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Sample records for anxiety emotional distress

  1. Negative Emotions and Behaviors are Markers of Breakup Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    Method: University students who experienced a recent romantic breakup were given several self-report measures and were then divided into high versus low breakup distress groups. Results: The high breakup distress versus the low breakup distress groups had higher scores on negative emotions scales including depression, anxiety and anger and…

  2. Item Banks for Measuring Emotional Distress From the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®): Depression, Anxiety, and Anger

    PubMed Central

    Pilkonis, Paul A.; Choi, Seung W.; Reise, Steven P.; Stover, Angela M.; Riley, William T.; Cella, David

    2011-01-01

    The authors report on the development and calibration of item banks for depression, anxiety, and anger as part of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®). Comprehensive literature searches yielded an initial bank of 1,404 items from 305 instruments. After qualitative item analysis (including focus groups and cognitive interviewing), 168 items (56 for each construct) were written in a first person, past tense format with a 7-day time frame and five response options reflecting frequency. The calibration sample included nearly 15,000 respondents. Final banks of 28, 29, and 29 items were calibrated for depression, anxiety, and anger, respectively, using item response theory. Test information curves showed that the PROMIS item banks provided more information than conventional measures in a range of severity from approximately −1 to +3 standard deviations (with higher scores indicating greater distress). Short forms consisting of seven to eight items provided information comparable to legacy measures containing more items. PMID:21697139

  3. Back Pain and Emotional Distress

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as analgesic medications, manual therapy and/or physical therapy for symptomatic relief. Questions You Need to Ask In order to minimize emotional distress, it is important to ask your health care provider ques- tions about your back pain so you do not leave the office uncertain ...

  4. A transdiagnostic investigation of emotional distress after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Shields, Cassandra; Ownsworth, Tamara; O'Donovan, Analise; Fleming, Jennifer

    2016-06-01

    Emotional distress after traumatic brain injury (TBI) often presents as a range of neurobehavioural and emotional reactions rather than distinct disorders. This study adopted a transdiagnostic approach with the aim of identifying psychological processes common to depression, anxiety and global distress after TBI. Fifty participants with TBI (aged 19-66 years, 12-65 months post-injury) completed measures of threat appraisals and avoidance behaviour (Appraisal of Threat and Avoidance Questionnaire), self-discrepancy (Head Injury Semantic Differential Scale III), emotion dysregulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale), worry (Penn State Worry Questionnaire), negative self-focused attention (Self-Focus Sentence Completion) and emotional distress (Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and Brief Symptom Inventory). Significant correlations were found among the proposed transdiagnostic variables (rs = .29-.82, p < .05). A principal components analysis revealed two underlying factors: (1) Threats to Self, and (2) Emotion Dysregulation. Only the Emotion Dysregulation factor accounted for significant unique variance in levels of depression, anxiety and global distress (sr(2) = .12-.17). Such findings indicate the need for interventions to target difficulties in identifying and regulating emotions after TBI to facilitate emotional adjustment. PMID:25918948

  5. Do Attachment Style and Emotion Regulation Strategies Indicate Distress in Predictive Testing?

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Lucienne B; van Duijn, Erik; Giltay, Erik J; Tibben, Aad

    2015-10-01

    Predictive genetic testing for a neurogenetic disorder evokes strong emotions, and may lead to distress. The aim of this study is to investigate whether attachment style and emotion regulation strategies are associated with distress in persons who present for predictive testing for a neurogenetic disorder, and whether these psychological traits predict distress after receiving test results. Self-report scales were used to assess attachment insecurity (anxiety and avoidance) and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies (self-blame, rumination, catastrophizing) in adults at 50 % risk for Huntington's Disease (HD), Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), and Hereditary Cerebral Hemorrhage With Amyloidosis - Dutch type (HCHWA-D), when they presented for predictive testing. Distress was measured before testing and twice (within 2 months and between 6 and 8 months) after receiving test results. Pearson correlations and linear regression were used to analyze whether attachment style and emotion regulation strategies indicated distress. In 98 persons at risk for HD, CADASIL, or HCHWA-D, attachment anxiety and catastrophizing were associated with distress before predictive testing. Attachment anxiety predicted distress up to 2 months after testing. Clinicians may consider looking for signs of attachment anxiety and catastrophizing in persons who present for predictive testing, to see who may be vulnerable for distress during and after testing. PMID:25641254

  6. Emotional Reactivity and Psychological Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Rosen, Karen H.; Stith, Sandra M.

    2002-01-01

    This article reports on an empirical test of Bowen's hypothesized relationships between differentiation of self and psychological symptoms, and examines further evidence for the construct validity of a newly developed instrument, the Behavioral and Emotional Reactivity Index (BERI). Finds an indirect relationship between emotional reactivity…

  7. Bowel distress and emotional conflict.

    PubMed Central

    Brook, A

    1991-01-01

    A psychodynamic assessment of 60 women with functional bowel disorder seen at St Mark's, a specialist hospital for disorders of the colon and rectum, has shown that most were trapped in severe emotional conflicts with which they were unable to cope. In many the bodily illnesses appeared to be an expression of these conflicts as well as a defence against experiencing them. The illnesses were then partly, or entirely, emotional conflicts that had become medicalized--emotional conflicts in illnesses clothing. The illnesses, usually precipitated by significant life events, often had their roots in emotional conflicts in infancy or childhood at which time a high proportion of the women had experienced a severe life trauma. The study also indicated that the conflicts that appeared to contribute to the illnesses were associated with emotional difficulties in fulfilling themselves as women. PMID:1994012

  8. The impact of emotional distress on motor blocks and festination in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Starkstein, Sergio; Dragovic, Milan; Brockman, Simone; Wilson, Mark; Bruno, Veronica; Merello, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that depression and anxiety in patients with Parkinson's disease may predispose them to freezing. Although festination is also frequent, the association with emotional disorders has not been examined. The aim of the authors was to clarify the association between freezing and festination with anxiety, depressive disorders, and emotional distress. The authors examined a consecutive series of 95 patients with Parkinson's disease using comprehensive psychiatric assessments and a new instrument specifically designed to assess the severity of freezing, festination, and emotional distress (Motor Blocks and Festination Scale). All patients were assessed with the Motor Blocks and Festination Scale, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and scales to measure the severity of mood and anxiety disorders. A linear regression analysis showed that both motor blocks and festination were significantly associated with emotional distress and deficits on activities of daily living. Conversely, there was no significant association between motor blocks or festination and generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, or depression. Motor blocks and festination are significantly associated with emotional distress, but no significant associations were found with anxiety or affective disorders. PMID:25923851

  9. Emotional Distress and Compassionate Responses in Palliative Care Decision-Making Consultations

    PubMed Central

    Ladwig, Susan; Norton, Sally A.; Gramling, David; Davis, J. Kelly; Metzger, Maureen; DeLuca, Jane; Gramling, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Seriously ill hospitalized patients and their loved ones are frequently faced with complex treatment decisions laden with expressions of emotional distress during palliative care (PC) consultations. Little is known about these emotional expressions or the compassionate responses providers make and how common these are in PC decision-making conversations. Objectives: To describe the types and frequency of emotional distress that patients and loved ones express and how providers respond to these emotions during PC decision-making consultations with seriously ill hospitalized patients. Methods: We used a quantitative descriptive approach to analyze 71 audio-recorded inpatient PC decision-making consultations for emotional distress and clinicians' responses to those emotions using reliable and established methods. Results: A total of 69% of conversations contained at least one expression of emotional distress. The per-conversation frequency of expressions of emotional distress ranged from 1 to 10. Anxiety/fear were the most frequently encountered emotions (48.4%) followed by sadness (35.5%) and anger/frustration (16.1%). More than half of the emotions related to the patient's feelings (53.6%) and 41.9% were related to the loved ones' own emotions. The majority of emotions were moderate in intensity (65.8%) followed by strong (20.7%) and mild (13.5%). Clinicians responded to a majority of emotions with a compassionate response (75.7%) followed by those with medical content (21.9%) and very few were ignored (1.3%). Conclusions: Expressions of emotional distress are common during PC consultations and are usually met with compassionate responses by the clinician. PMID:24588656

  10. Emotional distress in junior house officers.

    PubMed Central

    Firth-Cozens, J

    1987-01-01

    In a study of 170 junior house officers who were followed up from their fourth year in medical school mean levels of stress were higher than in other reported occupational groups, and the estimated prevalence of emotional disturbance was 50%, with 28% of the subjects showing evidence of depression. Nearly a fifth of the subjects reported occasional or frequent bouts of heavy drinking, a quarter took drugs for physical illness, and a few took drugs for recreation. Those who were emotionally distressed at the initial study and the follow up were more empathetic and more self critical than those who had low levels of stress on both occasions. Overwork was the most stressful aspect of their jobs, though the number of hours worked was not related to stress levels, unlike diet and sleep. The more stressed they were the more unfavourably they viewed aspects of their jobs. The incidence of distress is unacceptably high in junior house officers, and both they and the hospitals need to deal with the causes of the distress. PMID:3117213

  11. Emotional distress in junior house officers.

    PubMed

    Firth-Cozens, J

    1987-08-29

    In a study of 170 junior house officers who were followed up from their fourth year in medical school mean levels of stress were higher than in other reported occupational groups, and the estimated prevalence of emotional disturbance was 50%, with 28% of the subjects showing evidence of depression. Nearly a fifth of the subjects reported occasional or frequent bouts of heavy drinking, a quarter took drugs for physical illness, and a few took drugs for recreation. Those who were emotionally distressed at the initial study and the follow up were more empathetic and more self critical than those who had low levels of stress on both occasions. Overwork was the most stressful aspect of their jobs, though the number of hours worked was not related to stress levels, unlike diet and sleep. The more stressed they were the more unfavourably they viewed aspects of their jobs. The incidence of distress is unacceptably high in junior house officers, and both they and the hospitals need to deal with the causes of the distress. PMID:3117213

  12. Emotion Regulation in Children with Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suveg, Cynthia; Zeman, Janice

    2004-01-01

    This study examined emotion management skills in addition to the role of emotional intensity and self-efficacy in emotion regulation in 26 children with anxiety disorders (ADs) ages 8 to 12 years and their counterparts without any form of psychopathology. Children completed the Children's Emotion Management Scales (CEMS) and Emotion Regulation…

  13. Unfamiliar Instructional Practice and Its Relationship to Student Emotional Distress in the ESL Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassano, Sharron Kay

    It is generally recognized that students' feelings about learning affect their ability to learn. One of the three strongest influencing factors on second-language learning is classroom anxiety. This paper focuses on student emotional distress in the English as a second language (ESL) classroom, and suggests that one of the primary causes of this…

  14. Assessing Irrational Beliefs and Emotional Distress: Evidence and Implications of Limited Discriminant Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurawski, Raymond M.; Smith, Timothy W.

    1987-01-01

    Examined the disciminant validity of measures of irrational beliefs. The Irrational Beliefs Test and the Rational Behavior Inventory were highly correlated but were equally highly correlated with self-report measures of depression and anxiety. Thus, rather than assessing beliefs correlated with emotional distress, the measures may actually assess…

  15. Emotional distress in disaster victims. A follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Lima, B R; Pai, S; Toledo, V; Caris, L; Haro, J M; Lozano, J; Santacruz, H

    1993-06-01

    One hundred thirteen adult victims of a major Latin American disaster were screened for emotional distress 1 and 5 years after the catastrophe. We used the Self-Reporting Questionnaire to identify emotionally distressed victims. Results indicate that the prevalence of emotional distress decreased from 65% in 1986 to 31% in 1990. However, a comparison of the symptomatology on these two assessments indicates a similarity in the frequency and profiles of symptoms among the distressed. Also, the most frequent symptoms and the strongest predictors of emotional distress were essentially the same. These findings provide empirical support to the clinically observed course of emotional symptomatology of disaster victims and to the focused training of health workers on selected emotional problems that are consistently present over time. PMID:8501461

  16. Emotional distress in doctors: sources, effects and help sought.

    PubMed Central

    King, M B; Cockcroft, A; Gooch, C

    1992-01-01

    All doctors in a London Teaching Hospital were sent a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire, to study past episodes of emotional distress. We inquired about frequency of past and current emotional distress, sources of distress, effects on work and home life, type of help sought and perceived outcome of that help. Of 320 doctors, 210 (66%) responded. One hundred and forty-one (68%) reported previous episodes of moderate or severe emotional distress. Logistic regression revealed that distress was significantly more common in younger doctors and in women. Many respondents reported work problems as causing their distress and work was frequently adversely affected by episodes of distress. Professional help was rarely sought; non-professional help was from family and friends. Current emotional distress was related to a history of past distress, especially among the most junior doctors. We conclude that past emotional distress is reported by most doctors, with work pressures an important contributing factor. Doctors do not appear to use available sources of professional help. Our findings confirm that doctors have difficulty disclosing psychological problems. Specific programmes aimed at prevention and management of distress in doctors need to be initiated and evaluated. PMID:1433036

  17. Item Banks for Measuring Emotional Distress from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS[R]): Depression, Anxiety, and Anger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkonis, Paul A.; Choi, Seung W.; Reise, Steven P.; Stover, Angela M.; Riley, William T.; Cella, David

    2011-01-01

    The authors report on the development and calibration of item banks for depression, anxiety, and anger as part of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS[R]). Comprehensive literature searches yielded an initial bank of 1,404 items from 305 instruments. After qualitative item analysis (including focus groups and…

  18. Relationships between Adolescents' Preferred Sources of Help and Emotional Distress, Ambivalence over Emotional Expression, and Causal Attribution of Symptoms: A Singapore Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Boon-Ooi

    2009-01-01

    Past research has shown that many adolescents with depression and anxiety disorders do not consult mental health professionals. This study examines how emotional distress, ambivalence over emotional expression, and causal attribution of depressive and anxious symptoms are related to adolescents' preferred sources of help for these symptoms. 300…

  19. The Impact of Emotionally Focused Therapy on Emotional Distress in Infertile Couples

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Marzieh; Shairi, Mohammad Reza; Roshan, Rasoul; Rahimi, Changiz Rahimi

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study investigated the effect of emotionally focused therapy (EFT) on factors contributing to emotional distress among infertile couples. Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental study, the subjects consisted of 12 Iranian couples: six infertile men and six infertile women. They were assessed as depressed, anxious and stressful individuals using depression, anxiety and stress scale (DASS). The subjects were randomly divided into control and experimental groups. The experimental group with six couples (i.e. three infertile men and three infertile women) received EFT, while the control group with similar number of couples (i.e. three infertile men and three infertile women) was deprived of the treatment. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding job, educational level, income, age, marriage and infertility duration. The pre- and post-test comparisons of DASS subscales showed that level of depression, anxiety and stress among couples with EFT instruction was significantly less than those without such in- structions (p<0.0001). Conclusion Emotionally focused therapy could reduce the rate of depression, anxiety and stress in infertile couples, regardless of the man or woman as the cause of infertility. PMID:24520504

  20. Successful Application of Adaptive Emotion Regulation Skills Predicts the Subsequent Reduction of Depressive Symptom Severity but neither the Reduction of Anxiety nor the Reduction of General Distress during the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wirtz, Carolin M.; Radkovsky, Anna; Ebert, David D.; Berking, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Objective Deficits in general emotion regulation (ER) skills have been linked to symptoms of depression and are thus considered a promising target in the treatment of Major depressive disorder (MDD). However, at this point, the extent to which such skills are relevant for coping with depression and whether they should instead be considered a transdiagnostic factor remain unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether successful ER skills application is associated with changes in depressive symptom severity (DSS), anxiety symptom severity (ASS), and general distress severity (GDS) over the course of treatment for MDD. Methods Successful ER skills application, DSS, ASS, and GDS were assessed four times during the first three weeks of treatment in 175 inpatients who met the criteria for MDD. We computed Pearson correlations to test whether successful ER skills application and the three indicators of psychopathology are cross-sectionally associated. We then performed latent growth curve modelling to test whether changes in successful ER skills application are negatively associated with a reduction of DSS, ASS, or GDS. Finally, we utilized latent change score models to examine whether successful ER skills application predicts subsequent reduction of DSS, ASS, or GDS. Results Successful ER skills application was cross-sectionally associated with lower levels of DSS, ASS, and GDS at all points of assessment. An increase in successful skills application during treatment was associated with a decrease in DSS and GDS but not ASS. Finally, successful ER skills application predicted changes in subsequent DSS but neither changes in ASS nor changes in GDS. Conclusions Although general ER skills might be relevant for a broad range of psychopathological symptoms, they might be particularly important for the maintenance and treatment of depressive symptoms. PMID:25330159

  1. Partner relationship satisfaction and maternal emotional distress in early pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recognition of maternal emotional distress during pregnancy and the identification of risk factors for this distress are of considerable clinical- and public health importance. The mental health of the mother is important both for herself, and for the physical and psychological health of her children and the welfare of the family. The first aim of the present study was to identify risk factors for maternal emotional distress during pregnancy with special focus on partner relationship satisfaction. The second aim was to assess interaction effects between relationship satisfaction and the main predictors. Methods Pregnant women enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (n = 51,558) completed a questionnaire with questions about maternal emotional distress, relationship satisfaction, and other risk factors. Associations between 37 predictor variables and emotional distress were estimated by multiple linear regression analysis. Results Relationship dissatisfaction was the strongest predictor of maternal emotional distress (β = 0.25). Other predictors were dissatisfaction at work (β = 0.11), somatic disease (β = 0.11), work related stress (β = 0.10) and maternal alcohol problems in the preceding year (β = 0.09). Relationship satisfaction appeared to buffer the effects of frequent moving, somatic disease, maternal smoking, family income, irregular working hours, dissatisfaction at work, work stress, and mother's sick leave (P < 0.05). Conclusions Dissatisfaction with the partner relationship is a significant predictor of maternal emotional distress in pregnancy. A good partner relationship can have a protective effect against some stressors. PMID:21401914

  2. Use of preferred music to reduce emotional distress and symptom activity during radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Clark, Michael; Isaacks-Downton, Gloria; Wells, Nancy; Redlin-Frazier, Sheryl; Eck, Carol; Hepworth, Joseph T; Chakravarthy, Bapsi

    2006-01-01

    Music therapy has decreased anxiety levels in many medical settings. This randomized clinical trial examined the effectiveness of a music listening intervention, delivered by a board-certified music therapist, in patients undergoing curative radiation therapy (RT). Emotional distress (anxiety, depression, and treatment-related distress) and symptoms (fatigue and pain) were measured at baseline, mid-treatment, and end of treatment in 63 patients undergoing RT. Although patients who listened to self-selected music reported lower anxiety and treatment-related distress, there was a decline in these outcomes for patients in both groups over the course of RT. Depression, fatigue, and pain were not appreciably affected by music therapy. Within the music group, there was a significant correlation between number of times music was used/week and the change in treatment-related distress, suggesting that higher doses of music produced greater declines in distress. While these findings provided some support for the use of music in reducing distress during RT, further research demonstrating clear differences between intervention and control conditions is needed. Physical symptoms were not affected by the use of music over the course of RT. PMID:17037953

  3. Emotional distress affects attention and concentration: the difference between mountains and valleys.

    PubMed

    Meyers, John E; Grills, Chad E; Zellinger, Margaret M; Miller, Ronald Mellado

    2014-01-01

    The current study tests the hypothesis that the "mountains and valleys pattern" (MVP) observed within the Attention and Concentration domain of the Meyers Neuropsychological Battery reflects the interference of emotional distress/anxiety on the patient's cognitive test performance. First, the MVP was objectively quantified using a formula that took into account both increased and decreased scores, rather than canceling them out through averaging. Using a total sample of 787 subjects, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Second Edition Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) profile scores of cases with and without this pattern were then compared using an extensive database followed by a smaller, matched-groups design. The presence of the MVP was related to MMPI-2-RF test performance. In particular, this pattern was related to emotional distress/anxiety scales but was not related to scales reflecting neurological or cognitive complaints. The degree of emotional distress experienced may affect attention and concentration test performance in a way that sometimes heightens focus and at other times disrupts focus. The MVP may be used to assess the effects of emotional distress on the consistency of an individual patient's attention and concentration test performance. PMID:24826493

  4. Irrational Beliefs and the Arousal of Emotional Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Timothy W.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Evaluated the extent to which endorsement of irrational beliefs as measured by Jones' Irrational Beliefs Test was associated with emotional distress. Results showed beliefs relevant to stress were more associated with negative cognitions, while fear of negative evaluation was more associated with distress than were irrational beliefs. (JAC)

  5. The Effect of Reappraising Social Exclusion on Emotional Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchens, Michael B.; Gohm, Carol L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine whether reappraisal, which is a strategy where the personal meaning of an event is reevaluated, would influence participants' emotional reactions to social exclusion feedback. It was expected that reappraising this event would reduce the emotional distress that accompanies social exclusion, but…

  6. EMOTIONAL REACTIONS TO PAIN PREDICT PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS IN ADULT PATIENTS WITH SICKLE CELL DISEASE (SCD)

    PubMed Central

    EDWARDS, CHRISTOPHER L.; KILLOUGH, ALVIN; WOOD, MARY; DOYLE, TODD; FELIU, MIRIAM; BARKER, CAMELA S.; UPPAL, PRIYANKA; DeCASTRO, LAURA; WELLINGTON, CHANTÉ; WHITFIELD, KEITH E.; TRAMBADIA, JAY; GUINYARD, DARIENE; MUHAMMAD, MALIK; O’GARO, KEISHA-GAYE N.; MORGAN, KAI; EDWARDS ALESII, LEKISHA Y.; BYRD, GOLDIE S.; McCABE, MELANIE; GOLI, VEERAINDAR; KEYS, ABIGAIL; HILL, LABARRON; COLLINS-McNEIL, JANICE; McDONALD, PATRICIA; SCHMECHEL, DONALD E.; ROBINSON, ELWOOD

    2015-01-01

    Differentiating somatic from emotional influences on the experience of chronic pain has been of interest to clinicians and researchers for many years. Although prior research has not well specified these pathways at the anatomical level, some evidence, both theoretical and empirical, suggest that emotional reactions influence the experience of disease and non-disease-related pains. Other studies suggest that treatments directed at negative emotional responses reduce suffering associated with pain. The current study was conducted to explore the influence of emotional reactions to pain as a predictor of psychological distress in a sample of adult Blacks with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD). Using cross-sectional survey data, we evaluated whether negative emotional reactions to the experience of pain were predictive of psychological distress after controlling for the somatic dimension of pain and age in n = 67 Black patients with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD). Results showed that greater negative emotion associated with pain predicted Somatization (p < .01), Anxiety (p < .05), Phobic Anxiety (p < .05), and Psychoticism (p < .05). Increased negative emotion associated with pain was also predictive of the General Symptoms Index (p < .05) and the Positive Symptoms Total from the SCL-90-R (p < .01). We believe the current study demonstrates that negative emotional reactions to the experience of pain in adults with SCD are predictive of psychological distress above and beyond the influences of age and the direct nociceptive experience. We also believe these data to be valuable in conceptualizing the allocation of treatment resources toward a proactive approach with early identification of patients who are responding poorly for the purpose of potentially reducing later psychopathology. A deeper understanding of the ways that subpopulations cope with chronic disease-related pain may produce models that can be ultimately generalized to the consumers of the majority of healthcare

  7. Using the Nominal Response Model to Evaluate Response Category Discrimination in the PROMIS Emotional Distress Item Pools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Kathleen; Reise, Steven; Cai, Li; Hays, Ron D.

    2011-01-01

    The authors used a nominal response item response theory model to estimate category boundary discrimination (CBD) parameters for items drawn from the Emotional Distress item pools (Depression, Anxiety, and Anger) developed in the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information Systems (PROMIS) project. For polytomous items with ordered response…

  8. Sex differences in anxiety and emotional behavior

    PubMed Central

    Donner, Nina C.; Lowry, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Research has elucidated causal links between stress exposure and the development of anxiety disorders, but due to the limited use of female or sex-comparative animal models, little is known about the mechanisms underlying sex differences in those disorders. This is despite an overwhelming wealth of evidence from the clinical literature that the prevalence of anxiety disorders is about twice as high in women compared to men, in addition to gender differences in severity and treatment efficacy. We here review human gender differences in generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety-relevant biological functions, discuss the limitations of classic conflict anxiety tests to measure naturally occurring sex differences in anxiety-like behaviors, describe sex-dependent manifestation of anxiety states after gestational, neonatal, or adolescent stressors, and present animal models of chronic anxiety states induced by acute or chronic stressors during adulthood. Potential mechanisms underlying sex differences in stress-related anxiety states include emerging evidence supporting the existence of two anatomically and functionally distinct serotonergic circuits that are related to the modulation of conflict anxiety and panic-like anxiety, respectively. We discuss how these serotonergic circuits may be controlled by reproductive steroid hormone-dependent modulation of crfr1 and crfr2 expression in the midbrain dorsal raphe nucleus and by estrous stage-dependent alterations of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) neurotransmission in the periaqueductal gray, ultimately leading to sex differences in emotional behavior. PMID:23588380

  9. Social anxiety and emotion regulation in daily life: spillover effects on positive and negative social events.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Antonina Savostyanova; Kashdan, Todd B

    2012-01-01

    To minimize the possibility of scrutiny, people with social anxiety difficulties exert great effort to manage their emotions, particularly during social interactions. We examined how the use of two emotion regulation strategies, emotion suppression and cognitive reappraisal, predict the generation of emotions and social events in daily life. Over 14 consecutive days, 89 participants completed daily diary entries on emotions, positive and negative social events, and their regulation of emotions. Using multilevel modeling, we found that when people high in social anxiety relied more on positive emotion suppression, they reported fewer positive social events and less positive emotion on the subsequent day. In contrast, people low in social anxiety reported fewer negative social events on days subsequent to using cognitive reappraisal to reduce distress; the use of cognitive reappraisal did not influence the daily lives of people high in social anxiety. Our findings support theories of emotion regulation difficulties associated with social anxiety. In particular, for people high in social anxiety, maladaptive strategy use contributed to diminished reward responsiveness. PMID:22428662

  10. Parents of Children with ASD Experience More Psychological Distress, Parenting Stress, and Attachment-Related Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Belinda M; Newman, Louise K; Gray, Kylie M; Rinehart, Nicole J

    2016-09-01

    There has been limited study of the relationship between child attachment and caregiver wellbeing amongst children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined self-reported child attachment quality alongside caregivers' report of their own psychological distress, parenting stress and attachment style, amongst 24 children with high-functioning autism or Asperger's disorder (ASD; aged 7-14 years) and 24 typically developing children (aged 7-12 years), and their primary caregiver. Children with ASD were no less secure, but their caregivers were more stressed and reported more attachment-related anxiety, compared to typically developing dyads. Child attachment security was related to caregiver psychological distress and attachment style, but only amongst typically developing children. Impacts of emotion processing impairments on caregiver-child relationships in ASD are discussed. PMID:27312716

  11. Emotion Regulation and Emotional Distress in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Foundations and Considerations for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazefsky, Carla A.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often associated with emotional distress and psychiatric comorbidities. Atypical emotion regulation (ER) may underlie these accompanying features. This special issue of the "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders" presents a series of mechanistic and applied papers on ER and emotional experiences…

  12. Slow dissolving of emotional distress contributes to hyperarousal

    PubMed Central

    Wassing, Rick; Benjamins, Jeroen S.; Dekker, Kim; Moens, Sarah; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Riemann, Dieter; van der Sluis, Sophie; Van Der Werf, Ysbrand D.; Talamini, Lucia M.; Walker, Matthew P.; Schalkwijk, Frans; Van Someren, Eus J. W.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying hyperarousal, the key symptom of insomnia, have remained elusive, hampering cause-targeted treatment. Recently, restless rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep emerged as a robust signature of sleep in insomnia. Given the role of REM sleep in emotion regulation, we hypothesized that restless REM sleep could interfere with the overnight resolution of emotional distress, thus contributing to accumulation of arousal. Participants (n = 1,199) completed questionnaires on insomnia severity, hyperarousal, self-conscious emotional distress, and thought-like nocturnal mentation that was validated to be a specific proxy for restless REM sleep (selective fragmentation: R = 0.57, P < 0.001; eye movement density: R = 0.46, P < 0.01) in 32 polysomnographically assessed participants. The experience of distress lasting overnight increased with insomnia severity (β = 0.29, P < 10−23), whereas short-lasting distress did not (β = −0.02, P = 0.41). Insomnia severity was associated with hyperarousal (β = 0.47, P < 10−63) and with the thought-like nocturnal mentation that is specifically associated with restless REM sleep (β = 0.31, P < 10−26). Structural equation modeling showed that 62.4% of the association between these key characteristics of insomnia was mediated specifically by reduced overnight resolution of emotional distress. The model outperformed all alternative mediation pathways. The findings suggest that restless REM sleep reflects a process that interferes with the overnight resolution of distress. Its accumulation may promote the development of chronic hyperarousal, giving clinical relevance to the role of REM sleep in emotion regulation in insomnia, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder. PMID:26858434

  13. Conditioned Emotional Distress in Women Receiving Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Paul B.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated whether women undergoing outpatient chemotherapy for breast cancer can develop classically conditioned emotional distress. Patients' responses to a distinctive stimulus were assessed in a location not associated with chemotherapy administration. Results supported hypothesis that pairing a distinctive stimulus with chemotherapy would…

  14. Intolerance of uncertainty and emotional distress following the death of a loved one.

    PubMed

    Boelen, Paul

    2010-07-01

    Research has shown that intolerance of uncertainty (IU) - the tendency to react negatively to situations that are uncertain - is involved in worry and generalized anxiety disorder, as well as in other anxiety symptoms and disorders. To our knowledge, no studies have yet examined the association between IU and emotional distress connected with the death of a loved one. Yet, it seems plausible that those who have more difficulties to tolerate the uncertainties that often times occur following such a loss experience more intense distress. The current study examined this assumption, using self-reported data from 134 bereaved individuals. Findings showed that IU was positively and significantly correlated with symptom levels of complicated grief and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), even when controlling for time since loss (the single demographic/loss-related variable associated with symptom levels), and for neuroticism and worry, which are both correlates of IU. Furthermore, IU was specifically related with worry and symptom levels of PTSD, but not complicated grief, when controlling the shared variance between worry, complicated grief severity, and PTSD-severity. The present findings complement prior research that has shown that IU is a cognitive vulnerability factor for worry, and indicate that it may also be involved in emotional distress following loss. PMID:20455126

  15. Anxiety, Depression, and Cigarette Smoking: A Transdiagnostic Vulnerability Framework to Understanding Emotion-Smoking Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Leventhal, Adam M.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Research into the comorbidity between emotional psychopathology and cigarette smoking has often focused upon anxiety and depression’s manifest symptoms and syndromes, with limited theoretical and clinical advancement. This paper presents a novel framework to understanding emotion-smoking comorbidity. We propose that transdiagnostic emotional vulnerabilities—core biobehavioral traits reflecting maladaptive responses to emotional states that underpin multiple types of emotional psychopathology—link various anxiety and depressive psychopathologies to smoking. This framework is applied in a review and synthesis of the empirical literature on three trandiagnostic emotional vulnerabilities implicated in smoking: (1) anhedonia (Anh; diminished pleasure/interest in response to rewards); (2) anxiety sensitivity (AS; fear of anxiety-related sensations); and (3) distress tolerance (DT; ability to withstand distressing states). We conclude that Anh, AS, and DT collectively: (a) underpin multiple emotional psychopathologies; (b) amplify smoking’s anticipated and actual affect enhancing properties and other mechanisms underlying smoking; (c) promote progression across the smoking trajectory (i.e., initiation, escalation/progression, maintenance, cessation/relapse); and (d) are promising targets for smoking intervention. After existing gaps are identified, an integrative model of transdiagnostic processes linking emotional psychopathology to smoking is proposed. The model’s key premise is that Anh amplifies smoking’s anticipated and actual pleasure-enhancing effects, AS amplifies smoking’s anxiolytic effects, and poor DT amplifies smoking’s distress terminating effects. Collectively, these processes augment the reinforcing properties of smoking for individuals with emotional psychopathology to heighten risk of smoking initiation, progression, maintenance, cessation avoidance, and relapse. We conclude by drawing clinical and scientific implications from this

  16. Adjustment to Cancer: Anxiety and Distress (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the difficult emotional responses many cancer patients experience. This summary focuses on normal adjustment issues, psychosocial distress, and adjustment disorders.

  17. Adjustment to Cancer: Anxiety and Distress (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the difficult emotional responses many cancer patients experience. This summary focuses on normal adjustment issues, psychosocial distress, and adjustment disorders.

  18. Quality of life and emotional distress among HIV-positive women during transition to motherhood.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marco; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to describe the quality of life (QOL) and emotional distress during pregnancy and early postpartum, and to examine the ability of psychopathological symptoms to predict QOL at early postpartum. A sample of 75 pregnant women (31 HIV-positive and 44 HIV-negative) was assessed during the second trimester of pregnancy and two to four days postpartum. QOL was assessed with the WHOQOL-Bref. The emotional distress was assessed with the Brief Symptom Inventory, and with the Emotional Assessment Scale. Seropositive women reported increased negative emotional reactivity and lower scores in social relationships and overall QOL during pregnancy than HIV-negative women. Both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women reported better QOL after the birth of their child, when compared with the pregnancy period. Among HIV-positive women, lower anxiety and depressive symptoms during pregnancy were, respectively, significant predictors of better psychological QOL and overall QOL at early postpartum. Less intense somatic symptoms predicted better physical QOL. Longitudinal assessment of QOL and emotional status may provide potentially useful information for tailoring psychological interventions in the maternity care of HIV-infected women, during their transition to motherhood. PMID:23156934

  19. The Role of Distress Tolerance in the Use of Specific Emotion Regulation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, Emily R; McLeish, Alison C; Kraemer, Kristen M; Avallone, Kimberly M; Fleming, John B

    2016-05-01

    The present study evaluated the role of distress tolerance (DT), defined as the ability to tolerate negative emotional states, in the use of four specific emotion regulation strategies (suppression, avoidance, rumination, and reappraisal). Undergraduate psychology students (N = 431, 71.7% female; Mage = 19.80 years, SD= 3.71) completed self-report measures online for course credit. It was hypothesized that, after controlling for the effects of anxiety sensitivity and negative affectivity, DT would be negatively associated with suppression, avoidance, and rumination, and positively associated with reappraisal. Consistent with prediction, low DT significantly predicted greater use of suppression, avoidance, and rumination. However, contrary to prediction, DT did not significantly predict reappraisal. These results suggest that individuals who are unable to withstand negative emotions are more likely to use maladaptive regulation strategies. PMID:26659192

  20. Assessment of psychological distress in prospective bone marrow transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Trask, P C; Paterson, A; Riba, M; Brines, B; Griffith, K; Parker, P; Weick, J; Steele, P; Kyro, K; Ferrara, J

    2002-06-01

    Patient psychological distress is associated with many aspects of the bone marrow transplantation (BMT) process and has been linked with poor treatment outcomes. We assessed psychological distress in potential BMT candidates, and compared patient and nurse coordinator ratings of emotional distress at the time of initial BMT consultation. Fifty patients self-reported psychological distress using both the NCCN Distress Thermometer (DT) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Coordinators rated patient emotional distress using the DT and Coordinator Rating Scales that measure anxiety and depression. Fifty and 51% of patients self-reported clinically significant levels of emotional distress and anxiety, respectively, but only 20% self-reported clinically significant levels of depression. There was good correlation between ratings using the brief DT and the more comprehensive HADS. There was significant but only moderate agreement between patient and coordinator ratings of emotional distress and anxiety, with coordinators underestimating the number of patients with high levels of emotional distress. In addition, coordinator ratings of patient emotional distress primarily reflected anxiety, whereas anxiety and depression together only minimally accounted for patient self-reports of psychological distress. These findings suggest that: (1) the DT can be a useful screening device; (2) approximately half of patients at the time of initial consultation for BMT already experience significant levels of psychological distress; and (3) coordinators observe emotional distress primarily as anxiety, but patients experience psychological distress as something more than anxiety and depression. PMID:12080358

  1. Emotion Regulation Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Fresco, David M.; Mennin, Douglas S.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Ritter, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Despite the success of cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) for emotional disorders, a sizable subgroup of patients with complex clinical presentations, such as patients with generalized anxiety disorder, fails to evidence adequate treatment response. Emotion Regulation Therapy (ERT) integrates facets of traditional and contemporary CBTs, mindfulness, and emotion-focused interventions within a framework that reflects basic and translational findings in affect science. Specifically, ERT is a mechanism-targeted intervention focusing on patterns of motivational dysfunction while cultivating emotion regulation skills. Open and randomized controlled psychotherapy trials have demonstrated considerable preliminary evidence for the utility of this approach as well as for the underlying proposed mechanisms. This article provides an illustration of ERT through the case of “William.” In particular, this article includes a case-conceptualization of William from an ERT perspective while describing the flow and progression of the ERT treatment approach. PMID:27499606

  2. Emotion Regulation and Emotional Distress in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Foundations and Considerations for Future Research.

    PubMed

    Mazefsky, Carla A

    2015-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often associated with emotional distress and psychiatric comorbidities. Atypical emotion regulation (ER) may underlie these accompanying features. This special issue of the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders presents a series of mechanistic and applied papers on ER and emotional experiences in ASD. Important concepts for future research are discussed, including how to conceptualize emotion dysregulation in ASD, the importance of capturing variability in emotion dysregulation in ASD studies, and the promise of intervention approaches that target ER impairments. This special issue highlights the growing emphasis on ER and emotional distress in ASD, and aims to encourage continued research in this area given the potential for this line of inquiry to lead to improved outcomes. PMID:26391886

  3. Emotional distress and disordered eating practices among southern Italian women.

    PubMed

    Cheney, Ann M

    2012-09-01

    This study is one of the first to examine the narrative links connecting social change, contested gender norms, body image, and eating disordered practices among southern Italian women. The research is based on 16 months of fieldwork, and I compare and contrast the stories of 23 educated women in southern Italy to highlight the contentious realities of entering adolescence in conservative social contexts where gender relations and value systems are undergoing rapid transformations. I examine how these young women dealt with conflicting cultural expectations of womanhood and whether it affected their emotional, psychological, and physical well-being. Their stories shed light on how parental control, community surveillance, and conflicts in developing gender identities and maturing womanly bodies contributed to their emotional distress. Distressed young women used rebellion and manipulation and control of food and the body to negotiate unjust social relations, specifically gender relations, that delegitimized their selves and, in some cases, their bodies. PMID:22767701

  4. Emotional Intelligence Moderates Perfectionism and Test Anxiety among Iranian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor

    2015-01-01

    Test anxiety is one of the common forms of anxiety for students. Thus, it is necessary to improve our knowledge regarding the etiology of test anxiety. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between perfectionism, emotional intelligence, and test anxiety among Iranian students. This study also was conducted to test emotional…

  5. Physical Distress, Emotional Status, and Quality of Life in Patients With Nasopharyngeal Cancer Complicated by Post-Radiotherapy Endocrinopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Lue, B.-H.; Huang, T.-S.; Chen, H.-J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To explore factors affecting quality of life (QOL) among patients with nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) complicated by post-radiotherapy endocrinopathy. Methods and Materials: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary medical center and involved a total of 43 post-radiotherapy, recurrence-free NPC patients with endocrinopathy. They performed self-assessment of their emotional status using the Beck Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory-II, and their QoL with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) questionnaire and the H and N35 cancer module. Results: Emotional and cognitive functioning of EORTC QLQ-C30 were the most affected. Fatigue, insomnia, and pain were the main concerns. Of the patients, 22 (51.2%) had anxiety and 19 (44.2%) had depression. Both depression and anxiety were negatively correlated with functional scales and global QoL but positively correlated with symptom scales. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that physical distress symptoms of QLQ-C30 and physical functioning were the significant predictors of global QoL. Emotional and social functioning could predict depression, whereas emotional and physical functioning were significant predictors of anxiety. Conclusions: NPC patients with post-radiotherapy endocrinopathy exhibit impaired cognitive function and negative emotions. Symptoms of physical distress play an important role in QoL perception. Measurement of EORTC QLQ-C30 can be a useful instrument for the early detection of patients' impaired cognitive function and psychological morbidity. The high psychological distress related to the endocrine disturbances or the impact of NPC itself needs further study.

  6. Anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance in relation to coping and conformity motives for alcohol use and alcohol use problems among young adult drinkers.

    PubMed

    Howell, Ashley N; Leyro, Teresa M; Hogan, Julianna; Buckner, Julia D; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2010-12-01

    Anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance have been identified as important factors related to alcohol use motives and alcohol-related problems. Yet, these variables are highly correlated and little work has delineated whether these psychological vulnerability factors are differentially related to alcohol use motives and problems. To fill this gap in the existing literature, the present study evaluated whether anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance were differentially related to high-risk alcohol use motives (i.e., coping and conformity motives) and alcohol use problems among 224 young adult, current drinkers (52.3% women; M(age)=21.18, SD=7.08). Results indicated that distress tolerance, but not anxiety sensitivity or discomfort intolerance, was significantly related to coping motives for alcohol use. Additionally, anxiety sensitivity, but not distress tolerance or discomfort intolerance, was significantly related to conformity motives for drinking. For both sets of analyses, the observed significant effects were evident above and beyond the variance accounted for by alcohol consumption level, smoking rate, negative affectivity, and non-criterion alcohol use motives. Additionally, discomfort intolerance and anxiety sensitivity each predicted alcohol use problems; effects were not attributable to negative affectivity, cigarettes smoked per day, or shared variance with distress tolerance. Findings are discussed in relation to the role of emotional sensitivity and intolerance in terms of the motivational bases for alcohol use and alcohol use problems among young adult drinkers. PMID:20719435

  7. Does emotional reasoning change during cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety?

    PubMed

    Berle, David; Moulds, Michelle L; Starcevic, Vladan; Milicevic, Denise; Hannan, Anthony; Dale, Erin; Viswasam, Kirupamani; Brakoulias, Vlasios

    2016-01-01

    Emotional reasoning refers to the use of subjective emotions, rather than objective evidence, to form conclusions about oneself and the world. It is a key interpretative bias in cognitive models of anxiety disorders and appears to be especially evident in individuals with anxiety disorders. However, the amenability of emotional reasoning to change during treatment has not yet been investigated. We sought to determine whether emotional reasoning tendencies change during a course of routine cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT). Emotional reasoning tendencies were assessed in 36 individuals with a primary anxiety disorder who were seeking treatment at an outpatient clinic. Changes in anxiety and depressive symptoms as well as emotional reasoning tendencies after 12 sessions of CBT were examined in 25 individuals for whom there was complete data. Emotional reasoning tendencies were evident at pretreatment assessment. Although anxiety and depressive symptoms decreased during CBT, only one of six emotional reasoning interpretative styles (pertaining to conclusions that one is incompetent) changed significantly during the course of therapy. Attrition rates were high and there was not enough information regarding the extent to which therapy specifically focused on addressing emotional reasoning tendencies. Individuals seeking treatment for anxiety disorders appear to engage in emotional reasoning, however routine individual CBT does not appear to result in changes in emotional reasoning tendencies. PMID:26732906

  8. Individual Differences in Infants' Emotional Resonance to a Peer in Distress: Self-Other Awareness and Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geangu, Elena; Benga, Oana; Stahl, Daniel; Striano, Tricia

    2011-01-01

    In this study, relations between emotional resonance responses to another's distress, emotion regulation, and self-other discrimination were investigated in infants three-, six-, and nine-months-old. We measured the emotional reactions to the pain cry of a peer, along with the ability to regulate emotions and to discriminate between self and other…

  9. Moderating effects of empathic concern and personal distress on the emotional reactions of disaster volunteers.

    PubMed

    Cristea, Ioana A; Legge, Emanuele; Prosperi, Marta; Guazzelli, Mario; David, Daniel; Gentili, Claudio

    2014-10-01

    This study examines stress and mood outcomes in community volunteers who undertook one week's worth of post-disaster relief work in L'Aquila, Italy, which had been hit by an earthquake four months earlier. The study team obtained pre- and post-relief work data from 130 volunteers involved in activities such as preparing food for the displaced, cleaning the camps and distributing clean linen. The Perceived Stress Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Profile of Mood States were administered at the start and at the end of the aid activities. Psychopathological symptoms and empathy were assessed in the beginning, using the Symptom Checklist 90 Revised and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, respectively. The results show that, following the assistance work, volunteers displayed decreases in perceived stress, general distress, anxiety and anger, as well as increases in positive emotions. The empathy facets empathic concern and personal distress showed different patterns in modulating the post-disaster relief work adaptation for some of the mood outcomes. PMID:25196334

  10. College Women's Perceptions of Anxiety and Menstrual Distress across the Menstrual Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szollos, Alex; Thyrum, Elizabeth; Martin, Betty

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated fluctuations in anxiety and menstrual distress across the menstrual cycle. Female college students (N = 318) completed self-report measures of symptoms across the menstrual cycle and measures of general psychological adjustment. A subgroup (n = 56) of Anxious participants who reported high levels of anxiety was identified.…

  11. Effective Screening for Emotional Distress in Refugees: The Refugee Health Screener.

    PubMed

    Hollifield, Michael; Toolson, Eric C; Verbillis-Kolp, Sasha; Farmer, Beth; Yamazaki, Junko; Woldehaimanot, Tsegaba; Holland, Annette

    2016-04-01

    Screening for emotional distress is important, but not widely available. This study assesses the utility of the Refugee Health Screener 15 (RHS-15) in a public health setting. Refugee Health Screener 15 and diagnostic proxy (DP) instruments assessing anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder were administered to refugees from 3 countries at their public health examination. Properties of the RHS-15 and its components were evaluated utilizing appropriate methods. Scale Cronbach α was 0.95, and a factor analysis identified 1 factor accounting for 66% of scale variance. Refugee Health Screener 15 scores and cases discriminated between refugee groups similar to DPs. Refugee Health Screener 15 case sensitivity and specificity to DPs were acceptable (≥0.87/0.77). A shorter, 13-item component had acceptable metric properties. The RHS-15 appears to be a valid screener for emotional distress of refugees. The 13-item scale may be more efficient and as efficacious for case identification. The critical public health need and recommendations for implementation are discussed. PMID:26825376

  12. Prevalence, Course, and Predictors of Emotional Distress in Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milan, Stephanie; Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Kershaw, Trace; Lewis, Jessica; Meade, Christina; Ethier, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    This study examines trajectories and correlates of emotional distress symptoms in pregnant adolescents (n = 203) and nulliparous adolescents (n = 188) from economically disadvantaged communities over an 18-month period. For both groups, the prevalence of significant emotional distress exceeded expectation based on adolescent norms; however, the…

  13. Emotional Distress among LGBT Youth: The Influence of Perceived Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Joanna; Johnson, Renee M.; Corliss, Heather L.; Molnar, Beth E.; Azrael, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    The authors evaluated emotional distress among 9th-12th grade students, and examined whether the association between being lesbian, gay, bisexual, and/or transgendered (i.e., "LGBT") and emotional distress was mediated by perceptions of having been treated badly or discriminated against because others thought they were gay or lesbian. Data come…

  14. Associations between Intimate Partner Violence and Emotional Distress among Pregnant Women in Durban, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Allison K.; Kagee, Ashraf; Maman, Suzanne; Moodley, Dhayendre; Rouse, Petrica

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy has been associated with multiple negative health outcomes including emotional distress during pregnancy. However, little is known about IPV during pregnancy and its association with emotional distress among South African women. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of both…

  15. Trait anxiety modulates fronto-limbic processing of emotional interference in borderline personality disorder

    PubMed Central

    Holtmann, Jana; Herbort, Maike C.; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Soch, Joram; Richter, Sylvia; Walter, Henrik; Roepke, Stefan; Schott, Björn H.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of cognitive alterations in borderline personality disorder (BPD) have yielded conflicting results. Given that a core feature of BPD is affective instability, which is characterized by emotional hyperreactivity and deficits in emotion regulation, it seems conceivable that short-lasting emotional distress might exert temporary detrimental effects on cognitive performance. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how task-irrelevant emotional stimuli (fearful faces) affect performance and fronto-limbic neural activity patterns during attention-demanding cognitive processing in 16 female, unmedicated BPD patients relative to 24 age-matched healthy controls. In a modified flanker task, emotionally negative, socially salient pictures (fearful vs. neutral faces) were presented as distracters in the background. Patients, but not controls, showed an atypical response pattern of the right amygdala with increased activation during emotional interference in the (difficult) incongruent flanker condition, but emotion-related amygdala deactivation in the congruent condition. A direct comparison of the emotional conditions between the two groups revealed that the strongest diagnosis-related differences could be observed in the dorsal and, to a lesser extent, also in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (dACC, rACC) where patients exhibited an increased neural response to emotional relative to neutral distracters. Moreover, in the incongruent condition, both the dACC and rACC fMRI responses during emotional interference were negatively correlated with trait anxiety in the patients, but not in the healthy controls. As higher trait anxiety was also associated with longer reaction times (RTs) in the BPD patients, we suggest that in BPD patients the ACC might mediate compensatory cognitive processes during emotional interference and that such neurocognitive compensation that can be adversely affected by high levels of anxiety. PMID

  16. Trait anxiety modulates fronto-limbic processing of emotional interference in borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Holtmann, Jana; Herbort, Maike C; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Soch, Joram; Richter, Sylvia; Walter, Henrik; Roepke, Stefan; Schott, Björn H

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of cognitive alterations in borderline personality disorder (BPD) have yielded conflicting results. Given that a core feature of BPD is affective instability, which is characterized by emotional hyperreactivity and deficits in emotion regulation, it seems conceivable that short-lasting emotional distress might exert temporary detrimental effects on cognitive performance. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how task-irrelevant emotional stimuli (fearful faces) affect performance and fronto-limbic neural activity patterns during attention-demanding cognitive processing in 16 female, unmedicated BPD patients relative to 24 age-matched healthy controls. In a modified flanker task, emotionally negative, socially salient pictures (fearful vs. neutral faces) were presented as distracters in the background. Patients, but not controls, showed an atypical response pattern of the right amygdala with increased activation during emotional interference in the (difficult) incongruent flanker condition, but emotion-related amygdala deactivation in the congruent condition. A direct comparison of the emotional conditions between the two groups revealed that the strongest diagnosis-related differences could be observed in the dorsal and, to a lesser extent, also in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (dACC, rACC) where patients exhibited an increased neural response to emotional relative to neutral distracters. Moreover, in the incongruent condition, both the dACC and rACC fMRI responses during emotional interference were negatively correlated with trait anxiety in the patients, but not in the healthy controls. As higher trait anxiety was also associated with longer reaction times (RTs) in the BPD patients, we suggest that in BPD patients the ACC might mediate compensatory cognitive processes during emotional interference and that such neurocognitive compensation that can be adversely affected by high levels of anxiety. PMID

  17. Emotional Schemas and Resistance to Change in Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral treatment for all anxiety disorders involves exposure to feared situations and feared emotions. Dropout from therapy is a continued problem for final treatment effectiveness. A meta-emotional model of fear of negative emotions (and anxious sensations and thoughts) is advanced that can be used as a transdiagnostic treatment…

  18. Emotion-Induced Retrograde Amnesia and Trait Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miu, Andrei C.; Heilman, Renata M.; Opre, Adrian; Miclea, Mircea

    2005-01-01

    Emotional arousal can both enhance and impair memory. Considering that both emotional memory and trait anxiety (TA) have been associated with adrenergic activity, the authors investigated whether there is an association between 2 opposite emotional memory biases and the TA. The authors used a procedure recently put forward by B. A. Strange, R.…

  19. Associations between intimate partner violence and emotional distress among pregnant women in Durban, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Groves, AK; Kagee, A; Maman, S; Moodley, D; Rouse, P

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy has been associated with multiple negative health outcomes for the mother, including emotional distress during pregnancy. However, little is known about IPV during pregnancy and its association with emotional distress among pregnant women in South Africa. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of both emotional distress and IPV during pregnancy, to identify whether different exposures of violence and relational control were associated with emotional distress during pregnancy, and to assess whether social support attenuated the relationship between IPV and emotional distress in pregnancy. Pregnant women enrolled in the South Africa HIV Antenatal and Post-test Support Study (SAHAPS) who completed the baseline survey were included in this cross sectional analysis. We used logistic regression models to explore bivariate and multivariate relationships between the proposed covariates and emotional distress. Nearly a quarter of women reported experiencing some type of IPV during the current pregnancy, with psychological violence being the most prevalent. The odds of emotional distress was 1.41 times (95% CI: 1.26–1.57) higher for each additional episode of psychological violence and 2.01 times (95% CI: 1.16–3.77) higher for each additional episode of sexual violence during pregnancy, adjusting for other covariates. Physical violence was only marginally associated with increased odds of emotional distress (A.O.R.: 1.17, 95% CI: .99–1.38) after adjusting for other covariates. Finally, social support was also marginally significant as a main effect, but did not attenuate the relationship between IPV and emotional distress. The high prevalence of IPV among pregnant women in South Africa and its association with emotional distress during pregnancy suggest that interventions that reduce violence during or prior to pregnancy are needed. Such interventions can positively impact IPV and may also

  20. Defensive startle response to emotional social cues in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Garner, Matthew; Clarke, Greg; Graystone, Hannah; Baldwin, David S

    2011-03-30

    Potentiation of fear-related defense behaviours coordinated by the amygdala in response to environmental threat characterizes several anxiety disorders. We compared eye-blink startle responses to startle probes delivered during the presentation of emotional and neutral social cues in high and low generalized social anxiety. Socially anxious individuals exhibited larger startle responses to emotional (positive and negative) relative to neutral social cues, compared to non-anxious individuals. PMID:20833435

  1. Emotion regulation difficulties mediate associations between betrayal trauma and symptoms of posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Rachel E; Chesney, Samantha A; Heath, Nicole M; Barlow, M Rose

    2013-06-01

    Emotion regulation difficulties following trauma exposure have received increasing attention among researchers and clinicians. Previous work highlights the role of emotion regulation difficulties in multiple forms of psychological distress and identifies emotion regulation capacities as especially compromised among survivors of betrayal trauma: physical, sexual, or emotional maltreatment perpetrated by someone to whom the victim is close, such as a parent or partner. It is unknown, however, whether links between emotion regulation difficulties and psychological symptoms differ following exposure to betrayal trauma as compared with other trauma types. In the present study, 593 male and female university undergraduates completed the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale (Gratz & Roemer, 2004), the Brief Betrayal Trauma Scale (Goldberg & Freyd, 2006), the Impact of Event Scale (Horowitz, Wilner, & Alvarez, 1979), and the Trauma Symptom Checklist (Elliott & Briere, 1992). A path analytic model demonstrated that betrayal trauma indirectly impacted symptoms of intrusion (β = .11), avoidance (β = .13), depression (β = .17), and anxiety (β = .14) via emotion regulation difficulties, an effect consistent with mediation. Emotion regulation difficulties did not mediate the relationship between other trauma exposure and psychological symptoms. Results may inform treatment-matching efforts, and suggest that emotion regulation difficulties may constitute a key therapeutic target following betrayal trauma. PMID:23737296

  2. Emotional Distress, Alcohol Use, and Bidirectional Partner Violence among Lesbian Women

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Robin J.; Padilla, Miguel A.; Milletich, Robert J.; Kelley, Michelle L.; Winstead, Barbara A.; Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Mason, Tyler B.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between emotional distress (defined as depression, brooding, and negative affect), alcohol outcomes, and bidirectional intimate partner violence among lesbian women. Results lend support to the self-medication hypothesis which predicts that lesbian women who experience more emotional distress are more likely to drink to cope, and in turn report more alcohol use, problem drinking, and alcohol-related problems. These alcohol outcomes were in turn, associated with bidirectional partner violence. These results offer preliminary evidence that, similar to findings for heterosexual women, emotional distress, alcohol use, and particularly alcohol-related problems, are risk factors for bidirectional partner violence among lesbian women. PMID:26062874

  3. Sensed presence as a correlate of sleep paralysis distress, social anxiety and waking state social imagery.

    PubMed

    Solomonova, Elizaveta; Nielsen, Tore; Stenstrom, Philippe; Simard, Valérie; Frantova, Elena; Donderi, Don

    2008-03-01

    Isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) is a common parasomnia characterized by an inability to move or speak and often accompanied by hallucinations of a sensed presence nearby. Recent research has linked ISP, and sensed presence more particularly, with social anxiety and other psychopathologies. The present study used a large sample of respondents to an internet questionnaire (N=193) to test whether these associations are due to a general personality factor, affect distress, which is implicated in nightmare suffering and hypothesized to involve dysfunctional social imagery processes. A new measure, ISP distress, was examined in relation to features of ISP experiences, to self-reported psychopathological diagnosis, to scores on the Leibowitz Social Anxiety Scale and to scores on a new questionnaire subscale assessing social imagery in a variety of waking states. Three main results were found: (1) ISP experiences are only weakly associated with a prior diagnosis of mental disorder, (2) sensed presence during ISP is associated preferentially with ISP distress, and (3) ISP distress is associated with dysfunctional social imagery. A general predisposition to affective distress may influence the distress associated with ISP experiences; overly passive social imagery may, in turn, be implicated in this affect distress influence. PMID:17574867

  4. The Impact of Multiple Concussions on Emotional Distress, Post-Concussive Symptoms, and Neurocognitive Functioning in Active Duty United States Marines Independent of Combat Exposure or Emotional Distress

    PubMed Central

    Lathan, Corinna E.; Bleiberg, Joseph; Tsao, Jack W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Controversy exists as to whether the lingering effects of concussion on emotional, physical, and cognitive symptoms is because of the effects of brain trauma or purely to emotional factors such as post-traumatic stress disorder or depression. This study examines the independent effects of concussion on persistent symptoms. The Defense Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment, a clinical decision support tool, was used to assess neurobehavioral functioning in 646 United States Marines, all of whom were fit for duty. Marines were assessed for concussion history, post-concussive symptoms, emotional distress, neurocognitive functioning, and deployment history. Results showed that a recent concussion or ever having experienced a concussion was associated with an increase in emotional distress, but not with persistent post-concussive symptoms (PPCS) or neurocognitive functioning. Having had multiple lifetime concussions, however, was associated with greater emotional distress, PPCS, and reduced neurocognitive functioning that needs attention and rapid discrimination, but not for memory-based tasks. These results are independent of deployment history, combat exposure, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. Results supported earlier findings that a previous concussion is not generally associated with post-concussive symptoms independent of covariates. In contrast with other studies that failed to find a unique contribution for concussion to PPCS, however, evidence of recent and multiple concussion was seen across a range of emotional distress, post-concussive symptoms, and neurocognitive functioning in this study population. Results are discussed in terms of implications for assessing concussion on return from combat. PMID:25003552

  5. Emotion Socialization in Families of Children with an Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suveg, Cynthia; Zeman, Janice; Flannery-Schroeder, Ellen; Cassano, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Compared emotion socialization in 26 children with anxiety disorders ages 8-12 years and their mothers to 26 nonclinical counterparts without psychopathology. Children and their mothers participated in an emotion interaction task in which they discussed occasions when the child felt worry, sadness, and anger. Responses were coded for length of…

  6. Familial Accumulation of Social Anxiety Symptoms and Maladaptive Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Asbrand, Julia; Svaldi, Jennifer; Krämer, Martina; Breuninger, Christoph; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2016-01-01

    Background Social anxiety is thought to be strongly related to maladaptive emotion regulation (ER). As social anxiety symptoms accumulate in families, we hypothesize that maladaptive ER is also more prevalent in families with anxious children. Thus, we analyze differences in emotion regulation of both child and mother in relation to social anxiety, as well as both their ER strategies in dealing with anxiety. Further, a positive relation between child and maternal ER strategies is assumed. Method Children (aged 9 to 13 years) with social, anxiety disorder (SAD; n = 25) and healthy controls (HC, n = 26) as well as their mothers completed several measures of social anxiety and trait ER strategies towards anxiety. As ER of children is still in development, age is considered as covariate. Results SAD children and their mothers reported more maladaptive ER strategies than HC dyads. Maternal maladaptive ER was related negatively to child adaptive ER which was further moderated by the child’s age. Discussion Maladaptive ER strategies seem to contribute to the exacerbation of social anxiety in both mother and child. Mothers reporting maladaptive ER may have difficulties supporting their child in coping with social anxiety while simultaneously also experiencing heightened levels of anxiety. Deeper understanding of interactional processes between mothers and children during development can assist the comprehension of factors maintaining SAD. Implications for future research and possible consequences for interventions are discussed. PMID:27055278

  7. Emotional Self-Disclosure and Emotional Avoidance: Relations with Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Jeffrey H.; Garrison, Angela M.

    2009-01-01

    Research suggests that individuals with heightened symptoms of mood and anxiety disorders engage in diminished emotional disclosure. On the basis of emotion regulation theories, the authors hypothesized that this symptom-disclosure relationship would be mediated by the avoidance of emotional experience and expression. In Study 1, college students…

  8. Moderating effect of optimism on emotional distress and seizure control in adults with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Kiely M; Schefft, Bruce K; Howe, Steven R; Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Yeh, Hwa-shain; Privitera, Michael D

    2010-08-01

    Stress is a commonly reported seizure precipitant among individuals with epilepsy. Yet, the relationship between stress and seizure susceptibility remains unclear. This study examined the relationship between emotional distress and lifetime seizure load in individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), as well as the potential moderating effect of explanatory style on this relationship. Data were collected from 148 individuals with TLE. Scales 2 and 7 of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory were used as a measure of emotional distress, and explanatory style was measured using the Revised Optimism-Pessimism Scale. Elevated Scale 2 scores were associated with an increase in seizure load only in subjects with Full Scale IQ scores> or =92. An interaction between emotional distress and explanatory style was not observed. Thus, for individuals with higher levels of intelligence, depression may be an important pathway in linking emotional distress to poor seizure control. PMID:20542740

  9. Treating persistent distress and anxiety in parents of children with cancer: an initial feasibility trial.

    PubMed

    Warner, Carrie Masia; Ludwig, Kristy; Sweeney, Corinne; Spillane, Clare; Hogan, Laura; Ryan, Julie; Carroll, William

    2011-01-01

    Persistent anxiety is common among parents of children with cancer and may affect the family's well-being and adjustment. The goals of this pilot study are to determine the feasibility and potential efficacy of a brief cognitive-behavioral parent intervention aimed at reducing parental distress and anxiety related to their child's cancer diagnosis. Parents of children with cancer, at least 1 month postdiagnosis, were screened at an outpatient oncology clinic, and those reporting elevated levels of distress were offered a 4-session cognitive-behavioral intervention based on a modified version of the Surviving Cancer Competently Intervention Program-Newly Diagnosed. Five parents reporting persistent distress received the intervention. Results revealed decreases in parents' distress, state anxiety, and depressive symptoms, as well as in parents' feelings of burden associated with their children's cancer. This initial study suggests that identification of parents with prolonged heightened psychological distress is feasible and acceptable and that offering them a brief intervention within a pediatric oncology setting may be beneficial. PMID:21646637

  10. Urban Teens: Trauma, Posttraumatic Growth, and Emotional Distress among Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ickovics, Jeanette R.; Meade, Christina S.; Kershaw, Trace S.; Milan, Stephanie; Lewis, Jessica B.; Ethier, Kathleen A.

    2006-01-01

    Urban teens face many traumas, with implications for potential growth and distress. This study examined traumatic events, posttraumatic growth, and emotional distress over 18 months among urban adolescent girls (N = 328). Objectives were to (a) describe types of traumatic events, (b) determine how type and timing of events relate to profiles of…

  11. Differential Effects of Maternal Sensitivity to Infant Distress and Nondistress on Social-Emotional Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leerkes, Esther M.; Blankson, A. Nayena; O'Brien, Marion

    2009-01-01

    Associations between maternal sensitivity to infant distress and nondistress and infant social-emotional adjustment were examined in a subset of dyads from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care (N = 376). Mothers reported on infant temperament at 1 and 6 months postpartum, and maternal sensitivity to distress and nondistress were observed at 6…

  12. Suspected postprandial hypoglycemia is associated with beta-adrenergic hypersensitivity and emotional distress.

    PubMed

    Berlin, I; Grimaldi, A; Landault, C; Cesselin, F; Puech, A J

    1994-11-01

    Suspected postprandial (reactive or idiopathic) hypoglycemia is characterized by predominantly adrenergic symptoms appearing after meals rich in carbohydrates and by their rare association with low blood glucose level (< 2.77 mmol/L). We studied heart rate, blood pressure, plasma insulin, C-peptide, and catecholamine responses during a 5-h oral glucose tolerance test in eight patients with suspected postprandial hypoglycemia and eight age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched healthy controls. We also evaluated beta-adrenergic sensitivity by using the isoproterenol sensitivity test. Psychological profile was assessed by the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90R) self-report symptom inventory. Patients with suspected postprandial hypoglycemia had higher beta-adrenergic sensitivity (defined as the dose of isoproterenol required to increase the resting heart rate by 25 beats/min) than controls (mean +/- SEM, 0.8 +/- 0.13 vs. 1.86 +/- 0.25 microgram isoproterenol; P = 0.002). After administration of glucose (75 g) blood glucose, plasma C-peptide, plasma epinephrine, and plasma norepinephrine responses were identical in the two groups, but plasma insulin was higher in the patients (group effect, P = 0.02; group by time interaction, P = 0.0001). Both heart rate and systolic blood pressure were significantly higher (but remained in the normal range) after glucose administration in patients with suspected postprandial hypoglycemia than in controls (group by time interactions, P = 0.004 and 0.0007, respectively). After glucose intake, seven patients had symptoms (palpitations, headache, tremor, generalized sweating, hunger, dizziness, sweating of the palms, flush, nausea, and fatigue), whereas in the control group, one subject reported flush and another palpitations, tremor, and hunger. Analysis of the SCL-90R questionnaire revealed that patients had emotional distress and significantly higher anxiety, somatization, depression, and obsessive-compulsive scores than controls. We may

  13. Post-traumatic stress disorder, social anxiety disorder, and depression in survivors of the Kosovo War: experiential avoidance as a contributor to distress and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Kashdan, Todd B; Morina, Nexhmedin; Priebe, Stefan

    2009-03-01

    Few studies have been conducted on psychological disorders other than post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in war survivors. The aim of this study was to examine PTSD, social anxiety disorder (SAD), and major depressive disorder (MDD) and their associations with distress and quality of life in 174 Albanian civilian survivors of the Kosovo War. This included testing of conceptual models suggesting that experiential avoidance might influence associations between anxiety and mood disorders with psychological functioning. Each of the three psychiatric disorders was associated with greater experiential avoidance and psychological distress, and lower quality of life. Being a refugee was associated with a higher likelihood of having SAD and MDD. We found evidence for experiential avoidance as a partial mediator of the respective effects of SAD and PTSD on quality of life; experiential avoidance did not mediate the effects of disorders on global distress. We also found support for a moderation model showing that only war survivors without SAD and low experiential avoidance reported elevated quality of life; people with either SAD or excessive reliance on experiential avoidance reported compromised, low quality of life. This is the third independent study, each using a different methodology, to find empirical support for this moderation model [Kashdan, T. B., & Breen, W. E. (2008). Social anxiety and positive emotions: a prospective examination of a self-regulatory model with tendencies to suppress or express emotions as a moderating variable. Behavior Therapy, 39, 1-12; Kashdan, T. B., & Steger, M. F. (2006). Expanding the topography of social anxiety: an experience sampling assessment of positive emotions and events, and emotion suppression. Psychological Science, 17, 120-128]. Overall, we provided initial evidence for the importance of addressing PTSD, SAD, MDD, and experiential avoidance in primarily civilian war survivors. PMID:18676121

  14. Quality of life and emotional distress early after left ventricular assist device implant: a mixed-method study.

    PubMed

    Modica, Maddalena; Ferratini, Maurizio; Torri, Anna; Oliva, Fabrizio; Martinelli, Luigi; De Maria, Renata; Frigerio, Maria

    2015-03-01

    Patients who temporarily or permanently rely on left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) for end-stage heart failure face complex psychological, emotional, and relational problems. We conducted a mixed-method study to investigate quality of life, psychological symptoms, and emotional and cognitive reactions after LVAD implant. Twenty-six patients admitted to cardiac rehabilitation were administered quality of life questionnaires (Short Form 36 of the Medical Outcomes Study and Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences inventory, and underwent three in-depth unstructured interviews within 2 months after LVAD implant. Quality of life assessment (Short Form 36) documented persistently low physical scores whereas mental component scores almost achieved normative values. Clinically relevant depression and anxiety were observed in 18 and 18% of patients, respectively; avoidant coping scores correlated significantly with both depression and anxiety (Pearson correlation coefficients 0.732, P < 0.001 and 0.764, P < 0.001, respectively). From qualitative interviews, factors that impacted on LVAD acceptance included: device type, disease experience during transplant waiting, nature of the assisted organ, quality of patient-doctor communication, the opportunity of sharing the experience, and recipient's psychological characteristics. Quality of life improves early after LVAD implant, but emotional distress may remain high. A multidimensional approach that takes into account patients' psychological characteristics should be pursued to enhance LVAD acceptance. PMID:25205291

  15. Associations of Emotional Distress and Perceived Health in Persons With Atrial Fibrillation and Their Partners Using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model.

    PubMed

    Dalteg, Tomas; Benzein, Eva; Sandgren, Anna; Malm, Dan; Årestedt, Kristofer

    2016-08-01

    Individual behavior affects and is affected by other people. The aim of this study was to examine if emotional distress in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and their spouses was associated with their own and their partner's perceived health. Participants included 91 dyads of patients and their spouses. Emotional distress was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and perceived health was measured with the Short Form 36 Health Survey. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model was used for dyad-level analyses of associations, using structural equation modeling. Higher levels of anxiety and depression were associated with lower levels of perceived health in patients and spouses. Higher levels of depression in patients were associated with lower levels of vitality in spouses and vice versa. As AF patients and their spouses influence each other, health-care interventions should consider the dyad to address dyadic dynamics. This may benefit the health of the individual patient and of the couple. PMID:27385260

  16. The role of emotion and emotion regulation in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Jazaieri, Hooria; Morrison, Amanda S; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J

    2015-01-01

    Many psychiatric disorders involve problematic patterns of emotional reactivity and regulation. In this review, we consider recent findings regarding emotion and emotion regulation in the context of social anxiety disorder (SAD). We first describe key features of SAD which suggest altered emotional and self-related processing difficulties. Next, we lay the conceptual foundation for a discussion of emotion and emotion regulation and present a common framework for understanding emotion regulation, the process model of emotion regulation. Using the process model, we evaluate the recent empirical literature spanning self-report, observational, behavioral, and physiological methods across five specific families of emotion regulation processes-situation selection, situation modification, attentional deployment, cognitive change, and response modulation. Next, we examine the empirical evidence behind two psychosocial interventions for SAD: cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR). Throughout, we present suggestions for future directions in the continued examination of emotion and emotion regulation in SAD. PMID:25413637

  17. Relations between anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and fear reactivity to bodily sensations to coping and conformity marijuana use motives among young adult marijuana users.

    PubMed

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Marshall, Erin C; Johnson, Kirsten; Hogan, Julianna; Bernstein, Amit; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2009-02-01

    The present investigation examines anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and fear reactivity to bodily sensations in relation to Coping and Conformity marijuana use motives among a sample of young adult marijuana users (n = 135; 46.7% women; Mage = 20.45, SD = 5.0). After controlling for current marijuana use frequency (past 30 days), daily cigarette smoking rate, average volume of alcohol used over the past year, negative affectivity, and other marijuana use motives, anxiety sensitivity was significantly and uniquely associated with Coping and Conformity motives for marijuana use. Distress tolerance evidenced significant and unique incremental relations to Coping motives, whereas fear reactivity to bodily sensations was unrelated to any marijuana use motive. These results provide novel information related to the role of emotional sensitivity and tolerance factors as they pertain to specific types of motives for marijuana use among young adults. PMID:19186932

  18. Financial Distress and Its Associations With Physical and Emotional Symptoms and Quality of Life Among Advanced Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Jeanette; Rieber, Alyssa G.; Rhondali, Wadih; Tayjasanant, Supakarn; Ochoa, Jewel; Cantu, Hilda; Chisholm, Gary; Williams, Janet; Frisbee-Hume, Susan; Bruera, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Objective. There are limited data on the effects of financial distress (FD) on overall suffering and quality of life (QOL) of patients with advanced cancer (AdCa). In this cross-sectional study, we examined the frequency of FD and its correlates in AdCa. Patients and Methods. We interviewed 149 patients, 77 at a comprehensive cancer center (CCC) and 72 at a general public hospital (GPH). AdCa completed a self-rated FD (subjective experience of distress attributed to financial problems) numeric rating scale (0 = best, 10 = worst) and validated questionnaires assessing symptoms (Edmonton Symptom Assessment System [ESAS]), psychosocial distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]), and QOL (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General [FACT-G]). Results. The patients’ median age was 60 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 58.6–61.5 years); 74 (50%) were female; 48 of 77 at CCC (62%) versus 13 of 72 at GPH (18%) were white; 21 of 77 (27%) versus 32 of 72 (38%) at CCC and GPH, respectively, were black; and 7 of 77 (9%) versus 27 of 72 (38%) at CCC and GPH, respectively, were Hispanic (p < .0001). FD was present in 65 of 75 at CCC (86%; 95% CI: 76%–93%) versus 65 of 72 at GPH (90%; 95% CI: 81%–96%; p = .45). The median intensity of FD at CCC and GPH was 4 (interquartile range [IQR]: 1–7) versus 8 (IQR: 3–10), respectively (p = .0003). FD was reported as more severe than physical distress, distress about physical functioning, social/family distress, and emotional distress by 45 (30%), 46 (31%), 64 (43%), and 55 (37%) AdCa, respectively (all significantly worse for patients at GPH) (p < .05). AdCa reported that FD was affecting their general well-being (0 = not at all, 10 = very much) with a median score of 5 (IQR: 1–8). FD correlated (Spearman correlation) with FACT-G (r = −0.23, p = .0057); HADS-anxiety (r = .27, p = .0014), ESAS-anxiety (r = .2, p = .0151), and ESAS-depression (r = .18, p = .0336). Conclusion. FD was very frequent in both

  19. The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) and traditional childhood anxiety measures.

    PubMed

    Muris, P; Merckelbach, H; Mayer, B; van Brakel, A; Thissen, S; Moulaert, V; Gadet, B

    1998-12-01

    The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) is a self-report questionnaire that measures symptoms of DSM-IV linked anxiety disorders in children. This article presents two studies that investigated the relationship between the SCARED, on the one hand, and two other widely used anxiety measures for children, namely the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS) and the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised (FSSC-R), on the other hand. Results indicate that SCARED scores are positively and in a theoretically meaningful way related to RCMAS and FSSC-R scores, and thus provide evidence for the concurrent validity of the SCARED. PMID:10037229

  20. Emotion-induced retrograde amnesia and trait anxiety.

    PubMed

    Miu, Andrei C; Heilman, Renata M; Opre, Adrian; Miclea, Mircea

    2005-11-01

    Emotional arousal can both enhance and impair memory. Considering that both emotional memory and trait anxiety (TA) have been associated with adrenergic activity, the authors investigated whether there is an association between 2 opposite emotional memory biases and the TA. The authors used a procedure recently put forward by B. A. Strange, R. Hurlemann, and R. J. Dolan (2003) to elicit an emotion-induced retrograde amnesia (ERA) coupled to an emotional memory enhancement (EME). The authors contrasted the association between these emotional memory biases and the TA in several conditions involving different levels of encoding and types of recall. The results presented here indicated a significant interaction of the TA with EME and ERA and the dependency of these biases on the consciously controlled use of memory. PMID:16393044

  1. Parental reactions to children's negative emotions: relationships with emotion regulation in children with an anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Hurrell, Katherine E; Hudson, Jennifer L; Schniering, Carolyn A

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that parental reactions to children's emotions play a significant role in the development of children's emotion regulation (ER) and adjustment. This study compared parent reactions to children's negative emotions between families of anxious and non-anxious children (aged 7-12) and examined associations between parent reactions and children's ER. Results indicated that children diagnosed with an anxiety disorder had significantly greater difficulty regulating a range of negative emotions and were regarded as more emotionally negative and labile by their parents. Results also suggested that mothers of anxious children espoused less supportive parental emotional styles when responding to their children's negative emotions. Supportive and non-supportive parenting reactions to children's negative emotions related to children's emotion regulation skills, with father's non-supportive parenting showing a unique relationship to children's negativity/lability. PMID:25527899

  2. Exploring Sources of Emotional Distress among People Living with Scleroderma: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Gumuchian, Stephanie T.; Peláez, Sandra; Delisle, Vanessa C.; Carrier, Marie-Eve; Jewett, Lisa R.; El-Baalbaki, Ghassan; Fortune, Catherine; Hudson, Marie; Impens, Ann; Körner, Annett; Persmann, Jennifer; Kwakkenbos, Linda; Bartlett, Susan J.; Thombs, Brett D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Systemic sclerosis, or scleroderma, is a chronic and rare connective tissue disease with negative physical and psychological implications. Sources of emotional distress and the impact they have on the lives of people with scleroderma are not well understood. Objectives To gain an in-depth understanding of the emotional experiences and sources of emotional distress for women and men living with scleroderma through focus group discussions. Methods Three semi-structured focus group discussions were conducted (two in English, one in French) with a total of 22 people with scleroderma recruited through the Scleroderma Society of Ontario in Hamilton, Ontario and a scleroderma clinic in Montreal, Canada. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and then coded for emerging themes using thematic inductive analysis. Results Core themes representing sources of emotional distress were identified, including: (a) facing a new reality; (b) the daily struggle of living with scleroderma; (c) handling work, employment and general financial burden; (d) changing family roles; (e) social interactions; and (f) navigating the health care system. Collectively, these themes refer to the stressful journey of living with scleroderma including the obstacles faced and the emotional experiences beginning prior to receiving a diagnosis and continuing throughout the participants’ lives. Conclusion Scleroderma was portrayed as being an unpredictable and overwhelming disease, resulting in many individuals experiencing multiple sources of emotional distress. Interventions and supportive resources need to be developed to help individuals with scleroderma and people close to them manage and cope with the emotional aspects of the disease. PMID:27008209

  3. “I think this is maybe our Achilles heel…” exploring GPs’ responses to young people presenting with emotional distress in general practice: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Jane H; Crosland, Ann; Fulton, John

    2013-01-01

    Objective An exploratory study to investigate general practitioners’ (GPs’) views and experiences of consulting with young people (aged 12–19 years) presenting with emotional distress in general practice. Design A qualitative study using grounded theory and situational analysis. Empirical data were generated through in-depth interviews based on a topic guide developed from the literature, and augmented with a series of situational maps. Continuous field notes and theoretical memos were recorded during data collection and analysis. The data were analysed using the constant comparative method of grounded theory. There were three levels of analysis. The first level developed the open codes and is presented here. Setting 18 general practices located in the north east of England. The practices recruited included rural, urban and mixed populations of patients who were predominantly living in socioeconomically disadvantaged communities. Participants 19 GPs (10 women) aged between 29 and 59 years participated. The modal age range was 40–49 years. Theoretical sampling was used to guide recruitment and continued until theoretical saturation was reached. Results The overarching finding was that anxiety about practice dominated clinical consultations involving young people presenting with emotional distress. GPs responded differently to anxiety and to related uncertainties about professional practice, independent of GP age or gender. Anxiety occurred in the consultation, at an external level, across disciplinary boundaries, in relation to communication with young people and secondary to the complexity of presentations. Conclusions Adolescent emotional distress presents professional challenges to GPs who feel ill-equipped and inadequately prepared to address early need. Medical education needs to prepare doctors better. More research is needed to look at what factors facilitate or prohibit greater GP engagement with emotionally distressed young people. PMID

  4. The impact of HIV on emotional distress of infected women: cognitive appraisal and coping as mediators.

    PubMed

    Moneyham, L; Seals, B; Sowell, R; Hennessy, M; Demi, A; Brake, S

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the role of psychological factors as mediators of the impact of HIV-related stressors on emotional distress of a clinic-based sample of 264 HIV+ women. Based upon Lazarus and colleagues' cognitively oriented theory of stress and coping, causal modeling was used to test for mediating effects of cognitive appraisal (intrusive thoughts and perceived stigma) and coping variables (avoidance and fatalism) on emotional distress within the context of HIV-related stressors (functional impairment and work performance impairment). The findings supported the mediating effects of cognitive appraisal but not of the coping variables. Consistent with theory, the effect of HIV-related stressors on emotional distress was indirect through cognitive appraisal; however, there were no significant direct effects of HIV-related stressors, fatalism or avoidance on emotional distress. The causal model accounted for significant portions of variance in emotional distress (R2 = .49) and the model fit, as a whole, was more than adequate. The findings indicate that how HIV+ women think about HIV-related stressors is an important factor that may account for individual variability in the ability to maintain a sense of subjective well-being in the face of a devastating fatal disease. PMID:9329275

  5. fMRI Study of Social Anxiety during Social Ostracism with and without Emotional Support.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yoshiko; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Kunisato, Yoshihiko; Okada, Go; Yoshimura, Shinpei; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Yamamura, Takanao; Yoshino, Atsuo; Jinnin, Ran; Takagaki, Koki; Onoda, Keiichi; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety is characterized by an excessive fear of being embarrassed in social interactions or social performance situations. Emotional support can help to decrease or diminish social distress. Such support may play an important role at different points of social interaction. However, it is unclear how the beneficial effects of social support are represented in the brains of socially anxious individuals. To explore this, we used the same paradigm previously used to examine the effects of emotional support on social pain caused by exclusion. Undergraduates (n = 46) showing a wide range of social anxiety scores underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participating in a Cyberball game. Participants were initially included and later excluded from the game. In the latter half of the session in which participants were excluded, they were provided with supportive messages. In line with our previous work, we found that social exclusion led to increased anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activity, whereas emotional support led to increased left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity. Despite validation of the paradigm, social anxiety was not associated with increased ACC activity during social exclusion, or during perceived emotional support. Instead, fear of negative evaluation as assessed by the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation (BFNE) scale showed positive associations with left DLPFC activation while receiving emotional support, compared to while being socially excluded. The more socially anxious an individual was, the greater was the left DLPFC activity increased during receipt of messages. This suggests that highly socially anxious people still have the ability to perceive social support, but that they are nevertheless susceptible to negative evaluation by others. PMID:26000902

  6. Treatment of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Emotionally Distressed Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Kasckow, John; Morse, Jennifer; Begley, Amy; Anderson, Stewart; Bensasi, Salem; Thomas, Stephen; Quinn, Sandra C; Reynolds, Charles F

    2014-01-01

    Older individuals with emotional distress and a history of psychologic trauma are at risk for post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression. This study was an exploratory, secondary analysis of data from the study “Prevention of Depression in Older African Americans”. It examined whether Problem Solving Therapy - Primary Care (PST-PC) would lead to improvement in PTSD symptoms in patients with subsyndromal depression and a history of psychologic trauma. The control condition was dietary education (DIET). Participants (n = 60) were age 50 or older with scores on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies -Depression scale of 11 or greater and history of psychologic trauma. Exclusions stipulated no major depression and substance dependence within a year. Participants were randomized to 6–8 sessions of either PST-PC or DIET and followed 2 years with booster sessions every 6 months; 29 participants were in the PST-PC group and 31 were in the DIET group. Mixed effects models showed that improvement of PTSD Check List scores was significantly greater in the DIET group over two years than in the PST-PC group (based on a group*time interaction). We observed no intervention*time interactions in Beck Depression Inventory or Brief Symptom Inventory-Anxiety subscale scores. PMID:25107318

  7. Effects of dispositional optimism on quality of life, emotional distress and disability in Parkinson’s disease outpatients under rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Gison, Annalisa; Rizza, Federica; Bonassi, Stefano; Donati, Valentina; Giaquinto, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Summary This study was performed with the aim of assessing dispositional optimism (DO) in a sample of Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients, in order to evaluate its association with clinical outcomes and its impact on rehabilitation. Before entering an outpatient rehabilitation program, 58 participants suffering from idiopathic PD completed the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) to evaluate their level of DO, the WHO-5 scale to evaluate their health-related quality of life (HR-QoL), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to identify emotional distress, and the Barthel Index to evaluate their level of disability. All the measures were repeated four months later, at their discharge from the program. Disease stage and severity measures (Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale) were also taken into consideration. Correlations and multivariate regression analyses compared DO with the health-related variables. On admission a high level of DO was found to be associated with less severe disease, a better quality of life (QoL) and lower emotional distress, but not with level of disability (Barthel Index). Consistent results were found at discharge. The level of DO did not change after rehabilitation, while anxiety was significantly reduced, especially in subjects with low LOT-R and high HADS scores. The Barthel Index values significantly improved. At discharge, participants with high DO showed the best improvements in disability and in QoL. In conclusion, a high level of DO was associated with QoL, HADS and UPDRS both on admission and at discharge. The level of DO remained stable after rehabilitation, while disability and anxiety were reduced. Participants with high DO generally had better QoL, and better clinical and psychological performances. PMID:26415782

  8. Neighborhood income inequality, social capital and emotional distress among adolescents: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Vilhjalmsdottir, Arndis; Gardarsdottir, Ragna B; Bernburg, Jon Gunnar; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2016-08-01

    Theory holds that income inequality may harm adolescent mental health by reducing social capital within neighborhood communities. However, research on this topic has been very limited. We use multilevel data on 102 public schools and 5958 adolescents in Iceland (15 and 16 years old) to examine whether income inequality within neighborhoods is associated with emotional distress in adolescents. Moreover, we test whether indicators of social capital, including social trust and embeddedness in neighborhood social networks, mediate this contextual effect. The findings show that neighborhood income inequality positively influences emotional distress of individual adolescents, net of their personal household situations and social relations. However, although the indicators of social capital negatively influence emotional distress, they do not mediate the contextual effect of neighborhood income inequality. The study illustrates the role of economic disparities in adolescent mental health, but calls for more research on the underlying social and social-psychological mechanisms. PMID:27337213

  9. Anxiety, emotional distraction, and attentional control in the Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Kalanthroff, Eyal; Henik, Avishai; Derakshan, Nazanin; Usher, Marius

    2016-04-01

    Using a Stroop task, we investigated the effect of task-irrelevant emotional distractors on attentional proactive control and its interaction with trait anxiety. On the basis of recent findings showing opposed neural responses in the dorsal-executive versus the ventral-emotional systems in response to emotional distractors and of the attentional control theory (Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, 2007), we hypothesized that negative distractors will result in a reduction of proactive task control in the executive system, especially for high-trait-anxious individuals. Using a computational model of the Stroop task, we derive 2 specific behavioral predictions of reduced proactive task control: increased Stroop interference and reversed Stroop facilitation. Twenty-five high- and 25 low-trait-anxious participants completed a Stroop task in which the target stimuli were preceded by brief (neutral vs. aversive) emotional distractors. While no effects of picture valence on proactive control was found in the low-anxious group, the predicted signatures of reduced proactive control were observed in the high-anxiety group. These results indicate that trait anxiety influences the interaction between irrelevant emotional stimuli and proactive control. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26571078

  10. Attachment insecurity, responses to critical incident distress, and current emotional symptoms in ambulance workers.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Janice; Maunder, Robert G; Schwartz, Brian; Gurevich, Maria

    2012-02-01

    Ambulance workers are exposed to critical incidents that may evoke intense distress and can result in long-term impairment. Individuals who can regulate distress may experience briefer post-incident distress and fewer long-term emotional difficulties. Attachment research has contributed to our understanding of individual differences in stress regulation, suggesting that secure attachment is associated with effective support-seeking and coping strategies, and fewer long-term difficulties. We tested the effect of attachment insecurity on emotional distress in ambulance workers, hypothesizing that (1) insecure attachment is associated with symptoms of current distress and (2) prolonged recovery from acute post-critical incident distress, coping strategies and supportive contact mediate this relationship. We measured (1) attachment insecurity, (2) acute distress, coping and social contact following an index critical incident and (3) current symptoms of post-traumatic stress, depression, somatization and burnout and tested the hypothesized associations. Fearful-avoidant insecure attachment was associated with all current symptoms, most strongly with depression (R=0.38, p<0.001). Fearful-avoidant attachment insecurity was also associated with maladaptive coping, reduced social support and slower recovery from social withdrawal and physical arousal following the critical incident, but these processes did not mediate the relationship between attachment insecurity and current symptoms. These findings are relevant for optimizing post-incident support for ambulance workers. PMID:22259158

  11. Correlates of emotional distress among HIV+ youths: Health status, stress, and personal resources.

    PubMed

    Rotheram-Borus, M J; Murphy, D A; Reid, H M; Coleman, C L

    1996-03-01

    The level of emotional distress and the impact of stress and personal resources on distress were examined among 149 youths aged 14-23 who tested seropositive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV+). These HIV+ females and males (the males were predominantly gay and bisexual) were relatively healthy (M T cells=516; 17% T cells >200; 3.8 physical symptoms in the previous three months) and reported levels of emotional distress and self-esteem similar to uninfected adolescents. Youths experienced about three stressful life events in the previous three months, primarily death/illness of friends and violent crimes. Youths were less likely to utilize self destructive, avoidant, and depressed coping styles in contrast to taking positive actions. Social support from parents, friends, and romantic partners was high, but these support persons often engaged in sexual and substance use risk acts. Controlling for youths' physical health status, increased emotional distress was associated with significantly lower self-esteem, higher stress, and negative coping styles. Social support did not mediate emotional distress among HIV+ youths. PMID:24203639

  12. Explaining the Links between Workload, Distress, and Work-Family Conflict among School Employees: Physical, Cognitive, and Emotional Fatigue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilies, Remus; Huth, Megan; Ryan, Ann Marie; Dimotakis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the intraindividual relationships among workload and affective distress; cognitive, physical, and emotional fatigue; and work-family conflict among school employees. Using a repeated-measure, within-person research design, the authors found that work demands and affective distress, as well as cognitive, emotional, and physical…

  13. Neural Basis of Emotional Decision Making in Trait Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pengfei; Gu, Ruolei; Broster, Lucas S.; Wu, Runguo; Van Dam, Nicholas T.; Jiang, Yang; Fan, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Although trait anxiety has been associated with risk decision making, whether it is related to risk per se or to the feeling of the risk, as well as the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms, remains unclear. Using a decision-making task with a manipulation of frame (i.e., written description of options as a potential gain or loss) and functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the neurocognitive relationship between trait anxiety and decision making. The classic framing effect was observed: participants chose the safe option when it was described as a potential gain, but they avoided the same option when it was described as a potential loss. Most importantly, trait anxiety was positively correlated with this behavioral bias. Trait anxiety was also positively correlated with amygdala-based “emotional” system activation and its coupling with the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) when decisions were consistent with the framing effect, but negatively correlated with the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC)-based “analytic” system activation and its connectivity to the vmPFC when decisions ran counter to the framing effect. Our findings suggest that trait anxiety is not associated with subjective risk preference but an evaluative bias of emotional information in decision making, underpinned by a hyperactive emotional system and a hypoactive analytic system in the brain. PMID:24259585

  14. Mindfulness facets, trait emotional intelligence, emotional distress, and multiple health behaviors: A serial two-mediator model.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Ingo; Wollny, Anna; Sim, Chu-Won; Horsch, Antje

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, we tested a serial mindfulness facets-trait emotional intelligence (TEI)-emotional distress-multiple health behaviors mediation model in a sample of N = 427 German-speaking occupational therapists. The mindfulness facets-TEI-emotional distress section of the mediation model revealed partial mediation for the mindfulness facets Act with awareness (Act/Aware) and Accept without judgment (Accept); inconsistent mediation was found for the Describe facet. The serial two-mediator model included three mediational pathways that may link each of the four mindfulness facets with multiple health behaviors. Eight out of 12 indirect effects reached significance and fully mediated the links between Act/Aware and Describe to multiple health behaviors; partial mediation was found for Accept. The mindfulness facet Observe was most relevant for multiple health behaviors, but its relation was not amenable to mediation. Implications of the findings will be discussed. PMID:27062306

  15. Relations between life satisfaction, adjustment to illness, and emotional distress in a sample of men with ischemic cardiopathy.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, María Angeles; Sanjuan, Pilar; Pérez-García, Ana M; Rueda, Beatriz

    2011-05-01

    Fifty-two men who had suffered a first episode ischemic heart disease reported their degree of life satisfaction, the strategies they used to adjust to the illness, and the symptoms of anxiety and depression they felt. The multiple regression analyses carried out indicated that emotional distress was associated with a lower level of life satisfaction. In the analyses of anxiety symptoms, the use of negative adjustment strategies was also a significant predictor. Lastly, a significant Life Satisfaction x Type of Adjustment interaction was obtained. According to this, the patients who felt more satisfaction with their lives used more positive strategies to adjust to the illness and fewer negative ones, than the group of patients who were less satisfied. In conclusion, life satisfaction predicts emotional wellbeing of patients with ischemic heart disease and it enhances the implementation of appropriate strategies to cope with the disease. Moreover, although life satisfaction has been considered a stable measure, we suggest it may change as the experience of illness limits individuals' important goals. PMID:21568192

  16. A randomized control study of psychological intervention to reduce anxiety, amotivation and psychological distress among medical students

    PubMed Central

    Saravanan, Coumaravelou; Kingston, Rajiah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Test anxiety aggravates psychological distress and reduces the motivation among graduate students. This study aimed to identify psychological intervention for test anxiety, which reduces the level of psychological distress, amotivation and increases the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among medical students. Materials and Methods: Westside test anxiety scale, Kessler Perceived Stress Scale and Academic Motivation Scale were used to measure test anxiety, psychological distress and motivation on 436 1st year medical students. Out of 436 students, 74 students who exhibited moderate to high test anxiety were randomly divided into either experimental or waiting list group. In this true randomized experimental study, 32 participants from the intervention group received five sessions of psychological intervention consist of psychoeducation, relaxation therapy and systematic desensitization. Thirty-three students from waiting list received one session of advice and suggestions. Results: After received psychological intervention participants from the intervention group experienced less anxiety, psychological distress, and amotivation (P < 0.01) and high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (P < 0.01) in the postassessment compared with their preassessment scores. Conclusion: Overall psychological intervention is effective to reduce anxiety scores and its related variables. PMID:25097619

  17. Childhood Emotional Abuse and Disordered Eating among Undergraduate Females: Mediating Influence of Alexithymia and Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hund, Anita R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Drawing from stress-vulnerability and trauma theory (e.g., Rorty & Yager, 1996), this paper presents a model of associations among child emotional abuse (CEA), alexithymia, general distress (GD), and disordered eating (DE). This study extended previous research on psychological outcomes of child physical and sexual abuse to explore…

  18. Adolescent Twins and Emotional Distress: The Interrelated Influence of Nonshared Environment and Social Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosnoe, Robert; Elder, Glen H., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the power of nonshared environment to differentiate adolescent monozygotic twin development and the extent to which this power varied across social structural contexts. Findings indicated that differences in maternal closeness, teacher bonding, and religious participation differentiated twins on emotional distress. Family…

  19. Daily Family Conflict and Emotional Distress among Adolescents from Latin American, Asian, and European Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Grace H.; Flook, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    The authors employed a daily diary method to assess daily frequencies of interparental and parent-adolescent conflict over a 2-week period and their implications for emotional distress across the high school years in a longitudinal sample of 415 adolescents from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds. Although family conflict remained…

  20. Toddlers' Empathy-Related Responding to Distress: Predictions from Negative Emotionality and Maternal Behavior in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinrad, Tracy L.; Stifter, Cynthia A.

    2006-01-01

    This study focused on the predictive contributions of infants' temperamental negative emotionality (proneness to fear, anger), sex, maternal responsivity, and their interaction on toddlers' empathy-related responding to distress in 3 contexts. Ninety-eight infants and their mothers participated in a longitudinal study. When the infants were 10…

  1. Past Victimizations and Dating Violence Perpetration in Adolescence: The Mediating Role of Emotional Distress and Hostility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boivin, Sophie; Lavoie, Francine; Hebert, Martine; Gagne, Marie-Helene

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to understand the nature of the relationships between three forms of past victimizations (exposure to interparental violence in childhood, sexual harassment by peers since beginning high school, prior experience of dating violence), physical dating violence perpetration by adolescents, and anger-hostility and emotional distress.…

  2. Emotional Distress and Posttraumatic Stress in Children: The Impact of Direct versus Indirect Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhushan, Braj; Kumar, J. Sathya

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether familiarity with the physical environment and verbal/pictorial exposure to a tsunami also inducted posttraumatic stress symptoms in adolescents. The Impact of Event Scale (IES) and Pediatric Emotional Distress Scale (PEDS) were administered to 231 subjects (130 directly exposed and 101 indirectly exposed). The directly…

  3. Paradoxical cardiovascular effects of implementing adaptive emotion regulation strategies in generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Aldao, Amelia; Mennin, Douglas S

    2012-02-01

    Recent models of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have expanded on Borkovec's avoidance theory by delineating emotion regulation deficits associated with the excessive worry characteristic of this disorder (see Behar, DiMarco, Hekler, Mohlman, & Staples, 2009). However, it has been difficult to determine whether emotion regulation is simply a useful heuristic for the avoidant properties of worry or an important extension to conceptualizations of GAD. Some of this difficulty may arise from a focus on purported maladaptive regulation strategies, which may be confounded with symptomatic distress components of the disorder (such as worry). We examined the implementation of adaptive regulation strategies by participants with and without a diagnosis of GAD while watching emotion-eliciting film clips. In a between-subjects design, participants were randomly assigned to accept, reappraise, or were not given specific regulation instructions. Implementation of adaptive regulation strategies produced differential effects in the physiological (but not subjective) domain across diagnostic groups. Whereas participants with GAD demonstrated lower cardiac flexibility when implementing adaptive regulation strategies than when not given specific instructions on how to regulate, healthy controls showed the opposite pattern, suggesting they benefited from the use of adaptive regulation strategies. We discuss the implications of these findings for the delineation of emotion regulation deficits in psychopathology. PMID:22218164

  4. Processing emotional facial expressions: the role of anxiety and awareness.

    PubMed

    Fox, Elaine

    2002-03-01

    In this paper, the role of self-reported anxiety and degree of conscious awareness as determinants of the selective processing of affective facial expressions is investigated. In two experiments, an attentional bias toward fearful facial expressions was observed, although this bias was apparent only for those reporting high levels of trait anxiety and only when the emotional face was presented in the left visual field. This pattern was especially strong when the participants were unaware of the presence of the facial stimuli. In Experiment 3, a patient with right-hemisphere brain damage and visual extinction was presented with photographs of faces and fruits on unilateral and bilateral trials. On bilateral trials, it was found that faces produced less extinction than did fruits. Moreover, faces portraying a fearful or a happy expression tended to produce less extinction than did neutral expressions. This suggests that emotional facial expressions may be less dependent on attention to achieve awareness. The implications of these results for understanding the relations between attention, emotion, and anxiety are discussed. PMID:12452584

  5. The depression distress amplification model in adolescents: A longitudinal examination of anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns, depression and suicidal ideation.

    PubMed

    Capron, Daniel W; Allan, Nicholas P; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Leen-Feldner, Ellen; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-06-01

    Adolescents with comorbid anxiety and depression are at significantly increased risk of suicide. The recently proposed depression distress amplification model appears to have promise for explaining the relations between anxiety, depression, and suicidality, but it has not been tested in adolescents. Participants were 524 adolescents followed over two years. Baseline data for the current report were collected by trained interviewers while the adolescents were in eighth grade. Data were obtained in the same manner when the adolescents were in tenth grade. Baseline anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns significantly predicted suicidal ideation two years later, above and beyond baseline suicidal ideation and depression. Further, consistent with the depression distress amplification model, anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns interacted with depressive symptoms to predict suicidal ideation. This report extends the empirical and theoretical support for a relationship between anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns and suicidality. PMID:25754194

  6. Why behavior analysts should study emotion: the example of anxiety.

    PubMed Central

    Friman, P C; Hayes, S C; Wilson, K G

    1998-01-01

    Historically, anxiety has been a dominant subject in mainstream psychology but an incidental or even insignificant one in behavior analysis. We discuss several reasons for this discrepancy. We follow with a behavior-analytic conceptualization of anxiety that could just as easily be applied to emotion in general. Its primary points are (a) that languageable humans have an extraordinary capacity to derive relations between events and that it is a simple matter to show that neutral stimuli can acquire discriminative functions indirectly with no direct training; (b) that private events can readily acquire discriminative functions; (c) that anxiety disorders seem to occur with little apparent direct learning or that the amount of direct learning is extraordinarily out of proportion with the amount of responding; and (d) that the primary function of anxious behavior is experiential avoidance. We conclude that the most interesting aspects of anxiety disorders may occur as a function of derived rather than direct relations between public events and overt and private responses with avoidance functions. Implicit in this conclusion and explicit in the paper is the assertion that anxiety is a suitable subject for behavior-analytic study. PMID:9532758

  7. God, Can I Tell You Something? The Effect of Religious Coping on the Relationship between Anxiety Over Emotional Expression, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Jennifer L.; Lucas, Sydnee; Quist, Michelle C.; Steers, Mai-Ly N.; Foster, Dawn W.; Young, Chelsie M.; Lu, Qian

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated whether religious coping would moderate the association between ambivalence over emotional expression (AEE) and depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms such that the positive relationship between AEE and depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms would be weaker among those higher in religious coping. Three-hundred and fifty-two undergraduates (M age=23.51 years, SD=6.80; 84.4% female) completed study materials. Contrary to expectations, results revealed a significant interaction between religious coping and AEE such that religious coping exacerbated the relationship between higher AEE and distress symptoms. The implications of this study suggest that religious coping may not be an ideal coping mechanism for individuals with high levels of AEE. These results indicate the need to further examine the role of AEE in religious coping, and have potential implications for clinicians, healthcare professionals, and religious mentors who may promote the use of religious coping in treatment. PMID:27019677

  8. Attentional Control Theory in Childhood: Enhanced Attentional Capture by Non-Emotional and Emotional Distractors in Anxiety and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Waszczuk, Monika A.; Brown, Hannah M.; Eley, Thalia C.; Lester, Kathryn J.

    2015-01-01

    Attentional control theory (ACT) proposes that anxiety is associated with executive functioning deficits. The theory has been widely investigated in adults. The current study tested whether symptoms of childhood anxiety and depression were associated with experimentally measured attentional control in the context of non-emotional and emotional stimuli. Sixty-one children (mean age = 9.23 years, range = 8.39–10.41) reported their trait anxiety and depression symptoms and completed three visual search tasks. The tasks used a variant of an irrelevant singleton paradigm and measured attentional capture by task-irrelevant non-emotional (color) and emotional (facial expressions) distractors. Significant attentional capture by both non-emotional and emotional distractors was observed, and was significantly correlated with trait anxiety and symptoms of depression. The strength of relationship between attentional capture and the symptoms did not differ significantly for non-emotional and emotional distractors. The results suggest that symptoms of childhood anxiety and depression are associated with poorer attentional control both in the presence of emotional and non-emotional stimuli, supporting ACT in younger populations. This attentional deficit in the context of non-emotional information might be as central to childhood internalizing symptoms as attentional biases often observed on tasks investigating processing of emotional stimuli. PMID:26599268

  9. Attentional Control Theory in Childhood: Enhanced Attentional Capture by Non-Emotional and Emotional Distractors in Anxiety and Depression.

    PubMed

    Waszczuk, Monika A; Brown, Hannah M; Eley, Thalia C; Lester, Kathryn J

    2015-01-01

    Attentional control theory (ACT) proposes that anxiety is associated with executive functioning deficits. The theory has been widely investigated in adults. The current study tested whether symptoms of childhood anxiety and depression were associated with experimentally measured attentional control in the context of non-emotional and emotional stimuli. Sixty-one children (mean age = 9.23 years, range = 8.39-10.41) reported their trait anxiety and depression symptoms and completed three visual search tasks. The tasks used a variant of an irrelevant singleton paradigm and measured attentional capture by task-irrelevant non-emotional (color) and emotional (facial expressions) distractors. Significant attentional capture by both non-emotional and emotional distractors was observed, and was significantly correlated with trait anxiety and symptoms of depression. The strength of relationship between attentional capture and the symptoms did not differ significantly for non-emotional and emotional distractors. The results suggest that symptoms of childhood anxiety and depression are associated with poorer attentional control both in the presence of emotional and non-emotional stimuli, supporting ACT in younger populations. This attentional deficit in the context of non-emotional information might be as central to childhood internalizing symptoms as attentional biases often observed on tasks investigating processing of emotional stimuli. PMID:26599268

  10. Divided and disconnected--an examination of youths' experiences with emotional distress within the context of their everyday lives.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Emily K; Johnson, Joy L; Bungay, Vicky; Kothari, Anita; Saewyc, Elizabeth M

    2015-09-01

    This paper is based on a qualitative study conducted in a rural community in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnographic methods were used to: (1) to bring youth voice to the literature on emotional distress; and (2) to capture the ways in which context shapes young peoples' experiences of emotional distress within their everyday lives. Our findings demonstrate how socio-structural contextual factors such as the local economy, geographical segregation, racism, ageism, and cutbacks in health and social service programming operate to create various forms of disconnection, and intersect in young peoples' lives to shape their experiences of emotional distress. PMID:26302053

  11. Neither state or trait anxiety alter the response to distracting emotionally neutral sounds.

    PubMed

    Hoskin, Robert; Hunter, Mike D; Woodruff, Peter W R

    2015-01-01

    Attentional control theory suggests that heightened anxiety, whether due to trait or state factors, causes an increased vulnerability to distraction even when the distracters are emotionally neutral. Recent passive oddball studies appear to support this theory in relation to the distraction caused by emotionally neutral sounds. However such studies have manipulated emotional state via the content of task stimuli, thus potentially confounding changes in emotion with differences in task demands. To identify the effect of anxiety on the distraction caused by emotionally neutral sounds, 50 participants completed a passive oddball task requiring emotionally neutral sounds to be ignored. Crucially, state anxiety was manipulated independent of the task stimuli (via unrelated audiovisual stimuli) thus removing confounds relating to task demands. Neither state or trait anxiety was found to influence the susceptibility to distraction by emotionally neutral sounds. These findings contribute to the ongoing debate concerning the impact of emotion on attention. PMID:25217343

  12. Anxiety, Depression, and General Psychological Distress in Patients with Coronary Slow Flow

    PubMed Central

    Karataş, Mehmet Baran; Şahan, Ebru; Özcan, Kazım Serhan; Çanga, Yiğit; Güngör, Barış; Onuk, Tolga; İpek, Göktürk; Çakıllı, Yasin; Arugaslan, Emre; Bolca, Osman

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between psychiatric illness and heart disease has been frequently discussed in the literature. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between anxiety, depression and overall psychological distress, and coronary slow flow (CSF). Methods In total, 44 patients with CSF and a control group of 50 patients with normal coronary arteries (NCA) were prospectively recruited. Clinical data, admission laboratory parameters, and echocardiographic and angiographic characteristics were recorded. Symptom Checklist 90 Revised (SCL-90-R), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) scales were administered to each patient. Results The groups were comparable with respect to age, sex, and atherosclerotic risk factors. In the CSF group, BAI score, BDI score, and general symptom index were significantly higher than controls (13 [18.7] vs. 7.5 [7], p = 0.01; 11 [14.7] vs. 6.5 [7], p = 0.01; 1.76 [0.81] vs. 1.1[0.24], p = 0.01; respectively). Patients with CSF in more than one vessel had the highest test scores. In univariate correlation analysis, mean thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) frame counts were positively correlated with BAI (r = 0.56, p = 0.01), BDI (r = 0.47, p = 0.01), and general symptom index (r = 0.65, p = 0.01). The psychiatric tests were not correlated with risk factors for atherosclerosis. Conclusion Our study revealed higher rates of depression, anxiety, and overall psychological distress in patients with CSF. This conclusion warrants further studies. PMID:26559983

  13. Pain and emotional distress among substance-use patients beginning treatment relative to a representative comparison group

    PubMed Central

    Wiest, Katharina L.; Colditz, Jason B.; Carr, Kathryn; Asphaug, Victoria J.; McCarty, Dennis; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: A secondary analysis assessed health-related quality of life characteristics (i.e. anxiety, depression, fatigue, and types of pain) among patients entering substance-use treatment, and identified characteristics specific to treatment modalities relative to a representative comparison group. Methods: As part of a larger alcohol bank assessment, substance-use patients (n=406) beginning methadone treatment (n=170) or other outpatient treatment (n=236) and a comparison group representative of the general population (n=1000) completed a survey measuring anxiety, depression, fatigue, pain interference, and pain in the last 7 days. Previous studies lacked comparable and concurrent assessments across these three groups. Results: Patients entering substance-use treatment had relatively high levels of emotional distress and poorer health-related quality of life relative to the general population. Among treatment modalities, patients beginning methadone treatment reported the highest levels of pain interference and pain behavior and the poorest physical functioning. Prior to the potentially modifying effects of methadone maintenance, patients beginning agonist therapy reported the greatest levels of compromised quality of life. Conclusion: These data present the magnitude of differences in health-related quality of life characteristics between treatment and comparison groups using the same assessment rubric and may help inform the design and timing of treatment modalities, thereby enhancing treatment efficacy for patients. PMID:25275876

  14. Using food to soothe: Maternal attachment anxiety is associated with child emotional eating.

    PubMed

    Hardman, Charlotte A; Christiansen, Paul; Wilkinson, Laura L

    2016-04-01

    Attachment anxiety (fear of abandonment) is associated with disinhibited eating in adults. Both maternal disinhibited eating and use of emotional feedings strategies are associated with emotional eating in children. On this basis, the current study sought to determine whether attachment anxiety is an underlying maternal characteristic that predicts parental reports of child emotional over-eating via its effects on maternal disinhibited eating and emotional feeding. Mothers of a preadolescent child (N = 116) completed an internet-delivered questionnaire. Maternal attachment anxiety and dietary disinhibition were assessed by the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire, respectively. The Parental Feeding Strategies Questionnaire and the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire were used to quantify emotional feeding and child emotional over-eating, respectively. Bias-corrected bootstrapping indicated a significant direct effect of maternal attachment anxiety on child emotional over-eating (i.e., controlling for maternal disinhibited eating and emotional feeding). There was also a significant indirect effect of maternal attachment anxiety on child emotional over-eating via emotional feeding strategies. In a subsequent model to investigate bi-directional relationships, the direct effect of maternal attachment anxiety on emotional feeding strategies was not statistically significant after controlling for child emotional over-eating. There was, however, a significant indirect effect of maternal attachment anxiety on emotional feeding strategies via child emotional over-eating. These findings highlight the influence of maternal attachment anxiety on parental reports of aberrant eating behaviour in children. While this may be partly due to use of emotional feeding strategies, there is stronger evidence for a "child-responsive" model whereby anxiously-attached mothers use these feeding practices in response to perceived

  15. Prevalence and Predictors of Mental/Emotional Distress Among HIV+ Jail Detainees at Enrollment in an Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Lincoln, Thomas; Simon-Levine, Dominique; Smith, JuliAnna; Donenberg, Geri R.; Springer, Sandra A.; Zaller, Nickolas; Altice, Frederick L.; Moore, Kevin; Jordan, Alison O.; Draine, Jeffrey; Desabrais, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the prevalence of mental/emotional distress and its specific correlates among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in 20 jail systems across the United States. Of the 878 PLWHA jail detainees, 52% had high levels of mental/emotional distress, defined by the composite Addiction Severity Index score. High mental/emotional distress was found to be associated with the inmate living in a city with lower income inequality, lower health ranking, and higher degree of danger. Proximate variables included being female, bisexual orientation, poorer physical health, and increased severity of substance abuse. Inmates in jails with accredited health services and those satisfied with family support had lower mental/emotional distress scores. These findings indicate the need for expanded mental health assessment of PLWHAs entering jail. PMID:25788608

  16. Prevalence and Predictors of Mental/Emotional Distress Among HIV+ Jail Detainees at Enrollment in an Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Thomas; Simon-Levine, Dominique; Smith, JuliAnna; Donenberg, Geri R; Springer, Sandra A; Zaller, Nickolas; Altice, Frederick L; Moore, Kevin; Jordan, Alison O; Draine, Jeffrey; Desabrais, Maureen

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluates the prevalence of mental/emotional distress and its specific correlates among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in 20 jail systems across the United States. Of the 878 PLWHA jail detainees, 52% had high levels of mental/emotional distress, defined by the composite Addiction Severity Index score. High mental/emotional distress was found to be associated with the inmate living in a city with lower income inequality, lower health ranking, and higher degree of danger. Proximate variables included being female, bisexual orientation, poorer physical health, and increased severity of substance abuse. Inmates in jails with accredited health services and those satisfied with family support had lower mental/emotional distress scores. These findings indicate the need for expanded mental health assessment of PLWHAs entering jail. PMID:25788608

  17. Emotion Dysregulation and Anxiety in Adults with ASD: Does Social Motivation Play a Role?

    PubMed

    Swain, Deanna; Scarpa, Angela; White, Susan; Laugeson, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    Young adults with ASD and no intellectual impairment are more likely to exhibit clinical levels of anxiety than typically developing peers (DSM-5, American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This study tests a mechanistic model in which anxiety culminates via emotion dysregulation and social motivation. Adults with ASD (49 males, 20 females) completed self-report measures on emotion regulation, caregivers completed measures on ASD severity and both on social anxiety. Results indicated that emotion dysregulation (p < .001; p < .05) and social motivation (p < .05, p < .001) significantly predicted social anxiety as reported by caregivers and young adults respectively. However, social motivation did not appear to play a moderating role in the relationship between emotion regulation and anxiety, even when controlling for social awareness. Significant predictor variables of social anxiety varied based on reporter (i.e. caregiver versus young adult), with difficulty engaging in goal-directed behaviors during negative emotions serving as the only shared predictor. PMID:26319254

  18. Emotional contagion of distress in young pigs is potentiated by previous exposure to the same stressor.

    PubMed

    Goumon, Sébastien; Špinka, Marek

    2016-05-01

    This study tested whether emotional contagion occurs when piglets directly observe a penmate in distress (restraint) and whether there is an effect of previous experience on the response to subsequent restraint or exposure to conspecific distress. Piglets (49.7 ± 0.7 days) were exposed in pairs to two stress phases (SP1 and SP2) in an arena divided into two pens by a wire mesh wall. During SP1, one of the pigs of a pair was either restrained (Stress treatment) or sham-restrained (Control treatment), while the other pig was considered observer. During SP2, the previous observer was restrained, while its penmate took the observer role. Heart rate variability, locomotion, vocalizations, body/head/ear and tail postures were monitored. During SP1, observer pigs responded to conspecific distress with increased indicators of attention (looking at, proximity to and snout contacts with the distressed pigs) and increased indicators of fear (reduced locomotion, increased freezing). During SP2, the observer pigs that had been restrained previously reacted more strongly (through higher proximity, decreased locomotion, increased freezing) to observing the penmate in restraint than pigs without the previous negative experience. This study suggests that young pigs are susceptible to emotional contagion and that this contagion is potentiated by previous exposure to the same stressor. These findings have implications for pig welfare in practical animal husbandry systems. PMID:26753689

  19. Memory and coping with stress: the relationship between cognitive-emotional distinctiveness, memory valence, and distress.

    PubMed

    Boals, Adriel; Rubin, David C; Klein, Kitty

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive-emotional distinctiveness (CED), the extent to which an individual separates emotions from an event in the cognitive representation of the event, was explored in four studies. CED was measured using a modified multidimensional scaling procedure. The first study found that lower levels of CED in memories of the September 11 terrorist attacks predicted greater frequency of intrusive thoughts about the attacks. The second study revealed that CED levels are higher in negative events, in comparison to positive events and that low CED levels in emotionally intense negative events are associated with a pattern of greater event-related distress. The third study replicated the findings from the previous study when examining CED levels in participants' memories of the 2004 Presidential election. The fourth study revealed that low CED in emotionally intense negative events is associated with worse mental health. We argue that CED is an adaptive and healthy coping feature of stressful memories. PMID:18569690

  20. Emotional distress among LGBT youth: the influence of perceived discrimination based on sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Joanna; Johnson, Renee M; Corliss, Heather L; Molnar, Beth E; Azrael, Deborah

    2009-08-01

    The authors evaluated emotional distress among 9th-12th grade students, and examined whether the association between being lesbian, gay, bisexual, and/or transgendered (i.e., "LGBT") and emotional distress was mediated by perceptions of having been treated badly or discriminated against because others thought they were gay or lesbian. Data come from a school-based survey in Boston, Massachusetts (n = 1,032); 10% were LGBT, 58% were female, and ages ranged from 13 to 19 years. About 45% were Black, 31% were Hispanic, and 14% were White. LGBT youth scored significantly higher on the scale of depressive symptomatology. They were also more likely than heterosexual, non-transgendered youth to report suicidal ideation (30% vs. 6%, p < 0.0001) and self-harm (21% vs. 6%, p < 0.0001). Mediation analyses showed that perceived discrimination accounted for increased depressive symptomatology among LGBT males and females, and accounted for an elevated risk of self-harm and suicidal ideation among LGBT males. Perceived discrimination is a likely contributor to emotional distress among LGBT youth. PMID:19636742

  1. Emotional distress among couples involved in first-trimester induced abortions.

    PubMed Central

    Lauzon, P.; Roger-Achim, D.; Achim, A.; Boyer, R.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish the prevalence of clinically significant psychological distress in women and men involved in first-trimester abortions and to identify related risk factors. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A downtown Montreal public abortion clinic and the Montreal metropolitan area. PARTICIPANTS: We recruited 197 women and 113 men involved in first-trimester abortions and compared them with control groups composed of 728 women and 630 men 15 to 35 years old who had taken part in a previous public health survey (Enquête Santé Québec 1987). One hundred twenty-seven women and 69 men completed the follow-up questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Level of distress as measured by the Ilfeld Psychological Symptom Index. RESULTS: Before the abortion, 56.9% of women and 39.6% of men were much more distressed than their respective controls. Three weeks after the abortion, 41.7% of women and 30.9% of men were still highly distressed. Predictors of distress for women were fear of negative effects on the relationship, unsatisfactory relationships, relationships of less than 1 year, ambivalence about the decision to abort, not having a previous child, and suicidal ideation (this association was weaker than in controls). Predictors for men were fear of negative effects on the relationship, relationships of less than 1 year, preoccupation with the abortion and anxiety about its accompanying pain, negative perceptions of their own health, suicidal gestures in the past, and suicidal ideation in the past year (only the association with suicidal gestures was marginally stronger than in controls). CONCLUSION: Being involved in a first-trimester abortion can be highly distressing for both women and men. PMID:11072583

  2. Assessment of nuclear anxiety among American students: Stability over time, secular trends, and emotional correlates

    SciTech Connect

    Newcomb, M.D.

    1989-10-01

    Studies of reactions and attitudes toward nuclear war have progressed from the use of anecdotal evidence to multi-item psychological measures. Additional psychometric data and substantive results of the Nuclear Attitudes Questionnaire (NAQ; Newcomb, 1986) are reported here. Data from three independent samples of students from the United States collected in 1984, 1986, and 1987 were compared and contrasted. The 1986 data were obtained immediately following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Test-retest reliability of the NAQ items and subscales was quite high and comparable among samples and established the across-time stability of the measure. There were several secular trends across years on items and subscales, indicating some increased concern about nuclear power (particularly in 1986), but also a general increase in nuclear concerns, fears, and anxiety. Anticipated sex differences were found on many of the NAQ items and subscales. Correlations between the NAQ subscales and the nine SCL-90-R scales (Derogatis, 1977) were consistent for the 1986 and 1987 samples. In latent variable analyses, a general factor of Emotional Distress was significantly correlated with a general factor of Nuclear Anxiety, as well as specifically with nuclear concern and fear for the future.

  3. Parents of children with cancer: a longitudinal study of emotional distress, coping style, and marital adjustment two and twenty months after diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Dahlquist, L M; Czyzewski, D I; Jones, C L

    1996-08-01

    Evaluated emotional distress, coping style, and marital adjustment in 84 parents (42 couples) of children with cancer 2 months after diagnosis and again about 20 months after diagnosis. As expected, mothers' mean state anxiety and trait anxiety scores decreased to near normal levels over time. Fathers' scores were lower initially and did not change. Neither mothers' nor fathers' mean marital adjustment scores changed over time. Marital adjustment at treatment follow-up was predicted by depression and the spouse's marital satisfaction in mothers, and depression, child health status, and spouse's marital satisfaction in fathers. In contrast to findings obtained 2 months after diagnosis, coping style was not related to marital adjustment at follow-up. Results are discussed in terms of possible gender differences in the role of social support in marital adjustment and the stability versus situational specificity of coping styles. PMID:8863463

  4. An investigation of experiential avoidance, emotion dysregulation, and distress tolerance in young adult outpatients with borderline personality disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Iverson, Katherine M; Follette, Victoria M; Pistorello, Jacqueline; Fruzzetti, Alan E

    2012-10-01

    In this study we investigated 3 domains of emotional functioning--emotion dysregulation, distress tolerance, and experiential avoidance--in young adult outpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms. Participants were 40 young adult outpatients at a university counseling center who reported current suicidal ideation and met diagnostic criteria for BPD or experienced subthreshold BPD symptoms (i.e., met diagnostic criteria for 3 or 4 symptoms). Participants completed 3 self-report measures of emotional functioning-experiential avoidance (Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-2; Bond et al., 2011; Hayes et al., 2004), emotion dysregulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale; Gratz & Roemer, 2004), and distress tolerance (Distress Tolerance Scale; Simons & Gaher, 2005)-and a behavioral measure of distress tolerance (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task-Computerized; Lejuez, Kahler, & Brown, 2003), in addition to self-report measures of depression and BPD symptom severity. Partial correlations demonstrated that both emotion dysregulation and experiential avoidance were significantly associated with BPD symptom severity after accounting for depression. However, neither the self-report nor behavioral measure of distress tolerance were related to BPD symptom severity. A regression analysis with emotion dysregulation and experiential avoidance as independent variables revealed that only experiential avoidance was significantly associated with BPD symptom severity after controlling for depression symptoms. The current findings suggest that experiential avoidance may be a central process in BPD symptom severity. Future research directions are discussed. PMID:22452755

  5. The consequences of effortful emotion regulation when processing distressing material: A comparison of suppression and acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Barnaby D.; Billotti, Danielle; Murphy, Vicky; Dalgleish, Tim

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the consequences of different forms of emotion regulation. Eighty nine healthy participants viewed a distressing video of the aftermath of road traffic accidents under either suppression (of both felt and expressed affect), acceptance, or no-regulation control instructions and the immediate and longer-term consequences on emotion, mood, and memory were examined. Suppression (relative to control) led to reduced subjective experience of fear when viewing the video, but did not alter electrodermal (EDA) or heart rate (HR) response. Subsequently, suppression led to a less marked subjective emotional reaction to positive but not negative emotional images, reduced free recall memory of the video, and a greater likelihood of experiencing zero intrusions of the video's content. Acceptance (relative to control) had no impact when viewing the video, was associated with a less marked increase in EDA activity in the 5 min period immediately after viewing the video, a more marked HR deceleration and EDA response to both positive and negative images, and elevated negative affect at one week follow-up. These findings suggest, contrary to the current clinical zeitgeist, that emotion suppression can successfully lead to an ongoing down-regulation of emotion and memory, whereas acceptance may elevate subsequent emotionality. PMID:19559401

  6. Initial Study Using Fixed Role and Rational Emotive Therapy in Treating Public Speaking Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karst, Thomas O.; Trexler, Larry D.

    1970-01-01

    College students reporting high levels of public speaking anxiety received fixed role, or rational emotive group therapy, or no therapy. Support for the hypothesis that treatment would reduce anxiety more than no treatment was secured. Results lend support to the assumption that psychotherapy is effective in reducing emotional disorders, and that…

  7. Emotional Maltreatment, Peer Victimization, and Depressive versus Anxiety Symptoms during Adolescence: Hopelessness as a Mediator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Jessica L.; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Hamlat, Elissa J.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive comorbidity between depression and anxiety has driven research to identify unique and shared risk factors. This study prospectively examined the specificity of three interpersonal stressors (emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and relationally oriented peer victimization) as predictors of depressive versus anxiety symptoms in a racially…

  8. Anxious Writers: Distinguishing Anxiety from Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Martin

    An exploration of writing anxiety suggests that it is a normal form of behavior rather than a pathology, but that it varies in degrees of its dysfunctionality. Excerpts from the log books of college students in a writing anxiety workshop illustrate four broad categories of writing anxiety: procrastination, feeling emotionally distressed, thinking…

  9. Neural correlates of emotional interference in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Boehme, Stephanie; Ritter, Viktoria; Tefikow, Susan; Stangier, Ulrich; Strauss, Bernhard; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Straube, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Disorder-relevant but task-unrelated stimuli impair cognitive performance in social anxiety disorder (SAD); however, time course and neural correlates of emotional interference are unknown. The present study investigated time course and neural basis of emotional interference in SAD using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Patients with SAD and healthy controls performed an emotional stroop task which allowed examining interference effects on the current and the succeeding trial. Reaction time data showed an emotional interference effect in the current trial, but not the succeeding trial, specifically in SAD. FMRI data showed greater activation in the left amygdala, bilateral insula, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and left opercular part of the inferior frontal gyrus during emotional interference of the current trial in SAD patients. Furthermore, we found a positive correlation between patients' interference scores and activation in the mPFC, dorsal ACC and left angular/supramarginal gyrus. Taken together, results indicate a network of brain regions comprising amygdala, insula, mPFC, ACC, and areas strongly involved in language processing during the processing of task-unrelated threat in SAD. However, specifically the activation in mPFC, dorsal ACC, and left angular/supramarginal gyrus is associated with the strength of the interference effect, suggesting a cognitive network model of attentional bias in SAD. This probably comprises exceeded allocation of attentional resources to disorder-related information of the presented stimuli and increased self-referential and semantic processing of threat words in SAD. PMID:26042738

  10. Neural Correlates of Emotional Interference in Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Boehme, Stephanie; Ritter, Viktoria; Tefikow, Susan; Stangier, Ulrich; Strauss, Bernhard; Miltner, Wolfgang H. R.; Straube, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Disorder-relevant but task-unrelated stimuli impair cognitive performance in social anxiety disorder (SAD); however, time course and neural correlates of emotional interference are unknown. The present study investigated time course and neural basis of emotional interference in SAD using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Patients with SAD and healthy controls performed an emotional stroop task which allowed examining interference effects on the current and the succeeding trial. Reaction time data showed an emotional interference effect in the current trial, but not the succeeding trial, specifically in SAD. FMRI data showed greater activation in the left amygdala, bilateral insula, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and left opercular part of the inferior frontal gyrus during emotional interference of the current trial in SAD patients. Furthermore, we found a positive correlation between patients’ interference scores and activation in the mPFC, dorsal ACC and left angular/supramarginal gyrus. Taken together, results indicate a network of brain regions comprising amygdala, insula, mPFC, ACC, and areas strongly involved in language processing during the processing of task-unrelated threat in SAD. However, specifically the activation in mPFC, dorsal ACC, and left angular/supramarginal gyrus is associated with the strength of the interference effect, suggesting a cognitive network model of attentional bias in SAD. This probably comprises exceeded allocation of attentional resources to disorder-related information of the presented stimuli and increased self-referential and semantic processing of threat words in SAD. PMID:26042738

  11. Emotional Freedom Techniques for Anxiety: A Systematic Review With Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Clond, Morgan

    2016-05-01

    Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) combines elements of exposure and cognitive therapies with acupressure for the treatment of psychological distress. Randomized controlled trials retrieved by literature search were assessed for quality using the criteria developed by the American Psychological Association's Division 12 Task Force on Empirically Validated Treatments. As of December 2015, 14 studies (n = 658) met inclusion criteria. Results were analyzed using an inverse variance weighted meta-analysis. The pre-post effect size for the EFT treatment group was 1.23 (95% confidence interval, 0.82-1.64; p < 0.001), whereas the effect size for combined controls was 0.41 (95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.67; p = 0.001). Emotional freedom technique treatment demonstrated a significant decrease in anxiety scores, even when accounting for the effect size of control treatment. However, there were too few data available comparing EFT to standard-of-care treatments such as cognitive behavioral therapy, and further research is needed to establish the relative efficacy of EFT to established protocols. PMID:26894319

  12. Effects of Rational-Emotive Therapy on Psychophysiological and Reported Measures of Test Anxiety Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barabasz, Arreed F.; Barabasz, Marianne

    1981-01-01

    Developed audiotaped lectures, taped therapy session models, and homework assignments designed to reduce test anxiety within Ellis' rational-emotive therapy (RET) approach. RET subjects showed lower skin conductance responses to a test anxiety visualization and lower reported anxiety. Responses to an alternative visualization did not show…

  13. The Development of Anxiety Disorders: Considering the Contributions of Attachment and Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esbjorn, B. H.; Bender, P. K.; Reinholdt-Dunne, M. L.; Munck, L. A.; Ollendick, T. H.

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychiatric disorders in childhood. Nonetheless, theoretical knowledge of the development and maintenance of childhood anxiety disorders is still in its infancy. Recently, research has begun to investigate the influence of emotion regulation on anxiety disorders. Although a relation between anxiety…

  14. Comparison of EEG propagation speeds under emotional stimuli on smartphone between the different anxiety states

    PubMed Central

    Asakawa, Tetsuya; Muramatsu, Ayumi; Hayashi, Takuto; Urata, Tatsuya; Taya, Masato; Mizuno-Matsumoto, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effect of different anxiety states on information processing as measured by an electroencephalography (EEG) using emotional stimuli on a smartphone. Twenty-three healthy subjects were assessed for their anxiety states using The State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and divided into two groups: low anxiety (I, II) or high anxiety (III and IV, V). An EEG was performed while the participant was presented with emotionally laden audiovisual stimuli (resting, pleasant, and unpleasant sessions) and emotionally laden sentence stimuli (pleasant sentence, unpleasant sentence sessions) and EEG data was analyzed using propagation speed analysis. The propagation speed of the low anxiety group at the medial coronal for resting stimuli for all time segments was higher than those of high anxiety group. The low anxiety group propagation speeds at the medial sagittal for unpleasant stimuli in the 0–30 and 60–150 s time frames were higher than those of high anxiety group. The propagation speeds at 150 s for all stimuli in the low anxiety group were significantly higher than the correspondent propagation speeds of the high anxiety group. These events suggest that neural information processes concerning emotional stimuli differ based on current anxiety state. PMID:25540618

  15. Delineating Components of Emotion and Its Dysregulation in Anxiety and Mood Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mennin, Douglas S.; Holaway, Robert M.; Fresco, David M.; Moore, Michael T.; Heimberg, Richard G.

    2007-01-01

    Two studies sought to elucidate the components of emotion and its dysregulation and examine their role in both the overlap and distinctness of the symptoms of 3 highly comorbid anxiety and mood disorders (i.e., generalized anxiety disorder, major depression, and social anxiety disorder). In Study 1, exploratory factor analyses demonstrated that 4…

  16. Comparison of EEG propagation speeds under emotional stimuli on smartphone between the different anxiety states.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Tetsuya; Muramatsu, Ayumi; Hayashi, Takuto; Urata, Tatsuya; Taya, Masato; Mizuno-Matsumoto, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effect of different anxiety states on information processing as measured by an electroencephalography (EEG) using emotional stimuli on a smartphone. Twenty-three healthy subjects were assessed for their anxiety states using The State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and divided into two groups: low anxiety (I, II) or high anxiety (III and IV, V). An EEG was performed while the participant was presented with emotionally laden audiovisual stimuli (resting, pleasant, and unpleasant sessions) and emotionally laden sentence stimuli (pleasant sentence, unpleasant sentence sessions) and EEG data was analyzed using propagation speed analysis. The propagation speed of the low anxiety group at the medial coronal for resting stimuli for all time segments was higher than those of high anxiety group. The low anxiety group propagation speeds at the medial sagittal for unpleasant stimuli in the 0-30 and 60-150 s time frames were higher than those of high anxiety group. The propagation speeds at 150 s for all stimuli in the low anxiety group were significantly higher than the correspondent propagation speeds of the high anxiety group. These events suggest that neural information processes concerning emotional stimuli differ based on current anxiety state. PMID:25540618

  17. The relationship between meaning discrepancy and emotional distress among patients with cancer: the role of posttraumatic growth in a collectivistic culture.

    PubMed

    Li, W J; Miao, M; Gan, Y Q; Zhang, Z J; Cheng, G

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between meaning discrepancy and emotional distress (i.e. anxiety and depression) among patients with cancer in a collectivistic culture, and to explore the stress-buffering effect of posttraumatic growth on this relationship. We collected data from 198 patients with cancer who completed questionnaires measuring meaning discrepancy, posttraumatic growth, anxiety and depression. Correlation analyses indicated that meaning discrepancy positively correlated with anxiety (r = 0.477, P < 0.01) and depression (r = 0.452, P < 0.01). Three structural equation models were built to compare competing hypotheses. Results showed that the moderation model fits the data better than the mediation and independence models (χ(2) /df = 1.31, RMSEA = 0.040, CFI = 0.98, GFI = 0.92). The present study demonstrated a positive association between meaning discrepancy and anxiety/depression, and a protective effect of posttraumatic growth on mental health by buffering traumatic stress. The study has clinical implications for the medical practice of oncology; doctors, nurses, relatives and counsellors should attend to the psychological care of patients with cancer by exploring their meaning discrepancy, and promoting the use of posttraumatic growth as a psychological resource to buffer the anxiety and depression of patients with cancer. PMID:25711851

  18. Patient distress and emotional disclosure: a study of Chinese cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dong; Tian, Yan; Gao, Hui; Peng, Jingjing; Tan, Yong; Li, Yan

    2013-06-01

    The study was conducted to extend research on the reluctance for emotional disclosure to Chinese patients with a variety of types of cancer. A quantitative survey was conducted among 400 cancer patients in China. Statistical analysis revealed that among four confirmed factors on reluctance for emotional disclosure to physicians, no perceived need scored highest, followed by unwillingness to bother, no practical use, and fear of negative impact. Patient distress was negatively associated with no perceived need and no practical use. Patients with low family support scored significantly lower in all factors except fear of negative impact. Education and income affected the factor of no perceived need. Those patients having limited family support and limited education indicated a higher need for emotional support from their physicians and were more likely to open up to them. Cultural traits should be integrated into supportive cancer care research. PMID:22907149

  19. Switch from distress to well-being by strong emotions: Speculations on three clinical vignettes.

    PubMed

    Calanchini, Carlo

    2016-06-01

    Starting from three clinical vignettes representing two mental disorders and different approaches to their treatment, we ask whether and how an unexpected event occurring at a particular time in a person's life could provoke such strong emotions as to determine a sudden transition from a state of severe distress to one of well-being. In this transition, we postulate that a major role is played by biological tendencies and brain plasticity under the influence of psychotherapy and positive emotions, emotions-especially trust, the sense of being cared for, and falling in love-that are awakened by openness to novelty and to the Other. Neurobiologically, a sudden improvement could be ascribed to an oxytocinergic action that, combined with dopaminergic circuits, can restore a state of well-being, safe attachment, and gratification. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1687-1694, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26174585

  20. Infant Distress and Regulatory Behaviors Vary as a Function of Attachment Security Regardless of Emotion Context and Maternal Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leerkes, Esther M.; Wong, Maria S.

    2012-01-01

    Differences in infant distress and regulatory behaviors based on the quality of attachment to mother, emotion context (frustration versus fear), and whether or not mothers were actively involved in the emotion-eliciting tasks were examined in a sample of ninety-eight 16-month-old infants and their mothers. Dyads participated in the Strange…

  1. Effects of sex, sexual orientation, infidelity expectations, and love on distress related to emotional and sexual infidelity.

    PubMed

    Leeker, Olivia; Carlozzi, Al

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of participant sex, sexual orientation, infidelity expectations, and love on emotional responses to emotional and sexual infidelity. Participants (72 lesbian women, 114 heterosexual women, 53 gay men, and 57 heterosexual men) completed a demographic form, continuous emotion ratings in response to hypothetical infidelity scenarios, the Infidelity Expectations Questionnaire (IEQ), and the Triangular Love Scale. Sex, sexual orientation, and commitment and intimacy among partners were significant predictors of various emotional responses to sexual and emotional infidelity. Alternatively, passion among partners and expectations about a partner's likelihood of committing infidelity were not significant predictors of emotional reactions to infidelity. Across participants, sexual infidelity elicited more distressing feelings than emotional infidelity. Group differences were also found, with women responding with stronger emotions to emotional and sexual infidelity than men, and heterosexuals rating emotional and sexual infidelity as more emotionally distressing than lesbian and gay individuals. Sex and sexual orientation differences emerged regarding the degree to which specific emotions were reported in response to sexual and emotional infidelity. Clinical implications are offered, including how mental health professionals might use these findings to help clients cope with the negative effects of infidelity on romantic relationships. PMID:25059413

  2. Sexual Assault Disclosure Recipients' Experiences: Emotional Distress and Changes in the Relationship With the Victim.

    PubMed

    Milliken, Jennifer; Paul, Lisa A; Sasson, Sapir; Porter, Abigail; Hasulube, Jemi

    2016-01-01

    Sexual assault victims are more likely to disclose their experience to friends and family than formal support sources (e.g., police, counselors). As such, disclosure receipt is a relatively common occurrence, but little is known about the recipients' disclosure experience. This study examined predictors of recipient emotional distress and positive and negative changes in the victim-recipient relationship postdisclosure among 69 female undergraduates at 3 universities. Predictors of distress included greater self-rated closeness to the victim and greater confusion about how to help. Positive changes were predicted by greater closeness and less responsibility attributed to the victim, and negative changes were predicted by less closeness, greater assigned responsibility, and greater perceived ineffectiveness of one's help. Implications for improving the disclosure experience via psychoeducational interventions are presented. PMID:27074789

  3. The Influence of Emotional Stimuli on Attention Orienting and Inhibitory Control in Pediatric Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Sven C.; Hardin, Michael G.; Mogg, Karin; Benson, Valerie; Bradley, Brendan P.; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise; Liversedge, Simon P.; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2012-01-01

    Background: Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in children and adolescents, and are associated with aberrant emotion-related attention orienting and inhibitory control. While recent studies conducted with high-trait anxious adults have employed novel emotion-modified antisaccade tasks to examine the influence of emotional information on…

  4. Emotional Competence and Anxiety in Childhood and Adolescence: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Brittany L; Koehn, Amanda J; Abtahi, Mahsa Movahed; Kerns, Kathryn A

    2016-06-01

    Anxiety is conceptualized as a state of negative emotional arousal that is accompanied by concern about future threat. The purpose of this meta-analytic review was to evaluate the evidence of associations between emotional competence and anxiety by examining how specific emotional competence domains (emotion recognition, emotion expression, emotion awareness, emotion understanding, acceptance of emotion, emotional self-efficacy, sympathetic/empathic responses to others' emotions, recognition of how emotion communication and self-presentation affect relationships, and emotion regulatory processes) relate to anxiety in childhood and adolescence. A total of 185 studies were included in a series of meta-analyses (N's ranged from 573 to 25,711). Results showed that anxious youth are less effective at expressing (r = -0.15) and understanding emotions (r = -0.20), less aware of (r = -0.28) and less accepting of their own emotions (r = -0.49), and report less emotional self-efficacy (r = -0.36). More anxious children use more support-seeking coping strategies (r = 0.07) and are more likely to use less adaptive coping strategies including avoidant coping (r = 0.18), externalizing (r = 0.18), and maladaptive cognitive coping (r = 0.34). Emotion acceptance and awareness, emotional self-efficacy, and maladaptive cognitive coping yielded the largest effect sizes. Some effects varied with children's age. The findings inform intervention and treatment programs of anxiety in youth and identify several areas for future research. PMID:27072682

  5. Negative attachment cognitions and emotional distress in mainland Chinese adolescents: a prospective multiwave test of vulnerability-stress and stress generation models.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joseph R; Hankin, Benjamin L; Gibb, Brandon E; Hammen, Constance; Hazel, Nicholas A; Ma, Denise; Yao, Shuqiao; Zhu, Xiong Zhao; Abela, John R Z

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between attachment cognitions, stressors, and emotional distress in a sample of Chinese adolescents. Specifically, it was examined whether negative attachment cognitions predicted depression and anxiety symptoms, and if a vulnerability-stress or stress generation model best explained the relation between negative attachment cognitions and internalizing symptoms. Participants included 558 adolescents (310 females and 248 males) from an urban school in Changsha and 592 adolescents (287 female, 305 male) from a rural school in Liuyang, both in Hunan province located in mainland China. Participants completed self-report measures of negative attachment cognitions at baseline, and self-report measures of negative events, depression symptoms, and anxiety symptoms at baseline and at regular 1-month intervals for an overall 6-month follow-up (i.e., six follow-up assessments). Higher levels of negative attachment cognitions predicted prospective depression and anxiety symptoms. Furthermore, support was found for a stress generation model that partially mediated this longitudinal association. No support was found for a vulnerability-stress model. Overall, these findings highlight new developmental pathways for development of depression and anxiety symptoms in mainland Chinese adolescents. PMID:23237030

  6. Negative Attachment Cognitions and Emotional Distress in mainland Chinese Adolescents: A Prospective Multi-Wave Test of Vulnerability-Stress and Stress Generation Models

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Joseph R.; Hankin, Benjamin L.; Gibb, Brandon E.; Hammen, Constance; Hazel, Nicholas A.; Ma, Denise; Yao, Shuqiao; Zhu, Xiong Zhao; Abela, John R.Z.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study examined the relation between attachment cognitions, stressors, and emotional distress in a sample of Chinese adolescents. Specifically, it was examined whether negative attachment cognitions predicted depression and anxiety symptoms, and if a vulnerability-stress or stress generation model best explained the relation between negative attachment cognitions and internalizing symptoms. Method Participants included 558 adolescents (310 females and 248 males) from an urban school in Changsha, and 592 adolescents (287 females and 305 males) from a rural school in Liuyang, both in Hunan province located in mainland China. Participants completed self-report measures of negative attachment cognitions at baseline, and self-report measures of negative events, depression symptoms, and anxiety symptoms at baseline and at regular one month intervals for an overall 6-month follow-up (i.e., six follow-up assessments). Results Higher levels of negative attachment cognitions predicted prospective depression and anxiety symptoms. Furthermore, support was found for a stress generation model that partially mediated this longitudinal association. No support was found for a vulnerability-stress model. Conclusion Overall, these findings highlight new developmental pathways for development of depression and anxiety symptoms in mainland Chinese adolescents. PMID:23237030

  7. Exploration of the association between professional interactions and emotional distress of intensive care unit nursing personnel.

    PubMed

    Karanikola, Maria N K; Papathanassoglou, Elizabeth D E; Kalafati, Maria; Stathopoulou, Hariklia

    2012-01-01

    : Several studies provide evidence for the association between the quality of collaboration among intensive care unit (ICU) professionals and patients' outcomes, as well as nurses' moral distress and professional satisfaction. However, potential associations between collaboration and nurses' mental health indices have not been explored. The aim of this descriptive correlational study was to investigate the degree of satisfaction from interaction among ICU nursing personnel, as well as between ICU nursing personnel and physicians, and potential associations with ICU nursing personnel's anxiety symptoms. The sample consisted of ICU nursing personnel from 11 adult general hospitals in Greece (n = 229). Hamilton's Anxiety scale was applied for the quantitative assessment of anxiety symptoms and Stamps' Index of Work Satisfaction for the appraisal of nursing personnel's satisfaction from professional interactions. Demographic, vocational, and educational data were also recorded. Descriptive statistics were explored, and group comparisons, correlation, and regression analysis were used. The average satisfaction score from interaction among nursing personnel was moderate to high (5.3 [SD, 1.0]) and from nurse-to-physician interaction was moderate (4.0 [SD, 1.4]) (scale range, 1-7). The score of satisfaction from nurse-to-physician interaction was negatively mildly correlated with participants' (a) total anxiety score (τ = -0.160, P = .001), (b) tension (τ = -0.125, P = .015), and (c) depressive symptoms (τ = -0.148, P = .005). Weak negative correlations were detected between satisfaction from interaction among nursing personnel and participants' (a) total anxiety state (τ = -0.139, P = .003), (b) tension (τ = -0.137, P = .008), and (c) sleep disturbances (τ = -0.150, P = .003). Overall, female respondents had higher levels of anxiety symptoms than male respondents (Mann-Whitney U, P = .007). Satisfaction from professional interaction was not a strong predictor of

  8. Positive and negative family emotional climate differentially predict youth anxiety and depression via distinct affective pathways.

    PubMed

    Luebbe, Aaron M; Bell, Debora J

    2014-08-01

    A socioaffective specificity model was tested in which positive and negative affect differentially mediated relations of family emotional climate to youth internalizing symptoms. Participants were 134 7(th)-9(th) grade adolescents (65 girls; 86 % Caucasian) and mothers who completed measures of emotion-related family processes, experienced affect, anxiety, and depression. Results suggested that a family environment characterized by maternal psychological control and family negative emotion expressiveness predicted greater anxiety and depression, and was mediated by experienced negative affect. Conversely, a family emotional environment characterized by low maternal warmth and low positive emotion expressiveness predicted only depression, and was mediated through lowered experienced positive affect. This study synthesizes a theoretical model of typical family emotion socialization with an extant affect-based model of shared and unique aspects of anxiety and depression symptom expression. PMID:24356797

  9. Effect of trait anxiety on prefrontal control mechanisms during emotional conflict.

    PubMed

    Comte, Magali; Cancel, Aïda; Coull, Jennifer T; Schön, Daniele; Reynaud, Emmanuelle; Boukezzi, Sarah; Rousseau, Pierre-François; Robert, Gabriel; Khalfa, Stéphanie; Guedj, Eric; Blin, Olivier; Weinberger, Daniel R; Fakra, Eric

    2015-06-01

    Converging evidence points to a link between anxiety proneness and altered emotional functioning, including threat-related biases in selective attention and higher susceptibility to emotionally ambiguous stimuli. However, during these complex emotional situations, it remains unclear how trait anxiety affects the engagement of the prefrontal emotional control system and particularly the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a core region at the intersection of the limbic and prefrontal systems. Using an emotional conflict task and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated in healthy subjects the relations between trait anxiety and both regional activity and functional connectivity (psychophysiological interaction) of the ACC. Higher levels of anxiety were associated with stronger task-related activation in ACC but with reduced functional connectivity between ACC and lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC). These results support the hypothesis that when one is faced with emotionally incompatible information, anxiety leads to inefficient high-order control, characterized by insufficient ACC-LPFC functional coupling and increases, possibly compensatory, in activation of ACC. Our findings provide a deeper understanding of the pathophysiology of the neural circuitry underlying anxiety and may offer potential treatment markers for anxiety disorders. PMID:25664956

  10. Having "been there" doesn't mean I care: when prior experience reduces compassion for emotional distress.

    PubMed

    Ruttan, Rachel L; McDonnell, Mary-Hunter; Nordgren, Loran F

    2015-04-01

    The current research found that participants who had previously endured an emotionally distressing event (e.g., bullying) more harshly evaluated another person's failure to endure a similar distressing event compared with participants with no experience enduring the event or those currently enduring the event. These effects emerged for naturally occurring (Studies 1, 3, and 4) and experimentally induced (Study 2) distressing events. This effect was driven by the tendency for those who previously endured the distressing event to view the event as less difficult to overcome (Study 3). Moreover, we demonstrate that the effect is specific to evaluations of perceived failure: Compared with those with no experience, people who previously endured a distressing event made less favorable evaluations of an individual failing to endure the event, but made more favorable evaluations of an individual managing to endure the event (Study 4). Finally, we found that people failed to anticipate this effect of enduring distress, instead believing that individuals who have previously endured emotionally distressing events would most favorably evaluate others' failures to endure (Study 5). Taken together, these findings present a paradox such that, in the face of struggle or defeat, the people we seek for advice or comfort may be the least likely to provide it. PMID:25844576

  11. Psychological Distress and Emotional Pain Among Adult Attendees of a Dental Clinic: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Erinfolami, Adebayo Rasheed; Olagunju, Andrew Toyin; Oshodi, Yewande Olufunmilayo; Akinbode, Abiola Adelphine; Fadipe, Babatunde; Adeyemo, Wasiu Lanre

    2016-05-18

    We set out to carry out a case-control evaluation of psychological distress and emotional pain among adult attendees of a Nigerian dental clinic. A total of 201 subjects, made up of 101 dental patients (test group) matched with age and sex with 100 normal subjects (controls), was recruited into the study. All participants completed a designed socio-demographic questionnaire. General Health Question naire and Psyche ache Assessment Schedule were also administered to assess psychological distress based on cut-off scores ≥3 and emotional pain based on cut-off scores ≥28 respectively. The mean ages of study and control group were 33 (±12) and 36 (±13) years respectively, and both study and control groups were not significantly different in all the assessed socio-demographic parameters. Overall, 21.8% (n=22) of the subjects had psychological distress, while only 7% of the control group had psychological distress. This difference was statistically significant (P=0.003). Similarly, there was significant difference in the experience of psyche ache (unbearable psychological pain) as over a third of the dental patients (37.6%, n=38) had emotional pain, while only 13% of the controls experienced psych ache (P<0.001). In this study, the burden of psychological distress and emotional pain was many-fold in dental patients when compared with the controls. PMID:27403272

  12. Psychological Distress and Emotional Pain Among Adult Attendees of a Dental Clinic: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Erinfolami, Adebayo Rasheed; Olagunju, Andrew Toyin; Oshodi, Yewande Olufunmilayo; Akinbode, Abiola Adelphine; Fadipe, Babatunde; Adeyemo, Wasiu Lanre

    2016-01-01

    We set out to carry out a case-control evaluation of psychological distress and emotional pain among adult attendees of a Nigerian dental clinic. A total of 201 subjects, made up of 101 dental patients (test group) matched with age and sex with 100 normal subjects (controls), was recruited into the study. All participants completed a designed socio-demographic questionnaire. General Health Question naire and Psyche ache Assessment Schedule were also administered to assess psychological distress based on cut-off scores ≥3 and emotional pain based on cut-off scores ≥28 respectively. The mean ages of study and control group were 33 (±12) and 36 (±13) years respectively, and both study and control groups were not significantly different in all the assessed socio-demographic parameters. Overall, 21.8% (n=22) of the subjects had psychological distress, while only 7% of the control group had psychological distress. This difference was statistically significant (P=0.003). Similarly, there was significant difference in the experience of psyche ache (unbearable psychological pain) as over a third of the dental patients (37.6%, n=38) had emotional pain, while only 13% of the controls experienced psych ache (P<0.001). In this study, the burden of psychological distress and emotional pain was many-fold in dental patients when compared with the controls. PMID:27403272

  13. Unemployment, Parental Distress and Youth Emotional Well-Being: The Moderation Roles of Parent-Youth Relationship and Financial Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Frasquilho, Diana; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Marques, Adilson; Neville, Fergus G; Gaspar, Tânia; Caldas-de-Almeida, J M

    2016-10-01

    We investigated, in a sample of 112 unemployed parents of adolescents aged 10-19 years, the links between parental distress and change in youth emotional problems related to parental unemployment, and the moderation roles of parent-youth relationship and financial deprivation. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and correlations. Further, simple moderation, additive moderation, and moderated moderation models of regression were performed to analyze the effects of parental distress, parent-youth relationship and financial deprivation in predicting change in youth emotional problems related to parental unemployment. Results show that parental distress moderated by parent-youth relationship predicted levels of change in youth emotional problems related to parental unemployment. This study provides evidence that during job loss, parental distress is linked to youth emotional well-being and that parent-youth relationships play an important moderation role. This raises the importance of further researching parental distress impacts on youth well-being, especially during periods of high unemployment rates. PMID:26646144

  14. Social Anxiety and Positive Emotions: A Prospective Examination of a Self-Regulatory Model with Tendencies to Suppress or Express Emotions as a Moderating Variable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kashdan, Todd B.; Breen, William E.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine social anxiety as a predictor of positive emotions using a short-term prospective design. We examined whether the effects of social anxiety on positive emotions are moderated by tendencies to openly express or suppress emotions. Over the course of a 3-month interval, people with excessive social…

  15. Experimental Single-Session Imagery Rescripting of Distressing Memories in Bowel/Bladder-Control Anxiety: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Pajak, Rosanna; Kamboj, Sunjeev K.

    2014-01-01

    Bowel and bladder obsession [bowel/bladder-control anxiety (BBCA)] is a viscerally centered phobic syndrome involving a specific concern about losing control of bowel or bladder functioning in a public place. Like other anxiety disorders, BBCA is characterized by intrusive imagery. We have previously described the nature of intrusive mental imagery in BBCA and found imagery themes to be linked to actual experiences of loss of control or to “near misses.” A causal role for imagery in symptom maintenance can be inferred by examining the effects of imagery rescripting. Moreover, successful rescripting may point to a potentially efficacious avenue for treatment development. Three cases of imagery rescripting are described here with pre-, post-, and follow-up (1-week) data reported. After rescripting, two participants experienced pronounced reductions in imagery vividness, distress, shame, disgust, and belief conviction. Most importantly, all three participants experienced a reduction in fear-associated bladder and/or bowel sensations. The results support a causal role for mental imagery in bowel-bladder-control anxiety and suggest that rescripting of distressing intrusive memories linked to recurrent images may be a useful avenue for development of cognitive-behavioral treatments of bladder/bowel-control anxiety. PMID:25566101

  16. Trait anxiety, but not trait anger, predisposes obese individuals to emotional eating

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Kristin L.; Appelhans, Bradley M.; Whited, Matthew C.; Oleski, Jessica; Pagoto, Sherry L.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether trait anxiety and trait anger are associated with vulnerability to emotional eating, particularly among obese individuals. Lean (n=37) and obese (n=24) participants engaged in a laboratory study where they completed measures of trait anxiety and trait anger at screening and then completed 3 counterbalanced experimental sessions involving different mood inductions (neutral, anxiety, anger). Following each mood induction, participants were provided with snack foods in a sham taste test. Models predicting snack intake revealed a significant trait anxiety × body mass index group interaction, such that high trait anxiety was positively associated with food intake for obese individuals, but not their lean counterparts. Contrary to the hypothesis, trait anger was not associated with food intake for obese or lean participants. Results suggest that trait anxiety may be a risk factor for emotional eating among obese individuals. PMID:20959131

  17. The Structure of Perceived Emotional Control: Psychometric Properties of a Revised Anxiety Control Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Timothy A.; White, Kamila S.; Forsyth, John P.; Barlow, David H.

    2004-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Anxiety Control Questionnaire (ACQ) were evaluated in 1,550 outpatients with DSM-IV anxiety and mood disorders and 360 nonclinical participants. Counter to prior findings, exploratory factor analyses produced a 3-factor solution (Emotion Control, Threat Control, Stress Control) based on 15 of the ACQ's original…

  18. Effects of Test Anxiety on Performance, Worry, and Emotionality in Naturally Occurring Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Deitz, Sheila R.

    1978-01-01

    Test performance and reported anxiety levels of high and low test-anxious subjects taking either a regular exam or an exam containing brief, written relaxation instructions were compared. High test-anxious subjects performed more poorly and reported greater worry and emotionality. Results provide greater external validity for Test Anxiety Scale.…

  19. The Role of Emotion Regulation in the Treatment of Child Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannesdottir, Dagmar Kristin; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2007-01-01

    In this review, we examine the role of emotion regulation in the treatment of children with anxiety disorders. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been shown to "work" for children with anxiety disorders and it has been categorized as an evidence-based treatment. However, most studies have shown that the treatment is effective for about 60-70%…

  20. Emotion Dysregulation and Anxiety in Adults with ASD: Does Social Motivation Play a Role?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Deanna; Scarpa, Angela; White, Susan; Laugeson, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Young adults with ASD and no intellectual impairment are more likely to exhibit clinical levels of anxiety than typically developing peers (DSM-5, American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This study tests a mechanistic model in which anxiety culminates via emotion dysregulation and social motivation. Adults with ASD (49 males, 20 females)…

  1. Developmental Trajectories of Childhood Anxiety: Identifying Continuity and Change in Anxious Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weems, Carl F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines a way for thinking about continuity and change in childhood anxiety symptoms. Considerations for a model of continuity and change in anxious emotion are discussed first. Then, a perspective which may resolve inconsistencies across studies on the stability of childhood anxiety problems overtime is presented. The perspective…

  2. Normal-weight and overweight female adolescents with and without extreme weight-control behaviours: Emotional distress and body image concerns.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Sáez, Soledad; Pascual, Aitziber; Salaberria, Karmele; Echeburúa, Enrique

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse emotional distress and concerns related to body image in 712 normal-weight and overweight adolescent girls. A total of 12.3 per cent of the normal-weight girls and 25 per cent of the overweight girls showed extreme weight-control behaviours. In normal-weight adolescents, their engagement in extreme weight-control behaviours was associated with high levels of somatic symptoms, a drive for thinness and control over eating. In overweight girls, high levels of drive for thinness and anxiety were associated with extreme weight-control behaviours. Finally, the implications for preventive and therapeutic programmes are discussed. PMID:26032790

  3. Psychometric Properties of the Pediatric Emotional Distress Scale in a Diverse Sample of Children Exposed to Interpersonal Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spilsbury, James C.; Drotar, Dennis; Burant, Christopher; Flannery, Daniel; Creeden, Rosemary; Friedman, Steve

    2005-01-01

    This study determined psychometric properties of the Pediatric Emotional Distress Scale (PEDS) with an ethnically diverse sample of 383 children 2 to 7 years of age exposed to interpersonal violence and participating in a community-based intervention. Means and alpha coefficients for the total scale and 3 subscales fell within previously reported…

  4. Mediators of a Brief Hypnosis Intervention to Control Side Effects in Breast Surgery Patients: Response Expectancies and Emotional Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Guy H.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Schnur, Julie B.; David, Daniel; Silverstein, Jeffrey H.; Bovbjerg, Dana H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to test the hypotheses that response expectancies and emotional distress mediate the effects of an empirically validated presurgical hypnosis intervention on postsurgical side effects (i.e., pain, nausea, and fatigue). Method: Women (n = 200) undergoing breast-conserving surgery (mean age = 48.50 years;…

  5. Community Violence and Psychological Distress: The Protective Effects of Emotional Social Support and Sense of Personal Control among Older Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Beth Spenciner; Wilson, W. Cody

    2008-01-01

    This empirical study investigated three mechanisms of protection (preventive, compensatory, buffering) for two factors (emotional social support, sense of personal control) in the relationship between exposure to community violence and psychological distress among 947 diverse, older adolescents. Findings indicate that social support and sense of…

  6. Prevalence of emotional symptoms in Chilean oncology patients before the start of chemotherapy: potential of the distress thermometer as an ultra-brief screening instrument

    PubMed Central

    Calderón, Jorge; Campla, Cristóbal; D’Aguzan, Nicole; Barraza, Soledad; Padilla, Oslando; Sánchez, Cesar; Palma, Silvia; González, Matías

    2014-01-01

    Emotional distress (ED) is greater for oncology patients in comparison with the general population, and this has implications for the quality of life of the patient and his/her family, adherence to the treatment, and eventually, survivorship. In general, the detection of these symptoms is low, which explains the need for detection systems appropriate to the clinical reality of the oncology team. The objective of this study is to evaluate for the first time the usefulness of an ultra-brief screening instrument [distress thermometer (DT)], in a group of Chilean oncology patients. A total of 166 outpatients were evaluated at the Cancer Center of the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, before starting chemotherapy. Two screening instruments were applied: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and DT. The application of HADS resulted in a prevalence of 32.7% of anxiety symptoms (HADS-A ≥ 8), 15.7% of depression symptoms (HADS-D ≥ 8), and 39.8% had a total score of HADS-T ≥ 11. The DT resulted in the prevalence of 32.5% of distress or ED (DT ≥ 5). The validity of the DT was evaluated as a screening tool in comparison with HADS, observing, in relation to the anxiety scale (HADS-A), a sensitivity of 88.9% and specificity of 78.4% (DT ≥ 4); depression (HADS-D), a sensitivity of 69.2% and specificity of 74.3% (DT ≥ 5); and in relation to the total scale (HADS-T), a sensitivity of 68.2% and specificity of 73.0% (DT ≥ 4). This study demonstrates the elevated prevalence of emotional symptoms in Chilean oncology patients, before the start of chemotherapy, and confirms the potential of the DT as a brief screening instrument with easy application. The DT will allow the clinician to increase the detection threshold in the Chilean oncology population, intervene in a timely manner, and contribute to the comprehensive handling of the oncology patient without affecting the time needed for assistance. PMID:24966889

  7. Parent Emotion Socialization Practices and Child Self-regulation as Predictors of Child Anxiety: The Mediating Role of Cardiac Variability.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sarah R; Woodruff-Borden, Janet

    2015-08-01

    The importance of the parent-child relationship in emotional development is well supported. The parental role of facilitating a child's self-regulation may provide a more focused approach for examining the role of parenting in child anxiety. The current study hypothesized that parent emotion socialization practices would predict a child's abilities in self-regulation. Given that physiological arousal has been implicated in emotional development, this was hypothesized to mediate the relationship between parental emotion socialization and child emotion regulation to predict child anxiety. Eighty-five parent and child dyads participated in the study. Parents reporting higher degrees of unsupportive emotion socialization were more likely to have children with fewer abilities in emotion regulation. Cardiac responsiveness mediated the relationship between unsupportive emotion socialization and child emotion regulation. The model of cardiac responsiveness mediating the relationship between unsupportive emotion socialization and child emotion regulation failed to reach statistical significance in predicting child anxiety symptoms. PMID:25204571

  8. Discriminating patterns of emotions in 10- and 11-year-old children's anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, S H; Izard, C E

    1986-10-01

    In a study of the emotions involved in children's anxiety and depression, children and teachers completed inventories assessing the children's emotions, anxiety level, and depression level. The results of the study indicated that distinct patterns of emotion variables are involved in these two syndromes, and these patterns confirm the hypotheses based on differential emotions theory. An attempt to predict future depression was successful when based on the children's self-reported emotions but not when based on the teachers' ratings of the children's emotions. In part, the failure of the latter may have been due to the high stability (Time 1-Time 2 correlation) of the depression measure over the 4-month interval. PMID:3783429

  9. Common and disorder-specific neural responses to emotional faces in generalised anxiety, social anxiety and panic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fonzo, Gregory A.; Ramsawh, Holly J.; Flagan, Taru M.; Sullivan, Sarah G.; Letamendi, Andrea; Simmons, Alan N.; Paulus, Martin P.; Stein, Murray B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although evidence exists for abnormal brain function across various anxiety disorders, direct comparison of neural function across diagnoses is needed to elicit abnormalities common across disorders and those distinct to a particular diagnosis. Aims To delineate common and distinct abnormalities within generalised anxiety (GAD), panic and social anxiety disorder (SAD) during affective processing. Method Fifty-nine adults (15 with GAD, 15 with panic disorder, 14 with SAD, and 15 healthy controls) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing a facial emotion matching task with fearful, angry and happy faces. Results Greater differential right amygdala activation to matching fearful v. happy facial expressions related to greater negative affectivity (i.e. trait anxiety) and was heightened across all anxiety disorder groups compared with controls. Collapsing across emotional face types, participants with panic disorder uniquely displayed greater posterior insula activation. Conclusions These preliminary results highlight a common neural basis for clinical anxiety in these diagnoses and also suggest the presence of disorder-specific dysfunction. PMID:25573399

  10. How head and neck consultants manage patients' emotional distress during cancer follow-up consultations: a multilevel study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuefang; Humphris, Gerry; Ghazali, Naseem; Friderichs, Simon; Grosset, David; Rogers, Simon N

    2015-09-01

    Head and neck cancer (HNC) patients suffer substantial emotional problems. This study aimed to explore how utterance-level variables (source, type and timing of emotional cues) and patient-level variables (e.g. age, gender and emotional well-being) relate to consultants' responses (i.e. reducing or providing space) to patient expressions of emotional distress. Forty-three HNC outpatient follow-up consultations were audio recorded and coded, for patients' expressions of emotional distress and consultants' responses, using the Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional Sequence. Multilevel logistic regression modelled the probability of the occurrence of consultant-reduced space response as a function of patient distress cue expression, controlling for consultation and patient-related variables. An average of 3.5 cues/concerns (range 1-20) was identified per consultation where 84 out of 152 total cues/concerns were responded by reducing space. Cue type did not impact on response; likewise for the quality of patient emotional well-being. However, consultants were more likely to reduce space to cues elicited by patients, as opposed to those initiated by themselves. This reduced space response was more pronounced as the consultation continued. However, about 6 min into the consultation, this effect (i.e. tendency to block patients) started to weaken. Head and neck consultants' responses to negative emotions depended on source and timing of patient emotional expressions. The findings are useful for training programme development to encourage consultants to be more flexible and open in the early stages of the consultation. PMID:25078155

  11. Mastery matters most: How mastery and positive relations link attachment avoidance and anxiety to negative emotions.

    PubMed

    Paech, Juliane; Schindler, Ines; Fagundes, Christopher P

    2016-08-01

    Attachment avoidance and anxiety are associated with negative emotions. However, the mechanisms underlying these associations are not fully understood. We investigated environmental mastery and positive relations with others as two mechanisms behind the attachment-emotion link in a sample of 343 adults. As predicted, attachment avoidance and anxiety were related to greater fear, hostility, envy and depression through lower mastery. Contrary to our hypothesis, positive relations mediated only the attachment-depression link. In addition, by adopting a moderated mediation approach, we were able to show that mastery mattered most for individuals high on avoidance: The indirect effect of avoidance through lack of mastery on fear, hostility and depression (but not on envy) increased with higher avoidance scores. Contrary to our predictions, poor relationships did not matter more as sources of negative emotions as anxiety increased. These findings underscore that the emotional life of avoidantly attached individuals is especially jeopardised by poor mastery. PMID:26079543

  12. Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on emotion regulation in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J

    2010-02-01

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is an established program shown to reduce symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. MBSR is believed to alter emotional responding by modifying cognitive-affective processes. Given that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by emotional and attentional biases as well as distorted negative self-beliefs, we examined MBSR-related changes in the brain-behavior indices of emotional reactivity and regulation of negative self-beliefs in patients with SAD. Sixteen patients underwent functional MRI while reacting to negative self-beliefs and while regulating negative emotions using 2 types of attention deployment emotion regulation-breath-focused attention and distraction-focused attention. Post-MBSR, 14 patients completed neuroimaging assessments. Compared with baseline, MBSR completers showed improvement in anxiety and depression symptoms and self-esteem. During the breath-focused attention task (but not the distraction-focused attention task), they also showed (a) decreased negative emotion experience, (b) reduced amygdala activity, and (c) increased activity in brain regions implicated in attentional deployment. MBSR training in patients with SAD may reduce emotional reactivity while enhancing emotion regulation. These changes might facilitate reduction in SAD-related avoidance behaviors, clinical symptoms, and automatic emotional reactivity to negative self-beliefs in adults with SAD. PMID:20141305

  13. Perfectionism, Anxiety, and Depressive Distress: Evidence for the Mediating Role of Negative Automatic Thoughts and Anxiety Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirbaglou, Meysam; Cribbie, Robert; Irvine, Jane; Radhu, Natasha; Vora, Khushboo; Ritvo, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed a mediational model in which negative automatic thoughts and anxiety sensitivity were hypothesized to mediate the relationship between perfectionism cognitions and depressive and anxiety symptoms. Participants: Participants were undergraduate students from an urban Canadian university. The data were collected from…

  14. Neural correlates of suspiciousness and interactions with anxiety during emotional and neutral word processing

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Joscelyn E.; Miller, Gregory A.; Sass, Sarah M.; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Edgar, J. Christopher; Stewart, Jennifer L.; Zhou, Jing; Heller, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Suspiciousness is usually classified as a symptom of psychosis, but it also occurs in depression and anxiety disorders. Though how suspiciousness overlaps with depression is not obvious, suspiciousness does seem to overlap with anxious apprehension and anxious arousal (e.g., verbal iterative processes and vigilance about environmental threat). However, suspiciousness also has unique characteristics (e.g., concern about harm from others and vigilance about social threat). Given that both anxiety and suspiciousness have been associated with abnormalities in emotion processing, it is unclear whether it is the unique characteristics of suspiciousness or the overlap with anxiety that drive abnormalities in emotion processing. Event-related brain potentials were obtained during an emotion-word Stroop task. Results indicated that suspiciousness interacts with anxious apprehension to modulate initial stimulus perception processes. Suspiciousness is associated with attention to all stimuli regardless of emotion content. In contrast, anxious arousal is associated with a later response to emotion stimuli only. These results suggest that suspiciousness and anxious apprehension share overlapping processes, but suspiciousness alone is associated with a hyperactive early vigilance response. Depression did not interact with suspiciousness to predict response to emotion stimuli. These findings suggest that it may be informative to assess suspiciousness in conjunction with anxiety in order to better understand how these symptoms interact and contribute to dysfunctional emotion processing. PMID:25018737

  15. Neural correlates of suspiciousness and interactions with anxiety during emotional and neutral word processing.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Joscelyn E; Miller, Gregory A; Sass, Sarah M; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Edgar, J Christopher; Stewart, Jennifer L; Zhou, Jing; Heller, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Suspiciousness is usually classified as a symptom of psychosis, but it also occurs in depression and anxiety disorders. Though how suspiciousness overlaps with depression is not obvious, suspiciousness does seem to overlap with anxious apprehension and anxious arousal (e.g., verbal iterative processes and vigilance about environmental threat). However, suspiciousness also has unique characteristics (e.g., concern about harm from others and vigilance about social threat). Given that both anxiety and suspiciousness have been associated with abnormalities in emotion processing, it is unclear whether it is the unique characteristics of suspiciousness or the overlap with anxiety that drive abnormalities in emotion processing. Event-related brain potentials were obtained during an emotion-word Stroop task. Results indicated that suspiciousness interacts with anxious apprehension to modulate initial stimulus perception processes. Suspiciousness is associated with attention to all stimuli regardless of emotion content. In contrast, anxious arousal is associated with a later response to emotion stimuli only. These results suggest that suspiciousness and anxious apprehension share overlapping processes, but suspiciousness alone is associated with a hyperactive early vigilance response. Depression did not interact with suspiciousness to predict response to emotion stimuli. These findings suggest that it may be informative to assess suspiciousness in conjunction with anxiety in order to better understand how these symptoms interact and contribute to dysfunctional emotion processing. PMID:25018737

  16. Intimate Partner Violence in Neighborhood Context: The Roles of Structural Disadvantage, Subjective Disorder, and Emotional Distress

    PubMed Central

    Copp, Jennifer E.; Kuhl, Danielle C.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.

    2015-01-01

    Most theoretical treatments of intimate partner violence (IPV) focus on individual-level processes. Some researchers have attempted to situate IPV within the larger neighborhood context, but few studies have sought to link structural- and individual-level factors. The current analyses fill a research gap by examining the role of anger and depression in the association between neighborhood disadvantage and IPV. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) and the 2000 Census, this study focuses on structural indicators of disadvantage as well as subjective disorder, and highlights the complex associations between neighborhood conditions, emotional distress, and IPV. Findings indicate that anger and depressive symptoms partially explain the association between neighborhood disadvantage and IPV. Additionally, the associations between disadvantage, disorder, and IPV depend on respondent’s level of anger. Results underscore the need to further consider the role of neighborhood factors (both objective and subjective) in relation to IPV, and also suggest the utility of introducing individual-level emotional measures to assess the circumstances under which neighborhoods matter most. PMID:26188438

  17. A Single Bout of Aerobic Exercise Reduces Anxiety Sensitivity But Not Intolerance of Uncertainty or Distress Tolerance: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    LeBouthillier, Daniel M; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2015-01-01

    Several mechanisms have been posited for the anxiolytic effects of exercise, including reductions in anxiety sensitivity through interoceptive exposure. Studies on aerobic exercise lend support to this hypothesis; however, research investigating aerobic exercise in comparison to placebo, the dose-response relationship between aerobic exercise anxiety sensitivity, the efficacy of aerobic exercise on the spectrum of anxiety sensitivity and the effect of aerobic exercise on other related constructs (e.g. intolerance of uncertainty, distress tolerance) is lacking. We explored reductions in anxiety sensitivity and related constructs following a single session of exercise in a community sample using a randomized controlled trial design. Forty-one participants completed 30 min of aerobic exercise or a placebo stretching control. Anxiety sensitivity, intolerance of uncertainty and distress tolerance were measured at baseline, post-intervention and 3-day and 7-day follow-ups. Individuals in the aerobic exercise group, but not the control group, experienced significant reductions with moderate effect sizes in all dimensions of anxiety sensitivity. Intolerance of uncertainty and distress tolerance remained unchanged in both groups. Our trial supports the efficacy of aerobic exercise in uniquely reducing anxiety sensitivity in individuals with varying levels of the trait and highlights the importance of empirically validating the use of aerobic exercise to address specific mental health vulnerabilities. Aerobic exercise may have potential as a temporary substitute for psychotherapy aimed at reducing anxiety-related psychopathology. PMID:25874370

  18. Distress Screening in a Multidisciplinary Lung Cancer Clinic: Prevalence and Predictors of Clinically-Significant Distress

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Kristi D.; Arnold, Susanne M.; Love, Celia L.; Kirsh, Kenneth L.; Moore, Pamela G.; Passik, Steven D.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Screening for distress in cancer patients is recommended by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, and a Distress Thermometer has previously been developed and empirically-validated for this purpose. The present study sought to determine the rates and predictors of distress in a sample of patients being seen in a multidisciplinary lung cancer clinic. Consecutive patients (N = 333) were recruited from an outpatient multidisciplinary lung cancer clinic to complete the Distress Thermometer, an associated Problem Symptom List, and two questions about interest in receiving help for symptoms. Over half (61.6%) of patients reported distress at a clinically significant level, and 22.5% of patients indicated interest in receiving help with their distress and/or symptoms. Problems in the areas of family relationships, emotional functioning, lack of information about diagnosis/treatment, physical functioning, and cognitive functioning were associated with higher reports of distress. Specific symptoms of depression, anxiety, pain and fatigue were most predictive of distress. Younger age was also associated with higher levels of distress. Distress was not associated with other clinical variables, including stage of illness or medical treatment approach. Similar results were obtained when individuals who had not yet received a definitive diagnosis of lung cancer (n = 134) were excluded from analyses; however, family problems and anxiety were no longer predictive of distress. Screening for distress in a multidisciplinary lung cancer clinic is feasible and a significant number of patients can be expected to meet clinical criteria for distress. Results also highlight younger age and specific physical and psychosocial symptoms as predictive of clinically-significant distress. Identification of the presence and predictors of distress are the first steps toward appropriate referral and treatment of symptoms and problems that contribute to cancer patients’ distress. PMID

  19. Social anxiety is associated with general but not specific biases in emotion recognition.

    PubMed

    Button, Katherine; Lewis, Glyn; Penton-Voak, Ian; Munafò, Marcus

    2013-11-30

    Misreading facial expressions as signals of social disapproval, such as anger and disgust, may maintain social anxiety. If so, manipulating face processing could be therapeutic. It remains unclear, however, whether socially anxious individuals are in fact more sensitive to disapproving emotions. We assessed decoding of, and cost attributions to, emotional expressions in high and low socially anxious females (n=102) using five emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, and sadness) expressed at 15 intensities (9-65%), providing 75 stimuli (see Supplementary Material). The decoding task briefly presented the stimuli and participants identified the emotion. The cost attribution task asked individuals to rate each stimulus for how costly it would be for them to interact with the person. Random effects regression indicated that social anxiety was not associated with overall decoding accuracy but was associated with a response bias. High socially anxious individuals had a lower threshold for decoding emotions but also more frequently classified low intensity emotions incorrectly. These effects were not emotion-specific. Socially anxious individuals also attributed excessive social cost to expressions of negative valence. Our results provide a novel conceptual framework for understanding emotion decoding in social anxiety, indicating the importance of considering both accuracy and response bias. PMID:23845415

  20. Affective engagement for facial expressions and emotional scenes: The influence of social anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Wangelin, Bethany C.; Bradley, Margaret M.; Kastner, Anna; Lang, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Pictures of emotional facial expressions or natural scenes are often used as cues in emotion research. We examined the extent to which these different stimuli engage emotion and attention, and whether the presence of social anxiety symptoms influences responding to facial cues. Sixty participants reporting high or low social anxiety viewed pictures of angry, neutral, and happy faces, as well as violent, neutral, and erotic scenes, while skin conductance and event-related potentials were recorded. Acoustic startle probes were presented throughout picture viewing, and blink magnitude, probe P3 and reaction time to the startle probe also were measured. Results indicated that viewing emotional scenes prompted strong reactions in autonomic, central, and reflex measures, whereas pictures of faces were generally weak elicitors of measurable emotional response. However, higher social anxiety was associated with modest electrodermal changes when viewing angry faces and mild startle potentiation when viewing either angry or smiling faces, compared to neutral. Taken together, pictures of facial expressions do not strongly engage fundamental affective reactions, but these cues appeared to be effective in distinguishing between high and low social anxiety participants, supporting their use in anxiety research. PMID:22643041

  1. Cognitive Hypnotherapy for Accessing and Healing Emotional Injuries for Anxiety Disorders.

    PubMed

    Alladin, Assen

    2016-07-01

    Although anxiety disorders on the surface may appear simple, they often represent complex problems that are compounded by underlying factors. For these reasons, treatment of anxiety disorders should be individualized. This article describes cognitive hypnotherapy, an individual comprehensive treatment protocol that integrates cognitive, behavioral, mindfulness, psychodynamic, and hypnotic strategies in the management of anxiety disorders. The treatment approach is based on the self-wounds model of anxiety disorders, which provides the rationale for integrating diverse strategies in the psychotherapy for anxiety disorders. Due to its evidence-based and integrated nature, the psychotherapy described here provides accuracy, efficacy, and sophistication in the formulation and treatment of anxiety disorders. This model can be easily adapted to the understanding and treatment of other emotional disorders. PMID:27196009

  2. Emotion recognition specialization and context-dependent risk of anxiety and depression in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Hartman, Catharina A; Van Oort, Floor V A; Nederhof, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Background Some adolescents function poorly in apparently benign environments, while others thrive despite hassles and difficulties. The aim of this study was to examine if adolescents with specialized skills in the recognition of either positive or negative emotions have a context-dependent risk of developing an anxiety or depressive disorder during adolescence, depending on exposure to positive or harsh parenting. Methods Data came from a large prospective Dutch population study (N = 1539). At age 11, perceived parental rejection and emotional warmth were measured by questionnaire, and emotion recognition skills by means of a reaction-time task. Lifetime diagnoses of anxiety and depressive disorders were assessed at about age 19, using a standardized diagnostic interview. Results Adolescents who were specialized in the recognition of positive emotions had a relatively high probability to develop an anxiety disorder when exposed to parental rejection (Bspecialization*rejection = 0.23, P < 0.01) and a relatively low probability in response to parental emotional warmth (Bspecialization*warmth = −0.24, P = 0.01), while the opposite pattern was found for specialists in negative emotions. The effect of parental emotional warmth on depression onset was likewise modified by emotion recognition specialization (B = −0.13, P = 0.03), but the effect of parental rejection was not (B = 0.02, P = 0.72). In general, the relative advantage of specialists in negative emotions was restricted to fairly uncommon negative conditions. Conclusions Our results suggest that there is no unequivocal relation between parenting behaviors and the probability to develop an anxiety or depressive disorder in adolescence, and that emotion recognition specialization may be a promising way to distinguish between various types of context-dependent reaction patterns. PMID:25642389

  3. Empathy in clinical practice: how individual dispositions, gender, and experience moderate empathic concern, burnout, and emotional distress in physicians.

    PubMed

    Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Decety, Jean

    2013-01-01

    To better understand clinical empathy and what factors can undermine its experience and outcome in care-giving settings, a large-scale study was conducted with 7,584 board certified practicing physicians. Online validated instruments assessing different aspects of empathy, distress, burnout, altruistic behavior, emotional awareness, and well-being were used. Compassion satisfaction was strongly associated with empathic concern, perspective taking and altruism, while compassion fatigue (burnout and secondary traumatic stress) was more closely related to personal distress and alexithymia. Gender had a highly selective effect on empathic concern, with women displaying higher values, which led to a wide array of negative and devalued feelings. Years of experience did not influence dispositional measures per se after controlling for the effect of age and gender. Participants who experienced compassion fatigue with little to no compassion satisfaction showed the highest scores on personal distress and alexithymia as well as the strongest indicators of compassion fatigue. Physicians who have difficulty regulating their negative arousal and describing and identifying emotions seem to be more prone to emotional exhaustion, detachment, and a low sense of accomplishment. On the contrary, the ability to engage in self-other awareness and regulate one's emotions and the tendency to help others, seem to contribute to the sense of compassion that comes from assisting patients in clinical practice. PMID:23620760

  4. Holding Back Sharing Concerns, Dispositional Emotional Expressivity, Perceived Unsupportive Responses, and Distress Among Women Newly-Diagnosed with Gynecological Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Manne, Sharon; Myers, Shannon; Ozga, Melissa; Kissane, David; Kashy, Debby; Rubin, Stephen; Heckman, Carolyn; Rosenblum, Norm

    2013-01-01

    Objective Little attention has been paid to the role of holding back sharing concerns in the psychological adaptation of women newly diagnosed with gynecological cancers. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the role of holding back concerns in psychosocial adjustment and quality of life, as well as a possible moderating role for emotional expressivity and perceived unsupportive responses from family and friends. Method Two hundred forty four women diagnosed with gynecological cancer in the past eight months completed measures of holding back, dispositional emotional expressivity, perceived unsupportive responses from family and friends, cancer-specific distress, depressive symptoms, and quality of life. Results Emotional expressivity moderated the association between holding back and cancer- specific distress and quality of life, but not depressive symptoms. Greater holding back was more strongly associated with higher levels of cancer-related distress among women who were more emotionally expressive than among women who were less expressive. Perceived unsupportive responses did not moderate the associations between holding back and psychosocial outcomes. Conclusion Holding back sharing concerns was more common in this patient population than other cancer populations. Dispositional expressivity played a role in how harmful holding back concerns was for women, while unsupportive responses from family and friends did not. PMID:24211156

  5. Empathy in Clinical Practice: How Individual Dispositions, Gender, and Experience Moderate Empathic Concern, Burnout, and Emotional Distress in Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Decety, Jean

    2013-01-01

    To better understand clinical empathy and what factors can undermine its experience and outcome in care-giving settings, a large-scale study was conducted with 7,584 board certified practicing physicians. Online validated instruments assessing different aspects of empathy, distress, burnout, altruistic behavior, emotional awareness, and well-being were used. Compassion satisfaction was strongly associated with empathic concern, perspective taking and altruism, while compassion fatigue (burnout and secondary traumatic stress) was more closely related to personal distress and alexithymia. Gender had a highly selective effect on empathic concern, with women displaying higher values, which led to a wide array of negative and devalued feelings. Years of experience did not influence dispositional measures per se after controlling for the effect of age and gender. Participants who experienced compassion fatigue with little to no compassion satisfaction showed the highest scores on personal distress and alexithymia as well as the strongest indicators of compassion fatigue. Physicians who have difficulty regulating their negative arousal and describing and identifying emotions seem to be more prone to emotional exhaustion, detachment, and a low sense of accomplishment. On the contrary, the ability to engage in self-other awareness and regulate one’s emotions and the tendency to help others, seem to contribute to the sense of compassion that comes from assisting patients in clinical practice. PMID:23620760

  6. Emotional Imagery and the Differential Diagnosis of Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Edwin W., III; And Others

    1988-01-01

    For 38 anxiety patients, exposure to phobic imagery resulted in significantly larger heart rate and skin conductance increases than control imagery. Results suggest that simple phobia is avoidance disposition, social phobia involves multiple problems of interpersonal dominance, and agoraphobia may be more similar to generalized anxiety disorder…

  7. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medical Interventions for the Management of Procedure-Related Pain, Anxiety, and Distress in Pediatric Oncology: An Integrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Landier, Wendy; Tse, Alice M.

    2016-01-01

    This integrative review aims to identify evidence in four electronic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsyINFO, and COCHRANE) regarding the effectiveness of complementary and alternative medical interventions, either alone or as an adjunct to pharmacological therapy, in alleviating procedure-related pain, anxiety, and distress in children and adolescents with cancer. A total of 32 articles met inclusion criteria. Results suggest that mind–body interventions, including hypnosis, distraction, and imagery, may be effective, alone or as adjuncts to pharmacological interventions, in managing procedure-related pain, anxiety, and distress in pediatric oncology. PMID:21035021

  8. Catastrophizing and anxiety sensitivity mediate the relationship between persistent pain and emotional eating.

    PubMed

    Janke, E Amy; Jones, Elizabeth; Hopkins, Christina M; Ruggieri, Madelyn; Hruska, Alesha

    2016-08-01

    Stress-induced or "emotional eating" contributes to increased caloric intake and weight gain, yet models examining psychosocial factors that promote and sustain this behavior are incomplete. There is a need to identify explicit, clinically-relevant mechanisms of emotional eating behavior. Pain is a common stressor associated with increased weight and, potentially, altered eating behaviors. The present study applies the Fear Avoidance Model (FAM) of pain to examine processes that may explain the relationship between pain and increased weight while also providing the opportunity to examine specific mechanisms that may encourage eating during a variety of stressors. Our aim is to better understand the impact of pain on eating behavior and the potential for the FAM to improve our understanding of the psychological mechanisms that promote eating during times of duress. A survey of 312 adults explored the link between pain experience and stress-induced eating, further examining the mediating effects of the psychological aspects of the FAM (e.g., anxiety sensitivity, catastrophizing, and pain-related fear). 24% of respondents reported persistent pain, and had significantly higher BMIs than their pain-free peers. All three FAM components were positively correlated with measures of emotional, external, and restrained eating. Anxiety sensitivity and catastrophizing significantly mediated the relationship between persistent pain and emotional eating behavior, while anxiety sensitivity alone mediated the relationship between persistent pain and external eating. Findings suggest pain may be associated with increased likelihood for emotional eating and that characteristics from FAM, in particular anxiety sensitivity and catastrophizing, may mediate the relationship between the presence of persistent pain and emotional eating behavior. Evidence-based treatments targeting anxiety sensitivity and catastrophizing could be useful to address emotional eating in individuals struggling

  9. Processing Emotional Facial Expressions Influences Performance on a Go/NoGo Task in Pediatric Anxiety and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Williamson, Douglas E.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A.; Ryan, Neal D.; Casey, B. J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study investigated whether processing emotionally salient information such as emotional facial expressions influences the performance on a cognitive control task in pediatric anxiety and depression. Methods: The sample included 68 participants between 8 and 16 years of age selected into three diagnostic groups: Anxiety Disorder…

  10. Emotional Reasoning and Parent-Based Reasoning in Non-Clinical Children, and Their Prospective Relationships with Anxiety Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morren, Mattijn; Muris, Peter; Kindt, Merel; Schouten, Erik; van den Hout, Marcel

    2008-01-01

    Emotional and parent-based reasoning refer to the tendency to rely on personal or parental anxiety response information rather than on objective danger information when estimating the dangerousness of a situation. This study investigated the prospective relationships of emotional and parent-based reasoning with anxiety symptoms in a sample of…

  11. Anxiety modulates the effects of emotion and attention on early vision.

    PubMed

    Ferneyhough, Emma; Kim, Min K; Phelps, Elizabeth A; Carrasco, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    At attended locations emotion and attention interact to benefit contrast sensitivity, a basic visual dimension. Whether there are associated costs at unattended locations is unknown. Furthermore, emotion and attention affect response time, and anxiety modulates these effects. We investigated how trait-anxiety influences the interaction of emotion and attention on contrast sensitivity. On each trial, non-predictive pre-cues (neutral or fearful faces) directed exogenous attention to four contrast-varying, tilted stimuli (Gabor patches). Attention was cued toward the target (valid), a distracter (invalid), or distributed over all locations. Observers discriminated target orientation, and completed self-report measures of anxiety. Effects of fearful expressions were mediated by trait anxiety. Only high-trait-anxious individuals showed decreased target contrast sensitivity after attention was diverted to a distracter by a fearful cue, and anxiety score correlated with degree of impairment across participants. This indicates that increasing anxiety exacerbates threat-related attentional costs to visual perception, hampering processing at non-threat-related locations. PMID:22784014

  12. The frequency of involuntary autobiographical memories and future thoughts in relation to daydreaming, emotional distress, and age.

    PubMed

    Berntsen, Dorthe; Rubin, David C; Salgado, Sinue

    2015-11-01

    We introduce a new scale, the Involuntary Autobiographical Memory Inventory (IAMI), for measuring the frequency of involuntary autobiographical memories and involuntary future thoughts. Using the scale in relation to other psychometric and demographic measures provided three important, novel findings. First, the frequency of involuntary and voluntary memories and future thoughts are similarly related to general measures of emotional distress. This challenges the idea that the involuntary mode is uniquely associated with emotional distress. Second, the frequency of involuntary autobiographical remembering does not decline with age, whereas measures of daydreaming, suppression of unwanted thoughts and dissociative experiences all do. Thus, involuntary autobiographical remembering relates differently to aging than daydreaming and other forms of spontaneous and uncontrollable thoughts. Third, unlike involuntary autobiographical remembering, the frequency of future thoughts does decrease with age. This finding underscores the need for examining past and future mental time travel in relation to aging and life span development. PMID:26241025

  13. Anxiety and depression among cancer survivors: The role of engagement with sources of emotional support information

    PubMed Central

    Mello, Susan; Tan, Andy SL; Armstrong, Katrina; Schwartz, J. Sanford; Hornik, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    This study explores cancer survivors’ engagement with information about emotional support from doctors, interpersonal sources, and the media and examines to what extent such engagement affects subsequent self-reported anxiety and depression. Patients with colorectal, breast, or prostate cancer (n=1,128) were surveyed over three years following diagnosis. Using lagged logistic regression, we predicted the odds of experiencing anxiety or depression based on earlier engagement with sources of emotional support, adjusting for prior symptoms and confounders. Among those reporting anxiety or depression (n=476), we also asked whether information engagement affected the severity of those symptoms. Participants obtained information about emotional support from multiple sources, but most often from physicians. Discussions with physicians about emotional support increased the odds of cancer survivors subsequently reporting anxiety or depression by 1.58 times (95% CI: 1.06 to 2.35; p=0.025), adjusted for prior symptoms and confounders. Scanning from media sources was also significantly associated with increased odds of reporting emotional symptoms (OR=1.72; 95% CI: 1.03 to 2.87; p=0.039). However, among those who reported symptoms, doctor-patient engagement predicted slightly reduced interference of these symptoms with daily activities (B=−0.198; 95% CI: −0.393 to −0.003; p=0.047). Important implications for health communication research and practice are discussed. PMID:22809393

  14. Child Emotionality and Maternal Responsiveness as Predictors of Reunion Behaviors in the Strange Situation: Links Mediated and Unmediated by Separation Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Coy, Katherine C.

    2002-01-01

    Examined infants' emotionality, inside and outside of the relationship with the mother, and mothers' responsiveness as predictors of reunion behaviors in the Strange Situation. Found that children's separation distress mediated influence of predictors and itself predicted reunion behaviors. When distress was controlled, some responses generally…

  15. Examining the associations between emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, and eating disorder severity among inpatients with anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Haynos, Ann F.; Roberto, Christina A.; Attia, Evelyn

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is growing interest in the role of emotion regulation in anorexia nervosa (AN). Although anxiety is also hypothesized to impact symptoms of AN, little is known about how emotion regulation, anxiety, and eating disorder symptoms interact in AN. In this study, we examined the associations between emotion regulation, anxiety, and eating disorder symptom severity in AN. Methods Questionnaires and interviews assessing emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, eating disorder symptoms, and eating disorder-related clinical impairment were collected from group of underweight individuals with AN (n = 59) at admission to inpatient treatment. Hierarchical linear regressions were used to examine the associations of emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, and the interaction of these constructs with eating disorder symptoms and eating disorder-related clinical impairment. Results Emotion regulation difficulties were significantly positively associated with eating disorder symptoms and related clinical impairment only when anxiety levels were low and anxiety was significantly positively associated with eating disorder symptoms and related clinical impairment only when emotion regulation problems were not elevated. Conclusions This study adds to a growing literature suggesting that emotion regulation deficits are associated with eating disorder symptoms in AN. Certain individuals with AN may especially benefit from a focus on developing emotion regulation skills in the acute stages of illness. PMID:25842195

  16. Reactivity to Social Stress in Subclinical Social Anxiety: Emotional Experience, Cognitive Appraisals, Behavior, and Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Crişan, Liviu G.; Vulturar, Romana; Miclea, Mircea; Miu, Andrei C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that subclinical social anxiety is associated with dysfunctions at multiple psychological and biological levels, in a manner that seems reminiscent of social anxiety disorder (SAD). This study aimed to describe multidimensional responses to laboratory-induced social stress in an analog sample selected for social anxiety symptoms. State anxiety, cognitive biases related to negative social evaluation, speech anxiety behaviors, and cortisol reactivity were assessed in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Results showed that social anxiety symptoms were associated with increased state anxiety, biased appraisals related to the probability and cost of negative social evaluations, behavioral changes in facial expression that were consistent with speech anxiety, and lower cortisol reactivity. In addition, multiple interrelations between responses in the TSST were found, with positive associations between subjective experience, cognitive appraisals, and observable behavior, as well as negative associations between each of the former two types of response and cortisol reactivity. These results show that in response to social stressors, subclinical social anxiety is associated with significant changes in emotional experience, cognitive appraisals, behaviors, and physiology that could parallel those previously found in SAD samples. PMID:26858658

  17. Longitudinal relationship between diabetes-specific emotional distress and follow-up HbA1c in adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Strandberg, R B; Graue, M; Wentzel-Larsen, T; Peyrot, M; Thordarson, H B; Rokne, B

    2015-01-01

    Aim To examine whether diabetes-specific emotional distress was related to follow-up glycaemic control in adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Methods Adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus completed the Diabetes Distress Scale and reported sociodemographic information when attending a clinical consultation at a university endocrinology unit. Blood samples to determine baseline HbA1c were taken during consultations. All respondents’ HbA1c measurements registered from January 2009 to December 2011 were collected from medical records. The relationship between baseline diabetes-specific emotional distress and HbA1c was examined with linear mixed-effects models in 175 patients with complete data. Results After controlling for confounders, baseline diabetes-specific emotional distress and glycaemic control were significantly associated (fixed-effect coefficient 0.40, P < 0.001) and the regimen-related distress subscale had the strongest association with glycaemic control (fixed-effect coefficient 0.47, P < 0.001). The two-item measure of diabetes-specific distress had a weaker but still significant association with glycaemic control (fixed-effect coefficient 0.31, P < 0.001). None of these relationships was significant after adjusting for the baseline HbA1c. Conclusions People with elevated baseline diabetes-specific emotional distress are at risk of prolonged suboptimum glycaemic control; therefore, elevated diabetes-specific emotional distress, especially regimen-related distress, might be an important marker for prolonged suboptimum glycaemic control, and might indicate a need for special attention regarding patient self-management. What’s new? In adults with Type 1 diabetes, elevated baseline diabetes-specific emotional distress is associated with worse glycaemic control over a 1–3-year period and regimen-related distress had the strongest association with subsequent glycaemic control. Baseline diabetes-specific emotional distress is associated with the

  18. Emotional Distress, Drinking, and Academic Achievement across the Adolescent Life Course

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Timothy J.; Shippee, Nathan D.; Hensel, Devon J.

    2008-01-01

    Our study of the adolescent life course proposes that substantial maturation occurs within three intertwined arenas of development: the social, the psychological, and the normative attainment. Further, each arena may be linked, respectively, to three youth problem dimensions: drinking, depressive affect, and academic achievement. We use latent growth curves and the Youth Development Study (effective N=856) to track a panel of teens from their freshman to senior year in high school. There are 54.4% girls and 45.6% boys, and 75.7% non-Hispanic whites and 24.3% other races/ethnicities. Two research goals are addressed: (1) estimate each dimension’s unique developmental trajectory across high school, and (2) model the dimensions together in order to assess their reciprocal influences. While mean levels in all three dimensions increased over time, distinct developmental patterns were observed, especially in drinking and depression. For example, more drinking occasions—a social activity for most teens—may help assuage some teens’ emotional distress, especially girls’. These patterns suggest a synergistic relationship between the social and psychological arenas of development. Contrary to expectation, higher freshman depressive affect was associated with a significantly sharper increase in GPA over time for girls. PMID:19169430

  19. Adult attachment, emotion dysregulation, and symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Marganska, Anna; Gallagher, Michelle; Miranda, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Differences in attachment style have been linked to both emotion regulation and psychological functioning, but the emotion regulatory mechanism through which attachment style might impact symptoms of depression and anxiety is unclear. The present study examined the explanatory role of emotion dysregulation in the relation between adult attachment style and symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in a sample of 284 adults. Secure attachment was associated with lower depression and GAD symptoms and lower emotion dysregulation, whereas insecure attachment styles were generally associated with higher depression and GAD scores and higher emotion dysregulation. Perceived inability to generate effective emotion regulation strategies mediated the relation between insecure attachment and both depression and GAD symptoms. Nonacceptance of negative emotions and inability to control impulsive behaviors emerged as additional mediators of the relation between insecure attachment styles and GAD symptoms. The differential contribution of attachment style and emotion regulation to the prediction of depression and GAD symptoms may reflect differences in vulnerability to depression and GAD. PMID:23330631

  20. Relations between emotional and social functioning in children with anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Marni L; Suveg, Cynthia; Whitehead, Monica R

    2014-10-01

    The current study investigated concurrent relations between emotional and social functioning in youth with anxiety disorders using a multi-reporter (i.e., children, parents, teachers) assessment strategy. Ninety youth (M age = 8.98 years, SD = 1.68) with a primary diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, and/or separation anxiety disorder, and a parent participated. Regression analyses indicated that positive affect and emotion regulation coping were related to adaptive measures of social functioning, whereas positive affect, negative affect, reluctance to share emotional experiences with peers, and lability/negativity were related to maladaptive measures of social functioning in the expected directions. For youth high in lability/negativity and low in emotion regulation coping, the relationship between diagnostic severity and social problems was exacerbated. This research contributes to our understanding of the interplay of social and emotional variables and suggests that efforts to facilitate child emotional functioning may improve social functioning for anxious youth, or vice versa. PMID:24258408

  1. Altered Emotional Processing in Pediatric Anxiety, Depression, and Comorbid Anxiety-Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Williamson, Douglas E.; Birmaher, Boris; Ryan, Neal D.; Casey, B.J.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine some of the mechanisms underlying emotion regulation in childhood affective disorders by examining the impact of distracting emotional information during performance on a working memory task ("Emotional n-back" or E-n-back). The sample included 75 children (38 girls and 37 boys) between 8 and 16 years of age…

  2. Exploring the Relevance of Expressed Emotion to the Treatment of Social Anxiety Disorder in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Lopez, Luis-Joaquin; Muela, Jose M.; Espinosa-Fernandez, Lourdes; Diaz-Castela, Mar

    2009-01-01

    The role that the involvement of parents may play in the treatment outcome of their children with anxiety disorders is still under debate. Some studies dealing with other disorders have examined the role that the expressed emotion (EE) construct (parental overinvolvement, criticism and hostility) may play in treatment outcome and relapse. Given…

  3. The Impact of Attachment Security and Emotion Dysregulation on Anxiety in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Patrick K.; Sømhovd, Mikael; Pons, Francisco; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie L.; Esbjørn, Barbara H.

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical views and empirical findings suggest interrelations among attachment security, emotion dysregulation and anxiety in childhood and adolescence. However, the associations among the three constructs have rarely been investigated in children, and no study has yet addressed these associations in adolescence. The aim of the present study was…

  4. The Influence of Anxiety on the Initial Selection of Emotional Faces Presented in Binocular Rivalry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Katie L. H.; Adams, Wendy J.; Garner, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Neurocognitive theories of anxiety predict that threat-related information can be evaluated before attentional selection, and can influence behaviour differentially in high anxious compared to low anxious individuals. We investigate this further by presenting emotional and neutral faces in an adapted binocular rivalry paradigm. We show that the…

  5. Interpersonal and Emotional Processes in Generalized Anxiety Disorder Analogues during Social Interaction Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Thane M.; Newman, Michelle G.

    2007-01-01

    Persons with chronic worry and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) report maladaptive social cognitions, interpersonal behaviors, and emotional regulation. Because research has neither investigated these processes in actual social situations nor explored whether they take heterogeneous forms, the present study provides the first attempt to do so in…

  6. Listening Comprehension Performance Viewed in the Light of Emotional Intelligence and Foreign Language Listening Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Alavinia, Parviz

    2013-01-01

    The researchers in the current study were after probing the potential relationship between emotional intelligence, foreign language listening anxiety (FLLA), and listening comprehension performance of Iranian EFL learners. To this end, 233 participants, studying English language and literature at three different Universities in Urmia, were…

  7. Time Course of Attentional Bias in Anxiety: Emotion and Gender Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Sass, Sarah M.; Heller, Wendy; Stewart, Jennifer L.; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Edgar, J. Christopher; Fisher, Joscelyn E.; Miller, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety is characterized by cognitive biases, including attentional bias to emotional (especially threatening) stimuli. Accounts differ on the time course of attention to threat, but the literature generally confounds emotional valence and arousal and overlooks gender effects, both addressed in the present study. Nonpatients high in self-reported anxious apprehension, anxious arousal, or neither completed an emotion-word Stroop task during ERP recording. Hypotheses differentiated time course of preferential attention to emotional stimuli. Individuals high in anxious apprehension and anxious arousal showed distinct early ERP evidence of preferential processing of emotionally arousing stimuli along with some evidence for gender differences in processing. Healthy controls showed gender differences at both early and later processing stages. The conjunction of valence, arousal, and gender is critical in the time course of attentional bias. PMID:19863758

  8. Discrepancies between dimensions of interoception in autism: Implications for emotion and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Garfinkel, Sarah N; Tiley, Claire; O'Keeffe, Stephanie; Harrison, Neil A; Seth, Anil K; Critchley, Hugo D

    2016-02-01

    Emotions and affective feelings are influenced by one's internal state of bodily arousal via interoception. Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) are associated with difficulties in recognising others' emotions, and in regulating own emotions. We tested the hypothesis that, in people with ASC, such affective differences may arise from abnormalities in interoceptive processing. We demonstrated that individuals with ASC have reduced interoceptive accuracy (quantified using heartbeat detection tests) and exaggerated interoceptive sensibility (subjective sensitivity to internal sensations on self-report questionnaires), reflecting an impaired ability to objectively detect bodily signals alongside an over-inflated subjective perception of bodily sensations. The divergence of these two interoceptive axes can be computed as a trait prediction error. This error correlated with deficits in emotion sensitivity and occurrence of anxiety symptoms. Our results indicate an origin of emotion deficits and affective symptoms in ASC at the interface between body and mind, specifically in expectancy-driven interpretation of interoceptive information. PMID:26724504

  9. Emotion and decision-making: affect-driven belief systems in anxiety and depression

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, Martin P.; Yu, Angela J.

    2012-01-01

    Emotion processing and decision-making are integral aspects of daily life. However, our understanding of the interaction between these constructs is limited. In this review, we summarize theoretical approaches to the link between emotion and decision-making, and focus on research with anxious or depressed individuals that reveals how emotions can interfere with decision-making. We integrate the emotional framework based on valence and arousal with a Bayesian approach to decision-making in terms of probability and value processing. We then discuss how studies of individuals with emotional dysfunctions provide evidence that alterations of decision-making can be viewed in terms of altered probability and value computation. We argue that the probabilistic representation of belief states in the context of partially observable Markov decision processes provides a useful approach to examine alterations in probability and value representation in individuals with anxiety and depression and outline the broader implications of this approach. PMID:22898207

  10. Adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies: interactive effects during CBT for social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Aldao, Amelia; Jazaieri, Hooria; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J

    2014-05-01

    There has been a increasing interest in understanding emotion regulation deficits in social anxiety disorder (SAD; e.g., Hofmann, Sawyer, Fang, & Asnaani, 2012). However, much remains to be understood about the patterns of associations among regulation strategies in the repertoire. Doing so is important in light of the growing recognition that people's ability to flexibly implement strategies is associated with better mental health (e.g., Kashdan et al., 2014). Based on previous work (Aldao & Nolen-Hoeksema, 2012), we examined whether putatively adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies interacted with each other in the prediction of social anxiety symptoms in a sample of 71 participants undergoing CBT for SAD. We found that strategies interacted with each other and that this interaction was qualified by a three-way interaction with a contextual factor, namely treatment study phase. Consequently, these findings underscore the importance of modeling contextual factors when seeking to understand emotion regulation deficits in SAD. PMID:24742755

  11. Frontal EEG activation asymmetry reflects cognitive biases in anxiety: evidence from an emotional face Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Avram, Julia; Balteş, Felicia Rodica; Miclea, Mircea; Miu, Andrei C

    2010-12-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) has been extensively used in studies of the frontal asymmetry of emotion and motivation. This study investigated the midfrontal EEG activation, heart rate and skin conductance during an emotional face analog of the Stroop task, in anxious and non-anxious participants. In this task, the participants were asked to identify the expression of calm, fearful and happy faces that had either a congruent or incongruent emotion name written across them. Anxious participants displayed a cognitive bias characterized by facilitated attentional engagement with fearful faces. Fearful face trials induced greater relative right frontal activation, whereas happy face trials induced greater relative left frontal activation. Moreover, anxiety specifically modulated the magnitude of the right frontal activation to fearful faces, which also correlated with the cognitive bias. Therefore, these results show that frontal EEG activation asymmetry reflects the bias toward facilitated processing of fearful faces in anxiety. PMID:20607389

  12. THE ANXIETY SPECTRUM AND THE REFLEX PHYSIOLOGY OF DEFENSE: FROM CIRCUMSCRIBED FEAR TO BROAD DISTRESS

    PubMed Central

    McTeague, Lisa M.; Lang, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Guided by the diagnostic nosology, anxiety patients are expected to show defensive hyperarousal during affective challenge, irrespective of the principal phenotype. In the current study, patients representing the whole spectrum of anxiety disorders (i.e., specific phobia, social phobia, panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), posttraumatic stress disorder(PTSD)), and healthy community control participants, completed an imagery-based fear elicitation paradigm paralleling conventional intervention techniques. Participants imagined threatening and neutral narratives as physiological responses were recorded. Clear evidence emerged for exaggerated reactivity to clinically relevant imagery—most pronounced in startle reflex responding. However, defensive propensity varied across principal anxiety disorders. Disorders characterized by focal fear and impairment (e.g., specific phobia) showed robust fear potentiation. Conversely, for disorders of long-enduring, pervasive apprehension and avoidance with broad anxiety and depression comorbidity (e.g., PTSD secondary to cumulative trauma, GAD), startle responses were paradoxically diminished to all aversive contents. Patients whose expressed symptom profiles were intermediate between focal fearfulness and broad anxious-misery in both severity and chronicity exhibited a still heightened but more generalized physiological propensity to respond defensively. Importantly, this defensive physiological gradient—the inverse of self-reported distress—was evident not only between but also within disorders. These results highlight that fear circuitry could be dysregulated in chronic, pervasive anxiety, and preliminary functional neuroimaging findings suggest that deficient amygdala recruitment could underlie attenuated reflex responding. In summary, adaptive defensive engagement during imagery may be compromised by long-term dysphoria and stress—a phenomenon

  13. Self-esteem, body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and social anxiety in a college sample: the moderating role of weight.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor

    2016-01-01

    To examine the relationships between self-esteem, body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and social anxiety, as well as to examine the moderating role of weight between exogenous variables and social anxiety, 520 university students completed the self-report measures. Structural equation modeling revealed that individuals with low self-esteem, body-esteem, and emotional intelligence were more likely to report social anxiety. The findings indicated that obese and overweight individuals with low body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and self-esteem had higher social anxiety than others. Our results highlight the roles of body-esteem, self-esteem, and emotional intelligence as influencing factors for reducing social anxiety. PMID:25726711

  14. Adolescent vulnerability and the distress of rejection: Associations of adjustment problems and gender with control, emotions, and coping.

    PubMed

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Skinner, Ellen A

    2015-12-01

    We examined adjustment problems as risks for patterns of emotions, appraisals, and coping with rejection, and explored whether these processes could account for sex (boy/girl) differences in coping. Young adolescents (N = 669, grades 6-8) completed questionnaires, which assessed responses to peer rejection threat with two short scenarios. Using structural equation modeling to test a multivariate process model, adolescents with heightened social anxiety had the most maladaptive responses to rejection threat, including elevated emotional reactions, more self-blame, and coping using more social isolation, rumination and opposition. Adolescents reporting more depressive symptoms felt less control and anticipated using less adaptive coping (less support seeking, distraction, and negotiation), whereas aggressive adolescents responded with more anger and coped via opposition. Moreover, as anticipated, sex differences in coping, symptoms, emotions, and appraisals were found. However, coping differences between boys and girls were mostly nonsignificant after accounting for symptoms, aggression, emotional reactions, and appraisals. PMID:26439867

  15. Linking social behaviour and anxiety to attention to emotional faces in Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Hannah E; Hocking, Darren R; Riby, Deborah M; Cornish, Kim M

    2013-12-01

    The neurodevelopmental disorder Williams syndrome (WS) has been associated with a social phenotype of hypersociability, non-social anxiety and an unusual attraction to faces. The current study uses eye tracking to explore attention allocation to emotionally expressive faces. Eye gaze and behavioural measures of anxiety and social reciprocity were investigated in adolescents and adults with WS when compared to typically developing individuals of comparable verbal mental age (VMA) and chronological age (CA). Results showed significant associations between high levels of behavioural anxiety and attention allocation away from the eye regions of threatening facial expressions in WS. The results challenge early claims of a unique attraction to the eyes in WS and suggest that individual differences in anxiety may mediate the allocation of attention to faces in WS. PMID:24210355

  16. The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ): a validation study of a multidimensional self-report questionnaire to assess distress, depression, anxiety and somatization

    PubMed Central

    Terluin, Berend; van Marwijk, Harm WJ; Adèr, Herman J; de Vet, Henrica CW; Penninx, Brenda WJH; Hermens, Marleen LM; van Boeijen, Christine A; van Balkom, Anton JLM; van der Klink, Jac JL; Stalman, Wim AB

    2006-01-01

    Background The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) is a self-report questionnaire that has been developed in primary care to distinguish non-specific general distress from depression, anxiety and somatization. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate its criterion and construct validity. Methods Data from 10 different primary care studies have been used. Criterion validity was assessed by comparing the 4DSQ scores with clinical diagnoses, the GPs' diagnosis of any psychosocial problem for Distress, standardised psychiatric diagnoses for Depression and Anxiety, and GPs' suspicion of somatization for Somatization. ROC analyses and logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations. Construct validity was evaluated by investigating the inter-correlations between the scales, the factorial structure, the associations with other symptom questionnaires, and the associations with stress, personality and social functioning. The factorial structure of the 4DSQ was assessed through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The associations with other questionnaires were assessed with Pearson correlations and regression analyses. Results Regarding criterion validity, the Distress scale was associated with any psychosocial diagnosis (area under the ROC curve [AUC] 0.79), the Depression scale was associated with major depression (AUC = 0.83), the Anxiety scale was associated with anxiety disorder (AUC = 0.66), and the Somatization scale was associated with the GPs' suspicion of somatization (AUC = 0.65). Regarding the construct validity, the 4DSQ scales appeared to have considerable inter-correlations (r = 0.35-0.71). However, 30–40% of the variance of each scale was unique for that scale. CFA confirmed the 4-factor structure with a comparative fit index (CFI) of 0.92. The 4DSQ scales correlated with most other questionnaires measuring corresponding constructs. However, the 4DSQ Distress scale appeared to correlate with some other depression scales more

  17. The contribution of internal resources, external resources, and emotional distress to use of drugs and alcohol among Israeli Jewish urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lipschitz-Elhawi, Racheli; Itzhaky, Haya

    2014-03-01

    The contribution of selected background variables (age, gender), internal resources (mastery, emotional maturity), external resources (parental and peer support), and emotional distress to alcohol and drug use among 160 Israeli Jewish urban high school students were examined. Analyzing the variables with hierarchical regression, emotional distress contributed most significantly to both alcohol and drug use, and the contribution of age was somewhat less significant for both of them. Emotional distress also contributed indirectly to drug use through an interaction with one's sense of mastery. Gender, internal resources, and external resources contributed differentially to alcohol and drug use. Whereas gender and internal resources contributed only to drug use, external resources contributed only to alcohol use. Specifically, peer support contributed positively to alcohol use whereas parental support contributed negatively. The discussion provides explanations for these research findings and their implications, and the research's limitations are noted. PMID:24341751

  18. Discomfort with Emotion Moderates Distress Reduction in a Brief Mindfulness Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sass, Sarah M.; Berenbaum, Howard; Abrams, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate moderators of mindfulness training. The present study employed a brief form of mindfulness training with moderately distressed participants. Psychological distress was measured before and after a five-session mindfulness intervention. Two hypothesized moderators of treatment outcome, discomfort with…

  19. Neural Mechanisms of Emotion Regulation in Childhood Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hum, Kathryn M.; Manassis, Katharina; Lewis, Marc D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The present study was designed to examine the cortical processes that mediate cognitive regulation in response to emotion-eliciting stimuli in anxious children. Methods: Electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded from clinically anxious children ("n" = 29) and typically developing children ("n" = 34).…

  20. College Students and Financial Distress: Exploring Debt, Financial Satisfaction, and Financial Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archuleta, Kristy L.; Dale, Anita; Spann, Scott M.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of financial concerns on overall mental health has become a popular topic among researchers and practitioners. In this exploratory study, possible associations of financial anxiety were explored using a sample of 180 college students who sought services at a university peer financial counseling center in a Midwestern state. Of…

  1. Anxiety, Depression, and Somatic Distress: Developing a Transdiagnostic Internalizing Toolbox for Pediatric Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weersing, V. Robin; Rozenman, Michelle S.; Maher-Bridge, Maureen; Campo, John V.

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety, depression, and somatic complaints are a common set of comorbid problems in children and adolescents. This "internalizing cluster" is highly prevalent, impairing during youth and into adulthood, and has substantial impacts on health-care systems. Fortunately, these problem areas may share several etiological factors and, thus, respond to…

  2. Young Adults' Information Seeking Following Celebrity Suicide: Considering Involvement With the Celebrity and Emotional Distress in Health Communication Strategies.

    PubMed

    Dillman Carpentier, Francesca R; Parrott, M Scott

    2016-11-01

    Young adults (N = 357) were surveyed following the suicide of celebrity Robin Williams to better understand how involvement with the actor and emotional responses to his death influenced searches for information concerning depression, suicide, and mental health. Emotional distress following the actor's death mediated the relationship between involvement and certain types of information searches. Most respondents sought information about the celebrity's career, suicide, and depression using portable devices such as smartphones and laptop computers to access news websites for information. Those respondents who sought information about the suicide reported changes in their thoughts about suicide, most often dealing with the difficulty in spotting warning signs and the idea that "it can happen to anyone." Findings suggest placement of health messages within existing material about celebrity announcements on online websites and social media to drive more traffic toward general informational outlets. Messages that acknowledge emotional distress might be best placed within content specific to the celebrity's tragedy, rather than specific to the celebrity's career or performances. PMID:26984641

  3. Reducing the vividness and emotional impact of distressing autobiographical memories: the importance of modality-specific interference.

    PubMed

    Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika

    2007-05-01

    Experimental analogues of post-traumatic stress disorder suggest that loading the visuospatial sketchpad of working memory with a concurrent task reduces the vividness and associated distress of predominantly visual images. The present experiments explicitly tested the hypothesis that interfering with the phonological loop could analogously reduce the vividness and emotional impact of auditory images. In Experiment 1, 30 undergraduates formed non-specific images of emotive autobiographical memories while performing a concurrent task designed to load either the visuospatial sketchpad (eye movements) or phonological loop (articulatory suppression). Participants reported their images to be primarily visual, corresponding to the greater dual-task disruption observed for eye movements. Experiment 2 instructed participants to form specifically visual or auditory images. As predicted, concurrent articulation reduced vividness and emotional intensity ratings of auditory images to a greater extent than did eye movements, whereas concurrent eye movements reduced ratings of visual images much more than did articulatory suppression. Such modality-specific dual-task interference could usefully contribute to the treatment and management of intrusive distressing images in both clinical and non-clinical settings. PMID:17469020

  4. Vicarious learning of children's social-anxiety-related fear beliefs and emotional Stroop bias.

    PubMed

    Askew, Chris; Hagel, Anna; Morgan, Julie

    2015-08-01

    Models of social anxiety suggest that negative social experiences contribute to the development of social anxiety, and this is supported by self-report research. However, there is relatively little experimental evidence for the effects of learning experiences on social cognitions. The current study examined the effect of observing a social performance situation with a negative outcome on children's (8 to 11 years old) fear-related beliefs and cognitive processing. Two groups of children were each shown 1 of 2 animated films of a person trying to score in basketball while being observed by others; in 1 film, the outcome was negative, and in the other, it was neutral. Children's fear-related beliefs about performing in front of others were measured before and after the film and children were asked to complete an emotional Stroop task. Results showed that social fear beliefs increased for children who saw the negative social performance film. In addition, these children showed an emotional Stroop bias for social-anxiety-related words compared to children who saw the neutral film. The findings have implications for our understanding of social anxiety disorder and suggest that vicarious learning experiences in childhood may contribute to the development of social anxiety. PMID:26098726

  5. Attachment anxiety moderates the relationship between childhood maltreatment and attention bias for emotion in adults.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jennifer S; Fani, Negar; Ressler, Kerry; Jovanovic, Tanja; Tone, Erin B; Bradley, Bekh

    2014-06-30

    Research indicates that some individuals who were maltreated in childhood demonstrate biases in social information processing. However, the mechanisms through which these biases develop remain unclear-one possible mechanism is via attachment-related processes. Childhood maltreatment increases risk for insecure attachment. The internal working models of self and others associated with insecure attachment may impact the processing of socially relevant information, particularly emotion conveyed in facial expressions. We investigated associations among child abuse, attachment anxiety and avoidance, and attention biases for emotion in an adult population. Specifically, we examined how self-reported attachment influences the relationship between childhood abuse and attention bias for emotion. A dot probe task consisting of happy, threatening, and neutral female facial stimuli was used to assess possible biases in attention for socially relevant stimuli. Our findings indicate that attachment anxiety moderated the relationship between maltreatment and attention bias for happy emotion; among individuals with a child abuse history, attachment anxiety significantly predicted an attention bias away from happy facial stimuli. PMID:24680873

  6. Attachment anxiety moderates the relationship between childhood maltreatment and attention bias for emotion in adults

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jennifer S; Fani, Negar; Ressler, Kerry; Jovanovic, Tanja; Tone, Erin B.; Bradley, Bekh

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that some individuals who were maltreated in childhood demonstrate biases in social information processing. However, the mechanisms through which these biases develop remain unclear—one possible mechanism is via attachment-related processes. Childhood maltreatment increases risk for insecure attachment. The internal working models of self and others associated with insecure attachment may impact the processing of socially relevant information, particularly emotion conveyed in facial expressions. We investigated associations among child abuse, attachment anxiety and avoidance, and attention biases for emotion in an adult population. Specifically, we examined how self-reported attachment influences the relationship between childhood abuse and attention bias for emotion. A dot probe task consisting of happy, threatening, and neutral female facial stimuli was used to assess possible biases in attention for socially relevant stimuli. Our findings indicate that attachment anxiety moderated the relationship between maltreatment and attention bias for happy emotion; among individuals with a child abuse history, attachment anxiety significantly predicted an attention bias away from happy facial stimuli. PMID:24680873

  7. Differences in emotional distress among inpatients with type 1, obese type 2, and non-obese type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, Yoshiko; Iwahashi, Hiromi; Okauchi, Yukiyoshi; Sudo, Yoshiko; Fujiwara, Yuko; Omote, Yayoko; Imagawa, Akihisa; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in emotional distress among three groups of inpatients with type 1, obese type 2, and non-obese type 2 diabetes during hospitalization. Methods The 42 participating inpatients were divided into three groups: type 1 diabetes (n=11), obese type 2 diabetes [body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m(2); n=24], and non-obese type 2 diabetes (BMI <25 kg/m(2); n=7). The Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) scale, which is a self-administered questionnaire to assess emotional distress in the patients with diabetes, was performed at admission and discharge. Results The total PAID score was similar and tended to improve during hospitalization in all three groups, although there were differences among the groups in the scores of particular questions. At admission, the score of the question "worrying about low blood sugar reactions?" was significantly different among the three groups and highest in the patients with type 1 diabetes. At discharge, the score of "not accepting diabetes?" was significantly different among the three groups and highest in the patients with non-obese type 2 diabetes, while that of "feeling unsatisfied with your diabetes physician?" was significantly different among the three groups and highest in the patients with obese type 2 diabetes. The score of "feelings of deprivation regarding food and meals?" significantly worsened in the patients with obese type 2 diabetes during hospitalization compared with the patients in with non-obese type 2 diabetes. Conclusion The characteristics of emotional distress during hospitalization varied among the patients with the three types of diabetes, thus emphasizing the importance of tailoring support according to the type of diabetes. PMID:26466689

  8. Behavioural and neural correlates of self-focused emotion regulation in social anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gaebler, Michael; Daniels, Judith K.; Lamke, Jan-Peter; Fydrich, Thomas; Walter, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Background In healthy individuals, voluntary modification of self-relevance has proven effective in regulating subjective emotional experience as well as physiologic responses evoked by emotive stimuli. As social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by both altered emotional and self-related processing, we tested if emotion regulation through self-focused reappraisal is effective in individuals with SAD. Methods While undergoing 3 T functional magnetic resonance imaging, individuals with SAD and matched healthy controls either passively viewed neutral and aversive pictures or actively increased or decreased their negative emotional experience through the modification of self-relevance or personal distance to aversive pictures. Participants rated all pictures with regard to the intensity of elicited emotions and self-relatedness. Results We included 21 individuals with SAD and 23 controls in our study. Individuals with SAD reported significantly stronger emotional intensity across conditions and showed a nonsignificant tendency to judge pictures as more self-related than controls. Compared with controls, individuals with SAD showed an overactivation in bilateral temporoparietal regions and in the posterior midcingulate cortex during the passive viewing of aversive compared with neutral pictures. During instructed emotion regulation, activation patterns normalized and no significant group differences were detected. Limitations As no positive pictures were presented, results might be limited to the regulation of negative emotion. Conclusion During passive viewing of aversive images, individuals with SAD showed evidence of neural hyperreactivity that may be interpreted as increased bodily self-consciousness and heightened perspective-taking. During voluntary increase and decrease of negative emotional intensity, group differences disappeared, suggesting self-focused reappraisal as a successful emotion regulation strategy for individuals with SAD. PMID:24690369

  9. Proactive and reactive control during emotional interference and its relationship to trait anxiety.

    PubMed

    Krug, Marie K; Carter, Cameron S

    2012-10-24

    In classic Stroop paradigms, increasing the proportion of control-demanding incongruent trials results in strategic adjustments in behavior and implementation of cognitive control processes. We manipulated expectancy for incongruent trials in an emotional facial Stroop task to investigate the behavioral and neural effects of proportion manipulation in a cognitively demanding task with emotional stimuli. Subjects performed a high expectancy (HE) task (65% incongruent trials) and a low expectancy (LE) task (35% incongruent trials) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). As in standard Stroop tasks, behavioral interference was reduced in the emotional facial Stroop HE task compared to the LE task. Functional MRI data revealed a switch in cognitive control strategy, from a reactive, event-related activation of a medial and lateral cognitive control network and right amygdala in the LE task to a proactive, sustained activation of right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in the HE task. Higher trait anxiety was associated with impairment (slower response time and decreased accuracy) as well as reduced activity in left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula, and orbitofrontal cortex in the HE task on high conflict trials with task-irrelevant emotional information, suggesting that individual differences in anxiety may be associated with expectancy-related strategic control adjustments, particularly when emotional stimuli must be ignored. PMID:22960116

  10. An evaluation of rational-emotive imagery as a component of rational-emotive therapy in the treatment of test anxiety.

    PubMed

    Hymen, S P; Warren, R

    1978-06-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of rational-emotive imagery as a component of rational-emotive therapy in reduction of college students' test anxiety. 11 volunteers met for 6 1-hr. group treatment sessions over a 3-wk. period. After 2 initial treatment sessions subjects were randomly assigned to groups given either rational-emotive therapy with rational-emotive imagery or rational-emotive therapy without imagery. Contrary to predictions, improvement between groups on self-report and performance measures was nonsignificant. Failure to obtain differences was attributed to similarities in content of treatment sessions and short treatment time. Combined groups reported significant improvement on all dependent measures. Although the study did not yield the predicted benefits of the imagery, results lend further support to the efficacy of rational-emotive therapy procedures in the reduction of test anxiety. PMID:673643

  11. Emotion and affect in mental imagery: do fear and anxiety manipulate mental rotation performance?

    PubMed Central

    Kaltner, Sandra; Jansen, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of fear as a basic emotion on mental rotation (MR) performance. We expected that the emotional arousal evoked by fearful stimuli presented prior to each MR trial would enhance MR performance. Regarding the influence of anxiety, high anxious participants are supposed to show slower responses and higher error rates in this specific visuo-spatial ability. Furthermore, with respect to the embodied cognition viewpoint we wanted to investigate if the influence of fear on MR performance is the same for egocentric and object-based transformations. To investigate this, we presented either negative or neutral images prior to each MR trial. Participants were allocated to the specific emotion in a randomized order. Results show that fear enhances MR performance, expressed by a higher MR speed. Interestingly, this influence is dependent on the type of transformation: it is restricted to egocentric rotations. Both observation of emotional stimuli and egocentric strategies are associated with left hemisphere activation which could explain a stronger influence on this type of transformation during observation. Another possible notion is the conceptual link between visuo-spatial perspective taking and empathy based on the co-activation of parietal areas. Stronger responses in egocentric transformations could result from this specific link. Regarding the influence of anxiety, participants with high scores on the trait-anxiety scale showed poor results in both reaction time and MR speed. Findings of impoverished recruitment of prefrontal attentional control in patients with high scores in trait anxiety could be the explanation for this reduced performance. PMID:25120508

  12. Sensitivity and Specificity of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED): A Community-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSousa, Diogo Araujo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahao; Isolan, Luciano Rassier; Manfro, Gisele Gus

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional community-based study was to examine the sensitivity and specificity of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) to the diagnosis of anxiety disorders (AD). Participants were 119 students aged 9-18. Psychiatric diagnoses were assessed by a psychiatrist throughout a structural clinical…

  13. Effects of Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention on the School Performance of Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders and Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Naomi A.; Mathur, Sarup R.

    2009-01-01

    Despite widespread treatment success in clinical settings, anxiety disorders are rarely targeted for intervention in students with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD) who exhibit them. This study examined the effects of a school-based anxiety intervention on the performance of 3 students attending school in a self-contained EBD setting. Using…

  14. Effectiveness of Group Dialectical Behavior Therapy (Based on Core Distress Tolerance and Emotion Regulation Components) on Expulsive Anger and Impulsive Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Jamilian, H. R.; Malekirad, A. A.; Farhadi, M.; Habibi, M.; Zamani, N.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study is to measure Effectiveness of group dialectical behavior therapy (basedon core distress tolerance and emotion regulation components) on Expulsive Anger and Impulsive Behaviors. Materials & Methods: Research method is a semi experimental socio-statistic approach consisting of experimental group (dialectical behavior therapy) and control group. Participants were patients referred to Amir Kabir Hospital in Arak who suffered from Expulsive Anger and Impulsive Behaviors. Based on stratified random sampling, 16 patients (women) were placed in each group. Research tools included the structured diagnosis interview according to DSM-IV-TR (2000), Barrat impulsivity scale (1994) Distress Tolerance Scale (2005) Difficulties of Emotion Regulation Scale (2004) and dialectical behavior therapy were done for two months,8 group-sessions). Findings: Dialectical behavior therapy was effective on Expulsive Anger and Impulsive Behaviors. Discussion & Conclusion: Distress tolerance and emotion regulation components were effective on Expulsive Anger and Impulsive Behaviors. PMID:25363188

  15. What patterns of postpartum psychological distress are associated with maternal concerns about their children's emotional and behavioural problems at the age of three years?

    PubMed Central

    Benzies, Karen; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Tough, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Mothers experiencing psychological distress in the postpartum period may have difficulties parenting their children. Inconsistent and unresponsive parenting may increase the risk of later emotional and behavioural problems in children. The purpose of this study was to identify how maternal psychological characteristics cluster at eight weeks postpartum, and whether these clusters were associated with maternal-reported child emotional and behavioural problems at the age of three years, as measured by the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) questionnaire. In a longitudinal pregnancy cohort (N = 647), three clusters of postpartum psychological characteristics were identified. Contrary to expectations, mothers with the greatest psychological distress did not report concerns about their child's emotional and behavioural problems; rather, they reported concerns about global developmental delay. These findings suggest that infants of mothers experiencing postpartum psychological distress should receive additional follow-up to reduce the risk for global developmental delay. PMID:25544794

  16. Callous-unemotional traits and the emotional processing of distress cues in detained boys: testing the moderating role of aggression, exposure to community violence, and histories of abuse.

    PubMed

    Kimonis, Eva R; Frick, Paul J; Munoz, Luna C; Aucoin, Katherine J

    2008-01-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits in antisocial youth have been associated with deficits in the processing of emotionally distressing stimuli in a number of past studies. In the current study, we investigated moderators of this association in a sample of 88 ethnically diverse detained boys (mean age = 15.57, SD = 1.28). Overall, emotional processing of distressing stimuli using a dot-probe task was not related to CU traits and there was no moderating effect of ethnicity. However, CU traits were related to deficits in emotional processing in youth high on aggression and youth high on exposure to community violence. Further, youth high on CU traits but with enhanced orienting to distressing stimuli had stronger histories of abuse, supporting the possibility that there may be environmentally influenced pathways in the development of these traits. PMID:18423095

  17. Obsessive-compulsive disorders and anxiety disorders: A comparison of personality and emotionality patterns.

    PubMed

    Pelissolo, Antoine; Moukheiber, Albert; Mallet, Luc

    2015-10-30

    Even though obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) and anxiety disorders (AD) have been separated in the taxonomy adopted by the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, many issues remain concerning the physiopathological similarities and differences between those categories. Our objective was therefore to explore and compare their personality and emotional features, with the assumption that the distinction of two independent spectrums should imply the existence of two partially distinct temperamental profiles. We used the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R) and the Positive and Negative Emotionality (PNE) scale to compare two groups of patients with OCD (n=227) or AD (n=827). The latter group included patients with social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, and generalized anxiety disorder. Most temperament, character and emotionality measures showed no significant differences between both groups. In the personality measures results, only the self-directedness score (TCI-R) was significantly lower in OCD patients but this difference was not significant when the comparison was adjusted for the depressive scale score and age. Only lower PNE positive affects scores were obtained in OCD patients in the adjusted comparisons. These findings suggest that OCD and AD are not really distinguishable from the point of view of associated personality traits. PMID:26292619

  18. Anxiety, Depression, and Somatic Distress: Developing a Transdiagnostic Internalizing Toolbox for Pediatric Practice

    PubMed Central

    Weersing, V. Robin; Rozenman, Michelle S.; Maher-Bridge, Maureen; Campo, John V.

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety, depression, and somatic complaints are a common set of comorbid problems in children and adolescents. This “internalizing cluster” is highly prevalent, impairing during youth and into adulthood, and has substantial impacts on health-care systems. Fortunately, these problem areas may share several etiological factors and, thus, respond to similar interventions. In this paper, we present (a) the rationale for focusing on this cluster, (b) clinical theory on transdiagnostic processes uniting these problems, (c) description of core treatment techniques for this group, with a description of clinical outcomes for two sample cases, and (d) implications of this approach for new transdiagnostic treatment development and everyday clinical practice. PMID:24653642

  19. Anxiety sensitivity-physical concerns as a moderator of the emotional consequences of emotion suppression during biological challenge: an experimental test using individual growth curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Feldner, Matthew T; Zvolensky, Michael J; Stickle, Timothy R; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W

    2006-02-01

    Anxiety-related responding to, and recovery from, a 5-min 10% carbon dioxide-enriched air presentation among 80 participants with no history of psychopathology was examined. Half of participants were instructed to suppress challenge-induced emotional responses, whereas their matched counterparts were instructed to observe such responses. Responding from immediately post-challenge through a 10-min recovery period was analyzed as a function of Anxiety Sensitivity-Physical Concerns and experimental condition using individual growth curve modeling. Anxiety Sensitivity-Physical Concerns moderated the effect of suppression only on emotion valence during recovery. In terms of main effects, suppression resulted in increased heart rate during recovery and Anxiety Sensitivity-Physical Concerns was positively associated with post-challenge self-reported anxiety. Results are discussed in terms of the potential role of inhibition-oriented affect regulation processes in the etiology of panic disorder. PMID:16389064

  20. Early parenting program as intervention strategy for emotional distress in first-time mothers: a propensity score analysis.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Miwako; Ishigami, Hideaki; Tokimoto, Kumiko; Matsuoka, Megumi; Tango, Ryoko

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a single session intervention designed to reduce emotional distress in first-time mothers. We held a parenting class for first-time mothers who had given birth at a university hospital in Tokyo, Japan. The program of the class consists of lectures on infant care and group discussion, which is a common form of intervention in Japan. The effectiveness of intervention is assessed according to differences in emotional distress experienced by class participants and nonparticipants, and analyzed by the use of a propensity score method to avoid self-selection bias. In order to be more confident about our results, we employ several variations of this method. Results from statistical analysis show that although the effectiveness of the intervention was limited, it was able to alleviate subjects' loss of self-confidence as mothers. Because this outcome shows a good degree of consistency across methods, it can be considered robust. Moreover, it is roughly consistent with previous studies. Effectiveness can probably be increased by developing a program that improves upon the intervention. PMID:22865390

  1. Emotional states as mediators between tinnitus loudness and tinnitus distress in daily life: Results from the "TrackYourTinnitus" application.

    PubMed

    Probst, Thomas; Pryss, Rüdiger; Langguth, Berthold; Schlee, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    The psychological process how tinnitus loudness leads to tinnitus distress remains unclear. This cross-sectional study investigated the mediating role of the emotional state "stress level" and of the two components of the emotional state "arousal" and "valence" with N = 658 users of the "TrackYourTinnitus" smartphone application. Stress mediated the relationship between tinnitus loudness and tinnitus distress in a simple mediation model and even in a multiple mediation model when arousal and valence were held constant. Arousal mediated the loudness-distress relationship when holding valence constant, but not anymore when controlling for valence as well as for stress. Valence functioned as a mediator when controlling for arousal and even when holding arousal and stress constant. The direct effect of tinnitus loudness on tinnitus distress remained significant in all models. This study demonstrates that emotional states affect the process how tinnitus loudness leads to tinnitus distress. We thereby could show that the mediating influence of emotional valence is at least equally strong as the influence of stress. Implications of the findings for future research, assessment, and clinical management of tinnitus are discussed. PMID:26853815

  2. Emotional states as mediators between tinnitus loudness and tinnitus distress in daily life: Results from the “TrackYourTinnitus” application

    PubMed Central

    Probst, Thomas; Pryss, Rüdiger; Langguth, Berthold; Schlee, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    The psychological process how tinnitus loudness leads to tinnitus distress remains unclear. This cross-sectional study investigated the mediating role of the emotional state “stress level” and of the two components of the emotional state “arousal” and “valence” with N = 658 users of the “TrackYourTinnitus” smartphone application. Stress mediated the relationship between tinnitus loudness and tinnitus distress in a simple mediation model and even in a multiple mediation model when arousal and valence were held constant. Arousal mediated the loudness-distress relationship when holding valence constant, but not anymore when controlling for valence as well as for stress. Valence functioned as a mediator when controlling for arousal and even when holding arousal and stress constant. The direct effect of tinnitus loudness on tinnitus distress remained significant in all models. This study demonstrates that emotional states affect the process how tinnitus loudness leads to tinnitus distress. We thereby could show that the mediating influence of emotional valence is at least equally strong as the influence of stress. Implications of the findings for future research, assessment, and clinical management of tinnitus are discussed. PMID:26853815

  3. Exploring the ambiguities of masculinity in accounts of emotional distress in the military among young ex-servicemen.

    PubMed

    Green, Gill; Emslie, Carol; O'Neill, Dan; Hunt, Kate; Walker, Steven

    2010-10-01

    This paper examines the experiences and perspectives of ex-military servicemen in the UK. It focuses specifically on the complex links between emotional distress and various constructions of 'masculinity' in a military context. Aspects of military culture that exacerbate vulnerability and also those that are protective to mental health are identified and discussed with reference to the theoretical constructs relating to hegemonic masculinity. A qualitative research design using semi-structured interviews provided in-depth accounts of the experiences of 20 ex-servicemen aged 23-44, all but one of whom were in the Army. We found that in a military setting hegemonic masculinity is embedded in the construction of a soldier identity and expression of emotion may be seen as inappropriate. As a result soldiers often lack a language with which to express distress (in a context in which they may witness extremely distressing events), which may result in delays in recognising and treating mental health problems. However, constructions of masculinity in this setting to some degree also promote a caring, sharing ethos based on strong inter-dependent bonds. A young soldier who can cope with the stresses of military life 'becomes a man', adopts a masculine/soldier identity and is well-placed to benefit from these protective factors, notably the camaraderie that is part of service life. In this manner a caring ethos in which some admissions of weakness may be permissible is situated within hegemonic masculinity. This seeming paradox between hyper masculinity and caring masculinities appears to be embedded within military culture, perhaps reflecting the flexibility and ambiguity inherent in constructions of hegemonic masculinity. PMID:20739109

  4. The biological evolution of guilt, shame and anxiety: A new theory of negative legacy emotions.

    PubMed

    Breggin, Peter R

    2015-07-01

    Human beings are the most social and the most violent creatures on Earth. The combination of cooperation and aggression enabled us to dominate our ecosystem. However, the existence of violent impulses would have made it difficult or impossible for humans to live in close-knit families and clans without destroying each other. Nature's answer was the development of guilt, shame and anxiety-internal emotional inhibitions or restraints specifically against aggressive self-assertion within the family and other close relationships. The theory of negative legacy emotions proposes the first unitary concept for the biopsychosocial function of guilt, shame and anxiety, and seeks their origin in biological evolution and natural selection. Natural selection favored individuals with built-in emotional restraints that reduced conflicts within their family and tribal unit, optimizing their capacity to survive and reproduce within the protection of their small, intimate societies, while maintaining their capacity for violence against outsiders. Unfortunately, these negative legacy emotions are rudimentary and often ineffective in their psychosocial and developmental function. As a result, they produce many unintended untoward effects, including the frequent breakdown of restraints in the family and the uninhibited unleashing of violence against outsiders. PMID:25890689

  5. Trait anxiety impact on posterior activation asymmetries at rest and during evoked negative emotions: EEG investigation.

    PubMed

    Aftanas, Ljubomir I; Pavlov, Sergey V

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of the present investigation was to examine how high trait anxiety would influence cortical EEG asymmetries under non-emotional conditions and while experiencing negative emotions. The 62-channel EEG was recorded in control (n=21) and high anxiety (HA, n=18) non-patient individuals. Results showed that in HA subjects, the lowest level of arousal (eyes closed) was associated with stronger right-sided parieto-temporal theta-1 (4-6 Hz) and beta-1 (12-18 Hz) activity, whereas increased non-emotional arousal (eyes open, viewing neutral movie clip) was marked by persisting favored right hemisphere beta-1 activity. In turn, viewing aversive movie clip by the HA group led to significant lateralized decrease of the right parieto-temporal beta-1 power, which was initially higher in the emotionally neutral conditions. The EEG data suggests that asymmetrical parieto-temporal theta-1 and beta-1 EEG activity might be better interpreted in terms of Gray's BAS and BIS theory. PMID:15598519

  6. Self-help interventions for symptoms of depression, anxiety and psychological distress in patients with physical illnesses: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Matcham, F; Rayner, L; Hutton, J; Monk, A; Steel, C; Hotopf, M

    2014-03-01

    Psychological distress, depression and anxiety are common in most physical diseases, and self-help interventions, if effective, might be an important approach to improve outcomes as they are inexpensive to provide to large numbers of patients. The primary aim of this review was to assess randomised controlled trials examining the impact of self-help interventions on symptoms of depression, anxiety and psychological distress in patients with physical illness. Systematic searches of electronic databases resulted in twenty-five eligible studies for meta-analysis (n=4211). The results of the primary meta-analyses revealed a significant improvement in depression symptoms, in favour of the intervention group (SMD=-0.13, 95% CI: -0.25, -0.02, p=0.02, I(2)=50%). There were no significant differences in symptoms of anxiety (SMD=-0.10, 95% CI: -0.24, 0.05, p=0.20, I(2)=63%) or psychological distress (SMD=-0.14, 95% CI: -0.40, 0.12, p=0.30, I(2)=72%) between intervention and control conditions. Several subgroup and sensitivity analyses improved effect sizes, suggesting that optimal mental health outcomes may be obtained in patients without neurological conditions, and with interventions based on a therapeutic model (such as cognitive behavioural therapy), and with stress management components. This review demonstrates that with appropriate design and implementation, self-help interventions may potentially improve symptoms of depression in patients with physical conditions. PMID:24508685

  7. Anxiety sensitivity and hazardous drinking among persons living with HIV/AIDS: An examination of the role of emotion dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Daniel J; Jardin, Charles; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Sharp, Carla; Woods, Steven Paul; Lemaire, Chad; Leonard, Amy; Neighbors, Clayton; Brandt, Charles P; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-12-01

    Hazardous drinking is prevalent among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Anxiety sensitivity is a vulnerability factor that is highly associated with hazardous drinking among seronegatives, but has yet to be tested in PLWHA. Additionally, there is a need to examine potential mechanisms underlying associations of anxiety sensitivity and hazardous drinking. Emotion dysregulation is one potential construct that may explain the association between anxiety sensitivity and hazardous drinking. The current study examined emotion dysregulation as a potential explanatory variable between anxiety sensitivity and four, clinically significant alcohol-related outcomes among PLWHA: hazardous drinking, symptoms of alcohol dependence, number of days consuming alcohol within the past month, and degree of past heavy episodic drinking. The sample included 126 PLWHA (Mage=48.3; SD=7.5; 65.9% male). Results indicated significant indirect effects of anxiety sensitivity via emotion dysregulation in all models. Indirect effects (κ(2)) were of medium effect size. Alternative models were run reversing the predictor with mediator and, separately, reversing the mediator with the proposed outcome(s); alternative models yielded non-significant indirect effects in all but one case. Together, the current results indicate that anxiety sensitivity is associated emotion dysregulation, which, in turn, is associated with hazardous drinking outcomes. Overall, these findings may provide initial empirical evidence that emotion dysregulation may be a clinical intervention target for hazardous drinking. PMID:27497249

  8. Influence of age on reactivity to diverse emotional challenges in low- and high-anxiety rats.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Luciana C; Gomes, Margareth Z; Brandão, Marcus L

    2011-02-01

    Studies have revealed that the extent of reactivity of high-anxiety rats to diverse challenges is different than low-anxiety rats and have provided important insights into the psychopathology of anxiety. Various factors intervene to allow defensive mechanisms to react to diverse threatening challenges, including ontogeny and the nature of the emotional challenge (e.g., conditioned vs. unconditioned). The present study investigated the extent to which a particular type of fear extrapolates to other emotional responses to diverse threatening challenges. Groups of 30- and 60-day-old rats were assigned to low freezing behavior (LFB) and high freezing behavior (HFB) groups using the contextual fear conditioning paradigm and subjected to either the fear-potentiated startle (FPS) test, novelty-induced ultrasound vocalizations (USVs) or elevated plus-maze (EPM) tests. At 30 days of age, HFB rats exhibited greater FPS than LFB rats. In contrast, prior selection of HFB and LFB did not affect the performance of 30-day-old animals in the EPM and novelty-induced USVs. Sixty-day-old animals exhibited a performance deficit in all three tests. These data suggest that the performance of young rats in animal models of anxiety parallels their selection as LFB and HFB in the contextual fear conditioning paradigm. However, the increased fear-like behavior exhibited by the 60-day-old HFB rats may elicit performance deficits in conditioned and unconditioned fear tests. These results suggest that the interaction between hyperanxiety and age may cause a performance deficit despite the animals' increased fear-like behavior when facing emotional challenges, thus resembling psychiatric patients in many respects. PMID:20833243

  9. Emotion self-regulation, psychophysiological coherence, and test anxiety: results from an experiment using electrophysiological measures.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Raymond Trevor; McCraty, Rollin; Atkinson, Mike; Tomasino, Dana; Daugherty, Alane; Arguelles, Lourdes

    2010-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of a novel, classroom-based emotion self-regulation program (TestEdge) on measures of test anxiety, socioemotional function, test performance, and heart rate variability (HRV) in high school students. The program teaches students how to self-generate a specific psychophysiological state--psychophysiological coherence--which has been shown to improve nervous system function, emotional stability, and cognitive performance. Implemented as part of a larger study investigating the population of tenth grade students in two California high schools (N = 980), the research reported here was conducted as a controlled pre- and post-intervention laboratory experiment, using electrophysiological measures, on a random stratified sample of students from the intervention and control schools (N = 136). The Stroop color-word conflict test was used as the experiment's stimulus to simulate the stress of taking a high-stakes test, while continuous HRV recordings were gathered. The post-intervention electrophysiological results showed a pattern of improvement across all HRV measures, indicating that students who received the intervention program had learned how to better manage their emotions and to self-activate the psychophysiological coherence state under stressful conditions. Moreover, students with high test anxiety exhibited increased HRV and heart rhythm coherence even during a resting baseline condition (without conscious use of the program's techniques), suggesting that they had internalized the benefits of the intervention. Consistent with these results, students exhibited reduced test anxiety and reduced negative affect after the intervention. Finally, there is suggestive evidence from a matched-pairs analysis that reduced test anxiety and increased psychophysiological coherence appear to be directly associated with improved test performance--a finding consistent with evidence from the larger study. PMID:20559707

  10. Seeing through the eyes of anxious individuals: an investigation of anxiety-related interpretations of emotional expressions.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, Claudia; Mitte, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    The interpretation of emotional states is necessary for successful social communication. Often individuals interpret emotional expressions intuitively and without full cognitive awareness. The aim of the present study was to test whether anxiety would influence affect interpretation in the manner suggested by interpretation bias-the tendency to interpret ambiguous cues in a threatening way. Interpretation of social cues was assessed with the similarity rating task (simtask) in two studies (n1 = 116, n2 = 76). The similarity ratings were analysed with a multidimensional scaling (MDS) approach, and the effects of anxiety on the interpretation of emotional expressions were analysed with multilevel modelling. The results of both studies showed evidence for an anxiety-related interpretation bias. High-anxious individuals tended to interpret milder threats as more negative than low-anxious individuals did. The consequences for anxiety research are discussed. PMID:24499045