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1

Current Diagnosis and Treatment of Anxiety Disorders  

PubMed Central

Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent mental health conditions. Although they are less visible than schizophrenia, depression, and bipolar disorder, they can be just as disabling. The diagnoses of anxiety disorders are being continuously revised. Both dimensional and structural diagnoses have been used in clinical treatment and research, and both methods have been proposed for the new classification in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM-5). However, each of these approaches has limitations. More recently, the emphasis in diagnosis has focused on neuroimaging and genetic research. This approach is based partly on the need for a more comprehensive understanding of how biology, stress, and genetics interact to shape the symptoms of anxiety. Anxiety disorders can be effectively treated with psychopharmacological and cognitive–behavioral interventions. These inter ventions have different symptom targets; thus, logical combinations of these strategies need to be further studied in order to improve future outcomes. New developments are forthcoming in the field of alternative strategies for managing anxiety and for treatment-resistant cases. Additional treatment enhancements should include the development of algorithms that can be easily used in primary care and with greater focus on managing functional impairment in patients with anxiety. PMID:23599668

Bystritsky, Alexander; Khalsa, Sahib S.; Cameron, Michael E.; Schiffman, Jason

2013-01-01

2

Anxiety Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Anxiety Disorders About Anxiety Disorders Anxiety Disorders in Older Adults If you have an ... to treatment for the anxiety disorder. Types of Anxiety Disorders There are several basic types of anxiety ...

3

Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The psychiatric disorders that are designated as anxiety disorders include the specific diagnoses of panic disorder with and\\u000a without agoraphobia, agoraphobia without history of panic disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder\\u000a (OCD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), acute stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), anxiety disorder due\\u000a to a general medical condition, substance-induced anxiety disorder, and anxiety disorder not otherwise

Julie Loebach Wetherell; Ariel J. Lang; Murray B. Stein

4

Anxiety Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Anxiety disorders are the most common of emotional disorders and affect more than 25 million Americans. Many ... stomach, heart pounding, startling easily, and muscle tension Anxiety disorders differ from normal feelings of nervousness. Untreated ...

5

Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of their high prevalence and their negative long-term consequences, child anxiety disorders have become an important focus of interest. Whether pathological anxiety and normal fear are similar processes continues to be controversial. Comparative studies of child anxiety disorders are scarce, but there is some support for the current…

Klein, Rachel G.

2009-01-01

6

Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychological disorders, with a lifetime prevalence of 31.2% and a 12-month prevalence\\u000a of 19.1% in the United States (Kessler et al., 2005; Kessler, Chiu, Demler, Merikangas, & Walters, 2005). Individuals with\\u000a an anxiety disorder present with a variety of physical and psychological symptoms. Particularly unique to anxiety are the\\u000a symptoms of physical tension

Rose C. Smith; Lisa S. Elwood; Matthew T. Feldner; Bunmi O. Olatunji

7

Anxiety Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anxiey, in general, helps one to cope. It rouses a person to action and gears one up to face a threatening situation. It makes students study harder for exams, and keeps presenters on their toes when making speeches. But an anxiety disorder can prevent one from coping and can disrupt daily life. Anxiety disorders are not just a case of "nerves,"…

Dickey, Marilyn

8

Genetics of anxiety disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is considerable evidence that genetic determinants play a major role in the etiology of anxiety. Investigations into\\u000a susceptibility genes for anxiety are well underway, particularly for panic disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder and\\u000a more broadly defined anxiety-related traits, such as neuroticism and harm avoidance. This review will discuss some of the\\u000a core issues related to diagnosis and molecular genetic methodology,

Paul D. Arnold; Gwyneth Zai; Margaret A. Richter

2004-01-01

9

Issues in Differential Diagnosis: Considering Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a An accurate diagnosis provides a foundation for case conceptualization and facilitates effective treatment practices. Accurate\\u000a diagnoses are also critical to the organization of participants in empirical research. Although not without its own problems,\\u000a the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Text Revision (DSMIV- TR), currently in its fourth iteration (American Psychiatric Association, 2000), is the most frequently used

Jeremy Cohen; Matthew Mychailyszyn; Cara Settipani; Sarah Crawley; Philip C. Kendall

10

Anxiety Disorders in Persons with Developmental Disabilities: Empirically Informed Diagnosis and Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anxiety disorders are common in individuals with developmental disabilities (DDs), although they may not be diagnosed and\\u000a treated as often as they are in patients without DDs. Patients with mental retardation, autism, and other pervasive developmental\\u000a disorders may exhibit comorbid anxiety disorders, such as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive-compulsive disorder\\u000a (OCD), phobias, and other anxiety symptoms at much higher rates

Ervin Davis; Sy Atezaz Saeed; Diana J. Antonacci

2008-01-01

11

Bayesian network model for diagnosis of Social Anxiety Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays a lot of systems are developed to predict or suggest a diagnosis about the health level of a patient for helping physicians in their decisional process. Recent researches prove that decisional systems implemented by Bayesian networks represent an efficient tool for medical healthcare practitioners. Bayesian Networks (BNs) are graphical models with significant capabilities that can be used for medical

Zakiyeh Shojaei Estabragh; Mohammad Mansour Riahi Kashani; Farnaz Jeddi Moghaddam; Simin Sari; Koosha Sadeghi Oskooyee

2011-01-01

12

Anxiety Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

What Is Anxiety? Liam had always looked out for his younger brother Sam. But whenever Sam took the late bus after ... and sweaty palms might continue, too. Continue Normal Anxiety Everyone experiences feelings of anxiety from time to ...

13

Generalized anxiety disorder  

MedlinePLUS

GAD; Anxiety disorder ... Depression and substance abuse may occur with an anxiety disorder. ... Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Hoyer J. Psychotherapy for generalized anxiety disorder: don't worry, it works! Psychiatr Clin ...

14

Transdiagnostic versus Diagnosis-Specific CBT for Anxiety Disorders: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Non-inferiority Trial  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral treatments for anxiety disorders have been gaining increased attention and empirical study in recent years. Despite this, research on transdiagnostic anxiety treatments has, to date, relied on open trials, or comparisons to waitlist conditions, published benchmarks, or relaxation-based interventions. METHODS The current study was a randomized clinical trial examining the efficacy of a 12-week transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral group treatment in comparison to 12-week diagnosis-specific group CBT protocols for panic disorder, social anxiety disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. RESULTS Results from 46 treatment initiators suggested significant improvement during treatment, strong evidence for treatment equivalence across transdiagnostic and diagnosis-specific CBT conditions, and no differences in treatment credibility. CONCLUSIONS This study provides evidence supporting the efficacy of transdiagnostic CBT by comparison to current gold-standard diagnosis-specific CBT for social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and panic disorder. Transdiagnostic group CBT has the benefit of potentially easing dissemination and increasing access to evidence based treatments for anxiety without sacrificing efficacy. PMID:22767410

Norton, Peter J.; Barrera, Terri L.

2012-01-01

15

Social anxiety disorder\\/social phobia: Epidemiology, diagnosis, neurobiology, and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some anticipatory anxiety is expected on specific occasions such as giving a speech. However, some individuals have an excessive fear of such situations when they are under scrutiny, believing that their performance will cause them embarrassment or humiliation, frequently leading to deliberate avoidance of these situations. This disabling condition has been termed social anxiety disorder. Social anxiety disorder is common,

Johan A. den Boer

2000-01-01

16

Childhood Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anxiety disorders is one of the most prevalent diagnostic categories identified in children and adolescents. This chapter\\u000a provides an overview of the epidemiology of childhood anxiety disorders. Several pathways of etiology are presented, specifically\\u000a genetics, parent–child attachment, parental anxiety and parenting style, and life experiences. Six of the common childhood\\u000a anxiety disorders, separation anxiety disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, generalized

Gail A. Bernstein; Andrea M. Victor

17

School Functioning in Youth with and without Anxiety Disorders: Comparisons by Diagnosis and Comorbidity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on school functioning for 227 youth ages 7-14 (M = 10.3) with principal diagnoses of separation anxiety disorder (n = 40), social phobia (n = 58), generalized anxiety disorder (n = 76), or no diagnoses (n = 53). School functioning data were gathered via parent and teacher report. Youth with no diagnoses demonstrated…

Mychailyszyn, Matthew P.; Mendez, Julia L.; Kendall, Philip C.

2010-01-01

18

Generalized Anxiety Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Generalized Anxiety Disorder Overview What is anxiety? Anxiety is a word that describes feelings of worry, nervousness, fear, apprehension, concern or restlessness. Normal feelings ...

19

Anxiety Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... MedlinePlus ( en Español ) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Information and Organizations from NLM 's MedlinePlus ( en Español ) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Information and Organizations from NLM 's MedlinePlus ( en ...

20

Anxiety disorders in the elderly: DSM-IV and other barriers to diagnosis and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional lore suggests that anxiety disorders are less prevalent in elderly than in younger adults, and late-onset anxiety disorders are especially rare. We question these assumptions, and suggest that these conditions are underdiagnosed in late life. A common problem in the literature is the application of DSM-IV-like criteria developed from studies of younger adults to geriatric samples without regard for

Barton W Palmer; Dilip V Jeste; Javaid I Sheikh

1997-01-01

21

Psychopathology in anxiety disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complaints of anxiety, often meetingDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd ed. (DSM-III), criteria for anxiety disorder, are among the most common problems presenting to health practitioners. In spite of the frequency of anxiety and anxiety disorders, little is known about the basic psychopathology of these conditions that would lead to the development of more efficient and effective treatments

David H. Barlow; Jack D. Maser

1984-01-01

22

Anxiety and Alcohol Use Disorders  

PubMed Central

The co-occurrence of anxiety disorders and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) is relatively common and is associated with a complex clinical presentation. Sound diagnosis and treatment planning requires that clinicians have an integrated understanding of the developmental pathways and course of this comorbidity. Moreover, standard interventions for anxiety disorders or AUDs may need to be modified and combined in targeted ways to accommodate the unique needs of people who have both disorders. Optimal combination of evidence-based treatments should be based on a comparative balance that considers the advantages and disadvantages of sequential, parallel, and integrated approaches. PMID:23584108

Smith, Joshua P.; Randall, Carrie L.

2012-01-01

23

Health Anxiety, Hypochondriasis, and the Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although clinical observations suggest that health-related anxiety is present, to some extent, in a number of anxiety disorders, this relationship has not been examined empirically. The present study therefore utilized the Short Health Anxiety Inventory (SHAI) to elucidate the structure of such symptoms among patients with anxiety disorders and to…

Abramowitz, Jonathan S.; Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Deacon, Brett J.

2007-01-01

24

Social anxiety disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Social anxiety disorder is a persistent and irrational fear of situations that may involve scrutiny or judgment by others, ... People with social anxiety disorder fear and avoid situations in which they may be judged by others. It may begin in adolescence and ...

25

Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents  

MedlinePLUS

Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents We all experience anxiety, and although anxiety is not a pleasant ... an anxiety disorder. How can I recognize an anxiety disorder? Anxiety disorders can cause both an emotional ...

26

Smoking behaviors across anxiety disorders.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to test the theory put forth by Zvolensky et al. [Clin. Psychol. Sci. Pract. 10 (2003) 29] that smoking is specifically associated with panic disorder (PD) and not more generally associated with other anxiety disorders. Smoking behaviors were examined across three anxiety disorders: panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, social phobia (SP), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). A greater proportion of the PD group (40.4%) reported smoking compared to the SP (20%) and OCD (22.4%) groups. Those in the PD group were also more likely than those in the other groups to report being a heavy smoker (greater than 10 cigarettes daily). No significant interaction between diagnosis and smoking status was found for any of the symptom measures. However, participants who smoked had significantly higher scores than nonsmokers on a number of scales, including measures of depression, general anxiety, and distress. Differences in anxiety sensitivity between smokers and nonsmokers approached significance. These findings provide support for Zvolensky et al.'s [Clin. Psychol. Sci. Pract. 10 (2003) 29] theoretical conceptualization and suggest a specific link between smoking and panic disorder. Further investigation is warranted to determine the causal direction of this association. PMID:14725865

McCabe, Randi E; Chudzik, Susan M; Antony, Martin M; Young, Lisa; Swinson, Richard P; Zolvensky, Michael J

2004-01-01

27

Comparing anxiety disorders and anxiety-related traits in bipolar disorder and unipolar depression.  

PubMed

The frequent comorbidity of anxiety disorders and mood disorders has been documented in previous studies. However, it remains unclear whether specific anxiety traits or disorders are more closely associated with unipolar major depression (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BPD). We sought to examine whether MDD and BPD can be distinguished by their association with specific types of anxiety comorbidity. Individuals with a primary lifetime diagnosis of either bipolar disorder (N=122) or major depressive disorder (N=114) received diagnostic assessments of anxiety disorder comorbidity, and completed questionnaires assessing anxiety sensitivity and neuroticism. The differential association of these anxiety phenotypes with MDD versus BPD was examined with multivariate modeling. Panic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) specifically emerged amongst all the anxiety disorders as significantly more common in patients with BPD than MDD. After controlling for current mood state, anxiety sensitivity and neuroticism did not differ by mood disorder type. This study supports prior research suggesting a specific panic disorder-bipolar disorder connection, and suggests GAD may also be differentially associated with BPD. Further research is needed to clarify the etiologic basis of anxiety disorder/BPD comorbidity and to optimize treatment strategies for patients with these co-occurring disorders. PMID:12650739

Simon, Naomi M; Smoller, Jordan W; Fava, Maurizio; Sachs, Gary; Racette, Stephanie R; Perlis, Roy; Sonawalla, Shamsah; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F

2003-01-01

28

Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents  

MedlinePLUS

ADVICE FOR PATIENTS Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents A nxiety disorders are common; about 1 in 4 Americans will have an anxiety ... can make both illnesses more serious. CONSEQUENCES OF ANXIETY DISORDERS Anxiety disorders can lead to school problems ...

29

Anxiety disorders in older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the population of older adults, anxiety disorders are underdiagnosed and undertreated. Epidemiologic studies have generally\\u000a found that the prevalence of anxiety disorders declines with age. Recognition of anxiety disorders in older adults is, however,\\u000a complicated by several age-related factors including the presence of depression, cognitive impairment, and physical illness.\\u000a A variety of medications have been used to treat anxiety

Jeremy A. Sable; Dilip V. Jeste

2001-01-01

30

Anxiety disorders in major depression.  

PubMed

The prevalence and clinical impact of anxiety disorder comorbidity in major depression were studied in 255 depressed adult outpatients consecutively enrolled in our Depression Research Program. Comorbid anxiety disorder diagnoses were present in 50.6% of these patients and included social phobia (27.0%), simple phobia (16.9%), panic disorder (14.5%), generalized anxiety disorder ([GAD] 10.6%), obsessive-compulsive disorder ([OCD] 6.3%), and agoraphobia (5.5%). While both social phobia and generalized anxiety preceded the first episode of major depression in 65% and 63% of cases, respectively, panic disorder (21.6%) and agoraphobia (14.3%) were much less likely to precede the first episode of major depression than to emerge subsequently. Although comorbid groups were not distinguished by depression, anxiety, hostility, or somatic symptom scores at the time of study presentation, patients with comorbid anxiety disorders tended to be younger during the index episode and to have an earlier onset of the major depressive disorder (MDD) than patients with major depression alone. Our results support the distinction between anxiety symptoms secondary to depression and anxiety disorders comorbid with major depression, and provide further evidence for different temporal relationships with major depression among the several comorbid anxiety disorders. PMID:10741886

Fava, M; Rankin, M A; Wright, E C; Alpert, J E; Nierenberg, A A; Pava, J; Rosenbaum, J F

2000-01-01

31

Clinical characteristics of anxiety disordered youth  

PubMed Central

Reports the characteristics of a large, representative sample of treatment seeking anxious youth (N =488). Participants, aged 7–17 years (mean 10.7 yrs), had a principal DSM-IV diagnosis of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), or social phobia (SP). Although youth with a co-primary diagnosis for which a different disorder-specific treatment would be indicated (e.g., major depressive disorder, substance abuse) were not included, there were few other exclusion criteria. Participants and their parent/guardian underwent an extensive baseline assessment using a broad array of measures capturing diagnostic status, anxiety symptoms and severity, and areas of functional impairment. Means and standard deviations of the measures of psychopathology and data on diagnostic status are provided. The sample had moderate to severe anxiety disorder and was highly comorbid, with 55.3% of participants meeting criteria for at least one non-targeted DSM-IV disorder. Anxiety disorders in youth often do not present as a single/focused disorder: such disorders in youth overlap in symptoms and are highly comorbid among themselves. PMID:20206470

Kendall, Philip C.; Compton, Scott N.; Walkup, John T.; Birmaher, Boris; Albano, Anne Marie; Sherrill, Joel; Ginsburg, Golda; Rynn, Moira; McCracken, James; Gosch, Elizabeth; Keeton, Courtney; Bergman, Lindsey; Sakolsky, Dara; Suveg, Cindy; Iyengar, Satish; March, John; Piacentini, John

2010-01-01

32

Examination of the utility of the Beck Anxiety Inventory and its factors as a screener for anxiety disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule (ADIS-IV) were administered to 193 adults at a major Midwestern university recruited from an anxiety research and treatment center. The BAI and its four factor scores were compared from individuals with a primary diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), specific or social phobia, panic disorder with or without agoraphobia,

Ovsanna T. Leyfer; Joshua L. Ruberg; Janet Woodruff-Borden

2006-01-01

33

Anxiety disorders in primary care.  

PubMed

Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric condition presenting to primary care practitioners. Yet they can be easily overlooked or misdiagnosed. Patients that struggle with anxiety disorders are more likely to seek treatment from primary care providers than mental health specialists. Given the costs in terms of debilitation and associated financial burden, and increased risk of suicide, the identification and successful treatment of anxiety is imperative. By means of clinical acumen and the use of screening tools, the provider can develop expertise in recognition and effective treatment of anxiety disorders. PMID:25134870

Combs, Heidi; Markman, Jesse

2014-09-01

34

Anxiety disorders in Asians and Asian Americans.  

PubMed

This paper provides a brief overview of the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the anxiety disorders, particularly as it relates to Asians and Asian Americans. The diagnostic changes brought by the DSM-5 and the implications of these changes are discussed. PMID:24524715

Hong, Janie J

2014-02-01

35

Genetic factors in anxiety disorders.  

PubMed

Presently available clinical genetic studies point to a considerable heritability of anxiety disorders (30-67%), with multiple vulnerability genes such as 5-HT1A, 5-HTT, MAO-A, COMT, CCK-B, ADORA2A, CRHR1, FKBP5, ACE, RGS2/7 and NPSR1 suggested by molecular genetic association studies. These genes have been shown to partially interact with each other as well as with environmental factors to shape the overall disease risk in a complex genetic model. Additionally, recent studies have pointed out the crucial role of epigenetic signatures such as methylation patterns in modifying environmental influences as well as in driving the functional impact of anxiety disorder risk genes. On a systems level, vulnerability genes of anxiety disorders seem to confer some of the disease risk via intermediate phenotypes like behavioral inhibition, anxiety sensitivity or several neurobiological traits such as increased startle reactivity or dysfunctional corticolimbic activity during emotional processing. Finally, first pharmaco- and psychotherapy-genetic studies provide evidence for certain risk genes to confer interindividual variability in response to a pharmacological or psychotherapeutic intervention in anxiety disorders. Genetic research in anxiety disorders will be discussed regarding its potential to foster innovative and individually tailored therapeutic approaches for patients with anxiety disorders. PMID:25225016

Domschke, Katharina; Maron, Eduard

2013-01-01

36

Lifetime comorbidity among anxiety disorders and between anxiety disorders and other mental disorders in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the lifetime comorbidity among anxiety disorders, and between anxiety disorders and other mental disorders, in a large (n = 1,507) community sample of high school students on whom extensive diagnostic data were available. Three diagnostic groups were formed: those with a lifetime anxiety disorder (n = 134); those with a nonanxiety disorder (n = 510); and those who

William H. Sack

1997-01-01

37

Discriminant and Convergent Validity of the Anxiety Construct in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite reports of high anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), there is controversy regarding differential diagnosis of ASD symptoms and anxiety symptoms. This study examined 88 children, aged 7-11 years, with ASD referred for concerns about anxiety. A multitrait-(social anxiety, separation anxiety, overall anxiety severity, and…

Renno, Patricia; Wood, Jeffrey J.

2013-01-01

38

Alcohol Use and Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between anxiety and alcohol use is a topic of great theoretical and practical interest for both scientists interested in the nature and causes of psychopathology and practitioners working with anxious and\\/or alcohol abusing clients. Although it has been clearly established that anxiety disorders and alcohol use disorders are highly ‘‘comorbid’’ or co-occurring conditions (e.g., see Kushner, Abrams &

Brigitte C. Sabourin; Sherry H. Stewart

39

Studying Anxiety Disorders | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Phobias and Anxiety Disorders Studying Anxiety Disorders Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents ... physical and psychological stress, and diet. 5 Major Anxiety Disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) : chronic anxiety, exaggerated ...

40

Anxiety in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anxiety symptoms and disorders are highly prevalent in children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), although they are often unrecognized or misdiagnosed. The purpose of the present review is to (1) provide clinicians with practical information on assessment and diagnosis of co-morbid anxiety in children and adolescents with ASD,…

MacNeil, Bonnie M.; Lopes, Vicki A.; Minnes, Patricia M.

2009-01-01

41

Suicidal Ideation in Anxiety-Disordered Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence is mixed regarding an independent association between anxiety and suicidality in youth. Study 1 examined suicidal ideation in treatment-referred, anxiety-disordered youth (N = 312, aged 7-17). Forty-one percent of anxiety-disordered youth endorsed suicidal ideation. Anxiety disorder severity, global impairment, and current depressive…

O'Neil, Kelly A.; Puleo, Connor M.; Benjamin, Courtney L.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Kendall, Philip C.

2012-01-01

42

Oxidative Imbalance and Anxiety Disorders  

PubMed Central

The oxidative imbalance appears to have an important role in anxiety development. Studies in both humans and animals have shown a strong correlation between anxiety and oxidative stress. In humans, for example, the increased malondialdehyde levels and discrepancies in antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes have been observed. In animals, several studies also show that anxiety-like behavior is related to the oxidative imbalance. Moreover, anxiety-like behavior can be caused by pharmacological-induced oxidative stress. Studies using knockout or overexpression of antioxidant enzymes have shown a relationship between anxiety-like behavior and oxidative stress. Related factors of oxidative stress that could influence anxious behavior are revised, including impaired function of different mitochondrial proteins, inflammatory cytokines, and neurotrophic factors. It has been suggested that a therapy specifically focus in reducing reactive species production may have a beneficial effect in reducing anxiety. However, the neurobiological pathways underlying the effect of oxidative stress on anxiety symptoms are not fully comprehended. The challenge now is to identify the oxidative stress mechanisms likely to be involved in the induction of anxiety symptoms. Understanding these pathways could help to clarify the neurobiology of the anxiety disorder and provide tools for new discovery in therapies and preventive strategies. PMID:24669212

R, Krolow; D. M, Arcego; C, Noschang; S. N, Weis; C, Dalmaz

2014-01-01

43

Cognitive Therapy of Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of studies of cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) for generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder with and without agoraphobia, and social phobia indicates that CBT is consistently more effective than waiting-list and placebo control groups. In general, CBT has proved more beneficial than supportive therapy as well. Comparisons with active behavioral treatments provide more variable results. Converging evidence suggests that cognitive

Dianne L. Chambless; Martha M. Gillis

1993-01-01

44

Cognitive Therapy of Anxiety Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews studies of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder with and without agoraphobia, and social phobia. Sees CBT as consistently more effective than waiting-list and placebo control groups. Notes that cognitive change may be strong predictor of treatment outcome but that such change may be produced…

Chambless, Dianne L.; Gillis, Martha M.

1993-01-01

45

Childhood anxiety disorders and developmental issues in anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anxiety disorders are common disorders in childhood, and developmental differences must be considered when diagnosing and\\u000a treating patients in this age group. Recent research has illuminated the course of childhood anxiety disorders, including\\u000a how they can be precursors to continued anxiety and mood problems in adulthood. Recent studies of cognitive-behavioral therapy,\\u000a the first-line psychosocial treatment for childhood anxiety, have focused

Paul Arnold; S. Preeya Banerjee; Rashmi Bhandari; Jennifer Ivey; Michelle Rose; David R. Rosenberg

2003-01-01

46

Anxiety and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents: Developmental Issues and Implications for DSM-V  

PubMed Central

This review summarizes findings on the epidemiology and etiology of anxiety disorders among children and adolescents including separation anxiety disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, agoraphobia, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder, also highlighting critical aspects of diagnosis, assessment, and treatment. Childhood and adolescence is the core risk phase for the development of anxiety symptoms and syndromes, ranging from transient mild symptoms to full-blown anxiety disorders. This article critically reviews epidemiological evidence covering prevalence, incidence, course, and risk factors. The core challenge in this age span is the derivation of developmentally more sensitive assessment methods. Identification of characteristics that could serve as solid predictors for onset, course, and outcome will require prospective designs that assess a wide range of putative vulnerability and risk factors. This type of information is important for improved early recognition and differential diagnosis as well as prevention and treatment in this age span. PMID:19716988

Beesdo, Katja; Knappe, Susanne; Pine, Daniel S.

2010-01-01

47

Nonpharmacological treatments for anxiety disorders  

PubMed Central

An evidence-based review of nonpharmacological treatments for anxiety disorders is presented. The vast majority of the controlled research is devoted to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and shows its efficiency and effectiveness in all the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) anxiety disorders in meta-analyses. Relaxation, psychoanalytic therapies, Rogerian nondirective therapy, hypnotherapy and supportive therapy were examined in a few controlled studies, which preclude any definite conclusion about their effectiveness in specific phobias, agoraphobia, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), CBT was clearly better than psychoanalytic therapy in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and performance anxiety Psychological debriefing for PTSD appeared detrimental to the patients in one high-quality meta-analysis. Uncontrolled studies of psychosurgery techniques for intractable OCD demonstrated a limited success and detrimental side effects. The same was true for sympathectomy in ereutophobia. Transcranial neurostimulation for OCD is under preliminary study. The theoretical and practical problems of CBT dissemination are discussed. PMID:22034140

Cottraux, Jean

2002-01-01

48

Anxiety Disorders Association of America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Millions of people across the United States live with a variety of anxiety disorders and for twenty-five years, the Anxiety Disorders Association of American (ADAA) has worked to promote the prevention, treatment and cure of these disorders. From the siteâÂÂs homepage visitors can learn about some of the most common anxiety disorders, such as panic disorder, social phobia, and post-traumatic stress disorder. The siteâÂÂs homepage also offers visitors the opportunity to sign up to receive their e-newsletter. As might be expected, there is a rather useful section titled âÂÂGetting HelpâÂÂ. Here visitors can learn about how they find a therapist for themselves (or a loved one). There are a myriad of resources within this particular area that will be of great use, including a section where visitors can learn about how to pick a therapist and a place for first-person narratives about living with a variety of anxiety disorders.

49

[Anxiety disorders in DSM-5].  

PubMed

The fifth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, the DSM-5 appeared officially in May 2013 during the development of the 166th Annual Meetingof the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in San Francisco. The drafting process was long and complex; much of the debate became public so that the expectations were great. And it must be said that the new edition did not disappoint, as many changes were made in relation to their predecessors. In Chapter of Anxiety Disorders, which is reviewed in this article, the changes were significant. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and Stress-related disorders were excluded and new clinical pictures, such as separation anxiety disorder and selective mutism, were included. And took place was the long awaited split between panic disorder and agoraphobia, now two separate disorders. PMID:24887371

Márquez, Miguel

2014-01-01

50

Worried Sick: Living with Anxiety Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Worried Sick Living with Anxiety Disorders Anxiety is an uneasy feeling that something may harm ... more alert and ready for action. But sometimes anxiety can linger or become overwhelming. When it gets ...

51

Pharmacotherapy of anxiety disorders: a critical review  

PubMed Central

Given the enormous contribution of anxiety disorders to the burden of disease, it is key to optimize their prevention and treatment. In this critical review we assess advances in the pharmacotherapy of anxiety disorders, as well as remaining challenges, in recent decades, the field has seen rigorous clinical trial methods to quantify the efficacy and safety of serendipitously discovered agents, more focused development of medications with selective mechanisms of action, and the gradual translation of insights from laboratory research into proof-of-principle clinical trials. On the positive side, a considerable database of studies shows efficacy and relative tolerability of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the major anxiety disorders, and secondary analyses of such datasets have informed questions such as optimal definition of response and remission, optimal dose and duration, and comparative efficacy of different agents. Significant challenges in the field include barriers to appropriate diagnosis and treatment of anxiety disorders, failure of a significant proportion of patients to respond to first-line pharmacotherapy agents, and a limited database of efficacy or effectiveness studies to guide treatment in such cases. PMID:22275848

Koen, Nastassja; Stein, Dan J.

2011-01-01

52

Mood & Anxiety Disorders Huys et al. Biology of Mood & Anxiety Disorders 2013, 3:12  

E-print Network

of the Beck Depression Inventory [16] or the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ) [17] typicallyBiology of Mood & Anxiety Disorders Huys et al. Biology of Mood & Anxiety Disorders 2013, 3:12 http

Dayan, Peter

53

Social Anxiety Disorders and Alcohol Abuse  

MedlinePLUS

... 5 Changes Myth-Conceptions Social Anxiety Disorder and Alcohol Abuse At around the age of 10, I ... the company of other emotional difficulties” such as alcohol or drug abuse, depression, and other anxiety disorders. ...

54

The comorbidity between eating disorders and anxiety disorders.  

E-print Network

??Doctor of Philosophy(PhD)%%%Research indicates that eating disorders and anxiety disorders frequently co-occur. The prevalence of anxiety disorders amongst anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa samples has… (more)

Swinbourne, Jessica M

2008-01-01

55

Anxiety Disorders: Recognizing the Symptoms of Six of the Most Common Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes six common types of anxiety disorders: (1) generalized anxiety disorder; (2) panic disorder; (3) obsessive-compulsive disorder; (4) post-traumatic stress disorder; (5) specific phobias; and (6) social phobia. Treatment of anxiety disorders have two components that can be offered separately or in combination. They are…

Cancro, Robert

2007-01-01

56

Screening for social anxiety disorder in the clinical setting: using the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We sought to determine optimal cutoff values for the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) total and subscale scores for the diagnosis of social anxiety disorder (SAD) and designation of the generalized subtype of SAD. Method: Three hundred and sixty-four patients from a multi-site sample who met criteria for SAD according to structured diagnostic interview, 262 of whom met criteria

Douglas S Mennin; David M Fresco; Richard G Heimberg; Franklin R Schneier; Sharon O Davies; Michael R Liebowitz

2002-01-01

57

Autism Spectrum Traits in Children with Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to examine ASD traits in children with clinical anxiety in early development, as well as current manifestations. Parents of 42 children with an anxiety disorder (but no known diagnosis of ASD) and 42 typically developing children were interviewed using the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI-R). They also completed…

van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; Wood, Jeffrey J.

2013-01-01

58

Psychotherapy for Anxiety in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Autism Spectrum Disorders; Autism; Asperger's Syndrome; Pervasive Developmental Disability - Not Otherwise Specified; Obsessive-compulsive Disorder; Social Phobia; Generalized Anxiety Disorder; Specific Phobia; Separation Anxiety Disorder

2014-07-28

59

Psychotherapy for Anxiety in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Autism Spectrum Disorders; Autism; Asperger's Syndrome; Pervasive Developmental Disability - Not Otherwise Specified; Obsessive-compulsive Disorder; Social Phobia; Generalized Anxiety Disorder; Specific Phobia; Separation Anxiety Disorder

2014-04-09

60

Alcohol abuse and the anxiety disorders: Evidence from the epidemiologic catchment area survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the prevalence of alcohol abuse and\\/or dependence in a sample of patients with anxiety disorders gathered from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study. Prior research had indicated that anxiety disorders are preva- lent among alcoholics and also that alcoholism is prevalent among samples of anxiety disorder patients. The sample included 2471 individuals who met a lifetime diagnosis of

J Himle; ELIZABETH M. HILL

1991-01-01

61

Treatment for illegal drug use disorders: the role of comorbid mood and anxiety disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Our aim was to examine whether comorbid mood and anxiety disorders influence patterns of treatment or the perceived unmet need for treatment among those not receiving treatment for illegal drug use disorders. Methods Data came from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC, 2001–2002 and 2004–2005, n?=?34,653). Lifetime DSM-IV illegal drug use disorder (abuse and dependence), as well as comorbid mood (major depression, dysthymia, manic disorder, hypomanic disorder) and anxiety disorders (panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, specific phobia, generalized anxiety) were ascertained by a standardized psychiatric interview. Treatment for illegal drug use disorders and perceived unmet need for treatment were assessed among individuals with illegal drug use disorder. Odds of treatment and odds of perceived unmet need for treatment were assessed using logistic regression, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, treatment for mood and anxiety disorders, and comorbid alcohol use disorder. Results Out of 34,653 participants, 1114 (3.2%) had a diagnosis of lifetime illegal drug use disorder: 21.2% had a comorbid mood disorder only, 11.8% a comorbid anxiety disorder only, and 45.9% comorbid mood and anxiety disorders. Comorbid mood and anxiety disorders were not related to treatment for illegal drug use disorders but were associated with an elevated likelihood of unmet need for treatment: compared to participants with no comorbidities, multivariate ORs were 2.21 (95% CI: 1.23- 4.10) for mood disorder only, 2.38 (95% CI: 1.27-4.45) for anxiety disorder only, and 2.90 (95% CI: 1.71-4.94) for both mood and anxiety disorders. Conclusions Individuals with an illegal drug use disorder and comorbid mood or anxiety disorders are disproportionately likely to report unmet need for treatment. Integrated mental health and substance use programs could prove effective in addressing their treatment needs. PMID:24670230

2014-01-01

62

Social Anxiety Disorder: More Than Just a Little Shyness  

PubMed Central

Social anxiety is defined as a “marked and persistent fear of social or performance situations” and includes such symptoms as sweating, palpitations, shaking, and respiratory distress. Social anxiety is fairly common, occurring in as much as 13% of the population, and can be extremely disabling. It can be either specific (confined to 1 or 2 performance situations) or generalized, and can be diagnosed with a scale-based questionnaire. Social anxiety may coexist with other disorders, such as depression and dysthymia. The differential diagnosis for social anxiety includes panic disorder, agoraphobia, atypical depression, and body dysmorphic disorder. Treatment for social anxiety can be quite effective and consists of psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy (including such medications as ?-blockers, anxiolytics, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants), or a combination. This article details the prevalence, onset, disease impact, and etiology of social anxiety. Specific treatments, including both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy, are presented in detail, along with other treatment considerations, such as comorbidity. PMID:15014622

Jefferson, James W.

2001-01-01

63

Evolutionary aspects of anxiety disorders  

PubMed Central

Danger and harm are avoided by strategic decisions made at all three levels of the triune forebrain: rational (neomammalian), emotional (paleomammalian), and instinctive (reptilian). This applies also to potential harm from conspecifics, which leads to a choice between escalating and de-escalating strategies. Anxiety is a component of de-escalating strategies mediated by the paleomammalian and reptilian forebrains. When the neomammalian (rational) brain fails to deal with the threat of conspecific danger, these more primitive de-escalating strategies may be activated and may present as anxiety disorders. The capacity for concealment of anxiety and other forms of negative affect has also evolved, and excessive concealment may lead to psychopaihology by breaking the negative feedback loop of excessive motivation, leading to impaired performance, leading to signals of distress, and leading to reduced exhortation to succeed on the part of parents and teachers; this situation is illustrated by a model based on the Yerkes-Dodson law. PMID:22033473

Price, John S.

2003-01-01

64

Recent developments in anxiety disorders.  

PubMed

Anxiety disorders are common and debilitating mental illnesses. Current pharmacological treatments are beset by problems of poor efficacy and side effect profiles. Increasing understanding of novel neurotransmitter systems and the interplay between these systems is broadening the scope of anxiolytic drug treatment. This article aims to describe the areas of current interest and possible future development of anxiolytic drugs by outlining recent patents in this field. A patent database was searched for 17 neurotransmitters and their synonyms as well as 23 compounds of recent known interest from May 2003 to May 2005. The internet resources Pubmed and Google Scholar were searched for peer reviewed literature using the same search parameters. Results were grouped into neurotransmitter systems to present an overview of recent developments in the neuropharmacology of anxiety disorders. PMID:18221210

Christmas, David M; Hood, Sean D

2006-11-01

65

FAMILY ACCOMMODATION IN PEDIATRIC ANXIETY DISORDERS  

PubMed Central

Background Family accommodation has been studied in obsessive compulsive disorder using the Family Accommodation Scale (FAS) and predicts greater symptom severity, more impairment, and poorer treatment outcomes. However, family accommodation has yet to be systematically studied among families of children with other anxiety disorders. We developed the Family Accommodation Scale—Anxiety (FASA) that includes modified questions from the FAS to study accommodation across childhood anxiety disorders. The objectives of this study were to report on the first study of family accommodation across childhood anxiety disorders and to test the utility of the FASA for assessing the phenomenon. Methods Participants were parents (n = 75) of anxious children from two anxiety disorder specialty clinics (n = 50) and a general outpatient clinic (n = 25). Measures included FASA, structured diagnostic interviews, and measures of anxiety and depression. Results Accommodation was highly prevalent across all anxiety disorders and particularly associated with separation anxiety. Most parents reported participation in symptoms and modification of family routines as well as distress resulting from accommodation and undesirable consequences of not accommodating. The FASA displayed good internal consistency and convergent and divergent validity. Accommodation correlated significantly with anxious but not depressive symptoms, when controlling for the association between anxiety and depression. Factor analysis of the FASA pointed to a two-factor solution; one relating to modifications, the other to participation in symptoms. Conclusions Accommodation is common across childhood anxiety disorders and associated with severity of anxiety symptoms. The FASA shows promise as a means of assessing family accommodation in childhood anxiety disorders. PMID:22965863

Lebowitz, Eli R.; Woolston, Joseph; Bar-Haim, Yair; Calvocoressi, Lisa; Dauser, Christine; Warnick, Erin; Scahill, Lawrence; Chakir, Adi R.; Shechner, Tomer; Hermes, Holly; Vitulano, Lawrence A.; King, Robert A.; Leckman, James F.

2014-01-01

66

Genetics of Anxiety and Trauma-Related Disorders  

PubMed Central

Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric illnesses in the U.S. with approximately 30% of the population experiencing anxiety-related symptoms in their lifetime (Kessler et al., 2005). Notably, a variety of studies have demonstrated that 30?40% of the variance contributing to these disorders is heritable. In the present review, we discuss the latest findings regarding the genetic and environmental influences on the development and symptomatology of anxiety disorders. Specific emphasis is placed on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to its uniqueness as an anxiety disorder; its diagnosis is dependent on a precipitating traumatic event and its development appears to be mediated by both genetic and environmental contributions. The co-morbidity of anxiety disorders and the potential reclassification of anxiety disorders as part of DSM-V are reviewed given the potential impact on the interpretation and design of genetic investigations. Lastly, several keys to future genetic studies are highlighted. Thorough analyses of the gene by environment (GxE) interactions that govern one's vulnerability to anxiety disorder(s), the effectiveness of individual treatment strategies, and the severity of symptoms may lead to more effective prophylactic (e.g., social support) and treatment strategies. PMID:19540311

Norrholm, Seth D.; Ressler, Kerry J.

2009-01-01

67

Anxiety Disorders in Long-Term Survivors of Adult Cancers  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the prevalence of anxiety disorders among long-term survivors of adult cancers. Using data from the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R), we compared rates of anxiety disorders between long-term cancer survivors and individuals without a history of cancer. Methods A nationally representative sample of 9,282 adults participated in a household survey to assess the prevalence of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders, a subset of whom also answered questions about medical comorbidities, including cancer. Long-term survivors were defined as those who received an adult cancer diagnosis at least five years before the survey. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations between cancer history and anxiety disorders in the past year. Results The NCS-R sample consisted of 225 long-term cancer survivors and 5,337 people without a history of cancer. Controlling for socio-demographic variables, long-term cancer survivors were more likely to have an anxiety disorder (OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.04-2.13), including specific phobia (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.06-2.44) and medical phobia (OR: 3.45, 95% CI: 1.15-10.0), during the past 12 months compared to those without cancer histories. Rates for social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, panic disorder and agoraphobia were not significantly different between groups. Conclusion Long-term survivors of adult cancers were more likely to have an anxiety disorder diagnosis, namely specific phobia, in the past 12 months compared with the general public. Further longitudinal study is needed to clarify the timing and course of anxiety relative to the cancer diagnosis. PMID:21907059

Greer, Joseph A.; Solis, Jessica M.; Temel, Jennifer S.; Lennes, Inga T.; Prigerson, Holly G.; Maciejewski, Paul K.; Pirl, William F.

2011-01-01

68

Enhanced anger superiority effect in generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder.  

PubMed

People are typically faster and more accurate to detect angry compared to happy faces, which is known as the anger superiority effect. Many cognitive models of anxiety suggest anxiety disorders involve attentional biases towards threat, although the nature of these biases remains unclear. The present study used a Face-in-the-Crowd task to investigate the anger superiority effect in a control group and patients diagnosed with either generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) or panic disorder (PD). The main finding was that both anxiety groups showed an enhanced anger superiority effect compared to controls, which is consistent with key theories of anxiety. Furthermore, both anxiety groups showed a differential pattern of enhanced bias towards threat depending on the crowd in the displays. The different attentional bias patterns between the GAD and PD groups may be related to the diverse symptoms in these disorders. These findings have implications for the diagnosis and treatment of anxiety. PMID:22196167

Ashwin, Chris; Holas, Pawel; Broadhurst, Shanna; Kokoszka, Andrzej; Georgiou, George A; Fox, Elaine

2012-03-01

69

Anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders in parents of children with anxiety disorders.  

PubMed

Examined the prevalence of anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders in the parents of anxiety disordered (AD) children relative to children with no psychological disorder (NPD). The specificity of relationships between child and parent anxiety disorders was also investigated. Results revealed higher prevalence rates of anxiety disorders in parents of AD children relative to NPD children. Specific child-mother relationships were found between child separation anxiety and panic disorder and maternal panic disorder, as were child and maternal social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder, and specific phobias. Findings are discussed with reference to theory, clinical implications, and future research needs. PMID:19229606

Hughes, Alicia A; Furr, Jami M; Sood, Erica D; Barmish, Andrea J; Kendall, Philip C

2009-09-01

70

Anxiety, Mood, and Substance Use Disorders in Parents of Children With Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined the prevalence of anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders in the parents of anxiety disordered (AD) children relative\\u000a to children with no psychological disorder (NPD). The specificity of relationships between child and parent anxiety disorders\\u000a was also investigated. Results revealed higher prevalence rates of anxiety disorders in parents of AD children relative to\\u000a NPD children. Specific child–mother relationships were

Alicia A. Hughes; Jami M. Furr; Erica D. Sood; Andrea J. Barmish; Philip C. Kendall

2009-01-01

71

Treating Anxiety Disorders in a School Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent childhood psychological disorders. In addition to causing acute distress to the child, parent and school staff, anxiety disorders may also have a significant impact on a child's educational and social development and persist chronically into adulthood. Recent work has begun to identify the school as…

McLoone, Jordana; Hudson, Jennifer L.; Rapee, Ronald M.

2006-01-01

72

Functional imaging of mood and anxiety disorders.  

PubMed

Neuroimaging research has emerged as a valuable tool in shaping our understanding of the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. We review functional neuroimaging findings pertaining to mood disorders (major depression, bipolar disorders) as well as selected anxiety disorders (posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD] and obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD]). PMID:16483270

Deckersbach, Thilo; Dougherty, Darin D; Rauch, Scott L

2006-01-01

73

Anxiety Sensitivity Factor Structure Among Brazilian Patients with Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anxiety sensitivity (i.e., fear of arousal-related bodily sensations, including sensations that arise from normal physiological\\u000a processes, due to the personal belief that these sensations will produce harmful consequences) is an important psychological\\u000a construct involved in the etiology and maintenance of different anxiety disorders. The present study evaluated the psychometric\\u000a proprieties and the factor structure of the 18-item Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3

Maria Rachel Pessanha Gimenes Escocard; Ana Carolina Monnerat Fioravanti-Bastos; J. Landeira-Fernandez

2009-01-01

74

Correlates of comorbid anxiety and externalizing disorders in childhood obsessive compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the influence of diagnostic comorbidity on the demographic, psychiatric, and functional status\\u000a of youth with a primary diagnosis of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Two hundred and fifteen children (ages 5–17) referred\\u000a to a university-based OCD specialty clinic were compared based on DSM-IV diagnostic profile: OCD without comorbid anxiety\\u000a or externalizing disorder, OCD plus anxiety disorder, and

Audra K. LangleyAdam; Adam B. Lewin; R. Lindsey Bergman; Joyce C. Lee; John Piacentini

2010-01-01

75

Peer Perceptions and Liking of Children with Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined three aspects of childhood anxiety and peer liking: (1) whether or not children can detect anxiety in age-mates, (2) the degree to which peer-reported anxiety, self-reported anxiety, and presence of anxiety disorders are associated with peer liking, and (3) whether or not self-reported anxiety and presence of anxiety disorders are…

Verduin, Timothy L.; Kendall, Philip C.

2008-01-01

76

COMORBIDITY OF ANXIETY AND UNIPOLAR MOOD DISORDERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on relationships between anxiety and depression has proceeded at a rapid pace since the 1980s. The similarities and differences between these two conditions, as well as many of the important features of the comorbidity of these disorders, are well understood. The genotypic structure of anxiety and depression is also fairly well documented. Generalized anxiety and ma- jor depression share

Susan Mineka; David Watson; Lee Anna Clark

1998-01-01

77

Anxiety  

MedlinePLUS

... Facts & Information What is anxiety and what are anxiety disorders? Sometimes a little anxiety can be a good ... or gets worse over time is considered an anxiety disorder. As many as 14% of older adults have ...

78

Treating Anxiety Disorders | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Phobias and Anxiety Disorders Treating Anxiety Disorders Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents Anxiety disorders are generally treated with medication, specific types ...

79

Anxiety, Anxiety Disorders, Tobacco Use, and Nicotine: A Critical Review of Interrelationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Smoking is highly prevalent across most anxiety disorders. Tobacco use increases risk for the later development of certain anxiety disorders, and smokers with anxiety disorders have more severe withdrawal symptoms during smoking cessation than smokers without anxiety disorders. The authors critically examined the relationships among anxiety,…

Morissette, Sandra Baker; Tull, Matthew T.; Gulliver, Suzy Bird; Kamholz, Barbara Wolfsdorf; Zimering, Rose T.

2007-01-01

80

Discriminant and Convergent Validity of the Anxiety Construct in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Despite reports of high anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), there is controversy regarding differential diagnosis of ASD symptoms and anxiety symptoms. This study examined 88 children, aged 7–11 years, with ASD referred for concerns about anxiety. A multitrait-(social anxiety, separation anxiety, overall anxiety severity, and overall ASD severity), multimethod- (diagnostic interviews, parent-, and child-based measures) analysis was conducted. Results from structural equation modeling suggest statistical discrimination between anxiety and ASD severity and convergence among differing reports of two of the anxiety subdomains (separation anxiety and overall anxiety). These findings suggest that anxiety symptoms experienced by children with ASD are separate from ASD symptom severity and may instead reflect anxiety syndromes (e.g., separation anxiety) similar to those that occur in typically developing children. PMID:23354538

Renno, Patricia; Wood, Jeffrey J.

2013-01-01

81

Psychobiology of anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder is currently classified as an anxiety disorder. However, there is growing interest in the concept of an obsessive-compulsive spectrum of disorders (OCSDs). The relationship between anxiety disorders and OCSDs has been questioned. The psychobiology of anxiety disorders and OCSDs is briefly reviewed in this article. While there appear to be several distinct contrasts in the underlying psychobiology of these conditions, there is also evidence of overlapping mechanisms. In addition, there are crucial gaps in our current database, confounding nosological decision-making. Conceptualizing various anxiety disorders and putative OCSDs as lying within a broader spectrum of emotional disorders may be useful. However, clinicians must also recognize that individual anxiety and obsessive-compulsive spectrum conditions, including disorders characterized by body-focused repetitive behaviors, have distinct psychobiological underpinnings and require different treatment approaches. PMID:18849908

Stein, Dan J

2008-09-01

82

Cultural Aspects in Social Anxiety and Social Anxiety Disorder  

PubMed Central

To examine cultural aspects in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder (SAD), we reviewed the literature on the prevalence rates, expressions, and treatments of social anxiety/SAD as they relate to culture, race, and ethnicity. We further reviewed factors that contribute to the differences in social anxiety/SAD between different cultures, including individualism/collectivism, perception of social norms, self-construal, gender roles, and gender role identification. Our review suggests that the prevalence and expression of social anxiety/SAD depends on the particular culture. Asian cultures typically show the lowest rates, whereas Russian and US samples show the highest rates, of SAD. Taijin kyofusho is discussed as a possible culture-specific expression of social anxiety, although the empirical evidence concerning the validity of this syndrome has been mixed. It is concluded that the individual's social concerns need to be examined in the context of the person's cultural, racial, and ethnic background in order to adequately assess the degree and expression of social anxiety and social anxiety disorder. This has direct relevance for the upcoming DSM-V. PMID:21132847

Hofmann, Stefan G.; Asnaani, Anu; Hinton, Devon E.

2010-01-01

83

Transdiagnostic Treatment of Bipolar Disorder and Comorbid Anxiety with the Unified Protocol: A Clinical Replication Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic, debilitating disorder with recurrent manic and depressive episodes. More than 75% of bipolar patients have a current or lifetime diagnosis of a comorbid anxiety disorder. Comorbid anxiety in BD is associated with greater illness severity, greater functional impairment, and poorer illness-related outcomes.…

Ellard, Kristen K.; Deckersbach, Thilo; Sylvia, Louisa G.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Barlow, David H.

2012-01-01

84

Differences between smokers and nonsmokers with anxiety disorders.  

PubMed

Epidemiological data suggest that early smoking increases the risk for emergence of certain anxiety disorders (e.g., panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)), and that presence of certain anxiety disorders (e.g., social anxiety) increases the risk for later development of nicotine dependence. Although some studies report a high prevalence of smoking among anxiety disorders, the extent to which smokers with anxiety disorders differ from their nonsmoking counterparts remains uncertain. Differences between smokers and nonsmokers with anxiety disorders (N=527) were examined with respect to multiple measures of theoretical and clinical interest. Compared to nonsmokers, smokers with anxiety disorders reported greater anxiety sensitivity, anxiety symptoms, agoraphobic avoidance, depressed mood, negative affect, stress and life interference; however, these differences were largely accounted for by panic disorder. No differences were found between smokers and nonsmokers regarding social anxiety, worry, obsessive-compulsive symptoms or positive affect. Differential patterns were observed when evaluating constructs within anxiety disorder diagnoses. PMID:16202562

Morissette, Sandra Baker; Brown, Timothy A; Kamholz, Barbara Wolfsdorf; Gulliver, Suzy Bird

2006-01-01

85

Anxiety  

MedlinePLUS

... be afraid to leave home. These people have anxiety disorders. Types include Panic disorder Obsessive-compulsive disorder Post-traumatic stress disorder Phobias Generalized anxiety disorder Treatment can involve medicines, therapy or both. NIH: ...

86

Peer Perceptions and Liking of Children with Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined three aspects of childhood anxiety and peer liking: (1) whether or not children can detect anxiety in age-mates,\\u000a (2) the degree to which peer-reported anxiety, self-reported anxiety, and presence of anxiety disorders are associated with\\u000a peer liking, and (3) whether or not self-reported anxiety and presence of anxiety disorders are associated with peer liking\\u000a after controlling for peer-reported anxiety.

Timothy L. Verduin; Philip C. Kendall

2008-01-01

87

Behavioral genetics of affective and anxiety disorders.  

PubMed

As shown by clinical genetic studies, affective and anxiety disorders are complex genetic disorders with genetic and environmental factors interactively determining their respective pathomechanism. Advances in molecular genetic techniques including linkage studies, association studies, and genome-wide association studies allow for the detailed dissection of the genetic influence on the development of these disorders. Besides the molecular genetic investigation of categorical entities according to standardized diagnostic criteria, intermediate phenotypes comprising neurobiological or neuropsychological traits (e.g., neuronal correlates of emotional processing) that are linked to the disease of interest and that are heritable, have been proposed to be closer to the underlying genotype than the overall disease phenotype. These intermediate phenotypes are dimensional and more precisely defined than the categorical disease phenotype, and therefore have attracted much interest in the genetic investigation of affective and anxiety disorders. Given the complex genetic nature of affective and anxiety disorders with an interaction of multiple risk genes and environmental influences, the interplay of genetic factors with environmental factors is investigated by means of gene-environment interaction (GxE) studies. Pharmacogenetic studies aid in the dissection of the genetically influenced heterogeneity of psychotropic drug response and may contribute to the development of a more individualized treatment of affective and anxiety disorders. Finally, there is some evidence for genetic factors potentially shared between affective and anxiety disorders pointing to a possible overlapping phenotype between anxiety disorders and depression. PMID:22307738

Domschke, Katharina; Reif, Andreas

2012-01-01

88

Objective Sleep in Pediatric Anxiety Disorders and Major Depressive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study to examine sleep problems encountered in anxiety and depressive disorders among children and adolescents is conducted. Results indicated subjective and objective sleep problems in children and adolescents with anxiety disorders and need to be kept in mind when treating young anxious people.

Forbes, Erika E.; Bertocci, Michele A.; Gregory, Alice M.; Ryan, Neal D.; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Dahl, Ronald E.

2008-01-01

89

Neuroendocrine Responses to Psychological Stress in Adolescents with Anxiety Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurotransmitter-neuroendocrine and cardiovascular responses to the administration of a psychologically stressful mixed-model test (Mental Arithmetic, Stroop Color Word Interference Task, Trier Social Stress Test) were examined in 20 male peripubertal subjects affected by anxiety disorder (group A: 14 with generalized anxiety disorder, 6 with generalized anxiety disorder and separation anxiety disorder) and 20 junior school adolescents, matched for age, without

G. Gerra; A. Zaimovic; U. Zambelli; M. Timpano; N. Reali; S. Bernasconi; F. Brambilla

2000-01-01

90

Anxiety in adolescents: Update on its diagnosis and treatment for primary care providers  

PubMed Central

Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent mental health concern facing adolescents today, yet they are largely undertreated. This is especially concerning given that there are fairly good data to support an evidence-based approach to the diagnosis and treatment of anxiety, and also that untreated, these problems can continue into adulthood, growing in severity. Thus, knowing how to recognize and respond to anxiety in adolescents is of the utmost importance in primary care settings. To that end, this article provides an up-to-date review of the diagnosis and treatment of anxiety disorders geared towards professionals in primary care settings. Topics covered include subtypes, clinical presentation, the etiology and biology, effective screening instruments, evidence-based treatments (both medication and therapy), and the long-term prognosis for adolescents with anxiety. Importantly, we focus on the most common types of anxiety disorders, often known as phobias, which include generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety/social phobia, separation anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and specific phobias. In summary, anxiety is a common psychiatric problem for adolescents, but armed with the right tools, primary care providers can make a major impact. PMID:24600282

Siegel, Rebecca S; Dickstein, Daniel P

2012-01-01

91

Methods for treating anxiety related disorders  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention relates to methods of and compositions for treating and relieving symptoms and disease associated with indications caused by a physiological drive to alleviate a sensation of anxiety. In one treatment method, methods of, and compositions for, modulating the expression of certain GABAA receptor subunits are used to treat anxiety-related disorders and depressive disorders associated with physiological tolerance to endogenous neurosteroids.

2011-09-06

92

Childhood Anxiety Disorders: Parent–Child (Dis) Agreement Using a Structured Interview for the DSM-IV  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo evaluate parent–child agreement for diagnosis of childhood anxiety disorders using a DSM-IV-based structured interview in an anxiety-clinic-referred sample and to explore the role of age and gender on agreement.

MUNIYA S. CHOUDHURY; SANDRA S. PIMENTEL; PHILIP C. KENDALL

2003-01-01

93

[Anxiety disorders in DSM-5: an overview on changes in structure and content].  

PubMed

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5 (DSM-5) "anxiety, obsessive-compulsive spectrum, posttraumatic, and dissociative disorders" work group addressed reconceptualization issues regarding all anxiety-related disorders. Based on systematic literature reviews, reanalyses of available data and evaluation of results following the DSM-5 principles it was decided to rearrange the disorder spectrum into separate groupings for the classical anxiety disorders, trauma- and stressor-related disorders, obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, and dissociative disorders. Among the classical anxiety disorders DSM-5 now also includes selective mutism and separation anxiety disorder. A major change from DSM-IV is a drastically simplified classification of panic disorder and agoraphobia. Both conditions can be separately coded in DSM-5 and the overlap is disclosed by a comorbid double diagnosis. The anxiety disorder criteria have been generally harmonized regarding content and order. It was assured that criteria are applicable to all age, gender and cultural groups. Furthermore, diagnosis-specific and cross-cutting dimensional anxiety scales have been developed to supplement categorical diagnosis which appears to facilitate assessment of severity and course of treatment. PMID:24737036

Wittchen, H-U; Heinig, I; Beesdo-Baum, K

2014-05-01

94

Stable Early Maternal Report of Behavioral Inhibition Predicts Lifetime Social Anxiety Disorder in Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The odds of a lifetime diagnosis of social anxiety disorder increased by 3.79 times for children who had a stable report of behavioral inhibition from their mothers. This finding has important implications for the early identification and prevention of social anxiety disorder.

Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Degnan, Kathryn Amey; Pine, Daniel S.; Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Henderson, Heather A.; Diaz, Yamalis; Raggi, Veronica L.; Fox, Nathan A.

2009-01-01

95

Emotion regulation deficits in generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and their co-occurrence  

PubMed Central

Preliminary evidence supports the role of emotion-related deficits in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), including heightened emotional intensity, poor understanding of emotion, negative cognitive reactivity to emotions, and maladaptive emotion management. However, questions remain concerning the specificity of these emotion-related deficits compared to highly comorbid conditions such as social anxiety disorder (SAD). In the current study, 113 undergraduate students were administered measures of GAD, SAD, and emotion-related factors in order to clarify relationships among these variables. In univariate analyses, presence of SAD did not significantly impact the association between GAD and the emotion-related measures. Further, a discriminant function analysis revealed that emotional intensity and impaired regulation strategies provided the greatest discrimination between groups and best predicted a diagnosis of GAD (regardless of SAD comorbidity). Although their discriminatory ability was weaker, poor emotional understanding best predicted a diagnosis of SAD (regardless of GAD comorbidity), and non-acceptance of emotions best predicted comorbid GAD and SAD. PMID:19464142

Mennin, Douglas S.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Flanagan, Thomas J.

2014-01-01

96

Cross-cultural aspects of anxiety disorders.  

PubMed

A person's cultural background influences the experience and expression of emotions. In reviewing the recent literature on cross-cultural aspects of anxiety disorders, we identified some culturally related ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology factors (the culture's conceptualizations of how the mind and body function) and contextual factors that influence anxiety disorders. Ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology factors include the person's ideas about the mental and bodily processes (and their interaction), whereas contextual factors are associated with the social norms and rules that may contribute to anxiety, including individualism vs. collectivism and self-construals. From the perspective of ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology and contextual factors, we will discuss "khyâl cap" ("wind attacks"), taijin kyofusho, and ataques de nervios, three prominent examples of culture-specific expressions of anxiety disorders that have all been included in the DSM-5 list of cultural concepts of distress. PMID:24744049

Hofmann, Stefan G; Hinton, Devon E

2014-06-01

97

Comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adult psychiatric outpatients with depressive or anxiety disorders.  

PubMed

Abstract Background. There are very few studies reporting on the prevalence and the contribution of not previously diagnosed ADHD in the clinical picture of other psychiatric disorders. The aim of our study is to determine the prevalence and clinical correlates of comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adult psychiatric outpatients with depressive or anxiety disorders. Methods. During a 6-month period, 114 outpatients with depressive or anxiety disorders were evaluated for ADHD diagnosis. Assessment included interviews with both patient and relatives/friends and the use of a daily diary. Moreover, the patients completed the self-report scales Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Spielberger's Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Symptom Checklist-90-R Rating Scale (SCL-90-R). Results. A total of 22 out of 114 patients (19.3%) received an ADHD diagnosis for the first time in their life. Comorbid ADHD compared to non ADHD patients scored significantly higher (p < 0.05) for depression (BDI), state and trait anxiety (STAI) and in the following SCL-90-R factors: Positive Symptoms Distressing Index, Positive Symptoms Index, Somatization, Obsessive Compulsive, Depression, Anxiety, and Hostility. Conclusions. ADHD might go unrecognized among psychiatric outpatients. Patients with depressive or anxiety disorder reporting more severe symptomatology should be carefully screened for possible comorbid adult ADHD. PMID:24998681

Pehlivanidis, Artemios; Papanikolaou, Katerina; Spyropoulou, Areti C; Papadimitriou, George N

2014-10-01

98

Pain-related anxiety and anxiety sensitivity across anxiety and depressive disorders.  

PubMed

Fear-anxiety-avoidance models posit pain-related anxiety and anxiety sensitivity as important contributing variables in the development and maintenance of chronic musculoskeletal pain [Asmundson, G. J. G, Vlaeyen, J. W. S., & Crombez, G. (Eds.). (2004). Understanding and treating fear of pain. New York: Oxford University Press]. Emerging evidence also suggests that pain-related anxiety may be a diathesis for many other emotional disorders [Asmundson, G. J. G., & Carleton, R. N. (2005). Fear of pain is elevated in adults with co-occurring trauma-related stress and social anxiety symptoms. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 34, 248-255; Asmundson, G. J. G., & Carleton, R. N. (2008). Fear of pain. In: M. M. Antony & M. B. Stein (Eds.), Handbook of anxiety and the anxiety disorders (pp. 551-561). New York: Oxford University Press] and appears to share several elements in common with other fears (e.g., anxiety sensitivity, illness/injury sensitivity, fear of negative evaluation) as described by Reiss [Reiss, S. (1991). Expectancy model of fear, anxiety, and panic. Clinical Psychology Review, 11, 141-153] and Taylor [Taylor, S. (1993). The structure of fundamental fears. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 24, 289-299]. The purpose of the present investigation was to assess self-reported levels of pain-related anxiety [Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-Short Form; PASS-20; McCracken, L. M., & Dhingra, L. (2002). A short version of the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale (PASS-20): preliminary development and validity. Pain Research and Management, 7, 45-50] across several anxiety and depressive disorders and to compare those levels to non-clinical and chronic pain samples. Participants consisted of a clinical sample (n=418; 63% women) with principal diagnoses of a depressive disorder (DD; n=22), panic disorder (PD; n=114), social anxiety disorder (SAD; n=136), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; n=86), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; n=46), or specific phobia (n=14). Secondary group comparisons were made with a community sample as well as with published data from a treatment-seeking chronic pain sample [McCracken, L. M., & Dhingra, L. (2002). A short version of the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale (PASS-20): preliminary development and validity. Pain Research and Management, 7, 45-50]. Results suggest that pain-related anxiety is generally comparable across anxiety and depressive disorders; however, pain-related anxiety was typically higher (p<.01) in individuals with anxiety and depressive disorders relative to a community sample, but comparable to or lower than a chronic pain sample. Results imply that pain-related anxiety may indeed be a construct independent of other fundamental fears, warranting subsequent hierarchical investigations and consideration for inclusion in treatments of anxiety disorders. Additional implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:19362446

Carleton, R Nicholas; Abrams, Murray P; Asmundson, Gordon J G; Antony, Martin M; McCabe, Randi E

2009-08-01

99

Separation Anxiety Disorder in Children: Disorder-Specific Responses to Experimental Separation from the Mother  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most common anxiety disorders in childhood and is predictive of adult anxiety disorders, especially panic disorder. However, the disorder has seldom been studied and the attempt to distinguish SAD from other anxiety disorders with regard to psychophysiology has not been made. We expected…

Kossowsky, Joe; Wilhelm, Frank H.; Roth, Walton T.; Schneider, Silvia

2012-01-01

100

Irrational beliefs and the anxiety disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the levels of irrationality reported by a clinical sample of anxiety disorder patients, including simple and social phobics, panic disorder patients, agoraphobics, and obssessive compulsive patients. The levels of irrationality were compared between these groups and a group of normal control subjects, using the Rational Behavior Inventory (RBI). Agoraphobic patients were significantly less rational than control subjects

Joseph A. Himle; David P. Himle; Bruce A. Thyer

1989-01-01

101

Toddler Anxiety Disorders: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This research examined the validity of criteria for diagnosing social phobia (SOC) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), where the "DSM-IV" criteria were modified to better identify toddlers who could have these disorders. Method: Diagnoses were made with a semistructured clinical interview that included child observations. Parents…

Warren, Susan L.; Umylny, Polina; Aron, Emily; Simmens, Samuel J.

2006-01-01

102

Perfectionism in pediatric anxiety and depressive disorders.  

PubMed

Although perfectionism has been identified as a factor in many psychiatric disorders across the life span, it is relatively understudied in pediatric anxiety and depressive disorders. Furthermore, there exists little cohesion among previous research, restricting the conclusions that can be made across studies. In this review, research associating perfectionism with pediatric anxiety and depression is examined and a framework is presented synthesizing research to date. We focus on detailing the current understanding of how perfectionism develops and interacts with other developmental features characteristic of anxiety and depression in children and potential pathways that result in anxiety and depressive disorders. This includes: how perfectionism is measured in children, comparisons with relevant adult literature, the development of perfectionism in children and adolescents, mediators and moderators of the link between perfectionism and anxiety and depression, and the role of perfectionism in treatment and prevention of these disorders. We also present research detailing perfectionism across cultures. Findings from these studies are beginning to implicate perfectionism as an underlying process that may contribute broadly to the development of anxiety and depression in a pediatric population. Throughout the review, difficulties, limitations, and gaps in the current understanding are presented while offering suggestions for future research. PMID:24481881

Affrunti, Nicholas W; Woodruff-Borden, Janet

2014-09-01

103

Parenting and Child Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a What role does parenting play in the development, maintenance, and amelioration of child anxiety? In this chapter, we address\\u000a this question by reviewing the current state of knowledge regarding the nature and direction of the relationship between parenting\\u000a and child anxiety. Numerous theoretical models outline the role that various parenting practices may play in the development,\\u000a maintenance, and amelioration of

Bryce D. McLeod; Jeffrey J. Wood; Shelley B. Avny

104

The Moderated Effects of Video Feedback for Social Anxiety Disorder  

PubMed Central

Despite initially positive results, video feedback for social anxiety has never been shown to reduce social anxiety in a controlled experiment with diagnosed participants, and only once with undiagnosed participants. Previous studies arguably did not detect such an effect because of limited assessment of anxiety and potential moderators. We tested video feedback with cognitive preparation among treatment-seeking participants with a primary diagnosis of social anxiety disorder. In Session 1, participants gave an extemporaneous speech and either received the intervention or not. In Session 2, 6 to 14 days later, participants gave a second extemporaneous speech. The intervention improved self-perception of performance, particularly for those participants with the most unrealistically negative impressions of their performance (i.e., high self-observer discrepancy). In addition, the intervention reduced anticipatory anxiety for the second speech for participants with high self-observer discrepancy. These findings extend previous results regarding video feedback and suggest that the intervention may be useful for people with social anxiety disorder and higher self-observer discrepancies for a specific task. PMID:20471783

Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Schultz, Luke T.; Blackmore, Michelle

2010-01-01

105

Childhood anxiety disorders and depression: Phenomenology, comorbidity, and intervention issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although burgeoning literatures have developed on childhood anxiety disorders and depression, little attention has been given to the association between these disorders. We examine the phenomenology and diagnostic criteria for childhood anxiety disorders and depression. Typically, these disorders are viewed as separate clinical phenomena. However, our review of empirical findings suggests that there is an overlap between anxiety and depressive

Neville J. King; Eleonora Gullone; Thomas H. Ollendick

1990-01-01

106

Anxiety Disorders are Associated with Reduced Heart Rate Variability: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Anxiety disorders increase risk of future cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality, even after controlling for confounds including smoking, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status, and irrespective of a history of medical disorders. While impaired vagal function, indicated by reductions in heart rate variability (HRV), may be one mechanism linking anxiety disorders to CVD, prior studies have reported inconsistent findings highlighting the need for meta-analysis. Method: Studies comparing resting-state HRV recordings in patients with an anxiety disorder as a primary diagnosis and healthy controls were considered for meta-analysis. Results: Meta-analyses were based on 36 articles, including 2086 patients with an anxiety disorder and 2294 controls. Overall, anxiety disorders were characterized by lower HRV [high frequency (HF): Hedges’ g?=??0.29. 95% CI: ?0.41 to ?0.17, p?disorder (n?=?447), post-traumatic stress disorder (n?=?192), generalized anxiety disorder (n?=?68), and social anxiety disorder (n?=?90), but not obsessive–compulsive disorder (n?=?40), displayed reductions in HF HRV relative to controls (all ps?Anxiety disorders are associated with reduced HRV, findings associated with a small-to-moderate effect size. Findings have important implications for future physical health and well-being of patients, highlighting a need for comprehensive cardiovascular risk reduction. PMID:25071612

Chalmers, John A.; Quintana, Daniel S.; Abbott, Maree J.-Anne; Kemp, Andrew H.

2014-01-01

107

Clinical characteristics of high-functioning youth with autism spectrum disorder and anxiety  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Aim & methods Clinical characteristics were examined in 108 high-functioning youth (children with a full IQ scale of at least 70) with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD; aged 7–15 years) who were presenting for inclusion in one of four clinical trials examining the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy in youth with ASD and anxiety. Results We present baseline characteristics of this cohort, including prevalence rates of anxiety and comorbid disorders, and correlates of anxiety (e.g., comorbid diagnoses, impairment, anxiety severity and mental health services received) as a function of age and ASD diagnosis in treatment-seeking youth. Primary anxiety disorders were: 41.7% (n = 45) social phobia, 25.9% (n = 28) generalized anxiety disorder, 15.7% (n = 17) separation anxiety disorder, 12.0% (n = 13) obsessive–compulsive disorder and 4.6% (n = 5) specific phobia. Overall, 91.6% of participants (n = 99) met criteria for two or more anxiety disorders. Parents reported considerable functional impairment as measured by the Columbia Impairment Scale and anxiety severity as measured by the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale; this did not statistically differ as a function of ASD diagnosis or age. Anxiety severity, the number of comorbid anxiety diagnoses and total comorbid diagnoses were directly associated with parent-reported child impairment. Youth with ASD and anxiety present as a heterogeneous cohort with significant impairments and complex diagnostic presentations. Conclusion These data provide information about the nature of anxiety in youth with ASD, which may foster the development of tailored treatment protocols. PMID:24179485

Ung, Danielle; Wood, Jeffrey J; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Arnold, Elysse B; Fuji, Cori; Renno, Patricia; Murphy, Tanya K; Lewin, Adam B; Mutch, P Jane; Storch, Eric A

2013-01-01

108

Generalized anxiety disorder and clinical worry episodes in young women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. This article presents epidemiological data on the prevalence of DSM-IV generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and sub-threshold GAD (fulfilling three out of four GAD criteria) in young women together with data on co-morbidity and psychosocial functioning. The prevalence of clinically relevant worry and its predictive validity for the diagnosis of GAD were also examined. Method. Young women (N fl 2064),

J. Hoyer; J. Margraf

2002-01-01

109

[Anxiety, depression, panic disorder and bronchial asthma].  

PubMed

The Research purpose was studying anxiety and depression, and also the disturbing attacks in bronchial asthma (BA) patients. Research problems included: specification of prevalence of anxiety, depression, and also panic frustration of BA patients; an establishment of psychosomatic parities between anxiety, depression, panic frustration and BA. The study included the analysis of a mental condition, subjective and objective anamnestic information and medical documentation. 50 patients with BA are examined - 32 women, 18 men (average age of the patients was 38,7 ± 2,1). In 40% of cases the anxiety and depression is revealed. Subclinical expressed anxiety and depression is observed in 15 (39%) cases. Clinically expressed anxiety and depression is observed in 25 (50%) patients. During emotional and physical activities the phenomena of hypersthenic weaknesses is revealed in 45% of patients, short-term disturbance of falling asleep in 53%, propensity to revealing of polymorphic pathological corporal sensations (cephalgia, cardialgia, abdominalgia) is found out in 85% of cases. In all observation the beginning of mental frustration concerns to the second decade of life. In intervals between panic attacks are registered anxiety of expectation (fear of development of repeated panic attacks) and nosophobia (fear of development of myocardial heart attack, a stroke etc.). In all observation the beginning of mental frustration was revealed at the second decade of life. Symptoms of type "behavioral apnea (wind)" (breath dissatisfaction, feeling short of breath, arrhythmias and respiratory regularity of cycles) developed long before the manifestation of asthma (BA) and persist in its remission. The clinical manifestation of BA is extended by signs of panic attacks. Symptoms of anxiety and recurrent panic attacks worsen duration and outcome of BA. Hence, psychological and psychopharmacological therapy for anxiety disorders in addition to standard anti-asthma therapy could be suggested as one of the affective methods for treatment of BA patients with symptoms of anxiety and depression. PMID:22201083

Vashadze, Sh

2011-11-01

110

Transdiagnostic Treatment of Bipolar Disorder and Comorbid Anxiety with the Unified Protocol: A Clinical Replication Series  

PubMed Central

Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic, debilitating disorder with recurrent manic and depressive episodes. Over 75% of bipolar patients have a current or lifetime diagnosis of a comorbid anxiety disorder. Comorbid anxiety in BD is associated with greater illness severity, greater functional impairment, and poorer illness-related outcomes. Effectively treating comorbid anxiety in individuals with BD has been recognized as one of the biggest unmet needs in the field of bipolar disorder. Recently, the Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders (UP) was developed to be applicable to the full range of anxiety and mood disorders, based upon converging evidence from genetics, cognitive and affective neuroscience, and behavioral research suggesting common, core emotion-related pathology. Here, we present a preliminary evaluation of the efficacy of the UP for the treatment of BD with comorbid anxiety, in a clinical replication series consisting of three cases. PMID:22822175

Ellard, Kristen K.; Deckersbach, Thilo; Sylvia, Louisa G.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Barlow, David H.

2013-01-01

111

Transdiagnostic Internet treatment for anxiety disorders: A randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinician-guided Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) programs are clinically effective at treating specific anxiety disorders. The present study examined the efficacy of a transdiagnostic Internet-based cognitive behavioural treatment (iCBT) program to treat more than one anxiety disorder within the same program (the Anxiety Program). Eighty six individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder, and\\/or social phobia

Nickolai Titov; Gavin Andrews; Luke Johnston; Emma Robinson; Jay Spence

2010-01-01

112

Anxiety disorders in African-American and white children  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are little available data on African-American children with anxiety disorders. Treatment-seeking African-American (n=30) and white children (n=139), with a current DSM-III-R anxiety disorder, were compared on sociodemographic background variables, clinical characteristics, and lifetime rates of specific DSM-III-R anxiety disorders. Overall, results suggested that the anxiety-disordered African-American and white children who sought treatment from an outpatient mental health facility were

Cynthia G. Last; Sean Perrin

1993-01-01

113

Anxiety Sensitivity and the Anxiety Disorders: A Meta-Analytic Review and Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been significant interest in the role of anxiety sensitivity (AS) in the anxiety disorders. In this meta-analysis, we empirically evaluate differences in AS between anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and nonclinical controls. A total of 38 published studies (N = 20,146) were included in the analysis. The results yielded a large effect…

Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.

2009-01-01

114

Attentional Bias in Generalized Anxiety Disorder Versus Depressive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review evaluates evidence of attentional biases in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and depressive disorder from studies using modified Stroop and visual probe tasks. There appears to be fairly consistent evidence for an attentional bias for external negative cues in GAD, and for the involvement of non-conscious processes in this bias. By contrast, in clinical depression, the evidence for an

Karin Mogg; Brendan P. Bradley

2005-01-01

115

Treatment of Anxiety Disorders in the Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical practice for the treatment of anxiety disorders in the elderly in general lacks empirical validation and hence is somewhat inconsistent. Extensive clinical experience, along with the knowledge gleaned from studies with a younger population, has led to the development of the following treatment approach. A thorough diagnostic assessment, crucial in planning subsequent treatment, is discussed first along with more

Javaid I Sheikh; Erin L Cassidy

2000-01-01

116

Emotion Regulation in Children with Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined emotion management skills in addition to the role of emotional intensity and self-efficacy in emotion regulation in 26 children with anxiety disorders (ADs) ages 8 to 12 years and their counterparts without any form of psychopathology. Children completed the Children's Emotion Management Scales (CEMS) and Emotion Regulation…

Suveg, Cynthia; Zeman, Janice

2004-01-01

117

Preschool Anxiety Disorders in Pediatric Primary Care: Prevalence and Comorbidity  

PubMed Central

Objective We sought to establish prevalence rates and detail patterns of comorbidity for generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, and social phobia, in preschool aged children. Method The Duke Preschool Anxiety Study, a screen-stratified, cross-sectional study, drew from pediatric primary-care and oversampled for children at risk for anxiety. 917 parents of preschoolers (aged 2 to 5 years) completed the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment. Results Generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, and social phobia are common in preschool-aged children attending pediatric primary care. Three quarters of preschoolers with an anxiety disorder only had a single anxiety disorder. Generalized anxiety disorder displayed the greatest degree of comorbidity: with separation anxiety disorder (odds ratio [OR] = 4.1, 95% CI, 2.0–8.5), social phobia (OR = 6.4, 95% CI, 3.1–13.4), disruptive behavior disorders (OR = 5.1, 95% CI, 1.6–15.8), and depression (OR = 3.7, 95% CI, 1.1–12.4). Conclusions The weakness of association between generalized anxiety disorder and depression stands in contrast to substantial associations between these 2 disorders reported in older individuals. Attenuated associations in preschool aged children could translate into clinical opportunities for targeted early interventions, aimed at modifying the developmental trajectory of anxiety disorders. PMID:24290462

Franz, Lauren; Angold, Adrian; Copeland, William; Costello, E. Jane; Towe-Goodman, Nissa; Egger, Helen

2013-01-01

118

Attentional Bias for Emotional Faces in Children with Generalized Anxiety Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attentional bias for angry and happy faces in 7-12 year old children with general anxiety disorder (GAD) is examined. Results suggest that an attentional bias toward threat faces depends on a certain degree of clinical severity and/or the type of anxiety diagnosis in children.

Waters, Allison M.; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P.; Pine, Daniel S.

2008-01-01

119

Quality of Attachment Relationships and Peer Relationship Dysfunction Among Late Adolescents With and Without Anxiety Disorders  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the links between anxiety disorders and parent-child attachment disorganization and quality of peer relationships in late adolescence. This study examined the quality of attachment and peer relationships among adolescents with and without anxiety disorders in a sample of 109 low-to moderate-income families. Psychopathology was assessed with the SCID-I. Attachment disorganization and dysfunction in peer relationships were measured using semi-structured interviews and behavioral observations. Adolescents with anxiety disorders and comorbid conditions showed higher levels of attachment disorganization across three measurement approaches, as well as higher levels of dysfunction in peer relationships than those with no Axis I diagnosis. Adolescents without anxiety disorders but with other Axis I disorders differed only in the quality of school relationships from those with no diagnoses. The pattern of results suggests that pathological anxiety, in the context of other comorbidities, may be a marker for more pervasive levels of social impairment. PMID:23247207

Brumariu, Laura E.; Obsuth, Ingrid; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

2012-01-01

120

Self-Report Differentiation of Anxiety and Depression in an Anxiety Disorders Sample.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To study the distinction between self-reports of anxiety and depression, a factor analysis was conducted using responses of 298 anxiety disorder patients on the Beck Depression Inventory and the State Anxiety subscale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Results suggest that the two conditions can be reliably differentiated in self-reports. (SLD)

Cox, Brian J.; And Others

1993-01-01

121

Anxiety in middle adulthood: effects of age and time on the 14-year course of panic disorder, social phobia and generalized anxiety disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Much about the long-term course of anxiety disorders is unknown. The present study utilizes a naturalistic, longitudinal, short-interval follow-up design to elucidate the course of anxiety disorders over 14 years in a largely middle-aged adult sample recruited from out-patient psychiatry and primary care facilities. Method The sample consisted of 453 participants with a diagnosis of panic disorder (PD), social phobia (SP) and/or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Anxiety symptom ratings were tracked using weekly psychiatric status ratings (PSRs). Controlling for demographic and clinical variables, the course of PD, GAD and SP were examined using longitudinal growth models, with the most severe PSR at each follow-up point as the main outcome variable. Results PSRs significantly decreased in severity over time in each of the three disorders. In the interaction effects models, age×time had a significant effect on course for PD and GAD, but not for SP, in that older age was associated with lower PSRs over time. Conclusions The present findings suggest that the severity of anxiety disorders declines over time, although this decline is modest and depends on the specific disorder being assessed. Older individuals with PD and GAD have a better prognosis than their younger counterparts, as their course is characterized by a steeper decline in severity. The present findings provide important information about the course of anxiety disorders in mid-life. PMID:18667095

Ramsawh, H. J.; Raffa, S. D.; Edelen, M. Orlando; Rende, R.; Keller, M. B.

2013-01-01

122

Test Anxiety and College Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Test anxiety was examined in college students with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results indicated that, relative to college students without ADHD, college students with ADHD reported higher total test anxiety as well as specific aspects of test anxiety, including worry (i.e., cognitive aspects of test anxiety) and…

Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A.

2014-01-01

123

Emotional reasoning and anxiety sensitivity: Associations with social anxiety disorder in childhood?  

PubMed Central

Background Two specific cognitive constructs that have been implicated in the development and maintenance of anxiety symptoms are anxiety sensitivity and emotional reasoning, both of which relate to the experience and meaning of physical symptoms of arousal or anxiety. The interpretation of physical symptoms has been particularly implicated in theories of social anxiety disorder, where internal physical symptoms are hypothesized to influence the individual's appraisals of the self as a social object. Method The current study compared 75 children on measures of anxiety sensitivity and emotional reasoning: 25 with social anxiety disorder, 25 with other anxiety disorders, and 25 nonanxious children (aged 7–12 years). Results Children with social anxiety disorder reported higher levels of anxiety sensitivity and were more likely than both other groups to view ambiguous situations as anxiety provoking, whether physical information was present or not. There were no group differences in the extent to which physical information altered children's interpretation of hypothetical scenarios. Limitations This study is the first to investigate emotional reasoning in clinically anxious children and therefore replication is needed. In addition, those in both anxious groups commonly had comorbid conditions and, consequently, specific conclusions about social anxiety disorder need to be treated with caution. Conclusion The findings highlight cognitive characteristics that may be particularly pertinent in the context of social anxiety disorder in childhood and which may be potential targets for treatment. Furthermore, the findings suggest that strategies to modify these particular cognitive constructs may not be necessary in treatments of some other childhood anxiety disorders. PMID:24120086

Alkozei, Anna; Cooper, Peter J.; Creswell, Cathy

2014-01-01

124

Automaticity in anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder.  

PubMed

In this paper we examine the nature of automatic cognitive processing in anxiety disorders and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Rather than viewing automaticity as a unitary construct, we follow a social cognition perspective (Bargh, 1994) that argues for four theoretically independent features of automaticity: unconscious (processing of emotional stimuli occurs outside awareness), efficient (processing emotional meaning uses minimal attentional resources), unintentional (no goal is needed to engage in processing emotional meaning), and uncontrollable (limited ability to avoid, alter or terminate processing emotional stimuli). Our review of the literature suggests that most anxiety disorders are characterized by uncontrollable, and likely also unconscious and unintentional, biased processing of threat-relevant information. In contrast, MDD is most clearly typified by uncontrollable, but not unconscious or unintentional, processing of negative information. For the anxiety disorders and for MDD, there is no sufficient evidence to draw firm conclusions about efficiency of processing, though early indications are that neither anxiety disorders nor MDD are characterized by this feature. Clinical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed and directions for future research are offered. In particular, it is clear that paradigms that more directly delineate the different features of automaticity are required to gain a more comprehensive and systematic understanding of the importance of automatic processing in emotion dysregulation. PMID:22858684

Teachman, Bethany A; Joormann, Jutta; Steinman, Shari A; Gotlib, Ian H

2012-08-01

125

Meta-Analysis of the Relations of Anxiety Sensitivity to the Depressive and Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a substantial literature relating the personality trait "anxiety sensitivity" (AS; tendency to fear anxiety-related sensations) and its lower order dimensions to the mood and anxiety (i.e., internalizing) disorders. However, particularly given the disorders' high comorbidity rates, it remains unclear whether AS is broadly related to these…

Naragon-Gainey, Kristin

2010-01-01

126

Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Connections with Self-Reported Attachment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even though generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is one of the most common of the anxiety disorders, relatively little is known about its precursors. Bowlby's attachment theory provides a framework within which these precursors can be considered. According to Bowlby, adult anxiety may be rooted in childhood experiences that leave a child uncertain…

Cassidy, Jude; Lichtenstein-Phelps, June; Sibrava, Nicholas J.; Thomas, Charles L., Jr.; Borkovec, Thomas D.

2009-01-01

127

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Neural Bases of Social Anxiety Disorder  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Neural Bases of Social Anxiety Disorder Emotional Reactivity and Cognitive; Turhan Canli, PhD; James J. Gross, PhD Context: Social anxiety disorder is thought to involve emotional regulation during social and physical threat, and their relationship to social anxiety symptom severity, have

Gross, James J.

128

Animal models of social anxiety disorder and their validity criteria.  

PubMed

Anxiety disorders pose one of the largest threats to global mental health, and they predominantly emerge early in life. Social anxiety disorder, also known as social phobia, is the most common of all anxiety disorders. Moreover, it has severe consequences and is a disabling disorder that can cause an individual to be unable to perform the tasks of daily life. Social anxiety disorder is associated with the subsequent development of major depression and other mental diseases, as well as increased substance abuse. Although some neurobiological alterations have been found to be associated with social anxiety disorder, little is known about this disorder. Animal models are useful tools for the investigation of this disorder, as well as for finding new pharmacological targets for treatment. Thus, this review will highlight the main animal models of anxiety associated with social phobia. PMID:25132362

Réus, Gislaine Z; Dos Santos, Maria Augusta B; Abelaira, Helena M; Quevedo, João

2014-09-26

129

Linguistic correlates of social anxiety disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to examine the linguistic correlates of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Twenty-four individuals with SAD (8 of them with a generalised subtype) and 21 non-anxious controls were asked to give speeches in front of an audience. The transcribed speeches were examined for the frequency of negations, I-statements, we-statements, negative emotion words, and positive emotion words.

Stefan G. Hofmann; Philippa M. Moore; Cassidy Gutner

2011-01-01

130

Linguistic correlates of social anxiety disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to examine the linguistic correlates of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Twenty-four individuals with SAD (8 of them with a generalised subtype) and 21 non-anxious controls were asked to give speeches in front of an audience. The transcribed speeches were examined for the frequency of negations, I-statements, we-statements, negative emotion words, and positive emotion words.

Stefan G. Hofmann; Philippa M. Moore; Cassidy Gutner

2012-01-01

131

Predictors of pharmacotherapy response in anxiety disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although treatment with different compounds such as tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, high-potency\\u000a benzodiazepines, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors has been proven effective in anxiety disorders, 20% to 40% of patients are\\u000a nonresponders. Given the limited efficacy, the delayed onset of response (it takes several weeks before a clinical effect\\u000a can be seen for most of these drugs), and the

Damiaan Denys; Femke de Geus

2005-01-01

132

Psychological Treatment of Social Anxiety Disorder Improves Body Dysmorphic Concerns  

PubMed Central

Social anxiety disorder and body dysmorphic disorder are considered nosologically distinct disorders In contrast, some cognitive models suggest that social anxiety disorder and body dysmorphic disorder share similar cognitive maintenance factors. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of psychological treatments for social anxiety disorder on body dysmorphic disorder concerns. In Study 1, we found that 12 weekly group sessions of cognitive-behavioral therapy led to significant decreases in body dysmorphic symptom severity. In Study 2, we found that an attention retraining intervention for social anxiety disorder was associated with a reduction in body dysmorphic concerns, compared to a placebo control condition. These findings support the notion that psychological treatments for individuals with primary social anxiety disorder improve co-occurring body dysmorphic disorder symptoms. PMID:24121100

Fang, Angela; Sawyer, Alice T.; Aderka, Idan M.; Hofmann, Stefan G.

2013-01-01

133

Affective and anxiety comorbidity in post-traumatic stress disorder treatment trials of sertraline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comorbidity of mood and anxiety disorders is common in patients suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The current study evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of sertraline in a subgroup of PTSD patients suffering from anxiety or depression comorbidity. Two multicenter, 12-week, double-blind, flexible-dose US studies of adult outpatients from the general population with a DSM-III-R diagnosis of PTSD evaluated the

Kathleen T Brady; Cathryn M Clary

2003-01-01

134

Sensitivity and Specificity of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED): A Community-Based Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this cross-sectional community-based study was to examine the sensitivity and specificity of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) to the diagnosis of anxiety disorders (AD). Participants were 119 students aged 9-18. Psychiatric diagnoses were assessed by a psychiatrist throughout a structural clinical…

DeSousa, Diogo Araujo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahao; Isolan, Luciano Rassier; Manfro, Gisele Gus

2013-01-01

135

Gaze perception in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder  

PubMed Central

Clinical observations suggest abnormal gaze perception to be an important indicator of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Experimental research has yet paid relatively little attention to the study of gaze perception in SAD. In this article we first discuss gaze perception in healthy human beings before reviewing self-referential and threat-related biases of gaze perception in clinical and non-clinical socially anxious samples. Relative to controls, socially anxious individuals exhibit an enhanced self-directed perception of gaze directions and demonstrate a pronounced fear of direct eye contact, though findings are less consistent regarding the avoidance of mutual gaze in SAD. Prospects for future research and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:24379776

Schulze, Lars; Renneberg, Babette; Lobmaier, Janek S.

2013-01-01

136

Conversion disorder: a problematic diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis of conversion disorder is problematic. Since doctors have conceptually and practically differentiated the symptoms from neurological ('organic') disease it has been presumed to be a psychological disorder, but the psychological mechanism, and how this differs from feigning (conscious simulation), has remained elusive. Although misdiagnosis of neurological disease as conversion disorder is uncommon, it remains a concern for clinicians,

TRJ Timothy R J Nicholson; Jon Stone; Richard A A RAA Kanaan

2011-01-01

137

Correlates of comorbid anxiety and externalizing disorders in childhood obsessive compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

The present study examines the influence of diagnostic comorbidity on the demographic, psychiatric, and functional status of youth with a primary diagnosis of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Two hundred and fifteen children (ages 5–17) referred to a university-based OCD specialty clinic were compared based on DSM-IV diagnostic profile: OCD without comorbid anxiety or externalizing disorder, OCD plus anxiety disorder, and OCD plus externalizing disorder. No age or gender differences were found across groups. Higher OCD severity was found for the OCD + ANX group, while the OCD + EXT group reported greater functional impairment than the other two groups. Lower family cohesion was reported by the OCD + EXT group compared to the OCD group and the OCD + ANX group reported higher family conflict compared to the OCD + EXT group. The OCD + ANX group had significantly lower rates of tic disorders while rates of depressive disorders did not differ among the three groups. The presence of comorbid anxiety and externalizing psychopathology are associated with greater symptom severity and functional and family impairment and underscores the importance of a better understanding of the relationship of OCD characteristics and associated disorders. Results and clinical implications are further discussed. PMID:20349255

Lewin, Adam B.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Lee, Joyce C.; Piacentini, John

2010-01-01

138

[Anxiety disorders in women: does gender matter to treatment?].  

PubMed

Women have a substantially higher risk of developing lifetime anxiety disorders compared with men. In addition, research evidence has generally observed an increased symptom severity, chronic course, and functional impairment in women with anxiety disorders in comparison to men. However, the reasons for the increased risk in developing an anxiety disorder in women are still unknown and have yet to be adequately investigated. Evidence from various studies has suggested that genetic factors and female reproductive hormones may play important roles in the expression of these gender differences. The significant differences in onset and course of illness observed in men and women diagnosed with anxiety disorders warrants investigations into the need of differential treatment; however, evidence of gender differences in treatment response to different anxiety disorders are varying and remain largely inconclusive. This article reviews the prevalence, epidemiology, and phenomenology of the major anxiety disorders in women, as well as the implications of such differences for treatment. PMID:16302053

Kinrys, Gustavo; Wygant, Lisa E

2005-10-01

139

Recognition of Depressive and Anxiety Disorders in Dermatological Outpatients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although mental disorders are frequent among dermato- logical patients, little is known about their recognition by dermatologists. This study aimed to assess dermato- logists' ability to recognize depressive and anxiety disorders. All adult outpatients who visited four dermatologists on predetermined days (n~317) com- pleted the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ- 12) and the section on depressive and anxiety disorders of

Angelo Picardi; Paolo Amerio; Giannandrea Baliva; Claudio Barbieri; Patrizia Teofoli; Simone Bolli; Valentina Salvatori; Eva Mazzotti; Paolo Pasquini; Damiano Abeni

2004-01-01

140

Familial and Temperamental Risk Factors for Social Anxiety Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common disorder that can lead to significant impairment. In this chapter, the author provides background on the disorder and reviews hypothesized familial and temperamental risk factors. In particular, it highlights the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Longitudinal Study of Children at Risk for Anxiety, now…

Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R.

2010-01-01

141

The impact of anxiety disorders on educational achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anxiety disorders typically have an age of onset in childhood and adolescence, resulting in significant disability in social and occupational functioning. Epidemiological evidence suggests that persons with psychiatric disorders and perhaps especially social phobia are at increased risk for premature withdrawal from school [Am. J. Psychiatry 157 (2000) 1606]. In order to further determine the impact of anxiety disorders on

Michael Van Ameringen; Catherine Mancini; Peter Farvolden

2003-01-01

142

Is childhood physical abuse associated with anxiety disorders among adults?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have examined the association between childhood physical abuse (CPA) and anxiety disorders with inconsistent results. In order to help clarify this relationship, we investigated the association between CPA and current anxiety disorders while controlling for the following groups of factors: (1) demographics; (2) family background; (3) current socioeconomic status (SES); (4) current stressors; and (5) current mood disorders.

E. Fuller-Thomson; H. R. Sohn; S. Brennenstuhl; T. M. Baker

2012-01-01

143

Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Other Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There has been debate about whether obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) should be classified as one of the anxiety disorders, or should rather be categorized with obsessive-compulsive spectrum conditions. Sampling and Methods: The question of where OCD should be located in the diagnostic system was addressed by investigating the relationship of OCD, obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSDs), and anxiety disorders. We administered

Christine Lochner; Dan J. Stein

2010-01-01

144

Recent Advances in the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past several decades, evidence-based treatments have emerged for each major anxiety disorder. These include primarily behavioural, cognitive, and pharmacological approaches. In addition, researchers continue to develop new ways of treating anxiety disorders and to improve on existing treatments. This article discusses several new and emerging treatments for anxiety disorders, including attentional training, virtual reality-based treatments, mindfulness and acceptance-based

MARTIN M. ANTONY

2011-01-01

145

Relationship between genuine and pseudohalitosis and social anxiety disorder.  

PubMed

Halitosis is described as offensive breath caused by various factors such as periodontal diseases, bacterial coating of tongue, systemic disorders and different types of foods. Pseudohalitosis is a situation that patients complain of oral malodor even though they do not have offensive odour. The purpose of this study was to compare the relationships between social anxiety estimations and both pseudohalitosis and genuine halitosis cases. Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) and questionnaire regarding halitosis were applied to 100 participants. Halitosis was determined using organoleptic method, gas chromatography and portable sulphur monitor. anova test and 2-tailed Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficient were used to determine the differences and relations between groups. With reference to LSAS, 62% of participants had anxiety. Among these patients, 98% had genuine halitosis (P < 0·05). The mean measurements of VSC values were 248·65 ppm in halimeter, 298·02 ppm of H2 S, 95·33 ppm of CH3 SH and 47·00 ppm of (CH3 )2 S in gas chromatography. Halitosis was present in 90% of participants, and it was absent in 10% by organoleptic assessment. There was a significant correlation between organoleptic and halimeter measurements. Moreover, statistically significant relationship was detected between anxiety and halitosis. Genuine halitosis patients exhibit social anxiety, so it can be said that there is a causal relationship between halitosis and anxiety. Comparison of the results of objective measurements (sulphur monitor, gas chromatography, organoleptic method) was statistically significant; therefore, it can be said that these methods can be used in diagnosis of halitosis with high accuracy. PMID:25040179

Kursun, S; Acar, B; Atakan, C; Oztas, B; Paksoy, C S

2014-11-01

146

Frontotemporal Disorders: Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

... disorder and another type of dementia such as Alzheimer's disease . Also, since these disorders are rare, physicians may be unfamiliar with the relevant symptoms and signs. Can’t find the right words ...

147

Heart rate variability study of childhood anxiety disorders  

PubMed Central

Background: The current study aims at assessment of heart rate variability among children and adolescents with childhood anxiety disorder, using the case-control design. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out at a tertiary care multispecialty hospital. It included 34 children and adolescents with diagnosis of childhood anxiety disorder, in the age range of eight to eighteen years, and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Heart-rate variability was studied using the standard protocol. Results: Significantly reduced variability of the heart rate was observed in both the time as well as frequency domains in the disorder group as compared to the control group. These findings indicate decreases in the sympathetic and parasympathetic activity in the disorder group, thus representing diminished physiological variability at rest. Conclusions: The notion of autonomic inflexibility, as seen in the current study, has important implications for stability in biological systems. The loss of variability in the physiological systems in general, and in the cardiovascular system in particular, has an association with a number of diseases and dysfunctions. PMID:21814416

Sharma, Rajiv Kumar; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Sagar, Rajesh; Deepak, K. K.; Mehta, Manju

2011-01-01

148

Assessment and management of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents.  

PubMed

Anxiety disorders in childhood and adolescence are extremely common and are often associated with lifelong psychiatric disturbance. Consistent with DSM-5 and the extant literature, this review concerns the assessment and treatment of specific phobias, separation anxiety disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder and agoraphobia. Evidence-based psychological treatments (cognitive behaviour therapy; CBT) for these disorders have been developed and investigated, and in recent years promising low-intensity versions of CBT interventions have been proposed that offer a means to increase access to evidence-based treatments. There is some evidence of effectiveness of pharmacological treatments for anxiety disorders in children and young people, however, routine prescription is not recommended due to concerns about potential harm. PMID:24636957

Creswell, Cathy; Waite, Polly; Cooper, Peter J

2014-07-01

149

Factors Associated with Detection and Receipt of Treatment for Adolescents with Depression and Anxiety Disorders  

PubMed Central

Objective Anxiety and depression are common among adolescents and are associated with significant morbidity. Few youth are recognized and receive treatment for these disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine the rate of recognition and management among an insured population and the factors associated with evidence of detection among adolescents. Methods Structured mental health interviews assessing depression and anxiety diagnoses were completed with a random sample of 581 youth from an integrated healthcare system. Administrative data on medical and pharmacy services were used to examine any evidence of detection by the medical system in the prior 12 months. Results Fifty-one youth met criteria for an anxiety or depressive disorder. Twenty-two percent of these youth with a DSM-IV anxiety or depressive disorder had evidence of detection or treatment. Factors associated with detection and treatment included having diagnosis of a depressive disorder (with or without an anxiety disorder), more depressive symptoms, greater functional impairment, a higher number of primary care visits in the prior year, and higher parent-reported externalizing symptoms. On multivariate analysis, having more depressive symptoms and a higher number of primary care visits were significant predictors of detection and receipt of treatment. Conclusions The rate of detection and treatment of anxiety and depressive disorders is very low in this age group and suggests a need for increased focus on detection particularly in light of recent evidence suggesting decreases in diagnosis and treatment among youth following the black box warning regarding antidepressant medications. PMID:20129479

Richardson, Laura P.; Russo, Joan E.; Lozano, Paula; McCauley, Elizabeth; Katon, Wayne

2010-01-01

150

Anxiety Sensitivity in Children of Panic Disorder Patients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anxiety sensitivity (AS), which refers to the tendency to interpret anxiety-related bodily sensations as having potentially harmful somatic, psychological or social consequences, has been proposed as a vulnerability factor for the development of panic disorder (PD). The current study examined the anxiety sensitivity levels in children of parents…

van Beek, N.; Perna, G.; Schruers, K.; Muris, P.; Griez, E.

2005-01-01

151

Self-Compassion and Social Anxiety Disorder  

PubMed Central

Self-compassion refers to having an accepting and caring orientation towards oneself. Although self-compassion has been studied primarily in healthy populations, one particularly compelling clinical context in which to examine self-compassion is social anxiety disorder (SAD). SAD is characterized by high levels of negative self-criticism as well as an abiding concern about others’ evaluation of one’s performance. In the present study, we tested the hypotheses that (1) people with SAD would demonstrate less self-compassion than healthy controls (HCs), (2) self-compassion would relate to severity of social anxiety and fear of evaluation among people with SAD, and (3) age would be negatively correlated with self-compassion for people with SAD, but not for HC. As expected, people with SAD reported less self-compassion than HCs on the Self-Compassion Scale and its subscales (Neff, 2003b). Within the SAD group, lesser self-compassion was not generally associated with severity of social anxiety, but it was associated with greater fear of both negative and positive evaluation. Age was negatively correlated with self-compassion for people with SAD, whereas age was positively correlated with self-compassion for HC. These findings suggest that self-compassion may be a particularly important target for assessment and treatment in persons with SAD. PMID:21895450

Werner, Kelly H.; Jazaieri, Hooria; Goldin, Philippe R.; Ziv, Michal; Heimberg, Richard G.; Gross, James J.

2014-01-01

152

Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is considerable evidence that children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are at increased risk of anxiety and anxiety disorders. However, it is less clear which of the specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders occur most in this population. The present study used meta-analytic techniques to help clarify this issue. A systematic…

van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; Perrin, Sean

2011-01-01

153

Emotional Imagery and the Differential Diagnosis of Anxiety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For 38 anxiety patients, exposure to phobic imagery resulted in significantly larger heart rate and skin conductance increases than control imagery. Results suggest that simple phobia is avoidance disposition, social phobia involves multiple problems of interpersonal dominance, and agoraphobia may be more similar to generalized anxiety disorder

Cook, Edwin W., III; And Others

1988-01-01

154

Episodic Memories in Anxiety Disorders: Clinical Implications  

PubMed Central

The aim of this review is to summarize research on the emerging role of episodic memories in the context of anxiety disorders (AD). The available literature on explicit, autobiographical, and episodic memory function in AD including neuroimaging studies is critically discussed. We describe the methodological diversity of episodic memory research in AD and discuss the need for novel tests to measure episodic memory in a clinical setting. We argue that alterations in episodic memory functions might contribute to the etiology of AD. We further explain why future research on the interplay between episodic memory function and emotional disorders as well as its neuroanatomical foundations offers the promise to increase the effectiveness of modern psychological treatments. We conclude that one major task is to develop methods and training programs that might help patients suffering from AD to better understand, interpret, and possibly actively use their episodic memories in a way that would support therapeutic interventions and counteract the occurrence of symptoms. PMID:24795583

Zlomuzica, Armin; Dere, Dorothea; Machulska, Alla; Adolph, Dirk; Dere, Ekrem; Margraf, Jürgen

2014-01-01

155

The Structure of Distress Following Trauma: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current report used confirmatory factor analysis to examine the latent structures of both key features and associated symptoms of three disorders that commonly develop following a traumatic event: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Participants were 228 motor-vehicle accident survivors who sought treatment for emotional difficulties. PTSD, MDD, and GAD were assessed

DeMond M. Grant; J. Gayle Beck; Luana Marques; Sarah A. Palyo; Joshua D. Clapp

2008-01-01

156

Anxiety disorders in ancient Indian literature.  

PubMed

In western literature, the oldest description of symptoms of PTSD, an anxiety group of disorder, is seen in Homer's Iliad written around 720 BC. According to Shay, Achilles was suffering from symptoms of PTSD. However, in the Indian literature it was mentioned around 5000 BC. The description of a PTSD-like syndrome is seen in the Ramayana, although it was not described as PTSD or by any other similar name. Ravana's brother Marrich was having symptoms of PTSD after he was grievously hurt by Lord Rama's arrow and was almost dead. This traumatic event threatened his physical integrity. He developed all the symptoms of PTSD, like hyper-arousal, re-experiencing the events and avoidance. He also gave up his natural work of harassing the monk and got engaged in meditation and austerities. His symptoms lasted for many years till Lord Rama killed him, while he was masquerading as a golden deer to deceive Sita. In another ancient epic Shrimad Bhagavatam, Maharshi Ved Vyasa described the symptoms of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). The demon King Kansha developed GAD-like symptoms, when Lord Krishna killed all his demons and threatened to kill him. He developed symptoms of GAD, like excessive worry about the attack from his arch foe Krishna, difficulty in concentration and difficulty in falling asleep. Like Marrich, the symptoms of Kansha also lasted until Lord Krishna killed him. PMID:21180424

Sheth, Hitesh C; Gandhi, Zindadil; Vankar, G K

2010-07-01

157

Family Correlates of Comorbid Anxiety Disorders in Children with Attention Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated parental anxiety and parenting practices associated with comorbid Anxiety Disorders among children with Attention Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder. Clinic-referred families (n=143) were diagnosed using DSM criteria. Parents and children completed measures of parenting practices. Comorbid anxiety in children was significantly associated with maternal anxiety, overprotectiveness, and a lack of positive parenting. The relative odds of comorbid anxiety appeared to

Linda J. Pfiffner; Keith McBurnett

2006-01-01

158

Are there specific metacognitive processes associated with anxiety disorders in youth?  

PubMed Central

While Wells’ metacognitive model of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) posits that certain metacognitive processes, such as negative meta-worry (negative beliefs about worry), are more strongly associated with symptoms of GAD than other anxiety disorders in adults, research has yet to determine whether the same pattern is true for younger individuals. We examined the relationship between several metacognitive processes and anxiety disorder diagnostic status in a sample of 98 youth aged 7–17 years. Twenty youth with GAD were compared with similarly sized groups of youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, n = 18), social phobia (SOC, n = 20), separation anxiety disorder (SAD, n = 20), and healthy controls who were not patients (NONP, n = 20) using a self-report measure of metacognition adapted for use with young people in this age range (Metacognitions Questionnaire for Children). Contrary to expectations, only one specific metacognitive process was significantly associated with an anxiety disorder diagnosis, in that the controls endorsed a greater degree of cognitive monitoring (self-reported awareness of one’s thoughts) than those with SAD. In addition, there was a trend indicating that nonpatients scored higher than youth with GAD on this scale. These surprising results suggest potentially differing patterns in the relationships between symptoms and metacognitive awareness in anxious youth, depending on the type of anxiety disorder presentation. PMID:22110332

Bacow, Terri Landon; May, Jill Ehrenreich; Brody, Leslie R; Pincus, Donna B

2010-01-01

159

The relationships between perfectionism, pathological worry and generalised anxiety disorder  

PubMed Central

Background The relationships between perfectionism, pathological worry and generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) were investigated in a clinical sample presenting for treatment of perfectionism. Method This study explored the utility of perfectionism in predicting pathological worry in a sample of individuals with elevated perfectionism and GAD (n?=?36). Following this, the study examined whether perfectionism could predict a principal GAD diagnosis in the full sample (n?=?42). Results Scores on the perfectionism dimensions Concern over Mistakes, Personal Standards, and Clinical Perfectionism significantly predicted pathological worry among participants with GAD after controlling for gender and depression. The perfectionism dimension Doubts about Actions significantly predicted whether individuals from the full sample received a principal diagnosis of GAD. Conclusions These findings support certain dimensions of perfectionism having significant associations with pathological worry and GAD. PMID:24693946

2014-01-01

160

Generalized Anxiety Disorder in Referred Children and Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: There are insufficient data on generalized anxiety disorder in children and adolescents. Symptoms and comorbidity of generalized anxiety disorder are described as a function of age, gender, and comorbidity in a consecutive series of referred children and adolescents. Method: One hundred fifty-seven outpatients (97 males and 60 females,…

Masi, Gabriele; Millepiedi, Stefania; Mucci, Maria; Poli, Paola; Bertini, Nicoletta; Milantoni, Luca

2004-01-01

161

Conceptual Relations between Anxiety Disorder and Fearful Temperament  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fearful temperaments have been identified as a major risk factor for anxiety disorders. However, descriptions of fearful temperament and several forms of anxiety disorder show strong similarities. This raises the question whether these terms may simply refer to different aspects of the same underlying construct. The current review examines…

Rapee, Ronald M.; Coplan, Robert J.

2010-01-01

162

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): When Worry Gets Out of Control  

MedlinePLUS

Generalized Anxiety Disorder: WhenWorry Gets Out of Control Are you extremely worried about everything in your life, even if there ... anD HUman ServiceS national institutes of Health Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) What is GAD? All of us worry ...

163

Anxiety symptoms and disorders at eight weeks postpartum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the prevalence, risk factors for, and consequences of postpartum depression have been studied extensively, little work has examined the nature of postpartum anxiety disorders in community samples. In the present study, 147 community women completed a diagnostic interview and a battery of self-report inventories approximately eight weeks after childbirth. The rate of generalized anxiety disorder was elevated as compared

Amy Wenzel; Erin N. Haugen; Lydia C. Jackson; Jennifer R. Brendle

2005-01-01

164

Preliminary Investigation of Intolerance of Uncertainty Treatment for Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is the tendency to react negatively to uncertain situations or events, and it has been found to be an important maintaining factor in a number of different anxiety disorders. It is often included as a part of cognitive behavioural interventions for anxiety disorders but its specific contribution to treatment outcome…

Hewitt, Sarah N.; Egan, Sarah; Rees, Clare

2009-01-01

165

Functional Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Children with Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the incidence and correlates of functional gastrointestinal symptoms in children with anxiety disorders. Participants were 6-13 year old children diagnosed with one or more anxiety disorders (n = 54) and non-clinical control children (n = 51). Telephone diagnostic interviews were performed with parents to determine the presence…

Waters, Allison M.; Schilpzand, Elizabeth; Bell, Clare; Walker, Lynn S.; Baber, Kari

2013-01-01

166

Health Perceptions and Anxiety Sensitivity in Patients with Panic Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Separate lines of research indicate that patients with panic disorder display negative perceptions of physical health and elevated fear of autonomic arousal. Because health perceptions and anxiety sensitivity may be related, the present study evaluated the degree to which these constructs can be distinguished in patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for panic disorder (N = 44). Perceived health, anxiety sensitivity, and

Norman B. Schmidt; Thomas E. Joiner Jr; Jeffrey P. Staab; Foluso M. Williams

2003-01-01

167

Social anxiety disorder : current treatment recommendations.  

PubMed

Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a prevalent and disabling disorder associated with significant co-morbidity. An increased awareness of SAD over the past two decades has given impetus to advances in the pharmacotherapeutic and psychotherapeutic treatment options for this disorder. On the basis of consistent data from randomised controlled trials, present consensus supports the use of SSRIs as the first-line treatment in generalised SAD, partly because of established short- and long-term efficacy in this disorder, evidence for safety and tolerability, and ability to treat co-morbid conditions. There is more recent evidence that venlafaxine XR (extended release) may also be considered a first-line treatment in SAD. Second-line treatments include MAOIs (e.g. phenelzine) and reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase A (e.g. moclobemide), while some benzodiazepines and antiepileptics (e.g. clonazepam and pregabalin) may also be useful. Over the past two decades, cognitive behavioural therapies for SAD have gained increasing empirical support. The optimal approach to the management of treatment-refractory SAD patients requires additional study. PMID:15907150

Muller, Jacqueline E; Koen, Liezl; Seedat, Soraya; Stein, Dan J

2005-01-01

168

The Course of Psychological Disorders in the 1st Year After Cancer Diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationship between acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and comorbid anxiety, depressive, and substance use disorders over the first 12-month period following a cancer diagnosis. Individuals recently diagnosed with 1st onset head and neck or lung malignancy were assessed for ASD within the initial month following their diagnosis and reassessed for PTSD and

Maria Kangas; Jane L. Henry; Richard A. Bryant

2005-01-01

169

Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Symptoms and Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Disorder, Anxiety Disorder, Dissociative Disorder, or a Personality Disorder). Based on the types of symptoms, three kinds (presentations) of ADHD can occur: Combined Presentation : if enough symptoms of ...

170

Lack of a Benign Interpretation Bias in Social Anxiety Disorder  

PubMed Central

Cognitive models of social anxiety posit that recurrent interpretation of ambiguous information as threatening maintains symptoms (e.g. Clark & Wells, 1995, pp. 69–93, Social phobia: Diagnosis, assessment, and treatment. New York: Guilford Press; Rapee & Heimberg, 1997, pp. 741–756, Behavior Research and Therapy, 35). However, biased interpretation may also be represented as a failure to make a benign interpretation of the ambiguous event. Furthermore, interpretation bias can be characterized by both an online (automatic) component and an offline (effortful) component (Hirsch & Clark, 2004, pp. 799–825, Clinical Psychology Review, 24). To measure both benign and threat biases, as well as examine the effect of social anxiety on offline versus online interpretations, Beard and Amir (2009, pp. 1135–1141, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46) developed the Word Sentence Association Paradigm (WSAP). In the current study, we administered the WSAP to a group of participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (SAD) as well as to a group of non-anxious control (NAC) participants. We found that participants with SAD demonstrated a lack of benign online bias, but not an online threat bias when compared to NACs. However, when examining offline biases, SAD patients endorsed social threat interpretations and rejected benign social interpretations to a greater degree than non-anxious individuals. Our results, when taken together, clearly implicate the role of reduced bias toward benign information in SAD. PMID:22545788

Amir, Nader; Prouvost, Caroline; Kuckertz, Jennie M.

2013-01-01

171

Lack of a benign interpretation bias in social anxiety disorder.  

PubMed

Cognitive models of social anxiety posit that recurrent interpretation of ambiguous information as threatening maintains symptoms (e.g. Clark & Wells, 1995, pp. 69-93, Social phobia: Diagnosis, assessment, and treatment. New York: Guilford Press; Rapee & Heimberg, 1997, pp. 741-756, Behavior Research and Therapy, 35). However, biased interpretation may also be represented as a failure to make a benign interpretation of the ambiguous event. Furthermore, interpretation bias can be characterized by both an online (automatic) component and an offline (effortful) component (Hirsch & Clark, 2004, pp. 799-825, Clinical Psychology Review, 24). To measure both benign and threat biases, as well as examine the effect of social anxiety on offline versus online interpretations, Beard and Amir (2009, pp. 1135-1141, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46) developed the Word Sentence Association Paradigm (WSAP). In the current study, we administered the WSAP to a group of participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (SAD) as well as to a group of non-anxious control (NAC) participants. We found that participants with SAD demonstrated a lack of benign online bias, but not an online threat bias when compared to NACs. However, when examining offline biases, SAD patients endorsed social threat interpretations and rejected benign social interpretations to a greater degree than non-anxious individuals. Our results, when taken together, clearly implicate the role of reduced bias toward benign information in SAD. PMID:22545788

Amir, Nader; Prouvost, Caroline; Kuckertz, Jennie M

2012-01-01

172

The Risk for Early-Adulthood Anxiety and Depressive Disorders in Adolescents With Anxiety and Depressive Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Various studies find relationships among anxiety and depressive disorders of adoles- cence and adulthood. This study prospectively exam- ines the magnitude of longitudinal associations between adolescent and adult anxiety or depressive disorders. Methods: An epidemiologically selected sample of 776 young people living in upstate New York received DSM- based psychiatric assessments in 1983, 1985, and 1992 using structured interviews.

Daniel S. Pine; Patricia Cohen; Diana Gurley; Judith Brook; Yuju Ma

1998-01-01

173

Response to Emotional Expressions in Generalized Social Phobia and Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Evidence for Separate Disorders  

PubMed Central

Objective Generalized social phobia involves fear/avoidance, specifically of social situations, whereas generalized anxiety disorder involves intrusive worry about diverse circumstances. It remains unclear the degree to which these two, often comorbid, conditions represent distinct disorders or alternative presentations of a single, core underlying pathology. Functional magnetic resonance imaging assessed the neural response to facial expressions in generalized social phobia and generalized anxiety disorder. Method Individuals matched on age, IQ, and gender with generalized social phobia without generalized anxiety disorder (N=17), generalized anxiety disorder (N= 17), or no psychopathology (N=17) viewed neutral, fearful, and angry expressions while ostensibly making a simple gender judgment. Results The patients with generalized social phobia without generalized anxiety disorder showed increased activation to fearful relative to neutral expressions in several regions, including the amygdala, compared to healthy individuals. This increased amygdala response related to self-reported anxiety in patients with generalized social phobia without generalized anxiety disorder. In contrast, patients with generalized anxiety disorder showed significantly less activation to fearful relative to neutral faces compared to the healthy individuals. They did show significantly increased response to angry expressions relative to healthy individuals in a lateral region of the middle frontal gyrus. This increased lateral frontal response related to self-reported anxiety in patients with generalized anxiety disorder. Conclusions These results suggest that neural circuitry dysfunctions differ in generalized social phobia and generalized anxiety disorder. PMID:18483136

Blair, Karina; Shaywitz, Jonathan; Smith, Bruce W.; Rhodes, Rebecca; Geraci, Marilla; Jones, Matthew; McCaffrey, Daniel; Vythilingam, Meena; Finger, Elizabeth; Mondillo, Krystal; Jacobs, Madeline; Charney, Dennis S.; Blair, R.J.R.; Drevets, Wayne C.; Pine, Daniel S.

2010-01-01

174

Generalized anxiety disorder and major depressive disorder comorbidity: an example of genetic pleiotropy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are the most common type of anxiety-mood comorbidity. Up to 80% of subjects with lifetime GAD also have a comorbid mood disorder during their lifetime. Many hypotheses have been raised to explain such high comorbidity. Pleiotropy, i.e. a single genetic mutation explains (apparently) different disorders, is one of them and is

P. Gorwood

2004-01-01

175

Comorbid Depressive Disorders in Anxiety-Disordered Youth: Demographic, Clinical, and Family Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates that depression and anxiety are highly comorbid in youth. Little is known, however, about the clinical and family characteristics of youth with principal anxiety disorders and comorbid depressive diagnoses. The present study examined the demographic, clinical, and family characteristics of 200 anxiety-disordered children and…

O'Neil, Kelly A.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Benjamin, Courtney L.; Kendall, Philip C.

2010-01-01

176

[Borderline personality disorders: diagnosis and treatment].  

PubMed

Borderline personality disorders are complex clinical states with highly polymorphic symptoms and signs, leading to delays in their diagnosis and treatment. All international classifications emphasize certain clinical criteria such as unstable identity and interpersonal relationships, feelings of emptiness or boredom, and pathological impulsiveness. The prevalence is about 2%, with a female-male sex ratio of 2 or 3 to 1. Both adolescents and adults may be affected There is a high risk of suicide, addictive behaviors, eating disorders, and criminality. These individuals frequently have a history of trauma in early childhood, such as separation, loss, physical or sexual abuse, or affective privation. Subjective signs and symptoms are particularly important in the diagnostic and therapeutic evaluation, and this requires an empathic and subtle approach. Standardized and semi-structured interviews may help to identify comorbidities such as thymic disorders, anxiety, addiction, eating disorders, and, in some cases, psychotic symptoms. The psychiatric bio-psycho-social model takes into account multiple pathogenic factors, such as trauma during early development, temperamental instability and other emotional disorders, as well as psychosocial, neurobiological (5HT etc.) and genetic vulnerabilities. Treatment requires optimal integration of psychotherapeutic and pharmacotherapeutic approaches. Emergency intervention must be available in case of delirious or suicidal behavior The clinical course is often lengthy and complex, but outcome may be favorable, provided the principal risk--suicide--is correctly managed, PMID:23815019

Allilaire, Jean-François

2012-10-01

177

Relationship between Social Anxiety Disorder and Body Dysmorphic Disorder  

PubMed Central

Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) are two separate, but conceptually overlapping nosological entities. In this review, we examine similarities between SAD and BDD in comorbidity, phenomenology, cognitive biases, treatment outcome, and cross-cultural aspects. Our review suggests that SAD and BDD are highly comorbid, show a similar age of onset, share a chronic trajectory, and show similar cognitive biases for interpreting ambiguous social information in a negative manner. Furthermore, research from treatment outcome studies have demonstrated that improvements in SAD were significantly correlated with improvements in BDD. Findings from cross-cultural research suggest that BDD may be conceived as a subtype of SAD in some Eastern cultures. Directions for future research and clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:20817336

Fang, Angela; Hofmann, Stefan G.

2010-01-01

178

Types of self-reported anxiety in outpatients with DSM-III-R anxiety disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

To ascertain whether psychiatric outpatients can be classified into distinct types according to their self-reported symptoms of anxiety, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) was administered to 655 outpatients diagnosed with DSM-III-R anxiety disorders. Cluster analysis identified three internally consistent subscales representing subjective, somatic, and panic symptoms. Further analysis revealed six types of outpatients reflecting below average, panic-subjective, low subjective, low

Aaron T. Beck; Robert A. Steer; Judith S. Beck

1993-01-01

179

Social Anxiety in Children with Anxiety Disorders: Relation with Social and Emotional Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated the psychometric properties of the Social Anxiety Scale for children-Revised (SASC-R) as well as relations between social anxiety and children's social and emotional functioning. Participants were a clinic sample of children, ages 6–11 with anxiety disorders (N = 154) who completed the SASC-R. For a subset of these children, parent ratings of social skills, and self-ratings of perceived competence

Golda S. Ginsburg; Annette M. La Greca; Wendy K. Silverman

1998-01-01

180

Well-being therapy for generalized anxiety disorder.  

PubMed

Well-being therapy (WBT) aims to enhance psychological well-being based on Ryff's (1989) six dimensions: autonomy, personal growth, environmental mastery, purpose in life, positive relations, and self-acceptance. Previous studies have documented the efficacy of this psychotherapy in treating patients with mood and anxiety disorders and in preventing relapse in recurrent depression. We discuss and illustrate the use of WBT in generalized anxiety disorder. We present a case of a patient suffering from generalized anxiety disorder treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy followed by WBT. PMID:19294738

Ruini, Chiara; Fava, Giovanni A

2009-05-01

181

Diagnosis of Copper Transport Disorders  

PubMed Central

Techniques for the diagnosis of copper transport disorders are increasingly important due to recent recognition of previously unappreciated clinical phenotypes and emerging advances in the treatment of these conditions. Here, we collate the diagnostic approaches and techniques currently employed for biochemical and molecular assessment of at-risk individuals in whom abnormal copper metabolism is suspected. PMID:21735378

M?ller, Lisbeth B.; Hicks, Julia D.; Holmes, Courtney S.; Goldstein, David S.; Brendl, Cornelia; Huppke, Peter; Kaler, Stephen G.

2011-01-01

182

Genetics of anxiety disorders - status quo and quo vadis.  

PubMed

Clinical genetic studies propose a strong genetic contribution to the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders with a heritability of about 30-67%. The present review will give an overview of linkage studies, association studies and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) yielding support for some candidate genes. Additionally, first evidence for gene-environment interactions between candidate genes of anxiety disorders and stressful life events will be reported. On a systems level, neural activation correlates of anxiety-relevant emotional processing and neurophysiological measures such as peripheral sympathetic activity or the startle reflex have been shown to be potentially driven by vulnerability genes of anxiety disorders. Promising current approaches to further dissect the genetic underpinnings of anxiety disorders such as next generation sequencing, epigenetic analyses and pharmaco-/ psychotherapy-genetics will be presented. Genetic research in anxiety disorders will be discussed with respect to its potential benefit for future efforts to develop innovative and individually tailored therapeutic approaches for patients with anxiety disorders. PMID:22632468

Domschke, Katharina; Deckert, Jürgen

2012-01-01

183

Prevalence and impact of comorbid anxiety and bipolar disorder.  

PubMed

Comorbid conditions pose a serious risk to patients with bipolar disorder, but anxiety comorbidity poses a specific hazard due to the increased negative impact of anxiety on illness course and treatment. Anxiety comorbidity appears to be highly prevalent and is associated with intensified symptoms of bipolar disorder and additional comorbid disorders, resulting in a negative impact on the patient and on the course of the illness. The presence of anxiety in bipolar patients is also associated with a lowered age at onset, hampered patient response to treatment such as lithium, increased rates of suicide and substance abuse, and decreased quality of life. Patients can experience work, family, and social impairment and be made to contend with increased health care costs and strains on family support. Studies are few and have a limited scope, and many have failed to consider the clinical significance of comorbid anxiety and bipolar disorder. Because the degree to which anxiety impacts patients with bipolar disorder is not fully known, more information is needed about the relationship between bipolar disorder and anxiety. PMID:16426110

Keller, Martin B

2006-01-01

184

Symptoms: Personal snapshots of anxiety disorders | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Phobias and Anxiety Disorders Symptoms: Personal snapshots of anxiety ... And it was scary.” Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia): "In any social situation, I felt fear. I ...

185

The Beck Anxiety Inventory in Older Adults With Generalized Anxiety Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated the psychometric properties of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) in a sample of 75 older generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients and a comparison group of 32 older adults without significant psychopathology. Internal consistency was above .80, and the BAI showed evidence of convergent validity in both groups. Evidence for discriminant validity with respect to measures of depression

Julie Loebach Wetherell; Margaret Gatz

2005-01-01

186

Anxiety-Promoting Parenting Behaviors: A Comparison of Anxious Parents with and without Social Anxiety Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While parenting behaviors among anxious parents have been implicated in the familial transmission of anxiety, little is known about whether these parenting behaviors are unique to specific parental anxiety disorders. The current study examined differences in the use of five specific parenting behaviors (i.e., warmth/positive affect, criticism,…

Budinger, Meghan Crosby; Drazdowski, Tess K.; Ginsburg, Golda S.

2013-01-01

187

Adapting Manualized Treatments: Treating Anxiety Disorders among Native Americans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although there is a small but growing body of literature examining the psychopathology of anxiety among Native Americans, no data are available regarding the efficacy of empirically supported treatments for anxiety disorders among Native Americans. Moreover, exceptional challenges arise in adapting mainstream approaches to Native Americans, such…

De Coteau, Tami; Anderson, Jessiline; Hope, Debra

2006-01-01

188

Assessing excessive reassurance seeking in the anxiety disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reassurance seeking has long been hypothesized to be a key factor in the maintenance of anxiety within contemporary cognitive-behavioral approaches to the conceptualization and treatment of anxiety disorders. However, empirical studies have lagged due to the absence of a reliable and valid measure of reassurance seeking. The present study sought to develop and examine the psychometric properties of a theoretically

Neil A. Rector; Katy Kamkar; Stephanie E. Cassin; Lindsay E. Ayearst; Judith M. Laposa

2011-01-01

189

Somatic Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of somatic symptoms (SSs) in children and adolescents with anxiety disorders; the relationship between SSs and anxiety severity, impairment, and child global functioning; and the impact of fluvoxamine (FLV) versus pill placebo (PBO) on reducing SSs. Method: As part of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,…

Ginsburg, Golda S.; Riddle, Mark A.; Davies, Mark

2006-01-01

190

Adapting Manualized Treatments: Treating Anxiety Disorders Among Native Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is a small but growing body of literature examining the psychopathology of anxiety among Native Americans, no data are available regarding the efficacy of empirically supported treatments for anxiety disorders among Native Americans. Moreover, exceptional challenges arise in adapting mainstream approaches to Native Americans, such as language barriers, contrasting beliefs about the cause and treatment of emotional illness

Tami De Coteau; Jessiline Anderson; Debra Hope

2006-01-01

191

Exploring the boundary between temperament and generalized anxiety disorder: A receiver operating characteristic analysis  

PubMed Central

Studies of individuals with an increased tendency to experience negative emotions such as fear, sadness, and anger have documented links between this temperamental trait and anxiety disorders. There exists debate, however, concerning the degree to which high levels of a temperamental trait are a necessary and/or sufficient component of a DSM diagnosis. In this study, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses assessed the relations between levels of harm avoidance (HA) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) diagnoses in 334 children and their parents. Analyses revealed HA scores to be highly predictive of GAD diagnoses in children (AUC = .791, P <.001) and adults (AUC = .818, P <.001). However, there were many individuals with high HA scores who did not qualify for a GAD diagnosis. These findings suggest that while there are strong associations between HA and GAD, high levels of HA are neither necessary nor sufficient in the formation of clinically significant anxiety symptoms. PMID:16616452

Rettew, David C.; Doyle, Alicia C.; Kwan, Monica; Stanger, Catherine; Hudziak, James J.

2012-01-01

192

The Development of Anxiety Disorders: Considering the Contributions of Attachment and Emotion Regulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychiatric disorders in childhood. Nonetheless, theoretical knowledge of the development and maintenance of childhood anxiety disorders is still in its infancy. Recently, research has begun to investigate the influence of emotion regulation on anxiety disorders. Although a relation between anxiety

Esbjorn, B. H.; Bender, P. K.; Reinholdt-Dunne, M. L.; Munck, L. A.; Ollendick, T. H.

2012-01-01

193

Autism Spectrum Disorder Scale Scores in Pediatric Mood and Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study compares the scores on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom scales in healthy children and in children with mood or anxiety disorders. It is observed that children with mood or anxiety disorders obtained higher scores on ASD symptom scales than healthy children.

Pine, Daniel S.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Goldwin, Michelle; Towbin, Kenneth A.; Leibenluft, Ellen

2008-01-01

194

Methylphenidate and Comorbid Anxiety Disorder in Children with both Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder and ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine if comorbid anxiety disorder is associated with differential response to immediate release methylphenidate (MPH-IR) in children with both ADHD and chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD). Method: Children with (n = 17) and without (n = 37) diagnosed anxiety disorder (ANX) were evaluated in an 8-week, placebo-controlled trial…

Gadow, Kenneth D.; Nolan, Edith E.

2011-01-01

195

Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is considerable evidence that children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are at increased risk\\u000a of anxiety and anxiety disorders. However, it is less clear which of the specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders occur most in this\\u000a population. The present study used meta-analytic techniques to help clarify this issue. A systematic review of the literature\\u000a identified 31 studies involving

Francisca J. A. van Steensel; Susan M. Bögels; Sean Perrin

196

Mindfulness and acceptance-based behavioral therapies for anxiety disorders.  

PubMed

This article presents a brief conceptual overview of acceptance-based behavioral therapies (ABBTs) for anxiety disorders, followed by a review and summary of the recent efficacy studies of ABBTs for anxiety and comorbid disorders. We discuss clinical implications, including the importance of targeting reactivity and experiential avoidance in interventions for anxiety disorders through the use of mindfulness and other acceptance-based strategies, as well the encouragement of engagement in meaningful activities or valued action. We also address future directions for research, such as expanding research to include more randomized control trials comparing ABBTs for specific anxiety disorders to other active treatments, examining mechanisms of change, exploring adaptations in different care-delivery contexts, as well as determining the applicability of these approaches to clients from marginalized or non-dominant statuses. PMID:24078067

Roemer, Lizabeth; Williston, Sarah K; Eustis, Elizabeth H; Orsillo, Susan M

2013-11-01

197

Anxiety-depressive disorders among irritable bowel syndrome patients in Guilan, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background Psychiatric disorders are common in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in IBS patients varies in different cultures. We conducted this study to determine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders Methods In a cross-sectional study, 256 IBS patients were selected (using the criteria of Rome III) and evaluated for psychiatric disorders. In the first phase, subjects were screened using the General Health Questionnaire 28 (GHQ28). In the second phase, those who had scores ? 23 were assessed through semi-structured psychiatric interviews. Results Thirty out of 256 subjects had no significant psychiatric symptoms after performing GHQ28. In further psychiatric evaluation of the remaining subjects (226) who suffered from some degree of a psychiatric problem, 36 were diagnosed without Anxiety/Depressive disorder. Thus 66 subjects (25.8%) were known as a group without any significant psychiatric problem. A total of 190 subjects (74.2%) with anxiety-depressive problems were diagnosed; 89 were suffering from pure anxiety disorders, 41 were suffering from depressive disorders and 60 had co-morbid anxiety-depressive disorders. When comparing anxiety-depressive patients (n = 190) with normal subjects (n = 66), gender (P = 0.016), occupation (P = 0.002) and intensity of IBS (P < 0.001) showed statistically significant differences. Conclusion The high prevalence of anxiety-depressive disorders in this study indicates the necessity of psychiatric assessment, early diagnosis and treatment of the patients with IBS. It may improve management of the patients suffering from IBS. PMID:22353390

2012-01-01

198

Lifetime and Current Mood and Anxiety Disorders in Short-Term and Long-Term Abstinent Alcoholics  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND A high prevalence of comorbid mood and anxiety disorders has been demonstrated in alcoholics. We examined lifetime and current mood and anxiety diagnoses and symptoms in long-term (mean 7.6 years; n = 110) and short-term (mean 10.1 weeks; n = 101) abstinent alcoholics (LTAA and STAA) and non substance abusing controls (NSAC; n = 82). All alcoholics met DSM-IV lifetime alcohol dependence criteria. About half of each alcoholic group had lifetime drug dependence. METHODS Alcohol use was assessed using timeline follow-back methodology and drug and alcohol use disorders were diagnosed using the AUDADIS-IV. Lifetime and current mood and anxiety disorder diagnoses and symptom counts were gathered using the c-DIS. RESULTS Over 60% of STAA and LTAA had a lifetime internalizing diagnosis vs. about 15% of NSAC, with no difference between STAA and LTAA. The Group effect on lifetime diagnoses was independent of comorbid drug dependence or gender and was of comparable size for mood and anxiety disorders. Current diagnoses showed a similar pattern, except that STAA had more current mood diagnoses than LTAA. Excluding individuals with lifetime internalizing diagnoses, alcoholics still had more mood and anxiety symptoms than controls. CONCLUSIONS 1) The presence of a lifetime mood or anxiety diagnosis or of a current anxiety diagnosis did not differ between STAA and LTAA, suggesting that such diagnoses do not impact one’s ability to achieve or maintain abstinence. 2) Prevalence of mood and anxiety diagnoses were unaffected by presence of a comorbid substance use disorder, and 3) excluding individuals with a mood or anxiety diagnosis does not eliminate mood and anxiety symptom count differences between groups. PMID:23895247

Fein, George

2013-01-01

199

Practitioner review: psychological management of anxiety disorders in childhood.  

PubMed

Many anxiety problems begin in childhood and are a common form of psychological problem that can be highly distressing and associated with a range of social impairments. Thus, skills for conceptualising, assessing, and treating childhood anxiety problems should be in the repertoire of all child mental health specialists. This paper reviews psychosocial treatments for the most common anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Developmental models of anxiety disorders emphasise maximum risk in children with shy or inhibited temperaments who are exposed to high family anxiety and avoidance, and/or acutely distressing experiences. As children mature these temperamental and environmental experiences are internalised to low self-competence and high threat expectancy. Both individual or group-based interventions utilising cognitive-behavioural strategies to address multiple risk factors are highly efficacious and family involvement can contribute to positive outcomes. Guidelines for assessment and treatment are presented, and suggestions are made for effectively managing clinical process. PMID:11806693

Dadds, M R; Barrett, P M

2001-11-01

200

Parental Anxiety Disorders, Child Anxiety Disorders, and the Perceived Parent-Child Relationship in an Australian High-Risk Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to explore the role of perceived parenting behavior in the relationship between parent and offspring anxiety disorders in a high-risk sample of adolescents. We examined the relationship between parental and child anxiety disorders and tested whether perceived parenting behavior acted as a mediator between these variables. Analyses were performed on a high-risk sample of 816 fifteen-year-olds

Erin B. McClure; Patricia A. Brennan; Constance Hammen; Robyne M. Le Brocque

2001-01-01

201

Associations Among Anxiety Disorders and Non-anxiety Disorders, Functional Impairment and Medication in Children and Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a study of comorbid anxiety disorders and how they affect the clinical picture of comorbid cases. The sample consisted\\u000a of 576 Spanish children aged 8 to 17 years receiving psychiatric outpatient consultation that were evaluated using a semi-structured\\u000a diagnostic interview for both parents and children. A specific association of homotypic comorbidity among anxiety disorders\\u000a that was independent of the

Lourdes Ezpeleta; Josep Toro

2009-01-01

202

Neuroimaging predictors of treatment response in anxiety disorders  

PubMed Central

Although several psychological and pharmacological treatment options are available for anxiety disorders, not all patients respond well to each option. Furthermore, given the relatively long duration of adequate treatment trials, finding a good treatment fit can take many months or longer. Thus, both clinicians and patients would benefit from the identification of objective pre-treatment measures that predict which patients will best respond to a given treatment. Recent studies have begun to use biological measures to help predict symptomatic change after treatment in anxiety disorders. In this review, we summarize studies that have used structural and functional neuroimaging measures to predict treatment response in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and social anxiety disorder (SAD). We note the limitations of the current studies and offer suggestions for future research. Although the literature is currently small, we conclude that pre-treatment neuroimaging measures do appear to predict treatment response in anxiety disorders, and future research will be needed to determine the relative predictive power of neuroimaging measures as compared to clinical and demographic measures. PMID:23915782

2013-01-01

203

Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy in Patients with Anxiety Disorders: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

The present study is aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of a Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy (MBCBT) for reducing cognitive and somatic anxiety and modifying dysfunctional cognitions in patients with anxiety disorders. A single case design with pre- and post-assessment was adopted. Four patients meeting the specified inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited for the study. Three patients received a primary diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), while the fourth patient was diagnosed with Panic Disorder. Patients were assessed on the Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety Questionnaire (CSAQ), Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), Hamilton's Anxiety Inventory (HAM-A), and Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale. The therapeutic program consisted of education regarding nature of anxiety, training in different versions of mindfulness meditation, cognitive restructuring, and strategies to handle worry, such as, worry postponement, worry exposure, and problem solving. A total of 23 sessions over four to six weeks were conducted for each patient. The findings of the study are discussed in light of the available research, and implications and limitations are highlighted along with suggestions for future research. PMID:23439854

Sharma, Mahendra P.; Mao, Angelina; Sudhir, Paulomi M.

2012-01-01

204

COURSE OF COMORBID ANXIETY DISORDERS AMONG ADULTS WITH BIPOLAR DISORDER IN THE U.S. POPULATION  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To examine the prevalence and correlates of comorbid anxiety disorders among individuals with bipolar disorders (BP) and their association with prospectively ascertained comorbidities, treatment, and psychosocial functioning. METHOD As part of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, 1600 adults who met lifetime DSM-IV criteria for BP-I (n=1172) and BP-II (n=428) were included. Individuals were evaluated using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DMS-IV Version and data was analyzed from Waves 1 and 2, approximately 3 years apart. RESULTS Sixty percent of individuals with BP had at least one lifetime comorbid anxiety disorder. Individuals with BP and anxiety disorders shared lifetime risk factors for major depressive disorder and had prospectively more depressive and manic/hypomanic episodes, suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and more treatment seeking than those without anxiety. During the follow-up, higher incidence of panic disorder, drug use disorders, and lower psychosocial functioning were found in individuals with BP with versus without anxiety disorders. CONCLUSIONS Anxiety disorders are prospectively associated with elevated BP severity and BP-related mental health service use. Early identification and treatment of anxiety disorders are warranted to improve the course and outcome of individuals with BP. PMID:22534180

Sala, Regina; Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Morcillo, Carmen; Liu, Shang-Min; Castellanos, Mariela; Blanco, Carlos

2012-01-01

205

Parents' State and Trait Anxiety: Relationships with Anxiety Severity and Treatment Response in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comorbid anxiety is common among children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and parents of children with ASD are more likely to have anxiety disorders. This study investigated the relationship between parents' state and trait anxiety and parent-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms among adolescents (n = 30) with ASD, as well…

Conner, Caitlin M.; Maddox, Brenna B.; White, Susan W.

2013-01-01

206

Ambiguity in the Manifestation of Adult Separation Anxiety Disorder Occurring in Complex Anxiety Presentations: Two Clinical Case Reports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two case reports are described in which patients presented for the treatment of multiple comorbid anxiety disorders, all of which appeared to derive from prolonged separation anxiety disorder. In particular, these adults had effectively altered their lifestyles to avoid separation, thereby displaying only ambiguous separation anxiety symptoms that…

Dudaee-Faass, Sigal; Marnane, Claire; Wagner, Renate

2009-01-01

207

The Relationship between Anxiety and Repetitive Behaviours in Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder are vulnerable to anxiety. Repetitive behaviours are a core feature of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and have been associated with anxiety. This study examined repetitive behaviours and anxiety in two groups of children with autism spectrum disorder, those with high anxiety and those with lower levels of…

Rodgers, J.; Glod, M.; Connolly, B.; McConachie, H.

2012-01-01

208

Neural Mechanisms of Cognitive Reappraisal of Negative Self-Beliefs in Social Anxiety Disorder  

E-print Network

Neural Mechanisms of Cognitive Reappraisal of Negative Self-Beliefs in Social Anxiety Disorder anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by distorted negative self-beliefs (NSBs), which are thought, emotion, emotion regulation, fMRI, neuroimag- ing, social anxiety S ocial anxiety disorder (SAD

Gross, James J.

209

Journal of Anxiety Disorders 28 (2014) 537546 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-print Network

Journal of Anxiety Disorders 28 (2014) 537�546 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Journal of Anxiety Disorders Implicit associations in social anxiety disorder: The effects of comorbid depression a Adult Anxiety Clinic of Temple University, USA b Stanford University, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article

Gross, James J.

210

A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Child Anxiety Multi-Day Program (CAMP) for Separation Anxiety Disorder  

PubMed Central

While the efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy for childhood anxiety disorders, including separation anxiety disorder (SAD), has been established, tailoring such treatments to particular interests and needs may enhance uptake of evidence-based interventions. The current investigation evaluates the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an intensive, cognitive-behavioral intervention for girls with SAD provided within the novel context of a one-week camp-like setting, the Child Anxiety Multi-Day Program (CAMP). Twenty-nine female children aged 7 to 12 with a principal diagnosis of SAD were randomized to immediate CAMP treatment (n = 15) or waitlist (i.e., delayed treatment; n = 14) condition during the course of this randomized controlled trial. Children in the immediate treatment group evidenced significant reductions in SAD severity, functional impairment, and parent report of child anxiety symptoms relative to the waitlist condition. The intervention’s positive therapeutic response suggests one possible delivery model for surmounting difficulties faced in the dissemination of weekly treatments for SAD. PMID:23053618

Santucci, Lauren C.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill

2012-01-01

211

The Association between Hypertension and Depression and Anxiety Disorders: Results from a Nationally-Representative Sample of South African Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective Growing evidence suggests high levels of comorbidity between hypertension and mental illness but there are few data from low- and middle-income countries. We examined the association between hypertension and depression and anxiety in South Africa. Methods Data come from a nationally-representative survey of adults (n?=?4351). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to measure DSM-IV mental disorders during the previous 12-months. The relationships between self-reported hypertension and anxiety disorders, depressive disorders and comorbid anxiety-depression were assessed after adjustment for participant characteristics including experience of trauma and other chronic physical conditions. Results Overall 16.7% reported a previous medical diagnosis of hypertension, and 8.1% and 4.9% were found to have a 12-month anxiety or depressive disorder, respectively. In adjusted analyses, hypertension diagnosis was associated with 12-month anxiety disorders [Odds ratio (OR)?=?1.55, 95% Confidence interval (CI)?=?1.10–2.18] but not 12-month depressive disorders or 12-month comorbid anxiety-depression. Hypertension in the absence of other chronic physical conditions was not associated with any of the 12-month mental health outcomes (p-values all <0.05), while being diagnosed with both hypertension and another chronic physical condition were associated with 12-month anxiety disorders (OR?=?2.25, 95% CI?=?1.46–3.45), but not 12-month depressive disorders or comorbid anxiety-depression. Conclusions These are the first population-based estimates to demonstrate an association between hypertension and mental disorders in sub-Saharan Africa. Further investigation is needed into role of traumatic life events in the aetiology of hypertension as well as the temporality of the association between hypertension and mental disorders. PMID:19440241

Grimsrud, Anna; Stein, Dan J.; Seedat, Soraya; Williams, David; Myer, Landon

2009-01-01

212

Toward an Application to Psychological Disorders Diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Psychological disorders have kept away and incapacitated professionals in different sectors of activities. The most serious\\u000a problems may be associated with various types of pathologies; however, it appears, more often, as psychotic disorders, mood\\u000a disorders, anxiety disorders, antisocial personality, multiple personality and addiction, causing a micro level damage to\\u000a the individual and his\\/her family and in a macro level to

Luciano Comin Nunes; Plácido Rogério Pinheiro; Tarc??sio Cavalcante Pequeno; Mirian Calíope Dantas Pinheiro

213

Treating Anxiety Disorders in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Controlled Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A family-based, cognitive behavioural treatment for anxiety in 47 children with comorbid anxiety disorders and High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (HFA) was evaluated. Treatment involved 12 weekly group sessions and was compared with a waiting list condition. Changes between pre- and post-treatment were examined using clinical interviews as…

Chalfant, Anne Marie; Rapee, Ron; Carroll, Louisa

2007-01-01

214

The Impact of Mood and Anxiety Disorders on Incident Hypertension at One Year  

PubMed Central

Background. Studies assessing the association between psychological factors and hypertension have been equivocal, which may reflect limitations in the assessment of psychological factors. Purpose. To assess the relationship between mood and anxiety disorders, measured using a psychiatric interview, and 1-year incident hypertension. Methods. 197 nonhypertensive individuals undergoing exercise stress testing at baseline provided follow-up data at 1 year. Baseline assessments included a structure psychiatric interview (PRIME-MD), physician diagnosis of hypertension, and measured blood pressure. At follow-up, hypertension status was assessed via self-reported physician diagnosis. Results. Having an anxiety disorder was associated with a 4-fold increase in the risk of developing hypertension (adjusted OR = 4.14, 95% CIs = 1.18–14.56). In contrast, having a mood disorder was not associated with incident hypertension (adjusted OR = 1.21, 95% CIs = 0.24–5.86). Conclusions. There are potential mechanisms which could explain our differential mood and anxiety findings. The impact of screening and treatment of anxiety disorders on hypertension needs to be explored. PMID:24672713

Bacon, Simon L.; Campbell, Tavis S.; Arsenault, Andre; Lavoie, Kim L.

2014-01-01

215

Correlation of cerebrovascular disorder and anxiety: The Kecskemet study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to test the hypothesis that anxiety is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, specifically stroke, we simultaneously measured anxiety and cerebral vascular alternation, using a computer-based system, "Cerberus." Sixty nine psychiatric patients (including an alcoholic subgroup) were selected as subjects for measurements conducted in Kecskemet, Hungary. The five-item short form of anxiety test (STAI) was administered twice during the same session. Between each test, brain pulse waves were recorded by rheoencephalogram (REG). A REG peak time above 180 milliseconds was considered a cerebrovascular alteration (modified after Jenkner). Data were sorted into two groups: low anxiety (N=10) and high anxiety (N=10). Significant differences were found between cardiovascular risk factors (p< 0.001), REG peak time (p<0.043), and heart rate (p< 0.045). Six subjects showed cerebrovascular alteration in the high anxiety group, and two in the low anxiety group. For the two anxiety groups, there were no significant differences in body mass index, cardiovascular sympathetic-parasympathetic balance, age and symptoms of transient ischemic attack. The correlation of REG and age was significantly different only for the alcoholic subgroup (Szalay et al, 2007). These data support the hypothesis that a correlation exists between cerebrovascular disorder and anxiety in the studied population.

Sipos, Kornel; Bodo, Michael; Szalay, Piroska; Szucs, Attila

2010-04-01

216

Efficacy of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in Generalized Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Generalized anxiety disorders (GAD) are amongst the most prevalent mental disorders. Recent studies have suggested that cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for GAD. A controlled clinical trial was done to evaluate the efficacy of CBT treatment in outpatients with pure GAD who were treated by a therapist working in routine care. Methods: Seventy-two outpatients, fulfilling GAD

M. Linden; D. Zubraegel; T. Baer; U. Franke; P. Schlattmann

2005-01-01

217

Your Adolescent: Anxiety and Avoidant Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... in a clowning or boisterous fashion or consume alcohol to deal with the anxiety. Because so much ... attention and treatment. Anxious teens may also use alcohol and drugs to self-medicate or self-sootheor ...

218

Physical activity, exercise, depression and anxiety disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a general belief that physical activity and exercise have positive effects on mood and anxiety and a great number\\u000a of studies describe an association of physical activity and general well-being, mood and anxiety. In line, intervention studies\\u000a describe an anxiolytic and antidepressive activity of exercise in healthy subjects and patients. However, the majority of\\u000a published studies have substantial

Andreas Ströhle

2009-01-01

219

Adjustment Disorder: epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment  

PubMed Central

Background Adjustment Disorder is a condition strongly tied to acute and chronic stress. Despite clinical suggestion of a large prevalence in the general population and the high frequency of its diagnosis in the clinical settings, there has been relatively little research reported and, consequently, very few hints about its treatments. Methods the authors gathered old and current information on the epidemiology, clinical features, comorbidity, treatment and outcome of adjustment disorder by a systematic review of essays published on PUBMED. Results After a first glance at its historical definition and its definition in the DSM and ICD systems, the problem of distinguishing AD from other mood and anxiety disorders, the difficulty in the definition of stress and the implied concept of 'vulnerability' are considered. Comorbidity of AD with other conditions, and outcome of AD are then analyzed. This review also highlights recent data about trends in the use of antidepressant drugs, evidence on their efficacy and the use of psychotherapies. Conclusion AD is a very common diagnosis in clinical practice, but we still lack data about its rightful clinical entity. This may be caused by a difficulty in facing, with a purely descriptive methods, a "pathogenic label", based on a stressful event, for which a subjective impact has to be considered. We lack efficacy surveys concerning treatment. The use of psychotropic drugs such as antidepressants, in AD with anxious or depressed mood is not properly supported and should be avoided, while the usefulness of psychotherapies is more solidly supported by clinical evidence. To better determine the correct course of therapy, randomized-controlled trials, even for the combined use of drugs and psychotherapies, are needed vitally, especially for the resistant forms of AD. PMID:19558652

2009-01-01

220

Thought-action fusion across anxiety disorder diagnoses: Specificity and treatment effects  

PubMed Central

Thought-action fusion (TAF) is a cognitive error that has been frequently investigated within the context of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, evidence suggests that this error may also be present in disorders other than OCD, indicating that TAF is related to higher-order factors rather than a specific diagnosis. We explored TAF in a sample of patients with mixed diagnoses undergoing treatment with a transdiagnostic CBT protocol. Elevated TAF levels at baseline were not specific to patients with OCD. However, the presence of any generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) diagnosis was unexpectedly the strongest predictor of likelihood TAF. Likelihood TAF, a particular component of TAF, was reduced after transdiagnostic treatment, and this reduction was not affected by the presence of a GAD diagnosis. Results indicate that TAF is responsive to treatment and should be assessed and, perhaps, treated in disorders beyond OCD. PMID:23595095

Thompson-Hollands, Johanna; Farchione, Todd J.; Barlow, David H.

2013-01-01

221

Amount of General Factor Saturation in the Beck Anxiety Inventory Responses of Outpatients with Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

To ascertain the amount of general factor saturation underlying the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI; Beck and Steer 1993) responses of anxious patients, the BAI was administered to 525 outpatients with DSM-IV-TR anxiety disorders. McDonald’s\\u000a omegahierarchical(?\\u000a h) (Zinbarg et al. 2005) was calculated to estimate the amount of general factor saturation; ?\\u000a h is the amount of variance explained by a

Robert A. Steer

2009-01-01

222

Anxiety and act lim 03-04-12 Anxiety symptoms and disorder predict activity limitations in the elderly.  

E-print Network

1 Anxiety and act lim 03-04-12 Anxiety symptoms and disorder predict activity limitations;141(2-3):276-85" DOI : 10.1016/j.jad.2012.04.002 #12;2 Anxiety and act lim 03-04-12 Abstract Background: In the elderly, little attention has been paid to anxiety both on a symptom dimension and as a disorder

Boyer, Edmond

223

Dimensions of the inventory of depressive symptomatology as predictors of the course of depressive and anxiety disorders.  

PubMed

For depressive and anxiety disorders general course characteristics are known. However, prognosis varies among patients with the same diagnosis. The current study investigated whether the more homogeneous symptom dimensions of mood/cognition and anxiety/arousal, could be used to predict more differentiated prognoses than with overall course-categories. One-thousand-and-fifty-three subjects with a depressive and/or anxiety disorder from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) were assessed at baseline and at 2-year follow-up. Dimensions of mood/cognition and anxiety/arousal were extracted from the Self Report Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-SR). Diagnoses at baseline and follow-up were assessed with a standardized psychiatric interview. Course trajectories were assessed with a life chart interview. Increased mood/cognition scores predicted single depression (OR = 1.80) and comorbid depression-anxiety (OR = 2.00 [CI: 1.28-2.54]) at follow-up and unfavourable course trajectories of depressive symptomatology (OR = 1.94-2.08). Increased anxiety/arousal predicted single panic disorder at follow-up (OR = 2.21 [CI: 1.62-3.03]) and unfavourable course trajectories of anxiety symptomatology (OR = 1.38-1.42). All associations remained significant when adjusted for other prognostic factors, including baseline diagnosis. In conclusion, the widely used IDS-SR can be used to measure two dimensions that contribute prognostic value on top of other, previously known prognostic factors. PMID:22995629

Wardenaar, Klaas J; Giltay, Erik J; van Veen, Tineke; Zitman, Frans G; Penninx, Brenda W J H

2012-12-01

224

The Management of Anxiety and Depressive Disorders: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

While anxiety and mild-moderate depression (the so-called neuroses) are the commonest mental disorders, they receive scant attention. They should be considered together, because they commonly occur together, are typically chronic, and respond to the same treatment. This review challenges traditional notions about the neuroses, by examining the reasons for their co-morbidity, the effectiveness of SSRIs in anxiety, and the biological

Jude U. Ohaeri

2006-01-01

225

Instruments for the assessment of social anxiety disorder: Validation studies  

PubMed Central

Great progress has been observed in the literature over the last decade regarding the validation of instruments for the assessment of Social Anxiety Disorder in the Brazilian context. Particularly outstanding in this respect is the production of a group of Brazilian investigators regarding the psychometric study of the following instruments: Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Social Phobia Inventory, Brief Social Phobia Scale, Disability Profile, Liebowitz Self-Rated Disability Scale, Social Phobia Safety Behaviors Scale and Self-Statements During Public Speaking Scale, which have proved to be appropriate and valid for use in the adult Brazilian population, representing resources for the assessment of social anxiety in clinical and experimental situations. PMID:24175172

Osorio, Flavia de Lima; Crippa, Jose Alexandre de Souza; Loureiro, Sonia Regina

2012-01-01

226

Exploring the Association between Cognitive Functioning and Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Social Understanding and Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined relations between anxiety, aggression, social understanding, IQ, and diagnosis in a sample of 231 children (ages 2-9) diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs; Autistic Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified) in a hospital setting. Children were administered tests of IQ,…

Niditch, Laura A.; Varela, R. Enrique; Kamps, Jodi L.; Hill, Trenesha

2012-01-01

227

Psychotherapy of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The present study compared the efficacy of psychotherapy for childhood anxiety disorders (excluding trials solely treating post-traumatic stress disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder). Methods: The meta-analysis included studies that met the basic CONSORT (consolidated standards of reporting trials) criteria. Several outcome variables (e.g. effect sizes, percentage of recovery) were analyzed using completer and intent-to-treat analyses during post-treatment and follow-up assessment.

Tina In-Albon; Silvia Schneider

2007-01-01

228

Social anxiety and eating disorder comorbidity: The role of negative social evaluation fears  

PubMed Central

Social anxiety and eating disorders are highly comorbid. However, it is unknown how specific domains of social anxiety relate to disordered eating. We provide data on these relationships and investigate social appearance anxiety and fear of negative evaluation as potential vulnerabilities linking social anxiety with eating disorders. Specifically, we examined five domains of social anxiety: Social interaction anxiety, fear of scrutiny, fear of positive evaluation, fear of negative evaluation, and social appearance anxiety. Results indicated that social appearance anxiety predicted body dissatisfaction, bulimia symptoms, shape concern, weight concern, and eating concern over and above fear of scrutiny, social interaction anxiety, and fear of positive evaluation. Fear of negative evaluation uniquely predicted drive for thinness and restraint. Structural equation modeling supported a model in which social appearance anxiety and fear of negative evaluation are vulnerabilities for both social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms. Interventions that target these negative social evaluation fears may help prevent development of eating disorders. PMID:22177392

Levinson, Cheri A.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.

2011-01-01

229

Using a hybrid model to investigate the comorbidity and symptom overlap between social phobia and the other anxiety disorders and unipolar mood disorders.  

PubMed

New hybrid models of psychopathology have been proposed that combine the current categorical approach with symptom dimensions that are common across various disorders. The present study investigated the new hybrid model of social anxiety in a large sample of participants with anxiety disorders and unipolar mood disorders to improve understanding of the comorbidity and symptom overlap between social phobia (SOC) and the other anxiety disorders and unipolar mood disorders. Six hundred and eighty two participants from a specialized outpatient clinic for anxiety treatment completed a semi-structured diagnostic interview and the Multidimensional Assessment of Social Anxiety (MASA). A hybrid model symptom profile was identified for SOC and compared with each of the other principal diagnoses. Significant group differences were identified on each of the MASA scales. Differences also were identified when common sets of comorbidities were compared within participants diagnosed with SOC. The findings demonstrated the influence of both the principal diagnosis of SOC and other anxiety disorders and unipolar mood disorders as well as the influence of comorbid diagnoses with SOC on the six symptom dimensions. These findings highlight the need to shift to transdiagnostic assessment and treatment practices that go beyond the disorder-specific focus of the current categorical diagnostic systems. PMID:23809463

Gros, Daniel F; McCabe, Randi E; Antony, Martin M

2013-11-30

230

Quality of Life Impairment in Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Social Phobia, and Panic Disorder  

PubMed Central

Interest in the assessment of quality of life in the anxiety disorders is growing. The present study examined quality of life impairments in individuals with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), Social Phobia, and Panic Disorder. Results showed that individuals with these disorders reported less satisfaction with their quality of life than non-anxious adults in the community. However, the degree of quality of life impairment is similar across these three disorders. Additionally, comorbid depression, but not anxiety, was found to negatively impact quality of life in these individuals. Finally, diagnostic symptom severity was not found to influence quality of life, indicating that subjective measures of quality of life offer unique information on the effects of anxiety disorders. PMID:19640675

Barrera, Terri L.; Norton, Peter J.

2009-01-01

231

The effect of comorbid substance use disorders on treatment outcome for anxiety disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the impact of concurrent substance use disorders (SUDs) on outcomes for psychotherapy targeting anxiety disorders. Study 1 (N=484) sought to determine the prevalence of SUDs in a sample referred to a community anxiety disorders clinic, as well as the impact of comorbid SUDs on outcomes for a subsample (n=200) completing cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). Around one-quarter (22–29%)

Peter M. McEvoy; Fiona Shand

2008-01-01

232

Fluoxetine for the Treatment of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: Open-Label, Long-Term Extension to a Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo assess the efficacy of fluoxetine for the long-term treatment of children and adolescents with anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, and\\/or social phobia.

DUNCAN B. CLARK; BORIS BIRMAHER; DAVID AXELSON; KELLY MONK; CATHERINE KALAS; MARY EHMANN; JEFFREY BRIDGE; D. SCOTT WOOD; BENGT MUTHEN; DAVID BRENT

2005-01-01

233

Psychotic-Like Experiences in Major Depression and Anxiety Disorders: A Population-Based Survey in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective: Population-based surveys have confirmed that psychotic-like experiences are prevalent in the community. However, it is unclear if these experiences are associated with common mental disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of psychotic-like experiences in those with affective and anxiety disorders. Methods: Subjects were drawn from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy. Delusion-like experiences were assessed with the Peters Delusional Inventory (PDI). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used to identify individuals with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) lifetime diagnoses of major depression, anxiety disorder, substance use/dependence, and psychotic disorders. The influence of affective and anxiety disorders on PDI and CIDI psychosis-related items’ scores were assessed with logistic regression, with adjustments for age, sex, and the presence of the other comorbid psychiatric diagnoses. Results: Having either a lifetime diagnosis of major depressive disorder or an anxiety disorder was associated with significantly higher PDI total scores (highest vs lowest quartile adjusted odds ratios [ORs] and 95% confidence intervals [CIs]?=?4.43, 3.09–6.36; 3.08, 2.26–4.20, respectively). The odds of endorsing any CIDI hallucination or delusion item was increased in those with a major depressive or anxiety disorder. The presence of current anxiety disorder symptoms was significantly associated with PDI score (OR = 5.81, 95% CI = 3.68–9.16). Conclusion: While psychotic-like experiences are usually associated with psychotic disorders, individuals with depression and anxiety are also more likely to report these symptoms compared with well individuals. Psychotic-like experiences are associated with a range of common mental disorders. PMID:19687152

Varghese, Daniel; Scott, James; Welham, Joy; Bor, William; Najman, Jake; O'Callaghan, Michael; Williams, Gail; McGrath, John

2011-01-01

234

Social and psychological predictors of onset of anxiety disorders: results from a large prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The vast majority of studies investigating the association between social and psychological factors and anxiety disorders\\u000a have been cross-sectional, making it difficult to draw causal conclusions. The purpose of the study was to investigate in\\u000a a prospective longitudinal study whether social and psychological factors are associated with the later risk of being admitted\\u000a to a hospital and receive a diagnosis

Trine Flensborg-Madsen; Janne Tolstrup; Holger Jelling Sørensen; Erik Lykke Mortensen

235

Scalp acupuncture treatment protocol for anxiety disorders: a case report.  

PubMed

Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychiatric illnesses, and acupuncture treatment is widely accepted in the clinic without the side effects seen from various medications. We designed a scalp acupuncture treatment protocol by locating two new stimulation areas. The area one is between Yintang (M-HN-3) and Shangxing (DU-23) and Shenting (DU-24), and the area two is between Taiyang (M-HN-9) and Tianchong (GB-9) and Shuaigu (GB-8). By stimulating these two areas with high-frequency continuous electric waves, remarkable immediate and long-term effects for anxiety disorders have been observed in our practice. The first case was a 70-year-old male with general anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic attacks at night. The scalp acupuncture treatment protocol was applied with electric stimulation for 45 minutes once every week. After four sessions of acupuncture treatments, the patient reported that he did not have panic attacks at night and he had no feelings of anxiety during the day. Follow-up 4 weeks later confirmed that he did not have any episodes of panic attacks and he had no anxiety during the day since his last acupuncture treatment. The second case was a 35-year-old male who was diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with a history of providing frontline trauma care as a Combat Medics from the Iraq combat field. He also had 21 broken bones and multiple concussions from his time in the battlefield. He had symptoms of severe anxiety, insomnia, nightmares with flashbacks, irritability, and bad temper. He also had chest pain, back pain, and joint pain due to injuries. The above treatment protocol was performed with 30 minutes of electric stimulation each time in combination with body acupuncture for pain management. After weekly acupuncture treatment for the first two visits, the patient reported that he felt less anxious and that his sleep was getting better with fewer nightmares. After six sessions of acupuncture treatments, the patient completely recovered from PTSD, went back to work, and now lives a healthy and happy family life. The above cases and clinical observation show that the scalp acupuncture treatment protocol with electric stimulation has a significant clinic outcome for GAD, panic disorder and PTSD. The possible mechanism of action of scalp acupuncture on anxiety disorder may be related to overlapping modulatory effects on the cortical structures (orbitofrontal cortex [OFC]) and medial prefrontal cortex [mPFC]) and subcortical/limbic regions (amygdala and hippocampus), and biochemical effect of acupuncture through immunohistochemistry (norepinephrine, serotonin) performed directly to the brain tissue for anxiety disorders. PMID:25105075

He, Yuxin; Chen, Jia; Pan, Zimei; Ying, Zhou

2014-07-01

236

Scalp Acupuncture Treatment Protocol for Anxiety Disorders: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychiatric illnesses, and acupuncture treatment is widely accepted in the clinic without the side effects seen from various medications. We designed a scalp acupuncture treatment protocol by locating two new stimulation areas. The area one is between Yintang (M-HN-3) and Shangxing (DU-23) and Shenting (DU-24), and the area two is between Taiyang (M-HN-9) and Tianchong (GB-9) and Shuaigu (GB-8). By stimulating these two areas with high-frequency continuous electric waves, remarkable immediate and long-term effects for anxiety disorders have been observed in our practice. The first case was a 70-year-old male with general anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic attacks at night. The scalp acupuncture treatment protocol was applied with electric stimulation for 45 minutes once every week. After four sessions of acupuncture treatments, the patient reported that he did not have panic attacks at night and he had no feelings of anxiety during the day. Follow-up 4 weeks later confirmed that he did not have any episodes of panic attacks and he had no anxiety during the day since his last acupuncture treatment. The second case was a 35-year-old male who was diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with a history of providing frontline trauma care as a Combat Medics from the Iraq combat field. He also had 21 broken bones and multiple concussions from his time in the battlefield. He had symptoms of severe anxiety, insomnia, nightmares with flashbacks, irritability, and bad temper. He also had chest pain, back pain, and joint pain due to injuries. The above treatment protocol was performed with 30 minutes of electric stimulation each time in combination with body acupuncture for pain management. After weekly acupuncture treatment for the first two visits, the patient reported that he felt less anxious and that his sleep was getting better with fewer nightmares. After six sessions of acupuncture treatments, the patient completely recovered from PTSD, went back to work, and now lives a healthy and happy family life. The above cases and clinical observation show that the scalp acupuncture treatment protocol with electric stimulation has a significant clinic outcome for GAD, panic disorder and PTSD. The possible mechanism of action of scalp acupuncture on anxiety disorder may be related to overlapping modulatory effects on the cortical structures (orbitofrontal cortex [OFC]) and medial prefrontal cortex [mPFC]) and subcortical/limbic regions (amygdala and hippocampus), and biochemical effect of acupuncture through immunohistochemistry (norepinephrine, serotonin) performed directly to the brain tissue for anxiety disorders. PMID:25105075

Chen, Jia; Pan, Zimei; Ying, Zhou

2014-01-01

237

Anxiety-Promoting Parenting Behaviors: A Comparison of Anxious Parents with and without Social Anxiety Disorder  

PubMed Central

While parenting behaviors among anxious parents have been implicated in the familial transmission of anxiety, little is known about whether these parenting behaviors are unique to specific parental anxiety disorders. The current study examined differences in the use of five specific parenting behaviors (i.e., warmth/positive affect, criticism, doubts of child competency, over-control, and granting of autonomy) in anxious parents with (n = 21) and without (n = 45) social anxiety disorder (SAD) during a five-minute task with their non-anxious child (aged 7-12 years, M = 9.14). Parents with SAD demonstrated less warmth/positive affect and more criticism and doubts of child competency than did those without SAD. There were no group differences in over-control or granting of autonomy. Findings help clarify inconsistent results in the literature, inform models of familial transmission, and suggest intervention targets for parents with SAD. PMID:23053617

Budinger, Meghan Crosby; Drazdowski, Tess K.; Ginsburg, Golda S.

2012-01-01

238

Psychometric Properties of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale in a Longitudinal Study of Latinos with Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) is one of the most commonly used measures of social anxiety symptoms. To date, no study has examined its psychometric properties in a Latino sample. The authors examined the reliability, temporal stability, and convergent validity of the LSAS in 73 Latinos diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. The original…

Beard, Courtney; Rodriguez, Benjamin F.; Weisberg, Risa B.; Perry, Ashley; Keller, Martin B.

2012-01-01

239

Trajectories of change in emotion regulation and social anxiety during cognitive-behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder  

E-print Network

Trajectories of change in emotion regulation and social anxiety during cognitive-behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder Philippe R. Goldin a,*, Ihno Lee a , Michal Ziv a , Hooria Jazaieri a , Richard G Received in revised form 31 January 2014 Accepted 20 February 2014 Keywords: Social anxiety Emotion

Gross, James J.

240

Interpersonal Pathoplasticity in Individuals with Generalized Anxiety Disorder  

PubMed Central

Recent theories of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) have emphasized interpersonal and personality functioning as important aspects of the disorder. The current paper examines heterogeneity in interpersonal problems in two studies of individuals with GAD (n = 47 and n = 83). Interpersonal subtypes were assessed using the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-C; Alden, Wiggins, & Pincus, 1990). Across both studies, individuals with GAD exhibited heterogeneous interpersonal problems, and cluster analyses of these patients' interpersonal characteristics yielded four replicable clusters identified as intrusive, exploitable, cold, and nonassertive subtypes. Consistent with our pathoplasticity hypotheses, clusters did not differ in GAD severity, anxiety severity, depression severity. Clusters in study two differed on rates of personality disorders, including avoidant personality disorder, further providing support for the validity of interpersonal subtypes. The presence of interpersonal subtypes in GAD may have important implications for treatment planning and efficacy. PMID:21553942

Przeworski, Amy; Newman, Michelle G.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Kasoff, Michele B.; Yamasaki, Alissa S.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Berlin, Kristoffer S.

2011-01-01

241

How is recovery from social anxiety disorder defined?  

PubMed

Recovery in social anxiety disorder (social phobia) is a poorly defined concept. Since the onset of social anxiety disorder typically occurs during adolescence, a time when social skills and academic attainment are of particular importance, recovery is difficult to assess. Assessment of global improvement over 3 domains--symptoms, functionality, and well-being or overall severity of illness--is needed. This article describes currently available rating scales for social anxiety and uses data from clinical studies to assess whether improvement can be defined quantitatively in terms of scores on these rating scales. The main criteria have changed little over the past few years, with most investigators looking for a prespecified response on a single generic or specific rating scale for clinical severity. A better approach may be to employ a multiaxial system that uses a number of rating scales to measure both global and specific symptoms, disability, and quality of life. PMID:9811425

Bobes, J

1998-01-01

242

Anxiety Disorders and Sensory Over-Responsivity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Is There a Causal Relationship?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anxiety disorders and sensory over-responsivity (SOR) are common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and there\\u000a is evidence for an association between these two conditions. Currently, it is unclear what causal mechanisms may exist between\\u000a SOR and anxiety. We propose three possible theories to explain the association between anxiety and SOR: (a) SOR is caused\\u000a by anxiety; (b) Anxiety

Shulamite A. Green; Ayelet Ben-Sasson

2010-01-01

243

Early Predictors of Separation Anxiety Disorder: Early Stranger Anxiety, Parental Pathology and Prenatal Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The present study seeks to extend research on the etiology of separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in a German-speaking sample by examining differences between children with SAD and healthy comparisons, using a retrospective-reporting paradigm. Method: The sample included 106 children with SAD and 44 healthy children between the ages of 4 and 14 years. Parents completed questionnaires and structured clinical

Kristen Lavallee; Chantal Herren; Judith Blatter-Meunier; Carmen Adornetto; Tina In-Albon; Silvia Schneider

2011-01-01

244

Amygdala activation during emotional face processing in adolescents with affective disorders: the role of underlying depression and anxiety symptoms  

PubMed Central

Depressive and anxiety disorders are often first diagnosed during adolescence and it is known that they persist into adulthood. Previous studies often tried to dissociate depressive and anxiety disorders, but high comorbidity makes this difficult and maybe even impossible. The goal of this study was to use neuroimaging to test what the unique contribution is of depression and anxiety symptomatology on emotional processing and amygdala activation, and to compare the results with a healthy control group. We included 25 adolescents with depressive and/or anxiety disorders and 26 healthy adolescents. Participants performed an emotional face processing task while in the MRI scanner. We were particularly interested in the relation between depression/anxiety symptomatology and patterns of amygdala activation. There were no significant differences in activation patterns between the control group and the clinical group on whole brain level and ROI level. However, we found that dimensional scores on an anxiety but not a depression subscale significantly predicted brain activation in the right amygdala when processing fearful, happy and neutral faces. These results suggest that anxiety symptoms are a better predictor for differentiating activation patterns in the amygdala than depression symptoms. Although the current study includes a relatively large sample of treatment naïve adolescents with depression/anxiety disorders, results might be influenced by differences between studies in recruitment strategies or methodology. Future research should include larger samples with a more equal distribution of adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of depression and/or anxiety. To conclude, this study shows that abnormal amygdala responses to emotional faces in depression and anxiety seems to be more dependent on anxiety symptoms than on depression symptoms, and thereby highlights the need for more research to better characterize clinical groups in future studies. PMID:24926249

van den Bulk, Bianca G.; Meens, Paul H. F.; van Lang, Natasja D. J.; de Voogd, E. L.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; Crone, Eveline A.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.

2014-01-01

245

Does anxiety increase impulsivity in patients with bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder?  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine whether anxiety increases impulsivity among patients with bipolar disorder (BPD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). Subjects comprised 205 BPD (mean age ± SD 36.6 ± 11.5 y; 29.3% males) and 105 with MDD (mean age ± SD 38 ± 13.1 y; 29.5% males) diagnosed using the DSM-IV-SCID. Impulsivity was assessed with the Barratt Impulsivity Scale and anxiety with the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale. Comorbid anxiety disorders were present in 58.9% of the BPD and 29.1% of MDD. BPD were significantly more impulsive than MDD (p < 0.001), and both BPD and MDD subjects showed significantly higher impulsivity when anxiety was present either as a comorbidity (p = 0.010) or as a symptom (p = 0.011). Impulsivity rose more rapidly with increasing anxiety symptoms in MDD than in BPD. The presence of anxiety, either as a comorbid disorder or as current anxiety symptoms, is associated with higher impulsivity in subjects with either BPD or MDD. PMID:22326294

Bellani, Marcella; Hatch, John P; Nicoletti, Mark A; Ertola, Astrid E; Zunta-Soares, Giovana; Swann, Alan C; Brambilla, Paolo; Soares, Jair C

2012-05-01

246

Metabolic syndrome among psychiatric outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies have simultaneously compared the impacts of pharmacotherapy and mental diagnoses on metabolic syndrome (MetS) among psychiatric outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of pharmacotherapy and mental diagnoses on MetS and the prevalence of MetS among these patients. Methods Two-hundred and twenty-nine outpatients (men/women?=?85/144) were enrolled from 1147 outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders by systematic sampling. Psychiatric disorders and MetS were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR and the new International Diabetics Federation definition, respectively. The numbers of antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and antidepressants being taken were recorded. Logistic regression was used to investigate the impacts of pharmacotherapy and psychiatric diagnoses on MetS. Results Among 229 subjects, 51 (22.3%) fulfilled the criteria for MetS. The prevalence of MetS was highest in the bipolar I disorder (46.7%) patients, followed by bipolar II disorder (25.0%), major depressive disorder (22.0%), anxiety-only disorders (16.7%), and no mood and/or anxiety disorders (14.3%). The percentages of MetS among the five categories were correlated with those of the patients being treated with antipsychotics and mood stabilizers. Use of antipsychotics and/or mood stabilizers independently predicted a higher risk of MetS after controlling for demographic variables and psychiatric diagnoses. When adding body mass index (BMI) as an independent variable in the regression model, BMI became the most significant factor to predict MetS. Conclusion BMI was found to be an important factor related to MetS. Pharmacotherapy might be one of underlying causes of elevated BMI. The interactions among MetS, BMI, pharmacotherapy, and psychiatric diagnoses might need further research. PMID:24952586

2014-01-01

247

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the demonstrated efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD), many individuals do not respond to treatment or demonstrate residual symptoms and impairment posttreatment. Preliminary evidence indicates that acceptance-based approaches (e.g., acceptance and commitment therapy; ACT) can be helpful for a variety of disorders and emphasize exposure-based strategies and processes. Nineteen individuals diagnosed with SAD participated in

Kristy L. Dalrymple

248

Emotional Schemas and Resistance to Change in Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive-behavioral treatment for all anxiety disorders involves exposure to feared situations and feared emotions. Dropout from therapy is a continued problem for final treatment effectiveness. A meta-emotional model of fear of negative emotions (and anxious sensations and thoughts) is advanced that can be used as a transdiagnostic treatment…

Leahy, Robert L.

2007-01-01

249

Sudden Gains during Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Anxiety Disorders  

PubMed Central

Sudden gains in psychotherapy are characterized by large and relatively stable decreases in psychiatric symptoms and have been associated with cognitive shifts in clients and shown to predict superior treatment outcomes in studies of depression and, to a lesser extent, anxiety disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine prevalence and impact of sudden gains during a transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT) for anxiety disorders, as well as the temporal relationship between sudden gains and cognitive changes. Data were used from two trials of transdiagnostic CBGT for anxiety disorders (n = 130). Criteria for determining sudden gains in anxiety symptoms were based upon previous research on sudden gains from trials of cognitive behavioral treatments for major depressive disorder. A total of 17 out of 98 (17.3%) clients experienced at least one sudden gain, with three clients showing two sudden gains during treatment. Three patients showing a sudden gain experienced a reversal of these gains, although one of these three had a subsequent second sudden gain. Clients experiencing sudden gains showed greater overall improvement following treatment than did clients who did not experience a sudden gain, with 65% of the sudden gainers' overall improvement accounted for by the sudden gain. Greater cognitive change in the pregain sessions was observed for clients with a sudden gain than those not showing a sudden gain. This finding lends support to the theory of cognitive mediation through CBGT in which substantial cognitive changes in pregain sessions lead to greater improvement overall. PMID:20621441

Norton, Peter J.; Klenck, Suzanne C.; Barrera, Terri L.

2010-01-01

250

Group Therapy for Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: To investigate the acceptability and feasibility of adapted group therapy for anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorder in a pilot randomised controlled trial. Method: A total of 32 children aged 9-13 years were randomised to immediate or delayed therapy using the "Exploring Feelings" manual (Attwood, 2004). Child and parent…

McConachie, Helen; McLaughlin, Eleanor; Grahame, Victoria; Taylor, Helen; Honey, Emma; Tavernor, Laura; Rodgers, Jacqui; Freeston, Mark; Hemm, Cahley; Steen, Nick; Le Couteur, Ann

2014-01-01

251

Emotion Socialization in Families of Children with an Anxiety Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared emotion socialization in 26 children with anxiety disorders ages 8-12 years and their mothers to 26 nonclinical counterparts without psychopathology. Children and their mothers participated in an emotion interaction task in which they discussed occasions when the child felt worry, sadness, and anger. Responses were coded for length of…

Suveg, Cynthia; Zeman, Janice; Flannery-Schroeder, Ellen; Cassano, Michael

2005-01-01

252

Family Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Child Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study compared family-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT: the Building Confidence Program) with traditional child-focused CBT with minimal family involvement for children with anxiety disorders. Method: Forty clinically anxious youth (6-13 years old) were randomly assigned to a family- or child-focused cognitive-behavioral…

Wood, Jeffrey J.; Piacentini, John C.; Southam-Gerow, Michael; Chu, Brian C.; Sigman, Marian

2006-01-01

253

Clinical decision making about child and adolescent anxiety disorders using the Achenbach system of empirically based assessment.  

PubMed

Anxiety disorders are common among children but can be difficult to diagnose. An actuarial approach to the diagnosis of anxiety may improve the efficiency and accuracy of the process. The objectives of this study were to determine the clinical utility of the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Youth Self Report (YSR), two widely used assessment tools, for diagnosing anxiety disorders in youth and to aid clinicians in incorporating scale scores into an actuarial approach to diagnosis through a clinical vignette. Demographically diverse youth, 5 to 18 years of age, were drawn from two samples; one (N = 1,084) was recruited from a research center, and the second (N = 651) was recruited from an urban community mental health center. Consensus diagnoses integrated information from semistructured interview, family history, treatment history, and clinical judgment. The CBCL and YSR internalizing problems T scores discriminated cases with any anxiety disorder or with generalized anxiety disorder from all other diagnoses in both samples (ps < .0005); the two scales had equivalent discriminative validity (ps > .05 for tests of difference). No other scales, nor any combination of scales, significantly improved on the performance of the Internalizing scale. In the highest risk group, Internalizing scores greater than 69 (CBCL) or greater than 63 (YSR) resulted in a Diagnostic Likelihood Ratio of 1.5; low scores reduced the likelihood of anxiety disorders by a factor of 4. Combined with other risk factor information in an actuarial approach to assessment and diagnosis, the CBCL and YSR Internalizing scales provide valuable information about whether a youth is likely suffering from an anxiety disorder. PMID:24697608

Van Meter, Anna; Youngstrom, Eric; Youngstrom, Jennifer Kogos; Ollendick, Thomas; Demeter, Christine; Findling, Robert L

2014-01-01

254

Children with Generalized Anxiety Disorder Do Not Have Peer Problems, Just Fewer Friends  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A common assumption is that all youth with anxiety disorders (AD) experience impaired peer relationships relative to healthy control children. Social impairments have been identified among youth with certain AD (e.g., social anxiety disorder; SAD), but less is known about the peer relationships of children with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).…

Scharfstein, Lindsay; Alfano, Candice; Beidel, Deborah; Wong, Nina

2011-01-01

255

Anxiety and Quality of Life: Clinically Anxious Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders Compared  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, studies comparing children with ASD to clinically anxious children are rare. This study investigated anxiety problems and health-related quality of life in children with high-functioning ASD and comorbid anxiety disorders (referred to as the ASD…

van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; Dirksen, Carmen D.

2012-01-01

256

No Differences between Group versus Individual Treatment of Childhood Anxiety Disorders in a Randomised Clinical Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The present study compares an individual versus a group format in the delivery of manualised cognitive-behavioural therapy (FRIENDS) for children with anxiety disorders. Clinically referred children (aged 8 to 12) diagnosed with Separation Anxiety Disorder (n = 52), Generalised Anxiety Disorder (n = 37), Social Phobia (n = 22) or…

Liber, Juliette M.; Van Widenfelt, Brigit M.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; Ferdinand, Robert F.; Van Der Leeden, Adelinde J. M.; Van Gastel, Willemijn; Treffers, Philip D. A.

2008-01-01

257

No differences between group versus individual treatment of childhood anxiety disorders in a randomised clinical trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The present study compares an individual versus a group format in the delivery of manualised cognitive-behavioural therapy (FRIENDS) for children with anxiety disorders. Clinically referred children (aged 8 to 12) diagnosed with Separation Anxiety Disorder (n ¼ 52), Generalised Anxiety Disorder (n ¼ 37), Social Phobia (n ¼ 22) or Specific Phobia (n ¼ 16) were randomly assigned to

Juliette M. Liber; Brigit M. Van Widenfelt; Elisabeth M. W. J. Utens; Robert F. Ferdinand; Willemijn Van Gastel; Philip D. A. Treffers

2008-01-01

258

A Longitudinal Look at Parent?Child Diagnostic Agreement in Youth Treated for Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined diagnostic agreement between children and their parents for seventy 9- to 13-year-olds (45 boys and 25 girls) who had received cognitive?behavioral treatment for anxiety disorders. Parent-child diagnostic rates and agreements for generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, and social phobia were evaluated at 3…

Safford, Scott M.; Kendall, Philip C.; Flannery-Schroeder, Ellen; Webb, Alicia; Sommer, Heath

2005-01-01

259

Neural response to eye contact and paroxetine treatment in generalized social anxiety disorder  

E-print Network

Neural response to eye contact and paroxetine treatment in generalized social anxiety disorder Franklin R. Schneier a,g, , Marc Pomplun b , Melissa Sy c,d,e,f , Joy Hirsch c,d,e,f a Anxiety Disorders-referential processing Generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD) is characterized by excessive fears of scrutiny

Pomplun, Marc

260

Reward System in children and adolescents with ADHD and Anxiety disorders  

E-print Network

Reward System in children and adolescents with ADHD and Anxiety disorders Luigi Mazzone New York, Italian Academy for Advanced Studies in America November 1, 2006 Anxiety disorders and Attention Deficit et al. 1998, Kendall et al. 2001, 2004). In the U.S, the prevalence of anxiety disorders has been

Qian, Ning

261

Efficacy of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Comorbid Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia and Generalized Anxiety Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for comorbid panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) by combining treatment strategies for both disorders. A single-case, multiple-baseline design across participants was used. Three participants with primary PDA and secondary…

Labrecque, Joane; Marchand, Andre; Dugas, Michel J.; Letarte, Andree

2007-01-01

262

Treating Anxiety Disorders in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

A family-based, cognitive behavioural treatment for anxiety in 47 children with comorbid anxiety disorders and High Functioning\\u000a Autism Spectrum Disorder (HFA) was evaluated. Treatment involved 12 weekly group sessions and was compared with a waiting\\u000a list condition. Changes between pre- and post-treatment were examined using clinical interviews as well as child-, parent-\\u000a and teacher-report measures. Following treatment, 71.4% of the treated

Anne Marie Chalfant; Ron Rapee; Louisa Carroll

2007-01-01

263

Comorbidities in Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: a practical guide to diagnosis in primary care.  

PubMed

Diagnosis and management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is complex and challenging because of the frequent comorbidity of other psychiatric disorders that have symptoms overlapping with those of ADHD. The presence of comorbidities can create challenges to making an accurate diagnosis and also impact treatment options and outcomes. This review discusses disorders that may be comorbid with ADHD in adults, including anxiety, mood, substance use disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and borderline personality disorder. Suggestions for recognizing these comorbidities and distinguishing them from ADHD and perspectives on their possible impact on ADHD treatment are included. Adjunctive nonpharmacologic modalities may be especially helpful in the case of comorbid mood, anxiety, substance abuse, or personality disorders. PMID:25295649

Mao, Alice R; Findling, Robert L

2014-09-01

264

Social Functioning in Youth with Anxiety Disorders: Association with Anxiety Severity and Outcomes from Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social functioning was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher Report Form for children with anxiety disorders who participated in a randomized clinical trial (N = 161, aged 7-14). Significant relationships were found between severity of children's principal anxiety disorder and most measures of social functioning, such that poorer…

Settipani, Cara A.; Kendall, Philip C.

2013-01-01

265

Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Childhood Anxiety Disorders: Long-Term Effects on Anxiety and Secondary Disorders in Young Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The present study's aim was to examine the long-term effects (8 to 13 years post-treatment; M = 9.83 years; SD = 1.71) of the most widely used treatment approaches of exposure-based cognitive behavioral treatment for phobic and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents (i.e., group treatment and two variants of individual…

Saavedra, Lissette M.; Silverman, Wendy K.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.; Kurtines, William M.

2010-01-01

266

The psychophysiology of anxiety disorder: fear memory imagery.  

PubMed

Psychophysiological response to fear memory imagery was assessed in specific phobia, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder with agoraphobia, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and healthy controls. Heart rate, skin conductance, and corrugator muscle were recorded as participants responded to tone cues signaling previously memorized descriptor sentences. Image contents included personal fears, social fears, fears of physical danger, and neutral (low arousal) scenes. Reactions to acoustic startle probes (eyeblink) were assessed during recall imagery and nonsignal periods. Participants were significantly more reactive (in physiology and report of affect) to fear than neutral cues. Panic and PTSD patients were, however, less physiologically responsive than specific phobics and the socially anxious. Panic and PTSD patients also reported the most anxiety and mood symptoms, and were most frequently comorbidly depressed. Overall, physiological reactivity to sentence memory cues was greatest in patients with focal fear of specific objects or events, and reduced in patients characterized by generalized, high negative affect. PMID:12946114

Cuthbert, Bruce N; Lang, Peter J; Strauss, Cyd; Drobes, David; Patrick, Christopher J; Bradley, Margaret M

2003-05-01

267

At the crossroads: the intersection of substance use disorders, anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder.  

PubMed

The co-occurrence of substance use disorders with anxiety disorders and/or posttraumatic stress disorder has been widely documented and when compared to each disorder alone, consistently linked to increased risk for a host of negative outcomes including greater impairment, poorer treatment response, and higher rates of symptom relapse. This article focuses on recent advances in the understanding and effective treatment of this common and highly complex comorbidity. Prevalence and epidemiological data are introduced, followed by a review of contemporary models of etiology and associative pathways. Conceptualizations of effective treatment approaches are discussed alongside evidence from the past decade of clinical research trials. Highlighted are ongoing questions regarding the benefit of sequential, parallel, and integrated approaches and the necessity of further investigation into the mechanisms underlying treatment efficacy. Lastly, recent contributions from neuroscience research are offered as a promising bridge for the development and testing of novel, interdisciplinary treatment approaches. PMID:25224608

Ruglass, Lesia M; Lopez-Castro, Teresa; Cheref, Soumia; Papini, Santiago; Hien, Denise A

2014-11-01

268

Treatment for anxiety disorders: Efficacy to effectiveness to implementation.  

PubMed

Anxiety disorders are common, costly and debilitating, and yet often unrecognized or inadequately treated in real world, primary care settings. Our group has been researching ways of delivering evidence-based treatment for anxiety in primary care settings, with special interest to preserving the fidelity of the treatment while at the same time promoting its sustainability once the research is over. In this paper, we describe the programs we have developed and our directions for future research. Our first study evaluated the efficacy of CBT and expert pharmacotherapy recommendations for panic disorder in primary care, using a collaborative care model of service delivery (CCAP). Symptom, disability and mental health functioning measures were superior for the intervention group compared to treatment as usual both in the short term and the long term, although also more costly. In our ongoing CALM study, we have extended our population to include panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and posttraumatic disorder, while at the same time utilizing clinicians with limited mental health care experience. In addition to pharmacotherapy management, we developed a computer-assisted CBT that guides both novice clinician and patient, thereby contributing to sustainability once the research is over. We have also incorporated a measurement based approach to treatment planning, using a web-based tracking system of patient status. To date, the computer-assisted CBT program has been shown to be acceptable to clinicians and patients. Clinicians rated the program highly, and patients engaged in the program. Future directions for our research include dissemination and implementation of the CALM program, testing potential alternations to the CALM program, and distance delivery of CALM. PMID:19632667

Craske, Michelle G; Roy-Byrne, Peter P; Stein, Murray B; Sullivan, Greer; Sherbourne, Cathy; Bystritsky, Alexander

2009-11-01

269

The Exposure Hierarchy as a Measure of Progress and Efficacy in the Treatment of Social Anxiety Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the psychometric properties and utility of the exposure hierarchy as a measure of treatment outcome for social anxiety disorder (SAD). An exposure hierarchy was created for each of 103 individuals with a diagnosis of SAD who completed a course of cognitive behavioral group therapy. Exposure hierarchy ratings were collected on a…

Katerelos, Marina; Hawley, Lance L.; Antony, Martin M.; McCabe, Randi E.

2008-01-01

270

Social appearance anxiety, perfectionism, and fear of negative evaluation: distinct or shared risk factors for social anxiety and eating disorders?  

PubMed

Social anxiety and eating disorders are highly comorbid. Social appearance anxiety (i.e., fear of negative evaluation of one's appearance), general fear of negative evaluation, and perfectionism have each been proposed as risk factors for both social anxiety disorder and the eating disorders. However, no research to date has examined all three factors simultaneously. Using structural equation modeling in two diverse samples (N=236; N=136) we tested a model in which each of these risk factors were uniquely associated with social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms. We found support for social appearance anxiety as a shared risk factor between social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms, whereas fear of negative evaluation was a risk factor only for social anxiety symptoms. Despite significant zero-order relationships, two facets of perfectionism (high standards and maladaptive perfectionism) did not emerge as a risk factor for either disorder when all constructs were considered. These results were maintained when gender, body mass index, trait negative affect, and depression were included in the model. It is possible that treating negative appearance evaluation fears may reduce both eating disorder and social anxiety symptoms. PMID:23583741

Levinson, Cheri A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; White, Emily K; Menatti, Andrew R; Weeks, Justin W; Iacovino, Juliette M; Warren, Cortney S

2013-08-01

271

Anxiety and Depression Symptoms in Children with Asperger Syndrome Compared with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Depressive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to examine (a) anxiety and depression symptoms in children with Asperger syndrome (AS) compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with depressive disorder; (b) parental anxiety and depressive symptoms in the three groups; and (c) the association between the anxiety and…

Park, Subin; Park, Min-Hyeon; Kim, Hyo Jin; Yoo, Hee Jeong

2013-01-01

272

Targeted Behavioral Therapy for childhood generalized anxiety disorder: a time-series analysis of changes in anxiety and sleep.  

PubMed

This study examined the efficacy of Targeted Behavioral Therapy (TBT), a newly developed intervention targeting features of childhood generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Using a time-series design, 4 children (7-12 years) with primary GAD were treated with TBT, which includes sleep improvement strategies, systematic desensitization for reducing intolerance of uncertainty, and in vivo exposures for anxiety. Diagnostic interviews and questionnaires were administered at baseline, post-treatment and 3 months follow-up. Anxiety symptoms and sleep characteristics/problems were rated weekly during a 4-week baseline and 14-weeks of treatment. Two children remitted at post-treatment and no child had a GAD diagnosis at follow-up. Child but not parent report revealed improvements in both worry and sleep. Despite improvements from pre- to post-assessment, considerable symptom fluctuation observed during the baseline period preclude conclusion that symptom changes are specifically attributable to the course of treatment. Overall, preliminary support is provided for the efficacy of TBT for childhood GAD. PMID:24289931

Clementi, Michelle A; Alfano, Candice A

2014-03-01

273

Age differences in treatment response to a collaborative care intervention for anxiety disorders*†  

PubMed Central

Background Some data suggest that older adults with anxiety disorders do not respond as well to treatment as do younger adults. Aims We examined age differences in outcomes from the Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management (CALM) study, an effectiveness trial comparing usual care to a computer-assisted collaborative care intervention for primary care patients with panic disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and/or social anxiety disorder. This is the first study to examine the efficacy of a collaborative care intervention in a sample that included both younger and older adults with anxiety disorders. We hypothesised that older adults would show a poorer response to the intervention than younger adults. Method We examined findings for the overall sample, as well as within each diagnostic category (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00347269). Results The CALM intervention was more effective than usual care among younger adults overall and for those with generalised anxiety disorder, panic disorder and social anxiety disorder. Among older adults, the intervention was effective overall and for those with social anxiety disorder and PTSD but not for those with panic disorder or generalised anxiety disorder. The effects of the intervention also appeared to erode by the 18-month follow-up, and there were no significant effects on remission among the older adults. Conclusions These results are consistent with the findings of other investigators suggesting that medications and psychotherapy for anxiety disorders may not be as effective for older individuals as they are for younger people. PMID:23580378

Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Petkus, Andrew J.; Thorp, Steven R.; Stein, Murray B.; Chavira, Denise A.; Campbell-Sills, Laura; Craske, Michelle G.; Sherbourne, Cathy; Bystritsky, Alexander; Sullivan, Greer; Roy-Byrne, Peter

2013-01-01

274

Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Other Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anxiety disorders, including phobias and post-traumatic stress disorder, are common and disabling disorders that often involve\\u000a avoidance behavior. Cognitive-behavioral treatments, specifically imaginal and in vivo forms of exposure therapy, have been\\u000a accepted and successful forms of treatment for these disorders. Virtual reality exposure therapy, an alternative to more traditional\\u000a exposure-based therapies, involves immersion in a computer-generated virtual environment that minimizes

Maryrose Gerardi; Judith Cukor; JoAnn Difede; Albert Rizzo; Barbara Olasov Rothbaum

2010-01-01

275

Substance Use Disorders and Anxiety: A Treatment Challenge for Social Workers  

PubMed Central

Converging evidence from epidemiologic and treatment studies indicate that anxiety disorders and substance use disorders commonly co-occur, and the interaction is multifaceted and variable. Epidemiological studies and investigations within clinical substance abuse populations have found an association between anxiety disorders and substance use disorders. Specific anxiety disorders including generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and post traumatic stress disorder have all been associated with substance use. The association with obsessive–compulsive disorder is less robust, and some research has found a negative association. The risk of nicotine dependence is significantly higher among individuals with an anxiety disorder, and conversely, smoking has been found to be associated with trait anxiety and anxiety disorders. A review of the current literature and the relationship between specific anxiety disorders and alcohol and substance use disorders is discussed in detail. This article, written for social workers in a variety of practice settings, reviews the prevalence, diagnostic, and treatment issues at the interface of substance use disorders and anxiety disorders. PMID:23731428

Brady, Kathleen T.; Haynes, Louise F.; Hartwell, Karen J.; Killeen, Therese K.

2013-01-01

276

Traditional and atypical presentations of anxiety in youth with autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

We assessed anxiety consistent (i.e., "traditional") and inconsistent (i.e., "atypical") with diagnostic and statistical manual (DSM) definitions in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Differential relationships between traditional anxiety, atypical anxiety, child characteristics, anxiety predictors and ASD-symptomology were explored. Fifty-nine participants (7-17 years, Mage = 10.48 years; IQ > 60) with ASD and parents completed semi-structured interviews, self- and parent-reports. Seventeen percent of youth presented with traditional anxiety, 15 % with atypical anxiety, and 31 % with both. Language ability, anxious cognitions and hypersensitivity predicted traditional anxiety, whereas traditional anxiety and ASD symptoms predicted atypical anxiety. Findings suggest youth with ASD express anxiety in ways similar and dissimilar to DSM definitions. Similarities support the presence of comorbid anxiety disorders in ASD. Whether dissimilarities are unique to ASD requires further examination. PMID:24902932

Kerns, Connor Morrow; Kendall, Philip C; Berry, Leandra; Souders, Margaret C; Franklin, Martin E; Schultz, Robert T; Miller, Judith; Herrington, John

2014-11-01

277

A Selective Intervention Program for Inhibited Preschool-Aged Children of Parents with an Anxiety Disorder: Effects on Current Anxiety Disorders and Temperament  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The efficacy of early intervention for preschool-aged children at risk of anxiety disorders is investigated. Brief early intervention delivered through parents can reduce anxiety and associated risk and may alter the developmental trajectory of anxiety in some young children.

Kennedy, Susan J.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Edwards, Susan L.

2009-01-01

278

Hippocampal Network Connectivity and Activation Differentiates Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder From Generalized Anxiety Disorder  

PubMed Central

Anxiety disorders are a diverse group of clinical states. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), eg, share elevated anxiety symptoms, but differ with respect to fear-related memory dysregulation. As the hippocampus is implicated in both general anxiety and fear memory, it may be an important brain locus for mapping the similarities and differences among anxiety disorders. Anxiety and fear also functionally associate with different subdivisions of the hippocampus along its longitudinal axis: the human posterior (rodent dorsal) hippocampus is involved in memory, through connectivity with the medial prefrontal-medial parietal default-mode network, whereas the anterior (rodent ventral) hippocampus is involved in anxiety, through connectivity with limbic-prefrontal circuits. We examined whether differential hippocampal network functioning may help account for similarities and differences in symptoms in PTSD and GAD. Network-sensitive functional magnetic resonance imaging-based resting-state intrinsic connectivity methods, along with task-based assessment of posterior hippocampal/default-mode network function, were used. As predicted, in healthy subjects resting-state connectivity dissociated between posterior hippocampal connectivity with the default-mode network, and anterior hippocampal connectivity to limbic-prefrontal circuitry. The posterior hippocampus and the associated default-mode network, across both resting-state connectivity and task-based measures, were perturbed in PTSD relative to each of the other groups. By contrast, we found only modest support for similarly blunted anterior hippocampal connectivity across both patient groups. These findings provide new insights into the neural circuit-level dysfunctions that account for similar vs different features of two major anxiety disorders, through a translational framework built on animal work and carefully selected clinical disorders. PMID:23673864

Chen, Ashley C; Etkin, Amit

2013-01-01

279

Facing Your Fears in Adolescence: Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders and Anxiety  

PubMed Central

Adolescents with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are at high risk for developing psychiatric symptoms, with anxiety disorders among the most commonly cooccurring. Cognitive behavior therapies (CBTs) are considered the best practice for treating anxiety in the general population. Modified CBT approaches for youth with high-functioning ASD and anxiety have resulted in significant reductions in anxiety following intervention. The purpose of the present study was to develop an intervention for treating anxiety in adolescents with ASD based on a CBT program designed for school-aged children. The Facing Your Fears-Adolescent Version (FYF-A) program was developed; feasibility and acceptability data were obtained, along with initial efficacy of the intervention. Twenty-four adolescents, aged 13–18, completed the FYF-A intervention. Results indicated significant reductions in anxiety severity and interference posttreatment, with low rates of anxiety maintained at 3-month follow-up. In addition, nearly 46% of teen participants met criteria for a positive treatment response on primary diagnosis following the intervention. Initial findings from the current study are encouraging and suggest that modified group CBT for adolescents with high-functioning ASD may be effective in reducing anxiety symptoms. Limitations include small sample size and lack of control group. Future directions are discussed. PMID:23091719

Reaven, Judy; Blakeley-Smith, Audrey; Leuthe, Eileen; Moody, Eric; Hepburn, Susan

2012-01-01

280

Neurosteroids as Neuromodulators in the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders  

PubMed Central

Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders. They are frequently treated with benzodiazepines, which are fast acting highly effective anxiolytic agents. However, their long-term use is impaired by tolerance development and abuse liability. In contrast, antidepressants such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are considered as first-line treatment but have a slow onset of action. Neurosteroids are powerful allosteric modulators of GABAA and glutamate receptors. However, they also modulate sigma receptors and they are modulated themselves by SSRIs. Both pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown that neurosteroid homeostasis is altered in depression and anxiety disorders and antidepressants may act in part through restoring neurosteroid disbalance. Moreover, novel drugs interfering with neurosteroidogenesis such as ligands of the translocator protein (18?kDa) may represent an attractive pharmacological option for novel anxiolytics which lack the unwarranted side effects of benzodiazepines. Thus, neurosteroids are important endogenous neuromodulators for the physiology and pathophysiology of anxiety and they may constitute a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of these disorders. PMID:22654814

Longone, Patrizia; di Michele, Flavia; D'Agati, Elisa; Romeo, Elena; Pasini, Augusto; Rupprecht, Rainer

2011-01-01

281

Generalized anxiety and panic disorders: Response to Cox, Cohen, Direnfeld, and Swinson (1996)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to the contention of Cox, Cohen, Direnfeld and Swinson (1996, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 34, 949–954) that the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI; Beck & Steer, 1993, Manual for the Beck Anxiety Inventory) measures primarily symptoms associated with panic attacks rather than anxiety in general, we propose that the higher level of anxiety found in patients with panic disorders not

Robert A. Steer; Aaron T. Beck

1996-01-01

282

Traditional and Atypical Presentations of Anxiety in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We assessed anxiety consistent (i.e., "traditional") and inconsistent (i.e., "atypical") with diagnostic and statistical manual (DSM) definitions in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Differential relationships between traditional anxiety, atypical anxiety, child characteristics, anxiety predictors and ASD-symptomology were…

Kerns, Connor Morrow; Kendall, Philip C.; Berry, Leandra; Souders, Margaret C.; Franklin, Martin E.; Schultz, Robert T.; Miller, Judith; Herrington, John

2014-01-01

283

Measuring Anxiety as a Treatment Endpoint in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the high rate of anxiety in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), measuring anxiety in ASD is fraught with uncertainty. This is due, in part, to incomplete consensus on the manifestations of anxiety in this population. Autism Speaks assembled a panel of experts to conduct a systematic review of available measures for anxiety in…

Lecavalier, Luc; Wood, Jeffrey J.; Halladay, Alycia K.; Jones, Nancy E.; Aman, Michael G.; Cook, Edwin H.; Handen, Benjamin L.; King, Bryan H.; Pearson, Deborah A.; Hallett, Victoria; Sullivan, Katherine Anne; Grondhuis, Sabrina; Bishop, Somer L.; Horrigan, Joseph P.; Dawson, Geraldine; Scahill, Lawrence

2014-01-01

284

Nutritional and herbal supplements for anxiety and anxiety-related disorders: systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Over the past several decades, complementary and alternative medications have increasingly become a part of everyday treatment. With the rising cost of prescription medications and their production of unwanted side effects, patients are exploring herbal and other natural remedies for the management and treatment of psychological conditions. Psychological disorders are one of the most frequent conditions seen by clinicians, and often require a long-term regimen of prescription medications. Approximately 6.8 million Americans suffer from generalized anxiety disorder. Many also suffer from the spectrum of behavioural and physical side effects that often accompany its treatment. It is not surprising that there is universal interest in finding effective natural anxiolytic (anti-anxiety) treatments with a lower risk of adverse effects or withdrawal. Methods An electronic and manual search was performed through MEDLINE/PubMed and EBSCO. Articles were not discriminated by date of publication. Available clinical studies published in English that used human participants and examined the anxiolytic potential of dietary and herbal supplements were included. Data were extracted and compiled into tables that included the study design, sample population, intervention, control, length of treatment, outcomes, direction of evidence, and reported adverse events. Results A total of 24 studies that investigated five different CAM monotherapies and eight different combination treatments and involved 2619 participants met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. There were 21 randomized controlled trials and three open-label, uncontrolled observational studies. Most studies involved patients who had been diagnosed with either an anxiety disorder or depression (n = 1786). However, eight studies used healthy volunteers (n = 877) who had normal levels of anxiety, were undergoing surgery, tested at the upper limit of the normal range of a trait anxiety scale, had adverse premenstrual symptoms or were peri-menopausal, reported anxiety and insomnia, or had one month or more of elevated generalized anxiety. Heterogeneity and the small number of studies for each supplement or combination therapy prevented a formal meta-analysis. Of the randomized controlled trials reviewed, 71% (15 out of 21) showed a positive direction of evidence. Any reported side effects were mild to moderate. Conclusions Based on the available evidence, it appears that nutritional and herbal supplementation is an effective method for treating anxiety and anxiety-related conditions without the risk of serious side effects. There is the possibility that any positive effects seen could be due to a placebo effect, which may have a significant psychological impact on participants with mental disorders. However, based on this systematic review, strong evidence exists for the use of herbal supplements containing extracts of passionflower or kava and combinations of L-lysine and L-arginine as treatments for anxiety symptoms and disorders. Magnesium-containing supplements and other herbal combinations may hold promise, but more research is needed before these products can be recommended to patients. St. John's wort monotherapy has insufficient evidence for use as an effective anxiolytic treatment. PMID:20929532

2010-01-01

285

Fluoxetine for the Treatment of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: Open-Label, Long-Term Extension to a Controlled Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To assess the efficacy of fluoxetine for the long-term treatment of children and adolescents with anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, and/or social phobia. Method: Children and adolescents (7-17 years old) with anxiety disorders were studied in open treatment for 1 year after they…

Clark, Duncan B.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Monk, Kelly; Kalas, Catherine; Ehmann, Mary; Bridge, Jeffrey; Wood, D. Scott; Muthen, Bengt; Brent, David

2005-01-01

286

Smoking cessation is associated with lower rates of mood/anxiety and alcohol use disorder  

PubMed Central

Background The psychological outcomes that accompany smoking cessation are not yet conclusive but positive outcomes could help to persuade quitting. Method We use data from the longitudinal National Epidemiological Study of Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between cigarette smoking reduction and Wave 2 status of addiction/mental health disorder among daily smokers at Wave 1, stratified by status of the diagnosis of interest at Wave 1. We adjusted for differences in baseline covariates between smokers with different levels of smoking reduction between Wave 1 and Wave 2 using propensity score regression adjustment. Results After adjusting for propensity scores and other mental health/addiction comorbidities at Wave 2, among daily smokers who had current or lifetime history diagnosis of the outcome of interest at Wave 1, quitting by Wave 2 predicted a decreased risk of mood/anxiety disorder (aOR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4, 0.9) and alcohol disorder (aOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5, 0.99) at Wave 2. Among daily smokers with no lifetime history diagnosis of the outcome of interest at Wave 1, quitting smoking by Wave 2 predicted a decreased risk of drug use disorder at Wave 2 aOR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1, 0.9). Conclusions There is no support in our data for the concern that smoking cessation would result in smokers’ increased risk of some mental disorders. To the contrary, our data suggest that smoking cessation is associated with risk reduction for mood/anxiety or alcohol use disorder, even among smokers who have had a pre-existing disorder. PMID:25055171

Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Breslau, Naomi; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Grucza, Richard A.; Salyer, Patricia; Hartz, Sarah M.; Bierut, Laura J.

2014-01-01

287

Factors Associated With the Persistence and Onset of New Anxiety Disorders in Youth With Bipolar Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Objective Anxiety disorders are among the most common comorbid conditions in youth with bipolar disorder, but, to our knowledge, no studies examined the course of anxiety disorders in youth and adults with bipolar disorder. Method As part of the Course and Outcome of Bipolar Youth study, 413 youth, ages 7 to 17 years who met criteria for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) bipolar I disorder (n = 244), bipolar II disorder (n = 28), and operationally defined bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (n = 141) were recruited primarily from outpatient clinics. Subjects were followed on average for 5 years using the Longitudinal Interval Follow-Up Evaluation. We examined factors associated with the persistence (> 50% of the follow-up time) and onset of new anxiety disorders in youth with bipolar disorder. Results Of the 170 youth who had anxiety at intake, 80.6% had an anxiety disorder at any time during the follow-up. Most of the anxiety disorders during the follow-up were of the same type as those present at intake. About 50% of the youth had persistent anxiety, particularly generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Persistence was associated with multiple anxiety disorders, less follow-up time in euthymia, less conduct disorder, and less treatment with antimanic and antidepressant medications (all P values ? .05). Twenty-five percent of the sample who did not have an anxiety disorder at intake developed new anxiety disorders during follow-up, most commonly GAD. The onset of new anxiety disorders was significantly associated with being female, lower socioeconomic status, presence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorder, and more follow-up time with manic or hypomanic symptoms (all P values ? .05) Conclusions Anxiety disorders in youth with bipolar disorder tend to persist, and new-onset anxiety disorders developed in a substantial proportion of the sample. Early identification of factors associated with the persistence and onset of new anxiety disorders may enable the development of strategies for treatment and prevention. PMID:22226375

Sala, Regina; Axelson, David A.; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Goldstein, Tina R.; Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Ha, Wonho; Liao, Fangzi; Gill, Mary Kay; Iyengar, Satish; Strober, Michael A.; Yen, Shirley; Hower, Heather; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Dickstein, Daniel P.; Ryan, Neal D.; Keller, Martin B.; Birmaher, Boris

2013-01-01

288

The Relation between Anxiety Disorder and Experiential Avoidance in Inpatient Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study aimed to examine the relation between experiential avoidance and anxiety disorders, as well as the usefulness of the Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y; Greco, Lambert, & Baer, 2008) in detecting anxiety disorder in a sample of adolescent inpatients. First, the relation between experiential avoidance and anxiety

Venta, Amanda; Sharp, Carla; Hart, John

2012-01-01

289

Prevalence and Associations of Anxiety Disorders in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Anxiety disorders are known to be common in the general population. Previous studies with adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) report a prevalence of general anxiety disorder ranging from less than 2% to 17.4%. Little is known about associated factors in this population. This study investigates point prevalence of anxiety

Reid, K. A.; Smiley, E.; Cooper, S.-A.

2011-01-01

290

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Anxiety Disorders: Three Case Studies Exemplifying a Unified Treatment Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is an innovative acceptance-based behavior therapy that has been applied broadly and successfully to treat a variety of clinical problems, including the anxiety disorders. Throughout treatment ACT balances acceptance and mindfulness processes with commitment and behavior change processes. As applied to anxiety disorders, ACT seeks to undermine excessive struggle with anxiety and experiential avoidance––attempts to

Joanna Arch; Emmanuel Espejo; Melody Keller; David Langer

2009-01-01

291

Anxiety and Repetitive Behaviours in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Williams Syndrome: A Cross-Syndrome Comparison  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder or Williams syndrome are vulnerable to anxiety. The factors that contribute to this risk remain unclear. This study compared anxiety in autism spectrum disorder and Williams Syndrome and examined the relationship between repetitive behaviours and anxiety. Thirty-four children with autism and twenty children…

Rodgers, Jacqui; Riby, Deborah M.; Janes, Emily; Connolly, Brenda; McConachie, Helen

2012-01-01

292

Preferred Psychological Internet Resources for Addressing Anxiety Disorders, Parenting Problems, Eating Disorders, and Chemical Dependency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the Internet offers information about psychological problems and support resources for behavioral health problems, the quality of this information varies widely. So as to offer guidance in this area, preferred sites pertaining to anxiety disorders, parenting problems, eating disorders, and chemical dependency were analyzed. A total of 365…

Morse, Laura; Doran, Matt; Simonin, Danielle; Smith, Allyson; Maloney, Colleen; Wright, Cara; Underwood, Michelle; Hoppel, Andrea; O'Donnell, Shannon; Chambliss, Catherine

293

The Relationship between Sluggish Cognitive Tempo, Subtypes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT), subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and anxiety disorders (AnxDs). One hundred and forty-one children (90 males, 51 females) aged 7-13 years were assigned to four groups, i.e., referred children with comorbid AnxDs…

Skirbekk, Benedicte; Hansen, Berit Hjelde; Oerbeck, Beate; Kristensen, Hanne

2011-01-01

294

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Comorbid Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral treatment package for comorbid generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA). A single-case, multiple-baseline, across-subjects design was used with 3 primary GAD patients with secondary PDA. The efficacy of the treatment was evaluated with…

Labrecque, Joane; Dugas, Michel J.; Marchand, Andre; Letarte, Andree

2006-01-01

295

Cost-effectiveness of psychological and pharmacological interventions for generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess from a health sector perspective the incremental cost-effectiveness of interventions for generalized anxiety disorder (cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)) and panic disorder (CBT, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)). Method: The health benefit is measured as a reduction in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), based on effect size calculations

Louise Heuzenroeder; Marie Donnelly; Michelle M. Haby; Cathrine Mihalopoulos; Ruth Rossell; Rob Carter; Gavin Andrews; Theo Vos

2004-01-01

296

Comorbidity of generalized anxiety disorder and alcohol use disorders among individuals seeking outpatient substance abuse treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study sought to address a gap in the literature by providing preliminary evidence of the prevalence and clinical characteristics of comorbid generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and alcohol use disorders (AUD) in a front-line outpatient substance abuse clinic. Of 39 outpatients meeting criteria for an AUD, nearly half (46%) also met criteria for current GAD. The onset of GAD

Joshua P. Smith

2010-01-01

297

Associations between Prolonged Grief Disorder, Depression, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Anxiety in Rwandan Genocide Survivors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of studies have demonstrated that symptoms of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) represent a symptom cluster distinct from bereavement-related depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of the present study was to confirm and extend these findings using the most recent criteria defining PGD. The authors interviewed…

Schaal, Susanne; Dusingizemungu, Jean-Pierre; Jacob, Nadja; Neuner, Frank; Elbert, Thomas

2012-01-01

298

Electrophysiological evidence of attentional biases in social anxiety disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Previous studies investigating attentional biases in social anxiety disorder (SAD) have yielded mixed results. Recent event-related potential (ERP) studies using the dot-probe paradigm in non-anxious participants have shown that the P1 component is sensitive to visuospatial attention towards emotional faces. We used a dot-probe task in conjunction with high-density ERPs and source localization to investigate attentional biases in SAD.

E. M. Mueller; S. G. Hofmann; D. L. Santesso; A. E. Meuret; S. Bitran; D. A. Pizzagalli

2009-01-01

299

A preliminary investigation of the Spence Children's Anxiety Parent Scale as a screening tool for anxiety in young people with autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Despite high rates of clinically elevated anxiety difficulties in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), very few studies have systematically examined the usefulness of commonly used caregiver report anxiety screening tools with this population. This study investigated the use of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale-Parent version (SCAS-P) as a screening tool for anxiety disorders when compared to a standardized DSM-IV-TR-based clinical interview, the Kiddie-Schedule for Schizophrenia and Affective Disorders-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL). Thirty-two caregivers of youth with a clinical diagnosis of ASD (mean age 10.3 years) attending a specialist autism school participated in this study. They first completed the SCAS-P, a measure of adaptive functioning and a checklist of other emotional and behavioral difficulties. They were then interviewed with the K-SADS-PL. Internal consistency for the SCAS Total score was .88, but Cronbach's alphas were <.70 in three of the six SCAS-P subscales. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the SCAS-P against K-SADS diagnosis were .75, .71, .27, and .95, respectively. All values were >.70, except for the PPV. Evidence of convergent validity between the SCAS-P, K-SADS-PL and DBC anxiety subscale was also found. The high false positive rates notwithstanding, the preliminary data of acceptable to excellent sensitivity, specificity and NPV values tentatively suggest that the SCAS-P may be useful for screening non-help seeking young people with ASD for elevated anxiety symptoms. Further replication in larger studies is needed and ways in which the SCAS-P could be further developed and investigated for use with youth with ASD are discussed. PMID:24573336

Zainal, Hani; Magiati, Iliana; Tan, Julianne Wen-Li; Sung, Min; Fung, Daniel S S; Howlin, Patricia

2014-08-01

300

A randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy and sertraline versus a wait-list control group for anxiety disorders in older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study is the first to investigate the relative effectiveness of cognitive–\\u000abehavioral therapy (CBT) compared with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor\\u000a(SSRI; sertraline) in a randomized, controlled trial on the treatment of anxiety\\u000adisorders in older adults. Method: Eighty-four patients 60 years of age and over with\\u000aa principal diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia,\\u000aor

Josien Schuurmans; Hannie Comijs; Paul M. G. Emmelkamp; Chad M. M. Gundy; Ingrid Weijnen; Hout van den M. A; Richard van Dyck

2006-01-01

301

Neural temporal dynamics of stress in comorbid major depressive disorder and social anxiety disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Despite advances in neurobiological research on Major Depressive Disorder and Social Anxiety Disorder, little is known about the neural functioning of individuals with comorbid depression/social anxiety. We examined the timing of neural responses to social stress in individuals with major depression and/or social anxiety. We hypothesized that having social anxiety would be associated with earlier responses to stress, having major depression would be associated with sustained responses to stress, and that comorbid participants would exhibit both of these response patterns. Methods Participants were females diagnosed with pure depression (n?=?12), pure social anxiety (n?=?16), comorbid depression/social anxiety (n?=?17), or as never having had any Axis-I disorder (control; n?=?17). Blood oxygenation-level dependent activity (BOLD) was assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To induce social stress, participants prepared a speech that was ostensibly to be evaluated by a third party. Results Whereas being diagnosed with depression was associated with a resurgence of activation in the medial frontal cortex late in the stressor, having social anxiety was associated with a vigilance-avoidance activation pattern in the occipital cortex and insula. Comorbid participants exhibited activation patterns that generally overlapped with the non-comorbid groups, with the exception of an intermediate level of activation, between the level of activation of the pure depression and social anxiety groups, in the middle and posterior cingulate cortex. Conclusions These findings advance our understanding of the neural underpinnings of major depression and social anxiety, and of their comorbidity. Future research should elucidate more precisely the behavioral correlates of these patterns of brain activation. PMID:22738335

2012-01-01

302

Implicit associations in social anxiety disorder: the effects of comorbid depression.  

PubMed

Implicit associations of the self to concepts like "calm" have been shown to be weaker in persons with social anxiety than in non-anxious healthy controls. However, other implicit self associations, such as those to acceptance or rejection, have been less studied in social anxiety, and none of this work has been conducted with clinical samples. Furthermore, the importance of depression in these relationships has not been well investigated. We addressed these issues by administering two Implicit Association Tests (IATs; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998), one examining the implicit association of self/other to anxiety/calmness and the other examining the association of self/other to rejection/acceptance, to individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder (SAD, n=85), individuals with generalized SAD and a current or past diagnosis of major depressive disorder or current dysthymic disorder (n=47), and non-anxious, non-depressed healthy controls (n=44). The SAD and SAD-depression groups showed weaker implicit self-calmness associations than healthy controls, with the comorbid group showing the weakest self-calmness associations. The SAD-depression group showed the weakest implicit self-acceptance associations; no difference was found between non-depressed individuals with SAD and healthy controls. Post hoc analyses revealed that differences appeared to be driven by those with current depression. The SAD-only and SAD-depression groups did not differ in self-reported (explicit) social anxiety. The implications of these findings for the understanding of SAD-depression comorbidity and for the treatment of SAD are considered. PMID:24983794

Wong, Judy; Morrison, Amanda S; Heimberg, Richard G; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J

2014-08-01

303

Development and Preliminary Evaluation of a 1-Week Summer Treatment Program for Separation Anxiety Disorder  

PubMed Central

Numerous clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for the treatment of childhood Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and other anxiety disorders (Velting, Setzer, & Albano, 2004), yet additional research may still be needed to better access and engage anxious youth (Kendall, Suveg, & Kingery, 2006). In this study, we investigated the acceptability and preliminary utility of a group cognitive-behavioral intervention for school-aged girls with SAD provided within an intensive, 1-week setting. The development of the proposed treatment strategy, a 1-week summer treatment program, was predicated on evidence supporting the need for childhood treatments that are developmentally sensitive, allow for creative application of intervention components, incorporate a child’s social context, and ultimately establish new pathways for dissemination to the community. The summer treatment program for SAD was pilot-tested using a case-series design with 5 female children, aged 8 to 11, each with a principal diagnosis of SAD. For 4 of the 5 participants, treatment gains were evidenced by changes in diagnostic status, significant reductions in measures of avoidance, and improvements on self- and parent-report measures of anxiety symptomology. Specifically, severity of SAD symptoms decreased substantially at posttreatment for each participant and, 2 months following treatment, none of the participants met diagnostic criteria for the disorder. A fifth participant experienced substantive improvement in diagnostic status prior to the onset of treatment and, though she evidenced continued improvements following treatment, the role of the intervention in such improvements is less clear. PMID:21935300

Santucci, Lauren C.; Ehrenreich, Jill T.; Trosper, Sarah E.; Bennett, Shannon M.; Pincus, Donna B.

2011-01-01

304

Attention Mechanisms in Children with Anxiety Disorders and in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Implications for Research and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inattention is among the most commonly referred problems for school-aged youth. Research suggests distinct mechanisms may contribute to attention problems in youth with anxiety disorders versus youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study compared children (8-17 years) with anxiety disorders (n = 24) and children (8-16…

Weissman, Adam S.; Chu, Brian C.; Reddy, Linda A.; Mohlman, Jan

2012-01-01

305

Bipolar Disorder in Adolescence: Diagnosis and Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Due to developmental issues and overlapping symptoms with other disorders, diagnosing bipolar disorder in adolescents is often a confusing and complex process. This article highlights diagnostic criteria, symptoms and behaviors, and the differential diagnosis process. Treatment options are also discussed. (Contains 17 references.) (GCP)

Wilkinson, Great Buyck; Taylor, Priscilla; Holt, Jan R.

2002-01-01

306

Platelet Disorders: Diagnosis and Management  

PubMed Central

Platelet disorders are associated with a significant risk of clinical bleeding. These disorders require an evaluation that includes a platelet count, determination of bleeding time, bone-marrow evaluation, and laboratory platelet tests to establish the underlying pathophysiologic process. The physician who understands these processes can correctly interpret laboratory results and choose the most appropriate treatment option. PMID:21253127

Yeo, Erik L.

1988-01-01

307

Cultural Barriers to African American Participation in Anxiety Disorders Research  

PubMed Central

Anxiety disorders are understudied, underdiagnosed, and undertreated in African Americans. Research focused on the phenomenology, etiology, and treatment of anxiety in African Americans has been hampered by lack of inclusion of this population in clinical research studies. The reason for exclusion is not well understood, although cultural mistrust has been hypothesized as a major barrier to research participation. This article reviews the relevant literature to date and examines the experience of 6 African American adults who participated in a larger clinical assessment study about anxiety. Drawing upon in-depth semistructured interviews about their subjective experiences, we examined participant perspectives about the assessment process, opinions about African American perception of anxiety studies, and participant-generated ideas about how to improve African American participation. Based on a qualitative analysis of responses, feelings of mistrust emerged as a dominant theme. Concerns fell under 6 categories, including not wanting to speak for others, confidentiality, self and group presentation concerns, repercussions of disclosure, potential covert purposes of the study, and the desire to confide only in close others. Suggestions for increasing African American participation are discussed, including assurances of confidentiality, adequate compensation, and a comfortable study environment. PMID:23862294

Williams, Monnica T.; Beckmann-Mendez, Diana A.; Turkheimer, Eric

2014-01-01

308

Which DSM-IV-TR criteria best differentiate high-functioning autism spectrum disorder from ADHD and anxiety disorders in older children?  

PubMed Central

Diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often delayed in high-functioning children with milder and more varied forms of ASD. The substantial overlap between ASD and other psychiatric disorders is thought to contribute to this delay. This study examined the endorsement of DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for ASD based on semi-structured parent interviews across three groups of older children referred to an ASD clinic: 55 children diagnosed with high-functioning ASD, 27 children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and 23 children diagnosed with anxiety disorder. Results indicate that the criteria within the domains of communication and social relatedness were largely able to discriminate the high-functioning ASD group from the ADHD and anxiety disorder groups, but criteria within the domain of restricted/repetitive/stereotyped patterns were not. PMID:19759063

HARTLEY, SIGAN L.; SIKORA, DARRYN M.

2010-01-01

309

Childhood Anxiety/Withdrawal, Adolescent Parent-Child Attachment and Later Risk of Depression and Anxiety Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has shown that children with high levels of early anxiety/withdrawal are at increased risk of later anxiety and depression. It has also been found that positive parent-child attachment reduces the risk of these disorders. The aim of this paper was to examine the extent to which positive parent-child attachment acted to mitigate…

Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.

2012-01-01

310

Anxiety and Sensory Over-Responsivity in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Bidirectional Effects Across Time  

PubMed Central

This report focuses on the emergence of and bidirectional effects between anxiety and sensory over-responsivity (SOR) in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Participants were 149 toddlers with ASD and their mothers, assessed at 2 annual time points. A cross-lag analysis showed that anxiety symptoms increased over time while SOR remained relatively stable. SOR positively predicted changes in anxiety over and above child age, autism symptom severity, NVDQ, and maternal anxiety, but anxiety did not predict changes in SOR. Results suggest that SOR emerges earlier than anxiety, and predicts later development of anxiety. PMID:21935727

Green, Shulamite A.; Ben-Sasson, Ayelet; Soto, Timothy W.

2014-01-01

311

Cognitive content specificity in anxiety and depressive disorder symptoms: a twin study of cross-sectional associations with anxiety sensitivity dimensions across development.  

PubMed

Background. The classification of anxiety and depressive disorders has long been debated and has important clinical implications. The present study combined a genetically sensitive design and multiple time points to investigate cognitive content specificity in anxiety and depressive disorder symptoms across anxiety sensitivity dimensions, a cognitive distortion implicated in both disorders. Method. Phenotypic and genetic correlations between anxiety sensitivity dimensions, anxiety and depressive disorder symptoms were examined at five waves of data collection within childhood, adolescence and early adulthood in two representative twin studies (n pairs = 300 and 1372). Results. The physical concerns dimension of anxiety sensitivity (fear of bodily symptoms) was significantly associated with anxiety but not depression at all waves. Genetic influences on physical concerns overlapped substantially more with anxiety than depression. Conversely, mental concerns (worry regarding cognitive control) were phenotypically more strongly associated with depression than anxiety. Social concerns (fear of publicly observable symptoms of anxiety) were associated with both anxiety and depression in adolescence. Genetic influences on mental and social concerns were shared to a similar extent with both anxiety and depression. Conclusions. Phenotypic patterns of cognitive specificity and broader genetic associations between anxiety sensitivity dimensions, anxiety and depressive disorder symptoms were similar at all waves. Both disorder-specific and shared cognitive concerns were identified, suggesting it is appropriate to classify anxiety and depression as distinct but related disorders and confirming the clinical perspective that cognitive therapy is most likely to benefit by targeting cognitive concerns relating specifically to the individual's presenting symptoms across development. PMID:25066519

Brown, H M; Waszczuk, M A; Zavos, H M S; Trzaskowski, M; Gregory, A M; Eley, T C

2014-12-01

312

Which Anxiety Disorders May Differentiate Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Combined Type with Dysthymic Disorder from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Combined Type Alone?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, combined type (ADHD-CT), dysthymic disorder, and anxiety disorders frequently co-occur in primary school age children, although there have been no published data describing their association. We investigated the association of anxiety, defined from a parent or child perspective, with primary school-age children with ADHD-CT with and without dysthymic disorder.Method: One hundred and forty-six medication naïve

Alasdair Vance; Katrina Harris; Marilyn Boots; Jessica Talbot; Mary Karamitsios

2003-01-01

313

How cigarette smoking may increase the risk of anxiety symptoms and anxiety disorders: a critical review of biological pathways  

PubMed Central

Multiple studies have demonstrated an association between cigarette smoking and increased anxiety symptoms or disorders, with early life exposures potentially predisposing to enhanced anxiety responses in later life. Explanatory models support a potential role for neurotransmitter systems, inflammation, oxidative and nitrosative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, neurotrophins and neurogenesis, and epigenetic effects, in anxiety pathogenesis. All of these pathways are affected by exposure to cigarette smoke components, including nicotine and free radicals. This review critically examines and summarizes the literature exploring the role of these systems in increased anxiety and how exposure to cigarette smoke may contribute to this pathology at a biological level. Further, this review explores the effects of cigarette smoke on normal neurodevelopment and anxiety control, suggesting how exposure in early life (prenatal, infancy, and adolescence) may predispose to higher anxiety in later life. A large heterogenous literature was reviewed that detailed the association between cigarette smoking and anxiety symptoms and disorders with structural brain changes, inflammation, and cell-mediated immune markers, markers of oxidative and nitrosative stress, mitochondrial function, neurotransmitter systems, neurotrophins and neurogenesis. Some preliminary data were found for potential epigenetic effects. The literature provides some support for a potential interaction between cigarette smoking, anxiety symptoms and disorders, and the above pathways; however, limitations exist particularly in delineating causative effects. The literature also provides insight into potential effects of cigarette smoke, in particular nicotine, on neurodevelopment. The potential treatment implications of these findings are discussed in regards to future therapeutic targets for anxiety. The aforementioned pathways may help mediate increased anxiety seen in people who smoke. Further research into the specific actions of nicotine and other cigarette components on these pathways, and how these pathways interact, may provide insights that lead to new treatment for anxiety and a greater understanding of anxiety pathogenesis. PMID:23785661

Moylan, Steven; Jacka, Felice N; Pasco, Julie A; Berk, Michael

2013-01-01

314

Children and adolescents referred for treatment of anxiety disorders: Differences in clinical characteristics  

PubMed Central

Background Reports of the clinical characteristics of children and adolescents with anxiety disorders are typically based on community populations or from clinical samples with exclusion criterion applied. Little is known about the clinical characteristics of children and adolescents routinely referred for treatment for anxiety disorders. Furthermore, children and adolescents are typically treated as one homogeneous group although they may differ in ways that are clinically meaningful. Methods A consecutive series of children (n=100, aged 6–12 years) and adolescents (n=100, aged 13–18 years), referred to a routine clinical service, were assessed for anxiety and comorbid disorders, school refusal and parental symptoms of psychopathology. Results Children with a primary anxiety disorder were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with separation anxiety disorder than adolescents. Adolescents with a primary anxiety disorder had significantly higher self and clinician rated anxiety symptoms and had more frequent primary diagnoses of social anxiety disorder, diagnoses and symptoms of mood disorders, and irregular school attendance. Limitations Childhood and adolescence were considered categorically as distinct, developmental periods; in reality changes would be unlikely to occur in such a discrete manner. Conclusions The finding that children and adolescents with anxiety disorders have distinct clinical characteristics has clear implications for treatment. Simply adapting treatments designed for children to make the materials more ‘adolescent-friendly’ is unlikely to sufficiently meet the needs of adolescents. PMID:25016489

Waite, Polly; Creswell, Cathy

2014-01-01

315

Theory of mind impairments in social anxiety disorder.  

PubMed

Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common psychiatric disorder characterized by a persistent, excessive fear and avoidance of social and performance situations. Research on cognitive biases indicates individuals with SAD may lack an accurate view of how they are perceived by others, especially in social situations when they allocate important attentional resources to monitoring their own actions as well as external threat. In the present study, we explored whether socially anxious individuals also have impairments in theory of mind (ToM), or the ability to comprehend others' mental states, including emotions, beliefs, and intentions. Forty socially anxious and 40 non-socially-anxious comparison participants completed two ToM tasks: the Reading the Mind in the Eyes and the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition. Participants with SAD performed worse on ToM tasks than did non-socially-anxious participants. Relative to comparison participants, those with SAD were more likely to attribute more intense emotions and greater meaning to what others were thinking and feeling. These group differences were not due to interpretation bias. The ToM impairments in people with SAD are in the opposite direction of those in people with autism spectrum conditions whose inferences about the mental states of other people are absent or very limited. This association between SAD and ToM may have important implications for our understanding of both the maintenance and treatment of social anxiety disorder. PMID:24912465

Hezel, Dianne M; McNally, Richard J

2014-07-01

316

Comorbidity Among Anxiety Disorders: Implications for Treatment and DSM–IV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on comorbidity among psychological disorders is relatively new. Yet, comorbidity data have fundamental significance for classification and treatment. This significance is particularly apparent in the anxiety disorders, which, prior to DSM–III–R, were subsumed under disorders considered more significant (e.g., psychotic and depressive disorders). After considering definitional, methodological, and theoretical issues of comorbidity, data on comorbidity among the anxiety disorders

Timothy A. Brown; David H. Barlow

1992-01-01

317

Factors affecting the presence of depression, anxiety disorders, and suicidal ideation in patients attending primary health care service in Lithuania  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective. The aim of this study was to establish prevalence, recognition, and risk factors for mental disorders and suicidal ideation in PC patients. Design. A cross-sectional survey based on standard mental health evaluation. Setting. Lithuanian primary care. Subjects. 998 patients from four urban PC clinics. Main outcome measures. Current mental disorders and suicidal ideation assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Results. According to the MINI, 27% of patients were diagnosed with at least one current mental disorder. The most common mental disorders were generalized anxiety disorder (18%) and major depressive episode (MDE) (15%), followed by social phobia (3%), panic disorder (3%), and post-traumatic stress disorder (2%). Some 6% of patients reported suicidal ideation. About 70% of patients with current mental disorder had no documented psychiatric diagnosis and about 60% received no psychiatric treatment. Greater adjusted odds for current MDE were associated with being widowed or divorced patients (odds ratio, OR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.2–2.8) and with lower education (OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.3), while greater adjusted odds for any current anxiety disorder were found for women (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.3–2.8) and for patients with documented insomnia (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.2–4.2). Suicidal ideation was independently associated with use of antidepressants (OR = 5.4, 95% CI 1.7–16.9), with current MDE (OR = 2.9, 95% CI 1.5–5.8), and with excessive alcohol consumption (OR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.1–3.8). Conclusions. Depression, anxiety disorders, and suicidal ideation are prevalent but poorly recognized among PC patients. The presence of current MDE is independently associated with marital status and with lower education, while current anxiety disorder is associated with female gender and insomnia. Suicidal ideation is associated with current MDE, and with antidepressants and alcohol use. PMID:24533847

Bunevicius, Robertas; Peceliuniene, Jurate; Raskauskiene, Nijole; Bunevicius, Adomas; Mickuviene, Narseta

2014-01-01

318

Targeted genome screen of panic disorder and anxiety disorder proneness using homology to murine QTL regions.  

PubMed

Family and twin studies have indicated that genes influence susceptibility to panic and phobic anxiety disorders, but the location of the genes involved remains unknown. Animal models can simplify gene-mapping efforts by overcoming problems that complicate human pedigree studies including genetic heterogeneity and high phenocopy rates. Homology between rodent and human genomes can be exploited to map human genes underlying complex traits. We used regions identified by quantitative trait locus (QTL)-mapping of anxiety phenotypes in mice to guide a linkage analysis of a large multiplex pedigree (99 members, 75 genotyped) segregating panic disorder/agoraphobia. Two phenotypes were studied: panic disorder/agoraphobia and a phenotype ("D-type") designed to capture early-onset susceptibility to anxiety disorders. A total of 99 markers across 11 chromosomal regions were typed. Parametric lod score analysis provided suggestive evidence of linkage (lod = 2.38) to a locus on chromosome 10q under a dominant model with reduced penetrance for the anxiety-proneness (D-type) phenotype. Nonparametric (NPL) analysis provided evidence of linkage for panic disorder/agoraphobia to a locus on chromosome 12q13 (NPL = 4.96, P = 0.006). Modest evidence of linkage by NPL analysis was also found for the D-type phenotype to a region of chromosome 1q (peak NPL = 2.05, P = 0.035). While these linkage results are merely suggestive, this study illustrates the potential advantages of using mouse gene-mapping results and exploring alternative phenotype definitions in linkage studies of anxiety disorder. PMID:11304837

Smoller, J W; Acierno, J S; Rosenbaum, J F; Biederman, J; Pollack, M H; Meminger, S; Pava, J A; Chadwick, L H; White, C; Bulzacchelli, M; Slaugenhaupt, S A

2001-03-01

319

Attentional focus in social anxiety disorder: potential for interactive processes.  

PubMed

The two preeminent cognitive behavioral models of social anxiety [Clark, D.M., & Wells, A., (1995). A cognitive model of social phobia. In Heimberg, R.G., Liebowitz, M., Hope, D.A., and Schneier, F.R. (Eds.), Social phobia: Diagnosis, assessment and treatment (pp. 69-93). New York: Guilford Press.; Rapee, R.M., & Heimberg, R.G., (1997). A cognitive behavioral model of anxiety in social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 741-756.] suggest that attention to threat stimuli is critical in the maintenance of social fear. However, Clark and Wells assert that socially anxious persons attend almost exclusively to negative thoughts and self-imagery during social situations, whereas Rapee and Heimberg contend that socially anxious persons simultaneously attend to these internal cues and external stimuli potentially indicative of negative evaluation, such as an audience member's facial expressions. Rapee and Heimberg further suggest that attention to external and internal cues during social situations should be interdependent, such that focus on one has causal implications for the experience of the other. The current review examines the nature of the literature as it supports the assertions of each of these models of social anxiety, with particular attention to differing predictions regarding attentional focus. We conclude that socially anxious persons engage in both internal and external focus throughout the course of a social situation; however, there are a number of significant limitations to the literature. Accordingly, directions for future research are considered. PMID:18555570

Schultz, Luke T; Heimberg, Richard G

2008-10-01

320

Disordered gambling and co-morbidity of psychiatric disorders among college students: an examination of problem drinking, anxiety and depression.  

PubMed

We assessed the occurrence of co-morbid psychiatric disorders (i.e., problem drinking, anxiety, and depression) among college students who met the threshold for disordered gambling. The participants included a large sample of undergraduate students (n = 1,430) who were enrolled in an introductory health course at a large, southeastern university in Spring 2011 and completed an online assessment that included scales to assess disordered gambling, problem drinking, anxiety, and depression. We calculated screening scores, computed prevalence rates for each disorder, and calculated Pearson correlations and Chi square tests to examine correlations and co-morbid relationships between the four disorders. Analyses indicated that all disorders were significantly associated (p < .01) except for disordered gambling and anxiety. Because college students who experience disordered gambling (and other psychiatric disorders) are at increased risk of experiencing co-occurring disorders, it might be useful for college health professionals to concurrently screen and intervene for co-occurring disorders. PMID:23430449

Martin, Ryan J; Usdan, Stuart; Cremeens, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen

2014-06-01

321

The impact of personality disorders on treatment outcome of anxiety disorders: Best-evidence synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-five studies were traced addressing the impact of comorbid personality disorders on treatment outcome of anxiety disorders. The conclusions of this review are based on the best-evidence procedure. We used two selection criteria that studies had to meet to be included in the present review. The study design had to be prospective and a (semi)structured interview had to be used

Laura Dreessen; Arnoud Arntz

1998-01-01

322

Psychophysiologic Responses to Combat Imagery of Vietnam Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Versus Other Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used psychophysiologic techniques to assess responses to imagery of psychologically stressful past experiences in medication-free Vietnam combat veterans classified, on the basis of DSM-III-R criteria into posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; n = 7) or non-PTSD anxiety disorder (anxious; n = 7) groups. Scripts describing each individual's combat experiences were recorded and played back in the laboratory. Ss were instructed

Roger K. Pitman; Scott P. Orr; Dennis F. Forgue; Bruce Altman; Jacob B. de Jong; Lawrence R. Herz

1990-01-01

323

Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for Anxiety and Phobic Disorders in Children and Adolescents: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an overview of cognitive-behavioural strategies used in the treatment of child-anxiety problems, emphasizing the need for exposure and caregiver involvement. Most of the paper focuses on developments in empirically supported cognitive-behavioral intervention protocols for generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety

King, Neville J.; Heyne, David; Ollendick, Thomas H.

2005-01-01

324

Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders without Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent studies have shown that rates of depression and anxiety symptoms are elevated among individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) of various ages and IQs and that depression/anxiety symptoms are associated with higher IQ and fewer ASD symptoms. In this study which examined correlates of depression and anxiety symptoms in the full…

Strang, John F.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Daniolos, Peter; Case, Laura; Wills, Meagan C.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.

2012-01-01

325

The potential impact of mindfulness on exposure and extinction learning in anxiety disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mindfulness based approaches have shown promise in the treatment of various anxiety disorders. However, further research is needed to more precisely elucidate mechanisms of action through which mindfulness practice may enhance treatment for anxiety. Given centrality of exposure-based procedures in the treatment of anxiety, it is important to consider ways in which mindfulness may affect exposure and extinction processes. In

Michael Treanor

2011-01-01

326

Psychometric Evaluation of the Fear of Positive Evaluation Scale in Patients With Social Anxiety Disorder  

E-print Network

Psychometric Evaluation of the Fear of Positive Evaluation Scale in Patients With Social Anxiety of positive evaluation, a proposed cognitive component of social anxiety. Although previous findings the psychometric profile of the FPES in a sample of patients with social anxiety disorder (T. A. Fergus et al

Gross, James J.

327

Irrational Beliefs in Employees with an Adjustment, a Depressive, or an Anxiety Disorder: a Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

It remains unclear if patients with different types of common mental disorders, such as adjustment, anxiety and depressive disorders, have the same irrational ideas. The aim of this prospective cohort study (n = 190) is to investigate differences in level and type of irrational beliefs among these groups and to examine whether a change in irrational beliefs is related to symptom recovery. Irrational beliefs (IBI) and symptoms were measured at four points in time: at baseline, after 3, 6 and 12 months. Results showed that diagnostic groups differed in their level of irrational beliefs and this effect remained over time. Highest levels of irrationality were observed in the double diagnosis group, followed by the anxiety disorder group and the depression group. Participants with adjustment disorders showed the lowest levels of irrationality, comparable to a community sample. We did not find differences in the type of irrational beliefs between diagnostic groups. The level of irrationality declined over time for all diagnostic groups. No differences in decrease were observed between diagnostic groups. The magnitude and direction of change in irrational beliefs were related to the magnitude of recovery of depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms over time. These results support the application of general cognitive interventions, especially for patients with a depressive or an anxiety disorder. PMID:20445759

Verbeek, Jos H. A. M.; de Boer, Angela G. E. M.; Blonk, Roland W. B.; van Dijk, Frank J. H.

2008-01-01

328

Efficacy of vilazodone on anxiety symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder  

PubMed Central

Anxiety symptoms are prevalent in patients with major depressive disorder. A post-hoc analysis of two phase III trials was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of vilazodone on depression-related anxiety. Using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD17) Anxiety/Somatization subscale, patients were classified as anxious or nonanxious. Improvements in depressive symptoms were based on least squares mean changes in HAMD17 and Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale total scores. Anxiety symptoms in the anxious subgroup were evaluated using Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) total and subscale (Psychic Anxiety, Somatic Anxiety) scores, HAMD17 Anxiety/Somatization subscale and item (Psychic Anxiety, Somatic Anxiety) scores, and the Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale Inner Tension item score. Most of the pooled study population [82.0% (708/863)] was classified with anxious depression. After 8 weeks of treatment, least squares mean differences between vilazodone and placebo for changes in HAMA total and HAMD17 Anxiety/Somatization subscale scores were ?1.82 (95% confidence interval ?2.81 to ?0.83; P<0.001) and ?0.75 (95% confidence interval ?1.17 to ?0.32; P<0.001), respectively. Statistically significant improvements with vilazodone were also found on all other anxiety-related measures, except the HAMA Somatic Anxiety subscale. Vilazodone may be effective in treating patients with major depressive disorder who exhibit somatic and/or psychic symptoms of anxiety. PMID:24978955

Chen, Dalei; Edwards, John; Ruth, Adam

2014-01-01

329

Efficacy of vilazodone on anxiety symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder.  

PubMed

Anxiety symptoms are prevalent in patients with major depressive disorder. A post-hoc analysis of two phase III trials was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of vilazodone on depression-related anxiety. Using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD17) Anxiety/Somatization subscale, patients were classified as anxious or nonanxious. Improvements in depressive symptoms were based on least squares mean changes in HAMD17 and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale total scores. Anxiety symptoms in the anxious subgroup were evaluated using Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) total and subscale (Psychic Anxiety, Somatic Anxiety) scores, HAMD17 Anxiety/Somatization subscale and item (Psychic Anxiety, Somatic Anxiety) scores, and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale Inner Tension item score. Most of the pooled study population [82.0% (708/863)] was classified with anxious depression. After 8 weeks of treatment, least squares mean differences between vilazodone and placebo for changes in HAMA total and HAMD17 Anxiety/Somatization subscale scores were -1.82 (95% confidence interval -2.81 to -0.83; P<0.001) and -0.75 (95% confidence interval -1.17 to -0.32; P<0.001), respectively. Statistically significant improvements with vilazodone were also found on all other anxiety-related measures, except the HAMA Somatic Anxiety subscale. Vilazodone may be effective in treating patients with major depressive disorder who exhibit somatic and/or psychic symptoms of anxiety. PMID:24978955

Thase, Michael E; Chen, Dalei; Edwards, John; Ruth, Adam

2014-11-01

330

The Expanding Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy Treatment Umbrella for the Anxiety Disorders: Disorder-Specific and Transdiagnostic Approaches  

PubMed Central

Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is an empirically supported treatment for anxiety disorders. CBT treatments are based on disorder-specific protocols that have been developed to target individual anxiety disorders, despite that anxiety disorders frequently co-occur and are comorbid with depression. Given the high rates of diagnostic comorbidity, substantial overlap in dimensional symptom ratings, and extensive evidence that the mood and anxiety disorders share a common set of psychological and biological vulnerabilities, transdiagnostic CBT protocols have recently been developed to treat the commonalities among the mood and anxiety disorders. We conducted a selective review of empirical developments in the transdiagnostic CBT treatment of anxiety and depression (2008–2013). Preliminary evidence suggests that theoretically based transdiagnostic CBT approaches lead to large treatment effects on the primary anxiety disorder, considerable reduction of diagnostic comorbidity, and some preliminary effects regarding the impact on the putative, shared psychological mechanisms. However, the empirical literature remains tentative owing to relatively small samples, limited direct comparisons with disorder-specific CBT protocols, and the relative absence of the study of disorder-specific compared with shared mechanisms of action in treatment. We conclude with a treatment conceptualization of the new transdiagnostic interventions as complementary, rather than contradictory, to disorder-specific CBT. PMID:25007404

Rector, Neil A; Man, Vincent; Lerman, Bethany

2014-01-01

331

Cognitive Reappraisal Self-Efficacy Mediates the Effects of Individual Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine whether changes in cognitive reappraisal self-efficacy (CR-SE) mediate the effects of individually-administered Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (I-CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) on severity of social anxiety symptoms. Method A randomized controlled trial in which 75 adult patients (21–55 years of age; 53% male; 57% Caucasian) with a principal diagnosis of generalized SAD were randomly assigned to 16 sessions of I-CBT (n = 38) or a waitlist control (WL) group (n = 37). All patients completed self-report inventories measuring cognitive reappraisal self-efficacy (CR-SE) and social anxiety symptoms at baseline and post-I-CBT/post-WL, and I-CBT completers were also assessed at 1-year post-treatment. Results Compared to WL, I-CBT resulted in greater increases in CR-SE and greater decreases in social anxiety. Increases in CR-SE during I-CBT mediated the effect of I-CBT on social anxiety. Gains achieved by patients receiving I-CBT were maintained 1-year post-treatment, and I-CBT-related increases in CR-SE were also associated with reduction in social anxiety at the 1-year follow-up. Conclusions Increasing CR-SE may be an important mechanism by which I-CBT for SAD produces both immediate and long-term reductions in social anxiety. PMID:22582765

Goldin, Philippe; Ziv, Michal; Jazaieri, Hooria; Werner, Kelly; Kraemer, Helena; Heimberg, Richard G.; Gross, James J.

2012-01-01

332

An expert system applied to the diagnosis of psychological disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychological disorders have kept away and incapacitated professionals in different sectors of activities. The most serious problems may be associated with various types of pathologies, however, it appears, more often, as psychotic disorders, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, antisocial personality, multiple personality and addiction, causing a micro level damage to the individual and his\\/her family and in a macro level to

Luciano Comin Nunes; Plácido Rogério Pinheiro; Tarcísio Cavalcante Pequeno

2009-01-01

333

The association between parental history of diagnosed mood/anxiety disorders and psychiatric symptoms and disorders in young adult offspring  

PubMed Central

Background Parental history of mood or anxiety disorders is one of the strongest and most consistent risk factors for the development of these disorders in offspring. Gaps remain however in our knowledge of whether maternal or paternal disorders are more strongly associated with offspring disorders, and whether the association exists in non-clinical samples. This study uses a large population-based sample to test if maternal or paternal history of mood and/or anxiety disorders increases the risk of mood and/or anxiety disorders, or symptoms of specific anxiety disorders, in offspring. Methods Data were drawn from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens Study, a prospective cohort investigation of 1293 grade 7 students. Data on mental health outcomes were collected in mailed self-report questionnaires when participants were aged 20.4 (0.7) years on average. Parental data were collected in mailed self-report questionnaires. This current analysis pertains to 564 participants with maternal and/or paternal data. The association between maternal and paternal history and each of diagnosed anxiety disorder, diagnosed mood disorder, and symptoms of specific anxiety disorders in offspring was studied in multivariate logistic regression. Results A higher proportion of mothers than fathers had a diagnosed mood/anxiety disorder (23% versus 12%). Similarly, 14% of female offspring had a diagnosed mood/anxiety disorder, compared to 6% of male offspring. The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for maternal history was 2.2 (1.1, 4.5) for diagnosed mood disorders, 4.0 (2.1, 7.8) for diagnosed anxiety disorders, and 2.2 (1.2, 4.0) for social phobia symptoms. Paternal history was not associated with any of the mental health outcomes in offspring. Conclusion Maternal, but not paternal mood/anxiety disorders were associated with diagnosed psychiatric disorders, as well as symptoms of specific anxiety disorders, in offspring. Efforts to detect mood and anxiety disorders in offspring with a maternal history should be encouraged. PMID:23126640

2012-01-01

334

Interpersonal constraint conferred by generalized social anxiety disorder is evident on a behavioral economics task.  

PubMed

Although social anxiety disorder appears to confer impairment in friendships, evidence beyond self-report is minimal. We used the flexible iterated prisoner's dilemma as a simulated interaction with a friend with 27 individuals with the generalized type of social anxiety disorder and 23 demographically equivalent individuals without the disorder. Participants with generalized social anxiety disorder were less giving on the task. Lower giving was also moderately associated with interpersonal variables (e.g., coldness). A trend was also found for participants with generalized social anxiety disorder to show lower assertiveness on the task. The connection between generalized social anxiety disorder and friendship impairment appears likely to be partially explained by interpersonal constraint that is perceived by others as coldness and manifests in a behavioral economics task. PMID:23231458

Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Shumaker, Erik A; Levinson, Cheri A; Fernandez, Katya C; Langer, Julia K; Lim, Michelle H; Yarkoni, Tal

2013-02-01

335

The reappraisal of benzodiazepines in the treatment of anxiety and related disorders.  

PubMed

Benzodiazepines (BDZs) continue to be shrouded in controversy, mainly because of dependence associated with their long-term use and some of their side effects. Despite treatment recommendations favoring newer antidepressants, BDZs are still commonly prescribed for anxiety and related disorders. Recent studies have demonstrated that long-term use of BDZs for these conditions can be effective and safe and that BDZs can be combined with psychological therapy and antidepressants to produce optimal outcomes. Such findings, along with a failure to convincingly demonstrate the overall superiority of alternative pharmacotherapy for anxiety and related disorders, have given an impetus to a reconsideration of the role of BDZs. This article reviews BDZs and other pharmacotherapy options for anxiety and related disorders and suggests that treatment guidelines should acknowledge that BDZs can be used as first-line, long-term pharmacological treatment for panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and social anxiety disorder. PMID:25242262

Starcevic, Vladan

2014-11-01

336

AN OPEN TRIAL OF INTEGRATIVE THERAPY FOR GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER  

PubMed Central

Cognitive– behavioral therapy (CBT), although effective, has the lowest average effect size for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), when compared to effect sizes of CBT for other anxiety disorders. Additional basic and applied research suggests that although interpersonal processes and emotional avoidance may be maintaining GAD symptomatology, CBT has not sufficiently addressed interpersonal issues or emotion avoidance. This study aimed to test the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an integrative psychotherapy, combining CBT with techniques to address interpersonal problems and emotional avoidance. Eighteen participants received 14 sessions of CBT plus interpersonal emotional processing therapy and three participants (for training and feasibility purposes) received 14 sessions of CBT plus supportive listening. Results showed that the integrative therapy significantly decreased GAD symptomatology, with maintenance of gains up to 1 year following treatment. In addition, comparisons with extant literature suggested that the effect size for this new GAD treatment was higher than the average effect size of CBT for GAD. Results also showed clinically significant change in GAD symptomatology and interpersonal problems with continued gains during the 1-year follow-up. Implications of these results are discussed. PMID:19881891

Newman, Michelle G.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Borkovec, Thomas D.; Fisher, Aaron J.; Nordberg, Samuel S.

2009-01-01

337

Single Case Evaluation of an Intensive Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated the efficacy of an 8-day, 6-session, intensive individual cognitive behavioral therapy protocol for social anxiety disorder using a multiple baseline across subjects design with 1, 2, and 3 months follow-up assessments. Participants were 5 outpatients with generalized social anxiety disorder. The intervention had variable effects on clinician-rated and self-report measures of anxiety and depression. The results question the efficacy of intensive psychotherapy as a general therapeutic strategy for social anxiety disorder. Directions for future research are discussed. PMID:19169365

Stoddard, Jill A.; Rosellini, Anthony J.; Hofmann, Stefan G.

2008-01-01

338

[Differential diagnosis of hearing disorders].  

PubMed

Hearing impairment is considered as the most common impairment of a human sense system. According to WHO, 360 Million people worldwide were affected by hearing loss in 2012, out of which 91% were adults and 9% children.Hearing impairment can be triggered by various mechanisms, such as locally destructive processes (chronic otitis media, cholesteatoma or traumatic lesions) or systemic influences like infectious or ototoxic substances (measles, mumps, meningococcal meningitis or medication and industrial agents). Congenital dysplasia, perinatal complications and genetic modifications can lead to hearing loss as well. Moreover, the acute or chronic noise exposure associated with the changing spare time activities in industrial nations represents an increasingly significant source of hearing impairment. In order to achieve the best hearing rehabilita-tion, a specific differential diagnosis in each case is of significant importance. PMID:25302598

Schulze, A; Zahnert, T

2014-10-01

339

Acute Stress Disorder Following Diagnosis of Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a study to examine prevalence, predictors, and concomitants of acute stress disorder (ASD) following diagnosis of cancer among 89 patients. In addition to other measures, each participant completed the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire (SASRQ). One-third (33%) of the sample met all ASD symptom criteria. Significantly more women than men met criteria for ASD. For women, predictors for

Elizabeth L. McGarvey; Randolph J. Canterbury; Cheryl Koopman; Gail J. Clavet; Roger Cohen; Kimberly Largay; David Spiegel

1998-01-01

340

Comorbidity among anxiety disorders: Implications for treatment and DSM-IV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on comorbidity among psychological disorders is relatively new. Yet, comorbidity data have fundamental significance for classification and treatment. This significance is particularly apparent in the anxiety disorders, which, prior to DSM-III-R, were subsumed under disorders considered more significant (e.g., psychotic and depressive disorders). After considering defini- tional, methodological, and theoretical issues of comorbidity, data on comorbidity among the anxiety

Timothy A. Brown; David H. Barlow

1992-01-01

341

Generalized anxiety disorder in a nonclinical sample of children: Symptom presentation and predictors of impairment  

PubMed Central

Presentation of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in a nonclinical sample of children (7–11 years old) and factors that predict overall impairment were examined. Symptom presentation was compared in children with GAD (n = 49) and anxious children without GAD (n = 42). Children with GAD endorsed significantly more worries, greater intensity of worries, and more DSM-IV associated symptoms than anxious children without GAD. Eighty-six percent of children with GAD had a comorbid diagnosis with 4% having a depressive disorder. Number of associated symptoms was most predictive of GAD impairment based on child perspective and intensity of worry was most predictive based on clinician perspective. Overall, findings from the current study are consistent with reports based on clinical samples. The DSM-IV-TR criteria for GAD were supported, with the exception that children with GAD typically present with several associated symptoms, rather than only one. PMID:18815006

Layne, Ann E.; Bernat, Debra H.; Victor, Andrea M.; Bernstein, Gail A.

2012-01-01

342

A Retrospective Examination of the Similarity between Clinical Practice and Manualized Treatment for Childhood Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to facilitate the bidirectional communication between researchers and clinicians about the treatment of childhood anxiety disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder. Forty-four children were assessed before and after cognitive behavioral treatment with the parent versions of the Spence Child Anxiety Scale…

Vande Voort, Jennifer L.; Svecova, Jana; Jacobson, Amy Brown; Whiteside, Stephen P.

2010-01-01

343

Patterns of Emotional Reactivity and Regulation in Children with Anxiety Disorders  

E-print Network

Patterns of Emotional Reactivity and Regulation in Children with Anxiety Disorders Tal Carthy + Business Media, LLC 2009 Abstract Emotion dysregulation is believed to be a key factor in anxiety disorders. However, the empirical basis for this view is limited, particularly in children and adolescents

Gross, James J.

344

The Role of Emotion Regulation in the Treatment of Child Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this review, we examine the role of emotion regulation in the treatment of children with anxiety disorders. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been shown to "work" for children with anxiety disorders and it has been categorized as an evidence-based treatment. However, most studies have shown that the treatment is effective for about 60-70%…

Hannesdottir, Dagmar Kristin; Ollendick, Thomas H.

2007-01-01

345

The Pathogenesis of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: Considerations from a Developmental Psychopathology Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent psychiatric problems in children and adolescents. The present article summarizes the main evidence that has accumulated on the pathogenesis of childhood anxiety disorders during the past two decades. Various risk and vulnerability factors (e.g., genetics, behavioral inhibition, disgust sensitivity,…

Muris, Peter

2006-01-01

346

Parent and Child Agreement on Anxiety Disorder Symptoms Using the DISC Predictive Scales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Growing recognition of the negative impact of anxiety disorders in the lives of youth has made their identification an important clinical task. Multiple perspective assessment (e.g., parents, children) is generally considered a preferred method in the assessment of anxiety disorder symptoms, although it has been generally thought that disagreement…

Weems, Carl F.; Feaster, Daniel J.; Horigian, Viviana E.; Robbins, Michael S.

2011-01-01

347

Threat Related Selective Attention Predicts Treatment Success in Childhood Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Threat-related selective attention was found to predict the success of the treatment of childhood anxiety disorders through administering a pictorial dot-probe task to 131 children with anxiety disorders prior to cognitive behavioral therapy. The diagnostic status of the subjects was evaluated with a semistructured clinical interview at both pre-…

Legerstee, Jeroen S.; Tulen, Joke H. M.; Kallen, Victor L.; Dieleman, Gwen C.; Treffers, Philip D. A.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.

2009-01-01

348

Efficacy and Utility of Computer-Assisted Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the efficacy of cognitive behavioural treatment for anxiety disorders, more than 70% of individuals with anxiety disorders go untreated every year. This is partially due to obstacles to treatment including limited access to mental health services for rural residents, the expense of treatment and the inconvenience of attending weekly…

Przeworski, Amy; Newman, Michelle G.

2006-01-01

349

Prevalence of and risk factors for anxiety and depressive disorders in Nigerian adolescents with epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emotional response of adolescents to a chronic illness like epilepsy may differ across cultures. This study was aimed at investigating the prevalence of and risk factors for anxiety and depressive disorders in a group of Nigerian adolescents with epilepsy. Adolescents with epilepsy (n=102) aged between 12 and 18 were assessed for anxiety and depressive disorders with the Diagnostic Interview

Abiodun O. Adewuya; Bola A. Ola

2005-01-01

350

Development and Preliminary Evaluation of a One-Week Summer Treatment Program for Separation Anxiety Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for the treatment of childhood Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and other anxiety disorders yet additional research may still be needed to better access and engage anxious youth. In this study, we investigated the acceptability and preliminary utility of a…

Santucci, Lauren C.; Ehrenreich, Jill T.; Trosper, Sarah E.; Bennett, Shannon M.; Pincus, Donna B.

2009-01-01

351

An Open Trial of an Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research suggests that experiential avoidance may play an important role in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; see Roemer, L., & Orsillo, S.M. (2002). "Expanding our conceptualization of and treatment for generalized anxiety disorder: Integrating mindfulness/acceptance-based approaches with existing cognitive-behavioral models." "Clinical…

Roemer, Lizabeth; Orsillo, Susan M.

2007-01-01

352

Sequential Pharmacotherapy for Children with Comorbid Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity and Anxiety Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often accompanied by clinically significant anxiety, but few empirical data guide treatment of children meeting full DSM-IV criteria for ADHD and anxiety disorders (ADHD/ANX). This study examined the efficacy of sequential pharmacotherapy for ADHD/ANX children. Method: Children, age 6…

Abikoff, Howard; McGough, James; Vitiello, Benedetto; McCracken, James; Davies, Mark; Walkup, John; Riddle, Mark; Oatis, Melvin; Greenhill, Laurence; Skrobala, Anne; March, John; Gammon, Pat; Robinson, James; Lazell, Robert; McMahon, Donald J.; Ritz, Louise

2005-01-01

353

Adapting Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Young Children with Separation Anxiety Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is currently the most prevalent, yet most under-researched anxiety disorder in childhood. To date, there have been few studies investigating the effi- cacy of interventions for young children with SAD. The primary purpose of this paper is to describe the process of tailoring Parent Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) for young children aged 4-8 with SAD. The

Donna B. Pincus; Sheila M. Eyberg; Molly L. Choate

2005-01-01

354

The Implementation of Modified Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Youth with Separation Anxiety Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is the most prevalent anxiety disorder experienced by children, and yet empirical treatment studies of SAD in young children are virtually nonexistent. This paper will describe the development and implementation of an innovative treatment for SAD in young children. First, we will highlight the rationale for developing interventions specifically for SAD in young children. Second, we

Donna B. Pincus; Lauren C. Santucci; Jill T. Ehrenreich; Sheila M. Eyberg

2008-01-01

355

The Implementation of Modified Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Youth with Separation Anxiety Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is the most prevalent anxiety disorder experienced by children, and yet empirical treatment studies of SAD in young children are virtually nonexistent. This paper will describe the development and implementation of an innovative treatment for SAD in young children. First, we will highlight the rationale for…

Pincus, Donna B.; Santucci, Lauren C.; Ehrenreich, Jill T.; Eyberg, Sheila M.

2008-01-01

356

Adapting Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Young Children with Separation Anxiety Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is currently the most prevalent, yet most under-researched anxiety disorder in childhood. To date, there have been few studies investigating the efficacy of interventions for young children with SAD. The primary purpose of this paper is to describe the process of tailoring Parent Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT)…

Pincus, Donna B.; Eyberg, Sheila M.; Choate, Molly L.

2005-01-01

357

Development and Preliminary Evaluation of a One-Week Summer Treatment Program for Separation Anxiety Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for the treatment of childhood Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and other anxiety disorders yet additional research may still be needed to better access and engage anxious youth. In this study, we investigated the acceptability and preliminary utility of a group cognitive-behavioral intervention for school-aged girls with SAD provided

Lauren C. Santucci; Jill T. Ehrenreich; Sarah E. Trosper; Shannon M. Bennett; Donna B. Pincus

2009-01-01

358

Mood, Anxiety, and Substance-Use Disorders and Suicide Risk in a Military Population Cohort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are meager prospective data from nonclinical samples on the link between anxiety disorders and suicide or the extent to which the association varies over time. We examined these issues in a cohort of 309,861 U.S. Air Force service members, with 227 suicides over follow-up. Mental disorder diagnoses including anxiety, mood, and substance-use…

Conner, Kenneth R.; McCarthy, Michael D.; Bajorska, Alina; Caine, Eric D.; Tu, Xin M.; Knox, Kerry L.

2012-01-01

359

An Innovative Treatment Approach for Children with Anxiety Disorders and Medically Unexplained Somatic Complaints  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents are largely undetected and the majority of youth do not receive services. Given the deleterious consequences of anxiety disorders, early identification and intervention have public health implications. In order to increase identification and treatment of anxious youth, expansion to nonpsychiatric…

Reigada, Laura C.; Fisher, Paige H.; Cutler, Cynthia; Warner, Carrie Masia

2008-01-01

360

Cognitive-behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder: current status and future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the most thoroughly studied nonpharmacologic approach to the treatment of social anxiety disorder, and its efficacy has been demonstrated in a large number of investigations. This article summarizes the data on the efficacy of CBT for the treatment of the symptoms of social anxiety disorder and impaired quality of life. The relative efficacy of various CBT

Richard G. Heimberg

2002-01-01

361

CRITICAL REVIEW OF OUTCOME RESEARCH ON INTERPERSONAL PSYCHOTHERAPY FOR ANXIETY DISORDERS  

PubMed Central

Background Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) has demonstrated efficacy in treating mood and eating disorders. This article critically reviews outcome research testing IPT for anxiety disorders, a diagnostic area where cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has dominated research and treatment. Methods A literature search identified six open and five controlled trials of IPT for social anxiety disorder (SAD), panic disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Results Studies were generally small, underpowered, and sometimes methodologically compromised. Nonetheless, minimally adapted from its standard depression strategies, IPT for anxiety disorders yielded positive results in open trials for the three diagnoses. In controlled trials, IPT fared better than waiting list (N = 2), was equipotent to supportive psychodynamic psychotherapy (N = 1), but less efficacious than CBT for SAD (N = 1), and CBT for panic disorder (N = 1) in a methodologically complicated study. IPT equaled CBT in a group residential format (N = 1). Conclusions IPT shows some promise for anxiety disorders but has thus far shown no advantages in controlled trials relative to other therapies. Methodological and ecological issues have complicated testing of IPT for anxiety disorders, clouding some findings. The authors discuss difficulties of conducting non-CBT research in a CBT-dominated area, investigator bias, and the probable need to further modify IPT for anxiety disorders. Untested therapies deserve the fairest possible testing. Depression and Anxiety 00:1–10, 2014. PMID:24493661

Markowitz, John C.; Lipsitz, Joshua; Milrod, Barbara L.

2014-01-01

362

Dimensional assessment of anxiety disorders in parents and children for DSM-5.  

PubMed

The current shift in the DSM towards the inclusion of a dimensional component allows clinicians and researchers to demonstrate not only the presence or absence of psychopathology in an individual, but also the degree to which the disorder and its symptoms are manifested. This study evaluated the psychometric properties and utility of a set of brief dimensional scales that assess DSM-based core features of anxiety disorders, for children and their parents. The dimensional scales and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED-71), a questionnaire to assess symptoms of all anxiety disorders, were administered to a community sample of children (n?=?382), aged 8-13 years, and their mothers (n?=?285) and fathers (n?=?255). The dimensional scales assess six anxiety disorders: specific phobia, agoraphobia, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and separation anxiety disorder. Children rated their own anxiety and parents their child's anxiety. The dimensional scales demonstrated high internal consistency (??>?0.78, except for father reported child panic disorder, for reason of lack of variation), and moderate to high levels of convergent validity (rs ?=?0.29-0.73). Children who exceeded the SCARED cutoffs scored higher on the dimensional scales than those who did not, providing preliminary support for the clinical sensitivity of the scales. Given their strong psychometric properties and utility for both child and parent report, addition of the dimensional scales to the DSM-5 might be an effective way to incorporate dimensional measurement into the categorical DSM-5 assessment of anxiety disorders in children. Copyright © 2014 American Psychiatric Association. All rights reserved. PMID:24943058

Möller, Eline L; Majdandži?, Mirjana; Craske, Michelle G; Bögels, Susan M

2014-09-01

363

An Innovative Treatment Approach for Children With Anxiety Disorders and Medically Unexplained Somatic Complaints  

PubMed Central

Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents are largely undetected and the majority of youth do not receive services. Given the deleterious consequences of anxiety disorders, early identification and intervention have public health implications. In order to increase identification and treatment of anxious youth, expansion to nonpsychiatric settings (i.e., pediatric medical settings, schools) is necessary. Pediatric medical offices represent ideal settings for detection and intervention for several reasons: (1) access to large numbers of children, (2) high prevalence of unrecognized anxiety disorders in medical settings, and (3) an association between anxiety disorders and medically unexplained somatic symptoms. This paper describes a cognitive-behavioral intervention for youth who present to pediatric medical settings with nonmedical somatic symptoms and undiagnosed anxiety disorders. We explain the rationale for and focus of our treatment approach, present two case studies illustrating the treatment process, and conclude with a discussion of implementation considerations. PMID:19484139

Reigada, Laura C.; Fisher, Paige H.; Cutler, Cynthia; Masia Warner, Carrie

2009-01-01

364

The Pattern of Subjective Anxiety during In-session Exposures across Therapy for Clients with Social Anxiety Disorder  

PubMed Central

Exposure-based therapies have been considered the most efficacious treatments for social anxiety disorder (i.e., Gould et al., 1997). The majority of the theory behind exposure-based treatments rely on Foa and colleagues’s (Foa, Huppert, & Cahill, 2005; Foa & Kozak, 1986) emotional processing theory. However, there has been less research examining the way that emotional processing occurs across actual treatment sessions for clients with social anxiety disorder. This study utilized longitudinal data analytic methods to examine the changes in subjective anxiety during the first three exposure sessions in group and individual cognitive-behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder. The results of this study provide preliminary evidence that while anxiety generally decreases across each exposure, some individuals experience considerable fluctuations in anxiety during a single exposure. Additionally, early exposures may be experienced differently than later exposures. Overall, this study highlights the importance of more fine-grained analyses to better understand the mechanisms underlying exposure-based therapy. PMID:18721642

Hayes, Sarah A.; Hope, Debra A.; Heimberg, Richard G.

2014-01-01

365

Effects of pregabalin on sleep in generalized anxiety disorder.  

PubMed

Sleep disturbance is a cardinal symptom in both DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). This review summarizes the results of clinical trials and pooled analyses that provide data on pregabalin's effect on sleep disturbance in patients diagnosed with GAD. The hypothesized mechanism of action of pregabalin is distinctly different from other anxiolytics. Pregabalin binds to a membrane ?2? subunit protein to inhibit release in excited central nervous system neurons of neurotransmitters implicated in pathological anxiety. Treatment with pregabalin has been found to be associated with significant improvement in GAD-related sleep disturbance across seven placebo-controlled clinical trials. Treatment with pregabalin is associated with improvement in all forms of insomnia and improvement in sleep has been found to be correlated with reduction in functional impairment and improvement in quality of life on subjective global measures. Results of a mediational analysis suggest that 53% of the effect of pregabalin on sleep disturbance was due to a direct effect and 47% was due to an indirect effect, mediated through prior reduction in anxiety symptom severity. In patients with GAD, improvement in sleep has been found to be associated with a reduction in daytime sleepiness. However, dose-related sedation is reported, typically in the first 2 wk of treatment, in approximately 10-30% of patients, depending on the dose used and the speed of titration. Insomnia is a common component of the clinical presentation of GAD and pregabalin appears to be an efficacious treatment for this often chronic and disabling symptom. PMID:23009881

Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Prieto, Rita

2013-05-01

366

Anxiety and somatic symptoms as predictors of treatment-related adverse events in major depressive disorder.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the degree of anxiety or somatic symptoms present before treatment with the subsequent diagnosis of treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) enrolled in an 8-week open trial of fluoxetine (20 mg). Baseline symptom questionnaires (SQ) were completed by 170 MDD patients enrolled in the trial. We then tested whether pre-treatment scores for anxiety and somatic symptoms predicted (1) whether patients were subsequently diagnosed with TRAEs; (2) whether they were subsequently diagnosed with moderate or severe TRAEs; or (3) whether a greater number of TRAEs were diagnosed during the trial. We found that depressed patients who presented with prominent somatic symptoms were significantly more likely to report at least one moderate or severe side effect during the course of treatment, but not more likely to report a greater number of side effects. Pre-treatment anxiety was not related to the development of side effects. PMID:15157754

Papakostas, George I; Petersen, Timothy; Hughes, Megan E; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Alpert, Jonathan E; Fava, Maurizio

2004-05-30

367

Pregabalin for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: an update.  

PubMed

A PREVIOUS REVIEW SUMMARIZED WHAT WAS THEN KNOWN ABOUT THE POTENTIAL ROLE OF PREGABALIN IN THE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER (GAD): this review provides an update on its pharmacological properties and presumed mechanism of action, the liability for abuse, and efficacy and tolerability in patients with GAD. Pregabalin has a similar molecular structure to the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) but its mechanism of action does not appear to be mediated through effects on GABA. Instead, its anxiolytic effects may arise through high-affinity binding to the alpha-2-delta sub-unit of the P/Q type voltage-gated calcium channel in "over-excited" presynaptic neurons, thereby reducing the release of excitatory neurotransmitters such as glutamate. The findings of randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses together indicate that pregabalin is efficacious in both acute treatment and relapse prevention in GAD, with some evidence of an early onset of effect, and broad efficacy in reducing the severity of psychological and physical symptoms of anxiety. It also has efficacy as an augmenting agent after non-response to antidepressant treatment in GAD. Continuing vigilance is needed in assessing its potential abuse liability but the tolerability profile of pregabalin may confer some advantages over other pharmacological treatments in the short term for treatment in patients with GAD. PMID:23836974

Baldwin, David S; Ajel, Khalil; Masdrakis, Vasilios G; Nowak, Magda; Rafiq, Rizwan

2013-01-01

368

Pregabalin for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: an update  

PubMed Central

A previous review summarized what was then known about the potential role of pregabalin in the treatment of patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): this review provides an update on its pharmacological properties and presumed mechanism of action, the liability for abuse, and efficacy and tolerability in patients with GAD. Pregabalin has a similar molecular structure to the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) but its mechanism of action does not appear to be mediated through effects on GABA. Instead, its anxiolytic effects may arise through high-affinity binding to the alpha-2-delta sub-unit of the P/Q type voltage-gated calcium channel in “over-excited” presynaptic neurons, thereby reducing the release of excitatory neurotransmitters such as glutamate. The findings of randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses together indicate that pregabalin is efficacious in both acute treatment and relapse prevention in GAD, with some evidence of an early onset of effect, and broad efficacy in reducing the severity of psychological and physical symptoms of anxiety. It also has efficacy as an augmenting agent after non-response to antidepressant treatment in GAD. Continuing vigilance is needed in assessing its potential abuse liability but the tolerability profile of pregabalin may confer some advantages over other pharmacological treatments in the short term for treatment in patients with GAD. PMID:23836974

Baldwin, David S; Ajel, Khalil; Masdrakis, Vasilios G; Nowak, Magda; Rafiq, Rizwan

2013-01-01

369

Increased Error-Related Brain Activity in Youth with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Other Anxiety Disorders  

PubMed Central

The error-related negativity (ERN) is a negative deflection in the event-related potential after an incorrect response that is thought to reflect activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and is often increased in patients with anxiety disorders. This study measured the ERN and correct response negativity (CRN) during an Eriksen flanker task to assess performance monitoring in 26 youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), 13 youth with a non-OCD anxiety disorder consisting of either generalized anxiety disorder or separation anxiety disorder, and 27 age-matched healthy controls ranging in age from 8 to 16 years. Compared to healthy controls, ERN amplitude was significantly increased in patients with either OCD or a non-OCD anxiety disorder. There were no significant group differences in CRN amplitude. Treatment with a serotonergic antidepressant or cognitive-behavior therapy had no effect on the ERN in patients. Scores from the Child Behavior Checklist DSM-oriented anxiety problems scale had a significant correlation with ERN amplitude in all subjects. The results provide further evidence that the pathophysiology of OCD and some non-OCD anxiety disorders involves increased ACC activity and that the ERN may serve as a quantitative phenotype in genetic and longitudinal studies of these complex traits. PMID:23454285

Carrasco, Melisa; Hong, Christina; Nienhuis, Jenna K.; Harbin, Shannon M.; Fitzgerald, Kate D.; Gehring, William J.; Hanna, Gregory L.

2013-01-01

370

Increased error-related brain activity in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder and other anxiety disorders.  

PubMed

The error-related negativity (ERN) is a negative deflection in the event-related potential after an incorrect response that is thought to reflect activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and is often increased in patients with anxiety disorders. This study measured the ERN and correct response negativity (CRN) during an Eriksen flanker task to assess performance monitoring in 26 youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), 13 youth with a non-OCD anxiety disorder consisting of either generalized anxiety disorder or separation anxiety disorder, and 27 age-matched healthy controls ranging in age from 8 to 16 years. Compared to healthy controls, ERN amplitude was significantly increased in patients with either OCD or a non-OCD anxiety disorder. There were no significant group differences in CRN amplitude. Treatment with a serotonergic antidepressant or cognitive-behavior therapy had no effect on the ERN in patients. Scores from the Child Behavior Checklist DSM-oriented anxiety problems scale had a significant correlation with ERN amplitude in all subjects. The results provide further evidence that the pathophysiology of OCD and some non-OCD anxiety disorders involves increased ACC activity and that the ERN may serve as a quantitative phenotype in genetic and longitudinal studies of these complex traits. PMID:23454285

Carrasco, Melisa; Hong, Christina; Nienhuis, Jenna K; Harbin, Shannon M; Fitzgerald, Kate D; Gehring, William J; Hanna, Gregory L

2013-04-29

371

Targeting the modulation of neural circuitry for the treatment of anxiety disorders.  

PubMed

Anxiety disorders are a major public health concern. Here, we examine the familiar area of anxiolysis in the context of a systems-level understanding that will hopefully lead to revealing an underlying pharmacological connectome. The introduction of benzodiazepines nearly half a century ago markedly improved the treatment of anxiety disorders. These agents reduce anxiety rapidly by allosterically enhancing the postsynaptic actions of GABA at inhibitory type A GABA receptors but side effects limit their use in chronic anxiety disorders. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors have emerged as an effective first-line alternative treatment of such anxiety disorders. However, many individuals are not responsive and side effects can be limiting. Research into a relatively new class of agents known as neurosteroids has revealed novel modulatory sites and mechanisms of action that are providing insights into the pathophysiology of certain anxiety disorders, potentially bridging the gap between the GABAergic and serotonergic circuits underlying anxiety. However, translating the pharmacological activity of compounds targeted to specific receptor subtypes in rodent models of anxiety to effective therapeutics in human anxiety has not been entirely successful. Since modulating any one of several broad classes of receptor targets can produce anxiolysis, we posit that a systems-level discovery platform combined with an individualized medicine approach based on noninvasive brain imaging would substantially advance the development of more effective therapeutics. PMID:25237115

Farb, David H; Ratner, Marcia H

2014-10-01

372

The Relationship between Anxiety Disorders and Substance Use among Adolescents in the Community: Specificity and Gender Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a sample of 781 adolescents (ages 13-17, 52.8% male) from a community survey, this study examined gender differences in the co-occurrence of specific anxiety disorders with substance use in adolescents. The associations between anxiety disorders and substance use differed according to the particular anxiety disorders and forms of substance…

Wu, Ping; Goodwin, Renee D.; Fuller, Cordelia; Liu, Xinhua; Comer, Jonathan S.; Cohen, Patricia; Hoven, Christina W.

2010-01-01

373

Anxious Solitude and Clinical Disorder in Middle Childhood: Bridging Developmental and Clinical Approaches to Childhood Social Anxiety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It was hypothesized that children identified by their peers at school as anxious solitary would report more symptoms of social anxiety disorder on a self report questionnaire and, on the basis of child and parent clinical interviews, receive more diagnoses of social anxiety disorder and additional anxiety and mood disorders. Participants were 192…

Gazelle, Heidi; Workman, Jamie Olson; Allan, Wesley

2010-01-01

374

Association of a Met88Val diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) gene polymorphism and anxiety disorders with panic attacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several lines of evidence suggest that anxiety disorders have a strong genetic component, but so far only few susceptibility genes have been identified. There is preclinical and clinical evidence for a dysregulation of the central ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic tone in the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders. Diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) has been suggested to play a pivotal role in anxiety disorders

Christoph K. Thoeringer; Elisabeth B. Binder; Daria Salyakina; Angelika Erhardt; Marcus Ising; Paul G. Unschuld; Nikola Kern; Susanne Lucae; Tanja M. Brueckl; Marianne B. Mueller; Brigitte Fuchs; Benno Puetz; Roselind Lieb; Manfred Uhr; Florian Holsboer; Bertram Mueller-Myhsok; Martin E. Keck

2007-01-01

375

Binge Eating Disorder Mediates Links between Symptoms of Depression, Anxiety, and Caloric Intake in Overweight and Obese Women.  

PubMed

Despite considerable comorbidity between mood disorders, binge eating disorder (BED), and obesity, the underlying mechanisms remain unresolved. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine models by which internalizing behaviors of depression and anxiety influence food intake in overweight/obese women. Thirty-two women (15 BED, 17 controls) participated in a laboratory eating-episode and completed questionnaires assessing symptoms of anxiety and depression. Path analysis was used to test mediation and moderation models to determine the mechanisms by which internalizing symptoms influenced kilocalorie (kcal) intake. The BED group endorsed significantly more symptoms of depression (10.1 versus 4.8, P = 0.005 ) and anxiety (8.5 versus 2.7, P = 0.003). Linear regression indicated that BED diagnosis and internalizing symptoms accounted for 30% of the variance in kcal intake. Results from path analysis suggested that BED mediates the influence of internalizing symptoms on total kcal intake (empirical P < 0.001 ). The associations between internalizing symptoms and food intake are best described as operating indirectly through a BED diagnosis. This suggests that symptoms of depression and anxiety influence whether one engages in binge eating, which influences kcal intake. Greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying the associations between mood, binge eating, and food intake will facilitate the development of more effective prevention and treatment strategies for both BED and obesity. PMID:22778917

Peterson, Roseann E; Latendresse, Shawn J; Bartholome, Lindsay T; Warren, Cortney S; Raymond, Nancy C

2012-01-01

376

Virtual reality exposure therapy of anxiety disorders: a review.  

PubMed

Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) is an altered form of behavioral therapy and may be a possible alternative to standard in vivo exposure. Virtual reality integrates real-time computer graphics, body tracking devices, visual displays, and other sensory input devices to immerse patients in a computer-generated virtual environment. Research on this type of treatment for anxiety disorders is discussed in this article, and the mediating and moderating variables that influence VR treatment effectiveness as well. Evidence is found that VRET is effective for participants with fear of heights and of flying. For other phobias, research to date is not conclusive. More randomized clinical trials in which VRET is compared with standard exposure are required. Furthermore, studies are needed in which VRET is not just a component of the treatment package evaluated, but in which VRET should be assessed as a stand-alone treatment. PMID:15245832

Krijn, M; Emmelkamp, P M G; Olafsson, R P; Biemond, R

2004-07-01

377

Early adversity and the prospective prediction of depressive and anxiety disorders in adolescents.  

PubMed

The current study was a prospective exploration of the specificity of early childhood adversities as predictors of anxiety and depressive disorders in adolescents. Participants were 816 adolescents (414 males, 402 females) with diagnostic information collected at age 15; information on early adversities had been collected from the mothers during pregnancy, at birth, age 6 months, and age 5 years for a related study. Adolescents with "pure" anxiety disorders were compared with adolescents with "pure" depressive disorders (major depressive disorder, dysthymia), and these groups were compared to never-ill controls. Analyses controlled for gender and maternal depression and anxiety disorders. Results indicated that adolescents with anxiety disorders were more likely than depressed youth to have been exposed to various early stressors, such as maternal prenatal stress, multiple maternal partner changes, and more total adversities, whereas few early childhood variables predicted depressive disorders. Even when current family stressors at age 15 were controlled, early adversity variables again significantly predicted anxiety disorders. Results suggest that anxiety disorders may be more strongly related to early stress exposure, while depressive disorders may be related to more proximal stressors or to early stressors not assessed in the current study. PMID:15759588

Phillips, Nicole K; Hammen, Constance L; Brennan, Patricia A; Najman, Jake M; Bor, William

2005-02-01

378

Integrated care for comorbid alcohol dependence and anxiety and/or depressive disorder: study protocol for an assessor-blind, randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background A major barrier to successful treatment in alcohol dependence is psychiatric comorbidity. During treatment, the time to relapse is shorter, the drop-out rate is increased, and long-term alcohol consumption is greater for those with comorbid major depression or anxiety disorder than those with an alcohol use disorder with no comorbid mental disorder. The treatment of alcohol dependence and psychological disorders is often the responsibility of different services, and this can hinder the treatment process. Accordingly, there is a need for an effective integrated treatment for alcohol dependence and comorbid anxiety and/or depression. Methods/Design We aim to assess the effectiveness of a specialized, integrated intervention for alcohol dependence with comorbid anxiety and/or mood disorder using a randomized design in an outpatient hospital setting. Following a three-week stabilization period (abstinence or significantly reduced consumption), participants will undergo complete formal assessment for anxiety and depression. Those patients with a diagnosis of an anxiety and/or depressive disorder will be randomized to either 1) integrated intervention (cognitive behavioral therapy) for alcohol, anxiety, and/or depression; or 2) usual counseling care for alcohol problems. Patients will then be followed up at weeks 12, 16, and 24. The primary outcome measure is alcohol consumption (total abstinence, time to lapse, and time to relapse). Secondary outcome measures include changes in alcohol dependence severity, depression, or anxiety symptoms and changes in clinician-rated severity of anxiety and depression. Discussion The study findings will have potential implications for clinical practice by evaluating the implementation of specialized integrated treatment for comorbid anxiety and/or depression in an alcohol outpatient service. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01941693 PMID:24245491

2013-01-01

379

Diagnosis and treatment of neurotransmitter disorders.  

PubMed

The neurotransmitter disorders represent an enigmatic and enlarging group of neurometabolic conditions caused by abnormal neurotransmitter metabolism or transport. A high index of clinical suspicion is important, given the availability of therapeutic strategies. This article covers disorders of monoamine (catecholamine and serotonin) synthesis, glycine catabolism, pyridoxine dependency, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism. The technological aspects of appropriate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection, shipment, study, and interpretation merit special consideration. Diagnosis of disorders of monoamines requires analysis of CSF homovanillic acid, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, ortho-methyldopa, BH4, and neopterin. The delineation of new disorders with important therapeutic implications, such as cerebral folate deficiency and PNPO deficiency, serves to highlight the value of measuring CSF neurotransmitter precursors and metabolites. The impressive responsiveness of Segawa fluctuating dystonia to levodopa is a hallmark feature of previously unrecognized neurologic morbidity becoming treatable at any age. Aromatic amino acid decarboxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency have more severe phenotypes and show variable responsiveness to levodopa. Glycine encephalopathy usually has a poor outcome; benzoate therapy may be helpful in less affected cases. Pyridoxine-dependent seizures are a refractory but treatable group of neonatal and infantile seizures; rare cases require pyridoxal-5-phosphate. Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency is relatively common in comparison to the remainder of this group of disorders. Treatment directed at the metabolic defect with vigabatrin has been disappointing, and multiple therapies are targeted toward specific but protean symptoms. Other disorders of GABA metabolism, as is true of the wide spectrum of neurotransmitter disorders, will require increasing use of CSF analysis for diagnosis, and ultimately, treatment. PMID:17032564

Pearl, Phillip L; Hartka, Thomas R; Taylor, Jacob

2006-11-01

380

The impacts of migraine and anxiety disorders on painful physical symptoms among patients with major depressive disorder  

PubMed Central

Background No study has simultaneously investigated the impacts of migraine and anxiety disorders on painful physical symptoms (PPS) among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). The study aimed to investigate this issue. Methods This open-label study enrolled 155 outpatients with MDD, who were then treated with venlafaxine 75 mg per day for four weeks. Eighty-five participants with good compliance completed the treatment. Migraine was diagnosed according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders. MDD and anxiety disorders were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR. The visual analog scale (VAS) was used to evaluate the severity of eight PPS. Multiple linear and logistic regressions were used to investigate the impacts of migraine and anxiety disorders on PPS. Results Compared with patients without migraine, patients with migraine had a greater severity of PPS at baseline and post-treatment. After controlling for demographic variables and depressive severity, migraine independently predicted the intensities of eight PPS at baseline and four PPS post-treatment. Moreover, migraine independently predicted poorer treatment responses of chest pain and full remission of pains in the head, chest, neck and/or shoulder. Anxiety disorders predicted less full remission of pains in the abdomen and limbs. Conclusion Migraine and anxiety disorders have negative impacts on PPS among patients with MDD. Integrating the treatment of migraine and anxiety disorders into the management of depression might help to improve PPS and the prognosis of MDD. PMID:25382691

2014-01-01

381

Differential Diagnosis in Autism Spectrum Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a While differential diagnosis is typically not one of the primary areas of discussions in ABA, we believe it has particular\\u000a importance for ASD. The idiosyncratic nature of the disorder and how they affect the nature and type of ABA assessment and\\u000a treatment cannot be overstated. This chapter will review basic diagnostic methods and their relevance to ABA.

Dennis R. Dixon; Mark J Garcia; Doreen Granpeesheh; Jonathan Tarbox

382

Suicidal ideation in anxiety-disordered youth: identifying predictors of risk.  

PubMed

Evidence is mixed regarding an independent association between anxiety and suicidality. Beyond associations with demographic factors and depression, do anxiety disorders increase risk for suicidality in youth? Given that not all anxiety-disordered youth experience suicidal ideation, potential predictors of risk also require investigation. The present study examined (a) the independent relationship between anxiety and suicidal ideation and (b) emotion dysregulation and distress intolerance as predictors of risk for suicidal ideation in a sample of anxiety-disordered youth aged 7 to 17 (N = 86, M = 11.5). Youth and their parents reported on suicidality, emotion dysregulation, and distress intolerance. Distress tolerance was also measured by a computerized behavioral task. Results support an independent relationship between anxiety symptomatology and youth-reported suicidal ideation, controlling for depressive symptoms. Youth self-report of emotion dysregulation and distress intolerance predicted higher levels of suicidal ideation in univariate analyses. In a multivariate analysis including all significant predictors, only anxiety symptomatology uniquely predicted suicidal ideation. Results provide recommendations for the assessment and treatment of suicidality in anxiety-disordered youth. Suggestions for future research investigating the relationship between anxiety and suicidal ideation are offered. PMID:24156368

Rodriguez, Kelly A O'Neil; Kendall, Philip C

2014-01-01

383

Hypnosis in the treatment of anxiety- and stress-related disorders.  

PubMed

Self-hypnosis training represents a rapid, cost-effective, nonaddictive and safe alternative to medication for the treatment of anxiety-related conditions. Here we provide a review of the experimental literature on the use of self-hypnosis in the treatment of anxiety and stress-related disorders, including anxiety associated with cancer, surgery, burns and medical/dental procedures. An overview of research is also provided with regard to self-hypnotic treatment of anxiety-related disorders, such as tension headaches, migraines and irritable bowel syndrome. The tremendous volume of research provides compelling evidence that hypnosis is an efficacious treatment for state anxiety (e.g., prior to tests, surgery and medical procedures) and anxiety-related disorders, such as headaches and irritable bowel syndrome. Although six studies demonstrate changes in trait anxiety, this review recommends that further randomized controlled outcome studies are needed on the hypnotic treatment of generalized anxiety disorder and in documenting changes in trait anxiety. Recommendations are made for selecting clinical referral sources. PMID:20136382

Hammond, D Corydon

2010-02-01

384

Assessing Client Progress Session by Session in the Treatment of Social Anxiety Disorder: The Social Anxiety Session Change Index  

PubMed Central

Frequent assessment during therapy can improve treatments and provide accountability. However, clinicians often do not monitor progress because of the time it takes to administer and score assessments. In response, the Social Anxiety Session Change Index (SASCI) was developed. The SASCI is a short, easily administered rating of subjective improvement that asks clients with social anxiety disorder how much they have changed since the beginning of therapy. Change on the SASCI was related to change in fear of negative evaluation, a core aspect of social anxiety, and to clinician-rated improvement, but not to ratings of anxiety sensitivity or depression. Because it is brief and easily interpretable, the SASCI can be used in a variety of clinical settings to monitor change across therapy. The SASCI is presented along with examples of how the information gathered from frequent administration can inform clinical practice. PMID:25075171

Hayes, Sarah A.; Miller, Nathan A.; Hope, Debra A.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Juster, Harlan R.

2013-01-01

385

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for inherited neurological disorders.  

PubMed

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is an option for couples at risk of having offspring with an inherited debilitating or fatal neurological disorder who wish to conceive a healthy child. PGD has been carried out for conditions with various modes of inheritance, including spinal muscular atrophy, Huntington disease, fragile X syndrome, and chromosomal or mitochondrial disorders, and for susceptibility genes for cancers with nervous system involvement. Most couples at risk of transmitting a genetic mutation would opt for PGD over prenatal testing and possible termination of a pregnancy. The aim of this Perspectives article is to assist neurologists in counselling and treating patients who wish to explore the option of PGD to enable conception of an unaffected child. PGD can be accomplished for most disorders in which the genetic basis is known, and we argue that it is time for clinicians and neurological societies to consider the evidence and to formulate guidelines for the responsible integration of PGD into modern preventative neurology. PMID:24866878

Tur-Kaspa, Ilan; Jeelani, Roohi; Doraiswamy, P Murali

2014-07-01

386

Symptom Overlap between Autism Spectrum Disorder, Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Adults: A Preliminary Case-Controlled Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) frequently co-occur in persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We studied which features distinguish ‘pure’ anxiety disordered patients from those with co-morbid ASD. Method: In a case-controlled design in which groups were matched for age, sex and educational level, patients with OCD or SAD and co-morbid ASD were compared with patients

Danielle C. Cath; Natalie Ran; Johannes H. Smit; Hannie C. Comijs

2008-01-01

387

Commentary on Empirical Examinations of the Association between Anxiety and Eating Disorders  

PubMed Central

A substantial body of research supports comorbidity between eating and anxiety disorders, and articles in this special section explore the nature of this association using severity different research designs. This commentary reviews findings from these articles included, focusing on inferences that may be drawn from each design. Collectively, articles support the need for future studies to examine whether eating and anxiety disorders share underlying mechanisms. If identified, such mechanisms could create opportunities for transdiagnostic interventions that ameliorate suffering from both eating and anxiety disorders PMID:24187397

Keel, Pamela K.

2013-01-01

388

A Preliminary Investigation of the Spence Children's Anxiety Parent Scale as a Screening Tool for Anxiety in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite high rates of clinically elevated anxiety difficulties in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), very few studies have systematically examined the usefulness of commonly used caregiver report anxiety screening tools with this population. This study investigated the use of the Spence Children's Anxiety

Zainal, Hani; Magiati, Iliana; Tan, Julianne Wen-Li; Sung, Min; Fung, Daniel S.; Howlin, Patricia

2014-01-01

389

Mindfulness and Anxiety Disorders: Developing a Wise Relationship with the Inner Experience of Fear  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Perhaps no condition better illustrates the intimate relationship between brain and behavior – mind and body – as the inner\\u000a experience of fear. In this chapter, we present an integrative scientific view of anxiety and clinical anxiety disorders,\\u000a with an emphasis on awareness and acceptance as a foundation for mind\\/body health. Whereas anxiety-related psychopathology\\u000a is characterized by a desire to

Jeffrey Greeson; Jeffrey Brantley

390

Signs of Mood and Anxiety Disorders in Chimpanzees  

PubMed Central

Background In humans, traumatic experiences are sometimes followed by psychiatric disorders. In chimpanzees, studies have demonstrated an association between traumatic events and the emergence of behavioral disturbances resembling posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. We addressed the following central question: Do chimpanzees develop posttraumatic symptoms, in the form of abnormal behaviors, which cluster into syndromes similar to those described in human mood and anxiety disorders? Methodology/Principal Findings In phase 1 of this study, we accessed case reports of chimpanzees who had been reportedly subjected to traumatic events, such as maternal separation, social isolation, experimentation, or similar experiences. We applied and tested DSM-IV criteria for PTSD and major depression to published case reports of 20 chimpanzees identified through PrimateLit. Additionally, using the DSM-IV criteria and ethograms as guides, we developed behaviorally anchored alternative criteria that were applied to the case reports. A small number of chimpanzees in the case studies met DSM-IV criteria for PTSD and depression. Measures of inter-rater reliability, including Fleiss' kappa and percentage agreement, were higher with use of the alternative criteria for PTSD and depression. In phase 2, the alternative criteria were applied to chimpanzees living in wild sites in Africa (n?=?196) and chimpanzees living in sanctuaries with prior histories of experimentation, orphanage, illegal seizure, or violent human conflict (n?=?168). In phase 2, 58% of chimpanzees living in sanctuaries met the set of alternative criteria for depression, compared with 3% of chimpanzees in the wild (p?=?0.04), and 44% of chimpanzees in sanctuaries met the set of alternative criteria for PTSD, compared with 0.5% of chimpanzees in the wild (p?=?0.04). Conclusions/Significance Chimpanzees display behavioral clusters similar to PTSD and depression in their key diagnostic criteria, underscoring the importance of ethical considerations regarding the use of chimpanzees in experimentation and other captive settings. PMID:21698223

Ferdowsian, Hope R.; Durham, Debra L.; Kimwele, Charles; Kranendonk, Godelieve; Otali, Emily; Akugizibwe, Timothy; Mulcahy, J. B.; Ajarova, Lilly; Johnson, Cassie Mere

2011-01-01

391

The Role of Maladaptive Beliefs in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Evidence from Social Anxiety Disorder  

PubMed Central

Beliefs that are negatively biased, inaccurate, and rigid are thought to play a key role in the mood and anxiety disorders. Our goal in this study was to examine whether a change in maladaptive beliefs mediated the outcome of individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD). In a sample of 47 individuals with SAD receiving CBT, we measured maladaptive interpersonal beliefs as well as emotional and behavioral components of social anxiety, both at baseline and after treatment completion. We found that (a) maladaptive interpersonal beliefs were associated with social anxiety at baseline and treatment completion; (b) maladaptive interpersonal beliefs were significantly reduced from baseline to treatment completion; and (c) treatment-related reductions in maladaptive interpersonal beliefs fully accounted for reductions in social anxiety after CBT. These results extend the literature by providing support for cognitive models of mental disorders, broadly, and SAD, specifically. PMID:22445947

Boden, Matthew Tyler; John, Oliver P.; Goldin, Philippe R.; Werner, Kelly; Heimberg, Richard G.; Gross, James J.

2012-01-01

392

The wounded self: new approach to understanding and treating anxiety disorders.  

PubMed

This article synthesizes the concept of "wounded self" in the understanding and psychological treatment of anxiety disorders. The focal point of this concept is the notion of self-wounds or early unresolved emotional injuries. According to this conceptualization, anxiety represents an unconscious fear of unbearable insult to the wounded self, which is protected by maladaptive conscious strategies such as avoidance, cognitive distortions, or emotional constriction. This perspective provides a theoretical basis for blending elements of psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive, and experiential therapies in the psychological management of anxiety disorders. As cognitive hypnotherapy embodies all of these therapeutic elements, its application to anxiety disorders is described in this article. Various hypnotherapeutic techniques for symptomatic relief and for eliciting and healing the wounded self are discussed and exemplified by a case. This case illustrates that symptom-focused treatment is necessary, but not sufficient. A more durable treatment requires resolution of underlying conflicts that drive the anxiety. PMID:24938077

Alladin, Assen

2014-04-01

393

Performance monitoring in obsessive-compulsive disorder and social anxiety disorder.  

PubMed

Overactive performance monitoring, indexed by greater error-related brain activity, has been frequently observed in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Similar alterations have been found in individuals with major depressive and generalized anxiety disorders. The main objective was to extend these findings by investigating performance monitoring in individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) and to evaluate the specificity of performance-monitoring changes in OCD. Event-related potentials were used to examine error-related brain activity during a flanker task in 24 individuals with OCD, 24 individuals with SAD, and 24 healthy controls with no history of neurological or psychiatric disorders. Error-related negativity (ERN) and correct-related negativity served as electrophysiological indicators for performance monitoring. Enhanced ERN was expected for both clinical groups, but differential associations with clinical symptoms were explored. ERN amplitudes were larger in individuals with OCD and SAD than in healthy controls. Correlational analyses did not reveal significant associations between ERN and clinical symptomatology in OCD, but a significant correlation with depressive symptoms was found in the SAD group. These findings further strengthen the idea that overactive performance monitoring is independent of clinical symptoms in OCD. Furthermore, it may also represent a transdiagnostic vulnerability indicator, although the relationship with clinical symptoms observed in the SAD group needs additional evaluation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25286372

Endrass, Tanja; Riesel, Anja; Kathmann, Norbert; Buhlmann, Ulrike

2014-11-01

394

History of trauma and dissociative symptoms among patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and social anxiety disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aimed to compare the history of trauma and the profile and severity of dissociative symptoms of patients with obsessive-compulsive\\u000a disorder (OCD) to those of patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Patients with OCD (n = 34) and patients with SAD (n = 30) were examined with the following instruments: Trauma History Questionnaire (THQ), Dissociative Experience Scale (DES),\\u000a Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (OCI), Liebowitz Social Anxiety

Leonardo F. Fontenelle; Aline M. Domingues; Wanderson F. Souza; Mauro V. Mendlowicz; Gabriela B. de Menezes; Ivan L. Figueira; Marcio Versiani

2007-01-01

395

Fibromyalgia comorbid with anxiety disorders and depression: combined medical and psychological treatment.  

PubMed

Fibromyalgia is associated with high level of pain and suffering. Lack of diagnosis leads to onerous indirect economic costs. Recent data indicate that fibromyalgia; anxiety disorders, and depression tend to occur as comorbid conditions. They also share some common neurochemical dysfunctions and central nervous system alterations such as hypofunctional serotonergic system and altered reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Conversely, functional neuroimaging findings point to different patterns of altered pain processing mechanisms between fibromyalgia and depression. There is no cure for fibromyalgia, and treatment response effect size is usually small to moderate. Treatment should be based on drugs that also target the comorbid psychiatric condition. Combined pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavior therapy should ideally be offered to all patients. Lifestyle changes, such as physical exercise should be encouraged. The message to patients should be that all forms of pain are true medical conditions and deserve proper care. PMID:23904203

Bernik, Marcio; Sampaio, Thiago P A; Gandarela, Lucas

2013-09-01

396

Childhood Maltreatment Is Associated with Larger Left Thalamic Gray Matter Volume in Adolescents with Generalized Anxiety Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common anxiety disorder that usually begins in adolescence. Childhood maltreatment is highly prevalent and increases the possibility for developing a variety of mental disorders including anxiety disorders. An earlier age at onset of GAD is significantly related to maltreatment in childhood. Exploring the underpinnings of the relationship between childhood maltreatment and adolescent onset GAD would be helpful in identifying the potential risk markers of this condition. Methods Twenty-six adolescents with GAD and 25 healthy controls participated in this study. A childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ) was introduced to assess childhood maltreatment. All subjects underwent high-resolution structural magnetic resonance scans. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to investigate gray matter alterations. Results Significantly larger gray matter volumes of the right putamen were observed in GAD patients compared to healthy controls. In addition, a significant diagnosis-by-maltreatment interaction effect for the left thalamic gray matter volume was revealed, as shown by larger volumes of the left thalamic gray matter in GAD patients with childhood maltreatment compared with GAD patients without childhood maltreatment as well as with healthy controls with/without childhood maltreatment. A significant positive association between childhood maltreatment and left thalamic gray matter volume was only seen in GAD patients. Conclusions These findings revealed an increased volume in the subcortical regions in adolescent GAD, and the alterations in the left thalamus might be involved in the association between childhood maltreatment and the occurrence of GAD. PMID:23951265

Liao, Mei; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Yan; He, Zhong; Song, Ming; Jiang, Tianzi; Li, Zexuan; Lu, Shaojia; Wu, Weiwei; Su, Linyan; Li, Lingjiang

2013-01-01

397

Do Anxiety-Disordered Children Need to Come into the Clinic for Efficacious Treatment?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study compared 3 experimental conditions: wait-list, therapist-supported bibliotherapy, and individual therapy, in the treatment of child anxiety. Method: Participants were 55 children (25 girls and 30 boys), aged 7 to 14 years diagnosed with an anxiety disorder, and their parents. Families were assigned using a modified random…

Cobham, Vanessa E.

2012-01-01

398

Depression and Anxiety as Possible Mediators of the Association between Smoking and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to investigate the association between depression and anxiety and adolescents' smoking status, and to determine whether depression or anxiety mediate the association between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and smoking. A cross-sectional survey of tobacco use was conducted in regional school districts…

Grunau, Gilat L.; Ratner, Pamela A.; Hossain, Shahadut; Johnson, Joy L.

2010-01-01

399

Psychometric Evaluation of the Beck Anxiety Inventory: A Sample With Sleep-Disordered Breathing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to document the psychometric properties of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) within a population with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), given concerns about overlapping symptomatology between anxiety and sleep apnea. Results supported good internal consistency and convergent and discriminant validity for the BAI and a single-factor solution for men, women, and the total sample. Women had higher scores than

Stacy D. Sanford; Andrew J. Bush; Kristen C. Stone; Kenneth L. Lichstein; Neal Aguillard

2008-01-01

400

Anxiety, Sensory Over-Responsivity, and Gastrointestinal Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) experience high rates of anxiety, sensory processing problems, and gastrointestinal (GI) problems; however, the associations among these symptoms in children with ASD have not been previously examined. The current study examined bivariate and multivariate relations among anxiety, sensory…

Mazurek, Micah O.; Vasa, Roma A.; Kalb, Luther G.; Kanne, Stephen M.; Rosenberg, Daniel; Keefer, Amy; Murray, Donna S.; Freedman, Brian; Lowery, Lea Ann

2013-01-01

401

Complex Psychiatric Comorbidity of Treatment-Seeking Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Anxiety Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This descriptive study examines the complexity of psychiatric comorbidity in treatment-seeking youth with ASD and anxiety symptoms. Forty-two parents of youth with ASD and anxiety (ages 8-14) completed a structured diagnostic interview (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version). Youth…

Hepburn, Susan L.; Stern, Jessica A.; Blakeley-Smith, Audrey; Kimel, Lila K.; Reaven, Judith A.

2014-01-01

402

Remission after Acute Treatment in Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders: Findings from the CAMS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To report on remission rates in anxious youth who participated in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS). The CAMS, a multisite clinical trial, randomized 488 children and adolescents (ages 7-17 years; 79% Caucasian; 50% female) with separation, social, and/or generalized anxiety disorder to a 12-week treatment of…

Ginsburg, Golda S.; Kendall, Philip C.; Sakolsky, Dara; Compton, Scott N.; Piacentini, John; Albano, Anne Marie; Walkup, John T.; Sherrill, Joel; Coffey, Kimberly A.; Rynn, Moira A.; Keeton, Courtney P.; McCracken, James T.; Bergman, Lindsey; Iyengar, Satish; Birmaher, Boris; March, John

2011-01-01

403

Randomized Controlled Trial: Multimodal Anxiety and Social Skill Intervention for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anxiety is common among adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and may amplify the core social disability, thus necessitating combined treatment approaches. This pilot, randomized controlled trial evaluated the feasibility and preliminary outcomes of the Multimodal Anxiety and Social Skills Intervention (MASSI) program in a sample of 30…

White, Susan W.; Ollendick, Thomas; Albano, Anne Marie; Oswald, Donald; Johnson, Cynthia; Southam-Gerow, Michael A.; Kim, Inyoung; Scahill, Lawrence

2013-01-01

404

Does Anxiety Mitigate the Behavioral Expression of Severe Conduct Disorder in Delinquent Youths?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to examine the purported attenuating effects of comorbid anxiety on conduct disturbance in a sample of youths exhibiting severe Conduct Disorder (CD). Further, we examined the differential expression of CD and comorbid anxiety in male and female youths. Seventy-nine incarcerated youths between the ages of 12 and 19 were interviewed using the Diagnostic Interview

Thomas H. Ollendick; Laura D. Seligman; A. Timothy Butcher; M. Div

1999-01-01

405

Rates of depressive and anxiety disorders in a residential motherinfant unit for unsettled infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Depression and anxiety are known to be common among women presenting to residential motherinfant programmes for unsettled infant behaviour but most studies have used self-report measures of psychological symptomatology rather than diagnostic interviews to determine psychiatric diagnoses. The aim of the present study was to determine rates of depressive and anxiety disorders and rates of comorbidity among clients of

Jane Phillips; Louise Sharpe; Stephen Matthey

2007-01-01

406

Patterns and Predictors of Anxiety among Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of anxiety among siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and determine the characteristics of the child with ASD and their parents that predicted anxiety. Data was collected from 1,755 siblings of children with ASD whose families participated in the Simons Simplex Collection;…

Shivers, Carolyn M.; Deisenroth, Lauren K.; Taylor, Julie Lounds

2013-01-01

407

The Experience of Anxiety in Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anxiety is known to be common among young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), yet little is known about the nature of their experiences or the strategies they use to live and cope with their reported anxiety. In this qualitative study, we began to address this issue through two focus groups involving 11 young adults with ASD, and 10…

Trembath, David; Germano, Carmela; Johanson, Graeme; Dissanayake, Cheryl

2012-01-01

408

Is Behavioral Regulation in Children with ADHD Aggravated by Comorbid Anxiety Disorder?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The present study investigated the impact of coexisting anxiety disorder in children with ADHD on their ability to regulate behavior. Method: Parent reports on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in a comorbid group of children with ADHD and anxiety (n = 11) were compared to BRIEF reports in a group of children…

Sorensen, Lin; Plessen, Kerstin J.; Nicholas, Jude; Lundervold, Astri J.

2011-01-01

409

Relationship of genetically transmitted alpha EEG traits to anxiety disorders and alcoholism  

SciTech Connect

We tested the hypothesis that a heritable EEG trait, the low voltage alpha (LV), is associated with psychiatric disorders. Modest to moderate evidence for genetic linkage of both panic disorder and the low voltage alpha trait to the same region of chromosome 20q has recently been reported, raising the issue of whether there is a phenotypic correlation between these traits. A total of 124 subjects including 50 unrelated index subjects and 74 relatives were studied. Alpha EEG power was measured and EEG phenotypes were impressionistically classified. Subjects were psychiatrically interviewed using the SADS-L and blind-rated by RDC criteria. Alcoholics were four times more likely to be LV (including so-called borderline low voltage alpha) than were nonalcoholic, nonanxious subjects. Alcoholics with anxiety disorder are 10 times more likely to be LV. However, alcoholics without anxiety disorder were similar to nonalcoholics in alpha power. An anxiety disorder (panic disorder, phobia, or generalized anxiety) was found in 14/17 LV subjects as compared to 34/101 of the rest of the sample (P < 0.01). Support for these observations was found in the unrelated index subjects in whom no traits would be shared by familial clustering. Lower alpha power in anxiety disorders was not state-dependent, as indicated by the Spielberger Anxiety Scale. Familial covariance of alpha power was 0.25 (P < 0.01). These findings indicate there may be a shared factor underlying the transmissible low voltage alpha EEG variant and vulnerability to anxiety disorders with associated alcoholism. This factor is apparently not rare, because LV was found in approximately 10% of unrelated index subjects and 5% of subjects free of alcoholism and anxiety disorders. 43 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Enoch, M.A.; Rohrbaugh, W.; Harris, C.R. [Washington School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)] [and others

1995-10-09

410

Impact of early adolescent anxiety disorders on self-esteem development from adolescence to young adulthood  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the association between early adolescent anxiety disorders and self-esteem development from early adolescence to young adulthood. Methods Self-esteem was measured at mean ages 13, 16 and 22 for 821 participants from the Children in the Community Study, a population-based longitudinal cohort. Anxiety disorders were measured at mean age 13 years. Multilevel growth models were employed to analyze the change in self-esteem from early adolescence to young adulthood and to evaluate whether adolescent anxiety disorders predict both average and slope of self-esteem development. Results Self-esteem increased during adolescence and continued to increase in young adulthood. Girls had lower average self-esteem than boys, but this difference disappeared when examining the effect of anxiety. Adolescents with anxiety disorder had lower self-esteem, on average, compared with healthy adolescents (effect size (ES) =?0.35, p<0.01). Social phobia was found to have the greatest relative impact on average self-esteem (ES=?0.30, p<0.01), followed by overanxious disorder (ES=?0.17, p<0.05), and simple phobia (ES=?0.17, p<0.05). Obsessive compulsive-disorder (OCD) predicted a significant decline in self-esteem from adolescence to young-adulthood ( =?0.1, p<0.05). Separation anxiety disorder was not found to have any significant impact on self-esteem development. Conclusions All but one of the assessed adolescent anxiety disorders were related to lower self-esteem, with social phobia having the greatest impact. OCD predicted a decline in self-esteem trajectory with age. The importance of raising self-esteem in adolescents with anxiety and other mental disorders is discussed. PMID:23648133

Maldonado, Lizmarie; Huang, Yangxin; Chen, Ren; Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian

2013-01-01

411

Social physique anxiety and disordered eating: what’s the connection?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social physique anxiety (SPA) is highly correlated with other body image measures that have been considered to be important in understanding eating disorders. However, SPA has not been directly studied with respect to eating disorders. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the link between SPA and measures of eating disorder symptomatology to determine if SPA should be

Nancy S. Diehl; Courtney E. Johnson; Rebecca L. Rogers; Trent A. Petrie

1998-01-01

412

Anxiety Disorders 12-month Prevalence: 18.1% of U.S. adult  

E-print Network

Anxiety Disorders Prevalence � 12-month Prevalence: 18.1% of U.S. adult population1 � Severe: 22 of twelve-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Archives of General prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication

Baker, Chris I.

413

Depression and anxiety: predictors of eating disorder symptoms and substance addiction severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem are frequently associated with eating and substance use disorders (SUD). Given the high prevalence of concurrent disorders in individuals with eating and substance use problems, it is critical to identify other psychological factors important for consideration in treatment of this population. Individuals (N = 314) seeking treatment for eating disorder (ED) and problematic substance use were administered

Leah B. Shapira; Christine M. Courbasson

2011-01-01

414

The Quality of Care for Depressive and Anxiety Disorders in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Depressive and anxiety disorders are preva- lent and cause substantial morbidity. While effective treat- ments exist, little is known about the quality of care for these disorders nationally. We estimated the rate of ap- propriate treatment among the US population with these disorders, and the effect of insurance, provider type, and individual characteristics on receipt of appropriate care. Methods:

Alexander S. Young; Ruth Klap; Cathy D. Sherbourne; Kenneth B. Wells

2001-01-01

415

Locus of Control Fails to Mediate between Stress and Anxiety and Depression in Parents of Children with a Developmental Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stress, anxiety and depression are raised amongst parents of children with a developmental disorder. However, the processes by which stress leads to depression and anxiety are poorly understood. In a cross-sectional survey, levels of parental stress, depression and anxiety were compared between parents of children with an autistic disorder,…

Hamlyn-Wright, Sarah; Draghi-Lorenz, Riccardo; Ellis, Jason

2007-01-01

416

A Multimethod Assessment of Anxiety and Problem Behavior in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the increased risk for anxiety disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), there is a lack of research on the assessment and treatment of anxiety in this population, particularly for those with an intellectual disability (ID). The present study evaluated a multimethod strategy for the assessment of anxiety and problem…

Moskowitz, Lauren J.; Mulder, Emile; Walsh, Caitlin E.; McLaughlin, Darlene Magito; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak; Carr, Edward G.

2013-01-01

417

Cognitive Reappraisal Self-Efficacy Mediates the Effects of Individual Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder  

E-print Network

for Social Anxiety Disorder Philippe R. Goldin, Michal Ziv, Hooria Jazaieri, and Kelly Werner Stanford-SE) mediate the effects of individually administered cognitive-behavioral therapy (I-CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) on severity of social anxiety symptoms. Method: A randomized controlled trial in which 75

Gross, James J.

418

Anxiety disorders and onset of cardiovascular disease: the differential impact of panic, phobias and worry.  

PubMed

Anxiety has been linked to onset of cardiovascular disease. This study examines the differential impact of types of anxiety (panic, phobia and worry) on 3-year onset of non-fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD). By investigating anxiety disorders as opposed to anxiety symptoms and by using a reliable diagnostic instrument to assess anxiety, limitations of previous studies are considered. 5149 persons at risk for CVD were interviewed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The panic-type included panic disorder and panic attacks; the phobic-type included agoraphobia and social phobia, and the worry-type included generalized anxiety disorder. CVD was self-reported and required treatment or monitoring by a doctor. Analyses were adjusted for sociodemographics, behavioral variables, and comorbid somatic and psychiatric disorders. During follow-up, 62 persons (1.2%) developed CVD. Baseline generalized anxiety disorder was strongly associated with onset of CVD (adjusted OR: 3.39). Further research should replicate findings and focus on biological underpinnings of this association. PMID:24513159

Batelaan, Neeltje M; ten Have, Margreet; van Balkom, Anton J L M; Tuithof, Marlous; de Graaf, Ron

2014-03-01

419

Depressive and anxiety disorders in primary care: factors affecting physicians' use of screening information  

E-print Network

that influence management decisions after the provision of psychiatric screening results. Subjects were 112 family medicine patients who screened positive for a depressive or anxiety disorder. Based on a review of patients' medical charts and accounts...

Maner, Ashley Meredith

2012-06-07

420

Brain Imaging Predicts Psychotherapy Success in Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... Office 301-443-4536 NIMHPress@nih.gov More Science News about: Anxiety Disorders Imaging NIMH Psychotherapies Social ... the Field News from the Field NIMH-Funded Science on EurekAlert Schizophrenia Not a Single Disease But ...

421

Predicting Treatment Response in Social Anxiety Disorder From Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

E-print Network

Context: Current behavioral measures poorly predict treatment outcome in social anxiety disorder (SAD). To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine neuroimaging-based treatment prediction in SAD.

Doehrmann, Oliver

422

Structural Relationships Among Dimensions of the DSM–IV Anxiety and Mood Disorders and Dimensions of Negative Affect, Positive Affect, and Autonomic Arousal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using outpatients with anxiety and mood disorders (N = 350), the authors tested several models of the structural relationships of dimensions of key features of selected emotional disorders and dimensions of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression. Results supported the discriminant validity of the 5 symptom domains examined (mood disorders; generalized anxiety disorder, GAD; panic disorder; obsessive–compulsive disorder; social

Timothy A. Brown; Bruce F. Chorpita; David H. Barlow

1998-01-01

423

Anxiety disorders among African Americans, blacks of Caribbean descent, and non-Hispanic whites in the United States  

PubMed Central

The central aim of this study is to estimate prevalence, ages of onset, severity, and associated disability of anxiety disorders among African Americans, Caribbean Blacks, and non-Hispanic whites in the U.S. Results indicated that whites were at elevated risk for generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social anxiety compared to Caribbean Blacks and African Americans. Black respondents were more likely to meet criteria for PTSD. When African American and Caribbean Black respondents met criteria for an anxiety disorder, they experienced higher levels of overall mental illness severity and functional impairment compared to whites. White respondents were at greater risk to develop generalized anxiety, social anxiety, and panic disorders late in life. Risk of developing PTSD endured throughout the life course for blacks whereas whites rarely developed PTSD after young adulthood. These results can be used to inform targeted interventions to prevent or remediate anxiety disorders among these diverse groups. PMID:19231131

Himle, Joseph A.; Baser, Raymond E.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Campbell, Rosalyn Denise; Jackson, James S.

2014-01-01

424

Diagnosis and management of post-traumatic stress disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating anxiety disorder that may cause significant distress and increased use of health resources, the condition often goes undiagnosed. The lifetime prevalence of PTSD in the United States is 8 to 9 percent, and approximately 25 to 30 percent of victims of significant trauma develop PTSD. The emotional and physical symptoms of PTSD

Bradley D. Grinage

2003-01-01

425

Continuity in features of anxiety and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in young preschool children.  

PubMed

Anxiety disorders and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) develop before school age, but little is known about early developmental pathways. Here we test two hypotheses: first, that early signs of anxiety and ADHD at 18 months predict symptoms of anxiety and ADHD at age 3½ years; second, that emotional dysregulation at 18 months predicts the outcome of co-occurring anxiety and ADHD at age 3½ years. The study was part of the prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. The 628 participants were clinically assessed at 3½ years. Questionnaire data collected at 18 months were categorized into early behavioural scales of anxiety, ADHD, and emotional dysregulation. We investigated continuity in features of anxiety and ADHD from 18 months to 3½ years of age through logistic regression analyses. Anxiety symptoms at 3½ years were predicted by early signs of anxiety (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.41, CI = 1.15-1.73) and emotional dysregulation (OR = 1.33, CI = 1.15-1.54). ADHD symptoms at 3½ years were predicted by early signs of ADHD (OR = 1.51, CI = 1.30-1.76) and emotional dysregulation (OR = 1.31, CI = 1.13-1.51). Co-occurring anxiety and ADHD symptoms at 3½ years were predicted by early signs of anxiety (OR = 1.43, CI = 1.13-1.84), ADHD (OR = 1.30, CI = 1.11-1.54), and emotional dysregulation (OR = 1.34, CI = 1.13-1.58). We conclude that there were modest continuities in features of anxiety and ADHD through early preschool years, while emotional dysregulation at age 18 months was associated with symptoms of anxiety, ADHD, and co-occurring anxiety and ADHD at age 3½ years. PMID:24687273

Overgaard, Kristin Romvig; Aase, Heidi; Torgersen, Svenn; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Oerbeck, Beate; Myhre, Anne; Zeiner, Pål

2014-09-01

426

Developing Small Molecule Nonpeptidergic Drugs for the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders: Is the Challenge Still Ahead?  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Neuropeptide systems have been considered a major opportunity for the development of novel treatment approaches for anxiety\\u000a disorders based on preclinical evidence and neurochemical alterations seen in anxiety disorders. This excitement was further\\u000a facilitated by the fact that drugs acting at these systems, such as CRF1 antagonists, NK1 antagonists, NK3 antagonists or\\u000a CCK2 antagonists, may have unique properties not seen

Thomas Steckler

427

The Role of Emotion Regulation in the Treatment of Child Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, we examine the role of emotion regulation in the treatment of children with anxiety disorders. Cognitive-behavioral\\u000a therapy (CBT) has been shown to “work” for children with anxiety disorders and it has been categorized as an evidence-based\\u000a treatment. However, most studies have shown that the treatment is effective for about 60–70% of children, leaving the remaining\\u000a children symptomatic

Dagmar Kristin Hannesdottir; Thomas H. Ollendick

2007-01-01

428

Evaluation of therapist-supported parent-implemented CBT for anxiety disorders in rural children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supplementing bibliotherapy with therapist-client communication has been shown to be an effective way of providing services to under-resourced and isolated communities. The current study examined the efficacy of supplementing bibliotherapy for child anxiety disorders with therapist-initiated telephone or email sessions, or with client-initiated contact in a randomised trial using a waitlist control. Participants were 100 anxiety-disordered children and their parents

Heidi J. Lyneham; Ronald M. Rapee

2006-01-01

429

Applying DBT Mindfulness Skills to the Treatment of Clients with Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinicians and researchers have increasingly begun to acknowledge the potential benefits of incorporating acceptance- and\\u000a mindfulness-based approaches into cognitive-behavioral treatments for the anxiety disorders (see Orsillo, Roemer, Block, Lejeune,\\u000a & Herbert, 2004; Orsillo, Roemer, Block-Lerner, & Tull, 2004). As such, the past several years have seen the development of\\u000a innovative mindfulness- and acceptance-based cognitivebehavioral treatments for several anxiety disorders, including

Kim L. Gratz; Matthew T. Tull; Amy W. Wagner

430

An Open Trial of an Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research suggests that experiential avoidance may play an important role in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; see Roemer, L., & Orsillo, S.M. (2002). Expanding our conceptualization of and treatment for generalized anxiety disorder: Integrating mindfulness\\/acceptance-based approaches with existing cognitive-behavioral models. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 9, 54–68, for a review). Therefore, a treatment that emphasizes experiential acceptance, as well as intentional

Lizabeth Roemer; Susan M. Orsillo

2007-01-01

431

Temperament and parental child-rearing style: unique contributions to clinical anxiety disorders in childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both temperament and parental child-rearing style are found to be associated with childhood anxiety disorders in population\\u000a studies. This study investigates the contribution of not only temperament but also parental child-rearing to clinical childhood\\u000a anxiety disorders. It also investigates whether the contribution of temperament is moderated by child-rearing style, as is\\u000a suggested by some studies in the general population. Fifty

Ingeborg E. Lindhout; Monica Th. Markus; Thea H. G. Hoogendijk; Frits Boer

2009-01-01

432

A 2010 Evidence-Based Algorithm for the Pharmacotherapy of Social Anxiety Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing evidence base on the management of social anxiety disorder has yielded many meta-analyses and guidelines on the\\u000a pharmacotherapy of this clinically important condition. We aimed to update a pharmacotherapy algorithm for the treatment of\\u000a social anxiety disorder that was developed to be concise and user friendly and that was addressed to the primary care practitioner\\u000a in particular. The

Dan J. Stein; David S. Baldwin; Borwin Bandelow; Carlos Blanco; Leonardo F. Fontenelle; Sing Lee; Hisato Matsunaga; David Osser; Murray B. Stein; Michael van Ameringen

2010-01-01

433

The Relationships Between Childhood Sexual Abuse, Social Anxiety, and Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between childhood sexual abuse, social anxiety, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder were examined\\u000a in a sample of 313 undergraduate women. Thirty-one percent of the women reported some form of sexual abuse in childhood. Women\\u000a with a history of sexual abuse reported more symptoms of anxiety, distress in social situations, and posttraumatic stress\\u000a disorder than other women. Women

Margaret M. Feerick; Kyle L. Snow

2005-01-01

434

Psychological treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Recent years have seen a near-doubling of the number of studies examining the effects of psychotherapies for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in adults. The present article integrates this new evidence with the older literature through a quantitative meta-analysis. A total of 41 studies (with 2132 patients meeting diagnostic criteria for GAD) were identified through systematic searches in bibliographical databases, and were included in the meta-analysis. Most studies examined the effects of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). The majority of studies used waiting lists as control condition. The pooled effect of the 38 comparisons (from 28 studies) of psychotherapy versus a control group was large (g=0.84; 95% CI: 0.71-0.97) with low to moderate heterogeneity. The effects based on self-report measures were somewhat lower than those based on clinician-rated instruments. The effects on depression were also large (g=0.71; 95% CI: 0.59-0.82). There were some indications for publication bias. The number of studies comparing CBT with other psychotherapies (e.g., applied relaxation) or pharmacotherapy was too small to draw conclusions about comparative effectiveness or the long-term effects. There were some indications that CBT was also effective at follow-up and that CBT was more effective than applied relaxation in the longer term. PMID:24487344

Cuijpers, Pim; Sijbrandij, Marit; Koole, Sander; Huibers, Marcus; Berking, Matthias; Andersson, Gerhard

2014-03-01

435

Automatic Neural Processing of Disorder-Related Stimuli in Social Anxiety Disorder: Faces and More  

PubMed Central

It has been proposed that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is associated with automatic information processing biases resulting in hypersensitivity to signals of social threat such as negative facial expressions. However, the nature and extent of automatic processes in SAD on the behavioral and neural level is not entirely clear yet. The present review summarizes neuroscientific findings on automatic processing of facial threat but also other disorder-related stimuli such as emotional prosody or negative words in SAD. We review initial evidence for automatic activation of the amygdala, insula, and sensory cortices as well as for automatic early electrophysiological components. However, findings vary depending on tasks, stimuli, and neuroscientific methods. Only few studies set out to examine automatic neural processes directly and systematic attempts are as yet lacking. We suggest that future studies should: (1) use different stimulus modalities, (2) examine different emotional expressions, (3) compare findings in SAD with other anxiety disorders, (4) use more sophisticated experimental designs to investigate features of automaticity systematically, and (5) combine different neuroscientific methods (such as functional neuroimaging and electrophysiology). Finally, the understanding of neural automatic processes could also provide hints for therapeutic approaches. PMID:23745116

Schulz, Claudia; Mothes-Lasch, Martin; Straube, Thomas

2013-01-01

436

Anxiety disorder symptoms in Japanese children and adolescents.  

PubMed

This study investigated anxiety symptoms in Japanese children and adolescents. Students 9-15 years old (N=2275) completed the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS). The internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the SCAS were satisfactory. Scores for overall anxiety symptoms and each subscale were similar between Japan and other countries. Girls reported more anxiety symptoms than boys, and adolescents presented with fewer anxiety symptoms than younger children, as in previous studies. The items most frequently endorsed by Japanese students were different from those endorsed by Western students, although lower frequency symptoms were almost the same. Factor analyses using multi-group analysis supported a common model of anxiety for children and adolescents. Clinical applicability and research implications are discussed. PMID:18555658

Ishikawa, Shin-ichi; Sato, Hiroshi; Sasagawa, Satoko

2009-01-01

437

Current and lifetime comorbidity of the DSM-IV anxiety and mood disorders in a large clinical sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comorbidity of current and lifetime DSM-IV anxiety and mood disorders was examined in 1,127 outpatients who were assessed with the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV: Lifetime version (ADIS-IV-L). The current and lifetime prevalence of additional Axis I disorders in principal anxiety and mood disorders was found to be 57% and 81%, respectively. The principal diagnostic categories associated with

Timothy A. Brown; Laura A. Campbell; Cassandra L. Lehman; Jessica R. Grisham; Richard B. Mancill

2001-01-01

438

Direct-to-consumer marketing of psychological treatments for anxiety disorders.  

PubMed

Progress disseminating and implementing evidence-based psychological treatments (EBPTs) for the anxiety disorders has been gradual. To date, the dominant approach for promoting the uptake of EBPTs in clinical settings has been to target the education and training of mental health providers, with many consumers remaining unaware of the potential benefits of EBPTs for anxiety disorders. Direct-to-consumer (DTC) marketing may be a promising vehicle for increasing EBPT utilization rates in the treatment of anxiety disorders. This paper provides an overview of the rationale and important considerations for applying DTC efforts to promote evidence-based care in the treatment of anxiety disorders, and reviews current DTC efforts in this area, including resources on the Internet and other media and in-person events. We conclude with recommendations for future efforts in the DTC marketing of EBPTs for the anxiety disorders, including the need for increased funding and grassroots efforts to inform consumers about anxiety disorders and their most effective treatments. PMID:23602058