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1

Anxiety Disorders Diagnosis: Some History and Controversies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Treatment of and research on anxiety disorders depends on the adequate conceptualization and measurement of these conditions.\\u000a We review the history of the nosology of anxiety disorders and note that divisions of “neurosis” have inadvertently taken\\u000a attention away from what is shared among conditions now classified separately. We note the changes in the definition of agoraphobia\\u000a over time and the

O. Joseph Bienvenu; Lisa A. Wuyek; Murray B. Stein

2

[The pathophysiology and diagnosis of anxiety disorder].  

PubMed

In addition to genetic factors, the role of epigenetic and other environmental factors in the promotion of anxiety disorder has attracted much attention in psychiatric research. When stress is encountered in the environment, the hypothalamus-pituitary adrenal system (HPA system) is activated and cortisol is secreted. CRHR gene function is closely related to this response. As a result of haplotype analysis of CRHR genes in depression and panic disorder patients, it was found that genetic polymorphism of CRHR1 and CRHR2 was related to both disorders. It is reported that abused children are more susceptible to developing depression and anxiety disorder upon reaching adulthood, but there also exist genetic polymorphisms that may moderate this relationship. Direct methylation of DNA (typically repressing gene expression) and modification of chromatin structure (complexes of histone proteins and DNA) via acetylation (typically facilitating gene expression) represent epigenetic modifications that are thought to influence behavioral phenotypes. For example, it is rare that schizophrenia develops in identical twins brought up together in the same environment, and thus phenotypic differences cannot be explained simply by genetic polymorphism. We also evaluated salivary cortisol and amylase reactivity (indices of the HPA system and sympathoadrenal medullary system, respectfully) after electrical stimulation stress and Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) administration. Here we found differences in the cortisol stress response between electrical stimulation and TSST stressors, in contrast to the theory of Selye. In addition, we found alterations in activity patterns and difficulties integrating sensorimotor information in panic disorder patients, suggesting links between sensorimotor integration and stress in panic disorder. Moreover, state and trait anxiety may be associated with stabilograph factors. PMID:23198596

Akiyoshi, Jotaro

2012-01-01

3

Anxiety Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Here we discuss six different anxiety disorders: generalized anxiety disorder social phobia panic disorder post-traumatic stress disorder obsessive-compulsive disorder specific phobias. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Click for more information ...

4

Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The psychiatric disorders that are designated as anxiety disorders include the specific diagnoses of panic disorder with and\\u000a without agoraphobia, agoraphobia without history of panic disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder\\u000a (OCD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), acute stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), anxiety disorder due\\u000a to a general medical condition, substance-induced anxiety disorder, and anxiety disorder not otherwise

Julie Loebach Wetherell; Ariel J. Lang; Murray B. Stein

5

Anxiety Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... anxiety problem or disorder. Anxiety is a natural human reaction that involves mind and body. It serves an important basic survival function: Anxiety is an alarm system that is activated whenever a person perceives danger ...

6

Anxiety Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... or fear of spiders. Social phobia (also called social anxiety disorder) — Significant anxiety and discomfort about being embarrassed or looked down on in social or performance situations. Common examples are public speaking, ...

7

Comorbidity of depressive and anxiety disorders: challenges in diagnosis and assessment  

PubMed Central

Summary Comorbid anxiety is common in patients with depressive disorders. It complicates the clinical presentation of depressive disorders and can contribute to treatment resistance. Clinicians can assess the degree of overlap between depressive and anxiety symptoms either by measuring the severity of anxiety symptoms in individuals who meet diagnostic criteria for depression or by determining whether or not an individual with depression simultaneously meets criteria for an anxiety disorder. However, multiple factors in the Chinese clinical setting make it difficult to accurately assess patients with comorbid conditions. The resultant under-diagnosis of comorbid depression and anxiety – the most common type of comorbid psychiatric condition in China – seriously diminishes the effectiveness of treatments for common mental disorders in the country. We argue that the widespread use of valid and reliable dimensional assessment tools in Chinese clinical settings will help improve the diagnosis and treatment of the many individuals who have concurrent depressive and anxiety symptoms. PMID:25317009

WU, Zhiguo; FANG, Yiru

2014-01-01

8

Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychological disorders, with a lifetime prevalence of 31.2% and a 12-month prevalence\\u000a of 19.1% in the United States (Kessler et al., 2005; Kessler, Chiu, Demler, Merikangas, & Walters, 2005). Individuals with\\u000a an anxiety disorder present with a variety of physical and psychological symptoms. Particularly unique to anxiety are the\\u000a symptoms of physical tension

Rose C. Smith; Lisa S. Elwood; Matthew T. Feldner; Bunmi O. Olatunji

9

Anxiety Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anxiey, in general, helps one to cope. It rouses a person to action and gears one up to face a threatening situation. It makes students study harder for exams, and keeps presenters on their toes when making speeches. But an anxiety disorder can prevent one from coping and can disrupt daily life. Anxiety disorders are not just a case of "nerves,"…

Dickey, Marilyn

10

Issues in Differential Diagnosis: Considering Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a An accurate diagnosis provides a foundation for case conceptualization and facilitates effective treatment practices. Accurate\\u000a diagnoses are also critical to the organization of participants in empirical research. Although not without its own problems,\\u000a the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Text Revision (DSMIV- TR), currently in its fourth iteration (American Psychiatric Association, 2000), is the most frequently used

Jeremy Cohen; Matthew Mychailyszyn; Cara Settipani; Sarah Crawley; Philip C. Kendall

11

Anxiety Disorders in Persons with Developmental Disabilities: Empirically Informed Diagnosis and Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anxiety disorders are common in individuals with developmental disabilities (DDs), although they may not be diagnosed and\\u000a treated as often as they are in patients without DDs. Patients with mental retardation, autism, and other pervasive developmental\\u000a disorders may exhibit comorbid anxiety disorders, such as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive-compulsive disorder\\u000a (OCD), phobias, and other anxiety symptoms at much higher rates

Ervin Davis; Sy Atezaz Saeed; Diana J. Antonacci

2008-01-01

12

Social anxiety disorder\\/social phobia: Epidemiology, diagnosis, neurobiology, and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some anticipatory anxiety is expected on specific occasions such as giving a speech. However, some individuals have an excessive fear of such situations when they are under scrutiny, believing that their performance will cause them embarrassment or humiliation, frequently leading to deliberate avoidance of these situations. This disabling condition has been termed social anxiety disorder. Social anxiety disorder is common,

Johan A. den Boer

2000-01-01

13

Generalized Anxiety Disorder  

E-print Network

Generalized Anxiety Disorder: WhenWorry Gets Out of Control Are you extremely worried about an anxiety disorder called generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). national institute of mental Health U.S. Department of HealtH anD HUman ServiceS national institutes of Health #12;Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD

Bandettini, Peter A.

14

Childhood Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anxiety disorders is one of the most prevalent diagnostic categories identified in children and adolescents. This chapter\\u000a provides an overview of the epidemiology of childhood anxiety disorders. Several pathways of etiology are presented, specifically\\u000a genetics, parent–child attachment, parental anxiety and parenting style, and life experiences. Six of the common childhood\\u000a anxiety disorders, separation anxiety disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, generalized

Gail A. Bernstein; Andrea M. Victor

15

School Functioning in Youth with and without Anxiety Disorders: Comparisons by Diagnosis and Comorbidity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on school functioning for 227 youth ages 7-14 (M = 10.3) with principal diagnoses of separation anxiety disorder (n = 40), social phobia (n = 58), generalized anxiety disorder (n = 76), or no diagnoses (n = 53). School functioning data were gathered via parent and teacher report. Youth with no diagnoses demonstrated…

Mychailyszyn, Matthew P.; Mendez, Julia L.; Kendall, Philip C.

2010-01-01

16

Illness anxiety disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Illness anxiety disorder is a preoccupation that physical symptoms are signs of a serious illness, even when there is ... People with anxiety illness disorder (IAD) are overly focused on, and always thinking about, their physical health. They have an unrealistic ...

17

Anxiety Disorders: Noradrenergic Neurotransmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past decade has seen a rapid progression in our knowledge of the neurobiological basis of fear and anxiety. Specific neurochemical and neuropeptide systems have been demonstrated to play important roles in the behaviors associated with fear and anxiety-producing stimuli. Long-term dysregulation of these systems appears to contribute to the development of anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder

A. Neumeister; R. J. Daher; D. S. Charney

18

Anxiety Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... disorders. Although these medications begin to alter brain chemistry after the very first dose, their full effect ... under the supervision of a doctor or bad reactions can occur. Make sure you talk to the ...

19

Anxiety disorders and schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anxiety symptoms and disorders have long been described in schizophrenia. This article reviews the epidemiology, phenomenology,\\u000a and neurobiologic underpinnings of comorbid anxiety symptoms and disorders in schizophrenia. Recent literature was obtained\\u000a by Medline searches using key words relating to schizophrenia and anxiety symptoms or disorders. There is some evidence that\\u000a anxiety may be a core symptom dimension in schizophrenia, although

Jacqueline E. Muller; Liezl Koen; Soraya Seedat; Robin A. Emsley; Daniel J. Stein

2004-01-01

20

Epidemiology of Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter presents an overview of the descriptive epidemiology of anxiety disorders based on recently completed surveys\\u000a of the general population. The overall prevalence of anxiety disorders is shown to be quite high, but with considerable variation\\u000a from the most prevalent (specific phobias) to the least prevalent (agoraphobia without a history of panic disorder) disorders.\\u000a Age-of-onset (AOO) of anxiety disorders

Ronald C. Kessler; Ayelet Meron Ruscio; Katherine Shear; Hans-Ulrich Wittchen

21

Sleep and anxiety disorders  

PubMed Central

Sleep disturbances-particularly insomnia - are highly prevalent in anxiety disorders and complaints such as insomnia or nightmares have even been incorporated in some anxiety disorder definitions, such as generalized anxiety disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. In the first part of this review, the relationship between sleep and anxiety is discussed in terms of adaptive response to stress. Recent studies suggested that the corticotropin-releasing hormone system and the locus ceruleus-autonomic nervous system may play major roles in the arousal response to stress. It has been suggested that these systems may be particularly vulnerable to prolonged or repeated stress, further leading to a dysfunctional arousal state and pathological anxiety states, Polysomnographic studies documented limited alteration of sleep in anxiety disorders. There is some indication for alteration in sleep maintenance in generalized anxiety disorder and for both sleep initiation and maintenance in panic disorder; no clear picture emerges for obsessive-compulsive disorder or posttraumatic stress disorder. Finally, an unequivocal sleep architecture profile that could specifically relate to a particular anxiety disorder could not be evidenced; in contrast, conflicting results are often found for the same disorder. Discrepancies between studies could have been related to illness severity, diagnostic comorbidity, and duration of illness. A brief treatment approach for each anxiety disorder is also suggested with a special focus on sleep. PMID:22033804

Staner, Luc

2003-01-01

22

Ictal fear: semiologic characteristics and differential diagnosis with interictal anxiety disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Ictal fear (IF) is one of the most frequent emotional auras. It is the sole or predominant manifestation of simple partial seizures or initial expression of a complex partial seizure. It is more often experienced in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), probably associated with mesial temporal structures, like the amygdala. Anxiety disorders are very common psychiatric disorders

Vivianne Pellegrino Rosa; Gerardo Maria de Araújo Filho; Márcio Andriani Rahal; Luís Otávio; Ferreira Caboclo; Américo Ceiki Sakamoto

2006-01-01

23

Social anxiety disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Social anxiety disorder is a persistent and irrational fear of situations that may involve scrutiny or judgment by others, ... People with social anxiety disorder fear and avoid situations in which they may be judged by others. It may begin in adolescence and ...

24

Anxiety disorders comorbidity in mood disorder subgroups: data from a mood disorders clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous research has identified a high rate of anxiety disorders comorbidity in patients with a primary mood disorder diagnosis. Discrepancies between studies in the comorbidity prevalence of specific anxiety disorders in mood disorders, and of anxiety disorders comorbidity between unipolar depression and bipolar mood disorder are in part due to differences in sampling and diagnostic assessment methodology. Method: The

Boghos I Yerevanian; Ralph J Koek; Swarnalatha Ramdev

2001-01-01

25

Anxiety disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder update.  

PubMed

Anxiety disorders are one of the most common categories of psychopathology in children and adolescents. This article provides an overview of several anxiety disorders that are diagnosed often during childhood and adolescence, including separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Although anxiety disorders commonly show similar clinical characteristics during childhood and adulthood, this article highlights some of the differences that may present across the life span. PMID:19248916

Victor, Andrea M; Bernstein, Gail A

2009-03-01

26

Anxiety and medical disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anxiety symptoms and disorders are associated with a range of general medical disorders. This association may be a physiologic\\u000a consequence of the general medical disorder, a psychologic reaction to the experience of having a medical illness, a side\\u000a effect of treatment, or a chance occurrence. This article briefly reviews the associations of panic disorder with seizure\\u000a disorder, Klüver-Bucy syndrome, mitral

Jacqueline E. Muller; Liezl Koen; Dan J. Stein

2005-01-01

27

Personality and anxiety disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personality traits and most anxiety disorders are strongly related. In this article, we review existing evidence for ways\\u000a in which personality traits may relate to anxiety disorders: 1) as predisposing factors, 2) as consequences, 3) as results\\u000a of common etiologies, and 4) as pathoplastic factors. Based on current information, we conclude the following: 1) Personality\\u000a traits such as high neuroticism,

Mina Brandes; O. Joseph Bienvenu

2006-01-01

28

Comorbid anxiety in bipolar disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective Comorbid anxiety disorder is reported to increase suicidality in bipolar disorder. However, studies of the impact of anxiety disorders on suicidal behavior in mood disorders have shown mixed results. The presence of personality disorders, often comorbid with anxiety and bipolar disorders, may explain these inconsistencies. This study examined the impact of comorbid Cluster B personality disorder and anxiety disorder on suicidality in bipolar disorder. Methods A total of 116 depressed bipolar patients with and without lifetime anxiety disorder were compared. Multiple regression analysis tested the association of comorbid anxiety disorder with past suicide attempts and severity of suicidal ideation, adjusting for the effect of Cluster B personality disorder. The specific effect of panic disorder was also explored. Results Bipolar patients with and without anxiety disorders did not differ in the rate of past suicide attempt. Suicidal ideation was less severe in those with anxiety disorders. In multiple regression analysis, anxiety disorder was not associated with past suicide attempts or with the severity of suicidal ideation, whereas Cluster B personality disorder was associated with both. The results were comparable when comorbid panic disorder was examined. Conclusions Comorbid Cluster B personality disorder appears to exert a stronger influence on suicidality than comorbid anxiety disorder in persons with bipolar disorder. Assessment of suicide risk in patients with bipolar disorder should include evaluation and treatment of Cluster B psychopathology. PMID:18452449

Nakagawa, Atsuo; Grunebaum, Michael F; Sullivan, Gregory M; Currier, Dianne; Ellis, Steven P; Burke, Ainsley K; Brent, David A; Mann, J John; Oquendo, Maria A

2009-01-01

29

Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents  

MedlinePLUS

... This Section Home Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents We all experience anxiety, and although anxiety is ... How common are anxiety disorders in children and adolescents? Which are the most common? Anxiety disorders are ...

30

Predictors of Generalized Anxiety Disorder stigma.  

PubMed

The stigma associated with mental illness can lead to a range of negative outcomes, including delaying or avoiding help seeking. Identifying the characteristics of people who are more likely to hold stigmatizing attitudes enables the development of targeted stigma reduction programs. However, no previous research has systematically examined the predictors of anxiety stigma. This study used the Generalized Anxiety Stigma Scale (GASS) to assess the predictors of personal stigma and perceived stigma associated with Generalized Anxiety Disorder. A community sample of 617 Australian adults completed a survey that included the GASS, the Depression Stigma Scale, exposure to anxiety disorders, emotional distress and a range of demographic characteristics. Linear regression models indicated that women, people with greater exposure to anxiety disorders and people reporting a previous anxiety diagnosis had lower personal stigma toward anxiety. Higher exposure to anxiety disorders and rurality were significantly associated with higher perceived anxiety stigma. Results also suggested that respondents who had only been exposed to anxiety disorders through the media tended to be no more stigmatizing than respondents who had direct contact with people with an anxiety disorder. Media campaigns may be an effective vehicle for decreasing stigmatizing views in the community. PMID:23218916

Batterham, Philip J; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Barney, Lisa J; Parsons, Alison

2013-04-30

31

Glutamate and anxiety disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent psychiatric disorders, but they represent a particular challenge for treatment.\\u000a The standard first-line treatments, including antidepressants, benzodiazepines, and buspirone, result in significant response\\u000a rates for a majority of patients; however, unfavorable side effect profiles or risk for dependency for particular agents might\\u000a limit their use by anxious patients, who often have low thresholds

Jonathan M. Amiel; Sanjay J. Mathew

2007-01-01

32

Attention Training for Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attentional bias toward negative social cues is thought to serve an etiological and\\/or maintaining role in social anxiety disorder (SAD). The current study tested whether training patients to disengage from negative social cues may ameliorate social anxiety in patients (N = 36) with a primary diagnosis of generalized SAD. Patients were randomly assigned to either an attention training condition (n

Norman B. Schmidt; J. Anthony Richey; Julia D. Buckner; Kiara R. Timpano

2009-01-01

33

Gender as a Moderator between Having an Anxiety Disorder Diagnosis and Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery (CABG) Outcomes in Rural Patients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper examines gender as a moderating variable between having an anxiety disorder diagnosis and coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG) outcomes in rural patients. Methods: Using the 2008 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database, 17,885 discharge records of patients who underwent a primary CABG surgery were identified.…

Dao, Tam K.; Voelkel, Emily; Presley, Sherine; Doss, Brendel; Huddleston, Cashuna; Gopaldas, Raja

2012-01-01

34

Anxiety disorders in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Anxiety disorders frequently occur in association with PD and may be important causes of morbidity. Actual prevalence rates are uncertain, but estimates suggest that up to 40% of patients with PD experience substantial anxiety. This percentage is greater than expected, particularly for an elderly population. In addition, the age at onset of anxiety in PD (and particularly panic disorder) is later than would be expected from current information regarding the natural course of anxiety disorders. Virtually all of the types of anxiety disorders have been described in PD, but panic disorder, GAD, and social phobia appear to be the ones most commonly encountered. Although most patients with motor fluctuations experience greater anxiety during the "off" phase, this is not a universal phenomenon. Anxiety frequently develops before the motor features do, suggesting that anxiety may not represent psychological and social difficulties in adapting to the illness but rather may be linked to specific neurobiologic processes that occur in PD. Most evidence points to disturbances in central noradrenergic systems, but other neurotransmitters (e.g., serotonin, dopamine) may be involved as well. Studies suggest that right hemispheric disturbances may be particularly important for the genesis of anxiety, especially panic and OCD. Whether antiparkinsonian medications themselves contribute to anxiety needs clarification. Anxiety and depression frequently coexist in PD. It remains to be determined whether anxiety in patients with PD reflects one of the following pathologies: (a) an underlying depressive mood disorder, (b) a particular subtype of depression (atypical depression, anxious or agitated depression), or (c) an independent psychiatric disturbance. The relationship between anxiety and dementia in PD is not clear, but current evidence suggests that cognitive dysfunction is not related to the presence of anxiety symptoms in this disorder. The optimal pharmacologic treatment for anxiety in patients with PD has not been established, nor has the effect of PD surgery on anxiety symptoms. PMID:16383211

Richard, Irene H

2005-01-01

35

Treating Anxiety Disorders | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Phobias and Anxiety Disorders Treating Anxiety Disorders Past Issues / ... four anxiety disorders—panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, or post-traumatic stress disorder. An NIMH-funded ...

36

Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder): Always Embarrassed  

MedlinePLUS

... of anxiety disorder called social phobia, also called social anxiety disorder. What is social phobia? Social phobia is a ... us to find out more about Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder). Visit the National Library of Medicine's MedlinePlus En ...

37

Anxiety disorders in primary care.  

PubMed

Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric condition presenting to primary care practitioners. Yet they can be easily overlooked or misdiagnosed. Patients that struggle with anxiety disorders are more likely to seek treatment from primary care providers than mental health specialists. Given the costs in terms of debilitation and associated financial burden, and increased risk of suicide, the identification and successful treatment of anxiety is imperative. By means of clinical acumen and the use of screening tools, the provider can develop expertise in recognition and effective treatment of anxiety disorders. PMID:25134870

Combs, Heidi; Markman, Jesse

2014-09-01

38

Treatment-resistant anxiety disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several epidemiological studies confirmed that Anxiety Disorders as a group are the most prevalent psychiatric conditions in the United States. The importance of these conditions is underlined by the fact that they cause significant disability, poor quality of life, alcohol and drug abuse. Anxiety disorders are treatable conditions and respond to the front-line interventions such as serotonin reuptake inhibitors and

A Bystritsky

2006-01-01

39

Pharmacotherapy of social anxiety disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last few years, a number of medications have demonstrated their efficacy in the acute treatment of social anxiety disorder. At present, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors probably constitute the first line treatment, based on their safety, tolerability, and efficacy in the treatment of social anxiety disorder and common comorbid conditions. Data from single trials suggest that clonazepam, bromazepam, and

Carlos Blanco; Smita X. Antia; Michael R. Liebowitz

2002-01-01

40

Use of Benzodiazepines in Social Anxiety Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benzodiazepines are advantageous treatments for anxiety disorders because they work quickly. However, benzodiazepines can vary in terms of efficacy across anxiety disorders. Benzodiazepines have been found to be a superior treatment in social anxiety disorder. While benzodiazepines are effective in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder, other treatments such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors may be more effective. Also, research

Jonathan R. T. Davidson

41

Worried Sick: Living with Anxiety Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... anxiety disorders, specific phobias are the most common. Social anxiety disorder . Leads to extreme anxiety and self-consciousness in everyday social situations. Also known as social phobia. Post-traumatic ...

42

Discriminant and Convergent Validity of the Anxiety Construct in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite reports of high anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), there is controversy regarding differential diagnosis of ASD symptoms and anxiety symptoms. This study examined 88 children, aged 7-11 years, with ASD referred for concerns about anxiety. A multitrait-(social anxiety, separation anxiety, overall anxiety severity, and…

Renno, Patricia; Wood, Jeffrey J.

2013-01-01

43

Pharmacotherapy of Social Anxiety Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A range of medications have been shown effective for the treatment of social anxiety disorder. The largest trials to date\\u000a have been with various selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Several of these agents have been registered for the\\u000a treatment of social anxiety disorder with agencies such as the FDA or EMEA, meta-analyses confirm their efficacy and safety,\\u000a and expert consensus

Keith A. Ganasen; Dan J. Stein

44

Alcohol Use and Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between anxiety and alcohol use is a topic of great theoretical and practical interest for both scientists interested in the nature and causes of psychopathology and practitioners working with anxious and\\/or alcohol abusing clients. Although it has been clearly established that anxiety disorders and alcohol use disorders are highly ‘‘comorbid’’ or co-occurring conditions (e.g., see Kushner, Abrams &

Brigitte C. Sabourin; Sherry H. Stewart

45

Subclinical eating disorders and their comorbidity with mood and anxiety disorders in adolescent girls.  

PubMed

The present study assesses the prevalence of subclinical eating disorders and examines their comorbidity with mood and anxiety disorders in a sample of adolescent girls. A DSM-III-R computerized self-reported interview was administered to 833 adolescent girls (mean age=15.7±0.5 years) from a population sample to assess the prevalence of subclinical eating disorders, major depression, dysthymia, separation anxiety, and generalized anxiety disorders. The prevalence of subclinical anorexia nervosa (restricting subtype) was 3.5%, 13.3% for weight concerns (restricting subtype), 3.8% for subclinical bulimia nervosa, and 10.8% for subclinical binge eating disorder. Girls with subclinical anorexia nervosa had a higher prevalence of separation anxiety diagnosis, and they reported significantly more major depressive and generalized anxiety symptoms compared with girls reporting no eating disorders. Girls with weight concerns reported significantly more major depressive, separation, and generalized anxiety symptoms compared with girls reporting no eating disorders. Girls with subclinical bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder had a higher prevalence of mood disorders (major depression and dysthymia) compared with girls reporting no eating disorders. Furthermore, girls with subclinical bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder also reported significantly more anxiety symptoms (separation anxiety and generalized anxiety) compared with girls reporting no eating disorders. In summary, adolescent girls suffering from subclinical eating disorders should be investigated concomitantly for mood and anxiety disorders while those suffering from mood and anxiety disorders should be investigated simultaneously for subclinical eating disorders. PMID:20546924

Touchette, Evelyne; Henegar, Adina; Godart, Nathalie T; Pryor, Laura; Falissard, Bruno; Tremblay, Richard E; Côté, Sylvana M

2011-01-30

46

Suicidal Ideation in Anxiety-Disordered Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence is mixed regarding an independent association between anxiety and suicidality in youth. Study 1 examined suicidal ideation in treatment-referred, anxiety-disordered youth (N = 312, aged 7-17). Forty-one percent of anxiety-disordered youth endorsed suicidal ideation. Anxiety disorder severity, global impairment, and current depressive…

O'Neil, Kelly A.; Puleo, Connor M.; Benjamin, Courtney L.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Kendall, Philip C.

2012-01-01

47

Oxidative Imbalance and Anxiety Disorders  

PubMed Central

The oxidative imbalance appears to have an important role in anxiety development. Studies in both humans and animals have shown a strong correlation between anxiety and oxidative stress. In humans, for example, the increased malondialdehyde levels and discrepancies in antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes have been observed. In animals, several studies also show that anxiety-like behavior is related to the oxidative imbalance. Moreover, anxiety-like behavior can be caused by pharmacological-induced oxidative stress. Studies using knockout or overexpression of antioxidant enzymes have shown a relationship between anxiety-like behavior and oxidative stress. Related factors of oxidative stress that could influence anxious behavior are revised, including impaired function of different mitochondrial proteins, inflammatory cytokines, and neurotrophic factors. It has been suggested that a therapy specifically focus in reducing reactive species production may have a beneficial effect in reducing anxiety. However, the neurobiological pathways underlying the effect of oxidative stress on anxiety symptoms are not fully comprehended. The challenge now is to identify the oxidative stress mechanisms likely to be involved in the induction of anxiety symptoms. Understanding these pathways could help to clarify the neurobiology of the anxiety disorder and provide tools for new discovery in therapies and preventive strategies. PMID:24669212

R, Krolow; D. M, Arcego; C, Noschang; S. N, Weis; C, Dalmaz

2014-01-01

48

Anxiety Disorders Association of America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Millions of people across the United States live with a variety of anxiety disorders and for twenty-five years, the Anxiety Disorders Association of American (ADAA) has worked to promote the prevention, treatment and cure of these disorders. From the siteâÂÂs homepage visitors can learn about some of the most common anxiety disorders, such as panic disorder, social phobia, and post-traumatic stress disorder. The siteâÂÂs homepage also offers visitors the opportunity to sign up to receive their e-newsletter. As might be expected, there is a rather useful section titled âÂÂGetting HelpâÂÂ. Here visitors can learn about how they find a therapist for themselves (or a loved one). There are a myriad of resources within this particular area that will be of great use, including a section where visitors can learn about how to pick a therapist and a place for first-person narratives about living with a variety of anxiety disorders.

49

[Anxiety disorders in DSM-5].  

PubMed

The fifth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, the DSM-5 appeared officially in May 2013 during the development of the 166th Annual Meetingof the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in San Francisco. The drafting process was long and complex; much of the debate became public so that the expectations were great. And it must be said that the new edition did not disappoint, as many changes were made in relation to their predecessors. In Chapter of Anxiety Disorders, which is reviewed in this article, the changes were significant. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and Stress-related disorders were excluded and new clinical pictures, such as separation anxiety disorder and selective mutism, were included. And took place was the long awaited split between panic disorder and agoraphobia, now two separate disorders. PMID:24887371

Márquez, Miguel

2014-01-01

50

Comorbid anxiety and mood disorders among persons with social anxiety disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Axis I comorbidity is associated with greater severity of social anxiety disorder. However, the differential effects of comorbid mood and anxiety disorders on symptom severity or treatment outcome have not been investigated. We evaluated 69 persons with uncomplicated social anxiety disorder, 39 persons with an additional anxiety disorder, and 33 persons with an additional mood disorder (with or without additional

Brigette A Erwin; Richard G Heimberg; Harlan Juster; Melissa Mindlin

2002-01-01

51

Emotion Regulation and Anxiety Disorders  

PubMed Central

Recent attention has been given to the role of emotion regulation in the development and maintenance of psychopathology. Gross (1998) provided a framework from which to understand emotion regulation processes, and it is within this framework that the literature on emotion regulation/dysregulation in the anxiety disorder population is reviewed, with a focus on possible deficiencies that lead to or maintain the disorders. The present paper aims to (1) briefly introduce emotion regulation strategies of suppression and reappraisal; (2) summarize the empirical studies of emotion regulation within anxiety disorders; (3) discuss the neurobiological markers of emotion regulation within these disorders; (4) provide future directions for research; and (5) summarize possible treatment implications resulting from this important area of research. PMID:17349775

Amstadter, Ananda B.

2009-01-01

52

Screening for social anxiety disorder in the clinical setting: using the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We sought to determine optimal cutoff values for the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) total and subscale scores for the diagnosis of social anxiety disorder (SAD) and designation of the generalized subtype of SAD. Method: Three hundred and sixty-four patients from a multi-site sample who met criteria for SAD according to structured diagnostic interview, 262 of whom met criteria

Douglas S Mennin; David M Fresco; Richard G Heimberg; Franklin R Schneier; Sharon O Davies; Michael R Liebowitz

2002-01-01

53

Hyperhidrosis in social anxiety disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis) is an overlooked and potentially disabling symptom, which is often seen in social anxiety disorder (SAD). We conducted a retrospective review of data acquired in patients with SAD who had participated in placebo-controlled clinical trials of fluoxetine, cognitive behavior therapy, clonazepam and gabapentin. Four specific topics were addressed: (1) overall levels of sweating; (2) characteristics of

Jonathan R. T. Davidson; Edna B. Foa; Kathryn M. Connor; L. Erik Churchill

2002-01-01

54

Anxiety Disorders: Recognizing the Symptoms of Six of the Most Common Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes six common types of anxiety disorders: (1) generalized anxiety disorder; (2) panic disorder; (3) obsessive-compulsive disorder; (4) post-traumatic stress disorder; (5) specific phobias; and (6) social phobia. Treatment of anxiety disorders have two components that can be offered separately or in combination. They are…

Cancro, Robert

2007-01-01

55

Autism Spectrum Traits in Children with Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to examine ASD traits in children with clinical anxiety in early development, as well as current manifestations. Parents of 42 children with an anxiety disorder (but no known diagnosis of ASD) and 42 typically developing children were interviewed using the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI-R). They also completed…

van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; Wood, Jeffrey J.

2013-01-01

56

Fear of fear and the anxiety disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The responses of 271 outpatients with diagnoses of agoraphobia with panic attacks, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or depression (major depressive disorder or dysthymic disorder) to the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire (ACQ) and the Body Sensations Questionnaire (BSQ) were examined. Agoraphobics scored significantly higher than all other groups on fear of body sensations associated with anxiety. In

Dianne L. Chambless; Edward J. Gracely

1989-01-01

57

Psychotherapy for Anxiety in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Autism Spectrum Disorders; Autism; Asperger's Syndrome; Pervasive Developmental Disability - Not Otherwise Specified; Obsessive-compulsive Disorder; Social Phobia; Generalized Anxiety Disorder; Specific Phobia; Separation Anxiety Disorder

2014-04-09

58

Psychotherapy for Anxiety in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Autism Spectrum Disorders; Autism; Asperger's Syndrome; Pervasive Developmental Disability - Not Otherwise Specified; Obsessive-compulsive Disorder; Social Phobia; Generalized Anxiety Disorder; Specific Phobia; Separation Anxiety Disorder

2015-02-03

59

Social communication deficits: Specific associations with Social Anxiety Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Social communication deficits are prevalent amongst children with anxiety disorders; however whether they are over-represented specifically among children with Social Anxiety Disorder has not been examined. This study set out to examine social communication deficits among children with Social Anxiety Disorder in comparison to children with other forms of anxiety disorder. Methods Parents of 404 children with a diagnosed anxiety disorder completed the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ; Rutter, M., Bailey, A., Lord, C., 2003. The Social Communication Questionnaire – Manual. Western Psychological Services, Los Angeles, CA). Children with a diagnosis of Social Anxiety Disorder (n=262) and anxious children without Social Anxiety Disorder (n=142) were compared on SCQ total and subscale scores and the frequency of participants scoring above clinical cut-offs. Results Children with Social Anxiety Disorder scored significantly higher than anxious children without Social Anxiety Disorder on the SCQ total (t(352)=4.85, p<.001, d=.55, r=.27), Reciprocal Social Interaction (t(351)=4.73, p<.001, d=.55, r=.27), communication (t(344)=3.62, p<.001, d=.43, r=.21) and repetitive, restrictive and stereotyped behaviors subscales (t(353)=3.15, p=.002, d=.37, r=.18). Furthermore, children with Social Anxiety Disorder were three times more likely to score above clinical cut-offs. Limitations The participants were a relatively affluent group of predominantly non-minority status. The social communication difficulties measure relied on parental report which could be influenced by extraneous factors. Conclusions Treatments for Social Anxiety Disorder may benefit from a specific focus on developing social communication skills. Future research using objective assessments of underlying social communication skills is required. PMID:25451393

Halls, Georgia; Cooper, Peter J.; Creswell, Cathy

2015-01-01

60

Anxiety, Anxiety Disorders, Tobacco Use, and Nicotine: A Critical Review of Interrelationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoking is highly prevalent across most anxiety disorders. Tobacco use increases risk for the later development of certain anxiety disorders, and smokers with anxiety disorders have more severe withdrawal symptoms during smoking cessation than smokers without anxiety disorders. The authors critically examined the relationships among anxiety, anxiety disorders, tobacco use, and nicotine dependence and reviewed the existing empirical literature. Future

Sandra Baker Morissette; Matthew T. Tull; Suzy Bird Gulliver; Barbara Wolfsdorf Kamholz; Rose T. Zimering

2007-01-01

61

Evolutionary aspects of anxiety disorders  

PubMed Central

Danger and harm are avoided by strategic decisions made at all three levels of the triune forebrain: rational (neomammalian), emotional (paleomammalian), and instinctive (reptilian). This applies also to potential harm from conspecifics, which leads to a choice between escalating and de-escalating strategies. Anxiety is a component of de-escalating strategies mediated by the paleomammalian and reptilian forebrains. When the neomammalian (rational) brain fails to deal with the threat of conspecific danger, these more primitive de-escalating strategies may be activated and may present as anxiety disorders. The capacity for concealment of anxiety and other forms of negative affect has also evolved, and excessive concealment may lead to psychopaihology by breaking the negative feedback loop of excessive motivation, leading to impaired performance, leading to signals of distress, and leading to reduced exhortation to succeed on the part of parents and teachers; this situation is illustrated by a model based on the Yerkes-Dodson law. PMID:22033473

Price, John S.

2003-01-01

62

Studying Anxiety Disorders | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Phobias and Anxiety Disorders Studying Anxiety Disorders Past Issues / ... actual danger. One of the most common is social anxiety disorder. People with social phobia feel overwhelming anxiety and ...

63

Peer Victimization Among Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders.  

PubMed

This study examined peer victimization among a sample of youth who were seeking treatment at an outpatient anxiety disorders clinic. The study examined the association between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms and looked at whether frequent victimization was more common among youth with Social Phobia (SoP) as compared to youth with other anxiety disorders The study also examined the relation between SoP and peer victimization dimensionally. Participants were 90 youth (47 boys; M age = 11.06 years) and their parents. Results showed that peer victimization was associated with social anxiety symptoms, and relational victimization, in particular, was associated with internalizing problems among youth with anxiety disorders. Negative beliefs about the peer group accounted for some of this relation. Victimization was associated with symptomatology rather than diagnosis. Peer victimization is important to assess and consider in the treatment of anxiety disorders in youth. PMID:25008188

Cohen, Jeremy S; Kendall, Philip C

2014-07-10

64

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety Disorders in Youth  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Cognitive behavioral therapies (CBTs) have been shown to be efficacious for the treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Randomized clinical trials indicate that approximately two-thirds of children treated with CBT will be free of their primary diagnosis at posttreatment. Although several CBT treatment packages have been investigated in youth with diverse anxiety disorders, common core components have been identified. A comprehensive assessment, development of a good therapeutic relationship and working alliance, cognitive restructuring, repeated exposure with reduction of avoidance behavior, and skills training comprise the core procedures for the treatment of anxiety disorders in youth. PMID:21440852

Seligman, Laura D.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

2011-01-01

65

Cognitive Coping in Anxiety-Disordered Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated differences in cognitive coping strategies between anxiety-disordered and non-anxious adolescents. In addition, the interaction effect with gender as well as differences between specific anxiety diagnoses was examined. A clinical sample of 159 anxiety-disordered adolescents and a general community sample of 370…

Legerstee, Jeroen S.; Garnefski, Nadia; Verhulst, Frank C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.

2011-01-01

66

Anxiety Sensitivity and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anxiety sensitivity (AS), a cognitive risk factor for anxiety disorders, was evaluated in a homogeneous obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) sample. A total of 280 individuals with OCD completed measures. Evaluation of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index revealed a latent structure that was congruent with previous studies showing a single higher order…

Calamari, John E.; Rector, Neil A.; Woodard, John L.; Cohen, Robyn J.; Chik, Heather M.

2008-01-01

67

A European perspective on social anxiety disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic surveys conducted across Europe indicate that the lifetime prevalence of social anxiety disorder in the general population is close to 7%. The disorder in adulthood rarely presents in its `pure' form and 70–80% of patients have at least one other psychiatric disorder, most commonly depression. Social anxiety disorder is a risk factor for the development of depression and alcohol\\/substance

Y. Lecrubier; H. U. Wittchen; C. Faravelli; J. Bobes; A. Patel; M. Knapp

2000-01-01

68

Recent developments in anxiety disorders.  

PubMed

Anxiety disorders are common and debilitating mental illnesses. Current pharmacological treatments are beset by problems of poor efficacy and side effect profiles. Increasing understanding of novel neurotransmitter systems and the interplay between these systems is broadening the scope of anxiolytic drug treatment. This article aims to describe the areas of current interest and possible future development of anxiolytic drugs by outlining recent patents in this field. A patent database was searched for 17 neurotransmitters and their synonyms as well as 23 compounds of recent known interest from May 2003 to May 2005. The internet resources Pubmed and Google Scholar were searched for peer reviewed literature using the same search parameters. Results were grouped into neurotransmitter systems to present an overview of recent developments in the neuropharmacology of anxiety disorders. PMID:18221210

Christmas, David M; Hood, Sean D

2006-11-01

69

Temperament and Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Psychiatric illness is highly prevalent among children and adolescents. For example, Costello, Mustillo, Erkanli, Keeler,\\u000a and Angold (2003) psychiatrically evaluated over one thousand children aged 9 to 13 years yearly until age 16 years. The 3-month\\u000a prevalence of any disorder was 13%. However, over the course of the study, 31% of girls and 42% of boys had at least one

Elizabeth C. Winter; O. Joseph Bienvenu

70

Antidepressant Treatment in Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Antidepressant drug treatment is the clinical standard of care for all types of anxiety disorders. Broad efficacy of selective\\u000a serotonin reuptake inhibitors suggests the importance of enhanced serotonergic function of the anxiolytic properties of current\\u000a antidepressants. However, analysis of the preclinical evidence indicates that most conventional “anxiolytic” drug tests are\\u000a not sensitive to antidepressants. Such dissociation is not surprising because

Anton Y. Bespalov; Marcel M. van Gaalen; Gerhard Gross

71

Neuroproteomics: Relevance to anxiety disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite advances in the treatment of anxiety disorders, there is a need for medications with greater efficacy and fewer side\\u000a effects. Advances in techniques to facilitate high throughput, mass analysis of proteins potentially allows for new drug targets,\\u000a with a shift in focus from membrane receptor proteins and enzymes of neurotransmitter metabolism to molecules in intracellular\\u000a signal transduction and other

Joachim D. K. Uys; Dan J. Stein; Willie M. U. Daniels

2006-01-01

72

Social Anxiety Disorder and Alcohol Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social anxiety disorder—an excessive fear of social situations, such as eating or speaking in public—affects 2 to 13 percent of the U.S. population. About one-fifth of patients with social anxiety disorder also suffer from an alcohol use disorder (AUD) (i.e., alcohol abuse or dependence). One theory to explain the comorbidity between social anxiety disorder and AUDs is the tension reduction

Carrie L. Randall

73

Screening for anxiety disorders in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and have negative consequences on individual and societal level. This study examined\\u000a the usefulness of screening for anxiety disorders in primary school children. More specifically, the value of the screening\\u000a method to discriminate between and to predict anxiety disorders was studied. Children and their parents were selected if the\\u000a children had self-reported scores on the

Ellin Simon; Susan Maria Bögels

2009-01-01

74

Quality of Life in Anxiety Disorders: A Comparison of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Social Anxiety Disorder, and Panic Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is growing recognition that the anxiety disorders are disabling disorders associated with substantial morbidity and impaired quality of life (QOL). Nevertheless, there have been few studies comparing QOL across these conditions. Sampling and Methods: 337 outpatients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; n = 220), panic disorder (PD; n = 53), or social anxiety disorder (SAD; n = 64) were

Christine Lochner; Modise Mogotsi; Pieter L. du Toit; Debra Kaminer; Dana J. Niehaus; Dan J. Stein

2003-01-01

75

Does ADHD moderate the manifestation of anxiety disorders in children?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of this study was to examine the moderating effects of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on anxiety\\u000a disorders in children. Data were analyzed from a large referred sample of children with anxiety disorder without comorbid\\u000a ADHD (anxiety disorder, N = 253), anxiety disorder plus comorbid ADHD (anxiety disorder + ADHD, N = 704), and ADHD without comorbid anxiety disorder (ADHD, N = 511). Children were

Paul Hammerness; Daniel Geller; Carter Petty; Alexis Lamb; Elyssa Bristol; Joseph Biederman

2010-01-01

76

Comorbidity of anxiety disorders in patients with remitted bipolar disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comorbidity between bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders has attracted considerable attention in recent years. However,\\u000a a majority of the earlier studies examined anxiety disorders in acutely ill patients resulting in a possible confounding effect\\u000a of the affective episodes. This study examines the prevalence of anxiety disorders in remitted bipolar subjects recruited\\u000a from a psychiatric hospital in India and their effect

A. Zutshi; Y. C. Janardhan Reddy; K. Thennarasu; C. R. Chandrashekhar

2006-01-01

77

Do Co-morbid Anxiety Disorders Predict Drinking Outcomes in Women with Alcohol Use Disorders?  

PubMed Central

Aims: It is unclear whether co-morbid anxiety disorders predict worse drinking outcomes during attempts to change drinking behavior. Studies have yielded mixed results, and have rarely examined drinking outcomes based on a specific type of anxiety disorder. Women with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are of particular interest as they are at risk for co-morbid anxiety [Kessler et al. (1997) Lifetime co-occurrence of DSM-III-R alcohol abuse and dependence with other psychiatric disorders in the national co-morbidity survey. Arch Gen Psychiat 54:313–21]. Methods: Participants were 260 women with AUDs participating in an alcohol-treatment outcome studies. The Timeline Follow-Back was used to assess drinking frequency (percent days drinking)  prior, within and 6 months post-treatment. The current study tested the hypothesis that having at least one lifetime anxiety disorder diagnosed at baseline using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders would be associated with more drinking at all study time points. Exploratory analyses examined patterns of drinking outcomes by specific anxiety diagnoses. Results: Lifetime anxiety diagnosis was linked to poorer drinking outcomes post-treatment (? = 0.15, P = 0.020), despite less frequent drinking prior to treatment. Analyses by specific anxiety diagnosis indicated that generalized anxiety disorder predicted poorer drinking outcomes within treatment (? = 0.14, P = 0.018) and during follow-up (? = 0.16, P = 0.014). Conclusion: Co-morbid anxiety problems complicate treatment for AUDs among women. Further, specific anxiety disorders should be evaluated as distinct constructs as evidenced by the differential outcomes related to generalized anxiety disorder. Implications for treatment development for women with AUDs are discussed. PMID:22215000

Farris, Samantha G.; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; McCrady, Barbara S.; Hunter-Reel, Dorian

2012-01-01

78

Dysfunctional Cognitions in Children with Social Phobia, Separation Anxiety Disorder, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to cognitive theories of anxiety, anxious adults interpret ambiguous situations in a negative way: They overestimate danger and underestimate their abilities to cope with danger. The present study investigated whether children with social phobia, separation anxiety disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder have such a bias, compared to a clinical and a normal control group. Children were exposed to stories

Susan M. Bögels; Denise Zigterman

2000-01-01

79

Transdiagnostic Treatment of Bipolar Disorder and Comorbid Anxiety with the Unified Protocol: A Clinical Replication Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic, debilitating disorder with recurrent manic and depressive episodes. More than 75% of bipolar patients have a current or lifetime diagnosis of a comorbid anxiety disorder. Comorbid anxiety in BD is associated with greater illness severity, greater functional impairment, and poorer illness-related outcomes.…

Ellard, Kristen K.; Deckersbach, Thilo; Sylvia, Louisa G.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Barlow, David H.

2012-01-01

80

Development of Anxiety Disorders in a Traumatized Pediatric Population: A Preliminary Longitudinal Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The current study was conducted to determine if post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology predicted later development of non-PTSD anxiety disorders in children and adolescents victimized by interpersonal trauma. Methods: Thirty-four children with a history of interpersonal trauma and no initial diagnosis of anxiety disorder

Cortes, Adriana M.; Saltzman, Kassey M.; Weems, Carl F.; Regnault, Heather P.; Reiss, Allan L.; Carrion, Victor G.

2005-01-01

81

Antidepressants in social anxiety disorder.  

PubMed

Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a marked and persistent fear of doing almost everything in front of people due to concerns about being judge by others. An up-to-date review is needed in order to reach a practical judgement of all psychopharmacological data. Case reports, open and double-blind trials with SAD were described and commented upon from a clinical point of view. The MEDLINE system was searched from 1975 to 2001. The references from the selected papers were also used as a source. MAOIs (fenelzine, tranylcypromine), reversible monoamino oxidase-A inhibitors (moclobemide, brofaromine), SSRIs (paroxetine, sertraline, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine) and some other antidepressants (venlafaxine, nefazodone) have proven effective in several studies with various methodologies. The MAOIs have more serious adverse effects and the SSRIs have the best tolerance. SSRIs are efficacious and the first choice of treatment. PMID:11588653

Nardi, A E

2001-09-01

82

Treatment of generalized anxiety disorder.  

PubMed

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterized by chronic worry that may persist for many years. It is a debilitating disorder, and effective long-term treatment is required. Psychotherapy, particularly relaxation, cognitive therapy, and cognitive-behavioral therapy, has shown long-term benefit in GAD and may be a useful approach alone and as an adjunct to pharmacotherapeutic options. Available medications for GAD include benzodiazepine anxiolytics, buspirone, and antidepressants. Although benzodiazepines are effective as short-term anxiolytics, their use is compromised by a poor adverse event profile and, like buspirone, they lack the antidepressant efficacy important for addressing the comorbid depression experienced by many patients with GAD. Antidepressants, including paroxetine and the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor venlafaxine, are effective anxiolytics and resolve symptoms of depression in patients with GAD. The benefit of venlafaxine is sustained long term, enabling increased numbers of patients to attain remission from symptoms and experience restoration of normal functioning. Although further clinical studies are required to establish the use of psychosocial therapy in the treatment of GAD. preliminary results are encouraging. At present, the use of psychosocial therapy and second-generation antidepressants, such as some selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and venlafaxine, offer the best approach to attaining long-term benefit for patients with GAD. PMID:12044104

Gorman, Jack M

2002-01-01

83

Objective Sleep in Pediatric Anxiety Disorders and Major Depressive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study to examine sleep problems encountered in anxiety and depressive disorders among children and adolescents is conducted. Results indicated subjective and objective sleep problems in children and adolescents with anxiety disorders and need to be kept in mind when treating young anxious people.

Forbes, Erika E.; Bertocci, Michele A.; Gregory, Alice M.; Ryan, Neal D.; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Dahl, Ronald E.

2008-01-01

84

Social anxiety disorder in primary care  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo examine the prevalence, comorbidity, disability and mental health treatment associated with social anxiety disorder (SAD) in primary care, and to determine whether patients with SAD avoid seeking help from their primary care providers.

Raz Gross; Mark Olfson; Marc J. Gameroff; Steven Shea; Adriana Feder; Rafael Lantigua; Milton Fuentes; Myrna M. Weissman

2005-01-01

85

Disorder-specific cognitive profiles in major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder  

PubMed Central

Background This investigation examines differences in cognitive profiles in subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Methods Data were used from subjects with current MDD (n?=?655), GAD (n?=?107) and comorbid MDD/GAD (n?=?266) diagnosis from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). The Composite Interview Diagnostic Instrument was used to diagnose MDD and GAD. Cognitive profiles were measured using the Leiden Index of Depression Sensitivity, the Anxiety Sensitivity Index, and the Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Results Results showed that differences in cognitive profiles between single MDD and single GAD subjects were present: scores on hopelessness/suicidality and rumination were significantly higher in MDD than GAD, whereas anxiety sensitivity for physical concerns and pathological worry were higher in GAD than MDD. The cognitive profile of comorbid MDD/GAD showed more extreme depression cognitions compared to single disorders, and a similar anxiety profile compared to single GAD subjects. Conclusions Despite the commonalities in cognitive profiles in MDD and GAD, there are differences suggesting that MDD and GAD have disorder-specific cognitive profiles. Findings of this investigation give support for models like the cognitive content-specificity model and the tripartite model and could provide useful handles for treatment focus. PMID:24690413

2014-01-01

86

Late-life Anxiety Disorders: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anxiety disorders are a major clinical problem in late life; estimated prevalence rates vary from 6% to 10%, and the disease\\u000a impact is considerable and equal to that of depression. However, anxiety disorders often remain undetected and untreated in\\u000a older adults. This discrepancy may be accounted for by a combination of patient variables (eg, a lack of help-seeking behavior\\u000a and

Josien Schuurmans; Anton van Balkom

2011-01-01

87

The treatment of social anxiety disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the available treatments for social anxiety disorder, focusing primarily on psychotherapeutic interventions for adults, but also giving briefer summaries of pharmacological treatments and treatments for children and adolescents. The most well-researched psychosocial treatments for social anxiety disorder are cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBTs), and meta-analyses indicate that all forms of CBT appear likely to provide some benefit for adults. In

Thomas L. Rodebaugh; Robert M. Holaway; Richard G. Heimberg

2004-01-01

88

The path from initial inquiry to initiation of treatment for social anxiety disorder in an anxiety disorders specialty clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficacious treatments for social anxiety disorder have become increasingly available, with approximately three-quarters of treatment completers showing significant improvement [Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 55 (1998) 1133.]. However, very few individuals with social anxiety disorder access these services. The present study reports on the path to initiation of treatment for social anxiety disorder among individuals contacting an anxiety disorder specialty clinic. Of

Meredith E. Coles; Cynthia L. Turk; Lauri Jindra; Richard G. Heimberg

2004-01-01

89

Improving recognition of generalised anxiety disorder.  

PubMed

Generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) has a point prevalence of 4.4% among the adult population in England. It is characterised by a persistent, unfocused sense of threat, associated with symptoms of tension, autonomic hyperactivity and vigilance. It is a chronic relapsing condition, with a remission rate of 38% after five years. Most patients are not recognised in primary care and only a third of those identified by the 2007 household survey in England were receiving treatment. GAD is frequently comorbid with other mental health conditions; it is often difficult to establish a reliable diagnosis. Patients with GAD seldom complain of feeling overanxious and worrying excessively. GPs should be alert to the possibility of GAD when patients express frequent concerns about their health or other matters. NICE recommends a stepped care approach to treatment. The first step is to explain the nature of GAD and discuss treatment options. GPs should then offer one of the following: non-facilitated self-help, guided self-help or psychoeducation group participation. If patients have marked functional impairment or if low-intensity interventions have proved ineffective, a choice of. individual CBT or applied relaxation, or drug treatment (SSRIs) should be offered. Patients should be referred if there is: an inadequate response to high-intensity interventions or drug therapy, severe anxiety with marked functional impairment or a high risk of self-harm or suicide. PMID:21510507

Bland, Phillip

2011-03-01

90

Anxiety and defense styles in eating disorders.  

PubMed

This study investigates anxiety and defense styles in eating disorders. Seventy eating disorder (ED) patients and fifty-one female matched control subjects completed State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and 88-items Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ). ED patients were more anxious in actual situations and more anxiety prone in general. They relied on maladaptive action and Image distorting defense style. Bulimic anorexic (BAN) patients and bulimia nervosa (BN) patients differed in defense styles from restrictive anorexic (RAN) patients who displayed no significant difference in either state and trait anxiety or in defense styles when compared to healthy patients. Different levels of anxiety and ego defense maturity are present in ED patients. The almost normal ego functioning of RAN patients could be explained by pseudomaturity, tendency to control external and internal environment and the unconscious efforts to imitate normality to avoid conflicts. PMID:12955902

Vidovi?, Vesna; Henigsberg, Neven; Juresa, Vesna

2003-01-01

91

Is obsessive–compulsive disorder an anxiety disorder?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is classified as an anxiety disorder in the DSM-IV-TR [American Psychiatric Association, 2000. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, Fourth ed., rev. Washington, DC: Author]; however, the notion of a spectrum of obsessive–compulsive (OC) related disorders that is comprised of such disparate disorders as OCD, body dysmorphic disorder, certain eating disorders, pathological gambling, and autism, is

Jennifer A. Bartz; Eric Hollander

2006-01-01

92

[Anxiety disorders in DSM-5: an overview on changes in structure and content].  

PubMed

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5 (DSM-5) "anxiety, obsessive-compulsive spectrum, posttraumatic, and dissociative disorders" work group addressed reconceptualization issues regarding all anxiety-related disorders. Based on systematic literature reviews, reanalyses of available data and evaluation of results following the DSM-5 principles it was decided to rearrange the disorder spectrum into separate groupings for the classical anxiety disorders, trauma- and stressor-related disorders, obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, and dissociative disorders. Among the classical anxiety disorders DSM-5 now also includes selective mutism and separation anxiety disorder. A major change from DSM-IV is a drastically simplified classification of panic disorder and agoraphobia. Both conditions can be separately coded in DSM-5 and the overlap is disclosed by a comorbid double diagnosis. The anxiety disorder criteria have been generally harmonized regarding content and order. It was assured that criteria are applicable to all age, gender and cultural groups. Furthermore, diagnosis-specific and cross-cutting dimensional anxiety scales have been developed to supplement categorical diagnosis which appears to facilitate assessment of severity and course of treatment. PMID:24737036

Wittchen, H-U; Heinig, I; Beesdo-Baum, K

2014-05-01

93

EFFECTIVENESS OF COGNITIVE-BEHAVIOURAL GROUP THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH ANXIETY DISORDERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

he present study was motivated by the need to assess the effects of applying a group therapy programme to users of a public mental health facility who meet the clinical criteria for an anxiety disorder diagnosis. Anxiety disorders represent a large proportion of the cases referred by primary healthcare and GPs to the mental health sector. Data from the unit

Manuel Sánchez García

2004-01-01

94

Stable Early Maternal Report of Behavioral Inhibition Predicts Lifetime Social Anxiety Disorder in Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The odds of a lifetime diagnosis of social anxiety disorder increased by 3.79 times for children who had a stable report of behavioral inhibition from their mothers. This finding has important implications for the early identification and prevention of social anxiety disorder.

Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Degnan, Kathryn Amey; Pine, Daniel S.; Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Henderson, Heather A.; Diaz, Yamalis; Raggi, Veronica L.; Fox, Nathan A.

2009-01-01

95

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Comorbid Anxiety Problems in a National Anxiety Screening Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Questionnaire data were obtained from 5867 participants attending a national anxiety screening program. These participants were selected from more than 15,000 respondents on the basis of never having received treatment for a mental health problem. A screening instrument was designed to assess five anxiety disorders (obsessive-compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, and panic disorder). The present

Lawrence A Welkowitz; Elmer L Struening; John Pittman; Mary Guardino; Joan Welkowitz

2000-01-01

96

AnxietyDisorders National Institute of Mental Health  

E-print Network

illnesses, including alcohol or substance abuse, which may mask anxiety symptoms or make them worse. In some. Thefollowinganxietydisordersarediscussedinthisbrochure: panic disorder, obsessivecompulsive disorder (OCD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), social

Baker, Chris I.

97

Facing the challenge of social anxiety disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social anxiety disorder is a serious and prevalent disorder that leads to significant disability in the social and professional lives of patients. It is a chronic condition that frequently coexists with other psychiatric conditions such as depression or alcoholism. Pharmacotherapy with benzodiazepines, monoamine oxidase inhibitors and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has been assessed. Alprazolam has modest efficacy, while a

Herman G. M. Westenberg

1999-01-01

98

New Psychotherapies for Mood and Anxiety Disorders  

PubMed Central

Objective To discuss psychotherapies for depression and anxiety that have emerged in recent years and to evaluate their current level of empirical support. Method An electronic and a manual literature search of psychotherapies for mood and anxiety disorders were conducted. Results Five new therapies for mood disorders and 3 interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder with co-occurring substance abuse met criteria for inclusion in this review. Fewer psychotherapies have been developed for other anxiety disorders. Although research for some of the psychotherapies has demonstrated superiority to usual care, none have firmly established efficacy or specific benefits over other established psychotherapies. Conclusions A plurality of the new psychotherapies introduced and established in the past 5 years have been different assimilations of previously established cognitive-behavioural, interpersonal, or psychodynamic models. While initial results are promising for some, more rigorous efficacy trials and replications are necessary before conclusions can be drawn regarding their relative benefits. PMID:20416142

Stirman, Shannon Wiltsey; Toder, Katherine; Crits-Christoph, Paul

2010-01-01

99

Parenting and Child Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a What role does parenting play in the development, maintenance, and amelioration of child anxiety? In this chapter, we address\\u000a this question by reviewing the current state of knowledge regarding the nature and direction of the relationship between parenting\\u000a and child anxiety. Numerous theoretical models outline the role that various parenting practices may play in the development,\\u000a maintenance, and amelioration of

Bryce D. McLeod; Jeffrey J. Wood; Shelley B. Avny

100

[Pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy of comorbid anxiety disorders and alcoholism].  

PubMed

Anxiety disorders commonly co-occur with substance use disorders. It is known that alcohol-dependent patients are at greater risk of a relapse if they have a comorbid anxiety disorder. There is a lot of literature reporting on the efficacy of treatments that target anxiety or alcohol addiction separately but less research has examined treatments that address these disorders when they co-occur. Anxiety treatment for alcohol-dependent patients with a co-occuring anxiety disorder can alleviate anxiety symptoms but has no significant effect on the outcomes of alcohol treatment. Efficient combinations of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy can improve outcomes of comorbid disorders. PMID:23887470

Fedorova, S S

2013-01-01

101

Physiologic instability in panic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Because panic attacks can be accompanied by surges in physiologic activation, we tested the hypothesis that panic disorder is characterized by fluctuations of physiologic variables in the absence of external triggers.Methods: Sixteen patients with panic disorder, 15 with generalized anxiety disorder, and 19 normal control subjects were asked to sit quietly for 30 min. Electrodermal, cardiovascular, and respiratory measures

Frank H. Wilhelm; Werner Trabert; Walton T. Roth

2001-01-01

102

Anxiety Disorders are Associated with Reduced Heart Rate Variability: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Anxiety disorders increase risk of future cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality, even after controlling for confounds including smoking, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status, and irrespective of a history of medical disorders. While impaired vagal function, indicated by reductions in heart rate variability (HRV), may be one mechanism linking anxiety disorders to CVD, prior studies have reported inconsistent findings highlighting the need for meta-analysis. Method: Studies comparing resting-state HRV recordings in patients with an anxiety disorder as a primary diagnosis and healthy controls were considered for meta-analysis. Results: Meta-analyses were based on 36 articles, including 2086 patients with an anxiety disorder and 2294 controls. Overall, anxiety disorders were characterized by lower HRV [high frequency (HF): Hedges’ g?=??0.29. 95% CI: ?0.41 to ?0.17, p?disorder (n?=?447), post-traumatic stress disorder (n?=?192), generalized anxiety disorder (n?=?68), and social anxiety disorder (n?=?90), but not obsessive–compulsive disorder (n?=?40), displayed reductions in HF HRV relative to controls (all ps?Anxiety disorders are associated with reduced HRV, findings associated with a small-to-moderate effect size. Findings have important implications for future physical health and well-being of patients, highlighting a need for comprehensive cardiovascular risk reduction. PMID:25071612

Chalmers, John A.; Quintana, Daniel S.; Abbott, Maree J.-Anne; Kemp, Andrew H.

2014-01-01

103

National Institute of Mental Health Generalized Anxiety Disorder  

E-print Network

National Institute of Mental Health Generalized Anxiety Disorder: When Worry Gets Out of Control will always go badly? If so, you may have an anxiety disorder called generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). #12 they have this disorder.They ask their doctors to help them with headaches or trouble falling asleep, which

Bandettini, Peter A.

104

Case-Series Evaluating a Transdiagnostic Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment for Co-occurring Anxiety Disorders.  

PubMed

Background: Patients with anxiety disorder diagnoses commonly have more than one anxiety diagnosis. While cognitive-behavioural interventions have proven efficacy in treating single anxiety disorder diagnoses, there has been little investigation of their efficacy in treating co-occurring anxiety disorders. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of a transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioural intervention for treating co-occurring anxiety disorders. Method: An A-B single case study design (N = 6) was used to evaluate the efficacy of a 12 to 13-session modular transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioural intervention for treating co-occurring anxiety disorders across patients with at least two of the following diagnoses: GAD, Social Phobia, Panic Disorder and/or OCD. Results: Five of the six participants completed treatment. At posttreatment assessment the five treatment completers achieved diagnostic and symptomatic change, with three participants being diagnosis free. All participants who completed treatment no longer met criteria for any DSM-IV-TR Axis-I diagnosis at the 3-month follow-up assessment, and demonstrated reliable and clinically-significant improvements in symptoms. Across the participants, statistically significant improvements from pre to postintervention were found on measures of anxiety, depression and general well-being, and all improvements were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Conclusions: Results suggest that transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural interventions can be of benefit to patients with co-occurring anxiety disorders. PMID:25362937

McManus, Freda; Clark, Gavin; Muse, Kate; Shafran, Roz

2014-11-01

105

Clinical characteristics of high-functioning youth with autism spectrum disorder and anxiety  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Aim & methods Clinical characteristics were examined in 108 high-functioning youth (children with a full IQ scale of at least 70) with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD; aged 7–15 years) who were presenting for inclusion in one of four clinical trials examining the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy in youth with ASD and anxiety. Results We present baseline characteristics of this cohort, including prevalence rates of anxiety and comorbid disorders, and correlates of anxiety (e.g., comorbid diagnoses, impairment, anxiety severity and mental health services received) as a function of age and ASD diagnosis in treatment-seeking youth. Primary anxiety disorders were: 41.7% (n = 45) social phobia, 25.9% (n = 28) generalized anxiety disorder, 15.7% (n = 17) separation anxiety disorder, 12.0% (n = 13) obsessive–compulsive disorder and 4.6% (n = 5) specific phobia. Overall, 91.6% of participants (n = 99) met criteria for two or more anxiety disorders. Parents reported considerable functional impairment as measured by the Columbia Impairment Scale and anxiety severity as measured by the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale; this did not statistically differ as a function of ASD diagnosis or age. Anxiety severity, the number of comorbid anxiety diagnoses and total comorbid diagnoses were directly associated with parent-reported child impairment. Youth with ASD and anxiety present as a heterogeneous cohort with significant impairments and complex diagnostic presentations. Conclusion These data provide information about the nature of anxiety in youth with ASD, which may foster the development of tailored treatment protocols. PMID:24179485

Ung, Danielle; Wood, Jeffrey J; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Arnold, Elysse B; Fuji, Cori; Renno, Patricia; Murphy, Tanya K; Lewin, Adam B; Mutch, P Jane; Storch, Eric A

2013-01-01

106

Efficacy of olanzapine in social anxiety disorder: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on evidence suggesting anxiolytic properties of the atypical antipsychotic olanzapine, this study was conducted to evaluate whether olanzapine may be efficacious in treating social anxiety disorder (SAD). This study was an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of olanzapine as monotherapy in which 12 patients with the DSM-IV diagnosis of SAD were randomized to either olanzapine (n= 7) or placebo (n=

Stewart D. Barnett; Michelle L. Kramer; Charles D. Casat; Kathryn M. Connor; Jonathan R. T. Davidson

2002-01-01

107

Assessment and treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents.  

PubMed

This article reviews the current screening and assessment tools for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents, as well as evidence-based treatment interventions for these disorders. The following anxiety disorders are discussed: separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder (social phobia), and selective mutism. There are several well-studied screening and assessment tools to identify childhood anxiety disorders early and differentiate the various anxiety disorders. Evaluations of baseline somatic symptoms, severity, and impairment ratings of the anxiety disorders, and collecting ratings from several sources is clinically helpful in assessment and treatment follow-up. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been extensively studied and has shown good efficacy in treatment of childhood anxiety disorders. A combination of CBT and medication may be required for moderate to severely impairing anxiety disorders and may improve functioning better than either intervention alone. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are currently the only medications that have consistently shown efficacy in treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Despite proven efficacy, the availability of CBT in the community is limited. Current research is focusing on early identification of anxiety disorders in community settings, increasing the availability of evidence-based interventions, and modification of interventions for specific populations. PMID:21225481

Connolly, Sucheta D; Suarez, Liza; Sylvester, Carrie

2011-04-01

108

Anxiety disorder symptoms in chinese preschool children.  

PubMed

The present study investigated anxiety disorder symptoms in Chinese preschool children. A total of 1,854 mothers of children aged 3-6 years completed the 28-item Chinese version of Spence Preschool Anxiety Scale (PAS). Results demonstrated that the structure of anxiety in Chinese preschool children included five factors, and this five-factor structure applied to different age and gender groups. Inconsistent with the study by Edwards et al. (J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 39:400-409, 2010) suggesting that obsessive-compulsive disorder did not comprise an independent factor in Australian preschoolers, this symptom can be viewed as an independent factor in Chinese preschoolers. Younger children displayed higher anxiety levels than older children. Anxiety symptoms of Chinese preschoolers were found at a high level compared to other studies. Substantial differences were found with regard to the content of prevalent anxiety symptoms among Chinese and Australian preschool children. The applicability of the five-factor structure of PAS and research implications are discussed. PMID:24668567

Wang, Meifang; Zhao, Jinxia

2015-02-01

109

Anxiety disorders in African-American and white children  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are little available data on African-American children with anxiety disorders. Treatment-seeking African-American (n=30) and white children (n=139), with a current DSM-III-R anxiety disorder, were compared on sociodemographic background variables, clinical characteristics, and lifetime rates of specific DSM-III-R anxiety disorders. Overall, results suggested that the anxiety-disordered African-American and white children who sought treatment from an outpatient mental health facility were

Cynthia G. Last; Sean Perrin

1993-01-01

110

Preschool Anxiety Disorders in Pediatric Primary Care: Prevalence and Comorbidity  

PubMed Central

Objective We sought to establish prevalence rates and detail patterns of comorbidity for generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, and social phobia, in preschool aged children. Method The Duke Preschool Anxiety Study, a screen-stratified, cross-sectional study, drew from pediatric primary-care and oversampled for children at risk for anxiety. 917 parents of preschoolers (aged 2 to 5 years) completed the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment. Results Generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, and social phobia are common in preschool-aged children attending pediatric primary care. Three quarters of preschoolers with an anxiety disorder only had a single anxiety disorder. Generalized anxiety disorder displayed the greatest degree of comorbidity: with separation anxiety disorder (odds ratio [OR] = 4.1, 95% CI, 2.0–8.5), social phobia (OR = 6.4, 95% CI, 3.1–13.4), disruptive behavior disorders (OR = 5.1, 95% CI, 1.6–15.8), and depression (OR = 3.7, 95% CI, 1.1–12.4). Conclusions The weakness of association between generalized anxiety disorder and depression stands in contrast to substantial associations between these 2 disorders reported in older individuals. Attenuated associations in preschool aged children could translate into clinical opportunities for targeted early interventions, aimed at modifying the developmental trajectory of anxiety disorders. PMID:24290462

Franz, Lauren; Angold, Adrian; Copeland, William; Costello, E. Jane; Towe-Goodman, Nissa; Egger, Helen

2013-01-01

111

The developmental psychopathology of social anxiety disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of developmental theory and developmental psychopathology in understanding the development, maintenance, and course of social anxiety disorder (SAD) is explored in this article. Following a brief examination of the phenomenology of SAD in youth, we provide an overview of the tenets of developmental psychology and developmental psychopathology, including the principles of equifinality (i.e., the same outcome can result

Thomas H Ollendick; Dina R Hirshfeld-Becker

2002-01-01

112

Emotion Regulation in Children with Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined emotion management skills in addition to the role of emotional intensity and self-efficacy in emotion regulation in 26 children with anxiety disorders (ADs) ages 8 to 12 years and their counterparts without any form of psychopathology. Children completed the Children's Emotion Management Scales (CEMS) and Emotion Regulation…

Suveg, Cynthia; Zeman, Janice

2004-01-01

113

Anxiety disorders in Parkinson's disease: prevalence and risk factors.  

PubMed

Anxiety disorders are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, yet are poorly studied. We examined the prevalence of anxiety disorders in PD, investigated the association between anxiety, and presentation and progression of PD, and studied for the first time the contribution of putative risk factors for anxiety in PD. A case-series of 79 PD patients recruited from neurology out-patient clinics was examined for anxiety disorders using the DSM-IV criteria. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and the Hoehn and Yahr Staging of PD were employed to understand the relationship between anxiety disorders, and the clinical presentation and severity of PD. A validated survey assessed putative risk factors for anxiety in PD. Twenty-five percent of PD patients were diagnosed with anxiety. Panic disorder, generalised anxiety disorder and social phobia were prevalent anxiety disorders. Comorbid depression with anxiety was observed (14%). The severity but not the duration of PD was positively related to anxiety. PD patients with postural instability and gait dysfunction symptom clustering were more likely to experience anxiety than tremor-dominant patients. While levodopa dosage had no relationship to anxiety, experience of dyskinesias or on/off fluctuations increased the risk. Lateralisation of PD had no association with anxiety. Anxiety disorders decreased with age and young onset PD patients were more likely to experience anxiety than the late onset subjects. Anxiety adds to the complexity of PD, lowering patients' quality of life. Future research can be directed to identify reactive and organic nature of anxiety in PD. PMID:20461800

Dissanayaka, Nadeeka N W; Sellbach, Anna; Matheson, Sally; O'Sullivan, John D; Silburn, Peter A; Byrne, Gerard J; Marsh, Rodney; Mellick, George D

2010-05-15

114

Diagnosis of Seizure Disorders  

PubMed Central

The author addresses the diagnosis of seizure disorders by discussing clinical features of the different types of seizures, including generalized tonic-clonic, absence, myoclonic, partial complex seizures, and non-epileptic or “pseudoseizures.” She also discusses the use of appropriate laboratory tests, electroencephalography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomographic scanning. The rationale of and approach to treatment of these conditions with some of the common anticonvulsant drugs (phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproic acid, phenobarbital, and primidone) is provided. PMID:21234044

Purves, Sherrill J.

1990-01-01

115

Meta-Analysis of the Relations of Anxiety Sensitivity to the Depressive and Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a substantial literature relating the personality trait "anxiety sensitivity" (AS; tendency to fear anxiety-related sensations) and its lower order dimensions to the mood and anxiety (i.e., internalizing) disorders. However, particularly given the disorders' high comorbidity rates, it remains unclear whether AS is broadly related to these…

Naragon-Gainey, Kristin

2010-01-01

116

Behavioral avoidance mediates the relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms among social anxiety disorder patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationship between social anxiety, depressive symptoms, and behavioral avoidance among adult patients with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). Epidemiological literature shows SAD is the most common comorbid disorder associated with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), though the relationship between these disorders has not been investigated. In most cases, SAD onset precedes MDD, suggesting symptoms associated with SAD might

Ethan Moitra; James D. Herbert; Evan M. Forman

2008-01-01

117

Automaticity in Anxiety Disorders and Major Depressive Disorder  

PubMed Central

In this paper we examine the nature of automatic cognitive processing in anxiety disorders and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Rather than viewing automaticity as a unitary construct, we follow a social cognition perspective (Bargh, 1994) that argues for four theoretically independent features of automaticity: unconscious (processing of emotional stimuli occurs outside awareness), efficient (processing emotional meaning uses minimal attentional resources), unintentional (no goal is needed to engage in processing emotional meaning), and uncontrollable (limited ability to avoid, alter or terminate processing emotional stimuli). Our review of the literature suggests that most anxiety disorders are characterized by uncontrollable, and likely also unconscious and unintentional, biased processing of threat-relevant information. In contrast, MDD is most clearly typified by uncontrollable, but not unconscious or unintentional, processing of negative information. For the anxiety disorders and for MDD, there is not sufficient evidence to draw firm conclusions about efficiency of processing, though early indications are that neither anxiety disorders nor MDD are characterized by this feature. Clinical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed and directions for future research are offered. In particular, it is clear that paradigms that more directly delineate the different features of automaticity are required to gain a more comprehensive and systematic understanding of the importance of automatic processing in emotion dysregulation. PMID:22858684

Teachman, Bethany A.; Joormann, Jutta; Steinman, Shari; Gotlib, Ian H.

2012-01-01

118

Psychological Treatment of Social Anxiety Disorder Improves Body Dysmorphic Concerns  

PubMed Central

Social anxiety disorder and body dysmorphic disorder are considered nosologically distinct disorders In contrast, some cognitive models suggest that social anxiety disorder and body dysmorphic disorder share similar cognitive maintenance factors. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of psychological treatments for social anxiety disorder on body dysmorphic disorder concerns. In Study 1, we found that 12 weekly group sessions of cognitive-behavioral therapy led to significant decreases in body dysmorphic symptom severity. In Study 2, we found that an attention retraining intervention for social anxiety disorder was associated with a reduction in body dysmorphic concerns, compared to a placebo control condition. These findings support the notion that psychological treatments for individuals with primary social anxiety disorder improve co-occurring body dysmorphic disorder symptoms. PMID:24121100

Fang, Angela; Sawyer, Alice T.; Aderka, Idan M.; Hofmann, Stefan G.

2013-01-01

119

Psychological treatment of social anxiety disorder improves body dysmorphic concerns.  

PubMed

Social anxiety disorder and body dysmorphic disorder are considered nosologically distinct disorders. In contrast, some cognitive models suggest that social anxiety disorder and body dysmorphic disorder share similar cognitive maintenance factors. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of psychological treatments for social anxiety disorder on body dysmorphic disorder concerns. In Study 1, we found that 12 weekly group sessions of cognitive-behavioral therapy led to significant decreases in body dysmorphic symptom severity. In Study 2, we found that an attention retraining intervention for social anxiety disorder was associated with a reduction in body dysmorphic concerns, compared to a placebo control condition. These findings support the notion that psychological treatments for individuals with primary social anxiety disorder improve co-occurring body dysmorphic disorder symptoms. PMID:24121100

Fang, Angela; Sawyer, Alice T; Aderka, Idan M; Hofmann, Stefan G

2013-10-01

120

Pathological worry, anxiety disorders and the impact of co-occurrence with depressive and other anxiety disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) was administered to 123 outpatients with principal diagnoses of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), panic disorder with agoraphobia, and panic disorder without agoraphobia (PD) to examine the specificity of pathological worry for GAD. The mean PSWQ scores in patients with GAD and SAD were significantly higher than the mean PSWQ scores

Vladan Starcevic; David Berle; Denise Milicevic; Anthony Hannan; Claire Lamplugh; Guy D. Eslick

2007-01-01

121

Sensitivity and Specificity of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED): A Community-Based Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this cross-sectional community-based study was to examine the sensitivity and specificity of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) to the diagnosis of anxiety disorders (AD). Participants were 119 students aged 9-18. Psychiatric diagnoses were assessed by a psychiatrist throughout a structural clinical…

DeSousa, Diogo Araujo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahao; Isolan, Luciano Rassier; Manfro, Gisele Gus

2013-01-01

122

Correlates of comorbid anxiety and externalizing disorders in childhood obsessive compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

The present study examines the influence of diagnostic comorbidity on the demographic, psychiatric, and functional status of youth with a primary diagnosis of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Two hundred and fifteen children (ages 5–17) referred to a university-based OCD specialty clinic were compared based on DSM-IV diagnostic profile: OCD without comorbid anxiety or externalizing disorder, OCD plus anxiety disorder, and OCD plus externalizing disorder. No age or gender differences were found across groups. Higher OCD severity was found for the OCD + ANX group, while the OCD + EXT group reported greater functional impairment than the other two groups. Lower family cohesion was reported by the OCD + EXT group compared to the OCD group and the OCD + ANX group reported higher family conflict compared to the OCD + EXT group. The OCD + ANX group had significantly lower rates of tic disorders while rates of depressive disorders did not differ among the three groups. The presence of comorbid anxiety and externalizing psychopathology are associated with greater symptom severity and functional and family impairment and underscores the importance of a better understanding of the relationship of OCD characteristics and associated disorders. Results and clinical implications are further discussed. PMID:20349255

Lewin, Adam B.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Lee, Joyce C.; Piacentini, John

2010-01-01

123

Familial and Temperamental Risk Factors for Social Anxiety Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common disorder that can lead to significant impairment. In this chapter, the author provides background on the disorder and reviews hypothesized familial and temperamental risk factors. In particular, it highlights the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Longitudinal Study of Children at Risk for Anxiety, now…

Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R.

2010-01-01

124

Cognitive, affective, and behavioral characteristics of mothers with anxiety disorders in the context of child anxiety disorder.  

PubMed

Parental emotional distress, particularly high maternal anxiety, is one of the most consistent predictors of child anxiety treatment outcome. In order to identify the cognitive, affective, and behavioral parenting characteristics of mothers of children with anxiety disorders who themselves have an anxiety disorder, we assessed the expectations, appraisals, and behaviors of 88 mothers of anxious children (44 mothers who were not anxious [NONANX] and 44 mothers with a current anxiety disorder [ANX]) when interacting with their 7-12-year-old children. There were no observed differences in anxiety and avoidance among children of ANX and NONANX mothers, but, compared with NONANX mothers, ANX mothers held more negative expectations, and they differed on observations of intrusiveness, expressed anxiety, warmth, and the quality of the relationship. Associations were moderated by the degree to which children expressed anxiety during the tasks. Maternal-reported negative emotions during the task significantly mediated the association between maternal anxiety status and the observed quality of the relationship. These findings suggest that maternal anxiety disorder is associated with reduced tolerance of children's negative emotions. This may interfere with the maintenance of a positive, supportive mother-child interaction under conditions of stress and, as such, this may impede optimum treatment outcomes. The findings identify potential cognitive, affective, and behavioral targets to improve treatment outcomes for children with anxiety disorders in the context of a current maternal anxiety disorder. PMID:22905861

Creswell, Cathy; Apetroaia, Adela; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter

2013-02-01

125

Childrearing style of anxiety-disordered parents.  

PubMed

This study investigated whether anxiety-disordered (AD) parents differ in their childrearing style from non-disordered parents. A clinical sample of 36 AD parents with children aged 6-18 was compared with a normal control sample of 36 parents. Childrearing was assessed through parent report and child report. The results demonstrated significant differences in childrearing style between AD parents and non-disordered control parents, both from the perspective of the parent and from that of the child. AD parents reported a less nurturing and more restrictive rearing style than control parents. Their children did not report more rejection or less warmth than children of control parents; they did, however, report significantly more overprotection than children of control parents. The findings, from parental as well as child reports, apply to both AD mothers and AD fathers. PMID:16775762

Lindhout, Ingeborg; Markus, Monica; Hoogendijk, Thea; Borst, Sophie; Maingay, Ragna; Spinhoven, Philip; van Dyck, Richard; Boer, Frits

2006-01-01

126

Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Other Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There has been debate about whether obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) should be classified as one of the anxiety disorders, or should rather be categorized with obsessive-compulsive spectrum conditions. Sampling and Methods: The question of where OCD should be located in the diagnostic system was addressed by investigating the relationship of OCD, obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSDs), and anxiety disorders. We administered

Christine Lochner; Dan J. Stein

2010-01-01

127

Assessment and management of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents.  

PubMed

Anxiety disorders in childhood and adolescence are extremely common and are often associated with lifelong psychiatric disturbance. Consistent with DSM-5 and the extant literature, this review concerns the assessment and treatment of specific phobias, separation anxiety disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder and agoraphobia. Evidence-based psychological treatments (cognitive behaviour therapy; CBT) for these disorders have been developed and investigated, and in recent years promising low-intensity versions of CBT interventions have been proposed that offer a means to increase access to evidence-based treatments. There is some evidence of effectiveness of pharmacological treatments for anxiety disorders in children and young people, however, routine prescription is not recommended due to concerns about potential harm. PMID:24636957

Creswell, Cathy; Waite, Polly; Cooper, Peter J

2014-07-01

128

Assessment and management of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents  

PubMed Central

Anxiety disorders in childhood and adolescence are extremely common and are often associated with lifelong psychiatric disturbance. Consistent with DSM-5 and the extant literature, this review concerns the assessment and treatment of specific phobias, separation anxiety disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder and agoraphobia. Evidence-based psychological treatments (cognitive behaviour therapy; CBT) for these disorders have been developed and investigated, and in recent years promising low-intensity versions of CBT interventions have been proposed that offer a means to increase access to evidence-based treatments. There is some evidence of effectiveness of pharmacological treatments for anxiety disorders in children and young people, however, routine prescription is not recommended due to concerns about potential harm. PMID:24636957

Creswell, Cathy; Waite, Polly; Cooper, Peter J

2014-01-01

129

Emotion Dysregulation in Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Comparison with Social Anxiety Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

From an emotion regulation framework, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) can be conceptualized as a syndrome involving heightened intensity of subjective emotional experience, poor understanding of emotion, negative reactivity to emotional experience, and the use of maladaptive emotion management strategies (including over-reliance on cognitive control strategies such as worry). The current study sought to replicate previous findings of emotion dysregulation among

Cynthia L. Turk; Richard G. Heimberg; Jane A. Luterek; Douglas S. Mennin; David M. Fresco

2005-01-01

130

Anxiety in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anxiety and poor stress management are common concerns in clinical samples of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Anxiety may worsen during adolescence, as young people face an increasingly complex social milieu and often become more aware of their differences and interpersonal difficulties. This review summarizes the state of research on the prevalence, phenomenology, and treatment of anxiety in youth

Susan W. White; Donald Oswald; Thomas Ollendick; Lawrence Scahill

2009-01-01

131

Anxiety Sensitivity in Children of Panic Disorder Patients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anxiety sensitivity (AS), which refers to the tendency to interpret anxiety-related bodily sensations as having potentially harmful somatic, psychological or social consequences, has been proposed as a vulnerability factor for the development of panic disorder (PD). The current study examined the anxiety sensitivity levels in children of parents…

van Beek, N.; Perna, G.; Schruers, K.; Muris, P.; Griez, E.

2005-01-01

132

Body image in social anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and panic disorder.  

PubMed

Body dysmorphic disorder falls under the category of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, yet research has suggested it may also be highly associated with social anxiety disorder. The current study examined body image variables among 68 outpatients with primary obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; n=22), social anxiety disorder (SAD; n=25), and panic disorder (PD; n=21). Participants filled out self-report measures of body image disturbance, attitudes toward one's appearance, and anxiety. Body image disturbance and attitudes toward appearance did not significantly differ between the groups. However, SAD symptoms predicted body image disturbance, Appearance Evaluation and Body Areas Satisfaction, and OCD symptoms predicted Appearance Orientation. These findings suggest that SAD and OCD may be associated with different facets of body image. Implications for the treatment of anxiety disorders and for future research are discussed. PMID:24095651

Aderka, Idan M; Gutner, Cassidy A; Lazarov, Amit; Hermesh, Haggai; Hofmann, Stefan G; Marom, Sofi

2014-01-01

133

The hyperventilation syndrome in panic disorder, agoraphobia and generalized anxiety disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The symptom complex of panic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder suggests an etiological role for hyperventilation. The present study investigates the overlap between DSM-III-R panic disorder, panic disorder with agoraphobia and generalized anxiety disorder with hyperventilation syndrome (HVS). The anxiety disorder diagnoses were based on a structured interview, and HVS determined by the so-called hyperventilation provocation test (a brief period

Ruiter de C; B. Garssen; H. Rijken; F. Kraaimaat

1989-01-01

134

Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is considerable evidence that children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are at increased risk of anxiety and anxiety disorders. However, it is less clear which of the specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders occur most in this population. The present study used meta-analytic techniques to help clarify this issue. A systematic…

van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; Perrin, Sean

2011-01-01

135

Episodic memories in anxiety disorders: clinical implications.  

PubMed

The aim of this review is to summarize research on the emerging role of episodic memories in the context of anxiety disorders (AD). The available literature on explicit, autobiographical, and episodic memory function in AD including neuroimaging studies is critically discussed. We describe the methodological diversity of episodic memory research in AD and discuss the need for novel tests to measure episodic memory in a clinical setting. We argue that alterations in episodic memory functions might contribute to the etiology of AD. We further explain why future research on the interplay between episodic memory function and emotional disorders as well as its neuroanatomical foundations offers the promise to increase the effectiveness of modern psychological treatments. We conclude that one major task is to develop methods and training programs that might help patients suffering from AD to better understand, interpret, and possibly actively use their episodic memories in a way that would support therapeutic interventions and counteract the occurrence of symptoms. PMID:24795583

Zlomuzica, Armin; Dere, Dorothea; Machulska, Alla; Adolph, Dirk; Dere, Ekrem; Margraf, Jürgen

2014-01-01

136

Neural circuits in anxiety and stress disorders: a focused review  

PubMed Central

Anxiety and stress disorders are among the most prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders. In recent years, multiple studies have examined brain regions and networks involved in anxiety symptomatology in an effort to better understand the mechanisms involved and to develop more effective treatments. However, much remains unknown regarding the specific abnormalities and interactions between networks of regions underlying anxiety disorder presentations. We examined recent neuroimaging literature that aims to identify neural mechanisms underlying anxiety, searching for patterns of neural dysfunction that might be specific to different anxiety disorder categories. Across different anxiety and stress disorders, patterns of hyperactivation in emotion-generating regions and hypoactivation in prefrontal/regulatory regions are common in the literature. Interestingly, evidence of differential patterns is also emerging, such that within a spectrum of disorders ranging from more fear-based to more anxiety-based, greater involvement of emotion-generating regions is reported in panic disorder and specific phobia, and greater involvement of prefrontal regions is reported in generalized anxiety disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. We summarize the pertinent literature and suggest areas for continued investigation.

Duval, Elizabeth R; Javanbakht, Arash; Liberzon, Israel

2015-01-01

137

The extent of social anxiety in combination with mental disorders.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate the extent of social anxiety in different mental disorders. A total of 341 patients aged 7-18 years participated in the study. To measure social anxiety, the German version (SPAIK) of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C) was used. Subgroups were built dependent on mental disorders. A total score above 20, which was assumed to indicate social anxiety, was observed in children with selective mutism (n = 9; M = 22.68; SD = 11.29) and in children with Asperger's Syndrome (n = 7; M = 20.77; SD = 13.77). Patients who had the following mental disorders also showed a higher total score of social anxiety: obsessive-compulsive disorder, anorexia nervosa, schizophrenia, depression and conduct disorder. In none of these disorders, however, did the mean total score exceed the cut-off of 20. PMID:16523252

Melfsen, Siebke; Walitza, Susanne; Warnke, Andreas

2006-03-01

138

The Neurocircuitry of Fear, Stress, and Anxiety Disorders  

PubMed Central

Anxiety disorders are a significant problem in the community, and recent neuroimaging research has focused on determining the brain circuits that underlie them. Research on the neurocircuitry of anxiety disorders has its roots in the study of fear circuits in animal models and the study of brain responses to emotional stimuli in healthy humans. We review this research, as well as neuroimaging studies of anxiety disorders. In general, these studies have reported relatively heightened amygdala activation in response to disorder-relevant stimuli in post-traumatic stress disorder, social phobia, and specific phobia. Activation in the insular cortex appears to be heightened in many of the anxiety disorders. Unlike other anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder is associated with diminished responsivity in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex and adjacent ventral medial prefrontal cortex. Additional research will be needed to (1) clarify the exact role of each component of the fear circuitry in the anxiety disorders, (2) determine whether functional abnormalities identified in the anxiety disorders represent acquired signs of the disorders or vulnerability factors that increase the risk of developing them, (3) link the findings of functional neuroimaging studies with those of neurochemistry studies, and (4) use functional neuroimaging to predict treatment response and assess treatment-related changes in brain function. PMID:19625997

Shin, Lisa M; Liberzon, Israel

2010-01-01

139

The neurocircuitry of fear, stress, and anxiety disorders.  

PubMed

Anxiety disorders are a significant problem in the community, and recent neuroimaging research has focused on determining the brain circuits that underlie them. Research on the neurocircuitry of anxiety disorders has its roots in the study of fear circuits in animal models and the study of brain responses to emotional stimuli in healthy humans. We review this research, as well as neuroimaging studies of anxiety disorders. In general, these studies have reported relatively heightened amygdala activation in response to disorder-relevant stimuli in post-traumatic stress disorder, social phobia, and specific phobia. Activation in the insular cortex appears to be heightened in many of the anxiety disorders. Unlike other anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder is associated with diminished responsivity in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex and adjacent ventral medial prefrontal cortex. Additional research will be needed to (1) clarify the exact role of each component of the fear circuitry in the anxiety disorders, (2) determine whether functional abnormalities identified in the anxiety disorders represent acquired signs of the disorders or vulnerability factors that increase the risk of developing them, (3) link the findings of functional neuroimaging studies with those of neurochemistry studies, and (4) use functional neuroimaging to predict treatment response and assess treatment-related changes in brain function. PMID:19625997

Shin, Lisa M; Liberzon, Israel

2010-01-01

140

Temperament, Attentional Processes, and Anxiety: Diverging Links between Adolescents with and without Anxiety Disorders?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study first examined the links between reactive temperament (negative affectivity), regulative temperament (effortful control [EC]) and internalizing problems in adolescents (12-18 years) with anxiety disorders (ANX; N = 39) and without anxiety disorders (nANX; N = 35). Links differed between ANX and nANX participants. Negative…

Vervoort, Leentje; Wolters, Lidewij H.; Hogendoorn, Sanne M.; Prins, Pier J.; de Haan, Else; Boer, Frits; Hartman, Catharina A.

2011-01-01

141

The relationships between perfectionism, pathological worry and generalised anxiety disorder  

PubMed Central

Background The relationships between perfectionism, pathological worry and generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) were investigated in a clinical sample presenting for treatment of perfectionism. Method This study explored the utility of perfectionism in predicting pathological worry in a sample of individuals with elevated perfectionism and GAD (n?=?36). Following this, the study examined whether perfectionism could predict a principal GAD diagnosis in the full sample (n?=?42). Results Scores on the perfectionism dimensions Concern over Mistakes, Personal Standards, and Clinical Perfectionism significantly predicted pathological worry among participants with GAD after controlling for gender and depression. The perfectionism dimension Doubts about Actions significantly predicted whether individuals from the full sample received a principal diagnosis of GAD. Conclusions These findings support certain dimensions of perfectionism having significant associations with pathological worry and GAD. PMID:24693946

2014-01-01

142

Generalized Anxiety Disorder in Referred Children and Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: There are insufficient data on generalized anxiety disorder in children and adolescents. Symptoms and comorbidity of generalized anxiety disorder are described as a function of age, gender, and comorbidity in a consecutive series of referred children and adolescents. Method: One hundred fifty-seven outpatients (97 males and 60 females,…

Masi, Gabriele; Millepiedi, Stefania; Mucci, Maria; Poli, Paola; Bertini, Nicoletta; Milantoni, Luca

2004-01-01

143

Publication trends in individual anxiety disorders: 1980–2015  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the current study was to examine trends in anxiety disorder publication over the past 25 years, and to project likely future trends from these. Medline searches were used to find a representative sample of the total number of journal articles published each year from 1980 to 2005 that were focused on each particular anxiety disorder. Results demonstrated

Mark J. Boschen

2008-01-01

144

Cognitive Bias in Adolescents With Social Anxiety Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Judgmental biases for threat-relevant stimuli are thought to be important mechanisms underlying the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. Previous research has shown that adults with social anxiety disorder rate negative social events as more likely (probability) to occur as well as more distressing (cost) than do nonanxious controls. However, no empirical research has examined whether this is also the

Alyssa A. Rheingold; James D. Herbert; Martin E. Franklin

2003-01-01

145

Functional Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Children with Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the incidence and correlates of functional gastrointestinal symptoms in children with anxiety disorders. Participants were 6-13 year old children diagnosed with one or more anxiety disorders (n = 54) and non-clinical control children (n = 51). Telephone diagnostic interviews were performed with parents to determine the presence…

Waters, Allison M.; Schilpzand, Elizabeth; Bell, Clare; Walker, Lynn S.; Baber, Kari

2013-01-01

146

Cost of anxiety disorders in Japan in 2008: a prevalence-based approach  

PubMed Central

Background The societal burden caused by anxiety disorders has likely been underestimated, while those for schizophrenia and depression have received more attention. Anxiety disorders represent a significant illness category that occurs at a high prevalence and poses a considerable burden. However, the cost of anxiety disorders in Japan has not yet been well researched. The goal of the present study was to estimate the total cost of anxiety disorders in Japan and to clarify the characteristics of this burden. Method A prevalence-based approach was adopted to measure the total cost of anxiety disorders. Anxiety disorders were defined as diagnosis code F40.0-F41.9 according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision. The cost was comprised of the following components: medical treatment costs and social service costs as direct costs, and morbidity and mortality costs as indirect costs. Data were collected from publicly available statistics. Results The total cost of anxiety disorders in Japan in 2008 was JPY 2.4 trillion (US$ 20.5 billion at the current exchange rate of US$1?=?JPY 116.8). The direct cost was JPY 50 billion. The morbidity cost was JPY 2.1 trillion, while the mortality cost was JPY 0.24 trillion. Conclusions The social burden caused by anxiety disorders in Japan is tremendous and is similar to that of other mental disorders. Productivity loss in the workplace represents the largest portion of all the cost components. Because the medical examination rate is quite low, the improvement of healthcare access might contribute to cost mitigation. PMID:24350841

2013-01-01

147

Hoarding among patients seeking treatment for anxiety disorders.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of hoarding symptoms among individuals presenting for treatment of anxiety symptoms. Participants included 130 adults who were seeking treatment at an outpatient anxiety disorders clinic between January 2004 and February 2006. During their initial assessment, participants (31 with panic disorder, 15 specific phobia, 27 social phobia, 36 obsessive-compulsive disorder, 21 generalized anxiety disorder, mean age 37 years, 57% female, 88% White) completed the Saving Inventory-Revised, a self-report measure of hoarding symptoms, and several measures of anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and functional impairment. Approximately 12-25% of anxious patients reported significant hoarding symptoms. Patients diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder were more likely to report significant hoarding symptoms than were those with panic disorder or specific phobia. Hoarding symptoms were positively correlated with trait anxiety, depressive symptoms, and functional impairment. These findings suggest that hoarding symptoms may be associated with anxiety disorders other than obsessive-compulsive disorder. The findings further suggest that hoarding symptoms may be underreported by anxious populations since typical intake assessments do not include specific questions about hoarding and individuals with hoarding symptoms may be unlikely to spontaneously report them. PMID:20800427

Tolin, David F; Meunier, Suzanne A; Frost, Randy O; Steketee, Gail

2011-01-01

148

The Risk for Early-Adulthood Anxiety and Depressive Disorders in Adolescents With Anxiety and Depressive Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Various studies find relationships among anxiety and depressive disorders of adoles- cence and adulthood. This study prospectively exam- ines the magnitude of longitudinal associations between adolescent and adult anxiety or depressive disorders. Methods: An epidemiologically selected sample of 776 young people living in upstate New York received DSM- based psychiatric assessments in 1983, 1985, and 1992 using structured interviews.

Daniel S. Pine; Patricia Cohen; Diana Gurley; Judith Brook; Yuju Ma

1998-01-01

149

Comorbid Depressive Disorders in Anxiety-Disordered Youth: Demographic, Clinical, and Family Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates that depression and anxiety are highly comorbid in youth. Little is known, however, about the clinical and family characteristics of youth with principal anxiety disorders and comorbid depressive diagnoses. The present study examined the demographic, clinical, and family characteristics of 200 anxiety-disordered children and…

O'Neil, Kelly A.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Benjamin, Courtney L.; Kendall, Philip C.

2010-01-01

150

Journal of Anxiety Disorders 28 (2014) 537546 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-print Network

of Anxiety Disorders Implicit associations in social anxiety disorder: The effects of comorbid depression online 14 June 2014 Keywords: Social anxiety disorder Social phobia Depression Implicit associations. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD

Gross, James J.

151

Emotional Intelligence in Social Phobia and Other Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the associations between clinical anxiety, domains of emotional intelligence (EI), and three clinician-rated\\u000a indices of maladjustment. Of key interest was whether social phobia (SP) is unique among anxiety disorders in being characterized\\u000a by lower levels of Interpersonal and, particularly, Intrapersonal EI, and whether these differentially predict maladjustment.\\u000a Individuals with SP (n?=?169) obsessive-compulsive disorder (n?=?65) and panic disorder

Laura J. Summerfeldt; Patricia H. Kloosterman; Martin M. Antony; Randi E. McCabe; James D. A. Parker

2011-01-01

152

Exploring the Association Between Cognitive Functioning and Anxiety in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Social Understanding and Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined relations between anxiety, aggression, social understanding, IQ, and diagnosis in a sample of 231 children (ages 2–9) diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs; Autistic Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified) in a hospital setting. Children were administered tests of IQ, and parents completed measures of remaining variables. ASD diagnosis was associated with level of

Laura A. Niditch; R. Enrique Varela; Jodi L. Kamps; Trenesha Hill

2012-01-01

153

Social Anxiety in Children with Anxiety Disorders: Relation with Social and Emotional Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated the psychometric properties of the Social Anxiety Scale for children-Revised (SASC-R) as well as relations between social anxiety and children's social and emotional functioning. Participants were a clinic sample of children, ages 6–11 with anxiety disorders (N = 154) who completed the SASC-R. For a subset of these children, parent ratings of social skills, and self-ratings of perceived competence

Golda S. Ginsburg; Annette M. La Greca; Wendy K. Silverman

1998-01-01

154

The pharmacological management of childhood anxiety disorders: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Pediatric anxiety is a prevalent psychiatric disorder that may have important implications for school, social, and academic\\u000a function. Psychopharmacological approaches to the treatment of pediatric anxiety have expanded over the past 20 years and\\u000a increasing empirical evidence helps guide current clinical practice.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  To review studies which examine the pharmacological treatment of pediatric anxiety disorders, including obsessive–compulsive\\u000a disorder and to summarize treatment

Shauna P. Reinblatt; Mark A. Riddle

2007-01-01

155

Symptoms: Personal snapshots of anxiety disorders | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Phobias and Anxiety Disorders Symptoms: Personal snapshots of anxiety ... just kind of floating. And it was scary.” Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia): "In any social situation, I felt ...

156

Treatment of Anxiety Disorders in Pregnancy and the Postpartum  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter begins with a review of the prevalence, assessment, and clinical presentation of anxiety in the perinatal period.\\u000a Next, we discuss two forms of treatment for anxiety that have been found effective in clinical research: cognitive-behavioral\\u000a therapy and certain classes of medication. The effectiveness of these treatments with each of the anxiety disorders is discussed,\\u000a as is the issue

Jonathan S. Abramowitz; Karin Larsen; Katherine M. Moore

157

Anxiety-Promoting Parenting Behaviors: A Comparison of Anxious Parents with and without Social Anxiety Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While parenting behaviors among anxious parents have been implicated in the familial transmission of anxiety, little is known about whether these parenting behaviors are unique to specific parental anxiety disorders. The current study examined differences in the use of five specific parenting behaviors (i.e., warmth/positive affect, criticism,…

Budinger, Meghan Crosby; Drazdowski, Tess K.; Ginsburg, Golda S.

2013-01-01

158

Exploring the boundary between temperament and generalized anxiety disorder: A receiver operating characteristic analysis  

PubMed Central

Studies of individuals with an increased tendency to experience negative emotions such as fear, sadness, and anger have documented links between this temperamental trait and anxiety disorders. There exists debate, however, concerning the degree to which high levels of a temperamental trait are a necessary and/or sufficient component of a DSM diagnosis. In this study, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses assessed the relations between levels of harm avoidance (HA) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) diagnoses in 334 children and their parents. Analyses revealed HA scores to be highly predictive of GAD diagnoses in children (AUC = .791, P <.001) and adults (AUC = .818, P <.001). However, there were many individuals with high HA scores who did not qualify for a GAD diagnosis. These findings suggest that while there are strong associations between HA and GAD, high levels of HA are neither necessary nor sufficient in the formation of clinically significant anxiety symptoms. PMID:16616452

Rettew, David C.; Doyle, Alicia C.; Kwan, Monica; Stanger, Catherine; Hudziak, James J.

2012-01-01

159

Journal of Anxiety Disorders 27 (2013) 619626 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-print Network

, Boston, MA 02115, United States b Center for Anxiety and Traumatic Stress Disorders, MassachusettsJournal of Anxiety Disorders 27 (2013) 619­626 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Journal of Anxiety Disorders Smiles may go unseen in generalized social anxiety disorder: Evidence from binocular

Barrett, Lisa Feldman

160

Neurobiology of Anxiety Disorders and Implications for Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neurobiology of the anxiety disorders, which include panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and specific ph o- bias, among others, has been clarified by advances in the field of classical or Pavlovian conditioning, and in our understandin g of basic mechanisms of memory and learning. Fear conditioning occurs when a neutral conditioned stimulus (such as a tone) is paired

AMIR GARAKANI; SANJAY J. MATHEW; DENNIS S. CHARNEY

2006-01-01

161

Methylphenidate and Comorbid Anxiety Disorder in Children with both Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder and ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine if comorbid anxiety disorder is associated with differential response to immediate release methylphenidate (MPH-IR) in children with both ADHD and chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD). Method: Children with (n = 17) and without (n = 37) diagnosed anxiety disorder (ANX) were evaluated in an 8-week, placebo-controlled trial…

Gadow, Kenneth D.; Nolan, Edith E.

2011-01-01

162

An examination of the structure of posttraumatic stress disorder in relation to the anxiety and depressive disorders.  

PubMed

The nature and structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been the subject of much interest in recent times. This research has been represented by two streams, the first representing a substantive body of work which focuses specifically on the factor structure of PTSD and the second exploring PTSD's relationship with other mood and anxiety disorders. The present study attempted to bring these two streams together by examining structural models of PTSD and their relationship with dimensions underlying other mood and anxiety disorders. PTSD, anxiety and mood disorder data from 989 injury survivors interviewed 3-months following their injury were analyzed using a series of confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) to identify the optimal structural model. CFA analyses indicated that the best fitting model included PTSD's re-experiencing (B1-5), active avoidance (C1-2), and hypervigilance and startle (D4-5) loading onto a Fear factor (represented by panic disorder, agoraphobia and social phobia) and the PTSD dysphoria symptoms (numbing symptoms C3-7 and hyperarousal symptoms D1-3) loading onto an Anxious Misery/Distress factor (represented by depression, generalized anxiety disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder). The findings have implications for informing potential revisions to the structure of the diagnosis of PTSD and the diagnostic algorithm to be applied, with the aim of enhancing diagnostic specificity. PMID:21496930

Forbes, David; Lockwood, Emma; Elhai, Jon D; Creamer, Mark; O'Donnell, Meaghan; Bryant, Richard; McFarlane, Alexander; Silove, Derrick

2011-07-01

163

Symptom Profiles in Depersonalization and Anxiety Disorders: An Analysis of the Beck Anxiety Inventory.  

PubMed

Background: Depersonalization disorder (DPD) entails distressing alterations in self-experiencing. However, it has long been recognized that depersonalisation symptoms occur in other disorders, particularly anxiety and panic. One strand of research proposes that depersonalization phenomenology arises through altered autonomic arousal in response to stress. Sampling and Methods: We sought to examine profiles of anxiety symptoms through a secondary data analysis of individual items and factor subscales on the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), comparing two relatively large patient samples with DPD or with a variety of anxiety conditions, respectively. The DPD sample (n = 106) had a lower overall BAI score than the combined anxiety disorders group (n = 525). Results: After controlling for this as well as for potential confounders such as age and gender, the DPD group presented significantly lower scores on the panic subscale, marginally lower scores on the autonomic subscale and significantly higher scores on the neurophysiological subscale of the BAI. Conclusions: These differences imply similarities between the cognitive components of DPD and anxiety disorders while physiological experiences diverge. The findings encourage future research looking at direct physiological measures and longitudinal designs to confirm the mechanisms underlying different clinical manifestations of anxiety. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25401973

Nestler, Steffen; Jay, Emma-Louise; Sierra, Mauricio; David, Anthony S

2014-11-12

164

The feasibility and acceptability of virtual environments in the treatment of childhood social anxiety disorder.  

PubMed

Two significant challenges for the dissemination of social skills training programs are the need to assure generalizability and provide sufficient practice opportunities. In the case of social anxiety disorder, virtual environments may provide one strategy to address these issues. This study evaluated the utility of an interactive virtual school environment for the treatment of social anxiety disorder in preadolescent children. Eleven children with a primary diagnosis of social anxiety disorder between 8 to 12 years old participated in this initial feasibility trial. All children were treated with Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children, an empirically supported treatment for children with social anxiety disorder. However, the in vivo peer generalization sessions and standard parent-assisted homework assignments were substituted by practice in a virtual environment. Overall, the virtual environment programs were acceptable, feasible, and credible treatment components. Both children and clinicians were satisfied with using the virtual environment technology, and children believed it was a high-quality program overall. In addition, parents were satisfied with the virtual environment augmented treatment and indicated that they would recommend the program to family and friends. Findings indicate that the virtual environments are viewed as acceptable and credible by potential recipients. Furthermore, they are easy to implement by even novice users and appear to be useful adjunctive elements for the treatment of childhood social anxiety disorder. PMID:24144182

Sarver, Nina Wong; Beidel, Deborah C; Spitalnick, Josh S

2014-01-01

165

The feasibility and acceptability of virtual environments in the treatment of childhood social anxiety disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective Two significant challenges for the dissemination of social skills training programs are the need to assure generalizability and provide sufficient practice opportunities. In the case of social anxiety disorder, virtual environments may provide one strategy to address these issues. This study evaluated the utility of an interactive virtual school environment for the treatment of social anxiety disorder in preadolescent children. Method Eleven children with a primary diagnosis of social anxiety disorder between 8 to 12 years old participated in this initial feasibility trial. All children were treated with Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children, an empirically supported treatment for children with social anxiety disorder. However, the in vivo peer generalization sessions and standard parent-assisted homework assignments were substituted by practice in a virtual environment. Results Overall, the virtual environment programs were acceptable, feasible, and credible treatment components. Both children and clinicians were satisfied with using the virtual environment technology, and children believed it was a high quality program overall. Additionally, parents were satisfied with the virtual environment augmented treatment and indicated that they would recommend the program to family and friends. Conclusion Virtual environments are viewed as acceptable and credible by potential recipients. Furthermore, they are easy to implement by even novice users and appear to be useful adjunctive elements for the treatment of childhood social anxiety disorder. PMID:24144182

Wong, Nina; Beidel, Deborah C.; Spitalnick, Josh

2013-01-01

166

Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy in Patients with Anxiety Disorders: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

The present study is aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of a Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy (MBCBT) for reducing cognitive and somatic anxiety and modifying dysfunctional cognitions in patients with anxiety disorders. A single case design with pre- and post-assessment was adopted. Four patients meeting the specified inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited for the study. Three patients received a primary diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), while the fourth patient was diagnosed with Panic Disorder. Patients were assessed on the Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety Questionnaire (CSAQ), Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), Hamilton's Anxiety Inventory (HAM-A), and Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale. The therapeutic program consisted of education regarding nature of anxiety, training in different versions of mindfulness meditation, cognitive restructuring, and strategies to handle worry, such as, worry postponement, worry exposure, and problem solving. A total of 23 sessions over four to six weeks were conducted for each patient. The findings of the study are discussed in light of the available research, and implications and limitations are highlighted along with suggestions for future research. PMID:23439854

Sharma, Mahendra P.; Mao, Angelina; Sudhir, Paulomi M.

2012-01-01

167

Neuroimaging predictors of treatment response in anxiety disorders  

PubMed Central

Although several psychological and pharmacological treatment options are available for anxiety disorders, not all patients respond well to each option. Furthermore, given the relatively long duration of adequate treatment trials, finding a good treatment fit can take many months or longer. Thus, both clinicians and patients would benefit from the identification of objective pre-treatment measures that predict which patients will best respond to a given treatment. Recent studies have begun to use biological measures to help predict symptomatic change after treatment in anxiety disorders. In this review, we summarize studies that have used structural and functional neuroimaging measures to predict treatment response in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and social anxiety disorder (SAD). We note the limitations of the current studies and offer suggestions for future research. Although the literature is currently small, we conclude that pre-treatment neuroimaging measures do appear to predict treatment response in anxiety disorders, and future research will be needed to determine the relative predictive power of neuroimaging measures as compared to clinical and demographic measures. PMID:23915782

2013-01-01

168

Neuroimaging predictors of treatment response in anxiety disorders.  

PubMed

Although several psychological and pharmacological treatment options are available for anxiety disorders, not all patients respond well to each option. Furthermore, given the relatively long duration of adequate treatment trials, finding a good treatment fit can take many months or longer. Thus, both clinicians and patients would benefit from the identification of objective pre-treatment measures that predict which patients will best respond to a given treatment. Recent studies have begun to use biological measures to help predict symptomatic change after treatment in anxiety disorders. In this review, we summarize studies that have used structural and functional neuroimaging measures to predict treatment response in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and social anxiety disorder (SAD). We note the limitations of the current studies and offer suggestions for future research. Although the literature is currently small, we conclude that pre-treatment neuroimaging measures do appear to predict treatment response in anxiety disorders, and future research will be needed to determine the relative predictive power of neuroimaging measures as compared to clinical and demographic measures. PMID:23915782

Shin, Lisa M; Davis, F Caroline; Vanelzakker, Michael B; Dahlgren, Mary K; Dubois, Stacey J

2013-01-01

169

Functional Neuroimaging of Anxiety: A Meta-Analysis of Emotional Processing in PTSD, Social Anxiety Disorder, and Specific Phobia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The study of human anxiety disorders has benefited greatly from func- tional neuroimaging approaches. Individ- ual studies, however, vary greatly in their findings. The authors searched for com- mon and disorder-specific functional neu- robiological deficits in several anxiety dis- orders. The authors also compared these deficits to the neural systems engaged during anticipatory anxiety in healthy subjects. Method: Functional

Amit Etkin; Tor D. Wager

2007-01-01

170

A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Child Anxiety Multi-Day Program (CAMP) for Separation Anxiety Disorder  

PubMed Central

While the efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy for childhood anxiety disorders, including separation anxiety disorder (SAD), has been established, tailoring such treatments to particular interests and needs may enhance uptake of evidence-based interventions. The current investigation evaluates the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an intensive, cognitive-behavioral intervention for girls with SAD provided within the novel context of a one-week camp-like setting, the Child Anxiety Multi-Day Program (CAMP). Twenty-nine female children aged 7 to 12 with a principal diagnosis of SAD were randomized to immediate CAMP treatment (n = 15) or waitlist (i.e., delayed treatment; n = 14) condition during the course of this randomized controlled trial. Children in the immediate treatment group evidenced significant reductions in SAD severity, functional impairment, and parent report of child anxiety symptoms relative to the waitlist condition. The intervention’s positive therapeutic response suggests one possible delivery model for surmounting difficulties faced in the dissemination of weekly treatments for SAD. PMID:23053618

Santucci, Lauren C.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill

2012-01-01

171

Family Factors in the Development, Treatment, and Prevention of Childhood Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is now widely accepted that anxiety disorders run in families, and current etiological models have proposed both genetic and environmental pathways to anxiety development. In this paper, the familial role in the development, treatment, and prevention of anxiety disorders in children is reviewed. We focus on three anxiety disorders in youth,…

Drake, Kelly L.; Ginsburg, Golda S.

2012-01-01

172

The Relationship between Anxiety and Repetitive Behaviours in Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder are vulnerable to anxiety. Repetitive behaviours are a core feature of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and have been associated with anxiety. This study examined repetitive behaviours and anxiety in two groups of children with autism spectrum disorder, those with high anxiety and those with lower levels of…

Rodgers, J.; Glod, M.; Connolly, B.; McConachie, H.

2012-01-01

173

Diagnosis of Copper Transport Disorders  

PubMed Central

Techniques for the diagnosis of copper transport disorders are increasingly important due to recent recognition of previously unappreciated clinical phenotypes and emerging advances in the treatment of these conditions. Here, we collate the diagnostic approaches and techniques currently employed for biochemical and molecular assessment of at-risk individuals in whom abnormal copper metabolism is suspected. PMID:21735378

Møller, Lisbeth B.; Hicks, Julia D.; Holmes, Courtney S.; Goldstein, David S.; Brendl, Cornelia; Huppke, Peter; Kaler, Stephen G.

2011-01-01

174

The importance of anxiety States in bipolar disorder.  

PubMed

Anxiety symptoms and syndromes are common in bipolar disorders, occurring in over half of all subjects with bipolar disorder type I. Despite methodological and diagnostic inconsistencies, most studies have shown a robust association between the presence of a broadly defined comorbid anxiety disorder and important indices of clinical morbidity in bipolar disorder, including a greater number of depressive episodes, worse treatment outcomes, and elevated risk of attempting suicide. Anxiety symptoms and/or syndromes often precede the onset of bipolar disorder and may represent a clinical phenotype of increased risk in subjects with prodromal symptoms. Although the causal relationship between anxiety and bipolar disorders remains unresolved, the multifactorial nature of most psychiatric phenotypes suggests that even with progress towards more biologically valid phenotypes, the "phenomenon" of comorbidity is likely to remain a clinical reality. Treatment studies of bipolar patients with comorbid anxiety have begun to provide preliminary evidence for the role of specific pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments, but these need to be confirmed in more definitive trials. Hence, there is an immediate need for further research to help guide assessment and help identify appropriate treatments for comorbid conditions. PMID:25617037

Goes, Fernando S

2015-02-01

175

[Renal transplantation, anxiety and depressive disorders and quality of life].  

PubMed

Until now there are few data in the literature describing psychiatric comorbidity in patients waiting for renal transplantation. We have conducted a cross sectional study estimating the prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders in three groups of renal transplant patients, before transplantation, six months and one year after. The MINI was used to estimate the prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed using the HAD. Patients' quality of life was also assessed using the SF-36. This study did not find any major impact of renal transplantation on the prevalence of structured psychiatric disorders. Indeed, the prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders did not differ significantly between the three groups. The mean scores of anxiety did not differ significantly between the three groups in contrast to the mean scores of depression, which differed significantly between the group "before transplantation" and the group "one year after transplantation". We did not find any significant difference concerning the scores of patient's quality of life between the three groups, except for the item "health perceived by the patients themselves". Health perceived by the patients was greater in the group "after transplantation". The quality of life of dialysed or transplant patients was strongly correlated with anxiety and depressive symptoms scores, emphasizing the major interest of a multidisciplinary approach for these patients. PMID:19853715

Baguelin-Pinaud, A; Moinier, D; Fouldrin, G; Le Roy, F; Etienne, I; Godin, M; Thibaut, F

2009-10-01

176

The relationship between social anxiety disorder and alcohol use disorders: A critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a significant co-morbidity between social anxiety disorder (SAD) and alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Despite the fact that many studies have demonstrated strong relationships between SAD and AUD diagnoses, there has been much inconsistency in demonstrating causality or even directionality of the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol-related variables. For example, some studies have showed a positive

Eric P. Morris; Sherry H. Stewart; Lindsay S. Ham

2005-01-01

177

A comparison of intolerance of uncertainty in analogue obsessive-compulsive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intolerance of uncertainty has been defined as the unwillingness to tolerate the possibility that negative events may occur in the future, no matter how low the probability [Personality Individual Differences 17 (1994), 791–802]. Previous research suggests that intolerance of uncertainty may be more specific to worry and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) than to other anxiety disorders [e.g., Dugas, M. J.,

Robert M. Holaway; Richard G. Heimberg; Meredith E. Coles

2006-01-01

178

Atomoxetine Treatment for Pediatric Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder with Comorbid Anxiety Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Research suggests 25% to 35% of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have comorbid anxiety disorders. This double-blind study compared atomoxetine with placebo for treating pediatric ADHD with comorbid anxiety, as measured by the ADHD Rating Scale-IV-Parent Version: Investigator Administered and Scored…

Geller, Daniel; Donnelly, Craig; Lopez, Frank; Rubin, Richard; Newcorn, Jeffrey; Sutton, Virginia; Bakken, Rosalie; Paczkowski, Martin; Kelsey, Douglas; Sumner, Calvin

2007-01-01

179

Randomized Controlled Trial of Mindfulness Meditation for Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Effects on Anxiety and Stress Reactivity  

PubMed Central

Objective Mindfulness meditation has met increasing interest as a therapeutic strategy for anxiety disorders, but prior studies have been limited by methodological concerns, including a lack of an active comparison group. This is the first randomized, controlled trial comparing the manualized Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program with an active control for Generalized Anxiety Disorder, a disorder characterized by chronic worry and physiological hyperarousal symptoms. Method Ninety-three individuals with DSM-IV-diagnosed GAD were randomized to an 8-week group intervention with MBSR or to an attention control, Stress Management Education (SME) between 2009 and 2011. Anxiety symptoms were measured with the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A, primary outcome measure), the Clinical Global Impression of Severity and Improvement (CGI-S and CGI-I), and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Stress reactivity was assessed by comparing anxiety and distress during pre- and post-treatment Trier Social Stress Tests (TSST). Results A modified intent-to-treat analysis including participants who completed at least one session of MBSR (N=48) or SME (N=41) showed that both interventions led to significant reductions in HAM-A scores at endpoint, but did not significantly differ. MBSR, however, was associated with a significantly greater reduction in anxiety as measured by the CGI-S, the CGI-I, and the BAI (all Ps<0.05). MBSR was also associated with greater reductions than SME in anxiety and distress ratings in response to the TSST stress challenge (P<0.05), and a greater increase in positive self-statements (P=0.004). Conclusions These results suggest that MBSR may have a beneficial effect on anxiety symptoms in GAD, and may also improve stress reactivity and coping as measured in a laboratory stress challenge. PMID:23541163

Hoge, Elizabeth A.; Bui, Eric; Marques, Luana; Metcalf, Christina A.; Morris, Laura K.; Robinaugh, Donald J.; Worthington, John J.; Pollack, Mark H.; Simon, Naomi M.

2013-01-01

180

Your Adolescent: Anxiety and Avoidant Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... describe feelings of continual nervousness, restlessness, or extreme stress. In a social setting, anxious teenagers may appear ... reflected in their reluctance to leave home and resistance to being drawn into independent activity. Separation anxiety ...

181

Enhancing exposure therapy for anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder.  

PubMed

Translating findings from basic science, several compounds have been identified that may enhance therapeutic outcomes and/or expedite treatment gains when administered alongside exposure-based treatments. Four of these compounds (referred to as cognitive enhancers) have been evaluated in the context of randomized controlled trials for anxiety disorders (e.g., specific phobias, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder), obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. These cognitive enhancers include D-cycloserine, yohimbine hydrochloride, glucocorticoids and cortisol and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. There is consistent evidence that cognitive enhancers can enhance therapeutic outcomes and/or expedite treatment gains across anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. Emerging evidence has highlighted the importance of within-session fear habituation and between-session fear learning, which can either enhance fear extinction or reconsolidate of fear responses. Although findings from these trials are promising, there are several considerations that warrant further evaluation prior to widespread use of cognitive enhancers in exposure-based treatments. Consistent trial design and large sample sizes are important in future studies of cognitive enhancers. PMID:24972729

McGuire, Joseph F; Lewin, Adam B; Storch, Eric A

2014-08-01

182

Physical activity, exercise, depression and anxiety disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a general belief that physical activity and exercise have positive effects on mood and anxiety and a great number\\u000a of studies describe an association of physical activity and general well-being, mood and anxiety. In line, intervention studies\\u000a describe an anxiolytic and antidepressive activity of exercise in healthy subjects and patients. However, the majority of\\u000a published studies have substantial

Andreas Ströhle

2009-01-01

183

Schmidt’s syndrome presenting as a generalised anxiety disorder: a case report  

PubMed Central

Abstract Schmidt’s syndrome or autoimmune polyglandurar syndrome type 2 represents an uncommon endocrine disorder composed by Addison’s disease with autoimmune thyroid disease and/or type 1 diabetes mellitus. The syndrome usually affects women in the fourth decade of their lives. Prompt diagnosis and treatment can prevent serious complications. We present the case of a 64-year-old woman with generalised anxiety, facing socio-economic problems. Her symptoms attributed to stress led to a late diagnosis. Physicians involved have to be aware about endocrine disorders of which first manifestations may have atypical components mimicking mental health problems. PMID:24868260

Anyfantakis, D; Symvoulakis, EK; Vourliotaki, I; Kastanakis, S

2013-01-01

184

Attentional focus in social anxiety disorder: Potential for interactive processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two preeminent cognitive behavioral models of social anxiety [Clark, D.M., & Wells, A., (1995). A cognitive model of social phobia. In Heimberg, R.G., Liebowitz, M., Hope, D.A., and Schneier, F.R. (Eds.), Social phobia: Diagnosis, assessment and treatment (pp. 69–93). New York: Guilford Press.; Rapee, R.M., & Heimberg, R.G., (1997). A cognitive behavioral model of anxiety in social phobia. Behaviour

Luke T. Schultz; Richard G. Heimberg

2008-01-01

185

Cognitive constructs and social anxiety disorder: beyond fearing negative evaluation.  

PubMed

Pioneering models of social anxiety disorder (SAD) underscored fear of negative evaluation (FNE) as central in the disorder's development. Additional cognitive predictors have since been identified, including fear of positive evaluation (FPE), anxiety sensitivity, and intolerance of uncertainty (IU), but rarely have these constructs been examined together. The present study concurrently examined the variance accounted for in SAD symptoms by these constructs. Participants meeting criteria for SAD (n = 197; 65% women) completed self-report measures online. FNE, FPE, anxiety sensitivity, and IU all accounted for unique variance in SAD symptoms. FPE accounted for variance comparable to FNE, and the cognitive dimension of anxiety sensitivity and the prospective dimension of IU accounted for comparable variance, though slightly less than that accounted for by FNE and FPE. The results support the theorized roles that these constructs play in the etiology of SAD and highlight both FNE and FPE as central foci in SAD treatment. PMID:25277488

Teale Sapach, Michelle J N; Carleton, R Nicholas; Mulvogue, Myriah K; Weeks, Justin W; Heimberg, Richard G

2015-01-01

186

The Course of Psychological Disorders in the 1st Year After Cancer Diagnosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship between acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and comorbid anxiety, depressive, and substance use disorders over the first 12-month period following a cancer diagnosis. Individuals recently diagnosed with 1st onset head and neck or lung malignancy were assessed for ASD within…

Kangas, Maria; Henry, Jane L.; Bryant, Richard A.

2005-01-01

187

The German guidelines for the treatment of anxiety disorders.  

PubMed

A consensus group consisting of 36 experts representing 20 leading German specialist societies and patient self-help organizations developed evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of anxiety disorders in Germany. These were based on a systematic review of randomized controlled trials on anxiety disorders (n = 403) and on preexisting German and international guidelines. According to the consensus committee, anxiety disorders should be treated with psychotherapy or pharmacological drugs or a combination of both. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) was regarded as the psychological treatment with the highest level of evidence. Psychodynamic therapy (PDT) was recommended for cases in which CBT was not effective or not available or in which PDT was the informed patient's preferred option. First-line drugs for anxiety disorders include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors. After remission, medications should be continued for 6-12 months. When either drug or psychotherapy was not effective, treatment should be switched to the other approach or to a combination of both. For patients non-responsive to standard treatments, alternative strategies are suggested. When developing a treatment plan, efficacy, side effects, costs and the preference of the patient should be considered. A large amount of data available from randomized controlled trials permit the formulation of robust evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of anxiety disorders. The recommendations were not only developed for the special situation in Germany, but may also be helpful for developing treatment plans in other countries. PMID:25404200

Bandelow, Borwin; Lichte, Thomas; Rudolf, Sebastian; Wiltink, Jörg; Beutel, Manfred E

2014-11-18

188

An overview of Indian research in anxiety disorders  

PubMed Central

Anxiety is arguably an emotion that predates the evolution of man. Its ubiquity in humans, and its presence in a range of anxiety disorders, makes it an important clinical focus. Developments in nosology, epidemiology and psychobiology have led to significant advancement in our understanding of the anxiety disorders in recent years. Advances in pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy of these disorders have brought realistic hope for relief of symptoms and improvement in functioning to patients. Neurotic disorders are basically related to stress, reaction to stress (usually maladaptive) and individual proneness to anxiety. Interestingly, both stress and coping have a close association with socio-cultural factors. Culture can effect symptom presentation, explanation of the illness and help-seeking. Importance given to the symptoms and meaning assigned by the physician according to their cultural background also differs across culture. In this way culture can effect epidemiology, phenomenology as well as treatment outcome of psychiatric illness especially anxiety disorders. In this review an attempt has been made to discuss such differences, as well as to reflect the important areas in which Indian studies are lacking. An attempt has been made to include most Indian studies, especially those published in Indian Journal of Psychiatry. PMID:21836680

Trivedi, J. K.; Gupta, Pawan Kumar

2010-01-01

189

Prolonged rooming-in in infancy is associated with generalized anxiety disorder in the adolescent period.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: This study aims to investigate whether anxiety disorders in adolescents have a link with the separation time of bed/bedroom sharing with parents. It also aims to raise awareness in society about the issue of minimizing anxiety disorders in childhood. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in ?evket Y?lmaz Training and Research Hospital between June 2013 and May 2014. The participants included 51 adolescents who were diagnosed as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) with no-comorbidity and 71 healthy adolescents as the control group, who were chosen randomly. Diagnosis of GAD was based on the criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed) by child and adolescent psychiatry doctors. The Turkish version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used for the control group. A special survey about demographics and bed-sharing statements was constructed for the purpose of the study. The groups were analyzed in terms of duration of co-sleeping (bed-sharing) and rooming-in (keeping the mother and the baby in same room) with parents during infancy and the development of anxiety disorders in later period. Results: Mean duration of rooming-in was significantly longer in the case group than in the control group (p=0.009). Similarly, mean duration of co-sleeping in the case group was longer than that of the control group. However, this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.529). Conclusion: Sleeping in the same room with children for a long time may result in anxiety disorders in later period due to possible difficulties in bonding and/or less self-confidence. PMID:25415633

Kaymaz, Nazan; Gökten, Emel Sar?; Uzun, Mehmet Erdem; Y?ld?r?m, Sule; Tekin, Mustafa; Topalo?lu, Naci; Binneto?lu, Fatih Köksal

2014-11-21

190

Mood and anxiety disorders in women with PCOS.  

PubMed

Women with polycystic ovary syndrome have gynecologic, reproductive and metabolic co-morbidities that span their entire lifespan. More recently a higher risk of mood and anxiety disorders has been reported in women with PCOS. Women with PCOS have higher depression scores and a higher risk of depression independent of BMI. Although clinical features of hyperandrogenism affect health related quality of life, the association between hirsutism, acne, body image and depression is currently unclear. Similarly there is limited data on the association between variables such as biochemical hyperandrogenism or infertility and depression. Women with PCOS are also at risk for symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder. There is insufficient data examining the risk of other anxiety disorders such as social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorders and panic disorder. In a number of patients some of these disorders coexist increasing the health burden. These data underscore the need to screen all women with PCOS for mood and anxiety disorders and adequately treat women who are diagnosed with these conditions. PMID:22178257

Dokras, Anuja

2012-03-10

191

Anxiety disorders and GABA neurotransmission: a disturbance of modulation  

PubMed Central

Lines of evidence coming from many branches of neuroscience indicate that anxiety disorders arise from a dysfunction in the modulation of brain circuits which regulate emotional responses to potentially threatening stimuli. The concept of anxiety disorders as a disturbance of emotional response regulation is a useful one as it allows anxiety to be explained in terms of a more general model of aberrant salience and also because it identifies avenues for developing psychological, behavioral, and pharmacological strategies for the treatment of anxiety disorder. These circuits involve bottom-up activity from the amygdala, indicating the presence of potentially threatening stimuli, and top-down control mechanisms originating in the prefrontal cortex, signaling the emotional salience of stimuli. Understanding the factors that control cortical mechanisms may open the way to identification of more effective cognitive behavioral strategies for managing anxiety disorders. The brain circuits in the amygdala are thought to comprise inhibitory networks of ?-aminobutyric acid-ergic (GABAergic) interneurons and this neurotransmitter thus plays a key role in the modulation of anxiety responses both in the normal and pathological state. The presence of allosteric sites on the GABAA receptor allows the level of inhibition of neurons in the amygdala to be regulated with exquisite precision, and these sites are the molecular targets of the principal classes of anxiolytic drugs. Changes in the levels of endogenous modulators of these allosteric sites as well as changes in the subunit composition of the GABAA receptor may represent mechanisms whereby the level of neuronal inhibition is downregulated in pathological anxiety states. Neurosteroids are synthesized in the brain and act as allosteric modulators of the GABAA receptor. Since their synthesis is itself regulated by stress and by anxiogenic stimuli, targeting the neurosteroid-GABAA receptor axis represents an attractive target for the modulation of anxiety. PMID:25653526

Nuss, Philippe

2015-01-01

192

The Management of Anxiety and Depressive Disorders: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

While anxiety and mild-moderate depression (the so-called neuroses) are the commonest mental disorders, they receive scant attention. They should be considered together, because they commonly occur together, are typically chronic, and respond to the same treatment. This review challenges traditional notions about the neuroses, by examining the reasons for their co-morbidity, the effectiveness of SSRIs in anxiety, and the biological

Jude U. Ohaeri

2006-01-01

193

Instruments for the assessment of social anxiety disorder: Validation studies.  

PubMed

Great progress has been observed in the literature over the last decade regarding the validation of instruments for the assessment of Social Anxiety Disorder in the Brazilian context. Particularly outstanding in this respect is the production of a group of Brazilian investigators regarding the psychometric study of the following instruments: Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Social Phobia Inventory, Brief Social Phobia Scale, Disability Profile, Liebowitz Self-Rated Disability Scale, Social Phobia Safety Behaviors Scale and Self-Statements During Public Speaking Scale, which have proved to be appropriate and valid for use in the adult Brazilian population, representing resources for the assessment of social anxiety in clinical and experimental situations. PMID:24175172

Osório, Flávia de Lima; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Loureiro, Sonia Regina

2012-10-22

194

Exploring the Association between Cognitive Functioning and Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Social Understanding and Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined relations between anxiety, aggression, social understanding, IQ, and diagnosis in a sample of 231 children (ages 2-9) diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs; Autistic Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified) in a hospital setting. Children were administered tests of IQ,…

Niditch, Laura A.; Varela, R. Enrique; Kamps, Jodi L.; Hill, Trenesha

2012-01-01

195

An Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a disorder characterized by chronic, pervasive, uncontrollable worry (as well as associated\\u000a somatic complaints; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) for which we have yet to develop sufficiently successful interventions.\\u000a The National Comorbidity Study yielded a lifetime prevalence estimate of 5.1% for GAD, and revealed, contrary to the common\\u000a assumption that it is a mild disorder, that

Lizabeth Roemer; Susan M. Orsillo

196

Long-Term Goals in the Management of Acute and Chronic Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many anxiety disorders are not treated to remission (symptom-free state); however, this should be the minimum goal of therapy. Antidepressant therapies have shown significant beneficial effects in the management of anxiety disorders, with some variability in results in specific disorders. In social anxiety disorder, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and venlafaxine extended release (XR) have demonstrated efficacy, with response rates varying

Kevin D Kjernisted; Pierre Bleau

2004-01-01

197

Neural systems underlying approach and avoidance in anxiety disorders  

PubMed Central

Approach-avoidance conflict is an important psychological concept that has been used extensively to better understand cognition and emotion. This review focuses on neural systems involved in approach, avoidance, and conflict decision making, and how these systems overlap with implicated neural substrates of anxiety disorders. In particular, the role of amygdala, insula, ventral striatal, and prefrontal regions are discussed with respect to approach and avoidance behaviors. Three specific hypotheses underlying the dysfunction in anxiety disorders are proposed, including: (i) over-representation of avoidance valuation related to limbic overactivation; (ii) under- or over-representation of approach valuation related to attenuated or exaggerated striatal activation respectively; and (iii) insufficient integration and arbitration of approach and avoidance valuations related to attenuated orbitofrontal cortex activation. These dysfunctions can be examined experimentally using versions of existing decision-making paradigms, but may also require new translational and innovative approaches to probe approach-avoidance conflict and related neural systems in anxiety disorders. PMID:21319496

Robin L., Aupperle; Martin, P. Paulus

2010-01-01

198

SEPARATION ANXIETY DISORDER IN YOUTH: PHENOMENOLOGY, ASSESSMENT, AND TREATMENT  

PubMed Central

Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is the most commonly diagnosed and impairing childhood anxiety disorder, accounting for approximately 50% of the referrals for mental health treatment of anxiety disorders. While considered a normative phenomenon in early childhood, SAD has the potential to negatively impact a child’s social and emotional functioning when it leads to avoidance of certain places, activities and experiences that are necessary for healthy development. Amongst those with severe symptoms, SAD may result in school refusal and a disruption in educational attainment. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the current literature on SAD etiology, assessment strategies, and empirically supported treatment approaches. New and innovative approaches to the treatment of SAD that also employ empirically supported techniques are highlighted. In addition, future directions and challenges in the assessment and treatment of SAD are addressed. PMID:19966943

Ehrenreich, Jill T.; Santucci, Lauren C.; Weiner, Courtney L.

2009-01-01

199

Symptomatology and markers of anxiety disorders in Parkinson's disease: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

Anxiety is understudied in Parkinson's disease (PD), which is not justified by the prevalence and impact of anxiety disorders on quality of life in PD patients. In this cross-sectional study, 342 patients suffering from idiopathic PD underwent a research-based assessment including DSM IV criteria for anxiety disorders, the Hamilton anxiety rating scale (HARS) and the beck anxiety inventory (BAI). Thirty-four percent (34%) of subjects met the DSM IV criteria for at least one anxiety disorder; 11.8% met criteria for multiple anxiety disorders; and 11.4% had clinically relevant anxiety symptoms without meeting the criteria for any specific anxiety disorder. Score profiles on the HARS and BAI differed significantly between the disorders, but these differences were associated with different scores on a limited number of items, and the respective symptom profiles were not readily interpretable. Female sex, the presence of motor fluctuations, as well as a previous history of an anxiety disorder were markers for anxiety disorders. The use of a mono-amino oxidase (MAO)-B inhibitor was associated with a reduced prevalence of anxiety disorders. Research into anxiety in PD is hampered by the questionable validity of DSM IV defined anxiety disorders in this population. A first focus for research should therefore be the identification of clinically useful anxiety presentations and their validation in PD. PMID:21312281

Leentjens, Albert F G; Dujardin, Kathy; Marsh, Laura; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Richard, Irene H; Starkstein, Sergio E

2011-02-15

200

Anxiety Symptoms in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder and Community Controls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We compared symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in 5 groups of boys with neurobehavioral syndromes: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) plus autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ADHD plus chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD), ASD only, ADHD only, and community Controls. Anxiety symptoms were…

Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Crowell, Judy

2010-01-01

201

Psychometric Properties of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale in a Longitudinal Study of Latinos with Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) is one of the most commonly used measures of social anxiety symptoms. To date, no study has examined its psychometric properties in a Latino sample. The authors examined the reliability, temporal stability, and convergent validity of the LSAS in 73 Latinos diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. The original…

Beard, Courtney; Rodriguez, Benjamin F.; Weisberg, Risa B.; Perry, Ashley; Keller, Martin B.

2012-01-01

202

Scalp Acupuncture Treatment Protocol for Anxiety Disorders: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychiatric illnesses, and acupuncture treatment is widely accepted in the clinic without the side effects seen from various medications. We designed a scalp acupuncture treatment protocol by locating two new stimulation areas. The area one is between Yintang (M-HN-3) and Shangxing (DU-23) and Shenting (DU-24), and the area two is between Taiyang (M-HN-9) and Tianchong (GB-9) and Shuaigu (GB-8). By stimulating these two areas with high-frequency continuous electric waves, remarkable immediate and long-term effects for anxiety disorders have been observed in our practice. The first case was a 70-year-old male with general anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic attacks at night. The scalp acupuncture treatment protocol was applied with electric stimulation for 45 minutes once every week. After four sessions of acupuncture treatments, the patient reported that he did not have panic attacks at night and he had no feelings of anxiety during the day. Follow-up 4 weeks later confirmed that he did not have any episodes of panic attacks and he had no anxiety during the day since his last acupuncture treatment. The second case was a 35-year-old male who was diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with a history of providing frontline trauma care as a Combat Medics from the Iraq combat field. He also had 21 broken bones and multiple concussions from his time in the battlefield. He had symptoms of severe anxiety, insomnia, nightmares with flashbacks, irritability, and bad temper. He also had chest pain, back pain, and joint pain due to injuries. The above treatment protocol was performed with 30 minutes of electric stimulation each time in combination with body acupuncture for pain management. After weekly acupuncture treatment for the first two visits, the patient reported that he felt less anxious and that his sleep was getting better with fewer nightmares. After six sessions of acupuncture treatments, the patient completely recovered from PTSD, went back to work, and now lives a healthy and happy family life. The above cases and clinical observation show that the scalp acupuncture treatment protocol with electric stimulation has a significant clinic outcome for GAD, panic disorder and PTSD. The possible mechanism of action of scalp acupuncture on anxiety disorder may be related to overlapping modulatory effects on the cortical structures (orbitofrontal cortex [OFC]) and medial prefrontal cortex [mPFC]) and subcortical/limbic regions (amygdala and hippocampus), and biochemical effect of acupuncture through immunohistochemistry (norepinephrine, serotonin) performed directly to the brain tissue for anxiety disorders. PMID:25105075

Chen, Jia; Pan, Zimei; Ying, Zhou

2014-01-01

203

Scalp acupuncture treatment protocol for anxiety disorders: a case report.  

PubMed

Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychiatric illnesses, and acupuncture treatment is widely accepted in the clinic without the side effects seen from various medications. We designed a scalp acupuncture treatment protocol by locating two new stimulation areas. The area one is between Yintang (M-HN-3) and Shangxing (DU-23) and Shenting (DU-24), and the area two is between Taiyang (M-HN-9) and Tianchong (GB-9) and Shuaigu (GB-8). By stimulating these two areas with high-frequency continuous electric waves, remarkable immediate and long-term effects for anxiety disorders have been observed in our practice. The first case was a 70-year-old male with general anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic attacks at night. The scalp acupuncture treatment protocol was applied with electric stimulation for 45 minutes once every week. After four sessions of acupuncture treatments, the patient reported that he did not have panic attacks at night and he had no feelings of anxiety during the day. Follow-up 4 weeks later confirmed that he did not have any episodes of panic attacks and he had no anxiety during the day since his last acupuncture treatment. The second case was a 35-year-old male who was diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with a history of providing frontline trauma care as a Combat Medics from the Iraq combat field. He also had 21 broken bones and multiple concussions from his time in the battlefield. He had symptoms of severe anxiety, insomnia, nightmares with flashbacks, irritability, and bad temper. He also had chest pain, back pain, and joint pain due to injuries. The above treatment protocol was performed with 30 minutes of electric stimulation each time in combination with body acupuncture for pain management. After weekly acupuncture treatment for the first two visits, the patient reported that he felt less anxious and that his sleep was getting better with fewer nightmares. After six sessions of acupuncture treatments, the patient completely recovered from PTSD, went back to work, and now lives a healthy and happy family life. The above cases and clinical observation show that the scalp acupuncture treatment protocol with electric stimulation has a significant clinic outcome for GAD, panic disorder and PTSD. The possible mechanism of action of scalp acupuncture on anxiety disorder may be related to overlapping modulatory effects on the cortical structures (orbitofrontal cortex [OFC]) and medial prefrontal cortex [mPFC]) and subcortical/limbic regions (amygdala and hippocampus), and biochemical effect of acupuncture through immunohistochemistry (norepinephrine, serotonin) performed directly to the brain tissue for anxiety disorders. PMID:25105075

He, Yuxin; Chen, Jia; Pan, Zimei; Ying, Zhou

2014-07-01

204

Anxiety Disorder and Substance Use Disorder CoMorbidity: Common Themes and Future Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this concluding chapter to the volume, we first provide a theoretical integration of the material contained in the initial two sections of the book. We review models, theories, and mechanisms to account for the high co-morbidity of anxiety and substance use disorders including notions involving self-medication, substance-induced anxiety, and third variable (e.g., anxiety sensitivity) explanations. Which particular pathway is

Sherry H. Stewart; Patricia J. Conrod

205

Amygdala activation during emotional face processing in adolescents with affective disorders: the role of underlying depression and anxiety symptoms  

PubMed Central

Depressive and anxiety disorders are often first diagnosed during adolescence and it is known that they persist into adulthood. Previous studies often tried to dissociate depressive and anxiety disorders, but high comorbidity makes this difficult and maybe even impossible. The goal of this study was to use neuroimaging to test what the unique contribution is of depression and anxiety symptomatology on emotional processing and amygdala activation, and to compare the results with a healthy control group. We included 25 adolescents with depressive and/or anxiety disorders and 26 healthy adolescents. Participants performed an emotional face processing task while in the MRI scanner. We were particularly interested in the relation between depression/anxiety symptomatology and patterns of amygdala activation. There were no significant differences in activation patterns between the control group and the clinical group on whole brain level and ROI level. However, we found that dimensional scores on an anxiety but not a depression subscale significantly predicted brain activation in the right amygdala when processing fearful, happy and neutral faces. These results suggest that anxiety symptoms are a better predictor for differentiating activation patterns in the amygdala than depression symptoms. Although the current study includes a relatively large sample of treatment naïve adolescents with depression/anxiety disorders, results might be influenced by differences between studies in recruitment strategies or methodology. Future research should include larger samples with a more equal distribution of adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of depression and/or anxiety. To conclude, this study shows that abnormal amygdala responses to emotional faces in depression and anxiety seems to be more dependent on anxiety symptoms than on depression symptoms, and thereby highlights the need for more research to better characterize clinical groups in future studies. PMID:24926249

van den Bulk, Bianca G.; Meens, Paul H. F.; van Lang, Natasja D. J.; de Voogd, E. L.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; Crone, Eveline A.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.

2014-01-01

206

Amygdala activation during emotional face processing in adolescents with affective disorders: the role of underlying depression and anxiety symptoms.  

PubMed

Depressive and anxiety disorders are often first diagnosed during adolescence and it is known that they persist into adulthood. Previous studies often tried to dissociate depressive and anxiety disorders, but high comorbidity makes this difficult and maybe even impossible. The goal of this study was to use neuroimaging to test what the unique contribution is of depression and anxiety symptomatology on emotional processing and amygdala activation, and to compare the results with a healthy control group. We included 25 adolescents with depressive and/or anxiety disorders and 26 healthy adolescents. Participants performed an emotional face processing task while in the MRI scanner. We were particularly interested in the relation between depression/anxiety symptomatology and patterns of amygdala activation. There were no significant differences in activation patterns between the control group and the clinical group on whole brain level and ROI level. However, we found that dimensional scores on an anxiety but not a depression subscale significantly predicted brain activation in the right amygdala when processing fearful, happy and neutral faces. These results suggest that anxiety symptoms are a better predictor for differentiating activation patterns in the amygdala than depression symptoms. Although the current study includes a relatively large sample of treatment naïve adolescents with depression/anxiety disorders, results might be influenced by differences between studies in recruitment strategies or methodology. Future research should include larger samples with a more equal distribution of adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of depression and/or anxiety. To conclude, this study shows that abnormal amygdala responses to emotional faces in depression and anxiety seems to be more dependent on anxiety symptoms than on depression symptoms, and thereby highlights the need for more research to better characterize clinical groups in future studies. PMID:24926249

van den Bulk, Bianca G; Meens, Paul H F; van Lang, Natasja D J; de Voogd, E L; van der Wee, Nic J A; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Crone, Eveline A; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

2014-01-01

207

Avoiding Treatment Failures in Social Anxiety Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Paul1 was a 24-year-old white male. He was of medium build, attractive, and cooperative\\u000a during the interview. He was well articulated but spoke very softly and avoided eye contact with the interviewer. The main\\u000a reason for which Paul sought help was for debilitating and pervasive social anxiety that he had been experiencing since middle\\u000a school. Paul reported that he desired

Stefan G. Hofmann; J. Anthony Richey; Anu Asnaani; Alice T. Sawyer

208

[Differential diagnosis between dissociative disorders and schizophrenia].  

PubMed

The differential diagnosis of dissociative disorders includes many psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorders (especially bipolar II disorder), depressive disorder (especially atypical depression), epilepsy, Asperger syndrome, and borderline personality disorder. The theme of this paper is the differential diagnosis between dissociative disorders and schizophrenia. Schneiderian first-rank symptoms in schizophrenia are common in dissociative disorders, especially in dissociative identity disorder (DID). Many DID patients have been misdiagnosed as schizophrenics and treated with neuroleptics. We compared and examined Schneiderian symptoms of schizophrenia and those of dissociative disorders from a structural viewpoint. In dissociative disorders, delusional perception and somatic passivity are not seen. "Lateness" and "Precedence of the Other" originated from the concept of "Pattern Reversal" (H. Yasunaga)" is characteristic of schizophrenia. It is important to check these basic structure of schizophrenia in subjective experiences in differential diagnosis between dissociative disorders and schizophrenia. PMID:22117396

Shibayama, Masatoshi

2011-01-01

209

Not to Be Overshadowed or Overlooked: Functional Impairments Associated With Comorbid Anxiety Disorders in Youth With ASD.  

PubMed

This study's objective was to examine associations between comorbid anxiety disorders and difficulties commonly attributed to both anxiety and ASD (autism spectrum disorder) including self-injury, depressive symptoms, functional communication, social skill deficits and parent stress, in a well-characterized sample of youth with ASD. Fifty-nine verbally fluent participants (7-17 years; 93% Caucasian) diagnosed with ASD and their parents completed semistructured diagnostic interviews to confirm ASD diagnosis and assess for anxiety disorders. Parents completed questionnaires on child behavior and social skill as well as parental stress. Co-occurring anxiety disorders were associated with more parent-reported self-injurious behavior, depressive symptoms, and parental stress in youth with ASD, after controlling for other influential variables (e.g., ASD severity, cognitive ability, medication status). In contrast, youth with co-occurring anxiety disorders appeared to have significantly stronger parent-reported functional communication than youth with ASD alone as well as a comparable ability, according to parents, to initiate social interaction and develop relationships. Findings support a profile of challenges and relative strengths associated with the presence of anxiety disorders in youth with ASD. Though more research is needed to determine the direction of these associations, results provide further rationale for improving recognition and targeted treatment of this comorbidity in clinical practice. PMID:25526833

Kerns, Connor M; Kendall, Philip C; Zickgraf, Hana; Franklin, Martin E; Miller, Judith; Herrington, John

2015-01-01

210

Resting-State Neuroimaging Studies: A New Way of Identifying Differences and Similarities Among the Anxiety Disorders?  

PubMed Central

This review examines recent functional neuroimaging research of resting-state regional connectivity between brain regions in anxiety disorders. Studies compiled in the PubMed– National Center for Biotechnology Information database targeting resting-state functional connectivity in anxiety disorders were reviewed. Diagnoses included posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), panic disorder (PD), and specific phobia (SP). Alterations to network connectivity were demonstrated in PTSD, GAD, SAD, OCD, and PD in several resting-state investigations. Differences from control subjects were primarily observed in the default mode network within PTSD, SAD, and OCD. Alterations within the salience network were observed primarily in PTSD, GAD, and SAD. Alterations in corticostriatal networks were uniquely observed in OCD. Finally, alterations within somatosensory networks were observed in SAD and PD investigations. Resting-state studies involving SPs as a primary diagnosis (with or without comorbidities) were not generated during the literature search. The emerging use of resting-state paradigms may be an effective method for understanding associations between anxiety disorders. Targeted studies of PD and SPs, meta-analyses of the studies conducted to date, and studies of the impact of specific comorbid presentations, are recommended future research directions. PMID:25007403

Peterson, Andrew; Thome, Janine; Frewen, Paul; Lanius, Ruth A

2014-01-01

211

Heterogeneity in development of adolescent anxiety disorder symptoms in an 8-year longitudinal community study.  

PubMed

In this study, we prospectively examined developmental trajectories of five anxiety disorder symptom dimensions (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, school anxiety, separation anxiety disorder, and social anxiety disorder) from early to late adolescence in a community sample of 239 adolescents, assessed annually over 8 years. Latent growth modeling indicated different developmental trajectories from early into late adolescence for the different anxiety disorder symptoms, with some symptoms decreasing and other symptoms increasing over time. Sex differences in developmental trajectories were found for some symptoms, but not all. Furthermore, latent class growth analysis identified a normal developmental profile (including a majority of adolescents reporting persistent low anxiety disorder symptoms over 8 years) and an at-risk developmental profile (including a minority of adolescents reporting persistent high anxiety disorder symptoms over 8 years) for all of the anxiety disorder symptom dimensions except panic disorder. Additional analyses longitudinally supported the validity of these normal and at-risk developmental profiles and suggested differential associations between different anxiety disorder symptom dimensions and developmental trajectories of substance use, parenting, and identity development. Taken together, our results emphasize the importance of examining separate dimensions of anxiety disorder symptoms in contrast to a using a global, one-dimensional approach to anxiety. PMID:24229471

Nelemans, Stefanie A; Hale, William W; Branje, Susan J T; Raaijmakers, Quinten A W; Frijns, Tom; van Lier, Pol A C; Meeus, Wim H J

2014-02-01

212

Quetiapine as monotherapy for social anxiety disorder: A placebo-controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most common anxiety disorders. Reports have suggested an effect of the atypical antipsychotic quetiapine in anxiety disorders. Given these considerations, we conducted a controlled trial of quetiapine monotherapy in SAD. Fifteen patients were randomized to quetiapine (up to 400 mg\\/day) or placebo for 8 weeks. The Brief Social Phobia Scale (BSPS) and the Clinical

Sandeep Vaishnavi; Syed Alamy; Wei Zhang; Kathryn M. Connor; Jonathan R. T. Davidson

2007-01-01

213

Reduced sensitivity in the recognition of anger and disgust in social anxiety disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. The aim of this study was to investigate the recognition of facial expressions in patients with a generalised social anxiety disorder. It is well documented that in different psychiatric disorders (e.g., depression, schizophrenia) patients may show an altered processing of emotions. However, in generalised social anxiety, emotion recognition has not been studied.Methods. 24 Patients with generalised social anxiety disorder

Barbara Montagne; Sara Schutters; Herman G. M. Westenberg; Jack van Honk; Roy P. C. Kessels; Edward H. F. de Haan

2006-01-01

214

Children with Generalized Anxiety Disorder Do Not Have Peer Problems, Just Fewer Friends  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A common assumption is that all youth with anxiety disorders (AD) experience impaired peer relationships relative to healthy control children. Social impairments have been identified among youth with certain AD (e.g., social anxiety disorder; SAD), but less is known about the peer relationships of children with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).…

Scharfstein, Lindsay; Alfano, Candice; Beidel, Deborah; Wong, Nina

2011-01-01

215

Anxiety and Quality of Life: Clinically Anxious Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders Compared  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, studies comparing children with ASD to clinically anxious children are rare. This study investigated anxiety problems and health-related quality of life in children with high-functioning ASD and comorbid anxiety disorders (referred to as the ASD…

van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; Dirksen, Carmen D.

2012-01-01

216

Suicidal ideation and anxiety disorders: Elevated risk or artifact of comorbid depression?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research into the possible relationship between anxiety disorders and suicidal ideation has yielded mixed results, leading some to suggest that the positive findings between anxiety and suicidal ideation might simply be a by-product of comorbid depression. Recent work has suggested that having an anxiety disorder without history of mood disorder does convey increased risk for suicidal ideation, although the study

Peter J. Norton; Samuel R. Temple; Jeremy W. Pettit

2008-01-01

217

Antidepressants as first-line agents in the current pharmacotherapy of anxiety disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anxiety disorders represent the most prevalent psychiatric dis- orders occurring in the general population, with a high degree of associated morbidity, functional impairment, and health care uti- lization. Each year, approximately 16 million people suffer from an anxiety disorder, while an additional 12 million report comor- bidity of anxiety and at least one other psychiatric disorder (Kessler et al., 1994).

Rafael A. Rivas-Vazquez

2001-01-01

218

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the demonstrated efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD), many individuals do not respond to treatment or demonstrate residual symptoms and impairment posttreatment. Preliminary evidence indicates that acceptance-based approaches (e.g., acceptance and commitment therapy; ACT) can be helpful for a variety of disorders and emphasize exposure-based strategies and processes. Nineteen individuals diagnosed with SAD participated in

Kristy L. Dalrymple

219

Metabolic syndrome among psychiatric outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies have simultaneously compared the impacts of pharmacotherapy and mental diagnoses on metabolic syndrome (MetS) among psychiatric outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of pharmacotherapy and mental diagnoses on MetS and the prevalence of MetS among these patients. Methods Two-hundred and twenty-nine outpatients (men/women?=?85/144) were enrolled from 1147 outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders by systematic sampling. Psychiatric disorders and MetS were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR and the new International Diabetics Federation definition, respectively. The numbers of antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and antidepressants being taken were recorded. Logistic regression was used to investigate the impacts of pharmacotherapy and psychiatric diagnoses on MetS. Results Among 229 subjects, 51 (22.3%) fulfilled the criteria for MetS. The prevalence of MetS was highest in the bipolar I disorder (46.7%) patients, followed by bipolar II disorder (25.0%), major depressive disorder (22.0%), anxiety-only disorders (16.7%), and no mood and/or anxiety disorders (14.3%). The percentages of MetS among the five categories were correlated with those of the patients being treated with antipsychotics and mood stabilizers. Use of antipsychotics and/or mood stabilizers independently predicted a higher risk of MetS after controlling for demographic variables and psychiatric diagnoses. When adding body mass index (BMI) as an independent variable in the regression model, BMI became the most significant factor to predict MetS. Conclusion BMI was found to be an important factor related to MetS. Pharmacotherapy might be one of underlying causes of elevated BMI. The interactions among MetS, BMI, pharmacotherapy, and psychiatric diagnoses might need further research. PMID:24952586

2014-01-01

220

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for generalized anxiety disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

While cognitive behavior therapy has been found to be effective in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), a significant percentage of patients struggle with residual symptoms. There is some conceptual basis for suggesting that cultivation of mindfulness may be helpful for people with GAD. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is a group treatment derived from mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) developed

Susan Evans; Stephen Ferrando; Marianne Findler; Charles Stowell; Colette Smart; Dean Haglin

2008-01-01

221

Sudden Gains during Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Anxiety Disorders  

PubMed Central

Sudden gains in psychotherapy are characterized by large and relatively stable decreases in psychiatric symptoms and have been associated with cognitive shifts in clients and shown to predict superior treatment outcomes in studies of depression and, to a lesser extent, anxiety disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine prevalence and impact of sudden gains during a transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT) for anxiety disorders, as well as the temporal relationship between sudden gains and cognitive changes. Data were used from two trials of transdiagnostic CBGT for anxiety disorders (n = 130). Criteria for determining sudden gains in anxiety symptoms were based upon previous research on sudden gains from trials of cognitive behavioral treatments for major depressive disorder. A total of 17 out of 98 (17.3%) clients experienced at least one sudden gain, with three clients showing two sudden gains during treatment. Three patients showing a sudden gain experienced a reversal of these gains, although one of these three had a subsequent second sudden gain. Clients experiencing sudden gains showed greater overall improvement following treatment than did clients who did not experience a sudden gain, with 65% of the sudden gainers' overall improvement accounted for by the sudden gain. Greater cognitive change in the pregain sessions was observed for clients with a sudden gain than those not showing a sudden gain. This finding lends support to the theory of cognitive mediation through CBGT in which substantial cognitive changes in pregain sessions lead to greater improvement overall. PMID:20621441

Norton, Peter J.; Klenck, Suzanne C.; Barrera, Terri L.

2010-01-01

222

Psychopathology in the Offspring of Anxiety Disorders Patients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed children of patients with anxiety disorders using self-report inventories and a semistructured interview schedule. They were more anxious and fearful, reported more school difficulties and worries about family members and themselves, had more somatic complaints, spent more time engaged in solitary activities than children in two normal…

Turner, Samuel M.; And Others

1987-01-01

223

Social anxiety disorder in childhood and adolescence: Descriptive psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the presentation of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adults is well documented, less is known about its clinical manifestation in children and adolescents. To date, most studies have included combined samples of children and adolescents despite the fact that this age range represents an extensive period of growth and development. This study compares and contrasts the clinical presentation of

Patricia A. Rao; Deborah C. Beidel; Samuel M. Turner; Robert T. Ammerman; Lori E. Crosby; Floyd R. Sallee

2007-01-01

224

Preschool Predictors of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Prospective Community Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Anxiety disorders are often present at preschool age. Research on older children and studies contrasting preschoolers with high versus low behavioral inhibition (BI) highlight several risk factors, but these have not been investigated in community samples of young children. Child, parent, and peer factors at age 4 were therefore…

Wichstrøm, Lars; Belsky, Jay; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne

2013-01-01

225

Family Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Child Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study compared family-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT: the Building Confidence Program) with traditional child-focused CBT with minimal family involvement for children with anxiety disorders. Method: Forty clinically anxious youth (6-13 years old) were randomly assigned to a family- or child-focused cognitive-behavioral…

Wood, Jeffrey J.; Piacentini, John C.; Southam-Gerow, Michael; Chu, Brian C.; Sigman, Marian

2006-01-01

226

Emotion Socialization in Families of Children with an Anxiety Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared emotion socialization in 26 children with anxiety disorders ages 8-12 years and their mothers to 26 nonclinical counterparts without psychopathology. Children and their mothers participated in an emotion interaction task in which they discussed occasions when the child felt worry, sadness, and anger. Responses were coded for length of…

Suveg, Cynthia; Zeman, Janice; Flannery-Schroeder, Ellen; Cassano, Michael

2005-01-01

227

Low baseline pCO2 predicts poorer outcome from behavioral treatment: evidence from a mixed anxiety disorders sample.  

PubMed

Low levels of end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2)-the amount of carbon dioxide measured from expired air-are commonly found in individuals with anxiety disorders but have not been examined as predictors of outcome from anxiety treatment. The current study examined pre-treatment baseline pCO2 as a predictor of outcome from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for anxiety disorders. Sixty-one individuals with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) defined principal anxiety disorder diagnosis completed 12 sessions of either CBT or ACT. Baseline pCO2 was measured prior to entering treatment. Self-reported anxiety symptoms and quality of life were assessed at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 6- and 12-month follow-up from baseline. Low baseline pCO2 was associated with higher anxiety symptoms and lower quality of life across follow-up timepoints, above and beyond baseline symptom severity. These results suggest that low baseline pCO2 predicts poorer outcome from CBT and ACT for anxiety and may warrant treatment that directly addresses respiratory dysregulation. PMID:24953422

Davies, Carolyn D; Craske, Michelle G

2014-10-30

228

Does comorbid Social Anxiety Disorder impact the clinical presentation of principal Major Depressive Disorder?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAlthough previous research has examined comorbidity in principal Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD), few studies have examined the disorders for which those with comorbid SAD seek treatment. Further, studies have shown that depressive disorders often are associated with SAD, but few have examined the clinical characteristics of patients with this particular comorbidity.

Kristy L. Dalrymple; Mark Zimmerman

2007-01-01

229

Knowledge of Social Anxiety Disorder Relative to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among Educational Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social anxiety disorder (SAD), the 3rd most common psychiatric disorder in the United States, follows a chronic and unremitting course, often resulting in severe impairments in multiple areas of functioning. Despite a typical age of onset in early adolescence, the disorder is rarely recognized and treated in adolescent populations. Given its early…

Herbert, James D.; Crittenden, Kia; Dalrymple, Kristy L.

2004-01-01

230

Efficacy of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Comorbid Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia and Generalized Anxiety Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for comorbid panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) by combining treatment strategies for both disorders. A single-case, multiple-baseline design across participants was used. Three participants with primary PDA and secondary…

Labrecque, Joane; Marchand, Andre; Dugas, Michel J.; Letarte, Andree

2007-01-01

231

Translocator protein ligands as promising therapeutic tools for anxiety disorders.  

PubMed

The Translocator protein (TSPO), formerly known as the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor, is an 18 kDa mitochondrial protein primarily involved in steroid biosynthesis in both peripheral and glial cells. It has been extensively reported that TSPO regulates the rate-limiting translocation of cholesterol from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membrane before its transformation by cytochrome P450(scc) into pregnenolone, which is further converted into an array of different steroids. In the brain, neurosteroids such as allopregnanolone and pregnenolone, acting as positive modulators of gamma-aminobutyric type A (GABA(A)) receptors, exert anxiolytic activity. Specific ligands targeting TSPO increase neurosteroid production and for this reason they have been suggested to play an important role in anxiety modulation. Unlike benzodiazepines (Bzs), which represent the most common anti-anxiety drugs administered around the world, selective TSPO ligands have shown anxiolytic effects in animal models without any of the side effects associated with Bzs. Therefore, specific TSPO ligands that are able to promote neurosteroidogenesis may represent the future of therapeutic treatment of anxiety disorders. Furthermore, TSPO expression levels are altered in several different psychiatric disorders in which anxiety is the main symptom. This article reviews the primary and patent literature over the last decade concerning the development of novel TSPO ligands that have resulted effective in various models of anxiety, taking into special consideration their structure-activity relationships. PMID:19548867

Taliani, S; Da Settimo, F; Da Pozzo, E; Chelli, B; Martini, C

2009-01-01

232

Social Functioning in Youth with Anxiety Disorders: Association with Anxiety Severity and Outcomes from Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social functioning was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher Report Form for children with anxiety disorders who participated in a randomized clinical trial (N = 161, aged 7-14). Significant relationships were found between severity of children's principal anxiety disorder and most measures of social functioning, such that poorer…

Settipani, Cara A.; Kendall, Philip C.

2013-01-01

233

Balance Treatment Ameliorates Anxiety and Increases Self-Esteem in Children with Comorbid Anxiety and Balance Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comorbidity between balance and anxiety disorders in adult population is a well-studied clinical entity. Children might be particularly prone to develop balance-anxiety comorbidity, but surprisingly they are practically neglected in this field of research. The consequence is that children are treated for what seems to be the primary disorder

Bart, Orit; Bar-Haim, Yair; Weizman, Einat; Levin, Moran; Sadeh, Avi; Mintz, Matti

2009-01-01

234

Avoidant Personality Disorder in Individuals with Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder: What Does It Add?  

PubMed Central

Avoidant Personality Disorder (AvPD) has a high level of symptom overlap and comorbidity with Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder (GSAD). We examined whether the presence of comorbid AvPD adds significant clinically relevant information for individuals seeking treatment for GSAD. Results suggested that AvPD was significantly associated with poorer quality of life and greater disability in univariate, but not multivariate analyses. Endorsement of more AvPD symptoms was associated with increased disability, increased risk of intimacy, and lower social support, even after covariate adjustment. Specifically, AvPD item 3, hard to be “open” even with people you are close to, was most strongly correlated with quality of life and disability. A binary diagnosis of AvPD alone adds little beyond a marker of greater GSAD severity and depression among patients with GSAD, while a specific feature of AvPD not captured by the GSAD diagnosis, namely emotional guardedness, may be associated with greater impairment. PMID:22705954

Marques, Luana; Porter, Eliora; Keshaviah, Aparna; Pollack, Mark H.; Van Ameringen, Michael; Stein, Murray B.; Simon, Naomi M.

2012-01-01

235

The functioning and well-being of patients with unrecognized anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the degree to which untreated anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder, occurring either singly or in combination, reduce functioning and well-being among primary care patients. Adult patients were screened using the SCL-52 to identify those with clinically significant anxiety symptoms. They also completed the Rand Short-Form (SF-36) to measure self-reported patient functioning and well-being. Patients with untreated

Warren H Schonfeld; Carol J Verboncoeur; Sheila K Fifer; Ruth C Lipschutz; Deborah P Lubeck; Don P Buesching

1997-01-01

236

Treating Anxiety Disorders in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

A family-based, cognitive behavioural treatment for anxiety in 47 children with comorbid anxiety disorders and High Functioning\\u000a Autism Spectrum Disorder (HFA) was evaluated. Treatment involved 12 weekly group sessions and was compared with a waiting\\u000a list condition. Changes between pre- and post-treatment were examined using clinical interviews as well as child-, parent-\\u000a and teacher-report measures. Following treatment, 71.4% of the treated

Anne Marie Chalfant; Ron Rapee; Louisa Carroll

2007-01-01

237

The relationships among separation anxiety disorder, adult attachment style and agoraphobia in patients with panic disorder.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies indicate that separation anxiety disorder occurs more frequently in adults than children. It is unclear whether the presence of adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD) is a manifestation of anxious attachment, or a form of agoraphobia, or a specific condition with clinically significant consequences. We conducted a study to examine these questions. A sample of 141 adult outpatients with panic disorder participated in the study. Participants completed standardized measures of separation anxiety, attachment style, agoraphobia, panic disorder severity and quality of life. Patients with ASAD (49.5% of our sample) had greater panic symptom severity and more impairment in quality of life than those without separation anxiety. We found a greater rate of symptoms suggestive of anxious attachment among panic patients with ASAD compared to those without ASAD. However, the relationship between ASAD and attachment style is not strong, and adult ASAD occurs in some patients who report secure attachment style. Similarly, there is little evidence for the idea that separation anxiety disorder is a form of agoraphobia. Factor analysis shows clear differentiation of agoraphobic and separation anxiety symptoms. Our data corroborate the notion that ASAD is a distinct condition associated with impairment in quality of life and needs to be better recognized and treated in patients with panic disorder. PMID:25218272

Pini, Stefano; Abelli, Marianna; Troisi, Alfonso; Siracusano, Alberto; Cassano, Giovanni B; Shear, Katherine M; Baldwin, David

2014-12-01

238

Clock gene variants in mood and anxiety disorders.  

PubMed

Circadian clocks are driven by signals from the habitat to match the solar day and to reset their phase relative to local time. A key function of the circadian clocks allows individuals to anticipate routine environmental conditions and to adjust their behaviors to the change of conditions. In clinical practice mood, anxiety and alcohol use disorders are often comorbid conditions. Clinical data have demonstrated that there are abnormalities in the circadian rhythms in patients with mood disorders and those with alcohol use disorders. Recent findings of molecular genetics have yielded the first insight into the targets of interest. Circadian clock gene variants are a fruitful target for elucidation of the pathogenesis. The findings that have gained support indicate that genetic variants of RORA (rs2028122) and CRY1 (rs2287161) associate with depressive disorder, those of RORB (rs7022435, rs3750420, rs1157358, rs3903529) and NR1D1 (rs2314339) with bipolar disorder, and those of NPAS2 (rs11541353) and CRY2 (rs10838524) with seasonal affective disorder or winter depression. Concerning anxiety disorders and alcohol use disorders, the current findings are preliminary and need further verification to explain the association of ARNTL2, being suggestive only, with social phobia (rs2306073) and with alcohol abuse (rs7958822, rs4964057). PMID:22538398

Partonen, Timo

2012-10-01

239

The Exposure Hierarchy as a Measure of Progress and Efficacy in the Treatment of Social Anxiety Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the psychometric properties and utility of the exposure hierarchy as a measure of treatment outcome for social anxiety disorder (SAD). An exposure hierarchy was created for each of 103 individuals with a diagnosis of SAD who completed a course of cognitive behavioral group therapy. Exposure hierarchy ratings were collected on a…

Katerelos, Marina; Hawley, Lance L.; Antony, Martin M.; McCabe, Randi E.

2008-01-01

240

Neural Indicators of Error Processing in Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and Major Depressive Disorder.  

PubMed

The ability to detect and respond to errors is critical to successful adaptation to a changing environment, and variation in error-related brain activity has been linked to psychopathology. The error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related potential component, represents a unique neural response to errors and is generated in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). In the present study, we measured the ERN in a sample of individuals with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), or some combination of the 3. Also included were 56 healthy control participants. Consistent with previous research, a diagnosis of GAD, only in the absence of a comorbid diagnosis of depression, was characterized by a larger ERN than controls. No such enhancement was evident in the depressed group, or the comorbid group, suggesting comorbid depression may eliminate the relationship between the ERN and GAD. Across all groups, symptoms of checking were associated with a larger ERN, whereas symptoms of psychomotor retardation were associated with a smaller ERN. The results of the present study indicate that interactions among transdiagnostic dimensions will likely need to be considered in the creation of neurobiologically informed classification schemes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25384068

Weinberg, Anna; Kotov, Roman; Proudfit, Greg H

2014-11-10

241

To what extent does the anxiety scale of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) detect specific types of anxiety disorder in primary care? A psychometric study  

PubMed Central

Background Anxiety scales may help primary care physicians to detect specific anxiety disorders among the many emotionally distressed patients presenting in primary care. The anxiety scale of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) consists of an admixture of symptoms of specific anxiety disorders. The research questions were: (1) Is the anxiety scale unidimensional or multidimensional? (2) To what extent does the anxiety scale detect specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders? (3) Which cut-off points are suitable to rule out or to rule in (which) anxiety disorders? Methods We analyzed 5 primary care datasets with standardized psychiatric diagnoses and 4DSQ scores. Unidimensionality was assessed through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). We examined mean scores and anxiety score distributions per disorder. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine optimal cut-off points. Results Total n was 969. CFA supported unidimensionality. The anxiety scale performed slightly better in detecting patients with panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and specific phobia. ROC-analysis suggested that ?4 was the optimal cut-off point to rule out and ?10 the cut-off point to rule in anxiety disorders. Conclusions The 4DSQ anxiety scale measures a common trait of pathological anxiety that is characteristic of anxiety disorders, in particular panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, OCD and PTSD. The anxiety score detects the latter anxiety disorders to a slightly greater extent than GAD and specific phobia, without being able to distinguish between the different anxiety disorder types. The cut-off points ?4 and ?10 can be used to separate distressed patients in three groups with a relatively low, moderate and high probability of having one or more anxiety disorders. PMID:24761829

2014-01-01

242

DSM-IV obsessive-compulsive personality disorder: prevalence in patients with anxiety disorders and in healthy comparison subjects.  

PubMed

The relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has not yet been fully clarified. The aim of the present study was to analyze DSM-IV OCPD prevalence rates in OCD and panic disorder (PD) patients to test for the specificity of the OCPD-OCD link, and to compare them to OCPD prevalence in a control group of subjects without any psychiatric disorder. A total of 109 patients with a principal diagnosis of DSM-IV (SCID-I) OCD and 82 with PD were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders (SCID-II) in order to assess the prevalence of OCPD. All patients with a coexisting axis I diagnosis were excluded from the study to eliminate confounding factors when evaluating the association between prevalence rates of OCPD and anxiety disorder diagnoses. An exclusion criteria was also a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) score >/=16. A sample of comparison subjects (age 18 to 65 years) without any psychiatric disorder was recruited from people registered with two general practitioners (GPs), whether or not they consulted the doctor, in order to evaluate OCPD prevalence rate in the community. A significant difference was found between the prevalence of OCPD in OCD (22.9%) and in PD (17.1%) on one hand, and that in the comparison sample (3.0%) on the other. No differences were found between the two psychiatric groups, even when splitting the samples according to gender. Our study failed to support the hypothesis of a specific relationship between OCPD and OCD; we confirmed the higher prevalence rate of this personality disorder in OCD subjects with regard to the general population, but we also confirmed the higher rate of OCPD in another anxiety disorder which is phenomenologically well characterized and different from OCD, such as PD. PMID:15332194

Albert, Umberto; Maina, Giuseppe; Forner, Federica; Bogetto, Filippo

2004-01-01

243

Informing Early Intervention: Preschool Predictors of Anxiety Disorders in Middle Childhood  

PubMed Central

Background To inform early intervention practice, the present research examines how child anxiety, behavioural inhibition, maternal overinvolvement, maternal negativity, mother-child attachment and maternal anxiety, as assessed at age four, predict anxiety at age nine. Method 202 children (102 behaviourally inhibited and 100 behaviourally uninhibited) aged 3–4 years were initially recruited and the predictors outlined above were assessed. Diagnostic assessments, using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule, were then conducted five years later. Results Behavioural inhibition, maternal anxiety, and maternal overinvolvement were significant predictors of clinical anxiety, even after controlling for baseline anxiety (p<.05). No significant effect of negativity or attachment security was found over and above baseline anxiety (p>.1). Conclusions Preschool children who show anxiety, are inhibited, have overinvolved mothers and mothers with anxiety disorders are at increased risk for anxiety in middle childhood. These factors can be used to identify suitable participants for early intervention and can be targeted within intervention programs. PMID:22905126

Hudson, Jennifer L.; Dodd, Helen F.

2012-01-01

244

Anxiety and Depression Symptoms in Children with Asperger Syndrome Compared with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Depressive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to examine (a) anxiety and depression symptoms in children with Asperger syndrome (AS) compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with depressive disorder; (b) parental anxiety and depressive symptoms in the three groups; and (c) the association between the anxiety and…

Park, Subin; Park, Min-Hyeon; Kim, Hyo Jin; Yoo, Hee Jeong

2013-01-01

245

Pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders: Current treatments and future directions?  

PubMed Central

Modern pharmacological treatments for anxiety disorders are safer and more tolerable than they were 30 years ago. Unfortunately, treatment efficacy and duration have not improved in most cases despite a greater understanding of the pathophysiology of anxiety. Moreover, innovative treatments have not reached the market despite billions of research dollars invested in drug development. In reviewing the literature on current treatments, we argue that evidence-based practice would benefit from better research on the causes of incomplete treatment response as well as the comparative efficacy of drug combinations and sequencing. We also survey two broad approaches to the development of innovative anxiety treatments: the continued development of drugs based on specific neuroreceptors and the pharmacological manipulation of fear-related memory. We highlight directions for future research, as neither of these approaches is ready for routine clinical use. PMID:23023162

Farach, Frank J.; Pruitt, Larry D.; Jun, Janie J.; Jerud, Alissa B.; Zoellner, Lori A.; Roy-Byrne, Peter P.

2012-01-01

246

A Contemporary View of Applied Relaxation for Generalized Anxiety Disorder  

PubMed Central

Applied Relaxation (AR), originally developed by Lars-Göran Öst, is a long standing, efficacious treatment for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). While newer treatments are continuing to be developed, AR remains one of the most efficacious treatments for GAD. However, AR has received less in-depth attention more recently, particularly in terms of potential mechanisms of action. This paper is written to honor the development and history of AR and to highlight the ways that it has continued to be adapted. In this paper, the AR treatment strategies are presented, which include: noticing early signs of anxiety, learning relaxation skills, and applying relaxation at the first sign of anxiety. Then, additional adaptations to AR are presented along with recommendations of how AR may be enhanced by understanding potential mechanisms of change. Finally, recommendations are made for the continued evolution of AR as a powerful and efficacious treatment for GAD. PMID:23731329

Hayes-Skelton, Sarah A.; Roemer, Lizabeth

2013-01-01

247

Generalized anxiety and panic disorders: Response to Cox, Cohen, Direnfeld, and Swinson (1996)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to the contention of Cox, Cohen, Direnfeld and Swinson (1996, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 34, 949–954) that the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI; Beck & Steer, 1993, Manual for the Beck Anxiety Inventory) measures primarily symptoms associated with panic attacks rather than anxiety in general, we propose that the higher level of anxiety found in patients with panic disorders not

Robert A. Steer; Aaron T. Beck

1996-01-01

248

Measuring Anxiety as a Treatment Endpoint in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the high rate of anxiety in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), measuring anxiety in ASD is fraught with uncertainty. This is due, in part, to incomplete consensus on the manifestations of anxiety in this population. Autism Speaks assembled a panel of experts to conduct a systematic review of available measures for anxiety in…

Lecavalier, Luc; Wood, Jeffrey J.; Halladay, Alycia K.; Jones, Nancy E.; Aman, Michael G.; Cook, Edwin H.; Handen, Benjamin L.; King, Bryan H.; Pearson, Deborah A.; Hallett, Victoria; Sullivan, Katherine Anne; Grondhuis, Sabrina; Bishop, Somer L.; Horrigan, Joseph P.; Dawson, Geraldine; Scahill, Lawrence

2014-01-01

249

Substance Use Disorders and Anxiety: A Treatment Challenge for Social Workers  

PubMed Central

Converging evidence from epidemiologic and treatment studies indicate that anxiety disorders and substance use disorders commonly co-occur, and the interaction is multifaceted and variable. Epidemiological studies and investigations within clinical substance abuse populations have found an association between anxiety disorders and substance use disorders. Specific anxiety disorders including generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and post traumatic stress disorder have all been associated with substance use. The association with obsessive–compulsive disorder is less robust, and some research has found a negative association. The risk of nicotine dependence is significantly higher among individuals with an anxiety disorder, and conversely, smoking has been found to be associated with trait anxiety and anxiety disorders. A review of the current literature and the relationship between specific anxiety disorders and alcohol and substance use disorders is discussed in detail. This article, written for social workers in a variety of practice settings, reviews the prevalence, diagnostic, and treatment issues at the interface of substance use disorders and anxiety disorders. PMID:23731428

Brady, Kathleen T.; Haynes, Louise F.; Hartwell, Karen J.; Killeen, Therese K.

2013-01-01

250

Neurosteroids as Neuromodulators in the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders  

PubMed Central

Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders. They are frequently treated with benzodiazepines, which are fast acting highly effective anxiolytic agents. However, their long-term use is impaired by tolerance development and abuse liability. In contrast, antidepressants such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are considered as first-line treatment but have a slow onset of action. Neurosteroids are powerful allosteric modulators of GABAA and glutamate receptors. However, they also modulate sigma receptors and they are modulated themselves by SSRIs. Both pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown that neurosteroid homeostasis is altered in depression and anxiety disorders and antidepressants may act in part through restoring neurosteroid disbalance. Moreover, novel drugs interfering with neurosteroidogenesis such as ligands of the translocator protein (18?kDa) may represent an attractive pharmacological option for novel anxiolytics which lack the unwarranted side effects of benzodiazepines. Thus, neurosteroids are important endogenous neuromodulators for the physiology and pathophysiology of anxiety and they may constitute a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of these disorders. PMID:22654814

Longone, Patrizia; di Michele, Flavia; D’Agati, Elisa; Romeo, Elena; Pasini, Augusto; Rupprecht, Rainer

2011-01-01

251

Social expectancies and self-perceptions in anxiety-disordered children.  

PubMed

The link between anxiety and negative social expectancies was examined by comparing 47 anxiety-disordered children with 31 nonanxiety-disordered controls on social expectancies, social anxiety, and self-perceived social competence. Participants were exposed to a videotape of confederate children playing a game, being told the children were next door. In anticipation of joining the play, social expectations were assessed via thought-listing and a questionnaire. Parent, teacher, and child measures of sociability were completed prior to the experimental session. Results indicated that anxiety-disordered children reported significantly more negative social expectations, lower social self-competence, and higher levels of social anxiety than controls. Parents and teachers each rated the anxiety-disordered children as significantly more socially maladjusted than controls. Social anxiety was the best predictor of social expectancies. Given the importance of healthy peer relations, treatment implications for anxiety-disordered children are highlighted. PMID:9276781

Chansky, T E; Kendall, P C

1997-01-01

252

Nutritional and herbal supplements for anxiety and anxiety-related disorders: systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Over the past several decades, complementary and alternative medications have increasingly become a part of everyday treatment. With the rising cost of prescription medications and their production of unwanted side effects, patients are exploring herbal and other natural remedies for the management and treatment of psychological conditions. Psychological disorders are one of the most frequent conditions seen by clinicians, and often require a long-term regimen of prescription medications. Approximately 6.8 million Americans suffer from generalized anxiety disorder. Many also suffer from the spectrum of behavioural and physical side effects that often accompany its treatment. It is not surprising that there is universal interest in finding effective natural anxiolytic (anti-anxiety) treatments with a lower risk of adverse effects or withdrawal. Methods An electronic and manual search was performed through MEDLINE/PubMed and EBSCO. Articles were not discriminated by date of publication. Available clinical studies published in English that used human participants and examined the anxiolytic potential of dietary and herbal supplements were included. Data were extracted and compiled into tables that included the study design, sample population, intervention, control, length of treatment, outcomes, direction of evidence, and reported adverse events. Results A total of 24 studies that investigated five different CAM monotherapies and eight different combination treatments and involved 2619 participants met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. There were 21 randomized controlled trials and three open-label, uncontrolled observational studies. Most studies involved patients who had been diagnosed with either an anxiety disorder or depression (n = 1786). However, eight studies used healthy volunteers (n = 877) who had normal levels of anxiety, were undergoing surgery, tested at the upper limit of the normal range of a trait anxiety scale, had adverse premenstrual symptoms or were peri-menopausal, reported anxiety and insomnia, or had one month or more of elevated generalized anxiety. Heterogeneity and the small number of studies for each supplement or combination therapy prevented a formal meta-analysis. Of the randomized controlled trials reviewed, 71% (15 out of 21) showed a positive direction of evidence. Any reported side effects were mild to moderate. Conclusions Based on the available evidence, it appears that nutritional and herbal supplementation is an effective method for treating anxiety and anxiety-related conditions without the risk of serious side effects. There is the possibility that any positive effects seen could be due to a placebo effect, which may have a significant psychological impact on participants with mental disorders. However, based on this systematic review, strong evidence exists for the use of herbal supplements containing extracts of passionflower or kava and combinations of L-lysine and L-arginine as treatments for anxiety symptoms and disorders. Magnesium-containing supplements and other herbal combinations may hold promise, but more research is needed before these products can be recommended to patients. St. John's wort monotherapy has insufficient evidence for use as an effective anxiolytic treatment. PMID:20929532

2010-01-01

253

Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Other Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anxiety disorders, including phobias and post-traumatic stress disorder, are common and disabling disorders that often involve\\u000a avoidance behavior. Cognitive-behavioral treatments, specifically imaginal and in vivo forms of exposure therapy, have been\\u000a accepted and successful forms of treatment for these disorders. Virtual reality exposure therapy, an alternative to more traditional\\u000a exposure-based therapies, involves immersion in a computer-generated virtual environment that minimizes

Maryrose Gerardi; Judith Cukor; JoAnn Difede; Albert Rizzo; Barbara Olasov Rothbaum

2010-01-01

254

Emotional, behavioral, and cognitive factors that differentiate obsessive-compulsive disorder and other anxiety disorders in youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined specific emotional, behavioral, and cognitive variables that may distinguish obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia (SoP), and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in youth. Youth with OCD (n=26) and other anxiety disorders (ADs; n=31), aged 7–12 years (56.1% males), and their parents participated. The study compared the two anxious groups on levels of

Marni L. Jacob; Diana Morelen; Cynthia Suveg; Amy M. Brown Jacobsen; Stephen P. Whiteside

2011-01-01

255

Emotional, behavioral, and cognitive factors that differentiate obsessive-compulsive disorder and other anxiety disorders in youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined specific emotional, behavioral, and cognitive variables that may distinguish obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia (SoP), and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in youth. Youth with OCD (n=26) and other anxiety disorders (ADs; n=31), aged 7–12 years (56.1% males), and their parents participated. The study compared the two anxious groups on levels of

Marni L. Jacob; Diana Morelen; Cynthia Suveg; Amy M. Brown Jacobsen; Stephen P. Whiteside

2012-01-01

256

Duloxetine in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder  

PubMed Central

Duloxetine, a medication with effects on both serotonin and noradrenaline transporter molecules, has recently been approved for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. The evidence for its efficacy lies in a limited number of double blind, placebo controlled comparisons. Statistically significant improvements in the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale from baseline were demonstrated in all studies at doses of 60 to 120 mg per day. The significance of such changes in terms of clinical improvements compared to placebo is less certain, particularly when the effect size of the change is calculated. In comparative trials with venlafaxine, duloxetine was as effective in providing relief of anxiety symptoms. In addition to improvements in clinical symptoms duloxetine has also been associated with restitution of role function as measured by disability scales. Duloxetine use is associated with nausea, dizziness, dry mouth, constipation, insomnia, somnolence, hyperhidrosis, decreased libido and vomiting. These treatment emergent side effects were generally of mild to moderate severity and were tolerated over time. Using a tapered withdrawal schedule over two weeks in the clinical trials, duloxetine was associated with only a mild withdrawal syndrome in up to about 30% of patients compared to about 17% in placebo treated patients. Duloxetine in doses of up to 200 mg twice daily did not prolong the QTc interval in healthy volunteers. Like other agents with dual neurotransmitter actions duloxetine reduces the symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder in short term treatments. Further evidence for its efficacy and safety in long term treatment is required. PMID:19337457

Norman, Trevor R; Olver, James S

2008-01-01

257

The Relation between Anxiety Disorder and Experiential Avoidance in Inpatient Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study aimed to examine the relation between experiential avoidance and anxiety disorders, as well as the usefulness of the Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y; Greco, Lambert, & Baer, 2008) in detecting anxiety disorder in a sample of adolescent inpatients. First, the relation between experiential avoidance and anxiety

Venta, Amanda; Sharp, Carla; Hart, John

2012-01-01

258

The Internet: home to a severe population of individuals with social anxiety disorder?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study sought to understand better the psychological characteristics of socially anxious individuals who seek information on the internet about social anxiety disorder and its treatment. Participants were 434 individuals who responded to an internet-based survey linked to the website of an anxiety specialty clinic. Using established cut-off scores, 92% of the sample met criteria for social anxiety disorder.

Brigette A. Erwin; Cynthia L. Turk; Richard G. Heimberg; David M. Fresco; Donald A. Hantula

2004-01-01

259

Sensory-processing sensitivity in social anxiety disorder: Relationship to harm avoidance and diagnostic subtypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensory-processing sensitivity is assumed to be a heritable vulnerability factor for shyness. The present study is the first to examine sensory-processing sensitivity among individuals with social anxiety disorder. The results showed that the construct is separate from social anxiety, but it is highly correlated with harm avoidance and agoraphobic avoidance. Individuals with a generalized subtype of social anxiety disorder reported

Stefan G. Hofmann; Stella Bitran

2007-01-01

260

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Anxiety Disorders: Three Case Studies Exemplifying a Unified Treatment Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is an innovative acceptance-based behavior therapy that has been applied broadly and successfully to treat a variety of clinical problems, including the anxiety disorders. Throughout treatment ACT balances acceptance and mindfulness processes with commitment and behavior change processes. As applied to anxiety disorders, ACT seeks to undermine excessive struggle with anxiety and experiential avoidance––attempts to

Joanna Arch; Emmanuel Espejo; Melody Keller; David Langer

2009-01-01

261

Anxiety and Repetitive Behaviours in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Williams Syndrome: A Cross-Syndrome Comparison  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder or Williams syndrome are vulnerable to anxiety. The factors that contribute to this risk remain unclear. This study compared anxiety in autism spectrum disorder and Williams Syndrome and examined the relationship between repetitive behaviours and anxiety. Thirty-four children with autism and twenty children…

Rodgers, Jacqui; Riby, Deborah M.; Janes, Emily; Connolly, Brenda; McConachie, Helen

2012-01-01

262

Sleep-Related Problems among Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The present study examined sleep-related problems (SRPs) among a large sample (n = 128) of youth with anxiety disorders (i.e., generalized, separation, and social). The frequency of eight specific SRPs was examined in relation to age, gender, type of anxiety disorder, anxiety severity, and functional impairment. The impact of…

Alfano, Candice A.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Kingery, Julie Newman

2007-01-01

263

Mood, anxiety, and substance-use disorders and suicide risk in a military population cohort.  

PubMed

There are meager prospective data from nonclinical samples on the link between anxiety disorders and suicide or the extent to which the association varies over time. We examined these issues in a cohort of 309,861 U.S. Air Force service members, with 227 suicides over follow-up. Mental disorder diagnoses including anxiety, mood, and substance-use disorders (SUD) were based on treatment encounters. Risk for suicide associated with anxiety disorders were lower compared with mood disorders and similar to SUD. Moreover, the associations between mood and anxiety disorders with suicide were greatest within a year of treatment presentation. PMID:23094649

Conner, Kenneth R; McCarthy, Michael D; Bajorska, Alina; Caine, Eric D; Tu, Xin M; Knox, Kerry L

2012-12-01

264

A preliminary investigation of the Spence Children's Anxiety Parent Scale as a screening tool for anxiety in young people with autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Despite high rates of clinically elevated anxiety difficulties in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), very few studies have systematically examined the usefulness of commonly used caregiver report anxiety screening tools with this population. This study investigated the use of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale-Parent version (SCAS-P) as a screening tool for anxiety disorders when compared to a standardized DSM-IV-TR-based clinical interview, the Kiddie-Schedule for Schizophrenia and Affective Disorders-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL). Thirty-two caregivers of youth with a clinical diagnosis of ASD (mean age 10.3 years) attending a specialist autism school participated in this study. They first completed the SCAS-P, a measure of adaptive functioning and a checklist of other emotional and behavioral difficulties. They were then interviewed with the K-SADS-PL. Internal consistency for the SCAS Total score was .88, but Cronbach's alphas were <.70 in three of the six SCAS-P subscales. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the SCAS-P against K-SADS diagnosis were .75, .71, .27, and .95, respectively. All values were >.70, except for the PPV. Evidence of convergent validity between the SCAS-P, K-SADS-PL and DBC anxiety subscale was also found. The high false positive rates notwithstanding, the preliminary data of acceptable to excellent sensitivity, specificity and NPV values tentatively suggest that the SCAS-P may be useful for screening non-help seeking young people with ASD for elevated anxiety symptoms. Further replication in larger studies is needed and ways in which the SCAS-P could be further developed and investigated for use with youth with ASD are discussed. PMID:24573336

Zainal, Hani; Magiati, Iliana; Tan, Julianne Wen-Li; Sung, Min; Fung, Daniel S S; Howlin, Patricia

2014-08-01

265

Pretreatment Intervention Increases Treatment Outcomes for Patients with Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study evaluated the utility of a pretreatment intervention aimed at increasing treatment attendance. We extended\\u000a past work by evaluating whether this intervention was associated with less impairment at termination. Given that patients\\u000a with anxiety disorders demonstrate high rates of premature termination, we assessed whether these patients would be particularly\\u000a likely to benefit. The sample included 172 patients at

Julia D. Buckner; Kiara R. Cromer; Katherine A. Merrill; Michael A. Mallott; Norman B. Schmidt; Cristina Lopez; Jill M. Holm-Denoma; Thomas E. Joiner Jr

2009-01-01

266

Electrophysiological evidence of attentional biases in social anxiety disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Previous studies investigating attentional biases in social anxiety disorder (SAD) have yielded mixed results. Recent event-related potential (ERP) studies using the dot-probe paradigm in non-anxious participants have shown that the P1 component is sensitive to visuospatial attention towards emotional faces. We used a dot-probe task in conjunction with high-density ERPs and source localization to investigate attentional biases in SAD.

E. M. Mueller; S. G. Hofmann; D. L. Santesso; A. E. Meuret; S. Bitran; D. A. Pizzagalli

2009-01-01

267

Psychological treatment of social anxiety disorder: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract:Background Older meta-analyses of the effects of psychological treatments of social anxiety disorder have found that these treatments have moderate to large effects. However, these earlier meta-analyses also included non-randomized studies, and there are many featured studies in this area which were published after the recent meta-analysis.\\u000aMethod We conducted a systematic literature search and identified 29 randomized studies examining

C. Acarturk; P. Cuijpers; A. van Straten; R. de Graaf

2009-01-01

268

Headache, anxiety and depressive disorders: the HADAS study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper was to assess prevalence and characteristics of anxiety and depression in migraine without aura\\u000a and tension-type headache, either isolated or in combination. Although the association between headache and psychiatric disorders\\u000a is undisputed, patients with migraine and\\/or tension-type headache have been frequently investigated in different settings\\u000a and using different tests, which prevents meaningful comparisons. Psychiatric comorbidity

Ettore Beghi; Gennaro Bussone; Domenico D’Amico; Pietro Cortelli; Sabina Cevoli; Gian Camillo Manzoni; Paola Torelli; Maria Clara Tonini; Giovanni Allais; Roberto De Simone; Florindo D’Onofrio; Sergio Genco; Franca Moschiano; Massimiliano Beghi; Sara Salvi

2010-01-01

269

The Role of Disgust in Childhood Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a During the past several years, there has been extensive research into the role of disgust in a wide range of psychopathology\\u000a (Olatunji & McKay, 2007). Most of this research has focused on anxiety disorders where disgust may figure prominently in avoidance.\\u000a The early work in this area focused on specific phobias and avoidance of contact with disease and contagion (Matchett

Melanie W. Moretz; Jon Rogove; Dean McKay

270

The Relationship between Sluggish Cognitive Tempo, Subtypes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT), subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and anxiety disorders (AnxDs). One hundred and forty-one children (90 males, 51 females) aged 7-13 years were assigned to four groups, i.e., referred children with comorbid AnxDs…

Skirbekk, Benedicte; Hansen, Berit Hjelde; Oerbeck, Beate; Kristensen, Hanne

2011-01-01

271

Examining Shared and Unique Aspects of Social Anxiety Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder Using Factor Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are fairly common psychiatric conditions that impair the functioning of otherwise healthy young adults. Given that the two conditions frequently co-occur, measurement of the characteristics unique to each condition is critical. This study evaluated the structure and construct…

White, Susan W.; Bray, Bethany C.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

2012-01-01

272

Associations between Prolonged Grief Disorder, Depression, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Anxiety in Rwandan Genocide Survivors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of studies have demonstrated that symptoms of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) represent a symptom cluster distinct from bereavement-related depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of the present study was to confirm and extend these findings using the most recent criteria defining PGD. The authors interviewed…

Schaal, Susanne; Dusingizemungu, Jean-Pierre; Jacob, Nadja; Neuner, Frank; Elbert, Thomas

2012-01-01

273

Cost-effectiveness of psychological and pharmacological interventions for generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess from a health sector perspective the incremental cost-effectiveness of interventions for generalized anxiety disorder (cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)) and panic disorder (CBT, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)). Method: The health benefit is measured as a reduction in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), based on effect size calculations

Louise Heuzenroeder; Marie Donnelly; Michelle M. Haby; Cathrine Mihalopoulos; Ruth Rossell; Rob Carter; Gavin Andrews; Theo Vos

2004-01-01

274

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Comorbid Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral treatment package for comorbid generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA). A single-case, multiple-baseline, across-subjects design was used with 3 primary GAD patients with secondary PDA. The efficacy of the treatment was evaluated with…

Labrecque, Joane; Dugas, Michel J.; Marchand, Andre; Letarte, Andree

2006-01-01

275

Associations of anxiety disorders, depressive disorders and body weight with hypertension during pregnancy.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine the relationships between maternal DSM-IV-TR anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, and body mass index (BMI) with arterial hypertension and blood pressure during pregnancy. In the Maternal Anxiety in Relation to Infant Development (MARI) study, N?=?306 women were enrolled in early pregnancy and repeatedly assessed during peripartum period. DSM-IV-TR anxiety and depressive disorders prior to pregnancy, lifetime anxiety/depression liability, and BMI during early pregnancy were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview for Women (CIDI-V). Based on their prepregnancy status, all participants were assigned to one of the following initial diagnostic groups: no anxiety nor depressive disorder (no AD), pure depressive disorder (pure D), pure anxiety disorder (pure A), and comorbid anxiety and depressive disorder (comorbid AD). Blood pressure measurements were derived from medical records. Arterial hypertension during pregnancy was defined by at least two blood pressure values ?140 mmHg systolic and/or ?90 mmHg diastolic. N?=?283 women with at least four documented blood pressure measurements during pregnancy were included in the analyses. In this sample, N?=?47 women (16.6 %) were identified with arterial hypertension during pregnancy. Women with comorbid AD (reference group: no AD) had a significantly higher blood pressure after adjustment for age, parity, smoking, occupation, household income, and education (systolic: linear regression coefficient [?]?=?3.0, 95 % confidence interval [CI]?=?0.2-5.7; diastolic, ??=?2.3, 95 % CI?=?0.1-4.4). Anxiety liability was associated with an increased risk of hypertension (odds ratio [OR]?=?1.1, 95 % CI?=?1.0-1.3) and a higher systolic blood pressure (??=?0.4, 95 % CI?=?0.0-0.7). The adjusted interaction model revealed a significant interaction between the diagnostic group pure A and BMI for hypertension (ORIT?=?1.5, 95 % CI?=?1.1-2.1). Especially, women with a lifetime history of comorbid anxiety and depression and obese pregnant women with a lifetime history of pure anxiety disorder should be informed about their heightened risk of hypertension, monitored with regular blood pressure measurements, and provided with strategies for prevention and early intervention such as changes in diet and physical activity. PMID:25422149

Winkel, Susanne; Einsle, Franziska; Pieper, Lars; Höfler, Michael; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Martini, Julia

2014-11-25

276

Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety-disordered youth: Secondary outcomes from a randomized clinical trial evaluating child and family modalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined secondary outcomes of a randomized clinical trial that evaluated an individual cognitive-behavioral (ICBT), family-based cognitive-behavioral (FCBT), and family-based education, support and attention (FESA) treatment for anxious youth. Participants (161) were between 7 and 14 years (M=10.27) of age and had a principal diagnosis of separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, and\\/or generalized anxiety disorder. Hierarchical linear modeling examined

Cynthia Suveg; Jennifer L. Hudson; Gene Brewer; Ellen Flannery-Schroeder; Elizabeth Gosch; Philip C. Kendall

2009-01-01

277

Predictors of the course of anxiety disorders in adolescents and young adults.  

PubMed

Anxiety disorders belong to the most frequent mental disorders and are often characterized by an early onset and a progressive, persistent/chronic, or recurrent course. Several individual, familial, and environmental risk factors for adverse course characteristics of anxiety disorders (including higher persistence, lower probability of remission, and increased risk of recurrence) have been identified, and previous research suggests that clinical features of anxiety (e.g., higher severity, duration, and avoidance) as well as comorbid other mental disorders are particularly useful for predicting an unfavorable course of anxiety disorders. However, additional studies are needed to identify risk factors for individual course trajectories of anxiety disorders in general as well as specific diagnoses. Doing so is essential in order to more precisely identify individuals with anxiety disorders who are at increased risk for adverse long-term outcomes and might thus particularly profit from targeted early interventions. PMID:25617039

Asselmann, Eva; Beesdo-Baum, Katja

2015-02-01

278

Social Skill Deficits and Anxiety in High-Functioning Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the prevalence and types of anxiety exhibited by high-functioning adolescents With autism spectrum disorders and factors related to this anxiety. Results suggest that adolescents With autism spectrum disorders exhibit anxiety levels that are significantly higher than those of the general population. The study found a loW negative correlation betWeen assertive social skills and social anxiety. In

Scott Bellini

2004-01-01

279

Anthroposophic Therapy for Anxiety Disorders: A Two-year prospective cohort study in Routine Outpatient settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Methods: Anthroposophic treatment for anxiety disorders includes special artistic and physical therapies and special medications. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 64 consecutive adult outpatients starting anthroposophic treatment for anxiety disorders under routine conditions. Main outcomes were Anxiety Severity (physician and patient ratings 0-10), Self-rating Anxiety Scale (0-100), Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, German version (CES-D,

Claudia M. Witt

2009-01-01

280

Anxiety disorders. Focus on obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed Central

Obsessive-compulsive disorder was once thought to be rare. Recent epidemiologic surveys reveal the lifetime prevalence rate to be as high as 3%. We now have greater understanding of the neurophysiologic and neurochemical basis of this very crippling disorder. Although obsessive-compulsive disorder often starts in adolescence or early adulthood and can last a lifetime, effective treatment enables most patients to lead relatively normal lives. PMID:8348022

Warneke, L.

1993-01-01

281

Attachment in Individuals With Social Anxiety Disorder: The Relationship Among Adult Attachment Styles, Social Anxiety, and Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite their apparent implications for social functioning, adult attachment styles have never been specifically explored among persons with social anxiety disorder. In the current study, a cluster analysis of the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (N. L. Collins, 1996) revealed that 118 patients with social anxiety were best represented by anxious and secure attachment style clusters. Members of the anxious attachment

Winnie Eng; Richard G. Heimberg; Trevor A. Hart; Franklin R. Schneier; Michael R. Liebowitz

2001-01-01

282

Attention Mechanisms in Children with Anxiety Disorders and in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Implications for Research and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inattention is among the most commonly referred problems for school-aged youth. Research suggests distinct mechanisms may contribute to attention problems in youth with anxiety disorders versus youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study compared children (8-17 years) with anxiety disorders (n = 24) and children (8-16…

Weissman, Adam S.; Chu, Brian C.; Reddy, Linda A.; Mohlman, Jan

2012-01-01

283

Comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression: results of a cohort study.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Background: Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in late-life depression and negatively impact treatment outcome. This study aimed to examine personality characteristics as well as early and recent life-events as possible determinants of comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression, taking previously examined determinants into account. Methods: Using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.0), we established comorbid anxiety disorders (social phobia (SP), panic disorder (PD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and agoraphobia (AGO)) in 350 patients (aged ?60 years) suffering from a major depressive disorder according to DSM-IV-TR criteria within the past six months. Adjusted for age, sex, and level of education, we first examined previously identified determinants of anxious depression: depression severity, suicidality, partner status, loneliness, chronic diseases, and gait speed in multiple logistic regression models. Subsequently, associations were explored with the big five personality characteristics as well as early and recent life-events. First, multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted with the presence of any anxiety disorder (yes/no) as dependent variable, where after analyses were repeated for each anxiety disorder, separately. Results: In our sample, the prevalence rate of comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression was 38.6%. Determinants of comorbid anxiety disorders were a lower age, female sex, less education, higher depression severity, early traumatization, neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness. Nonetheless, determinants differed across the specific anxiety disorders and lumping all anxiety disorder together masked some determinants (education, personality). Conclusions: Our findings stress the need to examine determinants of comorbid anxiety disorder for specific anxiety disorders separately, enabling the development of targeted interventions within subgroups of depressed patients. PMID:25370017

van der Veen, D C; van Zelst, W H; Schoevers, R A; Comijs, H C; Voshaar, R C Oude

2014-11-01

284

Cultural barriers to African American participation in anxiety disorders research.  

PubMed

Anxiety disorders are understudied, underdiagnosed, and undertreated in African Americans. Research focused on the phenomenology, etiology, and treatment of anxiety in African Americans has been hampered by lack of inclusion of this population in clinical research studies. The reason for exclusion is not well understood, although cultural mistrust has been hypothesized as a major barrier to research participation. This article reviews the relevant literature to date and examines the experience of 6 African American adults who participated in a larger clinical assessment study about anxiety. Drawing upon in-depth semistructured interviews about their subjective experiences, we examined participant perspectives about the assessment process, opinions about African American perception of anxiety studies, and participant-generated ideas about how to improve African American participation. Based on a qualitative analysis of responses, feelings of mistrust emerged as a dominant theme. Concerns fell under 6 categories, including not wanting to speak for others, confidentiality, self and group presentation concerns, repercussions of disclosure, potential covert purposes of the study, and the desire to confide only in close others. Suggestions for increasing African American participation are discussed, including assurances of confidentiality, adequate compensation, and a comfortable study environment. PMID:23862294

Williams, Monnica T; Beckmann-Mendez, Diana A; Turkheimer, Eric

2013-01-01

285

Cultural Barriers to African American Participation in Anxiety Disorders Research  

PubMed Central

Anxiety disorders are understudied, underdiagnosed, and undertreated in African Americans. Research focused on the phenomenology, etiology, and treatment of anxiety in African Americans has been hampered by lack of inclusion of this population in clinical research studies. The reason for exclusion is not well understood, although cultural mistrust has been hypothesized as a major barrier to research participation. This article reviews the relevant literature to date and examines the experience of 6 African American adults who participated in a larger clinical assessment study about anxiety. Drawing upon in-depth semistructured interviews about their subjective experiences, we examined participant perspectives about the assessment process, opinions about African American perception of anxiety studies, and participant-generated ideas about how to improve African American participation. Based on a qualitative analysis of responses, feelings of mistrust emerged as a dominant theme. Concerns fell under 6 categories, including not wanting to speak for others, confidentiality, self and group presentation concerns, repercussions of disclosure, potential covert purposes of the study, and the desire to confide only in close others. Suggestions for increasing African American participation are discussed, including assurances of confidentiality, adequate compensation, and a comfortable study environment. PMID:23862294

Williams, Monnica T.; Beckmann-Mendez, Diana A.; Turkheimer, Eric

2014-01-01

286

Efficacy of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Comorbid Panic Disorder With Agoraphobia and Generalized Anxiety Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for comorbid panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) by combining treatment strategies for both disorders. A single-case, multiple-baseline design across participants was used. Three participants with primary PDA and secondary GAD took part in the study. The efficacy of the treatment was assessed

Joane Labrecque; André Marchand; Michel J. Dugas; Andrée Letarte

2007-01-01

287

COMORBID ANXIETY IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS WITH BIPOLAR SPECTRUM DISORDERS: PREVALENCE AND CLINICAL CORRELATES  

PubMed Central

Objective Anxiety disorders are among the most common comorbid conditions in youth with bipolar disorder (BP). We aimed to examine the prevalence and correlates of comorbid anxiety disorders among youth with BP. Methods As part of the Course and Outcome of Bipolar Youth study (COBY), 446 youth ages 7 to 17, who met DSM-IV criteria for BP-I (n=260), BP-II (n=32) or operationalized criteria for BP not otherwise specified (BP-NOS; n=154) were included. Subjects were evaluated for current and lifetime Axis-I psychiatric disorders at intake using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children–Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL), and standardized instruments to assess functioning and family history. Results Forty-four percent (n=194) of the sample met DSM-IV criteria for at least one lifetime anxiety disorder, most commonly Separation Anxiety (24%) and Generalized Anxiety Disorders (16%). Nearly 20% met criteria for two or more anxiety disorders. Overall, anxiety disorders predated the onset of BP. BP-II subjects were more likely than BP-I or BP-NOS subjects to have a comorbid anxiety disorder. After adjusting for confounding factors, BP youth with anxiety were more likely to have BP-II, longer duration of mood symptoms, more severe ratings of depression, and family history of depression, hopelessness and somatic complaints during their worst lifetime depressive episode than those without anxiety. Conclusions Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in youth with BP, and most often predate BP onset. BP-II, a family history of depression, and more severe lifetime depressive episodes distinguish BP youth with comorbid anxiety disorders from those without. Careful consideration should be given to the assessment of comorbid anxiety in BP youth. PMID:20868643

Sala, Regina; Axelson, David A.; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Goldstein, Tina R.; Ha, Wonho; Liao, Fangzi; Gill, Mary Kay; Iyengar, Satish; Strober, Michael A; Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Yen, Shirley; Hower, Heather; Hunt, Jeffrey; Ryan, Neal D.; Dickstein, Daniel; Keller, Martin B.; Birmaher, Boris

2010-01-01

288

Do Comorbid Anxiety Disorders Moderate the Effects of Psychotherapy for Bipolar Disorder? Results From STEP-BD  

PubMed Central

Objective At least 50% of individuals with bipolar disorder have a lifetime anxiety disorder. Individuals with both bipolar disorder and a co-occurring anxiety disorder experience longer illness duration, greater illness severity, and poorer treatment response. The study explored whether comorbid lifetime anxiety in bipolar patients moderates psychotherapy treatment outcome. Method In the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program randomized controlled trial of psychotherapy for bipolar depression, participants received up to 30 sessions of intensive psychotherapy (family-focused therapy, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, or cognitive-behavioral therapy) or collaborative care, a three-session comparison treatment, plus pharmacotherapy. Using the number needed to treat, we computed effect sizes to analyze the relationship between lifetime anxiety disorders and rates of recovery across treatment groups after 1 year. Results A total of 269 patients (113 women) with a comorbid lifetime anxiety disorder (N=177) or without a comorbid lifetime anxiety disorder (N=92) were included in the analysis. Participants with a lifetime anxiety disorder were more likely to recover with psychotherapy than with collaborative care (66% compared with 49% recovered over 1 year; number needed to treat=5.88, small to medium effect). For patients without a lifetime anxiety disorder, there was no difference between rates of recovery in psychotherapy compared with collaborative care (64% compared with 62% recovered; number needed to treat=50, small effect). Participants with one lifetime anxiety disorder were likely to benefit from intensive psychotherapy compared with collaborative care (84% compared with 53% recovered; number needed to treat=3.22, medium to large effect), whereas patients with multiple anxiety disorders exhibited no difference in response to the two treatments (54% compared with 46% recovered; number needed to treat=12.5, small effect). Conclusions Depressed patients with bipolar disorder and comorbid anxiety may be in particular need of additional psychotherapy for treating acute depression. These results need to be replicated in studies that stratify bipolar patients to treatments based on their anxiety comorbidity status. PMID:24077657

Deckersbach, Thilo; Peters, Amy T.; Sylvia, Louisa; Urdahl, Anna; Magalhães, Pedro V.S.; Otto, Michael W.; Frank, Ellen; Miklowitz, David J.; Berk, Michael; Kinrys, Gustavo; Nierenberg, Andrew

2013-01-01

289

Mechanisms of change in cognitive behavioral therapy for panic disorder: the unique effects of self-efficacy and anxiety sensitivity.  

PubMed

The present study examined temporal dependencies of change of panic symptoms and two promising mechanisms of change (self-efficacy and anxiety sensitivity) during an 11-session course of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) for Panic Disorder (PD). 361 individuals with a principal diagnosis of PD completed measures of self-efficacy, anxiety sensitivity, and PD symptoms at each session during treatment. Effect size analyses indicated that the greatest changes in anxiety sensitivity occurred early in treatment, whereas the greatest changes in self-efficacy occurred later in treatment. Results of parallel process latent growth curve models indicated that changes in self-efficacy and anxiety sensitivity across treatment uniquely predicted changes in PD symptoms. Bivariate and multivariate latent difference score models indicated, as expected, that changes in anxiety sensitivity and self-efficacy temporally preceded changes in panic symptoms, and that intraindividual changes in anxiety sensitivity and self-efficacy independently predicted subsequent intraindividual changes in panic symptoms. These results provide strong evidence that changes in self-efficacy and anxiety sensitivity during CBT influence subsequent changes in panic symptoms, and that self-efficacy and anxiety sensitivity may therefore be two distinct mechanisms of change of CBT for PD that have their greatest impact at different stages of treatment. PMID:24095901

Gallagher, Matthew W; Payne, Laura A; White, Kamila S; Shear, Katherine M; Woods, Scott W; Gorman, Jack M; Barlow, David H

2013-11-01

290

Mechanisms of change in cognitive behavioral therapy for panic disorder: The unique effects of self-efficacy and anxiety sensitivity  

PubMed Central

The present study examined temporal dependencies of change of panic symptoms and two promising mechanisms of change (self-efficacy and anxiety sensitivity) during an 11-session course of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) for Panic Disorder (PD). 361 individuals with a principal diagnosis of PD completed measures of self-efficacy, anxiety sensitivity, and PD symptoms at each session during treatment. Effect size analyses indicated that the greatest changes in anxiety sensitivity occurred early in treatment, whereas the greatest changes in self-efficacy occurred later in treatment. Results of parallel process latent growth curve models indicated that changes in self-efficacy and anxiety sensitivity across treatment uniquely predicted changes in PD symptoms. Bivariate and multivariate latent difference score models indicated, as expected, that changes in anxiety sensitivity and self-efficacy temporally preceded changes in panic symptoms, and that intraindividual changes in anxiety sensitivity and self-efficacy independently predicted subsequent intraindividual changes in panic symptoms. These results provide strong evidence that changes in self-efficacy and anxiety sensitivity during CBT influence subsequent changes in panic symptoms, and that self-efficacy and anxiety sensitivity may therefore be two distinct mechanisms of change of CBT for PD that have their greatest impact at different stages of treatment. PMID:24095901

Gallagher, Matthew W.; Payne, Laura A.; White, Kamila S.; Shear, Katherine M.; Woods, Scott W.; Gorman, Jack M.; Barlow, David H.

2013-01-01

291

38 CFR 4.125 - Diagnosis of mental disorders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diagnosis of mental disorders. 4.125 Section 4.125 ...RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.125 Diagnosis of mental disorders. (a) If the diagnosis...

2011-07-01

292

38 CFR 4.125 - Diagnosis of mental disorders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diagnosis of mental disorders. 4.125 Section 4.125 ...RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.125 Diagnosis of mental disorders. (a) If the diagnosis...

2013-07-01

293

38 CFR 4.125 - Diagnosis of mental disorders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diagnosis of mental disorders. 4.125 Section 4.125 ...RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.125 Diagnosis of mental disorders. (a) If the diagnosis...

2014-07-01

294

Risk factors for an anxiety disorder comorbidity among Thai patients with bipolar disorder: results from the Thai Bipolar Disorder Registry  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of the study was to determine in a clinical setting the risk factors for current anxiety disorder (AD) comorbidity among Thai patients with bipolar disorder (BD), being treated under the Thai Bipolar Disorder Registry Project (TBDR). Methods The TBDR was a multisite naturalistic study conducted at 24 psychiatric units (ie, at university, provincial mental, and government general hospitals) between February 2009 and January 2011. Participants were in- or out-patients over 18 years of age who were diagnosed with BD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Instruments used in this study included the Thai Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview version 5; Thai Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS); Thai Young Mania Rating Scale; Clinical Global Impression of Bipolar Disorder-Severity (CGI-BP-S), CGI-BP-S-mania, CGI-BPS-depression, and CGI-BP-S-overall BP illness; and the Thai SF-36 quality of life questionnaire. Results Among the 424 BD patients, 404 (95.3%) had BD type I. The respective mean ± standard deviation of age of onset of mood disturbance, first diagnosis of BD, and first treatment of BD was 32.0±11.9, 36.1±12.2, and 36.2±12.2 years. The duration of illness was 10.7±9.0 years. Fifty-three (12.5%) of the 424 participants had a current AD while 38 (9%) had a substance use disorder (SUD). The univariate analysis revealed 13 significant risks for current AD comorbidity, which the multivariate analysis narrowed to age at first diagnosis of BD (odds ratio =0.95, P<0.01), family history of SUD (odds ratio =2.18, P=0.02), and having a higher current MADRS score (odds ratio =1.11, P<0.01). Conclusion A diagnosis of AD comorbid with BD is suggested by early-age onset of BD together with a higher MADRS score and a family history of SUD. The likelihood of AD comorbidity decreases by 5% with each passing year; early-age onset of BD is a risk while later age onset is protective. Our results underscore how SUD within the family significantly contributes to the risk of an AD comorbidity. PMID:24868157

Paholpak, Suchat; Kongsakon, Ronnachai; Pattanakumjorn, Wasana; Kanokvut, Roongsang; Wongsuriyadech, Wiroj; Srisurapanont, Manit

2014-01-01

295

How cigarette smoking may increase the risk of anxiety symptoms and anxiety disorders: a critical review of biological pathways  

PubMed Central

Multiple studies have demonstrated an association between cigarette smoking and increased anxiety symptoms or disorders, with early life exposures potentially predisposing to enhanced anxiety responses in later life. Explanatory models support a potential role for neurotransmitter systems, inflammation, oxidative and nitrosative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, neurotrophins and neurogenesis, and epigenetic effects, in anxiety pathogenesis. All of these pathways are affected by exposure to cigarette smoke components, including nicotine and free radicals. This review critically examines and summarizes the literature exploring the role of these systems in increased anxiety and how exposure to cigarette smoke may contribute to this pathology at a biological level. Further, this review explores the effects of cigarette smoke on normal neurodevelopment and anxiety control, suggesting how exposure in early life (prenatal, infancy, and adolescence) may predispose to higher anxiety in later life. A large heterogenous literature was reviewed that detailed the association between cigarette smoking and anxiety symptoms and disorders with structural brain changes, inflammation, and cell-mediated immune markers, markers of oxidative and nitrosative stress, mitochondrial function, neurotransmitter systems, neurotrophins and neurogenesis. Some preliminary data were found for potential epigenetic effects. The literature provides some support for a potential interaction between cigarette smoking, anxiety symptoms and disorders, and the above pathways; however, limitations exist particularly in delineating causative effects. The literature also provides insight into potential effects of cigarette smoke, in particular nicotine, on neurodevelopment. The potential treatment implications of these findings are discussed in regards to future therapeutic targets for anxiety. The aforementioned pathways may help mediate increased anxiety seen in people who smoke. Further research into the specific actions of nicotine and other cigarette components on these pathways, and how these pathways interact, may provide insights that lead to new treatment for anxiety and a greater understanding of anxiety pathogenesis. PMID:23785661

Moylan, Steven; Jacka, Felice N; Pasco, Julie A; Berk, Michael

2013-01-01

296

Feasibility of guided cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) self-help for childhood anxiety disorders in primary care.  

PubMed

Anxiety disorders in childhood are common, disabling and run a chronic course. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is effective but expensive and trained therapists are scarce. Guided self-help treatments may be a means of widening access to treatment. This study aimed to examine the feasibility of guided CBT self-help in primary care for childhood anxiety disorders, specifically in terms of therapist adherence, patient and therapist satisfaction and clinical gain.Participants were children aged between five and 12 years referred to two primary child and adolescent mental health services (PCAMHSs) in Oxfordshire, UK, who met diagnostic criteria for a primary anxiety disorder. Of the 52 eligible children, 41 anxious children were assessed for anxiety severity and interference before and after receiving CBT self-help delivered via a parent (total therapy time = five hours) by primary mental health workers (PMHWs). Therapy sessions were rated for treatment adherence and parents and PMHWs completed satisfaction questionnaires after treatment completion. Over 80% of therapy sessions were rated at a high level of treatment adherence. Parents and PMHWs reported high satisfaction with the treatment. Sixty-one percent of the children assessed no longer met the criteria for their primary anxiety disorder diagnosis following treatment, and 76% were rated as 'much'/'very much' improved on the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) scale. There were significant reductions on parent and child report measures of anxiety symptoms, interference and depression. Preliminary exploration indicated that parental anxiety was associated with child treatment outcome. The findings suggest that guided CBT self-help represents a promising treatment for childhood anxiety in primary care. PMID:22477922

Creswell, Cathy; Hentges, Francoise; Parkinson, Monika; Sheffield, Paul; Willetts, Lucy; Cooper, Peter

2010-03-01

297

A study of poor insight in social anxiety disorder.  

PubMed

We investigated levels of insight among patients with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) as compared to patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and evaluated whether levels of insight in SAD were related to specific sociodemographic and/or clinical features. Thirty-seven SAD patients and 51 OCD patients attending a tertiary obsessive-compulsive and anxiety disorders clinic were assessed with a sociodemographic and clinical questionnaire, a structured diagnostic interview, the Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale (BABS), the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), and the Treatment Adherence Survey-patient version (TAS-P). According to the BABS, SAD patients exhibited insight levels that were as low as those exhibited by OCD patients, with up to 29.7% of them being described as "poor insight" SAD. Although poor insight SAD patients were more frequently married, less depressed and displayed a statistical trend towards greater rates of early drop-out from cognitive-behavioral therapy, their insight levels were not associated with other variables of interest, including sex, age, employment, age at onset, duration of illness, associated psychiatric disorders, SPIN and SDS scores. Patients with poor insight SAD might perceive their symptoms as being less distressful and thus report fewer depressive symptoms and high rates of treatment non-adherence. PMID:24972547

Vigne, Paula; de Menezes, Gabriela B; Harrison, Ben J; Fontenelle, Leonardo F

2014-11-30

298

Treating late-life generalized anxiety disorder in primary care: an effectiveness pilot study.  

PubMed

To increase the sustainability of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in primary care for late-life anxiety, we incorporated nonexpert counselors, options for telephone meetings, and integration with primary care clinicians. This open trial examines the feasibility, satisfaction, and clinical outcomes of CBT delivered by experienced and nonexperienced counselors for older adults with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Clinical outcomes assessed worry (Penn State Worry Questionnaire), GAD (Generalized Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale), and anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory and Structured Interview Guide for Hamilton Anxiety Scale). After 3 months of treatment, Cohen's d effect sizes for worry and anxiety ranged from 0.48 to 0.78. Patients treated by experienced and nonexperienced counselors had similar reductions in worry and anxiety, although treatment outcomes were more improved on the Beck Anxiety Inventory for experienced therapists. Preliminary results suggest that adapted CBT can effectively reduce worry. The piloted modifications can provide acceptable and feasible evidence-based care. PMID:23588228

Calleo, Jessica S; Bush, Amber L; Cully, Jeffrey A; Wilson, Nancy L; Kraus-Schuman, Cynthia; Rhoades, Howard M; Novy, Diane M; Masozera, Nicholas; Williams, Susan; Horsfield, Matthew; Kunik, Mark E; Stanley, Melinda A

2013-05-01

299

The comorbidity of alcoholism with anxiety and depressive disorders in four geographic communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comorbidity of alcoholism with anxiety and depressive disorders was examined in four epidemiologic investigations from diverse geographic sites. Despite variability in lifetime prevalence rates for these disorders, there was strong cross-site consistency in the magnitude and specific patterns of comorbidity. Individuals with alcohol abuse or dependence generally experienced a twofold to threefold increased risk of anxiety and depressive disorders.

Joel D. Swendsen; Kathleen R. Merikangas; Glorisa J. Canino; Ronald C. Kessler; Maritza Rubio-Stipec; Jules Angst

1998-01-01

300

Evidenced-Based Practice for Anxiety Disorders in College Mental Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anxiety disorders are the most common mental health concerns in the United States and they tend to be among the most frequently reported in college mental health. While efficacious research for the psychotherapy treatment of specific anxiety disorders (e.g., social phobia, panic disorder, etc.) exists, the picture is more complex in clinical…

Baez, Thomas

2005-01-01

301

Dissociative identity disorder: a controversial diagnosis.  

PubMed

A brief description of the controversies surrounding the diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder is presented, followed by a discussion of the proposed similarities and differences between dissociative identity disorder and borderline personality disorder. The phenomenon of autohypnosis in the context of early childhood sexual trauma and disordered attachment is discussed, as is the meaning of alters or alternate personalities. The author describes recent neurosciences research that may relate the symptoms of dissociative identity disorder to demonstrable disordered attention and memory processes. A clinical description of a typical patient presentation is included, plus some recommendations for approaches to treatment. PMID:19724751

Gillig, Paulette Marie

2009-03-01

302

Panic disorder and health-related quality of life: The predictive roles of anxiety sensitivity and trait anxiety.  

PubMed

Panic disorder (PD) is a very common anxiety disorder and is often a chronic disabling condition. However, little is known about the factors that predict health-related quality of life (HRQOL) other than sociodemographic factors and illness-related symptomatology that explain HRQOL in only small to modest degrees. This study explored whether anxiety-related individual traits including anxiety sensitivity and trait anxiety can predict independently HRQOL in panic patients. Patients with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (N=230) who met the diagnostic criteria in the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV were recruited. Stepwise regression analysis was performed to determine the factors that predict HRQOL in panic disorder. HRQOL was assessed by the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Anxiety sensitivity was an independent predictor of bodily pain and social functioning whereas trait anxiety independently predicted all of the eight domains of the SF-36. Our data suggests that the assessment of symptomatology as well as individual anxiety-related trait should be included in the evaluation of HRQOL in panic patients. PMID:25466228

Kang, Eun-Ho; Kim, Borah; Choe, Ah Young; Lee, Jun-Yeob; Choi, Tai Kiu; Lee, Sang-Hyuk

2015-01-30

303

A patient with a de novo distal 22q11.2 microdeletion and anxiety disorder.  

PubMed

We report on a young female with normal intelligence evaluated for long-term anxiety. Her history includes prematurity, neonatal feeding problems, surgical correction of congenital heart defects, recurrent upper airway and urinary tract infections, and delayed motor and developmental milestones. Physical examination disclosed small stature and minor dysmorphisms. Chromosome analysis, 22q11.2 FISH analysis, and subtelomeric MLPA testing did not detect any abnormalities. Genome wide SNP Array analysis showed a de novo deletion in 22q11.21q11.22, the so-called distal 22q11 microdeletion that involves the MAPK1 gene. A diagnosis of panic disorder was made and the patient was successfully treated with a daily dose of 20?mg citalopram. To our knowledge, this is the first adolescent patient with a long history of complaints about anxiety and a distal 22q11 microdeletion. We speculate that genes from the deleted region, especially MAPK1, increase the neurobiological susceptibility to anxiety disorders that may be a part of the psychopathological phenotype of the distal 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome. PMID:21271660

Verhoeven, Willem; Egger, Jos; Brunner, Han; de Leeuw, Nicole

2011-02-01

304

A Web-Based Screening Instrument for Depression and Anxiety Disorders in Primary Care  

PubMed Central

Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders are common and result in considerable suffering and economic loss. People suffering from major depressive disorder and/or anxiety disorders are commonly encountered in the primary care setting. Unfortunately, most people with these disorders remain either untreated or inadequately treated; current data suggest that general practitioners fail to diagnose up to half of cases of major depressive disorder or anxiety. There is a need for screening tools that will help physicians and other professionals in primary care recognize and adequately treat major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. While the currently-available self-report screening instruments have been demonstrated to be reliable and valid, there remain considerable barriers to their widespread use in primary care. Objective The purpose of the present study is to report preliminary validation data for a freely-available, brief, Web-based, self-report screener for major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. Methods The Web-Based Depression and Anxiety Test (WB-DAT) was administered to 193 subjects who presented for assessment and/or treatment in ongoing research projects being conducted at the Mood and Anxiety Program and Clinical Research Department at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Subjects completed the Web-based screening instrument and were subsequently interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) Axis I Disorders (SCID-I/P). The diagnostic data from the screening instrument were then compared with the data from the individual's SCID-I/P interview. Diagnostic concordance between SCID-I/P diagnoses and the Web-Based Depression and Anxiety Test were assessed using Cohen's kappa, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and efficiency. Results Agreement ranged from acceptable to good (0.57-0.70) for major depressive disorder, panic disorder with and without agoraphobia (PD+/-AG), social phobia/social anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). With the exception of generalized anxiety disorder, the sensitivity (0.71-0.95) and specificity (0.87-0.97) for the major diagnostic categories assessed by the Web-Based Depression and Anxiety Test were good. The sensitivity for generalized anxiety disorder was somewhat lower (0.63) but acceptable. Positive predictive values were good (0.60-0.75) for major depressive disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and post traumatic stress disorder, and acceptable for panic disorder with and without agoraphobia and for social phobia/social anxiety disorder. Conclusions These preliminary data suggest that the Web-Based Depression and Anxiety Test is reliable for identifying patients with and without major depressive disorder and the anxiety disorders of panic disorder with and without agoraphobia, social phobia/social anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, and post traumatic stress disorder. Further research is required in a larger sample in primary care. PMID:14517114

McBride, Carolina; Bagby, R Michael; Ravitz, Paula

2003-01-01

305

Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders without Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent studies have shown that rates of depression and anxiety symptoms are elevated among individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) of various ages and IQs and that depression/anxiety symptoms are associated with higher IQ and fewer ASD symptoms. In this study which examined correlates of depression and anxiety symptoms in the full…

Strang, John F.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Daniolos, Peter; Case, Laura; Wills, Meagan C.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.

2012-01-01

306

Anxiety buffer disruption theory: a terror management account of posttraumatic stress disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present anxiety buffer disruption theory (ABDT) and provide a review of current evidence regarding the theory. ABDT is an application of terror management theory to explain diverse reactions to traumatic events and the onset and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It posits that PTSD results from a disruption in one's anxiety-buffering mechanisms, which normally provide protection against anxiety

Tom Pyszczynski; Pelin Kesebir

2011-01-01

307

A unified protocol for the transdiagnostic psychodynamic treatment of anxiety disorders: an evidence-based approach.  

PubMed

Although there is evidence for the efficacy of psychodynamic therapy (PDT) in anxiety disorders, results are not yet satisfactory, for example, if rates of remission and response are considered. To address this problem, a unified psychodynamic protocol for anxiety disorders (UPP-ANXIETY) is proposed that integrates the treatment principles of those methods of PDT that have proven to be efficacious in anxiety disorders. In addition, this protocol is transdiagnostic, implying that it is applicable to various forms of anxiety disorders and related disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic disorders, avoidant personality disorder). Based on supportive-expressive therapy, the UPP-ANXIETY represents an integrated form of psychodynamic therapy that allows for a flexible use of empirically supported treatment principles. UPP-ANXIETY encompasses the following 9 treatment principles (modules): (1) socializing the patient for psychotherapy, (2) motivating and setting treatment goals, (3) establishing a secure helping alliance, (4) identifying the core conflict underlying anxiety, (5) focusing on the warded-off wish/affect, (6) modifying underlying internalized object relations, (7) changing underlying defenses and avoidance, (8) modifying underlying response of self, and (9) termination and relapse prevention. Some principles are regarded as core components to be used in every treatment (principles 3-8). A unified protocol for the psychodynamic treatment of anxiety disorders has several advantages, that is (1) integrating the most effective treatment principles of empirically supported psychodynamic treatments for anxiety disorders can be expected to further improve the efficacy of PDT; (2) using a unified protocol in efficacy studies has the potential to enhance the evidence-based status of PDT by aggregating the evidence; (3) a unified protocol will facilitate both training in PDT and transfer of research to clinical practice; and (4) thus, a unified protocol can be expected to have a significant impact on the health care system. We are planning to test the UPP-ANXIETY in a multicenter randomized controlled trial. PMID:24377407

Leichsenring, Falk; Salzer, Simone

2014-06-01

308

Efficacy of vilazodone on anxiety symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder  

PubMed Central

Anxiety symptoms are prevalent in patients with major depressive disorder. A post-hoc analysis of two phase III trials was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of vilazodone on depression-related anxiety. Using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD17) Anxiety/Somatization subscale, patients were classified as anxious or nonanxious. Improvements in depressive symptoms were based on least squares mean changes in HAMD17 and Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale total scores. Anxiety symptoms in the anxious subgroup were evaluated using Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) total and subscale (Psychic Anxiety, Somatic Anxiety) scores, HAMD17 Anxiety/Somatization subscale and item (Psychic Anxiety, Somatic Anxiety) scores, and the Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale Inner Tension item score. Most of the pooled study population [82.0% (708/863)] was classified with anxious depression. After 8 weeks of treatment, least squares mean differences between vilazodone and placebo for changes in HAMA total and HAMD17 Anxiety/Somatization subscale scores were ?1.82 (95% confidence interval ?2.81 to ?0.83; P<0.001) and ?0.75 (95% confidence interval ?1.17 to ?0.32; P<0.001), respectively. Statistically significant improvements with vilazodone were also found on all other anxiety-related measures, except the HAMA Somatic Anxiety subscale. Vilazodone may be effective in treating patients with major depressive disorder who exhibit somatic and/or psychic symptoms of anxiety. PMID:24978955

Chen, Dalei; Edwards, John; Ruth, Adam

2014-01-01

309

Disordered gambling and co-morbidity of psychiatric disorders among college students: an examination of problem drinking, anxiety and depression.  

PubMed

We assessed the occurrence of co-morbid psychiatric disorders (i.e., problem drinking, anxiety, and depression) among college students who met the threshold for disordered gambling. The participants included a large sample of undergraduate students (n = 1,430) who were enrolled in an introductory health course at a large, southeastern university in Spring 2011 and completed an online assessment that included scales to assess disordered gambling, problem drinking, anxiety, and depression. We calculated screening scores, computed prevalence rates for each disorder, and calculated Pearson correlations and Chi square tests to examine correlations and co-morbid relationships between the four disorders. Analyses indicated that all disorders were significantly associated (p < .01) except for disordered gambling and anxiety. Because college students who experience disordered gambling (and other psychiatric disorders) are at increased risk of experiencing co-occurring disorders, it might be useful for college health professionals to concurrently screen and intervene for co-occurring disorders. PMID:23430449

Martin, Ryan J; Usdan, Stuart; Cremeens, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen

2014-06-01

310

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Comorbid Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Panic Disorder With Agoraphobia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral treatment package for comorbid generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA). A single-case, multiple-baseline, across-subjects design was used with 3 primary GAD patients with secondary PDA. The efficacy of the treatment was evaluated with a structured interview, a battery of self-report questionnaires, and daily

Joane Labrecque; Michel J. Dugas; André Marchand; Andrée Letarte

2006-01-01

311

Examining Shared and Unique Aspects of Social Anxiety Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder Using Factor Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are fairly common psychiatric conditions that impair the\\u000a functioning of otherwise healthy young adults. Given that the two conditions frequently co-occur, measurement of the characteristics\\u000a unique to each condition is critical. This study evaluated the structure and construct overlap of two screening measures of\\u000a SAD and ASD. Results from 623 young

Susan W. WhiteBethany; Bethany C. Bray; Thomas H. Ollendick

312

Cost-Effectiveness of Psychological and Pharmacological Interventions for Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Panic Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess from a health sector perspective the incremental cost-effectiveness of interventions for generalized anxiety disorder (cognitive behavioural therapy [CBT] and serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors [SNRIs]) and panic disorder (CBT, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SSRIs] and tricyclic antidepressants [TCAs]).Method: The health benefit is measured as a reduction in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), based on effect size calculations from

Louise Heuzenroeder; Marie Donnelly; Michelle M. Haby; Cathrine Mihalopoulos; Ruth Rossell; Rob Carter; Gavin Andrews; Theo Vos

2004-01-01

313

Self-portrayal concerns and their relation to safety behaviors and negative affect in social anxiety disorder.  

PubMed

It has been proposed that self-portrayal concerns - fundamental worries that particular negative self-attributes will become exposed during social encounters and criticized by others - underlie the experience of social anxiety (SA) and drive associated avoidance and safety behaviors (Moscovitch, 2009). The development of the Negative Self Portrayal Scale (NSPS) to assess such concerns across the dimensions of social competence, signs of anxiety, and physical appearance has helped yield promising initial findings that support the basic tenets of Moscovitch's (2009) theoretical model in samples of undergraduate students (Moscovitch & Huyder, 2011). The present study investigated the nature of self-portrayal concerns and their relation to affect and behavior in a sample of 194 community-based participants consisting of (a) 62 individuals with a principal diagnosis of generalized SAD, either with (n = 35) or without (n = 27) an additional depressive disorder diagnosis, (b) 51 individuals with another principal anxiety disorder diagnosis, either with (n = 22) or without (n = 29) an additional diagnosis of SAD, and (c) 81 healthy controls. Participants completed trait questionnaires, daily diaries of naturalistic social encounters, and a laboratory-based speech task. Results demonstrated (a) that a diagnosis of SAD confers unique risk for elevated self-portrayal concerns, (b) that such concerns predict significant variance in safety behavior use across diverse contexts, and (c) that the use of safety behaviors mediates the relation between such concerns and the experience of heightened negative affect. Implications for case conceptualization and treatment of SAD are discussed. PMID:23778055

Moscovitch, David A; Rowa, Karen; Paulitzki, Jeffrey R; Ierullo, Maria D; Chiang, Brenda; Antony, Martin M; McCabe, Randi E

2013-08-01

314

The association of comorbid anxiety disorders with suicide attempts and suicidal ideation in outpatients with bipolar disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals with bipolar disorder are at increased risk for suicide attempts and completion. Although anxiety may be a modifiable suicide risk factor among bipolar patients, anxiety disorder comorbidity has not been highlighted as critical in identification of high-risk individuals nor has its treatment been integrated into suicide prevention strategies. In this study, ancillary to the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for

Naomi M. Simon; Alyson K. Zalta; Michael W. Otto; Michael J. Ostacher; Diana Fischmann; Candice W. Chow; Elizabeth H. Thompson; Julie C. Stevens; Christina M. Demopulos; Andrew A. Nierenberg; Mark H. Pollack

2007-01-01

315

The Expanding Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy Treatment Umbrella for the Anxiety Disorders: Disorder-Specific and Transdiagnostic Approaches  

PubMed Central

Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is an empirically supported treatment for anxiety disorders. CBT treatments are based on disorder-specific protocols that have been developed to target individual anxiety disorders, despite that anxiety disorders frequently co-occur and are comorbid with depression. Given the high rates of diagnostic comorbidity, substantial overlap in dimensional symptom ratings, and extensive evidence that the mood and anxiety disorders share a common set of psychological and biological vulnerabilities, transdiagnostic CBT protocols have recently been developed to treat the commonalities among the mood and anxiety disorders. We conducted a selective review of empirical developments in the transdiagnostic CBT treatment of anxiety and depression (2008–2013). Preliminary evidence suggests that theoretically based transdiagnostic CBT approaches lead to large treatment effects on the primary anxiety disorder, considerable reduction of diagnostic comorbidity, and some preliminary effects regarding the impact on the putative, shared psychological mechanisms. However, the empirical literature remains tentative owing to relatively small samples, limited direct comparisons with disorder-specific CBT protocols, and the relative absence of the study of disorder-specific compared with shared mechanisms of action in treatment. We conclude with a treatment conceptualization of the new transdiagnostic interventions as complementary, rather than contradictory, to disorder-specific CBT. PMID:25007404

Rector, Neil A; Man, Vincent; Lerman, Bethany

2014-01-01

316

Interpersonal Constraint Conferred by Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder is Evident on a Behavioral Economics Task  

PubMed Central

Although social anxiety disorder appears to confer impairment in friendships, evidence beyond self-report is minimal. We used the flexible iterated prisoner’s dilemma as a simulated interaction with a friend with 27 individuals with the generalized type of social anxiety disorder and 23 demographically equivalent individuals without the disorder. Participants with generalized social anxiety disorder were less giving on the task. Lower giving was also moderately associated with interpersonal variables (e.g., coldness). A trend was also found for participants with generalized social anxiety disorder to show lower assertiveness on the task. The connection between generalized social anxiety disorder and friendship impairment appears likely to be partially explained by interpersonal constraint that is perceived by others as coldness and manifests in a behavioral economics task. PMID:23231458

Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Shumaker, Erik A.; Levinson, Cheri A.; Fernandez, Katya C.; Langer, Julia K.; Lim, Michelle H.; Yarkoni, Tal

2013-01-01

317

A twin study of generalized anxiety disorder symptoms, panic disorder symptoms and post-traumatic stress disorder in men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) often co-occur. We investigated whether and to what degree genetic and environmental contributions overlap among symptoms of GAD, symptoms of PD and PTSD. Subjects were 3327 monozygotic and dizygotic male–male twin pair members of the Vietnam Era Twin Registry who participated in a 1992 telephone administration of the

Sunanta I Chantarujikapong; Jeffrey F Scherrer; Hong Xian; Seth A Eisen; Michael J Lyons; Jack Goldberg; Ming Tsuang; William R True

2001-01-01

318

How could MDMA (ecstasy) help anxiety disorders? A neurobiological rationale.  

PubMed

Exposure therapy is known to be an effective treatment for anxiety disorders. Nevertheless, exposure is not used as much as it should be, and instead patients are often given supportive medications such as serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and benzodiazepines, which may even interfere with the extinction learning that is the aim of treatment. Given that randomized controlled trials are now investigating a few doses of +/-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') in combination with psychotherapy for treatment-resistant anxiety disorders, we would like to suggest the following three mechanisms for this potentially important new approach: 1) MDMA increases oxytocin levels, which may strengthen the therapeutic alliance; 2) MDMA increases ventromedial prefrontal activity and decreases amygdala activity, which may improve emotional regulation and decrease avoidance and 3) MDMA increases norepinephrine release and circulating cortisol levels, which may facilitate emotional engagement and enhance extinction of learned fear associations. Thus, MDMA has a combination of pharmacological effects that, in a therapeutic setting, could provide a balance of activating emotions while feeling safe and in control, as described in case reports of MDMA-augmented psychotherapy. Further clinical and preclinical studies of the therapeutic value of MDMA are indicated. PMID:19273493

Johansen, P Ø; Krebs, T S

2009-06-01

319

Pathological circuit function underlying addiction and anxiety disorders.  

PubMed

Current models of addiction and anxiety stem from the idea that aberrant function and remodeling of neural circuits cause the pathological behaviors. According to this hypothesis, a disease-defining experience (for example, drug reward or stress) would trigger specific forms of synaptic plasticity, which in susceptible subjects would become persistent and lead to the disease. While the notion of synaptic diseases has received much attention, no candidate disorder has been sufficiently investigated to yield new, rational therapies that could be tested in the clinic. Here we review the arguments in favor of abnormal neuronal plasticity underlying addiction and anxiety disorders, with a focus on the functional diversity of neurons that make up the circuits involved. We argue that future research must strive to obtain a comprehensive description of the relevant functional anatomy. This will allow identification of molecular mechanisms that govern the induction and expression of disease-relevant plasticity in identified neurons. To establish causality, one will have to test whether normalization of function can reverse pathological behavior. With these elements in hand, it will be possible to propose blueprints for manipulations to be tested in translational studies. The challenge is daunting, but new techniques, above all optogenetics, may enable decisive advances. PMID:25402855

Lüthi, Andreas; Lüscher, Christian

2014-12-01

320

Anxiety Disorders and Sensory Over-Responsivity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Is There a Causal Relationship?  

PubMed Central

Anxiety disorders and sensory over-responsivity (SOR) are common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and there is evidence for an association between these two conditions. Currently, it is unclear what causal mechanisms may exist between SOR and anxiety. We propose three possible theories to explain the association between anxiety and SOR: (a) SOR is caused by anxiety; (b) Anxiety is caused by SOR; or (c) SOR and anxiety are causally unrelated but are associated through a common risk factor or diagnostic overlap. In this paper, we examine support for each theory in the existing anxiety, autism, and neuroscience literature, and discuss how each theory informs choice of interventions and implications for future studies. PMID:20383658

Ben-Sasson, Ayelet

2010-01-01

321

The influence of sertraline on attention and verbal memory in children and adolescents with anxiety disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This study investigated the cognitive side effects of a 6-week course of sertraline treatment on verbal memory and attention in children and adolescents. Children with various anxiety disorders (social phobia, generalized and separation anxiety disorder; n = 28), between 8 and 17 years of age, received a standardized, computerized neuropsychological assessment before treatment and another 6 weeks after treatment

Thomas Gunther; Kristian Holtkamp; Jellemer Jolles; Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann; Kerstin Konrad

2005-01-01

322

Cognitive behavior therapy for generalized social anxiety disorder in adolescents: A randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early identification and treatment of social anxiety disorder (SAD) is critical to prevent development of a chronic course of symptoms, persistent functional impairment, and progressive psychiatric comorbidity. A small but growing literature supports the effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders, including SAD, in adolescence. The present randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of group vs. individual CBT

James D. Herbert; Brandon A. Gaudiano; Alyssa A. Rheingold; Ethan Moitra; Valerie H. Myers; Kristy L. Dalrymple; Lynn L. Brandsma

2009-01-01

323

Stable Early Maternal Report of Behavioral Inhibition Predicts Lifetime Social Anxiety Disorder in Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveBehavioral inhibition (bi), a temperamental style identifiable in early childhood, is considered a risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders, particularly social anxiety disorder (sad). however, few studies examining this question have evaluated the stability of bi across multiple developmental time points and followed participants into adolescence—the developmental period during which risk for SAD onset is at its peak.

Andrea Chronis-Tuscano; Kathryn Amey Degnan; Daniel S. Pine; Koraly Perez-Edgar; Heather A. Henderson; Yamalis Diaz; Veronica L. Raggi; Nathan A. Fox

2009-01-01

324

Cognitive-behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder: current status and future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the most thoroughly studied nonpharmacologic approach to the treatment of social anxiety disorder, and its efficacy has been demonstrated in a large number of investigations. This article summarizes the data on the efficacy of CBT for the treatment of the symptoms of social anxiety disorder and impaired quality of life. The relative efficacy of various CBT

Richard G. Heimberg

2002-01-01

325

Alcohol Expectancies and Drinking Behavior in Adults with Social Anxiety Disorder and Dysthymia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has found a positive relationship between social anxiety disorder and alcoholism, and that certain alcohol outcome expectancies are related to drinking behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among drinking behaviors and alcohol expectancies in treatment-seeking individuals diagnosed with social anxiety disorder or dysthymia, as well as normal controls. No significant differences were found

Lindsay S. Ham; Debra A. Hope; Cameron S. White; P. Clayton Rivers

2002-01-01

326

Evaluation of the Clinical Global Impression Scale among individuals with social anxiety disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI) is commonly used as a primary outcome measure in studies evaluating the efficacy of treatments for anxiety disorders. The current study evaluated the psychometric properties and predictors of clinicians' ratings on an adapted version of the CGI among individuals with social anxiety disorders. Method. An independent assessor administered the CGI Severity of Illness

T. I. ZAIDER; R. G. HEIMBERG; D. M. FRESCO; F. R. SCHNEIER; M. R. LIEBOWITZ

2003-01-01

327

Treating Adolescents with Social Anxiety Disorder in School: An Attention Control Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Anxiety disorders are often undetected and untreated in adolescents. This study evaluates the relative efficacy of a school-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention compared to an educational-supportive treatment for adolescents with social anxiety disorder. Methods: Thirty-six students (30 females), ages 14 to 16, were randomized to a…

Warner, Carrie Masia; Fisher, Paige H.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Rathor, Snigdha; Klein, Rachel G.

2007-01-01

328

Dissemination of Evidence-Based Practices for Anxiety Disorders in Wyoming: A Survey of Practicing Psychotherapists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the well-established effectiveness of exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in the treatment of anxiety disorders, therapists have been slow to adopt CBT into their clinical practice. The present study was conducted to examine the utilization of psychotherapy techniques for anxiety disorders among community practitioners in a…

Hipol, Leilani J.; Deacon, Brett J.

2013-01-01

329

An Open Trial of an Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research suggests that experiential avoidance may play an important role in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; see Roemer, L., & Orsillo, S.M. (2002). "Expanding our conceptualization of and treatment for generalized anxiety disorder: Integrating mindfulness/acceptance-based approaches with existing cognitive-behavioral models." "Clinical…

Roemer, Lizabeth; Orsillo, Susan M.

2007-01-01

330

The Implementation of Modified Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Youth with Separation Anxiety Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is the most prevalent anxiety disorder experienced by children, and yet empirical treatment studies of SAD in young children are virtually nonexistent. This paper will describe the development and implementation of an innovative treatment for SAD in young children. First, we will highlight the rationale for…

Pincus, Donna B.; Santucci, Lauren C.; Ehrenreich, Jill T.; Eyberg, Sheila M.

2008-01-01

331

CRITICAL REVIEW OF OUTCOME RESEARCH ON INTERPERSONAL PSYCHOTHERAPY FOR ANXIETY DISORDERS  

PubMed Central

Background Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) has demonstrated efficacy in treating mood and eating disorders. This article critically reviews outcome research testing IPT for anxiety disorders, a diagnostic area where cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has dominated research and treatment. Methods A literature search identified six open and five controlled trials of IPT for social anxiety disorder (SAD), panic disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Results Studies were generally small, underpowered, and sometimes methodologically compromised. Nonetheless, minimally adapted from its standard depression strategies, IPT for anxiety disorders yielded positive results in open trials for the three diagnoses. In controlled trials, IPT fared better than waiting list (N = 2), was equipotent to supportive psychodynamic psychotherapy (N = 1), but less efficacious than CBT for SAD (N = 1), and CBT for panic disorder (N = 1) in a methodologically complicated study. IPT equaled CBT in a group residential format (N = 1). Conclusions IPT shows some promise for anxiety disorders but has thus far shown no advantages in controlled trials relative to other therapies. Methodological and ecological issues have complicated testing of IPT for anxiety disorders, clouding some findings. The authors discuss difficulties of conducting non-CBT research in a CBT-dominated area, investigator bias, and the probable need to further modify IPT for anxiety disorders. Untested therapies deserve the fairest possible testing. Depression and Anxiety 00:1–10, 2014. PMID:24493661

Markowitz, John C.; Lipsitz, Joshua; Milrod, Barbara L.

2014-01-01

332

Comorbidity of PTSD in anxiety and depressive disorders: prevalence and shared risk factors.  

PubMed

The present study aims to assess comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in anxiety and depressive disorders and to determine whether childhood trauma types and other putative independent risk factors for comorbid PTSD are unique to PTSD or shared with anxiety and depressive disorders. The sample of 2402 adults aged 18-65 included healthy controls, persons with a prior history of affective disorders, and persons with a current affective disorder. These individuals were assessed at baseline (T0) and 2 (T2) and 4 years (T4) later. At each wave, DSM-IV-TR based anxiety and depressive disorder, neuroticism, extraversion, and symptom severity were assessed. Childhood trauma was measured at T0 with an interview and at T4 with a questionnaire, and PTSD was measured with a standardized interview at T4. Prevalence of 5-year recency PTSD among anxiety and depressive disorders was 9.2%, and comorbidity, in particular with major depression, was high (84.4%). Comorbidity was associated with female gender, all types of childhood trauma, neuroticism, (low) extraversion, and symptom severity. Multivariable significant risk factors (i.e., female gender and child sexual and physical abuse) were shared among anxiety and depressive disorders. Our results support a shared vulnerability model for comorbidity of anxiety and depressive disorders with PTSD. Routine assessment of PTSD in patients with anxiety and depressive disorders seems warranted. PMID:24629482

Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W; van Hemert, Albert M; de Rooij, Mark; Elzinga, Bernet M

2014-08-01

333

Social anxiety disorder in the Chinese military: prevalence, comorbidities, impairment, and treatment-seeking.  

PubMed

The objective of this work is To investigate the prevalence, comorbidities, impairment, and treatment-seeking of social anxiety disorder in the Chinese military personnel. Military personnel (n=11,527) were surveyed from May to August 2007 using a multistage whole cohort probability sampling method. A Chinese version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used for assessment, and a military-related socio-demographic questionnaire was used to describe the prevalence distribution. A unified survey was performed to investigate 11 different social situations. The short-form health survey was used to assess role impairment. The 12-month and lifetime prevalence rates of social anxiety disorder were 3.34% (95% CI: 3.25-3.42%) and 6.22% (95% CI: 6.11-6.32%), respectively. Social anxiety disorder was associated with increased odds of depression, substance abuse, panic attacks/disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder. Childhood foster, female, stressful life events, younger age, and being divorced/widowed increase the incidence of social anxiety disorder. Treatment-seeking was relatively rare. Social anxiety disorder is a common disorder in military personnel in China, and it is a risk factor for subsequent depressive illness, substance abuse and other mental disorder. Early detection and treatment of social anxiety disorder are important because of the low rate of treatment-seeking. PMID:25262639

Wang, Huaning; Zhang, Ruiguo; Chen, Yunchun; Wang, Huaihai; Zhang, Yahong; Gan, Jingli; Zhang, Liyi; Tan, Qingrong

2014-12-30

334

Attention Mechanisms in Children with Anxiety Disorders and in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Implications for Research and Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inattention is among the most commonly referred problems for school-aged youth. Research suggests distinct mechanisms may contribute to attention problems in youth with anxiety disorders versus youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study compared children (8–17 years) with anxiety disorders (n = 24) and children (8–16 years) with ADHD (n = 23) on neurocognitive tests of both general and emotion-based attention processes.

Adam S. Weissman; Brian C. Chu; Linda A. Reddy; Jan Mohlman

2012-01-01

335

Psychological therapy for anxiety in bipolar spectrum disorders: A systematic review.  

PubMed

Comorbid anxiety is common in bipolar spectrum disorders [BPSD], and is associated with poor outcomes. Its clinical relevance is highlighted by the "anxious distress specifier" in the revised criteria for Bipolar Disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 5th Edition [DSM-5]. This article reviews evidence for the effectiveness of psychological therapy for anxiety in adults with BPSD (bipolar I, II, not otherwise specified, cyclothymia, and rapid cycling disorders). A systematic search yielded 22 treatment studies that included an anxiety-related outcome measure. Cognitive behavioural therapy [CBT] for BPSD incorporating an anxiety component reduces anxiety symptoms in cyclothymia, "refractory" and rapid cycling BPSD, whereas standard bipolar treatments have only a modest effect on anxiety. Preliminary evidence is promising for CBT for post-traumatic stress disorder and generalised anxiety disorder in BPSD. Psychoeducation alone does not appear to reduce anxiety, and data for mindfulness-based cognitive therapy [MBCT] appear equivocal. CBT during euthymic phases has the greatest weight of evidence. Where reported, psychological therapy appears acceptable and safe, but more systematic collection and reporting of safety and acceptability information is needed. Development of psychological models and treatment protocols for anxiety in BPSD may help improve outcomes. PMID:25462111

Stratford, Hannah J; Cooper, Myra J; Di Simplicio, Martina; Blackwell, Simon E; Holmes, Emily A

2014-11-01

336

Treating individuals with social anxiety disorder and at-risk drinking: Phasing in a brief alcohol intervention following paroxetine  

PubMed Central

Paroxetine alone is not sufficient to decrease alcohol use in socially anxious alcoholics seeking anxiety treatment. We tested the hypothesis that adding a brief-alcohol-intervention (BI) to paroxetine would decrease alcohol use. All subjects (N = 83) had a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder, endorsed drinking to cope with anxiety, were NIAAA-defined at-risk drinkers, and were randomized to either paroxetine alone, or paroxetine plus BI. Both groups showed significant improvement in both social anxiety severity (F(5,83) = 61.5, p < 0.0001) and drinking to cope (e.g. F(4,79) = 23, p < 0.0001) and these two constructs correlated with each other (B = 3.39, SE = 0.696, t(71) = 4.88, p < 0.001). BI was not effective at decreasing alcohol use (e.g. no main effect of group, all p values >0.3). Paroxetine decreased social anxiety severity in the face of heavy drinking and decreasing the anxiety was related to a concurrent decrease in coping related drinking. BI was not effective at decreasing drinking or drinking to cope. PMID:23523988

Book, Sarah W.; Thomas, Suzanne E.; Smith, Joshua P.; Randall, Patrick K.; Kushner, Matt G.; Bernstein, Gail A.; Specker, Sheila M.; Miller, Peter M.; Randall, Carrie L.

2013-01-01

337

Anxious Solitude and Clinical Disorder in Middle Childhood: Bridging Developmental and Clinical Approaches to Childhood Social Anxiety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It was hypothesized that children identified by their peers at school as anxious solitary would report more symptoms of social anxiety disorder on a self report questionnaire and, on the basis of child and parent clinical interviews, receive more diagnoses of social anxiety disorder and additional anxiety and mood disorders. Participants were 192…

Gazelle, Heidi; Workman, Jamie Olson; Allan, Wesley

2010-01-01

338

Gender Role Traits Among Individuals with Social Anxiety Disorder  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated differences between individuals with and without social anxiety disorder (SAD) in instrumentality and expressiveness, personality traits traditionally linked to the male and female gender roles, respectively. Based on evolutionary and self-discrepancy theories, it was hypothesized that individuals with SAD would score lower on instrumentality and report a discrepancy between their perceived and ideal level of instrumentality compared to control participants. Sixty-four patients with SAD and 31 non-anxious control participants completed a battery of questionnaires, including ratings of their perceived and ideal gender role attributes and current psychosocial distress. Results supported the hypotheses, and provided initial evidence that a discrepancy between perceived and ideal instrumentality may be linked to social anxiety severity, depression and lower quality of life. No differences were detected between groups in expressiveness. The present findings suggest that individuals with SAD perceive themselves to be deficient in instrumentality. They also suggest that increasing instrumentality among individuals with SAD may be beneficial for treatment. PMID:22131614

Roberts, Karen E.; Hart, Trevor A.; Coroiu, Adina; Heimberg, Richard G.

2011-01-01

339

Increased Error-Related Brain Activity in Youth with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Other Anxiety Disorders  

PubMed Central

The error-related negativity (ERN) is a negative deflection in the event-related potential after an incorrect response that is thought to reflect activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and is often increased in patients with anxiety disorders. This study measured the ERN and correct response negativity (CRN) during an Eriksen flanker task to assess performance monitoring in 26 youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), 13 youth with a non-OCD anxiety disorder consisting of either generalized anxiety disorder or separation anxiety disorder, and 27 age-matched healthy controls ranging in age from 8 to 16 years. Compared to healthy controls, ERN amplitude was significantly increased in patients with either OCD or a non-OCD anxiety disorder. There were no significant group differences in CRN amplitude. Treatment with a serotonergic antidepressant or cognitive-behavior therapy had no effect on the ERN in patients. Scores from the Child Behavior Checklist DSM-oriented anxiety problems scale had a significant correlation with ERN amplitude in all subjects. The results provide further evidence that the pathophysiology of OCD and some non-OCD anxiety disorders involves increased ACC activity and that the ERN may serve as a quantitative phenotype in genetic and longitudinal studies of these complex traits. PMID:23454285

Carrasco, Melisa; Hong, Christina; Nienhuis, Jenna K.; Harbin, Shannon M.; Fitzgerald, Kate D.; Gehring, William J.; Hanna, Gregory L.

2013-01-01

340

38 CFR 4.125 - Diagnosis of mental disorders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...If the diagnosis of a mental disorder is changed, the rating agency shall determine whether the new diagnosis represents progression of the prior diagnosis, correction of an error in the prior diagnosis, or development of a new and separate...

2012-07-01

341

Social anxiety disorder: A review of environmental risk factors  

PubMed Central

Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a debilitating and chronic illness characterized by persistent fear of one or more social or performance situations, with a relatively high lifetime prevalence of 7% to 13% in the general population. Although the last two decades have witnessed enormous growth in the study of biological and dispositional factors underlying SAD, comparatively little attention has been directed towards environmental factors in SAD, even though there has been much ongoing work in the area. In this paper, we provide a recent review and critique of proposed environmental risk factors for SAD, focusing on traditional as well as some understudied and overlooked environmental risk factors: parenting and family environment, adverse life events, cultural and societal factors, and gender roles. We also discuss the need for research design improvements and considerations for future directions. PMID:18728768

Brook, Christina A; Schmidt, Louis A

2008-01-01

342

Association of ADHD, Tics, and Anxiety with Dopamine Transporter ("DAT1") Genotype in Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with high rates of psychiatric disturbance to include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), tic disorder, and anxiety disorders. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) functional polymorphism located in the…

Gadow, Kenneth D.; Roohi, Jasmin; DeVincent, Carla J.; Hatchwell, Eli

2008-01-01

343

Examining shared and unique aspects of Social Anxiety Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder using factor analysis.  

PubMed

Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are fairly common psychiatric conditions that impair the functioning of otherwise healthy young adults. Given that the two conditions frequently co-occur, measurement of the characteristics unique to each condition is critical. This study evaluated the structure and construct overlap of two screening measures of SAD and ASD. Results from 623 young adults indicated that separable, though highly correlated, factors can be derived from the two measures related to social anxiety and social difficulties. The ASD screening measure also taps unique factors related to restricted interests and attention to details, theory of mind deficits, and a preference for routine. Recommendations are provided for accurate screening of symptoms of both SAD and ASD. PMID:21713589

White, Susan W; Bray, Bethany C; Ollendick, Thomas H

2012-05-01

344

Psychosis, Affective Disorders and Anxiety in Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Prevalence and Nosological Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This review aimed to find relevant published studies on the co-morbidity of autism and Asperger’s syndrome with psychotic, anxiety and\\/or mood disorders, assess them, synthesize the findings, present an overview and make recommendations for future research. Methods: Systematic literature searches were performed using several databases. Selected articles had to describe an original study that provided prevalence and\\/or incidence estimates

Norbert Skokauskas; Louise Gallagher

2010-01-01

345

A focal brain abnormality in panic disorder, a severe form of anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Panic disorder is characterized by recurrent anxiety attacks in the absence of a frightening stimulus1. It is a common disorder, affecting 2-5% of the general population and 10-14% of patients seen in cardiology practice2,3. Infusion of sodium (DL)lactate precipitates an anxiety attack in most persons with this disorder but rarely does so in normal controls, suggesting a neurobiological basis for

Eric M. Reiman; Marcus E. Raichle; F. Kevin Butler; Peter Herscovitch; Eli Robins

1984-01-01

346

Suicidal Ideation in Anxiety-Disordered Youth: Identifying Predictors of Risk  

PubMed Central

Objective Evidence is mixed regarding an independent association between anxiety and suicidality. Beyond associations with demographic factors and depression, do anxiety disorders increase risk for suicidality in youth? Given that not all anxiety-disordered youth experience suicidal ideation, potential predictors of risk also require investigation. Method The present study examined (a) the independent relationship between anxiety and suicidal ideation and (b) emotion dysregulation and distress intolerance as predictors of risk for suicidal ideation in a sample of anxiety-disordered youth aged 7-17 (N = 86, M = 11.5). Youth and their parents reported on suicidality, emotion dysregulation, and distress intolerance. Distress tolerance was also measured by a computerized behavioral task. Results Results support an independent relationship between anxiety symptomatology and youth-reported suicidal ideation, controlling for depressive symptoms. Youth self-report of emotion dysregulation and distress intolerance predicted higher levels of suicidal ideation in univariate analyses. In a multivariate analysis including all significant predictors, only anxiety symptomatology uniquely predicted suicidal ideation. Conclusions Results provide recommendations for the assessment and treatment of suicidality in anxiety-disordered youth. Suggestions for future research investigating the relationship between anxiety and suicidal ideation are offered. PMID:24156368

O'Neil Rodriguez, Kelly A.; Kendall, Philip C.

2014-01-01

347

Bad Dream Frequency in Older Adults with Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Prevalence, Correlates, and Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Anxiety  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the relation between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and frequency of bad dreams in older adults. A secondary analysis from a randomized clinical trial comparing cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety (CBT) to enhanced usual care (EUC), it assessed bad dream frequency at baseline, post-treatment (3 months), and 6, 9, 12 and 15 months. Of 227 participants (mean age = 67.4), 134 met GAD diagnostic criteria (CBT = 70, EUC = 64), with the remaining 93 serving as a comparison group. Patients with GAD had significantly more bad dreams than those without, and bad dream frequency was significantly associated with depression, anxiety, worry, and poor quality of life. CBT for anxiety significantly reduced bad dream frequency at post-treatment and throughout follow-up compared to EUC. PMID:23470116

Nadorff, Michael R.; Porter, Ben; Rhoades, Howard M.; Greisinger, Anthony J.; Kunik, Mark E.; Stanley, Melinda A.

2012-01-01

348

Bad dream frequency in older adults with generalized anxiety disorder: prevalence, correlates, and effect of cognitive behavioral treatment for anxiety.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relation between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and frequency of bad dreams in older adults. A secondary analysis from a randomized clinical trial comparing cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety to enhanced usual care (EUC) assessed bad dream frequency at baseline, post treatment (3 months), and at 6, 9, 12, and 15 months. Of 227 participants (mean age = 67.4), 134 met GAD diagnostic criteria (CBT = 70, EUC = 64), with the remaining 93 serving as a comparison group. Patients with GAD had significantly more bad dreams than those without, and bad dream frequency was significantly associated with depression, anxiety, worry, and poor quality of life. CBT for anxiety significantly reduced bad dream frequency at post treatment and throughout follow up compared to EUC. PMID:23470116

Nadorff, Michael R; Porter, Ben; Rhoades, Howard M; Greisinger, Anthony J; Kunik, Mark E; Stanley, Melinda A

2014-01-01

349

The role of life events and HPA axis in anxiety disorders: a review.  

PubMed

Stressful life events and dysfunctional Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal (HPA) axis have been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety disorders. This paper attempts to review the existing literature on childhood traumata, recent life events, HPA axis functioning and their relationship in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Panic Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Social Phobia. Preclinical and clinical models will be analyzed. Stressful life events seem to have a role in the onset and in the course of these disorders and HPA axis abnormalities have been reported in almost all anxiety disorders. The hypothesis that early stressful life events may provoke alterations of the stress response and thus of the HPA axis, that can endure during adulthood, predisposing individuals to develop psychopathology, will be evaluated. PMID:22632471

Faravelli, Carlo; Lo Sauro, Carolina; Lelli, Lorenzo; Pietrini, Francesco; Lazzeretti, Lisa; Godini, Lucia; Benni, Laura; Fioravanti, Giulia; Talamba, Gabriela Alina; Castellini, Giovanni; Ricca, Valdo

2012-01-01

350

Emotional, behavioral, and cognitive factors that differentiate obsessive-compulsive disorder and other anxiety disorders in youth.  

PubMed

Abstract The current study examined specific emotional, behavioral, and cognitive variables that may distinguish obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia (SoP), and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in youth. Youth with OCD (n=26) and other anxiety disorders (ADs; n=31), aged 7-12 years (56.1% males), and their parents participated. The study compared the two anxious groups on levels of emotional, behavioral, and cognitive functioning, as well as impairment associated with the disorder. Results indicated that in comparison to youth with GAD, SoP, or SAD, youth with OCD were found to have poorer emotion regulation skills, as well as greater oppositionality, cognitive problems/inattention, and parent impairment associated with the disorder. The findings suggest that there are unique characteristics of OCD that may differentiate this disorder from other ADs in youth. Potential clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:21512917

Jacob, Marni L; Morelen, Diana; Suveg, Cynthia; Brown Jacobsen, Amy M; Whiteside, Stephen P

2012-03-01

351

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Other Anxiety Disorders Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Other Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is being investigated as a treatment of psychiatric disorders. This chapter reviews publications of the treatment of anxiety disorders: obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and panic disorder (PD). No definite conclusions can be reached as insufficient work has been completed. Many reports are single-case or small case studies and there have been few

S. Pridmore; M. Marcolin; C. Ribeiro; C. Mansur

2007-01-01

352

Different measures of impulsivity in patients with anxiety disorders: a case control study.  

PubMed

The relationship between anxiety and impulsivity is controversial and not well explored. The present investigation aims to compare impulsivity, measured by different rating tools, in patients with anxiety disorders vs. healthy controls. Forty-seven subjects with different anxiety disorders and 45 matched controls underwent diagnostic and symptomatological evaluations by the Mini Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I) Plus 5.0, Bech-Raphaelsen Depression and Mania Scale (BRDMS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Hypomania Check List (HCL-32) and the Clinical Global Impression (CGI); temperamental evaluations by the Questionnaire for the Affective and Anxious Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego-Modified (TEMPS-M), the Separation Anxiety Sensitivity Index (SASI), the Interpersonal Sensitivity Symptoms Inventory (ISSI); and psychometric and a neurocognitive evaluations of impulsivity using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and the Immediate and Delayed Memory Task (IMT-DMT). Subjects with anxiety disorders were more impulsive than the controls in all the explored measures, with higher scores in symptomatological and, temperamental scales. Patients with anxiety disorders but without a lifetime history of comorbid major mood episodes had greater trait and state impulsivity than controls. Further investigations are needed to assess the extent to which impulsivity might or might not be directly related to the anxiety disorder. PMID:22357357

Del Carlo, Alessandra; Benvenuti, Marzia; Fornaro, Michele; Toni, Cristina; Rizzato, Salvatore; Swann, Alan C; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Perugi, Giulio

2012-05-30

353

A Preliminary Investigation of the Spence Children's Anxiety Parent Scale as a Screening Tool for Anxiety in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite high rates of clinically elevated anxiety difficulties in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), very few studies have systematically examined the usefulness of commonly used caregiver report anxiety screening tools with this population. This study investigated the use of the Spence Children's Anxiety

Zainal, Hani; Magiati, Iliana; Tan, Julianne Wen-Li; Sung, Min; Fung, Daniel S.; Howlin, Patricia

2014-01-01

354

Stepped care for depression and anxiety: from primary care to specialized mental health care: a randomised controlled trial testing the effectiveness of a stepped care program among primary care patients with mood or anxiety disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Mood and anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and have a large impact on the lives of the affected individuals. Therefore, optimal treatment of these disorders is highly important. In this study we will examine the effectiveness of a stepped care program for primary care patients with mood and anxiety disorders. A stepped care program is characterized by different treatment steps that are arranged in order of increasing intensity. Methods This study is a randomised controlled trial with two conditions: stepped care and care as usual, whereby the latter forms the control group. The stepped care program consists of four evidence based interventions: (1) Watchful waiting, (2) Guided self-help, (3) Problem Solving Treatment and (4) Medication and/or specialized mental health care. The study population consists of primary care attendees aged 18–65 years. Screeners are sent to all patients of the participating general practitioners. Individuals with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders (DSM) diagnosis of major depression, dysthymia, panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia), generalized anxiety disorder, or social phobia are included as well as individuals with minor depression and anxiety disorders. Primary focus is the reduction of depressive and anxiety symptoms. Both conditions are monitored at 8, 16 and 24 weeks. Discussion This study evaluates the effectiveness of a stepped care program for patients with depressive and anxiety disorder. If effective, a stepped care program can form a worthwhile alternative for care as usual. Strengths and limitations of this study are discussed. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trails: ISRCTN17831610. PMID:19500346

Seekles, Wike; van Straten, Annemieke; Beekman, Aartjan; van Marwijk, Harm; Cuijpers, Pim

2009-01-01

355

Relationship between atypical depression and social anxiety disorder.  

PubMed

In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of atypical and non-atypical depression comorbidity on the clinical characteristics and course of social anxiety disorder (SAD). A total of 247 patients with SAD were enrolled: 145 patients with a current depressive episode (unipolar or bipolar) with atypical features, 43 patients with a current depressive episode with non-atypical features and 25 patients without a lifetime history of depressive episodes were compared regarding sociodemographic and clinical features, comorbidity rates, and severity of SAD, depression and functional impairment. Thirty four patients with a past but not current history of major depressive episodes were excluded from the comparisons. 77.1% of current depressive episodes were associated with atypical features. Age at onset of SAD and age at initial major depressive episode were lower in the group with atypical depression than in the group with non-atypical depression. History of suicide attempts and bipolar disorder comorbidity was more common in the atypical depression group as well. Atypical depression group has higher SAD and depression severity and lower functionality than group with non-atypical depression. Our results indicate that the presence of atypical depression is associated with more severe symptoms and more impairment in functioning in patients with SAD. PMID:25454116

Koyuncu, Ahmet; Ertekin, Erhan; Ertekin, Banu Aslanta?; Binbay, Zerrin; Yüksel, Ca?r?; Deveci, Erdem; Tükel, Ra?it

2015-01-30

356

Pregabalin for the treatment of social anxiety disorder.  

PubMed

Introduction: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, causing a reduction of in the quality of life by impairing functioning in social situations. The lifetime prevalence of SAD is estimated to be 12%. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are considered first-line drugs for SAD. However, new effective therapeutic options are still needed. Pregabalin is a novel anxiolytic, which seems to be a promising therapy for SAD. Areas covered: This review presents the results of three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the efficacy and safety of pregabalin with placebo in patients with generalized SAD. The authors also discuss the long-term safety and tolerability data from an extension study. Expert opinion: The results of the RCTs have demonstrated efficacy and safety with pregabalin at doses of 600 mg or 450 mg/d for treating generalized SAD. Thus, pregabalin may be an effective therapeutic option, especially for patients who cannot tolerate the adverse effects or who demonstrate a lack of efficacy with SSRIs or SNRIs. In addition to being an alternative therapy to SSRIs or SNRIs, it may also have value as an add-on therapy, either to augment pharmacotherapy or in addition to cognitive-behavioral therapy. PMID:25361817

Kawalec, Pawe?; Cierniak, Agnieszka; Pilc, Andrzej; Nowak, Gabriel

2014-10-31

357

Association between exposure to traumatic events and anxiety disorders in a post-conflict setting: a cross-sectional community study in South Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background The negative effect of exposure to traumatic events on mental health is well known. Most studies of the effects of trauma on mental health in war-affected populations have focused on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Although some studies confirm the existence of anxiety symptoms in war-affected populations, the extent to which exposure to traumatic events is independently associated with anxiety diagnoses (other than PTSD) has received less attention. The study aimed to determine whether having an anxiety diagnosis, other than PTSD, was associated with experiencing traumatic events in a post-conflict setting, across genders and after controlling for demographic and socio-economic variables. Methods In this cross-sectional community study (n?=?1200), we applied the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) to investigate the extent of trauma exposure and PTSD. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used to investigate the prevalence of anxiety disorders: generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and agoraphobia. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between these disorders, previous trauma exposure, and socio-economic factors. Results The participants were 56.4% male and 43.6% female. The age ranged between 18 and 73 years old (Mean 34.63, SD?=?12.03). The estimated rates of GAD-only and PD-only (without comorbidity with PTSD) were 5.5% and 3.1%, respectively. Exposure to traumatic events and socio-economic disadvantage were significantly associated with having one or more anxiety diagnoses. After controlling for age, sex, rural/urban setting, and socio-economic disadvantage, exposure to trauma was independently associated with anxiety diagnosis. There were gender differences in the pattern of risk factors for having PTSD, GAD or PD. Conclusion In individuals with a history of war-related trauma exposure, attention should be given to symptoms of GAD and PD, in addition to PTSD symptoms. PMID:24410951

2014-01-01

358

Symptom Overlap between Autism Spectrum Disorder, Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Adults: A Preliminary Case-Controlled Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) frequently co-occur in persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We studied which features distinguish ‘pure’ anxiety disordered patients from those with co-morbid ASD. Method: In a case-controlled design in which groups were matched for age, sex and educational level, patients with OCD or SAD and co-morbid ASD were compared with patients

Danielle C. Cath; Natalie Ran; Johannes H. Smit; Hannie C. Comijs

2008-01-01

359

Impulsivity in obsessive-compulsive disorder: comparisons with other anxiety disorders and within tic-related subgroups  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationship between impulsivity and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) was used to examine (i) levels of impulsivity in individuals with OCD, panic disorder, and social phobia, as well as in nonclinical controls, and (ii) the relationship between tics and impulsivity in patients with OCD. Patients in all anxiety disorder groups reported higher levels

Laura J Summerfeldt; Karyn Hood; Martin M Antony; Margaret A Richter; Richard P Swinson

2004-01-01

360

Childhood Maltreatment Is Associated with Larger Left Thalamic Gray Matter Volume in Adolescents with Generalized Anxiety Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common anxiety disorder that usually begins in adolescence. Childhood maltreatment is highly prevalent and increases the possibility for developing a variety of mental disorders including anxiety disorders. An earlier age at onset of GAD is significantly related to maltreatment in childhood. Exploring the underpinnings of the relationship between childhood maltreatment and adolescent onset GAD would be helpful in identifying the potential risk markers of this condition. Methods Twenty-six adolescents with GAD and 25 healthy controls participated in this study. A childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ) was introduced to assess childhood maltreatment. All subjects underwent high-resolution structural magnetic resonance scans. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to investigate gray matter alterations. Results Significantly larger gray matter volumes of the right putamen were observed in GAD patients compared to healthy controls. In addition, a significant diagnosis-by-maltreatment interaction effect for the left thalamic gray matter volume was revealed, as shown by larger volumes of the left thalamic gray matter in GAD patients with childhood maltreatment compared with GAD patients without childhood maltreatment as well as with healthy controls with/without childhood maltreatment. A significant positive association between childhood maltreatment and left thalamic gray matter volume was only seen in GAD patients. Conclusions These findings revealed an increased volume in the subcortical regions in adolescent GAD, and the alterations in the left thalamus might be involved in the association between childhood maltreatment and the occurrence of GAD. PMID:23951265

Liao, Mei; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Yan; He, Zhong; Song, Ming; Jiang, Tianzi; Li, Zexuan; Lu, Shaojia; Wu, Weiwei; Su, Linyan; Li, Lingjiang

2013-01-01

361

History of trauma and dissociative symptoms among patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and social anxiety disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aimed to compare the history of trauma and the profile and severity of dissociative symptoms of patients with obsessive-compulsive\\u000a disorder (OCD) to those of patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Patients with OCD (n = 34) and patients with SAD (n = 30) were examined with the following instruments: Trauma History Questionnaire (THQ), Dissociative Experience Scale (DES),\\u000a Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (OCI), Liebowitz Social Anxiety

Leonardo F. Fontenelle; Aline M. Domingues; Wanderson F. Souza; Mauro V. Mendlowicz; Gabriela B. de Menezes; Ivan L. Figueira; Marcio Versiani

2007-01-01

362

An Open Trial of a Transdiagnostic Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy for Anxiety Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transdiagnostic models of anxiety, and cognitive-behavioral treatments based on these models, have been gaining increased attention in recent years. Preliminary efficacy studies generally suggest strong treatment effects, although few of these studies have examined to what extent treatment effects are similar across clients with different anxiety disorders. The purpose of the current study was to examine the efficacy of a

Peter J. Norton

2008-01-01

363

Self-Efficacy for Social Situations in Adolescents with Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-efficacy is a potentially useful concept when applied to Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). The aims of the current study were to examine the psychometric properties of the Self- Efficacy for Social Situations Scale (SESS; Gaudiano and Herbert, 2003) and to investigate the relationship between self-efficacy and anxiety in an adolescent sample with generalized SAD. Results replicated those found in a

Brandon A. Gaudiano; James D. Herbert

2007-01-01

364

Internet-Delivered Indicated Prevention for Anxiety Disorders: Six-Month Follow-Up  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project aims to conduct a medium-term follow-up to assess the efficacy of a preventive cognitive behavioural intervention delivered via the Internet to individuals at risk of developing anxiety disorders. Previous work on immediate outcome indicated that the program was effective in reducing depression and anxiety-related cognitions.…

Kenardy, Justin; McCafferty, Kelly; Rosa, Virginia

2006-01-01

365

Client Similarities and Differences in Two Childhood Anxiety Disorders Research Clinics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some evidence suggests that research and service clinics differ on treatment-relevant dimensions, but no study has examined whether research clinics (RCs) themselves differ. We compared 2 samples of children and adolescents (ages 7 to 17 years) with anxiety disorders treated in 2 different university-based child anxiety RCs, one in Philadelphia (n…

Southam-Gerow, Michael A.; Silverman, Wendy K.; Kendall, Philip C.

2006-01-01

366

The Development of Social Anxiety in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined factors contributing to the development of social anxiety in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In particular, the study examined the contribution of social skill deficits and physiological hyperarousal to the development of social anxiety in individuals with ASD. Forty-one adolescents with…

Bellini, Scott

2006-01-01

367

Oxytocin Attenuates Amygdala Reactivity to Fear in Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD) exhibit heightened activation of the amygdala in response to social cues conveying threat (eg, fearful\\/angry faces). The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) decreases anxiety and stress, facilitates social encounters, and attenuates amygdala reactivity to threatening faces in healthy subjects. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of OXT on fear-related amygdala reactivity

Izelle Labuschagne; K Luan Phan; Amanda Wood; Mike Angstadt; Phyllis Chua; Markus Heinrichs; Julie C Stout; Pradeep J Nathan

2010-01-01

368

Comorbidity of generalized social anxiety disorder and depression in a pediatric primary care sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Comorbidity between adult social anxiety disorder and major depression is extensive. Considerably less information about this relationship is available among youth. Methods: A randomly selected (from enrollees in a pediatric primary care clinic) sample of 190 families with children between the ages of 8 and 17 responded by mail to questionnaires assessing social anxiety, depression, and social functioning. Parents

Denise A Chavira; Murray B Stein; Kelly Bailey; Martin T Stein

2004-01-01

369

Remission after Acute Treatment in Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders: Findings from the CAMS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To report on remission rates in anxious youth who participated in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS). The CAMS, a multisite clinical trial, randomized 488 children and adolescents (ages 7-17 years; 79% Caucasian; 50% female) with separation, social, and/or generalized anxiety disorder to a 12-week treatment of…

Ginsburg, Golda S.; Kendall, Philip C.; Sakolsky, Dara; Compton, Scott N.; Piacentini, John; Albano, Anne Marie; Walkup, John T.; Sherrill, Joel; Coffey, Kimberly A.; Rynn, Moira A.; Keeton, Courtney P.; McCracken, James T.; Bergman, Lindsey; Iyengar, Satish; Birmaher, Boris; March, John

2011-01-01

370

Stress, anxiety and depression among parents of children with autism spectrum disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a replication of a previous study of the incidence and contributing factors in anxiety, depression and stress in Victorian parents of a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a sample of 107 Gold Coast parents completed a questionnaire that assessed their demographic backgrounds, anxiety and depression scores on standardised inventories, and also tapped several aspects of those factors that

Vicki Bitsika; Christopher F. Sharpley

2004-01-01

371

Depression and Anxiety as Possible Mediators of the Association between Smoking and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to investigate the association between depression and anxiety and adolescents' smoking status, and to determine whether depression or anxiety mediate the association between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and smoking. A cross-sectional survey of tobacco use was conducted in regional school districts…

Grunau, Gilat L.; Ratner, Pamela A.; Hossain, Shahadut; Johnson, Joy L.

2010-01-01

372

Complex Psychiatric Comorbidity of Treatment-Seeking Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Anxiety Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This descriptive study examines the complexity of psychiatric comorbidity in treatment-seeking youth with ASD and anxiety symptoms. Forty-two parents of youth with ASD and anxiety (ages 8-14) completed a structured diagnostic interview (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version). Youth…

Hepburn, Susan L.; Stern, Jessica A.; Blakeley-Smith, Audrey; Kimel, Lila K.; Reaven, Judith A.

2014-01-01

373

Randomized Controlled Trial: Multimodal Anxiety and Social Skill Intervention for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anxiety is common among adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and may amplify the core social disability, thus necessitating combined treatment approaches. This pilot, randomized controlled trial evaluated the feasibility and preliminary outcomes of the Multimodal Anxiety and Social Skills Intervention (MASSI) program in a sample of 30…

White, Susan W.; Ollendick, Thomas; Albano, Anne Marie; Oswald, Donald; Johnson, Cynthia; Southam-Gerow, Michael A.; Kim, Inyoung; Scahill, Lawrence

2013-01-01

374

Is Behavioral Regulation in Children with ADHD Aggravated by Comorbid Anxiety Disorder?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The present study investigated the impact of coexisting anxiety disorder in children with ADHD on their ability to regulate behavior. Method: Parent reports on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in a comorbid group of children with ADHD and anxiety (n = 11) were compared to BRIEF reports in a group of children…

Sorensen, Lin; Plessen, Kerstin J.; Nicholas, Jude; Lundervold, Astri J.

2011-01-01

375

Cognitive?Behavioral Group Treatments in Childhood Anxiety Disorders: The Role of Parental Involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThis study examined (1) the effect of a cognitive-behavioral group intervention on anxiety, depression, and coping strategies in school-age children (aged 7–12 years) with Axis I anxiety disorders; and (2) the effect of parental involvement on treatment outcomes.

SANDRA L. MENDLOWITZ; KATHARINA MANASSIS; SUSAN BRADLEY; DONNA SCAPILLATO; SOLVEIGA MIEZITIS; BRIAN E SHAW

1999-01-01

376

Effects of Naturalistic Benzodiazepine Use on Selective Attention to Threat Cues Among Anxiety Disorder Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the effects of naturalistic benzodiazepine (BZ) use on selective attention to threat cues in 50 patients diagnosed with anxiety disorders, according to DSM-IV (APA, 1994) criteria. Patients provided information on their BZ use histories, demographics, and severity of anxiety symptomatology, and completed a computerized Stroop task involving color naming of social threat, physical threat, and matched

Sherry H. Stewart; Henny A. Westra; Carol E. Thompson; Brent E. Conrad

2000-01-01

377

Patterns and Predictors of Anxiety among Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of anxiety among siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and determine the characteristics of the child with ASD and their parents that predicted anxiety. Data was collected from 1,755 siblings of children with ASD whose families participated in the Simons Simplex Collection;…

Shivers, Carolyn M.; Deisenroth, Lauren K.; Taylor, Julie Lounds

2013-01-01

378

Anxiety and Sensory Over-Responsivity in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Bidirectional Effects across Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report focuses on the emergence of and bidirectional effects between anxiety and sensory over-responsivity (SOR) in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Participants were 149 toddlers with ASD and their mothers, assessed at 2 annual time points. A cross-lag analysis showed that anxiety symptoms increased over time while SOR remained…

Green, Shulamite A.; Ben-Sasson, Ayelet; Soto, Timothy W.; Carter, Alice S.

2012-01-01

379

Anxiety, Sensory Over-Responsivity, and Gastrointestinal Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) experience high rates of anxiety, sensory processing problems, and gastrointestinal (GI) problems; however, the associations among these symptoms in children with ASD have not been previously examined. The current study examined bivariate and multivariate relations among anxiety, sensory…

Mazurek, Micah O.; Vasa, Roma A.; Kalb, Luther G.; Kanne, Stephen M.; Rosenberg, Daniel; Keefer, Amy; Murray, Donna S.; Freedman, Brian; Lowery, Lea Ann

2013-01-01

380

Subcortical volumetric correlates of anxiety in familial pediatric bipolar disorder: A preliminary investigation  

PubMed Central

Anxiety is a common comorbid condition in pediatric bipolar disorder (BD). However, there is little known about the effects of comorbidity on brain morphometry in this population. The aim of the present study was to examine subcortical correlates of anxiety in familial pediatric BD. 120 children (mean age = 12 ± 3.3 years) with at least one parent diagnosed with BD were evaluated. Bipolar offspring with BD were compared to bipolar offspring without BD on a measure of overall lifetime anxiety. A sub-sample of 20 bipolar offspring with BD (mean age = 14.6 ± 2.8 years) underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a 3-T scanner. Correlational analyses were conducted between hippocampal and amygdalar volumes, and anxiety scores. The results showed significantly higher anxiety in bipolar offspring with BD compared to bipolar offspring without BD. There was a significant negative association between total hippocampal volume and anxiety scores. No significant association was found between total amygdalar volume and anxiety scores. Clinically, these findings suggest that anxiety comorbidity needs to be properly assessed and treated in the management of pediatric BD. This is the first study to show a negative association between hippocampal volume and anxiety in this population. The overlap between anxiety and familial pediatric BD suggest that anxiety may be one important area of future research in parsing out the heterogeneous nature and complex etiology of early-onset BD. PMID:19559573

Simeonova, Diana I.; Jackson, Valerie; Attalla, Ashraf; Karchemskiy, Asya; Howe, Meghan; Adleman, Nancy; Chang, Kiki

2009-01-01

381

Subcortical volumetric correlates of anxiety in familial pediatric bipolar disorder: a preliminary investigation.  

PubMed

Anxiety is a common comorbid condition in pediatric bipolar disorder (BD). However, there is little known about the effects of comorbidity on brain morphometry in this population. The aim of the present study was to examine subcortical correlates of anxiety in familial pediatric BD. The subject group comprised 120 children (mean age=12+/-3.3 years) with at least one parent diagnosed with BD. Bipolar offspring with BD were compared with bipolar offspring without BD on a measure of overall lifetime anxiety. A sub-sample of 20 bipolar offspring with BD (mean age=14.6+/-2.8 years) underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a 3-T scanner. Correlational analyses were conducted between hippocampal and amygdalar volumes, and anxiety scores. The results showed significantly higher anxiety in bipolar offspring with BD compared to bipolar offspring without BD. There was a significant negative association between total hippocampal volume and anxiety scores. No significant association was found between total amygdalar volume and anxiety scores. Clinically, these findings suggest that anxiety comorbidity needs to be properly assessed and treated in the management of pediatric BD. This is the first study to show a negative association between hippocampal volume and anxiety in this population. The overlap between anxiety and familial pediatric BD suggests that anxiety may be one important area of future research in parsing out the heterogeneous nature and complex etiology of early-onset BD. PMID:19559573

Simeonova, Diana I; Jackson, Valerie; Attalla, Ashraf; Karchemskiy, Asya; Howe, Meghan; Adleman, Nancy; Chang, Kiki

2009-08-30

382

Locus of Control Fails to Mediate between Stress and Anxiety and Depression in Parents of Children with a Developmental Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stress, anxiety and depression are raised amongst parents of children with a developmental disorder. However, the processes by which stress leads to depression and anxiety are poorly understood. In a cross-sectional survey, levels of parental stress, depression and anxiety were compared between parents of children with an autistic disorder,…

Hamlyn-Wright, Sarah; Draghi-Lorenz, Riccardo; Ellis, Jason

2007-01-01

383

A Multimethod Assessment of Anxiety and Problem Behavior in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the increased risk for anxiety disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), there is a lack of research on the assessment and treatment of anxiety in this population, particularly for those with an intellectual disability (ID). The present study evaluated a multimethod strategy for the assessment of anxiety and problem…

Moskowitz, Lauren J.; Mulder, Emile; Walsh, Caitlin E.; McLaughlin, Darlene Magito; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak; Carr, Edward G.

2013-01-01

384

Reward System in children and adolescents with ADHD and Anxiety disorders  

E-print Network

Reward System in children and adolescents with ADHD and Anxiety disorders Luigi Mazzone New York Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are highly prevalent childhood disorders and their symptoms can negatively. An alteration of the reward system is supposed to be critical in ADHD leading to a bias toward approach

Qian, Ning

385

Specificity of social anxiety disorder as a risk factor for alcohol and cannabis dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is highly comorbid with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and cannabis dependence. However, the temporal sequencing of these disorders has not been extensively studied to determine whether SAD serves as a specific risk factor for problematic substance use. The present study examined these relationships after controlling for theoretically-relevant variables (e.g., gender, other Axis I pathology) in a

Julia D. Buckner; Norman B. Schmidt; Alan R. Lang; Jason W. Small; Robert C. Schlauch; Peter M. Lewinsohn

2008-01-01

386

Social Anxiety Disorder in Childhood and Adolescence: Current Status and Future Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the current status of research on the phenomenology, etiology, maintenance, assessment, and treatment of childhood and adolescent social anxiety disorder (SAD). Despite being one of the most prevalent disorders of childhood and adolescence, SAD paradoxically stands as one of the least recognized, researched, and treated pediatric disorders. The small treatment outcome literature provides preliminary support to the

Todd B. Kashdan; James D. Herbert

2001-01-01

387

The Quality of Care for Depressive and Anxiety Disorders in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Depressive and anxiety disorders are preva- lent and cause substantial morbidity. While effective treat- ments exist, little is known about the quality of care for these disorders nationally. We estimated the rate of ap- propriate treatment among the US population with these disorders, and the effect of insurance, provider type, and individual characteristics on receipt of appropriate care. Methods:

Alexander S. Young; Ruth Klap; Cathy D. Sherbourne; Kenneth B. Wells

2001-01-01

388

Acceptance and commitment therapy for anxiety and OCD spectrum disorders: an empirical review.  

PubMed

A fair amount of research exists on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) as a model and a treatment for anxiety disorders and OCD spectrum disorders; this paper offers a quantitative account of this research. A meta-analysis is presented examining the relationship between psychological flexibility, measured by versions of the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ and AAQ-II) and measures of anxiety. Meta-analytic results showed positive and significant relationships between the AAQ and general measures of anxiety as well as disorder specific measures. Additionally, all outcome data to date on ACT for anxiety and OCD spectrum disorders are reviewed, as are data on mediation and moderation within ACT. Preliminary meta-analytic results show that ACT is equally effective as manualized treatments such as cognitive behavioral therapy. Future directions and limitations of the research are discussed. PMID:25041735

Bluett, Ellen J; Homan, Kendra J; Morrison, Kate L; Levin, Michael E; Twohig, Michael P

2014-08-01

389

Predicting Treatment Response in Social Anxiety Disorder From Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

E-print Network

Context: Current behavioral measures poorly predict treatment outcome in social anxiety disorder (SAD). To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine neuroimaging-based treatment prediction in SAD.

Doehrmann, Oliver

390

Regional Cerebral Blood Flow Changes in Dogs with Anxiety Disorders, Measured with SPECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alterations of regional brain activity in the prefrontal cortex and in limbic areas have been reported in humans with anxiety\\u000a disorders. This animal study reports the results of brain perfusion imaging with single photon emission computed tomography\\u000a (SPECT) in dogs with anxiety disorders. Based on the human literature, we hypothesized altered prefrontal and higher temporal\\u000a brain perfusion. SPECT acquisitions were

Simon Vermeire; Kurt Audenaert; André Dobbeleir; Rudy De Meester; Eva Vandermeulen; Tim Waelbers; Kathelijne Peremans

2009-01-01

391

An analysis of post-event processing in social anxiety disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has demonstrated that self-focused thoughts and negative affect have a reciprocal relationship [Mor, N., Winquist, J. (2002). Self-focused attention and negative affect: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 638–662]. In the anxiety disorder literature, post-event processing has emerged as a specific construction of repetitive self-focused thoughts that pertain to social anxiety disorder. Post-event processing can be defined as an individual's

Faith Brozovich; Richard G. Heimberg

2008-01-01

392

School-Based Intervention for Adolescents with Social Anxiety Disorder: Results of a Controlled Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social anxiety disorder, whose onset peaks in adolescence, is associated with significant impairment. Despite the availability\\u000a of effective treatments, few affected youth receive services. Transporting interventions into schools may circumvent barriers\\u000a to treatment. The efficacy of a school-based intervention for social anxiety disorder was examined in a randomized wait-list\\u000a control trial of 35 adolescents (26 females). Independent evaluators, blind to

Carrie Masia-Warner; Rachel G. Klein; Heather C. Dent; Paige H. Fisher; Jose Alvir; Anne Marie Albano; Mary Guardino

2005-01-01

393

Applying DBT Mindfulness Skills to the Treatment of Clients with Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinicians and researchers have increasingly begun to acknowledge the potential benefits of incorporating acceptance- and\\u000a mindfulness-based approaches into cognitive-behavioral treatments for the anxiety disorders (see Orsillo, Roemer, Block, Lejeune,\\u000a & Herbert, 2004; Orsillo, Roemer, Block-Lerner, & Tull, 2004). As such, the past several years have seen the development of\\u000a innovative mindfulness- and acceptance-based cognitivebehavioral treatments for several anxiety disorders, including

Kim L. Gratz; Matthew T. Tull; Amy W. Wagner

394

Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Anxiety Disorders: The State of the Art  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the past 10 years virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) has become a viable alternative for exposure in vivo, the gold\\u000a standard for the treatment of anxiety disorders. VRET is often regarded as a natural extension of the systematic exposure\\u000a component of (cognitive) behavior therapy. The objective of this chapter is to discuss the treatment of anxiety disorders\\u000a with VRET

Katharina Meyerbröker; Paul Emmelkamp

395

Neurobiological correlates of social anxiety disorder: an update.  

PubMed

Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a condition characterized by pervasiveness and impairment in social functioning, with a prevalence in the general population between 1.9% and 12.1%. The most consistent findings on its neurobiological underpinnings involve a wide range of neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine, glutamate, and GABA) and neuropeptides (oxytocin), but no comprehensive hypothesis is yet available. In particular, oxytocin is becoming increasingly established as a "prosocial neuropeptide" and, as such, is a major focus of current research, with a great range of therapeutic applications including SAD treatment. Specifically, the amygdala plays a pivotal role in conditioning and processing of fear, and exaggerated amygdala responses in SAD patients have been observed during various social-emotional stimuli. In addition to the amygdala, other brain areas of interest in SAD-related circuitry are represented by the medial prefrontal cortex, dorsal raphe, striatum, locus coeruleus, prefrontal cortex, insular cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex. The aim of this review is to provide an update on neurobiological correlates of SAD, with a special focus on neurotransmitters and brain areas possibly involved, and suggestions for future research that could lead to more specific therapeutic interventions. PMID:24571962

Marazziti, Donatella; Abelli, Marianna; Baroni, Stefano; Carpita, Barbara; Ramacciotti, Carla E; Dell'osso, Liliana

2014-02-26

396

History of trauma and dissociative symptoms among patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and social anxiety disorder.  

PubMed

We aimed to compare the history of trauma and the profile and severity of dissociative symptoms of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) to those of patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Patients with OCD (n = 34) and patients with SAD (n = 30) were examined with the following instruments: Trauma History Questionnaire (THQ), Dissociative Experience Scale (DES), Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (OCI), Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Patients with OCD reported significantly lower rates of exposure to traumatic events. Nevertheless, the severity of dissociative symptoms was not significantly different between the groups. Regression analyses showed that, while the OCI scores better predicted the variance on DES scores in the OCD sample, the LSAS and the BAI better predicted the variance on the DES among patients with SAD. Patients with OCD are probably less vulnerable to some types of traumatic experiences. Dissociative symptoms may cut across different anxiety disorders. PMID:17453345

Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Domingues, Aline M; Souza, Wanderson F; Mendlowicz, Mauro V; de Menezes, Gabriela B; Figueira, Ivan L; Versiani, Marcio

2007-09-01

397

Interpretation and expectation in childhood anxiety disorders: age effects and social specificity.  

PubMed

Theory and treatment for childhood anxiety disorders typically implicates children's negative cognitions, yet little is known about the characteristics of thinking styles of clinically anxious children. In particular, it is unclear whether differences in thinking styles between children with anxiety disorders and non-anxious children vary as a function of child age, whether particular cognitive distortions are associated with childhood anxiety disorders at different child ages, and whether cognitive content is disorder-specific. The current study addressed these questions among 120 7-12 year old children (53% female) who met diagnostic criteria for social anxiety disorder, other anxiety disorder, or who were not currently anxious. Contrary to expectations, threat interpretation was not inflated amongst anxious compared to non-anxious children at any age, although older (10-12 year old) anxious children did differ from non-anxious children on measures of perceived coping. The notion of cognitive-content specificity was not supported across the age-range. The findings challenge current treatment models of childhood anxiety, and suggest that a focus on changing anxious children's cognitions is not warranted in mid-childhood, and in late childhood cognitive approaches may be better focussed on promoting children's perceptions of control rather than challenging threat interpretations. PMID:24293002

Creswell, Cathy; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter

2014-01-01

398

Automatic Neural Processing of Disorder-Related Stimuli in Social Anxiety Disorder: Faces and More  

PubMed Central

It has been proposed that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is associated with automatic information processing biases resulting in hypersensitivity to signals of social threat such as negative facial expressions. However, the nature and extent of automatic processes in SAD on the behavioral and neural level is not entirely clear yet. The present review summarizes neuroscientific findings on automatic processing of facial threat but also other disorder-related stimuli such as emotional prosody or negative words in SAD. We review initial evidence for automatic activation of the amygdala, insula, and sensory cortices as well as for automatic early electrophysiological components. However, findings vary depending on tasks, stimuli, and neuroscientific methods. Only few studies set out to examine automatic neural processes directly and systematic attempts are as yet lacking. We suggest that future studies should: (1) use different stimulus modalities, (2) examine different emotional expressions, (3) compare findings in SAD with other anxiety disorders, (4) use more sophisticated experimental designs to investigate features of automaticity systematically, and (5) combine different neuroscientific methods (such as functional neuroimaging and electrophysiology). Finally, the understanding of neural automatic processes could also provide hints for therapeutic approaches. PMID:23745116

Schulz, Claudia; Mothes-Lasch, Martin; Straube, Thomas

2013-01-01

399

Exploring exercise as an avenue for the treatment of anxiety disorders  

PubMed Central

Anxiety disorders constitute a significant public health problem. Current gold standard treatments are limited in their effectiveness, prompting the consideration of alternative approaches. In this review, we examine the evidence for exercise as an intervention for anxiety disorders. This evidence comes from population studies, studies of nonclinical anxiety reduction, as well as a limited number of studies of clinically anxious individuals. All of these studies provide converging evidence for consistent beneficial effects of exercise on anxiety, and are consistent with a variety of accounts of the mechanism of anxiety reduction with exercise. Further study of clinical populations is encouraged, as are studies of the mechanism of change of exercise interventions, which have the potential to help refine exercise intervention strategies. Likewise, studies that identify moderators of treatment efficacy will assist clinicians in deciding how and for whom to prescribe exercise. PMID:23002943

DeBoer, Lindsey B; Powers, Mark B; Utschig, Angela C; Otto, Michael W; Smits, Jasper AJ

2012-01-01

400

[Association between headache and anxiety disorders indicators in a school sample from Ribeirão Preto, Brazil].  

PubMed

A sample of 374 public elementary and junior high school students aged 8 to 13 years were evaluated to assess the prevalence of frequent headache complaints, associated with indications of anxiety disorder. Parents answered a questionnaire to investigate the presence and frequency of headache and of behaviors/symptoms that might indicate the presence of anxiety disorders. Children were evaluated using the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale adapted to this population. Among them, 45.4% had never had a headache complaint; 41.2% had occasional headache complaints; and 13.5% had frequent headache complaints. Among children with frequent headache complaints there were more girls than boys, higher anxiety scores, higher occurrence of bruxism, and higher frequency of agitation. The high prevalence of headache and its association with bruxism in this sample is compatible with North American and Brazilian epidemiological data. Results show an association between frequent headache complaints and high anxiety scores. PMID:12364946

Gorayeb, Maria Angela Marchini; Gorayeb, Ricardo

2002-09-01

401

Proteasome modulator 9 gene SNPs, responsible for anti-depressant response, are in linkage with generalized anxiety disorder.  

PubMed

Proteasome modulator 9 (PSMD9) gene single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1043307/rs2514259 (E197G) is associated with significant clinical response to the anti-depressant desipramine. PSMD9 SNP rs74421874 [intervening sequence (IVS) 3?+?nt460 G>A], rs3825172 (IVS3?+?nt437 C>T) and rs1043307/rs2514259 (E197G A>G) are all linked to type 2 diabetes (T2D), maturity-onset-diabetes-of the young 3 (MODY3), obesity and waist circumference, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, T2D-macrovascular and T2D-microvascular disease, T2D-neuropathy, T2D-carpal tunnel syndrome, T2D-nephropathy, T2D-retinopathy, non-diabetic retinopathy and depression. PSMD9 rs149556654 rare SNP (N166S A>G) and the variant S143G A>G also contribute to T2D. PSMD9 is located in the chromosome 12q24 locus, which per se is in linkage with depression, bipolar disorder and anxiety. In the present study, we wanted to determine whether PSMD9 is linked to general anxiety disorder in Italian T2D families. Two-hundred Italian T2D families were phenotyped for generalized anxiety disorder, using the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV. When the diagnosis was unavailable or unclear, the trait was reported as unknown. The 200 Italians families were tested for the PSMD9 T2D risk SNPs rs74421874 (IVS3?+?nt460 G>A), rs3825172 (IVS3?+nt437 T>C) and for the T2D risk and anti-depressant response SNP rs1043307/rs2514259 (E197G A>G) for evidence of linkage with generalized anxiety disorder. Non-parametric linkage analysis was executed via Merlin software. One-thousand simulation tests were performed to exclude results due to random chance. In our study, the PSMD9 gene SNPs rs74421874, rs3825172, and rs1043307/rs2514259 result in linkage to generalized anxiety disorder. This is the first report describing PSMD9 gene SNPs in linkage to generalized anxiety disorder in T2D families. PMID:24648162

Gragnoli, Claudia

2014-09-01

402

Neuroimaging in Social Anxiety Disorder – a meta-analytic review resulting in a new neurofunctional model  

E-print Network

of particularly medial parietal regions in the field of anxiety and anxiety disorders, here shown in the example of SAD. However, as there are no meta-analyses on the neurofunctional circuit in other anxiety disorders except for PTSD (Hayes et al., 2012; Simmons... using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) could further elucidate the connectivity or connectivity failure in SAD. When comparing these findings to a recent meta-analysis in PTSD (Sartory et al., 2013) which has in the recent version of the DSM-5...

Brühl, Annette Beatrix; Delsignore, Aba; Komossa, Katja; Weidt, Steffi

2014-08-11

403

Tryptophan Hydroxylase 2 Gene Polymorphism in Anxiety and Depressive Disorder in Kashmiri Population  

PubMed Central

Background: The gene of tryptophan hydroxylase is widely recognized as a major candidate gene in many psychiatric disorders. However, no study has been done which investigates tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene polymorphism in anxiety and depressive disorders in Kashmiri population (India). Objectives: To study tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) C 11993 A gene polymorphism in anxiety and depressive disorders. Method: Sixty patients of depression disorder, 60 patients of anxiety disorder and 40 unrelated healthy volunteers (control) were studied in a case control design. Polymorphism was determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and agarose gel electrophoresis after digestion with HAP II enzyme. Genotypes and allele frequencies were compared using Chi-square tests, Fischer’s exact test, odds ratio, 95% confidence interval (C.I) and p-value of <0.05 was considered to be statistical significant. Results: The mean age ± SD of anxiety, depression and control group was 32.73±10.99, 32.20±10 and 29.75±10.12 respectively and the difference was found to be statistically non significant (p=0.349).The mean HAM-A (Hamilton rating scale for anxiety) score and HAM-D (Hamilton rating scale for depression) score was high in both groups (anxiety and depression) and found to be statistically significant (p=0.001).Depression group had AA genotype (55.2%) than control (37.5%) and was found to be statistically non significant (p=0.890).Comparison of allelic frequency revealed no association of A allele in anxiety group (76.67%) compared with control (75.5%) and was found to be statistically non significant (p= 0.866), OR 1.09 (0.56-2.11). Conclusion: TPH2C 11993 A gene was not found to be associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorder in Kashmiri population. PMID:25121048

Shoib, Sheikh; Shah, Tabindah; Mushtaq, Sahil

2014-01-01

404

5-Hydroxy tryptamine transporter (5HTT) gene promoter region polymorphism in anxiety and depressive disorders  

PubMed Central

Background: 5HTTLPR polymorphism (5- Hydroxy tryptamine transporter linked promoter region polymorphism) is the most widely studied genetic variant in psychiatry. The present study is a modest effort at ascertaining the role of 5HT transporter linked promoter region polymorphism (5HTTLPR) in anxiety and depressive disorders in Kashmir (India).The aim of this study was to examine 5-Hydroxy tryptamine transporter (5HTT) gene promoter region polymorphism in anxiety and depressive disorders. Methods: Thirty patients with unipolar depressive disorders, 30 patients with anxiety disorders and 40 healthy volunteers (controls) were studied on a case control design, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and agarose gel electrophoresis after digestion with endonuclease enzyme. Genotypes and allele frequencies were compared using chi square tests, and p value of < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The mean (±sd) HAM-A (Hamilton rating scale for anxiety) scores for anxiety and depressive groups were 28.2±5.14 and 17±5.61, respectively (P < 0.001). The mean (±sd) HAM-D (Hamilton rating scale for depression) scores for depressive and anxiety groups were 25±5.58 and 15±6.13, respectively. (p< 0.001). The frequency of S allele was significantly high (83.3% vs 60%) in the group with anxiety (p< 0.05) compared to the control group (p> 0.05). Conclusion: The genetic studies are still evolving as pathogenesis of anxiety and depressive disorders and involve the interaction of environmental factors with various genes. Genetic variation in different populations and hence different environments is important for elucidation of the mechanisms of these disorders. However, the study concludes that the locus under study is not shared between the two disorders.

Mushtaq, Raheel; Shoib, Sheikh; Shah, Tabindah; Mushtaq, Sahil

2014-01-01

405

Adult separation anxiety disorder among war-affected Bosnian refugees: comorbidity with PTSD and associations with dimensions of trauma.  

PubMed

Although separation anxiety disorder appears to be common among children exposed to disasters, there are no data focusing on the impact of trauma on adult separation anxiety disorder. The present exploratory study examined the relationship of adult separation anxiety disorder with other psychological reactions (posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], complicated grief, depression) and dimensions of trauma among 126 war-affected Bosnian refugees resettled in Australia. Adult separation anxiety disorder was associated with PTSD, but not with complicated grief or depression. Although adult separation anxiety disorder was weakly linked with traumatic losses, this association was nonspecific. Further research is needed to clarify the pathogenic pathways leading to the comorbid PTSD-adult separation anxiety disorder pattern and its clinical implications. PMID:20135680

Silove, Derrick; Momartin, Shakeh; Marnane, Claire; Steel, Zachary; Manicavasagar, Vijaya

2010-02-01

406

Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Late-Life Anxiety Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the absence of data, pharmacotherapy with benzodiazepines has become the mainstay of anxiety management in the elderly population. However, the use of benzodiazepines in the elderly has many problems. Elderly persons are more sensitive to anti-anxiety medications and are subject to a variety of increased risks, including cognitive impairment,…

Gorenstein, Ethan E.; Papp, Lazlo A.

407

Evidence to practice: treatment of anxiety in individuals with autism spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

Clinical question What treatment improves social interactions and reduces reports of anxiety symptoms in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and a co-occurring anxiety disorder? Results Systematic reviews and randomized clinical trials suggest that cognitive behavior therapy in tandem with direct instruction of social skills using applied behavior analysis intervention components may be effective for treating anxiety in individuals with high functioning ASD. For individuals with ASD, an anxiety disorder, and an intellectual disability, systematic desensitization may be effective. Implementation Intervention should emphasize teaching social skills. Reinforcers (ie, rewards based upon the client’s interests) should be used to encourage participation in therapy. Treatment should incorporate visual aides and family involvement. Intervention components involving abstract concepts, visualization, and discussions of emotions are less useful given difficulties in abstract reasoning and communication inherent to ASD. PMID:21326652

Lang, Russell; Mahoney, Richard; El Zein, Farah; Delaune, Elizabeth; Amidon, Megan

2011-01-01

408

A review of studies concerning treatment adherence of patients with anxiety disorders  

PubMed Central

Objective This paper aimed at describing the most consistent correlates and/or predictors of nonadherence to treatment of patients with different anxiety disorders. Method The authors retrieved studies indexed in PubMed/MedLine, PsycINFO, and ISI Web of Knowledge using the following search terms: attrition OR dropout OR attrition rates OR patient dropouts OR treatment adherence AND anxiety disorders. Research was limited to articles published before January 2010. Results Sixteen studies were selected that investigated the impact of sociodemographic, clinical, or cognitive variables on adherence to treatment for anxiety disorders. While no consistent pattern of sociodemographic or clinical features associated with nonadherence emerged, all studies that investigated cognitive variables in panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder found that expectations and opinions about treatment were related to adherence. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that it is essential to consider anxiety disorder patients’ beliefs about illness and treatment strategies to increase their compliance with the therapeutic plan. PMID:21949606

Santana, Lívia; Fontenelle, Leonardo F

2011-01-01

409

Prioritization and Association Analysis of Murine-Derived Candidate Genes in Anxiety-Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Anxiety disorders are common psychiatric conditions that are highly comorbid with each other and related phenotypes such as depression, likely due to a shared genetic basis. Fear-related behaviors in mice have long been investigated as potential models of anxiety disorders, making integration of information from both murine and human genetic data a powerful strategy for identifying potential susceptibility genes for these conditions. Methods We combined genome-wide association analysis of fear-related behaviours with strain distribution pattern analysis in heterogeneous stock mice to identify a preliminary list of 52 novel candidate genes. We ranked these according to three complementary sources of prior anxiety-related genetic data: (1) extant linkage and knock-out studies in mice, (2) a meta-analysis of human linkage scans, and (3) a preliminary human genomewide association study. We genotyped tagging SNPs covering the nine top-ranked regions in a two-stage association study of 1316 subjects from the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders chosen for high or low genetic loading for anxiety-spectrum phenotypes (anxiety disorders, neuroticism, and major depression). Results Multiple SNPs in the PPARGC1A gene demonstrated association in both stages that survived gene-wise correction for multiple testing. Conclusions Integration of genetic data across human and murine studies suggests PPARGC1A as a potential susceptibility gene for anxiety-related disorders. PMID:21871609

Hettema, John M.; Webb, Bradley T.; Guo, An-Yuan; Zhao, Zhongming; Maher, Brion S.; Chen, Xiangning; An, Seon-Sook; Sun, Cuie; Aggen, Steven H.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Otowa, Takeshi; Flint, Jonathan; van den Oord, Edwin J.

2011-01-01

410

Blood lead levels and major depressive disorder, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder in U.S. young adults  

PubMed Central

Context Lead is a ubiquitous neurotoxicant, and adverse cognitive and behavioral effects are well documented in children and occupationally exposed adults but not in adults with low environmental exposure. Objective To investigate the association of current blood lead levels with three common psychiatric disorders, major depression, panic, and generalized anxiety, among young adults. Design Cross-sectional epidemiologic survey. Setting Representative sample of non-institutionalized United States adults. Participants A total of 1,987 respondents of age 20–39 years to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted from 1999 to 2004. Main Outcome Measures Twelve-month DSM-IV criteria-based diagnoses of major depressive disorder, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder assessed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Results Mean blood lead level was 1.61 ?g/dL (SD 1.72, range 0.3–37.3 ?g/dL). Increasing blood lead level was associated with higher odds of major depression (p for trend 0.05) and panic disorder (p for trend 0.02), but not generalized anxiety disorder (p for trend 0.75), after adjustment for sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, and poverty-income ratio. Persons with blood lead level in the highest quintile had 2.3 times the odds of major depressive disorder (95% CI 1.13 – 4.75) and 4.9 times the odds of panic disorder (95% CI 1.32 – 18.48) as those in the lowest quintile. Cigarette smoking was associated with higher blood lead level and the outcomes, but models excluding current smokers also resulted in significantly increased odds for major depression (p for trend 0.03) and panic disorder (p for trend 0.01) with higher blood lead quintile. Conclusions In this sample of young adults with low levels of lead exposure, higher blood lead was associated with increased odds of major depression and panic disorder. Exposure to lead at levels generally considered safe could result in adverse mental health outcomes. PMID:19996036

Bouchard, Maryse; Bellinger, David C.; Weuve, Jennifer; Matthews-Bellinger, Julia; Gilman, Stephen E.; Wright, Robert O.; Schwartz, Joel; Weisskopf, Marc G.

2010-01-01

411

Role of Comorbid Depression and Co-Occurring Depressive Symptoms in Outcomes for Anxiety-Disordered Youth Treated with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the role of comorbid depressive disorders (major depressive disorder or dysthymic disorder) and co-occurring depressive symptoms in treatment outcome and maintenance for youth (N = 72, aged 7-14) treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy for a principal anxiety disorder (generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety

O'Neil, Kelly A.; Kendall, Philip C.

2012-01-01

412

Electrophysiological Evidence of Attentional Biases in Social Anxiety Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies investigating attentional biases in social anxiety disorder (SAD) have yielded mixed results. Recent event-related potential (ERP) studies employing the dot-probe paradigm in non-anxious participants have shown that the P1 component is sensitive to visuospatial attention toward emotional faces. We used a dot-probe task in conjunction with high-density ERPs and source localization to investigate attentional biases in SAD. Method Twelve SAD and 15 control participants performed a modified dot-probe task using angry-neutral and happy-neutral face-pairs. The P1 component elicited by face-pairs was analyzed to test the hypothesis that SAD participants would display early hypervigilance to threat-related cues. The P1 component to probes replacing angry, happy or neutral faces was used to evaluate whether SAD participants show sustained hypervigilance or rather decreased visual processing of threat-related cues at later processing stages. Results Compared to controls, SAD participants showed relatively (a) potentiated P1 amplitudes and fusiform gyrus activation to angry-neutral vs. happy-neutral face-pairs; (b) decreased P1 amplitudes to probes replacing emotional (angry and happy) vs. neutral faces; and (c) higher sensitivity (d?) to probes following angry-neutral vs. happy-neutral face-pairs. SAD participants also showed significantly shorter reaction times to probes replacing angry vs. happy faces, but no group differences emerged for reaction time. Conclusions The results provide electrophysiological support for early hypervigilance to angry faces in SAD with involvement of the fusiform gyrus, and reduced visual processing of emotionally salient locations at later stages of information processing, which might be a manifestation of attentional avoidance. PMID:19079826

Mueller, E. M.; Hofmann, S. G.; Santesso, D. L.; Meuret, A. E.; Bitran, S.; Pizzagalli, D. A.

2011-01-01

413

Associations between prolonged grief disorder, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and anxiety in Rwandan genocide survivors.  

PubMed

A number of studies have demonstrated that symptoms of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) represent a symptom cluster distinct from bereavement-related depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of the present study was to confirm and extend these findings using the most recent criteria defining PGD. The authors interviewed a total of 400 orphaned or widowed survivors of the Rwandan genocide. The syndromes were strongly linked to each other with a high comorbidity. Principal axis factoring resulted in the emergence of 4 different factors. The symptoms of depression, along with the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral symptoms of PGD, loaded on the first factor, symptoms of anxiety on the second factor, symptoms of PTSD on the third factor, and the separation distress symptoms of PGD on the fourth factor. This indicates that the concept of PGD includes symptoms that are conceptually related to depression. However, the symptom cluster of separation distress presents a grief-specific dimension that may surface unrelated to depressive symptoms. PMID:24567983

Schaal, Susanne; Dusingizemungu, Jean-Pierre; Jacob, Nadja; Neuner, Frank; Elbert, Thomas

2012-02-01

414

Preschool Anxiety Disorders Predict Different Patterns of Amygdala-Prefrontal Connectivity at School-Age  

PubMed Central

Objective In this prospective, longitudinal study of young children, we examined whether a history of preschool generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, and/or social phobia is associated with amygdala-prefrontal dysregulation at school-age. As an exploratory analysis, we investigated whether distinct anxiety disorders differ in the patterns of this amygdala-prefrontal dysregulation. Methods Participants were children taking part in a 5-year study of early childhood brain development and anxiety disorders. Preschool symptoms of generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, and social phobia were assessed with the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA) in the first wave of the study when the children were between 2 and 5 years old. The PAPA was repeated at age 6. We conducted functional MRIs when the children were 5.5 to 9.5 year old to assess neural responses to viewing of angry and fearful faces. Results A history of preschool social phobia predicted less school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ventral prefrontal cortices to angry faces. Preschool generalized anxiety predicted less functional connectivity between the amygdala and dorsal prefrontal cortices in response to fearful faces. Finally, a history of preschool separation anxiety predicted less school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ventral prefrontal cortices to angry faces and greater school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and dorsal prefrontal cortices to angry faces. Conclusions Our results suggest that there are enduring neurobiological effects associated with a history of preschool anxiety, which occur over-and-above the effect of subsequent emotional symptoms. Our results also provide preliminary evidence for the neurobiological differentiation of specific preschool anxiety disorders. PMID:25625285

Carpenter, Kimberly L. H.; Angold, Adrian; Chen, Nan-Kuei; Copeland, William E.; Gaur, Pooja; Pelphrey, Kevin; Song, Allen W.; Egger, Helen L.

2015-01-01

415

The clinical nature and formal diagnosis of premenstrual, postpartum, and perimenopausal affective disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various mood and anxiety disorders are more prevalent in reproductive-aged women, and appear to be linked to hormonal and\\u000a reproductive events. Premenstrual affective disorders consist of premenstrual syndrome, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, and\\u000a premenstrual exacerbation of mood or anxiety disorders. Postpartum affective disorders can range from postpartum “blues” to\\u000a postpartum depression with or without psychosis, and also include anxiety disorders, such

Andrea J. Rapkin; Judith A. Mikacich; Babak Moatakef-Imani; Natalie Rasgon

2002-01-01

416

Prevalence and demographics of anxiety disorders: a snapshot from a community health centre in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background The developing world is faced with a high burden of anxiety disorders. The exact prevalence of anxiety disorders in Pakistan is not known. There is a need to develop an evidence base to aid policy development on tackling anxiety and depressive disorders in the country. This is the first pilot study to address the prevalence of anxiety disorders and their association with sociodemographic factors in Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among people visiting Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH), a tertiary care facility in Karachi, Pakistan. The point prevalence of anxiety amongst the sample population, which comprised of patients and their attendants, excluding all health care personnel, was assessed using the validated Urdu version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The questionnaire was administered to 423 people. Descriptive statistics were performed for mean scores and proportions. Results The mean anxiety score of the population was 5.7 ± 3.86. About 28.3% had borderline or pathological anxiety. The factors found to be independently predicted with anxiety were, female sex (odds ratio (OR) = 2.14, 95% CI 1.36–3.36, p = 0.01); physical illness (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.06–2.64, p = 0.026); and psychiatric illness (OR = 1.176, 95% CI 1.0–3.1, p = 0.048). In the final multivariate model, female sex (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2, 95% CI 1.28–3.22) and physical illness (AOR = 1.56, 95% CI 0.97–2.48) were found to be significant. Conclusion Further studies via nationally representative surveys need to be undertaken to fully grasp the scope of this emerging public health issue in Pakistan. PMID:17999756

Khan, Hassan; Kalia, Saira; Itrat, Ahmed; Khan, Abdullah; Kamal, Mahwash; Khan, Muhammad A; Khalid, Roha; Khalid, Salman; Javed, Sunniya; Javed, Sanniya; Umer, Affan; Naqvi, Haider

2007-01-01

417

Hierarchical Diagnosis of Vocal Fold Disorders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores the use of hierarchical structure for diagnosis of vocal fold disorders. The hierarchical structure is initially used to train different second-level classifiers. At the first level normal and pathological signals have been distinguished. Next, pathological signals have been classified into neurogenic and organic vocal fold disorders. At the final level, vocal fold nodules have been distinguished from polyps in organic disorders category. For feature selection at each level of hierarchy, the reconstructed signal at each wavelet packet decomposition sub-band in 5 levels of decomposition with mother wavelet of (db10) is used to extract the nonlinear features of self-similarity and approximate entropy. Also, wavelet packet coefficients are used to measure energy and Shannon entropy features at different spectral sub-bands. Davies-Bouldin criterion has been employed to find the most discriminant features. Finally, support vector machines have been adopted as classifiers at each level of hierarchy resulting in the diagnosis accuracy of 92%.

Nikkhah-Bahrami, Mansour; Ahmadi-Noubari, Hossein; Seyed Aghazadeh, Babak; Khadivi Heris, Hossein

418

A Multitrait-Multimethod Analysis of the Construct Validity of Child Anxiety Disorders in a Clinical Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examines the construct validity of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SoP), panic disorder (PD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in a clinical sample of children. Participants were 174 children, 6 to 17 years old (94 boys) who had undergone a diagnostic evaluation at a university hospital based clinic.…

Langer, David A.; Wood, Jeffrey J.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Piacentini, John C.

2010-01-01

419

A study of lifetime prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders in patients presenting with chest pain to emergency medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders in patients with chest pain presenting to an emergency department. Majority of the patients had coronary artery disease (CAD). Twenty-three percent of patients with chest pain had a diagnosable psychiatric disorder according to ICD-10 research criteria. Anxiety and depressive disorders were equally distributed among patients with concomitant psychiatric syndrome. The level

Krishnamachari Srinivasan; Willie Joseph

2004-01-01

420

Content specificity of attention bias to threat in anxiety disorders: A meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Despite the established evidence for threat-related attention bias in anxiety, the mechanisms underlying this bias remain unclear. One important unresolved question is whether disorder-congruent threats capture attention to a greater extent than do more general or disorder-incongruent threat stimuli. Evidence for attention bias specificity in anxiety would implicate involvement of previous learning and memory processes in threat-related attention bias, whereas lack of content specificity would point to perturbations in more generic attention processes. Enhanced clarity of mechanism could have clinical implications for the stimuli types used in Attention Bias Modification Treatments (ABMT). Content specificity of threat-related attention bias in anxiety and potential moderators of this effect were investigated. A systematic search identified 37 samples from 29 articles (N=866). Relevant data were extracted based on specific coding rules, and Cohen's d effect size was used to estimate bias specificity effects. The results indicate greater attention bias toward disorder-congruent relative to disorder-incongruent threat stimuli (d=0.28, p<0.0001). This effect was not moderated by age, type of anxiety disorder, visual attention tasks, or type of disorder-incongruent stimuli. No evidence of publication bias was observed. Implications for threat bias in anxiety and ABMT are discussed. PMID:25462110

Pergamin-Hight, Lee; Naim, Reut; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Bar-Haim, Yair

2014-11-01

421

Anxious Solitude and Clinical Disorder in Middle Childhood: Bridging Developmental and Clinical Approaches to Childhood Social Anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was hypothesized that children identified by their peers at school as anxious solitary would report more symptoms of social\\u000a anxiety disorder on a self report questionnaire and, on the basis of child and parent clinical interviews, receive more diagnoses\\u000a of social anxiety disorder and additional anxiety and mood disorders. Participants were 192 children drawn from a community\\u000a sample of

Heidi Gazelle; Jamie Olson Workman; Wesley Allan

2010-01-01

422

Cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders: a randomized, controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Children with autism spectrum disorders often present with comorbid anxiety disorders that cause significant functional impairment. This study tested a modular cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program for children with this profile. A standard CBT program was augmented with multiple treatment components designed to accommodate or remediate the social and adaptive skill deficits of children with ASD that could pose

Jeffrey J. Wood; Amy Drahota; Karen Sze; Kim Har; Angela Chiu; David A. Langer

2009-01-01

423

Anxiety Disorders: Treatable regardless of the Severity of Comorbid Alcohol Dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: Clinical and epidemiological research has shown that comorbidity is the rule rather than exception in the case of psychiatric disorders. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been clearly demonstrated to be effective in treating anxiety and avoidance symptoms in patient samples of social phobia and agoraphobia without comorbid alcohol use disorders. It has recently been shown that treatment of comorbid

Annemiek Schadé; Loes A. Marquenie; Maarten W. J. Koeter; Edwin de Beurs; Richard van Dyck; Wim van den Brink

2007-01-01

424

Separation Anxiety Disorder in Childhood as a Risk Factor for Future Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study to examine the association between childhood separation anxiety disorder (SAD) and the risk of the development of psychopathology during young adulthood was conducted. Results showed that SAD contributed to the risk for the development of internalizing disorders, which are panic and depression, but decreased the risk for externalizing…

Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Holm-Denoma, Jill M.; Small, Jason W.; Seeley, John R.; Joiner, Thomas E.

2008-01-01

425

A Parent-Child Interactional Model of Social Anxiety Disorder in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, one of the most common disorders of childhood and adolescence, social anxiety disorder (SAD), is examined to illustrate the complex and delicate interplay between parent and child factors that can result in normal development gone awry. Our parent-child model of SAD posits a host of variables that converge to occasion the onset and…

Ollendick, Thomas H.; Benoit, Kristy E.

2012-01-01

426

Exploring the Relevance of Expressed Emotion to the Treatment of Social Anxiety Disorder in Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role that the involvement of parents may play in the treatment outcome of their children with anxiety disorders is still under debate. Some studies dealing with other disorders have examined the role that the expressed emotion (EE) construct (parental overinvolvement, criticism and hostility) may play in treatment outcome and relapse. Given…

Garcia-Lopez, Luis-Joaquin; Muela, Jose M.; Espinosa-Fernandez, Lourdes; Diaz-Castela, Mar

2009-01-01

427

Traumatic and socially stressful life events among persons with social anxiety disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the frequency of reexperiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal symptoms most often associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among 45 persons with social anxiety disorder and 30 nonanxious controls in response to an extremely stressful social event (which did not satisfy DSM-IV's PTSD Criterion A). Avoidance and hyperarousal in response to reminders of socially stressful events were common among

Brigette A. Erwin; Richard G. Heimberg; Brian P. Marx; Martin E. Franklin

2006-01-01

428

Children with Anxiety Disorders: Use of a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Model within a Social Milieu  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because anxiety is the most common mental health disorder diagnosed in children, early intervention is crucial for fundamental coping. Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the preferred treatment method for this affective disorder, instruction for children needs to be specific for them to successfully acquire and implement essential CBT…

Kearny, Regina; Pawlukewicz, Justine; Guardino, Mary

2014-01-01

429

Differentiation of Depressive Disorders from Generalized Anxiety by the Beck Depression Inventory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Beck Depression Inventory was administered to 35 outpatients diagnosed as primary generalized anxiety disorders and 101 outpatients diagnosed as primary major-depression and dysthymic disorders. A backward stepwise-discriminant analysis revealed that Sadness and Loss of Libido were the only two symptoms that meaningfullly distinguished between…

Steer, Robert A.; And Others

1986-01-01

430

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Randomized, Controlled Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Children with autism spectrum disorders often present with comorbid anxiety disorders that cause significant functional impairment. This study tested a modular cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program for children with this profile. A standard CBT program was augmented with multiple treatment components designed to accommodate or…

Wood, Jeffrey J.; Drahota, Amy; Sze, Karen; Har, Kim; Chiu, Angela; Langer, David A.

2009-01-01

431

One Factor or Two Parallel Processes? Comorbidity and Development of Adolescent Anxiety and Depressive Disorder Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study investigates whether anxiety and depressive disorder symptoms of adolescents from the general community are best described by a model that assumes they are indicative of one general factor or by a model that assumes they are two distinct disorders with parallel growth processes. Additional analyses were conducted to explore…

Hale, William W., III; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Muris, Peter; van Hoof, Anne; Meeus, Wim H. J.

2009-01-01

432

Children With Prepubertal-Onset Major Depressive Disorder and Anxiety Grown Up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The continuity in adulthood of major de- pressive disorder (MDD) first arising before puberty is largely unknown. This information could guide early treat- ment and clarify the appropriateness of including chil- dren with MDD in genetic studies. Methods: Eighty-three subjects with onset of MDD, 44 subjects with anxiety disorder and no MDD, and 91 subjects with no evidence of

Myrna M. Weissman; Susan Wolk; Priya Wickramaratne; Phillip Adams; Steven Greenwald; Neal D. Ryan; Ronald E. Dahl; David Steinberg

1999-01-01

433

Role of serotonergic and noradrenergic systems in the pathophysiology of depression and anxiety disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is abundant evidence for abnormalities of the norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5HT) neurotransmitter systems in depression and anxiety disorders. The majority of evidence supports underactivation of serotonergic function and complex dysregulation of noradrenergic function, most consistent with overactivation of this system. Treatment for these disorders requires perturba- tion of these systems. Reproducible increases in serotonergic function and de- creases

Kerry J. Ressler; Charles B. Nemeroff

2000-01-01

434

Pilot Study: Fluvoxamine Treatment for Depression and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Cancer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To evaluate the safety, tolerability, and benefit of fluvoxamine for the treatment of major depressive disorder or anxiety disorders in children and adolescents with cancer. Method: The study was conducted from 2001 to 2004 at a pediatric hematology-oncology center. Fifteen children and adolescents with cancer were treated with…

Gothelf, Doron; Rubinstein, Maly; Shemesh, Eyal; Miller, Orit; Farbstein, Ilana; Klein, Anat; Weizman, Abraham; Apter, Alan; Yaniv, Isaac

2005-01-01

435

Specificity of Treatment Effects: Cognitive Therapy and Relaxation for Generalized Anxiety and Panic Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to address claims that among bona fide treatments no one is more efficacious than another by comparing the relative efficacy of cognitive therapy (CT) and relaxation therapy (RT) in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder without agoraphobia (PD). Two fixed-effects meta-analyses were…

Siev, Jedidiah; Chambless, Dianne L.

2007-01-01

436

Behavioral interventions for office-based care: stress and anxiety disorders.  

PubMed

Numerous behavioral therapies have been investigated in the management of anxiety- and stress-related disorders. There is strong evidence to support cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in the management of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, and social phobias. Adjunctive behavioral sleep intervention may enhance results for GAD, and initiation of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor for GAD before CBT also may enhance response. Several randomized clinical trials showed benefit of Internet-based CBT for GAD, but additional studies are needed before conclusions can be drawn regarding its effectiveness for posttraumatic stress disorder. Although outcome data are limited, family physicians can offer patients screening for anxiety disorders, psychological first aid (ie, listening to and comforting patients, teaching about emotional and physiologic responses to traumatic incidents, and encouraging engagement with social supports and coping) after trauma, education about anxiety disorders, and referral to evidence-based self-help resources. Family physicians also can ensure linkage with behavioral health care physicians and encourage adherence to self-help protocols. PMID:24628013

Campbell, James S; Larzelere, Michele McCarthy

2014-03-01

437

Intrinsic Functional Connectivity of Amygdala-Based Networks in Adolescent Generalized Anxiety Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) typically begins during adolescence and can persist into adulthood. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disorder remain unclear. Recent evidence from resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) studies in adults suggests disruptions in amygdala-based circuitry; the…

Roy, Amy K.; Fudge, Julie L.; Kelly, Clare; Perry, Justin S. A.; Daniele, Teresa; Carlisi, Christina; Benson, Brenda; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Milham, Michael P.; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

2013-01-01

438

Early traumatic life events, parental rearing styles, family history of mental disorders, and birth risk factors in patients with social anxiety disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective Childhood traumatic experiences, rearing styles, familial mental disorders and birth risk factors have been associated with the development of social anxiety disorder. Method Patients with social anxiety disorder (n = 50) and healthy controls (n = 120) were investigated using a retrospective interview with 203 questions. Results The frequency of reports of traumatic childhood experiences was significantly higher in

Borwin Bandelow; Aicha Charimo Torrente; Dirk Wedekind; Andreas Broocks; Göran Hajak; Eckart Rüther

2004-01-01

439

The escalation of non-pathological worry into generalised anxiety disorder : an investigation of two influential models.  

E-print Network

??[Truncated abstract] Excessive and uncontrollable worry is a cardinal feature of Generalised Anxiety Disorder. The mechanisms by which non-pathological worry escalates into the pathological worry… (more)

Kelly, Owen

2009-01-01

440

Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Patients with Co-Existing Social Anxiety Disorder and Substance Use Disorders: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social anxiety disorder (SAD) frequently co-occurs with substance use disorders (SUDs). Although the efficacy of separate\\u000a cognitive behavioral treatments for each disorder has been widely documented, there is a dearth of studies investigating treatment\\u000a outcome for patients with co-existing SAD and SUDs. This paper presents preliminary data from a pilot study that investigated\\u000a whether cognitive behavioral group therapy—modified to explicitly

Christine M. Courbasson; Yasunori Nishikawa

2010-01-01

441

Association between latent toxoplasmosis and major depression, generalised anxiety disorder and panic disorder in human adults.  

PubMed

Latent infection with the apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) has been associated with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and self-harm behaviour. However, the potential relationship between T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibody (IgG) seropositivity and generalised-anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder (PD) has not been investigated. The associations between serum reactivity to T. gondii and major depressive disorder (MDD), GAD and PD were evaluated in a total sample of 1 846 adult participants between the ages of 20 and 39 years from the United States Center for Disease Control's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Approximately 16% of the overall sample was seropositive for T. gondii and 7% of the sample met criteria for MDD, 2% for GAD and 2% for PD. There were no significant associations between T. gondii IgG seroprevalence and MDD (OR = 0.484, 95% CI = 0.186-1.258), GAD (OR = 0.737, 95% CI = 0.218-2.490) or PD (OR = 0.683, 95% CI = 0.206-2.270) controlling for sex, ethnicity, poverty-to-income ratio and educational attainment. However, limited evidence suggested a possible association between absolute antibody titres for T. gondii and GAD and PD but not MDD. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was not associated with MDD, GAD or PD within the context of the limitations of this study, although there may be an association of T. gondii serointensity with and GAD and PD, which requires further study. PMID:25185399

Gale, Shawn D; Brown, Bruce L; Berrett, Andrew; Erickson, Lance D; Hedges, Dawson W

2014-08-01

442

Attribution retraining group therapy for outpatients with major depression disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this present study is to examine the efficacy of attribution retraining group therapy (ARGT) and to compare the responses of outpatients with major depression disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We carried out a prospective uncontrolled intervention study with a 8-weeks of ARGT on sixty three outpatients with MDD, GAD or OCD. Hamilton

Chun Wang; Jie Zhang; Jijun Li; Ning Zhang; Yalin Zhang

2011-01-01

443

Internet-based mindfulness treatment for anxiety disorders: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Mindfulness-based interventions have proven effective for the transdiagnostic treatment of heterogeneous anxiety disorders. So far, no study has investigated the potential of mindfulness-based treatments when delivered remotely via the Internet. The current trial aims at evaluating the efficacy of a stand-alone, unguided, Internet-based mindfulness treatment program for anxiety. Ninety-one participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, or anxiety disorder not otherwise specified were randomly assigned to a mindfulness treatment group (MTG) or to an online discussion forum control group (CG). Mindfulness treatment consisted of 96 audio files with instructions for various mindfulness meditation exercises. Primary and secondary outcome measures were assessed at pre-, posttreatment, and at 6-months follow-up. Participants of the MTG showed a larger decrease of symptoms of anxiety, depression, and insomnia from pre- to postassessment than participants of the CG (Cohen's d(between)=0.36-0.99). Within effect sizes were large in the MTG (d=0.82-1.58) and small to moderate in the CG (d=0.45-0.76). In contrast to participants of the CG, participants of the MTG also achieved a moderate improvement in their quality of life. The study provided encouraging results for an Internet-based mindfulness protocol in the treatment of primary anxiety disorders. Future replications of these results will show whether Web-based mindfulness meditation can constitute a valid alternative to existing, evidence-based cognitive-behavioural Internet treatments. The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01577290). PMID:24491199

Boettcher, Johanna; Aström, Viktor; Påhlsson, Daniel; Schenström, Ola; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per

2014-03-01

444

A Multitrait–Multimethod Analysis of the Construct Validity of Child Anxiety Disorders in a Clinical Sample  

PubMed Central

The present study examines the construct validity of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SoP), panic disorder (PD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in a clinical sample of children. Participants were 174 children, 6 to 17 years old (94 boys) who had undergone a diagnostic evaluation at a university hospital based clinic. Parent and child ratings of symptom severity were assessed using the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC). Diagnostician ratings were obtained from the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children and Parents (ADIS: C/P). Discriminant and convergent validity were assessed using confirmatory factor analytic techniques to test a multitrait–multimethod model. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the current classification of these child anxiety disorders. The disorders demonstrated statistical independence from each other (discriminant validity of traits), the model fit better when the anxiety syndromes were specified than when no specific syndromes were specified (convergent validity), and the methods of assessment yielded distinguishable, unique types of information about child anxiety (discriminant validity of methods). Using a multi-informant approach, these findings support the distinctions between childhood anxiety disorders as delineated in the current classification system, suggesting that disagreement between informants in psychometric studies of child anxiety measures is not due to poor construct validity of these anxiety syndromes. PMID:20443053

Wood, Jeffrey J.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Piacentini, John C.

2010-01-01

445

Is rTMS an effective therapeutic strategy that can be used to treat anxiety disorders?  

PubMed

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive procedure whereby a pulsed magnetic field stimulates electrical activity in the brain. Anxiety disorders are the most common of all mental health problems for which effective, mechanism-based treatments remain elusive. Consequently, more advanced non-invasive therapeutic methods are required. A possible method to modulate brain activity and potentially viable for use in clinical practice is rTMS. Here, we focus on the main findings of rTMS from animal models of anxiety and the experimental advances of rTMS that may become a viable clinical application to treat anxiety disorders, one of the most common causes of disability in the workplace in the world. Key advances in combining rTMS with neuroimaging technology may aid such future developments. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Anxiety and Depression'. PMID:21807002

Machado, Sergio; Paes, Flávia; Velasques, Bruna; Teixeira, Silmar; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro; Nardi, Antonio E; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

2012-01-01

446

Animal models of anxiety disorders in rats and mice: some conceptual issues  

PubMed Central

Animal models can certainly be useful to find out more about the biological bases of anxiety disorders and develop new, more efficient pharmacological and/or behavioral treatments. However, many of the current “models of anxiety” in animals do not deal with pathology itself, but only with extreme forms of anxiety which are still in the normal, adaptive range. These models have certainly provided a lot of information on brain and behavioral mechanisms which could be involved in the etiology and physiopathology of anxiety disorders, but are usually not satisfactory when confronted directly with clinical syndromes. Further progress in this field will probably depend on the finding of endophenotypes which can be studied in both humans and animals with common methodological approaches. The emphasis should be on individual differences in vulnerability, which have to be included in animal models. Finally, progress will also depend on refining theoretical constructs from an interdisciplinary perspective, including psychiatry, psychology, behavioral sciences, genetics, and other neurosciences. PMID:22275854

Steimer, Thierry

2011-01-01

447

Intolerance of Uncertainty as a Framework for Understanding Anxiety in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anxiety is a problem for many children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). There is a paucity of models of the cognitive processes underlying this. Intolerance of Uncertainty (IU) has utility in explaining anxiety in neurotypical populations but has only recently received attention in ASD. We modelled the relationship between anxiety

Boulter, Christina; Freeston, Mark; South, Mikle; Rodgers, Jacqui

2014-01-01

448

Interpersonal Stress Regulation and the Development of Anxiety Disorders: An Attachment-Based Developmental Framework  

PubMed Central

Anxiety disorders represent a common but often debilitating form of psychopathology in both children and adults. While there is a growing understanding of the etiology and maintenance of these disorders across various research domains, only recently have integrative accounts been proposed. While classical attachment history has been a traditional core construct in psychological models of anxiety, contemporary attachment theory has the potential to integrate neurobiological and behavioral findings within a multidisciplinary developmental framework. The current paper proposes a modern attachment theory-based developmental model grounded in relevant literature from multiple disciplines including social neuroscience, genetics, neuroendocrinology, and the study of family factors involved in the development of anxiety disorders. Recent accounts of stress regulation have highlighted the interplay between stress, anxiety, and activation of the attachment system. This interplay directly affects the development of social–cognitive and mentalizing capacities that are acquired in the interpersonal context of early attachment relationships. Early attachment experiences are conceptualized as the key organizer of a complex interplay between genetic, environmental, and epigenetic contributions to the development of anxiety disorders – a multifactorial etiology resulting from dysfunctional co-regulation of fear and stress states. These risk-conferring processes are characterized by hyperactivation strategies in the face of anxiety. The cumulative allostatic load and subsequent “wear and tear” effects associated with hyperactivation strategies converge on the neural pathways of anxiety and stress. Attachment experiences further influence the development of anxiety as potential moderators of risk factors, differentially impacting on genetic vulnerability and relevant neurobiological pathways. Implications for further research and potential treatments are outlined. PMID:21960962

Nolte, Tobias; Guiney, Jo; Fonagy, Peter; Mayes, Linda C.; Luyten, Patrick

2011-01-01

449

Escitalopram versus paroxetine for social anxiety disorder: An analysis of efficacy for different symptom dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A previous factor analysis of pooled data demonstrated that the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) can be divided into six subscales. This paper examines data from a fixed-dose trial of escitalopram versus paroxetine, in order to determine the differential effects of these agents on symptom dimensions in social anxiety disorder (SAD). Methods: Data from a 24-week randomised, placebo-controlled, comparative

Dan J. Stein; Elisabeth Wreford Andersen; Malcolm Lader

2006-01-01

450

Effects of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) on Emotion Regulation in Social Anxiety Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is an established program shown to reduce symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. MBSR is believed to alter emotional responding by modifying cognitive–affective processes. Given that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by emotional and attentional biases as well as distorted negative self-beliefs, we examined MBSR-related changes in the brain–behavior indices of emotional reactivity and regulation

Philippe R. Goldin; James J. Gross

2010-01-01