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Sample records for apache ii system

  1. Performance Assessment of the SOFA, APACHE II Scoring System, and SAPS II in Intensive Care Unit Organophosphate Poisoned Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong Hwan; Yeo, Jung Hoon; Kang, Mun Ju; Cho, Kwang Won; Hwang, SeongYoun; Hong, Chong Kun; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Yang Weon

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the ability of the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and Acute Physiology, Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scoring systems, as well as the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II method to predict group mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) patients who were poisoned with organophosphate. The medical records of 149 organophosphate poisoned patients admitted to the ICU from September 2006 to December 2012 were retrospectively examined. The SOFA, APACHE II, and SAPS II were calculated based on initial laboratory data in the Emergency Department, and during the first 24 hr of ICU admission. The probability of death was calculated for each patient based on the SOFA score, APACHE II score, and SAPS II equations. The ability to predict group mortality by the SOFA score, APACHE II score, and SAPS II method was assessed using two by two decision matrices and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. A total of 131 patients (mean age, 61 yr) were enrolled. The sensitivities, specificities, and accuracies were 86.2%, 82.4%, and 83.2% for the SOFA score, respectively; 65.5%, 68.6%, and 67.9% for the APACHE II scoring system, respectively; and 86.2%, 77.5%, and 79.4% for the SAPS II, respectively. The areas under the curve in the ROC curve analysis for the SOFA score, APACHE II scoring system, and SAPS II were 0.896, 0.716, and 0.852, respectively. In conclusion, the SOFA, APACHE II, and SAPS II have different capability to discriminate and estimate early in-hospital mortality of organophosphate poisoned patients. The SOFA score is more useful in predicting mortality, and easier and simpler than the APACHE II and SAPS II. PMID:24339715

  2. APACHE II scoring system on a general intensive care unit: audit of daily APACHE II scores and 6-month survival of 691 patients admitted to a general intensive care unit between May 1990 and December 1991.

    PubMed

    Campbell, N N; Tooley, M A; Willatts, S M

    1994-02-01

    In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the use of the APACHE II (acute physiological and chronic health evaluation) scoring system on all of the patients admitted to the general intensive care unit at the Bristol Royal Infirmary over a 20-month period. The 6-month survival of 691 adult medical and surgical patients following intensive care was recorded and this data was analysed with admission and daily APACHE II scores using a relational database. Our data confirms the relationship between admission APACHE II scores and outcome, with mean scores decreasing as duration of survival increases. We also demonstrate that the best day one scores are approximately 50% less than the admission score, irrespective of outcome, indicating the benefit of intensive care. By contrast, however, the scores on day one have either not improved or have worsened since admission, reflecting the importance of the pre-morbid health status of the patient in determining outcome from intensive care. PMID:8196033

  3. APACHE II scoring system on a general intensive care unit: audit of daily APACHE II scores and 6-month survival of 691 patients admitted to a general intensive care unit between May 1990 and December 1991.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, N N; Tooley, M A; Willatts, S M

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the use of the APACHE II (acute physiological and chronic health evaluation) scoring system on all of the patients admitted to the general intensive care unit at the Bristol Royal Infirmary over a 20-month period. The 6-month survival of 691 adult medical and surgical patients following intensive care was recorded and this data was analysed with admission and daily APACHE II scores using a relational database. Our data confirms the relationship between admission APACHE II scores and outcome, with mean scores decreasing as duration of survival increases. We also demonstrate that the best day one scores are approximately 50% less than the admission score, irrespective of outcome, indicating the benefit of intensive care. By contrast, however, the scores on day one have either not improved or have worsened since admission, reflecting the importance of the pre-morbid health status of the patient in determining outcome from intensive care. PMID:8196033

  4. Further appraisal of APACHE II limitations and potential.

    PubMed

    Civetta, J M; Hudson-Civetta, J A; Kirton, O; Aragon, C; Salas, C

    1992-09-01

    Hemodynamically unstable patients selected for invasive cardiovascular monitoring were divided into APACHE II subgroups for risk stratification to study interrelationships among monitoring, therapy, resulting cardiovascular function and outcome. When compared by regression analysis, there were no clinically relevant relationships between APACHE II scores and total intervention points (r2 = 0.02), days of invasive monitoring (r2 = 0.000001), initial cardiovascular function (r2 = 0.069) and final cardiovascular function (r2 = 0.05). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was done between APACHE subgroups and total points (zero of 20 intragroup comparisons were different by the Scheffé test; p = 0.33), days of monitoring (zero of 20 were different; p = 0.61), initial cardiovascular function (three of 20 comparisons were different; p = 0.003) and final cardiovascular function (zero of 20 were different; p = 0.24). Opposite relationships in patients who lived and died were noted between total intervention points and APACHE II subgroups (p = 0.028, two-way ANOVA). There was an increasing number of total intervention points in patients who ultimately lived in ascending initial APACHE II subgroups. In contrast, there was a decreasing number of total intervention points in patients who ultimately died in the same APACHE II subgroups. APACHE II stratification failed to help understand the relationships among clinically important parameters. At the same time, while APACHE scores are claimed to be independent of therapy, the score seemed to be extremely sensitive to interventions, especially important in surgical populations. Should the APACHE II scores remain high in the face of continued maximal intervention, fatal outcome can be predicted. This pattern is remarkably similar across the entire initial APACHE spectrum. The predicated attributes of APACHE II scores, that is, risk stratification and independence from therapy, are neither necessary or desirable. Understanding patterns

  5. Comprehensive Modeling of the Apache With CAMRAD II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Henry E.; Kunz, Donald L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a report of a multi year study of the U.S. Army LONGBOW APACHE (AH-64D) aircraft. The goals of this study were to provide the Apache Project Managers Office (PMO) with a broad spectrum of calibrated comprehensive and CFD models of the AH-64D aircraft. The goal of this paper is to present an overview of the comprehensive model which has been developed. The CAMRAD II computer code was chosen to complete this task. The paper first discusses issues that must be addressed when modeling the Apache using CAMRAD. The work required the acquisition of a data base for the aircraft and the development and application of a multidisciplinary computer model. Sample results from various parts of the model are presented. Conclusions with regard to the strengths and weaknesses of simulations based on this model are discussed.

  6. Comprehensive Modeling of the Apache with CAMRAD II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Henry E.; Kunz, Donald L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a report of a multi year study of the U.S. Army LONGBOW APACHE (AH-64D) aircraft. The goals of this study were to provide the Apache Project Managers Office (PMO) with a broad spectrum of calibrated comprehensive and CFD models of the AH-64D aircraft. The goal of this paper is to present an overview of the comprehensive model which has been developed. The CAMRAD II computer code was chosen to complete this task. The paper first discusses issues that must be addressed when modeling the Apache using CAMRAD. The work required the acquisition of a data base for the aircraft and the development and application of a multidisciplinary computer model. Sample results from various parts of the model are presented. Conclusions with regard to the strengths and weaknesses of simulations based on this model are discussed.

  7. Can APACHE II Score Predict Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Hyperglycemic Patients Presenting to Emergency Department?

    PubMed Central

    Safari, Saeid; Rahmani, Farzad; Soleimanpour, Hassan; Ebrahimi Bakhtavar, Hanieh; Mehdizadeh Esfanjani, Robab

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute and life-threatening complication in diabetic patients. The current diagnostic criteria of DKA are metabolic acidosis, blood glucose level greater than 250 mg/dL and the presence of ketones in serum or urine. DKA patients referring to the emergency department (ED) are usually ill. Objectives: The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scoring in predicting the critically illness in the hyperglycemic patients referring to the ED. Patients and Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study in an ED. One hundred eighty one patients older than 18 years with hyperglycemia were included in our study. Following the primary evaluation, the subjects were divided into DKA and non-DKA patients. APACHE II scores were calculated for all patients and then compared to each other. We determined predictive value, sensitivity, specificity and cut-off points of APACHE II score for DKA. Results: Sixty two patients had DKA. The comparison of APACHE II score among two groups of the patients did not show any significant difference (P = 0.597). There was no suitable cut-off point for APACHE II score to predict DKA. Conclusions: APACHE II score cannot be applied in the predicting of DKA in hyperglycemic patients admitted in ED. PMID:25599026

  8. APACHE II Score, Rather Than Cardiac Function, May Predict Poor Prognosis in Patients With Stress-Induced Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Joe, Byung-Hyun; Jo, Uk; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Park, Chang-Bum; Hwang, Hui-Jeong; Sohn, Il-Suk; Jin, Eun-Sun; Cho, Jin-Man; Park, Jeong-Hwan

    2012-01-01

    While the disease course of stress-induced cardiomyopathy (SIC) is usually benign, it can be fatal. The prognostic factors to predict poorer outcome are not well established, however. We analyzed the Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score to assess its value for predicting poor prognosis in patients with SIC. Thirty-seven consecutive patients with SIC were followed prospectively during their hospitalization. Clinical factors, including APACHE II score, coronary angiogram, echocardiography and cardiac enzymes at presentation were analyzed. Of the 37 patients, 27 patients (73%) were women. The mean age was 66.1 ± 15.6 yr, and the most common presentation was chest pain (38%). Initial echocardiographic left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) was 42.5% ± 9.3%, and the wall motion score index (WMSI) was 1.9 ± 0.3. Six patients (16%) expired during the follow-up period of hospitalization. Based on the analysis of characteristics and clinical factors, the only predictable variable in prognosis was APACHE II score. The patients with APACHE II score greater than 20 had tendency to expire than the others (P = 0.001). Based on present study, APACHE II score more than 20, rather than cardiac function, is associated with mortality in patients with SIC. PMID:22219614

  9. Predicting Outcome after Traumatic Brain Injury: Development of Prognostic Scores Based on the IMPACT and the APACHE II

    PubMed Central

    Siironen, Jari; Kivisaari, Riku; Hernesniemi, Juha; Skrifvars, Markus B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Prediction models are important tools for heterogeneity adjustment in clinical trials and for the evaluation of quality of delivered care to patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). We sought to improve the predictive performance of the IMPACT (International Mission for Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials) prognostic model by combining it with the APACHE II (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II) for 6-month outcome prediction in patients with TBI treated in the intensive care unit. A total of 890 patients with TBI admitted to a large urban level 1 trauma center in 2009–2012 comprised the study population. The IMPACT and the APACHE II scores were combined using binary logistic regression. A randomized, split-sample technique with secondary bootstrapping was used for model development and internal validation. Model performance was assessed by discrimination (by area under the curve [AUC]), calibration, precision, and net reclassification improvement (NRI). Overall 6-month mortality was 22% and unfavorable neurological outcome 47%. The predictive power of the new combined IMPACT–APACHE II models was significantly superior, compared to the original IMPACT models (AUC, 0.81–0.82 vs. 0.84–0.85; p<0.05) for 6-month mortality prediction, but not for unfavorable outcome prediction (AUC, 0.81–0.82 vs. 0.83; p>0.05). However, NRI showed a significant improvement in risk stratification of patients with unfavorable outcome by the IMPACT–APACHE II models, compared to the original models (NRI, 5.4–23.2%; p<0.05). Internal validation using split-sample and resample bootstrap techniques yielded equivalent results, indicating low grade of overestimation. Our findings show that by combining the APACHE II with the IMPACT, improved 6-month outcome predictive performance is achieved. This may be applicable for heterogeneity adjustment in forthcoming TBI studies. PMID:24836936

  10. Utilizing findings from the APACHE III research to develop operational information system for the ICU--the APACHE III ICU Management System.

    PubMed Central

    Knaus, W. A.; Draper, E. A.; Wagner, D. P.

    1991-01-01

    The APACHE III data base reflects the disease, physiologic status, and outcome data from 17,400 ICU patients at 40 hospitals, 26 of which were randomly selected from representative geographic regions, bed size, and teaching status. This provides a nationally representative standard for measuring several important aspects of ICU performance. Results from the study have now been used to develop an automated information system to provide real time information about expected ICU patient outcome, length of stay, production cost, and ICU performance. The information system provides several new capabilities to ICU clinicians, clinic, and hospital administrators. Among the system's capabilities are: the ability to compare local ICU performance against predetermined criteria; the ability to forecast nursing requirements; and, the ability to make both individual and group patient outcome predictions. The system also provides improved administrative support by tracking ICU charges at the point of origin and reduces staff workload eliminating the requirement for several manually maintained logs and patient lists. APACHE III has the capability to electronically interface with and utilize data already captured in existing hospital information systems, automated laboratory information systems, and patient monitoring systems. APACHE III will also be completely integrated with several CIS vendors' products. PMID:1807779

  11. The case against using the APACHE system to predict intensive care unit outcome in trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Vassar, M J; Holcroft, J W

    1994-01-01

    The use of outcome indices as a means of evaluating institutional performance for delivery of medical care is at the forefront of federal health policy reforms. Because an enormous number of clinical and financial data are generated by ICU patients, it is inevitable that integrated bedside computers will be necessary to supply the type of information that is being sought by governmental and private insurance agencies involved in assessment of hospital performance. The Health Care Financing Administration already has adopted the APACHE data collection protocols and predictive models for the severity of illness adjustments that were used in assessing the 1986 hospital-specific death rate for acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, stroke, and pneumonia. In our opinion, however, it is unlikely that any single system will be developed that can accurately estimate more than 50% of ICU deaths. The intention of the APACHE III system to include 78 diagnostic categories seems unrealistic. Furthermore, the number of data needed to document outcomes for both low- and high-risk admissions is impractical. We are evaluating APACHE III to determine whether the revisions to the definition for head trauma will represent a significant improvement in predicting outcomes for trauma patients. In the interim, the financial investment in the APACHE III automated bedside data collection system cannot be justified for trauma patients. Neither should it be used in ICUs that admit a large number of trauma patients as a tool for monitoring unit efficiency, guiding triage decisions, allocating staff and ICU beds, identifying risks of iatrogenic or other potential complications, or assessing quality of life, in spite of marketing efforts by the APACHE Corporation. We believe that using any of the APACHE systems for these purposes, at best, is premature, and potentially misrepresents the trauma patient population. Standards for patient classification already are in place for use

  12. Jicarilla Apaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Roekel, Gertrude B.

    Geronimo's surrender in 1886 ended some 200 years' warfare against encroaching white man in that broad area abutting the Rocky Mountains. Thus, the free-roaming period of Apache life, marked by repeated instances of bad faith and broken treaties, was ended and the Jicarilla Apaches were delivered to their reservation in northern New Mexico. The…

  13. Severity and prognosis of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning are indicated by C-reactive protein and copeptin levels and APACHE II score

    PubMed Central

    WU, XINKUAN; XIE, WEI; CHENG, YUELEI; GUAN, QINGLONG

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and copeptin, in addition to the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) scores, in patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP). A total of 100 patients with AOPP were included and divided into mild, moderate and severe groups according to AOPP diagnosis and classification standards. Blood samples were collected from all patients on days 1, 3 and 7 following AOPP. The concentrations of CRP and copeptin in the plasma were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All AOPP patients underwent APACHE II scoring and the diagnostic value of these scores was analyzed using receiver operating characteristic curves (ROCs). On days 1, 3 and 7 after AOPP, the levels of CRP and copeptin were increased in correlation with the increase in AOPP severity, and were significantly higher compared with the control groups. Furthermore, elevated CRP and copeptin plasma levels were detected in patients with severe AOPP on day 7, whereas these levels were reduced in patients with mild or moderate AOPP. APACHE II scores, blood lactate level, acetylcholine esterase level, twitch disappearance time, reactivating agent dose and inability to raise the head were the high-risk factors that affected the prognosis of AOPP. Patients with plasma CRP and copeptin levels higher than median values had worse prognoses. The areas under curve for ROCs were 0.89, 0.75 and 0.72 for CRP levels, copeptin levels and APACHE II scores, respectively. In addition, the plasma contents of CRP and copeptin are increased according to the severity of AOPP. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that CRP and copeptin levels and APACHE II scores may be used for the determination of AOPP severity and the prediction of AOPP prognosis. PMID:26997996

  14. Performance of the Apache Point Observatory 3.5m telescope. II - Pointing and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Russell; Hull, Charles; Siegmund, Walter

    1990-07-01

    The Apache Point Observatory 3.5-m telescope, loated in the Sacramento Mountains of New Mexico at an elevation of 2.8 km, is awaiting the installation of the primary mirror. The design of this telescope includes a number of innovative features including a lightweight honeycomb borosilicate mirror, friction drives and encoding, and complete computer control to facilitate remote use. A 0.3-m telescope was attached to the telescope mount to monitor tracking and pointing performance. Currently, the telescope tracks open-loop to 0.3 arcsec rms over 10 min and points to 5 arcsec rms. Improvements to the servosystem and encoder mounting should make it possible to meet the goals of tracking to 0.2 arcsec rms and pointing to 1 arcsec rms.

  15. Initial dosing regimen of vancomycin to achieve early therapeutic plasma concentration in critically ill patients with MRSA infection based on APACHE II score.

    PubMed

    Imaura, Masaharu; Yokoyama, Haruko; Kohata, Yuji; Kanai, Riichiro; Kohyama, Tomoki; Idemitsu, Wataru; Maki, Yuichi; Igarashi, Takashi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kanno, Hiroshi; Yamada, Yasuhiko

    2016-06-01

    It is essential to assure the efficacy of antimicrobials at the initial phase of therapy. However, increasing the volume of distribution (Vd) of hydrophilic antimicrobials in critically ill patients leads to reduced antimicrobial concentration in plasma and tissue, which may adversely affect the efficacy of that therapy. The aim of the present study was to establish a theoretical methodology for setting an appropriate level for initial vancomycin therapy in individual patients based on Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score. We obtained data from patients who received intravenous vancomycin for a suspected or definitively diagnosed Gram-positive bacterial infection within 72 h after admission to the intensive care unit. The Vd and elimination half-life (t 1/2) of vancomycin values were calculated using the Bayesian method, and we investigated the relationship between them and APACHE II score. There were significant correlations between APACHE II scores and Vd/actual body weight (ABW), as well as t 1/2 (r = 0.58, p < 0.05 and r = 0.74, p < 0.01, respectively). Our results suggested that the Vd and t 1/2 of vancomycin could be estimated using the following regression equations using APACHE II score.[Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]We found that APACHE II score was a useful index for predicting the Vd and t 1/2 of vancomycin, and used that to establish an initial vancomycin dosing regimen comprised of initial dose and administration interval for individual patients. PMID:25502612

  16. Geology and ore deposits of the Monument Valley area, Apache and Navajo counties, Arizona: Part II

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witkind, I.J.; Thaden, R.E.

    1958-01-01

    In 1951 and 1952, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a program of uranium investigations and geologic mapping in the Monument Valley area, Apache and Navajo Counties, Ariz. About 700 square miles were mapped on the Navajo Indian Reservation. A resource appraisal of the area was an inherent part of the program, and is detailed in this report. Production of vanadium and uranium is from two areas, the Monument No. 1 mine area in Navajo County, and the Monument No. 2 mine area in Apache County. In the period 1942-53 about 200,300 tons of ore was produced from these two areas. This ore yielded about 1,700,000 pounds of U3O8 and about 6,500,000 pounds of V2O5. The grade ranged from 0.15 percent U3O8 to 0.60 percent U3O8, and from 0.38 percent V2O5 to 3.02 percent V2O5. The vanadium-uranium ratio is about 4:1. The ore deposits are composed principally of the hydrous calcium-uranium vanadate tyuyamunite in basal channel sediments of the Shinarump member off the Chinle formation. Four types of ore bodies are present: (1) rods, (2) tabular ore bodies, (3) corvusite-type ore bodies, and (4) rolls. The reserves of uranium- and vanadium-bearing material are classed as measured, indicated, inferred, and potential. The reserves are further divided into three grade classes for material 1 foot or more thick: (1) 0.10 percent U3O8 and 1.00 percent V2O5 and above; (2) 0.05 percent U3O8 and 0.50 percent V2O5 and less than 0.10 percent U3O8 and 1.00 percent V2O5; and (3) 0.01 percent U3O8 and 0.10 percent V2O5 and less than 0.05 percent U3O8 and 0.05 percent V2O5. Measured reserves as of June 1953, in the Monument Valley area, Arizona, (all in the Monument No. 2 mine) total about 36,000 tons. Indicated reserves in the first grade class amount to about 62,000 tons. In this same grade class inferred reserves total about 3,000,000 tons. In the second grade class indicated and inferred reserves amount to about 2,000,000 tons. Inferred reserves in the third grade class total about 345

  17. Building a Snow Data System on the Apache OODT Open Technology Stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodale, C. E.; Painter, T. H.; Mattmann, C. A.; Hart, A. F.; Ramirez, P.; Zimdars, P.; Bryant, A. C.; Snow Data System Team

    2011-12-01

    Snow cover and its melt dominate regional climate and hydrology in many of the world's mountainous regions. One-sixth of Earth's population depends on snow- or glacier-melt for water resources. Operationally, seasonal forecasts of snowmelt-generated streamflow are leveraged through empirical relations based on past snowmelt periods. These historical data show that climate is changing, but the changes reduce the reliability of the empirical relations. Therefore optimal future management of snowmelt derived water resources will require explicit physical models driven by remotely sensed snow property data. Toward this goal, the Snow Optics Laboratory at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has initiated a near real-time processing pipeline to generate and publish post-processed snow data products within a few hours of satellite acquisition. To solve this challenge, a Scientific Data Management and Processing System was required and the JPL Team leveraged an open-source project called Object Oriented Data Technology (OODT). OODT was developed within NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory across the last 10 years. OODT has supported various scientific data management and processing projects, providing solutions in the Earth, Planetary, and Medical science fields. It became apparent that the project needed to be opened to a larger audience to foster and promote growth and adoption. OODT was open-sourced at the Apache Software Foundation in November 2010 and has a growing community of users and committers that are constantly improving the software. Leveraging OODT, the JPL Snow Data System (SnowDS) Team was able to install and configure a core Data Management System (DMS) that would download MODIS raw data files and archive the products in a local repository for post processing. The team has since built an online data portal, and an algorithm-processing pipeline using the Apache OODT software as the foundation. We will present the working SnowDS system with its core remote sensing

  18. Stray light analysis of the Apache Point Observatory 3.5-meter telescope system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompea, Stephen M.; Pfisterer, Richard N.; Morgan, Jeffrey S.

    2003-02-01

    A stray light analysis of the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 meter telescope system was done to understand the performance for a variety of imaging modes. The telescope system consists of the 3.5-m telescope, its enclosure, and its associated imaging cameras. The purpose of the study was to assess the stray light performance of this system, identify where modification(s) would improve the system off-axis rejection characteristics, and assess the effectiveness of those modifications. A detailed telescope system geometry model was created, and scatter models were created for telescope and enclosure components. The computer model we created duplicated the pinhole stray light images taken with the telescope, thereby verifying the model. The Point Source Transmittance (PST), a commonly used metric for assessing stray light was used to evaluate the stray light performance of the system for a number of off-axis angles and to suggest modifications to enhance the system. The baseline PST of the existing system shows virtually no falloff with off-axis angle in the plane of the observatory slit. This is the result of (1) the focal plane having a large, unobstructed view of the Nasmyth mirror and cell, primary mirror cell, and baffles mounted on the Nasmyth cell, (2) relatively unobstructed illumination of telescope over a large range of angles in the plane of the slit, and (3) secondary and Nasmyth baffles that are not enclosed. These attributes create a series of first-level scatter paths that directly illuminate the focal plane. Our approach to stray light reduction was to address the light paths revealed by the various PST calculations. Our calculations have shown that significant gains can be realized with simple modifications to the telescope system.

  19. Comparison of Ranson, Glasgow, MOSS, SIRS, BISAP, APACHE-II, CTSI Scores, IL-6, CRP, and Procalcitonin in Predicting Severity, Organ Failure, Pancreatic Necrosis, and Mortality in Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Ajay K.; Meher, Susanta; Prakash, Shashi; Tiwary, Satyendra Kumar; Singh, Usha; Srivastava, Arvind; Dixit, V. K.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Multifactorial scorings, radiological scores, and biochemical markers may help in early prediction of severity, pancreatic necrosis, and mortality in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP). Methods. BISAP, APACHE-II, MOSS, and SIRS scores were calculated using data within 24 hrs of admission, whereas Ranson and Glasgow scores after 48 hrs of admission; CTSI was calculated on day 4 whereas IL-6 and CRP values at end of study. Predictive accuracy of scoring systems, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of various markers in prediction of severe acute pancreatitis, organ failure, pancreatic necrosis, admission to intensive care units and mortality were calculated. Results. Of 72 patients, 31 patients had organ failure and local complication classified as severe acute pancreatitis, 17 had pancreatic necrosis, and 9 died (12.5%). Area under curves for Ranson, Glasgow, MOSS, SIRS, APACHE-II, BISAP, CTSI, IL-6, and CRP in predicting SAP were 0.85, 0.75, 0.73, 0.73, 0.88, 0.80, 0.90, and 0.91, respectively, for pancreatic necrosis 0.70, 0.64, 0.61, 0.61, 0.68, 0.61, 0.75, 0.86, and 0.90, respectively, and for mortality 0.84, 0.83, 0.77, 0.76, 0.86, 0.83, 0.57, 0.80, and 0.75, respectively. Conclusion. CRP and IL-6 have shown a promising result in early detection of severity and pancreatic necrosis whereas APACHE-II and Ranson score in predicting AP related mortality in this study. PMID:24204087

  20. Visual issues associated with the use of the integrated helmet and display sighting system (IHADSS) in the Apache helicopter: three decades in review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiatt, Keith L.; Rash, Clarence E.; Heinecke, Kevin

    2008-04-01

    In the late 1970s the U.S. Army developed the Integrated Helmet and Display Sighting System (IHADSS), which is a helmet-mounted display (HMD) for use in the AH-64 Apache helicopter. The helicopter and the system were designed with the Cold War in mind such that the Apache would be able to stand off far from the frontlines and attack deep target-primarily tanks-before they could engage our ground forces. The design used a right-sided monocular display optical system that was intended to reduce head-supported weight. This novel monocular design introduced a number of issues that had the potential of causing visual perception problems for pilots. Since the initial fielding of the Apache in the early 1980s, numerous reports have appeared in the literature that evaluated realized visual complaints voiced by Apache aircrew. In this review, the authors provide a summary of seminal reports, surveys, and experiments conducted over the past three decades. The extant literature described investigated these visual issues as the Apache's mission has evolved from the stand-off engagement tactics of the Cold War to the new Apache missions of close air support, deep attack, and raids currently occurring in the Global War on Terrorism.

  1. Web-based survey of visual symptoms reported by Apache aviators using the integrated helmet and display sighting system (IHADSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rash, Clarence E.; Suggs, Christie L.

    2002-08-01

    A web-based study was conducted to determine the continuing presence and frequency of visual complaints reported by pilots using the monocular Integrated Helmet and Display Sighting System (IHADSS) helmet-mounted display (HMD) of the AH-64 Apache helicopter. A total of 216 pilots responded to the survey, which addressed areas of visual symptoms experienced during and/or after flight, helmet fit, and acoustics. Ninety-two percent of the pilots responding to the survey reported at least one visual symptom. The most frequently reported symptom for both during and after flight was visual discomfort. One out of four respondents reported having some difficulty in purposefully alternating between visual inputs to the two eyes. Approximately two-thirds of the pilots responding expressed reasonable satisfaction with their current helmet fit.

  2. Comparison of acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation IV to predict intensive care unit mortality

    PubMed Central

    Parajuli, Bashu Dev; Shrestha, Gentle S.; Pradhan, Bishwas; Amatya, Roshana

    2015-01-01

    Context: Clinical assessment of severity of illness is an essential component of medical practice to predict the outcome of critically ill-patient. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) model is one of the widely used scoring systems. Aims: This study was designed to evaluate the Performance of APACHE II and IV scoring systems in our Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Settings and Design: A prospective study in 6 bedded ICU, including 76 patients all above 15 years. Subjects and Methods: APACHE II and APACHE IV scores were calculated based on the worst values in the first 24 h of admission. All enrolled patients were followed, and outcome was recorded as survivors or nonsurvivors. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS version 17. Results: The mean APACHE score was significantly higher among nonsurvivors than survivors (P < 0.005). Discrimination for APACHE II and APACHE IV was fair with area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.73 and 0.79 respectively. The cut-off point with best Youden index for APACHE II was 17 and for APACHE IV was 85. Above cut-off point, mortality was higher for both models (P < 0.005). Hosmer–Lemeshow Chi-square coefficient test showed better calibration for APACHE II than APACHE IV. A positive correlation was seen between the models with Spearman's correlation coefficient of 0.748 (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Discrimination was better for APACHE IV than APACHE II model however Calibration was better for APACHE II than APACHE IV model in our study. There was good correlation between the two models observed in our study. PMID:25722550

  3. Apache Open Climate Workbench: Building Open Source Climate Science Tools and Community at the Apache Software Foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, M.; Ramirez, P.; Boustani, M.; Mattmann, C. A.; Khudikyan, S.; McGibbney, L. J.; Whitehall, K. D.

    2014-12-01

    Apache Open Climate Workbench (OCW; https://climate.apache.org/) is a Top-Level Project at the Apache Software Foundation that aims to provide a suite of tools for performing climate science evaluations using model outputs from a multitude of different sources (ESGF, CORDEX, U.S. NCA, NARCCAP) with remote sensing data from NASA, NOAA, and other agencies. Apache OCW is the second NASA project to become a Top-Level Project at the Apache Software Foundation. It grew out of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Regional Climate Model Evaluation System (RCMES) project, a collaboration between JPL and the University of California, Los Angeles' Joint Institute for Regional Earth System Science and Engineering (JIFRESSE). Apache OCW provides scientists and developers with tools for data manipulation, metrics for dataset comparisons, and a visualization suite. In addition to a powerful low-level API, Apache OCW also supports a web application for quick, browser-controlled evaluations, a command line application for local evaluations, and a virtual machine for isolated experimentation with minimal setup. This talk will look at the difficulties and successes of moving a closed community research project out into the wild world of open source. We'll explore the growing pains Apache OCW went through to become a Top-Level Project at the Apache Software Foundation as well as the benefits gained by opening up development to the broader climate and computer science communities.

  4. The Apache OODT Project: An Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattmann, C. A.; Crichton, D. J.; Hughes, J. S.; Ramirez, P.; Goodale, C. E.; Hart, A. F.

    2012-12-01

    Apache OODT is a science data system framework, borne over the past decade, with 100s of FTEs of investment, tens of sponsoring agencies (NASA, NIH/NCI, DoD, NSF, universities, etc.), and hundreds of projects and science missions that it powers everyday to their success. At its core, Apache OODT carries with it two fundamental classes of software services and components: those that deal with information integration from existing science data repositories and archives, that themselves have already-in-use business processes and models for populating those archives. Information integration allows search, retrieval, and dissemination across these heterogeneous systems, and ultimately rapid, interactive data access, and retrieval. The other suite of services and components within Apache OODT handle population and processing of those data repositories and archives. Workflows, resource management, crawling, remote data retrieval, curation and ingestion, along with science data algorithm integration all are part of these Apache OODT software elements. In this talk, I will provide an overview of the use of Apache OODT to unlock and populate information from science data repositories and archives. We'll cover the basics, along with some advanced use cases and success stories.

  5. Apache Scale Model Helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Centers (LaRC) Electromagnetics Research Branch (ERB) performs antenna radiation pattern measurements on a communications antenna mounted on a 1/7th scale model of a US ARMY Apache Helicopter. The NASA LaRC ERB participates in a government industry, and university sponsored helicopter consortium to advance computational electromagnetics (CEM) code development for antenna radiation pattern predictions. Scale model antenna measurements serve as verification tools and are an integral part of the CEM code development process.

  6. HVI and HVII mitochondrial DNA data in Apaches and Navajos.

    PubMed

    Budowle, Bruce; Allard, Marc W; Fisher, Constance L; Isenberg, Alice R; Monson, Keith L; Stewart, John E B; Wilson, Mark R; Miller, Kevin W P

    2002-08-01

    Most mtDNA studies on Native Americans have concentrated on hypervariable region I (HVI) sequence data. Mitochondrial DNA haplotype data from hypervariable regions I and II (HVI and HVII) have been compiled from Apaches (N=180) and Navajos (N=146). The inclusion of HVII data increases the amount of information that can be obtained from low diversity population groups. Less mtDNA variation was observed in the Apaches and Navajos than in major population groups. The majority of the mtDNA sequences were observed more than once; only 17.8% (32/180) of the Apache sequences and 25.8% of the Navajo sequences were observed once. Most of the haplotypes in Apaches and Navajos fall into the A and B haplogroups. Although a limited number of haplogroups were observed, both sample populations exhibit sufficient variation for forensic mtDNA typing. Genetic diversity was 0.930 in the Apache sample and 0.963 in the Navajo sample. The random match probability was 7.48% in the Apache sample and 4.40% in the Navajo sample. The average number of nucleotide differences between individuals in a database is 9.0 in the Navajo sample and 7.7 in the Apache sample. The data demonstrate that mtDNA sequencing can be informative in forensic cases where Native American population data are used. PMID:12185491

  7. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in an American Indian Reservation Community: Results from the White Mountain Apache Surveillance System, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cwik, Mary F.; Barlow, Allison; Tingey, Lauren; Larzelere-Hinton, Francene; Goklish, Novalene; Walkup, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe characteristics and correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among the White Mountain Apache Tribe. NSSI has not been studied before in American Indian samples despite associated risks for suicide, which disproportionately affect American Indian youth. Method: Apache case managers collected data through a tribally…

  8. Optimizing CMS build infrastructure via Apache Mesos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdurachmanov, David; Degano, Alessandro; Elmer, Peter; Eulisse, Giulio; Mendez, David; Muzaffar, Shahzad

    2015-12-01

    The Offline Software of the CMS Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN consists of 6M lines of in-house code, developed over a decade by nearly 1000 physicists, as well as a comparable amount of general use open-source code. A critical ingredient to the success of the construction and early operation of the WLCG was the convergence, around the year 2000, on the use of a homogeneous environment of commodity x86-64 processors and Linux. Apache Mesos is a cluster manager that provides efficient resource isolation and sharing across distributed applications, or frameworks. It can run Hadoop, Jenkins, Spark, Aurora, and other applications on a dynamically shared pool of nodes. We present how we migrated our continuous integration system to schedule jobs on a relatively small Apache Mesos enabled cluster and how this resulted in better resource usage, higher peak performance and lower latency thanks to the dynamic scheduling capabilities of Mesos.

  9. Belle II production system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Hideki; Grzymkowski, Rafal; Ludacka, Radek; Schram, Malachi

    2015-12-01

    The Belle II experiment will record a similar quantity of data to LHC experiments and will acquire it at similar rates. This requires considerable computing, storage and network resources to handle not only data created by the experiment but also considerable amounts of simulated data. Consequently Belle II employs a distributed computing system to provide the resources coordinated by the the DIRAC interware. DIRAC is a general software framework that provides a unified interface among heterogeneous computing resources. In addition to the well proven DIRAC software stack, Belle II is developing its own extension called BelleDIRAC. BelleDIRAC provides a transparent user experience for the Belle II analysis framework (basf2) on various environments and gives access to file information managed by LFC and AMGA metadata catalog. By unifying DIRAC and BelleDIRAC functionalities, Belle II plans to operate an automated mass data processing framework named a “production system”. The Belle II production system enables large-scale raw data transfer from experimental site to raw data centers, followed by massive data processing, and smart data delivery to each remote site. The production system is also utilized for simulated data production and data analysis. Although development of the production system is still on-going, recently Belle II has prepared prototype version and evaluated it with a large scale simulated data production. In this presentation we will report the evaluation of the prototype system and future development plans.

  10. The Jicarilla Apaches. A Study in Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnerson, Dolores A.

    Focusing on the ultimate fate of the Cuartelejo and/or Paloma Apaches known in archaeological terms as the Dismal River people of the Central Plains, this book is divided into 2 parts. The early Apache (1525-1700) and the Jicarilla Apache (1700-1800) tribes are studied in terms of their: persistent cultural survival, social/political adaptability,…

  11. Curriculum Program for the Apache Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteriver Public Schools, AZ.

    These curriculum materials from the Whiteriver (Arizona) Elementary School consist of--(1) an English-Apache word list of some of the most commonly used words in Apache, 29p.; (2) a list of enclitics with approximate or suggested meanings and illustrations of usage, 5 p.; (3) an illustrated chart of Apache vowels and consonants, various written…

  12. Landscape associations of the sand fly, Lutzomyia (Heleocyrtomyia) apache (Diptera: Psychodidae), in the southwestern United States: a geographic information system analysis.

    PubMed

    Herrero, M V; Yarnell, W E; Schmidtmann, E T

    2004-12-01

    Landscape associations of the sand fly, Lutzomyia apache, Young and Perkins, in the southwestern U.S. were investigated by light/suction trap sampling and the development of a GIS-generated distribution map. In the mid-Rio Grande River valley, N.M., female and male L. apache were captured in updraft light/suction traps set in desert shrubland, irrigation levee, and bosque vegetation communities. Small numbers of flies were captured, but the presence of males and females in spatially separate and diverse plant communities at two locations suggest that L. apache are dispersed among available vegetation types. These data, along with 22 previously published collection site records, were used with a suite of physiographic features to characterize the biogeographic conditions suitable for L. apache. Suitable conditions encompass three life zones: the Rocky Mountain steppe province, the Colorado semi-plateau province, and the American semi-desert province, all within the dry domain region of the western U.S. The potential range of L. apache was then estimated based on elevation, mean and max - min temperature, precipitation, wet days, and relative humidity. The estimated range includes large contiguous areas in north-central Colorado, east-central New Mexico and west Texas, the lower mid-Rio Grande River valley, and southern Arizona, along with smaller, patchy, areas in northern Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah, and central Idaho. The spatial relationship between the estimated distribution of L. apache and the location of livestock exposed to vesicular stomatitis virus at the onset of recent outbreaks is presented. PMID:15707279

  13. NSLS II Vacuum System

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, M.; Doom, L.; Hseuh, H.; Longo, C.; Settepani, P.; Wilson, K.; Hu, J.

    2009-09-13

    National Synchrotron Light Source II, being constructed at Brookhaven, is a 3-GeV, 500 mA, 3rd generation synchrotron radiation facility with ultra low emittance electron beams. The storage ring vacuum system has a circumference of 792 m and consists of over 250 vacuum chambers with a simulated average operating pressure of less than 1 x 10{sup -9} mbar. A summary of the update design of the vacuum system including girder supports of the chambers, gauges, vacuum pumps, bellows, beam position monitors and simulation of the average pressure will be shown. A brief description of the techniques and procedures for cleaning and mounting the chambers are given.

  14. KinderApache Song and Dance Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanklin, M. Trevor; Paciotto, Carla; Prater, Greg

    This paper describes activities and evaluation of the KinderApache Song and Dance Project, piloted in a kindergarten class in Cedar Creek (Arizona) on the White Mountain Apache Reservation. Introducing Native-language song and dance in kindergarten could help foster a sense of community and cultural pride and greater awareness of traditional…

  15. Integrated Procurement Management System, Version II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, L. J.

    1985-01-01

    Integrated Procurement Management System, Version II (IPMS II) is online/ batch system for collecting developing, managing and disseminating procurementrelated data at NASA Johnson Space Center. Portions of IPMS II adaptable to other procurement situations.

  16. NSLS-II RF SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, J.; Gash, W.; Holub, B.; Kawashima, Y.; Ma, H.; Towne, N.; Yeddulla, M.

    2011-03-28

    The NSLS-II is a new third generation light source being constructed at Brookhaven Lab. The storage ring is optimized for low emittance by use of damping wigglers to reduce the emittance to below 1 nm-rad. The RF systems are designed to provide stable beam through tight RF phase and amplitude stability requirements.

  17. Evaluation of Apache Hadoop for parallel data analysis with ROOT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehrack, S.; Duckeck, G.; Ebke, J.

    2014-06-01

    The Apache Hadoop software is a Java based framework for distributed processing of large data sets across clusters of computers, using the Hadoop file system (HDFS) for data storage and backup and MapReduce as a processing platform. Hadoop is primarily designed for processing large textual data sets which can be processed in arbitrary chunks, and must be adapted to the use case of processing binary data files which cannot be split automatically. However, Hadoop offers attractive features in terms of fault tolerance, task supervision and control, multi-user functionality and job management. For this reason, we evaluated Apache Hadoop as an alternative approach to PROOF for ROOT data analysis. Two alternatives in distributing analysis data were discussed: either the data was stored in HDFS and processed with MapReduce, or the data was accessed via a standard Grid storage system (dCache Tier-2) and MapReduce was used only as execution back-end. The focus in the measurements were on the one hand to safely store analysis data on HDFS with reasonable data rates and on the other hand to process data fast and reliably with MapReduce. In the evaluation of the HDFS, read/write data rates from local Hadoop cluster have been measured and compared to standard data rates from the local NFS installation. In the evaluation of MapReduce, realistic ROOT analyses have been used and event rates have been compared to PROOF.

  18. MPS II drift chamber system

    SciTech Connect

    Platner, E.D.

    1982-01-01

    The MPS II detectors are narrow drift space chambers designed for high position resolution in a magnetic field and in a very high particle flux environment. Central to this implementation was the development of 3 multi-channel custom IC's and one multi-channel hybrid. The system is deadtimeless and requires no corrections on an anode-to-anode basis. Operational experience and relevance to ISABELLE detectors is discussed.

  19. Wisdom Sits in Places: Landscape and Language among the Western Apache.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basso, Keith H.

    This book of essays draws on a cultural geography project in which an ethnographer and Apache consultants mapped the area around Cibecue, on the Fort Apache Reservation (Arizona). The essays focus on different Apache individuals and examine the ways that Apache constructions of place reach deeply into other cultural spheres. Many Apache place…

  20. Validation of acute physiologic and chronic health evaluation II scoring system software developed at The Aga Khan University, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Hashmi, M; Asghar, A; Shamim, F; Khan, FH

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the predictive performance of Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) software available on the hospital intranet and analyze interrater reliability of calculating the APACHE II score by the gold standard manual method or automatically using the software. Materials and Methods: An expert scorer not involved in the data collection had calculated APACHE II score of 213 patients admitted to surgical Intensive Care Unit using the gold standard manual method for a previous study performed in the department. The same data were entered into the computer software available on the hospital intranet (http://intranet/apacheii) to recalculate the APACHE II score automatically along with the predicted mortality. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistical test and Pearson's correlation coefficient was computed. Results: The 213 patients had an average APACHE II score of 17.20 ± 8.24, the overall mortality rate was 32.8% and standardized mortality ratio was 1.00. The area under the ROC curve of 0.827 was significantly >0.5 (P < 0.01) and had confidence interval of 0.77-0.88. The goodness-of-fit test showed a good calibration (H = 5.46, P = 0.71). Interrater reliability using Pearson's product moment correlations demonstrated a strong positive relationship between the computer and the manual expert scorer (r = 0.98, P = 0.0005). Conclusion: APACHE II software available on the hospital's intranet has satisfactory calibration and discrimination and interrater reliability is good when compared with the gold standard manual method. PMID:26955310

  1. 40 CFR 52.150 - Yavapai-Apache Reservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the Clean Air Act and the provisions of 40 CFR 52.21(g), the Yavapai-Apache Indian Reservation is...) The provisions for prevention of significant deterioration of air quality at 40 CFR 52.21 are... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Yavapai-Apache Reservation....

  2. Argus II retinal prosthesis system: An update.

    PubMed

    Rachitskaya, Aleksandra V; Yuan, Alex

    2016-09-01

    This review focuses on a description of the Argus II retinal prosthesis system (Argus II; Second Sight Medical Products, Sylmar, CA) that was approved for humanitarian use by the FDA in 2013 in patients with retinitis pigmentosa with bare or no light perception vision. The article describes the components of Argus II, the studies on the implant, and future directions. PMID:26855177

  3. San Carlos Apache Tribe - Energy Organizational Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, James; Albert, Steve

    2012-04-01

    The San Carlos Apache Tribe (SCAT) was awarded $164,000 in late-2011 by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Tribal Energy Program's "First Steps Toward Developing Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency on Tribal Lands" Grant Program. This grant funded:  The analysis and selection of preferred form(s) of tribal energy organization (this Energy Organization Analysis, hereinafter referred to as "EOA").  Start-up staffing and other costs associated with the Phase 1 SCAT energy organization.  An intern program.  Staff training.  Tribal outreach and workshops regarding the new organization and SCAT energy programs and projects, including two annual tribal energy summits (2011 and 2012). This report documents the analysis and selection of preferred form(s) of a tribal energy organization.

  4. The CNET Automated Budget System (CABS) II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Morris G.; And Others

    The Chief of Naval Education and Training (CNET) Automated Budget System II (CABS II) is an improved and expanded version of an earlier system which was developed by the Training Analysis and Evaluation Group (TAEG) to provide an efficient, easy means of handling the large volume of data necessary to produce budget documents. Intended as a guide…

  5. 4. APACHE INDIAN LABORER WITH TEAM AND SCRAPER WORKING ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. APACHE INDIAN LABORER WITH TEAM AND SCRAPER WORKING ON THE POWER CANAL LINE FOUR MILES ABOVE LIVINGSTONE, ARIZONA Photographer: Walter J. Lubken, June 14, 1906 - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  6. Propulsion Systems for Aircraft. Aerospace Education II. Instructional Unit II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmer, James D.

    This curriculum guide accompanies another publication in the Aerospace Education II series entitled "Propulsion Systems for Aircraft." The guide includes specific guidelines for teachers on each chapter in the textbook. Suggestions are included for objectives (traditional and behavioral), suggested outline, orientation, suggested key points,…

  7. NSLS-II Radio Frequency Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rose J.; Gao F.; Goel, A.; Holub, B.; Kulpin, J.; Marques, C.; Yeddulla, M.

    2015-05-03

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II is a 3 GeV X-ray user facility commissioned in 2014. The NSLS-II RF system consists of the master oscillator, digital low level RF controllers, linac, booster and storage ring RF sub-systems, as well as a supporting cryogenic system. Here we will report on RF commissioning and early operation experience of the system.

  8. Geology of the Phase II System

    SciTech Connect

    Laney, R.; Laughlin, A. William

    1980-11-19

    This is a report on the analysis of EE-2 cuttings and thin sections, geologic characterization of the Phase II system, comparison with Phase 1, and geologic speculations and recommendations concerning Phase II. The EE-2 litholog has been included in the pocket.

  9. SCORPION II persistent surveillance system update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coster, Michael; Hunt, Cassandra

    2011-06-01

    This paper highlights the most recently added features and benefits available in the latest generation of Northrop Grumman SCORPION II persistent surveillance and target recognition systems. By leveraging smaller, lighter, and more power efficient SCORPION II sensor and universal gateway components, with foliage penetrating ad-hoc network communications, persistent field programmable systems that are easier to conceal can be optimized for both image capture and data exfiltration. In addition to the SCORPION II suite of sensor components, a growing list of over sixty different sensor and camera types from a variety of manufacturers have been integrated with the SCORPION Gateway family. In addition to updating several different COP systems, SCORPION and SCORPION II data can be directly processed using a common sensor status graphical user interface (GUI) that allows for viewing and analysis of images and sensor data from hundreds of SCORPION system gateways on single or multiple displays.

  10. Mescalero Apache Tribe Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Peso, F.

    1992-03-13

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, authorizes the siting, construction and operation of a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. The MRS is intended to be used for the temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel from the nation's nuclear power plants beginning as early as 1998. Pursuant to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator was created. On October 7, 1991, the Nuclear Waste Negotiator invited the governors of states and the Presidents of Indian tribes to apply for government grants in order to conduct a study to assess under what conditions, if any, they might consider hosting an MRS facility. Pursuant to this invitation, on October 11, 1991 the Mescalero Apache Indian Tribe of Mescalero, NM applied for a grant to conduct a phased, preliminary study of the safety, technical, political, environmental, social and economic feasibility of hosting an MRS. The preliminary study included: (1) An investigative education process to facilitate the Tribe's comprehensive understanding of the safety, environmental, technical, social, political, and economic aspects of hosting an MRS, and; (2) The development of an extensive program that is enabling the Tribe, in collaboration with the Negotiator, to reach an informed and carefully researched decision regarding the conditions, (if any), under which further pursuit of the MRS would be considered. The Phase 1 grant application enabled the Tribe to begin the initial activities necessary to determine whether further consideration is warranted for hosting the MRS facility. The Tribe intends to pursue continued study of the MRS in order to meet the following objectives: (1) Continuing the education process towards a comprehensive understanding of the safety, environmental, technical, social and economic aspects of the MRS; (2) Conducting an effective public participation and information program; (3) Participating in MRS meetings.

  11. LHC II system sensitivity to magnetic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotae, Vlad; Creanga, Ioan

    2005-03-01

    Experiments have been designed to reveal the influences of ferrofluid treatment and static magnetic field exposure on the photosynthetic system II, where the light harvesting complex (LHC II) controls the ratio chlorophyll a/ chlorophyll b (revealing, indirectly, the photosynthesis rate). Spectrophotometric measurement of chlorophyll content revealed different influences for relatively low ferrofluid concentrations (10-30 μl/l) in comparison to higher concentrations (70-100 μl/l). The overlapped effect of the static magnetic field shaped better the stimulatory ferrofluid action on LHC II system in young poppy plantlets.

  12. Evidence of sexually dimorphic introgression in Pinaleno Mountain Apache trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porath, M.T.; Nielsen, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    The high-elevation headwater streams of the Pinaleno Mountains support small populations of threatened Apache trout Oncorhynchus apache that were stocked following the chemical removal of nonnative salmonids in the 1960s. A fisheries survey to assess population composition, growth, and size structure confirmed angler reports of infrequent occurrences of Oncorhynchus spp. exhibiting the external morphological characteristics of both Apache trout and rainbow trout O. mykiss. Nonlethal tissue samples were collected from 50 individuals in the headwaters of each stream. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing and amplification of nuclear microsatellite loci were used to determine the levels of genetic introgression by rainbow trout in Apache trout populations at these locations. Sexually dimorphic introgression from the spawning of male rainbow trout with female Apache trout was detected using mtDNA and microsatellites. Estimates of the degree of hybridization based on three microsatellite loci were 10-88%. The use of nonlethal DNA genetic analyses can supplement information obtained from standard survey methods and be useful in assessing the relative importance of small and sensitive populations with a history of nonnative introductions.

  13. Apache, Santa Fe energy units awarded two Myanmar blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-29

    This paper reports that Myanmar's state oil company has awarded production sharing contracts (PSCs) on two blocks to units of Apache Corp. and Santa Fe Energy Resources Inc., both of Houston. That comes on the heels of a report by County NatWest Woodmac that notes Myanmar's oil production, currently meeting less than half the country's demand, is set to fall further this year. 150 line km of new seismic data could be acquired and one well drilled. During the initial 2 year exploration period on Block EP-3, Apache will conduct geological studies and conduct at least 200 line km of seismic data.

  14. Development of a helmet/helmet-display-unit alignment tool (HAT) for the Apache helmet and display unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, William; Statz, Jonathan; Estes, Victor; Booms, Shawn; Martin, John S.; Harding, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Project Manager (PM) Apache Block III contacted the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory (USAARL), Fort Rucker, Alabama, requesting assistance to evaluate and find solutions to a government-developed Helmet Display Unit (HDU) device called the Mock HDU for helmet alignment of the Apache Advanced Integrated Helmet (AAIH). The AAIH is a modified Head Gear Unit No. 56 for Personnel (HGU-56/P) to replace the current Integrated Helmet and Sighting System (IHADSS). The current flashlight-based HDU simulator for helmet/HDU alignment was no longer in production or available. Proper helmet/HDU alignment is critical to position the right eye in the small HDU eye box to obtain image alignment and full field of view (FOV). The initial approach of the PM to developing a helmet/HDU fitting device (Mock HDU) was to duplicate the optical characteristics of the current tactical HDU using less complex optics. However, the results produced questionable alignment, FOV, and distortion issues, with cost and development time overruns. After evaluating the Mock HDU, USAARL proposed a cost effective, less complex optical design called the Helmet/HDU Alignment Tool (HAT). This paper will show the development, components, and evaluations of the HAT compared to the current flashlight HDU simulator device. The laboratory evaluations included FOV measurements and alignment accuracies compared to tactical HDUs. The Apache helmet fitter technicians and Apache pilots compared the HAT to the current flashlight based HDU and ranked the HAT superior.

  15. Western Apache Oral Histories and Traditions of the Camp Grant Massacre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colwell-Chanthaphonh, Chip

    2003-01-01

    The Camp Grant Massacre remains a salient moment for contemporary Western Apache peoples. Although a difficult part of their history, it continues to instruct Apaches and non-Apaches about the sacrifices of those who have gone before and the circumstances that have shaped the modern world. The story of the massacre was first preserved by personal…

  16. Issues in Language Textbook Development: The Case of Western Apache.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Reuse, Willem J.

    Two experimental language-learning textbooks were developed in collaboration with Apache-speaking scholars from the San Carlos and White Mountain Reservations. One was written in the grammar-translation tradition and modeled after successful textbooks for Navajo and Papago. While the text's main purpose is to teach elementary conversational…

  17. Nutrition Survey of White Mountain Apache Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, George M.; And Others

    As part of a national study of the nutrition of preschool children, data were collected on 201 Apache children, 1 to 6 years of age, living on an Indian reservation in Arizona. This report reviews procedures and clinical findings, and gives an analysis of growth data including skeletal maturation, nutrient intakes and clinical biochemical data. In…

  18. An Exploratory Study of Apache Middle School Students' Computer Animation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokrocki, Mary; Buckpitt, Marcia

    The paper describes a participant observation study of a 3 week summer art program for Apache middle school students on the White Mountain Reservation. Computer art skills, specifically animation using a menu-driven computer paint program, were the focus of the investigation. Because it was in the context of a summer program, instruction was…

  19. The White Mountain Apache Child Protection Service Training Curriculum. Nohwii Chaghashe Baa da gontzaa (Protect Our Apache Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Santin, Edwin, Comp.

    This curriculum manual provides 8 days of training for child protective services (CPS) personnel (social workers and administrators) working in the White Mountain Apache tribal community. Each of the first seven units in the manual contains a brief description of contents, course objectives, time required, key concepts, possible discussion topics,…

  20. NSLS-II RF Cryogenic System

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, J.; Dilgen, T.; Gash, B.; Gosman, J.; Mortazavi, P.; Papu, J.; Ravindranath, V.; Sikora, R.; Sitnikov, A.; Wilhelm, H.; Jia, Y.; Monroe, C.

    2015-05-03

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II is a 3 GeV X-ray user facility commissioned in 2014. A new helium refrigerator system has been installed and commissioned to support the superconducting RF cavities in the storage ring. Special care was taken to provide very stable helium and LN2 pressures and flow rates to minimize microphonics and thermal effects at the cavities. Details of the system design along with commissioning and early operations data will be presented.

  1. SCORPION II persistent surveillance system update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coster, Michael; Chambers, Jon

    2010-04-01

    This paper updates the improvements and benefits demonstrated in the next generation Northrop Grumman SCORPION II family of persistent surveillance and target recognition systems produced by the Xetron Campus in Cincinnati, Ohio. SCORPION II reduces the size, weight, and cost of all SCORPION components in a flexible, field programmable system that is easier to conceal and enables integration of over fifty different Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) and camera types from a variety of manufacturers, with a modular approach to supporting multiple Line of Sight (LOS) and Beyond Line of Sight (BLOS) communications interfaces. Since 1998 Northrop Grumman has been integrating best in class sensors with its proven universal modular Gateway to provide encrypted data exfiltration to Common Operational Picture (COP) systems and remote sensor command and control. In addition to feeding COP systems, SCORPION and SCORPION II data can be directly processed using a common sensor status graphical user interface (GUI) that allows for viewing and analysis of images and sensor data from up to seven hundred SCORPION system gateways on single or multiple displays. This GUI enables a large amount of sensor data and imagery to be used for actionable intelligence as well as remote sensor command and control by a minimum number of analysts.

  2. Space Acceleration Measurement System-II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, William

    2009-01-01

    Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS-II) is an ongoing study of the small forces (vibrations and accelerations) on the ISS that result from the operation of hardware, crew activities, as well as dockings and maneuvering. Results will be used to generalize the types of vibrations affecting vibration-sensitive experiments. Investigators seek to better understand the vibration environment on the space station to enable future research.

  3. Fort Apache Timber Company wood fuel supply assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Whittier, J.; Haase, S.; Quinn, M.

    1994-12-31

    The Fort Apache Timber Company, owned and operated by the White Mountain Apache Tribe, is currently investigating the feasibility of building a cogeneration plant at its sawmill in Whiteriver, Arizona. As part of this effort, the U.S. Department of Energy`s Western Regional Biomass Energy Program provided technical assistance to the tribe to conduct a fuel supply study. The fuel supply study determined that 104,000 bone dry tons (BDT) of mill residue are available on an annual basis, at an average cost of $14/BDT. An additional 30,000 BDT/year would be available at an average delivered cost of $25/BDT if 25 percent of the in-forest logging residue is collected and transported to the plant site. Together, the mill and logging residues could supply a 14 megawatt power plant at an average delivered cost of $1.37 per million Btu.

  4. Embedded computer systems for control applications in EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.B.; Start, S.E.

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the embedded computer systems approach taken at Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) for non-safety related systems. The hardware and software structures for typical embedded systems are presented The embedded systems development process is described. Three examples are given which illustrate typical embedded computer applications in EBR-II.

  5. Embedded computer systems for control applications in EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.B.; Start, S.E.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the embedded computer systems approach taken at Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) for non-safety related systems. The hardware and software structures for typical embedded systems are presented The embedded systems development process is described. Three examples are given which illustrate typical embedded computer applications in EBR-II.

  6. Satellite Imagery Production and Processing Using Apache Hadoop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, D. V.; Werpy, J.

    2011-12-01

    The United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center Land Science Research and Development (LSRD) project has devised a method to fulfill its processing needs for Essential Climate Variable (ECV) production from the Landsat archive using Apache Hadoop. Apache Hadoop is the distributed processing technology at the heart of many large-scale, processing solutions implemented at well-known companies such as Yahoo, Amazon, and Facebook. It is a proven framework and can be used to process petabytes of data on thousands of processors concurrently. It is a natural fit for producing satellite imagery and requires only a few simple modifications to serve the needs of science data processing. This presentation provides an invaluable learning opportunity and should be heard by anyone doing large scale image processing today. The session will cover a description of the problem space, evaluation of alternatives, feature set overview, configuration of Hadoop for satellite image processing, real-world performance results, tuning recommendations and finally challenges and ongoing activities. It will also present how the LSRD project built a 102 core processing cluster with no financial hardware investment and achieved ten times the initial daily throughput requirements with a full time staff of only one engineer. Satellite Imagery Production and Processing Using Apache Hadoop is presented by David V. Hill, Principal Software Architect for USGS LSRD.

  7. Solar Feasibility Study May 2013 - San Carlos Apache Tribe

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, Jim; Duncan, Ken; Albert, Steve

    2013-05-01

    The San Carlos Apache Tribe (Tribe) in the interests of strengthening tribal sovereignty, becoming more energy self-sufficient, and providing improved services and economic opportunities to tribal members and San Carlos Apache Reservation (Reservation) residents and businesses, has explored a variety of options for renewable energy development. The development of renewable energy technologies and generation is consistent with the Tribe’s 2011 Strategic Plan. This Study assessed the possibilities for both commercial-scale and community-scale solar development within the southwestern portions of the Reservation around the communities of San Carlos, Peridot, and Cutter, and in the southeastern Reservation around the community of Bylas. Based on the lack of any commercial-scale electric power transmission between the Reservation and the regional transmission grid, Phase 2 of this Study greatly expanded consideration of community-scale options. Three smaller sites (Point of Pines, Dudleyville/Winkleman, and Seneca Lake) were also evaluated for community-scale solar potential. Three building complexes were identified within the Reservation where the development of site-specific facility-scale solar power would be the most beneficial and cost-effective: Apache Gold Casino/Resort, Tribal College/Skill Center, and the Dudleyville (Winkleman) Casino.

  8. Evolution of Apache Open Source Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Haoran; D'Souza, Raissa M.; Saul, Zachary M.; Filkov, Vladimir

    Our modern infrastructure relies increasingly on computation and computers. Accompanying this is a rise in the prevalence and complexity of computer programs. Current software systems (composed of an interacting collection of programs, functions, classes, etc.) implement a tremendous range of functionality, from simple mathematical operations to intricate control systems. Software systems are inherently extendable and tend to gain new functionality over time. Modern computers and programming languages are Turing complete and, thus, capable of implementing any computable function no matter how complex. The interdependencies between the elements of a software system form a network, and, therefore, we believe software systems can provide useful prototypic examples of how to build complex networked systems which require minimal maintenance, are robust bugs to and yet are readily extendable. Thus we ask: What makes for good design in software systems?

  9. Apache Point Observatory's All-Sky Camera: Observing Clouds in the Thermal Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, K. S. J.; Brinkmann, J.; Carr, M.; Woods, D.; Finkbeiner, D. P.; Gunn, J. E.; Loomis, C. L.; Schlegel, D.; Snedden, S.

    2002-12-01

    Cloud cover at Apache Point Observatory is monitored by an all-sky camera system which images clouds in the thermal infrared. Even thin clouds, illuminated by thermal emission from the ground, can be detected. These same clouds are almost invisible at visual wavelengths, especially on moonless nights at this dark-sky observatory site. Our camera system uses an aluminum hyperboloidal mirror to provide a wide-angle view covering most of the sky; it is sensitive to radiation in the 8 to 12 micron wavelength interval. A cloud free atmosphere is fairly transparent in this window; clouds appear as bright structures against the darker sky background. Images are recorded at video rates, then summed and averaged in software to increase system sensitivity. Current all-sky images are available to on-site observers or through the Apache Point Observatory web pages. Cloud information is used to plan observing, make real-time observing decisions, and can provide useful estimates of atmospheric extinction and sky brightness at other wavelengths.

  10. Design of the Apache-Point Observatory 3.5-METER Telescope - Part Four - Optics Support and Azimuth Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannery, E. J.; Siegmund, W. A.; Balick, B.; Gunnels, S.

    1986-01-01

    The Apache Point Observatory 3.5 meter altitude-azimuth telescope features lightweight honeycomb optics, a fast f/1.75 primary figure, multiple on-line instrument capability and a control system designed for efficient remote operation. Friction coupled rollers drive the axes and couple the encoders. The authors have concentrated particularly on reducing local seeing effects by controlling heat in the vicinity of the telescope. Measures include mass reduction, emissivity control, insulation and forced ventilation.

  11. The CDMS II data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, D.A.; Burke, S.; Cooley, J.; Crisler, M.; Cushman, P.; DeJongh, F.; Duong, L.; Ferril, R.; Golwala, S.R.; Hall, J.; Holmgren, D.; /Fermilab /Texas A-M

    2011-01-01

    The Data Acquisition System for the CDMS II dark matter experiment was designed and built when the experiment moved to its new underground installation at the Soudan Lab. The combination of remote operation and increased data load necessitated a completely new design. Elements of the original LabView system remained as stand-alone diagnostic programs, but the main data processing moved to a VME-based system with custom electronics for signal conditioning, trigger formation and buffering. The data rate was increased 100-fold and the automated cryogenic system was linked to the data acquisition. A modular server framework with associated user interfaces was implemented in Java to allow control and monitoring of the entire experiment remotely.

  12. Beam Position Monitor System for PEP II

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Stephen R.; Aiello, G.Roberto; Hendrickson, Linda J.; Johnson, Ronald G.; Mills, Mark R.; Olsen, Jeff J.; /SLAC

    2011-09-12

    We describe the beam position monitor system built for PEP-II, the B-factory at SLAC. The system reports beam position for bunches of between 5 x 10{sup 8} and 8 x 10{sup 10} electron charges, either singly or as continuous streams of bunches every 4.2 ns. Resolution at full charge is to be better than 10 microns in a single turn. Higher resolution is available via on-board multi-turn averaging. The position signal is processed in a 20 MHz bandwidth around 952 MHz. This bandwidth, rather broader than that typical of RF position monitors, allows good resolution for low charge single bunches. Additional novel features include stringent control of return losses in order to minimize cross-talk between nearby bunches which may contain very different charges. The digitizing electronics is multiplexed between the two PEP-II storage rings. Design, construction, and installation experience, as well as first results with beam are presented.

  13. The Holdup Measurement System II (HMSII)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.E.; Gibson, J.S.; Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Russo, P.A.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.

    1993-07-12

    A project is in progress that addresses two of the problems with existing holdup measurement technology: the need for compact instrumentation and a more efficient means of reducing the massive amounts of data to quantities of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). The approach taken by the project utilizes the Miniature Modular MultiChannel Analyzer (M{sup 3}CA), a complete and truly portable gamma-ray spectroscopy system, under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The hardware is then integrated and automated by the Holdup Measurement System II (HMSII) software being developed by the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Together they provide the hardware components, measurement control in the field, automated data acquisition, data storage and manipulation which simplify holdup measurements.

  14. The Holdup Measurement System II (HMSII)

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, T.L.; Gibson, J.S.; Smith, S.E.; Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Russo, P.A.; Siebelist, R.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.

    1994-10-04

    A project is in progress that addresses two of problems with existing holdup measurement technology; the need for compact instrumentation and a more efficient means of reducing the massive amounts of data to quantities of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). The approach taken by the project utilizes the Miniature Modular MultiChannel Analyzer (M{sup 3}CA) a complete and truly portable gamma-ray spectroscopy system, under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The hardware is then integrated and automated by the Holdup Measurement System II (HMSII) software being developed by the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Together they provide the hardware components, measurement control in the field, automated data acquisition, data storage and manipulation which simplify holdup measurements.

  15. The CDF-II silicon tracking system

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy K. Nelson

    2001-12-07

    The CDF silicon tracking system for Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron consists of eight layers arranged in cylinders spanning radii from 1.35cm to 28cm, and lengths from 90cm to nearly two meters for a total of six square meters of silicon and 722,000 readout channels. With an innermost layer (Layer 00) utilizing radiation tolerant p{sup +}-in-n silicon and low-mass readout cables between the sensors and readout electronics, double-sided vertexing layers (SVXII) designed for use with a deadtimeless secondary-vertex trigger, and outermost layers (ISL) utilizing mass-producible modules attached to a carbon fiber spaceframe, this system is a starting point for the next generation of silicon trackers for the LHC and Tevatron.

  16. Comparison of Risk Scoring Systems to Predict the Outcome in ASA-PS V Patients Undergoing Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yurtlu, Derya Arslan; Aksun, Murat; Ayvat, Pınar; Karahan, Nagihan; Koroglu, Lale; Aran, Gülcin Önder

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Operative decision in American Society of Anesthesiology Physical Status (ASA-PS) V patient is difficult as this group of patients expected to have high mortality rate. Another risk scoring system in this ASA-PS V subset of patients can aid to ease this decision. Data of ASA-PS V classified patients between 2011 and 2013 years in a single hospital were analyzed in this study. Predicted mortality of these patients was determined with acute physiology and chronic health evaluations (APACHE) II, simplified acute physiology score (SAPS II), Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), Porthsmouth physiological and operative severity score for enumeration of mortality and morbidity (P-POSSUM), Surgical apgar score (SAS), and Goldman cardiac risk index (GCRI) scores. Observed and predicted mortality rates according to the risk indexes in these patients were compared at survivor and nonsurvivor group of patients. Risk stratification was made with receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Data of 89 patients were included in the analyses. Predicted mortality rates generated by APACHE II and SAPS II scoring systems were significantly different between survivor and nonsurvivor group of patients. Risk stratification with ROC analysis revealed that area under curve was 0.784 and 0.681 for SAPS II and APACHE II scoring systems, respectively. Highest sensitivity (77.3) is reached with SAPS II score. APACHE II and SAPS II are better predictive tools of mortality in ASA-PS V classified subset of patients. Discrimination power of SAPS II score is the best among the compared risk stratification scores. SAPS II can be suggested as an additional risk scoring system for ASA-PS V patients. PMID:27043696

  17. Mechanical characterization of densely welded Apache Leap tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1991-06-01

    An empirical criterion is formulated to describe the compressive strength of the densely welded Apache Leap tuff. The criterion incorporates the effects of size, L/D ratio, loading rate and density variations. The criterion improves the correlation between the test results and the failure envelope. Uniaxial and triaxial compressive strengths, Brazilian tensile strength and elastic properties of the densely welded brown unit of the Apache Leap tuff have been determined using the ASTM standard test methods. All tuff samples are tested dry at room temperature (22 {plus_minus} 2{degrees}C), and have the core axis normal to the flow layers. The uniaxial compressive strength is 73.2 {plus_minus} 16.5 MPa. The Brazilian tensile strength is 5.12 {plus_minus} 1.2 MPa. The Young`s modulus and Poisson`s ratio are 22.6 {plus_minus} 5.7 GPa and 0.20 {plus_minus} 0.03. Smoothness and perpendicularity do not fully meet the ASTM requirements for all samples, due to the presence of voids and inclusions on the sample surfaces and the sample preparation methods. The investigations of loading rate, L/D radio and cyclic loading effects on the compressive strength and of the size effect on the tensile strength are not conclusive. The Coulomb strength criterion adequately represents the failure envelope of the tuff under confining pressures from 0 to 62 MPa. Cohesion and internal friction angle are 16 MPa and 43 degrees. The brown unit of the Apache Leap tuff is highly heterogeneous as suggested by large variations of the test results. The high intrinsic variability of the tuff is probably caused by the presence of flow layers and by nonuniform distributions of inclusions, voids and degree of welding. Similar variability of the properties has been found in publications on the Topopah Spring tuff at Yucca Mountain. 57 refs., 32 figs., 29 tabs.

  18. The LCLS-II LLRF System

    SciTech Connect

    DooLittle, Lawrence; Huang, G.; Ratti, A.; Serrano, C.; Bachimanchi, Ramakrishna; Hovater, J. Curt; Babel, S.; Hong, B.; Van Winkle, D.; Chase, B.; Cullerton, E.; Varghese, P.

    2015-09-01

    The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is planning an upgrade (LCLS-II) to the Linear Coherent Light Source with a 4 GeV CW superconducting (SCRF) linac. The SCRF linac consists of 35 ILC style cryomodules (eight cavities each) for a total of 280 cavities. Expected cavity gradients are 16 MV/m with a loaded QL of ~ 4x107. The RF system will have 3.8 kW solid state amplifiers driving single cavities. To ensure optimum field stability a single-source single-cavity control system has been chosen. It consists of a precision four-channel cavity receiver and RF stations (Forward, Reflected and Drive signals). In order to regulate the resonant frequency variations of the cavities due to He pressure, the tuning of each cavity is controlled by a Piezo actuator and a slow stepper motor. In addition the system (LLRF-amplifier-cavity) is being modeled and cavity microphonic testing has started. This paper describes the LLRF system under consideration, including recent modeling and cavity tests.

  19. A Photographic Essay of Apache Children in Early Times, Volume 2-Part C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Doris; Jacobs, Ben

    As part of a series of guides designed for instruction of American Indian children and youth, this resource guide constitutes a pictorial essay on life of the Apache child from 1880 to the early 20th century. Each of the 12 photographs is accompanied by an historical narrative which describes one or more cultural aspects of Apache childhood.…

  20. Biology and distribution of Lutzomyia apache as it relates to VSV

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phlebotomine sand flies are vectors of bacteria, parasites, and viruses. Lutzomyia apache was incriminated as a vector of vesicular stomatitis viruses(VSV)due to overlapping ranges of the sand fly and outbreaks of VSV. I report on newly discovered populations of L. apache in Wyoming from Albany and ...

  1. A Photographic Essay of Apache Chiefs and Warriors, Volume 2-Part B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkan, Gerald; Jacobs, Ben

    As part of a series designed for instruction of American Indian children and youth, this resource guide constitutes a pictorial essay describing forts, Indian agents, and Apache chiefs, warriors, and scouts of the 19th century. Accompanying each picture is a brief historical-biographical narrative. Focus is on Apache resistance to the reservation.…

  2. The PEP-II abort kicker system

    SciTech Connect

    Lamare, J de; Donaldson, A.; Kulikov, A. Lipari, J.

    1997-07-01

    The PEP-II project has two storage rings. The HER (High Energy Ring) has up to 1.48 A of electron beam at 9 GeV, and the LER (Low Energy Ring) has up to 2.14 A of positron beam at 3.1 GeV. To protect the HER and LER beam lines in the event of a ring component failure, each ring has an abort kicker system which directs the beam into a dump when a failure is detected. Due to the high current of the beams, the beam kick is tapered from 100% to 80% in 7.33 uS (the beam transit time around the time). This taper distributes the energy evenly across the window which separates the ring from the beam dump such that the window is not damaged. The abort kicker trigger is synchronized with the ion clearing gap of the beam allowing for the kicker field to rise from 0-80% in 370 nS. This report discusses the design of the system controls, interlocks, power supplies, and modulator.

  3. Modeling Topaz-II system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.H.; Klein, A.C. )

    1993-01-01

    The US acquisition of the Topaz-11 in-core thermionic space reactor test system from Russia provides a good opportunity to perform a comparison of the Russian reported data and the results from computer codes such as MCNP (Ref. 3) and TFEHX (Ref. 4). The comparison study includes both neutronic and thermionic performance analyses. The Topaz II thermionic reactor is modeled with MCNP using actual Russian dimensions and parameters. The computation of the neutronic performance considers several important aspects such as the fuel enrichment and location of the thermionic fuel elements (TFES) in the reactor core. The neutronic analysis included the calculation of both radial and axial power distribution, which are then used in the TFEHX code for electrical performance. The reactor modeled consists of 37 single-cell TFEs distributed in a 13-cm-radius zirconium hydride block surrounded by 8 cm of beryllium metal reflector. The TFEs use 90% enriched [sup 235]U and molybdenum coated with a thin layer of [sup 184]W for emitter surface. Electrons emitted are captured by a collector surface with a gap filled with cesium vapor between the collector and emitter surfaces. The collector surface is electrically insulated with alumina. Liquid NaK provides the cooling system for the TFEs. The axial thermal power distribution is obtained by dividing the TFE into 40 axial nodes. Comparison of the true axial power distribution with that produced by electrical heaters was also performed.

  4. Constructing Flexible, Configurable, ETL Pipelines for the Analysis of "Big Data" with Apache OODT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, A. F.; Mattmann, C. A.; Ramirez, P.; Verma, R.; Zimdars, P. A.; Park, S.; Estrada, A.; Sumarlidason, A.; Gil, Y.; Ratnakar, V.; Krum, D.; Phan, T.; Meena, A.

    2013-12-01

    A plethora of open source technologies for manipulating, transforming, querying, and visualizing 'big data' have blossomed and matured in the last few years, driven in large part by recognition of the tremendous value that can be derived by leveraging data mining and visualization techniques on large data sets. One facet of many of these tools is that input data must often be prepared into a particular format (e.g.: JSON, CSV), or loaded into a particular storage technology (e.g.: HDFS) before analysis can take place. This process, commonly known as Extract-Transform-Load, or ETL, often involves multiple well-defined steps that must be executed in a particular order, and the approach taken for a particular data set is generally sensitive to the quantity and quality of the input data, as well as the structure and complexity of the desired output. When working with very large, heterogeneous, unstructured or semi-structured data sets, automating the ETL process and monitoring its progress becomes increasingly important. Apache Object Oriented Data Technology (OODT) provides a suite of complementary data management components called the Process Control System (PCS) that can be connected together to form flexible ETL pipelines as well as browser-based user interfaces for monitoring and control of ongoing operations. The lightweight, metadata driven middleware layer can be wrapped around custom ETL workflow steps, which themselves can be implemented in any language. Once configured, it facilitates communication between workflow steps and supports execution of ETL pipelines across a distributed cluster of compute resources. As participants in a DARPA-funded effort to develop open source tools for large-scale data analysis, we utilized Apache OODT to rapidly construct custom ETL pipelines for a variety of very large data sets to prepare them for analysis and visualization applications. We feel that OODT, which is free and open source software available through the Apache

  5. Diagnosing the PEP-II Injection System

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, F.-J.; Donald, M.H.; Iverson, R.H.; Kulikov, A.; Pappas, G.C.; Weaver, M.; /SLAC

    2005-05-09

    The injection of beam into the PEP-II B-Factory, especially into the High Energy Ring (HER) has some challenges. A high background level in the BaBar detector has for a while inhibited us from trickling charge into the HER similar to the Low Energy Ring (LER). Analyzing the injection system has revealed many issues which could be improved. The injection bump between two kickers was not closed, mainly because the phase advance wasn't exactly 180{sup o} and the two kicker strengths were not balanced. Additionally we found reflections which kick the stored beam after the main kick and cause the average luminosity to drop about 3% for a 10 Hz injection rate. The strength of the overall kick is nearly twice as high as the design, indicating a much bigger effective septum thickness. Compared with single beam the background is worse when the HER beam is colliding with the LER beam. This hints that the beam-beam force and the observed vertical blow-up in the HER pushes the beam and especially the injected beam further out to the edge of the dynamic aperture or beyond.

  6. Climate Model Datasets on Earth System Grid II (ESG II)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Earth System Grid (ESG) is a project that combines the power and capacity of supercomputers, sophisticated analysis servers, and datasets on the scale of petabytes. The goal is to provide a seamless distributed environment that allows scientists in many locations to work with large-scale data, perform climate change modeling and simulation,and share results in innovative ways. Though ESG is more about the computing environment than the data, still there are several catalogs of data available at the web site that can be browsed or search. Most of the datasets are restricted to registered users, but several are open to any access.

  7. AT2 DS II - Accelerator System Design (Part II) - CCC Video Conference

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Discussion Session - Accelerator System Design (Part II) Tutors: C. Darve, J. Weisend II, Ph. Lebrun, A. Dabrowski, U. Raich Video Conference with the CERN Control Center. Experts in the field of Accelerator science will be available to answer the students questions. This session will link the CCC and SA (using Codec VC).

  8. AT2 DS II - Accelerator System Design (Part II) - CCC Video Conference

    SciTech Connect

    2010-12-17

    Discussion Session - Accelerator System Design (Part II) Tutors: C. Darve, J. Weisend II, Ph. Lebrun, A. Dabrowski, U. Raich Video Conference with the CERN Control Center. Experts in the field of Accelerator science will be available to answer the students questions. This session will link the CCC and SA (using Codec VC).

  9. Next Generation Astronomical Data Processing using Big Data Technologies from the Apache Software Foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattmann, Chris

    2014-04-01

    In this era of exascale instruments for astronomy we must naturally develop next generation capabilities for the unprecedented data volume and velocity that will arrive due to the veracity of these ground-based sensor and observatories. Integrating scientific algorithms stewarded by scientific groups unobtrusively and rapidly; intelligently selecting data movement technologies; making use of cloud computing for storage and processing; and automatically extracting text and metadata and science from any type of file are all needed capabilities in this exciting time. Our group at NASA JPL has promoted the use of open source data management technologies available from the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) in pursuit of constructing next generation data management and processing systems for astronomical instruments including the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) in Socorro, NM and the Atacama Large Milimetre/Sub Milimetre Array (ALMA); as well as for the KAT-7 project led by SKA South Africa as a precursor to the full MeerKAT telescope. In addition we are funded currently by the National Science Foundation in the US to work with MIT Haystack Observatory and the University of Cambridge in the UK to construct a Radio Array of Portable Interferometric Devices (RAPID) that will undoubtedly draw from the rich technology advances underway. NASA JPL is investing in a strategic initiative for Big Data that is pulling in these capabilities and technologies for astronomical instruments and also for Earth science remote sensing. In this talk I will describe the above collaborative efforts underway and point to solutions in open source from the Apache Software Foundation that can be deployed and used today and that are already bringing our teams and projects benefits. I will describe how others can take advantage of our experience and point towards future application and contribution of these tools.

  10. Prospective independent validation of APACHE III models in an Australian tertiary adult intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Cook, D A; Joyce, C J; Barnett, R J; Birgan, S P; Playford, H; Cockings, J G L; Hurford, R W

    2002-06-01

    Evaluation of the performance of the APACHE III (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation) ICU (intensive care unit) and hospital mortality models at the Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane is reported. Prospective collection of demographic, diagnostic, physiological, laboratory, admission and discharge data of 5681 consecutive eligible admissions (1 January 1995 to 1 January 2000) was conducted at the Princess Alexandra Hospital, a metropolitan Australian tertiary referral medical/surgical adult ICU ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve areas for the APACHE III ICU mortality and hospital mortality models demonstrated excellent discrimination. Observed ICU mortality (9.1%) was significantly overestimated by the APACHE III model adjusted for hospital characteristics (10.1%), but did not significantly differ from the prediction of the generic APACHE III model (8.6%). In contrast, observed hospital mortality (14.8%) agreed well with the prediction of the APACHE III model adjusted for hospital characteristics (14.6%), but was significantly underestimated by the unadjusted APACHE III model (13.2%). Calibration curves and goodness-of-fit analysis using Hosmer-Lemeshow statistics, demonstrated that calibration was good with the unadjusted APACHE III ICU mortality model, and the APACHE III hospital mortality model adjusted for hospital characteristics. Post hoc analysis revealed a declining annual SMR (standardized mortality rate) during the study period. This trend was present in each of the non-surgical, emergency and elective surgical diagnostic groups, and the change was temporally related to increased specialist staffing levels. This study demonstrates that the APACHE III model performs well on independent assessment in an Australian hospital. Changes observed in annual SMR using such a validated model support an hypothesis of improved survival outcomes 1995-1999. PMID:12075637

  11. Development and validation of a blade-element mathematical model for the AH-64A Apache helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansur, M. Hossein

    1995-01-01

    A high-fidelity blade-element mathematical model for the AH-64A Apache Advanced Attack Helicopter has been developed by the Aeroflightdynamics Directorate of the U.S. Army's Aviation and Troop Command (ATCOM) at Ames Research Center. The model is based on the McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Systems' (MDHS) Fly Real Time (FLYRT) model of the AH-64A (acquired under contract) which was modified in-house and augmented with a blade-element-type main-rotor module. This report describes, in detail, the development of the rotor module, and presents some results of an extensive validation effort.

  12. Implementing real-time robotic systems using CHIMERA II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, David B.; Schmitz, Donald E.; Khosla, Pradeep K.

    1990-01-01

    A description is given of the CHIMERA II programming environment and operating system, which was developed for implementing real-time robotic systems. Sensor-based robotic systems contain both general- and special-purpose hardware, and thus the development of applications tends to be a time-consuming task. The CHIMERA II environment is designed to reduce the development time by providing a convenient software interface between the hardware and the user. CHIMERA II supports flexible hardware configurations which are based on one or more VME-backplanes. All communication across multiple processors is transparent to the user through an extensive set of interprocessor communication primitives. CHIMERA II also provides a high-performance real-time kernel which supports both deadline and highest-priority-first scheduling. The flexibility of CHIMERA II allows hierarchical models for robot control, such as NASREM, to be implemented with minimal programming time and effort.

  13. HPC Colony II: FAST_OS II: Operating Systems and Runtime Systems at Extreme Scale

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira, Jose

    2013-11-13

    HPC Colony II has been a 36-month project focused on providing portable performance for leadership class machines—a task made difficult by the emerging variety of more complex computer architectures. The project attempts to move the burden of portable performance to adaptive system software, thereby allowing domain scientists to concentrate on their field rather than the fine details of a new leadership class machine. To accomplish our goals, we focused on adding intelligence into the system software stack. Our revised components include: new techniques to address OS jitter; new techniques to dynamically address load imbalances; new techniques to map resources according to architectural subtleties and application dynamic behavior; new techniques to dramatically improve the performance of checkpoint-restart; and new techniques to address membership service issues at scale.

  14. Ready II damage estimation system: fallout trajectories program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    The Fallout Trajectories Program is designed to provide the Ready II Fallout Effects Program with a file containing weapon fallout trajectories. The program is designed to be run on an Univac 1108 computer in conjunction with the Ready II Damage Estimation System. This program differs from earlier versions in that it allows the attack to cover up to a 2-week period.

  15. Potential future applications for the tracking and data relay satellite II (TDRS II) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbons, Richard C.

    1995-01-01

    During the conceptual design phases of the tracking and data relay satellite (TDRS) II system provision was made for a future service growth (FSG) payload with an undefined mission. The intent of the FSG was to provide a resource for TDRS II applications which would be available to meet a change in requirements for the operational TDRS II system. This paper summarizes the effect of the consideration of potential FSG applications imposed on the tracking and data relay satellite (TDRS) II system. The following applications were considered as FSG candidates: An optical 650 Mbps space-to-space link (SSL) coupled to an optical or RF downlink, an RF or optical crosslink to extend the baseline TDRS II system coverage, -zone of exclusion (ZOE) closure, relay for lunar communications either RF or optically, and relay for Martian communications either RF or optically. This paper summarizes work done in the 1990 time frame on the above stated applications. Since then, NASA has sponsored several studies (during phase B of the TDRS II development cycle) of the ZOE closure application of the FSG. The purpose of this paper is to report on the efforts previously considered for the FSG. A previous paper was presented at the 1991 Congress related to the second application above. This paper extends this effort to the four stated applications.

  16. Origin of magnetization in the Apache Canyon Formation, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, M. R.; Elmore, R. D.; Soreghan, M.

    2006-12-01

    The objectives of this project are to conduct a magnetostratigraphic study to determine the origin of the magnetization in lacustrine/fluvial sediments (Apache Canyon Fm.) within the Bisbee Basin (Chihuahua Trough, Arizona) and to constrain an age of the sediments. Most previous studies suggest the sediments were deposited in the Aptian-Albian after the main phase of extensional tectonics and during the long Cretaceous Normal Superchron although an older (late Jurassic) age is also possible. Alternating field (AF) followed by thermal demagnetization revealed two components of magnetization. One component, removed by AF treatment, has north-northwesterly declinations, moderate positive inclinations and resides in magnetite. A tilt test (early Tertiary deformation) on this component suggests the magnetization is post tilting. The second component, removed by subsequent thermal demagnetization, contains southeasterly and moderate up directions and is removed at unblocking temperatures up to 680 ° C. Some specimens also appear to contain apparent antipodal north-northwesterly and moderate down directions. This component is interpreted to reside in hematite. The components are arranged in apparent normal, reversed, and mixed stratigraphic intervals but this is interpreted as a false magnetostratigraphy. The components are interpreted as chemical remanent magnetizations (CRMs) acquired in the Tertiary. Studies are currently underway to determine if lithology exerts a control on the magnetic components as well as to determine the diagenetic processes that caused acquisition of the CRMs.

  17. MaNGA: Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundy, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    I present the design and execution of a new survey to obtain resolved spectroscopy for 10,000 nearby galaxies called MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory). One of three core programs in the 6-year SDSS-IV project that began on July 1st, 2014, MaNGA will deploy 17 fiber-bundle IFUs across the Sloan 2.5m Telescope's 3 degree field-of-view, targeting a mass-selected sample with a median redshift of 0.03, typical spatial resolution of 1-2 kpc, and a per-fiber signal-to-noise ratio of 4-8 in the outskirts of target galaxies. For each galaxy in the sample, MaNGA will provide maps and measured gradients of the composition and dynamics of both stars and gas. Early results highlight MaNGA's potential to shed light on the ionization and chemical enrichment of gas in galaxies, spatial patterns in their star formation histories, and the internal makeup of stellar populations. MaNGA's unprecedented data set will not only provide powerful new insight on galaxy formation and evolution but will serve as a valuable benchmark for future high-z observations from large telescopes as well as space-based facilities.

  18. MaNGA: Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundy, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    I describe a new integral field spectroscopic survey called MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory). One of three core programs in the 6-year SDSS-IV project† that began on July 1st, 2014, MaNGA will deploy 17 fiber-bundle IFUs across the Sloan 2.5m Telescope's 3 degree field-of-view, targeting a mass-selected sample with a median redshift of 0.03, typical spatial resolution of 1-2 kpc, and a per-fiber signal-to-noise ratio of 4-8 in the outskirts of target galaxies. For each galaxy in the sample, MaNGA will provide maps and measured gradients of the composition and dynamics of both stars and gas. I discuss early results that highlight MaNGA's potential to shed light on the ionization and chemical enrichment of gas in galaxies, spatial patterns in their star formation histories, and the internal makeup of stellar populations. MaNGA's unprecedented data set will not only provide powerful new insight on galaxy formation and evolution but will serve as a valuable benchmark for future high-z observations from large telescopes and space-based facilities.

  19. THE ESC COMPUTERIZED CIRCULATION SYSTEM MODEL II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SHAWVER, W.; STRAIN, P.M.

    A NEW CIRCULATION SYSTEM NOW IN USE AT THE ELECTRONICS SYSTEMS CENTER (ESC) LIBRARY, PART OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION, IS BASED UPON A PREVIOUS SYSTEM WHICH USED TABULATING CARDS, UNIT RECORD MACHINES, AND A SMALL COMPUTER. THE NEW SYSTEM IS A TRANSACTION CARD SYSTEM, IN WHICH ONE BASIC TYPE OF CARD FORMAT IS USED FOR CHARGING,…

  20. On the level system of Bi II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrzejewska, M.; Meijer, F. G.; Stachowska, E.

    2013-10-01

    The spectrum of Bi II was remeasured in the wavelength range 620-74 nm, using different hollow cathode light sources, resulting in 91 new classified lines. We found two even and eight odd new levels. Fine and hyperfine structure analysis has been performed with a many configurations approach. We determined for all levels the Landé gJ-factors and the hfs A-constants, using the wavefunctions calculated. For the first time, radial hyperfine structure parameters were determined for the excited configurations 6s26pnl (l = s, p, d, f, g). We will also discuss the important role of configuration interaction effects on fine and hyperfine structures.

  1. The Muon system of the run II D0 detector

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V.M.; Acharya, B.S.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Anosov, V.A.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bardon, O.; Bartlett, J.F.; Baturitsky, M.A.; Beutel, D.; Bezzubov, V.A.; Bodyagin, V.; Butler, J.M.; Cease, H.; Chi, E.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S.P.; Diehl, H.T.; Doulas, S.; Dugad, S.R.; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Charles U. /Prague, Tech. U. /Prague, Inst. Phys. /San Francisco de Quito U. /Tata Inst. /Dubna, JINR /Moscow, ITEP /Moscow State U. /Serpukhov, IHEP /St. Petersburg, INP /Arizona U. /Florida State U. /Fermilab /Northern Illinois U. /Indiana U. /Boston U. /Northeastern U. /Brookhaven /Washington U., Seattle /Minsk, Inst. Nucl. Problems

    2005-03-01

    The authors describe the design, construction and performance of the upgraded D0 muon system for Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron collider. Significant improvements have been made to the major subsystems of the D0 muon detector: trigger scintillation counters, tracking detectors, and electronics. The Run II central muon detector has a new scintillation counter system inside the iron toroid and an improved scintillation counter system outside the iron toroid. In the forward region, new scintillation counter and tracking systems have been installed. Extensive shielding has been added in the forward region. A large fraction of the muon system electronics is also new.

  2. The muon system of the Run II DØ detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abazov, V. M.; Acharya, B. S.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Anosov, V. A.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bardon, O.; Bartlett, J. F.; Baturitsky, M. A.; Beutel, D.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bodyagin, V.; Butler, J. M.; Cease, H.; Chi, E.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Diehl, H. T.; Doulas, S.; Dugad, S. R.; Dvornikov, O. V.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Fortner, M.; Gavrilov, V.; Gershtein, Y.; Golovtsov, V.; Gómez, B.; Goodwin, R.; Gornushkin, Yu. A.; Green, D. R.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, G.; Haggerty, H.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Hazen, E.; Hedin, D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Ito, A. S.; Jayanti, R.; Johns, K.; Jouravlev, N.; Kalinin, A. M.; Kalmani, S. D.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kirsch, N.; Komissarov, E. V.; Korablev, V. M.; Kostritsky, A.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozlovsky, M.; Kravchuk, N. P.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Kuchinsky, N. A.; Kuleshov, S.; Kupco, A.; Larwill, M.; Leitner, R.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lubatti, H. J.; Machado, E.; Maity, M.; Malyshev, V. L.; Mao, H. S.; Marcus, M.; Marshall, T.; Mayorov, A. A.; McCroskey, R.; Merekov, Y. P.; Mikhailov, V. A.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Nagaraj, P.; Narasimham, V. S.; Narayanan, A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Nozdrin, A. A.; Oshinowo, B.; Parashar, N.; Parua, N.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Polozov, P.; Porokhovoi, S. Y.; Prokhorov, I. K.; Rao, M. V. S.; Raskowski, J.; Reddy, L. V.; Regan, T.; Rotolo, C.; Russakovich, N. A.; Sabirov, B. M.; Satyanarayana, B.; Scheglov, Y.; Schukin, A. A.; Shankar, H. C.; Shishkin, A. A.; Shpakov, D.; Shupe, M.; Simak, V.; Sirotenko, V.; Smith, G.; Smolek, K.; Soustruznik, K.; Stefanik, A.; Steinberg, J.; Stolin, V.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Stutte, L.; Temple, J.; Terentyev, N.; Teterin, V. V.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Tompkins, D.; Uvarov, L.; Uvarov, S.; Vasilyev, I. A.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Vishwanath, P. R.; Vorobyov, A.; Vysotsky, V. B.; Willutzki, H.; Wobisch, M.; Wood, D. R.; Yamada, R.; Yatsunenko, Y. A.; Yoffe, F.; Zanabria, M.; Zhao, T.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.; Zvyagintsev, S. A.

    2005-11-01

    We describe the design, construction, and performance of the upgraded DØ muon system for Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron collider. Significant improvements have been made to the major subsystems of the DØ muon detector: trigger scintillation counters, tracking detectors, and electronics. The Run II central muon detector has a new scintillation counter system inside the iron toroid and an improved scintillation counter system outside the iron toroid. In the forward region, new scintillation counter and tracking systems have been installed. Extensive shielding has been added in the forward region. A large fraction of the muon system electronics is also new.

  3. The effect of a monocular helmet-mounted display on aircrew health: a 10-year prospective cohort study of Apache AH MK 1 pilots: study midpoint update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiatt, Keith L.; Rash, Clarence E.; Watters, Raymond W.; Adams, Mark S.

    2009-05-01

    A collaborative occupational health study has been undertaken by Headquarters Army Aviation, Middle Wallop, UK, and the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory, Fort Rucker, Alabama, to determine if the use of the Integrated Helmet and Display Sighting System (IHADSS) monocular helmet-mounted display (HMD) in the Apache AH Mk 1 attack helicopter has any long-term (10-year) effect on visual performance. The test methodology consists primarily of a detailed questionnaire and an annual battery of vision tests selected to capture changes in visual performance of Apache aviators over their flight career (with an emphasis on binocular visual function). Pilots using binocular night vision goggles serve as controls and undergo the same methodology. Currently, at the midpoint of the study, with the exception of a possible colour discrimination effect, there are no data indicating that the long-term use of the IHADSS monocular HMD results in negative effects on vision.

  4. Hillside Administration Reporting Timetabling System. HARTS II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, William P.

    This second version of a computerized school records system utilizing punch cards was developed by high school students under faculty guidance. Not only is it inexpensive to use, but it is tailored to the needs of a particular school and, therefore, responsive to its needs. Detailed step by step instructions are provided for utilizing the system.…

  5. Visible Wavelength Reflectance Spectra and Taxonomies of Near-Earth Objects from Apache Point Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammergren, Mark; Brucker, Melissa J.; Nault, Kristie A.; Gyuk, Geza; Solontoi, Michael R.

    2015-11-01

    Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are interesting to scientists and the general public for diverse reasons: their impacts pose a threat to life and property; they present important albeit biased records of the formation and evolution of the Solar System; and their materials may provide in situ resources for future space exploration and habitation.In January 2015 we began a program of NEO astrometric follow-up and physical characterization using a 17% share of time on the Astrophysical Research Consortium (ARC) 3.5-meter telescope at Apache Point Observatory (APO). Our 500 hours of annual observing time are split into frequent, short astrometric runs (see poster by K. A. Nault et. al), and half-night runs devoted to physical characterization (see poster by M. J. Brucker et. al for preliminary rotational lightcurve results). NEO surface compositions are investigated with 0.36-1.0 μm reflectance spectroscopy using the Dual Imaging Spectrograph (DIS) instrument. As of August 25, 2015, including testing runs during fourth quarter 2014, we have obtained reflectance spectra of 68 unique NEOs, ranging in diameter from approximately 5m to 8km.In addition to investigating the compositions of individual NEOs to inform impact hazard and space resource evaluations, we may examine the distribution of taxonomic types and potential trends with other physical and orbital properties. For example, the Yarkovsky effect, which is dependent on asteroid shape, mass, rotation, and thermal characteristics, is believed to dominate other dynamical effects in driving the delivery of small NEOs from the main asteroid belt. Studies of the taxonomic distribution of a large sample of NEOs of a wide range of sizes will test this hypothesis.We present a preliminary analysis of the reflectance spectra obtained in our survey to date, including taxonomic classifications and potential trends with size.Acknowledgements: Based on observations obtained with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5-meter telescope, which

  6. Integrating the Apache Big Data Stack with HPC for Big Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, G. C.; Qiu, J.; Jha, S.

    2014-12-01

    There is perhaps a broad consensus as to important issues in practical parallel computing as applied to large scale simulations; this is reflected in supercomputer architectures, algorithms, libraries, languages, compilers and best practice for application development. However, the same is not so true for data intensive computing, even though commercially clouds devote much more resources to data analytics than supercomputers devote to simulations. We look at a sample of over 50 big data applications to identify characteristics of data intensive applications and to deduce needed runtime and architectures. We suggest a big data version of the famous Berkeley dwarfs and NAS parallel benchmarks and use these to identify a few key classes of hardware/software architectures. Our analysis builds on combining HPC and ABDS the Apache big data software stack that is well used in modern cloud computing. Initial results on clouds and HPC systems are encouraging. We propose the development of SPIDAL - Scalable Parallel Interoperable Data Analytics Library -- built on system aand data abstractions suggested by the HPC-ABDS architecture. We discuss how it can be used in several application areas including Polar Science.

  7. A Tour of Big Data, Open Source Data Management Technologies from the Apache Software Foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattmann, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Apache Software Foundation, a non-profit foundation charged with dissemination of open source software for the public good, provides a suite of data management technologies for distributed archiving, data ingestion, data dissemination, processing, triage and a host of other functionalities that are becoming critical in the Big Data regime. Apache is the world's largest open source software organization, boasting over 3000 developers from around the world all contributing to some of the most pervasive technologies in use today, from the HTTPD web server that powers a majority of Internet web sites to the Hadoop technology that is now projected at over a $1B dollar industry. Apache data management technologies are emerging as de facto off-the-shelf components for searching, distributing, processing and archiving key science data sets both geophysical, space and planetary based, all the way to biomedicine. In this talk, I will give a virtual tour of the Apache Software Foundation, its meritocracy and governance structure, and also its key big data technologies that organizations can take advantage of today and use to save cost, schedule, and resources in implementing their Big Data needs. I'll illustrate the Apache technologies in the context of several national priority projects, including the U.S. National Climate Assessment (NCA), and in the International Square Kilometre Array (SKA) project that are stretching the boundaries of volume, velocity, complexity, and other key Big Data dimensions.

  8. Design of the TJ-II remote participation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, J.; Sánchez, E.; López, A.; Portas, A.; Ochando, M.; Mollinedo, A.; Sánchez, A.; Ruiz, M.; López, S.; Barrera, E.

    2003-03-01

    The TJ-II remote participation design has focused initially on providing remote access to elements that depend exclusively on characteristics of the TJ-II environment: data acquisition, data access, and diagnostics control systems. Aspects related to advanced display tools, audio information from the control room or videoconference sessions can be addressed, at least in a first step, by using standard solutions. Remote access will be accomplished through http servers and web browsers as they are standard elements available on all platforms. Access security rests on a validation scheme in which users are identified through a username and password, these data being transferred in a secure way by using a secure socket layer (SSL). After username and password validation, the security system assigns a session ticket to the user, in which the user profile (access authorization list) is encoded. User profiles determine several access levels to the system. Such levels delimit the authorizations for accessing different services according to the allowed degree of interaction of remote users with the TJ-II environment. The ticket will be sent in every user query, in order to test user permission for the requested action. Services can be classified into five groups: Measurement channel setup, read/write access to the TJ-II databases (raw data, analyzed data, elaborated data, and relational databases), diagnostic control system monitoring/programming, advanced data acquisition system configuration and, finally, reading/writing information on TJ-II operation logbook. The TJ-II remote participation system is strongly coupled with the local data acquisition system.

  9. Type-II Fuzzy Decision Support System for Fertilizer

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Ather; Sarwar, Mansoor

    2014-01-01

    Type-II fuzzy sets are used to convey the uncertainties in the membership function of type-I fuzzy sets. Linguistic information in expert rules does not give any information about the geometry of the membership functions. These membership functions are mostly constructed through numerical data or range of classes. But there exists an uncertainty about the shape of the membership, that is, whether to go for a triangle membership function or a trapezoidal membership function. In this paper we use a type-II fuzzy set to overcome this uncertainty, and develop a fuzzy decision support system of fertilizers based on a type-II fuzzy set. This type-II fuzzy system takes cropping time and soil nutrients in the form of spatial surfaces as input, fuzzifies it using a type-II fuzzy membership function, and implies fuzzy rules on it in the fuzzy inference engine. The output of the fuzzy inference engine, which is in the form of interval value type-II fuzzy sets, reduced to an interval type-I fuzzy set, defuzzifies it to a crisp value and generates a spatial surface of fertilizers. This spatial surface shows the spatial trend of the required amount of fertilizer needed to cultivate a specific crop. The complexity of our algorithm is O(mnr), where m is the height of the raster, n is the width of the raster, and r is the number of expert rules. PMID:24892071

  10. Operating Systems. Curriculum Improvement Project. Region II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagstaff, Charlene

    This course curriculum is intended for community college instructors and administrators to use in implementing an operating systems course. A student's course syllabus provides this information: credit hours, catalog description, prerequisites, required texts, instructional process, objectives, student evaluation, and class schedule. A student…

  11. Spontaneity and Equilibrium II: Multireaction Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raff, Lionel M.

    2014-01-01

    The thermodynamic criteria for spontaneity and equilibrium in multireaction systems are developed and discussed. When N reactions are occurring simultaneously, it is shown that G and A will depend upon N independent reaction coordinates, ?a (a = 1,2, ..., N), in addition to T and p for G or T and V for A. The general criteria for spontaneity and…

  12. Automatic system for corneal ulcer diagnostic: II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Liliane; Chiaradia, Caio; Faria de Sousa, Sidney J.

    1998-06-01

    Corneal Ulcer is a deepithelization of the cornea and it is a very common disease in agricultural countries. The clinician most used parameter in order to identify a favorable ulcer evolution is the regress of the affected area. However, this kind of evaluation is subjective, once just the horizontal and vertical axes are measured based on a graduated scale and the affected area is estimated. Also, the registration of the disease is made by photographs. In order to overcome the subjectiveness and to register the images in a more accessible way (hard disks, floppy disks, etc.), we have developed an automatic system in order to evaluate the affected area (the ulcer). An optical system is implemented in a Slit Lamp (SL) and connected to a CCD detector. The image is displayed in PC monitor by a commercial frame grabber and a dedicated software for determining the area of the ulcer (precision of 20 mm) has been developed.

  13. Complement System Part II: Role in Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Merle, Nicolas S.; Noe, Remi; Halbwachs-Mecarelli, Lise; Fremeaux-Bacchi, Veronique; Roumenina, Lubka T.

    2015-01-01

    The complement system has been considered for a long time as a simple lytic cascade, aimed to kill bacteria infecting the host organism. Nowadays, this vision has changed and it is well accepted that complement is a complex innate immune surveillance system, playing a key role in host homeostasis, inflammation, and in the defense against pathogens. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of the role of complement in physiology and pathology. It starts with a description of complement contribution to the normal physiology (homeostasis) of a healthy organism, including the silent clearance of apoptotic cells and maintenance of cell survival. In pathology, complement can be a friend or a foe. It acts as a friend in the defense against pathogens, by inducing opsonization and a direct killing by C5b–9 membrane attack complex and by triggering inflammatory responses with the anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. Opsonization plays also a major role in the mounting of an adaptive immune response, involving antigen presenting cells, T-, and B-lymphocytes. Nevertheless, it can be also an enemy, when pathogens hijack complement regulators to protect themselves from the immune system. Inadequate complement activation becomes a disease cause, as in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, C3 glomerulopathies, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Age-related macular degeneration and cancer will be described as examples showing that complement contributes to a large variety of conditions, far exceeding the classical examples of diseases associated with complement deficiencies. Finally, we discuss complement as a therapeutic target. PMID:26074922

  14. Jicarilla Apache Utility Authority Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Strategic Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Rabago, K.R.

    2008-06-28

    The purpose of this Strategic Plan Report is to provide an introduction and in-depth analysis of the issues and opportunities, resources, and technologies of energy efficiency and renewable energy that have potential beneficial application for the people of the Jicarilla Apache Nation and surrounding communities. The Report seeks to draw on the best available information that existed at the time of writing, and where necessary, draws on new research to assess this potential. This study provides a strategic assessment of opportunities for maximizing the potential for electrical energy efficiency and renewable energy development by the Jicarilla Apache Nation. The report analyzes electricity use on the Jicarilla Apache Reservation in buildings. The report also assesses particular resources and technologies in detail, including energy efficiency, solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, and small hydropower. The closing sections set out the elements of a multi-year, multi-phase strategy for development of resources to the maximum benefit of the Nation.

  15. Propellant loading system of the H-II launch vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Akira; Sameshima, Toru; Oida, Toshihiko; Saki, Nobuo

    National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) has been constructing a new launch facility in Tanegashima Space Center since 1984 for the H-II launch vehicle that is under development. The construction of the launch complex was almost completed by September of 1991, and the validation test of the facility has been conducted using a nonfiring test vehicle called GTV (Ground Test Vehicle). Following to the GTV test, captive firing tests for the 1st stage propulsion system are scheduled to be conducted in 1992 for the verification of the vehicle flight readiness, preparing for the 1st test flight launch of the H-II in 1993. This paper outlines the major portions of the propellant loading systems of the H-II launch facility and summarizes their characteristics obtained through the GTV test.

  16. Thermodynamics. II - The extended thermodynamic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeleznik, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    The algebraic theory of thermodynamics developed in a previous paper is extended to include the algebraic structure that arises from the introduction of a physical body into the theory. The extension is based on very general definitions of both the thermodynamic states of a body and subsystems of that body. The algebraic analysis, which includes bodies in nonuniform states, shows that the set of all thermodynamic states of a body has the same algebraic structure as the set of thermodynamic states and that composite systems are induced by the algebraic structure of thermodynamic states. The analysis also justifies a variational treatment of thermodynamic bodies in uniform as well as nonuniform states. The variational calculation includes all conventional methods of calculation as special cases and helps to illuminate the origin and interpretation of the electrochemical potential.

  17. The NASA F-15 Intelligent Flight Control Systems: Generation II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buschbacher, Mark; Bosworth, John

    2006-01-01

    The Second Generation (Gen II) control system for the F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) program implements direct adaptive neural networks to demonstrate robust tolerance to faults and failures. The direct adaptive tracking controller integrates learning neural networks (NNs) with a dynamic inversion control law. The term direct adaptive is used because the error between the reference model and the aircraft response is being compensated or directly adapted to minimize error without regard to knowing the cause of the error. No parameter estimation is needed for this direct adaptive control system. In the Gen II design, the feedback errors are regulated with a proportional-plus-integral (PI) compensator. This basic compensator is augmented with an online NN that changes the system gains via an error-based adaptation law to improve aircraft performance at all times, including normal flight, system failures, mispredicted behavior, or changes in behavior resulting from damage.

  18. Preliminary Assessment of Apache Hopefulness: Relationships with Hopelessness and with Collective as well as Personal Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Vanessa Lea; Watson, P. J.; O'Leary, Brian J.; Cothran, D. Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Hopelessness is central to prominent mental health problems within American Indian (AI) communities. Apaches living on a reservation in Arizona responded to diverse expressions of hope along with Hopelessness, Personal Self-Esteem, and Collective Self-Esteem scales. An Apache Hopefulness Scale expressed five themes of hope and correlated…

  19. The Roles of Literacy and Collaboration in Documenting Native American Languages: A Report from the Jicarilla Apache Dictionary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelrod, Melissa; de Garcia, Jule Gomez; Lachler, Jordan

    2003-01-01

    Reports on the progress of a project to produce a dictionary of the Jicarilla Apache language. Jicarilla, an Eastern Apachean language is spoken on the Jicarilla Apache reservation in Northern New Mexico. The project has revealed much about the role of literacy in language standardization and in speaker empowerment. Suggests that many parallels…

  20. MEDLARS II: A Third Generation Bibliographic Production System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katter, Robert V.; Pearson, Karl M.

    1975-01-01

    Gives an overview of MEDLARS II as an example of a major bibliographic processing system that supports on-line access to a number of very large files, has efficient throughput, and is operated on a single large-scale computer. (Author/PF)

  1. End-to-end modelling of He II flow systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mord, A. J.; Snyder, H. A.; Newell, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    A practical computer code has been developed which uses the accepted two-fluid model to simulate He II flow in complicated systems. The full set of equations are used, retaining the coupling between the pressure, temperature and velocity fields. This permits modeling He II flow over the full range of conditions, from strongly or weakly driven flow through large pipes, narrow channels and porous media. The system may include most of the components used in modern superfluid flow systems: non-ideal thermomechanical pumps, tapered sections, constrictions, lines with heated side walls and heat exchangers. The model is validated by comparison with published experimental data. It is applied to a complex system to show some of the non-intuitive feedback effects that can occur. This code is ready to be used as a design tool for practical applications of He II. It can also be used for the design of He II experiments and as a tool for comparison of experimental data with the standard two-fluid model.

  2. Status of NSLS-II Storage Ring Vacuum Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Doom,L.; Hseuh,H.; Ferreira, M.; Longo, C.; Ravindranath, V.; Settepani, P.; Sharma, S.; Wilson, K.

    2009-05-04

    National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II), being constructed at Brookhaven National Laboratory, is a 3-GeV, high-flux and high- brightness synchrotron radiation facility with a nominal current of 500 mA. The storage ring vacuum system will have extruded aluminium chambers with ante-chamber for photon fans and distributed NEG strip pumping. Discrete photon absorbers will be used to intercept the un-used bending magnet radiation. In-situ bakeout will be implemented to achieve fast conditioning during initial commissioning and after interventions.

  3. PEP-II vacuum system pressure profile modeling using EXCEL

    SciTech Connect

    Nordby, M.; Perkins, C.

    1994-06-01

    A generic, adaptable Microsoft EXCEL program to simulate molecular flow in beam line vacuum systems is introduced. Modeling using finite-element approximation of the governing differential equation is discussed, as well as error estimation and program capabilities. The ease of use and flexibility of the spreadsheet-based program is demonstrated. PEP-II vacuum system models are reviewed and compared with analytical models.

  4. High-Precision Lunar Ranging and Gravitational Parameter Estimation With the Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Nathan H.

    This dissertation is concerned with several problems of instrumentation and data analysis encountered by the Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation. Chapter 2 considers crosstalk between elements of a single-photon avalanche photodiode detector. Experimental and analytic methods were developed to determine crosstalk rates, and empirical findings are presented. Chapter 3 details electronics developments that have improved the quality of data collected by detectors of the same type. Chapter 4 explores the challenges of estimating gravitational parameters on the basis of ranging data collected by this and other experiments and presents resampling techniques for the derivation of standard errors for estimates of such parameters determined by the Planetary Ephemeris Program (PEP), a solar-system model and data-fitting code. Possible directions for future work are discussed in Chapter 5. A manual of instructions for working with PEP is presented as an appendix.

  5. Analysis of Post Secondary Educational Pursuits of the Jicarilla Apaches of New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, Lester

    A study investigated variables related to the success or failure of New Mexico Jicarilla Apaches in their pursuit of post-secondary education, including adequacy of high school experiences as preparation for post-secondary education. Subjects (54 males, 67 females) responded to a questionnaire using items from two instruments previously developed…

  6. A Photographic Essay of the San Carlos Apache Indians, Volume 2-Part A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto, Ed; And Others

    As part of a series of guides designed for instruction of American Indian children and youth, this resource guide constitutes a pictorial essay on the San Carlos Apache Reservation founded in the late 1800's and located in Arizona's Gila County. An historical narrative and discussion questions accompany each of the 12 photographs. Photographic…

  7. Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) Apache Young and Perkins (Diptera: Psychodidae) feeds on reptiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phlebotomine sand flies are vectors of bacteria, parasites, and viruses. In the western USA a sand fly, Lutzomyia apache Young and Perkins, was initially associated with epizootics of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), because sand flies were trapped at sites of an outbreak. Additional studies indica...

  8. A Photographic Essay of Apache Clothing, War Charms, and Weapons, Volume 2-Part D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Doris; Jacobs, Ben

    As part of a series of guides designed for instruction of American Indian children and youth, this resource guide constitutes a pictorial essay on Apache clothing, war charms, and weaponry. A brief historical introduction is followed by 21 question suggestions for classroom use. Each of the 12 photographic topics is accompanied by a descriptive…

  9. Pathogens and bionomics of Lutzomyia apache (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Wyoming, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phlebotomine sand flies are vectors of bacteria, parasites, and viruses. Lutzomyia apache, a North American sand fly, was incriminated as a vector of vesicular stomatitis viruses (VSV) due to overlapping ranges of the sand fly and recent outbreaks of VSV. We report on the discovery of two population...

  10. A Season on the Reservation: My Sojourn with the White Mountain Apache.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Jabbar, Kareem; Singular, Stephen

    In this book, basketball legend Kareem Abdul-Jabbar tells of one basketball season when he coached a high school team on the White Mountain Apache Reservation (Arizona). Tired of life in Los Angeles, disillusioned with pro basketball, and devastated by the death of his mother, Abdul-Jabbar accepted an invitation to coach the team at Alchesay High…

  11. 75 FR 68607 - BP Canada Energy Marketing Corp. Apache Corporation; Notice for Temporary Waivers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission BP Canada Energy Marketing Corp. Apache Corporation; Notice for Temporary Waivers November 1, 2010. Take notice that on October 29, 2010, BP Canada Energy Marketing Corp....

  12. TOPAZ II System Thermal Management During Prelaunch and Orbital Insertion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogloblin, Boris; Nikitin, Vladimir; Luppov, Alexi; Kirillov, E. Ya.; Bocharov, Anatoly; Polansky, Gary; Reynolds, Edward

    1994-07-01

    For space nuclear power systems that use liquid metal coolants, it is important to prevent the coolant from freezing prior to the start-up of the reactor in space. For the original mission of the Topaz II, this would be achieved with a combination of (1) prelaunch electric heating of the liquid metal combined with coolant circulation, (2) a thermal cover to reduce the heat loss during the orbital insertion mission phase and (3) periodic circulation of the coolant during the orbital insertion mission phase to transfer heat from the warmer structures of the reactor to those most prone to freezing. Because the currently proposed Topaz II mission differs significantly from the original mission this scheme was re-evaluated. For the new mission the prelaunch heating could be simplified by merely circulating 300 K air over the reactor system and eliminating power to the electric heaters and the electromagnetic pump through the onboard detachable connector.

  13. NSLS-II BPM System Protection from Rogue Mode Coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Blednykh, A.; Bach, B.; Borrelli, A.; Ferreira, M.; Hseuh, H.-C.; Hetzel, C.; Kosciuk, B.; Krinsky, S.; Singh, O.; Vetter, K.

    2011-03-28

    Rogue mode RF shielding has been successfully designed and implemented into the production multipole vacuum chambers. In order to avoid systematic errors in the NSLS-II BPM system we introduced frequency shift of HOM's by using RF metal shielding located in the antechamber slot of each multipole vacuum chamber. To satisfy the pumping requirement the face of the shielding has been perforated with roughly 50 percent transparency. It stays clear of synchrotron radiation in each chamber.

  14. Belle II public and private cloud management in VMDIRAC system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzymkowski, Rafa; Hara, Takanori; Belle computing Group, II

    2015-12-01

    The role of cloud computing technology in the distributed computing for HEP experiments grows rapidly. Some experiments (Atlas, BES-III, LHCb) already exploit private and public cloud resources for the data processing. Future experiments such as Belle II or upgraded LHC experiments will largely rely on the availability of cloud resources and therefore their computing models have to be adjusted to the specific features of cloud environment, in particular to the on-demand computing paradigm. Belle II experiment at SuperKEKB will start physics run in 2017. Belle II computing requirements are challenging. The data size at the level of hundred PB is expected after several years of operation, around 2020. The baseline solution selected for distributed processing is the DIRAC system. DIRAC can handle variety of computing resources including Grids, Clouds and independent clusters. Cloud resources can be connected by VMDIRAC module through public interfaces. In particular the mechanism of dynamic activation of new virtual machines with reserved job slots for new tasks in case of an increasing demand for computing resources is introduced. This work is focused on VMDIRAC interaction with public (Amazon EC2) and private (CC1) cloud. The solution applied by Belle II experiment and the experience from Monte Carlo production campaigns will be presented. Updated computation costs for different use cases will be shown.

  15. LCLS-II high power RF system overview and progress

    SciTech Connect

    Yeremian, Anahid Dian

    2015-10-07

    A second X-ray free electron laser facility, LCLS-II, will be constructed at SLAC. LCLS-II is based on a 1.3 GHz, 4 GeV, continuous-wave (CW) superconducting linear accelerator, to be installed in the first kilometer of the SLAC tunnel. Multiple types of high power RF (HPRF) sources will be used to power different systems on LCLS-II. The main 1.3 GHz linac will be powered by 280 1.3 GHz, 3.8 kW solid state amplifier (SSA) sources. The normal conducting buncher in the injector will use four more SSAs identical to the linac SSAs but run at 2 kW. Two 185.7 MHz, 60 kW sources will power the photocathode dual-feed RF gun. A third harmonic linac section, included for linearizing the bunch energy spread before the first bunch compressor, will require sixteen 3.9 GHz sources at about 1 kW CW. A description and an update on all the HPRF sources of LCLS-II and their implementation is the subject of this paper.

  16. Field studies at the Apache Leap Research Site in support of alternative conceptual models

    SciTech Connect

    Woodhouse, E.G.; Davidson, G.R.; Theis, C.

    1997-08-01

    This is a final technical report for a project of the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission (sponsored contract NRC-04-090-51) with the University of Arizona. The contract was an optional extension that was initiated on July 21, 1994 and that expired on May 31, 1995. The project manager was Thomas J. Nicholson, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The objectives of this contract were to examine hypotheses and conceptual models concerning unsaturated flow and transport through fractured rock, and to design and execute confirmatory field and laboratory experiments to test these hypotheses and conceptual models at the Apache Leap Research Site near Superior, Arizona. The results discussed here are products of specific tasks that address a broad spectrum of issues related to flow and transport through fractures. Each chapter in this final report summarizes research related to a specific set of objectives and can be read and interpreted as a separate entity. The tasks include detection and characterization of historical rapid fluid flow through fractured rock and the relationship to perched water systems using environmental isotopic tracers of {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C, fluid- and rock-derived {sup 2343}U/{sup 238}U measurements, and geophysical data. The water balance in a small watershed at the ALRS demonstrates the methods of acounting for ET, and estimating the quantity of water available for infiltration through fracture networks. Grain density measurements were made for core-sized samples using a newly designed gas pycnometer. The distribution and magnitude of air permeability measurements have been measured in a three-dimensional setting; the subsequent geostatistical analysis is presented. Electronic versions of the data presented here are available from authors; more detailed discussions and analyses are available in technical publications referenced herein, or soon to appear in the professional literature.

  17. Ethernet-Based DAQ System for QUIET-II Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, M.; Ishidoshiro, K.; Higuchi, T.; Ikeno, M.; Hasegawa, M.; Hazumi, M.; Tajima, O.; Tanaka, M.; Uchida, T.

    2012-06-01

    The B-modes in cosmic microwave background polarization are a smoking gun for the inflationary universe. For the detection of the B-modes, having a large detector array is a generic approach since the B-modes is so faint pattern ( T b≲0.1 μK). The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT Phase-II (QUIET-II) is proposed to search the B-modes, using an array with 500 HEMT-based polarimeters. Each polarimeter element has 4-outputs, therefore we have to manage 2000 channels in total. We developed a scalable DAQ system based on TCP/Ethernet for QUIET-II. The DAQ system is composed of the polarimeters, ADC boards, a Master Clock and a control computer (PC). The analog signals from the polarimeters are digitized on the ADC boards. On-board demodulation, which synchronizes the phase flip modulations on the polarimeter, extracts the polarized components in the digitized signal. The Master Clock distributes all necessary clocks to the ADC boards as well as the polarimeters. This scheme guarantees the synchronization of the modulations and demodulations. We employed Ethernet-based communication scheme between the data collection program (Collector) on the PC and the ADC boards as well as the Master Clock. Such an Ethernet-based communication scheme allows us to construct a simple structure of the upper level software, which results in the high scalability to increase the number of channels. All basic functions and requirements are confirmed by the laboratory tests; demonstration with test signals as well as the signals from the polarimeters, measurements of the data transfer rate, and the synchronous operation with two ADC boards. Therefore, the DAQ system is confirmed to be suitable for QUIET-II.

  18. Physics Detector Simulation Facility Phase II system software description

    SciTech Connect

    Scipioni, B.; Allen, J.; Chang, C.; Huang, J.; Liu, J.; Mestad, S.; Pan, J.; Marquez, M.; Estep, P.

    1993-05-01

    This paper presents the Physics Detector Simulation Facility (PDSF) Phase II system software. A key element in the design of a distributed computing environment for the PDSF has been the separation and distribution of the major functions. The facility has been designed to support batch and interactive processing, and to incorporate the file and tape storage systems. By distributing these functions, it is often possible to provide higher throughput and resource availability. Similarly, the design is intended to exploit event-level parallelism in an open distributed environment.

  19. Beam position monitor system for PEP-II

    SciTech Connect

    Aiello, G.R.; Johnson, R.G.; Martin, D.J.; Mills, M.R.; Olsen, J.J.; Smith, S.R.

    1997-01-01

    The beam position monitor (BPM) system for PEP-II, the B-Factory under construction at SLAC, is described in this paper. The system must measure closed orbit for a 3-A multibunch beam and turn-by-turn position for a low-current single bunch injected in a 200-ns gap in the multibunch beam. A system that combines broadband and narrowband capabilities and provides data at high bandwidth was designed. It includes a filter-isolator box (FIB) that selects a harmonic of the bunch spacing (952 MHz) and absorbs the other frequency components; a CAMAC-based wideband I&Q demodulator, ADC, and signal processor that provides beam position information to the control system; and a calibrator that must work even in presence of beam, correcting for electronic measurement errors. This paper describes the system requirements, the electronics design, and the laboratory tests. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Design layout for gas monitoring system II (GMS-2) computer system

    SciTech Connect

    Vo, V.; Philipp, B.L.; Manke, M.P.

    1995-08-02

    This document provides a general overview of the computer systems software that perform the data acquisition and control for the 241-SY-101 Gas Monitoring System II (GMS-2). It outlines the system layout, and contains descriptions of components and the functions they perform. The GMS-2 system was designed and implemented by Los Alamos National Laboratory and supplied to Westinghouse Hanford Company

  1. Evaluation of Laser Stabilization and Imaging Systems for LCLS-II - Oral Presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, Matthew

    2015-08-19

    This presentation covers data collected on two commercial laser stabilization systems, Guidestar-II and MRC, and two optical imaging systems. Additionally, general information about LCLS-II and how to go about continuing-testing is covered.

  2. Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis. Phase II final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Through the Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis (UIICSA), the City of Chicago embarked upon an ambitious effort to identify the measure the overall industrial cogeneration market in the city and to evaluate in detail the most promising market opportunities. This report discusses the background of the work completed during Phase II of the UIICSA and presents the results of economic feasibility studies conducted for three potential cogeneration sites in Chicago. Phase II focused on the feasibility of cogeneration at the three most promising sites: the Stockyards and Calumet industrial areas, and the Ford City commercial/industrial complex. Each feasibility case study considered the energy load requirements of the existing facilities at the site and the potential for attracting and serving new growth in the area. Alternative fuels and technologies, and ownership and financing options were also incorporated into the case studies. Finally, site specific considerations such as development incentives, zoning and building code restrictions and environmental requirements were investigated.

  3. Implant Angle Monitor System of MC3-II

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Fumiaki; Sano, Makoto; Nakaoka, Hiroaki; Fujii, Yoshito; Kudo, Tetuya; Nakanishi, Makoto; Koike, Masazumi; Fujino, Yasushi

    2008-11-03

    Precise implant angle control is required for the latest generation of ion implanters to meet further shrink semiconductor device requirements. Especially, the highest angle accuracy is required for Halo implant process of Logic devices. The Halo implant angle affects the device performance, because slight differences of beam divergence change the overlap profile towards the extension. Additionally, twist angle accuracy is demanded in case of channeling angle implant. Therefore monitoring beam angles and wafer twist angles is important. A new monitoring system for the MC3-II, SEN Corp.'s single wafer type medium current implanter has been developed. This paper describes the angle control performance and monitoring system of the MC3-II. For the twist angle control, we developed a wafer notch angle monitor. The system monitors the wafer notch image on the platen. And the notch angle variation is calculated by using image processing method. It is also able to adjust the notch angle according to the angle error. For the tilt angle control, we developed a vertical beam profile monitor. The monitor system can detect beam profile of vertical directions with horizontally scanning beam. It also measures beam angles of a tilt direction to a wafer. The system configuration and sample beam data are presented.

  4. Upgrade of beam energy measurement system at BEPC-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian-Yong; Cai, Xiao; Mo, Xiao-Hu; Guo, Di-Zhou; Wang, Jian-Li; Liu, Bai-Qi; Achasov, M. N.; Krasnov, A. A.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Pyata, E. E.; Mamoshkina, E. V.; Harris, F. A.

    2016-07-01

    The beam energy measurement system is of great importance for both BEPC-II accelerator and BES-III detector. The system is based on measuring the energies of Compton back-scattered photons. In order to meet the requirements of data taking and improve the measurement accuracy, the system has continued to be upgraded, which involves the updating of laser and optics subsystems, replacement of a view-port of the laser to the vacuum insertion subsystem, the use of an electric cooling system for a high purity germanium detector, and improvement of the data acquisition and processing subsystem. The upgrade system guarantees the smooth and efficient measurement of beam energy at BEPC-II and enables accurate offline energy values for further physics analysis at BES-III. Supported in part by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)(11375206, 10775142, 10825524, 11125525, 11235011), the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2015CB856700, 2015CB856705), State key laboratory of particle and detection and electronics; and the CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics (CCEPP); the RFBR grant(14-02-00129-a), U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FG02-04ER41291, DE-FG02-05ER41374, DE-FG02-94ER40823, DESC0010118), U.S. National Science Foundation, part of this work related to the design of ZnSe viewports is supported by the Russian Science Foundation (14-50-00080)

  5. Ground Fault Diagnosctic System for PEP-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Glen; Himel, Tom; Johnson, Ralph

    1997-05-01

    This paper describes a diagnostic system designed into the String Magnet Power Conversion System that localizes magnet or cable ground faults in the PEP-II rings. This system provides online diagnostics that allow the operator/maintenance personnel to identify the magnet string that has the ground fault and the region in the ring where the ground fault exists. Furthermore, it is our goal to identify within 2 adjacent magnets where this fault exists. The system utilizes the existing PEP-II control system with transient digitizers, ADCs to monitor voltages and currents from the DC/DC converters and the voltage across the soft ground resistor at each bulk power supply. Also, the magnet string voltages are monitored in six locations around the ring to provide an adaptive model of the voltage distribution for each for each magnet string. These signals are utilized in a ground fault location algorithm that identifies and displays the magnet string and specific magnet candidate with the ground fault, on the operators console. Wave forms taken during the fault event are also available for examination at the operators console.

  6. Competitive adsorption of Cd(II), Zn(II) and Ni(II) from their binary and ternary acidic systems using tourmaline.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haibin; Wang, Cuiping; Liu, Jingting; Wang, Baolin; Sun, Hongwen

    2013-10-15

    The adsorption of Cd(II), Zn(II) and Ni(II) from aqueous solutions in binary and ternary component systems by tourmaline was investigated. Kinetic data were accurately fitted to pseudo-second order and internal diffusion models, which indicated that the adsorption of heavy metals occurred on the interior surface of the sorbent and internal diffusion was the controlling mechanism during heavy metal ion adsorption but was not the only rate-controlling step. Additionally, tourmaline had a very good adsorption capacity for Cd(II), Zn(II) and Ni(II) in multi-component aqueous solutions at strongly acidic pH values (in contrast to industrial wastewater pH values). This good adsorption capacity is attributed to the fact that tourmaline can automatically adjust the pH values of acidic (except pH 2.0 and 3.0), neutral or alkaline aqueous solutions to 6.0. Adsorption isotherms and separation factors showed that tourmaline displays a high selectivity toward one metal in a two-component or a three-component system with an affinity order of Cd(II) > Zn(II) > Ni(II). Thermodynamic parameters indicated that heavy metal adsorption was feasible, spontaneous, and endothermic. Therefore, tourmaline should be explored as a material for removing pollutants from the strongly acidic wastewater. PMID:23851318

  7. PHASE II VAULT TESTING OF THE ARGONNE RFID SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Willoner, T.; Turlington, R.; Koenig, R.

    2012-06-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (Environmental Management [EM], Office of Packaging and Transportation [EM-45]) Packaging and Certification Program (DOE PCP) has developed a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tracking and monitoring system, called ARG-US, for the management of nuclear materials packages during transportation and storage. The performance of the ARG-US RFID equipment and system has been fully tested in two demonstration projects in April 2008 and August 2009. With the strong support of DOE-SR and DOE PCP, a field testing program was completed in Savannah River Site's K-Area Material Storage (KAMS) Facility, an active Category I Plutonium Storage Facility, in 2010. As the next step (Phase II) of continued vault testing for the ARG-US system, the Savannah River Site K Area Material Storage facility has placed the ARG-US RFIDs into the 910B storage vault for operational testing. This latest version (Mark III) of the Argonne RFID system now has the capability to measure radiation dose and dose rate. This paper will report field testing progress of the ARG-US RFID equipment in KAMS, the operability and reliability trend results associated with the applications of the system, and discuss the potential benefits in enhancing safety, security and materials accountability. The purpose of this Phase II K Area test is to verify the accuracy of the radiation monitoring and proper functionality of the ARG-US RFID equipment and system under a realistic environment in the KAMS facility. Deploying the ARG-US RFID system leads to a reduced need for manned surveillance and increased inventory periods by providing real-time access to status and event history traceability, including environmental condition monitoring and radiation monitoring. The successful completion of the testing program will provide field data to support a future development and testing. This will increase Operation efficiency and cost effectiveness for vault operation. As the next step (Phase

  8. Earth System Grid II, Turning Climate Datasets into Community Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, Don

    2006-08-01

    The Earth System Grid (ESG) II project, funded by the Department of Energy’s Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing program, has transformed climate data into community resources. ESG II has accomplished this goal by creating a virtual collaborative environment that links climate centers and users around the world to models and data via a computing Grid, which is based on the Department of Energy’s supercomputing resources and the Internet. Our project’s success stems from partnerships between climate researchers and computer scientists to advance basic and applied research in the terrestrial, atmospheric, and oceanic sciences. By interfacing with other climate science projects, we have learned that commonly used methods to manage and remotely distribute data among related groups lack infrastructure and under-utilize existing technologies. Knowledge and expertise gained from ESG II have helped the climate community plan strategies to manage a rapidly growing data environment more effectively. Moreover, approaches and technologies developed under the ESG project have impacted datasimulation integration in other disciplines, such as astrophysics, molecular biology and materials science.

  9. The Rutgers Arm II rehabilitation system--a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Burdea, Grigore C; Cioi, Daniel; Martin, Joseph; Fensterheim, Devin; Holenski, Maeve

    2010-10-01

    The Rutgers Arm II (RA II) is a new system that trains the shoulder/arm motor control, strengthening, arm speed of motion, endurance, and grasp strength in a single rehabilitation session. The system components are a tilted low-friction table, a forearm support with markers and wireless transmitter, a shoulder appendage to detect compensatory leaning, infrared vision tracking, a large display and a PC running custom virtual reality games. Three participants in the chronic stage post-stroke were trained on the RAII for four weeks (12 sessions) and had a follow-up evaluation after three months. The results of this study indicate that the participants were able to use the technology, and preliminary results are encouraging. One participant showed improvement in all timed Jebsen-Taylor test tasks, all participants had a larger shoulder range-of-motion and pinch strength of the affected hand post-training. Computerized measure of supported arm reach area increased in two participants post-training and in all participants at follow-up. Participants reported an improved ability to perform activities of daily living with the affected arm. There was good compliance by the participants, each of whom attended all sessions. The participants accepted the training length, even with some sessions lasting 1 h (excluding rest periods). The participants' subjective evaluation rated the system an average 3.7 out of 5 (see also the accompanying taped video interview of one of the participants). PMID:20529757

  10. Recent Observations of Venus' OI and O2 Emission from Apache Point Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, C. L.; Chanover, N. J.; Slanger, T. G.

    2011-10-01

    Past observations of the Venusian night glow features O(1S -1 D) at 5577.3 Å (atomic oxygen green line) and O2 (a - X) 0 - 0 at 1.27 μm were found to be temporally and spatially variable. We report on the analysis of recent observations of these two features, obtained using optical and infrared spectrographs on the 3.5-meter Astrophysical Research Consortium Telescope at Apache Point Observatory (APO) in December 2010.

  11. The Argus(®) II Retinal Prosthesis System.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yvonne Hsu-Lin; da Cruz, Lyndon

    2016-01-01

    The Argus(®) II Retinal Prosthesis System (Second Sight Medical Products) is the first prosthetic vision device to obtain regulatory approval in both Europe and the USA. As such it has entered the commercial market as a treatment for patients with profound vision loss from end-stage outer retinal disease, predominantly retinitis pigmentosa. To date, over 100 devices have been implanted worldwide, representing the largest group of patients currently treated with visual prostheses. The system works by direct stimulation of the relatively preserved inner retina via epiretinal microelectrodes, thereby replacing the function of the degenerated photoreceptors. Visual information from a glasses-mounted video camera is converted to a pixelated image by an external processor, before being transmitted to the microelectrode array at the macula. Elicited retinal responses are then relayed via the normal optic nerve to the cortex for interpretation. We reviewed the animal and human studies that led to the development of the Argus(®) II device. A sufficiently robust safety profile was demonstrated in the phase I/II clinical trial of 30 patients. Improvement of function in terms of orientation and mobility, target localisation, shape and object recognition, and reading of letters and short unrehearsed words have also been shown. There remains a wide variability in the functional outcomes amongst the patients and the factors contributing to these performance differences are still unclear. Future developments in terms of both software and hardware aimed at improving visual function have been proposed. Further experience in clinical outcomes is being acquired due to increasing implantation. PMID:26404104

  12. Rapid, dynamic changes in glomerular permeability to macromolecules during systemic angiotensin II (ANG II) infusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, Josefin; Rippe, Anna; Oberg, Carl M; Rippe, Bengt

    2012-09-15

    The actions of systemic angiotensin II (ANG II) infusions on glomerular permeability were investigated in vivo. In anesthetized Wistar rats (250-280 g), the left ureter was cannulated for urine collection, while simultaneously blood access was achieved. Rats were continuously infused intravenously with either of four doses of ANG II ranging from 16 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1) (Lo-ANG II) to 1.82 μg·kg(-1)·min(-1) (Hi-ANG II), and in separate experiments with aldosterone (Aldo; 0.22 mg·kg(-1)·min(-1)), or with the calcium channel blocker nimodipine, or with the Aldo antagonist spironolactone together with a high ANG II dose (910 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1); Hi-Int-ANG II), respectively, and with polydisperse FITC-Ficoll-70/400 (molecular radius 10-80 Å) and (51)Cr-EDTA. Plasma and urine samples were taken at 5, 15, 30, 60, and 120 min and analyzed by high performance size-exclusion chromatography for determination of glomerular sieving coefficients (θ) to Ficoll. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were also assessed. For ANG II, there was a rapid, marked, partly reversible increase in glomerular permeability (θ) for Ficoll molecules >34 Å in radius, peaking at 5-15 min, which was completely abrogated by the ANG II blocker candesartan but not affected by spironolactone at 15 and 30 min. For Aldo, the response was similar to that found for the lowest dose of ANG II infused. For the two highest ANG II doses given (Hi-Int-ANG II and Hi-ANG II), GFR decreased transiently, concomitant with marked, sustained increases in MAP. Nimodipine completely blocked all hemodynamic ANG II actions, whereas the glomerular permeability response remained unchanged. Thus ANG II directly increased glomerular permeability independently of its hemodynamic actions and largely independently of the concomitant Aldo response. The ANG II-induced increases in glomerular permeability were, according to a two-pore and a log-normal distributed pore model, compatible with an

  13. The NSLS-II Multilayer Laue Lens Deposition System

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, R.; Bouet, N.; Biancarosa, J.; Shen, Q.; Boas, L.; Feraca, J.; Rosenbaum, L.

    2009-08-02

    The NSLS-II[1] program has a requirement for an unprecedented level of x-ray nanofocusing and has selected the wedged multilayer Laue lens[2,3] (MLL) as the optic of choice to meet this goal. In order to fabricate the MLL a deposition system is required that is capable of depositing depth-graded and laterally-graded multilayers with precise thickness control over many thousands of layers, with total film growth in one run up to 100m thick or greater. This machine design expounds on the positive features of a rotary deposition system[4] constructed previously for MLLs and will contain multiple stationary, horizontally-oriented magnetron sources where a transport will move a substrate back and forth in a linear fashion over shaped apertures at well-defined velocities to affect a multilayer coating.

  14. Technology of H-II Transfer Vehicle Rendezvous System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasai, Toru; Ueda, Satoshi; Uematsu, Hirohiko

    The H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV), which is a Japanese unmanned cargo transfer spacecraft, will deliver supplies to the International Space Station (ISS). The first HTV will be launched in 2009 from the Tanegashima Space Center aboard an H-IIB launch vehicle with up to 6,000kg of supplies. HTV approaches to the ISS and the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), known as Canadarm2, will grapple the HTV and berth it to the ISS. After the supplies, the HTV will then be loaded with waste materials and then separated from the ISS by SSRMS. HTV conducts departure sequence from ISS after release from SSRMS and reentry to the atmosphere. In this paper, technology of HTV automated Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) system is presented.

  15. Overview of the CDF Run II data handling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley-Geer, L.; Lammel, S.; Leininger, M.; Watts, T.

    2001-10-01

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) collaboration records and analyses proton-anti-proton interactions with a center-of-mass energy of 2 TeV at the Tevatron. During the next collider run the experiment expects to record about 1 PetaByte of data, an increase by more than an order of magnitude in data volume compared to the existing data of the experiment. This paper gives an overview of the new data handling system. The design builds upon successful strategies used in the past but eliminates shortcomings encountered with the old system. The core of the central analysis system will be a pool of over 20 TBytes of data disks. Logically behind this disk pool will be an automated tape library with a storage capacity to hold the full 1 PByte of Run II data. Multi-processor compute systems will be located around this storage pool to provide the required analysis power of over 3000 SPECint95. Desktop systems will be integrated into the analysis system via a shared login area and user authentication. The data handling software falls into four categories: software to manage computing resources, software for the data disks and for the mass storage subsystem, software to organize and manage the meta-data information, and the I/O modules in the analysis framework for accessing data.

  16. KBGIS-II: A knowledge-based geographic information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Terence; Peuquet, Donna; Menon, Sudhakar; Agarwal, Pankaj

    1986-01-01

    The architecture and working of a recently implemented Knowledge-Based Geographic Information System (KBGIS-II), designed to satisfy several general criteria for the GIS, is described. The system has four major functions including query-answering, learning and editing. The main query finds constrained locations for spatial objects that are describable in a predicate-calculus based spatial object language. The main search procedures include a family of constraint-satisfaction procedures that use a spatial object knowledge base to search efficiently for complex spatial objects in large, multilayered spatial data bases. These data bases are represented in quadtree form. The search strategy is designed to reduce the computational cost of search in the average case. The learning capabilities of the system include the addition of new locations of complex spatial objects to the knowledge base as queries are answered, and the ability to learn inductively definitions of new spatial objects from examples. The new definitions are added to the knowledge base by the system. The system is performing all its designated tasks successfully. Future reports will relate performance characteristics of the system.

  17. Genetic suppression of a phosphomimic myosin II identifies system-level factors that promote myosin II cleavage furrow accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yixin; West-Foyle, Hoku; Surcel, Alexandra; Miller, Christopher; Robinson, Douglas N.

    2014-01-01

    How myosin II localizes to the cleavage furrow in Dictyostelium and metazoan cells remains largely unknown despite significant advances in understanding its regulation. We designed a genetic selection using cDNA library suppression of 3xAsp myosin II to identify factors involved in myosin cleavage furrow accumulation. The 3xAsp mutant is deficient in bipolar thick filament assembly, fails to accumulate at the cleavage furrow, cannot rescue myoII-null cytokinesis, and has impaired mechanosensitive accumulation. Eleven genes suppressed this dominant cytokinesis deficiency when 3xAsp was expressed in wild-type cells. 3xAsp myosin II's localization to the cleavage furrow was rescued by constructs encoding rcdBB, mmsdh, RMD1, actin, one novel protein, and a 14-3-3 hairpin. Further characterization showed that RMD1 is required for myosin II cleavage furrow accumulation, acting in parallel with mechanical stress. Analysis of several mutant strains revealed that different thresholds of myosin II activity are required for daughter cell symmetry than for furrow ingression dynamics. Finally, an engineered myosin II with a longer lever arm (2xELC), producing a highly mechanosensitive motor, could also partially suppress the intragenic 3xAsp. Overall, myosin II accumulation is the result of multiple parallel and partially redundant pathways that comprise a cellular contractility control system. PMID:25318674

  18. The data acquisition system of the Belle II Pixel Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münchow, D.; Dingfelder, J.; Geßler, T.; Konorov, I.; Kühn, W.; Lange, S.; Lautenbach, K.; Levit, D.; Liu, Z.; Marinas, C.; Schnell, M.; Spruck, B.; Zhao, J.

    2014-08-01

    At the future Belle II experiment the DEPFET (DEPleted Field Effect Transistor) pixel detector will consist of about 8 million channels and is placed as the innermost detector. Because of its small distance to the interaction region and the high luminosity in Belle II, for a trigger rate of about 30 kHz with an estimated occupancy of about 3 % a data rate of about 22 GB/s is expected. Due to the high data rate, a data reduction factor higher than 30 is needed in order to stay inside the specifications of the event builder. The main hardware to reduce the data rate is a xTCA based Compute Node (CN) developed in cooperation between IHEP Beijing and University Giessen. Each node has as main component a Xilinx Virtex-5 FX70T FPGA and is equipped with 2 × 2 GB RAM , GBit Ethernet and 4 × 6.25 Gb/s optical links. An ATCA carrier board is able to hold up to four CN and supplies high bandwidth connections between the four CNs and to the ATCA backplane. To achieve the required data reduction on the CNs, regions of interest (ROI) are used. These regions are calculated in two independent systems by projecting tracks back to the pixel detector. One is the High Level Trigger (HLT) which uses data from the Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD), a silicon strip detector, and outer detectors. The other is the Data Concentrator (DATCON) which calculates ROIs based on SVD data only, in order to get low momentum tracks. With this information, only PXD data inside these ROIs will be forwarded to the event builder, while data outside of these regions will be discarded. First results of the test beam time in January 2014 at DESY with a Belle II vertex detector prototype and full DAQ chain will be presented.

  19. Blade System Design Study. Part II, final project report (GEC).

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Dayton A.

    2009-05-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Low Wind Speed Turbine program, Global Energy Concepts LLC (GEC)1 has studied alternative composite materials for wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt size range. This work in one of the Blade System Design Studies (BSDS) funded through Sandia National Laboratories. The BSDS program was conducted in two phases. In the Part I BSDS, GEC assessed candidate innovations in composite materials, manufacturing processes, and structural configurations. GEC also made recommendations for testing composite coupons, details, assemblies, and blade substructures to be carried out in the Part II study (BSDS-II). The BSDS-II contract period began in May 2003, and testing was initiated in June 2004. The current report summarizes the results from the BSDS-II test program. Composite materials evaluated include carbon fiber in both pre-impregnated and vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) forms. Initial thin-coupon static testing included a wide range of parameters, including variation in manufacturer, fiber tow size, fabric architecture, and resin type. A smaller set of these materials and process types was also evaluated in thin-coupon fatigue testing, and in ply-drop and ply-transition panels. The majority of materials used epoxy resin, with vinyl ester (VE) resin also used for selected cases. Late in the project, testing of unidirectional fiberglass was added to provide an updated baseline against which to evaluate the carbon material performance. Numerous unidirectional carbon fabrics were considered for evaluation with VARTM infusion. All but one fabric style considered suffered either from poor infusibility or waviness of fibers combined with poor compaction. The exception was a triaxial carbon-fiberglass fabric produced by SAERTEX. This fabric became the primary choice for infused articles throughout the test program. The generally positive results obtained in this program for the SAERTEX material have led to its being

  20. Oxidative stress-mediated effects of angiotensin II in the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Hairuo; Gwathmey, Judith K; Xie, Lai-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II), an endogenous peptide hormone, plays critical roles in the pathophysiological modulation of cardiovascular functions. Ang II is the principle effector of the renin-angiotensin system for maintaining homeostasis in the cardiovascular system, as well as a potent stimulator of NAD(P)H oxidase, which is the major source and primary trigger for reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in various tissues. Recent accumulating evidence has demonstrated the importance of oxidative stress in Ang II-induced heart diseases. Here, we review the recent progress in the study on oxidative stress-mediated effects of Ang II in the cardiovascular system. In particular, the involvement of Ang II-induced ROS generation in arrhythmias, cell death/heart failure, ischemia/reperfusion injury, cardiac hypertrophy and hypertension are discussed. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II is an important molecule linking Ang II, ROS and cardiovascular pathological conditions. PMID:24587981

  1. WASTES II: Waste System Transportation and Economic Simulation. Version II. User's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Shay, M.R.; Buxbaum, M.E.

    1986-02-01

    The WASTES II model was developed to provide detailed analyses beyond the capabilities of other available models. WASTES uses discrete event simulation techniques to model the generation of commercial spent nuclear fuel, the buildup of spent fuel inventories within the system, and the transportation requirements for the movement of radioactive waste throughout the system. The model is written in FORTRAN 77 as an extension to the SLAM commercial simulation language package. In addition to the pool storage and dry storage located at the reactors, the WASTES model provides a choice of up to ten other storage facilities of four different types. The simulation performed by WASTES may be controlled by a combination of source- and/or destination-controlled transfers that are requested by the code user. The user supplies shipping cask characteristics for truck or rail shipment casks. As part of the facility description, the user specifies which casks the facility can use. Shipments within the system can be user specified to occur optimally, or proximally. Optimized shipping can be used when exactly two destination facilities of the same facility type are open for receipt of fuel. Optimized shipping selects source/destination pairs so that the total shipping distance or total shipping costs in a given year are minimized when both facilities are fully utilized. Proximity shipping sequentially fills the closest facility to the source according to the shipment priorities without regard for the total annual shipments. This results in sub-optimal routing of waste material but can be used to approximate an optimal shipping strategy when more than two facilities of the same type are available to receive waste. WASTES is currently able to analyze each of the commercial spent fuel logistics scenarios specified in the 1985 DOE Mission Plan.

  2. Design and Performance of ABWR-II Safety System

    SciTech Connect

    Hirohide Oikawa; Takashi Sato; Ken-ichi Sato; Tatsuya Taminami

    2004-07-01

    In order to meet utility demands after successful completion of ABWR development, ABWR-II design provides more emphasis on beyond-DBA capability to achieve further enhancement of safety such as the practical exclusion of the probability of emergency evacuation/resettlement. Optimization of safety and economic aspects is also to be strongly pursued. The active core and containment cooling system for the accomplishment of these objectives, is realized as the rationalized four division RHR system. The front line consists of complete four trains, and the supporting cooling circuit consists of two loops, however, key active components basically have N+2 capability. Hence the configuration enables on-line maintenance, and simultaneously improves safety and plant availability. The passive heat removal system is adopted as an in-depth backup for reactor and containment cooling. These systems practically eliminate necessity of containment venting as a means of overpressure protection. Several types of containment configuration have been studied in addition to conventional containment design which meets design criteria. In the separated drywell concept, drywell is separated at RPV skirt into upper and lower drywell. This configuration provides larger volume for non-condensable gases compared to conventional containment of the same total volume, and reduces pressure during an accident. In the other concept also aiming at no evacuation, wet well is extended up to the operation floor along with containment wall. Rupture disks installed between this extended area and wet well, open when the containment pressure exceeding the design pressure in case of severe accident. These containment designs also consider other severe accident phenomena on a safety margin basis, according industrial guideline. As a result of these design evolution, ABWR-II achieved distinguished safety feature. Both of probabilistic and deterministic consideration for beyond DBA event has been made from design

  3. Progress on PEP-II magnet power conversion system

    SciTech Connect

    Bellomo, P.; Genova, L.; Jackson, T.; Shimer, D.

    1996-06-04

    The various power systems for supplying the PEP-II DC magnets rely exclusively on switchmode conversion, utilizing a variety of means depending on the requirements. All of the larger power supplies, ranging from 10 to 200 kW, are powered from DC sources utilizing rectified 480 V AC. Choppers can be used for the series connected strings, but for smaller groups and individual magnets, inverters driving high-frequency transformers with rectifiers comprise the best approach. All of the various systems use a ``building block`` approach of multiple standard-size units connected in series or parallel to most cost-effectively deal with a great range of voltage and current requirements. Utilization of existing infrastructure from PEP-I has been a cost-effective determinant. Equipment is being purchased either off-the-shelf, through performance specification, or by hardware purchase based on design-through-prototype. The corrector magnet power system, utilizing inexpensive, off-the-shelf, four-quadrant switching motor-controllers, has already proven very reliable: 120 of the total of 900 units have been running on the injection system for four months with no failures.

  4. [Genetic aspects in multiple sclerosis. II: HLA system].

    PubMed

    De Rezende, P A; Arruda, W O

    1996-09-01

    Review of studies about HLA antigens and multiple sclerosis (MS). The HLA system, in special class II antigens, subregions DR and DQ, is probably involved in the immunopathogenesis of MS. Haplotype DRB1*1501.DQA1*0102.DQB1*0602, corresponding to phenotype DR2.Dw2.DQ6, is positively associated with MS in several caucasoid populations. Clinical heterogeneity of MS, as well as different diagnostic criteria adopted by investigators are potential sources of confusion and may lead to discrepant results. A better standardization of clinical and laboratorial methodology, appropriate subdivision of patients with different clinical forms of MS, may allow a more accurate evaluation of the role of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of MS. PMID:9109989

  5. Development of Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment System for Tier II Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, R. C.; Cole, A. S., Stroia, B. J.; Huang, S. C.; Howden, Kenneth C.; Chalk, Steven

    2002-06-01

    system design and analysis, critical lab/engine experiments, and ranking then selection of NOX control technologies against reliability, up-front cost, fuel economy, service interval/serviceability, and size/weight. The results of the investigations indicate that the best NOX control approach for LDV and LDT applications is a NOX adsorber system. A greater than 83% NOX reduction efficiency is required to achieve 0.07g/mile NOX Tier II vehicle-out emissions. Both active lean NOX and PACR technology are currently not capable of achieving the high conversion efficiency required for Tier II, Bin 5 emissions standards. In this paper, the NOX technology assessment and selection is first reviewed and discussed. Development of the selected NOX technology (NOX adsorber) and PM control are then discussed in more detail. Discussion includes exhaust sulfur management, further adsorber formulation development, reductant screening, diesel particulate filter development & active regeneration, and preliminary test results on the selected integrated SOX trap, NOX adsorber, and diesel particulate filter system over an FTP-75 emissions cycle, and its impact on fuel economy. Finally, the direction of future work for continued advanced aftertreatment technology development is discussed. (SAE Paper SAE-2002-01-1867 © 2002 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

  6. 78 FR 24061 - Minimum Technical Standards for Class II Gaming Systems and Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... ensuring the integrity of electronic Class II games and aids. 73 FR 60508, Oct. 10, 2008. The technical... Class II gaming system; and to clarify the term ``alternate standard.'' 77 FR 58473, Sept. 21, 2012. In... control standards (MICS) for Class II gaming. 77 FR 58708, Sept. 21, 2012. Similar to the part...

  7. Apache Trail uranium prospect, White Signal district, Grant County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bauer, Herman L., Jr.

    1951-01-01

    The Apache Trail uranium prospect in the White Signal district, Grant County. N. Mex., was mapped by the Geological Survey in May 1950. Pre-Cambrian granite is cut by a diabase dike and a parallel quartz-hematite vein, both of which strike easterly and dip 60 to 65 degrees north. Small quantities of copper carbonates and bismuth-gold ore have been mined. The quartz-hematite vein is moderately radioactive and, although no uranium minerals were seen, two samples contained about 0.01 percent uranium. The diabase dike locally contains torbernite. Two samples of diabase contained about 0.04 percent uranium.

  8. Expert system applications in support of system diagnostics and prognostics at EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Lehto, W.K.; Gross, K.C.; Argonne National Lab., IL )

    1989-01-01

    Expert systems have been developed to aid in the monitoring and diagnostics of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in Idaho Falls, Idaho. Systems have been developed for failed fuel surveillance and diagnostics and reactor coolant pump monitoring and diagnostics. A third project is being done jointly by ANL-W and EG G Idaho to develop a transient analysis system to enhance overall plant diagnostic and prognostic capability. The failed fuel surveillance and diagnosis system monitors, processes, and interprets information from nine key plant sensors. It displays to the reactor operator diagnostic information needed to make proper decisions regarding technical specification conformance during reactor operation with failed fuel. 8 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Development and Comparison of Open Source based Web GIS Frameworks on WAMP and Apache Tomcat Web Servers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, S.; Gupta, R. D.

    2014-04-01

    Geographic Information System (GIS) is a tool used for capture, storage, manipulation, query and presentation of spatial data that have applicability in diverse fields. Web GIS has put GIS on Web, that made it available to common public which was earlier used by few elite users. In the present paper, development of Web GIS frameworks has been explained that provide the requisite knowledge for creating Web based GIS applications. Open Source Software (OSS) have been used to develop two Web GIS frameworks. In first Web GIS framework, WAMP server, ALOV, Quantum GIS and MySQL have been used while in second Web GIS framework, Apache Tomcat server, GeoServer, Quantum GIS, PostgreSQL and PostGIS have been used. These two Web GIS frameworks have been critically compared to bring out the suitability of each for a particular application as well as their performance. This will assist users in selecting the most suitable one for a particular Web GIS application.

  10. Solar Electric Generating System II finite element analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dohner, J.L.; Anderson, J.R.

    1994-04-01

    On June 2, 1992, Landers` earthquake struck the Solar Electric Generating System II, located in Daggett, California. The 30 megawatt power station, operated by the Daggett Leasing Corporation (DLC), suffered substantial damage due to structural failures in the solar farm. These failures consisted of the separation of sliding joints supporting a distribution of parabolic glass mirrors. At separation, the mirrors fell to the ground and broke. It was the desire of the DLC and the Solar Thermal Design Assistance Center (STDAC) of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and to redesign these joints so that, in the event of future quakes, costly breakage will be avoided. To accomplish this task, drawings of collector components were developed by the STDAC, from which a detailed finite element computer model of a solar collector was produced. This nonlinear dynamic model, which consisted of over 8,560 degrees of freedom, underwent model reduction to form a low order nonlinear dynamic model containing only 40 degrees of freedom. This model was then used as a design tool to estimate joint dynamics. Using this design tool, joint configurations were modified, and an acceptable joint redesign determined. The results of this analysis showed that the implementation of metal stops welded to support shafts for the purpose of preventing joint separation is a suitable joint redesign. Moreover, it was found that, for quakes of Landers` magnitude, mirror breakage due to enhanced vibration in the trough assembly is unlikely.

  11. Rooftop PV system. Final technical progress report, Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    Under this four-year PV:BONUS Program, ECD and United Solar are developing and demonstrating two new lightweight flexible building integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) modules specifically designed as exact replacements for conventional asphalt shingles and standing seam metal roofing. These modules can be economically and aesthetically integrated into new residential and commercial buildings, and address the even larger roofing replacement market. The modules are designed to be installed by roofing contractors without special training which minimizes the installation and balance of system costs. The modules will be fabricated from high-efficiency, multiple-junction a-Si alloy solar cells developed by ECD and United Solar. Under the Phase I Program, which ended in March 1994, we developed two different concept designs for rooftop PV modules: (1) the United Solar overlapping (asphalt shingle replacement) shingle-type modules and (2) the ECD metal roof-type modules. We also developed a plan for fabricating, testing and demonstrating these modules. Candidate demonstration sites for our rooftop PV modules were identified and preliminary engineering designs for these demonstrations were developed; a marketing study plan was also developed. The major objectives of the Phase II Program, which started in June 1994 was (1) to develop, test, and qualify these new rooftop modules; (2) to develop mechanical and electrical engineering specifications for the demonstration projects; and (3) to develop a marketing/commercialization plan.

  12. NASA Icing Remote Sensing System Comparisons From AIRS II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.; Brinker, David J.; Ratvasky, Thomas P.

    2005-01-01

    NASA has an on-going activity to develop remote sensing technologies for the detection and measurement of icing conditions aloft. A multiple instrument approach is the current emphasis of this activity. Utilizing radar, radiometry, and lidar, a region of supercooled liquid is identified. If the liquid water content (LWC) is sufficiently high, then the region of supercooled liquid cloud is flagged as being an aviation hazard. The instruments utilized for the current effort are an X-band vertical staring radar, a radiometer that measures twelve frequencies between 22 and 59 GHz, and a lidar ceilometer. The radar data determine cloud boundaries, the radiometer determines the sub-freezing temperature heights and total liquid water content, and the ceilometer refines the lower cloud boundary. Data is post-processed with a LabVIEW program with a resultant supercooled LWC profile and aircraft hazard identification. Individual remotely sensed measurements gathered during the 2003-2004 Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS II) were compared to aircraft in-situ measurements. Comparisons between the remote sensing system s fused icing product and in-situ measurements from the research aircraft are reviewed here. While there are areas where improvement can be made, the cases examined indicate that the fused sensor remote sensing technique appears to be a valid approach.

  13. Sideloading - Ingestion of Large Point Clouds Into the Apache Spark Big Data Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, J.; Liu, K.; Alis, C.

    2016-06-01

    In the geospatial domain we have now reached the point where data volumes we handle have clearly grown beyond the capacity of most desktop computers. This is particularly true in the area of point cloud processing. It is therefore naturally lucrative to explore established big data frameworks for big geospatial data. The very first hurdle is the import of geospatial data into big data frameworks, commonly referred to as data ingestion. Geospatial data is typically encoded in specialised binary file formats, which are not naturally supported by the existing big data frameworks. Instead such file formats are supported by software libraries that are restricted to single CPU execution. We present an approach that allows the use of existing point cloud file format libraries on the Apache Spark big data framework. We demonstrate the ingestion of large volumes of point cloud data into a compute cluster. The approach uses a map function to distribute the data ingestion across the nodes of a cluster. We test the capabilities of the proposed method to load billions of points into a commodity hardware compute cluster and we discuss the implications on scalability and performance. The performance is benchmarked against an existing native Apache Spark data import implementation.

  14. Stromatolites of the Mescal Limestone (Apache Group, middle Proterozoic, central Arizona): taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and paleoenvironments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertrand-Sarfati, J.; Awramik, S. M.

    1992-01-01

    The 25- to 30-m-thick Algal Member of the Mescal Limestone (middle Proterozoic Apache Group) contains two distinct stromatolitic units: at the base, a 2- to 3-m-thick unit composed of columnar stromatolites and above, a thicker unit of stratiform and pseudocolumnar stromatolites. Columnar forms from the first unit belong to the Group Tungussia, and two new Forms are described: T. mescalita and T. chrysotila. Among the pseudocolumnar stromatolites of the thicker unit, one distinctive new taxon, Apachina henryi, is described. Because of the low stromatolite diversity, the biostratigraphic value of this assemblage is limited. The presence of Tungussia is consistent with the generally accepted isotopic age for the Apache Group of 1200 to 1100 Ma. The Mescal stromatolites do not closely resemble any other known Proterozoic stromatolites in the southwestern United States or northwestern Mexico. Analyses of sedimentary features and stromatolite growth forms suggest deposition on a stable, flat, shallow, subtidal protected platform during phases of Tungussia growth. Current action probably influenced the development of columns, pseudocolumns, and elongate stromatolitic ridges; these conditions alternated with phases of relatively quiet water characterized by nonoriented stromatolitic domes and stratiform stromatolites. Stable conditions favorable for development of the Mescal stromatolites were short-lived and did not permit the development of thick, stromatolite-bearing units such as those characteristic of many Proterozoic sequences elsewhere.

  15. Commissioning and Early Operation for the NSLS-II Booster RF System

    SciTech Connect

    Marques, C.; Cupolo, J.; Davila, P.; Gao, F.; Goel, A.; Holub, B.; Kulpin, J.; McDonald, K.; Oliva, J.; Papu, J.; Ramirez, G.; Rose, J.; Sikora, R.; Sorrentino, C.; Towne, N.

    2015-05-03

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a third generation 3GeV, 500mA synchrotron light source. We discuss the booster synchrotron RF system responsible for providing power to accelerate an electron beam from 200MeV to 3GeV. The RF system design and construction are complete and is currently in the operational phase of the NSLS-II project. Preliminary operational data is also discussed.

  16. Accurate GPS Time-Linked data Acquisition System (ATLAS II) user's manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Perry L.; Zayas, Jose R.; Ortiz-Moyet, Juan

    2004-02-01

    The Accurate Time-Linked data Acquisition System (ATLAS II) is a small, lightweight, time-synchronized, robust data acquisition system that is capable of acquiring simultaneous long-term time-series data from both a wind turbine rotor and ground-based instrumentation. This document is a user's manual for the ATLAS II hardware and software. It describes the hardware and software components of ATLAS II, and explains how to install and execute the software.

  17. Geronimo's Kids: A Teacher's Lessons on the Apache Reservation. Elma Dill Russell Spencer Series in the West and Southwest, No. 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ove, Robert S.; Stockel, H. Henrietta

    In 1948, a young and naive Robert Ove arrived at Whitetail, on the Mescalero Apache Reservation, to teach at the Bureau of Indian Affairs day school. Living there were the Chiricahua Apaches--descendants of Geronimo and the survivors of nearly 30 years of incarceration by the U.S. government. With help from Indian historian H. Henrietta Stockel,…

  18. STS-39 SPAS-II IBSS is grappled by remote manipulator system (RMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-39 Shuttle Pallet Satellite II (SPAS-II) / Infrared Background Signature Survey (IBSS) spacecraft is grappled by remote manipulator system (RMS) end effector. Backdropped against the cloud-covered surface of the Earth, SPAS-II/IBSS spacecraft is extended outside Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, payload bay (PLB). Components visible on the SPAS-II/IBSS spacecraft include the Cryostat, antennas, NFOV TV camera, WFOV TV camera, Arizona Imager/Spectrograph (AIS), and the handling trunnions. SPAS-II is a Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) payload.

  19. 21 CFR 866.5220 - Cohn fraction II immunolog-ical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cohn fraction II immunolog-ical test system. 866.5220 Section 866.5220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5220 Cohn fraction II immunolog-ical...

  20. Design of the NSLS-II Top-Off Safety System

    SciTech Connect

    Fliller, III R.; Doom, L.; Ganetis, G.; Hetzel, C.; Job, P. K.; Li, Y.; Shaftan, T.; Sharma, S.; Singh, O.; Wang, G. M.; Xia, Z.

    2015-05-03

    The NSLS-II accelerators finished commissioning in the fall of 2014, with beamline commissioning underway. Part of the design for the NSLS-II is to operate in top off mode. The Top Off Safety System (TOSS) is presently being installed. In this report we discuss the Top Off Safety System design and implementation, along with the necessary tracking results and radiological calculations.

  1. 46 CFR 128.220 - Class II non-vital systems-materials and pressure design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Materials and Pressure Design § 128.220 Class II non-vital systems—materials and pressure design. (a) Except as provided by §§ 128.230, 128.240, and... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class II non-vital systems-materials and pressure...

  2. 46 CFR 128.220 - Class II non-vital systems-materials and pressure design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Class II non-vital systems-materials and pressure design. 128.220 Section 128.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Materials and Pressure Design § 128.220 Class II non-vital systems—materials and...

  3. ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS FOR NEUROTOXICITY FIELD TESTING: PEARL II AND ALTERNATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pearl II, a computerized battery of electrophysiological tests designed for neurotoxicity field testing, was developed a decade ago. he battery includes sensory evoked potentials (auditory, somatosensory and visual), event related slow brain potentials (CNV,P30O), and associated ...

  4. MPS II: adaptive behavior of patients and impact on the family system.

    PubMed

    Needham, Mary; Packman, Wendy; Rappoport, Maxwell; Quinn, Natasha; Cordova, Matthew; Macias, Sandra; Morgan, Cynthia; Packman, Seymour

    2014-06-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II), also known as Hunter syndrome, is a chronic and progressive X-linked lysosomal disease that mainly affects males. It occurs in 1 in every 65,000 to 1 in 132,000 births. There are two distinct forms of the disease based on age of onset and clinical course: mild and severe. MPS II affects many organ systems including the nervous, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. Complications can include vision problems, progressive hearing loss, thickened and elastic skin, mental impairment, and enlarged liver and spleen. We herein focus on the adaptive behavior of individuals with MPS II, and the impact of MPS II on the family system. Outcomes from the Vineland-II Adaptive Behavior Scales showed that the MPS II patient sample experienced significantly lower functioning in communication, daily living skills, socialization, and motor skills compared to normative data. Patients with severe MPS II were found to have significantly lower adaptive functioning in all domains, as compared to those with mild MPS II. Length of time on ERT had no significant relationship to adaptive functioning. Results from the Peds QL Family Impact Module indicated that families of patients with MPS II experienced a lower overall health-related quality of life and overall lower family functioning (including lower emotional and cognitive functioning) than those with chronic illnesses residing in an inpatient setting. PMID:24190099

  5. Equilibrium composition in II?VI telluride MOCVD systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Dor, L.; Greenberg, J. H.

    1999-03-01

    Thermodynamic calculations, or computer simulation of the equilibrium composition, offer an excellent possibility to reduce drastically the elaborate trial-and-error experimental efforts of finding the optimal preparation conditions for MOCVD processes (temperature T, pressure P, initial composition of the vapors X), to limit them only to the P- T- X field of existence of the solid to be prepared and an acceptable yield of the product. In this communication equilibrium composition was investigated for MOCVD processes of CdTe, ZnTe, HgTe and solid solutions Cd xZn 1- xTe and Hg xCd 1- xTe. A number of volatile organometallic compounds have been used as precursors for MOCVD growth. These are dimethylcadmium (CH 3) 2Cd, DMCd; diethylzinc (C 2H 5) 2Zn, DEZn; diisopropylzinc [CH(CH 3) 2] 2Zn, DiPZn; diethyltellurium (C 2H 5) 2Te, DETe; diisopropyltellurium [CH(CH 3) 2] 2Te, DiPTe; methylallyltellurium CH 3TeCH 2CHCH 2, MATe. A choice of the particular combination of the precursors largely depends on the desired composition of the film to be prepared, especially in cases of solid solutions Cd xZn 1- xTe and Hg xCd 1- xTe where the vapor pressure of the precursors is instrumental for the composition of the vapor in the reaction zone and, ultimately, for the composition x of the solid solution. Equilibrium composition for II-VI telluride MOCVD systems was investigated at temperatures up to 873 K in hydrogen and inert gas atmospheres at pressures up to 1 atm. P- T- X regions of existence were outlined for each of the five materials.

  6. Ground-water exploration in the Bosque del Apache Grant, Socorro County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, James B.

    1968-01-01

    Test drilling along the Rio Grande in the Bosque del Apache Grant in Socorro County, New Mexico has shown that the area is hydrologically complex and that the quality of the ground water varies from saline to fresh within short distances both laterally and vertically. Nearly all of the riverside land in the Grant is occupied by the migratory waterfowl refuge of the Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge. Potable and near-potable water is obtained from 12 wells in this area that tap sand and gravel, and the wells are capable of yielding 1,000 gallons per minute or more. Stallion Range Center, a military installation on the White Sands Missile Range, about 15 miles east of =he waterfowl refuge, needs about 100,000 gallons per day of potable water. Potable water in large quantities is not known to be available at a location closer to the Center than the refuge area. The Fish and Wildlife Service, which operates the waterfowl refuge, gave permission to White Sands Missile Range to test drill and to develop a supply well in certain areas along the Rio Grande outside the managed lands of the refuge. The U.S. Geological Survey was then asked by White Sands Missile Range to choose locations for test drilling and to monitor drilling and testing of the wells. Between 1963 and 1967 test wells were drilled and a suitable location for a supply well as found. The well would be about 250 feet deep and would tap a body of potable water that is about 100 feet in thickness and is thought to underlie an area of at least 5 square miles. This report contains diagrammatic sections that show the lateral and vertical relation of waters of different quality along the Rio Grande in a part of the Bosque del Apache Grant. Basic data are given in tables; they include records of 7 test wells and 12 high-yield supply wells, and 52 chemical analyses of ground water from the wells.

  7. Native American embodiment of the chronicities of modernity: reservation food, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome among the Kiowa, Comanche, and Apache.

    PubMed

    Wiedman, Dennis

    2012-12-01

    As a physical embodiment of modernity, the prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) among Native Americans reflects their body's biological response to social and cultural structures that routinize daily behaviors and contain their physical body. This article explains why Native Americans were one of the earliest populations manifesting this epidemic. Ethnohistorical methods identify the conjuncture of chronic behaviors among Kiowa, Comanche, and Apache of Oklahoma that promote inactivity, overnutrition, and psychosocial stresses. Correspondence and primary documents of Federal Indian Agents who managed the reservation food rations and annuity systems beginning in the 1860s, details a culture history of nutrition and food technologies that standardized and established the unhealthy modern diet that continues among Native Americans today. By identifying structural chronicities affecting specific populations and life situations, policies and interventions can be more effective in promoting positive changes for reducing the global pandemic of diabetes and MetS. PMID:23361887

  8. River Protection Project Integrated safety management system phase II verification report, volumes I and II - 8/19/99

    SciTech Connect

    SHOOP, D.S.

    1999-09-10

    The Department of Energy policy (DOE P 450.4) is that safety is integrated into all aspects of the management and operations of its facilities. In simple and straightforward terms, the Department will ''Do work safely.'' The purpose of this River Protection Project (RPP) Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) Phase II Verification was to determine whether ISMS programs and processes are implemented within RFP to accomplish the goal of ''Do work safely.'' The goal of an implemented ISMS is to have a single integrated system that includes Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) requirements in the work planning and execution processes to ensure the protection of the worker, public, environment, and federal property over the RPP life cycle. The ISMS is comprised of the (1) described functions, components, processes, and interfaces (system map or blueprint) and (2) personnel who are executing those assigned roles and responsibilities to manage and control the ISMS. Therefore, this review evaluated both the ''paper'' and ''people'' aspects of the ISMS to ensure that the system is implemented within RPP. Richland Operations Office (RL) conducted an ISMS Phase I Verification of the TWRS from September 28-October 9, 1998. The resulting verification report recommended that TWRS-RL and the contractor proceed with Phase II of ISMS verification given that the concerns identified from the Phase I verification review are incorporated into the Phase II implementation plan.

  9. Complexation in cobalt(II)-sulfide(polysulfide)-ion-organic-base-chloroform systems

    SciTech Connect

    Demutskaya, L.N.; Pilipenko, A.T.; Trachevskii, V.V.; Ryabushko, O.P.

    1986-08-01

    It has been shown by the methods of electronic, IR, and ESR spectroscopy, and magnetometry that the occurrence of a set of acid-base and redox processes in a cobalt(II)-sulfide(polysulfide)-ion-cetyltrimethylammonium extraction system in an alkaline medium results in the formation of the coordination compound /(CTA)/sub 6/(Co/sup II//sub 2/Co/sup III//sub 2/S/sub 7-n/(S/sub x/)/sub n/(OH)/sub 2/)//sub m/ (I), where x = 2 to 5. The combined presence of Ni(II) and Co(II) in the analogous system with sulfide ions at first results in the formation of a compound similar to compound I, which is a product of the replacement of cobalt(II) by nickel(II), whose further reaction with nickel(II) is completed with the formation of a complex with a Co(II):Ni(II) ratio equal to 2:3. The higher complexing ability of the polysulfide ions caused the extraction of Ni(II) in the form of an ionic associate with the formula (CTA)/sub 2/-(Ni(S/sub x/)/sub 2/).

  10. Are cicadas (Diceroprocta apache) both a "keystone" and a "critical-link" species in lower Colorado River riparian communities?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersen, Douglas C.

    1994-01-01

    Apache cicada (Homoptera: Cicadidae: Diceroprocta apache Davis) densities were estimated to be 10 individuals/m2 within a closed-canopy stand of Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii) and Goodding willow (Salix gooddingii) in a revegetated site adjacent to the Colorado River near Parker, Arizona. Coupled with data drawn from the literature, I estimate that up to 1.3 cm (13 1/m2) of water may be added to the upper soil layers annually through the feeding activities of cicada nymphs. This is equivalent to 12% of the annual precipitation received in the study area. Apache cicadas may have significant effects on ecosystem functioning via effects on water transport and thus act as a critical-link species in this southwest desert riverine ecosystem. Cicadas emerged later within the cottonwood-willow stand than in relatively open saltcedar-mesquite stands; this difference in temporal dynamics would affect their availability to several insectivorous bird species and may help explain the birds' recent declines. Resource managers in this region should be sensitive to the multiple and strong effects that Apache cicadas may have on ecosystem structure and functioning.

  11. 78 FR 11677 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Apache-Sitgreaves...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service... Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Apache-Sitgreaves National Forests and the Field Museum of Natural...

  12. 76 FR 47441 - Safety Zone; Apache Pier Labor Day Weekend Fireworks Display, Atlantic Ocean, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... Display, Atlantic Ocean, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY... vicinity of Apache Pier in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina during a Labor Day weekend fireworks display on... fireworks display is scheduled to take place in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. The fireworks will be...

  13. Geologic map and digital database of the Apache Canyon 7.5' quadrangle, Ventura and Kern counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Paul; Cossette, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    The Apache Canyon 7.5-minute quadrangle is located in southwestern California about 55 km northeast of Santa Barbara and 65 km southwest of Bakersfield. This report presents the results of a geologic mapping investigation of the Apache Canyon quadrangle that was carried out in 1997-1999 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Southern California Areal Mapping Project. This quadrangle was chosen for study because it is in an area of complex, incompletely understood Cenozoic stratigraphy and structure of potential importance for regional tectonic interpretations, particularly those involving the San Andreas fault located just northwest of the quadrangle and the Big Pine fault about 10 km to the south. In addition, the quadrangle is notable for its well-exposed sequences of folded Neogene nonmarine strata including the Caliente Formation of Miocene age from which previous workers have collected and described several biostratigraphically significant land-mammal fossil assemblages. During the present study, these strata were mapped in detail throughout the quadrangle to provide an improved framework for possible future paleontologic investigations. The Apache Canyon quadrangle is in the eastern part of the Cuyama 30-minute by 60-minute quadrangle and is largely part of an erosionally dissected terrain known as the Cuyama badlands at the east end of Cuyama Valley. Most of the Apache Canyon quadrangle consists of public lands in the Los Padres National Forest.

  14. Status of the NSLS-II Injection System Design

    SciTech Connect

    Shaftan,T.

    2008-06-23

    The NSLS-II is a new ultra-bright 3rd generation 3 GeV light source that will be built at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Its design is well under way. The requirements for the compact injector complex, which will continuously provide 3 GeV electrons for top-off injection into the storage ring, are demanding: high reliability, relatively high charge and low losses. The injector consists of a linear accelerator, a full-energy booster, as well as transport lines, and an injection straight section. In this paper we give an overview of the NSLS-II injector, discuss its status, specifications, and the design challenges.

  15. Exploiting orientation-selective DEER: determining molecular structure in systems containing Cu(ii) centres.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Alice M; Jones, Michael W; Lovett, Janet E; Gaule, Thembanikosi G; McPherson, Michael J; Dilworth, Jonathan R; Timmel, Christiane R; Harmer, Jeffrey R

    2016-02-17

    Orientation-selective DEER (Double Electron-Electron Resonance) measurements were conducted on a series of rigid and flexible molecules containing Cu(ii) ions. A system with two rigidly held Cu(ii) ions was afforded by the protein homo-dimer of copper amine oxidase from Arthrobacter globiformis. This system provided experimental DEER data between two Cu(ii) ions with a well-defined distance and relative orientation to assess the accuracy of the methodology. Evaluation of orientation-selective DEER (os DEER) on systems with limited flexibility was probed using a series of porphyrin-based Cu(ii)-nitroxide and Cu(ii)-Cu(ii) model systems of well-defined lengths synthesized for this project. Density functional theory was employed to generate molecular models of the conformers for each porphyrin-based Cu(ii) dimer studied. Excellent agreement was found between DEER traces simulated using these computed conformers and the experimental data. The performance of different parameterised structural models in simulating the experimental DEER data was also investigated. The results of this analysis demonstrate the degree to which the DEER data define the relative orientation of the two Cu(ii) ions and highlight the need to choose a parameterised model that captures the essential features of the flexibility (rotational freedom) of the system being studied. PMID:26837391

  16. Electronic transition moment for the B(2)II-X(2)II system of NO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luque, Jorge; Crosley, David R.

    1995-01-01

    The upsilon' = 0-3 and 7 vibrational levels of the NO B(2)II state have been selectively excited by laser radiation. The fluorescence spectra together with calculated Franck-Condon factors and r-centroids have been used to evaluate the electronic transition moment. The results for upsilon' = 0-3 are in very good agreement with recent chemiluminescence measurements and ab initio calculations. Furthermore, the data from upsilon' = 7 have been used to extend the empirically determined moment to limits 1.23 and 1.78 A, improving agreement with experimentally determined lifetimes.

  17. Extraction of UMLS® Concepts Using Apache cTAKES™ for German Language.

    PubMed

    Becker, Matthias; Böckmann, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Automatic information extraction of medical concepts and classification with semantic standards from medical reports is useful for standardization and for clinical research. This paper presents an approach for an UMLS concept extraction with a customized natural language processing pipeline for German clinical notes using Apache cTAKES. The objectives are, to test the natural language processing tool for German language if it is suitable to identify UMLS concepts and map these with SNOMED-CT. The German UMLS database and German OpenNLP models extended the natural language processing pipeline, so the pipeline can normalize to domain ontologies such as SNOMED-CT using the German concepts. For testing, the ShARe/CLEF eHealth 2013 training dataset translated into German was used. The implemented algorithms are tested with a set of 199 German reports, obtaining a result of average 0.36 F1 measure without German stemming, pre- and post-processing of the reports. PMID:27139387

  18. Outcrop Analysis of the Cretaceous Mesaverde Group: Jicarilla Apache Reservation, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ridgley, Jennie; Dunbar, Robin Wright

    2001-04-24

    Field work for this project was conducted during July and April 1998, at which time fourteen measured sections were described and correlated on or adjacent to Jicarilla Apache Reservation lands. A fifteenth section, described east of the main field area, is included in this report, although its distant location precluded use in the correlations and cross sections presented herein. Ground-based photo mosaics were shot for much of the exposed Mesaverde outcrop belt and were used to assist in correlation. Outcrop gamma-ray surveys at six of the fifteen measured sections using a GAD-6 scintillometer was conducted. The raw gamma-ray data are included in this report, however, analysis of those data is part of the ongoing Phase Two of this project.

  19. Unsaturated fractured rock characterization methods and data sets at the Apache Leap Tuff Site

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, T.C.; Evans, D.D.; Sheets, P.J.; Blanford, J.H.

    1990-08-01

    Performance assessment of high-level nuclear waste containment feasibility requires representative values of parameters as input, including parameter moments, distributional characteristics, and covariance structures between parameters. To meet this need, characterization methods and data sets for interstitial, hydraulic, pneumatic and thermal parameters for a slightly welded fractured tuff at the Apache Leap Tuff Site situated in central Arizona are reported in this document. The data sets include the influence of matric suction on measured parameters. Spatial variability is investigated by sampling along nine boreholes at regular distances. Laboratory parameter estimates for 105 core segments are provided, as well as field estimates centered on the intervals where the core segments were collected. Measurement uncertainty is estimated by repetitively testing control samples. 31 refs., 10 figs., 21 tabs.

  20. A steerable/distance enhanced penetrometer delivery system: Phase II. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Amini, A.; Shenhar, J.; Lum, K.D.

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes the phase II work on the Position Location Device (POLO) for penetrometers. Phase II was carried out to generate an integrated design of a full-scale steerable/distance enhanced penetrometer delivery system. Steering provides for the controlled and directional use of the penetrometer, while vibratory thrusting can provide greater penetration ability.

  1. Particle Simulations of DARHT-II Transport System

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, B; Chen, Y J

    2001-06-11

    The DARHT-II beam line utilizes a fast stripline kicker to temporally chop a high current electron beam from a single induction LINAC and deliver multiple temporal electron beam pulses to an x-ray converter target. High beam quality needs to be maintained throughout the transport line from the end of the accelerator through the final focus lens to the x-ray converter target to produce a high quality radiographic image. Issues that will affect beam quality such as spot size and emittance at the converter target include dynamic effects associated with the stripline kicker as well as emittance growth due to the nonlinear forces associated with the kicker and various focusing elements in the transport line. In addition, dynamic effects associated with transverse resistive wall instability as well as gas focusing will affect the beam transport. A particle-in-cell code is utilized to evaluate beam transport in the downstream transport line in DARHT-II. External focusing forces are included utilizing either analytic expressions or field maps. Models for wakefields from the beam kicker, transverse resistive wall instability, and gas focusing are included in the simulation to provide a more complete picture of beam transport in DARHT-II. From these simulations, for various initial beam loads based on expected accelerator performance the temporally integrated target spot size and emittance can be estimated.

  2. LEW-II: new Lightning Early Warning System at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Boettger, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    Improvements made in the Lightning Early Warning (LEW) System at Sandia are described. The improvements include a new more flexible display unit; redesign of the sensor system for a total rf system; updating the computer system; and a new Radio Frequecy Potential Gradient Monitor (RFPG-II). (LCL)

  3. 25 CFR 547.10 - What are the minimum standards for Class II gaming system critical events?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are the minimum standards for Class II gaming system... are the minimum standards for Class II gaming system critical events? (a) Fault events. (1) The following are fault events that must be capable of being recorded by the Class II gaming system:...

  4. 25 CFR 547.10 - What are the minimum standards for Class II gaming system critical events?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are the minimum standards for Class II gaming system... are the minimum standards for Class II gaming system critical events? (a) Fault events. (1) The following are fault events that must be capable of being recorded by the Class II gaming system:...

  5. 25 CFR 547.6 - What are the minimum technical standards for enrolling and enabling Class II gaming system...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and enabling Class II gaming system components? 547.6 Section 547.6 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR GAMING EQUIPMENT USED... enabling Class II gaming system components? (a) General requirements. Class II gaming systems shall...

  6. GREEN CATALYZED OXIDATION OF HYDROCARBONS IN ALTERNATIVE SOLVENT SYSTEMS GENERATED BY PARIS II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Catalyzed Oxidation of Hydrocarbons in Alternative Solvent Systems Generated by PARIS II

    Michael A. Gonzalez*, Thomas M. Becker, and Paul F. Harten; Sustainable Technology Division, Office of Research and Development; United States Environmental Protection Agency, 26...

  7. 46 CFR 128.220 - Class II non-vital systems-materials and pressure design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Materials and Pressure Design § 128.220 Class II... a corrosion-resistant material and, if ferrous, be hot-dip galvanized or be at least of...

  8. Intrarenal mouse renin-angiotensin system during ANG II-induced hypertension and ACE inhibition.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Villalobos, Romer A; Satou, Ryousuke; Ohashi, Naro; Semprun-Prieto, Laura C; Katsurada, Akemi; Kim, Catherine; Upchurch, G M; Prieto, Minolfa C; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Navar, L Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition (ACEi) ameliorates the development of hypertension and the intrarenal ANG II augmentation in ANG II-infused mice. To determine if these effects are associated with changes in the mouse intrarenal renin-angiotensin system, the expression of angiotensinogen (AGT), renin, ACE, angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) mRNA (by quanitative RT-PCR) and protein [by Western blot (WB) and/or immunohistochemistry (IHC)] were analyzed. C57BL/6J male mice (9-12 wk old) were distributed as controls (n = 10), ANG II infused (ANG II = 8, 400 ng x kg(-1) x min(-1) for 12 days), ACEi only (ACEi = 10, lisinopril, 100 mg/l), and ANG II infused + ACEi (ANG II + ACEi = 11). When compared with controls (1.00), AGT protein (by WB) was increased by ANG II (1.29 +/- 0.13, P < 0.05), and this was not prevented by ACEi (ACEi + ANG II, 1.31 +/- 0.14, P < 0.05). ACE protein (by WB) was increased by ANG II (1.21 +/- 0.08, P < 0.05), and it was reduced by ACEi alone (0.88 +/- 0.07, P < 0.05) or in combination with ANG II (0.80 +/- 0.07, P < 0.05). AT(1)R protein (by WB) was increased by ANG II (1.27 +/- 0.06, P < 0.05) and ACEi (1.17 +/- 0.06, P < 0.05) but not ANG II + ACEi [1.15 +/- 0.06, not significant (NS)]. Tubular renin protein (semiquantified by IHC) was increased by ANG II (1.49 +/- 0.23, P < 0.05) and ACEi (1.57 +/- 0.15, P < 0.05), but not ANG II + ACEi (1.10 +/- 0.15, NS). No significant changes were observed in AGT, ACE, or AT(1)R mRNA. In summary, reduced responses of intrarenal tubular renin, ACE, and the AT(1)R protein to the stimulatory effects of chronic ANG II infusions, in the presence of ACEi, are associated with the effects of this treatment to ameliorate augmentations in blood pressure and intrarenal ANG II content during ANG II-induced hypertension. PMID:19846570

  9. Intrarenal mouse renin-angiotensin system during ANG II-induced hypertension and ACE inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Satou, Ryousuke; Ohashi, Naro; Semprun-Prieto, Laura C.; Katsurada, Akemi; Kim, Catherine; Upchurch, G. M.; Prieto, Minolfa C.; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Navar, L. Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition (ACEi) ameliorates the development of hypertension and the intrarenal ANG II augmentation in ANG II-infused mice. To determine if these effects are associated with changes in the mouse intrarenal renin-angiotensin system, the expression of angiotensinogen (AGT), renin, ACE, angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) mRNA (by quanitative RT-PCR) and protein [by Western blot (WB) and/or immunohistochemistry (IHC)] were analyzed. C57BL/6J male mice (9–12 wk old) were distributed as controls (n = 10), ANG II infused (ANG II = 8, 400 ng·kg−1·min−1 for 12 days), ACEi only (ACEi = 10, lisinopril, 100 mg/l), and ANG II infused + ACEi (ANG II + ACEi = 11). When compared with controls (1.00), AGT protein (by WB) was increased by ANG II (1.29 ± 0.13, P < 0.05), and this was not prevented by ACEi (ACEi + ANG II, 1.31 ± 0.14, P < 0.05). ACE protein (by WB) was increased by ANG II (1.21 ± 0.08, P < 0.05), and it was reduced by ACEi alone (0.88 ± 0.07, P < 0.05) or in combination with ANG II (0.80 ± 0.07, P < 0.05). AT1R protein (by WB) was increased by ANG II (1.27 ± 0.06, P < 0.05) and ACEi (1.17 ± 0.06, P < 0.05) but not ANG II + ACEi [1.15 ± 0.06, not significant (NS)]. Tubular renin protein (semiquantified by IHC) was increased by ANG II (1.49 ± 0.23, P < 0.05) and ACEi (1.57 ± 0.15, P < 0.05), but not ANG II + ACEi (1.10 ± 0.15, NS). No significant changes were observed in AGT, ACE, or AT1R mRNA. In summary, reduced responses of intrarenal tubular renin, ACE, and the AT1R protein to the stimulatory effects of chronic ANG II infusions, in the presence of ACEi, are associated with the effects of this treatment to ameliorate augmentations in blood pressure and intrarenal ANG II content during ANG II-induced hypertension. PMID:19846570

  10. 46 CFR 128.210 - Class II vital systems-materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class II vital systems-materials. 128.210 Section 128.210 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Materials and Pressure Design § 128.210 Class II vital systems—materials. Except as provided by §§ 128.230...

  11. PERCEPT-II: smartphone based indoor navigation system for the blind.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Aura; Schafer, James M; Tao, Yang; Wilson, Carole; Robertson, Meg

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we introduce PERCEPT-II, a low cost and user friendly indoor navigation system for blind and visually impaired users. Using an Android Smartphone that runs PERCEPT-II application with accessibility features, the blind user obtains navigation instructions to the chosen destination when touching specific landmarks tagged with Near Field Communication tags. The system was deployed and tested in a large building at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. PMID:25570785

  12. Laser and solar-photovoltaic space power systems comparison. II.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Young, R. J.; Stripling, J.; Enderson, T. M.; Humes, D. H.; Davis, W. T.

    1984-01-01

    A comparison of total system cost is made between solar photovoltaic and laser/receiver systems. The laser systems assume either a solar-pumped CO2 blackbody transfer laser with MHD receiver or a solar pumped liquid neodymium laser with a photovoltaic receiver. Total system costs are less for the laser systems below 300 km where drag is significant. System costs are highly dependent on altitude.

  13. Evaluation of Laser Stabilization and Imaging Systems for LCLS-II - Final Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, Matthew

    2015-08-20

    By combining the top performing commercial laser beam stabilization system with the most ideal optical imaging configuration, the beamline for the Linear Accelerator Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) will deliver the highest quality and most stable beam to the cathode. To determine the optimal combination, LCLS-II beamline conditions were replicated and the systems tested with a He-Ne laser. The Guidestar-II and MRC active laser beam stabilization systems were evaluated for their ideal positioning and stability. Both a two and four lens optical imaging configuration was then evaluated for beam imaging quality, magnification properties, and natural stability. In their best performances when tested over fifteen hours, Guidestar-II kept the beam stable over approximately 70-110um while the MRC system kept it stable over approximately 90-100um. During short periods of time, Guidestar-II kept the beam stable between 10-20um, but was more susceptible to drift over time, while the MRC system maintained the beam between 30-50um with less overall drift. The best optical imaging configuration proved to be a four lens system that images to the iris located in the cathode room and from there, imaged to the cathode. The magnification from the iris to the cathode was 2:1, within an acceptable tolerance to the expected 2.1:1 magnification. The two lens configuration was slightly more stable in small periods of time (less than 10 minutes) without the assistance of a stability system, approximately 55um compared to approximately 70um, but the four lens configurations beam image had a significantly flatter intensity distribution compared to the two lens configuration which had a Gaussian distribution. A final test still needs to be run with both stability systems running at the same time through the four lens system. With this data, the optimal laser beam stabilization system can be determined for the beamline of LCLS-II.

  14. Scaled Accelerator Test for the DARHT-II Downstream Transport System

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y; Blackfield, D T; Caporaso, G J; Guethlein, G; McCarrick, J F; Paul, A C; Watson, J A; Weir, J T

    2005-10-03

    The second axis of the Dual Axial radiography Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT-II) facility at LANL is currently in the commissioning phase[1]. The beam parameters for the DARHT-II machine will be nominally 18 MeV, 2 kA and 1.6 {micro}s. This makes the DARHT-II downstream system the first system ever designed to transport a high current, high energy and long pulse beam [2]. We will test these physics issues of the downstream transport system on a scaled DARHT-II accelerator with a 7.8-MeV and 660-A beam at LANL before commissioning the machine at its full energy and current. The scaling laws for various physics concerns and the beam parameters selection is discussed in this paper.

  15. Precise Gravity Measurements for Lunar Laser Ranging at Apache Point Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crossley, D. J.; Murphy, T.; Boy, J.; De Linage, C.; Wheeler, R. D.; Krauterbluth, K.

    2012-12-01

    Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) at Apache Point Observatory began in 2006 under the APOLLO project using a 3.5 m telescope on a 2780 m summit in New Mexico. Recent improvements in the technical operations are producing uncertainties at the few-mm level in the 1.5 x 10^13 cm separation of the solar orbits of the Earth and Moon. This level of sensitivity permits a number of important aspects of gravitational theory to be tested. Among these is the Equivalence Principle that determines the universality of free fall, tests of the time variation of the Gravitational Constant G, deviations from the inverse square law, and preferred frame effects. In 2009 APOLLO installed a superconducting gravimeter (SG) on the concrete pier under the main telescope to further constrain the deformation of the site as part of an initiative to improve all aspects of the modeling process. We have analyzed more than 3 years of high quality SG data that provides unmatched accuracy in determining the local tidal gravimetric factors for the solid Earth and ocean tide loading. With on-site gravity we have direct measurements of signals such as polar motion, and can compute global atmospheric and hydrological loading for the site using GLDAS and local hydrology models that are compared with the SG observations. We also compare the SG residuals with satellite estimates of seasonal ground gravity variations from the GRACE mission. Apache Point is visited regularly by a team from the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency to provide absolute gravity values for the calibration of the SG and to determine secular gravity changes. Nearby GPS location P027 provides continuous position information from the Plate Boundary Observatory of Earthscope that is used to correlate gravity/height variations at the site. Unusual aspects of the data processing include corrections for the telescope azimuth that appear as small offsets at the 1 μGal level and can be removed by correlating the azimuth data with the SG

  16. Recent Updates on the Proximal Tubule Renin-Angiotensin System in Angiotensin II-Dependent Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao C; Zhuo, Jia L

    2016-08-01

    It is well recognized that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) exists not only as circulating, paracrine (cell to cell), but also intracrine (intracellular) system. In the kidney, however, it is difficult to dissect the respective contributions of circulating RAS versus intrarenal RAS to the physiological regulation of proximal tubular Na(+) reabsorption and hypertension. Here, we review recent studies to provide an update in this research field with a focus on the proximal tubular RAS in angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension. Careful analysis of available evidence supports the hypothesis that both local synthesis or formation and AT1 (AT1a) receptor- and/or megalin-mediated uptake of angiotensinogen (AGT), ANG I and ANG II contribute to high levels of ANG II in the proximal tubules of the kidney. Under physiological conditions, nearly all major components of the RAS including AGT, prorenin, renin, ANG I, and ANG II would be filtered by the glomerulus and taken up by the proximal tubules. In ANG II-dependent hypertension, the expression of AGT, prorenin, and (pro)renin receptors, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is upregulated rather than downregulated in the kidney. Furthermore, hypertension damages the glomerular filtration barrier, which augments the filtration of circulating AGT, prorenin, renin, ANG I, and ANG II and their uptake in the proximal tubules. Together, increased local ANG II formation and augmented uptake of circulating ANG II in the proximal tubules, via activation of AT1 (AT1a) receptors and Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3, may provide a powerful feedforward mechanism for promoting Na(+) retention and the development of ANG II-induced hypertension. PMID:27372447

  17. The APACHE survey hardware and software design: Tools for an automatic search of small-size transiting exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christille, Jean-Marc; Bernagozzi, A.; Bertolini, E.; Calcidese, P.; Carbognani, A.; Cenadelli, D.; Damasso, M.; Giacobbe, P.; Lanteri, L.; Lattanzi, M. G.; Sozzetti, A.; Smart, R.

    2013-04-01

    Small-size ground-based telescopes can effectively be used to look for transiting rocky planets around nearby low-mass M stars using the photometric transit method, as recently demonstrated for example by the MEarth project. Since 2008 at the Astronomical Observatory of the Autonomous Region of Aosta Valley (OAVdA), we have been preparing for the long-term photometric survey APACHE, aimed at finding transiting small-size planets around thousands of nearby early and mid-M dwarfs. APACHE (A PAthway toward the Characterization of Habitable Earths) is designed to use an array of five dedicated and identical 40-cm Ritchey-Chretien telescopes and its observations started at the beginning of summer 2012. The main characteristics of the survey final set up and the preliminary results from the first weeks of observations will be discussed.

  18. NDCX-II PULSED POWER SYSTEM AND INDUCTION CELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Waldron, W.L.; Reginato, L.L.; Leitner, M.

    2009-06-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL) is currently finalizing the design of NDCX-II, the second phase of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment, which will use an ion beam to explore Warm Dense Matter (WDM) and Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) target hydrodynamics. The ion induction accelerator will include induction cells and Blumleins from the decommissioned Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). A test stand has been built at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to test refurbished ATA induction cells and pulsed power hardware for voltage holding and ability to produce various compression and acceleration waveforms. The performance requirements, design modifications, and test results will be presented.

  19. Characterization of the SPR II generated radiation environments next to and within a guidance system

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.G.; Griffin, P.J.

    1994-02-01

    The neutron fluences and spectra and the gamma ray doses inside and in the vicinity of a guidance system exposed to the Sandia Pulsed Reactor II (SPR II) in four configurations have been determined. This project required customization of the environment and the application of new techniques to determine the spectra within the system. The required radiation environment was achieved, and the experimental results clearly demonstrated that the radiation environment inside the system was very different from that seen outside. This example demonstrates very clearly that experimenters must consider the effect the test apparatus may have on the environment inside the system.

  20. Historical review of uranium-vanadium in the eastern Carrizo Mountains, San Juan County, New Mexico and Apache County, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Chenoweth, W.L.

    1980-03-01

    This report is a brief review of the uranium and/or vanadium mining in the eastern Carrizo Mountains, San Juan County, New Mexico and Apache County, Arizona. It was prepared at the request of the Navajo Tribe, the New Mexico Energy and Minerals Department, and the Arizona Bureau of Geology and Mineral Technology. This report deals only with historical production data. The locations of the mines and the production are presented in figures and tables.

  1. Spatial correlations of Diceroprocta apache and its host plants: Evidence for a negative impact from Tamarix invasion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellingson, A.R.; Andersen, D.C.

    2002-01-01

    1. The hypothesis that the habitat-scale spatial distribution of the, Apache cicada Diceroprocta apache Davis is unaffected by the presence of the invasive exotic saltcedar Tamarix ramosissima was tested using data from 205 1-m2 quadrats placed within the flood-plain of the Bill Williams River, Arizona, U.S.A. Spatial dependencies within and between cicada density and habitat variables were estimated using Moran's I and its bivariate analogue to discern patterns and associations at spatial scales from 1 to 30 m. 2. Apache cicadas were spatially aggregated in high-density clusters averaging 3m in diameter. A positive association between cicada density, estimated by exuvial density, and the per cent canopy cover of a native tree, Goodding's willow Salix gooddingii, was detected in a non-spatial correlation analysis. No non-spatial association between cicada density and saltcedar canopy cover was detected. 3. Tests for spatial cross-correlation using the bivariate IYZ indicated the presence of a broad-scale negative association between cicada density and saltcedar canopy cover. This result suggests that large continuous stands of saltcedar are associated with reduced cicada density. In contrast, positive associations detected at spatial scales larger than individual quadrats suggested a spill-over of high cicada density from areas featuring Goodding's willow canopy into surrounding saltcedar monoculture. 4. Taken together and considered in light of the Apache cicada's polyphagous habits, the observed spatial patterns suggest that broad-scale factors such as canopy heterogeneity affect cicada habitat use more than host plant selection. This has implications for management of lower Colorado River riparian woodlands to promote cicada presence and density through maintenance or creation of stands of native trees as well as manipulation of the characteristically dense and homogeneous saltcedar canopies.

  2. The regulatory quagmire underlying the TOPAZ II exhibition: The nuclear regulatory commission's jurisdiction over the TOPAZ II reactor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, John W.

    1992-01-01

    At the 8th Symposium on Space Nuclear Power Systems, 6-10 January 1990, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics displayed a TOPAZ II thermionic space nuclear reactor. Underlying that exhibition was a regulatory quagmire created by a decision of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission that an import license was required to bring the device into the United States, and that an amendment to their regulations governing exports was required to return the device to the Soviet Union latter that summer. This paper briefly reviews the jurisdictional issue of how the Nuclear Regulatory Commission exerted its authority over the TOPAZ II reactor system, as well as the manner in which the import and export licensing actions were accomplished. In sum, the paper offers an independent interpretation of the applicable import and export regulations, and concludes that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission likely need not have exercised its import jurisdiction, and notwithstanding the initial assumption of jurisdiction, an export license likely could have been issued without an amendment to the then existing regulations.

  3. Tritium system design for the mirror reactors FPD-I, FPD-II, and FPD-III

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    The tritium system design for the Fusion Power Demonstration Reactor (FPD-I, II, and III) is described. The device operates at 25% availability. For FPD-II, an engineering mode using tritium neutral beams is part of the design.

  4. Osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II with normal intellect but delayed central nervous system myelination.

    PubMed

    Halder, A; Pahi, J; Sharma, A K; Bhatia, V L; Phadke, R V; Gujral, R; Agarwal, S S

    1998-10-30

    We describe a 7-year-boy with severe prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, skeletal changes, normal intellect, and unusual facial appearance. The skeletal changes are suggestive of osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (OPD II). He is the first patient of this kind from the Indian subcontinent and the 18th to be reported, based on a literature search (MEDLINE; 1982 to April 1997). He also represents the first case of OPD-II with normal intellect but delayed central nervous system myelination. PMID:9800906

  5. Central nervous system disorders and possible brain type carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Y; Tomoda, A; Miike, T; Matsukura, M; Miyatake, M; Narazaki, O

    1994-01-01

    We describe two male infants with central nervous system disorders, i.e. infantile spasms in one and athetotic quadriplegia in the other, and with recurrent attacks of high plasma creatine kinase levels induced by viral infections. Although carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I) activity in biopsied muscle was normal in both cases, that of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) was decreased to 37% and 25% of the control value, respectively. Meanwhile, to determine whether or not and how CPT exists in the central nervous system (CNS), we studied animal brain tissues. CPT activity was demonstrated in almost all regions, especially in the brainstem, cerebellum and spinal cord. Although CPT deficiency can be classified into hepatic (CPT I) and muscular (CPT II) presentations, these data suggest that another symptomatology of CPT II deficiency with CNS involvement (brain type?) might exist. PMID:8048703

  6. The structural and functional effects of Hg(II) and Cd(II) on lipid model systems and human erythrocytes: A review.

    PubMed

    Payliss, Brandon J; Hassanin, Mohamed; Prenner, Elmar J

    2015-12-01

    The anthropogenic mobilization of mercury and cadmium into the biosphere has led to an increased and ineludible entry of these metals into biological systems. Here we discuss the impact of Hg(II) and Cd(II) on lipid model systems and human erythrocytes from a biophysical perspective. After a brief introduction to their implications on human health, studies that have investigated the effects of Hg(II) and Cd(II) on lipid model systems and human erythrocytes are discussed. In terms of lipids as toxicological target sites, predominantly variations in lipid head groups have been the source of investigation. However, as research in this field progresses, the effects of Hg(II) and Cd(II) on other structural features, such as acyl chain length and unsaturation, and other important lipid components and complex biomimetic lipid mixtures, will require further examinations. This review provides an analysis of what has been learned collectively from the diverse methodologies and experimental conditions used thus far. Consequently, there is a need for more comprehensive and thorough investigations into the effects of Hg(II) and Cd(II) on lipid membranes under consistent experimental conditions such as pH, ionic strength, temperature, and choice of lipid model system. PMID:26455331

  7. Modelling of Dynamic Responses of AN Automotive Fuel Rail System, Part II: Entire System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WU, S. F.; HU, Q.; STOTTLER, S.; RAGHUPATHI, R.

    2001-08-01

    The computer model developed for calculating pressure fluctuations inside an automotive fuel injector (Hu et al. Journal of Sound and Vibration (submitted)) is extended to the entire fuel rail system, which consists of six injectors, a pressure regulator, pressure damper, fuel pump, and torturous fuel supply and return lines. Since the pressure fluctuations generated inside any injector can propagate throughout the entire fuel rail system, the responses of all injectors are coupled. The presence of a pressure regulator may also affect the dynamic responses of the fuel rail system. In Part II of this paper, formulations for describing pressure fluctuations inside the injectors, pressure regulator, and fuel rails are derived and solved simultaneously. The effect of twists and turns of the fuel lines on the losses of fluid kinetic energy, and that of wave propagation throughout the fuel rail system are taken into account. The computer model thus developed is validated experimentally. Measurements are conducted on a test bench that simulates a real engine with injectors fired in a particular order. The calculated pressure fluctuations inside different injectors and fuel lines are compared with the measured data under various working conditions. Favorable agreements are obtained in all cases.

  8. The Data Reduction Pipeline for the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nidever, David L.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Beland, Stephane; Bender, Chad; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Burton, Adam; Desphande, Rohit; Fleming, Scott W.; García Pérez, Ana E.; Hearty, Fred R.; Majewski, Steven R.; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Muna, Demitri; Nguyen, Duy; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Shetrone, Matthew; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Sobeck, Jennifer S.; Wilson, John C.

    2015-12-01

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III, explores the stellar populations of the Milky Way using the Sloan 2.5-m telescope linked to a high resolution (R ˜ 22,500), near-infrared (1.51-1.70 μm) spectrograph with 300 optical fibers. For over 150,000 predominantly red giant branch stars that APOGEE targeted across the Galactic bulge, disks and halo, the collected high signal-to-noise ratio (>100 per half-resolution element) spectra provide accurate (˜0.1 km s-1) RVs, stellar atmospheric parameters, and precise (≲0.1 dex) chemical abundances for about 15 chemical species. Here we describe the basic APOGEE data reduction software that reduces multiple 3D raw data cubes into calibrated, well-sampled, combined 1D spectra, as implemented for the SDSS-III/APOGEE data releases (DR10, DR11 and DR12). The processing of the near-IR spectral data of APOGEE presents some challenges for reduction, including automated sky subtraction and telluric correction over a 3°-diameter field and the combination of spectrally dithered spectra. We also discuss areas for future improvement.

  9. TARGET SELECTION FOR THE APACHE POINT OBSERVATORY GALACTIC EVOLUTION EXPERIMENT (APOGEE)

    SciTech Connect

    Zasowski, G.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Andrews, B.; Epstein, C.; Frinchaboy, P. M.; Jackson, K.; Majewski, S. R.; Chojnowski, S. D.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Beaton, R. L.; Nidever, D. L.; Pinto, H. J. Rocha; Girardi, L.; Cudworth, K. M.; Munn, J.; Blake, C. H.; Covey, K.; Deshpande, R.; Fleming, S. W.; Fabbian, D. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Calle Via Lactea s and others

    2013-10-01

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) is a high-resolution infrared spectroscopic survey spanning all Galactic environments (i.e., bulge, disk, and halo), with the principal goal of constraining dynamical and chemical evolution models of the Milky Way. APOGEE takes advantage of the reduced effects of extinction at infrared wavelengths to observe the inner Galaxy and bulge at an unprecedented level of detail. The survey's broad spatial and wavelength coverage enables users of APOGEE data to address numerous Galactic structure and stellar populations issues. In this paper we describe the APOGEE targeting scheme and document its various target classes to provide the necessary background and reference information to analyze samples of APOGEE data with awareness of the imposed selection criteria and resulting sample properties. APOGEE's primary sample consists of {approx}10{sup 5} red giant stars, selected to minimize observational biases in age and metallicity. We present the methodology and considerations that drive the selection of this sample and evaluate the accuracy, efficiency, and caveats of the selection and sampling algorithms. We also describe additional target classes that contribute to the APOGEE sample, including numerous ancillary science programs, and we outline the targeting data that will be included in the public data releases.

  10. The Goddard Integral Field Spectrograph at Apache Point Observatory: Current Status and Progress Towards Photon Counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElwain, Michael W.; Grady, Carol A.; Bally, John; Brinkmann, Jonathan V.; Bubeck, James; Gong, Qian; Hilton, George M.; Ketzeback, William F.; Lindler, Don; Llop Sayson, Jorge; Malatesta, Michael A.; Norton, Timothy; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Rothe, Johannes; Straka, Lorrie; Wilkins, Ashlee N.; Wisniewski, John P.; Woodgate, Bruce E.; York, Donald G.

    2015-01-01

    We present the current status and progress towards photon counting with the Goddard Integral Field Spectrograph (GIFS), a new instrument at the Apache Point Observatory's ARC 3.5m telescope. GIFS is a visible light imager and integral field spectrograph operating from 400-1000 nm over a 2.8' x 2.8' and 14' x 14' field of view, respectively. As an IFS, GIFS obtains over 1000 spectra simultaneously and its data reduction pipeline reconstructs them into an image cube that has 32 x 32 spatial elements and more than 200 spectral channels. The IFS mode can be applied to a wide variety of science programs including exoplanet transit spectroscopy, protostellar jets, the galactic interstellar medium probed by background quasars, Lyman-alpha emission line objects, and spectral imaging of galactic winds. An electron-multiplying CCD (EMCCD) detector enables photon counting in the high spectral resolution mode to be demonstrated at the ARC 3.5m in early 2015. The EMCCD work builds upon successful operational and characterization tests that have been conducted in the IFS laboratory at NASA Goddard. GIFS sets out to demonstrate an IFS photon-counting capability on-sky in preparation for future exoplanet direct imaging missions such as the AFTA-Coronagraph, Exo-C, and ATLAST mission concepts. This work is supported by the NASA APRA program under RTOP 10-APRA10-0103.

  11. FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR A PETROLEUM REFINERY FOR THE JICARILLA APACHE TRIBE

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Jones

    2004-10-01

    A feasibility study for a proposed petroleum refinery for the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation was performed. The available crude oil production was identified and characterized. There is 6,000 barrels per day of crude oil production available for processing in the proposed refinery. The proposed refinery will utilize a lower temperature, smaller crude fractionation unit. It will have a Naphtha Hydrodesulfurizer and Reformer to produce high octane gasoline. The surplus hydrogen from the reformer will be used in a specialized hydrocracker to convert the heavier crude oil fractions to ultra low sulfur gasoline and diesel fuel products. The proposed refinery will produce gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel, and a minimal amount of lube oil. The refinery will require about $86,700,000 to construct. It will have net annual pre-tax profit of about $17,000,000. The estimated return on investment is 20%. The feasibility is positive subject to confirmation of long term crude supply. The study also identified procedures for evaluating processing options as a means for American Indian Tribes and Native American Corporations to maximize the value of their crude oil production.

  12. Technical Information on the Carbonation of the EBR-II Reactor, Summary Report Part 2: Application to EBR-II Primary Sodium System and Related Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R. Sherman; Collin J. Knight

    2006-03-01

    Residual sodium is defined as sodium metal that remains behind in pipes, vessels, and tanks after the bulk sodium metal has been melted and drained from such components. The residual sodium has the same chemical properties as bulk sodium, and differs from bulk sodium only in the thickness of the sodium deposit. Typically, sodium is considered residual when the thickness of the deposit is less than 5-6 cm. This residual sodium must be removed or deactivated when a pipe, vessel, system, or entire reactor is permanently taken out of service, in order to make the component or system safer and/or to comply with decontamination and decomissioning regulations. As an alternative to the established residual sodium deactivation techniques (steam-and-nitrogen, wet vapor nitrogen, etc.), a technique involving the use of moisture and carbon dioxide has been developed. With this technique, sodium metal is converted into sodium bicarbonate by reacting it with humid carbon dioxide. Hydrogen is emitted as a by-product. This technique was first developed in the laboratory by exposing sodium samples to humidifed carbon dioxide under controlled conditions, and then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) secondary cooling system, followed by the primary cooling system, respectively. The EBR-II facility is located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho, USA. This report is Part 2 of a two-part report. This second report provides a supplement to the first report and describes the application of the humdidified carbon dioxide technique ("carbonation") to the EBR-II primary tank, primary cover gas systems, and the intermediate heat exchanger. Future treatment plans are also provided.

  13. Emerging trends in salmonid RAS - Part II. System enhancements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dozens of land-based, closed containment systems are coming on line to produce salmon. New projects are bringing new principles into the salmon industry. Depuration systems maximize the removal of earthy and musty flavors in harvested fish. An emerging trend has been to apply technologies that incre...

  14. A/C Interface: Expert Systems: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessy, Raymond E., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses working implementations of artificial intelligence systems for chemical laboratory applications. They include expert systems for liquid chromatography, spectral analysis, instrument control of a totally computerized triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer, and the determination of the mineral constituents of a rock sample given the powder…

  15. Rhode Island Model Evaluation & Support System: Support Professional. Edition II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Rhode Island educators believe that implementing a fair, accurate, and meaningful evaluation and support system for support professionals will help improve student outcomes. The primary purpose of the Rhode Island Model Support Professional Evaluation and Support System (Rhode Island Model) is to help all support professionals do their best work…

  16. Current developments for type-II superlattice imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutz, Frank; Rehm, Robert; Walther, Martin; Kirste, Lutz; Masur, Michael; Wörl, Andreas; Schmitz, Johannes; Wauro, Matthias; Niemasz, Jasmin; Scheibner, Ralf; Ziegler, Johann

    2011-06-01

    InAs/GaSb-based type-II superlattice photodiodes have considerably gained interest as high-performance infrared detectors. Beside the excellent properties of InAs/GaSb superlattices, like the relatively high effective electron mass suppressing tunneling currents, the low Auger recombination rate, and a high quantum efficiency, the bandgap can be widely adjusted within the infrared spectral range from 3 - 30 μm depending on the layer thickness rather than on composition. Superlattice growth and process technology have shown tremendous progress during the last years. Fully integrated superlattice cameras have been demonstrated by several groups worldwide. Within very few years, the InAs/GaSb superlattice technology has proven its suitability for high-performance infrared imaging detector arrays. At Fraunhofer IAF and AIM, the efforts have been focused on developing a mature fabrication technology for bispectral InAs/GaSb superlattice focal plane arrays for a simultaneous, co-located detection at 3-4 μm and 4-5 μm in the mid-wavelength infrared atmospheric transmission window. A very low number of pixel outages and cluster defects is mandatory for dual-color detector arrays. Sources for pixel outages are manifold and might be caused by dislocations in the substrate, the epitaxial growth process or by imperfections during the focal plane array fabrication process. Process refinements, intense root cause analysis and specific test methodologies employed at various stages during the process have proven to be the key for yield enhancements.

  17. Commissioning and Early Operation Experience of the NSLS-II Storage Ring RF System

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, F.; Rose, J.; Cupolo, J.; Dilgen, T.; Rose, B.; Gash, W.; Ravindranath, V.; Yeddulla, M.; Papu, J.; Davila, P.; Holub, B.; Tagger, J.; Sikora, R.; Ramirez, G.; Kulpin, J.

    2015-05-03

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) is a 3 GeV electron X-ray user facility commissioned in 2014. The storage ring RF system, essential for replenishing energy loss per turn of the electrons, consists of digital low level RF controllers, 310 kW CW klystron transmitters, CESR-B type superconducting cavities, as well as a supporting cryogenic system. Here we will report on RF commissioning and early operation experience of the system for beam current up to 200mA.

  18. Fault tree analysis of the EBR-II reactor shutdown system

    SciTech Connect

    Kamal, S.A.; Hill, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    As part of the level I Probabilistic Risk Assessment of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), detailed fault trees for the reactor shutdown system are developed. Fault tree analysis is performed for two classes of transient events that are of particular importance to EBR-II operation: loss-of-flow and transient-overpower. In all parts of EBR-II reactor shutdown system, redundancy has been utilized in order to reduce scram failure probability. Therefore, heavy emphasis is placed in the fault trees on the common cause failures (CCFs) among similar mechanical components of the control and safety rods and among similar electrical components in redundant detection channels and shutdown strings. Generic beta-factors that cover all types of similar components and reflect redundancy level are used to model the CCFs. Human errors are addressed in the fault trees in two major areas: errors that would prevent the automatic scram channels from detecting the abnormal events and errors that would prevent utilization of the manual scram capability. The fault tree analysis of the EBR-II shutdown system has provided not only a systematic process for calculating the probabilities of system failures but also useful insights into the system and how its elements interact during transient events that require shutdown.

  19. Fault tree analysis of the EBR-II reactor shutdown system

    SciTech Connect

    Kamal, S.A.; Hill, D.J.

    1992-12-01

    As part of the level I Probabilistic Risk Assessment of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), detailed fault trees for the reactor shutdown system are developed. Fault tree analysis is performed for two classes of transient events that are of particular importance to EBR-II operation: loss-of-flow and transient-overpower. In all parts of EBR-II reactor shutdown system, redundancy has been utilized in order to reduce scram failure probability. Therefore, heavy emphasis is placed in the fault trees on the common cause failures (CCFs) among similar mechanical components of the control and safety rods and among similar electrical components in redundant detection channels and shutdown strings. Generic beta-factors that cover all types of similar components and reflect redundancy level are used to model the CCFs. Human errors are addressed in the fault trees in two major areas: errors that would prevent the automatic scram channels from detecting the abnormal events and errors that would prevent utilization of the manual scram capability. The fault tree analysis of the EBR-II shutdown system has provided not only a systematic process for calculating the probabilities of system failures but also useful insights into the system and how its elements interact during transient events that require shutdown.

  20. Modeling an electro-photographic printer, part II: color systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriss, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper will outline a simplified model for the development of toner dots on a reflective support in a color electro-photographic system. A model developed for a monochrome system will be adapted to a color imaging system where four pigments, each capable of scatting light, is used to form a digital halftone image. The combination of physical and optical dot gains, interlayer scattering, on-dot and off-dot digital halftones will be explored and the results demonstrated in terms color shifts due to layer order and dot gain due to halftone geometry.

  1. Easy as ABC: A System to Stratify Category II Fetal Heart Rate Tracings.

    PubMed

    Penfield, Christina A; Hong, Connie; Ibrahim, Samia El Haj; Kilpatrick, Sarah J; Gregory, Kimberly D

    2016-06-01

    Objective To evaluate whether a subcategory system for category II tracings can improve team communication and perinatal outcomes. Study Design We collected data prospectively for 15 months, first using the NICHD system, followed by the ABC system, which divides category II tracings into subcategories A, B, and C, each representing increased risk for metabolic acidemia. We surveyed providers about communication effectiveness and agreement on tracing interpretation for each system. In cases where the communication system was used to alert an off-site physician about a category II tracing, we compared arrival to L&D and NICU admissions. Results The ABC system was preferred (69%, n = 152) and considered a more effective tool for communicating concerning fetal status (80% vs. 43%, p < 0.01). Participants also reported greater agreement on tracing interpretation (79% for ABC vs. 64% for NICHD, p = 0.046). When an off-site physician was contacted about a category II tracing (n = 95), they were more likely to arrive to L&D (44% vs. 20%, p < 0.01) and have fewer NICU admissions (0% vs. 6%, p < 0.01) with the ABC system. Conclusion The ABC system resulted in improved team communication, increased physician response, and decreased NICU admissions. Using standardized communication may offer a useful strategy for identifying and expediting care. PMID:26871906

  2. Definition of the Semisubmersible Floating System for Phase II of OC4

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Masciola, M.; Song, H.; Goupee, A.; Coulling, A.; Luan, C.

    2014-09-01

    Phase II of the Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration Continuation (OC4) project involved modeling of a semisubmersible floating offshore wind system as shown below. This report documents the specifications of the floating system, which were needed by the OC4 participants for building aero-hydro-servo-elastic models.

  3. Learning Activity Packets for Auto Mechanics II. Section B--Electrical Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    Six learning activity packets (LAPs) are provided for the instructional area of electrical systems in the auto mechanics II program. They accompany an instructor's guide available separately. The LAPs outline the study activities and performance tasks for these six units: (1) basic electrical theory, (2) battery service, (3) starting system, (4)…

  4. Test/analysis correlation and model updating of the STARS I II missile systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fulcher, C.W.; Marek, E.L.; Mayes, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The testing, modeling, and test/analysis correlation of the STARS I II missile systems is reviewed. The STARS project is described. The system identification methodology is discussed. A series of modal tests designed to characterize the various structural components is summmarized. The development and updating of detailed finite element models, in a test/analysis correlation process, is presented.

  5. Toward agricultural sustainability through integrated crop–livestock systems. II. Production responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intensification of cropping and animal production as two separately specialized agricultural systems has led to unacceptable deterioration of the environment due to (i) excessive concentration of nutrients and pathogens in livestock production systems and (ii) loss of natural biodiversity and excess...

  6. 46 CFR 128.220 - Class II non-vital systems-materials and pressure design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Class II non-vital systems-materials and pressure design. 128.220 Section 128.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Materials and Pressure Design § 128.220 Class...

  7. PacRIM II: A review of AirSAR operations and system performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moller, D.; Chu, A.; Lou, Y.; Miller, T.; O'Leary, E.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we briefly review the AirSAR system, its expected performance, and quality of data obtained during that mission. We discuss the system hardware calibration methodologies, and present quantitative performance values of radar backscatter and interferometric height errors (random and systematic) from PACRIM II calibration data.

  8. Central Nervous System Depressants Poisoning and Ventilator Associated Pneumonia: An Underrated Risk Factor at the Toxicological Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Hashemian, Morteza; Talaie, Haleh; Akbarpour, Samaneh; Mahdavinejad, Arezou; Mozafari, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP) is the main cause of nosocomial infection at intensive care units (ICUs), which causes high mortality and morbidity. Objectives: The objective of the present survey was to identify the VAP risk and prognostic factors among poisoned patients, who were admitted to the toxicological ICU (TICU), especially central nervous system (CNS) depressants due to their prevalence and importance. Patients and Methods: A case-control study was conducted at the Loghman Hakim hospital between March 2013 and March 2014. Among 300 poisoned patients with mechanical ventilator ≥ 48 hours, 150 patients, who had developed microbiologically-confirmed VAP were considered as the VAP group and 150 without VAP were defined as the control group. The following data were collected; age, gender, type of poisoning, glasgow coma score, Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II score, length of hospital stay, previous antibiotic use, microbial culture of the trachea, body temperature, leukocyte count, and patients’ outcome. Based on the type of poisoning, patients were divided into three groups including: opioid, CNS depressants and others. All data were expressed as means (SD) for continuous variables and frequencies for categorical variables. Logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between risk factors and VAP. Results: The mean age of the patients was 33.9 ± 14.3 years. The probable VAP incidence and mortality were 22% and 18.6%, respectively. The rate of CNS depressant versus opioid use (odds ratio, 3.74; P < 0.027), APACHE II (odds ratio, 1.28; P < 0.000) and length of hospital stay (odds ratio, 2.15; P < 0.000) were the independent risk factors for VAP. While, the APACHE II score (odds ratio, 1.12; P < 0.044) and length of hospital stay (odds ratio, 2.15; P < 0.000) were the independent predictors of VAP mortality among these patients. The most common microorganisms in VAP cases were Methicillin

  9. Computerized Operator Support System – Phase II Development

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, Thomas A.; Boring, Ronald L.; Lew, Roger T.; Thomas, Kenneth D.

    2015-02-01

    A computerized operator support system (COSS) prototype for nuclear control room process control is proposed and discussed. The COSS aids operators in addressing rapid plant upsets that would otherwise result in the shutdown of the power plant and interrupt electrical power generation, representing significant costs to the owning utility. In its current stage of development the prototype demonstrates four advanced functions operators can use to more efficiently monitor and control the plant. These advanced functions consist of: (1) a synthesized and intuitive high level overview display of system components and interrelations, (2) an enthalpy-based mathematical chemical and volume control system (CVCS) model to detect and diagnose component failures, (3) recommended strategies to mitigate component failure effects and return the plant back to pre-fault status, and (4) computer-based procedures to walk the operator through the recommended mitigation actions. The COSS was demonstrated to a group of operators and their feedback was collected. The operators responded positively to the COSS capabilities and features and indicated the system would be an effective operator aid. The operators also suggested several additional features and capabilities for the next iteration of development. Future versions of the COSS prototype will include additional plant systems, flexible computer-based procedure presentation formats, and support for simultaneous component fault diagnosis and dual fault synergistic mitigation action strategies to more efficiently arrest any plant upsets.

  10. THE ELM SURVEY. II. TWELVE BINARY WHITE DWARF MERGER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Kilic, Mukremin; Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, S. J.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Agueeros, M. A.; Heinke, Craig

    2011-01-20

    We describe new radial velocity and X-ray observations of extremely low-mass white dwarfs (ELM WDs, {approx}0.2 M{sub sun}) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4 and the MMT Hypervelocity Star survey. We identify four new short period binaries, including two merger systems. These observations bring the total number of short period binary systems identified in our survey to 20. No main-sequence or neutron star companions are visible in the available optical photometry, radio, and X-ray data. Thus, the companions are most likely WDs. Twelve of these systems will merge within a Hubble time due to gravitational wave radiation. We have now tripled the number of known merging WD systems. We discuss the characteristics of this merger sample and potential links to underluminous supernovae, extreme helium stars, AM CVn systems, and other merger products. We provide new observational tests of the WD mass-period distribution and cooling models for ELM WDs. We also find evidence for a new formation channel for single low-mass WDs through binary mergers of two lower mass objects.

  11. Angiotensin II-triggered kinase signaling cascade in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Bali, Anjana; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have projected the renin-angiotensin system as a central component of the physiological and pathological processes of assorted neurological disorders. Its primary effector hormone, angiotensin II (Ang II), not only mediates the physiological effects of vasoconstriction and blood pressure regulation in cardiovascular disease but is also implicated in a much wider range of neuronal activities and diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, neuronal injury, and cognitive disorders. Ang II produces different actions by acting on its two subtypes of receptors (AT1 and AT2); however, the well-known physiological actions of Ang II are mainly mediated through AT1 receptors. Moreover, recent studies also suggest the important functional role of AT2 receptor in the brain. Ang II acts on AT1 receptors and conducts its functions via MAP kinases (ERK1/2, JNK, and p38MAPK), glycogen synthase kinase, Rho/ROCK kinase, receptor tyrosine kinases (PDGF and EGFR), and nonreceptor tyrosine kinases (Src, Pyk2, and JAK/STAT). AT1R-mediated NADPH oxidase activation also leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species, widely implicated in neuroinflammation. These signaling cascades lead to glutamate excitotoxicity, apoptosis, cerebral infarction, astrocyte proliferation, nociception, neuroinflammation, and progression of other neurological disorders. The present review focuses on the Ang II-triggered signal transduction pathways in central nervous system. PMID:26574890

  12. Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer observations of the RS Canum Venaticorum systems AR Lacertae and II Pegasi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petterer, R. J.; Vedder, P. W.; Jelinsky, P.; Brown, A.; Bowyer, S.

    1993-01-01

    We report observations of two RS CVn systems, II Peg and AR Lac, which were calibration targets during the in-orbit checkout phase of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE). We have determined count rates, and, based on these count rates, preliminary emission measure analyses have been done. The Lexan/boron band count rates were 0.0849 +/- 0.0023 counts/s for AR Lac and 0.218 +/- 0.031 counts/s for II Peg during its quiescent state. Temperatures and emission measures derived from the EUVE data are consistent with previously published values. We also report a flare seen during the II Peg observations which has characteristics similar to previously observed flares on II Peg. During the flare the Lexan/boron count rate increased by at least a factor of 2.5, and the minimum total duration was about 34,000 s (about 9.4 hr).

  13. Operation and performance of the PEP-II prototype longitudinal damping system at ALS

    SciTech Connect

    Teytelman, D.; Claus, R.; Fox, J.

    1995-05-01

    A modular programmable longitudinal feedback system has been developed as a component of the PEP-II R+D program. This system is based on a family of VME and VXI packaged signal processing functions which implement a general purpose digital feedback controller for accelerators with bunch spacings of 2 ns. A complete PEP-II prototype system has been configured and installed for use at the LBL Advanced Light Source. The system configuration used for tests at the ALS is described and results are presented showing the action of the feedback system. Open and closed loop results showing the detection and calculation of feedback signals from bunch motion are presented and the system is shown to damp coupled-bunch instabilities in the ALS. Use of the system for accelerator diagnostics is illustrated via measurement of grow-damp transients which quantify growth rates without feedback, damping rates with feedback, and identify unstable modes.

  14. EXT-II: a second generation advanced ac propulsion system

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, B.; Patil, P.B.; Ciccarelli, M.F.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the characteristics of the concept and includes discussion of the system constraints, including traction battery constraints, and brief descriptions of the major subsystems being developed. The components discussed include: the system controller, dc to ac inverter, an internal permanent magnet ac motor and a two-speed automatic transmission with an integral final drive and differential. The motor and transmission are on a common axis and are integrated into one compact unit that is integral with the rear axle of the vehicle.

  15. A versatile timing system based on OS9 for the Spanish stellarator TJ-II

    SciTech Connect

    Pacios, L.; Pena, A. de la; Labrador, I.; Carrasco, R.; Lapayese, F.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper the authors describe the Timing System for the TJ-II Stellarator, which is presently under construction in Madrid (Spain), and which is expected to start operation in 1996. The Timing System is an essential element of the TJ-II, that has been commissioned, designed, and built to provide synchronization for all the subsystems, diagnostics and auxiliary heating systems of TJ-II. Its structure is both centralized and distributed. The PSK (Phase Shift Keying) modulation technique is used to distribute simultaneously both timing and event information via fiber optic link. The system provides absolute timing references with a variable time resolution ranging from 500 ns to 1 ms, depending on the span time selected, but in all cases, with a precision of 500 ns. The system allows a wide variety of programmable operating modes and control features to be configured easily in a user friendly environment. These are used to generate the sequence of signals required during each experimental pulse. In addition a new set of libraries and C programs named TEMPO have been developed for the OS9 Real Time Operating System, and a set of VME cards has been designed. Remote access via ethernet LAN and multi-user capabilities are also provided. The Timing System has been fully developed by the TJ-II Monitoring and Control Team at CIEMAT. This paper outlines the detailed design of the hardware and software and gives results from the test phase.

  16. Triangulum II: A Very Metal-poor and Dynamically Hot Stellar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Nicolas F.; Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Collins, Michelle L. M.; Rich, R. Michael; Bell, Eric F.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Laevens, Benjamin P. M.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Chapman, Scott C.; Koch, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    We present a study of the recently discovered compact stellar system Triangulum II. From observations conducted with the DEIMOS spectrograph on Keck II, we obtained spectra for 13 member stars that follow the CMD features of this very faint stellar system and include two bright red giant branch stars. Tri II has a very negative radial velocity (< {v}{{r}}> =-{383.7}-3.3+3.0 {km} {{{s}}}-1) that translates to < {v}{{r},{gsr}}> ≃ -264 {km} {{{s}}}-1 and confirms it is a Milky Way satellite. We show that, despite the small data set, there is evidence that Tri II has complex internal kinematics. Its radial velocity dispersion increases from {4.4}-2.0+2.8 {km} {{{s}}}-1 in the central 2\\prime to {14.1}-4.2+5.8 {km} {{{s}}}-1 outwards. The velocity dispersion of the full sample is inferred to be {σ }{vr}={9.9}-2.2+3.2 {km} {{{s}}}-1. From the two bright RGB member stars we measure an average metallicity < {{[Fe/H]}}> =-2.6+/- 0.2, placing Tri II among the most metal-poor Milky Way dwarf galaxies. In addition, the spectra of the fainter member stars exhibit differences in their line widths that could be the indication of a metallicity dispersion in the system. All these properties paint a complex picture for Tri II, whose nature and current state are largely speculative. The inferred metallicity properties of the system however lead us to favor a scenario in which Tri II is a dwarf galaxy that is either disrupting or embedded in a stellar stream.

  17. The Chimera II Real-Time Operating System for advanced sensor-based control applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, David B.; Schmitz, Donald E.; Khosla, Pradeep K.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to the Chimera II Real-Time Operating System, which has been developed for advanced sensor-based control applications. The Chimera II provides a high-performance real-time kernel and a variety of IPC features. The hardware platform required to run Chimera II consists of commercially available hardware, and allows custom hardware to be easily integrated. The design allows it to be used with almost any type of VMEbus-based processors and devices. It allows radially differing hardware to be programmed using a common system, thus providing a first and necessary step towards the standardization of reconfigurable systems that results in a reduction of development time and cost.

  18. NeuroPigPen: A Scalable Toolkit for Processing Electrophysiological Signal Data in Neuroscience Applications Using Apache Pig.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Satya S; Wei, Annan; Valdez, Joshua; Wang, Li; Zonjy, Bilal; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Loparo, Kenneth A; Lhatoo, Samden D

    2016-01-01

    The recent advances in neurological imaging and sensing technologies have led to rapid increase in the volume, rate of data generation, and variety of neuroscience data. This "neuroscience Big data" represents a significant opportunity for the biomedical research community to design experiments using data with greater timescale, large number of attributes, and statistically significant data size. The results from these new data-driven research techniques can advance our understanding of complex neurological disorders, help model long-term effects of brain injuries, and provide new insights into dynamics of brain networks. However, many existing neuroinformatics data processing and analysis tools were not built to manage large volume of data, which makes it difficult for researchers to effectively leverage this available data to advance their research. We introduce a new toolkit called NeuroPigPen that was developed using Apache Hadoop and Pig data flow language to address the challenges posed by large-scale electrophysiological signal data. NeuroPigPen is a modular toolkit that can process large volumes of electrophysiological signal data, such as Electroencephalogram (EEG), Electrocardiogram (ECG), and blood oxygen levels (SpO2), using a new distributed storage model called Cloudwave Signal Format (CSF) that supports easy partitioning and storage of signal data on commodity hardware. NeuroPigPen was developed with three design principles: (a) Scalability-the ability to efficiently process increasing volumes of data; (b) Adaptability-the toolkit can be deployed across different computing configurations; and (c) Ease of programming-the toolkit can be easily used to compose multi-step data processing pipelines using high-level programming constructs. The NeuroPigPen toolkit was evaluated using 750 GB of electrophysiological signal data over a variety of Hadoop cluster configurations ranging from 3 to 30 Data nodes. The evaluation results demonstrate that the toolkit

  19. NeuroPigPen: A Scalable Toolkit for Processing Electrophysiological Signal Data in Neuroscience Applications Using Apache Pig

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Satya S.; Wei, Annan; Valdez, Joshua; Wang, Li; Zonjy, Bilal; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Loparo, Kenneth A.; Lhatoo, Samden D.

    2016-01-01

    The recent advances in neurological imaging and sensing technologies have led to rapid increase in the volume, rate of data generation, and variety of neuroscience data. This “neuroscience Big data” represents a significant opportunity for the biomedical research community to design experiments using data with greater timescale, large number of attributes, and statistically significant data size. The results from these new data-driven research techniques can advance our understanding of complex neurological disorders, help model long-term effects of brain injuries, and provide new insights into dynamics of brain networks. However, many existing neuroinformatics data processing and analysis tools were not built to manage large volume of data, which makes it difficult for researchers to effectively leverage this available data to advance their research. We introduce a new toolkit called NeuroPigPen that was developed using Apache Hadoop and Pig data flow language to address the challenges posed by large-scale electrophysiological signal data. NeuroPigPen is a modular toolkit that can process large volumes of electrophysiological signal data, such as Electroencephalogram (EEG), Electrocardiogram (ECG), and blood oxygen levels (SpO2), using a new distributed storage model called Cloudwave Signal Format (CSF) that supports easy partitioning and storage of signal data on commodity hardware. NeuroPigPen was developed with three design principles: (a) Scalability—the ability to efficiently process increasing volumes of data; (b) Adaptability—the toolkit can be deployed across different computing configurations; and (c) Ease of programming—the toolkit can be easily used to compose multi-step data processing pipelines using high-level programming constructs. The NeuroPigPen toolkit was evaluated using 750 GB of electrophysiological signal data over a variety of Hadoop cluster configurations ranging from 3 to 30 Data nodes. The evaluation results demonstrate that

  20. Health Occupations Module. The Skeletal System--II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This module on the skeletal system is one of eight modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. This module contains an introduction to the module topic, two objectives (e.g., list the types of joints and movements, and give examples), and two learning…

  1. 78 FR 71785 - Passenger Train Emergency Systems II

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... FRA's January 3, 2012, proposed rule on passenger train emergency systems, see 77 FR 153, FRA issues... the Act, FRA published the Passenger Train Emergency Preparedness (PTEP) final rule. See 63 FR 24629...) final rule. See 64 FR 25540. The rule established comprehensive safety standards for railroad...

  2. Integrated communication and control systems. II - Design considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Asok; Halevi, Yoram

    1988-01-01

    The ICCS design issues for nonperiodic and stochastic delays are addressed and the framework for alternative design procedures is outlined. The impact of network-induced delays on system stability is investigated and their physical significance is demonstrated using a simulation. The negative effects of vacant sampling and message rejection at the controller are demonstrated.

  3. Computer Business Applications II. Course Two. Information Systems Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Sharon Lund; Everett, Donna R.

    This course is the second of seven in the Information Systems curriculum. The purpose of the course is to build on the skills acquired in the prerequisite course, Computer Business Applications I, through the manipulation of word processing, spreadsheet, database management, and graphics software. An overview of the course sets forth the condition…

  4. Adaptively Evolving Bacterial Communities for Complete and Selective Reduction of Cr(VI), Cu(II), and Cd(II) in Biocathode Bioelectrochemical Systems.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liping; Wang, Qiang; Jiang, Linjie; Zhou, Peng; Quan, Xie; Logan, Bruce E

    2015-08-18

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) have been shown to be useful in removing individual metals from solutions, but effective treatment of electroplating and mining wastewaters requires simultaneous removal of several metals in a single system. To develop multiple-reactor BESs for metals removal, biocathodes were first individually acclimated to three different metals using microbial fuel cells with Cr(VI) or Cu(II) as these metals have relatively high redox potentials, and microbial electrolysis cells for reducing Cd(II) as this metal has a more negative redox potential. The BESs were then acclimated to low concentrations of a mixture of metals, followed by more elevated concentrations. This procedure resulted in complete and selective metal reduction at rates of 1.24 ± 0.01 mg/L-h for Cr(VI), 1.07 ± 0.01 mg/L-h for Cu(II), and 0.98 ± 0.01 mg/L-h for Cd(II). These reduction rates were larger than the no adaptive controls by factors of 2.5 for Cr(VI), 2.9 for Cu(II), and 3.6 for Cd(II). This adaptive procedure produced less diverse microbial communities and changes in the microbial communities at the phylum and genus levels. These results demonstrated that bacterial communities can adaptively evolve to utilize solutions containing mixtures of metals, providing a strategy for remediating wastewaters containing Cr(VI), Cu(II), and Cd(II). PMID:26175284

  5. New quantitative total protein S-assay system for diagnosing protein S type II deficiency: clinical application of the screening system for protein S type II deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Tomohide; Jin, Xiuri; Tsuda, Hiroko; Ieko, Masahiro; Morishita, Eriko; Adachi, Tomoko; Hamasaki, Naotaka

    2012-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) incidence is rising rapidly in Japan with lifestyle westernization and aging. Deficiency of protein S, an important blood coagulation regulator, is a risk factor for VTE. Protein S deficiency prevalence in Asians is approximately 10 times that in Caucasians and that of protein S type II deficiency, associated with the protein S Tokushima mutation (K155E), is quite high in Japan. However, currently available methods for measuring protein S are not precise enough for detection of this deficiency. We developed a novel assay system for precise simultaneous determinations of total protein S activity and total protein S antigen level, using a general-purpose automated analyzer, allowing protein S-specific activity (ratio of total protein S activity to total protein S antigen level) to be calculated. Mean specific activity was 0.99 for samples from healthy individuals but 0.69 or less (mean-3SD) in protein S type II-deficient and warfarin-treated samples, but was 1.0 in an estrogen-treated sample with significantly decreased protein S antigen. Protein S gene analyses in healthy individuals with specific activity 0.69 or less revealed the K155E mutation in all three. These results show our new assay system to be an effective screening tool for protein S type II deficiency. This system can also be used in an automated analyzer, facilitating numerous sample measurements, and is, thus, applicable to regular medical checkups and diagnosing VTE. Such applications would potentially contribute to early detection of protein S type II deficiency, and, thereby, to thrombosis prevention. PMID:22157257

  6. 25 CFR 547.9 - What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system accounting functions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF CLASS II GAMES § 547.9 What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system... digits to accommodate the design of the game. (3) Accounting data displayed to the player may be... audit, configuration, recall and test modes; or (ii) Temporarily, during entertaining displays of...

  7. 25 CFR 547.9 - What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system accounting functions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF CLASS II GAMES § 547.9 What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system... digits to accommodate the design of the game. (3) Accounting data displayed to the player may be... audit, configuration, recall and test modes; or (ii) Temporarily, during entertaining displays of...

  8. 25 CFR 547.9 - What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system accounting functions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF CLASS II GAMES § 547.9 What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system... digits to accommodate the design of the game. (3) Accounting data displayed to the player may be... audit, configuration, recall and test modes; or (ii) Temporarily, during entertaining displays of...

  9. Fuzzy logic in control systems: Fuzzy logic controller. I, II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chuen Chien

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in the theory and applications of fuzzy-logic controllers (FLCs) are examined in an analytical review. The fundamental principles of fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic are recalled; the basic FLC components (fuzzification and defuzzification interfaces, knowledge base, and decision-making logic) are described; and the advantages of FLCs for incorporating expert knowledge into a control system are indicated. Particular attention is given to fuzzy implication functions, the interpretation of sentence connectives (and, also), compositional operators, and inference mechanisms. Applications discussed include the FLC-guided automobile developed by Sugeno and Nishida (1985), FLC hardware systems, FLCs for subway trains and ship-loading cranes, fuzzy-logic chips, and fuzzy computers.

  10. Iterative phase retrieval algorithms. Part II: Attacking optical encryption systems.

    PubMed

    Guo, Changliang; Liu, Shi; Sheridan, John T

    2015-05-20

    The modified iterative phase retrieval algorithms developed in Part I [Guo et al., Appl. Opt.54, 4698 (2015)] are applied to perform known plaintext and ciphertext attacks on amplitude encoding and phase encoding Fourier-transform-based double random phase encryption (DRPE) systems. It is shown that the new algorithms can retrieve the two random phase keys (RPKs) perfectly. The performances of the algorithms are tested by using the retrieved RPKs to decrypt a set of different ciphertexts encrypted using the same RPKs. Significantly, it is also shown that the DRPE system is, under certain conditions, vulnerable to ciphertext-only attack, i.e., in some cases an attacker can decrypt DRPE data successfully when only the ciphertext is intercepted. PMID:26192505

  11. Orbital decay in aspherical galaxies. II - Triaxial systems

    SciTech Connect

    Statler, T. S. Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, Boulder, CO )

    1991-07-01

    A previous analysis of orbital decay of small satellite galaxies into moderately oblate, axisymmetrical cannibal galaxies with Staeckel potentials is generalized here to triaxial systems with arbitary anisotropy and internal streaming. The orbital evolution to be expected in systems with differing degrees of anisotropy or rotation is briefly discussed. The evolution of some representative orbits is presented in detail using the orbit-averaged anisotropic Chandrasekhar drag and the distribution functions for perfect ellipsoids. The validity of orbit averaging is assessed by comparing the results with ensembles of single-particle orbits integrated directly in the same potential and the same drag prescription. An attempt is made to gauge the validity of the Chandrasekhar formula by comparison with restricted N-body solutions. It is found that the orbit-averaged evolution is consistent with such simulations. 40 refs.

  12. Orbital decay in aspherical galaxies. II - Triaxial systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Thomas S.

    1991-01-01

    A previous analysis of orbital decay of small satellite galaxies into moderately oblate, axisymmetrical cannibal galaxies with Staeckel potentials is generalized here to triaxial systems with arbitary anisotropy and internal streaming. The orbital evolution to be expected in systems with differing degrees of anisotropy or rotation is briefly discussed. The evolution of some representative orbits is presented in detail using the orbit-averaged anisotropic Chandrasekhar drag and the distribution functions for perfect ellipsoids. The validity of orbit averaging is assessed by comparing the results with ensembles of single-particle orbits integrated directly in the same potential and the same drag prescription. An attempt is made to gauge the validity of the Chandrasekhar formula by comparison with restricted N-body solutions. It is found that the orbit-averaged evolution is consistent with such simulations.

  13. Army Tactical Missile System (TACMS) Block II Insensitive Munitions Test Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Jamie M.; Nelson, Steven G.

    2002-04-01

    The Army TACMS Block II missile system provides the soldier with long range precision fire against moving armored combat vehicles in support of deep operations beyond the capability of other currently existing munitions. As part of an ongoing IM program for the ATACMS/BAT, warhead components were subject to IM threats identified in the system's Threat Hazard Assessment. These tests were conducted to assess the reaction of the Block II warhead, containing BAT submunitions, to bullet impact, fragment impact and fast cook-off. This paper will provide a summary of the test item configurations, test setups, results and preliminary assessments.

  14. BOA II: pipe-asbestos insulation removal system

    SciTech Connect

    Schempf, H.; Mutschler; Boehmke, S.; Chemel, B.; Piepgras, C.

    1996-12-31

    BOA system is a mobile pipe-external robotic crawler used to remotely strip and bag asbestos-containing lagging and insulation materials from various diameter pipes in (primarily) industrial installations. Steam and process lines within the DOE weapons complex warrant the use of a remote device due to high labor costs and high level of radioactive contamination, making manual removal costly and inefficient. Currently targeted facilities for demonstration and remediation are Fernald in Ohio and Oak Ridge in Tennessee.

  15. Data acquisition system based on the Nios II for a CCD camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Binhua; Hu, Keliang; Wang, Chunrong; Liu, Yangbing; He, Chun

    2006-06-01

    The FPGA with Avalon Bus architecture and Nios soft-core processor developed by Altera Corporation is an advanced embedded solution for control and interface systems. A CCD data acquisition system with an Ethernet terminal port based on the TCP/IP protocol is implemented in NAOC, which is composed of a piece of interface board with an Altera's FPGA, 32MB SDRAM and some other accessory devices integrated on it, and two packages of control software used in the Nios II embedded processor and the remote host PC respectively. The system is used to replace a 7200 series image acquisition card which is inserted in a control and data acquisition PC, and to download commands to an existing CCD camera and collect image data from the camera to the PC. The embedded chip in the system is a Cyclone FPGA with a configurable Nios II soft-core processor. Hardware structure of the system, configuration for the embedded soft-core processor, and peripherals of the processor in the PFGA are described. The C program run in the Nios II embedded system is built in the Nios II IDE kits and the C++ program used in the PC is developed in the Microsoft's Visual C++ environment. Some key techniques in design and implementation of the C and VC++ programs are presented, including the downloading of the camera commands, initialization of the camera, DMA control, TCP/IP communication and UDP data uploading.

  16. Thiol redox requirements and substrate specificities of recombinant cytochrome c assembly systems II and III

    PubMed Central

    Richard-Fogal, Cynthia L.; Francisco, Brian San; Frawley, Elaine R.; Kranz, Robert G.

    2011-01-01

    The reconstitution of biosynthetic pathways from heterologous hosts can help define the minimal genetic requirements for pathway function and facilitate detailed mechanistic studies. Each of the three pathways for the assembly of cytochrome c in nature (called systems I, II, and III) has been shown to function recombinantly in Escherichia coli, covalently attaching heme to the cysteine residues of a CXXCH motif of a c-type cytochrome. However, recombinant systems I (CcmABCDEFGH) and II (CcsBA) function in the E. coli periplasm, while recombinant system III (CCHL) attaches heme to its cognate receptor in the cytoplasm of E. coli, which makes direct comparisons between the three systems difficult. Here we show that the human CCHL (with a secretion signal) attaches heme to the human cytochrome c (with a signal sequence) in the E.coli periplasm, which is bioenergetically (p-side) analogous to the mitochondrial intermembrane space. The human CCHL is specific for the human cytochrome c, whereas recombinant system II can attach heme to multiple non-cognate c-type cytochromes (possessing the CXXCH motif.) We also show that the recombinant periplasmic systems II and III use components of the natural E.coli periplasmic DsbC/DsbD thiol-reduction pathway. PMID:21945855

  17. Self-polarization smoothing technique based on 2×2 beam array and type II+II third-harmonic generation system.

    PubMed

    Fuquan, Li; Fang, Wang; Wei, Han; Bin, Feng; Lidan, Zhou

    2013-05-10

    Polarization smoothing (PS) is highly desired for inertial confinement fusion, high-power laser facilities. A self-PS technique based on 2×2 beam array and type II+II third-harmonic generation (THG) system is proposed in this paper. This scheme takes advantage of a type II+II THG system, which induces a 35° angle between the polarization states of output third-harmonic laser and input fundamental laser. It rotates two THG systems in a 2×2 beam array by 180° to obtain a 70° polarization angle between two sets of output lasers. Simulation results show that the intensity contrast of the overlapped focal spot can be reduced at 1.34× without inserting any additional optics. This approaches the maximum value of various PS techniques (i.e., 1.41×). PMID:23669860

  18. Space Acceleration Measurement System-II: Microgravity Instrumentation for the International Space Station Research Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Thomas J.

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station opens for business in the year 2000, and with the opening, science investigations will take advantage of the unique conditions it provides as an on-orbit laboratory for research. With initiation of scientific studies comes a need to understand the environment present during research. The Space Acceleration Measurement System-II provides researchers a consistent means to understand the vibratory conditions present during experimentation on the International Space Station. The Space Acceleration Measurement System-II, or SAMS-II, detects vibrations present while the space station is operating. SAMS-II on-orbit hardware is comprised of two basic building block elements: a centralized control unit and multiple Remote Triaxial Sensors deployed to measure the acceleration environment at the point of scientific research, generally within a research rack. Ground Operations Equipment is deployed to complete the command, control and data telemetry elements of the SAMS-II implementation. Initially, operations consist of user requirements development, measurement sensor deployment and use, and data recovery on the ground. Future system enhancements will provide additional user functionality and support more simultaneous users.

  19. A Photo Storm Report Mobile Application, Processing/Distribution System, and AWIPS-II Display Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longmore, S. P.; Bikos, D.; Szoke, E.; Miller, S. D.; Brummer, R.; Lindsey, D. T.; Hillger, D.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing use of mobile phones equipped with digital cameras and the ability to post images and information to the Internet in real-time has significantly improved the ability to report events almost instantaneously. In the context of severe weather reports, a representative digital image conveys significantly more information than a simple text or phone relayed report to a weather forecaster issuing severe weather warnings. It also allows the forecaster to reasonably discern the validity and quality of a storm report. Posting geo-located, time stamped storm report photographs utilizing a mobile phone application to NWS social media weather forecast office pages has generated recent positive feedback from forecasters. Building upon this feedback, this discussion advances the concept, development, and implementation of a formalized Photo Storm Report (PSR) mobile application, processing and distribution system and Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System II (AWIPS-II) plug-in display software.The PSR system would be composed of three core components: i) a mobile phone application, ii) a processing and distribution software and hardware system, and iii) AWIPS-II data, exchange and visualization plug-in software. i) The mobile phone application would allow web-registered users to send geo-location, view direction, and time stamped PSRs along with severe weather type and comments to the processing and distribution servers. ii) The servers would receive PSRs, convert images and information to NWS network bandwidth manageable sizes in an AWIPS-II data format, distribute them on the NWS data communications network, and archive the original PSRs for possible future research datasets. iii) The AWIPS-II data and exchange plug-ins would archive PSRs, and the visualization plug-in would display PSR locations, times and directions by hour, similar to surface observations. Hovering on individual PSRs would reveal photo thumbnails and clicking on them would display the

  20. Mescalero Apache Tribe Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS). Phase 1 feasibility study report

    SciTech Connect

    Peso, F.

    1992-03-13

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, authorizes the siting, construction and operation of a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. The MRS is intended to be used for the temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel from the nation`s nuclear power plants beginning as early as 1998. Pursuant to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator was created. On October 7, 1991, the Nuclear Waste Negotiator invited the governors of states and the Presidents of Indian tribes to apply for government grants in order to conduct a study to assess under what conditions, if any, they might consider hosting an MRS facility. Pursuant to this invitation, on October 11, 1991 the Mescalero Apache Indian Tribe of Mescalero, NM applied for a grant to conduct a phased, preliminary study of the safety, technical, political, environmental, social and economic feasibility of hosting an MRS. The preliminary study included: (1) An investigative education process to facilitate the Tribe`s comprehensive understanding of the safety, environmental, technical, social, political, and economic aspects of hosting an MRS, and; (2) The development of an extensive program that is enabling the Tribe, in collaboration with the Negotiator, to reach an informed and carefully researched decision regarding the conditions, (if any), under which further pursuit of the MRS would be considered. The Phase 1 grant application enabled the Tribe to begin the initial activities necessary to determine whether further consideration is warranted for hosting the MRS facility. The Tribe intends to pursue continued study of the MRS in order to meet the following objectives: (1) Continuing the education process towards a comprehensive understanding of the safety, environmental, technical, social and economic aspects of the MRS; (2) Conducting an effective public participation and information program; (3) Participating in MRS meetings.

  1. Effect of angiotensin II on uterine and systemic vasculature in pregnant sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Naden, R P; Rosenfeld, C R

    1981-01-01

    The response of uteroplacental blood flow (UBF) to angiotensin II is controversial. Moreover, the relationship of the uterine and systemic responses to infused angiotensin II is not well understood. Thus, in eight chronically instrumented, near-term pregnant sheep, we have determined the relationships between the dose and duration of constant systemic infusions of angiotensin II ([Val5] ANG II) and changes in UBF, uterine vascular resistance (UVR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and systemic vascular resistance (SVR). [Val5] ANG II caused dose-dependent increases in UVR and MAP at all doses studied (P less than 0.05). The response in UBF was bidirectional, with increases at doses less than or equal to 1.15 microgram/min and decreases at greater than or equal to 2.29 micrograms/min (P less than 0.05). Increases in UBP occurred when the relative rise (delta) in MAP greater than delta UVR, whereas UBF was unchanged when delta MAP = delta UVR and decreased when delta MAP less than delta UVR. SVR also rose in a dose-dependent fashion (P less than 0.05); delta SVR was greater than delta UVR at doses less than or equal to 2.29 micrograms [Val5] ANG II/min (P less than 0.01). In studies of the effect of duration of [Val5] ANG II infusions, UBF increased at all doses during the 1st min, followed by stabilization at 4--5 min, with eventual decreases at doses greater than or equal to 2.29 micrograms/min and increases at doses less than 2.29 micrograms/min. The relationship between the changes in MAP and UVR to the response of UBF was as noted above. It is evident that (a) [Val5] NAG II is uterine vasoconstrictor, (b) changes in UBF are dependent upon relative changes in perfusion pressure and UVR, which in turn are dependent upon both the dose and duration of a [Val5] ANG II infusion, and (c) the uteroplacental vasculature is relatively refractory to the vasoconstricting effects of low doses of [Val5] ANG II. PMID:7263862

  2. Planetary Data Systems (PDS) Imaging Node Atlas II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanboli, Alice; McAuley, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The Planetary Image Atlas (PIA) is a Rich Internet Application (RIA) that serves planetary imaging data to the science community and the general public. PIA also utilizes the USGS Unified Planetary Coordinate system (UPC) and the on-Mars map server. The Atlas was designed to provide the ability to search and filter through greater than 8 million planetary image files. This software is a three-tier Web application that contains a search engine backend (MySQL, JAVA), Web service interface (SOAP) between server and client, and a GWT Google Maps API client front end. This application allows for the search, retrieval, and download of planetary images and associated meta-data from the following missions: 2001 Mars Odyssey, Cassini, Galileo, LCROSS, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Exploration Rover, Mars Express, Magellan, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Pathfinder, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, MESSENGER, Phoe nix, Viking Lander, Viking Orbiter, and Voyager. The Atlas utilizes the UPC to translate mission-specific coordinate systems into a unified coordinate system, allowing the end user to query across missions of similar targets. If desired, the end user can also use a mission-specific view of the Atlas. The mission-specific views rely on the same code base. This application is a major improvement over the initial version of the Planetary Image Atlas. It is a multi-mission search engine. This tool includes both basic and advanced search capabilities, providing a product search tool to interrogate the collection of planetary images. This tool lets the end user query information about each image, and ignores the data that the user has no interest in. Users can reduce the number of images to look at by defining an area of interest with latitude and longitude ranges.

  3. Scratch measurement system using machine vision: part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarr, Dennis P.

    1992-03-01

    Aircraft skins and windows must not have scratches, which are unacceptable for cosmetic and structural reasons. Manual methods are inadequate in giving accurate reading and do not provide a hardcopy report. A prototype scratch measurement system (SMS) using computer vision and image analysis has been developed. This paper discusses the prototype description, novel ideas, improvements, repeatability, reproducibility, accuracy, and the calibration method. Boeing's Calibration Certification Laboratory has given the prototype a qualified certification. The SMS is portable for usage in factory or aircraft hangars anywhere in the world.

  4. Minitron II system for precise control of the plant growth environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Sharon L.; Akers, Carolyn P.; Akers, S. W.; Mitchell, Cary A.

    1988-01-01

    The Minitron II system which accommodates hydroponic culture and separate control of atmospheric composition in individual chambers is used to measure gas-exchange by small crop canopies in the undisturbed plant growth environment. It is concluded that the system is capable of providing separate controlled environments for multiple small plants with adequate precision and at relatively low cost when coupled with appropriate control systems.

  5. Geology and ground water in the central part of Apache County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Akers, J.P.

    1965-01-01

    The central part of Apache County, Ariz., includes an area of about 3,300 square miles between the Navajo Indian Reservation to the north and U.S. Highway 60 to the south. Sedimentary rocks in the area range from Pennsylvanian to Quaternary in age and from 2,000 to more than 6,000 feet in thickness. The strata were tilted to the northeast, and part of the Upper Triassic and all the Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous rocks were eroded away before strata of Late Cretaceous age were deposited. Basaltic lava flows and cinder cones, representing four general periods of eruption in late Miocene to Quaternary time, are widespread in the southern part of the area. Pennsylvanian and Permian rocks overlie basement rocks of granite and diorite and include the Supai Formation, the Coconino Sandstone, and the Kaibab Limestone. The Supai Formation is 1,000 to 2,000 feet thick and consists of interbedded red and brown mudstone, siltstone, sandstone, limestone, and evaporites. It contains water of very poor quality outside Apache County. The Coconino Sandstone is 200 to 250 feet thick and consists of light-gray fine- to medium-grained sandstone. It contains water suitable for domestic use in the south and water unsuitable for most purposes in the north. The Coconino Sandstone underlies all Central Apache County in the subsurface. The yellowish-gray to dark-gray Kaibab Limestone is present in the southern two-thirds of the area and is 0 to 350 feet thick. It contains water where it is fractured and combines with the Coconino Sandstone to form a single hydrologic unit that yields from 6 to 74 gpm (gallons per minute) of water per foot of drawdown. An unconformity Heparates the Permian rocks from the overlying Triassic rocks, which comprise the Moenkopi and Chinle Formations and the Wingate Sandstone. The Moenkopi Formation is 35 to 250 feet thick and consists of intercalated brownish-red siltstone, sandstone, and conglomerate. It contains salty water in some areas but is dry in most. The

  6. Sänger II, an advanced launcher system for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelle, D. E.; Kuczera, H.

    The new Sänger space transportation system concept conceived by MBB in 1985 is aiming for essentially reduced launch cost (10-30% of Ariane/Hermes) and full European autonomy by launches from European airports with direct access to the Space Station orbit (LEO, 28.5°). These requirements lead to a two-stage system with a hypersonic first stage using turboramjet propulsion providing the required cruise capability of some 3500 km. The cruise speed is Mach 4.4 with the capability to accelerate to Mach 6.8 before separation of the upper stage. Two different upper stages are foreseen for the different requirements of manned space flight and unmanned payload transportation: a winged manned stage for crew transport and support equipment (HORUS) and an expendable ballistic stage for launch of heavy payloads up to 15 Mg (CARGUS). The Sänger concept is based on maximum commonality of the first stage with a hypersonic passenger aircraft, carrying 230 passengers (business class) over a distance of 10,500 km in 3 h. The paper describes the resulting vehicle configuration, the performance criteria, the technology problems to be solved and the overall programme schedule for the incorporation into the European Space program.

  7. The conditions of chondrule formation, Part II: Open system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friend, Pia; Hezel, Dominik C.; Mucerschi, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We studied the texture of 256 chondrules in thin sections of 16 different carbonaceous (CV, CR, CO, CM, CH) and Rumuruti chondrites. In a conservative count ∼75% of all chondrules are mineralogically zoned, i.e. these chondrules have an olivine core, surrounded by a low-Ca pyroxene rim. A realistic estimate pushes the fraction of zoned chondrules to >90% of all chondrules. Mineralogically zoned chondrules are the dominant and typical chondrule type in carbonaceous and Rumuruti chondrites. The formation of the mineralogical zonation represents a fundamentally important process of chondrule formation. The classic typification of chondrules into PO, POP and PP might in fact represent different sections through mineralogically zoned chondrules. On average, the low-Ca pyroxene rims occupy 30 vol.% of the entire chondrule. The low-Ca pyroxene most probably formed by reaction of an olivine rich chondrule with SiO from the surrounding gas. This reaction adds 3-15 wt.% of material, mainly SiO2, to the chondrule. Chondrules were open systems and interacted substantially with the surrounding gas. This is in agreement with many previous studies on chondrule formation. This open system behaviour and the exchange of material with the surrounding gas can explain bulk chondrule compositional variations in a single meteorite and supports the findings from complementarity that chondrules and matrix formed from the same chemical reservoir.

  8. CCD Echelle observations of the active RS CVn system II Pegasi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huenemoerder, David P.; Ramsey, Lawrence W.

    1987-08-01

    Optical spectra were obtained of II Peg on eight different nights in 1984 and 1985 to assess the strength and variability of surface activity indicators in this very active RS CVn system. These cross-dispersed echelle spectra covered the range from 390 nm to 900 to 900 nm at a resolution of 12,000. EMission was seen in the first four Balmer lines, in the Ca II infrared triplet, Ca II H lines, and in one observation, in He I D3. The ratio of energy emitted in the H-alpha line to that in H-beta is similar to that in solar prominences, except during enhancements when the ratio decreases toward values more typical of solar flares. The H-alpha lines varied both in strength and in profile. There were slight variations in the Ca II infrared triplet lines. Exposure levels were too weak to assess the variations in H-gamma, H-delta, or Ca II H. Relative to comparison star spectra, the TiO bands at 896 nm and 710 nm were slightly deeper in II Peg, which is indicative of cool spots.

  9. A New Four-Barrel Pellet Injection System for the TJ-II Stellarator

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, Stephen Kirk; Foust, Charles R; McGill, James M; Baylor, Larry R; Caughman, John B; Fehling, Dan T; Harris, Jeffrey H; Meitner, Steven J; Rasmussen, David A; McCarthy, K. J.; Chamorro, M.; Garcia, R.; Hildago, C.; Medrano, M.; Unamuno, R.

    2011-01-01

    A new pellet injection system for the TJ-II stellarator has been developed/constructed as part of a collaboration between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Centro de Investigaciones Energ ticas, Medioambientales y Tecnol gicas (CIEMAT). ORNL is providing most of the injector hardware and instrumentation, the pellet diagnostics, and the pellet transport tubes; CIEMAT is responsible for the injector stand/interface to the stellarator, cryogenic refrigerator, vacuum pumps/ballast volumes, gas manifolds, remote operations, plasma diagnostics, and data acquisition. The pellet injector design is an upgraded version of that used for the ORNL injector installed on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST). It is a four-barrel system equipped with a cryogenic refrigerator for in situ hydrogen pellet formation and a combined mechanical punch/propellant valve system for pellet acceleration (speeds ~100 to 1000 m/s). On TJ-II, it will be used as an active diagnostic and for fueling. To accommodate the plasma experiments planned for TJ-II, pellet sizes significantly smaller than those typically used for the MST application are required. The system will initially be equipped with four different pellet sizes, with the gun barrel bores ranging between ~0.5 to 1.0 mm. The new system is almost complete and is described briefly here, highlighting the new features added since the original MST injector was constructed. Also, the future installation on TJ-II is reviewed.

  10. A novel type II relay-assisted retransmission scheme for uplink of LTE-advanced system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Anxin; Nagata, Satoshi; Harada, Atsushi; Suda, Hirohito

    2013-12-01

    Relay, which enables coverage extension and throughput enhancement, is a very promising technique for future wireless communication systems. Among different types of relay, type II relay is one kind of inband relays and is hotly discussed in LTE-Advanced system for throughput enhancement. In order to support type II relay, many challenges must be overcome. In this article, we focus on relay-assisted uplink data retransmission and propose a novel joint design of reference signal and data precoding for type II relay. The proposed method not only solves the problem of channel estimation mismatch for control information, but also achieves cooperative diversity gain for data transmission. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method over existing schemes.

  11. Diagnosing and curing system freeze-ups: Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, R.

    1996-02-01

    In our last article, we discussed determination and possible causes leading to frozen pipes in the heating system. We now turn to the matter of dealing with such freeze-ups. There are two major categories of frozen heating systems. The first and worst we can label the {open_quotes}Floridian Flew{close_quotes} type, when the usual occupants have taken off for warmer climates. The second is the {open_quotes}Howcudit {open_quote}B{close_quote} virus,{close_quotes} which occurs to normal people under an unusual Arctic Attack right while they are living there. Regarding the first, I never cease to be amazed how folks can just up and leave their house for three days to three months without making proper arrangements for monitoring the temperature of their home during their absence. There are a frightening number of humanoids out there, who either lack a minimal presence of common sense, or who are terrible gamblers. The amazing thing is that some of these folks wouldn`t even gamble a postage stamp on a magazine sweepstakes, but still will gamble the contents of their home by driving off for two weeks at Disneyland in the middle of January without ever making any provision for assuring that their house doesn`t freeze up while they are away. The {open_quotes}Howcudit {open_quote}B{close_quote}{close_quotes} type is not nearly as devasting as the {open_quotes}Floridian Flew.{close_quotes} Imagine coming home to an icy cold house after flying in from the sunny beaches of some tropical paradise. The oilburner switch is on. The thermostate is set at 60 where we left it, but the needle is buried somewhere down behind the cover, like it is cowering from guilt. {open_quotes}Oh Man! I just checked the bathroom; there is an icicle hanging from the vanity faucet and the toilet bowl is a block of ice.{close_quotes}

  12. Sliding mode control of the space nuclear reactor system TOPAZ II

    SciTech Connect

    Shtessel, Y.B.; Wyant, F.J.

    1996-03-01

    The Automatic Control System (ACS) of the space nuclear reactor power system TOPAZ II that generates electricity from nuclear heat using in-core thermionic converters is considered. Sliding Mode Control Technique was applied to the reactor system controller design in order to provide the robust high accuracy following of a neutron (thermal) power reference profile in a start up regime and a payload electric power (current) reference profile following in an operation regime. Extensive simulations of the TOPAZ II reactor system with the designed sliding mode controllers showed improved accuracy and robustness of the reactor system performances in a start up regime and in an electric power supply regime as well. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Theory of optical transitions in conjugated polymers. II. Real systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcus, Max; Tozer, Oliver Robert; Barford, William

    2014-10-01

    The theory of optical transitions developed in Barford and Marcus ["Theory of optical transitions in conjugated polymers. I. Ideal systems," J. Chem. Phys. 141, 164101 (2014)] for linear, ordered polymer chains is extended in this paper to model conformationally disordered systems. Our key result is that in the Born-Oppenheimer regime the emission intensities are proportional to S(1)/⟨IPR⟩, where S(1) is the Huang-Rhys parameter for a monomer. ⟨IPR⟩ is the average inverse participation ratio for the emitting species, i.e., local exciton ground states (LEGSs). Since the spatial coherence of LEGSs determines the spatial extent of chromophores, the significance of this result is that it directly relates experimental observables to chromophore sizes (where ⟨IPR⟩ is half the mean chromophore size in monomer units). This result is independent of the chromophore shape, because of the Born-Oppenheimer factorization of the many body wavefunction. We verify this prediction by density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) calculations of the Frenkel-Holstein model in the adiabatic limit for both linear, disordered chains and for coiled, ordered chains. We also model optical spectra for poly(p-phenylene) and poly(p-phenylene-vinylene) oligomers and polymers. For oligomers, we solve the fully quantized Frenkel-Holstein model via the DMRG method. For polymers, we use the much simpler method of solving the one-particle Frenkel model and employ the Born-Oppenheimer expressions relating the effective Franck-Condon factor of a chromophore to its inverse participation ratio. We show that increased disorder decreases chromophore sizes and increases the inhomogeneous broadening, but has a non-monotonic effect on transition energies. We also show that as planarizing the polymer chain increases the exciton band width, it causes the chromophore sizes to increase, the transition energies to decrease, and the broadening to decrease. Finally, we show that the absorption spectra are

  14. Globular Cluster Systems in Brightest Cluster Galaxies. II. NGC 6166

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, William E.; Blakeslee, John P.; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Gnedin, Oleg Y.; Geisler, Douglas; Rothberg, Barry

    2016-01-01

    We present new deep photometry of the globular cluster system (GCS) around NGC 6166, the central supergiant galaxy in Abell 2199. Hubble Space Telescope data from the Advanced Camera for Surveys and WFC3 cameras in F475W and F814W are used to determine the spatial distribution of the GCS, its metallicity distribution function (MDF), and the dependence of the MDF on galactocentric radius and on GC luminosity. The MDF is extremely broad, with the classic red and blue subpopulations heavily overlapped, but a double-Gaussian model can still formally match the MDF closely. The spatial distribution follows a Sérsic-like profile detectably to a projected radius of at least Rgc = 250 kpc. To that radius, the total number of clusters in the system is NGC = 39000 ± 2000, the global specific frequency is SN = 11.2 ± 0.6, and 57% of the total are blue, metal-poor clusters. The GCS may fade smoothly into the intracluster medium (ICM) of A2199; we see no clear transition from the core of the galaxy to the cD halo or the ICM. The radial distribution, projected ellipticity, and mean metallicity of the red (metal-richer) clusters match the halo light extremely well for {R}{gc}≳ 15 {{kpc}}, both of them varying as {σ }{MRGC}∼ {σ }{light}∼ {R}-1.8. By comparison, the blue (metal-poor) GC component has a much shallower falloff {σ }{MPGC}∼ {R}-1.0 and a more nearly spherical distribution. This strong difference in their density distributions produces a net metallicity gradient in the GCS as a whole that is primarily generated by the population gradient. With NGC 6166 we appear to be penetrating into a regime of high enough galaxy mass and rich enough environment that the bimodal two-phase description of GC formation is no longer as clear or effective as it has been in smaller galaxies.

  15. HYLIFE-II power conversion system design and cost study

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, M.A. . Dept. of Mechanical, Aeronautical and Materials Engineering)

    1990-09-01

    The power conversion system for the HYLIFE-2 fusion power plant has been defined to include the IHX's (intermediate heat exchangers) and everything that support the exchange of energy from the reactor. It is referred to simply as the BOP (balance of plant) in the rest of this report. The above is a convenient division between the reactor equipment and the rest of the fusion power plant since the BOP design and cost then depend only on the specification of the thermal power to the IHX's and the temperature of the primary Flibe coolant into and out of the IHX's, and is almost independent of the details of the reactor design. The main efforts during the first year have been on the definition and thermal-hydraulics of the IHX's, the steam generators and the steam power plant, leading to the definition of a reference BOP with the molten salt, Flibe, as the primary coolant. A summary of the key results in each of these areas is given in this report.

  16. CALIBRATION OF EQUILIBRIUM TIDE THEORY FOR EXTRASOLAR PLANET SYSTEMS. II

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Brad M. S.

    2012-09-20

    We present a new empirical calibration of equilibrium tidal theory for extrasolar planet systems, extending a prior study by incorporating detailed physical models for the internal structure of planets and host stars. The resulting strength of the stellar tide produces a coupling that is strong enough to reorient the spins of some host stars without causing catastrophic orbital evolution, thereby potentially explaining the observed trend in alignment between stellar spin and planetary orbital angular momentum. By isolating the sample whose spins should not have been altered in this model, we also show evidence for two different processes that contribute to the population of planets with short orbital periods. We apply our results to estimate the remaining lifetimes for short-period planets, examine the survival of planets around evolving stars, and determine the limits for circularization of planets with highly eccentric orbits. Our analysis suggests that the survival of circularized planets is strongly affected by the amount of heat dissipated, which is often large enough to lead to runaway orbital inflation and Roche lobe overflow.

  17. Seismic response of transamerica building. II. System identification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, E.; Celebi, M.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the recorded seismic response of the Transamerica Building during the October 17, 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake is presented. The system identification algorithm used for the analysis is based on the discrete-time linear filtering approach with least-squares approximation, and assumes a multi-input, single-output model for the building. Fifteen modes in the north-south direction, and 18 modes in the east-west direction are identified from the records. The analysis shows that the building's response to the earthquake was dominated by a coupled mode of vibration at 0.28 Hz in the southwest-northeast direction, which is almost parallel to one of the diagonals in the building's square cross section. The reason for this behavior is the symmetry of the building's structural characteristics, as well as the strong polarization of the S-waves of the earthquake. Several higher modes of the building were excited during the strong-motion part of the earthquake. The results also show a significant amount of rocking in the building at a frequency of 2.15 Hz.

  18. Recorded seismic response of Pacific Park Plaza. II. System identification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, F.; Celebi, M.

    1992-01-01

    This is the second of two companion papers on the recorded seismic response of the Pacific Park Plaza building, in Emeryville, Calif., during the October 17, 1989, Ms = 7.1 (surface-wave magnitude) Loma Prieta earthquake. In this second part, the recorded data are analyzed in more detail by using system-identification techniques. The three-dimensional behavior and the coupled modes of the building are determined, and the effects of soil-structure interaction are investigated. The study shows that the response of the building is nonlinear at the beginning, and becomes linear after 17 sec into the earthquake. The dominant motion of the building follows an elliptical path oriented in the southeast-northwest direction. Some of the modes are complex, with nonproportional damping, and there are phase differences among modal response components. The fundamental mode of the building is a translation in the southeast-northwest direction at 0.4 Hz, with 13% damping. The wing displacements relative to the center core are large, about 50% of the center core displacements, and indicate significant torsion in the center core. The soil-structure interaction is characterized by a vibration at 0.7 Hz. This is believed to be the fundamental frequency of the surrounding soil medium. The rocking motions of the building are negligible.

  19. Least-squares solution of ill-conditioned systems. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branham, R. L., Jr.

    1980-11-01

    A singular-value analysis of normal equations from observations of minor planets 6 (Hebe), 7 (Iris), 8 (Flora), 9 (Metis), and 15 (Eunomia) is undertaken to determine corrections to a number of astronomical parameters, particularly the equinox correction for the FK4. In a previous investigation the test for small singular values was criticized because it resulted in discordant equinox determinations. Here it is shown that none of the tests employed by singular-value analysis leads to solutions superior to those given by classical least squares. It is concluded that singular-value analysis has legitimate uses in astronomy, but that it is misapplied when employed to estimate astronomical parameters in a well defined model. Also discussed is the question of whether it is preferable to reduce the equations of condition by orthogonal transformations rather than to form normal equations. Some suggestions are made regarding the desirability of planning observational programs in such a way that the observations do not lead to extremely ill-conditioned systems.

  20. Mars Hybrid Propulsion System Trajectory Analysis. Part II; Cargo Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Human Spaceflight Architecture Team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture in which both chemical and electric propulsion systems are used to send crew and cargo to Mars destinations such as Phobos, Deimos, the surface of Mars, and other orbits around Mars. By combining chemical and electrical propulsion into a single spaceship and applying each where it is more effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel-efficient than an all chemical architecture without significant increases in flight times. This paper shows the feasibility of the hybrid transportation architecture to pre-deploy cargo to Mars and Phobos in support of the Evolvable Mars Campaign crew missions. The analysis shows that the hybrid propulsion stage is able to deliver all of the current manifested payload to Phobos and Mars through the first three crew missions. The conjunction class trajectory also allows the hybrid propulsion stage to return to Earth in a timely fashion so it can be reused for additional cargo deployment. The 1,100 days total trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to deliver cargo to Mars every other Earth-Mars transit opportunity. For the first two Mars surface mission in the Evolvable Mars Campaign, the short trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to be reused for three round-trip journeys to Mars, which matches the hybrid propulsion stage's designed lifetime for three round-trip crew missions to the Martian sphere of influence.

  1. Calibration of the Accuscan II In Vivo System for I-125 Thyroid Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Ovard R. Perry; David L. Georgeson

    2011-07-01

    This report describes the March 2011 calibration of the Accuscan II HpGe In Vivo system for I-125 thyroid counting. The source used for the calibration was a DOE manufactured Am-241/Eu-152 source contained in a 22 ml vial BEA Am-241/Eu-152 RMC II-1 with energies from 26 keV to 344 keV. The center of the detector housing was positioned 64 inches from the vault floor. This position places the approximate center line of the detector housing at the center line of the source in the phantom thyroid tube. The energy and efficiency calibration were performed using an RMC II phantom (Appendix J). Performance testing was conducted using source BEA Am-241/Eu-152 RMC II-1 and Validation testing was performed using an I-125 source in a 30 ml vial (I-125 BEA Thyroid 002) and an ANSI N44.3 phantom (Appendix I). This report includes an overview introduction and records for the energy/FWHM and efficiency calibration including performance verification and validation counting. The Accuscan II system was successfully calibrated for counting the thyroid for I-125 and verified in accordance with ANSI/HPS N13.30-1996 criteria.

  2. Random vibration analysis of the Topaz-II nuclear reactor power system. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, S.E.

    1995-06-01

    The TOPAZ-II Ya-21U is one of six Russian made space nuclear power systems which is based on theomionic power conversion. The U.S. is presently analyzing TOPAZ-II to determine the reliability and feasibility of using this system. A structural analysis test was conducted on the TOPAZ unit in May 1993 to provide data from which modal parameters could be identified. This test showed the fundamental frequency to be 10.5 Hz, yet the test results that the Russians conducted identified a fundamental frequency of 5 Hz. Another finite element model was created incorporating new developments in TOPAZ-II and modifications to the finite element model to better simulate the mass properties of the TOPAZ-II2. A second structural analysis test was conducted on the TOPAZ unit 06-09 September 1994. This thesis focuses on the random vibration analysis of the TOPAZ-II Ya-2lU utilizing the most recent test results and the Master Series (updated version) I-DEAS software. The modal respose of the model and simulated random vibration tests were within 8.33%. This model is a feasible tool which can be used to analyze the TOPAZ unit without testing the unit to fatigue.

  3. SH-2F LAMPS Instructional Systems Development: Phase II. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Andrew S.; Hymes, Jonah P.

    This project was one of four aircrew training development projects in a continuing study of the methodology, effectiveness, and resource requirements of the Instructional Systems Development (ISD) process. This report covers the Phase II activities of a two-phase project for the development of aircrew training for SH-2F anti-submarine warfare…

  4. 46 CFR 128.210 - Class II vital systems-materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....210 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Materials and Pressure Design § 128.210 Class II vital systems—materials... Commanding Officer, Marine Safety Center, if shown to provide a level of safety equivalent to materials...

  5. Geologic and aeromagnetic map of a part of the Mescalero Apache Indian Reservation, Otero County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.L.; Foord, E.E.; Meyer, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    This map covers approximately 600 square miles of the 750 square miles of the Mescalero Apache Indian Reservation in south-central New Mexico. Rocks exposed in the map area are chiefly gently dipping and gently folded Mesozoic and Paleozoic strata that are displaced by high-angle tensional faults into grabens, horsts, and tilted fault blocks. The Paleozoic strata were deposited unconformably on an eroded mountainous terrain of Precambrian syenite, melasyenite, quartz syenite, alkali granite, and alkali-granite pegmatite; the alkalic igneous rocks are dated at 1,150 /plus minus/ 40 m.y. by K/Ar methods.

  6. REPHLEX II: An information management system for the ARS Water Data Base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurman, Jane L.

    1993-08-01

    The REPHLEX II computer system is an on-line information management system which allows scientists, engineers, and other researchers to retrieve data from the ARS Water Data Base using asynchronous communications. The system features two phone lines handling baud rates from 300 to 2400, customized menus to facilitate browsing, help screens, direct access to information and data files, electronic mail processing, file transfers using the XMODEM protocol, and log-in procedures which capture information on new users, process passwords, and log activity for a permanent audit trail. The primary data base on the REPHLEX II system is the ARS Water Data Base which consists of rainfall and runoff data from experimental agricultural watersheds located in the United States.

  7. Operator interface for the PEP-II low level RF control system

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, S.; Claus, R.

    1997-05-01

    This paper focuses on the operational aspects of the low level RF control system being built for the PEP-II storage rings at SLAC. Subsystems requiring major operational considerations include displays for monitor and control from UNIX workstations, slow feedback loops and control sequences residing on microprocessors, and various client applications in the existing SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) control system. Since commissioning of PEP-II RF is currently in-progress, only those parts of the control system used during this phase are discussed in detail. Based on past experience with the SLC control system, it is expected that effort expended during commissioning on a solid user interface will result in smoother transition to full reliable 24-hour-a-day operation.

  8. Development and comparison of a TOPAZ-II system model with experimental data

    SciTech Connect

    Paramonov, D.V.; El-Genk, M.S. . Inst. for Space Nuclear Power Studies)

    1994-11-01

    An integrated model of the TOPAZ-II space nuclear reactor system is developed and compared with measurements from the TOPAZ-II, V-71 unit tests. For a given reactor thermal power, the model calculates the coolant flow rate, temperature, and pressure throughout the system; load electric power; and overall system efficiency. Model predictions showed good agreement with the experimental data. The calculated coolant temperatures and pressure are within 15 K (< 2%) and 12% of the measurements, respectively. Analysis showed that at the nominal operating thermal power of the system (115 kW), and NaK coolant is highly subcooled. The largest subcooling of 365 K occurs at the exit of the electromagnetic pump, where coolant pressure is highest, and the lowest subcooling of 275 K occurs at the exit of the reactor core, where coolant temperature is highest.

  9. Vacuum system design for the PEP-II B Factory High-Energy Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, C.; Bostic, D.; Daly, E.

    1994-06-01

    The design of the vacuum system for the PEP-II B Factory High-Energy Ring is reviewed. The thermal design and vacuum requirements are particularly challenging in PEP-II due to high stored beam currents up to 3.0 amps in 1658 bunches. The vacuum chambers for the HER arcs are fabricated by electron beam welding extruded copper sections up to 6 m long. Design of these chambers and the vacuum PumPing configuration is described with results from vacuum and thermal analyses.

  10. Atlantis II Deep geothermal brine system. Hydrographic situation in 1977 and changes since 1965

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, M.

    1980-02-01

    The geothermal brine system of the Atlantis II Deep in the Red Sea was reinvestigated hydrographically and chemically in November 1977. A comparison with results from earlier investigations confirms an increase of the hot brine volume, as suggested by the 1972 measurements ( SCHOELL, Bundesanstalt für Bodenforschung, Hannover, 1063 pp. 1974). The rate of increase is evidently parallel to the rate of temperature increase. The salinity of the lower brine was nearly constant during this period. The nearby Discovery Deep brine is evidently unaffected by the changes in the Atlantis II Deep as its temperature was constant within ±0.1°C during this time.

  11. A FASTBUS flash ADC system for the Mark II vertex chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, L.

    1988-10-01

    This is a description of a flash ADC system built for the Mark II experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). This system was designed for use in the experiment's vertex chamber where signals could occur over a relatively long time, approximately 10 microseconds. This long time, coupled with fast cable amplifiers, necessitated an alternate design approach than was used with a dE/dX FASTBUS flash ADC design. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  12. Novel type-II material system for laser applications in the near-infrared regime

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, C. Möller, C.; Hens, P.; Fuchs, C.; Stolz, W.; Koch, S. W.; Ruiz Perez, A.

    2015-04-15

    The design and experimental realization of a type-II “W”-multiple quantum well heterostructure for emission in the λ > 1.2 μm range is presented. The experimental photoluminescence spectra for different excitation intensities are analyzed using microscopic quantum theory. On the basis of the good theory–experiment agreement, the gain properties of the system are computed using the semiconductor Bloch equations. Gain values comparable to those of type-I systems are obtained.

  13. Constituting fully integrated visual analysis system for Cu(II) on TiO₂/cellulose paper.

    PubMed

    Li, Shun-Xing; Lin, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Feng-Ying; Liang, Wenjie; Zhong, Yanxue; Cai, Jiabai

    2014-07-15

    As a cheap and abundant porous material, cellulose filter paper was used to immobilize nano-TiO2 and denoted as TiO2/cellulose paper (TCP). With high adsorption capacity for Cu(II) (more than 1.65 mg), TCP was used as an adsorbent, photocatalyst, and colorimetric sensor at the same time. Under the optimum adsorption conditions, i.e., pH 6.5 and 25 °C, the adsorption ratio of Cu(II) was higher than 96.1%. Humic substances from the matrix could be enriched onto TCP but the interference of their colors on colorimetric detection could be eliminated by the photodegradation. In the presence of hydroxylamine, neocuproine, as a selective indicator, was added onto TCP, and a visual color change from white to orange was generated. The concentration of Cu(II) was quantified by the color intensity images using image processing software. This fully integrated visual analysis system was successfully applied for the detection of Cu(II) in 10.0 L of drinking water and seawater with a preconcentration factor of 10(4). The log-linear calibration curve for Cu(II) was in the range of 0.5-50.0 μg L(-1) with a determination coefficient (R(2)) of 0.985 and its detection limit was 0.073 μg L(-1). PMID:24942844

  14. Airborne radioactivity of portions of the Defiance Uplift and Carrizo Mountains, Apache county, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, R.W.; Moxham, R.M.

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey covering 940 square miles in Apache county, Arizona. The survey was made by the U.S. Geological Survey from September 8 to October 3, 1952, as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation-detection equipment mounted in a Douglas DC-3 aircraft. Parallel traverse lines, spaced at quarter-mile intervals, were flown approximately 500 feet above the ground. Aerial photographs were used for pilot guidance, and the flight path of the aircraft was recorded by a gyro-stabilized, continuous-strip-film camera. The distance of the aircraft from the ground was measured with a continuously recording radio altimeter. At 500 feet above the ground, the width of the zone from which anomalous radioactivity is measured varies with the intensity of radiation of the source and, for strong sources, the width would be as much as 1,400 feet. Quarter-mile spacing of the flight paths of the aircraft should be adequate to detect anomalies from strong sources of radioactivity. However, small areas of considerable radioactivity midway between flight paths may not be noted. The approximate location of each radioactivity anomaly is shown on the accompanying map. The plotted position of an anomaly may be in error by as much as a quarter of a mile owing to errors in the available base maps up to several square miles in which it is impossible to find and plot recognizable landmarks. The radioactivity anomaly that is recorded by airborne measurements at 500 feet above the ground can be caused by: 1. A moderately large area in which the rocks and soils are slightly more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area. 2. A smaller area in which the rocks and soils are considerably more radioactive than rocks and soils in the surrounding area. 3. A very small area in which to rocks and soils are much more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the

  15. Angiotensin II and vasopressin are involved in the defense system against anaphylactic hypotension in anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mofei; Shibamoto, Toshishige; Kuda, Yuhichi; Sun, Lingling; Tanida, Mamoru; Kurata, Yasutaka

    2014-05-15

    Anaphylactic shock is sometimes life-threatening, but the defense system against this circulatory failure was not fully understood. Ameliorating roles of angiotensin (ANG) II and vasopressin in anaphylactic hypotension were investigated in anesthetized ovalbumin-sensitized Sprague-Dawley rats. The sensitized rats were randomly allocated to the following pretreatment groups (n=7/group): (1) control (non-pretreatment), (2) ANG II synthesis inhibitor captopril, (3) ANG II receptor antagonist losartan, and (4) V1a vasopressin receptor antagonist. Anaphylactic shock was induced by an intravenous injection of the antigen. The systemic arterial pressure (SAP), central venous pressure (CVP), portal venous pressure (PVP) and portal venous blood flow (PBF) were measured, and splanchnic vascular resistance (Rspl: (SAP-PVP)/PBF) was determined. In the control group, SAP markedly decreased, followed by a gradual recovery toward baseline. Rspl transiently decreased immediately after antigen, and then increased 1.5-fold at 15 min and thereafter. The pretreatment with either losartan, captopril or V1a receptor antagonist augmented the initial fall of SAP and attenuated the SAP recovery along with augmentation of the late increase in Rspl. The 2-h survival rate was significantly smaller in either pretreatment group than in the control group (100%). Plasma levels of ANG II and vasopressin increased to 3.8- and 9.8-fold, respectively, at 30 min after antigen in the control group, whereas captopril pretreatment inhibited the increase in ANG II. In conclusion, inhibition of ANG II or vasopressin exacerbates anaphylaxis-induced hypotension in anesthetized rats. PMID:24650734

  16. Involvement of Spinal Angiotensin II System in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Neuropathic Pain in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Yoshiki; Nemoto, Wataru; Nakagawasai, Osamu; Yamagata, Ryota; Tadano, Takeshi; Tan-No, Koichi

    2016-09-01

    Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity increases under hyperglycemic states, and is thought to be involved in diabetic complications. We previously demonstrated that angiotensin (Ang) II, a main bioactive component of the RAS, might act as a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator in the transmission of nociceptive information in the spinal cord. Here, we examined whether the spinal Ang II system is responsible for diabetic neuropathic pain induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Tactile allodynia was observed concurrently with an increase in blood glucose levels the day after mice received STZ (200 mg/kg, i.v.) injections. Tactile allodynia on day 14 was dose-dependently inhibited by intrathecal administration of losartan, an Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist, but not by PD123319, an AT2 receptor antagonist. In the lumbar dorsal spinal cord, the expression of Ang II, Ang converting enzyme (ACE), and phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were all significantly increased on day 14 after STZ injection compared with vehicle-treated controls, whereas no differences were observed among AT1 receptors or angiotensinogen levels. Moreover, the increase in phospho-p38 MAPK was significantly inhibited by intrathecal administration of losartan. These results indicate that the expression of spinal ACE increased in STZ-induced diabetic mice, which in turn led to an increase in Ang II levels and tactile allodynia. This increase in spinal Ang II was accompanied by the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, which was shown to be mediated by AT1 receptors. PMID:27401876

  17. Arc Detection and Interlock Module for the PEP II Low Level RF System

    SciTech Connect

    Tighe, R.; /SLAC

    2011-08-31

    A new arc detection and interlock generating module for the SLAC PEP-II low-level RF VXI-based system has been developed. The system is required to turn off the RF drive and high voltage power supply in the event of arcing in the cavity windows, klystron window, or circulator. Infrared photodiodes receive arc signals through radiation resistant optical fibers. Gain and bandwidth are selectable for each channel to allow tailoring response. The module also responds to interlock requests from other modules in the VXI system and communicates with the programmable logic controller (PLC) responsible for much of the low-level RF system's interlock functionality.

  18. 25 CFR 547.7 - What are the minimum technical hardware standards applicable to Class II gaming systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... they exhibit immunity to human body electrostatic discharges on areas exposed to contact. Static... applicable to Class II gaming systems? 547.7 Section 547.7 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING SYSTEMS...

  19. 25 CFR 547.7 - What are the minimum technical hardware standards applicable to Class II gaming systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... they exhibit immunity to human body electrostatic discharges on areas exposed to contact. Static... applicable to Class II gaming systems? 547.7 Section 547.7 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING SYSTEMS...

  20. Dissection of the interferon gamma-MHC class II signal transduction pathway reveals that type I and type II interferon systems share common signalling component(s).

    PubMed Central

    Loh, J E; Chang, C H; Fodor, W L; Flavell, R A

    1992-01-01

    We have used a herpes virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) based metabolic selection system to isolate mutants defective in the interferon gamma mediated induction of the MHC class II promoter. All the mutations act in trans and result in no detectable induction of MHC and invariant chain (Ii) gene expression. Scatchard analysis indicates that the mutants have a normal number of surface IFN gamma receptors with the same affinity constant. The mutants fall into two broad categories. One class of mutants is still able to induce MHC class I, IRF-1, 9-27, 1-8 and GBP genes by IFN gamma. A second class of mutants is defective for the IFN gamma induction of all the genes tested; surprisingly, the IFN alpha/beta induction of MHC class I, 9-27, ISG54 and ISG15 genes is also defective in these mutants, although different members of this class can be discriminated by the response of the GBP and IRF-1 genes to type I interferons. These data demonstrate that the signalling pathways of both type I and type II interferon systems share common signal transduction component(s). These mutants will be useful for the study of IFN gamma regulation of class II genes and Ii chain, and to elucidate molecular components of type I and type II interferon signal transduction. Images PMID:1314162

  1. MONSTIR II: A 32-channel, multispectral, time-resolved optical tomography system for neonatal brain imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Robert J. Magee, Elliott; Everdell, Nick; Magazov, Salavat; Varela, Marta; Airantzis, Dimitrios; Gibson, Adam P.; Hebden, Jeremy C.

    2014-05-15

    We detail the design, construction and performance of the second generation UCL time-resolved optical tomography system, known as MONSTIR II. Intended primarily for the study of the newborn brain, the system employs 32 source fibres that sequentially transmit picosecond pulses of light at any four wavelengths between 650 and 900 nm. The 32 detector channels each contain an independent photo-multiplier tube and temporally correlated photon-counting electronics that allow the photon transit time between each source and each detector position to be measured with high temporal resolution. The system's response time, temporal stability, cross-talk, and spectral characteristics are reported. The efficacy of MONSTIR II is demonstrated by performing multi-spectral imaging of a simple phantom.

  2. MONSTIR II: a 32-channel, multispectral, time-resolved optical tomography system for neonatal brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Robert J; Magee, Elliott; Everdell, Nick; Magazov, Salavat; Varela, Marta; Airantzis, Dimitrios; Gibson, Adam P; Hebden, Jeremy C

    2014-05-01

    We detail the design, construction and performance of the second generation UCL time-resolved optical tomography system, known as MONSTIR II. Intended primarily for the study of the newborn brain, the system employs 32 source fibres that sequentially transmit picosecond pulses of light at any four wavelengths between 650 and 900 nm. The 32 detector channels each contain an independent photo-multiplier tube and temporally correlated photon-counting electronics that allow the photon transit time between each source and each detector position to be measured with high temporal resolution. The system's response time, temporal stability, cross-talk, and spectral characteristics are reported. The efficacy of MONSTIR II is demonstrated by performing multi-spectral imaging of a simple phantom. PMID:24880351

  3. Antero-posterior lingual sliding retraction system for orthodontic correction of hyperdivergent Class II protrusion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This report introduces a lingual bonded retraction system (Kinematics of Lingual Bar on Non-Paralleling Technique, KILBON) for efficient sliding mechanics combined with vertical control of the anterior and posterior teeth, which is suitable for Class II hyperdivergent patients. Methods Design and biomechanics of the KILBON System were described. Two adults with hyperdivergent class II malocclusion were treated with the KILBON system and temporary skeletal anchorage devices (TSADs) on the palate. The first patient was treated with conventional KILBON system on the upper arch and detailed with lingual appliances. The second patient showed the modified design of the KILBON when applied to a low palatal vault. Results A large amount of intrusion and retraction of the anterior teeth and simultaneous intrusion of the posterior segment were achieved in short treatment time. Concomitant counterclockwise rotation of the mandible improved the esthetic profile. Periodontal support without dehiscence or bone loss was confirmed on anterior region in spite of large amount of retraction. Conclusions This report presented a lingual retraction system that provides simple and effective vertical and sagittal control of both anterior and posterior teeth. The biomechanics are dependable for correcting a dentoalveolar protrusion in a patient with Class II hyperdivergent skeletal pattern. PMID:24897979

  4. INCIDENCE OF Mg II ABSORPTION SYSTEMS TOWARD FLAT-SPECTRUM RADIO QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Chand, Hum; Gopal-Krishna E-mail: krishna@ncra.tifr.res.in

    2012-07-20

    The conventional wisdom that the rate of incidence of Mg II absorption systems, dN/dz (excluding 'associated systems' having a velocity {beta}c relative to the active galactic nucleus (AGN) of less than {approx}5000 km s{sup -1}), is totally independent of the background AGNs has been challenged by a recent finding that dN/dz for strong Mg II absorption systems toward distant blazars is 2.2 {+-} {sup 0.8}{sub 0.6} times the value known for normal optically selected quasars (QSOs). This has led to the suggestion that a significant fraction of even the absorption systems with {beta} as high as {approx}0.1 may have been ejected by the relativistic jets in the blazars, which are expected to be pointed close to our direction. Here, we investigate this scenario using a large sample of 115 flat-spectrum radio-loud quasars (FSRQs) that also possess powerful jets, but are only weakly polarized. We show, for the first time, that dN/dz toward FSRQs is, on the whole, quite similar to that known for QSOs and that the comparative excess of strong Mg II absorption systems seen toward blazars is mainly confined to {beta} < 0.15. The excess relative to FSRQs probably results from a likely closer alignment of blazar jets with our direction; hence, any gas clouds accelerated by them are more likely to be on the line of sight to the active quasar nucleus.

  5. Fiber optic timing, firing and control system for high energy density physics experiments at Pegasus II

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, C.R.; Rohlev, L.; Earley, L.; Cochrane, J.

    1995-12-01

    Several fiber optic systems have been designed and implemented for the high energy density experiments at Pegasus II. The main fiber optic system developed for Pegasus II, remotely controls both the charging and discharging of the capacitor discharge unit (CDU). This fiber optic system is also used to distribute the timing and firing information specific to each experiment to the operators and experimenters. The timing and firing information includes the voltage on the CDU as it is being charged, a confirmation signal indicating the CDU has discharged and common timing signals based on the output signals on the load ring of the CDU. Various fiber optic systems were implemented to transfer diagnostic information related to the discharge of the main capacitor bank to the control room. The diagnostics include the current, electric field, and vacuum pressure at the target area. Not only do these fiber optic systems provide the control and monitor signals for the experiments at Pegasus II, they have the added value of preventing premature firing of the capacitor bank, eliminating ground loops between the test area and the control room and providing overall increased operator safety.

  6. Calibration of the Accuscan II IN Vivo System for High Energy Lung Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Ovard R. Perry; David L. Georgeson

    2011-07-01

    This report describes the April 2011 calibration of the Accuscan II HpGe In Vivo system for high energy lung counting. The source used for the calibration was a NIST traceable lung set manufactured at the University of Cincinnati UCLL43AMEU & UCSL43AMEU containing Am-241 and Eu-152 with energies from 26 keV to 1408 keV. The lung set was used in conjunction with a Realistic Torso phantom. The phantom was placed on the RMC II counting table (with pins removed) between the v-ridges on the backwall of the Accuscan II counter. The top of the detector housing was positioned perpendicular to the junction of the phantom clavicle with the sternum. This position places the approximate center line of the detector housing with the center of the lungs. The energy and efficiency calibrations were performed using a Realistic Torso phantom (Appendix I) and the University of Cincinnati lung set. This report includes an overview introduction and records for the energy/FWHM and efficiency calibration including performance verification and validation counting. The Accuscan II system was successfully calibrated for high energy lung counting and verified in accordance with ANSI/HPS N13.30-1996 criteria.

  7. Calibration of the Accuscan II In Vivo System for Whole Body Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Orval R. Perry; David L. Georgeson

    2011-08-01

    This report describes the April 2011 calibration of the Accuscan II HpGe In Vivo system for whole body counting. The source used for the calibration was a NIST traceable BOMAB manufactured by DOE as INL2006 BOMAB containing Eu-154, Eu-155, Eu-152, Sb-125 and Y-88 with energies from 27 keV to 1836 keV with a reference date of 11/29/2006. The actual usable energy range was 86.5 keV to 1597 keV on 4/21/2011. The BOMAB was constructed inside the Accuscan II counting 'tub' in the order of legs, thighs, abdomen, thorax/arms, neck, and head. Each piece was taped to the backwall of the counter. The arms were taped to the thorax. The phantom was constructed between the v-ridges on the backwall of the Accuscan II counter. The energy and efficiency calibrations were performed using the INL2006 BOMAB. The calibrations were performed with the detectors in the scanning mode. This report includes an overview introduction and records for the energy/FWHM and efficiency calibration including performance verification and validation counting. The Accuscan II system was successfully calibrated for whole body counting and verified in accordance with ANSI/HPS N13.30-1996 criteria.

  8. The Apache Longbow-Hellfire Missile Test at Yuma Proving Ground: Ecological Risk Assessment for Helicopter Overflight

    SciTech Connect

    Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Hargrove, William Walter; Suter, Glenn

    2008-01-01

    A multi-stressor risk assessment was conducted at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, as a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework. The focus of the assessment was a testing program at Cibola Range, which involved an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, M60-A1 tanks. This paper focuses on the wildlife risk assessment for the helicopter overflight. The primary stressors were sound and the view of the aircraft. Exposure to desert mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus crooki) was quantified using Air Force sound contour programs NOISEMAP and MR_NMAP, which gave very different results. Slant distance from helicopters to deer was also used as a measure of exposure that integrated risk from sound and view of the aircraft. Exposure-response models for the characterization of effects consisted of behavioral thresholds in sound exposure level or maximum sound level units or slant distance. Available sound thresholds were limited for desert mule deer, but a distribution of slant-distance thresholds was available for ungulates. The risk characterization used a weight-of-evidence approach and concluded that risk to mule deer behavior from the Apache overflight is uncertain, but that no risk to mule deer abundance and reproduction is expected.

  9. Emergency Response Equipment and Related Training: Airborne Radiological Computer System (Model II)

    SciTech Connect

    David P. Colton

    2007-02-28

    The materials included in the Airborne Radiological Computer System, Model-II (ARCS-II) were assembled with several considerations in mind. First, the system was designed to measure and record the airborne gamma radiation levels and the corresponding latitude and longitude coordinates, and to provide a first overview look of the extent and severity of an accident's impact. Second, the portable system had to be light enough and durable enough that it could be mounted in an aircraft, ground vehicle, or watercraft. Third, the system must control the collection and storage of the data, as well as provide a real-time display of the data collection results to the operator. The notebook computer and color graphics printer components of the system would only be used for analyzing and plotting the data. In essence, the provided equipment is composed of an acquisition system and an analysis system. The data can be transferred from the acquisition system to the analysis system at the end of the data collection or at some other agreeable time.

  10. Experimental implementation of edge nodes for an OPS system based on Nios II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoyun; Xu, Bo; Qiu, Kun; Zhou, Heng

    2008-12-01

    The advantages of Optical Packet Switching (OPS) are transparent data transmission and data format, flexible packet control and dynamic resource allocation. It thus can support high-speed transmission of wideband data networks. Unlike Optical Burst Switching (OBS) systems which need reserved channel to transmit destination address, an advanced OPS solution using Optical Orthogonal Code (OOC) label for payload transfer has been proposed in this paper. Different from other OPS systems, our edge nodes are required to realize some special tasks including extracting destination addresses of the received IP packet which is used as payload in our OPS systems and sending the addresses to the OOC label generator. The OOC label will later be used to identify the destination of each payload at the core node for optical switching. Meanwhile, the higher-priority flow can be prior-serviced according to the Type of Service (TOS) in the head of IP packet. It is experimentally shown that the edge nodes in this OPS system can effectively improve the efficiency of packet switching and the speed of data transmission. The edge node implementation contains two parts: the hardware and software. For the hardware part, all necessary modules have been integrated onto one PCB board, thus avoiding possible instability caused by interconnecting different modules like transmitting/receiving Ethernet frame module, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) processing module and optical transceiver module etc. from different Printed Circuit Boards (PCB). For the software part, the whole of system was based on MicroC/OS-II operating systems running on the Nios II soft core processor. It is verified by the experiment that embedded system designed with Nios II soft core CPU can help to speed up the hardware design. With the SOPC Builder's development environment, more attention can be paid to the structure and function of the system without worrying about the details of the circuit design, and better

  11. Maxillary molar distalization with MGBM-system in class II malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Maino, Giuliano; Mariani, Lisa; Bozzo, Ida; Maino, Giovanna; Caprioglio, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the treatment effects of the MGBM-System (G.B Maino, A. Giannelly, R. Bernard, P. Mura), a new intraoral device to treat Class II malocclusions Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to compare the pre-distalization and post-distalization cephalograms and dental model casts of 30 patients (15 male, 15 female) with Class II malocclusion treated with MGBM-System. Mean age at the beginning of treatment was 13.3 years (standard deviation 3.3). Angular, horizontal and vertical measurements were recorded to monitor skeletal and dental-alveolar changes. Molar movements in horizontal plane were monitored by making dental measurements on dental model casts. Results: The MGBM-System produced a rapid molar distalization and Class II relationship was corrected in 8 months ± 2.05, on average. The maxillary first molars were distalized of 4.14 (PTV-6 cemento-enamel junction), associated with a significant distal axis incline of 10. 5° referred to SN and a significant intrusion of 1.3 mm (PP). As for anchorage loss, the first premolar exhibited a significant mesial movement of 0.86 mm, associated with a significant mesial axis incline of 2.46°. No significative changes in either sagittal or vertical skeletal relationship were observed. Conclusion: The results suggest that the MGBM-System is an efficient and reliable device for distalizing the maxillary permanent first and second molars. PMID:24987649

  12. Precious Metals in SDSS Quasar Spectra. II. Tracking the Evolution of Strong, 0.4 < z < 2.3 Mg II Absorbers with Thousands of Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyffert, Eduardo N.; Cooksey, Kathy L.; Simcoe, Robert A.; O'Meara, John M.; Kao, Melodie M.; Prochaska, J. Xavier

    2013-12-01

    We have performed an analysis of over 34,000 Mg II doublets at 0.36 < z < 2.29 in Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 quasar spectra; the catalog, advanced data products, and tools for analysis are publicly available. The catalog was divided into 14 small redshift bins with roughly 2500 doublets in each and from Monte Carlo simulations, we estimate 50% completeness at rest equivalent width W r ≈ 0.8 Å. The equivalent width frequency distribution is described well by an exponential model at all redshifts, and the distribution becomes flatter with increasing redshift, i.e., there are more strong systems relative to weak ones. Direct comparison with previous SDSS Mg II surveys reveals that we recover at least 70% of the doublets in these other catalogs, in addition to detecting thousands of new systems. We discuss how these surveys came by their different results, which qualitatively agree but because of the very small uncertainties, differ by a statistically significant amount. The estimated physical cross section of Mg II-absorbing galaxy halos increased approximately threefold from z = 0.4 to z = 2.3, while the W r >= 1 Å absorber line density, d {N}_{{Mg}\\,\\scriptsize{II}}/d X, grew by roughly 45%. Finally, we explore the different evolution of various absorber populations—damped Lyα absorbers, Lyman limit systems, strong C IV absorbers, and strong and weaker Mg II systems—across cosmic time (0 < z < 6).

  13. BqsR/BqsS Constitute a Two-Component System That Senses Extracellular Fe(II) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Kreamer, Naomi N. K.; Wilks, Jessica C.; Marlow, Jeffrey J.; Coleman, Maureen L.

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium best known as the predominant opportunistic pathogen infecting the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. In this context, it is thought to form biofilms, within which locally reducing and acidic conditions can develop that favor the stability of ferrous iron [Fe(II)]. Because iron is a signal that stimulates biofilm formation, we performed a microarray study to determine whether P. aeruginosa strain PA14 exhibits a specific transcriptional response to extracellular Fe(II). Among the genes that were most upregulated in response to Fe(II) were those encoding the two-component system BqsR/BqsS, previously identified for its role in P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 biofilm decay (13); here, we demonstrate its role in extracellular Fe(II) sensing. bqsS and bqsR form an operon together with two small upstream genes, bqsP and bqsQ, and one downstream gene, bqsT. BqsR/BqsS sense extracellular Fe(II) at physiologically relevant concentrations (>10 μM) and elicit a specific transcriptional response, including its autoregulation. The sensor distinguishes between Fe(II), Fe(III), and other dipositive cations [Ca(II), Cu(II), Mg(II), Mn(II), Zn(II)] under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. The gene that is most upregulated by BqsR/BqsS, as measured by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR), is PA14_04180, which is predicted to encode a periplasmic oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding domain (OB-fold) protein. Coincident with phenazine production during batch culture growth, Fe(II) becomes the majority of the total iron pool and bqsS is upregulated. The existence of a two-component system that senses Fe(II) indicates that extracellular Fe(II) is an important environmental signal for P. aeruginosa. PMID:22194456

  14. Planned flight test of a mercury ion auxiliary propulsion system. II - Integration with host spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    This is part II of a three-part paper describing the approved flight test of a mercury ion auxiliary propulsion system. The objectives of the flight test are summarized with reference to user application. The approach to accomplishment is presented as it applies to integrating the propulsion system with the host spacecraft, USAF's STP P80-1. A number of known interface design considerations which affect the propulsion system and the spacecraft are discussed. Finally, analogies are drawn comparing the relationship of the organizations involved with this flight test with those anticipated for future operational missions. Attention is given to the viewpoint of the project office

  15. Occurrence and activity of a type II CRISPR-Cas system in Lactobacillus gasseri.

    PubMed

    Sanozky-Dawes, Rosemary; Selle, Kurt; O'Flaherty, Sarah; Klaenhammer, Todd; Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2015-09-01

    Bacteria encode clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and CRISPR-associated genes (cas), which collectively form an RNA-guided adaptive immune system against invasive genetic elements. In silico surveys have revealed that lactic acid bacteria harbour a prolific and diverse set of CRISPR-Cas systems. Thus, the natural evolutionary role of CRISPR-Cas systems may be investigated in these ecologically, industrially, scientifically and medically important microbes. In this study, 17 Lactobacillus gasseri strains were investigated and 6 harboured a type II-A CRISPR-Cas system, with considerable diversity in array size and spacer content. Several of the spacers showed similarity to phage and plasmid sequences, which are typical targets of CRISPR-Cas immune systems. Aligning the protospacers facilitated inference of the protospacer adjacent motif sequence, determined to be 5'-NTAA-3' flanking the 3' end of the protospacer. The system in L. gasseri JV-V03 and NCK 1342 interfered with transforming plasmids containing sequences matching the most recently acquired CRISPR spacers in each strain. We report the distribution and function of a native type II-A CRISPR-Cas system in the commensal species L. gasseri. Collectively, these results open avenues for applications for bacteriophage protection and genome modification in L. gasseri, and contribute to the fundamental understanding of CRISPR-Cas systems in bacteria. PMID:26297561

  16. Sensory rhodopsins I and II modulate a methylation/demethylation system in Halobacterium halobium phototaxis

    SciTech Connect

    Spudich, E.N.; Takahashi, T.; Spudich, J.L. )

    1989-10-01

    This work demonstrates that phototaxis stimuli in the archaebacterium Halobacterium halobium control a methylation/demethylation system in vivo through photoactivation of sensory rhodopsin I (SR-I) in either its attractant or repellent signaling form as well as through the repellent receptor sensory rhodopsin II (SR-II, also called phoborhodopsin). The effects of positive stimuli that suppress swimming reversals (i.e., an increase in attractant or decrease in repellent light) and negative stimuli that induce swimming reversals (i.e., a decrease in attractant or increase in repellent light) through each photoreceptor were monitored by assaying release of volatile (3H)methyl groups. This assay has been used to measure (3H)methanol produced during the process of adaptation to chemotactic stimuli in eubacteria. In H. halobium positive photostimuli produce a transient increase in the rate of demethylation followed by a decrease below the unstimulated value, whereas negative photostimuli cause an increase followed by a rate similar to that of the unstimulated value. Photoactivation of the SR-I attractant and simultaneous photoactivation of the SR-II repellent receptors cancel in their effects on demethylation, demonstrating the methylation system is regulated by an integrated signal. Analysis of mutants indicates that the source for the volatile methyl groups is intrinsic membrane proteins distinct from the chromoproteins that share the membrane. A methyl-accepting protein (94 kDa) previously correlated in amount with the SR-I chromoprotein (25 kDa) is shown here to be missing in a recently isolated SR-I-SR-II+ mutant (Flx3b), thus confirming the association of this protein with SR-I. Photoactivated SR-II in mutant Flx3b controls demethylation, predicting the existence of a photomodulated methyl-accepting component distinct from the 94-kDa protein of SR-I.

  17. System Integral Test by BWR Drywell Cooler Applied as Phase-II Accident Management

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasaka, Hideo; Tobimatsu, Toshimi; Tahara, Mika; Yokobori, Seiichi; Akinaga, Makoto

    2002-07-01

    This paper deals with the system interaction performance using the BWR drywell local cooler (DWC) in combination with containment spray as a Japanese Phase-II accident management (AM). By using almost full height simulation test facility (GIRAFFE-DWC) with scaling ratio of 1/600, the system integral tests simulating BWR low pressure vessel failure sequence were accomplished during about 14 hours. In case of DWC application, the containment pressure increase was found milder due to DWC heat removal performance. Initial spray timing was delayed about 3 hours and each spray period was reduced almost by half. It was concluded that the application of a BWR DWC to Phase-II AM measure is quite promising from the point of delaying or preventing the containment venting. (authors)

  18. Stereotactic Image-Guided Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy Using the HI-ART II Helical Tomotherapy System

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Timothy W. Hudes, Richard; Dziuba, Sylwester; Kazi, Abdul; Hall, Mark; Dawson, Dana

    2008-07-01

    The highly integrated adaptive radiation therapy (HI-ART II) helical tomotherapy unit is a new radiotherapy machine designed to achieve highly precise and accurate treatments at all body sites. The precision and accuracy of the HI-ART II is similar to that provided by stereotactic radiosurgery systems, hence the historical distinction between external beam radiotherapy and stereotactic procedures based on differing precision requirements is removed for this device. The objectives of this work are: (1) to describe stereotactic helical tomotherapy processes (SRS, SBRT); (2) to show that the precision and accuracy of the HI-ART meet the requirements defined for SRS and SBRT; and (3) to describe the clinical implementation of a stereotactic image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) system that incorporates optical motion management.

  19. Towards a systems understanding of MHC class I and MHC class II antigen presentation.

    PubMed

    Neefjes, Jacques; Jongsma, Marlieke L M; Paul, Petra; Bakke, Oddmund

    2011-12-01

    The molecular details of antigen processing and presentation by MHC class I and class II molecules have been studied extensively for almost three decades. Although the basic principles of these processes were laid out approximately 10 years ago, the recent years have revealed many details and provided new insights into their control and specificity. MHC molecules use various biochemical reactions to achieve successful presentation of antigenic fragments to the immune system. Here we present a timely evaluation of the biology of antigen presentation and a survey of issues that are considered unresolved. The continuing flow of new details into our understanding of the biology of MHC class I and class II antigen presentation builds a system involving several cell biological processes, which is discussed in this Review. PMID:22076556

  20. Transtactin: a universal transmembrane delivery system for Strep-tag II-fused cargos

    PubMed Central

    Moosmeier, Markus A; Bulkescher, Julia; Reed, Jennifer; Schnölzer, Martina; Heid, Hans; Hoppe-Seyler, Karin; Hoppe-Seyler, Felix

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The delivery of molecules into cells poses a critical problem that has to be solved for the development of diagnostic tools and therapeutic agents acting on intracellular targets. Cargos which by themselves cannot penetrate cellular membranes due to their biophysical properties can achieve cell membrane permeability by fusion to protein transduction domains (PTDs). Here, we engineered a universal delivery system based on PTD-fused Strep-Tactin, which we named Transtactin. Biochemical characterization of Transtactin variants bearing different PTDs indicated high thermal stabilities and robust secondary structures. Internalization studies demonstrated that Transtactins facilitated simple and safe transport of Strep-tag II-linked small molecules, peptides and multicomponent complexes, or biotinylated proteins into cultured human cells. Transtactin-introduced cargos were functionally active, as shown for horseradish peroxidase serving as a model protein. Our results demonstrate that Transtactin provides a universal and efficient delivery system for Strep-tag II-fused cargos. PMID:19602053

  1. Atomic diffusion processes in heteroepitaxial metallic systems using SLKMC-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Syed Islamuddin; Karim, Altaf

    We have examined the diffusion of small islands of Cu on Ag(111) surface using a self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo (SLKMC-II) method with an improved pattern recognition scheme. Due to strain generated at the interface between metals with different bulk lattice constants, interesting single atom, multi-atom and concerted diffusion processes are automatically revealed in the simulations. Here we will report various processes for small islands in the case of Cu/Ag(111) system. Key processes responsible for island diffusion and their energetics together with trends in effective energy barriers as well as diffusion constants for small islands will also be provided. In addition to 2-D diffusion processes, as an application of SLKMC-II to the 3-dimensional heteroepitaxial systems, we will also report energy barriers of some of the 3-dimensional processes including down the A- and B-steps and exchange processes

  2. RESIS-II: An Updated Version of the Original Reservoir Sedimentation Survey Information System (RESIS) Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Katherine V.; Mixon, David M.; Sundquist, Eric T.; Stallard, Robert F.; Schwarz, Gregory E.; Stewart, David W.

    2009-01-01

    The Reservoir Sedimentation Survey Information System (RESIS) database, originally compiled by the Soil Conservation Service (now the Natural Resources Conservation Service) in collaboration with the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, is the most comprehensive compilation of data from reservoir sedimentation surveys throughout the conterminous United States (U.S.). The database is a cumulative historical archive that includes data from as early as 1755 and as late as 1993. The 1,823 reservoirs included in the database range in size from farm ponds to the largest U.S. reservoirs (such as Lake Mead). Results from 6,617 bathymetric surveys are available in the database. This Data Series provides an improved version of the original RESIS database, termed RESIS-II, and a report describing RESIS-II. The RESIS-II relational database is stored in Microsoft Access and includes more precise location coordinates for most of the reservoirs than the original database but excludes information on reservoir ownership. RESIS-II is anticipated to be a template for further improvements in the database.

  3. Independent Safety Assessment of the TOPAZ-II space nuclear reactor power system (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    1993-09-01

    The Independent Safety Assessment described in this study report was performed to assess the safety of the design and launch plans anticipated by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) in 1993 for a Russian-built, U.S.-modified, TOPAZ-II space nuclear reactor power system. Its conclusions, and the bases for them, were intended to provide guidance for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) management in the event that the DOD requested authorization under section 91b. of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, for possession and use (including ground testing and launch) of a nuclear-fueled, modified TOPAZ-II. The scientists and engineers who were engaged to perform this assessment are nationally-known nuclear safety experts in various disciplines. They met with participants in the TOPAZ-II program during the spring and summer of 1993 and produced a report based on their analysis of the proposed TOPAZ-II mission. Their conclusions were confined to the potential impact on public safety and did not include budgetary, reliability, or risk-benefit analyses.

  4. Evaluation of mono or mixed cultures of lactic acid bacteria in type II sourdough system.

    PubMed

    Ekinci, Raci; Şimşek, Ömer; Küçükçuban, Ayca; Nas, Sebahattin

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of mono and mixed lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cultures to determine suitable LAB combinations for a type II sourdough system. In this context, previously isolated sourdough LAB strains with antimicrobial activity, which included Lactobacillus plantarum PFC22, Lactobacillus brevis PFC31, Pediococcus acidilactici PFC38, and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis PFC80, were used as mono or mixed culture combinations in a fermentation system to produce type II sourdough, and subsequently in bread dough production. Compared to the monoculture fermentation of dough, the use of mixed cultures shortened the adaptation period by half. In addition, the use of mixed cultures ensured higher microbial viability, and enhanced the fruity flavor during bread dough production. It was determined that the combination of L. plantarum PFC22 + P. acidilactici PFC38 + L. sanfranciscensis PFC80 is a promising culture mixture that can be used in the production of type II sourdough systems, and that may also contribute to an increase in metabolic activity during bread production process. PMID:25807196

  5. Paleotectonic investigations of the Mississippian System in the United States: Parts I and II

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craig, Lawrence C.; Connor, Carol Waite; Others

    1979-01-01

    This professional paper is the fifth in a series of paleotectonic studies each covering a geologic system in the conterminous United States. Part I provides a region-by-region discussion of data concerning the Mississippian System and an explanation and documentation for the maps and sections contained in part III. Part II of the paper provides a summary of the Mississippian System, presents interregional interpretations permitted by this study, and includes sections on notable features of the system. The maps contained in the separate case as part III may be divided into two groups: (1) a sequence of factual or basic maps that shows, with a minimum of interpretation, the Mississippian System as it occurs today, and (2) interpretive maps that attempt a reasonable reconstruction of the original extent of the system, its tectonics, environment, and geography.

  6. NOVIDAS and UVPROC II---Data Archive and Reduction System for Nobeyama Millimeter Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsumi, T.; Morita, K.-I.; Umeyama, S.

    A workstation-based data archive and reduction software system is developed for the Nobeyama Millimeter Array (NMA). NOVIDAS is used for archiving the output data from the interferometer onto 8mm tapes. It also provides a search utility for the archived database. The calibration and reduction of the data are handled by UVPROC II\\@. It uses the AIPS file system via a set of interface modules called vif library developed by us in order to make an easier transition from the calibration processing to further imaging and analysis using AIPS. Basic functions of the UVPROC II are: correcting bandpass characteristics and time variations of complex gains, correction of variations in system temperature due to atmosphere, subtraction of continuum from spectral data, data flagging, and flux scaling. A key concept for designing the software is that the system should be user-friendly. We adopted a GUI based on X-windows system with a menu-button feature for execution of commands and PGPLOT for graphical display. This allows users to examine the data quality visually and edit the data interactively. The vif library consists of simple fortran programs to open/close and read/write the AIPS files. Therefore it can also be used by users to develop their own codes for manipulating the AIPS data without calling the AIPS routines directly. The system currently runs on SUN-Solaris and will be ported to SGI-Irix with a disk array.

  7. A revised structure and hydrogen bonding system in cellulose II from a neutron fiber diffraction analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Langan, P.; Nishiyama, Y.; Chanzy, H.

    1999-11-03

    The crystal and molecular structure and hydrogen bonding system in cellulose II have been revised using new neutron diffraction data extending to 1.2 {angstrom} resolution collected from two highly crystalline fiber samples of mercerized flax. Mercerization was achieved in NaOH/H{sub 2}O for one sample and in NaOD/D{sub 2}O for the other, corresponding to the labile hydroxymethyl moieties being hydrogenated and deuterated, respectively. Fourier difference maps were calculated in which neutron difference amplitudes were combined with phases calculated from two revised X-ray models of cellulose II. The revised phasing models were determined by refinement against the X-ray data set of Kolpak and Blackwell, using the LALS methodology. Both models have two antiparallel chains organized in a P2{sub 1} space group and unit cell parameters: a = 8.01 {angstrom}, b = 9.04 {angstrom}, c = 10.36 {angstrom}, and {gamma} = 117.1{degree}. One has equivalent backbone conformations for both chains but different conformations for the hydroxymethyl moieties: gt for the origin chain and tg for the center chain. The second model based on the recent crystal structures of cellotetraose, has different conformations for the two chains but nearly equivalent conformations for the hydroxymethyl moieties. On the basis of the X-ray data alone, the models could not be differentiated. From the neutron Fourier difference maps, possible labile hydrogen atom positions were identified for each model and refined using LALS. The second model is significantly different from previous proposals based on the crystal structures of cellotetraose, MD simulations of cellulose II, and any potential hydrogen-bonding network in the structure of cellulose II determined in earlier X-ray fiber diffraction studies. The exact localization of the labile hydrogen atoms involved in this bonding, together with their donor and acceptor characteristics, is presented and discussed. This study provides, for the first time

  8. Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis for the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II Parent Form, Ages 5-21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Youhua; Oakland, Thomas; Algina, James

    2008-01-01

    The AAIDD has promulgated various models of adaptive behavior, including its 1992 model stressing 10 adaptive skills and its 2002 model that highlighted three conceptual domains. In previous studies on the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II (ABAS-II), researchers found support for a model including both 10 adaptive skills and three conceptual…

  9. Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis for the Teacher Form, Ages 5 to 21, of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aricak, O. Tolga; Oakland, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities has promulgated various models of adaptive behavior, including its 1992 model that highlighted 10 adaptive skills and its 2002 model that highlighted three conceptual domains. The Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II (ABAS-II) was designed to be consistent with these models.…

  10. A Fire Safety Certification System for Board and Care Operators and Staff. SBIR Phase II: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Bonnie L.

    This report describes Phase II of a project which developed a system for delivering fire safety training to board and care providers who serve adults with developmental disabilities. Phase II focused on developing and pilot testing a "train the trainers" workshop for instructors and field testing the provider's workshop. Evaluation of the 2-day…

  11. Counselor Competencies for Regional Delivery Systems. Final Report--Phase II. July 1, 1986 to June 30, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstrand, Richard K.

    The narrative portion of this report summarizes the highlights of Phase II of a project to identify competencies needed by regional delivery system personnel in delivering career guidance. It identifies the six informational modules that were prepared during Phases I and II. Appendixes contain the six modules for guidance counselors/coordinators…

  12. 25 CFR 547.8 - What are the minimum technical software standards applicable to Class II gaming systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are the minimum technical software standards... EQUIPMENT § 547.8 What are the minimum technical software standards applicable to Class II gaming systems... adopted by the tribe or TGRA; (ii) Display player interface identification; and (iii) Display...

  13. The vacuum system for the PEP II high energy ring straight sections

    SciTech Connect

    Wienands, U.; Daly, E.; Kulikov, A.; Kurita, N.; Nordby, M.; Perkins, C.; Reuter, E.; Seeman, J. T.

    1995-01-01

    The six straight sections of the PEP II High Energy Ring (HER) serve various functions: lattice tuning, beam injection and abort, providing space for rf cavities, longitudinal and transverse feedback, beam diagnostics and the interaction point. A stainless steel vacuum system has been designed; prototypes are currently being built. Cooling is required due to radiation coming from the last arc dipole and resistive losses in the vacuum chamber. Although the nominal beam current of the HER is 1 A the vacuum system is designed for 3 A to provide margin and an upgrade path. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Launch cost analyses for reusable space transportation systems (Sänger II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelle, Dietrich E.

    With the revival of studies for more economic fully reusable launch vehicles on both sides of the Atlantic, cost estimation analyses become of major importance. This is due to the fact that the essential cost reduction expected by fully reusable launch systems need to be substantiated for the justification of the development effort. The TRANSCOST model developed in the 1970-1983 period for launch vehicle cost analyses dealt mainly with expendable launch vehicles. This paper shows updated material and CERs for launch cost including fabrication and operations cost for future reusable and winged systems, such as Sänger II with the ETHV hypersonic manned winged upper stage.

  15. Status of LCLS - II QA Systems Collaboration for Cyromodule Construction at TJNAF and FNAL

    SciTech Connect

    McEwen, E. A.; Leung, J.; Bookwalter, V.; Blowers, J.; Szal, J.

    2015-09-25

    At the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab), we are supporting the LCLS-II Project at SLAC. The plan is to build thirty-five 1.3 GHz continuous wave cryomodules, production to be split between JLab and FNAL (Fermilab). This has required a close collaboration between the partner labs, including enhancing our existing quality systems to include this collaboration. This overview describes the current status of the Quality System development as of August 2015, when the partner labs start the assembly of the prototype cryomodules.

  16. Statement of Hubert Velarde, Jicarilla Apache Tribe to United States Commission on Civil Rights at Albuquerque Convention Center (Albuquerque, New Mexico, November 14, 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velarde, Hubert

    The statement by the President of the Jicarilla Apache Tribe emphasizes reservation problems that need to be examined. Presented at a 1972 Civil Rights Commission hearing on Indian Concerns, Velarde's statement listed employment, education, the administration of justice, water rights, and medical services as areas for investigation. (KM)

  17. Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America; Part III: The Southwest (Apache--Mohave). Occasional Publications in Anthropology Ethnology Series No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, George E., Comp.

    The Museum of Anthropology of the University of Northern Colorado (formerly known as Colorado State College) has assembled a large number of Indian tribal charters, constitutions, and by-laws to be reproduced as a series of publications. Included in this volume are the amended charter and constitution of the Jicarilla Apache Tribe, Dulce, New…

  18. Multi-tier approach for data acquisition programming in the TJ-II remote participation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, J.; Sánchez, E.; Portas, A.; Ruiz, M.; Barrera, E.; López, S.

    2004-10-01

    Programming software to setup acquisition channels during device operation has been developed for the TJ-II remote participation system. The software follows a three-tier model. A first tier (client tier) groups client software containing only user interface code. A second tier (middle tier) includes code for authorization, authentication, and query processing. A third tier (data tier) consists of a relational database server for managing configurations. Multi-platform characteristics are provided by web browsers (client tier) and web servers (middle tier). This architecture avoids that data acquisition system controllers provide access control, database support, or graphic user interface resources. Therefore, computation capabilities of these systems can mainly be devoted to data handling. LabView (from National Instruments) has been used as programming language in the acquisition systems. This design allows a very transparent management of signals, independently on hardware modules and systems.

  19. Calibration of the Accuscan II In Vivo System for I-131 Thyroid Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Orval R. Perry; David L. Georgeson

    2011-07-01

    This report describes the March 2011 calibration of the Accuscan II HpGe In Vivo system for I-131 thyroid counting. The source used for the calibration was an Analytics mixed gamma source 82834-121 distributed in an epoxy matrix in a Wheaton Liquid Scintillation Vial with energies from 88.0 keV to 1836.1 keV. The center of the detectors was position 64-feet from the vault floor. This position places the approximate center line of the detectors at the center line of the source in the thyroid tube. The calibration was performed using an RMC II phantom (Appendix J). Validation testing was performed using a Ba-133 source and an ANSI N44.3 Phantom (Appendix I). This report includes an overview introduction and records for the energy/FWHM and efficiency calibrations including verification counting. The Accuscan II system was successfully calibrated for counting the thyroid for I-131 and verified in accordance with ANSI/HPS N13.30-1996 criteria.

  20. Calibration of the beam-position monitor system for the SLAC PEP-II B factory

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; Smith, S.; Kurita, N.

    1997-06-01

    The Beam-Position Monitors (BPM) for the PEP-II B Factory consist of four 1.5-cm diameter button style pickups mounted on the diagonals of the quadrupole vacuum chambers. Before installation of the vacuum chambers in the quadrupole assemblies, the electrical center of the BPMs is measured with respect to the mechanical center in a calibration test stand. In this paper the calibration test stand is described and the precision and accuracy of the calibrations are presented. After installation of the quadrupole assemblies in the PEP-II tunnel, the passive attenuation for each channel of the system is measured to preserve the accuracy of the calibration. Finally, the active electronics includes an onboard calibrator. Results for these portions of the calibration are presented.

  1. Low-Level Radio Frequency System Development for the National Synchrotron Light Source II

    SciTech Connect

    Ma,H.; Rose, J.

    2009-05-04

    The National Synchrotron Light Source-II (NSLS-II) is a new ultra-bright 3GeV 3rd generation synchrotron radiation light source. The performance goals require operation with a beam current of 500mA and a bunch current of at least 0.5mA. The position and timing specifications of the ultra-bright photon beam imposes a set of stringent requirements on the performance of radio frequency (RF) control. In addition, commissioning and staged installation of damping wigglers and insertion devices requires the flexibility of handling varying beam conditions. To meet these requirements, a digital implementation of the LLRF is chosen, and digital serial links are planned for the system integration. The first prototype of the controller front-end hardware has been built, and is currently being tested.

  2. High current RF shield for PEP-II vacuum system expansion joint

    SciTech Connect

    Belser, F.C.; Berg, J.D.; Kerns, J.

    1996-05-01

    A novel RF shield was developed for the circular expansion joint used throughout the PEP-II vacuum system straight sections. Existing RF shield designs, used in accelerators/storage rings throughout the world, have been the source of many failures at beam currents much smaller than the 3 amps planned for PEP-II. This RF shield uses a unique spring-loaded finger mechanism to maintain proper electrical contact across the joint, accommodate 1.5 mm transverse and 32 mm longitudinal excursions, while minimizing geometry-driven trapped-mode RF heating at GHz frequencies. Alumina-dispersed, copper alloy fingers are used to maintain desired mechanical properties at higher temperatures instead of the more commonly used beryllium-copper alloys. A prototype expansion joint was assembled, mechanically tested, and subjected to 200% of the expected operational RF load. This RF shield design can be easily adapted to non-circular geometries.

  3. Systemic Pulsatile Pressure in Type II Endoleaks After Stent Grafting of Experimental Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    SciTech Connect

    Pitton, Michael Bernhard Schmenger, Patrick; Dueber, Christoph; Neufang, Achim; Thelen, Manfred

    2003-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate pressure and maximum rate of rise of systolic pressure (peak dP/dt) in completely excluded aneurysms and endoleaks to determine the hemodynamic impact of endoleaks. Methods: In mongrel dogs (n =36) experimental aneurysms were created by insertion of a patch (portion of rectus abdomen is muscle sheath) into the infrarenalaorta. In group I (n 18), all aortic branches of the aneurysm were ligated and all aneurysms were completely excluded by stent grafts. Group II (n = 18) consisted of aneurysms with patent aortic side branches that represented sources of endoleaks.One week (n = 12), six weeks (n = 12),and six months (n = 12) after stent grafting,hemodynamic measurements were obtained in thrombosed aneurysms and proved endoleaks. Systemic blood pressure and intraaneurysmal pressure were simultaneously measured and the respective peak dP/dt were computed. Results: At the six-month follow-up, the systolic-pressure ratio (intraaneurysmatic pressure: systemic pressure)was significantly increased in endoleaks compared to non-perfused areas(0.879 {+-} 0.042 versus 0.438 {+-} 0.176, p <0.01, group II) or completely excluded aneurysms (0.385 {+-}0.221, group I). Peak dP/dt ratio (intraaneurysmal peak dP/dt: systemic peak dP/dt) was 0.922 {+-} 0.154 in endoleaks, compared to 0.084 {+-} 0.080 in non-perfused areas (group II, p <0.01), and was 0.146 {+-} 0.121 in completely excluded aneurysms (group I). The diastolic-pressure ratio was also increased inendoleaks compared to non-perfused areas (0.929 {+-} 0.088 versus 0.655 {+-} 0.231, p < 0.01, group II) or completely excluded aneurysms (0.641 {+-} 0.278, group I). In excluded aneurysms, pressure exposure declined as the length of the follow-up period increased. Conclusion: Type II endoleaks transmit pulsatile pressure of near systemic level and indicate insufficient treatment result. In contrast, complete endovascular exclusion of aneurysms results in significantly reduced pressure exposure.

  4. Infrared Spectroscopic Data from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), SDSS-III Data Release 10

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 10 is the first spectroscopic release from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), including spectra and derived stellar parameters for more than 50,000 stars. APOGEE is an ongoing survey of ~100,000 stars accessing all parts of the Milky Way. By operating in the infrared (H-band) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, APOGEE is better able to detect light from stars lying in dusty regions of the Milky Way than surveys conducted in the optical, making this survey particularly well-suited for exploring the Galactic disk and bulge. APOGEE's high resolution spectra provide detailed information about the stellar atmospheres; DR10 provides derived effective temperatures, surface gravities, overall metallicities, and information on the abundances of several chemical elements. [copied from http://www.sdss3.org/dr10/irspec/

  5. Inequalities in Open Source Software Development: Analysis of Contributor’s Commits in Apache Software Foundation Projects

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    While researchers are becoming increasingly interested in studying OSS phenomenon, there is still a small number of studies analyzing larger samples of projects investigating the structure of activities among OSS developers. The significant amount of information that has been gathered in the publicly available open-source software repositories and mailing-list archives offers an opportunity to analyze projects structures and participant involvement. In this article, using on commits data from 263 Apache projects repositories (nearly all), we show that although OSS development is often described as collaborative, but it in fact predominantly relies on radically solitary input and individual, non-collaborative contributions. We also show, in the first published study of this magnitude, that the engagement of contributors is based on a power-law distribution. PMID:27096157

  6. Keeping the Wolves at Bay: Antitoxins of Prokaryotic Type II Toxin-Antitoxin Systems

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wai Ting; Espinosa, Manuel; Yeo, Chew Chieng

    2016-01-01

    In their initial stages of discovery, prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems were confined to bacterial plasmids where they function to mediate the maintenance and stability of usually low- to medium-copy number plasmids through the post-segregational killing of any plasmid-free daughter cells that developed. Their eventual discovery as nearly ubiquitous and repetitive elements in bacterial chromosomes led to a wealth of knowledge and scientific debate as to their diversity and functionality in the prokaryotic lifestyle. Currently categorized into six different types designated types I–VI, type II TA systems are the best characterized. These generally comprised of two genes encoding a proteic toxin and its corresponding proteic antitoxin, respectively. Under normal growth conditions, the stable toxin is prevented from exerting its lethal effect through tight binding with the less stable antitoxin partner, forming a non-lethal TA protein complex. Besides binding with its cognate toxin, the antitoxin also plays a role in regulating the expression of the type II TA operon by binding to the operator site, thereby repressing transcription from the TA promoter. In most cases, full repression is observed in the presence of the TA complex as binding of the toxin enhances the DNA binding capability of the antitoxin. TA systems have been implicated in a gamut of prokaryotic cellular functions such as being mediators of programmed cell death as well as persistence or dormancy, biofilm formation, as defensive weapons against bacteriophage infections and as virulence factors in pathogenic bacteria. It is thus apparent that these antitoxins, as DNA-binding proteins, play an essential role in modulating the prokaryotic lifestyle whilst at the same time preventing the lethal action of the toxins under normal growth conditions, i.e., keeping the proverbial wolves at bay. In this review, we will cover the diversity and characteristics of various type II TA antitoxins. We shall

  7. Keeping the Wolves at Bay: Antitoxins of Prokaryotic Type II Toxin-Antitoxin Systems.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wai Ting; Espinosa, Manuel; Yeo, Chew Chieng

    2016-01-01

    In their initial stages of discovery, prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems were confined to bacterial plasmids where they function to mediate the maintenance and stability of usually low- to medium-copy number plasmids through the post-segregational killing of any plasmid-free daughter cells that developed. Their eventual discovery as nearly ubiquitous and repetitive elements in bacterial chromosomes led to a wealth of knowledge and scientific debate as to their diversity and functionality in the prokaryotic lifestyle. Currently categorized into six different types designated types I-VI, type II TA systems are the best characterized. These generally comprised of two genes encoding a proteic toxin and its corresponding proteic antitoxin, respectively. Under normal growth conditions, the stable toxin is prevented from exerting its lethal effect through tight binding with the less stable antitoxin partner, forming a non-lethal TA protein complex. Besides binding with its cognate toxin, the antitoxin also plays a role in regulating the expression of the type II TA operon by binding to the operator site, thereby repressing transcription from the TA promoter. In most cases, full repression is observed in the presence of the TA complex as binding of the toxin enhances the DNA binding capability of the antitoxin. TA systems have been implicated in a gamut of prokaryotic cellular functions such as being mediators of programmed cell death as well as persistence or dormancy, biofilm formation, as defensive weapons against bacteriophage infections and as virulence factors in pathogenic bacteria. It is thus apparent that these antitoxins, as DNA-binding proteins, play an essential role in modulating the prokaryotic lifestyle whilst at the same time preventing the lethal action of the toxins under normal growth conditions, i.e., keeping the proverbial wolves at bay. In this review, we will cover the diversity and characteristics of various type II TA antitoxins. We shall

  8. Demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF): Apache Longbow - Hell Missile Test at Yuma Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Efroymson, R.A.

    2002-05-09

    This ecological risk assessment for a testing program at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, is a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF; Suter et al. 2001). The demonstration is intended to illustrate how risk assessment guidance concerning-generic military training and testing activities and guidance concerning a specific type of activity (e.g., low-altitude aircraft overflights) may be implemented at a military installation. MERAF was developed with funding from the Strategic Research and Development Program (SERDP) of the Department of Defense. Novel aspects of MERAF include: (1) the assessment of risks from physical stressors using an ecological risk assessment framework, (2) the consideration of contingent or indirect effects of stressors (e.g., population-level effects that are derived from habitat or hydrological changes), (3) the integration of risks associated with different component activities or stressors, (4) the emphasis on quantitative risk estimates and estimates of uncertainty, and (5) the modularity of design, permitting components of the framework to be used in various military risk assessments that include similar activities. The particular subject of this report is the assessment of ecological risks associated with a testing program at Cibola Range of Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona. The program involves an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, i.e., M60-A1 tanks. Thus, the three component activities of the Apache-Hellfire test were: (1) helicopter overflight, (2) missile firing, and (3) tracked vehicle movement. The demonstration was limited, to two ecological endpoint entities (i.e., potentially susceptible and valued populations or communities): woody desert wash communities and mule deer populations. The core assessment area is composed of about 126 km{sup 2} between the Chocolate and Middle Mountains. The core time of the program is a three-week period, including fourteen days of

  9. Characteristics and verification of a car-borne survey system for dose rates in air: KURAMA-II.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, S; Yoshida, T; Tsutsumi, M; Saito, K

    2015-01-01

    The car-borne survey system KURAMA-II, developed by the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, has been used for air dose rate mapping after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. KURAMA-II consists of a CsI(Tl) scintillation detector, a GPS device, and a control device for data processing. The dose rates monitored by KURAMA-II are based on the G(E) function (spectrum-dose conversion operator), which can precisely calculate dose rates from measured pulse-height distribution even if the energy spectrum changes significantly. The characteristics of KURAMA-II have been investigated with particular consideration to the reliability of the calculated G(E) function, dose rate dependence, statistical fluctuation, angular dependence, and energy dependence. The results indicate that 100 units of KURAMA-II systems have acceptable quality for mass monitoring of dose rates in the environment. PMID:24698118

  10. Empirical impact evaluation of the energy savings resulting from BPA's Stage II irrigation system retrofit program: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrer, B.J.; Tawil, J.W.; Lyke, A.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Edin, E.S.; Bailey, B.M.

    1987-07-01

    This report documents the results of an evaluation of the impacts on irrigation system energy consumption of conservation measures installed under the Bonneville Power Administration's Stage II retrofit program. Historical billing data and other farm records provided the basis for this evaluation. A number of different statistical techniques were used to estimate the actual energy savings resulting from the Stage II conservation measures. Results of the study reveal that the methodology used in predicting energy savings resulting from the Stage II program is accurate. The basis for energy savings predictions in the Stage II program are changes in brake horsepower, and, in this study, a 1% change in brake horsepower was found to result in slightly more than a 1% change in energy consumption. Overall, Stage II program conservation measures were found to reduce irrigation system energy use by an average of 34%. The average costs of obtaining these savings were 6 mills (.6 cents) per kWh saved.

  11. Gap Voltage Feed Forward Board for PEP II Low Level RF System

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, William; Claus, Richard; Sapozhnikov, Leonid; /SLAC

    2011-08-31

    This paper describes the Gap Voltage Feed-Forward VXI module used in the PEP-II Low Level RF System. This module produces adaptively generated inphase (I) and quadrature (Q) reference signals for a single RF station based on measurements of periodic (1-turn) beam induced cavity transients caused by the presence of an ion clearing gap. In addition the module receives a fiber optically transmitted, bandlimited 'kic' signal from the longitudinal feedback system which is used to phase modulate the RF drive. This allows the RF system to act as a 'subwoofer' for the longitudinal feedback system for low order coupled-bunch instabilities driven by the fundamental mode of the accelerating cavities. The module includes hardware for remote measurement and adjustment of the 'kick' transfer function.

  12. Compartmental models: theory and practice using the SAAM II software system.

    PubMed

    Cobelli, C; Foster, D M

    1998-01-01

    Understanding in vivo the functioning of metabolic systems at the whole-body or regional level requires one to make some assumptions on how the system works and to describe them mathematically, that is, to postulate a model of the system. Models of systems can have different characteristics depending on the properties of the system and the database available for their study; they can be deterministic or stochastic, dynamic or static, with lumped or distributed parameters. Metabolic systems are dynamic systems and we focus here on the most widely used class of dynamic (differential equation) models: compartmental models. This is a class of models for which the governing law is conservation of mass. It is a very attractive class to users because it formalizes physical intuition in a simple and reasonable way. Compartmental models are lumped parameter models, in that the events in the system are described by a finite number of changing variables, and are thus described by ordinary differential equations. While stochastic compartment models can also be defined, we discuss here the deterministic versions--those that can work with exact relationships between model variables. These are the models most widely used in discussions of endocrinology and metabolism. In this chapter, we will discuss the theory of compartmental models, and then discuss how the SAAM II software system, a system designed specifically to aid in the development and testing of multicompartmental models, can be used. PMID:9781383

  13. TEST & EVALUATION REPORT FOR THE HEDGEHOG-II PACKAGING SYSTEMS DOT-7A TYPE A CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect

    KELLY, D.L.

    2003-12-29

    This report documents the US. Department of Transportation Specification 7A (DOT-7A) Type A compliance test and evaluation results for the Hedgehog-II packaging systems. The approved Hedgehog-II packaging configurations provide primary and secondary containment. The approved packaging configurations described within this report are designed to ship Type A quantities of radioactive materials, normal form. Contents may be in solid or liquid form. Liquids transported in the approved 1 L glass bottle assembly shall have a specific gravity of less than or equal to 1.6. Liquids transported in all other approved configurations shall have a specific gravity of less than or equal to 2.0. The solid contents, including packaging, are limited in weight to the gross weight of the as-tested liquids and bottles. The approved Hedgehog-II packaging configurations described in this report may be transported by air, and have been evaluated as meeting the applicable International Air Transport Association/International Civil Aviation Organization (IATA/ICAO) Dangerous Goods Regulations in addition to the DOT requirements.

  14. Diverse distribution of Toxin-Antitoxin II systems in Salmonella enterica serovars

    PubMed Central

    Di Cesare, Andrea; Losasso, Carmen; Barco, Lisa; Eckert, Ester M.; Conficoni, Daniele; Sarasini, Giulia; Corno, Gianluca; Ricci, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    Type II Toxin-Antitoxin systems (TAs), known for their presence in virulent and antibiotic resistant bacterial strains, were recently identified in Salmonella enterica isolates. However, the relationships between the presence of TAs (ccdAB and vapBC) and the epidemiological and genetic features of different non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars are largely unknown, reducing our understanding of the ecological success of different serovars. Salmonella enterica isolates from different sources, belonging to different serovars and epidemiologically unrelated according to ERIC profiles, were investigated for the presence of type II TAs, plasmid content, and antibiotic resistance. The results showed the ubiquitous presence of the vapBC gene in all the investigated Salmonella isolates, but a diverse distribution of ccdAB, which was detected in the most widespread Salmonella serovars, only. Analysis of the plasmid toxin ccdB translated sequence of four selected Salmonella isolates showed the presence of the amino acid substitution R99W, known to impede in vitro the lethal effect of CcdB toxin in the absence of its cognate antitoxin CcdA. These findings suggest a direct role of the TAs in promoting adaptability and persistence of the most prevalent Salmonella serovars, thus implying a wider eco-physiological role for these type II TAs. PMID:27357537

  15. Effects of Hg(II) exposure on MAPK phosphorylation and antioxidant system in D. melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Paula, M T; Zemolin, A P; Vargas, A P; Golombieski, R M; Loreto, E L S; Saidelles, A P; Picoloto, R S; Flores, E M M; Pereira, A B; Rocha, J B T; Merritt, T J S; Franco, J L; Posser, T

    2014-06-01

    The heavy metal mercury is a known toxin, but while the mechanisms involved in mercury toxicity have been well demonstrated in vertebrates, little is known about toxicological effects of this metal in invertebrates. Here, we present the results of our study investigating the effects associated with exposure of fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to inorganic mercury (HgCl2 ). We quantify survival and locomotor performance as well as a variety of biochemical parameters including antioxidant status, MAPK phosphorylation and gene expression following mercury treatment. Our results demonstrate that exposure to Hg(II) through diet induced mortality and affected locomotor performance as evaluated by negative geotaxis, in D. melanogaster. We also saw a significant impact on the antioxidant system including an inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (Ache), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. We found no significant alteration in the levels of mRNA of antioxidant enzymes or NRF-2 transcriptional factor, but did detect a significant up regulation of the HSP83 gene. Mercury exposure also induced the phosphorylation of JNK and ERK, without altering p38(MAPK) and the concentration of these kinases. In parallel, Hg(II) induced PARP cleavage in a 89 kDa fragment, suggesting the triggering of apoptotic cell death in response to the treatment. Taken together, this data clarifies and extends our understanding of the molecular mechanisms mediating Hg(II) toxicity in an invertebrate model. PMID:22700419

  16. Operating experience of the EBR-II intermediate heat exchanger and the steam generator system

    SciTech Connect

    Buschman, H.W.; Longua, K.J.; Penney, W.H.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) is an experimental liquid metal fast breeder reactor located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. It consists of an unmoderated, heterogeneous, sodium-cooled reactor with a nominal thermal power output of 62.5 MW; an intermediate closed loop of secondary sodium coolant; and a steam plant that produces 20 MW of electrical power through a conventional turbine generator. The EBR-II heat transport system continues to operate satisfactorily after 18 years. This represents about 89,000 hours of steaming, which results in a total integrated thermal power production of about 215,000 MWd. In this time, the steam generator has experienced over 580 plant startups and 349 reactor scrams. The plant capacity factor for the past five years has been in excess of 70%, and in fact has averaged almost 60% over the last thirteen years. This excellent record is partly attributable to the trouble-free operation of the steam generator which, aside from an initial construction tube-to-tubesheet weld defect, has had a plant availability of 100%.

  17. Diverse distribution of Toxin-Antitoxin II systems in Salmonella enterica serovars.

    PubMed

    Di Cesare, Andrea; Losasso, Carmen; Barco, Lisa; Eckert, Ester M; Conficoni, Daniele; Sarasini, Giulia; Corno, Gianluca; Ricci, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    Type II Toxin-Antitoxin systems (TAs), known for their presence in virulent and antibiotic resistant bacterial strains, were recently identified in Salmonella enterica isolates. However, the relationships between the presence of TAs (ccdAB and vapBC) and the epidemiological and genetic features of different non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars are largely unknown, reducing our understanding of the ecological success of different serovars. Salmonella enterica isolates from different sources, belonging to different serovars and epidemiologically unrelated according to ERIC profiles, were investigated for the presence of type II TAs, plasmid content, and antibiotic resistance. The results showed the ubiquitous presence of the vapBC gene in all the investigated Salmonella isolates, but a diverse distribution of ccdAB, which was detected in the most widespread Salmonella serovars, only. Analysis of the plasmid toxin ccdB translated sequence of four selected Salmonella isolates showed the presence of the amino acid substitution R99W, known to impede in vitro the lethal effect of CcdB toxin in the absence of its cognate antitoxin CcdA. These findings suggest a direct role of the TAs in promoting adaptability and persistence of the most prevalent Salmonella serovars, thus implying a wider eco-physiological role for these type II TAs. PMID:27357537

  18. The Design of an Electron Bernstein Wave Heating System for the TJ-II Stellarator

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Angela; Sarksyan, Karen A.; Matveev, Nicolai V.; Castejon, Francisco; Cappa, Alvaro; Kharchev, Nicolai K.; Tereshchenko, Maxim A.; Starshinov, N. N.; Martin, Romualdo

    2004-09-15

    Electron Bernstein waves excited by either X-B or O-X-B conversion scheme can be used to create and heat a dense plasma in TJ-II in the first harmonic. Two gyrotrons operating in the regime of second-harmonic electron cyclotron resonance heating (53.2 GHz) create a target plasma, and then a 28-GHz gyrotron is switched on. The power of the gyrotron is 300 kW and the pulse length is 100 ms.A new high-voltage power supply was designed for this gyrotron. It supplies 70 kV and a maximum current of 25 A. Corrugated waveguides will be used to transmit the microwave radiation. The distance between the position of the gyrotron and the TJ-II window is {approx}7 m. The microwave beam is launched through the D6 port of TJ-II. A movable internal mirror is needed to focus the beam and to accomplish the restrictive launching angle conditions. The layout and the main features of the new system are presented.

  19. Detection of Instrumental Drifts in the PEP II LER BPM System

    SciTech Connect

    Wittmer, W.; Fisher, A.S.; Martin, D.J.; Sebek, J.J.; /SLAC

    2007-11-07

    During the last PEP-II run a major goal was to bring the Low-Energy Ring optics as close as possible to the design. A large number of BPMs exhibited sudden artificial jumps that interfered with this effort. The source of the majority of these jumps had been traced to the filter-isolator boxes (FIBs) near the BPM buttons. A systematic approach to find and repair the failing units had been developed and implemented. Despite this effort, the instrumental orbit jumps never completely disappeared. To trace the source of this behavior a test setup, using a spare Bergoz MX-BPM processor (kindly provided by SPEAR III at SSRL), was connected in parallel to various PEP-II BPM processors. In the course of these measurements a slow instrumental orbit drift was found which was clearly not induced by a moving positron beam. Based on the size of the system and the limited time before PEP-II closes in Oct.2008, an accelerator improvement project was initiated to install BERGOZ BPM-MX processors close to all sextupoles.

  20. Precious metals in SDSS quasar spectra. II. Tracking the evolution of strong, 0.4 < z < 2.3 Mg II absorbers with thousands of systems

    SciTech Connect

    Seyffert, Eduardo N.; Simcoe, Robert A.; Cooksey, Kathy L.; O'Meara, John M.; Kao, Melodie M.; Prochaska, J. Xavier E-mail: simcoe@space.mit.edu E-mail: jomeara@smcvt.edu E-mail: xavier@ucolick.org

    2013-12-20

    We have performed an analysis of over 34,000 Mg II doublets at 0.36 < z < 2.29 in Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 quasar spectra; the catalog, advanced data products, and tools for analysis are publicly available. The catalog was divided into 14 small redshift bins with roughly 2500 doublets in each and from Monte Carlo simulations, we estimate 50% completeness at rest equivalent width W {sub r} ≈ 0.8 Å. The equivalent width frequency distribution is described well by an exponential model at all redshifts, and the distribution becomes flatter with increasing redshift, i.e., there are more strong systems relative to weak ones. Direct comparison with previous SDSS Mg II surveys reveals that we recover at least 70% of the doublets in these other catalogs, in addition to detecting thousands of new systems. We discuss how these surveys came by their different results, which qualitatively agree but because of the very small uncertainties, differ by a statistically significant amount. The estimated physical cross section of Mg II-absorbing galaxy halos increased approximately threefold from z = 0.4 to z = 2.3, while the W {sub r} ≥ 1 Å absorber line density, dN{sub MgII}/dX, grew by roughly 45%. Finally, we explore the different evolution of various absorber populations—damped Lyα absorbers, Lyman limit systems, strong C IV absorbers, and strong and weaker Mg II systems—across cosmic time (0 < z < 6).

  1. Theoretical study on magnetic coupling interaction for Cu(II) binuclear systems with extended bridging groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Siwei; Liu, Chengbu; Hu, Haiquan; Zhang, Changqiao

    2001-12-01

    The magnetic coupling interaction for Cu(II) binuclear systems with bridging groups C2O4 2- , C2O2( NH) 2 2- ( cis), C2O2( NH) 2 2- ( trans) and C2S2( NH) 2 2- ( trans) was studied by the broken symmetry (BS) approach within the framework of the density functional theory (DFT). The influence of different coordination atoms and geometry on magnetic coupling interaction was theoretically analyzed. Both of the calculated and experimental results were compared. The variation trends of coupling interaction calculated are in agreement with experimental ones.

  2. Development of superconducting contacts for the CRESST II 66-channel superconducting quantum interference device readout system.

    PubMed

    Majorovits, B; Henry, S; Kraus, H

    2007-07-01

    The CRESST experiment is designed to search for weakly interacting massive particle dark matter with cryogenic detectors. CRESST II will use up to 33 CaWO(4) crystals with a total mass of approximately 10 kg. These many detectors require a readout system based on 66-channel superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). In this article we report on the development of a modular superconducting connector for the 66-channel SQUID readout circuit. We show that the technique developed reliably produces superconducting contacts. PMID:17672757

  3. Development of superconducting contacts for the CRESST II 66-channel superconducting quantum interference device readout system

    SciTech Connect

    Majorovits, B.; Henry, S.; Kraus, H.

    2007-07-15

    The CRESST experiment is designed to search for weakly interacting massive particle dark matter with cryogenic detectors. CRESST II will use up to 33 CaWO{sub 4} crystals with a total mass of {approx}10 kg. These many detectors require a readout system based on 66-channel superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). In this article we report on the development of a modular superconducting connector for the 66-channel SQUID readout circuit. We show that the technique developed reliably produces superconducting contacts.

  4. Delivery systems for biopharmaceuticals. Part II: Liposomes, Micelles, Microemulsions and Dendrimers.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana C; Lopes, Carla M; Lobo, José M S; Amaral, Maria H

    2015-01-01

    Biopharmaceuticals are a generation of drugs that include peptides, proteins, nucleic acids and cell products. According to their particular molecular characteristics (e.g. high molecular size, susceptibility to enzymatic activity), these products present some limitations for administration and usually parenteral routes are the only option. To avoid these limitations, different colloidal carriers (e.g. liposomes, micelles, microemulsions and dendrimers) have been proposed to improve biopharmaceuticals delivery. Liposomes are promising drug delivery systems, despite some limitations have been reported (e.g. in vivo failure, poor long-term stability and low transfection efficiency), and only a limited number of formulations have reached the market. Micelles and microemulsions require more studies to exclude some of the observed drawbacks and guarantee their potential for use in clinic. According to their peculiar structures, dendrimers have been showing good results for nucleic acids delivery and a great development of these systems during next years is expected. This is the Part II of two review articles, which provides the state of the art of biopharmaceuticals delivery systems. Part II deals with liposomes, micelles, microemulsions and dendrimers. PMID:26278524

  5. Type II fuzzy systems for amyloid plaque segmentation in transgenic mouse brains for Alzheimer's disease quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khademi, April; Hosseinzadeh, Danoush

    2014-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly characterized by extracellular deposition of amyloid plaques (AP). Using animal models, AP loads have been manually measured from histological specimens to understand disease etiology, as well as response to treatment. Due to the manual nature of these approaches, obtaining the AP load is labourious, subjective and error prone. Automated algorithms can be designed to alleviate these challenges by objectively segmenting AP. In this paper, we focus on the development of a novel algorithm for AP segmentation based on robust preprocessing and a Type II fuzzy system. Type II fuzzy systems are much more advantageous over the traditional Type I fuzzy systems, since ambiguity in the membership function may be modeled and exploited to generate excellent segmentation results. The ambiguity in the membership function is defined as an adaptively changing parameter that is tuned based on the local contrast characteristics of the image. Using transgenic mouse brains with AP ground truth, validation studies were carried out showing a high degree of overlap and low degree of oversegmentation (0.8233 and 0.0917, respectively). The results highlight that such a framework is able to handle plaques of various types (diffuse, punctate), plaques with varying Aβ concentrations as well as intensity variation caused by treatment effects or staining variability.

  6. Photomultiplier tube detector performance and stability for the Earth Observing System's SOLSTICE II instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Virginia A.; McClintock, William E.; Kohnert, Richard A.; Woods, Thomas N.; Rottman, Gary J.

    2000-12-01

    The goal of the Earth Observing System (EOS) SOLar STellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment II (SOLSTICE II) is to measure the solar ultraviolet irradiance (115 nm - 320 nm) to within 5% of its absolute value with a 0.5% per year relative accuracy over the course of a minimum mission lifetime of five years. Most detectors degrade over time while studying the sun. The SOLSTICE instrument design is such that detector and optical system degradation is tracked by routinely observing a series of stable early-type stars. Any changes in the system may then be removed from the solar irradiance. Detector performance and stability lies at the heart of SOLSTICE experimental success. The SOLSTICE detectors are Hamamatsu R2078 PhotoMultiplier Tubes (PMTs). We have developed an integrated PMT package [PMT, PMT housing, (mu) -metal magnetic shield, high voltage divider, and pulse-amplifier discriminator (PAD)] that will achieve our performance objectives. We report here on both the design of the integrated detector package and the laboratory measurements of the operational lifetime performance characteristics of SOLSTICE detectors. These include pulse height distribution, quantum efficiency, photocathode surface uniformity, and magnetic susceptibility.

  7. Real-time dynamic simulator for the Topaz II reactor power system

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, K.S.

    1994-10-01

    A dynamic simulator of the TOPAZ II reactor system has been developed for the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program. The simulator is a self-contained IBM-PC compatible based system that executes at a speed faster than real-time. The simulator combines first-principle modeling and empirical correlations in its algorithm to attain the modeling accuracy and computational through-put that are required for real-time execution. The overall execution time of the simulator for each time step is 15 ms when no data is written to the disk, and 18 ms when nine double precision data points are written to the disk once in every time step. The simulation program has been tested and it is able to handle a step decrease of $8 worth of reactivity. It also provides simulation of fuel, emitter, collector, stainless steel, and ZrH moderator failures. Presented in this paper are the models used in the calculations, a sample simulation session, and a discussion of the performance and limitations of the simulator. The simulator has been found to provide realistic real-time dynamic response of the TOPAZ II reactor system under both normal and causality conditions.

  8. Janus II: A new generation application-driven computer for spin-system simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baity-Jesi, M.; Baños, R. A.; Cruz, A.; Fernandez, L. A.; Gil-Narvion, J. M.; Gordillo-Guerrero, A.; Iñiguez, D.; Maiorano, A.; Mantovani, F.; Marinari, E.; Martin-Mayor, V.; Monforte-Garcia, J.; Muñoz Sudupe, A.; Navarro, D.; Parisi, G.; Perez-Gaviro, S.; Pivanti, M.; Ricci-Tersenghi, F.; Ruiz-Lorenzo, J. J.; Schifano, S. F.; Seoane, B.; Tarancon, A.; Tripiccione, R.; Yllanes, D.

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes the architecture, the development and the implementation of Janus II, a new generation application-driven number cruncher optimized for Monte Carlo simulations of spin systems (mainly spin glasses). This domain of computational physics is a recognized grand challenge of high-performance computing: the resources necessary to study in detail theoretical models that can make contact with experimental data are by far beyond those available using commodity computer systems. On the other hand, several specific features of the associated algorithms suggest that unconventional computer architectures-that can be implemented with available electronics technologies-may lead to order of magnitude increases in performance, reducing to acceptable values on human scales the time needed to carry out simulation campaigns that would take centuries on commercially available machines. Janus II is one such machine, recently developed and commissioned, that builds upon and improves on the successful JANUS machine, which has been used for physics since 2008 and is still in operation today. This paper describes in detail the motivations behind the project, the computational requirements, the architecture and the implementation of this new machine and compares its expected performances with those of currently available commercial systems.

  9. Commissioning experience with the PEP-II low-level RF system

    SciTech Connect

    Corredoura, P.; Allison, S.; Claus, R.; Ross, W.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Schwarz, H.D.; Tighe, R.; Yee, C.; Ziomek, C.

    1997-05-01

    The low-level RF system for PEP-II is a modular design housed in a VXI environment and supported by EPICS. All signal processing and control is done at baseband using in-phase and quadrature (IQ) techniques. Remotely configurable RF feedback loops are used to control coupled-bunch instabilities driven by the accelerating mode of the RF cavities. A programmable DSP based feedback loop is implemented to control phase variations across the klystron due to the required adjustment of the cathode voltage to limit cathode power dissipation. The DSP loop also adaptively cancels modulations caused by klystron power supply ripple at selected power line harmonics between 60 Hz and 10 kHz. The system contains a built-in baseband network analyzer which allows remote measurement of the RF feedback loop transfer functions and automated configuration of these loops. This paper presents observations and measured data from the system.

  10. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: SITE PROGRAM, CF SYSTEMS ORGANICS EXTRACTION SYSTEM, NEW BEDFORD, MASSACHUSETTS (VOL II)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of a Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) demonstration of the CF Systems critical fluid organics extraction system at the New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts Superfund site. he technology depends on the ability of organic pollutants ...

  11. Development of a Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) system on the Plasma Material Interaction System (PLAMIS-II) device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, I. J.; Lee, K. Y.; Lee, K. I.; Choi, Y.-S.; Cho, S. G.; Bae, M. K.; Lee, D.-H.; Hong, S. H.; Lho, T.; Chung, K.-S.

    2015-12-01

    A laser induced fluorescence (LIF) system has been developed for the plasma material interaction system (PLAMIS-II) device, which is equipped with a unique plasma gun composed of a LaB6 cathode and two anodes with electromagnets to generate a focused dense plasma. PLAMIS-II simulates the interactions of plasma with different materials and is to be used for the test of plasma facing components of fusion devices. The LIF system is composed of a seed laser with Littmann/Metcalf cavity and a master oscillator power amplifier to pump 3d4F7/2 metastable argon ion to 4p4D5/2 level at the wavelength of 668.61 nm, which has the following input parameters: laser power = 20 mW, line width < 100 kHz, and a mode-hop free tuning range > 70 GHz. For in-situ measurement of laser wavelength, the wavelength spectrum of an iodine cell was measured by a photo-transistor during LIF measurement. To measure argon ion temperature (Ti) and drift velocity (vd) in PLAMIS-II, the fluorescence light with the wavelength of 442.72 nm, emitted from 4p4D5/2 level to 4s4P3/2 level and passing through 1 nm band-width filter, was collected by the photomultiplier tube combined with a lock-in amplifier and a chopper with frequency of 3 kHz. Initial data of Ti and vd were analysed in terms of gas flow rate and applied power.

  12. Technical Information on the Carbonation of the EBR-II Reactor, Summary Report Part 1: Laboratory Experiments and Application to EBR-II Secondary Sodium System

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R. Sherman

    2005-04-01

    Residual sodium is defined as sodium metal that remains behind in pipes, vessels, and tanks after the bulk sodium metal has been melted and drained from such components. The residual sodium has the same chemical properties as bulk sodium, and differs from bulk sodium only in the thickness of the sodium deposit. Typically, sodium is considered residual when the thickness of the deposit is less than 5-6 cm. This residual sodium must be removed or deactivated when a pipe, vessel, system, or entire reactor is permanently taken out of service, in order to make the component or system safer and/or to comply with decommissioning regulations. As an alternative to the established residual sodium deactivation techniques (steam-and-nitrogen, wet vapor nitrogen, etc.), a technique involving the use of moisture and carbon dioxide has been developed. With this technique, sodium metal is converted into sodium bicarbonate by reacting it with humid carbon dioxide. Hydrogen is emitted as a by-product. This technique was first developed in the laboratory by exposing sodium samples to humidified carbon dioxide under controlled conditions, and then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) secondary cooling system, followed by the primary cooling system, respectively. The EBR-II facility is located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho, U.S.A. This report is Part 1 of a two-part report. It is divided into three sections. The first section describes the chemistry of carbon dioxide-water-sodium reactions. The second section covers the laboratory experiments that were conducted in order to develop the residual sodium deactivation process. The third section discusses the application of the deactivation process to the treatment of residual sodium within the EBR-II secondary sodium cooling system. Part 2 of the report, under separate cover, describes the application of the technique to residual sodium

  13. 75 FR 41889 - In the Matter of Certain Collaborative System Products and Components Thereof (II); Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Collaborative System Products and Components Thereof (II); Notice of... within the United States after importation of certain collaborative system products and components... certain collaborative system products or components thereof that infringe one or more of claims 1-24 of...

  14. Heme Concentration Dependence and Metalloporphyrin Inhibition of the System I and II Cytochrome c Assembly Pathways▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Richard-Fogal, Cynthia L.; Frawley, Elaine R.; Feissner, Robert E.; Kranz, Robert G.

    2007-01-01

    Studies have indicated that specific heme delivery to apocytochrome c is a critical feature of the cytochrome c biogenesis pathways called system I and II. To determine directly the heme requirements of each system, including whether other metal porphyrins can be incorporated into cytochromes c, we engineered Escherichia coli so that the natural system I (ccmABCDEFGH) was deleted and exogenous porphyrins were the sole source of porphyrins (ΔhemA). The engineered E. coli strains that produced recombinant system I (from E. coli) or system II (from Helicobacter) facilitated studies of the heme concentration dependence of each system. Using this exogenous porphyrin approach, it was shown that in system I the levels of heme used are at least fivefold lower than the levels used in system II, providing an important advantage for system I. Neither system could assemble holocytochromes c with other metal porphyrins, suggesting that the attachment mechanism is specific for Fe protoporphyrin. Surprisingly, Zn and Sn protoporphyrins are potent inhibitors of the pathways, and exogenous heme competes with this inhibition. We propose that the targets are the heme binding proteins in the pathways (CcmC, CcmE, and CcmF for system I and CcsA for system II). PMID:17085564

  15. Upgrade of the SLAC SLED II Pulse Compression System Based on Recent High Power Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Vlieks, A.E.; Fowkes, W.R.; Loewen, R.J.; Tantawi, S.G.; /SLAC

    2011-09-06

    In the Next Linear Collider (NLC) it is expected that the high power rf components be able to handle peak power levels in excess of 400 MW. We present recent results of high power tests designed to investigate the RF breakdown limits of the X-band pulse compression system used at SLAC. (SLED-II). Results of these tests show that both the TE{sub 01}-TE{sub 10} mode converter and the 4-port hybrid have a maximum useful power limit of 220-250 MW. Based on these tests, modifications of these components have been undertaken to improve their peak field handling capability. Results of these modifications will be presented. As part of an international effort to develop a new 0.5-1.5 TeV electron-positron linear collider for the 21st century, SLAC has been working towards a design, referred to as 'The Next Linear Collider' (NLC), which will operate at 11.424 GHz and utilize 50-75 MW klystrons as rf power sources. One of the major challenges in this design, or any other design, is how to generate and efficiently transport extremely high rf power from a source to an accelerator structure. SLAC has been investigating various methods of 'pulse compressing' a relatively wide rf pulse ({ge} 1 {mu}s) from a klystron into a narrower, but more intense, pulse. Currently a SLED-II pulse compression scheme is being used at SLAC in the NLC Test Accelerator (NLCTA) and in the Accelerator Structures Test Area (ASTA) to provide high rf power for accelerator and component testing. In ASTA, a 1.05 {mu}s pulse from a 50 MW klystron was successfully pulse compressed to 205 MW with a pulse width of 150 ns. Since operation in NLC will require generating and transporting rf power in excess of 400 MW it was decided to test the breakdown limits of the SLED-II rf components in ASTA with rf power up to the maximum available of 400 MW. This required the combining of power from two 50 MW klystrons and feeding the summed power into the SLED-II pulse compressor. Results from this experiment demonstrated

  16. Type II Toxin-Antitoxin Systems in the Unicellular Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Kopfmann, Stefan; Roesch, Stefanie K; Hess, Wolfgang R

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are genetic elements, which are encoded by plasmid as well as chromosomal loci. They mediate plasmid and genomic island maintenance through post-segregational killing mechanisms but may also have milder effects, acting as mobile stress response systems that help certain cells of a population in persisting adverse growth conditions. Very few cyanobacterial TA system have been characterized thus far. In this work, we focus on the cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803, a widely used model organism. We expand the number of putative Type II TA systems from 36 to 69 plus seven stand-alone components. Forty-seven TA pairs are located on the chromosome and 22 are plasmid-located. Different types of toxins are associated with various antitoxins in a mix and match principle. According to protein domains and experimental data, 81% of all toxins in Synechocystis 6803 likely exhibit RNase activity, suggesting extensive potential for toxicity-related RNA degradation and toxin-mediated transcriptome remodeling. Of particular interest is the Ssr8013-Slr8014 system encoded on plasmid pSYSG, which is part of a larger defense island or the pSYSX system Slr6056-Slr6057, which is linked to a bacterial ubiquitin-like system. Consequently, Synechocystis 6803 is one of the most prolific sources of new information about these genetic elements. PMID:27455323

  17. Type II Toxin–Antitoxin Systems in the Unicellular Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    PubMed Central

    Kopfmann, Stefan; Roesch, Stefanie K.; Hess, Wolfgang R.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial toxin–antitoxin (TA) systems are genetic elements, which are encoded by plasmid as well as chromosomal loci. They mediate plasmid and genomic island maintenance through post-segregational killing mechanisms but may also have milder effects, acting as mobile stress response systems that help certain cells of a population in persisting adverse growth conditions. Very few cyanobacterial TA system have been characterized thus far. In this work, we focus on the cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803, a widely used model organism. We expand the number of putative Type II TA systems from 36 to 69 plus seven stand-alone components. Forty-seven TA pairs are located on the chromosome and 22 are plasmid-located. Different types of toxins are associated with various antitoxins in a mix and match principle. According to protein domains and experimental data, 81% of all toxins in Synechocystis 6803 likely exhibit RNase activity, suggesting extensive potential for toxicity-related RNA degradation and toxin-mediated transcriptome remodeling. Of particular interest is the Ssr8013–Slr8014 system encoded on plasmid pSYSG, which is part of a larger defense island or the pSYSX system Slr6056–Slr6057, which is linked to a bacterial ubiquitin-like system. Consequently, Synechocystis 6803 is one of the most prolific sources of new information about these genetic elements. PMID:27455323

  18. Performance of the beam position monitor system for the SLAC PEP-II B factory

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Ronald G.; Smith, Stephen R.; Aiello, G. Roberto

    1998-12-10

    The beam position monitor (BPM) system for the SLAC PEP-II B Factory was designed to measure the positions of single-bunch single-turn to multibunch multi-turn beams in both rings of the facility. Each BPM is based on four button-style pickups. At most locations the buttons are connected to provide single-axis information (x only or y only). Operating at a harmonic (952 MHz) of the bunch spacing, the BPM system combines broadband and narrowband capabilities and provides data at a high rate. The active electronics system is multiplexed for signals from the high-energy ring (HER) and low-energy ring (LER). The system will be briefly described; however, the main purpose of the present paper is to present operational results. The BPM system operated successfully during commissioning of the HER (primarily) and the LER over the past year. Results to be presented include on-line calibration, single-bunch single-turn resolution (<100 {mu}m), and multibunch multi-turn resolution (<3 {mu}m), multiplexing, and absolute calibration. Thus far, the system has met or exceeded all the requirements that have been tested. The remaining requirements will be tested when both rings are completed and commissioned this summer. In addition, typical results of beam physics studies relying on the BPM system will be presented.

  19. Performance of the beam position monitor system for the SLAC PEP-II {ital B} factory

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.G.; Smith, S.R.; Aiello, G.R.

    1998-12-01

    The beam position monitor (BPM) system for the SLAC PEP-II {ital B} Factory was designed to measure the positions of single-bunch single-turn to multibunch multi-turn beams in both rings of the facility. Each BPM is based on four button-style pickups. At most locations the buttons are connected to provide single-axis information ({ital x} only or {ital y} only). Operating at a harmonic (952 MHz) of the bunch spacing, the BPM system combines broadband and narrowband capabilities and provides data at a high rate. The active electronics system is multiplexed for signals from the high-energy ring (HER) and low-energy ring (LER). The system will be briefly described; however, the main purpose of the present paper is to present operational results. The BPM system operated successfully during commissioning of the HER (primarily) and the LER over the past year. Results to be presented include on-line calibration, single-bunch single-turn resolution ({lt}100 {mu}m), and multibunch multi-turn resolution ({lt}3 {mu}m), multiplexing, and absolute calibration. Thus far, the system has met or exceeded all the requirements that have been tested. The remaining requirements will be tested when both rings are completed and commissioned this summer. In addition, typical results of beam physics studies relying on the BPM system will be presented. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Validation of the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation-II model in an urban Indian population and comparison with three other risk scoring systems

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Biju Sivam; Baloria, Kanwar Aditya; Selot, Nandini

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The aims were to compare the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE)-II system against three established risk scoring systems for predictive accuracy in an urban Indian population and suggest improvements or amendments in the existing scoring system for adaptation in Indian population. Materials and Methods: EuroSCORE-II, Parsonnet score, System-97 score, and Cleveland score were obtained preoperatively for 1098 consecutive patients. EuroSCORE-II system was analyzed in comparison to each of the above three scoring systems in an urban Indian population. Calibrations of scoring systems were assessed using Hosmer–Lemeshow test. Areas under receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were compared according to the statistical approach suggested by Hanley and McNeil. Results: All EuroSCORE-II subgroups had highly significant P values stating good predictive mortality, except high-risk group (P = 0.175). The analysis of ROC curves of different scoring systems showed that the highest predictive value for mortality was calculated for the System-97 score followed by the Cleveland score. System-97 revealed extremely high predictive accuracies across all subgroups (curve area >80%). This difference in predictive accuracy was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The present study suggests that the EuroSCORE-II model in its present form is not validated for use in the Indian population. An interesting observation was significantly accurate predictive abilities of the System-97 score. PMID:26139738

  1. A state-space dynamical representation for multibody mechanical systems. II - Systems with closed loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwertassek, R.; Roberson, R. E.

    1984-05-01

    The dynamical equations of motion of a multibody system are reduced to state-space equations in the computer-oriented multibody formalism of Roberson and Wittenberg (1966), extending the analysis of Schwertassek and Roberson (1983) to systems with closed loops. The multibody spacecraft model of Kane and Levinson (1980) and Schiehlen and Kreuzer (1977) is analyzed as an example. The closed-loop equations permit the use of the MULTIBODY computer code (Schwertassek, 1978) to treat such more general systems.

  2. In Depth Diagnostics for RF System Operation in the PEP-II B Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Van Winkle, Daniel; Fox, John; Teytelman, Dmitry; /SLAC

    2005-05-27

    The PEP-II RF systems incorporate numerous feedback loops in the low-level processing for impedance control and operating point regulation. The interaction of the multiple loops with the beam is complicated, and the systems incorporate online diagnostic tools to configure the feedback loops as well as to record fault files in the case of an RF abort. Rapid and consistent analysis of the RF-related beam aborts and other failures is critical to the reliable operation of the B-Factory, especially at the recently achieved high beam currents. Procedures and algorithms used to extract diagnostic information from time domain fault files are presented and illustrated via example interpretations of PEP-II fault file data. Example faults presented will highlight the subtle interpretation required to determine the root cause. Some such examples are: abort kicker firing asynchronously, klystron and cavity arcs, beam loss leading to longitudinal instability, tuner read back jumps and poorly configured low-level RF feedback loop.

  3. Characteristics and control response of the TOPAZ II Reactor System Real-time Dynamic Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, K.S.

    1993-11-12

    A dynamic simulator of the TOPAZ II reactor system has been developed for the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program. The simulator combines first-principle modeling and empirical correlations in its algorithm to attain the modeling accuracy and computational through-put that are required for real-time execution. The overall execution time of the simulator for each time step is 15 ms when no data is written to the disk, and 18 ms when nine double precision data points are written to the disk once in every time step. The simulation program has been tested and it is able to handle a step decrease of $8 worth of reactivity. It also provides simulations of fuel, emitter, collector, stainless steel, and ZrH moderator failures. Presented in this paper are the models used in the calculations, a sample simulation session, and a discussion of the performance and limitations of the simulator. The simulator has been found to provide realistic real-time dynamic response of the TOPAZ II reactor system under both normal and casualty conditions.

  4. Cloning and characterization of the Bg/II restriction-modification system reveals a possible evolutionary footprint.

    PubMed

    Anton, B P; Heiter, D F; Benner, J S; Hess, E J; Greenough, L; Moran, L S; Slatko, B E; Brooks, J E

    1997-03-10

    Bg/II, a type II restriction-modification (R-M) system from Bacillus globigii, recognizes the sequence 5'-AGATCT-3'. The system has been cloned into E. coli in multiple steps: first the methyltransferase (MTase) gene, bglIIM, was cloned from B. globigii RUB561, a variant containing an inactivated endonuclease (ENase) gene (bglIIR). Next the ENase protein (R.BglII) was purified to homogeneity from RUB562, a strain expressing the complete R-M system. Oligonucleotide probes specific for the 5' end of the gene were then synthesized and used to locate bglIIR, and the gene was isolated and cloned in a subsequent step. The nucleotide sequence of the system has been determined, and several interesting features have been found. The genes are tandemly arranged, with bglIIR preceding bglIIM. The amino acid sequence of M.BglII is compared to those of other known MTases. A third gene encoding a protein with sequence similarity to known C elements of other R-M systems is found upstream of bglIIR. This is the first instance of a C gene being associated with an R-M system where the R and M genes are collinear. In addition, open reading frames (ORFs) resembling genes involved with DNA mobility are found in close association with BglII. These may shed light on the evolution of the R-M system. PMID:9073062

  5. Natural Resource Information System. Volume II. System Operating Procedures and Instructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeing Computer Services, Inc., Seattle, WA.

    This report provides a total computer software system description for the prototype Natural Resource Information System designed to store, process, and display data of maximum usefulness to land management decision making. Program modules are described, as are the computer file design, file updating methods, digitizing process, and paper tape…

  6. An experimental system for spectral line ratio measurements in the TJ-II stellarator

    SciTech Connect

    Zurro, B.; Baciero, A.; Fontdecaba, J. M.; Jimenez-Rey, D.; Pelaez, R.

    2008-10-15

    The chord-integrated emissions of spectral lines have been monitored in the TJ-II stellarator by using a spectral system with time and space scanning capabilities and relative calibration over the entire UV-visible spectral range. This system has been used to study the line ratio of lines of different ionization stages of carbon (C{sup 5+} 5290 A and C{sup 4+} 2271 A) for plasma diagnostic purposes. The local emissivity of these ions has been reconstructed, for quasistationary profiles, by means of the inversion Fisher method described previously. The experimental line ratio is being empirically studied and in parallel a simple spectroscopic model has been developed to account for that ratio. We are investigating whether the role played by charge exchange processes with neutrals and the existence of non-Maxwellian electrons, intrinsic to Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) heating, leave any distinguishable mark on this diagnostic method.

  7. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Special Session: Oxygen in the Solar System, II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Special Session: Oxygen in the Solar System, II, included the following reports:Evolution of Oxygen Isotopes in the Solar Nebula; Disequilibrium Melting of Refractory Inclusions: A Mechanism for High-Temperature Oxygen; Isotope Exchange in the Solar Nebula; Oxygen Isotopic Compositions of the Al-rich Chondrules in the CR Carbonaceous Chondrites: Evidence for a Genetic Link to Ca-Al-rich Inclusions and for Oxygen Isotope Exchange During Chondrule Melting; Nebular Formation of Fayalitic Olivine: Ineffectiveness of Dust Enrichment; Water in Terrestrial Planets: Always an Oxidant?; Oxygen Barometry of Basaltic Glasses Based on Vanadium Valence Determination Using Synchrotron MicroXANES; A New Oxygen Barometer for Solar System Basaltic Glasses Based on Vanadium Valence; The Relationship Between Clinopyroxene Fe3+ Content and Oxygen Fugacity ; and Olivine-Silicate Melt Partitioning of Iridium.

  8. Amplitude Linearizers for PEP-II 1.2 MW Klystrons and LLRF Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Van Winkle, D.; Browne, J.; Fox, J.D.; Mastorides, T.; Rivetta, C.; Teytelman, D.; /SLAC

    2006-07-18

    The PEP-II B-factory has aggressive current increases planned for luminosity through 2008. At 2.2A (HER) on 4A (LER) currents, we estimate that longitudinal growth rates will be comparable to the damping rates currently achieved in the existing low level RF and longitudinal feedback systems. Prior to having a good non-linear time domain model [1] it was postulated that klystron small signal gain non-linearity may be contributing to measured longitudinal growth rates being higher than linearly predicted growth rates. Five prototype klystron amplitude modulation linearizers have been developed to explore improved linearity in the LLRF system. The linearizers operate at 476 MHz with 15 dB dynamic range and 1 MHz linear control bandwidth. Results from lab measurements and high current beam tests are presented. Future development plans, conclusions from beam testing and ideas for future use of this linearization technique are presented.

  9. [Digitalization, archival storage and use of image documentation in the GastroBase-II system].

    PubMed

    Kocna, P

    1997-05-14

    "GastroBase-II" is a module of the clinical information system "KIS-ComSyD"; The main part is represented by structured data-text with an expert system including on-line image digitalization in gastroenterology (incl. endoscopic, X-ray and endosonography pictures). The hardware and software of the GastroBase are described as well as six-years experiences with application of digitalized image data. An integration of a picture into text, reports, slides for a lecture or an electronic atlas is documented with examples. Briefly are reported out experiences with graphic editors (PhotoStyler), text editor (WordPerfect) and slide preparation for lecturing with the presentation software PowerPoint. The multimedia applications on the CD-ROM illustrate a modern trend using digitalized image documentation for pregradual and postgradual education. PMID:9296882

  10. Topaz-II integrated system testing and qualification at the TSET facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wold, S.K. ); Wyant, F.J.; Standley, V.H. )

    1993-01-01

    The Thermionic System Evaluation Test (TSET) is a ground test of unfueled Russian Topaz-11 in-core thermionic space reactors powered by electric heaters. The facility that will be used for testing of the Topaz-II systems is located at the New Mexico Engineering Research Institute complex in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The reassembly of the Russian test equipment was the responsibility of International Scientific Products and INERTEK, a Russian joint venture, with support provided by engineers and technicians from the US Phillips Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the University of New Mexico. The TSET facility is operated by US personnel with technical support provided by INERTEK engineers. The testing is being funded by the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization with the Phillips Laboratory responsible for project management.

  11. The acoustic simulation and analysis of complicated reciprocating compressor piping systems, II: Program structure and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    To, C. W. S.

    1984-09-01

    The main objectives of the investigation reported in this paper, Part II, and its companion paper, Part I, are (a) to provide a formulation, including the mean flow effects and suitable for digital computer automation, of the acoustics of complicated piping systems, and (b) to develop a comprehensive digital computer program for the simulation and analysis of complicated reciprocating compressor piping systems. In this paper, the digital computer program structure and applications of the program developed, written in Fortran IV, are described. It is concluded that the computer program is versatile and user-friendly. It is capable of providing a great deal of information from one set of input data, and is open-ended and modular for updating.

  12. Feasibility of closed Fe(II)/Fe(III) system for product-reflux in Nitrox process

    SciTech Connect

    Adachi, M.; Ishida, T.

    1981-03-10

    A concept of closed reflux system for stable isotope fractionation by chemical exchange method has been introduced. In a closed system a chemical agent used to convert one chemical species of an isotopic exchange reaction into the other at the product end is regenerated on site by means of an electrochemical or thermal process. It offers a convenience of eliminating the needs for transporting chemicals to and from the site and an advantage of allowing leniency in the degree of completeness of the reflux reaction. Feasibility of use of Fe(II) salt solutions in a closed reflux system for the Nitrox process for /sup 15/N fractionation has been studied. Two of such systems, FeSO/sub 4/ in H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and Fe(ClO/sub 4/)/sub 2/ in HClO/sub 4/, are adopted for packed column operation. For both systems, the rate of reduction of nitric acid increases with increasing acid concentration, the solubility of the salts decreases with the increasing acid concentration, and the reflux reaction can be made to go to completion. Evaluation of such a closed reflux system will have to include that of performance of regenerative process.

  13. Desing of a Laser Guide Star System for the Keck II Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, H.W.; Erbert, G.V.; Kuklo, T.; Thompson, G.R.; Wong, N.J.; Gavel, D.T.; Salmon, J.T.; Feldman, M.

    1997-09-11

    A laser guide star system similar to that deployed at the Lick Observatory has been designed for the Keck II 10 m telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The subaperature size on the primary is comparable to that at Lick, and at the same observational wavelength centered about the K band, so that the average power requirements of the laser system are also comparable, at about 20 W. One major difference is that the seeing at Mauna Kea is about a factor of two better than at Lick so that the spot diameter requirements are smaller and this can give rise to reduced back scatter resulting from saturation effects in the sodium layer. To reduce the peak flux in the sodium layer and obtain a smaller spot diameter, the output beam diameter has been increased along with the repetition rate of the laser. As with the Lick laser system, a dye laser is pumped by a series of frequency doubled YAG lasers which are remotely located and coupled to the dye laser on the telescope by optical fibers. The laser system has a full set of beam control optics as well as launch telescope and safety systems. A computer system couples the laser system to the User Interface and Supervisory Control system of the main telescope. The laser system is due to be shipped to Keck during the fall of 1997 where it will be integrated with the telescope at Mauna Kea. The Adaptive Optics and Optics Bench systems will be integrated first and be ready for integration with the laser in the summer of 1998. 1 ref., 8 figs.

  14. Structure of the minor pseudopilin XcpW from the Pseudomonas aeruginosa type II secretion system

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, Laura P.; Douzi, Badreddine; Durand, Eric; Dyer, David H.; Voulhouxd, Romé; Forest, Katrina T.

    2012-01-13

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa utilizes the type II secretion machinery to transport virulence factors through the outer membrane into the extracellular space. Five proteins in the type II secretion system share sequence homology with pilin subunits of type IV pili and are called the pseudopilins. The major pseudopilin X{sub cp}T{sub G} assembles into an intraperiplasmic pilus and is thought to act in a piston-like manner to push substrates through an outer membrane secretin. The other four minor pseudopilins, X{sub cp}U{sub H}, X{sub cp}V{sub I}, X{sub cp}W{sub J} and X{sub cp}X{sub K}, play less well defined roles in pseudopilus formation. It was recently discovered that these four minor pseudopilins form a quaternary complex that is presumed to initiate the formation of the pseudopilus and to localize to its tip. Here, the structure of X{sub cp}W{sub J} was refined to 1.85 {angstrom} resolution. The structure revealed the type IVa pilin fold with an embellished variable antiparallel {beta}-sheet as also found in the X{sub cp}W{sub J} homologue enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli G{sub sp}J{sub W} and the X{sub cp}U{sub H} homologue Vibrio cholerae E{sub ps}U{sub H}. It is proposed that the exposed surface of this sheet may cradle the long N-terminal 1 helix of another pseudopilin. The final 31 amino acids of the X{sub cp}W{sub J} structure are instrinsically disordered. Deletion of this unstructured region of X{sub cp}W{sub J} did not prevent type II secretion in vivo.

  15. RAMESSES II - Mapping an Axial Melt System Beneath a Slow-Spreading Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, C. J.; Peirce, C.; Sinha, M.

    2002-12-01

    RAMESSES II is the second phase of a multi-component geophysical investigation into an axial volcanic ridge (AVR) segment at 57° 45' N 32° 35' W close to the southern tip of the slow-spreading Reykjanes Ridge. Results from the original RAMESSES experiment showed the first unequivocal evidence for the presence of a crustal melt body beneath any slow-spreading ridge using a combination of wide-angle and 4-fold multi-channel seismics (Navin et al., Geophys. J. Int. (1998) 135, 746-772) plus electromagenetic data. RAMESSES II aimed to map and further constrain the properties of the magmatic system and crustal structure along-axis between adjacent AVRs which, in turn, will result in a better understanding of the accretionary process and melt supply mechanism from the mantle source. The RAMESSES II 2-D seismic reflection data set comprises 32 across-AVR profiles spaced by 1.5 km and 5 AVR-parallel profiles at 5.0 km intervals. All profiles were acquired with a 96-channel streamer and an 84.6 l (5172 in3) 12-airgun source array, with a shot instant of 15 s (37.5 m). Here we present an approach to, and results of, data processing, where the data is significantly contaminated by reflections and seismic energy scattered by the rough seafloor typical of slow-spreading ridges. We also present a simple approach to identifying scattered energy within stacked sections enabling real sub-surface reflection events to be distinguished.

  16. National Geoscience Data Repository System, Phase II. Final report, January 30, 1995--January 28, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The American Geological Institute (AGI) has completed Phase II of a project to establish a National Geoscience Data Repository System (NGDRS). The project`s primary objectives are to preserve geoscience data in jeopardy of being destroyed and to make that data available to those who have a need to use it in future investigations. These data are available for donation to the public as a result of the downsizing that has occurred in the major petroleum and mining companies in the United States for the past decade. In recent years, these companies have consolidated domestic operations, sold many of their domestic properties and relinquished many of their leases. The scientific data associated with those properties are no longer considered to be useful assets and are consequently in danger of being lost forever. The national repository project will make many of these data available to the geoscience community for the first time. To address this opportunity, AGI sought support from the Department of Energy (DOE) in 1994 to initiate the NGDRS Phase I feasibility study to determine the types and quantity of data that companies would be willing to donate. The petroleum and mining companies surveyed indicated that they were willing to donate approximately five million well logs, one hundred million miles of seismic reflection data, millions of linear feet of core and cuttings, and a variety of other types of scientific data. Based on the positive results of the Phase I study, AGI undertook Phase II of the program in 1995. Funded jointly by DOE and industry, Phase II encompasses the establishment of standards for indexing and cataloging of geoscience data and determination of the costs of transferring data from the private sector to public-sector data repositories. Pilot projects evaluated the feasibility of the project for transfer of different data types and creation of a Web-based metadata supercatalog and browser.

  17. Isoniazid affects multiple components of the type II fatty acid synthase system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Slayden, R A; Lee, R E; Barry, C E

    2000-11-01

    Genetic and biochemical evidence has implicated two different target enzymes for isoniazid (INH) within the unique type II fatty acid synthase (FAS) system involved in the production of mycolic acids. These two components are an enoyl acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase, InhA, and a beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase, KasA. We compared the consequences of INH treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) with two inhibitors having well-defined targets: triclosan (TRC), which inhibits InhA; and thiolactomycin (TLM), which inhibits KasA. INH and TLM, but not TRC, upregulate the expression of an operon containing five FAS II components, including kasA and acpM. Although all three compounds inhibit mycolic acid synthesis, treatment with INH and TLM, but not with TRC, results in the accumulation of ACP-bound lipid precursors to mycolic acids that were 26 carbons long and fully saturated. TLM-resistant mutants of MTB were more cross-resistant to INH than TRC-resistant mutants. Overexpression of KasA conferred more resistance to TLM and INH than to TRC. Overexpression of InhA conferred more resistance to TRC than to INH and TLM. Co-overexpression of both InhA and KasA resulted in strongly enhanced levels of INH resistance, in addition to cross-resistance to both TLM and TRC. These results suggest that these components of the FAS II complex are not independently regulated and that alterations in the expression level of InhA affect expression levels of KasA. Nonetheless, INH appeared to resemble TLM more closely in overall mode of action, and KasA levels appeared to be tightly correlated with INH sensitivity. PMID:11069675

  18. Multiwavelength optical observations of chromospherically active binary systems. III. High resolution echelle spectra from Ca II H & K to Ca II IRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, D.; Fernández-Figueroa, M. J.; De Castro, E.; Cornide, M.; Latorre, A.; Sanz-Forcada, J.

    2000-10-01

    This is the third paper of a series aimed at studying the chromosphere of active binary systems using the information provided for several optical spectroscopic features. High resolution echelle spectra including all the optical chromospheric activity indicators from the Ca II H & K to Ca II IRT lines are analysed here for 16 systems. The chromospheric contribution in these lines has been determined using the spectral subtraction technique. Very broad wings have been found in the subtracted Hα profile of the very active star HU Vir. These profiles are well matched using a two-component Gaussian fit (narrow and broad) and the broad component can be interpreted as arising from microflaring. Red-shifted absorption features in the Hα line have been detected in several systems and excess emission in the blue wing of FG UMa was also detected. These features indicate that several dynamical processes, or a combination of them, may be involved. Using the E_Hα /E_Hβ ratio as a diagnostic we have detected prominence-like extended material viewed off the limb in many stars of the sample, and prominences viewed against the disk at some orbital phases in the dwarfs OU Gem and BF Lyn. The He i D3 line has been detected as an absorption feature in mainly all the giants of the sample. Total filling-in of the He i D3, probably due to microflaring activity, is observed in HU Vir. Self-absorption with red asymmetry is detected in the Ca II H & K lines of the giants 12 Cam, FG UMa and BM CVn. All the stars analysed show clear filled-in Ca II IRT lines or even notable emission reversal. The small values of the E_8542/E_8498 ratio we have found indicate Ca II IRT emission arises from plage-like regions. Orbital phase modulation of the chromospheric emission has been detected in some systems, in the case of HU Vir evidence of an active longitude area has been found. Based on observations made with the Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton

  19. Dynamics of the matrix in DMS Type-II quantum dot systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Collin R.; Whiteside, Vince R.; Sellers, Ian R.; Petrou, Athos; Chou, W.-C.

    Magnetic field, temperature, and polarization dependent continuous wave photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) is used to study two related Type-II quantum dots (QDs). These techniques were used to study how the location of magnetic impurities affects the formation of magnetic polarons in these two (related) systems. The ZnMnTe/ZnSe system has Mn impurities located within the QDs, with (ideally) no Mn in the surrounding ZnSe matrix. The ZnTe/ZnMnSe QDs have Mn impurities grown within the matrix, which ideally is excluded from the QDs. For both these systems, the holes are confined within the dots, while the electrons are located in the surrounding matrix. The location of the Mn and its coupling with the spin of the corresponding carrier leads to distinct characteristics for each system. Due to difficulties growing these systems, some diffusion of Mn during the growth of these samples is suspected, leading to a percentage of magnetic impurities unintentionally located in the non-magnetic region for both samples. The emission from the matrix in particular was studied to determine the effect/composition of Mn in this region and its contribution to the characteristics of the QDs. This work is supported by NSF DMR-1305770.

  20. Identification and Characterization of Type II Toxin-Antitoxin Systems in the Opportunistic Pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Jurėnaitė, Milda; Markuckas, Arvydas

    2013-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen that causes nosocomial infections. Due to the ability to persist in the clinical environment and rapidly acquire antibiotic resistance, multidrug-resistant A. baumannii clones have spread in medical units in many countries in the last decade. The molecular basis of the emergence and spread of the successful multidrug-resistant A. baumannii clones is not understood. Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are abundant genetic loci harbored in low-copy-number plasmids and chromosomes and have been proposed to fulfill numerous functions, from plasmid stabilization to regulation of growth and death under stress conditions. In this study, we have performed a thorough bioinformatic search for type II TA systems in genomes of A. baumannii strains and estimated at least 15 possible TA gene pairs, 5 of which have been shown to be functional TA systems. Three of them were orthologs of bacterial and archaeal RelB/RelE, HicA/HicB, and HigB/HigA systems, and others were the unique SplT/SplA and CheT/CheA TA modules. The toxins of all five TA systems, when expressed in Escherichia coli, inhibited translation, causing RNA degradation. The HigB/HigA and SplT/SplA TA pairs of plasmid origin were highly prevalent in clinical multidrug-resistant A. baumannii isolates from Lithuanian hospitals belonging to the international clonal lineages known as European clone I (ECI) and ECII. PMID:23667234

  1. EASY-II Renaissance: n, p, d, α, γ-induced Inventory Code System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sublet, J.-Ch.; Eastwood, J. W.; Morgan, J. G.

    2014-04-01

    The European Activation SYstem has been re-engineered and re-written in modern programming languages so as to answer today's and tomorrow's needs in terms of activation, transmutation, depletion, decay and processing of radioactive materials. The new FISPACT-II inventory code development project has allowed us to embed many more features in terms of energy range: up to GeV; incident particles: alpha, gamma, proton, deuteron and neutron; and neutron physics: self-shielding effects, temperature dependence and covariance, so as to cover all anticipated application needs: nuclear fission and fusion, accelerator physics, isotope production, stockpile and fuel cycle stewardship, materials characterization and life, and storage cycle management. In parallel, the maturity of modern, truly general purpose libraries encompassing thousands of target isotopes such as TENDL-2012, the evolution of the ENDF-6 format and the capabilities of the latest generation of processing codes PREPRO, NJOY and CALENDF have allowed the activation code to be fed with more robust, complete and appropriate data: cross sections with covariance, probability tables in the resonance ranges, kerma, dpa, gas and radionuclide production and 24 decay types. All such data for the five most important incident particles (n, p, d, α, γ), are placed in evaluated data files up to an incident energy of 200 MeV. The resulting code system, EASY-II is designed as a functional replacement for the previous European Activation System, EASY-2010. It includes many new features and enhancements, but also benefits already from the feedback from extensive validation and verification activities performed with its predecessor.

  2. Performance of the ITER ICRH system as expected from TOPICA and ANTITER II modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messiaen, A.; Koch, R.; Weynants, R. R.; Dumortier, P.; Louche, F.; Maggiora, R.; Milanesio, D.

    2010-02-01

    The performance on plasma of the antennas of the proposed ITER ICRF system is evaluated by means of the antenna 24 × 24 impedance matrix provided by the TOPICA code and confirmed and interpreted by the semi-analytical code ANTITER II (summarized in an appendix). From this analysis the following system characteristics can be derived: (1) a roughly constant power capability in the entire 40-55 MHz frequency band with the same maximum voltage in the eight feeding lines is obtained for all the considered heating and current drive phasings on account of the broadbanding effect of service stubs. (2) The power capability of the array significantly depends on the distance of the antenna to the separatrix, the density profile in the scrape-off layer (SOL) and on the strap current toroidal and poloidal phasings. The dependence on phasing is stronger for wider SOL. (3) To exceed a radiated power capability of 20 MW per antenna array in the upper part of the frequency band, with a separatrix-wall distance of 17 cm and a conservative short decay plasma edge density profile, the system voltage stand-off must be 45 kV and well chosen combinations of toroidal and poloidal phasing are needed. (4) On account of the plasma gyrotropy and of poloidal magnetic field, special care must be taken in choosing the optimal toroidal current drive and poloidal phasings. The ANTITER II analysis shows furthermore that important coaxial and surface mode excitation can only be expected in the monopole toroidal phasing, that strong wave reflection from a steep density profile significantly reduces the coupling even if the separatrix is closer to the antenna and that the part of the edge density profile having a density lower than the cut-off density pertaining to the considered phasing does not significantly contribute to the coupling.

  3. Single-shaft electric propulsion system technology development program -- ETX-II. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    In 1981, discussions between Ford and General Electric (GE) evolved a concept for an advanced electric vehicle powertrain, which was subsequently presented to the US Department of Energy (DOE) as an unsolicited proposal. The concept involved a combination of technology from Ford and GE that would result in a unique powertrain based on a motor and transmission concentric with the drive wheel axis. Initial work suggested that the entire motor/transaxle combination could be expected to be smaller and lighter than the direct current (dc) motors that were in use in electric vehicles at that time and that the powertrain could be expected to be more efficient than other available powertrains. This program (ETX-I) was awarded to Ford Motor Company and it was established that the most likely first introduction of an electric vehicle would be in the form of a fleet of small commercial vans. The ETX-II propulsion system concept was aimed at advancing the technology through improving the size, weight, efficiency, reliability, and cost characteristics of the ETX-I powertrain and by integrating advanced battery technologies compatible with the powertrain to form a complete propulsion system. Unique developments for the ETX-II program included the transaxle, a two-speed automatic transmission and three-phase interior permanent magnet alternating current (ac) motor on a common axis integrated with the rear axle of the test bed van; The traction battery selected for this propulsion system was the sodium-sulfur battery. This was the only advanced technology that had been developed to a point that would allow the test vehicle to have a range of over 160 kilometers (100 miles) without the battery exceeding 25% of the vehicle`s gross weight.

  4. Single-shaft electric propulsion system technology development program -- ETX-II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    In 1981, discussions between Ford and General Electric (GE) evolved a concept for an advanced electric vehicle powertrain, which was subsequently presented to the US Department of Energy (DOE) as an unsolicited proposal. The concept involved a combination of technology from Ford and GE that would result in a unique powertrain based on a motor and transmission concentric with the drive wheel axis. Initial work suggested that the entire motor/transaxle combination could be expected to be smaller and lighter than the direct current (dc) motors that were in use in electric vehicles at that time and that the powertrain could be expected to be more efficient than other available powertrains. This program (ETX-I) was awarded to Ford Motor Company and it was established that the most likely first introduction of an electric vehicle would be in the form of a fleet of small commercial vans. The ETX-II propulsion system concept was aimed at advancing the technology through improving the size, weight, efficiency, reliability, and cost characteristics of the ETX-I powertrain and by integrating advanced battery technologies compatible with the powertrain to form a complete propulsion system. Unique developments for the ETX-II program included the transaxle, a two-speed automatic transmission and three-phase interior permanent magnet alternating current (ac) motor on a common axis integrated with the rear axle of the test bed van; The traction battery selected for this propulsion system was the sodium-sulfur battery. This was the only advanced technology that had been developed to a point that would allow the test vehicle to have a range of over 160 kilometers (100 miles) without the battery exceeding 25% of the vehicle's gross weight.

  5. Cationic nanoemulsion as a delivery system for oligonucleotides targeting malarial topoisomerase II.

    PubMed

    Bruxel, F; Cojean, S; Bochot, A; Teixeira, H; Bories, C; Loiseau, P-M; Fattal, E

    2011-09-20

    A promising strategy based on the antisense oligonucleotides against the Plasmodium falciparum topoisomerase II has been considered using cationic nanoemulsion as oligonucleotide delivery system. Phosphodiester and chemically modified phosphorothioate oligonucleotides bearing negative charges were adsorbed on positively charged emulsion composed of medium chain triglycerides, egg lecithin, 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP), and water, at different +/- charge ratios (positive charges from cationic lipid/negative charges from oligonucleotide): +0.5/-, +2/-, +4/- and +6/-. The physicochemical properties of the complexes were determined, as well as their stability in culture medium. Their interaction with erythrocytes through hemolysis, binding experiments and confocal microscopy were also evaluated. Finally, the in vitro evaluation of parasite growth and reinfection capacity was performed. The overall results showed that antisense oligonucleotides against P. falciparum topoisomerase II gene can be efficiently adsorbed onto a cationic nanoemulsion forming complexes. Whereas unloaded nanoemulsion displayed an hemolytic effect due to the presence of the cationic lipid, this was not the case of loaded nanoemulsion at low +/- ratios. Oligonucleotide-loaded nanoemulsions were found to be located inside the infected erythrocytes, inhibiting efficiently parasite growth (until 80%) and causing a delay in P. falciparum life cycle. PMID:21291974

  6. PERIOD CHANGE SIMILARITIES AMONG THE RR LYRAE VARIABLES IN OOSTERHOFF I AND OOSTERHOFF II GLOBULAR SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Kunder, Andrea; Walker, Alistair; De Propris, Roberto; Stetson, Peter B.; Bono, Giuseppe; Di Cecco, Alessandra; Nemec, James M.; Monelli, Matteo; Cassisi, Santi; Andreuzzi, Gloria; Dall'Ora, Massimo; Zoccali, Manuela

    2011-01-15

    We present period change rates (dP/dt) for 42 RR Lyrae variables in the globular cluster IC 4499. Despite clear evidence of these period increases or decreases, the observed period change rates are an order of magnitude larger than predicted from theoretical models of this cluster. We find that there is a preference for increasing periods, a phenomenon observed in most RR Lyrae stars in Milky Way globular clusters. The period change rates as a function of position in the period-amplitude plane are used to examine possible evolutionary effects in OoI clusters, OoII clusters, field RR Lyrae stars, and the mixed-population cluster {omega} Centauri. It is found that there is no correlation between the period change rate and the typical definition of Oosterhoff groups. If the RR Lyrae period changes correspond with evolutionary effects, this would be in contrast to the hypothesis that RR Lyrae variables in OoII systems are evolved horizontal-branch stars that spent their zero-age horizontal-branch phase on the blue side of the instability strip. This may suggest that age may not be the primary explanation for the Oosterhoff types.

  7. The Systemic Theory of Living Systems and Relevance to CAM: The Theory (Part II)

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    This theory stems from observing the universe's ‘omniscient’ nature, manifested in flows of energy and information of its life plethora. A notorious example is the living cell's intelligent nature, which guides its basic goal: to maximize survival. This last motivated me to address the living system's intelligence, which constitutes a vital and controversial topic, its relationship with ‘incurable’ disease in general, including cancer, and to propose golden rules for therapeutics, as well as a definition of ideal medicine. The scientific confirmation of these findings is embedded in discoveries in cybernetics, biological theory of information and modern thermodynamic concepts, concerning energy and information exchange, within a living system. This approach's practical application, denominated Systemic Medicine, has been substantiated by treatment and results obtained in >300 000 patients suffering from chronic degenerative diseases. PMID:15937552

  8. The Type II secretion system delivers matrix proteins for biofilm formation by Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Tanya L; Fong, Jiunn C; Rule, Chelsea; Rogers, Andrew; Yildiz, Fitnat H; Sandkvist, Maria

    2014-12-01

    Gram-negative bacteria have evolved several highly dedicated pathways for extracellular protein secretion, including the type II secretion (T2S) system. Since substrates secreted via the T2S system include both virulence factors and degradative enzymes, this secretion system is considered a major survival mechanism for pathogenic and environmental species. Previous analyses revealed that the T2S system mediates the export of ≥ 20 proteins in Vibrio cholerae, a human pathogen that is indigenous to the marine environment. Here we demonstrate a new role in biofilm formation for the V. cholerae T2S system, since wild-type V. cholerae was found to secrete the biofilm matrix proteins RbmC, RbmA, and Bap1 into the culture supernatant, while an isogenic T2S mutant could not. In agreement with this finding, the level of biofilm formation in a static microtiter assay was diminished in T2S mutants. Moreover, inactivation of the T2S system in a rugose V. cholerae strain prevented the development of colony corrugation and pellicle formation at the air-liquid interface. In contrast, extracellular secretion of the exopolysaccharide VPS, an essential component of the biofilm matrix, remained unaffected in the T2S mutants. Our results indicate that the T2S system provides a mechanism for the delivery of extracellular matrix proteins known to be important for biofilm formation by V. cholerae. Because the T2S system contributes to the pathogenicity of V. cholerae by secreting proteins such as cholera toxin and biofilm matrix proteins, elucidation of the molecular mechanism of T2S has the potential to lead to the development of novel preventions and therapies. PMID:25266381

  9. The Type II Secretion System Delivers Matrix Proteins for Biofilm Formation by Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Tanya L.; Fong, Jiunn C.; Rule, Chelsea; Rogers, Andrew; Yildiz, Fitnat H.

    2014-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria have evolved several highly dedicated pathways for extracellular protein secretion, including the type II secretion (T2S) system. Since substrates secreted via the T2S system include both virulence factors and degradative enzymes, this secretion system is considered a major survival mechanism for pathogenic and environmental species. Previous analyses revealed that the T2S system mediates the export of ≥20 proteins in Vibrio cholerae, a human pathogen that is indigenous to the marine environment. Here we demonstrate a new role in biofilm formation for the V. cholerae T2S system, since wild-type V. cholerae was found to secrete the biofilm matrix proteins RbmC, RbmA, and Bap1 into the culture supernatant, while an isogenic T2S mutant could not. In agreement with this finding, the level of biofilm formation in a static microtiter assay was diminished in T2S mutants. Moreover, inactivation of the T2S system in a rugose V. cholerae strain prevented the development of colony corrugation and pellicle formation at the air-liquid interface. In contrast, extracellular secretion of the exopolysaccharide VPS, an essential component of the biofilm matrix, remained unaffected in the T2S mutants. Our results indicate that the T2S system provides a mechanism for the delivery of extracellular matrix proteins known to be important for biofilm formation by V. cholerae. Because the T2S system contributes to the pathogenicity of V. cholerae by secreting proteins such as cholera toxin and biofilm matrix proteins, elucidation of the molecular mechanism of T2S has the potential to lead to the development of novel preventions and therapies. PMID:25266381

  10. A regional air quality forecasting system over Europe: the MACC-II daily ensemble production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marécal, V.; Peuch, V.-H.; Andersson, C.; Andersson, S.; Arteta, J.; Beekmann, M.; Benedictow, A.; Bergström, R.; Bessagnet, B.; Cansado, A.; Chéroux, F.; Colette, A.; Coman, A.; Curier, R. L.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Drouin, A.; Elbern, H.; Emili, E.; Engelen, R. J.; Eskes, H. J.; Foret, G.; Friese, E.; Gauss, M.; Giannaros, C.; Guth, J.; Joly, M.; Jaumouillé, E.; Josse, B.; Kadygrov, N.; Kaiser, J. W.; Krajsek, K.; Kuenen, J.; Kumar, U.; Liora, N.; Lopez, E.; Malherbe, L.; Martinez, I.; Melas, D.; Meleux, F.; Menut, L.; Moinat, P.; Morales, T.; Parmentier, J.; Piacentini, A.; Plu, M.; Poupkou, A.; Queguiner, S.; Robertson, L.; Rouïl, L.; Schaap, M.; Segers, A.; Sofiev, M.; Tarasson, L.; Thomas, M.; Timmermans, R.; Valdebenito, Á.; van Velthoven, P.; van Versendaal, R.; Vira, J.; Ung, A.

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes the pre-operational analysis and forecasting system developed during MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) and continued in the MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate: Interim Implementation) European projects to provide air quality services for the European continent. This system is based on seven state-of-the art models developed and run in Europe (CHIMERE, EMEP, EURAD-IM, LOTOS-EUROS, MATCH, MOCAGE and SILAM). These models are used to calculate multi-model ensemble products. The paper gives an overall picture of its status at the end of MACC-II (summer 2014) and analyses the performance of the multi-model ensemble. The MACC-II system provides daily 96 h forecasts with hourly outputs of 10 chemical species/aerosols (O3, NO2, SO2, CO, PM10, PM2.5, NO, NH3, total NMVOCs (non-methane volatile organic compounds) and PAN+PAN precursors) over eight vertical levels from the surface to 5 km height. The hourly analysis at the surface is done a posteriori for the past day using a selection of representative air quality data from European monitoring stations. The performance of the system is assessed daily, weekly and every 3 months (seasonally) through statistical indicators calculated using the available representative air quality data from European monitoring stations. Results for a case study show the ability of the ensemble median to forecast regional ozone pollution events. The seasonal performances of the individual models and of the multi-model ensemble have been monitored since September 2009 for ozone, NO2 and PM10. The statistical indicators for ozone in summer 2014 show that the ensemble median gives on average the best performances compared to the seven models. There is very little degradation of the scores with the forecast day but there is a marked diurnal cycle, similarly to the individual models, that can be related partly to the prescribed diurnal variations of anthropogenic emissions in the models

  11. A regional air quality forecasting system over Europe: the MACC-II daily ensemble production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marécal, V.; Peuch, V.-H.; Andersson, C.; Andersson, S.; Arteta, J.; Beekmann, M.; Benedictow, A.; Bergström, R.; Bessagnet, B.; Cansado, A.; Chéroux, F.; Colette, A.; Coman, A.; Curier, R. L.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Drouin, A.; Elbern, H.; Emili, E.; Engelen, R. J.; Eskes, H. J.; Foret, G.; Friese, E.; Gauss, M.; Giannaros, C.; Guth, J.; Joly, M.; Jaumouillé, E.; Josse, B.; Kadygrov, N.; Kaiser, J. W.; Krajsek, K.; Kuenen, J.; Kumar, U.; Liora, N.; Lopez, E.; Malherbe, L.; Martinez, I.; Melas, D.; Meleux, F.; Menut, L.; Moinat, P.; Morales, T.; Parmentier, J.; Piacentini, A.; Plu, M.; Poupkou, A.; Queguiner, S.; Robertson, L.; Rouïl, L.; Schaap, M.; Segers, A.; Sofiev, M.; Thomas, M.; Timmermans, R.; Valdebenito, Á.; van Velthoven, P.; van Versendaal, R.; Vira, J.; Ung, A.

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes the pre-operational analysis and forecasting system developed during MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) and continued in MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate: Interim Implementation) European projects to provide air quality services for the European continent. The paper gives an overall picture of its status at the end of MACC-II (summer 2014). This system is based on seven state-of-the art models developed and run in Europe (CHIMERE, EMEP, EURAD-IM, LOTOS-EUROS, MATCH, MOCAGE and SILAM). These models are used to calculate multi-model ensemble products. The MACC-II system provides daily 96 h forecasts with hourly outputs of 10 chemical species/aerosols (O3, NO2, SO2, CO, PM10, PM2.5, NO, NH3, total NMVOCs and PAN + PAN precursors) over 8 vertical levels from the surface to 5 km height. The hourly analysis at the surface is done a posteriori for the past day using a selection of representative air quality data from European monitoring stations. The performances of the system are assessed daily, weekly and 3 monthly (seasonally) through statistical indicators calculated using the available representative air quality data from European monitoring stations. Results for a case study show the ability of the median ensemble to forecast regional ozone pollution events. The time period of this case study is also used to illustrate that the median ensemble generally outperforms each of the individual models and that it is still robust even if two of the seven models are missing. The seasonal performances of the individual models and of the multi-model ensemble have been monitored since September 2009 for ozone, NO2 and PM10 and show an overall improvement over time. The change of the skills of the ensemble over the past two summers for ozone and the past two winters for PM10 are discussed in the paper. While the evolution of the ozone scores is not significant, there are improvements of PM10 over the past two winters

  12. Preliminary Geochemical and Petrologic Assessment of the Fanney Rhyolite and the Bloodgood Canyon and Apache Springs tuffs, Mogollon-Datil Volcanic Field, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salings, E. E.; Rentz, S. P.; Michelfelder, G.; Sikes, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    Continental arc volcanoes represent a dramatic expression of a significant and fundamental phenomena in global tectonics: the subduction of an oceanic plate beneath a more buoyant continental plate. The subduction of an oceanic plate results in recycling of crustal material into the convecting mantle, partial melting, and primary basalt production. Moreover, during passage through thick continental crust, subduction zone magmas may substantially differentiate and melt crustal rocks giving rise to the great diversity of igneous lithologies characteristic of earth. These are important processes that must be understood in detail in order to interpret the long-term evolution of the earth and continental crust. Here we present variations in the isotopic and trace element composition of volcanic rocks from Bloodgood Canyon and Apache Springs tuffs, and the Fanney Rhyolite located in the western Mogollon-Datil Volcanic Field (MDVF). The project will address several questions. First, are the Bloodgood and Apache Springs tuffs and Fanney Rhyolite petrogenically related, and are these rhyolites expressions of a continental arc ignimbrite flare-up? Second, what petrogenic processes affected differentiation and where is the magma sourced? Finally, to what extent do these units represent a manifestation of the MDVF and the transition from arc magmatism to rifting? The Bloodgood Canyon is a crystal-rich rhyolite tuff containing quartz>k-feldspar>plagioclase>biotite, and pumice and lithic fragments. Rb ranges from 230-330ppm, Sr from 14-83ppm, and 87Sr/86Srm from 0.71619-0.72477.The Apache Springs Tuff is a rhyolite tuff containing quartz>k-feldspar>plagioclase>biotite, and lithics. Rb (228-233ppm) and 87Sr/86Srm (0.71025-0.71056) are restricted, while Sr (105-399ppm) is more variable in composition. The Fanney Creek is a massive rhyolite lava with flow banding and contains quartz phenocryst clusters and k-feldspars. Currently, no data exists for the Apache Springs Tuff.

  13. The use of the TOPAZ II systems with different conversion and engine systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarev-Stepnoi, Nikolai N., Dr.; Ogloblin, Boris; Kirillov, E. Y.; Thome, Frank V.

    1995-01-01

    Increase of output electric power and use of heat released in nuclear fuel for thermal jet propulsion is promising for the future development of a bimodal reactor and use of the Topaz-2 Thermionic Space Nuclear Power System (TI-SNPS). In addition to the high-temperature thermionic conversion cycle, the application of low-temperature cycles, such as a machine-type cycle using the Stirling engine and a thermoelectric cycle, is being considered. The possibility of using the Topaz-2 system as a power source for thermal jet propulsion in bimodal operation is also being examined. For low-temperature cycles, the following data are obtained: output electric parameters, geometrical and weight characteristics as a function of thermal power released in the TFE fuel cores, and the relationship of generated total electric power to the total Topaz-2 system weight. The results obtained from this data make it possible to evaluate energy potentials when applying the high-temperature and low-temperature cycles Conference on alternative powere from space; Conference to the Topaz-2 system. The most likely values of specific impulse and propulsion force in relation to hydrogen flow rate in bimodal operation are shown.

  14. I. Concepts of Highly Excited Electronic Systems / II. Electronic Correlation Mapping from Finite to Extended Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berakdar, Jamal

    2003-09-01

    Knowledge of the excitation characteristics of matter is decisive for the descriptions of a variety of dynamical processes, which are of significant technological interest. E.g. transport properties and the optical response are controlled by the excitation spectrum. This self-contained work is a coherent presentation of the quantum theory of correlated few-particle excitations in electronic systems. It begins with a compact resume of the quantum mechanics of single particle excitations. Particular emphasis is put on Green function methods, which offer a natural tool to unravel the relations between the physics of small and large electronic systems. The book contains explicit expressions for the Coulomb Green function of two charge particles and a generalization to three-body systems. Techniques for the many-body Green function of finite systems are introduced and some explicit calculations of the Green functions are given. Concrete examples are provided and the theories are contrasted with experimental data, when available. A complimentary volume presents an up-to-date selection of applications of the developed concepts and a comparison with available experiments is made

  15. I. Concepts of Highly Excited Electronic Systems / II. Electronic Correlation Mapping from Finite to Extended Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berakdar, Jamal

    2006-02-01

    Knowledge of the excitation characteristics of matter is decisive for the descriptions of a variety of dynamical processes, which are of significant technological interest. E.g. transport properties and the optical response are controlled by the excitation spectrum. This self-contained work is a coherent presentation of the quantum theory of correlated few-particle excitations in electronic systems. It begins with a compact resume of the quantum mechanics of single particle excitations. Particular emphasis is put on Green function methods, which offer a natural tool to unravel the relations between the physics of small and large electronic systems. The book contains explicit expressions for the Coulomb Green function of two charge particles and a generalization to three-body systems. Techniques for the many-body Green function of finite systems are introduced and some explicit calculations of the Green functions are given. Concrete examples are provided and the theories are contrasted with experimental data, when available. A complimentary volume presents an up-to-date selection of applications of the developed concepts and a comparison with available experiments is made

  16. Evaluation of line focus solar central power systems. Volume II. Systems evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-15

    An evaluation was completed to ascertain the applicability of line focus technologies to electrical power applications and to compare their performance and cost potential with point focus central receiver power systems. It was concluded that although the high temperature line focus (SRI) and fixed mirror line focus (GA) concepts duplicate the heat source characteristics and power conversion technology of the central receiver concepts these configurations do not offer a sufficient improvement in cost to warrant full scale development. The systems are, however, less complex than their point focus counterpart and should the central receiver system development falter they provide reasonable technology alternatives. The parabolic trough concept (BDM) was found to provide a low temperature technology alternative to the central receiver concept with promising performance and cost potential. Its continued development is recommended, with special emphasis on lower temperature (< 700/sup 0/F) applications. Finally, a variety of new promising line focus power system configurations were identified for a range of utility and industrial applications and recommendations were made on their implementation. This volume contains the detailed report. (WHK)

  17. National Study of Vocational Education Systems and Facilities. Volume II. State Vocational Education System Descriptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, Alan; And Others

    Summary reports on the organization and financing of vocational education in each state and territory are presented in this second of a four-volume report of a national study of vocational education systems and facilities. Information for each state and territory is organized as follows: state governance of vocational education (state…

  18. Proposed Computer System for Library Catalog Maintenance. Part II: System Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein (Theodore) Co., New York, NY.

    The logic of the system presented in this report is divided into six parts for computer processing and manipulation. They are: (1) processing of Library of Congress copy, (2) editing of input into standard format, (3) processing of information into and out from the authority files, (4) creation of the catalog records, (5) production of the…

  19. 76 FR 11277 - In the Matter of Collaborative System Products and Components Thereof (II); Notice of Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Collaborative System Products and Components Thereof (II); Notice of Commission... on May 12, 2010. 75 FR 41889 (Jul. 19, 2010). The complaint alleged violations of section 337 of the..., and the sale within the United States after importation of certain collaborative system products...

  20. 75 FR 65509 - In the Matter of Collaborative System Products and Components Thereof (II); Notice of Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Collaborative System Products and Components Thereof (II); Notice of Commission... FR 41889 (Jul. 19, 2010). The complaint alleged violations of section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930... within the United States after importation of certain collaborative system products and...

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, C. LEE COOK DIVISION, DOVER CORPORATION, STATIC PAC (TM) SYSTEM, PHASE II REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Static Pac System, Phase II, natural gas reciprocating compressor rod packing manufactured by the C. Lee Cook Division, Dover Corporation. The Static Pac System is designed to seal th...

  2. The Implementation of an Accounting System for True Value in This Cost-Conscious Time, Using Handbook II. Second Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Emmett J.

    The Milwaukee (Wisconsin) Public Schools (MPS) recently implemented a new, state-designed accounting system, called the Wisconsin Elementary and Secondary School Accounting System (WESSAS), based on guidelines proposed in the U.S. Office of Education's Handbook II. This report describes and discusses that implementation and provides numerous…

  3. Design, performance and control of the CDF Run II Data Acquisition System

    SciTech Connect

    Badgett, William F., Jr.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    The Run II Data Acquisition (DAQ) system of the CDF Detector at Fermilab's Tevatron accelerator has been operational since July 2001. CDF DAQ has collected over 350 inverse picobarns of proton-antiproton collision data with high efficiency. An overview of the design of the pipelined, deadtime-less trigger and data acquisition system will be presented. CDF can receive and process a maximum crossing rate of once per 132 ns, with the rate reduced in three stages to the final output of approximately 1 to 2 terabytes per day. The DAQ system is controlled and monitored via a suite of Java based control software, with connections to front end VME crate processors running VxWorks/C and back end Oracle databases. Included are a flexible and easy to use Run Control java application and associated system monitoring applications, both stand-alone and web based. The performance and operational experience of three years will be presented, including data taking efficiencies and through-put, and the role of intelligent software in tagging and solving problems. We also review future upgrades designed to increase data collection rates to cope with increased Tevatron luminosity.

  4. ART CCIM Phase II-A Off-Gas System Evaluation Test Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg; Jay Roach

    2009-01-01

    This test plan defines testing to be performed using the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) engineering-scale cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) test system for Phase II-A of the Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) CCIM Project. The multi-phase ART-CCIM Project is developing a conceptual design for replacing the joule-heated melter (JHM) used to treat high level waste (HLW) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) with a cold crucible induction melter. The INL CCIM test system includes all feed, melter off-gas control, and process control subsystems needed for fully integrated operation and testing. Testing will include operation of the melter system while feeding a non-radioactive slurry mixture prepared to simulate the same type of waste feed presently being processed in the DWPF. Process monitoring and sample collection and analysis will be used to characterize the off-gas composition and properties, and to show the fate of feed constituents, to provide data that shows how the CCIM retrofit conceptual design can operate with the existing DWPF off-gas control system.

  5. Holdup Measurement System II (HMSII): Version 2.1. User`s guide and software documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.E.

    1995-05-31

    The Holdup Measurement System II (HMSII) software is a database management package for doing Holdup Measurements. It is based on the generalized geometry holdup (GGH) methodology taught in the US Department of Energy Safeguards Technology Training Program, ``Nondestructive Assay of Special Nuclear Materials Holdup.`` This program was developed and taught by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The HMSII was developed as a joint effort between LANL and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, managed for the US Department of Energy by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. The system is designed specifically for use with three types of Multichannel Analyzer (MCA): a Davidson Portable MultiChannel Analyzer (MCA); a EG&G Ortec MicroNOMAD ({mu}NOMAD); or a new Miniature Modular MultiChannel Analyzer (M{sup 3}CA) under development at LANL. It is also designed assuming a 512 channel spectrum from a low resolution (e.g., NaI) detector measuring Uranium or Plutonium. Another important hardware component of the system is a portable bar code reader (also called a DataLogger or Trakker), by Intermec Corporation. The 944X series and the JANUS 2OXX series readers are compatible models with the HMSII. The JANUS series is a bar code reader which is also a 386 compatible palmtop PC with MS-DOS 5.0 built-in. Both series readers are programmable and control all the aspects of field holdup data collection from the MCAs.

  6. High-latitude stratospheric aerosols measured by the SAM II satellite system in 1978 and 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. P.; Chu, W. P.; Mcmaster, L. R.; Grams, G. W.; Hamill, P.; Steele, H. M.; Swissler, T. J.; Herman, B. M.; Pepin, T. J.; Russell, P. B.

    1981-01-01

    Results of the first year of data collection by the SAM (Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement) II satellite system are presented. Almost 10,000 profiles of stratospheric aerosol extinction in the Arctic and Antarctic regions are used to construct plots of weekly averaged aerosol extinction versus altitude and time and stratospheric optical depth versus time. Corresponding temperature fields are presented. These data show striking similarities in the aerosol behavior for corresponding seasons. Wintertime polar stratospheric clouds that are strongly correlated with temperature are documented. They are much more prevalent in the Antarctic stratosphere during the cold austral winter and increase the stratospheric optical depths by as much as an order of magnitude for a period of about 2 months. These clouds might represent a sink for stratospheric water vapor and must be considered in the radiative budget for this region and time.

  7. SKYLAB II - Making a Deep Space Habitat from a Space Launch System Propellant Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Brand N.; Smitherman, David; Kennedy, Kriss J.; Toups, Larry; Gill, Tracy; Howe, A. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Called a "House in Space," Skylab was an innovative program that used a converted Saturn V launch vehicle propellant tank as a space station habitat. It was launched in 1973 fully equipped with provisions for three separate missions of three astronauts each. The size and lift capability of the Saturn V enabled a large diameter habitat, solar telescope, multiple docking adaptor, and airlock to be placed on-orbit with a single launch. Today, the envisioned Space Launch System (SLS) offers similar size and lift capabilities that are ideally suited for a Skylab type mission. An envisioned Skylab II mission would employ the same propellant tank concept; however serve a different mission. In this case, the SLS upper stage hydrogen tank is used as a Deep Space Habitat (DSH) for NASA s planned missions to asteroids, Earth-Moon Lagrangian point and Mars.

  8. Present status of the electron beam diagnostics system of the PLS-II linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jae-Young; Kim, Changbum; Kim, Mungyung; Kim, Dotae; Kim, Jae Myung; Lee, Eunhee; Kim, Ghyung Hwa; Shin, Seunghwan; Huang, Jung Yun

    2015-02-01

    The PLS-II, the upgraded PLS (Pohang Light Source), has been providing users with photon beams in the top-up mode since March 2013. The requirements for the PLS-II linac to achieve the top-up injection are very demanding because it is a full energy injector with a very limited energy margin. One of the requirements is to ensure high injection efficiency in order to minimize the beam loss at the storage ring injection point and the experimental hall during injection because loss leads to a high radiation level in the experimental hall. The energy stability and energy spread of the accelerated electron beam are fundamental parameters to monitor and manage for high injection efficiency. An energy feedback system consisting of a stripline-type beam position monitor and the last klystron was implemented. To diagnose the injected beam's energy and energy spread in real time during top-up mode injection, we installed an optical transition radiation (OTR) monitor system upstream of the beam transport line (BTL) after the first bending magnet. The energy and the energy spread ranges can be controlled with a horizontal slit installed after the OTR monitor. The vertical beam size of the accelerated beam must be decreased for efficient injection because the electron beam is injected into the storage ring with many in-vacuum undulators of small gaps. For this purpose, two vertical slits were installed in the BTL region. We will describe mainly those instruments closely related to top-up operation, though other beam diagnostic instruments have been used since PLS.

  9. The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment: First Detection of High-velocity Milky Way Bar Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nidever, David L.; Zasowski, Gail; Majewski, Steven R.; Bird, Jonathan; Robin, Annie C.; Martinez-Valpuesta, Inma; Beaton, Rachael L.; Schönrich, Ralph; Schultheis, Mathias; Wilson, John C.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Shetrone, Matthew; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Weiner, Benjamin; Gerhard, Ortwin; Schneider, Donald P.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Sellgren, Kris; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Brinkmann, Jon; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; García Pérez, Ana Elia; Holtzman, Jon; Hearty, Fred R.; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Muna, Demitri; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Simmons, Audrey; Snedden, Stephanie; Weaver, Benjamin A.

    2012-08-01

    Commissioning observations with the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III, have produced radial velocities (RVs) for ~4700 K/M-giant stars in the Milky Way (MW) bulge. These high-resolution (R ~ 22, 500), high-S/N (>100 per resolution element), near-infrared (NIR; 1.51-1.70 μm) spectra provide accurate RVs (epsilonV ~ 0.2 km s-1) for the sample of stars in 18 Galactic bulge fields spanning -1° -32°. This represents the largest NIR high-resolution spectroscopic sample of giant stars ever assembled in this region of the Galaxy. A cold (σV ~ 30 km s-1), high-velocity peak (V GSR ≈ +200 km s-1) is found to comprise a significant fraction (~10%) of stars in many of these fields. These high RVs have not been detected in previous MW surveys and are not expected for a simple, circularly rotating disk. Preliminary distance estimates rule out an origin from the background Sagittarius tidal stream or a new stream in the MW disk. Comparison to various Galactic models suggests that these high RVs are best explained by stars in orbits of the Galactic bar potential, although some observational features remain unexplained.

  10. THE APACHE POINT OBSERVATORY GALACTIC EVOLUTION EXPERIMENT: FIRST DETECTION OF HIGH-VELOCITY MILKY WAY BAR STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Nidever, David L.; Zasowski, Gail; Majewski, Steven R.; Beaton, Rachael L.; Wilson, John C.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Bird, Jonathan; Schoenrich, Ralph; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Sellgren, Kris; Robin, Annie C.; Schultheis, Mathias; Martinez-Valpuesta, Inma; Gerhard, Ortwin; Shetrone, Matthew; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Weiner, Benjamin; Schneider, Donald P.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; and others

    2012-08-20

    Commissioning observations with the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III, have produced radial velocities (RVs) for {approx}4700 K/M-giant stars in the Milky Way (MW) bulge. These high-resolution (R {approx} 22, 500), high-S/N (>100 per resolution element), near-infrared (NIR; 1.51-1.70 {mu}m) spectra provide accurate RVs ({epsilon}{sub V} {approx} 0.2 km s{sup -1}) for the sample of stars in 18 Galactic bulge fields spanning -1 Degree-Sign -32 Degree-Sign . This represents the largest NIR high-resolution spectroscopic sample of giant stars ever assembled in this region of the Galaxy. A cold ({sigma}{sub V} {approx} 30 km s{sup -1}), high-velocity peak (V{sub GSR} Almost-Equal-To +200 km s{sup -1}) is found to comprise a significant fraction ({approx}10%) of stars in many of these fields. These high RVs have not been detected in previous MW surveys and are not expected for a simple, circularly rotating disk. Preliminary distance estimates rule out an origin from the background Sagittarius tidal stream or a new stream in the MW disk. Comparison to various Galactic models suggests that these high RVs are best explained by stars in orbits of the Galactic bar potential, although some observational features remain unexplained.

  11. Data collection and field experiments at the Apache Leap research site. Annual report, May 1995--1996

    SciTech Connect

    Woodhouse, E.G.; Bassett, R.L.; Neuman, S.P.; Chen, G.

    1997-08-01

    This report documents the research performed during the period May 1995-May 1996 for a project of the U.S. Regulatory Commission (sponsored contract NRC-04-090-051) by the University of Arizona. The project manager for this research in Thomas J. Nicholson, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The objectives of this research were to examine hypotheses and test alternative conceptual models concerning unsaturated flow and transport through fractured rock, and to design and execute confirmatory field and laboratory experiments to test these hypotheses and conceptual models at the Apache Leap Research Site near Superior, Arizona. Each chapter in this report summarizes research related to a specific set of objectives and can be read and interpreted as a separate entity. Topics include: crosshole pneumatic and gaseous tracer field and modeling experiments designed to help validate the applicability of contiuum geostatistical and stochastic concepts, theories, models, and scaling relations relevant to unsaturated flow and transport in fractured porous tuffs; use of geochemistry and aquifer testing to evaluate fracture flow and perching mechanisms; investigations of {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U fractionation to evaluate leaching selectivity; and transport and modeling of both conservative and non-conservative tracers.

  12. The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) high-resolution near-infrared multi-object fiber spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, John C.; Hearty, Fred; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Majewski, Steven; Schiavon, Ricardo; Eisenstein, Daniel; Gunn, Jim; Blank, Basil; Henderson, Chuck; Smee, Stephen; Barkhouser, Robert; Harding, Al; Fitzgerald, Greg; Stolberg, Todd; Arns, Jim; Nelson, Matt; Brunner, Sophia; Burton, Adam; Walker, Eric; Lam, Charles; Maseman, Paul; Barr, Jim; Leger, French; Carey, Larry; MacDonald, Nick; Horne, Todd; Young, Erick; Rieke, George; Rieke, Marcia; O'Brien, Tom; Hope, Steve; Krakula, John; Crane, Jeff; Zhao, Bo; Carr, Mike; Harrison, Craig; Stoll, Robert; Vernieri, Mary A.; Holtzman, Jon; Shetrone, Matt; Allende-Prieto, Carlos; Johnson, Jennifer; Frinchaboy, Peter; Zasowski, Gail; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Gillespie, Bruce; Weinberg, David

    2010-07-01

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) will use a dedicated 300-fiber, narrow-band (1.5-1.7 micron), high resolution (R~30,000), near-infrared spectrograph to survey approximately 100,000 giant stars across the Milky Way. This survey, conducted as part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS III), will revolutionize our understanding of kinematical and chemical enrichment histories of all Galactic stellar populations. The instrument, currently in fabrication, will be housed in a separate building adjacent to the 2.5 m SDSS telescope and fed light via approximately 45-meter fiber runs from the telescope. The instrument design includes numerous technological challenges and innovations including a gang connector that allows simultaneous connection of all fibers with a single plug to a telescope cartridge that positions the fibers on the sky, numerous places in the fiber train in which focal ratio degradation must be minimized, a large (290 mm x 475 mm elliptically-shaped recorded area) mosaic-VPH, an f/1.4 sixelement refractive camera featuring silicon and fused silica elements with diameters as large as 393 mm, three near-within a custom, LN2-cooled, stainless steel vacuum cryostat with dimensions 1.4 m x 2.3 m x 1.3 m.

  13. The Apache Longbow-Hellfire Missile Test at Yuma Proving Ground: Ecological Risk Assessment for Missile Firing

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Daniel Steven; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Hargrove, William Walter; Suter, Glenn; Pater, Larry

    2008-01-01

    A multiple stressor risk assessment was conducted at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, as a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework. The focus was a testing program at Cibola Range, which involved an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, M60- A1 tanks. This paper describes the ecological risk assessment for the missile launch and detonation. The primary stressor associated with this activity was sound. Other minor stressors included the detonation impact, shrapnel, and fire. Exposure to desert mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus crooki) was quantified using the Army sound contour program BNOISE2, as well as distances from the explosion to deer. Few effects data were available from related studies. Exposure-response models for the characterization of effects consisted of human "disturbance" and hearing damage thresholds in units of C-weighted decibels (sound exposure level) and a distance-based No Observed Adverse Effects Level for moose and cannonfire. The risk characterization used a weight-of-evidence approach and concluded that risk to mule deer behavior from the missile firing was likely for a negligible number of deer, but that no risk to mule deer abundance and reproduction is expected.

  14. Comparison of the BACTEC MGIT 960 and ESP Culture System II for Growth and Detection of Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Williams-Bouyer, Natalie; Yorke, Rebecca; Lee, Hung I.; Woods, Gail L.

    2000-01-01

    The performances of two continuously monitoring mycobacterial culture systems—ESP Culture System II (ESP II; Trek Diagnostics, Inc., Westlake, Ohio) and BACTEC MGIT 960 (BD Biosciences, Sparks, Md.)—were compared. In addition to both liquid media, all specimens were plated onto Middlebrook 7H11/7H11 selective agar. A total of 3,151 specimens of all types (56.3% were respiratory specimens) were cultured; 231 (7.3%) yielded mycobacteria. The most common species recovered were Mycobacterium avium complex (69 isolates) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC; 65 isolates). The recovery rates for ESP II, BACTEC MGIT 960, and Middlebrook agar, respectively, were 71.2, 63.9, and 61.8% for all mycobacteria; 70.2, 72.6, and 66.3% for all mycobacteria except Mycobacterium gordonae; and 73.8, 84.6, and 87.7% for MTBC. For liquid plus solid medium combinations, recovery rates for all mycobacteria and for MTBC, respectively, were 84.1 and 92.3% for ESP II plus Middlebrook agar and 81.5 and 98.5% for BACTEC MGIT 960 plus Middlebrook agar. The differences in recovery of all mycobacteria by ESP II and by BACTEC MGIT 960 were not significant; for the individual species, the only significant difference was recovery of more isolates of M. gordonae by ESP II. For those isolates recovered in both automated systems, mean times to detection of all mycobacteria and MTBC, respectively, were 15.8 and 17.4 days for ESP II and 12.5 and 11.9 days for BACTEC MGIT 960 (P < 0.05). False-positive signals occurred with 23 (0.7%) BACTEC MGIT 960 cultures and 84 (2.7%) ESP II cultures (P < 0.01). Overall contamination rates were 17.1% for BACTEC MGIT 960, 18.9% for ESP II, and 11.0% for Middlebrook agar. In summary, the ESP II and BACTEC MGIT 960 systems performed comparably with regard to growth and detection of mycobacteria, and the contamination rates were similar. However, with ESP II, times to detection of all mycobacteria and of MTBC were significantly longer, the recovery rate of M

  15. Mach 6.5 air induction system design for the Beta II Two-Stage-to-Orbit booster vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Midea, Anthony C.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary, two-dimensional, mixed compression air induction system is designed for the Beta II Two-Stage-to-Orbit booster vehicle to minimize installation losses and efficiently deliver the required airflow. Design concepts, such as an external isentropic compression ramp and a bypass system, are developed and evaluated for performance benefits. The design is optimized by maximizing installed propulsion/vehicle system performance, and the resulting system design operating characteristics and performance are presented. The air induction system design has significantly lower transonic drag than similar designs, and only requires approximately 1/3 of the bleed extraction. In addition, the design efficiently provides the integrated system required airflow, while maintaining adequate levels of total pressure recovery. The excellent performance of this highly integrated air induction system is essential for the successful completion of the Beta II booster vehicle mission.

  16. Effect of IGF-II genotype and pig rearing system on the final characteristics of dry-cured Iberian hams.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Del Pulgar, J; Carrapiso, A I; Reina, R; Biasioli, F; García, C

    2013-11-01

    The effect of the IGF-II genotype (AG vs. GG) on the morphological and compositional parameters, the fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat, the odour concentration (analysed by dynamic olfactometry) and the volatile compound profile (analysed by proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry) of dry-cured Iberian ham was studied for the first time, and compared to the effect of pig rearing system (high-oleic concentrated feed vs. acorn and grass). The IGF-II genotype had no effect on most variables. However, it influenced the concentration of some odorants (methanethiol and octanal), although it did not affect odour concentration. Conversely, the rearing system had a significant effect on a large number of ham variables. Results indicate a negligible effect of the IGF-II genotype on the final ham quality and confirm that the rearing system has a marked effect. PMID:23797016

  17. Distributed real time data processing architecture for the TJ-II data acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, M.; Barrera, E.; López, S.; Machón, D.; Vega, J.; Sánchez, E.

    2004-10-01

    This article describes the performance of a new model of architecture that has been developed for the TJ-II data acquisition system in order to increase its real time data processing capabilities. The current model consists of several compact PCI extension for instrumentation (PXI) standard chassis, each one with various digitizers. In this architecture, the data processing capability is restricted to the PXI controller's own performance. The controller must share its CPU resources between the data processing and the data acquisition tasks. In the new model, distributed data processing architecture has been developed. The solution adds one or more processing cards to each PXI chassis. This way it is possible to plan how to distribute the data processing of all acquired signals among the processing cards and the available resources of the PXI controller. This model allows scalability of the system. More or less processing cards can be added based on the requirements of the system. The processing algorithms are implemented in LabVIEW (from National Instruments), providing efficiency and time-saving application development when compared with other efficient solutions.

  18. THE WIDE-AREA ENERGY STORAGE AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM PHASE II Final Report - Flywheel Field Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ning; Makarov, Yuri V.; Weimar, Mark R.; Rudolph, Frank; Murthy, Shashikala; Arseneaux, Jim; Loutan, Clyde; Chowdhury, S.

    2010-08-31

    This research was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operated for the U.S. department of Energy (DOE) by Battelle Memorial Institute for Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), California Institute for Energy and Environment (CIEE) and California Energy Commission (CEC). A wide-area energy management system (WAEMS) is a centralized control system that operates energy storage devices (ESDs) located in different places to provide energy and ancillary services that can be shared among balancing authorities (BAs). The goal of this research is to conduct flywheel field tests, investigate the technical characteristics and economics of combined hydro-flywheel regulation services that can be shared between Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and California Independent System Operator (CAISO) controlled areas. This report is the second interim technical report for Phase II of the WAEMS project. This report presents: 1) the methodology of sharing regulation service between balancing authorities, 2) the algorithm to allocate the regulation signal between the flywheel and hydro power plant to minimize the wear-and-tear of the hydro power plants, 3) field results of the hydro-flywheel regulation service (conducted by the Beacon Power), and 4) the performance metrics and economic analysis of the combined hydro-flywheel regulation service.

  19. Self-driven HeII cooling system for the interaction region focusing magnets at SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Mord, A.J.; Snyder, H.A. |

    1994-12-31

    The focusing magnets nearest the interaction points of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) face concentrated and somewhat unpredictable heat loads from the radiation produced by the proton beam collision. A three-stage cooling system design is shown that interfaces with the SSC external refrigeration system and minimizes hot spots in the magnet. The magnet cold mass can be held below 2 K even with a heat load of 1 kW. Internal convection with zero mass flow between the magnet laminations carries the heat radially outward from the center of the magnets to large coolant passages near the periphery. Cross flow is not required. A circulation system driven by the heat being removed then carries the heat axially through the 60 m long set of magnets. A heat exchanger/thermomechanical pump module transfers the heat to the external refrigeration loop, permitting the external loop to be optimized without matching the flow rate required through the magnets. These results are useful beyond the SSC community as examples of using He II to transfer large amounts of heat in industrial-scale superconducting magnets.

  20. Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II) Supernova Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is a series of three interlocking imaging and spectroscopic surveys, carried out over an eight-year period with a dedicated 2.5m telescope located at Apache Point Observatory in Southern New Mexico. The SDSS Supernova Survey was one of those three components of SDSS and SDSS-II, a 3-year extension of the original SDSS that operated from July 2005 to July 2008. The Supernova Survey was a time-domain survey, involving repeat imaging of the same region of sky every other night, weather permitting. The primary scientific motivation was to detect and measure light curves for several hundred supernovae through repeat scans of the SDSS Southern equatorial stripe 82 (about 2.5? wide by ~120? long). Over the course of three 3-month campaigns SDSS-II SN discovered and measured multi-band lightcurves for ~500 spectroscopically confirmed Type Ia supernovae in the redshift range z=0.05-0.4. In addition, the project harvested a few hundred light curves for SNe Ia and discovered about 80 spectroscopically confirmed core-collapse supernovae (supernova types Ib/c and II).

  1. Protein-protein interactions within the Fatty Acid Synthase-II system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are essential for mycobacterial viability.

    PubMed

    Veyron-Churlet, Romain; Guerrini, Olivier; Mourey, Lionel; Daffé, Mamadou; Zerbib, Didier

    2004-12-01

    Despite the existence of efficient chemotherapy, tuberculosis remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. New drugs are urgently needed to reduce the potential impact of the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of the causative agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The front-line antibiotic isoniazid (INH), and several other drugs, target the biosynthesis of mycolic acids and especially the Fatty Acid Synthase-II (FAS-II) elongation system. This biosynthetic pathway is essential and specific for mycobacteria and still represents a valuable system for the search of new anti-tuberculous agents. Several data, in the literature, suggest the existence of protein-protein interactions within the FAS-II system. These interactions themselves might serve as targets for a new generation of drugs directed against Mtb. By using an extensive in vivo yeast two-hybrid approach and in vitro co-immunoprecipitation, we have demonstrated the existence of both homotypic and heterotypic interactions between the known components of FAS-II. The condensing enzymes KasA, KasB and mtFabH interact with each other and with the reductases MabA and InhA. Furthermore, we have designed and constructed point mutations of the FAS-II reductase MabA, able to disrupt its homotypic interactions and perturb the interaction pattern of this protein within FAS-II. Finally, we showed by a transdominant genetic approach that these mutants are dominant negative in both non-pathogenic and pathogenic mycobacteria. These data allowed us to draw a dynamic model of the organization of FAS-II. They also represent an important step towards the design of a new generation of anti-tuberculous agents, as being inhibitors of essential protein-protein interactions. PMID:15554959

  2. Life-cycle analysis results for geothermal systems in comparison to other power systems: Part II.

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, J.L.; Clark, C.E.; Yuan, L.; Han, J.; Wang, M.

    2012-02-08

    A study has been conducted on the material demand and life-cycle energy and emissions performance of power-generating technologies in addition to those reported in Part I of this series. The additional technologies included concentrated solar power, integrated gasification combined cycle, and a fossil/renewable (termed hybrid) geothermal technology, more specifically, co-produced gas and electric power plants from geo-pressured gas and electric (GPGE) sites. For the latter, two cases were considered: gas and electricity export and electricity-only export. Also modeled were cement, steel and diesel fuel requirements for drilling geothermal wells as a function of well depth. The impact of the construction activities in the building of plants was also estimated. The results of this study are consistent with previously reported trends found in Part I of this series. Among all the technologies considered, fossil combustion-based power plants have the lowest material demand for their construction and composition. On the other hand, conventional fossil-based power technologies have the highest greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, followed by the hybrid and then two of the renewable power systems, namely hydrothermal flash power and biomass-based combustion power. GHG emissions from U.S. geothermal flash plants were also discussed, estimates provided, and data needs identified. Of the GPGE scenarios modeled, the all-electric scenario had the highest GHG emissions. Similar trends were found for other combustion emissions.

  3. The Urotensin II System and Carotid Atherosclerosis: A Role in Vascular Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Albanese, Isabella; Daskalopoulou, Stella S.; Yu, Bin; You, Zhipeng; Genest, Jacques; Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi; Schwertani, Adel G.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: The aims of the present study were to determine the expression of urotensin II (UII), urotensin-II related peptide (URP), and their receptor (UT) in stable and unstable carotid atherosclerosis, and determine the effects of UII on human aortic smooth muscle cell (SMCs) calcification. Methods and Results: We examined UII, URP, and UT protein expression in 88 carotid endarterectomy specimens using immunohistochemistry. Expression of UII, URP, and UT was more evident in unstable compared to stable plaques (P < 0.05). Multivariate Spearman correlation analyses revealed significant positive correlations between UII, URP and UT overall staining and presence of calcification, severity of stenosis and inflammation (P < 0.05). Subjects undergoing carotid endarterectomy had significantly higher plasma UII levels, as assessed by ELISA, when compared with normolipidemic healthy control subjects (P < 0.05). Incubation of human aortic SMCs cultured in phosphate media with varying concentrations of UII resulted in a significant increase in calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity. UII also significantly increased β-catenin translocation and expression of ALPL, BMP2, ON, and SOX9 (P < 0.05). Incubation of cells with phosphate medium alone increased the expression of the pre-UT and mature UT (P < 0.01), and addition of UII had a synergistic effect on pre-UT protein expression (P < 0.001) compared to phosphate medium alone. Conclusions: Upregulation of UII, URP, and UT in unstable carotid endarterectomy plaques and plasma, and the stimulatory effect of UII on vascular smooth muscle cell calcification suggest that the UII system may play a role in the pathogenesis of vascular calcification and stability of atherosclerosis. PMID:27375483

  4. Beam Transport and Diagnostics for the NSLS-II Injection System

    SciTech Connect

    Fliller III,R.; Alforque, R.; Heese, R.; Meier, R.; Rose, J.; Shaftan, T.; Singh, O.; Tsoupas, N.

    2009-05-04

    The NSLS-II is a state of the art 3 GeV synchrotron light source being developed at BNL. The injection system will consist of a 200 MeV linac, 3 GeV booster synchrotron, and associated transfer lines. The transport lines between the linac and booster (LtB) and the booster and storage ring (BSR) must satisfy a number of requirements. In addition to transporting the beam while maintaining the beam emittance, these lines must allow for commissioning, provide appropriate diagnostics, allow for the appropriate safety devices and in the case of the BSR line, provide a stable beam for top off injection. Appropriate diagnostics are also necessary in the linac and booster to complement the measurements in the transfer lines and to allow for fast commissioning. In this paper we discuss the design of the transfer lines for the NSLSII along with the incorporated diagnostics and safety systems. Necessary diagnostics in the linac and booster are also discussed.

  5. [Isolated central nervous system relapse in type II enteropathy-associated T cell lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Nishida, Hiroko; Endo, Kiyoshi; Hatano, Mami; Tatekawa, Nobuo; Mashima, Eri; Hashida, Risa; Hori, Masao; Obara, Katsuyuki

    2015-06-01

    A 75-year-old male presented with progressive lower abdominal discomfort. CT scan demonstrated hypertrophy of the intestinal wall, small bowel dilatation, and masses in the descending colon. Biopsy specimens of the jejunum and descending colon revealed widespread distribution of medium-sized atypical lymphocytes with an immunophenotype, positivity for CD3, CD8, CD56, TAI-1, granzyme B and TCRβ, but negativity for CD4, CD5, CD20, CD30 and EBER-ISH. Type II enteropathy-associated T cell lymphoma (EATL; Lugano, stage IIE) was diagnosed. Subsequently, he received 6 cycles of chemotherapy with 2/3 dose CHOP and obtained complete remission. However, 18 months after the initial presentation, he presented with rapidly progressive mental deterioration. Gadolinium enhanced T1-weighted brain MR images showed multiple masses with mild heterogeneous enhancement. Brain biopsy revealed necrotic tumors composed of medium-sized atypical lymphocytes, positive for CD3, CD8, CD56, TIA-1, granzyme B and TCRβ, but negative for CD4, CD20, and EBER-ISH. CT scan disclosed no evidence of systemic lymphoma relapse, indicating central nervous system relapse of EATL. Despite immediate high-dose chemotherapy with methotrexate, he died of disease progression. EATL is a rare disease with a very poor outcome, for which a validated standard treatment is still lacking. Further studies are needed to identify innovative therapies for treating EATL. PMID:26256881

  6. Secretion of a pneumococcal type II secretion system pilus correlates with DNA uptake during transformation

    PubMed Central

    Balaban, Murat; Bättig, Patrick; Muschiol, Sandra; Tirier, Stephan M.; Wartha, Florian; Normark, Staffan; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major human pathogen that successfully adapts to the host environment via an efficient uptake system for free DNA liberated from other organisms in the upper respiratory tract, facilitating immune evasion and drug resistance. Although the initial signaling events leading to pneumococcal competence for DNA transformation and the fate of DNA when it has been taken up have been extensively studied, the actual mechanism by which DNA in the environment may traverse the thick capsular and cell wall layers remains unknown. Here we visualize that induction of competence results in the formation of a native morphologically distinct pilus structure on the bacterial surface. This plaited pilus is encoded by the competence (com)G locus, and, after assembly, it is rapidly released into the surrounding medium. Heterologous pneumococcal pilus expression in Escherichia coli was obtained by replacing the pulE-K putative pilin genes of the Klebsiella oxytoca type II secretion system with the complete comG locus. In the pneumococcus, the coordinated secretion of pili from the cells correlates to DNA transformation. A model for DNA transformation is proposed whereby pilus assembly “drills” a channel across the thick cell wall that becomes transiently open by secretion of the pilus, providing the entry port for exogenous DNA to gain access to DNA receptors associated with the cytoplasmic membrane. PMID:24550320

  7. Observational Analysis of Tropical Cyclone Formation. Part II: Comparison of Non-Developing versus Developing Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, John L.; Zehr, Raymond

    1981-06-01

    The thermodynamic and dynamic fields surrounding the composite tropical weather systems described in Part I (McBride, 1981a) are examined for differences between non-developing and developing systems. The main findings are as follows: (i) Both non-developing and developing systems are warm core in the upper levels. The temperature (and height) gradients are more pronounced in the developing system, but the magnitudes are so small that the differences would be difficult to measure for individual systems. (ii) The developing or pre-typhoon cloud cluster exists in a warmer atmosphere over a large horizontal scale, for example, out to 8° latitude radius in all directions. (iii) There is no obvious difference in vertical stability for moist convection between the systems. (iv) There is no obvious difference in moisture content or moisture gradient. (v) Pre-typhoon and pre-hurricane systems are located in large areas of high values of low-level relative vorticity. The low-level vorticity in the vicinity of a developing cloud cluster is approximately twice as large as that observed with non-developing cloud clusters. (vi) Mean divergence and vertical motion for the typical western Atlantic weather system are well below the magnitudes found in pre-tropical storm systems. (vii) Once a system has sufficient divergence to maintain 100 mb or more per day upward vertical motion over a 4° radius area, there appears to be no relationship between the amount of upward vertical velocity and the potential of the system for development. (viii) Cyclogenesis takes place under conditions of zero vertical wind shear near the system center. (ix) There is a requirement for large positive zonal shear to the north and negative zonal shear close to the south of a developing system. There is also a requirement for southerly shear to the west and northerly shear to the east. The scale of this shear pattern is over a 10° latitude radius circle with maximum amplitude at 6° radius.Under the

  8. PERFORMANCE OF THE LEAD/LIQUID ARGON SHOWER COUNTER SYSTEM OF THE MARK II DETECTOR AT SPEAR

    SciTech Connect

    Abrams, G.S.; Blocker, C.A.; Briggs, D.D.; Carithers, W.C.; Dieterle, W.E.; Eaton, M.W.; Lankford, A.J.; Pang, C.Y.; Vella, E.N.; Breidenbach, M.; Dorfan, J.M.; Hanson, G.; Hitlin, D.G.; Jenni, P.; Luth, V.

    1980-05-01

    The shower counter system of the SLAC-LBL Mark II detector is a large lead/liquid argon system of the type pioneered by Willis and Radekal; however, it differs in most details and is much larger than other such detectors currently in operation, It contains, for example, 8000 liters of liquid argon and 3000 channels of low noise electronics, which is about eight times the size of the system of Willis et al. in the CERN ISR. This paper reports, with little reference to design, on the operation and performance of the Mark II system during approximately a year and a half of operation at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center's e{sup +}-e{sup -} facility, SPEAR. The design and construction of the system have previously been described and a detailed discussion of all aspects -- design, construction, operation, and performance -- is in preparation.

  9. [Estimation of the patients quality of life after gastric banding according to Moorehead-Ardelt II system].

    PubMed

    Tyvonchuk, O S; Lavryk, A S; Tereshkevych, I S

    2007-07-01

    The quality of life estimation according to Moorehead-Ardelt II system was conducted. The sweet-eater syndrome determination was elaborated and introducted in 45 patients, suffering morbid obesity, to whom gastric banding was performed. The investigation was conducted to unify the results and specify indications for some bariatric operations performance. PMID:18020289

  10. DRAINMOD-N II: Evaluated for an agricultural system in Iowa and compared to RZWQM-DSSAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new simulation model for N dynamics, DRAINMOD-N II, has been previously evaluated for only a few sites. We evaluated the model using ten years (1996-2005) of measured data from a subsurface-drained, corn-soybean agricultural system near Story City, Iowa. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied to plots ...

  11. 25 CFR 547.12 - What are the minimum technical standards for downloading on a Class II gaming system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... limited to software, files, data, and prize schedules. (2) Downloads must use secure methodologies that... date of the completion of the download; (iii) The Class II gaming system components to which software was downloaded; (iv) The version(s) of download package and any software downloaded. Logging of...

  12. 25 CFR 547.10 - What are the minimum standards for Class II gaming system critical events?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... GAMES § 547.10 What are the minimum standards for Class II gaming system critical events? This section... component can no longer be considered reliable. Accordingly, any game play on the affected component shall... or the medium itself has some fault.Any game play on the affected component shall cease...

  13. 25 CFR 547.10 - What are the minimum standards for Class II gaming system critical events?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... GAMES § 547.10 What are the minimum standards for Class II gaming system critical events? This section... component can no longer be considered reliable. Accordingly, any game play on the affected component shall... or the medium itself has some fault.Any game play on the affected component shall cease...

  14. 25 CFR 547.10 - What are the minimum standards for Class II gaming system critical events?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... GAMES § 547.10 What are the minimum standards for Class II gaming system critical events? This section... be considered reliable. Accordingly, any game play on the affected component shall cease immediately... has some fault.Any game play on the affected component shall cease immediately, and an...

  15. A Coursewriter II Function (FCALC) For the Manipulation of Numerical and Algebraic Expressions. Systems Memo Number One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Authella; And Others

    Documentation of the Coursewriter II Function FCALC is provided. The function is designed for use on the IBM 1500 instructional system and has three major applications: 1) comparison of a numeric expression in buffer 5 with a numeric expression in buffer 0; 2) comparison of an algebraic expression in buffer 5 with an algebraic expression in buffer…

  16. Final Report for the MANNRRSS II Program Management of Nevada's Natural Resources with Remote Sensing Systems, Beatty, NV

    SciTech Connect

    Lester Miller; Brian Horowitz; Chris Kratt; Tim Minor; Stephen F. Zitzer; James. V. Taranik; Zan L. Aslett; Todd O. Morken

    2009-06-04

    This document provides the Final Report on the Management of Nevada’s Natural Resources with Remote Sensing Systems (MANNRRSS) II program. This is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project tasked with utilizing hyperspectral and ancillary electro-optical instrumentation data to create an environmental characterization of an area directly adjacent to the Nevada Test Site (NTS).

  17. Forecasting the Future Food Service World of Work. Final Report. Volume II. Centralized Food Service Systems. Service Management Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Thomas F., Ed.; Swinton, John R., Ed.

    Volume II of a three-volume study on the future of the food service industry considers the effects that centralized food production will have on the future of food production systems. Based on information from the Fair Acres Project and the Michigan State University Vegetable Processing Center, the authors describe the operations of a centralized…

  18. Evaluation of security availability of data components for a renewable energy micro Smart Grid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera Zambrano, Leonel

    In this thesis, we study the development and security testing of photovoltaic data collection system. With the introduction of the smart grid concept, a lot of research has been done on the communication aspect of energy production and distribution throughout the power network. For Smart Grid, Internet is used as the communication medium for specific required services and for data collection. Despite all the advantages of the Smart Grid infrastructure, there is also some security concern regarding the vulnerabilities associated with internet access. In this thesis, we consider security testing of the two most popular and globally deployed web server platforms Apache running on Red Had Linux 5 and IIS on Windows Server 2008, and their performance under Distributed Denial of Service Attacks. Furthermore we stress test the data collection services provided by MySQL running on both Windows and Linux Servers when it is also under DDoS attacks.

  19. Long-Term Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems (II&C) Modernization Future Vision and Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Life extension beyond 60 years for the U.S operating nuclear fleet requires that instrumentation and control (I&C) systems be upgraded to address aging and reliability concerns. It is impractical for the legacy systems based on 1970's vintage technology operate over this extended time period. Indeed, utilities have successfully engaged in such replacements when dictated by these operational concerns. However, the replacements have been approached in a like-for-like manner, meaning that they do not take advantage of the inherent capabilities of digital technology to improve business functions. And so, the improvement in I&C system performance has not translated to bottom-line performance improvement for the fleet. Therefore, wide-scale modernization of the legacy I&C systems could prove to be cost-prohibitive unless the technology is implemented in a manner to enable significant business innovation as a means of off-setting the cost of upgrades. A Future Vision of a transformed nuclear plant operating model based on an integrated digital environment has been developed as part of the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) research pathway, under the Light Water Reactor (LWR) Sustainability Program. This is a research and development program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), performed in close collaboration with the nuclear utility industry, to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. DOE's program focus is on longer-term and higher-risk/reward research that contributes to the national policy objectives of energy security and environmental security . The Advanced II&C research pathway is being conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The Future Vision is based on a digital architecture that encompasses all aspects of plant operations and support, integrating plant systems, plant work processes, and plant workers in a seamless

  20. Long-Term Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems (II&C) Modernization Future Vision and Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Thomas; Bruce Hallbert

    2013-02-01

    Life extension beyond 60 years for the U.S operating nuclear fleet requires that instrumentation and control (I&C) systems be upgraded to address aging and reliability concerns. It is impractical for the legacy systems based on 1970’s vintage technology operate over this extended time period. Indeed, utilities have successfully engaged in such replacements when dictated by these operational concerns. However, the replacements have been approached in a like-for-like manner, meaning that they do not take advantage of the inherent capabilities of digital technology to improve business functions. And so, the improvement in I&C system performance has not translated to bottom-line performance improvement for the fleet. Therefore, wide-scale modernization of the legacy I&C systems could prove to be cost-prohibitive unless the technology is implemented in a manner to enable significant business innovation as a means of off-setting the cost of upgrades. A Future Vision of a transformed nuclear plant operating model based on an integrated digital environment has been developed as part of the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) research pathway, under the Light Water Reactor (LWR) Sustainability Program. This is a research and development program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), performed in close collaboration with the nuclear utility industry, to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. DOE’s program focus is on longer-term and higher-risk/reward research that contributes to the national policy objectives of energy security and environmental security . The Advanced II&C research pathway is being conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The Future Vision is based on a digital architecture that encompasses all aspects of plant operations and support, integrating plant systems, plant work processes, and plant workers in a

  1. Theory and Implementation of Nuclear Safety System Codes - Part II: System Code Closure Relations, Validation, and Limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn A Roth; Fatih Aydogan

    2014-09-01

    This is Part II of two articles describing the details of thermal-hydraulic sys- tem codes. In this second part of the article series, the system code closure relationships (used to model thermal and mechanical non-equilibrium and the coupling of the phases) for the governing equations are discussed and evaluated. These include several thermal and hydraulic models, such as heat transfer coefficients for various flow regimes, two phase pressure correlations, two phase friction correlations, drag coefficients and interfacial models be- tween the fields. These models are often developed from experimental data. The experiment conditions should be understood to evaluate the efficacy of the closure models. Code verification and validation, including Separate Effects Tests (SETs) and Integral effects tests (IETs) is also assessed. It can be shown from the assessments that the test cases cover a significant section of the system code capabilities, but some of the more advanced reactor designs will push the limits of validation for the codes. Lastly, the limitations of the codes are discussed by considering next generation power plants, such as Small Modular Reactors (SMRs), analyz- ing not only existing nuclear power plants, but also next generation nuclear power plants. The nuclear industry is developing new, innovative reactor designs, such as Small Modular Reactors (SMRs), High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) and others. Sub-types of these reactor designs utilize pebbles, prismatic graphite moderators, helical steam generators, in- novative fuel types, and many other design features that may not be fully analyzed by current system codes. This second part completes the series on the comparison and evaluation of the selected reactor system codes by discussing the closure relations, val- idation and limitations. These two articles indicate areas where the models can be improved to adequately address issues with new reactor design and development.

  2. OVERVIEW OF THE SDSS-IV MaNGA SURVEY: MAPPING NEARBY GALAXIES AT APACHE POINT OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Bundy, Kevin; Bershady, Matthew A.; Wake, David A.; Tremonti, Christy; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Law, David R.; Cherinka, Brian; Yan, Renbin; Sánchez-Gallego, José R.; Drory, Niv; MacDonald, Nicholas; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Thomas, Daniel; Masters, Karen; Coccato, Lodovico; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Badenes, Carles; Falcón-Barroso, Jésus; Belfiore, Francesco; and others

    2015-01-01

    We present an overview of a new integral field spectroscopic survey called MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory), one of three core programs in the fourth-generation Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV) that began on 2014 July 1. MaNGA will investigate the internal kinematic structure and composition of gas and stars in an unprecedented sample of 10,000 nearby galaxies. We summarize essential characteristics of the instrument and survey design in the context of MaNGA's key science goals and present prototype observations to demonstrate MaNGA's scientific potential. MaNGA employs dithered observations with 17 fiber-bundle integral field units that vary in diameter from 12'' (19 fibers) to 32'' (127 fibers). Two dual-channel spectrographs provide simultaneous wavelength coverage over 3600-10300 Å at R ∼ 2000. With a typical integration time of 3 hr, MaNGA reaches a target r-band signal-to-noise ratio of 4-8 (Å{sup –1} per 2'' fiber) at 23 AB mag arcsec{sup –2}, which is typical for the outskirts of MaNGA galaxies. Targets are selected with M {sub *} ≳ 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} using SDSS-I redshifts and i-band luminosity to achieve uniform radial coverage in terms of the effective radius, an approximately flat distribution in stellar mass, and a sample spanning a wide range of environments. Analysis of our prototype observations demonstrates MaNGA's ability to probe gas ionization, shed light on recent star formation and quenching, enable dynamical modeling, decompose constituent components, and map the composition of stellar populations. MaNGA's spatially resolved spectra will enable an unprecedented study of the astrophysics of nearby galaxies in the coming 6 yr.

  3. Overview of the SDSS-IV MaNGA Survey: Mapping nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundy, Kevin; Bershady, Matthew A.; Law, David R.; Yan, Renbin; Drory, Niv; MacDonald, Nicholas; Wake, David A.; Cherinka, Brian; Sánchez-Gallego, José R.; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Thomas, Daniel; Tremonti, Christy; Masters, Karen; Coccato, Lodovico; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Badenes, Carles; Falcón-Barroso, Jésus; Belfiore, Francesco; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Blanton, Michael R.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Byler, Nell; Cappellari, Michele; Conroy, Charlie; Dutton, Aaron A.; Emsellem, Eric; Etherington, James; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Fu, Hai; Gunn, James E.; Harding, Paul; Johnston, Evelyn J.; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Kinemuchi, Karen; Klaene, Mark A.; Knapen, Johan H.; Leauthaud, Alexie; Li, Cheng; Lin, Lihwai; Maiolino, Roberto; Malanushenko, Viktor; Malanushenko, Elena; Mao, Shude; Maraston, Claudia; McDermid, Richard M.; Merrifield, Michael R.; Nichol, Robert C.; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Parejko, John K.; Sanchez, Sebastian F.; Schlegel, David; Simmons, Audrey; Steele, Oliver; Steinmetz, Matthias; Thanjavur, Karun; Thompson, Benjamin A.; Tinker, Jeremy L.; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; Westfall, Kyle B.; Wilkinson, David; Wright, Shelley; Xiao, Ting; Zhang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    We present an overview of a new integral field spectroscopic survey called MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory), one of three core programs in the fourth-generation Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV) that began on 2014 July 1. MaNGA will investigate the internal kinematic structure and composition of gas and stars in an unprecedented sample of 10,000 nearby galaxies. We summarize essential characteristics of the instrument and survey design in the context of MaNGA's key science goals and present prototype observations to demonstrate MaNGA's scientific potential. MaNGA employs dithered observations with 17 fiber-bundle integral field units that vary in diameter from 12'' (19 fibers) to 32'' (127 fibers). Two dual-channel spectrographs provide simultaneous wavelength coverage over 3600-10300 Å at R ~ 2000. With a typical integration time of 3 hr, MaNGA reaches a target r-band signal-to-noise ratio of 4-8 (Å-1 per 2'' fiber) at 23 AB mag arcsec-2, which is typical for the outskirts of MaNGA galaxies. Targets are selected with M * >~ 109 M ⊙ using SDSS-I redshifts and i-band luminosity to achieve uniform radial coverage in terms of the effective radius, an approximately flat distribution in stellar mass, and a sample spanning a wide range of environments. Analysis of our prototype observations demonstrates MaNGA's ability to probe gas ionization, shed light on recent star formation and quenching, enable dynamical modeling, decompose constituent components, and map the composition of stellar populations. MaNGA's spatially resolved spectra will enable an unprecedented study of the astrophysics of nearby galaxies in the coming 6 yr.

  4. Incidence of Type II CRISPR1-Cas Systems in Enterococcus Is Species-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Casandra; Raustad, Nicole; Bustos, Mario A.; Shiaris, Michael

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas systems, which obstruct both viral infection and incorporation of mobile genetic elements by horizontal transfer, are a specific immune response common to prokaryotes. Antiviral protection by CRISPR-Cas comes at a cost, as horizontally-acquired genes may increase fitness and provide rapid adaptation to habitat change. To date, investigations into the prevalence of CRISPR have primarily focused on pathogenic and clinical bacteria, while less is known about CRISPR dynamics in commensal and environmental species. We designed PCR primers and coupled these with DNA sequencing of products to detect and characterize the presence of cas1, a universal CRISPR-associated gene and proxy for the Type II CRISPR1-Cas system, in environmental and non-clinical Enterococcus isolates. CRISPR1-cas1 was detected in approximately 33% of the 275 strains examined, and differences in CRISPR1 carriage between species was significant. Incidence of cas1 in E. hirae was 73%, nearly three times that of E. faecalis (23.6%) and 10 times more frequent than in E. durans (7.1%). Also, this is the first report of CRISPR1 presence in E. durans, as well as in the plant-associated species E. casseliflavus and E. sulfureus. Significant differences in CRISPR1-cas1 incidence among Enterococcus species support the hypothesis that there is a tradeoff between protection and adaptability. The differences in the habitats of enterococcal species may exert varying selective pressure that results in a species-dependent distribution of CRISPR-Cas systems. PMID:26600384

  5. 1D cadmium(II) thiocyanate systems: Synthesis and characterization of three new polymeric 1D cadmium(II) thiocyanato complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saber, Mohamed R.; Abu-Youssef, Morsy A. M.; Goher, Mohamed A. S.; Sabra, Berry A.; Hafez, Afaf K.; Badr, Ahmed M.-A.; Mautner, Franz A.

    2012-01-01

    Three new cadmium(II) thiocyanato complexes, [{Cd(NCS) 2(val)}·H 2O] n1, [Cd(NCS) 2(3-ampy) 2] n2, and [Cd(NCS) 2(pyrazolinone)] n3, (val = D, L-valine, 3-ampy = 3-aminopyridine and pyrazolinone = 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. The X-ray structure analysis revealed di-μ-N,S thiocyanato bridges connecting cadmium centers in a 1D chain with the co-ligand blocking the remaining coordination sites. The structure of complex 1 features six coordinate Cd(II) centers, each cadmium is surrounded by two N atoms and two S atoms from two bridging N,S-thiocyanato groups giving rise to a zigzag 1D chain and two oxygen atoms of the alternating chelating μ-O,O'-valine that coordinates as zwitterionic terminal amino acid. The structure of complex 2 consists of octahedral Cd(II) centers, connected by di-μ-N,S-bridging NCS groups, thus forming a 1D chain system along the [1 0 1] direction. The amino-groups are forming one intra-chain N sbnd H⋯N hydrogen bond and one interchain N sbnd H⋯N hydrogen bond to N-atoms of adjacent chains. The structure of 3 reveals di-μ-N,S-NCS doubly bridged unusual penta-coordinated cadmium centers with the alternating monodentate pyrazolinone ligand blocking the fifth coordination site. IR spectra and thermal properties of complexes are reported.

  6. Performance testing of the Ford/GE Second Generation Single-Shaft Electric Propulsion (ETX-II) System

    SciTech Connect

    MacDowall, R.D.; Burke, A.F.

    1993-06-01

    System-level-operational testing of the ETX-II test-bed electric vehicle is described and the results discussed. Because the traction battery is a major factor in the performance of an electric vehicle, previously reported work on the sodium-sulfur battery designed for use with the ETX-II is reviewed in detail. Chassis dynamometer performance of the test-bed vehicle met or exceeded design goals and compared reasonably well with SIMPLEV computer modeling results. Areas are identified wherein further work is needed to establish a firmer basis for comparison of the simulation and the observed results.

  7. Vasopressin and sympathetic system mediate the cardiovascular effects of the angiotensin II in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in rat.

    PubMed

    Nasimi, Ali; Kafami, Marzieh

    2016-07-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) is involved in cardiovascular regulation. The angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor (AT1), and angiotensinogen were found in the BST. In our previous study we found that microinjection of Ang II into the BST produced a pressor response. This study was performed to find the mechanisms mediating this response in anesthetized rats. Ang II was microinjected into the BST and the cardiovascular responses were re-tested after systemic injection of a blocker of autonomic or vasopressin V1 receptor. The ganglionic nicotinic receptor blocker, hexamethonium dichloride, attenuated the pressor response to Ang II, indicating that the cardiovascular sympathetic system is involved in the pressor effect of Ang II. A selective vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist greatly attenuated the pressor effect of Ang II, indicating that the Ang II increases the arterial pressure via stimulation of vasopressin release as well. In conclusion, in the BST, Ang II as a neurotransmitter increases blood pressure by exciting cardiovascular sympathetic system and directly or indirectly causing vasopressin to release into bloodstream by VPN. This is an interesting new finding that not only circulating Ang II but also brain Ang II makes vasopressin release. PMID:26820216

  8. Immobilization of Hg(II) by coprecipitation in sulfate-cement systems.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Susana; Vlassopoulos, Dimitri; Bessinger, Brad; O'Day, Peggy A

    2012-06-19

    Uptake and molecular speciation of dissolved Hg during formation of Al- or Fe-ettringite-type and high-pH phases were investigated in coprecipitation and sorption experiments of sulfate-cement treatments used for soil and sediment remediation. Ettringite and minor gypsum were identified by XRD as primary phases in Al systems, whereas gypsum and ferrihydrite were the main products in Hg-Fe precipitates. Characterization of Hg-Al solids by bulk Hg EXAFS, electron microprobe, and microfocused-XRF mapping indicated coordination of Hg by Cl ligands, multiple Hg and Cl backscattering atoms, and concentration of Hg as small particles. Thermodynamic predictions agreed with experimental observations for bulk phases, but Hg speciation indicated lack of equilibration with the final solution. Results suggest physical encapsulation of Hg as a polynuclear chloromercury(II) salt in ettringite as the primary immobilization mechanism. In Hg-Fe solids, structural characterization indicated Hg coordination by O atoms only and Fe backscattering atoms that is consistent with inner-sphere complexation of Hg(OH)(2)(0) coprecipitated with ferrihydrite. Precipitation of ferrihydrite removed Hg from solution, but the resulting solid was sufficiently hydrated to allow equilibration of sorbed Hg species with the aqueous solution. Electron microprobe XRF characterization of sorption samples with low Hg concentration reacted with cement and FeSO(4) amendment indicated correlation of Hg and Fe, supporting the interpretation of Hg removal by precipitation of an Fe(III) oxide phase. PMID:22594782

  9. Partitioning of polymeric plutonium(IV) in Winsor II microemulsion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiko, D.J. )

    1992-09-01

    The hydrolysis and polymerization of Pu(IV) can cause serious problems during the aqueous processing of spent fuel and nuclear wastes. Several studies describing the liquid/liquid extraction behavior of polymeric Pu(IV) have been reported in the literature. In many cases, poor plutonium extraction was accompanied by the appearance of an interfacial crud or third phase. Invariably, poor mass balances were observed during the extraction of aged, colloidal Pu(IV). Extraction of colloidal Pu(IV) by microemulsion-based solvent extraction systems, however, is capable of attaining bulk phase mass balances for Pu of 100%. The Winsor II microemulsions discussed in this paper consisted of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate in hexane with either octylphenyl-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide or tributyl phosphate as coextractant. Backextraction of plutonium from microemulsion phases was achieved by Pu encapsulation in silica particles that were produced by the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis and polymerization of tetraethoxysilane within the aqueous microdroplets of the microemulsion.

  10. Anti-carbonic anhydrase II antibodies in systemic sclerosis: association with lung involvement.

    PubMed

    Alessandri, Cristiano; Bombardieri, Michele; Scrivo, Rossana; Viganego, Federico; Conti, Fabrizio; de Luca, Nicoletta; Riccieri, Valeria; Valesini, Guido

    2003-03-01

    Carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) is expressed on alveolar epithelium and participates to CO2 elimination, fluid secretion and post-capillary pH regulation. CAII is overexpressed in animal models of lung fibrosis in sites of epithelial injury. Autoantibodies directed against CAII (anti-CAII) have been described in sera from patients affected by systemic sclerosis (SSc), but no study focused on their clinical associations in this disease. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of anti-CAII in sera of SSc patients and to investigate their association with lung involvement. We performed ELISA to detect anti-CAII in 34 SSc patients who underwent pulmonary function tests (PFT) and Doppler echocardiography. We found increased prevalence and significantly elevated serum levels of anti-CAII in SSc patients affected by restrictive lung disease (RLD) compared to SSc patients without lung involvement and healthy controls. These findings suggest both a possible pathogenic role of anti-CAII in the development of lung damage and a potential clinical utility as serological marker of pulmonary involvement in SSc patients. PMID:12820690

  11. A Transcriptomic Biomarker to Quantify Systemic Inflammation in Sepsis - A Prospective Multicenter Phase II Diagnostic Study.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Michael; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J; Kortgen, Andreas; Möller, Eva; Felsmann, Karen; Cavaillon, Jean Marc; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando; Rutschmann, Olivier; Ruryk, Andriy; Kohl, Matthias; Wlotzka, Britta; Rußwurm, Stefan; Marshall, John C; Reinhart, Konrad

    2016-04-01

    Development of a dysregulated immune response discriminates sepsis from uncomplicated infection. Currently used biomarkers fail to describe simultaneously occurring pro- and anti-inflammatory responses potentially amenable to therapy. Marker candidates were screened by microarray and, after transfer to a platform allowing point-of-care testing, validated in a confirmation set of 246 medical and surgical patients. We identified up-regulated pathways reflecting innate effector mechanisms, while down-regulated pathways related to adaptive lymphocyte functions. A panel of markers composed of three up- (Toll-like receptor 5; Protectin; Clusterin) and 4 down-regulated transcripts (Fibrinogen-like 2; Interleukin-7 receptor; Major histocompatibility complex class II, DP alpha1; Carboxypeptidase, vitellogenic-like) described the magnitude of immune alterations. The created gene expression score was significantly greater in patients with definite as well as with possible/probable infection than with no infection (median (Q25/Q75): 80 (60/101)) and 81 (58/97 vs. 49 (27/66), AUC-ROC=0.812 (95%-CI 0.755-0.869), p<0.0001). Down-regulated lymphocyte markers were associated with prognosis with good sensitivity but limited specificity. Quantifying systemic inflammation by assessment of both pro- and anti-inflammatory innate and adaptive immune responses provides a novel option to identify patients-at-risk and may facilitate immune interventions in sepsis. PMID:27211554

  12. Immobilization of Hg(II) by Coprecipitation in Sulfate-Cement Systems

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Uptake and molecular speciation of dissolved Hg during formation of Al- or Fe-ettringite-type and high-pH phases were investigated in coprecipitation and sorption experiments of sulfate-cement treatments used for soil and sediment remediation. Ettringite and minor gypsum were identified by XRD as primary phases in Al systems, whereas gypsum and ferrihydrite were the main products in Hg–Fe precipitates. Characterization of Hg–Al solids by bulk Hg EXAFS, electron microprobe, and microfocused-XRF mapping indicated coordination of Hg by Cl ligands, multiple Hg and Cl backscattering atoms, and concentration of Hg as small particles. Thermodynamic predictions agreed with experimental observations for bulk phases, but Hg speciation indicated lack of equilibration with the final solution. Results suggest physical encapsulation of Hg as a polynuclear chloromercury(II) salt in ettringite as the primary immobilization mechanism. In Hg–Fe solids, structural characterization indicated Hg coordination by O atoms only and Fe backscattering atoms that is consistent with inner-sphere complexation of Hg(OH)20 coprecipitated with ferrihydrite. Precipitation of ferrihydrite removed Hg from solution, but the resulting solid was sufficiently hydrated to allow equilibration of sorbed Hg species with the aqueous solution. Electron microprobe XRF characterization of sorption samples with low Hg concentration reacted with cement and FeSO4 amendment indicated correlation of Hg and Fe, supporting the interpretation of Hg removal by precipitation of an Fe(III) oxide phase. PMID:22594782

  13. Photocurrents from photosystem II in a metal oxide hybrid system: Electron transfer pathways.

    PubMed

    Brinkert, Katharina; Le Formal, Florian; Li, Xiaoe; Durrant, James; Rutherford, A William; Fantuzzi, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    We have investigated the nature of the photocurrent generated by Photosystem II (PSII), the water oxidizing enzyme, isolated from Thermosynechococcus elongatus, when immobilized on nanostructured titanium dioxide on an indium tin oxide electrode (TiO2/ITO). We investigated the properties of the photocurrent from PSII when immobilized as a monolayer versus multilayers, in the presence and absence of an inhibitor that binds to the site of the exchangeable quinone (QB) and in the presence and absence of exogenous mobile electron carriers (mediators). The findings indicate that electron transfer occurs from the first quinone (QA) directly to the electrode surface but that the electron transfer through the nanostructured metal oxide is the rate-limiting step. Redox mediators enhance the photocurrent by taking electrons from the nanostructured semiconductor surface to the ITO electrode surface not from PSII. This is demonstrated by photocurrent enhancement using a mediator incapable of accepting electrons from PSII. This model for electron transfer also explains anomalies reported in the literature using similar and related systems. The slow rate of the electron transfer step in the TiO2 is due to the energy level of electron injection into the semiconducting material being below the conduction band. This limits the usefulness of the present hybrid electrode. Strategies to overcome this kinetic limitation are discussed. PMID:26946088

  14. Blade system design studies volume II : preliminary blade designs and recommended test matrix.

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Dayton A.

    2004-06-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Partnerships for Advanced Component Technologies (WindPACT) program, Global Energy Concepts, LLC is performing a Blade System Design Study (BSDS) concerning innovations in materials, processes and structural configurations for application to wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt range. The BSDS Volume I project report addresses issues and constraints identified to scaling conventional blade designs to the megawatt size range, and evaluated candidate materials, manufacturing and design innovations for overcoming and improving large blade economics. The current report (Volume II), presents additional discussion of materials and manufacturing issues for large blades, including a summary of current trends in commercial blade manufacturing. Specifications are then developed to guide the preliminary design of MW-scale blades. Using preliminary design calculations for a 3.0 MW blade, parametric analyses are performed to quantify the potential benefits in stiffness and decreased gravity loading by replacement of a baseline fiberglass spar with carbon-fiberglass hybrid material. Complete preliminary designs are then presented for 3.0 MW and 5.0 MW blades that incorporate fiberglass-to-carbon transitions at mid-span. Based on analysis of these designs, technical issues are identified and discussed. Finally, recommendations are made for composites testing under Part I1 of the BSDS, and the initial planned test matrix for that program is presented.

  15. Promotion of Mn(II) Oxidation and Remediation of Coal Mine Drainage in Passive Treatment Systems by Diverse Fungal and Bacterial Communities ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Santelli, Cara M.; Pfister, Donald H.; Lazarus, Dana; Sun, Lu; Burgos, William D.; Hansel, Colleen M.

    2010-01-01

    Biologically active, passive treatment systems are commonly employed for removing high concentrations of dissolved Mn(II) from coal mine drainage (CMD). Studies of microbial communities contributing to Mn attenuation through the oxidation of Mn(II) to sparingly soluble Mn(III/IV) oxide minerals, however, have been sparse to date. This study reveals a diverse community of Mn(II)-oxidizing fungi and bacteria existing in several CMD treatment systems. PMID:20495049

  16. [Study on colour reaction of iron(II)-thibarbituric acid-nitrite system and its analytical application].

    PubMed

    Huang, X

    1998-12-01

    In this paper, the optimum conditions of colour reaction of iron (II)-thibarbituric acid-NO2(-) system, existent state and spectrophotometric characteristies of the complex were studied, and the reaction mechanism discussed. A new spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace iron was established. In a buffer solution of borate/NaOH of pH9.5, iron (II) and thibarbituric acid-NO2(-) react to form a stable blue complex anion, for which the maximum absorbance is at 645nm and the molar absorptivity is 2.66 x 10(4)L x mol(-1) x cm(-1). Beer's law is obeyed in the range of 0-40 microg/25mL for iron (II). The method is simple and rapid, shows satisfactory selectivity and precision and has been applied to determine iron in waters with satisfactory results. PMID:15825298

  17. Retrospective Evaluation of New Chinese Diagnostic Scoring System for Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jun; Wang, Huafang; Guo, Tao; Mei, Heng; Hu, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To retrospectively validate the new Chinese DIC scoring system (CDSS). Methods This study retrospectively collected the information of 619 patients (371 cases with non-hematologic malignancies, 248 cases with hematologic malignancies) who suspected of DIC in Wuhan Union Hospital during 2013-4 to 2014-6. We validated CDSS by comparing it with three leading scoring systems, from International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH), Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM) and Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare (JMHW), and evaluated its prognostic value by 28 days mortality, APACHE II and SOFA score. Results In non-hematologic malignancies, CDSS was more specific than JAAM (72.55% vs. 50.49%, p<0.05) and more sensitive than ISTH (77.07% vs. 62.03%, p<0.05). In hematologic malignancies, the area under the ROC curve of CDSS was larger than ISTH and JMHW (0.933 vs. 0.889, p<0.01 with ISTH, 0.944 vs. 0.845, p<0.01 with JMHW). In addition, the 28-day mortality rate, SOFA scores, APACHE II scores of DIC patients diagnosed by CDSS were significantly greater than non-DIC (P <0.05). Conclusions We are the first group to propose CDSS. It emphasized the values of the clinical manifestations, the rapidly declining platelet count, APTT in the diagnosis of DIC and used D-dimer as the fibrin-related maker. DIC with hematological malignancies was treated as a special part. In this study we can see that CDSS displayed an acceptable property for the diagnosis of DIC with appropriate sensitivity and specificity, and also had a good prognostic value for DIC patients. PMID:26076032

  18. Nearby Spiral Galaxy Globular Cluster Systems. II. Globular Cluster Metallicities in NGC 300

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nantais, Julie B.; Huchra, John P.; Barmby, Pauline; Olsen, Knut A. G.

    2010-03-01

    We present new metallicity estimates for globular cluster (GC) candidates in the Sd spiral NGC 300, one of the nearest spiral galaxies outside the Local Group. We have obtained optical spectroscopy for 44 Sculptor Group GC candidates with the Boller and Chivens (B&C) spectrograph on the Baade Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. There are two GCs in NGC 253 and 12 objects in NGC 300 with globular-cluster-like spectral features, nine of which have radial velocities above 0 km s-1. The remaining three, due to their radial velocities being below the expected 95% confidence limit for velocities of NGC 300 halo objects, are flagged as possible foreground stars. The non-cluster-like candidates included 13 stars, 15 galaxies, and an H II region. One GC, four galaxies, two stars, and the H II region from our sample were identified in archival Hubble Space Telescope images. For the GCs, we measure spectral indices and estimate metallicities using an empirical calibration based on Milky Way GCs. The GCs of NGC 300 appear similar to those of the Milky Way. Excluding possible stars and including clusters from the literature, the GC system (GCS) has a velocity dispersion of 68 km s-1 and has no clear evidence of rotation. The mean metallicity for our full cluster sample plus one literature object is [Fe/H] = -0.94, lying above the relationship between mean GC metallicity and overall galaxy luminosity. Excluding the three low-velocity candidates, we obtain a mean [Fe/H] = -0.98, still higher than expected, raising the possibility of significant foreground star contamination even in this sample. Visual confirmation of genuine GCs using high-resolution space-based imagery could greatly reduce the potential problem of interlopers in small samples of GCSs in low-radial-velocity galaxies. Data for this project were obtained at the Baade 6.5 m telescope, Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. This publication makes use of data products from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, which is a joint

  19. Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice LEDs: Applications for infrared scene projector systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, Dennis Thomas, Jr.

    Optoelectronic devices operating in the mid-wave (3-5 mum) and long-wave (8-12 mum) infrared (IR) regions of the electromagnetic spectrum are of a great interest for academic and industrial applications. Due to the lack of atmospheric absorption, devices operating within these spectral bands are particularly useful for spectroscopy, imaging, and dynamic scene projection. Advanced IR imaging systems have created an intense need for laboratory-based infrared scene projector (IRSP) systems which can be used for accurate simulation of real-world phenomena occurring in the IR. These IRSP systems allow for reliable, reproducible, safe, and cost-effective calibration of IR detector arrays. The current state-of-the-art technology utilized for the emitter source of IRSP systems is thermal pixel arrays (TPAs) which are based on thin film resistor technology. Thermal pixel array technology has fundamental limitations related to response time and maximum simulated apparent temperature, making them unsuitable for emulation of very hot (> 700 K) and rapidly evolving scenes. Additionally, there exists a need for dual wavelength emitter arrays for IRSP systems dedicated to calibration of dual wavelength detector arrays. This need is currently met by combining the spectral output from two separate IRSP systems. This configuration requires precise alignment of the output from both systems and results in the maximum radiance being limited to approximately half that of the capability of a given emitter array due to the optics used to combine the outputs. The high switching speed inherent to IR light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and the potential for high power output makes them an appealing candidate to replace the thermal pixel arrays used for IRSP systems. To this end, research has been carried out to develop and improve the device performance of IR LEDs based on InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices (T2SLs). A common method employed to achieve high brightness from LEDs is to incorporate

  20. Primary light harvesting system: the relationship of phycobilisomes to photosystem I and II. Progress report, September 1983-March 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Gantt, E.

    1984-01-01

    It has long been known that energy absorbed by phycobiliproteins is transferred to photosystem II and is then distributed to I. Consequently, it has been predicted that phycobilisomes would be in close association with photosystem II. Our laboratory has succeeded in isolating phycobilisomes which have photosystem II activity, as measured by oxygen evolution, and reduction of dichlorophenol indophenol. In a special medium (0.5 M phosphate buffer, 0.5 M sucrose, 0.3 M citrate, and 10 mM magnesium chloride) the phycobilisomes remain intact, and the PS II activity is preserved. These preparations are deficient in the PS I reaction center pigment P700, as well as in the PS I polypeptide CP 1. Preparations of this system are being further characterized to determine the P680 content, to ascertain the DCMU-binding protein, cytochromes, and other polypeptides which are specific for PS II, and also for PS I. In addition, the sidedness of thylakoid membranes of red algae and cyanobacteria are also being explored by immunocytochemistry (EM) and fractionation on acrylamide gels. Attachment of the phycobilisomes, and the location of the terminal emitter of phycobilisomes, are an integral part of these studies. Results from these studies will aid in our understanding of the energy transfer in the photosynthetic apparatus of these groups of organisms which appear to have a considerable convergence from green plants.