue sections.

  10. [The relevance of multiple sclerosis drugs in private health insurance (PHI)].

    PubMed

    Wild, F

    2015-06-01

    The development of expenses and prescriptions in the pharmacotherapy for multiple sclerosis (MS) is examined on the basis of prescription data of 14 PHI firms. The drugs for the treatment of MS are among the most top-selling drugs in the PHI. From 2007 to 2012, the expenses increase 2.33-fold. The main cause is the increas of the prescription figures. In 2012, about 8,400 privately insured persons receive an MS drug. The prevalence of MS is 2.3 times higher in women than in men Impro ved diagnostic possibilities and expensive new drugs will lead to a dynamic cost de velopment in the next years. PMID:26281288

  11. Dosimetric advantages of IMRT simultaneous integrated boost for high-risk prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X. Allen . E-mail: ali@radonc.mcw.edu; Wang, Jian Z.; Jursinic, Paul A.; Lawton, Colleen A.; Wang Dian

    2005-03-15

    Purpose: A sequential two-phase process, initial and boost irradiation, is the common practice for the radiotherapy management of high-risk prostate cancer. In this work, we explore the feasibility of using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) simultaneous integrated boost (SIB), a single-phase process, to simultaneously deliver high dose to the prostate and lower dose to the pelvic nodes. In addition, we introduce the concept of voxel-equivalent dose for the comparison of treatment plans. Methods and materials: The SIB is designed to deliver the same dose (e.g., 45 Gy, 25 x 1.8 Gy) as the conventional method to the pelvic nodes and to deliver higher doses to prostate in the same 25 fractions (i.e., hypofractionation). The equivalent uniform dose (EUD) was used to determine suitable SIB fractionations that deliver the biologically equivalent doses to prostate. For tumor, the EUD was estimated based on the linear quadratic (LQ) model. The most recent LQ parameters derived from clinical data for prostate cancer were used. The sensitivity of LQ parameters was evaluated. The EUD for normal tissue was computed based on the widely used Lyman model. To be able to consider biologic effectiveness spatially (e.g., voxel by voxel), we propose a new concept, termed the voxel-equivalent dose (VED). The calculation of VED was similar to that for EUD, except that it was done within a voxel. To demonstrate dosimetric feasibility and advantages of the proposed IMRT SIB, we have performed a retrospective planning study on selected patient cases using commercial IMRT and three-dimensional (3D) planning systems. Four treatment scenarios were considered: (1) the conventional 3D plan for initial whole-pelvic irradiation and subsequent conventional 3D boost plan for prostate gland (2) the conventional 3D plan for initial whole-pelvic irradiation and subsequent IMRT boost plan for prostate (3) IMRT plan for initial whole-pelvic irradiation and subsequent IMRT boost plan for

  12. The natural and social-economic resourses of the Republic of Komi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridman, Anton; Yakovleva, Maya; Kuchkina, Ekaterina; Lyaskovskiy, Sergey; Ievlev, Nikolay

    2013-04-01

    North-West of Russian Federation, include 11 subjects of Russian Federation. One of the most interesting regions is republic of Komi.. The native population of North - korely, rusichi, komi, ved', permyaki and other peoples are living here. Main characteristics of region are pollution-free territory, low population concentration, material wealth and huge forest and water resources. Flora and fauna are also interesting. Successful fishing and hunting are possible because of great variety of animals and fish. There are 240 protected natural areas in Republic of Komi (information on the 1st January 2010). All these features let organize scientific expeditions, tourists' routes helping to know unique nature and ethnical culture of North.

  13. An evaluation of the accuracy of some radar wind profiling techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koscielny, A. J.; Doviak, R. J.

    1983-12-01

    Major advances in Doppler radar measurement in optically clear air have made it feasible to monitor radial velocities in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. For most applications the three dimensional wind vector is monitored rather than the radial velocity. Measurement of the wind vector with a single radar can be made assuming a spatially linear, time invariant wind field. The components and derivatives of the wind are estimated by the parameters of a linear regression of the radial velocities on functions of their spatial locations. The accuracy of the wind measurement thus depends on the locations of the radial velocities. The suitability is evaluated of some of the common retrieval techniques for simultaneous measurement of both the vertical and horizontal wind components. The techniques considered for study are fixed beam, azimuthal scanning (VAD) and elevation scanning (VED).

  14. The treatment of erectile dysfunction in patients with neurogenic disease

    PubMed Central

    Brant, William O.

    2016-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) related to compromise of the nervous system is an increasingly common occurrence. This may be due to the multifactorial nature of ED, the myriad of disorders affecting the neurotransmission of erectogenic signals, and improved awareness and diagnosis of ED. Nevertheless, neurogenic ED remains poorly understood and characterized. Disease related factors such as depression, decreased physical and mental function, the burden of chronic illness, and loss of independence may preclude sexual intimacy and lead to ED as well. The amount of data regarding treatment options in subpopulations of differing neurologic disorders remains scarce except for men with spinal cord injury. The treatment options including phosphodiesterase inhibitors, intracavernosal or intraurethral vasoactive agents, vacuum erection devices (VED) and penile prosthetic implantation remain constant. This review discusses the options in specific neurologic conditions, and briefly provides insight into new and future developments that may reshape the management of neurogenic ED. PMID:26904415

  15. A Low Cost Traveling Wave Tube for Wireless Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vancil, Bernard Kenneth; Wintucky, Edwin G.; Williams, W. D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Demand for high data rate wireless communications is pushing up amplifier power, bandwidth and frequency requirements. Some systems are using vacuum electron devices again because solid-state power amplifiers are not able to efficiently meet the new requirements. The traveling wave tube is the VED of choice because of its excellent broadband capability as well as high power efficiency and frequency. But TWTs are very expensive on a per watt basis below about 200 watts of output power. We propose a new traveling wave tube that utilizes cathode ray tube construction technology and electrostatic focusing. We believe the tube can be built in quantity for under $1,000 each. We discuss several traveling wave tube slow wave circuits that lend themselves to the new construction. We will present modeling results and data on prototype devices.

  16. [Adult hepatoblastoma. A case report].

    PubMed

    Goikoetxea Urdiain, A; Sánchez Acedo, P; Mateo Retuerta, J; Tarifa Castilla, A; Zazpe Ripa, C; Herrera Cabezón, J

    Adult hepatoblastoma is a rare pathology. Its pathogeny is not well understood and prognosis is very bad. We pre-sent a case of adult hepatoblastoma treated in our centre. A 65 year-old male, without previous hepatopathy, who consulted due to right hypochondrial pain with a subacute evolution. The pathological diagnosis was adult epithelial hepatoblastoma, with free surgical margins. The patient recei-ved a second surgical intervention 5 months later due to early recurrence and died 10 months after the diagnosis due to a new massive recurrence. His definitive diagnosis is histological. Radical surgery is the only treatment that increases survival, but recurrence is frequent. There are no well-defined patterns of adjuvant chemotherapy nor is there any trans-plant experience. PMID:27599957

  17. The treatment of erectile dysfunction in patients with neurogenic disease.

    PubMed

    Shridharani, Anand N; Brant, William O

    2016-02-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) related to compromise of the nervous system is an increasingly common occurrence. This may be due to the multifactorial nature of ED, the myriad of disorders affecting the neurotransmission of erectogenic signals, and improved awareness and diagnosis of ED. Nevertheless, neurogenic ED remains poorly understood and characterized. Disease related factors such as depression, decreased physical and mental function, the burden of chronic illness, and loss of independence may preclude sexual intimacy and lead to ED as well. The amount of data regarding treatment options in subpopulations of differing neurologic disorders remains scarce except for men with spinal cord injury. The treatment options including phosphodiesterase inhibitors, intracavernosal or intraurethral vasoactive agents, vacuum erection devices (VED) and penile prosthetic implantation remain constant. This review discusses the options in specific neurologic conditions, and briefly provides insight into new and future developments that may reshape the management of neurogenic ED. PMID:26904415

  18. Doxycycline ameliorates the susceptibility to aortic lesions in a mouse model for the vascular type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Briest, Wilfried; Cooper, Timothy K; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Krawczyk, Melissa; McDonnell, Nazli B; Talan, Mark I

    2011-06-01

    The vascular form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS), a rare disease with grave complications resulting from rupture of major arteries, is caused by mutations of collagen type III [α1 chain of collagen type III (COL3A1)]. The only, recently proven, preventive strategy consists of the reduction of arterial wall stress by β-adrenergic blockers. The heterozygous (HT) Col3a1 knockout mouse has reduced expression of collagen III and recapitulates features of a mild presentation of the disease. The objective of this study was to determine whether changing the balance between synthesis and degradation of collagen by chronic treatment with doxycycline, a nonspecific matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor, could prevent the development of vascular pathology in HT mice. After 3 months of treatment with doxycycline or placebo, 9-month-old HT or wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to surgical stressing of the aorta. A 3-fold increase in stress-induced aortic lesions found in untreated HT mice 1 week after intervention (cumulative score 4.5 ± 0.87 versus 1.3 ± 0.34 in WT, p < 0.001) was fully prevented in the doxycycline-treated group (1.1 ± 0.56, p < 0.001). Untreated HT mice showed increased MMP-9 activity in the carotid artery and decreased collagen content in the aorta; however, in doxycycline-treated animals there was normalization to the levels observed in WT mice. Doxycycline treatment inhibits the activity of tissue MMP and attenuates the decrease in the collagen content in aortas of mice haploinsufficient for collagen III, as well as prevents the development of stress-induced vessel pathology. The results suggest that doxycycline merits clinical testing as a treatment for vEDS. PMID:21363928

  19. High fat diet exacerbates vascular endothelial dysfunction in rats exposed to continuous hypobaric hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan-Xia; Tang, Feng; Ga, Qin; Wuren, Tana; Wang, Ya-Ping; Rondina, Matthew T; Ge, Ri-Li

    2015-02-13

    Independently, a high fat diet and hypoxia are associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) and often occur concurrently in patients. Nevertheless, the effects of a high fat diet on vascular endothelial function combined with hypoxia, a situation occurring with increasing frequency in many parts of the world, remain largely unknown. We investigated the effects of a high fat diet on vascular endothelial function in rats exposed to continuous hypoxia for 4 weeks. Seventy two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: a hypoxia group fed regular chow, a combined hypoxia and high fat diet (HFD) group, and for comparison, rats maintained in normoxia, regular chow conditions were set as baseline (BL) group. The experimental data of BL group were obtained at beginning of hypoxia given in the other groups. Continuous hypoxia was induced in a hypobaric chamber maintained at an altitude of 5000 m. Compared to hypoxic conditions alone, hypoxia plus a HFD prevented adaptive changes in plasma nitric oxide (NOx) levels and caused earlier and more severe changes in aortic endothelial structures. Functionally, hypoxia plus a HFD resulted in impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation responses to acetylcholine and altered the bioavailability of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) substrate L-Arginine. At the molecular level, hypoxia plus a HFD blunted increases in endothelial NOS (eNOS) mRNA and protein in aortic endothelial tissue. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that in the setting of hypoxia, a high fat diet leads to earlier and more severe VED than hypoxia alone. These data have important implications for populations residing at high-altitude, as dietary patterns shift towards increased fat intake. PMID:25603049

  20. Black carbon measurements in the Pearl River Delta region of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X.; Gao, R.; Schwarz, J. P.; Ling-Yan, H.; Fahey, D. W.; Laurel A, W.; Zeng, L.

    2009-12-01

    The Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in southeastern China is one of the most polluted industrial/metropolitan areas in the world. The 3C-STAR campaign (Synthesized Prevention Techniques for Air Pollution Complex and Integrated Demonstration in Key City-Cluster Region), carried out in October-November, 2008, was aimed at improving the understanding and quantification of air pollution in the region, while developing technical capacity for regional air quality monitoring and modeling. We report single-particle soot photometer (SP2) measurements and analyses of refractory black carbon (rBC) at Kaiping, a rural site downwind of the major pollution sources in the PRD area. The rBC mass loadings varied between 0.5 and 10 µg-rBC kg-air-1, and averaged 2.8 µg-rBC kg-air-1. These values are roughly an order of magnitude higher than those measured in the Houston, Texas, a major US metropolitan area. The rBC mass distributions show a primary lognormal peak with a median mass diameter of 0.22 µm volume-equivalent diameter (VED), which is similar to those observed in Houston and other regions with the SP2 instrument. A second mode with a mass median diameter of 0.69 µm VED, has not been observed before. Coatings are found on over 50% of rBC particles, suggesting that they are aged and/or of biomass-burning origin. The high rBC loadings cause significant heating of the atmosphere due to direct solar absorption. A diurnal heating rate of over 0.5 K day-1. is estimated for the average of entire dataset with a maximum heating rate near 3 K day-1.

  1. Catechin averts experimental diabetes mellitus-induced vascular endothelial structural and functional abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Pooja; Khanna, Deepa; Balakumar, Pitchai

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with an induction of vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED), an initial event that could lead to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and hypertension. Previous studies showed that catechin, a key component of green tea, possesses vascular beneficial effects. We investigated the effect of catechin hydrate in diabetes mellitus-induced experimental vascular endothelial abnormalities (VEA). Streptozotocin (50 mg/kg, i.p., once) administration to rats produced diabetes mellitus, which subsequently induced VEA in 8 weeks by markedly attenuating acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation in the isolated aortic ring preparation, decreasing aortic and serum nitrite/nitrate concentrations and impairing aortic endothelial integrity. These abnormalities in diabetic rats were accompanied with elevated aortic superoxide anion generation and serum lipid peroxidation in addition to hyperglycemia. Catechin hydrate treatment (50 mg/kg/day p.o., 3 weeks) markedly prevented diabetes mellitus-induced VEA and vascular oxidative stress. Intriguingly, in vitro incubation of L-NAME (100 μM), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, or Wortmannin (100 nM), a selective inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), markedly prevented catechin hydrate-induced improvement in acetylcholine-provoked endothelium-dependent relaxation in the diabetic rat aorta. Moreover, catechin hydrate treatment considerably reduced the elevated level of serum glucose in diabetic rats. In conclusion, catechin hydrate treatment prevents diabetes mellitus-induced VED through the activation of endothelial PI3K signal and subsequent activation of eNOS and generation of nitric oxide. In addition, reduction in high glucose, vascular oxidative stress, and lipid peroxidation might additionally contribute to catechin hydrate-associated prevention of diabetic VEA. PMID:24048981

  2. Myocardial performance index is sensitive to changes in cardiac contractility, but is also affected by vascular load condition.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Kazunori; Kawada, Toru; Zheng, Can; Li, Meihua; Shishido, Toshiaki; Sugimachi, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Myocardial performance index (MPI), or Tei index, is measured by Doppler echocardiography in clinical practice. MPI has been shown to be useful in evaluating left ventricular (LV) performance and predicting prognosis in cardiac patients. However, the effects of LV load and contractile states on MPI remain to be thoroughly investigated. In 14 anesthetized dogs, we obtained LV pressure-volume relationship with use of sonomicrometry and catheter-tip manometry. MPI was determined from the time derivative of LV volume and pressure. LV end-systolic pressure-volume ratio (Ees'), effective arterial elastance (Ea) and LV end-diastolic volume (Ved) were used as indices of LV contractility, afterload and preload, respectively. Hemodynamic conditions were varied over wide ranges [heart rate (HR), 66-192 bpm; mean arterial pressure, 71-177 mmHg] by infusing cardiovascular agents, by inducing ischemic heart failure and by electrical atrial pacing. Multiple linear regression analysis of pooled data (66 data sets) indicated that MPI (0.6-1.8) significantly correlated with Ees' [1.5-17.5 mmHg · ml(-1), p<0.0001, standard partial regression coefficient (β) =-0.66], Ea (3.6-21.9 mmHg · ml(-1), p<0.001, β = 0.4) and Ved (11-100 ml, p<0.0001, β = -0.69). MPI directly correlated with the time constant of isovolumic relaxation (19-66 ms, p<0.05), but not with HR or LV diastolic-stiffness (all p>0.1). Theoretical analysis also indicated that MPI decreases following the increases in LV contractility and in preload, while it increases in response to an increase in LV afterload. We conclude that MPI sensitively detects changes in LV contractility. However, MPI is also affected by changes in LV afterload and preload. PMID:24109782

  3. Postprandial hyperglycemia impairs vascular endothelial function in healthy men by inducing lipid peroxidation and increasing asymmetric dimethylarginine:arginine.

    PubMed

    Mah, Eunice; Noh, Sang K; Ballard, Kevin D; Matos, Manuel E; Volek, Jeff S; Bruno, Richard S

    2011-11-01

    Postprandial hyperglycemia induces vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) and increases future cardiovascular disease risk. We hypothesized that postprandial hyperglycemia would decrease vascular function in healthy men by inducing oxidative stress and proinflammatory responses and increasing asymmetric dimethylarginine:arginine (ADMA:arginine), a biomarker that is predictive of reduced NO biosynthesis. In a randomized, cross-over design, healthy men (n = 16; 21.6 ± 0.8 y) ingested glucose or fructose (75 g) after an overnight fast. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), plasma glucose and insulin, antioxidants, malondialdehyde (MDA), inflammatory proteins, arginine, and ADMA were measured at regular intervals during the 3-h postprandial period. Baseline FMD did not differ between trials (P > 0.05). Postprandial FMD was reduced following the ingestion of glucose only. Postprandial MDA concentrations increased to a greater extent following the ingestion of glucose compared to fructose. Plasma arginine decreased and the ratio of ADMA:arginine increased to a greater extent following the ingestion of glucose. Inflammatory cytokines and cellular adhesion molecules were unaffected by the ingestion of either sugar. Postprandial AUC(0-3 h) for FMD and MDA were inversely related (r = -0.80; P < 0.05), suggesting that hyperglycemia-induced lipid peroxidation suppresses postprandial vascular function. Collectively, these findings suggest that postprandial hyperglycemia in healthy men reduces endothelium-dependent vasodilation by increasing lipid peroxidation independent of inflammation. Postprandial alterations in arginine and ADMA:arginine also suggest that acute hyperglycemia may induce VED by decreasing NO bioavailability through an oxidative stress-dependent mechanism. Additional work is warranted to define whether inhibiting lipid peroxidation and restoring arginine metabolism would mitigate hyperglycemia-mediated decreases in vascular function. PMID:21940510

  4. The type of variants at the COL3A1 gene associates with the phenotype and severity of vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Frank, Michael; Albuisson, Juliette; Ranque, Brigitte; Golmard, Lisa; Mazzella, Jean-Michael; Bal-Theoleyre, Laurence; Fauret, Anne-Laure; Mirault, Tristan; Denarié, Nicolas; Mousseaux, Elie; Boutouyrie, Pierre; Fiessinger, Jean-Noël; Emmerich, Joseph; Messas, Emmanuel; Jeunemaitre, Xavier

    2015-12-01

    Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS) is a rare and severe autosomal dominant disorder caused by variants at the COL3A1 gene. Clinical characteristics and course of disease of 215 molecularly proven patients (146 index cases and 69 relatives) were analysed. We found 126 distincts variants that were divided into five groups: (1) Glycine substitutions (n=71), (2) splice-site and in-frame insertions-deletions (n=36), (3) variants leading to haplo-insufficiency (n=7), (4) non-glycine missense variants within the triple helix (n=4 variants), and (5) non-glycine missense variants or in-frame insertions-deletions, in the N- or C-terminal part of the protein (n=8). Overall, our cohort confirmed the severity of the disease with a median age at first complication of 29 years (IQR 22-39), the most frequent being arterial (48%) and digestive (24%) ruptures. Groups 2 and 1 were significantly more severe than groups 3-5, with extreme median ages at first major complication of 23-47 years. Patients of groups 3-5 had a less typical phenotype and remarkably absence of digestive events. The distribution of glycine-replacing amino acids was strongly biased towards more destabilizing residues of the collagen assembly. Thus the natural course of vEDS and the clinical phenotype of patients are influenced by the type of COL3A1 variant. This study also confirms that patients with variants located in the C- and N-termini or leading to haplo-insufficiency have milder course of the disease and less prevalent diagnostic criteria. These findings may help refine diagnostic strategy, genetic counselling and clinical care. PMID:25758994

  5. Clinical, structural, biochemical and X-ray crystallographic correlates of pathogenicity for variants in the C-propeptide region of the COL3A1 gene.

    PubMed

    Stembridge, Natasha S; Vandersteen, Anthony M; Ghali, Neeti; Sawle, Philip; Nesbitt, Mandy; Pollitt, Rebecca C; Ferguson, David J P; Holden, Simon; Elmslie, Frances; Henderson, Alex; Hulmes, David J S; Pope, F Michael

    2015-08-01

    Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS) is a heritable disorder of connective tissue caused by pathological variants in the COL3A1 gene, which encodes the α1 chain of type III collagen. Type III collagen is a major component of skin, arterial walls, and the gastrointestinal tract. Collagen III protein deficiency manifests as an increased risk of rupture, perforation, and dissection of these structures. The most disruptive gene variants affect the collagen helix via glycine substitutions or splice donor site mutations. The C-propeptide region of COL3A1 includes exons 49-52 and has a crucial role in initiating the C-terminal assembly of procollagen monomers in the early stages of collagen biosynthesis. Nineteen COL3A1 variants have previously been reported in these exons, of which four were associated with a severe vEDS phenotype. We identified two novel C-propeptide missense variants; p.Pro1440Leu, p.Arg1432Leu, and a non-stop mutation, c.4400A > T, p. (*1467Leuext*45). These variants produce variable phenotypes ranging from obvious acrogeria to classical or hypermobile EDS. A previously reported variant p.Lys1313Arg is of unknown clinical significance but likely benign, based on this study. Assigning disease pathogenicity remains complex, clinical phenotyping and crystal structure evidence being crucial. We briefly compare reported phenotypes for patients with missense variants in the C-propeptide domain for other human collagen disorders including COL1A1 and COL1A2 (osteogenesis imperfecta). PMID:25846194

  6. Characteristics of seismoelectric interface responses at dipping boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröger, B.; Kemna, A.

    2012-04-01

    When crossing an interface between two layers with different petrophysical properties, a seismic wave generates a time-varying charge separation which acts as a dipole radiating electromagnetic energy independently of the seismic wave. If we consider a monochromatic seismic source located above a horizontal interface between such media, the seismic wave traverses the interface and causes relative displacement of ions at the matrix-fluid interface in the pore space. The resulting electric field is due to the streaming current imbalance at the interface. This is equivalent to the case of an electrical dipole oscillating in phase with the seismic wave along such boundary. As a consequence, electromagnetic disturbances are radiated away from the dipole source and can be recorded at various receiver lines. This seismic-to-electromagnetic field conversion at petrophysical boundaries in the 1st Fresnel zone is the so-called seismoelectric interface response. Conceptual field models and theoretical modelling indicate that the interface response should be a multipole electrical source. Higher-order terms will diminish more rapidly with distance and therefore will leave the dipole term to dominate. Thus, a seismoelectric interface response emanating from a horizontal boundary in a homogeneous half-space is expected to exhibit symmetry and amplitude characteristics similar to those of a vertical electric dipole (VED) centred on the interface directly below the shot point. However, no general theoretical predictions concerning the characteristics, the shape and the morphology of the VED induced by seismic waves at dipping interfaces can be found in the literature. To gain insight into the spatio-temporal occurrence and evolution of the seismoelectric interface response for dipping interfaces we run several numerical simulations using different petrophysical parameter set-ups. For the modelling, we make use of a simplified time-domain formulation of the coupled physical problem

  7. Comparative Evaluation of Prevalence of Upper Cervical Vertebrae Anomalies in Cleft Lip/Palate Patients: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Datana, Sanjeev; Kumar, Prasanna; Kumar Roy, Supriya; Londhe, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT% Purpose: The patients with cleft lip and palate have a higher risk of cervical vertebrae anomalies than do patients in general population. The aim of present study was to determine the prevalence of various upper cervical spine anomalies in different type of clefts. Procedures: Lateral cephalograms of 128 patients (66 males, 62 females) with cleft lip and palate, and 125 (60 males, 65 females) non syndromic patients without cleft lip and palate were selected at random from archive. Cephalograms of the patients were traced and the diagnosis of any cervical vertebrae anomaly was noted. Anomalies were categorized as either: posterior arch deficiency or fusions. Main findings: Prevalence of cervical vertebrae anomalies in the c lef t group was 20. 3% while it was 6.4% in the control group. Further cervical vertebrae anomalies were 16.6% in the CPO group, 19.1% in the BCLP group, and 22.2% in the UCLP group. Conclusion: A higher prevalence of cervical vertebrae anomalies was observed in cleft lip and palate patients. The prevalenc e obser ved is 3 times more in clef t group than c ontrol group. How to cite this article: Datana S, Bhalla A, Kumar P, Roy SK, Londhe S. Comparative Evaluation of Prevalence of Upper Cervical Vertebrae Anomalies in Cleft Lip/Palate Patients: A Retrospective Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):168-171. PMID:25709295

  8. Combination therapy for erectile dysfunction: an update review

    PubMed Central

    Dhir, Rohit R; Lin, Hao-Cheng; Canfield, Steven E; Wang, Run

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of oral phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) in the late 1990s and early 2000s revolutionized the field of sexual medicine and PDE5Is are currently first-line monotherapy for erectile dysfunction (ED). However, a significant proportion of patients with complex ED will be therapeutic non-responders to PDE5I monotherapy. Combination therapy has recently been adopted for more refractory cases of ED, but a critical evaluation of current combination therapies is lacking. A thorough PubMed and Cochrane Library search was conducted focusing on the effectiveness of combination therapies for ED in therapeutic non-responders to PDE5I therapy. Journal articles spanning the time period between January 1990 and December 2010 were reviewed. Criteria included all pertinent review articles, randomized controlled trials, cohort studies and retrospective analyses. References from retrieved articles were also manually scanned for additional relevant publications. Published combination therapies include PDE5I plus vacuum erectile device (VED), intraurethral medication, intracavernosal injection (ICI), androgen supplement, α-blocker or miscellaneous combinations. Based on this review, some of these combination treatments appeared to be quite effective in preliminary testing. Caution must be advised, however, as the majority of combination therapy articles in the last decade have numerous limitations including study biases and small subject size. Regardless of limitations, present combination therapy research provides a solid foundation for future studies in complex ED management. PMID:21423198

  9. Realism Assessment of Sonic Boom Simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Brenda M.; Davies, Patrica; Hodgdon, Kthleen K.; Salamone, Joseph A., III; Pilon, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Developments in small supersonic aircraft design are predicted to result in low-intensity sonic booms. Booms generated by current aircraft are similar to those that led to the ban on commercial supersonic fli ght over the US, so are unsuitable for parametric studies of psychoac oustic response to low-intensity booms. Therefore, simulators have be en used to study the impact of predicted low-intensity sonic booms. H owever, simulators have been criticized because, when simulating conv entional-level booms, the sounds were observed to be unrealistic by p eople experienced in listening to sonic booms. Thus, two studies were conducted to measure the perceived realism of three sonic boom simul ators. Experienced listeners rated the realism of conventional sonic boom signatures when played in these simulators. The effects on percei ved realism of factors such as duration of post-boom noise, exclusion of very low frequency components, inclusion of ground reflections, a nd type of simulator were examined. Duration of post-boom noise was f ound to have a strong effect on perceived realism, while type of simu lator had a weak effect. It was determined that post-boom noise had t o be at least 1.5 seconds long for the sound to be rated very realist ic. Loudness level did not affect realism for the range of sounds pla yed in the tests (80-93 dB ASEL).

  10. Vitamin E deficiency reduced lumbar bone calcium content in female rats.

    PubMed

    Norazlina, M; Chua, C W; Ima-Nirwana, S

    2004-12-01

    Vitamin E deficiency has been found to impair bone calcification. This study was done to determine the effects of vitamin E deficiency and supplementation on parathyroid hormone, i.e. the hormone involved in bone regulation. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: 1) normal rat chow (RC), 2) vitamin E deficiency (VED), vitamin E deficient rats supplemented with 3) 60 mg/kg alpha-tocotrienol (ATT) and 4) 60 mg/kg (alpha-tocopherol (ATF). Treatment was carried out for 3 months. Vitamin E deficiency caused hypocalcaemia during the first month of the treatment period, increased the parathyroid hormone level in the second month and decreased the bone calcium content in the 4th lumbar bone at the end of the treatment. Vitamin E supplementation (ATT and ATF) failed to improve these conditions. The bone formation marker, osteocalcin, and the bone resorption marker, deoxypyridinoline did not change throughout the study period. In conclusion vitamin E deficiency impaired bone calcium homeostasis with subsequent secondary hyperparathyroidism and vertebral bone loss. Replacing the vitamin E with pure ATF or pure ATT alone failed to correct the changes seen. PMID:15889565

  11. Brain Enhancing Ingredients from Āyurvedic Medicine: Quintessential Example of Bacopa monniera, a Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Hemant K.

    2013-01-01

    Āyurveda, the science (ved) of life (ayu), owing its origin to Veda, the oldest recorded wisdom of human civilization written in 3500 BCE, contains extensive knowledge of various diseases and their therapeutic approaches. It essentially relied on nature and the immune system of an individual, and therapeutic interventions were introduced only to augment the immune system. Āyurveda had eight specialties, including psycho-neuroscience (a combination of psychology, clinical psychology and psychiatry) and a unique promotive therapy encompassing nutrition, rejuvenation and geriatrics. The symptoms of various brain disorders, including memory disorder, were well defined. The goal of Āyurveda was to help an individual to achieve his cherished goal of leading a healthy life of 100 years. To achieve this, great emphasis was laid on nutrition, diet and a good conduct by the two great exponents of Āyurveda viz. Carak and Suśruta. By following these regimens, an individual could lead a less stressful life free from emotional disturbances. Both Carak and Suśruta had believed that these in combination with rasayana (rejuvenating) plants could enable an individual to lead a healthy life of 100 years. PMID:23389306

  12. Orbiting transmitter and antenna for spaceborne communications at ELF/VLF to submerged submarines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bannister, P. R.; Harrison, J. K.; Rupp, C. C.; King, R. W. P.; Cosmo, M. L.; Lorenzini, E. C.; Dyer, C. J.; Grossi, M. D.

    1993-01-01

    An orbital emplacement for the transmitter and the antenna of a communications link at ELF (30 to 300 Hz) and VLF (3 kHz to 30 kHz) to submerged submarines has been considered since the very inception of the space age. However, only recently has space technology reached a sufficient level of maturity for system designers to undertake serious studies of this link configuration. The optimistic outlook stems from recent space technology developments, such as the design and construction by NASA of long orbiting tethers, and the testing, onboard Shuttle Orbiter ATLANTIS, of the first spaceborne 20 km metal wire. This is known as the Tethered Satellite System-1 (TSS-1), a space mission that might be possibly followed by other flights, with tether lengths that could reach 100 km. Once deployed at a height of, say, 300 km, from a Shuttle Orbiter, or from another suitable platform, a long, thin tether aligns itself along the local vertical by virtue of the gradient of the Earth gravity field. If made of metal, the tether can function as a VED (Vertical Electric Dipole) transmitting antenna at ELF and VLF.

  13. Recreational Industry in the North of European Russia: Case Assessment, Komi Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovleva, M. P.; Kuchkina, E.; Iyevlev, N.; Lyaskovsky, S.

    2012-12-01

    At the past AGU Annual Meeting in 2011, we presented information about development of the recreation industry in European Russia within the "Silver Ring" Project (http://neespi.org/web-content/meetings/AGU_2011/Yakovleva-poster.pdf). This Project can be considered as a system of actions directed to a comprehensive socio-economic development of the Northwest of the Russian Federation that includes 11 provinces ("oblast", "republic", "okrug") of the country. Among the provinces included in the Project, The Komi Republic is one of the most interesting regions. The Komi Republic is located in the North of European Russia within the gridbox restricted by 59N - 69N latitudes and 45E - 66E longitudes. The region is populated by indigenous northern nations: Komi, Russians, Karels, Ved', Permyaks, and others. It is characterized as an ecologically clean territory, has a small population density, is rich with natural reserves, and has abundant forest and water resources. Flora and fauna of the Republic are unique and attractive. Rich biodiversity and abundance of fish and game allow hunting and sport fishing. As of January 1, 2010, The Komi Republic has 240 territories of special environmental protection ("zakazniki") with restricted human activity. This allows a diversity of field trips devoted to in-depth studies of regional ecosystems as well as tourist visits aiming to enjoy unique nature and ethnic-cultures of the North.

  14. Anxiety disorders in ancient Indian literature

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Hitesh C.; Gandhi, Zindadil; Vankar, G. K.

    2010-01-01

    In western literature, the oldest description of symptoms of PTSD, an anxiety group of disorder, is seen in Homer’s Iliad written around 720 BC. According to Shay, Achilles was suffering from symptoms of PTSD. However, in the Indian literature it was mentioned around 5000 BC. The description of a PTSD-like syndrome is seen in the Ramayana, although it was not described as PTSD or by any other similar name. Ravana’s brother Marrich was having symptoms of PTSD after he was grievously hurt by Lord Rama’s arrow and was almost dead. This traumatic event threatened his physical integrity. He developed all the symptoms of PTSD, like hyper-arousal, re-experiencing the events and avoidance. He also gave up his natural work of harassing the monk and got engaged in meditation and austerities. His symptoms lasted for many years till Lord Rama killed him, while he was masquerading as a golden deer to deceive Sita. In another ancient epic Shrimad Bhagavatam, Maharshi Ved Vyasa described the symptoms of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). The demon King Kansha developed GAD-like symptoms, when Lord Krishna killed all his demons and threatened to kill him. He developed symptoms of GAD, like excessive worry about the attack from his arch foe Krishna, difficulty in concentration and difficulty in falling asleep. Like Marrich, the symptoms of Kansha also lasted until Lord Krishna killed him. PMID:21180424

  15. Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome in siblings with biallelic COL3A1 sequence variants and marked clinical variability in the extended family.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Agnete; Fagerheim, Toril; Rand-Hendriksen, Svend; Lunde, Per I; Vorren, Torgrim O; Pepin, Melanie G; Leistritz, Dru F; Byers, Peter H

    2015-06-01

    Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (vEDS), also known as EDS type IV, is considered to be an autosomal dominant disorder caused by sequence variants in COL3A1, which encodes the chains of type III procollagen. We identified a family in which there was marked clinical variation with the earliest death due to extensive aortic dissection at age 15 years and other family members in their eighties with no complications. The proband was born with right-sided clubfoot but was otherwise healthy until he died unexpectedly at 15 years. His sister, in addition to signs consistent with vascular EDS, had bilateral frontal and parietal polymicrogyria. The proband and his sister each had two COL3A1 sequence variants, c.1786C>T, p.(Arg596*) in exon 26 and c.3851G>A, p.(Gly1284Glu) in exon 50 on different alleles. Cells from the compound heterozygote produced a reduced amount of type III procollagen, all the chains of which had abnormal electrophoretic mobility. Biallelic sequence variants have a significantly worse outcome than heterozygous variants for either null mutations or missense mutations, and frontoparietal polymicrogyria may be an added phenotype feature. This genetic constellation provides a very rare explanation for marked intrafamilial clinical variation due to sequence variants in COL3A1. PMID:25205403

  16. Implications of Weak Link Effects on Thermal Characteristics of Transition-Edge Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, C. N.; Adams, J. S.; Bandler, S. R.; Brekosky, R. P.; Chevenak, J. A.; Eckart, M. E.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kelley, R. L.; Kally, D. P.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Porter, F. S.; Sadleir, J. E.; Smith, S. J.

    2012-01-01

    Weak link behavior in transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeters creates the need for a more careful characterization of a device's thermal characteristics through its transition. This is particularly true for small TESs where a small change in the bias current results in large changes in effective transition temperature. To correctly interpret measurements, especially complex impedance, it is crucial to know the temperature-dependent thermal conductance, G(T), and heat capacity, C(T), at each point through the transition. We present data illustrating these effects and discuss how we overcome the challenges that are present in accurately determining G and T from I-V curves. We also show how these weak link effects vary wi.th TES size. Additionally, we use this improVed understanding of G(T) to determine that, for these TES microcalorimeters. Kaptiza boundary resistance dominates the G of devices with absorbers while the electron-phonon coupling also needs to be considered when determining G for devices without absorbers

  17. Vascular Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome in siblings with biallelic COL3A1 sequence variants and marked clinical variability in the extended family

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Agnete; Fagerheim, Toril; Rand-Hendriksen, Svend; Lunde, Per I; Vorren, Torgrim O; Pepin, Melanie G; Leistritz, Dru F; Byers, Peter H

    2015-01-01

    Vascular Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome (vEDS), also known as EDS type IV, is considered to be an autosomal dominant disorder caused by sequence variants in COL3A1, which encodes the chains of type III procollagen. We identified a family in which there was marked clinical variation with the earliest death due to extensive aortic dissection at age 15 years and other family members in their eighties with no complications. The proband was born with right-sided clubfoot but was otherwise healthy until he died unexpectedly at 15 years. His sister, in addition to signs consistent with vascular EDS, had bilateral frontal and parietal polymicrogyria. The proband and his sister each had two COL3A1 sequence variants, c.1786C>T, p.(Arg596*) in exon 26 and c.3851G>A, p.(Gly1284Glu) in exon 50 on different alleles. Cells from the compound heterozygote produced a reduced amount of type III procollagen, all the chains of which had abnormal electrophoretic mobility. Biallelic sequence variants have a significantly worse outcome than heterozygous variants for either null mutations or missense mutations, and frontoparietal polymicrogyria may be an added phenotype feature. This genetic constellation provides a very rare explanation for marked intrafamilial clinical variation due to sequence variants in COL3A1. PMID:25205403

  18. Two models of inventory control with supplier selection in case of multiple sourcing: a case of Isfahan Steel Company

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabieh, Masood; Soukhakian, Mohammad Ali; Mosleh Shirazi, Ali Naghi

    2016-03-01

    Selecting the best suppliers is crucial for a company's success. Since competition is a determining factor nowadays, reducing cost and increasing quality of products are two key criteria for appropriate supplier selection. In the study, first the inventories of agglomeration plant of Isfahan Steel Company were categorized through VED and ABC methods. Then the models to supply two important kinds of raw materials (inventories) were developed, considering the following items: (1) the optimal consumption composite of the materials, (2) the total cost of logistics, (3) each supplier's terms and conditions, (4) the buyer's limitations and (5) the consumption behavior of the buyers. Among diverse developed and tested models—using the company's actual data within three pervious years—the two new innovative models of mixed-integer non-linear programming type were found to be most suitable. The results of solving two models by lingo software (based on company's data in this particular case) were equaled. Comparing the results of the new models to the actual performance of the company revealed 10.9 and 7.1 % reduction in total procurement costs of the company in two consecutive years.

  19. Towards the mid-infrared optical biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seddon, Angela B.; Benson, Trevor M.; Sujecki, Slawomir; Abdel-Moneim, Nabil; Tang, Zhuoqi; Furniss, David; Sojka, Lukasz; Stone, Nick; Jayakrupakar, Nallala; Lloyd, Gavin R.; Lindsay, Ian; Ward, Jon; Farries, Mark; Moselund, Peter M.; Napier, Bruce; Lamrini, Samir; Møller, Uffe; Kubat, Irnis; Petersen, Christian R.; Bang, Ole

    2016-03-01

    We are establishing a new paradigm in mid-infrared molecular sensing, mapping and imaging to open up the midinfrared spectral region for in vivo (i.e. in person) medical diagnostics and surgery. Thus, we are working towards the mid-infrared optical biopsy (`opsy' look at, bio the biology) in situ in the body for real-time diagnosis. This new paradigm will be enabled through focused development of devices and systems which are robust, functionally designed, safe, compact and cost effective and are based on active and passive mid-infrared optical fibers. In particular, this will enable early diagnosis of external cancers, mid-infrared detection of cancer-margins during external surgery for precise removal of diseased tissue, in one go during the surgery, and mid-infrared endoscopy for early diagnosis of internal cancers and their precision removal. The mid-infrared spectral region has previously lacked portable, bright sources. We set a record in demonstrating extreme broad-band supercontinuum generated light 1.4 to 13.3 microns in a specially engineered, high numerical aperture mid-infrared optical fiber. The active mid-infrared fiber broadband supercontinuum for the first time offers the possibility of a bright mid-infrared wideband source in a portable package as a first step for medical fiber-based systems operating in the mid-infrared. Moreover, mid-infrared molecular mapping and imaging is potentially a disruptive technology to give improved monitoring of the environment, energy efficiency, security, agriculture and in manufacturing and chemical processing. This work is in part supported by the European Commission: Framework Seven (FP7) Large-Scale Integrated Project MINERVA: MId-to-NEaR- infrared spectroscopy for improVed medical diAgnostics (317803; www.minerva-project.eu).

  20. Effects of Structure on Magnetic Properties in La1-xSrxMnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louca, Despo; Egami, Takeshi

    1996-03-01

    Pair Distribution Function (PDF) analysis was carried out on pulsed neutron powder diffaction data of x=0 and x=0.15 Sr-doped La1-xSrxMnO3 to study the local structure as a function of temperature. In the undoped case, strong Jahn-Teller (JT) distortions are observed with an elongation of x or y-axes. This has been established crystallographically and confirmed by PDF. A split in the PDF peak of the nearest neighbor Mn-O pairs is observed at 2.0 and 2.2 A with the ratio of 2:1. In the doped case, x=0.15, two levels of JT distor- tions are observed. At low temperatures, JT distortions are reduced by do- ping in the crystallographic picture, but PDF shows that some sites are dis- torted and some are not. As a result, the 2.0 A peak remains but the 2.2 A peak gets weaker. Ar room temperature, another secondary JT effect is obser- ved. This is seen by the breaking of symmetry between two undistorted dire- ctions. Real space refinement suggested the displacement of the B cation, Mn. At this temperature, in addition to the low T effects, splitting of the 2.0 A peak is observed to 1.89 A and 2.06 A. This is the first observance of such a structural change. This structural change should have huge effects on the change of resistivity at the Curie temperature. Physical implications will be discussed. This work was supported by NSF DMR93-00728.

  1. Competitive Low Pressure Oxygen Plasma Interactions with Different= Carbon-Carbon Double Bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patiño, P.; Sifontes, A.; Gambús, G.

    1999-10-01

    Recently we have shown advances from reactions of O(^3P) with both, l ong-chain hydrocarbons and refinery residuum. The oxidation products of t he process, a mixture of alcohols, epoxides and carbonyl compounds, might have potential properties as additives in formulating fuels. This work s hows the results of the interactions of an oxygen plasma with double bond s, both olefin and aromatic, in the same compound. The reactions have bee n carried out by making the plasma, created by a high voltage glow discha rge, reach the low vapor pressure surface of liquid 4-phenyl-1-butene. Th is (3 mL) was cooled down to -45 ^oC in a glass reactor, applied power was 24 W, at an oxygen pressure of 20 Pa. Products were analyzed by IR, N MR and mass spectroscopies. Conversions were studied as a function of the reaction time, this ranging from 5 to 120 minutes. At short times the O( ^3P) atoms produced in the discharge only reacted with the alkene fra ction of the hydrocarbon, 4-phenyl-1,2-epoxibutane (52%) and 4-phenyl-bu tanal (48%) being the products. Reactions on the benzene ring were obser ved from about 30 minutes on, the corresponding phenols having being prod uced at ratios ortho:para:meta :: 4:1:0.7. At 120 minutes, the ol efin have been completely oxidized and a low fraction of the non-equivale nt two methylene groups have reacted to produce alcohols and ketones.

  2. Black carbon aerosol characterization in a coastal city in South China using a single particle soot photometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiao-Feng; Sun, Tian-Le; Zeng, Li-Wu; Yu, Guang-He; Luan, Sheng-Ji

    2012-05-01

    Black carbon (BC) is the dominant light-absorbing aerosol component in the atmosphere and plays an important role in atmospheric pollution and climate change. The light-absorbing properties of BC rely on particle size, shape, composition, as well as the BC mixing state with other aerosol components, thus more thorough exploration of BC aerosol characteristics is critical in understanding its atmospheric sources and effects. In this study, a newly-developed Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) was deployed in Shenzhen, China, for continuous BC measurements to obtain the important information about size distribution and mixing state of BC under severe air pollution conditions of China. The mean BC mass concentrations were found to be 6.0 and 4.1 μg m-3 at an urban site (UT) in the fall and winter, respectively, while it is much lower (2.6 μg m-3) at a rural site (BG) in the fall. The mass size distributions of BC in volume equivalent diameter (VED) at the three sites showed a similar lognormal pattern, with the peak diameter at BG (222 nm) slightly larger than at the UT (210 nm) site. As to mixing state, the average percentage of internally mixed BC at the UT site was detected to be 40% and 46% in the fall and winter, respectively, while that at the BG site in the fall was only a slightly higher (47%), which implies that fresh local fossil fuel combustions were still significant at this rural site. The analysis of extremely high BC concentrations (>20 μg m-3) at UT indicates that they were a complex of comparable contributions from both local fresh emissions and regional transport under unfavorable meteorology. Other characteristics of BC aerosol and their influencing factors in Shenzhen were also discussed.

  3. Significance of plasma nitric oxide/endothelial-1 ratio for prediction of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Kurita, Akira; Matsui, Takemi; Ishizuka, Toshiaki; Takase, Bonpei; Satomura, Kimio

    2005-01-01

    Vascular tone is regulated by vasodilators and vasoconstrictors. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is the predominant vasoconstrictor peptide that constricts vascular smooth muscle, whereas nitric oxide (NO) is the primary vasodilator peptide that relaxes vascular smooth muscle. In this study, the authors examined whether NO/ET-1 ratio is a useful marker for detecting coronary artery disease (CAD), by comparison with evaluation based on vascular endothelial (VE) function. They measured plasma NOX and ET-1 by using ENO-200 and radioimmunoassay, in 38 subjects with normal (NL) coronary arteries (NL group; mean age, 60 +/-12 years) and 25 subjects with CAD (CAD group; mean age, 69 +/- 6 years). VE function (randomized endothelium-dependent [D] and endothelium-independent [I] VE function) was assessed by measuring brachial artery (BA) diameter by using high-resolution ultrasound (7.5 MHz). Soon after these procedures, symptom-limited exercise testing was performed. There were no statistically significant differences in serum lipid concentrations or VED function between the groups. However, the CAD group had a significantly lower NO/ET-1 ratio (1.2 +/- 1.1 vs 2.7 +/- 2.2, p < 0.01) and BA diameter after sublingual nitroglycerin (VEID function: 6 +/- 7% vs 10 +/- 4%, p < 0.05). As expected, the ST segment and treadmill exercise duration were significantly lower in the CAD group. Sensitivity and specificity for detecting CAD by plasma NO/ET-1 ratio (> or =2 .0) were 90% and 85%, respectively; sensitivity and specificity for detecting CAD by ST depression (> or =1 mm) were 80% and 78%, respectively. The present results suggest that plasma NO/ET-1 ratio is a useful biological marker for predicting CAD. PMID:15889192

  4. Misho mafic complex - A part of paleotethyan oceanic crust or a magmatism in continental rift?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimzadeh, Zohreh; Jahangiri, Ahmad; Saccani, Emilio; Dilek, Yildirim

    2013-04-01

    Misho Mafic Complex (NW Iran) represents a significant component of the West Cimmerian domain in Paleo-Tethys. The Misho Mafic Complex (MMC) consists of gabbro (mainly) and norıte,olivine gabbro, anorthosite and diorite with the east- west sereight. MMC has ıntrussıved ın Kahar sedımrtery Infta- Cambrıan rocks, crosscut by abundant basaltic dykes and the overlying basaltic sheeted dyke complex. Kahar sedimentary rocks are representing the northern margin of Gondwana. Misho mafic complex are covered by Permian sedimentary rocks. The gabbros and basaltic dykes have MORB affinities. MMC formed as a product of interactions between a depleted MORB-type asthenosphere and plume-type material. Mafic rocks represent an early Carboniferous magmatic event developed during the continental break-up of the northern edge of Gondwanaland that led to the opening of Paleotethys. Alternatively, these magmas may have been emplaced into the continental crust at the continental margin soon after the oceanic crust was formed (that is the oceanic crust was still narrow). There is no data for discriminating between these two hypotheses. In first hypothesis MMC is a part of ophiolites related to paleotethyan oceanic crust and the rocks that were above this crustal level should have necessarily been eroded. In another hypothesis Misho complex represents an aborted rift in a triple junction. Above a mantle plume, the continental crust breaks along three directions at 120 degrees. But, soon after, the extension proceeds along two of these three direction. Between them is formed the oceanic crust. The continental extension along the third direction is aborted. Here no oceanic crust if formed and there is only rifted, thinned continental crust. But, also in the aborted branch MORB magmatism can occur for short time. In this hypothesis, the Misho complex was never associated with oceanic crust, but was anyway associated with the opening of the Paleotethys. This magmatism was originally

  5. Aspects of the Flipped Unification of Strong, Weak and Electromagnetic Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Stephen

    theories produced through spontaneous dynamical symmetry breaking and the sequential emergence of natural law described by the Ved.

  6. Anti-inflammatory activity of gel containing novel elastic niosomes entrapped with diclofenac diethylammonium.

    PubMed

    Manosroi, A; Jantrawut, P; Manosroi, J

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a novel elastic bilayer vesicle entrapped with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), diclofenac diethylammonium (DCFD) for topical use. Eighteen bilayer vesicular formulations composing of DPPC or Tween 61 or Span 60 mixed with cholesterol (at 1:1, 3:7 and 1:1 molar ratios, respectively) and ethanol at 0-25% (v/v), by chloroform film method with sonication were developed. The elastic Tween 61 niosomes which gave no sedimentation, no layer separation, unchanged particle sizes (about 200 nm) were selected to entrap DCFD. The entrapment efficiency of the drug in the conventional and elastic Tween 61 niosomes was 65 and 93%, respectively. At least 87% of DCFD determined by HPLC remained in elastic Tween 61 niosomes when kept at 4, 27 and 45 degrees C for 3 months. The deformability index values of the elastic niosomes were 13.76 and 3.44 times higher than the conventional niosomes entrapped and not entrapped with the drug, respectively, indicating the higher flexibility of the elastic vesicle especially, when entrapped with the drug. Transdermal absorption through excised rat skin was performed by vertical Franz diffusion cell at 32+/-2 degrees C for 6h. Gel containing elastic niosomes exhibited fluxes of DCFD in the stratum corneum (SC), deeper skin layer (viable epidermis and dermis, VED) and receiver chamber at 191.27+/-9.52, 16.97+/-2.77 and 3.76+/-0.54 microg/(cm2 h), whereas the commercial emulgel, containing an equivalent DCFD, gave 60.84+/-13.63, 7.33+/-1.70 and 0.14+/-0.01 microg/(cm2 h), respectively. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by ethyl phenylpropiolate (EPP)-induced rat ear edema (n=3). DCFD entrapped in the developed elastic niosomes and incorporated in gel gave the same ear edema inhibition percentages of 23.81% at 30 min, but 2 and 9 times more inhibition percentages at 45 and 60 min than the commercial emulgel, respectively. This result has not only demonstrated the

  7. Fluid composition and evolution in coesite-bearing rocks (Dora-Maira massif, Western Alps): implications for element recycling during subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippot, Pascal; Chevallier, Pierre; Chopin, Christian; Dubessy, Jean

    1995-08-01

    Fluid inclusions and F, Cl concentration of hydrous minerals were analysed in the coesite-pyrope quartzite, the interlayered jadeite quartzite and their country-rock gneiss from the Dora-Maira massif using a combination of microthermometry, Raman spectrometry, synchrotron X-ray microfiuorescence and electron microprobe analysis. Three populations of fluid inclusions were recognized texturally and can be related to distinct metamorphic stages. A low-salinity aqueous fluid occurs in the retrogressed country gneiss and as late secondary inclusions in jadeite quartzite and chloritized pyrope. An earlier secondary population is found in matrix quartz of the jadeite- and pyro-pe-quartzites. This population can be related to the early decompression and so to incipient breakdown of garnet into phlogopite-bearing assemblages. The inclusion fluid is highly saline (up to 84 wt% equivalent NaCl) and contains Na, Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn as major cations. In pyrope quartzite, additional K was found in these brines, which locally coexist with CO2-rich inclusions. The oldest fluid inclusions are preserved in kyanite grains included in fresh pyrope and in pyrope itself. In pyrope, all inclusions have decrepitated and contain magnesite, an Mg-phosphate, sheet-silicate(s), a chloride and an opaque phase, with no fluid preser ved. In contrast, the kyanite inclusions in pyrope preserve primary H2O-CO2 low-salinity fluid inclusions, probably owing to the low compressibility of the kyanite inclusions and host garnet. In spite of in-situ re-equilibration, these inclusions can be interpreted as relics of the dehydration fluid that attended pyrope growth. These correlations between textural and chemical fluid inclusion data and metamorphic stages are consistent with the fluid composition calculated from the halogen content of different generations of phlogopite and biotite. The preservation of different fluid compositions, both in time and space, is evidence for local control and possibly origin

  8. Podzol development in S Norway - a soil chronosequence of 31 pedons covering soil ages from 85 to 9650 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Daniela; Svendgård-Stokke, Siri; Sperstad, Ragnhild; Sørensen, Rolf; Fuchs, Markus; Gebers, Henrik; Schülli-Maurer, Isabelle

    2013-04-01

    horizons. The mineralogical composition of the parent material is dominated by quartz and feldspars, whereby the feldspar grains show features of proceeding weathering with time. In addition to podzolisation features, illuvial clay is observed below the Bs horizons. Apparently, the sand is sufficiently buffered during the first millennia of soil formation so that acidification proceeds slowly enough to allow for clay translocation prior to podzolisation. Reference Sørensen, R., Høeg, H.I., Henningsmoen, K.E., Skog, G., Labowsky, S.F., Stabell, B. (2012): Utviklingen av det senglasiale og tidlig preboreale landskapet og vegetasjonen omkring steinalderboplassene ved Pauler, Larvik kommune, Vestfold. In: Jaksland, L. (Ed.), E18 Brunlaneprospektet. Varia 79. Kulturhistorisk Museum, University of Oslo.

  9. Investigations of the air flow velocity field structure above the wavy surface under severe wind conditions by particle image velosimetry technique.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Kandaurov, Alexander; Sergeev, Daniil; Ermakova, Olga

    2013-04-01

    both method were in a good agreement. The application of PIV method enabled us measuring wind velocity profiles much closer to water surface than in the case of contact method. As a result there exists the logarithmic parts in velocity profiles, which yield turbulent momentum flux from the slope and also the equivalent 10-m wind speed and the surface drag coefficient. It was shown that similarly to [2] the surface drag coefficient tends to saturate at wind velocities exceeding 25 m/s. The decrease of the water surface drag coefficient with wind velocity increase was not observed. This work was supported by RFBR (project 11-05-12047-ofi-m, 13-05-00865-a, 12-05-33070 mol-a-ved, 12-05-31435 mol-a, 12-05-01064-a). References 1. Canny, J. A. Computational approach to edge detection/ J.A. Canny// IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. - 1986. - V. 8(6). - P. 679-698.. 2. Troitskaya, Y. I., D. A. Sergeev, A. A. Kandaurov, G. A. Baidakov, M. A. Vdovin, and V. I. Kazakov Laboratory and theoretical modeling of air-sea momentum transfer under severe wind conditions J.Geophys. Res., 117, C00J21, doi:10.1029/2011JC007778.

  10. Offshore influence of coastal upwelling off Mauritania, NW Africa, as recorded by diatoms in sediment traps at 2195 m water depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Carina B.; Romero, Oscar E.; Wefer, Gerold; Gabric, Albert J.

    1998-06-01

    taxa in the sediments. In an attempt to contrast coastal vs. oceanic upwelling, we compared the Cap Blanc trap results (a coastal/open-ocean transition site) with the patterns recorded previously in sediment traps from the Guinea Basin (GBN3; an open-ocean equatorial upwelling site). Enhanced fluxes at both sites corresponded in time with the occurrence of upwelling (i.e. spring and early summer for CB1, and early spring and summer for GBN3). Total, opal and lithogenic mean daily fluxes were 2.4, 1.6 and 6.3 times higher at CB1 than at GBN3. Diatom and silicoflagellate fluxes were 8.9 and 1.6 times higher at GBN3. On a yearly basis, the diatom flora for CB1 can be characterized as "coastal with oceanic influence", and for GBN3 as "open ocean with moderate coastal influence". Chain-forming and colonial diatoms with individual cell diameters of >5 μm dominated the coastal upwelling site ( Thalassionema nitzschioides and Chaetoceros), while small (<5 μm) solitary diatoms ( Nitzschia bicapitata) dominated the open ocean equatorial upwelling regime. Comparable relative abundances of freshwater diatoms were noted at both trap sites; their seasonal distribution within each geographical area was attributed to the Saharan dust transport patterns involved. While diatom indicators of coastal upwelling were readily preser ved in the surface sediments off Cap Blanc, the assemblage in the Guinea Basin sediments differed greatly from that in the traps with the summer signal for equatorial upwelling being removed from the sediment. We conclude that significant differences between the assemblages trapped at both sites support the usefulness of these data as sensitive indicators of dissimilar oceanographic settings.

  11. Anhydrobiosis vs. aging: comparative genomics of protein repair L-isoaspartyl methyltransferases in the sleeping chironomid. .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Oleg; Kikawada, Takahiro; Shagimardanova, Elena; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Ayupov, Rustam

    and larval stages. Finally, the expression of Pimt1 gene in both chironomids was not changed in response to desiccation, while the clustered PvPimt2-12 showed strong up-regulation in response to water loss and other abiotic stresses. The abundance of PvPimt2-12 mRNAs was maximal in anhydrobiotic larvae, and it resembles the case of plant seeds where accumulation of PIMT provides additional protection for proteins during long dry storage. Predicted proteins of PvPimT2-12 contain conservative L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase functional domain. At the same time the length and structure of N- and C- terminals of the predicted proteins show significant variation, suggesting different substrate preferences or other specific properties of different Pv-PIMT Furthermore, the multi-member family in Pv is the first observation of drastic expansion and evolution of Pimt genes in general, and particularly in a single insect species. This work was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (№ 12-08-33157 mol_a_ved and № 14-04-01657_A).

  12. Micromorphological changes over time observed in the Vestfold Podzol chronosequence, SE Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Daniela; Musztyfaga, Elżbieta; Sørensen, Rolf; Svendgård-Stokke, Siri; Rennert, Thilo; Sperstad, Ragnhild; Fuchs, Markus

    2016-04-01

    addition, micromorphological analysis shows that clay translocation took place prior to strong acidification and podzolisation in many profiles. In some rare cases, clay coatings are observed even on top of spodic material, suggesting that - at least to minor extent - translocation of coarse clay may take place even contemporarily to podzolisation. This apparent contradiction can be explained by different depths of mobilisation of metal-organic complexes and clay. Apparently, even when the upper, strongly acid part of the soils is already subject to podzolisation, acidification and Al saturation at some depth are still not as advanced as further up in the profile and still allow for clay mobilisation. In addition, cappings of coarse clay and fine silt on top of larger grains suggest that water flushing through the coarse voids of the sandy material, e.g., after snow-melt, may sweep down also clay particles in a not completely dispersed state. In this way, clay translocation might take place also outside the pH range that is usually considered suitable for clay migration. Reference Sørensen, R., Høeg, H.I., Henningsmoen, K.E., Skog, G., Labowsky, S.F., Stabell, B., 2012. Utviklingen av det senglasiale og tidlig preboreale landskapet og vegetasjonen omkring steinalderboplassene ved Pauler, Larvik kommune, Vestfold. In: Jaksland, L. (Ed.), E18 Brunlaneprospektet. Varia 79. Kulturhistorisk Museum, University of Oslo.

  13. Objectives and Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Segalman, D.J.

    1998-11-30

    I have recently become involved in the ABET certification process under the new system - ABET 2000. This system relies heavily on concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM). It encourages each institution to define its objectives in terms of its own mission and then create a coherent program based on it. The prescribed steps in setting up the new system at an engineering institution are: o identification of constituencies G definition of mission. It is expected that the department's mission will be consistent with that of the overall institution, but containing some higher resolution language appropriate to that particular discipline of the engineering profession. o statement of objectives consistent with the mission 3G~~\\vED " enumeration of desired, and preferably measurable, outcomes of the process that would ~ `=. verify satisfaction of the objectives. ~~~ 07 !398 o establish performance standards for each outcome. o creation of appropriate feedback loops to assure that the objectives are still consistent with Q$YT1 the mission, that the outcomes remain consistent with the objectives, and that the curriculum and the teaching result in those outcomes. It is my assertion that once the institution verbalizes a mission, enumerated objectives naturally flow from that mission. (We shall try to demonstrate by example.) Further, if the mission uses the word "engineer", one would expect that word also to appear in at least one of the objectives. The objective of producing engineers of any sort must -by decree - involve the presence of the ABET criteria in the outcomes list. In other words, successful satisfaction of the ABET items a-k are a necessary subset of the measure of success in producing engineers. o We shall produce bachelor level engineers whose training in the core topics of chemical (or electrical, or mechanical) engineering is recognized to be among the best in the nation. o We shall provide an opportunity for our students to gain a