Science.gov

Sample records for aperture solar telescope

  1. NST: Thermal Modeling for a Large Aperture Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulter, Roy

    2011-05-01

    Late in the 1990s the Dutch Open Telescope demonstrated that internal seeing in open, large aperture solar telescopes can be controlled by flushing air across the primary mirror and other telescope structures exposed to sunlight. In that system natural wind provides a uniform air temperature throughout the imaging volume, while efficiently sweeping heated air away from the optics and mechanical structure. Big Bear Solar Observatory's New Solar Telescope (NST) was designed to realize that same performance in an enclosed system by using both natural wind through the dome and forced air circulation around the primary mirror to provide the uniform air temperatures required within the telescope volume. The NST is housed in a conventional, ventilated dome with a circular opening, in place of the standard dome slit, that allows sunlight to fall only on an aperture stop and the primary mirror. The primary mirror is housed deep inside a cylindrical cell with only minimal openings in the side at the level of the mirror. To date, the forced air and cooling systems designed for the NST primary mirror have not been implemented, yet the telescope regularly produces solar images indicative of the absence of mirror seeing. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of the NST primary mirror system along with measurements of air flows within the dome, around the telescope structure, and internal to the mirror cell are used to explain the origin of this seemingly incongruent result. The CFD analysis is also extended to hypothetical systems of various scales. We will discuss the results of these investigations.

  2. Instrument Design of the Large Aperture Solar UV Visible and IR Observing Telescope (SUVIT) for the SOLAR-C Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suematsu, Y.; Katsukawa, Y.; Shimizu, T.; Ichimoto, K.; Takeyama, N.

    2012-12-01

    We present an instrumental design of one major solar observation payload planned for the SOLAR-C mission: the Solar Ultra-violet Visible and near IR observing Telescope (SUVIT). The SUVIT is designed to provide high-angular-resolution investigation of the lower solar atmosphere, from the photosphere to the uppermost chromosphere, with enhanced spectroscopic and spectro-polarimetric capability in wide wavelength regions from 280 nm (Mg II h&k lines) to 1100 nm (He I 1083 nm line) with 1.5 m class aperture and filtergraphic and spectrographic instruments.

  3. Science and Instrument Design of 1.5-m Aperture Solar Optical Telescope for the SOLAR-C Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suematsu, Y.; Katsukawa, Y.; Ichimoto, K.; Shimizu, T.

    2012-12-01

    We present science cases and a design of one of major instruments for SOLAR-C mission; 1.5-m-class aperture solar ultra-violet visible and near IR observing Telescope (SUVIT). The SOLAR-C mission aims at fully understanding dynamism and magnetic nature of the solar atmosphere by observing small-scale plasma processes and structures. The SUVIT is designed to provide high-angular-resolution investigation of lower atmosphere from the photosphere to the uppermost chromosphere with enhanced spectroscopic and spectro-polarimetric capability covering a wide wavelength region from 280 nm (Mg II h&k) to 1100 nm (He I 1083 nm), using focal plane instruments: wide-band and narrow-band filtergraphs and a spectrograph for high-precision spectro-polarimetry in the solar photospheric and chromospheric lines. We will discuss about instrument design to realize the science cases.

  4. TELESCOPES: Astronomers Overcome 'Aperture Envy'.

    PubMed

    Irion, R

    2000-07-01

    Many users of small telescopes are disturbed by the trend of shutting down smaller instruments in order to help fund bigger and bolder ground-based telescopes. Small telescopes can thrive in the shadow of giant new observatories, they say--but only if they are adapted to specialized projects. Telescopes with apertures of 2 meters or less have unique abilities to monitor broad swaths of the sky and stare at the same objects night after night, sometimes for years; various teams are turning small telescopes into robots, creating networks that span the globe and devoting them to survey projects that big telescopes don't have a prayer of tackling. PMID:17832960

  5. Large aperture Fresnel telescopes/011

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R.A., LLNL

    1998-07-16

    At Livermore we`ve spent the last two years examining an alternative approach towards very large aperture (VLA) telescopes, one based upon transmissive Fresnel lenses rather than on mirrors. Fresnel lenses are attractive for VLA telescopes because they are launchable (lightweight, packagable, and deployable) and because they virtually eliminate the traditional, very tight, surface shape requirements faced by reflecting telescopes. Their (potentially severe) optical drawback, a very narrow spectral bandwidth, can be eliminated by use of a second (much smaller) chromatically-correcting Fresnel element. This enables Fresnel VLA telescopes to provide either single band ({Delta}{lambda}/{lambda} {approximately} 0.1), multiple band, or continuous spectral coverage. Building and fielding such large Fresnel lenses will present a significant challenge, but one which appears, with effort, to be solvable.

  6. Large aperture diffractive space telescope

    DOEpatents

    Hyde, Roderick A. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A large (10's of meters) aperture space telescope including two separate spacecraft--an optical primary objective lens functioning as a magnifying glass and an optical secondary functioning as an eyepiece. The spacecraft are spaced up to several kilometers apart with the eyepiece directly behind the magnifying glass "aiming" at an intended target with their relative orientation determining the optical axis of the telescope and hence the targets being observed. The objective lens includes a very large-aperture, very-thin-membrane, diffractive lens, e.g., a Fresnel lens, which intercepts incoming light over its full aperture and focuses it towards the eyepiece. The eyepiece has a much smaller, meter-scale aperture and is designed to move along the focal surface of the objective lens, gathering up the incoming light and converting it to high quality images. The positions of the two space craft are controlled both to maintain a good optical focus and to point at desired targets which may be either earth bound or celestial.

  7. Very Large Aperture Diffractive Space Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, Roderick Allen

    1998-04-20

    A very large (10's of meters) aperture space telescope including two separate spacecraft--an optical primary functioning as a magnifying glass and an optical secondary functioning as an eyepiece. The spacecraft are spaced up to several kilometers apart with the eyepiece directly behind the magnifying glass ''aiming'' at an intended target with their relative orientation determining the optical axis of the telescope and hence the targets being observed. The magnifying glass includes a very large-aperture, very-thin-membrane, diffractive lens, e.g., a Fresnel lens, which intercepts incoming light over its full aperture and focuses it towards the eyepiece. The eyepiece has a much smaller, meter-scale aperture and is designed to move along the focal surface of the magnifying glass, gathering up the incoming light and converting it to high quality images. The positions of the two space craft are controlled both to maintain a good optical focus and to point at desired targets.

  8. Optical aperture synthesis with electronically connected telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dravins, Dainis; Lagadec, Tiphaine; Nuñez, Paul D.

    2015-04-01

    Highest resolution imaging in astronomy is achieved by interferometry, connecting telescopes over increasingly longer distances and at successively shorter wavelengths. Here, we present the first diffraction-limited images in visual light, produced by an array of independent optical telescopes, connected electronically only, with no optical links between them. With an array of small telescopes, second-order optical coherence of the sources is measured through intensity interferometry over 180 baselines between pairs of telescopes, and two-dimensional images reconstructed. The technique aims at diffraction-limited optical aperture synthesis over kilometre-long baselines to reach resolutions showing details on stellar surfaces and perhaps even the silhouettes of transiting exoplanets. Intensity interferometry circumvents problems of atmospheric turbulence that constrain ordinary interferometry. Since the electronic signal can be copied, many baselines can be built up between dispersed telescopes, and over long distances. Using arrays of air Cherenkov telescopes, this should enable the optical equivalent of interferometric arrays currently operating at radio wavelengths.

  9. Optical aperture synthesis with electronically connected telescopes

    E-print Network

    Dainis Dravins; Tiphaine Lagadec; Paul D. Nuñez

    2015-04-17

    Highest resolution imaging in astronomy is achieved by interferometry, connecting telescopes over increasingly longer distances, and at successively shorter wavelengths. Here, we present the first diffraction-limited images in visual light, produced by an array of independent optical telescopes, connected electronically only, with no optical links between them. With an array of small telescopes, second-order optical coherence of the sources is measured through intensity interferometry over 180 baselines between pairs of telescopes, and two-dimensional images reconstructed. The technique aims at diffraction-limited optical aperture synthesis over kilometre-long baselines to reach resolutions showing details on stellar surfaces and perhaps even the silhouettes of transiting exoplanets. Intensity interferometry circumvents problems of atmospheric turbulence that constrain ordinary interferometry. Since the electronic signal can be copied, many baselines can be built up between dispersed telescopes, and over long distances. Using arrays of air Cherenkov telescopes, this should enable the optical equivalent of interferometric arrays currently operating at radio wavelengths.

  10. Optical aperture synthesis with electronically connected telescopes

    E-print Network

    Dravins, Dainis; Nuñez, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    Highest resolution imaging in astronomy is achieved by interferometry, connecting telescopes over increasingly longer distances, and at successively shorter wavelengths. Here, we present the first diffraction-limited images in visual light, produced by an array of independent optical telescopes, connected electronically only, with no optical links between them. With an array of small telescopes, second-order optical coherence of the sources is measured through intensity interferometry over 180 baselines between pairs of telescopes, and two-dimensional images reconstructed. The technique aims at diffraction-limited optical aperture synthesis over kilometre-long baselines to reach resolutions showing details on stellar surfaces and perhaps even the silhouettes of transiting exoplanets. Intensity interferometry circumvents problems of atmospheric turbulence that constrain ordinary interferometry. Since the electronic signal can be copied, many baselines can be built up between dispersed telescopes, and over long...

  11. Multiple-Aperture-Based Solar Seeing Profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Deqing; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Xi; Dou, Jiangpei; Chen, Rui; Zhu, Yongtian; Yang, Feng

    2015-10-01

    Characterization of day-time atmospheric turbulence profiles up to 30 km above the telescope is crucial for designs and performance estimations of future solar multiconjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) systems. Recently, the S-DIMM+ method has been successfully used to measure the vertical profile of turbulence. However, to measure profile up to 30 km employing the S-DIMM+ method, a telescope with a diameter of at least 1.0 m is needed, which restricts the usage of S-DIMM+, since large telescopes are scarce and their time is limited. To solve this problem, we introduce the multiple-aperture seeing profiler (MASP), which consists of two portable small telescopes instead of a single large aperture. Numerical simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of MASP. We find that for one layer case, MASP can retrieve the seeing with error ˜5% using 800 frames of wavefront sensor (WFS) data, which is quite similar to the results of a telescope with diameter of 1120 mm. We also simulate profiles with four turbulence layers, and find that our MASP can effectively retrieve the strengths and heights of the four turbulence layers. Since previous measurements at Big Bear Solar Observatory showed that day-time turbulence profile typically consists of four layers, the MASP we introduced is sufficient for actual seeing measurement.

  12. Optical aperture synthesis with electronically connected telescopes.

    PubMed

    Dravins, Dainis; Lagadec, Tiphaine; Nuñez, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    Highest resolution imaging in astronomy is achieved by interferometry, connecting telescopes over increasingly longer distances and at successively shorter wavelengths. Here, we present the first diffraction-limited images in visual light, produced by an array of independent optical telescopes, connected electronically only, with no optical links between them. With an array of small telescopes, second-order optical coherence of the sources is measured through intensity interferometry over 180 baselines between pairs of telescopes, and two-dimensional images reconstructed. The technique aims at diffraction-limited optical aperture synthesis over kilometre-long baselines to reach resolutions showing details on stellar surfaces and perhaps even the silhouettes of transiting exoplanets. Intensity interferometry circumvents problems of atmospheric turbulence that constrain ordinary interferometry. Since the electronic signal can be copied, many baselines can be built up between dispersed telescopes, and over long distances. Using arrays of air Cherenkov telescopes, this should enable the optical equivalent of interferometric arrays currently operating at radio wavelengths. PMID:25880705

  13. Optical aperture synthesis with electronically connected telescopes

    PubMed Central

    Dravins, Dainis; Lagadec, Tiphaine; Nuñez, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Highest resolution imaging in astronomy is achieved by interferometry, connecting telescopes over increasingly longer distances and at successively shorter wavelengths. Here, we present the first diffraction-limited images in visual light, produced by an array of independent optical telescopes, connected electronically only, with no optical links between them. With an array of small telescopes, second-order optical coherence of the sources is measured through intensity interferometry over 180 baselines between pairs of telescopes, and two-dimensional images reconstructed. The technique aims at diffraction-limited optical aperture synthesis over kilometre-long baselines to reach resolutions showing details on stellar surfaces and perhaps even the silhouettes of transiting exoplanets. Intensity interferometry circumvents problems of atmospheric turbulence that constrain ordinary interferometry. Since the electronic signal can be copied, many baselines can be built up between dispersed telescopes, and over long distances. Using arrays of air Cherenkov telescopes, this should enable the optical equivalent of interferometric arrays currently operating at radio wavelengths. PMID:25880705

  14. The solar optical telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Objectives of the Solar Optical Telescope are to study the physics of the Sun on the scale at which many of the important physical processes occur and to attain a resolution of 73km on the Sun or 0.1 arc seconds of angular resolution. Topics discussed in this overview of the Solar Optical Telescope include: why is the Solar Optical Telescope needed; current picture of the Sun's atmosphere and convection zone; scientific problems for the Solar Optical Telescope; a description of the telescope; the facility - science management, contamination control, and accessibility to the instruments; the scientific instruments - a coordinated instrument package for unlocking the Sun's secrets; parameters of the coordinated instrument package; science operations from the Space Shuttle; and the dynamic solar atmosphere.

  15. Solar Central Receiver with an Irising Aperture 

    E-print Network

    Galal, T.; Kulaib, A. M.; Abuzaid, M.

    2010-01-01

    . If the aperture is small, it will be inefficient for periods when the solar isolation is inclined due to spillage. However, if the aperture is large, it will be inefficient for periods when the solar isolation is normal, due to excess heat radiation and convection...

  16. Imaging Fourier transform spectroscopy with multi-aperture telescopes

    E-print Network

    Fienup, James R.

    Imaging Fourier transform spectroscopy with multi-aperture telescopes Samuel T. Thurman and James R Hanover St., Palo Alto, CA 94304 Abstract: Fourier spectroscopy can be performed with multi Society of America OCIS codes: (300.6300) Spectroscopy, Fourier transforms; (110.6770) Telescopes; (120

  17. India's National Large Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, S. S.

    2012-12-01

    India's 2-m National Large Solar Telescope (NLST) is aimed primarily at carrying out observations of the solar atmosphere with high spatial and spectral resolution. A comprehensive site characterization program, that commenced in 2007, has identified two superb sites in the Himalayan region at altitudes greater than 4000-m that have extremely low water vapor content and are unaffected by monsoons. With an innovative optical design, the NLST is an on-axis Gregorian telescope with a low number of optical elements to reduce the number of reflections and yield a high throughput with low polarization. In addition, it is equipped with a high-order adaptive optics to produce close to diffraction limited performance. To control atmospheric and thermal perturbations of the observations, the telescope will function with a fully open dome, to achieve its full potential atop a 25 m tower. Given its design, NLST can also operate at night, without compromising its solar performance. The post-focus instruments include broad-band and tunable Fabry-Pérot narrow-band imaging instruments; a high resolution spectropolarimeter and an Echelle spectrograph for night time astronomy. This project is led by the Indian Institute of Astrophysics and has national and international partners. Its geographical location will fill the longitudinal gap between Japan and Europe and is expected to be the largest solar telescope with an aperture larger than 1.5 m till the ATST and EST come into operation. An international consortium has been identified to build the NLST. The facility is expected to be commissioned by 2016.

  18. Synthetic aperture multi-telescope tracker apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carreras

    1985-06-01

    A plurality of telescopes provide output return signals which are applied both directly and in sampled form to a photo-detector cell. The detected signals from the photo-detector will represent the constant and transient errors of the telescope system. A low pass filter insures that the tracker provides only the constant or D.C. component of the error, while a high pass filter insures that the existing measuring devices for each telescope beam provide only the transient or A.C. component of the error. The A.C. and D.C. error signals are summed together with the appropriate applied gains on each channel such that the sum reconstructs the original telescope position error with good fidelity.

  19. Solar Rejection Filter for Large Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Lesh, James

    2009-01-01

    To reject solar radiation photons at the front aperture for large telescopes, a mosaic of large transmission mode filters is placed in front of the telescope or at the aperture of the dome. Filtering options for effective rejection of sunlight include a smaller filter down-path near the focus of the telescope, and a large-diameter filter located in the front of the main aperture. Two types of large filters are viable: reflectance mode and transmittance mode. In the case of reflectance mode, a dielectric coating on a suitable substrate (e.g. a low-thermal-expansion glass) is arranged to reflect only a single, narrow wavelength and to efficiently transmit all other wavelengths. These coatings are commonly referred to as notch filter. In this case, the large mirror located in front of the telescope aperture reflects the received (signal and background) light into the telescope. In the case of transmittance mode, a dielectric coating on a suitable substrate (glass, sapphire, clear plastic, membrane, and the like) is arranged to transmit only a single wavelength and to reject all other wavelengths (visible and near IR) of light. The substrate of the large filter will determine its mass. At first glance, a large optical filter with a diameter of up to 10 m, located in front of the main aperture, would require a significant thickness to avoid sagging. However, a segmented filter supported by a structurally rugged grid can support smaller filters. The obscuration introduced by the grid is minimal because the total area can be made insignificant. This configuration can be detrimental to a diffraction- limited telescope due to diffraction effects at the edges of each sub-panel. However, no discernable degradation would result for a 20 diffraction-limit telescope (a photon bucket). Even the small amount of sagging in each subpanel should have minimal effect in the performance of a non-diffraction limited telescope because the part has no appreciable optical power. If the front aperture filter is integrated with the telescope dome, it will reject heat from the dome and will significantly reduce dome temperature regulation requirements and costs. Also, the filter will protect the telescope optics from dust and other contaminants in the atmosphere. It will be simpler to clean or replace this filter than the telescope primary mirror. It may be necessary to paint the support grid with a highly reflective material to avoid overheating.

  20. Self-Referencing Hartmann Test for Large-Aperture Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korechoff, Robert P.; Oseas, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    A method is proposed for end-to-end, full aperture testing of large-aperture telescopes using an innovative variation of a Hartmann mask. This technique is practical for telescopes with primary mirrors tens of meters in diameter and of any design. Furthermore, it is applicable to the entire optical band (near IR, visible, ultraviolet), relatively insensitive to environmental perturbations, and is suitable for ambient laboratory as well as thermal-vacuum environments. The only restriction is that the telescope optical axis must be parallel to the local gravity vector during testing. The standard Hartmann test utilizes an array of pencil beams that are cut out of a well-corrected wavefront using a mask. The pencil beam array is expanded to fill the full aperture of the telescope. The detector plane of the telescope is translated back and forth along the optical axis in the vicinity of the nominal focal plane, and the centroid of each pencil beam image is recorded. Standard analytical techniques are then used to reconstruct the telescope wavefront from the centroid data. The expansion of the array of pencil beams is usually accomplished by double passing the beams through the telescope under test. However, this requires a well-corrected, autocollimation flat, the diameter or which is approximately equal to that of the telescope aperture. Thus, the standard Hartmann method does not scale well because of the difficulty and expense of building and mounting a well-corrected, large aperture flat. The innovation in the testing method proposed here is to replace the large aperture, well-corrected, monolithic autocollimation flat with an array of small-aperture mirrors. In addition to eliminating the need for a large optic, the surface figure requirement for the small mirrors is relaxed compared to that required of the large autocollimation flat. The key point that allows this method to work is that the small mirrors need to operate as a monolithic flat only with regard to tip/tilt and not piston because in collimated space piston has no effect on the image centroids. The problem of aligning the small mirrors in tip/tilt requires a two-part solution. First, each mirror is suspended from a two-axis gimbal. The orientation of the gimbal is maintained by gravity. Second, the mirror is aligned such that the mirror normal is parallel to gravity vector. This is accomplished interferometrically in a test fixture. Of course, the test fixture itself needs to be calibrated with respect to gravity.

  1. Solar energy apparatus with apertured shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collings, Roger J. (Inventor); Bannon, David G. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A protective apertured shield for use about an inlet to a solar apparatus which includesd a cavity receiver for absorbing concentrated solar energy. A rigid support truss assembly is fixed to the periphery of the inlet and projects radially inwardly therefrom to define a generally central aperture area through which solar radiation can pass into the cavity receiver. A non-structural, laminated blanket is spread over the rigid support truss in such a manner as to define an outer surface area and an inner surface area diverging radially outwardly from the central aperture area toward the periphery of the inlet. The outer surface area faces away from the inlet and the inner surface area faces toward the cavity receiver. The laminated blanket includes at least one layer of material, such as ceramic fiber fabric, having high infra-red emittance and low solar absorption properties, and another layer, such as metallic foil, of low infra-red emittance properties.

  2. NLST: the Indian National Large Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, S. S.; Soltau, D.; Kärcher, H.; Süss, M.; Berkefeld, T.

    2010-07-01

    India is planning a new solar telescope with an aperture of 2-m for carrying out high resolution studies of the Sun. Site characterization is underway at high altitude locations in the Himalayan mountains. A detailed concept design for NLST (National Large Solar Telescope) has been completed. The optical design of the telescope is optimized for high optical throughput and uses a minimum number of optical elements. A high order AO system is integrated part of the design that works with a modest Fried's parameter of 7-cm to give diffraction limited performance. The telescope will be equipped with a suite of post-focus instruments including a high resolution spectrograph and a polarimeter. NLST will also be used for carrying out stellar observations during the night. The mechanical design of the telescope, building, and the innovative dome is optimized to take advantage of the natural air flush which will help to keep the open telescope in temperature equilibrium. After its completion (planned for 2014), NLST will fill a gap in longitude between the major solar facilities in USA and Europe, and it will be for years the largest solar telescope in the world

  3. Low-Cost Large Aperture Telescopes for Optical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid

    2006-01-01

    Low-cost, 0.5-1 meter ground apertures are required for near-Earth laser communications. Low-cost ground apertures with equivalent diameters greater than 10 meters are desired for deep-space communications. This presentation focuses on identifying schemes to lower the cost of constructing networks of large apertures while continuing to meet the requirements for laser communications. The primary emphasis here is on the primary mirror. A slumped glass spherical mirror, along with passive secondary mirror corrector and active adaptive optic corrector show promise as a low-cost alternative to large diameter monolithic apertures. To verify the technical performance and cost estimate, development of a 1.5-meter telescope equipped with gimbal and dome is underway.

  4. Introduction to the Chinese Giant Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Deng, Y.; Ji, H.

    2012-12-01

    In order to detect the fine structures of solar magnetic field and dynamic field, an 8 meter solar telescope has been proposed by Chinese solar community. Due to the advantages of ring structure in polarization detection and thermal control, the current design of CGST (Chinese Giant Solar Telescope) is an 8 meter ring solar telescope. The spatial resolution of CGST is equivalent to an 8 meter diameter telescope, and the light-gathering power equivalent to a 5 meter full aperture telescope. The integrated simulation of optical system and imaging ability such as optical design, MCAO, active maintenance of primary mirror were carried out in this paper. Mechanical system was analyzed by finite element method too. The results of simulation and analysis showed that the current design could meet the demand of most science cases not only in infrared band but also in near infrared band and even in visible band. CGST was proposed by all solar observatories in Chinese Academy of Sciences and several overseas scientists. It is supported by CAS (Chinese Academy of Sciences) and NSFC (National Natural Science Foundation of China) as a long term astronomical project.

  5. Introduction to the Chinese Giant Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhong; Deng, Yuanyong; Jin, Zhenyu; Ji, Haisheng

    2012-09-01

    In order to detect the fine structures of solar magnetic field and dynamic field, an 8 meter solar telescope has been proposed by Chinese solar community. Due to the advantages of ring structure in polarization detection and thermal control, the current design of CGST (Chinese Giant Solar Telescope) is an 8 meter ring solar telescope. The spatial resolution of CGST is equivalent to an 8 meter diameter telescope, and the light-gathering power equivalent to a 5 meter full aperture telescope. The integrated simulation of optical system and imaging ability such as optical design, MCAO, active maintenance of primary mirror were carried out in this paper. Mechanical system was analyzed by finite element method too. The results of simulation and analysis showed that the current design could meet the demand of most science cases not only in infrared band but also in near infrared band and even in visible band. CGST was proposed by all solar observatories in Chinese Academy of Sciences and several overseas scientists. It is supported by CAS and NSFC (National Natural Science Foundation of China) as a long term astronomical project.

  6. Construction of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimmele, T. R.; Keil, S.; McMullin, J.; Knölker, M.; Kuhn, J. R.; Goode, P. R.; Rosner, R.; Casini, R.; Lin, H.; Tritschler, A.; Wöger, F.; ATST Team

    2012-12-01

    The 4m Advance Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the most powerful solar telescope and the world's leading ground-based resource for studying solar magnetism that controls the solar wind, flares, coronal mass ejections and variability in the Sun's output. The project has entered its construction phase. Major subsystems have been contracted. As its highest priority science driver ATST shall provide high resolution and high sensitivity observations of the dynamic solar magnetic fields throughout the solar atmosphere, including the corona at infrared wavelengths. With its 4m aperture, ATST will resolve features at 0.?03 at visible wavelengths and obtain 0.?1 resolution at the magnetically highly sensitive near infrared wavelengths. A high order adaptive optics system delivers a corrected beam to the initial set of state-of-the-art, facility class instrumentation located in the Coudé laboratory facility. The initial set of first generation instruments consists of five facility class instruments, including imagers and spectro-polarimeters. The high polarimetric sensitivity and accuracy required for measurements of the illusive solar magnetic fields place strong constraints on the polarization analysis and calibration. Development and construction of a four-meter solar telescope presents many technical challenges, including thermal control of the enclosure, telescope structure and optics and wavefront control. A brief overview of the science goals and observational requirements of the ATST will be given, followed by a summary of the design status of the telescope and its instrumentation, including design status of major subsystems, such as the telescope mount assembly, enclosure, mirror assemblies, and wavefront correction

  7. Planet detection and spectroscopy in visible light with a single aperture telescope and a nulling coronagraph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, Michael; Serabyn, Eugene; Levine, Bruce Martin; Beichman, Charles; Liu, Duncan; Martin, Stefan; Orton, Glen; Mennesson, Bertrand; Morgan, Rhonda; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Wallace, J. Kent; Unwin, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    This talk describes a new concept for visible direct detection of Earth like extra solar planets using a nulling coronagraph instrument behind a 4m telescope in space. In the baseline design, a 4 beam nulling interferometer is synthesized from the telescope pupil, producing a very deep theta^4null which is then filtered by a coherent array of single mode fibers to suppress the residual scattered light. With perfect optics, the stellar leakage is less than 1e-11 of the starlight at the location of the planet. With diffraction limited telescope optics (lambda/20), suppression of the starlight to 1e-10 is possible. The concept is described along with the key advantages over more traditional approaches such as apodized aperture telescopes and Lyot type coronagraphs.

  8. Teaching and Research in Astronomy using Small Aperture Optical Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, S. K.

    2006-08-01

    Small aperture (<1m, typically 20-50cm) optical telescopes with adequate back-end instrumentation (photometer, CCD camera and CCD spectrograph etc) can be used for spreading the joy and excitement of observational astronomy among postgraduate and research students in Colleges/. On the basis of over a decade's experience in observing with small optical telescopes it has been amply demonstrated that such a facility, which any University department can hope to procure and maintain, can be effectively used for teaching as well quality research. The Physics Department of Pt Ravishankar Shukla University at Raipur, India offers Astronomy & Astrophysics (A&A) as one of the specialization as a part of M Sc program in Physics. A set of observational exercises has been incorporated with a view to provide training in observations, analysis and interpretation of the astronomical data to the students. Observing facilities available in the department include 8"-14" aperture telescopes (CGE series from Celestron) equipped with the new-state-of-the-art backend instrumentation like Photometer, CCD Camera and also a CCD spectrograph. Observing facility of this kind is ideally suited for continuous monitoring of a variety of variable stars, and thus can provide valuable data for understanding the physics of stellar variability. This is especially true for a class of variable stars known as chromospherically active stars. The stars belonging to this class have variable light curves, and the most puzzling feature is that their light curves change year after year in a rather queerer way. A large fraction of these active stars are bright ones and, hence, the importance of small aperture telescope for collecting the much needed photometric data. For over a decade the research activity using 14" optical telescope is focused on photometric monitoring of well known as well suspected active stars. This together with spectroscopic data using observing facility at Indian Observatories has led to identification of new chromosperically active stars. The talk is aimed at sharing our experiences quoting examples with professional colleagues on the usage of small optical telescopes for teaching and research in Colleges/Universities.

  9. National Large Solar Telescope of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidov, Mikhail

    One of the most important task of the modern solar physics is multi-wavelength observations of the small-scale structure of solar atmosphere on different heights, including chromosphere and corona. To do this the large-aperture telescopes are necessary. At present time there several challenging projects of the large (and even giant) solar telescopes in the world are in the process of construction or designing , the most known ones among them are 4-meter class telescopes ATST in USA and EST in Europe. Since 2013 the development of the new Large Solar Telescope (LST) with 3 meter diameter of the main mirror is started in Russia as a part (sub-project) of National Heliogeophysical Complex (NHGC) of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It should be located at the Sayan solar observatory on the altitude more then 2000 m. To avoid numerous problems of the off-axis optical telescopes (despite of the obvious some advantages of the off-axis configuration) and to meet to available financial budget, the classical on-axis Gregorian scheme on the alt-azimuth mount has been chosen. The scientific equipment of the LST-3 will include several narrow-band tunable filter devices and spectrographs for different wavelength bands, including infrared. The units are installed either at the Nasmyth focus or/and on the rotating coude platform. To minimize the instrumental polarization the polarization analyzer is located near diagonal mirror after M2 mirror. High order adaptive optics is used to achieve the diffraction limited performances. It is expected that after some modification of the optical configuration the LST-3 will operate as an approximately 1-m mirror coronograph in the near infrared spectral lines. Possibilities for stellar observations during night time are provided as well.

  10. Optical antenna of telescope for synthetic aperture ladar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liren

    2008-08-01

    For synthetic aperture ladar (SAL) imaging, there are difficulties in the space domain because the size of optical antenna of telescope is up to six orders of magnitude larger than the wavelength. In this paper, we suggest a defocused and spatial phase masked telescope for reception to compensate the diffraction aberration from the target to match the directivity of heterodyne detection, a defocused and phase masked transmission telescope to send out a wavefront with an additional and controllable spatial quadratic phase to the phase history, and a circulated duplex to compensate the aberration for reception and to produce spatial phase bias for transmission concurrently in the same telescope. On this basis, the point target radar equation in a full space and time treatment is achieved. Correspondingly, the complete collection equations of 2-D data acquired in the range and azimuth directions for 2-D SAL imaging of the strip-map mode and the spotlight mode are developed. Then the imaging azimuth and range resolutions are redefined in terms of the idea of optical imaging by a lens, and the requirement for azimuth sampling is given. The paper systemically presents the all details.

  11. Telescope aperture optimization for spacebased coherent wind lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Xian-ying; Zhu, Jun; Cao, Qipeng; Zhang, Yinchao; Yin, Huan; Dong, Xiaojing; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Yongchao; Zhang, Ning

    2015-08-01

    Many studies have indicated that the optimum measurement approach for winds from space is a pulsed coherent wind lidar, which is an active remote sensing tool with the characteristics that high spatial and temporal resolutions, real-time detection, high mobility, facilitated control and so on. Because of the significant eye safety, efficiency, size, and lifetime advantage, 2?m wavelength solid-state laser lidar systems have attracted much attention in spacebased wind lidar plans. In this paper, the theory of coherent detection is presented and a 2?m wavelength solid-state laser lidar system is introduced, then the ideal aperture is calculated from signal-to-noise(SNR) view at orbit 400km. However, considering real application, even if the lidar hardware is perfectly aligned, the directional jitter of laser beam, the attitude change of the lidar in the long round trip time of the light from the atmosphere and other factors can bring misalignment angle. So the influence of misalignment angle is considered and calculated, and the optimum telescope diameter(0.45m) is obtained as the misalignment angle is 4 ?rad. By the analysis of the optimum aperture required for spacebased coherent wind lidar system, we try to present the design guidance for the telescope.

  12. The Five-Hundred Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope (fast) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Rendong; Li, Di; Jin, Chengjin; Wang, Qiming; Zhu, Lichun; Zhu, Wenbai; Zhang, Haiyan; Yue, Youling; Qian, Lei

    Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) is a Chinese mega-science project to build the largest single dish radio telescope in the world. Its innovative engineering concept and design pave a new road to realize a huge single dish in the most effective way. FAST also represents Chinese contribution in the international efforts to build the square kilometer array (SKA). Being the most sensitive single dish radio telescope, FAST will enable astronomers to jump-start many science goals, such as surveying the neutral hydrogen in the Milky Way and other galaxies, detecting faint pulsars, looking for the first shining stars, hearing the possible signals from other civilizations, etc. The idea of sitting a large spherical dish in a karst depression is rooted in Arecibo telescope. FAST is an Arecibo-type antenna with three outstanding aspects: the karst depression used as the site, which is large to host the 500-meter telescope and deep to allow a zenith angle of 40 degrees; the active main reflector correcting for spherical aberration on the ground to achieve a full polarization and a wide band without involving complex feed systems; and the light-weight feed cabin driven by cables and servomechanism plus a parallel robot as a secondary adjustable system to move with high precision. The feasibility studies for FAST have been carried out for 14 years, supported by Chinese and world astronomical communities. Funding for FAST has been approved by the National Development and Reform Commission in July of 2007 with a capital budget ~ 700 million RMB. The project time is 5.5 years from the commencement of work in March of 2011 and the first light is expected to be in 2016. This review intends to introduce the project of FAST with emphasis on the recent progress since 2006. In this paper, the subsystems of FAST are described in modest details followed by discussions of the fundamental science goals and examples of early science projects.

  13. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope: BLAST

    E-print Network

    Pascale, E; Bock, J J; Chapin, E L; Chung, J; Devlin, M J; Dicker, S; Griffin, M; Gundersen, J O; Halpern, M; Hargrave, P C; Hughes, D H; Klein, J; MacTavish, C J; Marsden, G; Martin, P G; Martin, T G; Mauskopf, P; Netterfield, C B; Olmi, L; Patanchon, G; Rex, M; Scott, D; Semisch, C; Thomas, N; Truch, M D P; Tucker, C; Tucker, G S; Viero, M P; Wiebe, D V

    2007-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) is a sub-orbital survey-experiment designed to study the evolutionary history and processes of star formation in local galaxies (including the Milky Way) and galaxies at cosmological distances. The BLAST continuum camera, which consists of 270 detectors distributed between 3 arrays, observes simultaneously in broad-band (30%) spectral-windows at 250, 350, and 500 micron. The optical design is based on a 2m diameter Cassegrain telescope, providing a diffraction-limited resolution of 30" at 250 micron. The gondola pointing system enables raster-like maps of arbitrary geometry, with a repeatable positional accuracy of ~30" post-flight pointing reconstruction to ~<5" rms is also achieved. The on-board telescope control software permits autonomous execution of a pre-selected set of maps, with the option of manual intervention. In this paper we describe the primary characteristics and measured in-flight performance of BLAST. Since a test-flight in ...

  14. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope: BLAST

    E-print Network

    E. Pascale; P. A. R. Ade; J. J. Bock; E. L. Chapin; J. Chung; M. J. Devlin; S Dicker; M. Griffin; J. O. Gundersen; M. Halpern; P. C. Hargrave; D. H. Hughes; J. Klein; C. J. MacTavish; G. Marsden; P. G. Martin; T. G. Martin; P. Mauskopf; C. B. Netterfield; L. Olmi; G. Patanchon; M. Rex; D. Scott; C. Semisch; N. Thomas; M. D. P. Truch; C. Tucker; G. S. Tucker; M. P. Viero; D. V. Wiebe

    2008-03-27

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) is a sub-orbital surveying experiment designed to study the evolutionary history and processes of star formation in local galaxies (including the Milky Way) and galaxies at cosmological distances. The BLAST continuum camera, which consists of 270 detectors distributed between 3 arrays, observes simultaneously in broad-band (30%) spectral-windows at 250, 350, and 500 microns. The optical design is based on a 2m diameter telescope, providing a diffraction-limited resolution of 30" at 250 microns. The gondola pointing system enables raster mapping of arbitrary geometry, with a repeatable positional accuracy of ~30"; post-flight pointing reconstruction to ~5" rms is achieved. The on-board telescope control software permits autonomous execution of a pre-selected set of maps, with the option of manual override. In this paper we describe the primary characteristics and measured in-flight performance of BLAST. BLAST performed a test-flight in 2003 and has since made two scientifically productive long-duration balloon flights: a 100-hour flight from ESRANGE (Kiruna), Sweden to Victoria Island, northern Canada in June 2005; and a 250-hour, circumpolar-flight from McMurdo Station, Antarctica, in December 2006.

  15. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Sub-millimetre Telescope

    E-print Network

    Douglas Scott; the BLAST Team

    2001-04-03

    The Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Sub-millimetre Telescope (BLAST) will operate on a Long Duration Balloon platform with large format bolometer arrays at 250, 350 and 500 microns, initially using a 2m mirror, with plans to increase to 2.5m. BLAST is a collaboration between scientists in the USA, Canada, UK, Italy and Mexico. Funding has been approved and it is now in its building phase. The test flight is scheduled for 2002, with the first long duration flight the following year. The scientific goals are to learn about the nature of distant extragalactic star forming galaxies and cold pre-stellar sources by making deep maps both at high and low galactic latitudes. BLAST will be useful for planning Herschel key projects which use SPIRE.

  16. High resolution imaging with multilayer soft X-ray, EUV and FUV telescopes of modest aperture and cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Lindblom, Joakim F.; Timothy, J. G.; Hoover, Richard B.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Baker, Phillip C.; Powell, Forbes R.

    1991-01-01

    The development of multilayer reflective coatings now permits soft X-ray, EUV and FUV radiation to be efficiently imaged by conventional normal incidence optical configurations. Telescopes with quite modest apertures can, in principle, achieve images with resolutions which would require apertures of 1.25 meters or more at visible wavelengths. The progress is reviewed which has been made in developing compact telescopes for ultra-high resolution imaging of the sun at soft X-ray, EUV and FUV wavelengths, including laboratory test results and astronomical images obtained with rocket-borne multilayer telescopes. The factors are discussed which limit the resolution which has been achieved so far, and the problems which must be addressed to attain, and surpass the 0.1 arc-second level. The application of these technologies to the development of solar telescopes for future space missions is also described.

  17. A synthetic aperture radio telescope for ICME observations as a potential payload of SPORT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Sun, W.; Liu, H.; Xiong, M.; Liu, Y. D.; Wu, J.

    2013-12-01

    We introduce a potential payload for the Solar Polar ORbit Telescope (SPORT), a space weather mission proposed by the National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences. This is a synthetic aperture radio imager designed to detect radio emissions from interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), which is expected to be an important instrument to monitor the propagation and evolution of ICMEs. The radio telescope applies a synthetic aperture interferometric technique to measure the brightness temperature of ICMEs. Theoretical calculations of the brightness temperature utilizing statistical properties of ICMEs and the background solar wind indicate that ICMEs within 0.35 AU from the Sun are detectable by a radio telescope at a frequency <= 150 MHz with a sensitivity of <=1 K. The telescope employs a time shared double rotation scan (also called a clock scan), where two coplanar antennas revolve around a fixed axis at different radius and speed, to fulfill sampling of the brightness temperature. An array of 4+4 elements with opposite scanning directions are developed for the radio telescope to achieve the required sensitivity (<=1K) within the imaging refreshing time (~30 minutes). This scan scheme is appropriate for a three-axis stabilized spacecraft platform while keeping a good sampling pattern. We also discuss how we select the operating frequency, which involves a trade-off between the engineering feasibility and the scientific goal. Our preliminary results indicate that the central frequency of 150 MHz with a bandwidth of 20 MHz, which requires arm lengths of the two groups of 14m and 16m, respectively, gives an angular resolution of 2°, a field of view of ×25° around the Sun, and a time resolution of 30 minutes.

  18. BLAST: The Balloon-Borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devlin, Mark; Ade, Peter; Bock, Jamie; Dicker, Simon; Griffin, Matt; Gunderson, Josh; Halpern, Mark; Hargrave, Peter; Hughes, David; Klein, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    BLAST is the Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Sub-millimeter Telescope. It will fly from a Long Duration Balloon (LDB) platform from Antarctica. The telescope design incorporates a 2 m primary mirror with large-format bolometer arrays operating at 250, 350 and 500 microns. By providing the first sensitive large-area (10 sq. deg.) sub-mm surveys at these wavelengths, BLAST will address some of the most important galactic and cosmological questions regarding the formation and evolution of stars, galaxies and clusters. Galactic and extragalactic BLAST surveys will: (1) identify large numbers of high-redshift galaxies; (2) measure photometric redshifts, rest-frame FIR luminosities and star formation rates thereby constraining the evolutionary history of the galaxies that produce the FIR and sub-mm background; (3) measure cold pre-stellar sources associated with the earliest stages of star and planet formation; (4) make high-resolution maps of diffuse galactic emission over a wide range of galactic latitudes. In addition to achieving the above scientific goals, the exciting legacy of the BLAST LDB experiment will be a catalogue of 3000-5000 extragalactic sub-mm sources and a 100 sq. deg. sub-mm galactic plane survey. Multi-frequency follow-up observations from SIRTF, ASTRO-F, and Herschel, together with spectroscopic observations and sub-arcsecond imaging from ALMA are essential to understand the physical nature of the BLAST sources.

  19. The Revolution in Telescope Aperture C.M. Mountain and F.C. Gillett

    E-print Network

    ' The Revolution in Telescope Aperture C.M. Mountain and F.C. Gillett Gemini Observatory, 670 N. A that is often not recognised is the exponential growth in the total collecting area of large telescopes, materials and fabrication techniques ­­ these advances have facilitated the construction of telescopes

  20. The Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System A Proposal to Operate the Small Telescopes at CTIO

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    The Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS) A Proposal to Operate the Small Telescopes at CTIO P.I. Charles Bailyn, Yale University Participating Groups American Musuem of Natural History (M. Shara, with the collaboration of colleagues at the University of Montreal) Brazil (A. Bruch

  1. Correlation tracking study for meter-class solar telescope on space shuttle. [solar granulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithson, R. C.; Tarbell, T. D.

    1977-01-01

    The theory and expected performance level of correlation trackers used to control the pointing of a solar telescope in space using white light granulation as a target were studied. Three specific trackers were modeled and their performance levels predicted for telescopes of various apertures. The performance of the computer model trackers on computer enhanced granulation photographs was evaluated. Parametric equations for predicting tracker performance are presented.

  2. Solar System Observing Capabilities With The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonneborn, George; Milam, S. N.; Hines, D. C.; Stansberry, J. A.; Hammel, H. B.; Lunine, J. I.

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will provide important new capabilities to study our Solar System. JWST is a large aperture, cryogenic, infrared-optimized space observatory under construction by NASA, ESA, and CSA for launch in 2018 into a L2 orbit. Imaging, spectroscopy, and coronography covers 0.6-29 microns. Integral-field spectroscopy is performed with apertures 3 to 7 arcsec square (spatial slices of 0.1 to 0.6 arcsec). JWST is designed to observe Solar System objects having apparent rates of motion up to 0.030 arcseconds/second. This tracking capability includes the planets, satellites, asteroids, Trans-Neptunian Objects, and comets beyond Earth’s orbit. JWST will observe in the solar elongation range of 85 to 135 degrees, and a roll range of +/-5 degrees about the telescope’s optical axis. During an observation of a moving target, the science target is held fixed in the desired science aperture by controlling the guide star to follow the inverse of the target’s trajectory. The pointing control software uses polynomial ephemerides for the target generated using data from JPL’s HORIZON system. The JWST guider field of view (2.2x2.2 arcmin) is located in the telescope focal plane several arcmin from the science apertures. The instrument apertures are fixed with respect to the telescope focal plane. For targets near the ecliptic, those apertures also have a nearly fixed orientation relative to the ecliptic. This results from the fact that the Observatory's sunshield and solar panels must always be between the telescope and the Sun. On-board scripts autonomously control the execution of the JWST science timeline. The event-driven scripts respond to actual slew and on-board command execution, making operations more efficient. Visits are scheduled with overlapping windows to provide execution flexibility and to avoid lost time. An observing plan covering about ten days will be uplinked weekly. Updates could be more frequent if necessary (for example, to accommodate a Target of Opportunity - TOO). The event-driven operations system supports time-critical observations and TOOs. The minimum response time for TOOs is 48 hours (observation approval to execution).

  3. Design progress of the solar UV-Vis-IR telescope (SUVIT) aboard SOLAR-C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsukawa, Y.; Ichimoto, K.; Suematsu, Y.; Hara, H.; Kano, R.; Shimizu, T.; Matsuzaki, K.

    2013-09-01

    We present a design progress of the Solar UV-Vis-IR Telescope (SUVIT) aboard the next Japanese solar mission SOLAR-C. SUVIT has an aperture diameter of ~1.4 m for achieving spectro-polarimetric observations with spatial and temporal resolution exceeding the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT). We have studied structural and thermal designs of the optical telescope as well as the optical interface between the telescope and the focal plane instruments. The focal plane instruments are installed into two packages, filtergraph and spectrograph packages. The spectropolarimeter is the instrument dedicated to accurate polarimetry in the three spectrum windows at 525 nm, 854 nm, and 1083 nm for observing magnetic fields at both the photospheric and chromospheric layers. We made optical design of the spectrograph accommodating the conventional slit spectrograph and the integral field unit (IFU) for two-dimensional coverage. We are running feasibility study of the IFU using fiber arrays consisting of rectangular cores.

  4. Construction of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope - A Progress Report.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimmele, T. R.; Keil, S.; McMullin, J.; Goode, P. R.; Knoelker, M.; Kuhn, J. R.; Rosner, R.; ATST Team

    2012-12-01

    The 4m Advance Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the most powerful solar telescope and the world's leading ground-based resource for studying solar magnetism that controls the solar wind, flares, coronal mass ejections and variability in the Sun's output. The ATST will provide high resolution and high sensitivity observations of the dynamic solar magnetic fields throughout the solar atmosphere, including the corona at infrared wavelengths. With its 4 m aperture, ATST will resolve magnetic features at their intrinsic scales. A high order adaptive optics system delivers a corrected beam to the initial set of five state-of-the-art, facility class instrumentation located in the coude laboratory facility. Photopheric and chromospheric magnetometry is part of the key mission of four of these instruments. Coronal magnetometry and spectroscopy will be performed by two of these instruments at infrared wavelengths. The ATST project has transitioned from design and development to its construction phase. Site construction is expected to begin in the first half of 2012. The project has awarded design and fabrication contracts for major telescope subsystems. A robust instrument program has been established and all instruments have passed preliminary design reviews or critical design reviews. A brief summary of the science goals and observational requirements of the ATST will be given, followed by a summary of the project status of the telescope and discussion of the approach to integrating instruments into the facility.

  5. High performance Lyot and PIAA coronagraphy for arbitrarily shaped telescope apertures

    SciTech Connect

    Guyon, Olivier; Hinz, Philip M.; Cady, Eric; Belikov, Ruslan; Martinache, Frantz

    2014-01-10

    Two high-performance coronagraphic approaches compatible with segmented and obstructed telescope pupils are described. Both concepts use entrance pupil amplitude apodization and a combined phase and amplitude focal plane mask to achieve full coronagraphic extinction of an on-axis point source. While the first concept, called Apodized Pupil Complex Mask Lyot Coronagraph (APCMLC), relies on a transmission mask to perform the pupil apodization, the second concept, called Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization complex mask coronagraph (PIAACMC), uses beam remapping for lossless apodization. Both concepts theoretically offer complete coronagraphic extinction (infinite contrast) of a point source in monochromatic light, with high throughput and sub-?/D inner working angle, regardless of aperture shape. The PIAACMC offers nearly 100% throughput and approaches the fundamental coronagraph performance limit imposed by first principles. The steps toward designing the coronagraphs for arbitrary apertures are described for monochromatic light. Designs for the APCMLC and the higher performance PIAACMC are shown for several monolith and segmented apertures, such as the apertures of the Subaru Telescope, Giant Magellan Telescope, Thirty Meter Telescope, the European Extremely Large Telescope, and the Large Binocular Telescope. Performance in broadband light is also quantified, suggesting that the monochromatic designs are suitable for use in up to 20% wide spectral bands for ground-based telescopes.

  6. The Telescope Control System of the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory

    E-print Network

    The Telescope Control System of the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory G. Yang*a, J of Technology, 323 Martin Luther King Blvd., Newark, NJ 07104; bBig Bear Solar Observatory, 40386 North Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92314; cKorea Astronomy and Space Science Institute ABSTRACT The New Solar

  7. Planning the 8-meter Chinese Giant Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, Jacques M.; Liu, Z.; Deng, Y.; Ji, H.

    2013-07-01

    The Chinese Giant Solar Telescope (CGST) will be a diffraction limited solar telescope optimized for the near-infrared (NIR) spectral region (0.8 - 2.5 microns). Its diffraction limit will be reached by the incorporation of Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO) enhanced by image restoration techniques to achieve uniform (u.v) plane coverage over the angular spatial frequency region allowed by its 8-meter aperture. Thus it will complement the imaging capabilities of 4-meter telescopes being planned elsewhere which are optimized for the visible (VIS) spectral region (300 - 1000 nm) In the NIR spectral regions the CGST will have access to unique spectral features which will improve the diagnostics of the solar atmosphere. These include the CaII lines near 860 nm , the HeI lines near 1083 nm, the 1074 nm FeXIII coronal lines, the large Zeeman-split FeI line at 1548 nm, and (v) the H- continuum absorption minimum at 1.6 micron. Especially in sunspot umbrae the simultaneous observation of continua and lines across the NIR spectral range will cover a substantial depth range in the solar atmosphere. Of course the mid- and far- infrared regions are also available for unequalled high-angular resolution solar observations, for example, in the Hydrogen Bracket lines, CO molecular bands, and the MgI emission line at 12.3 microns. The CGST is a so-called ring telescope in which the light is captured by a 1 meter wide segmented ring or by a ring of 7 smaller off-axis aperture telescopes. The open central area of the telescope is large. The advantages of such a ring configuration is that (a) it covers all the spatial frequencies out to those corresponding to its outer diameter, (b) its circular symmetry makes it polarization neutral, (c) its large central hole helps thermal control, and (d) it provides ample space for the MCAO system and instrumentation in the Gregorian focus. Even though optimized for the NIR, we expect to use the CGST also at visible wavelengths in the so-called “Partial Adaptive Optics” (PAO) mode (Applied Optics 31,424,1992) to obtain angular resolution twice that of a 4-meter telescope if their observations indicate that higher resolution is desirable. The CGST is a Chinese solar community project.

  8. Position measurement of the direct drive motor of Large Aperture Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Wang, Daxing

    2010-07-01

    Along with the development of space and astronomy science, production of large aperture telescope and super large aperture telescope will definitely become the trend. It's one of methods to solve precise drive of large aperture telescope using direct drive technology unified designed of electricity and magnetism structure. A direct drive precise rotary table with diameter of 2.5 meters researched and produced by us is a typical mechanical & electrical integration design. This paper mainly introduces position measurement control system of direct drive motor. In design of this motor, position measurement control system requires having high resolution, and precisely aligning the position of rotor shaft and making measurement, meanwhile transferring position information to position reversing information corresponding to needed motor pole number. This system has chosen high precision metal band coder and absolute type coder, processing information of coders, and has sent 32-bit RISC CPU making software processing, and gained high resolution composite coder. The paper gives relevant laboratory test results at the end, indicating the position measurement can apply to large aperture telescope control system. This project is subsidized by Chinese National Natural Science Funds (10833004).

  9. Suppressing stellar residual light on extremely large telescopes by aperture modulation

    E-print Network

    Ribak, Erez

    -processing methods [8] [9] [10], most of which involve PSF subtraction, can suppress some of the speckle noise contribution. We propose a novel and simple technique to suppress the Airy pattern and speckle noise. By temSuppressing stellar residual light on extremely large telescopes by aperture modulation Szymon

  10. The 100 cm solar telescope primary mirror study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The manufacturing impact of primary mirror configuration on the performance of a 100 cm aperture solar telescope was studied. Three primary mirror configurations were considered: solid, standard lightweight, and mushroom. All of these are of low expansion material. Specifically, the study consisted of evaluating the mirrors with regard to: manufacturing metrology, manufacturing risk factors and ultimate quality assessment. As a result of this evaluation, a performance comparison of the configurations was made, and a recommendation of mirror configuration is the final output. These evaluations, comparisons and recommendations are discussed in detail. Other investigations were completed and are documented in the appendices.

  11. Advanced Technology Solar Telescope project management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, J.; Hansen, E.; Hubbard, R.; Rimmele, T. R.; Keil, S.

    2010-07-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) has recently received National Science Foundation (NSF) approval to begin the construction process. ATST will be the most powerful solar telescope and the world's leading resource for studying solar magnetism that controls the solar wind, flares, coronal mass ejections and variability in the Sun's output. This paper gives an overview of the project, and describes the project management principles and practices that have been developed to optimize both the project's success as well as meeting requirements of the project's funding agency.

  12. The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST): Science Drivers and Technology Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Postman, Marc; Brown, Tom; Sembach, Kenneth; Giavalisco, Mauro; Traub, Wesley; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Calzetti, Daniela; Oegerle, William; Rich, R. Michael; Stahl, H. Phillip; Tumlinson, Jason; Mountain, Matt; Soummer, Remi; Hyde, Tupper

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) is a concept for an 8-meter to 16-meter UVOIR space observatory for launch in the 2025-2030 era. ATLAST will allow astronomers to answer fundamental questions at the forefront of modern astrophysics, including "Is there life elsewhere in the Galaxy?" We present a range of science drivers and the resulting performance requirements for ATLAST (8 to 16 milliarcsecond angular resolution, diffraction limited imaging at 0.5 m wavelength, minimum collecting area of 45 square meters, high sensitivity to light wavelengths from 0.1 m to 2.4 m, high stability in wavefront sensing and control). We also discuss the priorities for technology development needed to enable the construction of ATLAST for a cost that is comparable to current generation observatory-class space missions. Keywords: Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST); ultraviolet/optical space telescopes; astrophysics; astrobiology; technology development.

  13. Research on the support structure of the primary mirror of large-aperture telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Jingxu

    2007-12-01

    Large-aperture telescope can be used in surveying battlefield, researching landform, searching object, real-time monitoring, imaging, detecting and identifying spatial targets and so on. A large-aperture telescope for achieving high resolution power is designed to monitor spatial target and image in real time. Real-time monitoring plays an important role in military conflicts. The orbit parameter of object, quantity, geometrical shape parameter and so on can be obtained by detect spatial target. With the development of optical technology, people require larger aperture in optics-electronic (O-E) system. By increasing optical aperture, the ability of collecting light and resolution power in the system can be enhanced. But the support structure of the primary mirror of large-aperture telescope will be a very difficult problem. With the increase of primary mirror aperture, the weight of the primary mirror will become larger than before. The root mean square (rms) of the primary mirror is affected by many factors, such as deadweight, deformation of heat, environment and so on. Due to the primary mirror of telescope is an important component of telescope system. By reducing the weight of primary mirror, precision of the system is ensured. During the designing phase, one can consider the supporting project of the primary mirror synthetically and analyze it roundly according to technical requirement of optical system and the effect factors. The final structural design can be reasonable. In an astronomical telescope, the surface of reflector is an important part for collecting dark radiation of celestial bodies. Its surface shape will have an effect on collecting efficiency of telescope radiant energy directly. So the rms must be very high. Optical system of large aperture, small wavelength and small focus can receive maximal light intensity. For ground-based optical astronomical telescope, the design proposed in the paper can satisfy the requirement of the possible minimum atmosphere seeing at astronomical observatory site and exert the use efficiency of the telescope adequately. So the accuracy of the traditional surface of reflector can assure that 90% of all the light energy can be focused on within the angle diameter range of the minimum atmosphere seeing, then 100% of light energy should be focused on the angle diameter range of minimum atmosphere seeing. Because the rms of mirror is very high, precise surface machining and accurate the support of mirror are very important tasks during designing and manufacturing the telescope. In the paper, various support techniques of a large-aperture telescope primary mirror are discussed and a 3.5 meter telescope system at the Starfire Optical Range (SOR) overviewed simply, which was operated by the Directed Energy Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory, Kirtland AFB, NM, USA from the ground-based O-E system for the observations of spatial target. We also analyze Theoretical elastic deformation of the Steward Observatory 2.3 meter mirror is analyzed.

  14. Thermal Analysis of the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) 8 Meter Primary Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornsby, Linda; Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) preliminary design concept consists of an 8 meter diameter monolithic primary mirror enclosed in an insulated, optical tube with stray light baffles and a sunshade. ATLAST will be placed in orbit about the Sun-Earth L2 and will experience constant exposure to the sun. The insulation on the optical tube and sunshade serve to cold bias the telescope which helps to minimize thermal gradients. The primary mirror will be maintained at 280K with an active thermal control system. The geometric model of the primary mirror, optical tube, sun baffles, and sunshade was developed using Thermal Desktop(R) SINDA/FLUINT(R) was used for the thermal analysis and the radiation environment was analyzed using RADCAD(R). A XX node model was executed in order to characterize the static performance and thermal stability of the mirror during maneuvers. This is important because long exposure observations, such as extra-solar terrestrial planet finding and characterization, require a very stable observatory wave front. Steady state thermal analyses served to predict mirror temperatures for several different sun angles. Transient analyses were performed in order to predict thermal time constant of the primary mirror for a 20 degree slew or 30 degree roll maneuver. This paper describes the thermal model and provides details of the geometry, thermo-optical properties, and the environment which influences the thermal performance. All assumptions that were used in the analysis are also documented. Parametric analyses are summarized for design parameters including primary mirror coatings and sunshade configuration. Estimates of mirror heater power requirements are reported. The thermal model demonstrates results for the primary mirror heated from the back side and edges using a heater system with multiple independently controlled zones.

  15. Small Aperture Telescope Observations of Co-located Geostationary Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, R.; Wallace, B.

    As geostationary orbit (GEO) continues to be populated, satellite operators are increasing usage of co-location techniques to maximize usage of fewer GEO longitude slots. Co-location is an orbital formation strategy where two or more geostationary satellites reside within one GEO stationkeeping box. The separation strategy used to prevent collision between the co-located satellites generally uses eccentricity (radial separation) and inclination (latitude separation) vector offsets. This causes the satellites to move in relative motion ellipses about each other as the relative longitude drift between the satellites is near zero. Typical separations between the satellites varies from 1 to 100 kilometers. When co-located satellites are observed by optical ground based space surveillance sensors the participants appear to be separated by a few minutes of arc or less in angular extent. Under certain viewing geometries, these satellites appear to visually conjunct even though the satellites are, in fact, well separated spatially. In situations where one of the co-located satellites is more optically reflective than the other, the reflected sunglint from the more reflective satellite can overwhelm the other. This less frequently encountered issue causes the less reflective satellite to be glint masked in the glare of the other. This paper focuses on space surveillance observations on co-located Canadian satellites using a small optical telescope operated by Defence R&D Canada - Ottawa. The two above mentioned problems (cross tagging and glint masking) are investigated and we quantify the results for Canadian operated geostationary satellites. The performance of two line element sets when making in-frame CCD image correlation between the co-located satellites is also examined. Relative visual magnitudes between the co-located members are also inspected and quantified to determine the susceptibility of automated telescopes to glint masking of co-located satellite members.

  16. Solar observations with the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Lindblom, Joakim; Allen, Maxwell; O'Neal, Ray; Deforest, Craig; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA) is a sounding rocket-borne solar observatory which was succesfully launched on May 13, 1991, from the White Sands Missile Range, NM. Ultrahigh resolution, full-disk solar X-ray, EUV, and FUV images were obtained with the MSSTA Herschelian, Cassegrain, and Ritchey-Chretien telescopes. We describe the payload and provide some preliminary scientific results from the flight.

  17. Design of a telescope pointing and tracking subsystem for the Big Bear Solar Observatory New Solar Telescope

    E-print Network

    Design of a telescope pointing and tracking subsystem for the Big Bear Solar Observatory New Solar Telescope J. R. Varsika and G.Yangb aBig Bear Solar Observatory, 40386 North Shore Lane, Big Bear City Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory will use a distributed system to control the telescope, dome

  18. FAST - Five hundred meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Ren-Dong

    2009-01-01

    The idea of sitting a large spherical dish in Karst depression is rooted in Arecibo telescope hosted by the NAIC of Cornell University. FAST is an Arecibo-type antenna with 3 outstanding aspects: the unique karst depression as the site; the active main reflector which corrects spherical aberration on the ground to achieve full polarization and wide band without involving complex feed system; and the light focus cabin driven by cables and servomechanism plus a parallel robot as secondary adjustable system to carry the most precise parts of the receivers. These design features will enable FAST to jumpstart many of science goals, such as HI neutral hydrogen line survey, pulsar survey, largest station in VLBI network, spectral line observations and Search for alien's technologies. The feasibility studies for FAST have been carried out for 14 years, being supported by Chinese and world astronomical communities. Funding for Project FAST has been approved by the National Development and Reform commission NDRC in July of 2007 with a capital budget 600 millions RMB and a project time of 5.5 years from the foundation. The first light is expected to be in early 2014. This work is supported by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 10433020). More than a hundred research personnel from over thirty research teams were involved in this research. On behalf of project FAST, I wish to make special recognition to their diligent work and great contribution to the project.

  19. GREGOR, a 1.5 M Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Lühe, O.; Schmidt, W.; Soltau, D.; Kneer, F.; Staude, J.

    We present the design of a new large solar telescope which is going to be installed at the Observatorio del Teide, in the tower that presently houses the 45cm Gregory-Coudé-Telescope. The new telescope has an aperture of 1.5 meters and its optical design is basically a Gregorian configuration. It will be an open telescope in an azimuthal mount. An adaptive optics system is incorporated in the optical design as well as a polarimetry package. The feasibility of lightweight optics for the primary mirror has been investigated in an industrial pre-study. The focal plane instrumentation will include a high resolution filter spectrometer similar to the existing TESOS instrument at the VTT and a new spectro-polarimeter for the visible and the near UV. The latter instrument is presently being developed jointly by the KIS and the High Altitude Observatory in Boulder, USA. Budget permitting, detailed (Phase-B) planning will start in 2000, and the telescope will be developed and built in 2002 and 2003 with first light in spring of 2004.

  20. A 16-m Telescope for the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Telescope (ATLAST) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillie, Charles F.; Dailey, D. R.; Polidan, R. S.

    2010-01-01

    Future space observatories will require increasingly large telescopes to study the earliest stars and galaxies, as well as faint nearby objects. Technologies now under development will enable telescopes much larger than the 6.5-meter diameter James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) to be developed at comparable costs. Current segmented mirror and deployable optics technology enables the 6.5 meter JWST telescope to be folded for launch in the 5-meter diameter Ariane 5 payload fairing, and deployed autonomously after reaching orbit. Late in the next decade, when the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle payload fairing becomes operational, even larger telescope can be placed in orbit. In this paper we present our concept for a 16-meter JWST derivative, chord-fold telescope which could be stowed in the 10-m diameter Ares V fairing, plus a description of the new technologies that enable ATLAST to be developed at an affordable price.

  1. A large-aperture telescope to map the CMB 10X faster

    E-print Network

    Niemack, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Current large-aperture cosmic microwave background (CMB) telescopes have nearly maximized the number of detectors that can be illuminated while maintaining diffraction-limited image quality. The polarization-sensitive detector arrays being deployed in these telescopes in the next few years will have roughly $10^4$ detectors. Increasing the mapping speed of future instruments by at least an order of magnitude is important to enable precise probes of the inflationary paradigm in the first fraction of a second after the big bang and provide strong constraints on cosmological parameters. This paper introduces new crossed Dragone telescope and receiver optics designs that increase the usable diffraction-limited field-of-view, and therefore the mapping speed, by over an order of magnitude to enable high efficiency illumination of $>10^5$ detectors in a next generation CMB telescope.

  2. ATLAST-9.2m: a Large-Aperture Deployable Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oergerle, William; Feinberg, Lee D.; Purves, Lloyd R.; Hyde, T. Tupper; Thronson, Harley A.; Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Postman, Marc; Bolear, Matthew R.; Budinoff, Jason G.; Dean, Bruce H.; Clampin, Mark C.; Ebbets, Dennis C.; Gong, Qian; Gull, Theodore R.; Howard, Joseph M.; Jones, Andrew L.; Lyon, Richard G.; Pasquale, Bert A.; Perrygo, Charles; Smith, Jeffrey S.; Thompson, Patrick L.; Woodgate, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    We present results of a study of a deployable version of the Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST), designed to operate in a Sun-Earth L2 orbit. The primary mirror of the segmented 9.2-meter aperture has 36 hexagonal 1.315 m (flat to flat) glass mirrors. The architecture and folding of the telescope is similar to JWST, allowing it to fit into the 6.5 m fairing of a modest upgrade to the Delta-IV Heavy version of the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV). We discuss the overall observatory design, optical design, instruments, stray light, wavefront sensing and control, pointing and thermal control, and in-space servicing options.

  3. Deployable, lightweight, and large aperture spaceborne telescope for lidar-based earth observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzinghi, P.; Bratina, V.; Ferruzzi, D.; Gambicorti, L.; Simonetti, F.; Zuccaro Marchi, A.; Salinari, P.; Lisi, F.; Olivier, M.; Bursi, A.; Gallieni, D.; Biasi, R.; Pereira, J.

    2007-10-01

    This paper describes an innovative approach for a new generation of large aperture, deployable telescopes for advanced space LIDAR applications, using the thin active mirror technology. The overall telescope design is presented with a special attention to the optical performances analysis. The mechanical layout with details of the deployment and baffling technique is shown; the complete satellite thermo-elastic analysis mapping the primary mirror deformation due to the thermal loads is presented; the control system architecture is explained and the optical design including the angular and spatial resolution, effective optical aperture and radiometric transmission, optical alignment tolerances, straylight and baffling is deeply discussed. Finally an overview of different mission profiles that this technology can satisfy is presented; the imaging performances can be achieved using the shown technology tuning the surface control to higher performances.

  4. Engineering Specification for Large-aperture UVO Space Telescopes Derived from Science Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Arnold, William; Bevan, Ryan M.; Smith, W. Scott.; Kirk, Charles S.; Postman, Mark

    2013-01-01

    An advanced large aperture UV/optical UVO space telescope is required for the next generation of astrophysics and exoplanet science. The science requirements of proposed exoplanet and astrophysics missions were used to determine the encircled energy, point spread function stability and thermal environment requirements. These requirements then determine the optical wavefront specification for potential telescope assemblies which can fit inside current and planned launch vehicles. The optical wavefront specification becomes the top level of the error budget that is split into various sources that control the structural, thermal and optical design.

  5. Layered synthetic microstructures for solar EUV telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keski-Kuha, R. A. M.; Thomas, R. J.; Epstein, G. L.; Osantowski, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    The application of layered synthetic microstructures (LSMs) to figured mirrors suitable for normal incidence solar EUV telescopes is considered, and initial studies for a single mirror telescope consisting of an f/18, 200-cm focal length off-axis paraboloid demonstrate the feasibility of LSM coatings for moderate sized mirrors. Analytical studies on broadband designs comprised of five layers show a seven percent reflectance at 256 A and reflectivities of over 12 percent for wavelengths above 300 A. Deposition considerations are also discussed.

  6. The influence of co-phasing error on image quality in synthesized aperture telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lifang; Zhao, Weirui; Li, Yimin

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, an active co-phasing and aligning synthesized aperture imaging system with three quasi-annulus-sectors segmented mirrors was analyzed. The influence of co-phasing error, especially piston error, on image quality of the synthesized aperture imaging system was studied. The relationship of the Point Spread Function (PSF) and piston errors between the adjacent segments was deduced theoretically within the coherence length of the source. According to this theoretical model, the influence of piston error on the image quality in the synthesized aperture imaging system was known that the PSF changes with the variation of piston error. And more importantly, the cycle of this change is ?/2 (? is the wavelength of the source) when a certain piston error is introduced between two adjacent segment. Additionally, simulation model of the three segmented synthesized aperture imaging system was set up by ZEMAX and simulation experiments have been carried out to verify the conclusion derived from the theory model deduced above. The results show that the simulation experiments results consistent with the theoretical conclusion deduced above. The results provide theoretical foundation for further study and actual reference of tolerance for a synthesized aperture telescope design and manufacture.

  7. Stellar Intensity Interferometry over Kilometer Baselines: Optical aperture synthesis with electronically connected telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dravins, Dainis; Lagadec, Tiphaine; Nuñez, Paul D.

    2015-08-01

    Diffraction-limited optical imaging over kilometer baselines will reveal stellar surfaces, perhaps even resolving the silhouettes of transiting exoplanets. An opportunity is opening up with arrays of air Cherenkov telescopes used for intensity interferometry, a technique once pioneered by Hanbury Brown and Twiss. Being essentially insensitive to atmospheric turbulence, this permits both very long baselines and observing at short optical wavelengths.System verifications have been made in a large optics laboratory. Artificial stars were observed by a group of small telescopes equipped with nanosecond-resolving photon-counting detectors, their outputs processed in a digital correlator. Numerous telescope pairs at different baseline lengths and orientations build up a two-dimensional map of the second-order spatial coherence of the source, from which its image can be extracted.From up to 180 baselines thus measured, full two-dimensional images were reconstructed. As far as we are aware, these are the first diffraction-limited images produced by an array of optical telescopes connected only electronically in software, with no optical connections between them. Since the electronic signal from any telescope can be freely copied without loss of signal, very many baselines can be built up between dispersed telescopes. Using arrays of air Cherenkov telescopes, this should enable the optical equivalent of interferometric aperture synthesis arrays currently operating at radio wavelengths. arxiv.org/abs/1407.5993, Nature Commun., in press (2015)

  8. Cornell Caltech Atacama Telescope (CCAT): a 25 m aperture telescope above 5000 m altitude

    E-print Network

    Thomas A. Sebring; Riccardo Giovanelli; Simon Radford; Jonas Zmuidzinas

    2006-10-17

    Cornell, California Institute of Technology (Caltech), and Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL) have joined together to study development of a 25 meter sub-millimeter telescope (CCAT) on a high peak in the Atacama region of northern Chile, where the atmosphere is so dry as to permit observation at wavelengths as short as 200 micron. The telescope is designed to deliver high efficiency images at that wavelength with a total 1/2 wavefront error of about 10 microns. With a 20 arc min field of view, CCAT will be able to accommodate large format bolometer arrays and will excel at carrying out surveys as well as resolving structures to the 2 arc sec. resolution level. The telescope will be an ideal complement to ALMA. Initial instrumentation will include both a wide field bolometer camera and a medium resolution spectrograph. Studies of the major telescope subsystems have been performed as part of an initial Feasibility Concept Study. Novel aspects of the telescope design include kinematic mounting and active positioning of primary mirror segments, high bandwidth secondary mirror segment motion control for chopping, a Calotte style dome of 50 meter diameter, a mount capable of efficient scanning modes of operation, and some new approaches to panel manufacture. Analysis of telescope performance and of key subsystems will be presented to illustrate the technical feasibility and pragmatic cost of CCAT. Project plans include an Engineering Concept Design phase followed by detailed design and development. First Light is planned for early 2012.

  9. Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope: Overview and Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimmele, Thomas; McMullin, Joseph; Warner, Mark; Craig, Simon; Woeger, Friedrich; Tritschler, Alexandra; Cassini, Roberto; Kuhn, Jeff; Lin, Haosheng; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Berukoff, Steve; Reardon, Kevin; Goode, Phil; Knoelker, Michael; Rosner, Robert; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; DKIST TEAM

    2015-08-01

    The 4m Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) currently under construction on Haleakala, Maui will be the world’s largest solar telescope. Designed to meet the needs of critical high resolution and high sensitivity spectral and polarimetric observations of the sun, this facility will perform key observations of our nearest star that matters most to humankind. DKIST’s superb resolution and sensitivity will enable astronomers to unravel many of the mysteries the Sun presents, including the origin of solar magnetism, the mechanisms of coronal heating and drivers of the solar wind, flares, coronal mass ejections and variability in solar output. The all-reflecting, off-axis design allows the facility to observe over a broad wavelength range and enables DKIST to operate as a coronagraph. In addition, the photon flux provided by its large aperture will be capable of routine and precise measurements of the currently elusive coronal magnetic fields. The state-of-the-art adaptive optics system provides diffraction limited imaging and the ability to resolve features approximately 20 km on the Sun. Five first light instruments, representing a broad community effort, will be available at the start of operations: Visible Broadband Imager (National Solar Observatory), Visible Spectro-Polarimeter (High Altitude Observatory), Visible Tunable Filter (Kiepenheuer Institute, Germany), Diffraction Limited NIR Spectro-Polarimeter (University of Hawaii) and the Cryogenic NIR Spectro-Polarimeter (University of Hawaii). High speed cameras for capturing highly dynamic processes in the solar atmosphere are being developed by a UK consortium. Site construction on Haleakala began in December 2012 and is progressing on schedule. Operations are scheduled to begin in 2019. We provide an overview of the facility, discuss the construction status, and present progress with DKIST operations planning.

  10. Optimized focal and pupil plane masks for vortex coronagraphs on telescopes with obstructed apertures

    E-print Network

    Ruane, Garreth J; Huby, Elsa; Mawet, Dimitri; Delacroix, Christian; Carlomagno, Brunella; Piron, Pierre; Swartzlander, Grover A

    2015-01-01

    We present methods for optimizing pupil and focal plane optical elements that improve the performance of vortex coronagraphs on telescopes with obstructed or segmented apertures. Phase-only and complex masks are designed for the entrance pupil, focal plane, and the plane of the Lyot stop. Optimal masks are obtained using both analytical and numerical methods. The latter makes use of an iterative error reduction algorithm to calculate "correcting" optics that mitigate unwanted diffraction from aperture obstructions. We analyze the achieved performance in terms of starlight suppression, contrast, off-axis image quality, and chromatic dependence. Manufacturing considerations and sensitivity to aberrations are also discussed. This work provides a path to joint optimization of multiple coronagraph planes to maximize sensitivity to exoplanets and other faint companions.

  11. Optimization analysis of primary mirror in large aperture telescope based on workbench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhengsen; Wang, Guomin

    2015-10-01

    With the diameter increasing for large aperture telescope primary mirror, the gravity caused by the increased of surface size will directly affect the quality of optical imaging, the adjustment of large aperture primary mirror will be frequent according to the requirement of observation. As the angle and the azimuth's transformation of primary mirror influences the surface shape accuracy immediately, the rational design of the primary mirror supporting structure is of crucial importance. Now the general method is to use ANSYS APDL programming, which is inconvenient and complex to fit for the different components, the calculation require much time and the analysis is lack of efficient. Taking the diameter of 1.12 m telescope primary mirror as the research objection, the paper combine the actual design parameters of SONG telescope, respectively using ANSYS WORKBENCH to employ the primary mirror axial and lateral support model in finite element method, the optimal solution is obtained by optimization design and the change rule of mirror surface deformation under inclined condition is studied. The optimization results according with the requirements of the primary mirror comprehensive error proves that the optimization analysis method is available and applicable.

  12. ExSPO: A Discovery Class Apodized Square Aperture (ASA) Expo-Planet Imaging Space Telescope Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, D.; Harwit, M.; Lyon, R.; Melnick, G.; Papaliolos, G.; Ridgeway, S.; Woodruff, R.; Nisenson, P.; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    ExSPO is a Discovery Class (approx. 4 meter) apodized square aperture (ASA) space telescope mission designed for direct imaging of extrasolar Earth-like planets, as a precursor to TPF. The ASA telescope concept, instrument design, capabilities, mission plan and science goals are described.

  13. ATLAST-9.2: A Deployable Large Aperture UVOIR Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oegerle, William R.; Feinberg, L.; Purves, L.; Hyde, T.; Thronson, H.; Townsend, J.; Postman, M.; Bolcar, M.; Budinoff, J.; Dean, B.; Clampin, N.; Ebbets, D.; Gong, Q.; Gull, T.; Howard, J.; Jones, A.; Lyon, R.; Pasquale, B.; Perrygo, C.; Smith, S.; Thompson, P.; Woodgate, B.

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a study of a deployable version of the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) that could be launched on an Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV). ATLAST is a concept for a next-generation UVOIR observatory to follow HST and JWST. The observatory retains significant heritage from JWST, thereby taking advantage of technologies and engineering already developed for that mission. At the same time, we have identified several design changes to the JWST architecture, some of which are required due to the demanding wavefront error requirements at visible wavelengths. The optical telescope assembly has a segmented 9.2-meter aperture and consists of 36 hexagonal glass mirrors, each of which is I.3l5m in size (flat-to-flat). The telescope can be folded to fit in the 6.5m fairing on the planned upgrade to the Delta-IV heavy launch vehicle. Near-real time wavefront sensing and control is performed on-board the telescope using stars in the field of view to deliver diffraction limited imaging performance at 500nm wavelength. The optical design of the telescope provides an 8x20 arcmin FOV in which 4-5 instruments can be accommodated, plus fine guidance and wavefront sensors. Unlike JWST, the OTA sits at the end of a multi-gimbaled arm, allowing pitch and roll motion, and is isolated from the sunshield and spacecraft bus by an active isolation system. Our design permits servicing in order to extend the life of the observatory.

  14. Area measurements of apertures for exo-atmospheric solar irradiance for JPL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litorja, Maritoni; Johnson, B. Carol; Fowler, Joel

    2007-09-01

    A comparison of the area measurements of the limiting apertures used for total solar irradiance measurements in the Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor II (ACRIM II) and Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor III (ACRIM III) were conducted between the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The ACRIM apertures, due to their unique size and design, necessitated modifications to the NIST aperture measurement system. The changes and the validation procedures undertaken are described in this paper. This is part of an Earth Observing System (EOS)-sponsored international comparison of aperture area measurements of apertures that have institutional heritage with historical solar irradiance measurements.

  15. The Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope project and its early science opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Di; Nan, Rendong; Pan, Zhichen

    2013-03-01

    The National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science (NAOC), has started building the largest antenna in the world. Known as FAST, the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope is a Chinese mega-science project funded by the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC). FAST also represents part of Chinese contribution to the international efforts to build the square kilometer array (SKA). Upon its finishing around September of 2016, FAST will be the most sensitive single-dish radio telescope in the low frequency radio bands between 70 MHz and 3 GHz. The design specifications of FAST, its expected capabilities, and its main scientific aspirations were described in an overview paper by Nan et al. (2011). In this paper, we briefly review the design and the key science goals of FAST, speculate the likely limitations at the initial stages of FAST operation, and discuss the opportunities for astronomical discoveries in the so-called early science phase.

  16. The solar polar radio telescope mission: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Weiying; Zhang, Cheng; Zheng, Jianhua; Wu, Ji; Wang, C. B.; Wang, Chi; Wang, S.

    : The solar polar orbit telescope (SPORT) is a mission proposed for the observation of ICMEs. The main payload is a synthetic aperture radiometer working at meter wave band taking images of the high density interplanetary plasma clouds formed by ICMEs and follows the propagation if it from the surface of the Sun all the way to as far as 0.5 AU or even further. With such a capability of observation, also the SPORT will study transient high energy phenomenon, the magnetic topology, temperature and density as well as velocity of the solar wind in the inner interplanetary heliosphere. In the practical part, the mission is also very useful for space weather forecast in advance of the geo-storm events. Other instruments are also selected to be on board of the solar polar orbit mission for in-situ measurement, such as fluxgate magnetometer, solar wind ion detector and high energy particle detectors. In this paper, we describe the scientific objective, basic principles and feasibility of the interferometric radiometer, general mission design and the status of the SPORT mission.

  17. Review of the Solar Array Telescopes

    E-print Network

    David A. Smith

    2006-08-11

    For several years the only experiments sensitive to astrophysical gamma rays with energies beyond the reach of EGRET but below that of the Cherenkov imaging telescopes have been the "solar tower" detectors. They use >2000 m2 mirror areas to sample the Cherenkov wavefront generated by <100 GeV gamma rays, obtaining Crab sensitivities of more than 6$\\sigma$ in one ON-source hour. I will review the history of the solar tower Cherenkov experiments from 1992 to the present and their key design features. I will describe some successful analysis strategies, then summarize the principal results obtained.

  18. Solar rejection for an orbiting telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehnberg, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    The present work discusses some of the constraints that the optical designer must deal with in optimizing spaceborne sensors that must look at or near the sun. Analytical techniques are described for predicting the effects of stray radiation from sources such as mirror scatter, baffle scatter, diffraction, and ghost images. In addition, the paper describes a sensor design that has been flown on the Apollo Telescope Mount (Skylab) to aid astronauts in locating solar flares. In addition to keeping stray radiation to a minimum, the design had to be nondegradable by the direct solar heat load.

  19. Optimizing the search for high-z GRBs:. the JANUS X-ray coded aperture telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, D. N.; Fox, D.; Palmer, D.; Romano, P.; Mangano, V.; La Parola, V.; Falcone, A. D.; Roming, P. W. A.

    We discuss the optimization of gamma-ray burst (GRB) detectors with a goal of maximizing the detected number of bright high-redshift GRBs, in the context of design studies conducted for the X-ray transient detector on the JANUS mission. We conclude that the optimal energy band for detection of high-z GRBs is below about 30 keV. We considered both lobster-eye and coded aperture designs operating in this energy band. Within the available mass and power constraints, we found that the coded aperture mask was preferred for the detection of high-z bursts with bright enough afterglows to probe galaxies in the era of the Cosmic Dawn. This initial conclusion was confirmed through detailed mission simulations that found that the selected design (an X-ray Coded Aperture Telescope) would detect four times as many bright, high-z GRBs as the lobster-eye design we considered. The JANUS XCAT instrument will detect 48 GRBs with z>5 and fluence S_x > 3 × 10-7 erg cm-2 in a two year mission.

  20. Ray-tracing and physical-optics analysis of the aperture efficiency in a radio telescope.

    PubMed

    Olmi, Luca; Bolli, Pietro

    2007-07-01

    The performance of telescope systems working at microwave or visible-IR wavelengths is typically described in terms of different parameters according to the wavelength range. Most commercial ray-tracing packages have been specifically designed for use with visible-IR systems and thus, though very flexible and sophisticated, do not provide the appropriate parameters to fully describe microwave antennas and to compare with specifications. We demonstrate that the Strehl ratio is equal to the phase efficiency when the apodization factor is taken into account. The phase efficiency is the most critical contribution to the aperture efficiency of an antenna and the most difficult parameter to optimize during the telescope design. The equivalence between the Strehl ratio and the phase efficiency gives the designer/user of the telescope the opportunity to use the faster commercial ray-tracing software to optimize the design. We also discuss the results of several tests performed to check the validity of this relationship that we carried out using a ray-tracing software, ZEMAX, and a full Physical Optics software, GRASP9.3, applied to three different telescope designs that span a factor of approximately 10 in terms of D/lambda. The maximum measured discrepancy between phase efficiency and Strehl ratio varies between approximately 0.4% and 1.9% up to an offset angle of >40 beams, depending on the optical configuration, but it is always less than 0.5% where the Strehl ratio is >0.95. PMID:17571151

  1. The 1.6 m New Solar Telescope (NST) in Big Bear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, W.

    2012-12-01

    The 1.6 m clear aperture, off-axis New Solar Telescope (NST) is in regular operation in Big Bear Solar Observatory. The NST is the first facility-class solar telescope built in the U.S. in a generation. The NST provides high resolution and high sensitivity observations of the solar photosphere and chromosphere in the visible and near infrared (NIR). A high order adaptive optics system delivers corrected light to an ensemble of state-of-the-art scientific instruments in the coude laboratory including the Broad-band Filter Imagers (BFIs), NIR Imaging Spectro-polarimeter (NIRIS), Visible Imaging Spectro-polarimeter (VIS) and Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph (FISS). Some early scientific results from the NST will be presented, followed by a progress report on NST instrument development projects, as well as upgrades to existing instruments.

  2. The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope Site Survey Sky Brightness Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Haosheng; Penn, Matthew J.

    2004-07-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be a 4 m aperture off-axis telescope with advanced high-resolution and low scattered light capabilities for the observation of the solar photosphere and corona. The site characteristics that are critical to the success of the ATST coronal observations are the sky brightness, the precipitable water vapor content, and the number and size distributions of the dust particles. Therefore, part of the ATST site survey effort is to obtain measurements of these atmospheric properties at all the potential ATST sites. The ATST site survey Sky Brightness Monitor (SBM) is a new instrument specifically developed for this task. The SBM is a modified externally occulted coronagraph capable of imaging the solar disk and sky simultaneously. The ability to image the Sun and the sky simultaneously greatly simplifies the calibration of the sky-brightness measurements. The SBM has a very simple optical configuration that makes it a compact and low-maintenance instrument. The SBM is sensitive to sky brightness below 1×10-6 disk center intensity, with a field of view extending from 4 to 8 Rsolar. It measures the solar disk and sky brightness at three continuum bandpasses located at 450, 530, and 890 nm. A fourth bandpass is centered at the 940 nm water vapor absorption band. With measurements of disk and sky brightness at these four wavelengths, site characteristics such as extinctions, aerosol content, and precipitable water vapor content can be derived. This paper documents the design, specifications, calibration procedures, and performance of the SBM.

  3. Results of aperture area comparisons for exo-atmospheric total solar irradiance measurements.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B Carol; Litorja, Maritoni; Fowler, Joel B; Shirley, Eric L; Barnes, Robert A; Butler, James J

    2013-11-20

    Exo-atmospheric solar irradiance measurements made by the solar irradiance community since 1978 have incorporated limiting apertures with diameters measured by a number of metrology laboratories using a variety of techniques. Knowledge of the aperture area is a critical component in the conversion of radiant flux measurements to solar irradiance. A National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observing System (EOS) sponsored international comparison of aperture area measurements of limiting apertures provided by solar irradiance researchers was performed, the effort being executed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in coordination with the EOS Project Science Office. Apertures that had institutional heritage with historical solar irradiance measurements were measured using the absolute aperture measurement facility at NIST. The measurement technique employed noncontact video microscopy using high-accuracy translation stages. We have quantified the differences between the participating institutions' aperture area measurements and find no evidence to support the hypothesis that preflight aperture area measurements were the root cause of discrepancies in long-term total solar irradiance satellite measurements. Another result is the assessment of uncertainties assigned to methods used by participants. We find that uncertainties assigned to a participant's values may be underestimated. PMID:24513747

  4. Initial Results of Aperture Area Comparisons for Exo-Atmospheric Total Solar Irradiance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B. Carol; Litorja, Maritoni; Fowler, Joel B.; Butler, James J.

    2009-01-01

    In the measurement of exo-atmospheric total solar irradiance (TSI), instrument aperture area is a critical component in converting solar radiant flux to irradiance. In a May 2000 calibration workshop for the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE), the solar irradiance measurement community recommended that NASA and NISI coordinate an aperture area measurement comparison to quantify and validate aperture area uncertainties and their overall effect on TSI uncertainties. From May 2003 to February 2006, apertures from 4 institutions with links to the historical TSI database were measured by NIST and the results were compared to the aperture area determined by each institution. The initial results of these comparisons are presented and preliminary assessments of the participants' uncertainties are discussed.

  5. Multiple Etalon Systems for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, G. Allen; Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Sigwarth, Michael; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Multiple etalons systems are discussed that meet the 4-meter NSO/Advance Technology Solar Telescope (http://www.nso.edu/ATST/index.html) instrument and science requirements for a narrow bandpass imaging system. A multiple etalon system can provide an imaging interferometer working in four distinct modes: as a spectro-polarimeter, a filter-vector magnetograph, and a wide-band and broad-band high-resolution imager. Specific dual and triple etalon configurations will be described that provides spectrographic passband of 2.0-3.5nm and reduces parasitic light levels to 1/10000 as required by precise polarization measurement, e.g., Zeeman measurements of magnetic sensitive lines. A TESOS-like triple etalon system provides for spectral purity of 100 thousandths. The triple designs have the advantage of reducing the finesse requirement on each etalon, allowing much more stable blocking filters, and can have very high spectral purity. A dual-etalon double-pass Cavallini-like configuration can provide a competing configuration. This design can provide high contrast with only a double etalon. The selection of the final focal plan instrument will depend on a trade-off of the ideal instrument versus reality, the number of etalons, the aperture of etalons, the number of blocking filters the electronic control system and computer interfaces, the temperature control and controllers for the etalons and the electronics. The use of existing experience should provide significant cost savings. The heritage of use of etalons and multiple etalon systems in solar physics come from a number of observatories, which includes MSFC Solar Observatory (NASA), Sac Peak Observatory (NSO), and Kiepenheuer Institute for Solar Physics (Germany), Mees Solar Observatory (University of Hawaii), and Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory (Italy). The design of the ATST multiple etalon system will reply on the existing experience from these observatories.

  6. Multiple-etalon systems for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, G. Allen; Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Sigwarth, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Multiple etalon systems are discussed that meet the science requirements for a narrow-passband imaging system for the 4-meter National Solar Observatory (NSO)/Advance Technology Solar Telescope (ATST). A multiple etalon system can provide an imaging interferometer that works in four distinct modes: as a spectro-polarimeter, a filter-vector magnetograph, an intermediate-band imager, and broadband high-resolution imager. Specific dual and triple etalon configurations are described that provide a spectrographic passband of 2.0-3.5 micron and reduce parasitic light levels to 10(exp -4) as required for precise polarization measurement, e.g., Zeeman measurements of magnetic sensitive lines. A TESOS-like (Telecentric Etalon SOlar Spectrometer) triple etalon system provides a spectral purity of 10(exp -5). The triple designs have the advantage of reducing the finesse requirement on each etalon; allow the use of more stable blocking filters, and have very high spectral purity. A dual-etalon double-pass (Cavallini-like) system can provide a competing configuration. Such a dual-etalon design can provide high contrast. The selection of the final focal plane instrument will depend on a trade-off between an ideal instrument and practical reality. The trade study will include the number of etalons, their aperture sizes, complexities of the optical train, number of blocking filters, configuration of the electronic control system, computer interfaces, temperature controllers, etalon controllers, and their associated feedback electronics. The heritage of single and multiple etalon systems comes from their use in several observatories, including the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Solar Observatory, Sacramento Peak Observatory (NSO), and Kiepenheuer-Institut fur Sonnenphysik (KIS, Germany), Mees Solar Observatory (University of Hawaii), and Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory (Italy). The design of the ATST multiple etalon system will benefit from the experience gained at these observatories.

  7. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) 2006: Calibration and Flight Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truch, Matthew D. P.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Bock, James J.; Chapin, Edward L.; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Griffin, Matthew; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Halpern, Mark; Hargrave, Peter C.; Hughes, David H.; Klein, Jeff; Marsden, Gaelen; Martin, Peter G.; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Barth Netterfield, C.; Olmi, Luca; Pascale, Enzo; Patanchon, Guillaume; Rex, Marie; Scott, Douglas; Semisch, Christopher; Thomas, Nicholas E.; Tucker, Carole; Tucker, Gregory S.; Viero, Marco P.; Wiebe, Donald V.

    2009-12-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) operated successfully during a 250 hr flight over Antarctica in 2006 December (BLAST06). As part of the calibration and pointing procedures, the red hypergiant star VY CMa was observed and used as the primary calibrator. Details of the overall BLAST06 calibration procedure are discussed. The 1? uncertainty on the absolute calibration is accurate to 9.5%, 8.7%, and 9.2% at the 250, 350, and 500 ?m bands, respectively. The errors are highly correlated between bands resulting in much lower errors for the derived shape of the 250-500 ?m continuum. The overall pointing error is < 5'' rms for the 36'', 42'', and 60'' beams. The performance of optics and pointing systems is discussed.

  8. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) 2006: Calibration and Flight Performance

    E-print Network

    Truch, Matthew D P; Bock, James J; Chapin, Edward L; Devlin, Mark J; Dicker, Simon R; Griffin, Matthew; Gundersen, Joshua O; Halpern, Mark; Hargrave, Peter C; Hughes, David H; Klein, Jeff; Marsden, Gaelen; Martin, Peter G; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Netterfield, Calvin B; Olmi, Luca; Pascale, Enzo; Patanchon, Guillaume; Rex, Marie; Scott, Douglas; Semisch, Christopher; Thomas, Nicholas E; Tucker, Carole; Tucker, Gregory S; Viero, Marco P; Wiebe, Donald V

    2009-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) operated successfully during a 250-hour flight over Antarctica in December 2006 (BLAST06). As part of the calibration and pointing procedures, the red hypergiant star VY CMa was observed and used as the primary calibrator. Details of the overall BLAST06 calibration procedure are discussed. The 1-sigma absolute calibration is accurate to 10, 12, and 13% at the 250, 350, and 500 micron bands, respectively. The errors are highly correlated between bands resulting in much lower error for the derived shape of the 250-500 micron continuum. The overall pointing error is <5" rms for the 36, 42, and 60" beams. The performance of the optics and pointing systems is discussed.

  9. Thermal design and performance of the balloon-borne large aperture submillimeter telescope for polarimetry BLASTPol

    E-print Network

    Soler, J D; Angilè, F E; Benton, S J; Devlin, M J; Dober, B; Fissel, L M; Fukui, Y; Galitzki, N; Gandilo, N N; Klein, J; Korotkov, A L; Matthews, T G; Moncelsi, L; Mroczkowski, A; Netterfield, C B; Novak, G; Nutter, D; Pascale, E; Poidevin, F; Savini, G; Scott, D; Shariff, J A; Thomas, N E; Truch, M D; Tucker, C E; Tucker, G S; Ward-Thompson, D

    2014-01-01

    We present the thermal model of the Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol). This instrument was successfully flown in two circumpolar flights from McMurdo, Antarctica in 2010 and 2012. During these two flights, BLASTPol obtained unprecedented information about the magnetic field in molecular clouds through the measurement of the polarized thermal emission of interstellar dust grains. The thermal design of the experiment addresses the stability and control of the payload necessary for this kind of measurement. We describe the thermal modeling of the payload including the sun-shielding strategy. We present the in-flight thermal performance of the instrument and compare the predictions of the model with the temperatures registered during the flight. We describe the difficulties of modeling the thermal behavior of the balloon-borne platform and establish landmarks that can be used in the design of future balloon-borne instruments.

  10. THE BALLOON-BORNE LARGE APERTURE SUBMILLIMETER TELESCOPE (BLAST) 2006: CALIBRATION AND FLIGHT PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Truch, Matthew D. P.; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Klein, Jeff; Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Pascale, Enzo; Bock, James J.; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hughes, David H.; Martin, Peter G.; Netterfield, C. Barth; Olmi, Luca; Patanchon, Guillaume

    2009-12-20

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) operated successfully during a 250 hr flight over Antarctica in 2006 December (BLAST06). As part of the calibration and pointing procedures, the red hypergiant star VY CMa was observed and used as the primary calibrator. Details of the overall BLAST06 calibration procedure are discussed. The 1sigma uncertainty on the absolute calibration is accurate to 9.5%, 8.7%, and 9.2% at the 250, 350, and 500 mum bands, respectively. The errors are highly correlated between bands resulting in much lower errors for the derived shape of the 250-500 mum continuum. The overall pointing error is < 5'' rms for the 36'', 42'', and 60'' beams. The performance of optics and pointing systems is discussed.

  11. Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope: Science Drivers and Technology Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Postman, Marc; Brown, Tom; Sembach, Kenneth; Glavallsco, Mauro; Traub, Wesley; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Calzetti, Daniela; Oegerle, William; Rich, R. Michael; Stahl, H. Phillip; Tumlinson, Jason; Mountain, Matt; Soummer, Remi; Hyde, Tupper

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) is a concept for an 8- to 16-m ultraviolet optical near Infrared space observatory for launch in the 2025 to 2030 era. ATLAST will allow astronomers to answer fundamental questions at the forefront of modern astrophysics, including: Is there life elsewhere in the Galaxy? We present a range of science drivers and the resulting performance requirements for ATLAST (8- to 16-marcsec angular resolution, diffraction limited imaging at 0.5 micron wavelength, minimum collecting area of 45 sq m, high sensitivity to light wavelengths from 0.1 to 2.4 micron, high stability in wavefront sensing and control). We also discuss the priorities for technology development needed to enable the construction of ATLAST for a cost that is comparable to that of current generation observatory-class space missions.

  12. The Multi Aperture Scintillation Sensor (MASS) used in the site selection of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT)

    E-print Network

    Tokovinin, Andrei A.

    of the atmosphere before hitting the entrance pupil of the telescope.8 A unit which combines MASS and DIMMThe Multi Aperture Scintillation Sensor (MASS) used in the site selection of the Thirty Meter ABSTRACT One of the main tools used in the TMT site testing campaign is the turbulence profiler MASS. We

  13. Progress on the 1.6-meter New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory

    E-print Network

    Progress on the 1.6-meter New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory C. Denkera, P. R, Newark, NJ 07102, U.S.A. bBig Bear Solar Observatory, 40386 North Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92314, U.S.A. ABSTRACT The New Solar Telescope (NST) project at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) now has all major

  14. Active Galactic Nucleus and Quasar Science with Aperture Masking Interferometry on the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, K. E. Saavik; McKernan, Barry; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Martel, André R.; Koekemoer, Anton; Lafrenière, David; Parmentier, Sébastien

    2014-03-01

    Due to feedback from accretion onto supermassive black holes (SMBHs), active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are believed to play a key role in ?CDM cosmology and galaxy formation. However, AGNs extreme luminosities and the small angular size of their accretion flows create a challenging imaging problem. We show that the James Webb Space Telescope's Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (JWST-NIRISS) Aperture Masking Interferometry (AMI) mode will enable true imaging (i.e., without any requirement of prior assumptions on source geometry) at ~65 mas angular resolution at the centers of AGNs. This is advantageous for studying complex extended accretion flows around SMBHs and in other areas of angular-resolution-limited astrophysics. By simulating data sequences incorporating expected sources of noise, we demonstrate that JWST-NIRISS AMI mode can map extended structure at a pixel-to-pixel contrast of ~10-2 around an L = 7.5 point source, using short exposure times (minutes). Such images will test models of AGN feedback, fueling, and structure (complementary with ALMA observations), and are not currently supported by any ground-based IR interferometer or telescope. Binary point source contrast with NIRISS is ~10-4 (for observing binary nuclei in merging galaxies), significantly better than current ground-based optical or IR interferometry. JWST-NIRISS's seven-hole non-redundant mask has a throughput of 15%, and utilizes NIRISS's F277W (2.77 ?m), F380M (3.8 ?m), F430M (4.3 ?m), and F480M (4.8 ?m) filters. NIRISS's square pixels are 65 mas per side, with a field of view ~2' × 2'. We also extrapolate our results to AGN science enabled by non-redundant masking on future 2.4 m and 16 m space telescopes working at long-UV to near-IR wavelengths.

  15. Active galactic nucleus and quasar science with aperture masking interferometry on the James Webb Space Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, K. E. Saavik; McKernan, Barry; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Martel, André R.; Koekemoer, Anton; Lafrenière, David; Parmentier, Sébastien

    2014-03-10

    Due to feedback from accretion onto supermassive black holes (SMBHs), active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are believed to play a key role in ?CDM cosmology and galaxy formation. However, AGNs extreme luminosities and the small angular size of their accretion flows create a challenging imaging problem. We show that the James Webb Space Telescope's Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (JWST-NIRISS) Aperture Masking Interferometry (AMI) mode will enable true imaging (i.e., without any requirement of prior assumptions on source geometry) at ?65 mas angular resolution at the centers of AGNs. This is advantageous for studying complex extended accretion flows around SMBHs and in other areas of angular-resolution-limited astrophysics. By simulating data sequences incorporating expected sources of noise, we demonstrate that JWST-NIRISS AMI mode can map extended structure at a pixel-to-pixel contrast of ?10{sup –2} around an L = 7.5 point source, using short exposure times (minutes). Such images will test models of AGN feedback, fueling, and structure (complementary with ALMA observations), and are not currently supported by any ground-based IR interferometer or telescope. Binary point source contrast with NIRISS is ?10{sup –4} (for observing binary nuclei in merging galaxies), significantly better than current ground-based optical or IR interferometry. JWST-NIRISS's seven-hole non-redundant mask has a throughput of 15%, and utilizes NIRISS's F277W (2.77 ?m), F380M (3.8 ?m), F430M (4.3 ?m), and F480M (4.8 ?m) filters. NIRISS's square pixels are 65 mas per side, with a field of view ?2' × 2'. We also extrapolate our results to AGN science enabled by non-redundant masking on future 2.4 m and 16 m space telescopes working at long-UV to near-IR wavelengths.

  16. Developments of the wideband spectropolarimeter of the Domeless Solar Telescope at Hida Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anan, Tetsu; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Oi, Akihito; Kimura, Goichi; Nakatani, Yoshikazu; Ueno, Satoru

    2012-09-01

    We developed a new universal spectropolarimeter on the Domeless Solar Telescope at Hida Observatory to realize precise spectropolarimetric observations in a wide range of wavelength in visible and near infrared. The system aims to open a new window of plasma diagnostics by using Zeeman effect, Hanle effect, Stark effect, and impact polarization to measure the external magnetic field, electric field, and anisotropies in atomic excitation in solar atmosphere. The polarimeter consists of a 60 cm aperture vacuum telescope, a high dispersion vacuum spectrograph, polarization modulator and analyser composed of a continuously rotating waveplate whose retardation is constant in 400 - 1100 nm and Wallaston prisms located closely behind the focus of the telescope, and a fast and high sensitive CCD camera or a infrared camera. The duration for this polarimeter's achieving photometric accuracy of 10-3 is 30 - 60 s. Instrumental polarization of the telescope is calibrated by using a remotely controllable turret accommodating linear polarizer attached at the entrance window of the telescope to induce well known polarized light into the telescope. Thus a Mueller matrix model of the telescope is established to compensate the instrumental polarization included in observed data within the required accuracy.

  17. Subaru Telescope, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Subaru Telescope, Hawaii is an 8.2 m aperture optical infrared telescope being operated by the NATIONAL ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORY, JAPAN (NAOJ) atop Mauna Kea, Hawaii. It is one of the new-generation telescopes with an actively controlled large monolithic mirror, and has been producing testing-phase observational results on solar system, star formation, active galactic nuclei and quasars, grou...

  18. Solar Site Survey for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope. I. Analysis of the Seeing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socas-Navarro, H.; Beckers, J.; Brandt, P.; Briggs, J.; Brown, T.; Brown, W.; Collados, M.; Denker, C.; Fletcher, S.; Hegwer, S.; Hill, F.; Horst, T.; Komsa, M.; Kuhn, J.; Lecinski, A.; Lin, H.; Oncley, S.; Penn, M.; Rimmele, T.; Streander, K.

    2005-11-01

    The site survey for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope concluded recently after more than 2 years of data gathering and analysis. Six locations, including lake, island, and continental sites, were thoroughly probed for image quality and sky brightness. The present paper describes the analysis methodology employed to determine the height stratification of the atmospheric turbulence. This information is crucial, because daytime seeing is often very different between the actual telescope aperture (~30 m) and the ground. Two independent inversion codes have been developed to simultaneously analyze data from a scintillometer array and a solar differential image monitor. We show here the results of applying them to a sample subset of data from 2003 May that was used for testing. Both codes retrieve a similar seeing stratification through the height range of interest. A quantitative comparison between our analysis procedure and actual in situ measurements confirms the validity of the inversions. The sample data presented in this paper reveal a qualitatively different behavior for the lake sites (dominated by high-altitude seeing) and the rest (dominated by near-ground turbulence).

  19. Solar Sail - Fresnel Zone Plate Lens for a Large Space Based Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Early, J T

    2002-02-13

    A Fresnel zone plate lens made with solar sail material could be used as the primary optic for a very large aperture telescope on deep space probes propelled by solar sails. The large aperture telescope capability could enable significant science on fly-by missions to the asteroids, Pluto, Kuiper belt or the tort cloud and could also enable meaningful interstellar fly-by missions for laser propelled sails. This type of lens may also have some potential for laser communications and as a solar concentrator. The techniques for fabrication of meter size and larger Fresnel phase plate optics are under development at LLNL, and we are extending this technology to amplitude zone plates made from sail materials. Corrector optics to greatly extend the bandwidth of these Fresnel optics will be demonstrated in the future. This novel telescope concept will require new understanding of the fabrication, deployment and control of gossamer space structures. It will also require new materials technology for fabricating these optics and understanding their long term stability in a space environment.

  20. Hybrid Electrostatic/Flextensional Mirror for Lightweight, Large-Aperture, and Cryogenic Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patrick, Brian; Moore, James; Hackenberger, Wesley; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2013-01-01

    A lightweight, cryogenically capable, scalable, deformable mirror has been developed for space telescopes. This innovation makes use of polymer-based membrane mirror technology to enable large-aperture mirrors that can be easily launched and deployed. The key component of this innovation is a lightweight, large-stroke, cryogenic actuator array that combines the high degree of mirror figure control needed with a large actuator influence function. The latter aspect of the innovation allows membrane mirror figure correction with a relatively low actuator density, preserving the lightweight attributes of the system. The principal components of this technology are lightweight, low-profile, high-stroke, cryogenic-capable piezoelectric actuators based on PMN-PT (piezoelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate) single-crystal configured in a flextensional actuator format; high-quality, low-thermal-expansion polymer membrane mirror materials developed by NeXolve; and electrostatic coupling between the membrane mirror and the piezoelectric actuator assembly to minimize problems such as actuator print-through.

  1. 8 Meter Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST-8m)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2010-01-01

    ATLAST-8m (Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope) is a proposed 8-meter monolithic UV/optical/NIR space observatory (wavelength range 110 to 2500 nm) to be placed in orbit at Sun-Earth L2 by NASA's planned Ares V heavy lift vehicle. Given its very high angular resolution (15 mas @ 500 nm), sensitivity and performance stability, ATLAST-8m is capable of achieving breakthroughs in a broad range of astrophysics including: Is there life elsewhere in the Galaxy? An 8-meter UVOIR observatory has the performance required to detect habitability (H2O, atmospheric column density) and biosignatures (O2, O3, CH4) in terrestrial exoplanet atmospheres, to reveal the underlying physics that drives star formation, and to trace the complex interactions between dark matter, galaxies, and intergalactic medium. The ATLAST Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study developed a detailed point design for an 8-m monolithic observatory including optical design; structural design/analysis including primary mirror support structure, sun shade and secondary mirror support structure; thermal analysis; spacecraft including structure, propulsion, GN&C, avionics, power systems and reaction wheels; mass and power budgets; and system cost. The results of which were submitted by invitation to NRC's 2010 Astronomy & Astrophysics Decadal Survey.

  2. AGN and quasar science with aperture masking interferometry on the James Webb Space Telescope

    E-print Network

    Ford, K E Saavik; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Martel, André R; Koekemoer, Anton; Lafrenière, David; Parmentier, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Due to feedback from accretion onto supermassive black holes (SMBHs), Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) are believed to play a key role in LambdaCDM cosmology and galaxy formation. However, AGNs' extreme luminosities and the small angular size of their accretion flows create a challenging imaging problem. We show James Webb Space Telescope's Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (JWST-NIRISS) Aperture Masking Interferometry (AMI) mode will enable true imaging (i.e. without any requirement of prior assumptions on source geometry) at ~65 mas angular resolution at the centers of AGNs. This is advantageous for studying complex extended accretion flows around SMBHs, and in other areas of angular-resolution-limited astrophysics. By simulating data sequences incorporating expected sources of noise, we demonstrate that JWST-NIRISS AMI mode can map extended structure at a pixel-to-pixel contrast of ~10^{-2} around an L=7.5 point source, using short exposure times (minutes). Such images will test models of AGN fee...

  3. Developments of the Multi-wavelength Polarimeter of the Domeless Solar Telescope at the Hida Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anan, T.; Ichimoto, K.; Ueno, S.; Kimura, G.; Nakatani, Y.; Kaneda, N.; Hagino, M.; Suzuki, I.

    2011-04-01

    A new universal spectropolarimeter is developed on the Domeless Solar Telescope (DST) at the Hida Observatory to realize precise spectropolarimetric observations in a wide range of wavelengths in visible and near infrared. The system aims to open a new window of plasma diagnostics by using Zeeman effect, Hanle effect, Stark effect and impact polarization for measuring the chromospheric magnetic fields, electric fields and unisotropically accelerated particles in the solar atmosphere. The new system consists of a 60 cm aperture vacuum telescope, a high dispersion vacuum spectrograph, polarization modulator/analyser composed of a rotating waveplate and a Wallaston prism located after the entrance slit of the spectrograph, and a fast and large format CCD camera. Spectral images in both orthogonal polarizations are taken simultaneously with a frame rate of ˜20 Hz while the waveplate rotates continuously in a rate of 1 rev./sec. Thus a high signal to noise ratio can be achieved in a short time. To calibrate the instrumental polarization of the telescope a remotely controllable turret accommodating linear polarizers is attached at the entrance window of the telescope to induce a well known polarization into the telescope. A Muellar matrix model of the telescope to correct the obtained data is under examination.

  4. Narrow-band Imager for Multi-Application Solar Telescope (MAST) at Udaipur Solar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja Bayanna, A.; Mathew, Shibu K.; Venkatakrishnan, Parameswaran; Srivastava, Nandita

    2013-04-01

    Multi-Application Solar Telescope (MAST) is an off-axis Gregorian solar telescope of 50 cm clear aperture installed at the lake site of Udaipur solar observatory (USO). A narrow band imager is being developed for near simultaneous observations of the solar atmosphere at different heights. The heart of the system is two Fabry-Perot (FP) etalons working in tandem. The substrate of the etalons is made of Lithium Niobate electro-optic crystal. The filter is tuned by changing the refractive index of the crystal with the application of the voltage. It is important to know the voltage required per unit wavelength shift to tune the system for different wavelength regions for near simultaneous observations. A littrow spectrograph was set up to calibrate the FP etalons. The achieved spectral resolution with the spectrograph at 6173 Å is 35 mÅ. Calibration is carried-out for the Fe I 6173 Å, H-alpha 6563 Å and Ca K 8542 Å. Free spectral range (FSR) obtained for FP1 and FP2 in tandem for 6173 Å is 6.7Å and 150 mÅ respectively. Voltage range of the system allows us to scan the entire line profile of 6173 in the range of ±220 mÅ with a sampling of 20 mÅ. We also performed temperature tuning and voltage tuning of the system. Similar exercise is performed for other two wavelengths. Here we present the details of the calibration set-up and obtained parameters and first-light results of the system.

  5. The Recent Development of the 1-meter Yunnan Solar Telescope System at the FuXian Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Xu, Z.; YNST Team

    2012-08-01

    YNST (Yunnan Solar telescope) is a large solar instrument with a pure aperture of 980mm. It was designed for obtaining high-precision measurement for the solar magnetic field and atmospheric dynamic process. YNST is being installed at the Fuxian Lake in Yunnan, China. The solar observation tower includes two vertical multi-wavelength spectrographs and one Fabry-Perot interferometer system working in the 0.3 - 2.5 micron spectral range. The two spectrographs will supply high-resolution spectral data with short exposure time and a large field of view (180?×180?), as well as the ability to work in polarized light.

  6. Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope system safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Robert P.; Bulau, Scott E.; Shimko, Steve; Williams, Timothy R.

    2014-08-01

    System safety for the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) is the joint responsibility of a Maui-based safety team and the Tucson-based systems engineering group. The DKIST project is committed to the philosophy of "Safety by Design". To that end the project has implemented an aggressive hazard analysis, risk assessment, and mitigation system. It was initially based on MIL-STD-882D, but has since been augmented in a way that lends itself to direct application to the design of our Global Interlock System (GIS). This was accomplished by adopting the American National Standard for Industrial Robots and Robot Systems (ANSI/RIA R15.06) for all identified hazards that involve potential injury to personnel. In this paper we describe the details of our augmented hazard analysis system and its use by the project. Since most of the major hardware for the DKIST (e.g., the enclosure, and telescope mount assembly) has been designed and is being constructed by external contractors, the DKIST project has required our contractors to perform a uniform hazard analysis of their designs using our methods. This paper also describes the review and follow-up process implemented by the project that is applied to both internal and external subsystem designs. Our own weekly hazard analysis team meetings have now largely turned to system-level hazards and hazards related to specific tasks that will be encountered during integration, test, and commissioning and maintenance operations. Finally we discuss a few lessons learned, describing things we might do differently if we were starting over today.

  7. Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array. V - Temperature diagnostic response to the optically thin solar plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deforest, Craig E.; Kankelborg, Charles C.; Allen, Max J.; Paris, Elizabeth S.; Willis, Tom D.; Lindblom, Joakim F.; O'Neal, Ray H.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Hoover, Richard B.

    1991-01-01

    The compact soft X-ray/EUV/FUV multilayer coated telescopes developed for solar chromosphere, corona, and corona/solar-wind interface studies permit the use of conventional (Cassegrain, Herschelian, etc.) configurations. The multilayer coatings also allow a narrow-wavelength band to be selected for imaging. NASA's Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array is composed of 17 of these compact telescopes; attention is given to their ability to obtain temperature-diagnostic information concerning the solar plasma.

  8. Defining A Risk Analysis Strategy for Exo-Earth Yields from a Future Large Aperture UVOIR Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandell, Avi; Stark, Christopher C.; Roberge, Aki; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Robinson, Tyler

    2015-01-01

    The discovery and characterization of Earth-like planets around Sun-like stars using high-contrast imaging is a critical science metric for constraining the requirements on the next-generation large UVOIR space telescope. The dominant driver for the observatory architecture, cost and schedule is the telescope aperture size. Therefore it is important to provide as much constraint as possible on the required aperture size early in the design and planning process.An estimate of the detection yield for Earth-like planets can be calculated using a Monte Carlo simulation of a design reference mission (DRM), allowing the exploration of a variety of mission design and astrophysical parameters. We have developed such a code (Stark et al. 2014); it optimizes the target list and exposure times to maximize mission yield for a specific set of mission parameters. However, many of the important astrophysical quantities and future technical capabilities that feed into these parameters are not well constrained. This leads to a large uncertainty in the final mission architecture needed to achieve a specific exo-Earth yield.In this presentation we discuss the various physical and technological parameters that go into the DRM simulations, and the associated uncertainties based on the current state of research. We then present a strategy for a three-tiered risk assessment using these uncertainties, and conclude with a discussion of the current range in telescope aperture size associated with each risk level.

  9. Integrating Seeing Measurements into the Operations of Solar Telescopes

    E-print Network

    . This type of observations is typically encountered in solar activity monitoring and space weather forecastIntegrating Seeing Measurements into the Operations of Solar Telescopes C. Denker and A. P. Verdoni New Jersey Institute of Technology, Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research 323 Martin Luther King Blvd

  10. A Novel Lateral Deployment Mechanism for Segmented Mirror/Solar Panel of Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thesiya, Dignesh; Srinivas, A. R.; Shukla, Piyush

    2015-09-01

    Space telescopes require large aperture primary mirrors to capture High Definition (HD) ground image while orbiting around the Earth. Fairing Volume of launch vehicles is limited and thus the size of monolithic mirror is limited to fairing size and solar panels are arranged within a petal formation in order to provide a greater power to volume ratio. This generates need for deployable mirrors for space use. This brings out a method for designing new deployment mechanism for segmented mirror. Details of mechanism folding strategy, design of components, FE simulations, realization and Lab model validation results are discussed in order to demonstrate the design using prototype.

  11. Bringing Perfect Vision to the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matijevich, Russ; Johansson, Erik; Johnson, Luke; Cavaco, Jeff; National Solar Observatory

    2016-01-01

    The world's largest ground-based solar telescope is one step closer to operation with the acceptance of the deformable mirror engineered by AOA Xinetics, a Northrop Grumman Corporation company. The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST), currently under construction in Haleakala, Hawaii, will offer unprecedented high-resolution images of the sun using the latest adaptive optics technology to provide its distortion-free imaging.Led by the National Solar Observatory (NSO) and the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), the Inouye Solar Telescope will help scientists better understand how magnetic fields affect the physical properties of the Sun, what roles they play in our solar system and how they affect Earth.Ground-based telescopes, whether observing the sun or the night sky must contend with atmospheric turbulence that acts as a flexible lens, constantly reshaping observed images. This turbulence makes research on solar activity difficult and drives the need for the latest adaptive optics technology.To provide DKIST with the distortion-free imaging it requires, AOA Xinetics designed a deformable mirror with 1,600 actuators, four times the normal actuator density. This deformable mirror (DM) is instrumental in removing all of the atmospheric blurriness that would otherwise limit the telescope's performance. The mirror also has an internal thermal management system to handle the intense solar energy coming from DKIST's telescope. This poster provides the history behind this incredible success story.

  12. Solar System science with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Lynne; Brown, Mike; Ivezi?, Zeljko; Juri?, Mario; Malhotra, Renu; Trilling, David

    2015-11-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST; http://lsst.org) will be a large-aperture, wide-field, ground-based telescope that will survey half the sky every few nights in six optical bands from 320 to 1050 nm. It will explore a wide range of astrophysical questions, ranging from performing a census of the Solar System, to examining the nature of dark energy. It is currently in construction, slated for first light in 2019 and full operations by 2022.The LSST will survey over 20,000 square degrees with a rapid observational cadence, to typical limiting magnitudes of r~24.5 in each visit (9.6 square degree field of view). Automated software will link the individual detections into orbits; these orbits, as well as precisely calibrated astrometry (~50mas) and photometry (~0.01-0.02 mag) in multiple bandpasses will be available as LSST data products. The resulting data set will have tremendous potential for planetary astronomy; multi-color catalogs of hundreds of thousands of NEOs and Jupiter Trojans, millions of asteroids, tens of thousands of TNOs, as well as thousands of other objects such as comets and irregular satellites of the major planets.LSST catalogs will increase the sample size of objects with well-known orbits 10-100 times for small body populations throughout the Solar System, enabling a major increase in the completeness level of the inventory of most dynamical classes of small bodies and generating new insights into planetary formation and evolution. Precision multi-color photometry will allow determination of lightcurves and colors, as well as spin state and shape modeling through sparse lightcurve inversion. LSST is currently investigating survey strategies to optimize science return across a broad range of goals. To aid in this investigation, we are making a series of realistic simulated survey pointing histories available together with a Python software package to model and evaluate survey detections for a user-defined input population. Preliminary metrics from these simulations are shown here; the community is invited to provide further input.

  13. Design and Analysis of the Aperture Shield Assembly for a Space Solar Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strumpf, Hal J.; Trinh, Tuan; Westelaken, William; Krystkowiak, Christopher; Avanessian, Vahe; Kerslake, Thomas W.

    1997-01-01

    A joint U.S./Russia program has been conducted to design, develop, fabricate, launch, and operate the world's first space solar dynamic power system on the Russian Space Station Mir. The goal of the program was to demonstrate and confirm that solar dynamic power systems are viable for future space applications such as the International Space Station (ISS). The major components of the system include a solar receiver, a closed Brayton cycle power conversion unit, a power conditioning and control unit, a solar concentrator, a radiator, a thermal control system, and a Space Shuttle carrier. Unfortunately, the mission was demanifested from the ISS Phase 1 Space Shuttle Program in 1996. However, NASA Lewis is proposing to use the fabricated flight hardware as part of an all-American flight demonstration on the ISS in 2002. The present paper concerns the design and analysis of the solar receiver aperture shield assembly. The aperture shield assembly comprises the front face of the cylindrical receiver and is located at the focal plane of the solar concentrator. The aperture shield assembly is a critical component that protects the solar receiver structure from highly concentrated solar fluxes during concentrator off-pointing events. A full-size aperture shield assembly was fabricated. This unit was essentially identical to the flight configuration, with the exception of materials substitution. In addition, a thermal shock test aperture shield assembly was fabricated. This test article utilized the flight materials and was used for high-flux testing in the solar simulator test rig at NASA Lewis. This testing is described in a companion paper.

  14. A retrospective of the GREGOR solar telescope in scientific literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, C.; von der Lühe, O.; Feller, A.; Arlt, K.; Balthasar, H.; Bauer, S.-M.; Bello González, N.; Berkefeld, Th.; Caligari, P.; Collados, M.; Fischer, A.; Granzer, T.; Hahn, T.; Halbgewachs, C.; Heidecke, F.; Hofmann, A.; Kentischer, T.; Klva{?a, M.; Kneer, F.; Lagg, A.; Nicklas, H.; Popow, E.; Puschmann, K. G.; Rendtel, J.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, W.; Sobotka, M.; Solanki, S. K.; Soltau, D.; Staude, J.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Volkmer, R.; Waldmann, T.; Wiehr, E.; Wittmann, A. D.; Woche, M.

    2012-11-01

    In this review, we look back upon the literature, which had the GREGOR solar telescope project as its subject including science cases, telescope subsystems, and post-focus instruments. The articles date back to the year 2000, when the initial concepts for a new solar telescope on Tenerife were first presented at scientific meetings. This comprehensive bibliography contains literature until the year 2012, i.e., the final stages of commissioning and science verification. Taking stock of the various publications in peer-reviewed journals and conference proceedings also provides the ``historical'' context for the reference articles in this special issue of Astronomische Nachrichten/Astronomical Notes.

  15. Telescoping Shield for Point-Focusing Solar Concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argoud, M.; Walker, W.; Butler, L. V.

    1985-01-01

    Telescoping shield normally stowed around solar receiver protects heat engine and supporting structure from overheating when concentrator aimed few degrees away from line to Sun. When extended, shield intercepts off center concentrated solar radiation. Heat spread out over thermally conductive shield and reradiated diffusely not to cause structural damage.

  16. Photographic films for the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Deforest, Craig E.; Allen, Maxwell J.; Lindblom, Joakim F.; Gilliam, Lou; November, Larry; Brown, Todd; Dewan, Clyde A.

    1992-01-01

    The rocketborne Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA) uses an array of Ritchey-Chretien, Cassegrain, and Herschelian telescopes to produce ultrahigh-resolution full-disk images of the sun within the soft X-ray, EUV, and FUV ranges. Such imaging of the solar disk and corona out to several solar radii placed great demands on the MSSTA's data storage capabilities; in addition, its photographic films required very low outgassing rates. Results are presented from calibration tests conducted on the MSSTA's emulsions, based on measurements at NIST's synchrotron facility.

  17. Image Restoration of Y-type Fizeau Optical Synthetic Aperture Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhendong

    2015-08-01

    Based on the structure of the 4 aperture Y-type fizeau synthetic aperture, we simulate imaging system using the software Matlab, then use the image restoration algorithm of expectation maximum(OS-EM) to restore images with the poisson noise?gaussian noise and speckle noise. Through the image restoration, it can improve the image quality and can distinguish the detail of the image.

  18. Solar activities observed with the New Vacuum Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shuhong

    2015-08-01

    The New Vacuum Solar Telescope is the most important facility of the Fuxian Solar Observatory in China. Based on the high spatial and temporal resolution NVST observations, we investigate the solar activities in the chromosphere and obtain some new results. (1) Observations of a flux rope tracked by filament activation (Yang et al. 2014a). The filament material is initially located at one end of the flux rope and fills in a section of the rope. Then the filament is activated and the material flows along helical threads, tracking the twisted flux rope structure. The flux rope can be detected in both low temperature and high temperature lines, and there exists a striking anti-correlation between the H? and EUV lines, which could imply some mild heating of cool filament material to coronal temperatures during the filament activation. (2) Fine structures and overlying loops of homologous confined solar flares (Yang et al. 2014b). At the pre-flare stage, there exists a reconnection between small loops. During the flare processes, the overlying loops, some of which are tracked by activated dark materials, do not break out. These direct observations may illustrate the physical mechanism of confined flares, i.e., magnetic reconnection between the emerging loops and the pre-existing loops triggers flares and the overlying loops prevent the flares from being eruptive. (3) Magnetic reconnection between small-scale loops (Yang et al. 2015). We report the solid observational evidence of magnetic reconnection between two sets of small-scale loops. The observed signatures are consistent with the predictions by reconnection models. The thickness and length of the current sheet are determined to be about 420 km and 1.4 Mm, respectively. The reconnection process contains a slow step and a rapid step. We suggest that the successive slow reconnection changes the conditions around the reconnection site and disrupts the instability, thus leading to the rapid approach of the anti-parallel loops and resulting in the rapid reconnection.References:Yang, S. H., et al. 2014a, ApJL, 784, L36Yang, S. H., et al. 2014b, ApJL, 793, L28Yang, S. H., et al. 2015, ApJL, 798, L11

  19. Analysis of fratricide effect observed with GeMS and its relevance for large aperture astronomical telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otarola, Angel; Neichel, Benoit; Wang, Lianqi; Boyer, Corinne; Ellerbroek, Brent; Rigaut, François

    2013-12-01

    Large aperture ground-based telescopes require Adaptive Optics (AO) to correct for the distortions induced by atmospheric turbulence and achieve diffraction limited imaging quality. These AO systems rely on Natural and Laser Guide Stars (NGS and LGS) to provide the information required to measure the wavefront from the astronomical sources under observation. In particular one such LGS method consists in creating an artificial star by means of fluorescence of the sodium atoms at the altitude of the Earth's mesosphere. This is achieved by propagating one or more lasers, at the wavelength of the Na D2a resonance, from the telescope up to the mesosphere. Lasers can be launched from either behind the secondary mirror or from the perimeter of the main aperture. The so-called central- and side-launch systems, respectively. The central-launch system, while helpful to reduce the LGS spot elongation, introduces the so-called "fratricide" effect. This consists of an increase in the photon-noise in the AO Wave Front Sensors (WFS) sub-apertures, with photons that are the result of laser photons back-scattering from atmospheric molecules (Rayleigh scattering) and atmospheric aerosols (dust and/or cirrus clouds ice particles). This affects the performance of the algorithms intended to compute the LGS centroids and subsequently compute and correct the turbulence-induced wavefront distortions. In the frame of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) project and using actual LGS WFS data obtained with the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System (Gemini MCAO a.k.a. GeMS), we show results from an analysis of the temporal variability of the observed fratricide effect, as well as comparison of the absolute magnitude of fratricide photon-flux level with simulations using models that account for molecular (Rayleigh) scattering and photons backscattered from cirrus clouds.

  20. Nasmyth focus instrumentation of the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory

    E-print Network

    Nasmyth focus instrumentation of the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory Wenda Caoab, 323 Martin Luther King Blvd., Newark, NJ 07102; bBig Bear Solar Observatory, 40386 North Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92316 cNational Solar Observatory/Sacramento Peak, P. O. Box 62, Sunspot, NM 88349

  1. Solar Tests of Aperture Plate Materials for Solar Thermal Dish Collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    If a malfunction occurs in a solar thermal point-focus distributed receiver power plant while a concentrator is pointed at the Sun, motion of the concentrator may stop. As the Sun moves relative to the Earth, the spot of concentrated sunlight then slowly walks off the receiver aperture, across the receiver face plate, and perhaps across adjacent portions of the concentrator. Intense local heating by the concentrated sunlight may damage or destroy these parts. The behavior of various materials under conditions simulating walk-off of a parabolic dish solar collector were evaluated. Each test consisted of exposure to concentrated sunlight at a peak flux density of about 7000 kW/square meter for 15 minutes. Types of materials tested included graphite, silicon carbide, silica, various silicates, alumina, zirconia, aluminum, copper, steel, and polytetrafluoroethylene. The only material that neither cracked nor melted was grade G-90 graphite. Grade CS graphite, a lower cost commercial grade, cracked half-way across, but did not fall apart. Both of these grades are medium-grain extruded graphites. A graphite cloth (graphitized polyacrylonitrile) showed fair performance when tested as a single thin ply; it might be useful as a multi-ply assembly. High purity slipcast silica showed some promise also.

  2. Solar tests of aperture plate materials for solar thermal dish collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    If a malfunction occurs in a solar thermal point-focus distributed receiver power plant while a concentrator is pointed at the sun, motion of the concentrator may stop. As the sun moves relative to the earth, the spot of concentrated sunlight then slowly walks off the receiver aperture, across the receiver face plate, and perhaps across adjacent portions of the concentrator. Intense local heating by the concentrated sunlight may damage or destroy these parts. The behavior of various materials under conditions simulating walk-off of a parabolic dish solar collector were evaluated. Each test consisted of exposure to concentrated sunlight at a peak flux density of about 7000 kW/square meter for 15 minutes. Types of materials tested included graphite, silicon carbide, silica, various silicates, alumina, zirconia, aluminum, copper, steel, and polytetrafluroethylene. The only material that neither cracked nor melted was grade G-90 graphite. Grade CS graphite, a lower cost commercial grade, cracked half-way across, but did not fail apart. Both of these grades are medium-grain extruded graphites. A graphite cloth (graphitized polyacrylonitrile) showed fair performance when tested as a single thin ply; it might be useful as a multi-ply assembly. High purity slipcast silica showed some promise also.

  3. Solar tests of aperture plate materials for solar thermal dish collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    If a malfunction occurs in a solar thermal point-focus distributed receiver power plant while a concentrator is pointed at the sun, motion of the concentrator may stop. As the sun moves relative to the earth, the spot of concentrated sunlight then slowly walks off the receiver aperture, across the receiver face plate, and perhaps across adjacent portions of the concentrator. Intense local heating by the concentrated sunlight may damage or destroy these parts. The behavior of various materials under conditions simulating walk-off of a parabolic dish solar collector were evaluated. Each test consisted of exposure to concentrated sunlight at a peak flux density of about 7000 kW/square meter for 15 minutes. Types of materials tested included graphite, silicon carbide, silica, various silicates, alumina, zirconia, aluminum, copper, steel, and polytetrafluoroethylene. The only material that neither cracked nor melted was grade G-90 graphite. Grade CS graphite, a lower cost commercial grade, cracked half-way across, but did not fall apart. Both of these grades are medium-grain extruded graphites. A graphite cloth (graphitized polyacrylonitrile) showed fair performance when tested as a single thin ply; it might be useful as a multi-ply assembly. High purity slipcast silica showed some promise also.

  4. Prospects for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope Sensitivity to 14.4 keV Axions

    E-print Network

    Kresimir Jakovcic; for the CAST Collaboration

    2006-11-15

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is searching for solar axions using the 9.0 T strong and 9.26 m long transverse magnetic field of a twin aperture LHC test magnet, where axions could be converted into X-rays via reverse Primakoff process. Here we explore the potential of CAST to search for 14.4 keV axions that could be emitted from the Sun in M1 nuclear transition between the first, thermally excited state, and the ground state of 57Fe nuclide. Calculations of the expected signals, with respect to the axion-photon coupling, axion-nucleon coupling and axion mass, are presented in comparison with the experimental sensitivity.

  5. Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) Critical Science Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rast, Mark

    2015-08-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST), formerly the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST), is under construction on Haleakala, Maui HI, with expected instrument integration in 2018 and start of operations during the summer of 2019. In preparation, the National Solar Observatory (NSO) is working with the Science Working Group to formulate a critical science plan for early operations and is calling for community involvement in all stages of its development. The first step in this process is the definition of a set of critical science themes and, under each of these, use-cases that outline the scientific motivation along with the instrument suite and high level observing strategies to be employed. The use-cases will later be refined into observing proposals, which will guide the development of efficient operations tools and procedures and provide the framework for some of the first science observations to be made with the telescope. A web interface has been established to facilitate community engagement.

  6. The science case and data processing strategy for the Thinned Aperture Light Collector (TALC): a project for a 20m far-infrared space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauvage, Marc; Chanial, Pierre; Durand, Gilles A.; Rodriguez, Louis R.; Starck, Jean-Luc; Ronayette, Samuel; Aussel, Hervé; Minier, Vincent; Motte, Frédérique; Pantin, Eric J.; Sureau, Florent; Terrisse, Robin

    2014-08-01

    The future of far-infrared observations rests on our capacity to reach sub-arcsecond angular resolution around 100 ?m, in order to achieve a significant advance with respect to our current capabilities. Furthermore, by reaching this angular resolution we can bridge the gap between capacities offered by the JWST in the near infrared and those allowed by ALMA in the submillimeter, and thus benefit from similar resolving capacities over the whole wavelength range where interstellar dust radiates and where key atomic and molecular transitions are found. In an accompanying paper,1 we present a concept of a deployable annular telescope, named TALC for Thinned Aperture Light Collector, reaching 20m in diameter. Being annular, this telescope features a main beam width equivalent to that of a 27m telescope, i.e. an angular resolution of 0.92" at 100 ?m. In this paper we focus on the science case of such a telescope as well on the aspects of unconventional data processing that come with this unconventional optical configuration. The principal science cases of TALC revolve around its imaging capacities, that allow resolving the Kuiper belt in extra-solar planetary systems, or the filamentary scale in star forming clouds all the way to the Galactic Center, or the Narrow Line Region in Active Galactic Nuclei of the Local Group, or breaking the confusion limit to resolve the Cosmic Infrared Background. Equipping this telescope with detectors capable of imaging polarimetry offers as well the extremely interesting perspective to study the influence of the magnetic field in structuring the interstellar medium. We will then present simulations of the optical performance of such a telescope. The main feature of an annular telescope is the small amount of energy contained in the main beam, around 30% for the studied configuration, and the presence of bright diffraction rings. Using simulated point spread functions for realistic broad-band filters, we study the observing performance of TALC in typical situations, i.e a field of point sources, and fields with emission power at every physical scales, taken to represent an extragalactic deep field observation and an interstellar medium observation. We investigate different inversion techniques to try and recover the information present in the input field. We show that techniques combining a forward modeling of the observation process and a reconstruction algorithm exploiting the concept of sparsity (i.e. related to the more general field of compressed sensing) represent a promising avenue to reach the angular resolution promised by the main beam of TALC.

  7. STATISTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF SIZE AND LIFETIME OF BRIGHT POINTS OBSERVED WITH THE NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Abramenko, Valentyna; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Goode, Philip; Kilcik, Ali

    2010-12-10

    We present results of 2 hr non-interrupted observations of solar granulation obtained under excellent seeing conditions with the largest aperture ground-based solar telescope-the New Solar Telescope (NST)-of Big Bear Solar Observatory. Observations were performed with adaptive optics correction using a broadband TiO filter in the 705.7 nm spectral line with a time cadence of 10 s and a pixel size of 0.''0375. Photospheric bright points (BPs) were detected and tracked. We find that the BPs detected in NST images are cospatial with those visible in Hinode/SOT G-band images. In cases where Hinode/SOT detects one large BP, NST detects several separated BPs. Extended filigree features are clearly fragmented into separate BPs in NST images. The distribution function of BP sizes extends to the diffraction limit of NST (77 km) without saturation and corresponds to a log-normal distribution. The lifetime distribution function follows a log-normal approximation for all BPs with lifetime exceeding 100 s. A majority of BPs are transient events reflecting the strong dynamics of the quiet Sun: 98.6% of BPs live less than 120 s. The longest registered lifetime was 44 minutes. The size and maximum intensity of BPs were found to be proportional to their lifetimes.

  8. Prototype Spectro-Polarimeter for the India's National Large Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elayavalli Rangarajan, Komandur; Sankarasubramanian, Kasiviswanathan; Srivastava, Nandita; Venkatakrishnan, Parameswaran; Mathew, Shibu; Bayanna, Raja; Hasan, Sirajul; Prabhu, Kesavan

    2013-04-01

    India's National Large Solar Telescope (NLST) of two meter aperture size is proposed to be set up in Ladakh region of Himalayas at a height of around 4300 meters. A high resolution spectrograph along with a polarimeter is planned as one of the backend instruments for NLST. Prototype development of the NLST Spectro-Polarimeter (SP) is proposed to be designed and developed for usage at the back focal plane of the Multi-Application Solar Telescope (MAST) recently installed at the Udaipur Solar Observatory. Design of the prototype SP is discussed in detail along with the scientific goals. The SP is designed to be operated in three wavelengths to observe photospheric and chromospheric layers of the solar atmosphere simultaneously. Vector magnetic fields will be calculated in these layers. High resolution of the designed SP will provide accurate estimates of velocities. Highly resolved polarized line profiles will allow us to obtain the height variation of vector magnetic fields when used along with suitable inversion codes (like SPINOR or SIR).

  9. Solar System Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammel, Heidi B.; Norwood, J.; Chanover, N.; Hines, D. C.; Stansberry, J.; Lunine, J. I.; Tiscareno, M. S.; Milam, S. N.; Sonneborn, G.; Brown, M.

    2013-10-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will succeed the Hubble Space Telescope as NASA’s premier space-based platform for observational astronomy. This 6.5-meter telescope, which is optimized for observations in the near and mid infrared, will be equipped with four state-of-the-art imaging, spectroscopic, and coronagraphic instruments. These instruments, along with the telescope’s moving target capabilities, will enable the infrared study of solar system objects with unprecedented detail (see companion presentation by Sonneborn et al.). This poster features highlights for planetary science applications, extracted from a white paper in preparation. We present a number of hypothetical solar system observations as a means of demonstrating potential planetary science observing scenarios; the list of applications discussed here is far from comprehensive. The goal of this poster and the subsequent white paper is to stimulate discussion and encourage participation in JWST planning among members of the planetary science community, and to encourage feedback to the JWST Project on any desired observing capabilities, data products, and analysis procedures that would enhance the use of JWST for solar system studies. The upcoming white paper updates and supersedes the solar system white paper published by the JWST Project in 2010 (Lunine et al., 2010), and is based in part on JWST events held at the 2012 DPS, the 2013 LPSC meeting, and this DPS (JWST Town Hall, Thursday, 10 October 2013, 12-1 pm).

  10. Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope systems engineering update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Simon; Hansen, Eric; Hubbard, Robert P.; Kneale, Ruth

    2014-08-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST), formerly the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST), has been in its construction phase since 2010, anticipating the onset of integration, test, and commissioning (IT and C) phase late in 2016, and the commencement of science verification in early 2019. In this paper we describe the role of Systems Engineering during these final phases of the project, and present some of the tools, techniques, and methods in use for these purposes. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of lessons learned so far including things we might do differently next time.

  11. The 1.5 meter solar telescope GREGOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, W.; von der Lühe, O.; Volkmer, R.; Denker, C.; Solanki, S. K.; Balthasar, H.; Bello Gonzalez, N.; Berkefeld, Th.; Collados, M.; Fischer, A.; Halbgewachs, C.; Heidecke, F.; Hofmann, A.; Kneer, F.; Lagg, A.; Nicklas, H.; Popow, E.; Puschmann, K. G.; Schmidt, D.; Sigwarth, M.; Sobotka, M.; Soltau, D.; Staude, J.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Waldmann , T. A.

    2012-11-01

    The 1.5 m telescope GREGOR opens a new window to the understanding of solar small-scale magnetism. The first light instrumentation includes the Gregor Fabry Pérot Interferometer (GFPI), a filter spectro-polarimeter for the visible wavelength range, the GRating Infrared Spectro-polarimeter (GRIS) and the Broad-Band Imager (BBI). The excellent performance of the first two instruments has already been demonstrated at the Vacuum Tower Telescope. GREGOR is Europe's largest solar telescope and number 3 in the world. Its all-reflective Gregory design provides a large wavelength coverage from the near UV up to at least 5 microns. The field of view has a diameter of 150 arcsec. GREGOR is equipped with a high-order adaptive optics system, with a subaperture size of 10 cm, and a deformable mirror with 256 actuators. The science goals are focused on, but not limited to, solar magnetism. GREGOR allows us to measure the emergence and disappearance of magnetic flux at the solar surface at spatial scales well below 100 km. Thanks to its spectro-polarimetric capabilities, GREGOR will measure the interaction between the plasma flows, different kinds of waves, and the magnetic field. This will foster our understanding of the processes that heat the chromosphere and the outer layers of the solar atmosphere. Observations of the surface magnetic field at very small spatial scales will shed light on the variability of the solar brightness.

  12. Protective telescoping shield for solar concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argoud, M. J.; Walker, W. L.; Butler, L. V. (inventors)

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus is described for use with a solar concentrator such as a parabolic dish which concentrates sunlight onto a small opening of a solar receiver, for protecting the receiver in the event of a system failure that could cause concentrated sunlight to damage the receiver. The protective apparatus includes a structure which can be moved to a stowed position where it does not block sunlight, to a deployed position. In this position, the structure forms a tube which substantially completely surrounds an axis connecting the receiver opening to the center of the concentrator at locations between the receiver and the concentrator.

  13. Site testing for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, F.; Beckers, J.; Brandt, P.; Briggs, J.; Brown, T.; Brown, W.; Collados, M.; Denker, C.; Fletcher, S.; Hegwer, S.; Horst, T.; Komsa, M.; Kuhn, J.; Lecinski, A.; Lin, H.; Oncley, S.; Penn, M.; Radick, R.; Rimmele, T.; Socas-Navarro, H.; Streander, K.

    2006-06-01

    The Advanced Solar Technology Telescope (ATST) is a 4-m solar telescope being designed for high spatial, spectral and temporal resolution, as well as IR and low-scattered light observations. The overall limit of performance of the telescope is strongly influenced by the qualities of the site at which it is located. Six sites were tested with a seeing monitor and a sky brightness instrument for 1.5 to 2 years. The sites were Big Bear (California), Haleakala (Hawaii), La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain), Panguitch Lake (Utah), Sacramento Peak (New Mexico), and San Pedro Martir (Baja California, Mexico). In this paper we will describe the methods and results of the site survey, which chose Haleakala as the location of the ATST.

  14. IMAGING FAINT BROWN DWARF COMPANIONS CLOSE TO BRIGHT STARS WITH A SMALL, WELL-CORRECTED TELESCOPE APERTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Serabyn, E.; Mawet, D.; Bloemhof, E.; Haguenauer, P.; Mennesson, B.; Wallace, K.; Hickey, J.

    2009-05-01

    We have used our 1.6 m diameter off-axis well-corrected subaperture (WCS) on the Palomar Hale telescope in concert with a small inner-working-angle phase-mask coronagraph to image the immediate environs of a small number of nearby stars. Test cases included three stars (HD 130948, HD 49197, and HR7672) with known brown dwarf companions at small separations, all of which were detected. We also present the initial detection of a new object close to the nearby young G0V star HD171488. Follow-up observations are needed to determine if this object is a bona fide companion, but its flux is consistent with the flux of a young brown dwarf or low-mass M star at the same distance as the primary. Interestingly, at small angles our WCS coronagraph demonstrates a limiting detectable contrast comparable to that of extant Lyot coronagraphs on much larger telescopes corrected with current-generation adaptive optics (AO) systems. This suggests that small apertures corrected to extreme AO (ExAO) levels can be used to carry out initial surveys for close brown dwarf and stellar companions, leaving follow-up observations for larger telescopes.

  15. Investigation of small solar system objects with the space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D.

    1979-01-01

    The application of the space telescope (ST) to study small objects in the solar system in order to understand the birth and the early evolution of the solar system is discussed. The upper size limit of the small bodies is defined as approximately 5000 km and includes planetary satellites, planetary rings, asteroids, and comets.The use of the astronomical instruments aboard the ST, such as the faint object camera, ultraviolet and infrared spectrometers, and spectrophotometers, to study the small solar system objects is discussed.

  16. Telescope beam-profile diagnostics and the solar limb

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, C.A.; Roellig, T.L. NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA )

    1991-07-01

    The basic method is described for determining the solar limb brightness profile properly corrected for spurious limb darkening caused by the far wings of the resolving beams encountered in large far-infrared and radio telescopes. When the far wings of the beam can be independently measured this problem is usually amenable to standard deconvolution procedures. Under a broad range of well-defined cases, solutions to the deconvolution problem are unique to within the discrimination provided by the core of the beam profile. The theory is applied to solar limb scans made recently on the James Clerk Maxwell Telscope to show solar limb brightening in 850 micron radiation. 16 refs.

  17. Telescope beam-profile diagnostics and the solar limb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, Charles A.; Roellig, Thomas L.

    1991-01-01

    The basic method is described for determining the solar limb brightness profile properly corrected for spurious limb darkening caused by the far wings of the resolving beams encountered in large far-infrared and radio telescopes. When the far wings of the beam can be independently measured this problem is usually amenable to standard deconvolution procedures. Under a broad range of well-defined cases, solutions to the deconvolution problem are unique to within the discrimination provided by the core of the beam profile. The theory is applied to solar limb scans made recently on the James Clerk Maxwell Telscope to show solar limb brightening in 850 micron radiation.

  18. Integrating seeing measurements into the operations of solar telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, C.; Verdoni, A. P.

    2006-06-01

    The New Solar Telescope (NST) is an innovative 1.6-meter, off-axis, open telescope currently being developed and built at the Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). The observatory is situated on a small peninsula in Big Bear Lake, a mountain lake at an altitude of about 2100 m in the San Bernardino Mountains of Southern California. The lake effectively suppresses the boundary layer seeing. Thus, providing consistently very good daytime seeing conditions. BBSO has been identified by the site survey for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) as one of the best sites for solar observations. It is uniquely qualified for long-duration observations requiring high-spatial resolution. This type of observations is typically encountered in solar activity monitoring and space weather forecast. The ATST site survey has collected more than two years of data linking seeing conditions to geographical parameters and local climate. We have integrated these data in a MySQL database and we will use this information in connection with a real-time seeing monitor and weather station to predict the seeing conditions at Big Bear such that scheduling and prioritization of observing programs (e.g., synoptic vs. high-resolution modes) becomes possible.

  19. The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST): Science Drivers, Technology Developments, and Synergies with Other Future Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Postman, Marc; Brown, Tom; Sembach, Kenneth; Giavalisco, Mauro; Traub, Wesley; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Calzetti, Daniela; Oegerle, William; Rich, R. Michael; Stahl, H. Phillip; Tumlinson, Jason; Mountain, Matt; Soummer, Remi; Hyde, Tupper

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) is a concept for an 8-meter to 16-meter UVOIR space observatory for launch in the 2025-2030 era. ATLAST will allow astronomers to answer fundamental questions at the forefront of modern astrophysics, including "Is there life elsewhere in the Galaxy?" We present a range of science drivers that define the main performance requirements for ATLAST (8 to 16 milliarcsec angular resolution, diffraction limited imaging at 0.5 m wavelength, minimum collecting area of 45 square meters, high sensitivity to light wavelengths from 0.1 m to 2.4 m, high stability in wavefront sensing and control). We will also discuss the synergy between ATLAST and other anticipated future facilities (e.g., TMT, EELT, ALMA) and the priorities for technology development that will enable the construction for a cost that is comparable to current generation observatory-class space missions.

  20. The enclosure for the European Solar Telescope (EST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettonvil, F. C. M.; Codina, R.; Hammerschlag, R. H.; Jägers, A. P. L.; Kommers, J. N. M.; van Leverink, S. J.; Sliepen, G.; Visser, S.

    2010-07-01

    The European Solar Telescope (EST) is a 4-m class solar telescope, which is currently in the conceptual design phase. EST will be located in the Canary Islands and aims at observations with high spectral, spatial and temporal resolution of the solar photosphere and chromosphere. The main purpose of the enclosure is to protect the telescope and instruments from severe weather conditions. An enclosure is also often needed for reducing wind buffeting on the telescope and primary mirror cell, but on the other hand enclosures are generally considered to degrade local seeing. In this contribution we will present the conceptual design of the enclosure for EST. Two different concepts have been studied in more detail: the first being a dome concept with vent gates to enhance local flushing, the other being a retractable enclosure, with an optional windshield. Technically both alternatives seem feasible, but we conclude that the retractable enclosure is the less risky solution, since it allows easier local seeing control and allows the use of a reflecting heat stop in the primary focus. A windshield is effective in reducing wind load on the primary mirror; although preliminary analysis indicate that there are feasible solutions to keep the deformation caused by wind buffeting within the requirements.

  1. Design of multichannel image processing on the Space Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin

    2000-07-01

    The multi-channel image processing system on the Space Solar Telescope (SST) is described in this paper. This system is main part of science data unit (SDU), which is designed for dealing with the science data from every payload on the SST. First every payload on the SST and its scientific objective are introduced. They are main optic telescope, four soft X- ray telescopes, an H-alpha and white light (full disc) telescope, a coronagraph, a wide band X-ray and Gamma-ray spectrometer, and a solar and interplanetary radio spectrometer. Then the structure of SDU is presented. In this part, we discuss the hardware and software structure of SDU, which is designed for multi-payload. The science data scream of every payload is summarized, too. Solar magnetic and velocity field processing that occupies more than 90% of the data processing of SDU is discussed, which includes polarizing unit, image receiver and image adding unit. Last the plan of image data compression and mass memory that is designed for science data storage are presented.

  2. The New 30 THz Solar Telescope in São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudaka, A. S.; Cassiano, M. M.; Marcon, R.; Cabezas, D. P.; Fernandes, L. O. T.; Hidalgo Ramirez, R. F.; Kaufmann, P.; de Souza, R. V.

    2015-08-01

    It has been found that solar bursts exhibit one unexpected spectral component with fluxes increasing with frequency in the sub-THz range, which is distinct from the well-known microwave emission that peaks at a few to some tens of GHz. This component has been found to extend into the THz range of frequencies by recent 30 THz solar flare observations of impulsive bursts with flux intensities considerably higher than fluxes at sub-THz and microwaves frequencies. High-cadence solar observations at 30 THz (continuum) are therefore an important tool for the study of active regions and flaring events. We report the recent installation of a new 30 THz solar telescope in São Paulo, located at the top of one of the University's buildings. The instrument uses a Hale-type coelostat with two 20 cm diameter flat mirrors sending light to a 15 cm mirror Newtonian telescope. Radiation is directed to a microbolometer array camera that is kept at room temperature. Observations are usually obtained with 5 frames s^{-1} cadence. One 60 mm refractor has been added to observe H\\upalpha images simultaneously. We describe our new telescopes and the new observatory examples of the first results obtained.

  3. Simultaneous Observations of Solar Prominence Oscillations Using Two Remote Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapiór, Maciej; Kotr?, Pavel; Rudawy, Pawe?; Oliver, Ramon

    2015-06-01

    We present the first results of the joint Polish-Czech observational campaign devoted to simultaneous observations of prominence oscillations. As was shown earlier by other authors, not all of the observed periodicities in the Doppler signal come from solar sources (seeing and slight changes in the position of the spectrograph slit may have a significant influence). To exclude false signals, we performed simultaneous observations of the same object on the Sun using two independent telescopes. On 23 September 2010, a quiescent prominence on the north-eastern part of the solar limb was observed with two distant solar telescopes: the Large Coronagraph installed at the Bia?ków Observatory, Poland, and the Horizontal Telescope at the Ond?ejov Observatory, Czech Republic. Of the many detected periods, the periods of 26, 31, and 55 min unquestionably originate in the prominence, but other periodicities are spurious. Proper detection of periodicities in prominences is crucial for modelling wave propagation and movements in the solar plasma, as well as for seismologically inverting prominence structures and physical parameters.

  4. Capabilities of the Thirty-Meter Telescope (TMT) for Solar System Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otarola, Angel; Dumas, Christophe; Meech, Karen; Sekiguchi, Tomohiko; Skidmore, Warren; Tian, Feng; Travouillon, Tony; Wong, Michael H.; Ellerbroek, Brent; Simard, Luc

    2015-11-01

    The TMT will consist of a 30-m filled-aperture segmented primary mirror and will include non-sidereal rate tracking capabilities for observing Solar System objects. Its sensitivity will be 14 times larger than that of 8-m class telescopes for seeing-limited observations -up to 200 times larger for background limited adaptive optics (AO) observations- and will allow high angular/spatial resolution with diffraction-limited capability in the near infrared. AO guiding will accommodate faint, small angular size solar system objects to serve as natural guide stars for non-sidereal observations. For Kuiper belt objects (KBOs), on-instrument wavefront sensors can crawl the field-of-view to look for background natural stars that can be used for tip/tilt correction. We will describe the main characteristics of the Thirty Meter Telescope, its first light instrumentation suite, and the most relevant science-driven requirements for its design, emphasizing the strengths of the TMT for Solar System astronomical research. Some real-case scenarios of sensitivities for solar system targets will be presented for the first-light instruments.Complementary information about TMT, and the opportunities it offers for planetary science research, will be presented at this meeting by Dumas et al., and at the TMT Solar System Town Hall event on Tuesday.The international TMT partnership includes Canada, China, India, Japan, Caltech, the University of California, and Funding is also provided by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. AURA is an Associate Member of TMT on behalf of the US national community. Through a cooperative agreement with the NSF, TMT and a US TMT Science Working Group are developing a model for potential US national partnership in the TMT.

  5. Measurement of polarization assemblies for the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, William H.; Petrak, Erika; Baur, Thomas G.

    2015-03-01

    We present here methodology and instrumentation for the precise measurement of retardance and optic axis orientation of retarder assemblies for the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope. This solar telescope will perform broadband polarimetry of the sun. Each Meadowlark assembly is made up of three compound zero order retarders that must have a retardance variation of less than 6.33 nanometers across the greater than 110 millimeter clear aperture. The retardation of each component was measured using a combination of spectral transmission scans and ellipsometry, with test wavelengths of less than a 0.45 nanometer bandwidths and yielding a standard deviation in measurements of less than 0.001 waves. A technique for the measurement of the near zero window (Infrasil® and CaF2) retardance is shown, in addition to retardance measurements of the component waveplates. An average retardance of 0.63 nm for CaF2 and 0.28 nm for Infrasil® was found. Finally, a technique for determining the optic axis tilt of each crystal waveplate using laser ellipsometry is discussed.

  6. Analysis of Tracking Measuring Method of Focus Cabin of Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope(FAST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Hui; Zhu, Lichun

    2015-08-01

    FAST (Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope) project is one of the Chinese mega-Science Projects to build the largest single dish radio telescope in the world. FAST has three outstanding innovation aspects: in the karst depression which is large to host the 500-meter telescope, an active main reflector correcting for spherical aberration on the ground to achieve a full polarization is being built, the light-weight feed focus cabin in which a parallel robot as a secondary adjustable system to move with high precision is driven by cables and servomechanism plus. The part of main reflector which is illuminated by the feed is continually adjusted to fit the paraboloid of revolution in real time when tracking the radio source. How to get high precise real-time feedback data of moving focus cabin’s position when tracking the source is one of the crucial problems for the astronomical observation.At present 24 steady basis pillars for measurement whose position coordinates are already known, have been built in the construction field of FAST. Total stations will be installed on one of those pillars, and prisms will be installed on focus cabin. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy and reliability of two measuring method: the space distance intersection calculation method and polar measuring method. The space distance intersection calculation method is only using multiple measuring distances between three pillars and prism and known coordinates of pillars to calculate the prism’s coordinates, the polar measurement is using the measuring distance and angles to get the prism’s coordinate.

  7. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope

    E-print Network

    Ku?el, Petr

    Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will be a large-aperture, wide-field, ground-based telescope designed moving objects in the solar system, to mapping the outer regions of our Milky Way galaxy. Of particular energy through a range of statistical analyses of the shapes and distributions of billions of galaxies

  8. The Solar-A soft X-ray telescope experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, L.; Bruner, M.; Brown, W.; Lemen, J.; Hirayama, T.

    1988-01-01

    The Japanese Solar-A mission for the study of high energy solar physics is timed to observe the sun during the next activity maximum. This small spacecraft includes a carefully coordinated complement of instruments for flare studies. In particular, the soft X-ray telescope (SXT) will provide X-ray images of flares with higher sensitivity and time resolution than have been available before. This paper describes the scientific capabilities of the SXT and illustrates its application to the study of an impulsive compact flare.

  9. The Lyman-alpha Imager onboard Solar Polar Orbit Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baoquan; Li, Haitao; Zhou, Sizhong; Jiang, Bo

    2013-12-01

    Solar Polar ORbit Telescope (SPORT) was originally proposed in 2004 by the National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, which is currently being under background engineering study phase in China. SPORT will carry a suite of remote-sensing and in-situ instruments to observe coronal mass ejections (CMEs), solar high-latitude magnetism, and the fast solar wind from a polar orbit around the Sun. The Lyman-alpha Imager (LMI) is one of the key remotesensing instruments onboard SPORT with 45arcmin FOV, 2000mm effective focal length and 1.4arcsec/pixel spatial resolution . The size of LMI is ?150×1000mm, and the weight is less than10kg, including the 7kg telescope tube and 3kg electronic box. There are three 121.6nm filters used in the LMI optical path, so the 98% spectral purity image of 121.6nm can be achieved. The 121.6nm solar Lyman-alpha line is produced in the chromosphere and very sensitive to plasma temperature, plasma velocity and magnetism variation in the chromosphere. Solar Lyman-alpha disk image is an ideal tracker for corona magnetism variation.

  10. The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: design and early construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMullin, Joseph P.; Rimmele, Thomas R.; Keil, Stephen L.; Warner, Mark; Barden, Samuel; Bulau, Scott; Craig, Simon; Goodrich, Bret; Hansen, Eric; Hegwer, Steve; Hubbard, Robert; McBride, William; Shimko, Steve; Wöger, Friedrich; Ditsler, Jennifer

    2012-09-01

    The National Solar Observatory’s (NSO) Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) is the first large U.S. solar telescope accessible to the worldwide solar physics community to be constructed in more than 30 years. The 4-meter diameter facility will operate over a broad wavelength range (0.35 to 28 ?m ), employing adaptive optics systems to achieve diffraction limited imaging and resolve features approximately 20 km on the Sun; the key observational parameters (collecting area, spatial resolution, spectral coverage, polarization accuracy, low scattered light) enable resolution of the theoretically-predicted, fine-scale magnetic features and their dynamics which modulate the radiative output of the sun and drive the release of magnetic energy from the Sun’s atmosphere in the form of flares and coronal mass ejections. In 2010, the ATST received a significant fraction of its funding for construction. In the subsequent two years, the project has hired staff and opened an office on Maui. A number of large industrial contracts have been placed throughout the world to complete the detailed designs and begin constructing the major telescope subsystems. These contracts have included the site development, AandE designs, mirrors, polishing, optic support assemblies, telescope mount and coudé rotator structures, enclosure, thermal and mechanical systems, and high-level software and controls. In addition, design development work on the instrument suite has undergone significant progress; this has included the completion of preliminary design reviews (PDR) for all five facility instruments. Permitting required for physically starting construction on the mountaintop of Haleakal?, Maui has also progressed. This paper will review the ATST goals and specifications, describe each of the major subsystems under construction, and review the contracts and lessons learned during the contracting and early construction phases. Schedules for site construction, key factory testing of major subsystems, and integration, test and commissioning activities will also be discussed.

  11. The design, construction and testing of the optics for a 147-cm-aperture telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchroeder, R. A.; Elmore, L. H.; Shack, R. V.; Slater, P. N.

    1972-01-01

    Geodetic optics research for the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories (AFCRL) is described. The work consisted mainly of the fabrication of the optical components for a telescope with a 152-cm-diam (60-in.) primary mirror masked down to 147-cm-diam for use by the AFCRL for a lunar ranging experiment. Among the achievements of this contract were the following: completion of the primary and secondary mirrors for a high-quality 147-cm-diam telescope system in eight months from the start of edging the primary; manufacture and testing of a unique center mount for the primary according to an AFCRL design that allowed for a thin-edged and therefore less-massive mirror; and development of a quantitative analysis of the wire test for calculating the departure of the mirror figure from the design figure quickly and accurately after each polishing step. This analysis method in conjunction with a knowledge of polishing rates for given weights and diameters of tools, mirror, and polishing materials should considerably reduce the polishing time required for future large mirrors.

  12. Engineering Specification for Large-aperture UVO Space Telescopes Derived from Science Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Postman, Mark; Smith, W. Scott

    2013-01-01

    The Advance Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) project is a three year effort initiated in FY12 to mature by at least a half TRL step six critical technologies required to enable 4 to 8 meter UVOIR space telescope primary mirror assemblies for both general astrophysics and ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets. AMTD uses a science-driven systems engineering approach. We mature technologies required to enable the highest priority science AND result in a high-performance low-cost low-risk system. To provide the science community with options, we are pursuing multiple technology paths. We have assembled an outstanding team from academia, industry, and government with extensive expertise in astrophysics and exoplanet characterization, and in the design/manufacture of monolithic and segmented space telescopes. A key accomplishment is deriving engineering specifications for advanced normal-incidence monolithic and segmented mirror systems needed to enable both general astrophysics and ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets missions as a function of potential launch vehicles and their mass and volume constraints.

  13. Engineering specifications for large aperture UVO space telescopes derived from science requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Postman, Marc; Smith, W. Scott

    2013-09-01

    The Advance Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) project is a three year effort initiated in FY12 to mature by at least a half TRL step six critical technologies required to enable 4 to 8 meter UVOIR space telescope primary mirror assemblies for both general astrophysics and ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets. AMTD uses a sciencedriven systems engineering approach. We mature technologies required to enable the highest priority science AND result in a high-performance low-cost low-risk system. To provide the science community with options, we are pursuing multiple technology paths. We have assembled an outstanding team from academia, industry, and government with extensive expertise in astrophysics and exoplanet characterization, and in the design/manufacture of monolithic and segmented space telescopes. A key accomplishment is deriving engineering specifications for advanced normalincidence monolithic and segmented mirror systems needed to enable both general astrophysics and ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets missions as a function of potential launch vehicles and their mass and volume constraints.

  14. The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) Technology Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahle, Carl; Balasubramanian, K.; Bolcar, M.; Clampin, M.; Feinberg, L.; Hartman, K.; Mosier, C.; Quijada, M.; Rauscher, B.; Redding, D.; Shaklan, S.; Stahl, P.; Thronson, H.

    2014-01-01

    We present the key technologies and capabilities that will enable a future, large-aperture ultravioletopticalinfrared (UVOIR) space observatory. These include starlight suppression systems, vibration isolation and control systems, lightweight mirror segments, detector systems, and mirror coatings. These capabilities will provide major advances over current and near-future observatories for sensitivity, angular resolution, and starlight suppression. The goals adopted in our study for the starlight suppression system are 10-10 contrast with an inner working angle of 40 milliarcsec and broad bandpass. We estimate that a vibration and isolation control system that achieves a total system vibration isolation of 140 dB for a vibration-isolated mass of 5000 kg is required to achieve the high wavefront error stability needed for exoplanet coronagraphy. Technology challenges for lightweight mirror segments include diffraction-limited optical quality and high wavefront error stability as well as low cost, low mass, and rapid fabrication. Key challenges for the detector systems include visible-blind, high quantum efficiency UV arrays, photon counting visible and NIR arrays for coronagraphic spectroscopy and starlight wavefront sensing and control, and detectors with deep full wells with low persistence and radiation tolerance to enable transit imaging and spectroscopy at all wavelengths. Finally, mirror coatings with high reflectivity ( 90), high uniformity ( 1) and low polarization ( 1) that are scalable to large diameter mirror substrates will be essential for ensuring that both high throughput UV observations and high contrast observations can be performed by the same observatory.

  15. NIRIS: The Second Generation Near-Infrared Imaging Spectro-polarimeter for the 1.6 Meter New Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, W.; Goode, P. R.; Ahn, K.; Gorceix, N.; Schmidt, W.; Lin, H.

    2012-12-01

    The largest aperture solar telescope, the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope (NST) has been installed at the Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). To take full advantage of the NST's greatest potential, we are upgrading the routinely operational InfraRed Imaging Magnetograph (IRIM) to its second generation, the NIRIS (Near-InfraRed Imaging Spectropolarimeter). NIRIS will offer unprecedented high resolution spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging data of the solar atmosphere from the deepest photosphere through the base of the corona. With the aid of the BBSO adaptive optics (AO) system, the spatial resolution will be close to the diffraction limit of the NST. The spectroscopic cadence will reach one second, while polarimetric measurements, including Stokes I, Q, U, V profiles, remain at a better than 10 s cadence. Polarization sensitivity is expected to be reach ˜ 10-4Ic. NIRIS will cover a broad spectral range from 1.0 to 1.7?m, with particular attention to two unique spectral lines: the Fe I 1565 nm doublet has already proven to be the most sensitive to Zeeman effect for probing the magnetic field in the deepest photosphere; the He I 1083 nm multiplet is one of the best currently available diagnostic of upper chromospheric magnetic fields that allows one to map the vector field at the base of the corona. NIRIS will be built on dual Fabry-Pérot Interferometers (FPIs), each of which has an aperture of 100 mm. The larger aperture of FPIs allows the available field-of-view up to one and half minutes with a spectral power of ˜ 105.

  16. On the co-alignment of solar telescopes. A new approach to solar pointing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staiger, J.

    2013-06-01

    Helioseismological measurements require long observing times and thus may be adversely affected by lateral image drifts as caused by pointing instabilities. At the Vacuum Tower Telescope VTT, Tenerife we have recorded drift values of up to 5" per hour under unstable thermal conditions (dome opening, strong day-to-day thermal gradients). Typically drifts of 0.5" - 1.0" per hour may be encountered under more favorable conditions. Past experience has shown that most high-resolution solar telescopes may be affected by this problem to some degree. This inherent shortcoming of solar pointing is caused by the fact that the guiding loop can be closed only within the guiding beam but not within the telescope's main beam. We have developed a new approach to this problem. We correlate continuum brightness patterns observed from within the telescope main beam with patterns originating from a full disk telescope. We show that brightness patterns of sufficient size are unique with respect to solar location at any instant of time and may serve as a location identifier. We make use of the fact that averaged location information of solar structures is invariant with respect to telescope resolution. We have carried out tests at the VTT together with SDO. We have used SDO as a full disk reference. We were able to reduce lateral image drifts by an order of magnitude.

  17. Extra Solar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph and Science Requirements for the James Webb Telescope Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2004-01-01

    1) Extra solar planetary imaging coronagraph. Direct detection and characterization of Jovian planets, and other gas giants, in orbit around nearby stars is a necessary precursor to Terrestrial Planet Finder 0 in order to estimate the probability of Terrestrial planets in our stellar neighborhood. Ground based indirect methods are biased towards large close in Jovian planets in solar systems unlikely io harbor Earthlike planets. Thus to estimate the relative abundances of terrestrial planets and to determine optimal observing strategies for TPF a pathfinder mission would be desired. The Extra-Solar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC) is such a pathfinder mission. Upto 83 stellar systems are accessible with a 1.5 meter unobscured telescope and coronagraph combination located at the Earth-Sun L2 point. Incorporating radiometric and angular resolution considerations show that Jovians could be directly detected (5 sigma) in the 0.5 - 1.0 micron band outside of an inner working distance of 5/D with integration times of -10 - 100 hours per observation. The primary considerations for a planet imager are optical wavefront quality due to manufacturing, alignment, structural and thermal considerations. pointing stability and control, and manufacturability of coronagraphic masks and stops to increase the planetary-to- stellar contrast and mitigate against straylight. Previously proposed coronagraphic concepts are driven to extreme tolerances. however. we have developed and studied a mission, telescope and coronagraphic detection concept, which is achievable in the time frame of a Discovery class NASA mission. 2) Science requirements for the James Webb Space Telescope observatory. The James Webb Space Observatory (JWST) is an infrared observatory, which will be launched in 201 1 to an orbit at L2. JWST is a segmented, 18 mirror segment telescope with a diameter of 6.5 meters, and a clear aperture of 25 mA2. The telescope is designed to conduct imaging and spectroscopic observations from 0.6-27 microns. The primary mirror find and understand predicted first light objects, observe galaxies back to their earliest precursors so that we can understand their growth and evolution, unravel the birth and early evolution of stars and planetary systems, and study planetary systems and the origins of life. In this paper we discuss the science goals for JWST in the context of the performance requirements they levy on the observatory.

  18. The pier and building of the European Solar Telescope (EST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettonvil, F. C. M.; Codina, R.; Gómez Merchán, A.; Hammerschlag, R. H.; Hartman, J. J. M.; Hernández Suárez, E.; Jägers, A. P. L.; Murga Llano, G.; Pelser, J. W.; Sliepen, G.

    2010-07-01

    EST (European Solar Telescope) is a 4-m class solar telescope, which is currently in the conceptual design phase. EST will be located in the Canary Islands and will aim at high spectral, spatial and temporal resolution observations in the photosphere and chromosphere, using a suite of instruments that can produce efficiently two-dimensional spectropolarimetric information of the thermal, dynamic and magnetic properties of the plasma over many scale heights. The pier is defined as the construction that supports the telescope and the enclosure. It needs a certain height to minimize daytime ground turbulence. At the bottom of the pier a large instrument lab is located, 16 m in diameter and 10 m high. To the pier is attached a service building that accommodates all auxiliary services, possibly together with a separate building. Solid concrete- and open framework piers are compared, in terms of stability, thermal properties and flow characteristics and building structures in terms of construction issues. FE and CFD analysis are used to give qualitative insight in the differences between the alternatives. The preferred alternative is a cone shaped pier surrounded by an open framework.

  19. The soft x ray telescope for Solar-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. A.; Acton, L. W.; Bruner, M. E.; Lemen, J. R.; Strong, K. T.

    1989-01-01

    The Solar-A satellite being prepared by the Institute for Sapce and Astronautical Sciences (ISAS) in Japan is dedicated to high energy observations of solar flares. The Soft X Ray Telescope (SXT) is being prepared to provide filtered images in the 2 to 60 A interval. The flight model is now undergoing tests in the 1000 foot tunnel at MSFC. Launch will be in September 1991. Earlier resolution and efficiency tests on the grazing incidence mirror have established its performance in soft x rays. The one-piece, two mirror grazing incidence telescope is supported in a strain free mount separated from the focal plane assembly by a carbon-epoxy metering tube whose windings and filler are chosen to minimize thermal and hygroscopic effects. The CCD detector images both the x ray and the concentric visible light aspect telescope. Optical filters provide images at 4308 and 4700 A. The SXT will be capable of producing over 8000 of the smallest partial frame images per day, or fewer but larger images, up to 1024 x 1024 pixel images. Image sequence with two or more of the five x ray analysis filters, with automatic exposure compensation to optimize the charge collection by the CCD detector, will be used to provide plasma diagnostics. Calculations using a differential emission measure code were used to optimize filter selection over the range of emission measure variations and to avoid redundancy, but the filters were chosen primarily to give ratios that are monotonic in plasma temperature.

  20. Site-seeing measurements for the European Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkefeld, Th.; Bettonvil, F.; Collados, M.; López, R.; Martín, Y.; Peñate, J.; Pérez, A.; Scharmer, G. B.; Sliepen, G.; Soltau, D.; Waldmann, T. A.; van Werkhoven, T.

    2010-07-01

    Seeing measurements are crucial for the optimum design of (multi-conjugate) adaptive optics systems operating at solar telescopes. For the design study of the 4-meter European Solar Telescope, to be located in the Canary Islands, several instruments have been constructed and operated, at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (La Palma) and at the Observatorio del Teide (Tenerife), to measure the properties of the ground layer and medium-high altitude turbulence. Several units of short (42.34 cm) and two long (323.06 cm) scintillometer bars are, or are to be, installed at both observatories. In addition to them, two wide-field wavefront sensors will be attached to the optical beams of the Swedish tower, on La Palma, and of the German VTT, on Tenerife, simultaneously used with the normal operation of the telescopes. These wavefront sensors are of Shack-Hartmann type with ~1 arcminute field of view. In this contribution, the instruments setup and their performance are described.

  1. Hubble Space Telescope solar cell module thermal cycle test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Alexander; Edge, Ted; Willowby, Douglas; Gerlach, Lothar

    1992-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) solar array consists of two identical double roll-out wings designed after the Hughes flexible roll-up solar array (FRUSA) and was developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) to meet specified HST power output requirements at the end of 2 years, with a functional lifetime of 5 years. The requirement that the HST solar array remain functional both mechanically and electrically during its 5-year lifetime meant that the array must withstand 30,000 low Earth orbit (LEO) thermal cycles between approximately +100 and -100 C. In order to evaluate the ability of the array to meet this requirement, an accelerated thermal cycle test in vacuum was conducted at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), using two 128-cell solar array modules which duplicated the flight HST solar array. Several other tests were performed on the modules. The thermal cycle test was interrupted after 2,577 cycles, and a 'cold-roll' test was performed on one of the modules in order to evaluate the ability of the flight array to survive an emergency deployment during the dark (cold) portion of an orbit. A posttest static shadow test was performed on one of the modules in order to analyze temperature gradients across the module. Finally, current in-flight electrical performance data from the actual HST flight solar array will be tested.

  2. KAPAO-Alpha: An On-The-Sky Testbed for Adaptive Optics on Small Aperture Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Will; Choi, P. I.; Severson, S. A.; Spjut, E.; Contreras, D. S.; Gilbreth, B. N.; McGonigle, L. P.; Rudy, A. R.; Xue, A.; Baranec, C.; Riddle, R.

    2012-05-01

    We present initial in-lab and on-sky results of a natural guide star adaptive optics instrument, KAPAO-Alpha, being deployed on Pomona College’s 1-meter telescope at Table Mountain Observatory. The instrument is an engineering prototype designed to help us identify and solve design and integration issues before building KAPAO, a low-cost, dual-band, natural guide star AO system currently in active development and scheduled for first light in 2013. The Alpha system operates at visible wavelengths, employs Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing, and is assembled entirely from commercially available components that include: off-the-shelf optics, a 140-actuator BMC deformable mirror, a high speed SciMeasure Lil’ Joe camera, and an EMCCD for science image acquisition. Wavefront reconstruction operating at 1-kHz speeds is handled with a consumer-grade computer running custom software adopted from the Robo-AO project. The assembly and integration of the Alpha instrument has been undertaken as a Pomona College undergraduate thesis. As part of the larger KAPAO project, it is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0960343.

  3. Considerations for the next generation of solar telescopes: A systems approach to solar physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Title, A.

    2010-06-01

    The exciting new high resolution images from the one meter Sunrise balloon telescope and the first images from the 1.6 meter Big Bear telescope together with the continuing data from the 1 meter Swedish Solar Observatory demonstrate the promise of the new generation of multimeter solar telescopes. While the promise of the new generation of telescopes is great the technical challenges to build them will require the efforts of a significant fraction of the solar community. In this talk I will emphasize the need for an integrated systems approach to the development of the telescope, its instruments, its software, and its operations and management structures. The experience of several decades of space mission has taught us a great deal about the value of planning mission development from the definition of the primary scientific objectives to the delivery of the data to the science community. Much of these lessons learned, often painfully, should provide guidance to those in developing the new telescope systems.

  4. Lupus I Observations from the 2010 Flight of the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Tristan G.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Angilè, Francesco E.; Benton, Steven J.; Chapin, Edward L.; Chapman, Nicholas L.; Devlin, Mark J.; Fissel, Laura M.; Fukui, Yasuo; Gandilo, Natalie N.; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hargrave, Peter C.; Klein, Jeffrey; Korotkov, Andrei L.; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Mroczkowski, Tony K.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Novak, Giles; Nutter, David; Olmi, Luca; Pascale, Enzo; Poidevin, Frédérick; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Shariff, Jamil A.; Soler, Juan Diego; Tachihara, Kengo; Thomas, Nicholas E.; Truch, Matthew D. P.; Tucker, Carole E.; Tucker, Gregory S.; Ward-Thompson, Derek

    2014-04-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was created by adding polarimetric capability to the BLAST experiment that was flown in 2003, 2005, and 2006. BLASTPol inherited BLAST's 1.8 m primary and its Herschel/SPIRE heritage focal plane that allows simultaneous observation at 250, 350, and 500 ?m. We flew BLASTPol in 2010 and again in 2012. Both were long duration Antarctic flights. Here we present polarimetry of the nearby filamentary dark cloud Lupus I obtained during the 2010 flight. Despite limitations imposed by the effects of a damaged optical component, we were able to clearly detect submillimeter polarization on degree scales. We compare the resulting BLASTPol magnetic field map with a similar map made via optical polarimetry. (The optical data were published in 1998 by J. Rizzo and collaborators.) The two maps partially overlap and are reasonably consistent with one another. We compare these magnetic field maps to the orientations of filaments in Lupus I, and we find that the dominant filament in the cloud is approximately perpendicular to the large-scale field, while secondary filaments appear to run parallel to the magnetic fields in their vicinities. This is similar to what is observed in Serpens South via near-IR polarimetry, and consistent with what is seen in MHD simulations by F. Nakamura and Z. Li.

  5. Lupus I Observations from the 2010 Flight of the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry

    E-print Network

    Matthews, Tristan G; Angilè, Francesco E; Benton, Steven J; Chapin, Edward L; Chapman, Nicholas L; Devlin, Mark J; Fissel, Laura M; Fukui, Yasuo; Gandilo, Natalie N; Gundersen, Joshua O; Hargrave, Peter C; Klein, Jeffrey; Korotkov, Andrei L; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Mroczkowski, Tony K; Netterfield, Calvin B; Novak, Giles; Nutter, David; Olmi, Luca; Pascale, Enzo; Poidevin, Frédérick; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Shariff, Jamil A; Soler, Juan Diego; Tachihara, Kengo; Thomas, Nicholas E; Truch, Matthew D P; Tucker, Carole E; Tucker, Gregory S; Ward-Thompson, Derek

    2013-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was created by adding polarimetric capability to the BLAST experiment that was flown in 2003, 2005, and 2006. BLASTPol inherited BLAST's 1.8 m primary and its Herschel/SPIRE heritage focal plane that allows simultaneous observation at 250, 350, and 500 {\\mu}m. We flew BLASTPol in 2010 and again in 2012. Both were long duration Antarctic flights. Here we present polarimetry of the nearby filamentary dark cloud Lupus I obtained during the 2010 flight. Despite limitations imposed by the effects of a damaged optical component, we were able to clearly detect submillimeter polarization on degree scales. We compare the resulting BLASTPol magnetic field map with a similar map made via optical polarimetry (The optical data were published in 1998 by J. Rizzo and collaborators.). The two maps partially overlap and are reasonably consistent with one another. We compare these magnetic field maps to the orientations of filaments in Lupus I,...

  6. LUPUS I observations from the 2010 flight of the Balloon-borne large aperture submillimeter telescope for polarimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Tristan G.; Chapman, Nicholas L.; Novak, Giles; Ade, Peter A. R.; Hargrave, Peter C.; Nutter, David; Angilè, Francesco E.; Devlin, Mark J.; Klein, Jeffrey; Benton, Steven J.; Fissel, Laura M.; Gandilo, Natalie N.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Chapin, Edward L.; Fukui, Yasuo; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Korotkov, Andrei L.; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Mroczkowski, Tony K.; Olmi, Luca; and others

    2014-04-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was created by adding polarimetric capability to the BLAST experiment that was flown in 2003, 2005, and 2006. BLASTPol inherited BLAST's 1.8 m primary and its Herschel/SPIRE heritage focal plane that allows simultaneous observation at 250, 350, and 500 ?m. We flew BLASTPol in 2010 and again in 2012. Both were long duration Antarctic flights. Here we present polarimetry of the nearby filamentary dark cloud Lupus I obtained during the 2010 flight. Despite limitations imposed by the effects of a damaged optical component, we were able to clearly detect submillimeter polarization on degree scales. We compare the resulting BLASTPol magnetic field map with a similar map made via optical polarimetry. (The optical data were published in 1998 by J. Rizzo and collaborators.) The two maps partially overlap and are reasonably consistent with one another. We compare these magnetic field maps to the orientations of filaments in Lupus I, and we find that the dominant filament in the cloud is approximately perpendicular to the large-scale field, while secondary filaments appear to run parallel to the magnetic fields in their vicinities. This is similar to what is observed in Serpens South via near-IR polarimetry, and consistent with what is seen in MHD simulations by F. Nakamura and Z. Li.

  7. BAND-LIMITED CORONAGRAPHS USING A HALFTONE-DOT PROCESS. II. ADVANCES AND LABORATORY RESULTS FOR ARBITRARY TELESCOPE APERTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, P.; Kasper, M.

    2012-01-01

    The band-limited coronagraph is a nearly ideal concept that theoretically enables perfect cancellation of all the light of an on-axis source. Over the past several years, several prototypes have been developed and tested in the laboratory, and more emphasis is now on developing optimal technologies that can efficiently deliver the expected high-contrast levels of such a concept. Following the development of an early near-IR demonstrator, we present and discuss the results of a second-generation prototype using halftone-dot technology. We report improvement in the accuracy of the control of the local transmission of the manufactured prototype, which was measured to be less than 1%. This advanced H-band band-limited device demonstrated excellent contrast levels in the laboratory, down to {approx}10{sup -6} at farther angular separations than 3{lambda}/D over 24% spectral bandwidth. These performances outperform the ones of our former prototype by more than an order of magnitude and confirm the maturity of the manufacturing process. Current and next-generation high-contrast instruments can directly benefit from such capabilities. In this context, we experimentally examine the ability of the band-limited coronagraph to withstand various complex telescope apertures.

  8. Fibered nulling telescope for extra-solar coronagraphy.

    PubMed

    Hénault, François

    2009-04-01

    A family of fibered nulling telescopes is described, based on the joint use of several recent suggested or demonstrated techniques, namely, pupil densification, multiaxial recombination and single-mode fiber modal filtering, and the use of a fully symmetric beam splitter arrangement. The concept seems appropriate for the realization of a spaceborne nulling telescope, searching for Jupiter-like extra-solar planets and a precursor of future missions, such as Darwin or terrestrial planet finder interferometer (TPF-I). However, it is generally not possible to satisfy at the same time two major requirements, being the depth and size of the central nulling area, and the global throughput for the observed planet. PMID:19340231

  9. Solar Patrol Polarization Telescopes at 45 and 90 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valio, A.; Kaufmann, P.; Gimenez de Castro, C. G.; Raulin, J.-P.; Fernandes, L. O.; Marun, A.

    2012-12-01

    The spectra of solar flares provide important information about the physics involved in the flaring process. Presently, however, there is a large frequency gap at radio frequencies between 20 and 200 GHz. Unfortunately, this gap hinders the determination of important flare parameters such as: (i) the frequency of the peak of the spectra, or turnover frequency, which yields the magnetic field intensity in the flaring source and electron density; (ii) the optically thin frequency slope, that is related to the accelerated electrons with a power-law energy distribution, allowing information about the acceleration mechanism; (iii) and other physical parameters such as source size and inhomogeneities that may also be estimated from spectra with complete spectral coverage. Recently a new spectral component at high frequencies was discovered with fluxes increasing above 200 GHz, distinct from the traditional microwave component, with peak frequencies at about 10 GHz. To elucidate the nature of both components and fully characterize the spectra of solar flares, we analyze new observations at the intermediate frequencies obtained by two antennas with receivers at 45 and 90 GHz, capable of measuring circular polarization. The telescope, installed at CASLEO Observatory (Argentina), is described in detail. We also analyze the observations of the flares it has already detected, including their spectra especially when data at 212 and 405 GHz from the Solar Submillimeter Telescope (SST), located at the same site, is available.

  10. DETECTION OF SMALL-SCALE GRANULAR STRUCTURES IN THE QUIET SUN WITH THE NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Abramenko, V. I.; Yurchyshyn, V. B.; Goode, P. R.; Kitiashvili, I. N.; Kosovichev, A. G.

    2012-09-10

    Results of a statistical analysis of solar granulation are presented. A data set of 36 images of a quiet-Sun area on the solar disk center was used. The data were obtained with the 1.6 m clear aperture New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory and with a broadband filter centered at the TiO (705.7 nm) spectral line. The very high spatial resolution of the data (diffraction limit of 77 km and pixel scale of 0.''0375) augmented by the very high image contrast (15.5% {+-} 0.6%) allowed us to detect for the first time a distinct subpopulation of mini-granular structures. These structures are dominant on spatial scales below 600 km. Their size is distributed as a power law with an index of -1.8 (which is close to the Kolmogorov's -5/3 law) and no predominant scale. The regular granules display a Gaussian (normal) size distribution with a mean diameter of 1050 km. Mini-granular structures contribute significantly to the total granular area. They are predominantly confined to the wide dark lanes between regular granules and often form chains and clusters, but different from magnetic bright points. A multi-fractality test reveals that the structures smaller than 600 km represent a multi-fractal, whereas on larger scales the granulation pattern shows no multi-fractality and can be considered as a Gaussian random field. The origin, properties, and role of the population of mini-granular structures in the solar magnetoconvection are yet to be explored.

  11. Technology Development for the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) as a Candidate Large UV-Optical-Infrared (LUVOIR) Surveyor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatha; Clampin, Mark; Crooke, Julie; Feinberg, Lee; Postman, Marc; Quijada, Manuel; Rauscher, Bernard; Redding, David; Rioux, Norman; Shaklan, Stuart; Stahl, H. Philip; Stahle, Carl; Thronson, Harley

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) team has identified five key technologies to enable candidate architectures for the future large-aperture ultraviolet/optical/infrared (LUVOIR) space observatory envisioned by the NASA Astrophysics 30-year roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions. The science goals of ATLAST address a broad range of astrophysical questions from early galaxy and star formation to the processes that contributed to the formation of life on Earth, combining general astrophysics with direct-imaging and spectroscopy of habitable exoplanets. The key technologies are: internal coronagraphs, starshades (or external occulters), ultra-stable large-aperture telescopes, detectors, and mirror coatings. Selected technology performance goals include: 1x10?10 raw contrast at an inner working angle of 35 milli-arcseconds, wavefront error stability on the order of 10 pm RMS per wavefront control step, autonomous on-board sensing & control, and zero-read-noise single-photon detectors spanning the exoplanet science bandpass between 400 nm and 1.8 µm. Development of these technologies will provide significant advances over current and planned observatories in terms of sensitivity, angular resolution, stability, and high-contrast imaging. The science goals of ATLAST are presented and flowed down to top-level telescope and instrument performance requirements in the context of a reference architecture: a 10-meter-class, segmented aperture telescope operating at room temperature (290 K) at the sun-Earth Lagrange-2 point. For each technology area, we define best estimates of required capabilities, current state-of-the-art performance, and current Technology Readiness Level (TRL) - thus identifying the current technology gap. We report on current, planned, or recommended efforts to develop each technology to TRL 5.

  12. The High Resolution Telescope Cluster. I - Overview and technical status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Hoover, Richard B.; Roberts, William; Wu, Shi T.

    1992-01-01

    A major component of the Advanced Solar Observatory is the High Resolution Telescope Cluster (HRTC) for investigations of the solar atmosphere at soft X-ray, XUV, EUV, and VUV wavelengths, via high resolution spectroheliograms in lines and continuum emitted over the full, (4500 to 100,000,000 K) range of temperatures of the outer solar atmosphere; angular resolution may be as high as 0.03 arcsec. An analysis is conducted of a model HRTC instrument complement encompassing a 60-90 cm aperture VUV telescope, a 40-50 cm aperture EUV telescope, three 40-50 cm aperture XUV telescopes, and a 40-cm aperture soft X-ray telescope, as well as flare spectrometers and polarimeters and four coronagraph/spectrographs.

  13. The Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, A. B. C., Jr.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Hoover, Richard B.

    1997-01-01

    In 1987, our consortium pioneered the application of normal incidence multilayer X-ray optics to solar physics by obtaining the first high resolution narrow band, "thermally differentiated" images of the corona', using the emissions of the Fe IX/Fe X complex at ((lambda)lambda) approx. 171 A to 175 A, and He II Lyman (beta) at 256 A. Subsequently, we developed a rocket borne solar observatory, the Multi Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA) that pioneered multi-thermal imaging of the solar atmosphere, using high resolution narrow band X-ray, EUV and FUV optical systems. Analysis of MSSTA observations has resulted in four significant insights into the structure of the solar atmosphere: (1) the diameter of coronal loops is essentially constant along their length; (2) models of the thermal and density structure of polar plumes based on MSSTA observations have been shown to be consistent with the thesis that they are the source of high speed solar wind streams; (3) the magnetic structure of the footpoints of polar plumes is monopolar, and their thermal structure is consistent with the thesis that the chromosphere at their footpoints is heated by conduction from above; (4) coronal bright points are small loops, typically 3,500 - 20,000 km long (5 sec - 30 sec); their footpoints are located at the poles of bipolar magnetic structures that are are distinguished from other network elements by having a brighter Lyman a signature. Loop models derived for 26 bright points are consistent with the thesis that the chromosphere at their footpoints is heated by conduction from the corona.

  14. Overview and Recent Accomplishments of the Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) for Large Aperture UVOIR Space Telescopes Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2013-01-01

    Per Astro2010, a new, larger UVO telescope is needed to answer fundamental scientific questions, such as: is there life on Earth-like exoplanets; how galaxies assemble stellar populations; how baryonic matter interacts with intergalactic medium; and how solar systems form and evolve. And, present technology is not mature enough to affordably build and launch any potential UVO concept. Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) is a funded SAT project. Our objective is to mature to TRL-6 the critical technologies needed to produce 4-m or larger flight-qualified UVOIR mirrors by 2018 so that a viable mission can be considered by the 2020 Decadal Review. AMTD uses a science-driven systems engineering approach. We mature technologies required to enable the highest priority science AND result in a high-performance low-cost low-risk system. To provide the science community with options, we are pursuing multiple technology paths. We have assembled an outstanding team from academia, industry, and government with extensive expertise in astrophysics and exoplanet characterization, and in the design/manufacture of monolithic and segmented space telescopes. One of our key accomplishments is that we have derived engineering specifications for advanced normal-incidence monolithic and segmented mirror systems needed to enable both general astrophysics and ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets missions as a function of potential launch vehicle and its inherent mass and volume constraints. We defined and initiated a program to mature 6 key technologies required to fabricate monolithic and segmented space mirrors.

  15. Solar System Observing with the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleve, J. Van; Meadows, V. S.; Stansberry, J.

    2003-01-01

    SIRTF is NASA's Space Infrared Telescope Facility. Currently planned for launch on 15 Apr 2003, it is the final element in NASA's Great Observatories Program. SIRTF has an 85 cm diameter f/12 lightweight beryllium telescope, cooled to lekss than 5.5K. It is diffraction-limited at 6.5 microns, and has wavelengthcoverage from 3-180 microns. Its estimated lifetime (limited by cryogen) is 2.5 years at minimum, with a goal of 5+ years. SIRTF has three instruments, IRAC, IRS, and MIPS. IRAC (InfraRed Array Camera) provides simultaneous images at wavelengths of 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 microns. IRS (InfraRed Spectrograph) has 4 modules providing low-resolution (R=60-120) spectra from 5.3 to 40 microns, high-resolution (R=600) spectra from 10 to 37 microns, and an autonomous target acquisition system (PeakUp) which includes small-field imaging at 15 microns. MIPS (Multiband Imaging Photometer for SIRTF)} does imaging photometry at 24, 70, and 160 m and low-resolution (R=15-25) spectroscopy (SED) between 55 and 96 microns. The SIRTF Guaranteed Time Observers (GTOs) are planning to observe Outer Solar System satellites and planets, extinct comets and low-albedo asteroids, Centaurs and Kuiper Belt Objects, cometary dust trails, and a few active short-period comets. The GTO programs are listed in detail in the SIRTF Reserved Observations Catalog (ROC). We would like to emphasize that there remain many interesting subjects for the General Observers (GO). Proposal success for the planetary observer community in the first SIRTF GO proposal cycle (GO-1) determines expectations for future GO calls and Solar System use of SIRTF, so we would like promote a strong set of planetary GO-1 proposals. Towards that end, we present this poster, and we will convene a Solar System GO workshop 3.5 months after launch.

  16. A Large Sparse Aperture Densified Pupil Hypertelescope Concept for Ground Based Detection of Extra-Solar Earth-Like Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, D.; Lyon, R.; Woodruff, R.; Labeyrie, A.; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A concept is presented for a large (10 - 30 meter) sparse aperture hyper telescope to image extrasolar earth-like planets from the ground in the presence of atmospheric seeing. The telescope achieves high dynamic range very close to bright stellar sources with good image quality using pupil densification techniques. Active correction of the perturbed wavefront is simplified by using 36 small flat mirrors arranged in a parabolic steerable array structure, eliminating the need for large delat lines and operating at near-infrared (1 - 3 Micron) wavelengths with flats comparable in size to the seeing cells.

  17. Telescoping Solar Array Concept for Achieving High Packaging Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin; Pappa, Richard; Warren, Jay; Rose, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight, high-efficiency solar arrays are required for future deep space missions using high-power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). Structural performance metrics for state-of-the art 30-50 kW flexible blanket arrays recently demonstrated in ground tests are approximately 40 kW/cu m packaging efficiency, 150 W/kg specific power, 0.1 Hz deployed stiffness, and 0.2 g deployed strength. Much larger arrays with up to a megawatt or more of power and improved packaging and specific power are of interest to mission planners for minimizing launch and life cycle costs of Mars exploration. A new concept referred to as the Compact Telescoping Array (CTA) with 60 kW/cu m packaging efficiency at 1 MW of power is described herein. Performance metrics as a function of array size and corresponding power level are derived analytically and validated by finite element analysis. Feasible CTA packaging and deployment approaches are also described. The CTA was developed, in part, to serve as a NASA reference solar array concept against which other proposed designs of 50-1000 kW arrays for future high-power SEP missions could be compared.

  18. Investigation of Umbral Dots with the New Vacuum Solar Telescope

    E-print Network

    Kaifan, Ji; Song, Feng; Yunfei, Yang; Hui, Deng; Feng, Wang

    2015-01-01

    Umbral dots (UDs) are small isolated brightening observed in sunspot umbrae. They are convective phenomena existing inside umbrae. UDs are usually divided into central UDs (CUDs) and peripheral UDs (PUDs) with respect to their positions inside an umbra. Our purpose is to investigate UD properties and analyze their relationships, and further to find whether or not the properties depend on the umbral magnetic field variation. For the purpose, we selected the high-resolution TiO images of four active regions (ARs) obtained under the best seeing conditions with the \\emph{New Vacuum Solar Telescope} (NVST) in Fuxian Solar Observatory of Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, China. The four ARs (NOAA 11598, 11801, 12158, and 12178) include six sunspots. A total of 1220 CUDs were extracted from six sunspots, and 603 PUDs from three sunspots. Meanwhile, the radial component of the magnetic field of the sunspots obtained with the \\emph{Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager} onboard the \\emph{Solar Dynamics Observatory} was used...

  19. Polarization calibration techniques and scheduling for the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmore, David F.

    2015-10-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST), formerly Advanced Technology Solar Telescope when it begins operation in 2019 will be by a significant margin Earth's largest solar research telescope. Science priorities dictate an initial suite of instruments that includes four spectro-polarimeters. Accurate polarization calibration of the individual instruments and of the telescope optics shared by those instruments is of critical importance. The telescope and instruments have been examined end-to-end for sources of polarization calibration error, allowable contributions from each of the sources quantified, and techniques identified for calibrating each of the contributors. Efficient use of telescope observing time leads to a requirement of sharing polarization calibrations of common path telescope components among the spectro-polarimeters and for those calibrations to be repeated only as often as dictated by degradation of optical coatings and instrument reconfigurations. As a consequence the polarization calibration of the DKIST is a facility function that requires facility wide techniques.

  20. Calibration of the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array multilayer mirrors and XUV filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Maxwell J.; Willis, Thomas D.; Kankelborg, Charles C.; O'Neal, Ray H.; Martinez-Galarce, Dennis S.; Deforest, Craig E.; Jackson, Lisa; Lindblom, Joakim; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA), a rocket-borne solar observatory, was successfully flown in May, 1991, obtaining solar images in eight XUV and FUV bands with 12 compact multilayer telescopes. Extensive measurements have recently been carried out on the multilayer telescopes and thin film filters at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. These measurements are the first high spectral resolution calibrations of the MSSTA instruments. Previous measurements and/or calculations of telescope throughputs have been confirmed with greater accuracy. Results are presented on Mo/Si multilayer bandpass changes with time and experimental potassium bromide and tellurium filters.

  1. Development of a correlation tracker system for the New Solar Telescope

    E-print Network

    Development of a correlation tracker system for the New Solar Telescope Seonghwan Choi 92314, USA ABSTRACT In this paper, we report on the development of a correlation tracker system on the NST. Keywords: correlation tracker, solar telescope, parallel programming 1. INTRODUCTION The New

  2. Deflectometry measurement of Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope primary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Run; Su, Peng; Burge, James H.

    2015-08-01

    SCOTS (Software Configurable Optical Test System) is a high-precision slope measurement technique based on deflectometry. It utilizes a well-calibrated commercial LCD screen and a diffraction-limited camera to provide high dynamic range, non-contact and full-field metrology of reflective/refractive optics of high accuracy but low cost. Recently, we applied this metrology method on the fabrication of the primary mirror of Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST), which is a 4.2 meter off-axis parabolic segment with more than 8 mm peak-to-valley aspheric departure. Sophisticated calibrations and compensations including camera mapping, screen nonlinearity and screen shape deformation are performed to achieve high accuracy measurement results. By measuring the mirror at different orientations, non-symmetrical systematic errors are eliminated. The metrology system also includes dual cameras that provide self- verification test. The measurement results are being used to guide the fabrication process.

  3. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SPECTROPHOTOMETRY AND MODELS FOR SOLAR ANALOGS

    SciTech Connect

    Bohlin, R. C.

    2010-04-15

    Absolute flux distributions for seven solar analog stars are measured from 0.3 to 2.5 {mu}m by Hubble Space Telescope (HST) spectrophotometry. In order to predict the longer wavelength mid-IR fluxes that are required for James Webb Space Telescope calibration, the HST spectral energy distributions are fit with Castelli and Kurucz model atmospheres; and the results are compared with fits from the MARCS model grid. The rms residuals in 10 broadband bins are all <0.5% for the best fits from both model grids. However, the fits differ systematically: the MARCS fits are 40-100 K hotter in T {sub eff}, 0.25-0.80 higher in log g, 0.01-0.10 higher in log z, and 0.008-0.021 higher in the reddening E(B - V), probably because their specifications include different metal abundances. Despite these differences in the parameters of the fits, the predicted mid-IR fluxes differ by only {approx}1%; and the modeled flux distributions of these G stars have an estimated ensemble accuracy of 2% out to 30 {mu}m.

  4. Solar System Studies with the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    SIRTF (Space Infrared Telescope Facility) is the final element in NASA's 'Great Observatories' program. It consists of an 85-cm cryogenically-cooled observatory for infrared astronomy from space. SIRTF is scheduled for launch in late 2001 or early 2002 on a Delta rocket into a heliocentric orbit trailing the Earth. Data from SIRTF will be processed and disseminated to the community through the SIRTF Science Center (SSC) located at the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) at Caltech. Some 80/% of the total observing time (estimated at a minimum of 7500 hours of integration time per year for the mission lifetime of about 4 years) will be available to the scientific community at large through a system of refereed proposals. Three basic instruments are located in the SIRTF focal plane. The Multiband Imaging Photometer (MIPS), the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC), and the Infrared Spectrometer (IRS), taken together, provide imaging and spectroscopy from 3.5 to 160 microns. Among the solar system studies suited to SIRTF are the following: 1) spectroscopy and radiometry of small bodies from the asteroid main belt, through the Trojan clouds, to the Kuiper Disk; 2) dust distribution in the zodiacal cloud and the Earth's heliocentric dust ring; 3) spectroscopy and radiometry of comets; and 4) spectroscopy and radiometry of planets and their satellites. Searches for, and studies of dust disks around other stars, brown dwarfs, and superplanets will also be conducted with SIRTF. The SORTIE web site (http://ssc.ipac.caltech.edu/sirtf) contains important details and documentation on the project, the spacecraft, the telescope, instruments, and observing procedures. A community-wide workshop for solar system studies with SIRTF is in the planning stages by the author and Martha S. Hanner for the summer of 1999.

  5. Future Diagnostic Capabilities: The 4-meter Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Thomas; Reardon, Kevin; Elmore, David; Woeger, Friedrich; Tritschler, Alexandra; Rimmele, Thomas

    We discuss the observational capabilities of the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKSIT), formerly known as the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST), currently under construction on Haleakala Mountain on the island of Maui, Hawaii, with first light anticipated in mid-2019. The DKIST will be a 4-meter aperture Gregorian telescope with advanced environmental control and adaptive optics capable of producing diffraction-limited resolution in visible light of 0.03" or about 20 km in the solar photosphere. The first light instrument suite will include the Visible Broadband Imager (VBI), an interference filter-based instrument capable of 30 Hz imaging of photospheric and chromospheric magnetic structures in the 380 to 800 nm wavelength range. All VBI images will be reconstructed in near-real-time using the KISIP speckle reconstruction algorithm adapted to the DKIST optical and AO configuration. The Visible Spectropolarimeter (ViSP) instrument being fabricated by the High Altitude Observatory (HAO) will enable high-precision slit-spectropolarimetery in any three spectral regions from 380 to 900 nm. The ViSP instrument will be the highest precision spectropolarimeter ever produced with a spatial resolution of approximately 40 km at 600 nm and temporal resolution of 10s to achieve 1e-03 polarimetric precision. The Visible Tunable Filter (VTF) instrument under fabrication at the Kiepenheuer Institute for Solar Physics (KIS) is a triple-etalon Fabry-Perot imaging spectropolarimeter instrument capable of diffraction limited measurements of the Fe I 630.2 nm and Ca II 854.2 nm spectral lines for Doppler and magnetic measurements in the photosphere and chromosphere, respectively. The VTF will also enable the highest spatial and temporal resolution observations yet achieved in the H-alpha line for detailed studies of chromospheric dynamics in response to photospheric magnetic drivers. The Diffraction-Limited Near-IR Spectropolarimeter (DL-NiRSP) and the Cryogenic Near-IR Spectropolarimeter (Cryo-NiRSP) instruments, both under fabrication at the University of Hawaii, will enable polarimetric and spectroscopic investigations in the largely unexplored infra-red spectral region. The DL-NiRSP will span 900 nm to 2.5 microns in wavelength and include a novel fiber-optic "Integral Field Unit" (IFU) for true imaging spectropolarimetry in three simultaneous spectral regions over a variable field of view. This instrument will enable revolutionary measurements of prominence magnetic fields and will also, in the wider field mode, enable coronal polarimetric studies. The Cryo-NiRSP instrument spans the 1--5 micron wavelength range and will make near-diffraction limited 0.3" resolution slit-scan measurements of the coronal magnetic field out to 1.3 solar radii with temporal resolution measured in minutes. The DKIST facility will undergo extensive polarimetric calibration to ensure that the ultimate goal of 5e-04 polarimetic precision is obtainable under the best conditions. All of the data from the DKIST will be transmitted to the central DKIST data center in Boulder, Colorado where automated reduction and calibration pipelines will rapidly provide the community with calibrated data products for use in science investigations. The DKIST will also be operated in a "Service Mode" access model in which investigators will not be required to travel to the telescope to accomplish their science observations.

  6. Solar tests of aperture plate materials for solar thermal dish collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1983-01-01

    In parabolic dish solar collectors, walk-off of the spot of concentrated sunlight is a hazard if a malfunction causes the concentrator to stop following the Sun. Therefore, a test program was carried out to evaluate the behavior of various ceramics, metals, and polymers under solar irradiation of about 7000 kW/sq m. (peak) for 15 minutes. The only materials that did not slump or shatter were two grades of medium-grain extruded graphite. High purity, slip-cast silica might be satisfactory at somewhat lower flux. Oxidation of the graphite appeared acceptable during tests simulating walk-off, acquisition (2000 cycles on/off Sun), and spillage (continuous on-Sun operation).

  7. First Light of the 1.6 meter off-axis New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory

    E-print Network

    First Light of the 1.6 meter off-axis New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory Wenda Caoab, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 323 Martin Luther King Blvd., Newark, NJ 07102; bBig Bear Solar Observatory, 40386 North Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92316 ABSTRACT New Jersey Institute of Technology

  8. Telescopes and recording systems used by amateurs for studying planets in our solar system - an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowollik, S.; Gaehrken, B.; Fiedler, M.; Gerstheimer, R.; Sohl, F.; Koschny, D.

    2008-09-01

    During the last couple of years, engaged amateur astronomers have benefited by the rapid development in the field of commercial CCD cameras, video techniques, and the availability of mirror telescopes with high quality. Until recently, such technical equipment and the related handling experience had been reserved to research institutes. This contribution presents the potential capabilities of amateur astronomers and describes the approach to the production of data. The quality of the used telescopes is described with respect to aperture and resolving power; as well as the quantum efficiency of the used sensitive b/w CCD cameras with respect to the detectable wavelength. Beyond these facts the necessary exposure times for CCD images using special filters are discussed. Today's amateur astronomers are able to image the bodies of the solar system in the wavelength range between 340 and 1050 nm [1], [2], [3], [4]. This covers a wide range of the spectrum which is investigated with cameras on board of space telescopes or planetary probes. While space probes usually obtain high-resolution images of individual Surface or atmospheric features of the planets, the images of amateur astronomers show the entire surface of the observed planet. Both datasets together permit a more comprehensive analysis of the data aquired in each case. The "Venus Amateur Observing Project" of the European Space Agency [5] is a first step into a successful co-operation between amateur astronomers and planetary scientists. Individual CCD images captured through the turbulent atmosphere of the Earth usually show characteristic distortions of the arriving wave fronts. If one captures hundreds or thousands of images on a video stream in very short time, there will be always also undistorted images within the data. Computer programmes are available to identify and retrieve these undistorted images and store them for further processing [7]. This method is called "Lucky Imaging" and it allows to achieve nearly the theoretical limit of telescopic resolution. By stacking the undistorted images, the signal-to-noise ratio of the data can be increased significantly. "Lucky Imaging" has become a standard in the amateur community since several years. Contrary to space based observations the data rate is not limited by the capacity of any radio transmission, but only limited by the scanning rate and capacity of a modern computer hard disk. An individual video with the uncompreesed raw data can be as large as 4 to 5 GB. EPSC Abstracts, Vol. 3, EPSC2008-A-00191, 2008 European Planetary Science Congress, Author(s) 2008 In addition to the video data, so-called meta data such as the observing location, the recording time, the used filter, environmental conditions (air temperature, wind velocity, air humidity and Seeing) are also documented. From these meta data, the central meridian (CM) of the observed planet during the time of image acqusition can be determined. After data reduction the resulting images can be used to produce map projections or position measurements of albedo structures on the planetary surface or of details within atmospheric features. Amateur astronomers can observe objects in the solar system for large continuous time periods due to the large number of the existing observers e. g. the members of the Association of Lunar & Planetary Observers [6] and their telescopes. They can and react very fast to special events, since they do not have to submit requests for telescope time to a national or international organization. References: [1] Venusimages in uv-light: B. Gährken: http://www.astrode.de/venus07.htm R. Gerstheimer: http://www.astromanie.de/astromania/galerie/venus/venus.html S. Kowollik: http://www.sternwarte-zollern-alb.de/mitarbeiterseiten/kowollik/venus M. Weigand: http://www.skytrip.de/venus2007.htm [2] Images of planets in visible light: M. Fiedler: http://bilder.astroclub-radebeul.de/kategorien.php?action=showukats&kat=0 R. Gerstheimer: http://www.astromanie.de/ S. Kowollik: http://www.sternwarte-zoll

  9. Observation of Solar Chromosphere: Development of High Definition H? Solar Telescope and its Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akioka, Maki; Okano, Akemi

    1997-06-01

    The high-definition H alpha telescope has been developed for the Space Weather Forecast Project and is in operation at Hiraiso Solar Terrestrial Research Center, CRL. Its advantageous features are: (1) high-resolution digital H alpha images with 2K by 2K CCD; (2) real-time data frame selection with software; (3) spectroscopic observation using the wavelength scanning method with Lyot filter; and (4) automatic control systems for daily observation monitoring. In daily solar terrestrial forecasts at Hiraiso, the data is used for finding active regions, flares, and filament eruptions and foreseeing the activity level of each active region by evaluating the chromospheric feature and its change. Several fundamental research topics are also ongoing with the H alpha data. We have constructed a WWW image database consisting of images of daily active regions and some flares and movies showing solar active phenomena. The telescope will be one of the main facilities for the operational space weather forecast of the next solar maximum at the beginning of the 21st century.

  10. Multi-conjugate AO for the European Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montilla, I.; Béchet, C.; Le Louarn, M.; Tallon, M.; Sánchez-Capuchino, J.; Collados Vera, M.

    2012-07-01

    The European Solar Telescope (EST) will be a 4-meter diameter world-class facility, optimized for studies of the magnetic coupling between the deep photosphere and upper chromosphere. It will specialize in high spatial resolution observations and therefore it has been designed to incorporate an innovative built-in Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics system (MCAO). It combines a narrow field high order sensor that will provide the information to correct the ground layer and a wide field low order sensor for the high altitude mirrors used in the MCAO mode. One of the challenging particularities of solar AO is that it has to be able to correct the turbulence for a wide range of observing elevations, from zenith to almost horizon. Also, seeing is usually worse at day-time, and most science is done at visible wavelengths. Therefore, the system has to include a large number of high altitude deformable mirrors. In the case of the EST, an arrangement of 4 high altitude DMs is used. Controlling such a number of mirrors makes it necessary to use fast reconstruction algorithms to deal with such large amount of degrees of freedom. For this reason, we have studied the performance of the Fractal Iterative Method (FriM) and the Fourier Transform Reconstructor (FTR), to the EST MCAO case. Using OCTOPUS, the end-to-end simulator of the European Southern Observatory, we have performed several simulations with both algorithms, being able to reach the science requirement of a homogeneous Strehl higher that 50% all over the 1 arcmin field of view.

  11. Solar Physics, Space Weather, and Wide-field X-ray Telescopes

    E-print Network

    Van Stryland, Eric

    Solar Physics, Space Weather, and Wide-field X-ray Telescopes CREOL & FPCE: The College of Optics of the Earth). The detrimental effects of solar storm induced "space weather" ranges from disruption of our-Energy Solar Physics · Space Weather and its Detrimental Effects · X-ray Astronomy and Grazing Incidence X

  12. The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope first light instruments and critical science plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmore, David F.; Rimmele, Thomas; Casini, Roberto; Hegwer, Steve; Kuhn, Jeff; Lin, Haosheng; McMullin, Joseph P.; Reardon, Kevin; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Tritschler, Alexandra; Wöger, Friedrich

    2014-07-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope is a 4-meter-class all-reflecting telescope under construction on Haleakal? mountain on the island of Maui, Hawai'i. When fully operational in 2019 it will be the world's largest solar telescope with wavelength coverage of 380 nm to 28 microns and advanced Adaptive Optics enabling the highest spatial resolution measurements of the solar atmosphere yet achieved. We review the first-generation DKIST instrument designs, select critical science program topics, and the operations and data handling and processing strategies to accomplish them.

  13. Solar System Observations with Spitzer Space Telescope: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.

    2005-01-01

    The programs of observations of Solar System bodies conducted in the first year of the operation of the Spitzer Space Telescope as part of the Guaranteed Observing Time allocations are described. Initial results include the determination of the albedos of a number of Kuiper Belt objects and Centaurs from observations of their flux densities at 24 and 70 microns, and the detection of emission bands in the spectra of several distant asteroids (Trojans) around 10 and 25 microns. The 10 Kuiper Belt objects observed to date have albedos in the range 0.08 - 0.15, significantly higher than the earlier estimated 0.04. An additional KBO [(55565) 2002 AW(sub l97)] has an albedo of 0.17 plus or minus 0.03. The emission bands in the asteroid spectra are indicative of silicates, but specific minerals have not yet been identified. The Centaur/comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 has a nucleus surface albedo of 0.025 plus or minus 0.01, and its dust production rate was calculated from the properties of the coma. Several other investigations are in progress as the incoming data are processed and analyzed.

  14. Functional safety for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulau, Scott; Williams, Timothy R.

    2012-09-01

    Since inception, the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) has planned to implement a facility-wide functional safety system to protect personnel from harm and prevent damage to the facility or environment. The ATST will deploy an integrated safety-related control system (SRCS) to achieve functional safety throughout the facility rather than relying on individual facility subsystems to provide safety functions on an ad hoc basis. The Global Interlock System (GIS) is an independent, distributed, facility-wide, safety-related control system, comprised of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) programmable controllers that monitor, evaluate, and control hazardous energy and conditions throughout the facility that arise during operation and maintenance. The GIS has been designed to utilize recent advances in technology for functional safety plus revised national and international standards that allow for a distributed architecture using programmable controllers over a local area network instead of traditional hard-wired safety functions, while providing an equivalent or even greater level of safety. Programmable controllers provide an ideal platform for controlling the often complex interrelationships between subsystems in a modern astronomical facility, such as the ATST. A large, complex hard-wired relay control system is no longer needed. This type of system also offers greater flexibility during development and integration in addition to providing for expanded capability into the future. The GIS features fault detection, self-diagnostics, and redundant communications that will lead to decreased maintenance time and increased availability of the facility.

  15. DOT++: The Dutch Open Telescope with 1.4-m aperture Felix C.M. Bettonvil*a,b

    E-print Network

    Rutten, Rob

    as transversal pupil shift introducing the possibility to use obstruction free apertures up to 65cm. The design for removing atmospheric turbulence 6 . The resulting DOT movies are world famous (see the DOT-website http: Example of synchronous DOT imaging in two wavelength channels: Sunspot AR10375 on June 06, 2003. This page

  16. Cornelis Zwaan, open principle, and the future of high-resolution solar telescopes

    E-print Network

    Rutten, Rob

    Cornelis Zwaan, open principle, and the future of high-resolution solar telescopes Robert H fluctuations. Cornelis (Kees) Zwaan discovered that the fluctuations decrease drastically at heights from about

  17. Point spread functions for the Solar Optical Telescope onboard Hinode

    E-print Network

    Sven Wedemeyer-Böhm

    2008-05-07

    The combined PSF of the BFI and the SOT onboard the Hinode spacecraft is investigated. Observations of the Mercury transit from November 2006 and the solar eclipse(s) from 2007 are used to determine the PSFs of SOT for the blue, green, and red continuum channels of the BFI. For each channel large grids of theoretical point spread functions are calculated by convolution of the ideal diffraction-limited PSF and Voigt profiles. These PSFs are applied to artificial images of an eclipse and a Mercury transit. The comparison of the resulting artificial intensity profiles across the terminator and the corresponding observed profiles yields a quality measure for each case. The optimum PSF for each observed image is indicated by the best fit. The observed images of the Mercury transit and the eclipses exhibit a clear proportional relation between the residual intensity and the overall light level in the telescope. In addition there is a anisotropic stray-light contribution. ... BFI/SOT operate close to the diffraction limit and have only a rather small stray-light contribution. The FWHM of the PSF is broadened by only ~1% with respect to the diffraction-limited case, while the overall Strehl ratio is ~ 0.8. In view of the large variations -- best seen in the residual intensities of eclipse images -- and the dependence on the overall light level and position in the FOV, a range of PSFs should be considered instead of a single PSF per wavelength. The individual PSFs of that range allow then the determination of error margins for the quantity under investigation. Nevertheless the stray-light contributions are here found to be best matched with Voigt functions with the parameters sigma = 0."008 and gamma = 0."004, 0."005, and 0."006 for the blue, green, and red continuum channels, respectively.

  18. Observation and Modeling of the Solar Transition Region. 1; Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oluseyi, Hakeem M.; Walker, A. B. C., II; Porter, Jason; Hoover, Richard B.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    We report on observations of the solar atmosphere in several extreme-ultraviolet and far-ultraviolet bandpasses obtained by the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array, a rocket-borne spectroheliograph, on flights in 1987, 1991, and 1994, spanning the last solar maximum. Quiet-Sun emission observed in the 171-175 Angstrom bandpass, which includes lines of O v, O VI, Fe IX, and Fe X, has been analyzed to test models of the temperatures and geometries of the structures responsible for this emission. Analyses of intensity variations above the solar limb reveal scale heights consistent with a quiet-Sun plasma temperature of 500,000 less than or equal to T (sub e) less than or equal to 800,000 K. The structures responsible for the quiet-Sun EUV emission are modeled as small quasi-static loops. We submit our models to several tests. We compare the emission our models would produce in the bandpass of our telescope to the emission we have observed. We find that the emission predicted by loop models with maximum temperatures between 700,000 and 900,000 K are consistent with our observations. We also compare the absolute flux predicted by our models in a typical upper transition region line to the flux measured by previous observers. Finally, we present a preliminary comparison of the predictions of our models with diagnostic spectral line ratios from previous observers. Intensity modulations in the quiet Sun are observed to occur on a scale comparable to the supergranular scale. We discuss the implications that a distribution of loops of the type we model here would have for heating the local network at the loops' footpoints.

  19. AUTOMATIC GUIDING OF THE PRIMARY IMAGE OF SOLAR GREGORY TELESCOPES

    E-print Network

    influences from the bending of the telescope tube by the main mirror's gravity and from offsets between, 1984); (c) the bending of the telescope tube yields a daily varying shift of the main mirror, which focus and thus allow the use of a (water-cooled) field stop (Ten Bruggenkate and Jäger, 1951). The light

  20. WILL THE LARGE SYNOPTIC SURVEY TELESCOPE DETECT EXTRA-SOLAR PLANETESIMALS ENTERING THE SOLAR SYSTEM?

    SciTech Connect

    Moro-Martin, Amaya; Turner, Edwin L.; Loeb, Abraham

    2009-10-10

    Planetesimal formation is a common by-product of the star formation process. Taking the dynamical history of the solar system as a guideline-in which the planetesimal belts were heavily depleted due to gravitational perturbation with the giant planets-and assuming similar processes have taken place in other planetary systems, one would expect the interstellar space to be filled with extra-solar planetesimals. However, not a single one of these objects has been detected so far entering the solar system, even though it would clearly be distinguishable from a solar system comet due to its highly hyperbolic orbit. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will provide wide coverage maps of the sky to a very high sensitivity, ideal to detect moving objects like comets, both active and inactive. In anticipation of these observations, we estimate how many inactive 'interstellar comets' might be detected during the duration of the survey. The calculation takes into account estimates (from observations and models) of the number density of stars, the amount of solids available to form planetesimals, the frequency of planet and planetesimal formation, the efficiency of planetesimal ejection, and the possible size distribution of these small bodies.

  1. To appear in Proc. SPIE 4853-52, Innovative Telescopes and Instrumentation for Solar Astrophysics, Keil & Avakyan, eds., Waikoloa, Hawaii, USA, August 2002. Adaptive optics system for the new Swedish solar telescope

    E-print Network

    Löfdahl, Mats

    adaptive optics. In this paper we describe the AO system developed for the new solar telescope, which and the wavefront sensor. 2. DESCRIPTION OF THE CURRENT AO SYSTEM 2.1. Optical setup The 1-meter Swedish solarTo appear in Proc. SPIE 4853-52, Innovative Telescopes and Instrumentation for Solar Astrophysics

  2. Repackaging and characterizing a HgCdTe CMOS infrared camera for the New Solar Telescope

    E-print Network

    Repackaging and characterizing a HgCdTe CMOS infrared camera for the New Solar Telescope Wenda Jersey Institute of Technology, 323 Martin Luther King Blvd., Newark, NJ 07102; bBig Bear Solar in the near infrared (NIR). In order to satisfy the diverse observational requirements of these scientific

  3. Evolving Design Criteria for Very Large Aperture Space-Based Telescopes and Their Influence on the Need for Integrated Tools in the Optimization Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, William R., Sr.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) program has been developing the means to design and build the future generations of space based telescopes. With the nearing completion of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the astrophysics community is already starting to define the requirements for follow on observatories. The restrictions of available launch vehicles and the possibilities of planned future vehicles have fueled the competition between monolithic primaries (with better optical quality) and segmented primaries (with larger apertures, but with diffraction, costs and figure control issues). Regardless of the current shroud sizes and lift capacities, these competing architectures share the need for rapid design tools. As part of the AMTD program a number of tools have been developed and tested to speed up the design process. Starting with the Arnold Mirror Modeler (which creates Finite Element Models (FEM) for structural analysis) and now also feeds these models into thermal stability analyses. They share common file formats and interchangeable results. During the development of the program, numerous trade studies were created for 4 meter and 8 meter monolithic primaries, complete with support systems. Evaluation of these results has led to a better understanding of how the specification drives the results. This paper will show some of the early trade studies for typical specification requirements such as lowest mirror bending frequency and suspension system lowest frequency. The results use representative allowable stress values for each mirror substrate material and construction method and generic material properties. These studies lead to some interesting relationships between feasible designs and the realities of actually trying to build these mirrors. Much of the traditional specifications were developed for much smaller systems, where the mass and volume of the primary where a small portion of the overall satellite. JWST shows us that as the aperture grows, the primary takes up the majority of the mass and volume and the established rules need to be adjusted. For example, a small change in lowest frequency requirement can change the cost by millions of dollars.

  4. Evolving design criteria for very large aperture space-based telescopes and their influence on the need for intergrated tools in the optimization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, William R.

    2015-09-01

    NASA's Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) program has been developing the means to design and build the future generations of space based telescopes. With the nearing completion of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the astrophysics community is already starting to define the requirements for follow on observatories. The restrictions of available launch vehicles and the possibilities of planned future vehicles have fueled the competition between monolithic primaries (with better optical quality) and segmented primaries (with larger apertures, but with diffraction, costs and figure control issues). Regardless of the current shroud sizes and lift capacities, these competing architectures share the need for rapid design tools. As part of the AMTD program a number of tools have been developed and tested to speed up the design process. Starting with the Arnold Mirror Modeler (which creates Finite Element Models (FEM) for structural analysis) and now also feeds these models into thermal stability analyses. They share common file formats and interchangeable results. During the development of the program, numerous trade studies were created for 4 meter and 8 meter monolithic primaries, complete with support systems. Evaluation of these results has led to a better understanding of how the specification drives the results. This paper will show some of the early trade studies for typical specification requirements such as lowest mirror bending frequency and suspension system lowest frequency. The results use representative allowable stress values for each mirror substrate material and construction method and generic material properties. These studies lead to some interesting relationships between feasible designs and the realities of actually trying to build these mirrors. Much of the traditional specifications were developed for much smaller systems, where the mass and volume of the primary where a small portion of the overall satellite. JWST shows us that as the aperture grows, the primary takes up the majority of the mass and volume and the established rules need to be adjusted. For example, a small change in lowest frequency requirement can change the cost by millions of dollars.

  5. The Galactic Exoplanet Survey Telescope: A Proposed Space-Based Microlensing Survey for Terrestrial Extra-Solar Planets

    E-print Network

    David P. Bennett; Sun Hong Rhie

    2000-03-08

    We present a conceptual design for a space based Galactic Exoplanet Survey Telescope (GEST) which will use the gravitational microlensing technique to detect extra solar planets with masses as low as that of Mars at all separations >~ 1 AU. The microlensing data would be collected by a diffraction limited, wide field imaging telescope of ~ 1.5m aperture equipped with a large array of red-optimized CCD detectors. Such a system would be able to monitor $\\sim 2\\times 10^8$ stars in $\\sim 6$ square degrees of the Galactic bulge at intervals of 20-30 minutes, and it would observe $\\sim 12000$ microlensing events in three bulge seasons. If planetary systems like our own are common, GEST should be able to detect $\\sim 5000$ planets over a 2.5 year lifetime. If gas giants like Jupiter and Saturn are rare, then GEST would detect $\\sim 1300$ planets in a 2.5 year mission if we assume that most planetary systems are dominated by planets of about Neptune's' mass. Such a mission would also discover $\\sim 100$ planets of an Earth mass or smaller if such planets are common. This is a factor of $\\sim 50$ better than the most ambitious ground based programs that have been proposed. GEST will also be sensitive to planets which have been separated from their parent stars.

  6. Imaging Extra-Solar Planets with an Ultra-Large Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Charles R.

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Origins Program is directed toward two main goals: Imaging of galactic evolution in the early universe, and searching for planets orbiting nearby stars. The Next-Generation Space Telescope (NGST), operating at low temperature with an 8-m aperture, is well designed to meet the first goal. The goal of imaging planets orbiting nearby stars is more problematic. One line of investigation has been the ULTIMA concept (Ultra-Large Telescope, Integrated Missions in Astronomy). In this report, I will lay out the resolution requirements for telescopes to achieve the imaging of extrasolar planets, and describe a modeling tool created to investigate the requirements for imaging a planet when it is very near a much brighter star.

  7. Filters for soft X-ray solar telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiller, Eberhard; Grebe, Kurt; Golub, Leon

    1990-01-01

    Soft X-ray telescopes require filters that block visible and infrared light and have good soft X-ray transmission. The optical properties of possible materials are discussed, and the fabrication and testing methods for the filters used in a 10-inch normal incidence telescope for 63 A are described. The best performances in the 44-114-A wavelength range are obtained with foils of carbon and rhodium.

  8. Multi Application Solar Telescope (MAST): A Versatile Tool for Studying the Physics of Solar Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatakrishnan, P.

    2006-11-01

    pvk@prl.res.in Contemporary solar research is progressing along several fronts. Solar magnetism and its role in powering solar eruptions is one basic theme. Quantitative evaluation of the different manifestations of the free energy available for eruption is one major task. This requires vector magnetograms of a large number of active regions monitored closely in time with high polarimetric accuracy. The second task is to obtain greater clarity about various triggering mechanisms for the eruptions. This requires observations of line-of-sight magnetic fields and velocity fields with high spatial resolution. Both tasks need mutually exclusive requirements leading to the concept of the multi application telescope. In this talk, I outline the various steps, like site characterization, optical design, adaptive optics development and schemes for back-end instrumentation that culminated in the present concept of MAST. I will emphasize the constraints posed by availability of and access to technology which played a significant role in deciding the concept. I conclude by highlighting certain unique features of MAST which can provide special insights into a few scientific problems.

  9. Imaging solar flares in hard X-rays using Fourier telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Jonathan W.; Davis, John M.; Emslie, A. G.

    1992-01-01

    The sun emits hard X-rays (above 10 keV) during solar flares. Imaging hard X-ray sources on the sun with spatial resolutions on the order of 1-5 arcsec and integration times of 1 sec will provide greater insight into the energy release processes during a solar flare. In these events, tremendous amounts of energy stored in the solar magnetic field are rapidly released leading to emission across the electromagnetic spectrum. Two Fourier telescope designs, a spatial modulation collimator and a rotating modulation collimator, were developed to image the full sun in hard X-rays (10-100 keV) in an end-to-end simulation. Emission profiles were derived for two hard X-ray solar flare models taken from the current solar theoretical literature and used as brightness distributions for the telescope simulations. Both our telescope models, tailored to image solar sources, were found to perform equally well, thus offering the designer significant flexibility in developing systems for space-based platforms. Given sufficient sensitive areas, Fourier telescopes are promising concepts for imaging solar hard X-rays.

  10. Overview and recent accomplishments of the advanced mirror technology development (AMTD) for large aperture UVOIR space telescopes project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Postman, Marc; Abplanalp, Laura; Arnold, William; Eng, Ron; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand

    2013-09-01

    The Advance Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) project is a three year effort initiated in FY12 to mature by at least a half TRL step six critical technologies required to enable 4 to 8 meter UVOIR space telescope primary mirror assemblies for both general astrophysics and ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets. Thus far, AMTD has achieved all of its goals and accomplished all of its milestones. We did this by assembling an outstanding team from academia, industry, and government with extensive expertise in astrophysics and exoplanet characterization, and in the design/manufacture of monolithic and segmented space telescopes; by deriving engineering specifications for advanced normal-incidence mirror systems needed to make the required science measurements; and by defining and prioritizing the most important technical problems to be solved.

  11. Evolving Design Criteria for Very Large Aperture Space Based Telescopes and Their Influence on the Need for Integrated Tools in the Optimization Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, William R., Sr.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) program has been developing the means to design and build the future generations of space based telescopes. With the nearing completion of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the astrophysics community is already starting to define the requirements for follow-on observatories. The restrictions of available launch vehicles and the possibilities of planned future vehicles have fueled the competition between monolithic primaries (with better optical quality) and segmented primaries (with larger apertures, but with diffraction, costs and figure control issues). Regardless of the current shroud sizes and lift capacities, these competing architectures share the need for rapid design tools. As part of the AMTD program a number of tools have been developed and tested to speed up the design process. Starting with the Arnold Mirror Modeler (which creates Finite Element Models (FEM) for structural analysis) and now also feeds these models into thermal stability analyses. They share common file formats and interchangeable results. During the development of the program, numerous trade studies were created for 4-meter and 8-meter monolithic primaries, complete with support systems. Evaluation of these results has led to a better understanding of how the specification drives the results. This paper will show some of the early trade studies for typical specification requirements such as lowest mirror bending frequency and suspension system lowest frequency. The results use representative allowable stress values for each mirror substrate material and construction method and generic material properties. These studies lead to some interesting relationships between feasible designs and the realities of actually trying to build these mirrors. Much of the traditional specifications were developed for much smaller systems, where the mass and volume of the primary where a small portion of the overall satellite. JWST shows us that as the aperture grows, the primary takes up the majority of the mass and volume and the established rules need to be adjusted. For example, a small change in lowest frequency requirement can change the cost by millions of dollars. The paper uses numerous trade studies created during the software development phase of the Arnold Mirror Modeler to illustrate the influences of system specifications on the design space. The future telescopes will require better performance, stability and documented feasibility to meet the hurdles of today's budget and schedules realities. AMTD is developing the tools, but the basic system planning mentality also has to adopt to the requirements of these very large and complex physical structures.

  12. Paraboloidal X-ray telescope mirror for solar coronal spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. A.; Bruner, E. C., Jr.; Acton, L. W.; Franks, A.; Stedman, M.; Speer, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The telescope mirror for the X-ray Spectrograph Spectrometer Telescope System is a sixty degree sector of an extreme off-axis paraboloid of revolution. It was designed to focus a coronal region 1 by 10 arc seconds in size on the entrance slit of the spectrometer after reflection from the gold surface. This paper discusses the design, manufacture, and metrology of the mirror, the methods of precision mechanical metrology used to focus the system, and the mounting system which locates the mirror and has proven itself through vibration tests. In addition, the results of reflection efficiency measurements, alignment tolerances, and ray trace analysis of the effects of misalignment are considered.

  13. OpTIIX: An ISS-Based Testbed Paving the Roadmap Toward a Next Generation Large Aperture UV/Optical Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Etemad, Shar; Seery, Bernard D.; Thronson, Harley; Burdick, Gary M.; Coulter, Dan; Goullioud, Renaud; Green, Joseph J.; Liu, Fengchuan; Ess, Kim; Postman, Marc; Sparks, Williams

    2012-01-01

    The next generation large aperture UV/Optical space telescope will need a diameter substantially larger than even that of JWST in order to address some of the most compelling unanswered scientific quests. These quests include understanding the earliest phases of the Universe and detecting life on exo-planets by studying spectra of their atmospheres. Such 8-16 meter telescopes face severe challenges in terms of cost and complexity and are unlikely to be affordable unless a new paradigm is adopted for their design and construction. The conventional approach is to use monolithic or preassembled segmented mirrors requiring complicated and risky deployments and relying on future heavy-lift vehicles, large fairings and complex geometry. The new paradigm is to launch component modules on relatively small vehicles and then perform in-orbit robotic assembly of those modules. The Optical Testbed and Integration on ISS eXperiment (OpTIIX) is designed to demonstrate, at low cost by leveraging the infrastructure provided by ISS, telescope assembly technologies and end-to-end optical system technologies. The use of ISS as a testbed permits the concentration of resources on reducing the technical risks associated with robotically integrating the components. These include laser metrology and wavefront sensing and control (WFS&C) systems, an imaging instrument, lightweight, low-cost deformable primary mirror segments and the secondary mirror. These elements are then aligned to a diffraction-limited optical system in space. The capability to assemble the optical system and remove and replace components via the existing ISS robotic systems like the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM), or by the ISS flight crew, allows for future experimentation, as well as repair.

  14. ATST telescope mount: telescope of machine tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffers, Paul; Stolz, Günter; Bonomi, Giovanni; Dreyer, Oliver; Kärcher, Hans

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world, and will be able to provide the sharpest views ever taken of the solar surface. The telescope has a 4m aperture primary mirror, however due to the off axis nature of the optical layout, the telescope mount has proportions similar to an 8 meter class telescope. The technology normally used in this class of telescope is well understood in the telescope community and has been successfully implemented in numerous projects. The world of large machine tools has developed in a separate realm with similar levels of performance requirement but different boundary conditions. In addition the competitive nature of private industry has encouraged development and usage of more cost effective solutions both in initial capital cost and thru-life operating cost. Telescope mounts move relatively slowly with requirements for high stability under external environmental influences such as wind buffeting. Large machine tools operate under high speed requirements coupled with high application of force through the machine but with little or no external environmental influences. The benefits of these parallel development paths and the ATST system requirements are being combined in the ATST Telescope Mount Assembly (TMA). The process of balancing the system requirements with new technologies is based on the experience of the ATST project team, Ingersoll Machine Tools who are the main contractor for the TMA and MT Mechatronics who are their design subcontractors. This paper highlights a number of these proven technologies from the commercially driven machine tool world that are being introduced to the TMA design. Also the challenges of integrating and ensuring that the differences in application requirements are accounted for in the design are discussed.

  15. Solar radioastronomy with the LOFAR (LOw Frequency ARray) radio telescope

    E-print Network

    White, Stephen

    Array (LOFAR) will be a radio astronomy interferometric array operating in the approximate fre­ quency and discuss the solar science that LOFAR will address. Keywords: Low­frequency radio astronomy, Solar radio discoveries of radio astronomy took place; radio astronomy only migrated to the higher microwave frequencies

  16. Solar radioastronomy with the LOFAR (LOw Frequency ARray) radio telescope

    E-print Network

    White, Stephen

    (LOFAR) will be a radio astronomy interferometric array operating in the approximate fre- quency range 10 the solar science that LOFAR will address. Keywords: Low-frequency radio astronomy, Solar radio astronomy discoveries of radio astronomy took place; radio astronomy only migrated to the higher microwave frequencies

  17. Direct imaging of extra-solar planets with stationary occultations viewed by a space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    The use of a telescope in space to detect planets outside the solar system by means of imaging at optical wavelengths is discussed. If the 'black' limb of the moon is utilized as an occulting edge, a hypothetical Jupiter-Sun system could be detected at a distance as great as 10 pc, and a signal-to-noise ratio of 9 could be achieved in less than 20 min with a 2.4 m telescope in space. An orbit for the telescope is proposed; this orbit could achieve a stationary lunar occultation of any star for a period of nearly two hours.

  18. Structural analysis for the 4-m Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Myung K.; Warner, Mark; Lee, Joon P.

    2005-08-01

    With a 4 m off-axis aspherical primary mirror, integrated adaptive optics, low scattered light, infrared coverage, and state-of-the-art post focus instrumentation, the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the world's most powerful solar research telescope. In order to achieve the required performance specifications of the telescope, the ATST project selected an alt-az telescope mount to support and position the major optic assemblies. In addition, the telescope incorporates a large diameter (16.4m) coude rotator lab that is capable of supporting multiple large instrument assemblies. This lab can rotate about its azimuth axis independent of the alt/az mount above it. In this paper, we describe an overview of the telescope structure, discuss the basic design parameters, and summarize the results of initial finite element analyses. The results include static analyses (gravity and average static wind loading), telescope natural modes, dynamic response to wind loadings, and a seismic loading analysis. Image motion at the instrument focal plane is also calculated based on line of sight (LOS) sensitivity equations integrated into the finite element models.

  19. The soft X-ray telescope for the SOLAR-A mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuneta, S.; Acton, L.; Bruner, M.; Lemen, J.; Brown, W.; Caravalho, R.; Catura, R.; Freeland, S.; Jurcevich, B.; Owens, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) of the SOLAR-A mission is designed to produce X-ray movies of flares with excellent angular and time resolution as well as full-disk X-ray images for general studies. A selection of thin metal filters provide a measure of temperature discrimination and aid in obtaining the wide dynamic range required for solar observing. The co-aligned SXT aspect telescope will yield optical images for aspect reference, white-light flare and sunspot studies, and, possibly, helioseismology. This paper describes the capabilities and characteristics of the SXT for scientific observing.

  20. Solar Wind observations using the Mexican Array Radio Telescope (MEXART)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Hernandez, E.; Gonzalez-Esparza, A.; Villanueva, P.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Mejia-Ambriz, J. C.; Mexart

    2013-05-01

    The Mexican Array Radiotelescope (MEXART) is an instrument devoted to observations of radio sources to study large-scale structures in the solar wind employing the Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) technique. We report recent IPS observations, from January to April of 2013, including an analysis of the scintillation index and the estimation of solar wind velocities for a set of radio sources. We track the first ICMEs registered by the MEXART. We are initiating a continuos operation for a complete monitoring of IPS radio sources that will complement solar wind studies based on in-situ observations.

  1. The Lyman-alpha Solar Telescope for the ASO-S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui

    2015-08-01

    The Lyman-alpha Solar Telescope (LST) is one of the payloads for the proposed Space-Borne Advanced Solar Observatory (ASO-S). LST consists of a Solar Disk Imager (SDI) with a field-of-view (FOV) of 1.2 Rsun, a Solar Corona Imager (SCI) with an FOV of 1.1 - 2.5 Rsun, and a full-disk White-light Solar Telescope (WST) with an FOV of 1.2 Rsun, which also serves as the guiding telescope. The SCI is designed to work at the Lyman-alpha waveband and white-light, while the SDI will work at the Lyman-alpha waveband only. The WST works both in visible (for guide) and ultraviolet (for science) white-light. The LST will observe the Sun from disk-center up to 2.5 solar radii for both solar flares and coronal mass ejections. In this presentation, I will give an introduction to LST, including scientific objectives, science requirement, instrument design and current status.

  2. The Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array. II - Soft X-ray/EUV reflectivity of the multilayer mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Weed, J. W.; Hoover, Richard B. C., Jr.; Allen, Max J.; Lindblom, Joakim F.; O'Neal, Ray H.; Kankelborg, Charles C.; Deforest, Craig E.; Paris, Elizabeth S.; Walker, Arthur B. C.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed seven compact soft X-ray/EUV (XUV) multilayer coated and two compact FUV interference film coated Cassegrain and Ritchey-Chretien telescopes for a rocket borne observatory, the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array. We report here on extensive measurements of the efficiency and spectral bandpass of the XUV telescopes carried out at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory.

  3. Off-disk straylight measurements for the Swedish 1-meter Solar Telescope

    E-print Network

    Löfdahl, Mats G

    2015-01-01

    Context. Accurate photometry with ground based solar telescopes requires characterization of straylight. Scattering in Earth's atmosphere and in the telescope optics are potentially significant sources of straylight, for which the point spread function (PSF) has wings that reach very far. This kind of straylight produces an aureola, extending several solar radii off the solar disk. Aims. Measure such straylight using the ordinary science instrumentation. Methods. We scanned the intensity on and far off the solar disk by use of the science cameras in several different wavelength bands on a day with low-dust conditions. We characterized the far wing straylight by fitting a model to the recorded intensities involving a multi-component straylight PSF and the limb darkening of the disk. Results. The measured scattered light adds an approximately constant fraction of the local granulation intensity to science images at any position on the disk. The fraction varied over the day but never exceeded a few percent. The ...

  4. OSCILLATORY BEHAVIOR IN THE QUIET SUN OBSERVED WITH THE NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Andic, A.; Goode, P. R.; Cao, W.; Yurchyshyn, V.; Abramenko, V.; Chae, J.; Ahn, K.

    2010-07-10

    Surface photometry of the quiet Sun has achieved an angular resolution of 0.''1 with the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory, revealing that a disproportionate fraction of the oscillatory events appear above observed bright point-like structures. During the tracking of these structures, we noted that the more powerful oscillatory events are cospatial with them, indicating that observed flux tubes may be the source of many observed oscillatory events.

  5. The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) Site Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, F.; Briggs, J.; Radick, R.; Hegwer, S.

    2002-05-01

    The performance of the ATST will be strongly influenced by the atmospheric conditions of the site. In order to select the site, we are testing six candidate locations: Big Bear Solar Observatory, California; Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain; Mees Solar Observatory, Haleakala, Hawaii; NSO/Sacramento Peak Observatory, New Mexico; Observatorio Astronomico Nacional, San Pedro Martir, Baja California, Mexico; and Panguitch Lake, Utah. The statistics of seeing, scattering, and cloud cover are being measured with a suite of instruments including a solar differential image motion monitor (S-DIMM), an array of six scintillometers, a small externally occulted coronagraph, a water vapor meter, a dust monitor, and a weather station. At the time of the meeting, we expect to have four operational sites, and we will present a first look at the relationship bewteen solar observing conditions and site geography, topology, and meteorology. The National Solar Observatory is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation, for the benefit of the astronomical community.

  6. The Astrometric Imaging Telescope - A space-based observatory for extra-solar planet detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pravdo, Steven H.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the objectives, techniques, instrumentation, and mission of the planned Astrometric Imaging Telescope. This space-based observatory is designed to detect and characterize extra-solar planetary systems. Results will contribute to the understanding of the astrophysics of stellar and planetary formation and provide an impetus for the study of exobiology.

  7. New solar axion search using the CERN Axion Solar Telescope with 4He filling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arik, M.; Aune, S.; Barth, K.; Belov, A.; Bräuninger, H.; Bremer, J.; Burwitz, V.; Cantatore, G.; Carmona, J. M.; Cetin, S. A.; Collar, J. I.; Da Riva, E.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Dermenev, A.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Elias, N.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Galán, J.; García, J. A.; Gardikiotis, A.; Garza, J. G.; Gazis, E. N.; Geralis, T.; Georgiopoulou, E.; Giomataris, I.; Gninenko, S.; Gómez Marzoa, M.; Hasinoff, M. D.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Iguaz, F. J.; Irastorza, I. G.; Jacoby, J.; Jakov?i?, K.; Karuza, M.; Kavuk, M.; Kr?mar, M.; Kuster, M.; Laki?, B.; Laurent, J. M.; Liolios, A.; Ljubi?i?, A.; Luzón, G.; Neff, S.; Niinikoski, T.; Nordt, A.; Ortega, I.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M. J.; Raffelt, G.; Rodríguez, A.; Rosu, M.; Ruz, J.; Savvidis, I.; Shilon, I.; Solanki, S. K.; Stewart, L.; Tomás, A.; Vafeiadis, T.; Villar, J.; Vogel, J. K.; Yildiz, S. C.; Zioutas, K.; CAST Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) searches for a ?? conversion in the 9 T magnetic field of a refurbished LHC test magnet that can be directed toward the Sun. Two parallel magnet bores can be filled with helium of adjustable pressure to match the x-ray refractive mass m? to the axion search mass ma. After the vacuum phase (2003-2004), which is optimal for ma?0.02 eV , we used 4He in 2005-2007 to cover the mass range of 0.02-0.39 eV and 3He in 2009-2011 to scan from 0.39 to 1.17 eV. After improving the detectors and shielding, we returned to 4He in 2012 to investigate a narrow ma range around 0.2 eV ("candidate setting" of our earlier search) and 0.39-0.42 eV, the upper axion mass range reachable with 4He, to "cross the axion line" for the KSVZ model. We have improved the limit on the axion-photon coupling to ga ?<1.47 ×10-10 GeV-1 (95% C.L.), depending on the pressure settings. Since 2013, we have returned to the vacuum and aim for a significant increase in sensitivity.

  8. Distributed aperture synthesis.

    PubMed

    Rabb, David; Jameson, Douglas; Stokes, Andrew; Stafford, Jason

    2010-05-10

    Distributed aperture synthesis is an exciting technique for recovering high-resolution images from an array of small telescopes. Such a system requires optical field values measured at individual apertures to be phased together so that a single, high-resolution image can be synthesized. This paper describes the application of sharpness metrics to the process of phasing multiple coherent imaging systems into a single high-resolution system. Furthermore, this paper will discuss hardware and present the results of simulations and experiments which will illustrate how aperture synthesis is performed. PMID:20588888

  9. Solar Polar ORbit Telescope (SPORT): A Potential Heliophysics Mission of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying

    We describe a spacecraft mission, named Solar Polar ORbit Telescope (SPORT), which is currently under a scientific and engineering background study in China. SPORT was originally proposed in 2004 by the National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences. It will carry a suite of remote-sensing and in-situ instruments to observe coronal mass ejections (CMEs), solar high-latitude magnetism, and the fast solar wind from a polar orbit around the Sun. It is intended to be the first mission that carries remote-sensing instruments from a high-latitude orbit around the Sun and the first mission that could measure solar high-latitude magnetism. The first extended view of the polar region of the Sun and the ecliptic plane enabled by SPORT will provide a unique opportunity to study CME propagation through the inner heliosphere and solar high-latitude magnetism giving rise to eruptions and the fast solar wind.

  10. Solar observations with a low frequency radio telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myserlis, I.; Seiradakis, J.; Dogramatzidis, M.

    2012-01-01

    We have set up a low frequency radio monitoring station for solar bursts at the Observatory of the Aristotle University in Thessaloniki. The station consists of a dual dipole phased array, a radio receiver and a dedicated computer with the necessary software installed. The constructed radio receiver is based on NASA's Radio Jove project. It operates continuously, since July 2010, at 20.1 MHz (close to the long-wavelength ionospheric cut-off of the radio window) with a narrow bandwidth (~5 kHz). The system is properly calibrated, so that the recorded data are expressed in antenna temperature. Despite the high interference level of an urban region like Thessaloniki (strong broadcasting shortwave radio stations, periodic experimental signals, CBs, etc), we have detected several low frequency solar radio bursts and correlated them with solar flares, X-ray events and other low frequency solar observations. The received signal is monitored in ordinary ASCII format and as audio signal, in order to investigate and exclude man-made radio interference. In order to exclude narrow band interference and calculate the spectral indices of the observed events, a second monitoring station, working at 36 MHz, is under construction at the village of Nikiforos near the town of Drama, about 130 km away of Thessaloniki. Finally, we plan to construct a third monitoring station at 58 MHz, in Thessaloniki. This frequency was revealed to be relatively free of interference, after a thorough investigation of the region.

  11. STELLAR TIDAL STREAMS IN SPIRAL GALAXIES OF THE LOCAL VOLUME: A PILOT SURVEY WITH MODEST APERTURE TELESCOPES

    SciTech Connect

    MartInez-Delgado, David; Zibetti, Stefano; Rix, Hans-Walter; Gabany, R. Jay; Crawford, Ken; Majewski, Steven R.; McDavid, David A.; Fliri, Juergen; Carballo-Bello, Julio A.; Bardalez-Gagliuffi, Daniella C.; Trujillo, Ignacio; Penarrubia, Jorge; Chonis, Taylor S.; Madore, Barry; Schirmer, Mischa

    2010-10-15

    Within the hierarchical framework for galaxy formation, minor merging and tidal interactions are expected to shape all large galaxies to the present day. As a consequence, most seemingly normal disk galaxies should be surrounded by spatially extended stellar 'tidal features' of low surface brightness. As part of a pilot survey for such interaction signatures, we have carried out ultra deep, wide field imaging of eight isolated spiral galaxies in the Local Volume, with data taken at small (D = 0.1-0.5 m) robotic telescopes that provide exquisite surface brightness sensitivity ({mu}{sub lim}(V) {approx} 28.5 mag arcsec{sup -2}). This initial observational effort has led to the discovery of six previously undetected extensive (to {approx}30 kpc) stellar structures in the halos surrounding these galaxies, likely debris from tidally disrupted satellites. In addition, we confirm and clarify several enormous stellar over-densities previously reported in the literature, but never before interpreted as tidal streams. Even this pilot sample of galaxies exhibits strikingly diverse morphological characteristics of these extended stellar features: great circle-like features that resemble the Sagittarius stream surrounding the Milky Way, remote shells and giant clouds of presumed tidal debris far beyond the main stellar body, as well as jet-like features emerging from galactic disks. Together with presumed remains of already disrupted companions, our observations also capture surviving satellites caught in the act of tidal disruption. A qualitative comparison with available simulations set in a {Lambda}Cold Dark Matter cosmology (that model the stellar halo as the result of satellite disruption evolution) shows that the extraordinary variety of stellar morphologies detected in this pilot survey matches that seen in those simulations. The common existence of these tidal features around 'normal' disk galaxies and the morphological match to the simulations constitutes new evidence that these theoretical models also apply to a large number of other Milky Way-mass disk galaxies in the Local Volume.

  12. Linear-array apertures for in-flight dynamic solar calibration of radiometric channels for Earth radiation-budget applications.

    PubMed

    Tira, N E; Mahan, J R; Lee Iii, R B; Keynton, R J

    1994-08-20

    The zero-frequency gain of nonimaging radiometers used in Earth radiation-budget applications is usually verified by a procedure that allows the instrument to view the Sun through an appropriate attenuating aperture and then equates its response to the known attenuated solar constant. However, channel intercomparison often requires that data from a low-resolution, relatively slow instrument such as an active-cavity radiometer be compared with data from a high-resolution, fast instrument such as a scanning thermistor-bolometer radiometer. In such a case, consideration of the difference in the dynamic responses of the two channels may be important. A novel technique for in-flight measurement of the radiometric transfer function of such instruments is described and then demonstrated through the use of a high-order dynamic model of the total, wide-field-of-view, nonscanning channel of NASA's Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). PMID:20935961

  13. EIT: Solar corona synoptic observations from SOHO with an Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaboudiniere, J. P.; Gabriel, A. H.; Artzner, G. E.; Michels, D. J.; Dere, K. P.; Howard, R. A.; Catura, R.; Stern, R.; Lemen, J.; Neupert, W.

    1988-01-01

    The Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) of SOHO (solar and heliospheric observatory) will provide full disk images in emission lines formed at temperatures that map solar structures ranging from the chromospheric network to the hot magnetically confined plasma in the corona. Images in four narrow bandpasses will be obtained using normal incidence multilayered optics deposited on quadrants of a Ritchey-Chretien telescope. The EIT is capable of providing a uniform one arc second resolution over its entire 50 by 50 arc min field of view. Data from the EIT will be extremely valuable for identifying and interpreting the spatial and temperature fine structures of the solar atmosphere. Temporal analysis will provide information on the stability of these structures and identify dynamical processes. EIT images, issued daily, will provide the global corona context for aid in unifying the investigations and in forming the observing plans for SOHO coronal instruments.

  14. The x-ray/EUV telescope for the Solar-C mission: science and development activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakao, Taro; Narukage, Noriyuki; Imada, Shinsuke; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Shimojo, Masumi; Tsuneta, Saku; DeLuca, Edward E.; Watanabe, Kyoko; Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke

    2012-09-01

    We report science and development activities of the X-ray/EUV telescope for the Japanese Solar-C mission whose projected launch around 2019. The telescope consists of a package of (a) a normal-incidence (NI) EUV telescope and (b) a grazing-incidence (GI) soft X-ray telescope. The NI telescope chiefly provides images of low corona (whose temperature 1 MK or even lower) with ultra-high angular resolution (0.2-0.3"/pixel) in 3 wavelength bands (304, 171, and 94 angstroms). On the other hand, the GI telescope provides images of the corona with a wide temperature coverage (1 MK to beyond 10 MK) with the highest-ever angular resolution (~0.5"/pixel) as a soft X-ray coronal imager. The set of NI and GI telescopes should provide crucial information for establishing magnetic and gas-dynamic connection between the corona and the lower atmosphere of the Sun which is essential for understanding heating of, and plasma activities in, the corona. Moreover, we attempt to implement photon-counting capability for the GI telescope with which imaging-spectroscopy of the X-ray corona will be performed for the first time, in the energy range from ~0.5 keV up to 10 keV. The imaging-spectroscopic observations will provide totally-new information on mechanism(s) for the generation of hot coronal plasmas (heated beyond a few MK), those for magnetic reconnection, and even generation of supra-thermal electrons associated with flares. An overview of instrument outline and science for the X-ray photoncounting telescope are presented, together with ongoing development activities in Japan towards soft X-ray photoncounting observations, focusing on high-speed X-ray CMOS detector and sub-arcsecond-resolution GI mirror.

  15. Quantitative evaluation on internal seeing induced by heat-stop of solar telescope.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangyi; Gu, Naiting; Rao, Changhui

    2015-07-27

    heat-stop is one of the essential thermal control devices of solar telescope. The internal seeing induced by its temperature rise will degrade the imaging quality significantly. For quantitative evaluation on internal seeing, an integrated analysis method based on computational fluid dynamics and geometric optics is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the temperature field of the heat-affected zone induced by heat-stop temperature rise is obtained by the method of computational fluid dynamics calculation. Secondly, the temperature field is transformed to refractive index field by corresponding equations. Thirdly, the wavefront aberration induced by internal seeing is calculated by geometric optics based on optical integration in the refractive index field. This integrated method is applied in the heat-stop of the Chinese Large Solar Telescope to quantitatively evaluate its internal seeing. The analytical results show that the maximum acceptable temperature rise of heat-stop is up to 5 Kelvins above the ambient air at any telescope pointing directions under the condition that the root-mean-square of wavefront aberration induced by internal seeing is less than 25nm. Furthermore, it is found that the magnitude of wavefront aberration gradually increases with the increase of heat-stop temperature rise for a certain telescope pointing direction. Meanwhile, with the variation of telescope pointing varying from the horizontal to the vertical direction, the magnitude of wavefront aberration decreases at first and then increases for the same heat-stop temperature rise. PMID:26367657

  16. Discovery Of Cool Cloud-like Structures In The Corona With Hinode Solar Optical Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Takenori; Tsuneta, S.; Katsukawa, Y.; Ichimoto, K.; Suematsu, Y.; Shimizu, T.; Nagata, S.; Shibata, K.; Tarbell, T.; Shine, R.; Berger, T.; Lites, B.; Myers, D.

    2007-05-01

    A solar observation satellite Hinode (Japanese for sun rise) was launched in September 2006.Hinode carried 3 advanced solar telescopes, visible light telescope, EUV imaging spectrometer, and X-ray telescope to simultaneously observe the photosphere, chromosphere, transition region, and corona. In the performance verification phase of the Hinode spacecraft with its telescopes, we observed an active region AR10921 near the west limb of the solar disk on November 9 2006. At this point, we planned to observe spicules on the limb with a broadband filter dedicated to Ca II H line (3968A). Ca II-H emission line (3968A) comes from plasma with temperature of approx. 10(4) K, which is much lower than the coronal temperature of 10(6-7) K. In addition to spectacular spicules, we find a large cloud-like structure located 10,000-20,000 km above the limb. The cloud has a very complex fine structure with dominant horizontal thread-like structure. Some features are moving horizontally and also have clear vertical oscillatory motions. The periods and amplitudes of these oscillations are 130-250 seconds and 200-850 km, respectively. The vertical oscillatory motion sometimes has a coherence length as long as 16,000 km. We conclude that from various observational features this vertical oscillation is a signature of Alfven waves propagating along the horizontal magnetic fields. We will discuss their origin and implications.

  17. Thermal effects in the Solar Disk Sextant telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spagnesi, Chiara; Vannoni, Maurizio; Molesini, Giuseppe; Righini, Alberto

    2004-02-01

    The Solar Disk Sextant (SDS) is an instrument conceived to monitor the diameter of the Sun and its oscillations. A key component of the SDS is the Beam Splitting Wedge (BSW), whose function is to provide calibration to the geometry of the focal plane. The thermal behavior of the BSW is critical, as it affects the overall performance of the instrument. Modeling the elements of the BSW and the basic thermal processes is shown to account for experimental evidences of defocusing observed in early measurements with a balloon borne prototype. Basic requirements for accurate thermal stabilization on board of the final instrument are derived.

  18. A silicon surface barrier telescope for solar particles identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sequeiros, J.; Medina, J.

    1985-01-01

    From the results three conclusions can be made: (1) the detector system described and tested is capable of good charge resolution from He to Al although beyond Ne the statistic is very poor; (2) in the high gain mode, isotopic resolution has been achieved for Li-6/Li-7 Be-7/Be-9; (3) the much higher yield of He over He and of Be-9 over Be-10 in these types of nuclear reactions prevents obtaining experimental evidence of those isotopes, although it is believed that, at least He-3/He-4 can be resolved under other more favorable conditions (i.e., solar He-3-rich events).

  19. EUV/FUV response characteristics of photographic films for the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Deforest, Craig E.; Allen, Maxwell J.; Lindblom, Joakim F.

    1991-01-01

    The photographic film employed by NASA's Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array must have high-to-ultrahigh resolution; since the spacecraft bearing the telescope must be evacuated to prevent the failure of delicate EUV and soft X-ray filters due to acoustic vibration during launch, the films must also have very low outgassing rates. An account is presently given of the properties of important new emulsions selected for flight, together with response-characteristics data for the experimental XUV 100 film and an uncoated Spectroscopic 649 emulsion.

  20. The Soft X-ray Telescope for Solar-A - Design evolution and lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruner, Marilyn E.

    1992-01-01

    The Japanese Solar-A satellite mission's Soft X-ray Telescope uses grazing-incidence optics, a CCD detector, and a pair of filter wheels for wavelength selection. A coaxially-mounted visible-light lens furnished sunspot and magnetic plage images, together with aspect information which aids in aligning the soft X-ray images with those from the satellite's Hard X-ray Telescope. Instrument electronics are microprocessor-based, and imbedded in a tightly integrated distributed system. Control software is divided between the instrument microprocessor and the spacecraft control computer.

  1. Structural mechanics of the solar-A Soft X-ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurcevich, B. K.; Bruner, M. E.; Gowen, K. F.

    1992-01-01

    The Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) is one of four major instruments that constitute the payload of the NASA-Japanese mission YOHKOH (formerly known as Solar-A), scheduled to be launched in August, 1991. This paper describes the design of the SXT, the key system requirements, and the SXT optical and structural systems. Particular attention is given to the design considerations for stiffness and dimensional stability, temperature compensation, and moisture sensitivyty control. Consideration is also given to the X-ray mirror, the aspect telescope, the entrance filters, the mechanical structure design, the aft support plate and mount, the SXT finite element model, and other subsystems.

  2. Problem 1: Imaging resolution The Hubble space telescope has a 2.4m aperture and effective focal length of 57.6m. Assuming the lens

    E-print Network

    Siegel, Paul H.

    Problem 1: Imaging resolution The Hubble space telescope has a 2.4m for (2). 4) If the Hubble telescope were located on UCSD's campus, what physical effect would limit the resolution? How could you modify the telescope

  3. Detection of Solar Wind Disturbances: Mexican Array Radio Telescope IPS Observations at 140 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Hernandez, E.; Gonzalez-Esparza, J. A.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Ontiveros-Hernandez, V.; Villanueva-Hernandez, P.

    2015-09-01

    The interplanetary scintillation (IPS) technique is a remote-sensing method for monitoring solar-wind perturbations. The Mexican Array Radio Telescope (MEXART) is a single-station instrument operating at 140 MHz, fully dedicated to performing solar-wind studies employing the IPS technique. We report MEXART solar-wind measurements (scintillation indices and solar-wind velocities) using data obtained during the 2013 and 2014 campaigns. These solar-wind measurements were calculated employing a new methodology based on the wavelet transform (WT) function. We report the variation of the scintillation indices versus the heliocentric distance for two IPS sources (3C48 and 3C147). We found different average conditions of the solar-wind density fluctuations in 2013 and 2014. We used the fittings of the radial dependence of the scintillation index to calculate g-indices. Based on the g-index value, we identified 17 events that could be associated with strong compression regions in the solar wind. We present the first ICME identifications in our data. We associated 14 IPS events with preceding CME counterparts by employing white-light observations from the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft. We found that most of the IPS events, detected during the solar maximum of Cycle 24 were associated with complex CME events. For the IPS events associated with single CME counterparts, we found a deceleration tendency of the CMEs as they propagate in the interplanetary medium. These results show that the instrument detects solar-wind disturbances, and the WT methodology provides solar-wind information with good accuracy. The MEXART observations will complement solar-wind IPS studies using other frequencies, and the tracking of solar-wind disturbances by other stations located at different longitudes.

  4. A New 0.5m Telescope (MAST) for Solar Imaging and Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, S. K.

    2009-06-01

    In this article we discuss the design of a new 0.5 m telescope which will be installed at the lake site of Udaipur Solar Observatory (USO), India in the first quarter of 2009. The telescope has an off-axis alt-azimuth design, which will provide a low scattered-light performance. The complete telescope including the control system will be made by AMOS, Belgium. The prototype adaptive-optics system for seeing correction is being developed at USO. The design of two back-end instruments, an echelle-scanning spectrograph capable of observing simultaneously in at least two spectral lines, and an imaging spectrometer based on double Fabry-Pérot etalon, and a polarimeter common for both the instruments is in progress. The scientific objectives, design aspects and the current status of the above instruments is discussed in this paper.

  5. Gregor@night: The future high-resolution stellar spectrograph for the GREGOR solar telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strassmeier, K. G.; Ilyin, I. V.; Woche, M.; Granzer, T.; Weber, M.; Weingrill, J.; Bauer, S.-M.; Popow, E.; Denker, C.; Schmidt, W.; von der Lühe, O.; Berdyugina, S.; Collados, M.; Koubsky, P.; Hackman, T.; Mantere, M. J.

    2012-11-01

    We describe the future night-time spectrograph for the GREGOR solar telescope and present its science core projects. The spectrograph provides a 3-pixel resolution of up to R=87 000 in 45 échelle orders covering the wavelength range 390-900 nm with three grating settings. An iodine cell can be used for high-precision radial velocity work in the 500-630 nm range. The operation of the spectrograph and the telescope will be fully automated without the presence of humans during night-time and will be based on the successful STELLA control system. Future upgrades include a second optical camera for even higher spectral resolution, a Stokes-V polarimeter and a link to the laser-frequency comb at the Vacuum Tower Telescope. The night-time core projects are a study of the angular-momentum evolution of ``The Sun in Time'' and a continuation of our long-term Doppler imaging of active stars.

  6. Solar-Array-Induced Disturbance of the Hubble Space Telescope Pointing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Carlton L.; Tinker, Michael L.; Nurre, Gerald S.; Till, William A.

    1995-01-01

    The investigation of the vibrational disturbances of the Hubble Space Telescope that were discovered soon after deployment in orbit is described in detail. It was found that the disturbances were particularly evident during orbital day-night crossings, and that the magnitude of the disturbances was considerably larger than the design jitter requirement. This paper describes the process by which the vibrations were characterized and isolated to a particular mechanism. The analysis of the flight data and comparisons with computer simulation results showed that the source of the disturbances was the thermally driven deformation of the solar arrays in conjunction with frictional effects in the array mechanisms. The control system was successfully modified to attenuate the disturbances to tolerable levels pending mechanical and thermal redesign of the solar arrays. The new arrays were installed during the first Space Telescope servicing mission, and in combination with the enhanced control system algorithm reduced the disturbances to satisfactory levels.

  7. The solar array-induced disturbance of the Hubble Space Telescope pointing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, C. L.; Tinker, M. L.; Nurre, G. S.; Till, W. A.

    1995-01-01

    The investigation of the vibrational disturbances of the Hubble Space Telescope that were discovered soon after deployment in orbit is described in detail. It was found that the disturbances were particularly evident during orbital day-night crossings, and that the magnitudes of the disturbances were considerably larger than the design jitter requirements. This paper describes the process by which the vibrations were characterized and isolated to a particular mechanism. The analysis of the flight data and comparisons with computer simulation results showed that the source of the disturbances was the thermally driven deformation of the solar arrays in conjunction with frictional effects in the array mechanisms. The control system was successfully modified to attenuate the disturbances to tolerable levels pending mechanical and thermal redesign of the solar arrays. The new arrays were installed during the first space telescope servicing mission and, in combination with the enhanced control system algorithm, reduced the disturbances to satisfactory levels.

  8. The Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array - Initial results and future plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Hoover, Richard B.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    We review the scientific objectives, configuration, and initial flight results of the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA). The MSSTA is a comprehensive solar rocket-borne observatory which utilizes multilayer coated optics to achieve high resolution thermally resolved images of the sun at FUV, EUV and soft X-ray wavelengths. The MSSTA was successfully flown on May 13, 1991, obtaining high resolution images of chromospheric and coronal structures, including loops, filaments, polar plumes, and coronal holes. We also discuss plans to expand the capabilities of the MSSTA for future flights.

  9. X-ray photographs of a solar active region with a multilayer telescope at normal incidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, J. H.; Bruner, M. E.; Haisch, B. M.; Brown, W. A.; Acton, L. W.

    1987-01-01

    An astronomical photograph was obtained with a multilayer X-ray telescope. A 4-cm tungsten-carbon multilayer mirror was flown as part of an experimental solar rocket payload, and successful images were taken of the sun at normal incidence at a wavelength of 44 A. Coronal Si XII emission from an active region was recorded on film; as expected, the structure is very similar to that observed at O VIII wavelengths by the Solar Maximum Mission flat-crystal spectrometer at the same time. The small, simple optical system used in this experiment appears to have achieved a resolution of 5 to 10 arcsec.

  10. Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array. IV - The soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindblom, Joakim F.; O'Neal, Ray H.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Powell, Forbes R.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Hoover, Richard B.

    1991-01-01

    NASA's Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array uses various combinations of thin foil filters composed of Al, C, Te, Be, Mo, Rh, and phthalocyanine to achieve the requisite radiation-rejection characteristics. Such rejection is demanded by the presence of strong EUV radiation at longer wavelengths where the specular reflectivity of multilayer mirrors can cause 'contamination' of the image in the narrow band defined by the Bragg condition.

  11. STS-31 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) solar array panel deploy aboard OV-103

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Held in appendage deploy position by Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, remote manipulator system (RMS), the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) starboard solar array (SA) bistem cassette is released from its stowed position on the Support System Module (SSM) forward shell. The spreader bar and bistem begin to unfurl the SA wing. View was taken by an STS-31 crewmember through an overhead window and is backdropped against the surface of the Earth.

  12. Solar dynamic modules for Space Station Freedom: The relationship between fine-pointing control and thermal loading of the aperture plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Roger D.; Kerslake, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic simulations of Space Station Freedom (SSF) configured with solar dynamic (SD) power modules were performed. The structure was subjected to Space Shuttle docking disturbances, while being controlled with a 'natural' vibration and tracking control approach. Three control cases were investigated for the purpose of investigating the relationship between actuator effort, SD pointing, and thermal loading on the receiver aperture plate. Transient, one-dimensional heat transfer analyses were performed to conservatively predict temperatures of the multi-layered receiver aperture plate assembly and thermal stresses in its shield layer. Results indicate that the proposed aperture plate is tolerant of concentrated flux impingement during short-lived structural disturbances. Pointing requirements may be loosened and the requirement control torques lessened from that previously specified. Downsizing and simplifying the joint drive system should result in a considerable savings mass.

  13. Detecting Life-bearing Extra-solar Planets with Space Telescopes

    E-print Network

    Steven V. W. Beckwith

    2008-03-29

    One of the promising methods to search for life on extra-solar planets (exoplanets) is to detect life's signatures in their atmospheres. Spectra of exoplanet atmospheres at the modest resolution needed to search for oxygen, carbon dioxide, water, and methane will demand large collecting areas and large diameters to capture and isolate the light from planets in the habitable zones around the stars. For telescopes using coronagraphs to isolate the light from the planet, each doubling of telescope diameter will increase the available sample of stars by an order of magnitude, indicating a high scientific return if the technical difficulties of constructing very large space telescopes can be overcome. For telescopes detecting atmospheric signatures of transiting planets, the sample size increases only linearly with diameter, and the available samples are probably too small to guarantee detection of life-bearing planets. Using samples of nearby stars suitable for exoplanet searches, this paper shows that the demands of searching for life with either technique will require large telescopes, with diameters of order 10m or larger in space.

  14. Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array. II - Soft X-ray/EUV reflectivity of the multilayer mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Weed, J. W.; Hoover, Richard B.; Allen, Maxwell J.; Lindblom, Joakim F.; O'Neal, Ray H.; Kankelborg, Charles C.; Deforest, Craig E.; Paris, Elizabeth S.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The Multispectral Solar Telescope Array is a rocket-borne observatory which encompasses seven compact soft X-ray/EUV, multilayer-coated, and two compact far-UV, interference film-coated, Cassegrain and Ritchey-Chretien telescopes. Extensive measurements are presented on the efficiency and spectral bandpass of the X-ray/EUV telescopes. Attention is given to systematic errors and measurement errors.

  15. The pier and building of the European Solar Telescope (EST) F.C.M. Bettonvil*a

    E-print Network

    Rutten, Rob

    a service building that accommodates all auxiliary services, possibly together with a separate building, thermal properties and flow characteristics. FE models and CFD simulations are used to give qualitative surrounded by an open framework. Keywords: Telescope pier, building, solar telescope, CFD analysis, tower

  16. A New Era in Solar Thermal-IR Astronomy: the NSO Array Camera (NAC) on the McMath-Pierce Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, T.; Penn, M.; Plymate, C.; Keller, C.

    2008-09-01

    The U.S. National Solar Observatory Array Camera (NAC) is a cryogenically cooled 1Kx1K InSb ``Aladdin" array that recently became operational at the McMath-Pierce facility on Kitt Peak, a high dry site in the southwest U.S. (Arizona). The new camera is similar to those already incorporated into instruments on nighttime telescopes, and has unprecedented sensitivity, low noise, and excellent cosmetics compared with the Amber Engineering (AE) device it replaces. (The latter was scavenged from a commercial surveillance camera in the 1990's: only 256X256 format, high noise, and annoying flatfield structure). The NAC focal plane is maintained at 30 K by a mechanical closed-cycle helium cooler, dispensing with the cumbersome pumped--solid-N2 40 K system used previously with the AE camera. The NAC linearity has been verified for exposures as short as 1 ms, although latency in the data recording holds the maximum frame rate to about 8 Hz (in "streaming mode"). The camera is run in tandem with the Infrared Adaptive Optics (IRAO) system. Utilizing a 37-actuator deformable mirror, IRAO can--under moderate seeing conditions--correct the telescope image to the diffraction limit longward of 2.3 mu (if a suitable high contrast target is available: the IR granulation has proven too bland to reliably track). IRAO also provides fine control over the solar image for spatial scanning in long-slit mode with the 14 m vertical "Main" spectrograph (MS). A 1'X1' area scan, with 0.5" steps orthogonal to the slit direction, requires less than half a minute, much shorter than p-mode and granulation evolution time scales. A recent engineering test run, in April 2008, utilized NAC/IRAO/MS to capture the fundamental (4.6 mu) and first-overtone (2.3 mu) rovibrational bands of CO, including maps of quiet regions, drift scans along the equatorial limbs (to measure the off-limb molecular emissions), and imaging of a fortuitous small sunspot pair, a final gasp, perhaps, of Cycle 23. Future work with the NAC will emphasize pathfinding toward the next generation of IR imaging spectrometers for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope, whose 4 m aperture finally will bring sorely needed high spatial resolution to daytime infrared astronomy. In the meantime, the NAC is available to qualified solar physicists from around the world to conduct forefront research in the 1-5 mu region, on the venerable--but infrared friendly--McMath-Pierce telescope.

  17. High-performance parallel image reconstruction for the New Vacuum Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xue-Bao; Liu, Zhong; Wang, Feng; Jin, Zhen-Yu; Xiang, Yong-Yuan; Zheng, Yan-Fang

    2015-06-01

    Many technologies have been developed to help improve spatial resolution of observational images for ground-based solar telescopes, such as adaptive optics (AO) systems and post-processing reconstruction. As any AO system correction is only partial, it is indispensable to use post-processing reconstruction techniques. In the New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST), a speckle-masking method is used to achieve the diffraction-limited resolution of the telescope. Although the method is very promising, the computation is quite intensive, and the amount of data is tremendous, requiring several months to reconstruct observational data of one day on a high-end computer. To accelerate image reconstruction, we parallelize the program package on a high-performance cluster. We describe parallel implementation details for several reconstruction procedures. The code is written in the C language using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) and is optimized for parallel processing in a multiprocessor environment. We show the excellent performance of parallel implementation, and the whole data processing speed is about 71 times faster than before. Finally, we analyze the scalability of the code to find possible bottlenecks, and propose several ways to further improve the parallel performance. We conclude that the presented program is capable of executing reconstruction applications in real-time at NVST.

  18. Reflectivity, polarization properties, and durability of metallic mirror coatings for the European Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feller, A.; Krishnappa, N.; Pleier, O.; Hirzberger, J.; Jobst, P. J.; Schürmann, M.

    2012-09-01

    In the context of the conceptual design study for the European Solar Telescope (EST) we have investigated different metallic mirror coatings in terms of reflectivity, polarization properties and durability. Samples of the following coating types have been studied: bare aluminum, silver with different dielectric layers for protection and UV enhancement, and an aluminum-silver combination. From 2009 to 2011 we have carried out a long-term durability test under realistic observing conditions at the VTT solar telescope of the Observatorio del Teide (Tenerife, Spain), accompanied by repeated reflectivity measurements in the EST spectral working range (0.3 - 20 ?m), and by polarization measurements in the visible range. The test results allow us to find the optimum coatings for the different mirrors in the EST beampath and to eventually assess aging effects and re-coating cycles. The results of the polarization measurements are a valuable input for an EST telescope polarization model, helping to meet the stringent requirements on polarimetric accuracy.

  19. Photogrammetric Assessment of the Hubble Space Telescope Solar Arrays During the Second Servicing Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sapp, C. A.; Dragg, J. L.; Snyder, M. W.; Gaunce, M. T.; Decker, J. E.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the photogrammetric assessment of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) solar arrays conducted by the NASA c Center Image Science and Analysis Group during Second Servicing Mission 2 (SM-2) on STS-82 in February 1997. Two type solar array analyses were conducted during the mission using Space Shuttle payload bay video: (1) measurement of solar array motion due to induced loads, and (2) measurement of the solar array static or geometric twist caused by the cumulative array loading. The report describes pre-mission planning and analysis technique development activities conducted to acquire and analyze solar array imagery data during SM-2. This includes analysis of array motion obtained during SM-1 as a proof-of-concept of the SM-2 measurement techniques. The report documents the results of real-time analysis conducted during the mission and subsequent analysis conducted post-flight. This report also provides a summary of lessons learned on solar array imagery analysis from SM-2 and recommendations for future on-orbit measurements applicable to HST SM-3 and to the International Space Station. This work was performed under the direction of the Goddard Space Flight Center HST Flight Systems and Servicing Project.

  20. Solar System Research with the Spacewatch 1.8-m Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillan, Robert S.

    2001-01-01

    During this grant period, the 1.8-m Spacewatch telescope was put into routine operation to search for asteroids and comets ranging in location from near-Earth space to regions beyond the orbit of Neptune. All of these classes of objects can be detected simultaneously with our uniform scanning procedures. We are studying near Earth objects (NEOs), main belt asteroids, comets, Centaurs, and trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs), as well as the interrelationships of these classes and their bearing on the origin and evolution of the solar system. The Spacewatch 1.8-meter telescope is sensitive to V(mag) < 22.6 in sidereal scanning mode and is able to reach even fainter in longer 'staring' exposures, with a field of view 0.5 degrees square. These faint limits make the operation of the Spacewatch 1.8-m telescope complementary to asteroid surveys being done by other groups. Specifically, EAs smaller than 100 m in diameter and small main belt asteroids can be found, as well as more distant objects such as Centaurs/Scattered Disk Objects (SDOs) and TNOs. The 1.8-m telescope is also being used to do recoveries and astrometry of recently-discovered asteroids that subsequently become too faint for the other groups before good orbits are established.

  1. On the use of Cherenkov Telescopes for outer Solar system body occultations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacki, Brian C.

    2014-12-01

    Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) are arrays of very large optical telescopes that are well-suited for rapid photometry of bright sources. I investigate their potential in observing stellar occultations by small objects in the outer Solar system, Transjovian Objects (TJOs). These occultations cast diffraction patterns on the Earth. Current IACT arrays are capable of detecting objects smaller than 100 m in radius in the Kuiper Belt and 1 km radius out to 5000 au. The future Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will have even greater capabilities. Because the arrays include several telescopes, they can potentially measure the speeds of TJOs without degeneracies, and the sizes of the TJOs and background stars. I estimate the achievable precision using a Fisher matrix analysis. With CTA, the precisions of these parameter estimations will be as good as a few per cent. I consider how often detectable occultations occur by members of different TJO populations, including Centaurs, Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs), Oort Cloud objects, and satellites and Trojans of Uranus and Neptune. The great sensitivity of IACT arrays means that they likely detect KBO occultations once every O(10) hours when looking near the ecliptic. IACTs can also set useful limits on many other TJO populations.

  2. Rocket studies of solar corona and transition region. [X-Ray spectrometer/spectrograph telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, L. W.; Bruner, E. C., Jr.; Brown, W. A.; Nobles, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    The XSST (X-Ray Spectrometer/Spectrograph Telescope) rocket payload launched by a Nike Boosted Black Brant was designed to provide high spectral resolution coronal soft X-ray line information on a spectrographic plate, as well as time resolved photo-electric records of pre-selected lines and spectral regions. This spectral data is obtained from a 1 x 10 arc second solar region defined by the paraboloidal telescope of the XSST. The transition region camera provided full disc images in selected spectral intervals originating in lower temperature zones than the emitting regions accessible to the XSST. A H-alpha camera system allowed referencing the measurements to the chromospheric temperatures and altitudes. Payload flight and recovery information is provided along with X-ray photoelectric and UV flight data, transition camera results and a summary of the anomalies encountered. Instrument mechanical stability and spectrometer pointing direction are also examined.

  3. Isoplanatic patch considerations for solar telescope multi-conjugate adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, Jacques M.

    2014-08-01

    I compare recent site surveys for the future large 4-meter solar and 30-meter nighttime telescopes at the nearby Haleakala and Mauna Kea sites respectively. They show that the outstanding early morning image quality at the solar site corresponds indeed to that observed at the late night one at the nighttime site. That confirms the notion that daytime solar site heating only shows itself later in the morning. The nighttime survey includes observations of the refractive index structure function Cn 2(h) to high altitudes from which the radius of the isoplanatic patch (?0) can be determined. At zenith (? = 00) it equals 2.5 arcsec at 500 nm wavelength. For the early morning (best) seeing at the solar site, which occurs at ?sun = 750 and the cos1.6(?) dependence of ?0,that means an extremely small ?0 (0.26 arcsec). Such small values compromise Adaptive Optics (AO) solar correlation wavefront sensing for which areas are needed equal to about 8"× 8" I suggest options for measuring Cn2(h), and therefore ?0, during the day. These make use of the solar image as well as of daytime images of bright stars and planets. Some use the MASS technique on stars; some use the SHABAR technique using very large detector baselines on the Sun and shorter baselines on planets. It is suggested that these Cn2(h) measurements are made also during regular solar observations. In that way optimal solar observations can be planned using real-time ?0 observations by image selection and optimization of the MCAO configuration.

  4. The Thermal Environment of the Fiber Glass Dome for the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory

    E-print Network

    A. P. Verdoni; C. Denker; J. R. Varsik; S. Shumko; J. Nenow; R. Coulter

    2007-08-04

    The New Solar Telescope (NST) is a 1.6-meter off-axis Gregory-type telescope with an equatorial mount and an open optical support structure. To mitigate the temperature fluctuations along the exposed optical path, the effects of local/dome-related seeing have to be minimized. To accomplish this, NST will be housed in a 5/8-sphere fiberglass dome that is outfitted with 14 active vents evenly spaced around its perimeter. The 14 vents house louvers that open and close independently of one another to regulate and direct the passage of air through the dome. In January 2006, 16 thermal probes were installed throughout the dome and the temperature distribution was measured. The measurements confirmed the existence of a strong thermal gradient on the order of 5 degree Celsius inside the dome. In December 2006, a second set of temperature measurements were made using different louver configurations. In this study, we present the results of these measurements along with their integration into the thermal control system (ThCS) and the overall telescope control system (TCS).

  5. The thermal environment of the fiber glass dome for the new solar telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdoni, A. P.; Denker, C.; Varsik, J. R.; Shumko, S.; Nenow, J.; Coulter, R.

    2007-09-01

    The New Solar Telescope (NST) is a 1.6-meter off-axis Gregory-type telescope with an equatorial mount and an open optical support structure. To mitigate the temperature fluctuations along the exposed optical path, the effects of local/dome-related seeing have to be minimized. To accomplish this, NST will be housed in a 5/8-sphere fiberglass dome that is outfitted with 14 active vents evenly spaced around its perimeter. The 14 vents house louvers that open and close independently of one another to regulate and direct the passage of air through the dome. In January 2006, 16 thermal probes were installed throughout the dome and the temperature distribution was measured. The measurements confirmed the existence of a strong thermal gradient on the order of 5° Celsius inside the dome. In December 2006, a second set of temperature measurements were made using different louver configurations. In this study, we present the results of these measurements along with their integration into the thermal control system (ThCS) and the overall telescope control system (TCS).

  6. The ability of the space telescope to detect extra-solar planetary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baum, W. A.

    1979-01-01

    The space telescope can plan a key role in searching for and investigating the contents of extra-solar planetary systems. For about 90 nearby stars, positional variations due to major planets would be well within the astrometric capability of the wide-field/planetary camera system. Since the centroids of star images will be determined to within a milliarcsecond down to 22d magnitude, there will be an abundance of reference stars at very small angular distances from each planetary system candidate, and they will have small enough motions of their own to provide a reference frame of the stability required.

  7. NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF MAGNETIC RECONNECTION OCCURRING IN THE CHROMOSPHERE OF THE QUIET SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Chae, Jongchul; Ahn, K.; Goode, P. R.; Yurchysyn, V.; Abramenko, V.; Andic, A.; Cao, W.; Park, Y. D.

    2010-04-10

    Magnetic reconnection is a process in which field-line connectivity changes in a magnetized plasma. On the solar surface, it often occurs with the cancellation of two magnetic fragments of opposite polarity. Using the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope, we observed the morphology and dynamics of plasma visible in the H{alpha} line, which is associated with a canceling magnetic feature (CMF) in the quiet Sun. The region can be divided into four magnetic domains: two pre-reconnection and two post-reconnection. In one post-reconnection domain, a small cloud erupted, with a plane-of-sky speed of 10 km s{sup -1}, while in the other one, brightening began at points and then tiny bright loops appeared and subsequently shrank. These features support the notion that magnetic reconnection taking place in the chromosphere is responsible for CMFs.

  8. Feasibility study of a layer-oriented wavefront sensor for solar telescopes.

    PubMed

    Marino, Jose; Wöger, Friedrich

    2014-02-01

    Solar multiconjugate adaptive optics systems rely on several wavefront sensors, which measure the incoming turbulent phase along several field directions to produce a tomographic reconstruction of the turbulent phase. In this paper, we explore an alternative wavefront sensing approach that attempts to directly measure the turbulent phase present at a particular height in the atmosphere: a layer-oriented cross-correlating Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS). In an experiment at the Dunn Solar Telescope, we built a prototype layer-oriented cross-correlating SHWFS system conjugated to two separate atmospheric heights. We present the data obtained in the observations and complement these with ray-tracing computations to achieve a better understanding of the instrument's performance and limitations. The results obtained in this study strongly indicate that a layer-oriented cross-correlating SHWFS is not a practical design to measure the wavefront at a high layer in the atmosphere. PMID:24514185

  9. Solar-B X-ray Telescope (XRT) Concept Study Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Leon

    1999-01-01

    The X-ray observations from the Yohkoh SXT provided the greatest step forward in our understanding of the solar corona in nearly two decades. Expanding on the accomplishments of Yohkoh, we believe that the scientific objectives of the Solar-B mission are achieved with a significantly improved X-ray telescope (XRT) similar to the SXT. The Solar-B XRT will have twice the spatial resolution and a broader temperature response, while building on the knowledge gained from the successful Yohkoh mission. We present the scientific justification for this view, discuss the instrumental requirements that flow from the scientific objectives, and describe the instrumentation to meet these requirements. We then provide a detailed discussion of the design activities carried out during Phase A, noting the conclusions that were reached in terms of their implications for the detailed design activities which are now commencing. Details of the instrument that have changed as a result of the Phase A studied are specifically noted, and areas of concern going into Phase B are highlighted. XRT is a grazing-incidence (GI) modified Wolter I X-ray telescope, of 35cm inner diameter and 2.7m focal length. The 2048x2048 back-illuminated CCD (now an ISAS responsibility) has 13.5 micron pixels, corresponding to 1.0 arcsec and giving full Sun field of view. This will be the highest resolution GI X-ray telescope ever flown for Solar coronal studies, and it has been designed specifically to observe both the high and low temperature coronal plasma. A small optical telescope provides visible light images for co-alignment with the Solar-B optical and EUV instruments. The XRT science team is working in close cooperation with our Japanese colleagues in the design and construction of this instrument. All of the expertise and resources of the High Energy and Solar/Stellar Divisions of the Center for Astrophysics are being made available to this program, and our team will carry its full share of responsibility for mission operations, data reduction and education and public outreach. All aspects of the XRT design were reviewed during Phase A. The study focussed particularly on those aspects that have the greatest affect on instrument performance and extended lifetime, on the image quality error budget, and on the camera (mechanical and electrical) interface and the instrument mounting interfaces. The present instrument design differs in some details from that originally proposed. Selection of the XRT for Phase A study was contingent upon the removal of the camera and its associated electronics, and the acceptance of a stringent cost cap. The removal of the electronics left the XRT without control electronics for the instrument mechanisms. A mechanism controller was therefore added. The removal of the camera resulted in major complications to the integration and test plan. After many discussions, it was decided that the system would be less expensive, and the risk of unacceptable performance lower, if we include a focus mechanism. The remainder of the XRT design baseline matches the proposed configuration. Data requirements for the XRT are driven by the science plans, which are based on the physical processes in the solar outer atmosphere. Discussions to date of the XRT observing plan, both alone and in conjunction with the other Solar-B instruments, shows that the XRT needs 2 Gbits of on-board storage, at least one circulating buffer of 640 Mbits, and twelve 10- minute downlinks per day in order to carry out its required programs.

  10. Atomic oxygen resistant protective coatings for the Hubble Space Telescope solar array in low earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, H. D.; Whitaker, A. F.; Linton, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope back-up solar array (BSFR-ATOX) was designed with atomic oxygen resistant materials to replace the original high efficiency cell (HEC) array. Pending qualification of the BSFR-ATOX array, protective coatings for application to the existing HEC array were evaluated. Three polysiloxane-type coating materials, SWS V-10, DC-100, and CV-1144 were evaluated with respect to atomic oxygen resistance, outgassing, contamination potential, stability under UV irradiation, electron-proton irradiation, thermal cycling, and long-term storage after application. Atomic oxygen testing included characterization of the atomic oxygen plasma using comparison of Kapton reaction to existing flight data, residual gas analysis, and temperature measurements. Results from these tests show DC-100 as a greater contamination concern if used in the vicinity of sensitive optical surfaces, i.e., solar cell cover glasses. The SWS V-10 and CV-1144 coatings met all acceptance criteria.

  11. TRANSVERSE OSCILLATIONS OF LOOPS WITH CORONAL RAIN OBSERVED BY HINODE/SOLAR OPTICAL TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Antolin, P.; Verwichte, E. E-mail: erwin.verwichte@warwick.ac.uk

    2011-08-01

    The condensations composing coronal rain, falling down along loop-like structures observed in cool chromospheric lines such as H{alpha} and Ca II H, have long been a spectacular phenomenon of the solar corona. However, considered a peculiar sporadic phenomenon, it has not received much attention. This picture is rapidly changing due to recent high-resolution observations with instruments such as the Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), CRISP of the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope, and the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Furthermore, numerical simulations have shown that coronal rain is the loss of thermal equilibrium of loops linked to footpoint heating. This result has highlighted the importance that coronal rain can play in the field of coronal heating. In this work, we further stress the importance of coronal rain by showing the role it can play in the understanding of the coronal magnetic field topology. We analyze Hinode/SOT observations in the Ca II H line of a loop in which coronal rain puts in evidence in-phase transverse oscillations of multiple strand-like structures. The periods, amplitudes, transverse velocities, and phase velocities are calculated, allowing an estimation of the energy flux of the wave and the coronal magnetic field inside the loop through means of coronal seismology. We discuss the possible interpretations of the wave as either standing or propagating torsional Alfven or fast kink waves. An estimate of the plasma beta parameter of the condensations indicates a condition that may allow the often observed separation and elongation processes of the condensations. We also show that the wave pressure from the transverse wave can be responsible for the observed low downward acceleration of coronal rain.

  12. Life cycle testing of viscoelastic materials for Hubble Space Telescope solar array 3 damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maly, Joseph R.; Reed, Benjamin B.; Viens, Michael J.; Parker, Bradford H.; Pendleton, Scott C.

    2003-07-01

    During the March 2002 Servicing Mission by Space Shuttle (STS 109), the Hubble Space Telescope was refurbished with two new solar arrays that now provide all of its power. These arrays were built with viscoelastic/titanium dampers, integral to the supporting masts, which reduce the interaction of the wing bending modes with the Telescope. Damping of over 3% of critical was achieved. To assess the damper's ability to maintain nominal performance over the 10-year on-orbit design goal, material specimens were subjected to an accelerated life test. The test matrix consisted of scheduled events to expose the specimens to pre-determined combinations of temperatures, frequencies, displacement levels, and numbers of cycles. These exposure events were designed to replicate the life environment of the damper from fabrication through testing to launch and life on-orbit. To determine whether material degradation occurred during the exposure sequence, material performance was evaluated before and after the accelerated aging with complex stiffness measurements. Based on comparison of pre- and post-life-cycle measurements, the material is expected to maintain nominal performance through end of life on-orbit. Recent telemetry from the Telescope indicates that the dampers are performing flawlessly.

  13. Life Cycle Testing of Viscoelastic Material for Hubble Space Telescope Solar Array 3 Damper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maly, Joseph R.; Reed, Benjamin B.; Viens, Michael J.; Parker, Bradford H.; Pendleton, Scott C.

    2003-01-01

    During the March 2002 Servicing Mission by Space Shuttle (STS 109), the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was refurbished with two new solar arrays that now provide all of its power. These arrays were built with viscoelastic/titanium dampers, integral to the supporting masts, which reduce the interaction of the wing bending modes with the Telescope. Damping of over 3% of critical was achieved. To assess the damper s ability to maintain nominal performance over the 10-year on-orbit design goal, material specimens were subjected to an accelerated life test. The test matrix consisted of scheduled events to expose the specimens to pre-determined combinations of temperatures, frequencies, displacement levels, and numbers of cycles. These exposure events were designed to replicate the life environment of the damper from fabrication through testing to launch and life on-orbit. To determine whether material degradation occurred during the exposure sequence, material performance was evaluated before and after the accelerated aging with complex stiffness measurements. Based on comparison of pre- and post-life-cycle measurements, the material is expected to maintain nominal performance through end of life on-orbit. Recent telemetry from the Telescope indicates that the dampers are performing nominally.

  14. Photometry’s Bright Future: Detecting Solar System Analogs with Future Space Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hippke, Michael; Angerhausen, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    Time-series transit photometry from the Kepler space telescope has allowed for the discovery of thousands of exoplanets. We explore the potential of yet improved future missions such as PLATO 2.0 in detecting solar system analogs. We use real-world solar data and end-to-end simulations to explore the stellar and instrumental noise properties. By injecting and retrieving planets, rings, and moons of our own solar system, we show that the discovery of Venus and Earth analogs transiting G dwarfs like our Sun is feasible at high signal-to-noise ratio after collecting 6 yr of data, but Mars and Mercury analogs will be difficult to detect owing to stellar noise. In the best cases, Saturn’s rings and Jupiter’s moons will be detectable even in single-transit observations. Through the high number (>1 billion) of observed stars by PLATO 2.0, it will become possible to detect thousands of single-transit events by cold gas giants, analogs to our Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Our own solar system aside, we also show, through signal injection and retrieval, that PLATO 2.0 class photometry will allow for the secure detection of exomoons transiting quiet M dwarfs. This is the first study analyzing in depth the potential of future missions and the ultimate limits of photometry, using realistic case examples.

  15. SOLAR-LIKE OSCILLATIONS IN A METAL-POOR GLOBULAR CLUSTER WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Stello, Dennis; Gilliland, Ronald L. E-mail: gillil@stsci.edu

    2009-08-01

    We present analyses of variability in the red giant stars in the metal-poor globular cluster NGC 6397, based on data obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. We use a nonstandard data reduction approach to turn a 23 day observing run originally aimed at imaging the white dwarf population, into time-series photometry of the cluster's highly saturated red giant stars. With this technique we obtain noise levels in the final power spectra down to 50 parts per million, which allows us to search for low-amplitude solar-like oscillations. We compare the observed excess power seen in the power spectra with estimates of the typical frequency range, frequency spacing, and amplitude from scaling the solar oscillations. We see evidence that the detected variability is consistent with solar-like oscillations in at least one and perhaps up to four stars. With metallicities 2 orders of magnitude lower than those of the Sun, these stars present so far the best evidence of solar-like oscillations in such a low-metallicity environment.

  16. The soft x-ray photon-counting telescope for solar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakao, Taro; Narukage, Noriyuki; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Kyoko; Shimojo, Masumi; Imada, Shinsuke; Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; DeLuca, Edward E.

    2014-07-01

    We present overview and development activities of a soft X-ray photon-counting spectroscopic imager for the solar corona that we conceive as a possible scientific payload for future space solar missions including Japanese Solar-C. The soft X-ray imager will employ a Wolter I grazing-incidence sector mirror with which images of the corona (1 MK to beyond 10 MK) will be taken with the highest-ever angular resolution (0.5"/pixel for a focal length of 4 m) as a solar Xray telescope. In addition to high-resolution imagery, we attempt to implement photon-counting capability for the imager by employing a backside-illuminated CMOS image sensor as the focal-plane device. Imaging-spectroscopy of the X-ray corona will be performed for the first time in the energy range from ~0.5 keV up to 10 keV. The imaging-spectroscopic observations with the soft X-ray imager will provide a noble probe for investigating mechanism(s) of magnetic reconnection and generation of supra-thermal (non-thermal) electrons associated with flares. Ongoing development activities in Japan towards the photon-counting imager is described with emphasis on that for sub-arcsecond-resolution grazing-incidence mirrors.

  17. Photometry's bright future: Detecting Solar System analogues with future space telescopes

    E-print Network

    Hippke, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Time-series transit photometry from the Kepler space telescope has allowed for the discovery of thousands of exoplanets. We explore the potential of yet improved future missions such as PLATO 2.0 in detecting solar system analogues. We use real-world solar data and end-to-end simulations to explore the stellar and instrumental noise properties. By injecting and retrieving planets, rings and moons of our own solar system, we show that the discovery of Venus- and Earth-analogues transiting G-dwarfs like our Sun is feasible at high S/N after collecting 6yrs of data, but Mars and Mercury will be difficult to detect due to stellar noise. In the best cases, Saturn's rings and Jupiter's moons will be detectable even in single transit observations. Through the high number (>1bn) of observed stars by PLATO 2.0, it will become possible to detect thousands of single-transit events by cold gas giants, analogue to our Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Our own solar system aside, we also show, through signal injection a...

  18. Fermi Large Area Telescope observation of high-energy solar flares: constraining emission scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omodei, Nicola; Pesce-Rollins, Melissa; Petrosian, Vahe; Liu, Wei; Rubio da Costa, Fatima

    2015-08-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) is the most sensitive instrument ever deployed in space for observing gamma-ray emission >100 MeV. This has also been demonstrated by its detection of quiescent gamma-ray emission from pions produced by cosmic-ray protons interacting in the solar atmosphere, and from cosmic-ray electron interactions with solar optical photons. The Fermi LAT has also detected high-energy gamma-ray emission associated with GOES M-class and X-class X-ray flares, each accompanied by a coronal mass ejection and a solar energetic particle event increasing the number of detected solar flares by almost a factor of 10 with respect to previous space observations. During the impulsive phase, gamma rays with energies up to several hundreds of MeV have been recorded by the LAT. Emission up to GeV energies lasting several hours after the flare has also been recorded by the LAT. Of particular interest are the recent detections of two solar flares whose position behind the limb was confirmed by the STEREO-B satellite. While gamma-ray emission up to tens of MeV resulting from proton interactions has been detected before from occulted solar flares, the significance of these particular events lies in the fact that these are the first detections of >100 MeV gamma-ray emission from footpoint-occulted flares. We will present the Fermi-LAT, RHESSI and STEREO observations of these flares and discuss the various emission scenarios for these sources.

  19. The image field rotation of the auto-guide unit of the solar telescope in Yunnan Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guang-Qian; Lu, Ru-Wei

    The Auto Guide Unit of the solar telescope is a feedback track system with high precision. Under the open loop control, it is difficult to reach tracking demand of the solar telescope; therefore, it is necessary to use the auto-guide unit as the feedback control system for the target position. In the process of tracking, there is an image rotation of the auto-guide unit, and if the effect of the image rotation is not considered, it can disable the auto-guide unit, therefore it is necessary to resolve the image rotation of the auto-guide unit. In this paper, the analysis of image rotation about the auto-guide unit of the solar telescope has been given theoretically, and the specific formula of the movement about the image in the CCD has been worked out.

  20. MAST - A mass spectrometer telescope for studies of the isotopic composition of solar, anomalous, and galactic cosmic ray nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Walter R.; Cummings, Alan C.; Cummings, Jay R.; Garrard, Thomas L.; Kecman, Branislav; Mewaldt, Richard A.; Selesnick, Richard S.; Stone, Edward C.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.

    1993-05-01

    The Mass Spectrometer Telescope (MAST) on SAMPEX is designed to provide high resolution measurements of the isotopic composition of energetic nuclei from He to Ni (Z = 2 to 28) over the energy range from about 10 to several hundred MeV/nuc. During large solar flares MAST will measure the isotopic abundances of solar energetic particles to determine directly the composition of the solar corona, while during solar quiet times MAST will study the isotopic composition of galactic cosmic rays. In addition, MAST will measure the isotopic composition of both interplanetary and trapped fluxes of anomalous cosmic rays, believed to be a sample of the nearby interstellar medium.

  1. MAST - A mass spectrometer telescope for studies of the isotopic composition of solar, anomalous, and galactic cosmic ray nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Walter R.; Cummings, Alan C.; Cummings, Jay R.; Garrard, Thomas L.; Kecman, Branislav; Mewaldt, Richard A.; Selesnick, Richard S.; Stone, Edward C.; Von Rosenvinge, T. T.

    1993-01-01

    The Mass Spectrometer Telescope (MAST) on SAMPEX is designed to provide high resolution measurements of the isotopic composition of energetic nuclei from He to Ni (Z = 2 to 28) over the energy range from about 10 to several hundred MeV/nuc. During large solar flares MAST will measure the isotopic abundances of solar energetic particles to determine directly the composition of the solar corona, while during solar quiet times MAST will study the isotopic composition of galactic cosmic rays. In addition, MAST will measure the isotopic composition of both interplanetary and trapped fluxes of anomalous cosmic rays, believed to be a sample of the nearby interstellar medium.

  2. NEW VACUUM SOLAR TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF A FLUX ROPE TRACKED BY A FILAMENT ACTIVATION

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Shuhong; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Zhong; Xiang, Yongyuan E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn

    2014-04-01

    One main goal of the New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) which is located at the Fuxian Solar Observatory is to image the Sun at high resolution. Based on the high spatial and temporal resolution NVST H? data and combined with the simultaneous observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory for the first time, we investigate a flux rope tracked by filament activation. The filament material is initially located at one end of the flux rope and fills in a section of the rope; the filament is then activated by magnetic field cancellation. The activated filament rises and flows along helical threads, tracking the twisted flux rope structure. The length of the flux rope is about 75 Mm, the average width of its individual threads is 1.11 Mm, and the estimated twist is 1?. The flux rope appears as a dark structure in H? images, a partial dark and partial bright structure in 304 Å, and as a bright structure in 171 Å and 131 Å images. During this process, the overlying coronal loops are quite steady since the filament is confined within the flux rope and does not erupt successfully. It seems that, for the event in this study, the filament is located and confined within the flux rope threads, instead of being suspended in the dips of twisted magnetic flux.

  3. Feasibility study of a layer-oriented wavefront sensor for solar telescopes: comment.

    PubMed

    Kellerer, Aglaé

    2014-11-10

    The future generation of telescopes will be equipped with multi-conjugate adaptive-optics (MCAO) systems in order to obtain high angular resolution over large fields of view. MCAO comes in two flavors: star- and layer-oriented. Existing solar MCAO systems rely exclusively on the star-oriented approach. Earlier we suggested a method to implement the layer-oriented approach, and in view of recent concerns by Marino and Wöger [Appl. Opt.53, 685 (2014)10.1364/AO.53.000685APOPAI1559-128X], we now explain the proposed scheme in further detail. We note that in any layer-oriented system one sensor is conjugated to the pupil and the others are conjugated to higher altitudes. For the latter, not all the sensing surface is illuminated by the entire field of view. The successful implementation of nighttime layer-oriented systems shows that the field reduction is no crucial limitation. In the solar approach the field reduction is directly noticeable because it causes vignetting of the Shack-Hartmann subaperture images. It can be accounted for by a suitable adjustment of the algorithms to calculate the local wavefront slopes. We discuss a further concern related to the optical layout of a layer-oriented solar system. PMID:25402984

  4. A year of operation of Melibea e-Callisto Solar Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russu, A.; Gómez-Herrero, R.; Prieto, M.; Monstein, C.; Ivanov, H.; Rodríguez-Pacheco, J.; Blanco, J. J.

    2015-08-01

    The e-CALLISTO (Compound Astronomical Low-cost Low-frequency Instrument for Spectroscopy and Transportable Observatory) is a worldwide radio-spectrograph network with 24 hours a day solar radio burst monitoring. The e-CALLISTO network is led by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETHZ Zurich), which work up collaborations with local host institutions. In 2013 the University of Alcalá joined the e-CALLISTO network with the installation of two Solar Radio Telescopes (SRT): the EA4RKU-SRT that was located at the University of Alcalá from January 2013 till June 2013 and the Melibea-SRT that is located at Peralejos de las Truchas (Guadalajara) in operation from June 2013. The Spanish e-Callisto SRTs provide routine data to the network. We present examples of type III and type II radio-bursts observed by Melibea during its first year of operation and study their relation with soft X-ray flares observed by GOES and Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events observed by space-borne instrumentation.

  5. Solar Orbiter spacecraft instrument interface simulator and its applications for the STIX telescope tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?cis?owski, D.; Kowali?ski, M.; Podgórski, P.; Sylwester, J.; Orlea?ski, P.; Mrozek, T.; Ste?licki, M.; Barylak, J.; Barylak, A.; Skup, K. R.; Cichocki, A.; Ber, K.; Juchnikowski, G.

    2014-11-01

    Solar Orbiter mission of European Space Agency, scheduled for launch in 2017, is designed to explore the Sun and the inner heliosphere. Its close, never achieved before by any other spacecraft, approach to the Sun as well as ten remote-sensing and in-situ on board instruments will allow obtaining unique solar science data. The Spectrometer Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX) is one of them. Its measurements of solar thermal and non-thermal hard X-ray emissions from ~4 to 150 keV will play an important role to achieve mission's major science goals. The Spacecraft Instrument Interface Simulator (SIIS) is specified as a part of Electrical Ground Support Equipment with the aim to provide a tool for power interface and telemetry/telecommand electrical and data protocol validation during the delivery phase of STIX instrument for spacecraft integration. It is designed to be used during the instrument development and test phases of onboard algorithms, too. Brief overview of SIIS use and performance for these purposes is given in this work.

  6. A solar extreme ultraviolet telescope and spectrograph for space shuttle. Volume 1: Investigation and technical plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neupert, W. M.

    1978-01-01

    A scientific investigation of heating and mass transport in the solar corona that is currently planned for a future Shuttle/Spacelab flight is outlined. The instrument to be used is a near-normal incidence grating spectrograph fed by a grazing incidence Wolter Type 2 telescope. A toroidal grating design provides stigmatic images of the corona up to 8 arc min in extent over the spectral region from 225 A to 370 A. Spatial resolution of at least 2 arc sec and spectral resolution of 0.050 A is achievable throughout the central 4 arc min field or view. Primary scientific data are recorded on Schumann-type film. An H-alpha slit jaw monitor and zero order extreme ultraviolet monitor are also planned to support instrument operation.

  7. Heat-stop structure design with high cooling efficiency for large ground-based solar telescope.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangyi; Gu, Naiting; Rao, Changhui; Li, Cheng

    2015-07-20

    A heat-stop is one of the most important thermal control devices for a large ground-based solar telescope. For controlling the internal seeing effect, the temperature difference between the heat-stop and the ambient environment needs to be reduced, and a heat-stop with high cooling efficiency is required. In this paper, a novel design concept for the heat-stop, in which a multichannel loop cooling system is utilized to obtain higher cooling efficiency, is proposed. To validate the design, we analyze and compare the cooling efficiency for the multichannel and existing single-channel loop cooling system under the same conditions. Comparative results show that the new design obviously enhances the cooling efficiency of the heat-stop, and the novel design based on the multichannel loop cooling system is obviously better than the existing design by increasing the thermal transfer coefficient. PMID:26367826

  8. Suppression of Astronomical Sources Using Starshades and the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novicki, Megan; Warwick, Steve; Smith, Daniel; Richards, Michael; Harness, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    The external starshade is a method for the direct detection and spectral characterization of terrestrial planets around other stars, a key goal identified in ASTRO2010. Tests of this approach have been and continue to be conducted in the lab and in the field (Samuele et al., 2010, Glassman et al., 2014) using non-collimated light sources with a spherical wavefront. We extend the current approach to performing night-time observations of astronomical objects using small-scale (approximately 1/300th) starshades and the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. We placed a starshade directly in the path of the beam from an astronomical object in front of the main heliostat. Using only flat mirrors, we then directed the light through the observatory path and reflected it off the West heliostat to an external telescope located approximately 270m away, for an effective baseline of 420m.This configuration allowed us to make measurements of flat wavefront sources with a Fresnel number close to those expected in proposed full-scale space configurations. We present the results of our engineering runs conducted in 2015.

  9. Co-Alignment System (CAS) study. Report on task 1-3. [Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Telescope and Spectrometer pointing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, N. T.

    1980-01-01

    The design of a suitable coalignment system (CAS) for the Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Telescope and Spectrometer (SEUTS) is presented. The CAS provides offset adjustment capabilities to SEUTS which will be mounted on a single large pointing system with other devices. The suitability of existing designs is determined and modifications are suggested.

  10. Solar Effects on Tensile and Optical Properties of Hubble Space Telescope Silver-Teflon(Registered Trademark) Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim, K.; Dever, Joyce A.; Snyder, Aaron; Kaminski, Sharon; McCarthy, Catherine E.; Rapoport, Alison L.; Rucker, Rochelle N.

    2006-01-01

    A section of the retrieved Hubble Space Telescope (HST) solar array drive arm (SADA) multilayer insulation (MLI), which experienced 8.25 years of space exposure, was analyzed for environmental durability of the top layer of silver-Teflon (DuPont) fluorinated ethylene propylene (Ag-FEP). Because the SADA MLI had solar and anti-solar facing surfaces and was exposed to the space environment for a long duration, it provided a unique opportunity to study solar effects on the environmental degradation of Ag-FEP, a commonly used spacecraft thermal control material. Data obtained included tensile properties, solar absorptance, surface morphology and chemistry. The solar facing surface was found to be extremely embrittled and contained numerous through-thickness cracks. Tensile testing indicated that the solar facing surface lost 60% of its mechanical strength and 90% of its elasticity while the anti-solar facing surface had ductility similar to pristine FEP. The solar absorptance of both the solar facing surface (0.155 plus or minus 0.032) and the anti-solar facing surface (0.208 plus or minus 0.012) were found to be greater than pristine Ag-FEP (0.074). Solar facing and anti-solar facing surfaces were microscopically textured, and locations of isolated contamination were present on the anti-solar surface resulting in increased localized texturing. Yet, the overall texture was significantly more pronounced on the solar facing surface indicating a synergistic effect of combined solar exposure and increased heating with atomic oxygen erosion. The results indicate a very strong dependence of degradation, particularly embrittlement, upon solar exposure with orbital thermal cycling having a significant effect.

  11. Assembly of a large modular optical telescope (ALMOST)

    E-print Network

    Mohan, Swati

    Future space telescope programs need to assess in-space robotic assembly of large apertures at GEO and ESL2 to support ever increasing aperture sizes. Since such large apertures will not fit within a fairing, they must ...

  12. PROPERTIES OF UMBRAL DOTS AS MEASURED FROM THE NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE DATA AND MHD SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kilcik, A.; Yurchyshyn, V. B.; Abramenko, V.; Goode, P. R.; Cao, W.; Rempel, M.; Kitai, R.; Watanabe, H.

    2012-02-01

    We studied bright umbral dots (UDs) detected in a moderate size sunspot and compared their statistical properties to recent MHD models. The study is based on high-resolution data recorded by the New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory and three-dimensional (3D) MHD simulations of sunspots. Observed UDs, living longer than 150 s, were detected and tracked in a 46 minute long data set, using an automatic detection code. A total of 1553 (620) UDs were detected in the photospheric (low chromospheric) data. Our main findings are (1) none of the analyzed UDs is precisely circular, (2) the diameter-intensity relationship only holds in bright umbral areas, and (3) UD velocities are inversely related to their lifetime. While nearly all photospheric UDs can be identified in the low chromospheric images, some small closely spaced UDs appear in the low chromosphere as a single cluster. Slow-moving and long-living UDs seem to exist in both the low chromosphere and photosphere, while fast-moving and short-living UDs are mainly detected in the photospheric images. Comparison to the 3D MHD simulations showed that both types of UDs display, on average, very similar statistical characteristics. However, (1) the average number of observed UDs per unit area is smaller than that of the model UDs, and (2) on average, the diameter of model UDs is slightly larger than that of observed ones.

  13. PET - A proton/electron telescope for studies of magnetospheric, solar, and galactic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Walter R.; Cummings, Alan C.; Cummings, Jay R.; Garrard, Thomas L.; Kecman, Branislav; Mewaldt, Richard A.; Selesnick, Richard S.; Stone, Edward C.; Baker, Daniel N.; Von Rosenvinge, Tycho T.

    1993-01-01

    The Proton/Electron Telescope (PET) on SAMPEX is designed to provide measurements of energetic electrons and light nuclei from solar, galactic, and magnetospheric sources. PET is an all solid-state system that will measure the differential energy spectra of electrons from about 1 to about 30 MeV and H and He nuclei from about 20 to about 300 MeV/nuc, with isotope resolution of H and He extending from about 20 to about 80 MeV/nuc. As SAMPEX scans all local times and geomagnetic cutoffs over the course of its near-polar orbit, PET will characterize precipitating relativistic electron events during periods of declining solar activity, and it will examine whether the production rate of odd nitrogen and hydrogen molecules in the middle atmosphere by precipitating electrons is sufficient to affect O3 depletion. In addition, PET will complement studies of the elemental and isotopic composition of energetic heavy (Z greater than 2) nuclei on SAMPEX by providing measurements of H, He, and electrons. Finally, PET has limited capability to identify energetic positrons from potential natural and man-made sources.

  14. Photospheric and Chromospheric Dynamics of Sunspots Observed with New Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosovichev, Alexander G.; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl B.

    2014-06-01

    The 1.6m New Solar Telescope (NST) of Big Bear Solar Observatory allows us to investigate the structure and dynamics of sunspots with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolutions. We present results of simultaneous observations of a sunspot in the photosphere with a broad-band TiO-line filter and in the chromospheric H-alpha line with Visible Imaging Spectrometer, and compare the observational results with MHD models of sunspots. The observations reveal previously unresolved features of the sunspot umbra and penumbra. In particular, the TiO data clearly demonstrate highly twisted dynamics of penumbral filaments and umbral dots and reveal strong shearing plasma flows in sunspot bridges, not explained by the MHD simulations. The high-resolution H-alpha spectroscopic data provide new views of the sunspot chromospheric dynamics, including the fine structure of oscillations and waves, penumbral jets, ubiquitous small-scale eruptions, and accretion flows in a form of dense plasma sheets. The diffraction-limited NST observations show that the sunspot dynamics is more complicated and much richer than it is described by the current sunspot models.

  15. Magnetic Structure of Umbral Dots Observed with Hinode Solar Optical Telescope

    E-print Network

    Watanabe, Hiroko; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Katsukawa, Yukio

    2008-01-01

    High resolution and seeing-free spectroscopic observation of a decaying sunspot was done with the Solar Optical Telescope aboard Hinode satellite. The target was NOAA 10944 located in the west side of the solar surface from March 2 to March 4, 2007. The umbra included many umbral dots (UDs) with size of ~300 km in continuum light. We report the magnetic structures and Doppler velocity fields around UDs, based on the Milne-Eddington inversion of the two iron absorption lines at 6302 angstrom. The histograms of magnetic field strength(B), inclination angle(i), and Doppler velocity(v) of UDs showed a center-to-limb variation. Observed at disk center, UDs had (1)slightly smaller field strength (Delta B=-17 Gauss) and (2)relative blue shifts (Delta v=28 m s-1) compared to their surroundings. When the sunspot got close to the limb, UDs and their surroundings showed almost no difference in the magnetic and Doppler values. This center-to-limb variation can be understood by the formation height difference in a cusp-sh...

  16. First Results of Coordinated Observations from IRIS and New Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosovichev, A. G.; Cao, W.; Goode, P. R.; Gorceix, N.; Kleint, L.; Plymate, C.; Varsik, J. R.; Shumko, S.; Yurchyshyn, V.

    2013-12-01

    Most of the chromospheric structuring and dynamics is controlled by the underlying photospheric processes, associated with turbulent magnetoconvection, ubiquitous magnetic flux emergence, small-scale eruptions and acoustic events. The 1.6 m New Solar Telescope (NST) of Big Bear Solar Observatory offers a substantial improvement in ground-based high-resolution capabilities, and provides important support for the IRIS mission. The primary goal of the coordinated IRIS-NST observations is to obtain complementary data for investigations of photosphere-chromosphere links and drivers of the chromospheric dynamics. The coordinated NST observations are performed using the second-generation adaptive optics system AO-308, and three instruments: Broadband Filter Imagers (G-band and TiO), Visible Imaging Spectrometer (H-alpha), and Near InfraRed Imaging Spectropolarimeter (NIRIS). NIRIS provides high-cadence data in Fe I 1565 nm doublet which is the most Zeeman sensitive probe of magnetic fields in the deep photosphere, and in the He I 1083 nm multiplet for diagnostics of the upper chromosphere. We present initial results of the coordinated observations, and discuss properties of small-scale ejections in fibril magnetic structures, obtained from analysis of IRIS and NST data.

  17. Narrow-Band Imaging System for the Multi-application Solar Telescope at Udaipur Solar Observatory: Characterization of Lithium Niobate Etalons

    E-print Network

    Bayanna, A Raja; Venkatakrishnan, P; Srivastava, N

    2014-01-01

    Multi-application Solar Telescope is a 50 cm off-axis Gregorian telescope that has been installed at the lake site of Udaipur Solar Observatory. For quasi-simultaneous photospheric and chromospheric observations, a narrow-band imager has been developed as one of the back-end instruments for this telescope. Narrow-band imaging is achieved using two lithium niobate Fabry-Perot etalons working in tandem as a filter. This filter can be tuned to different wavelengths by changing either voltage, tilt or temperature of the etalons. To characterize the etalons, a Littrow spectrograph was set up, in conjunction with a 15 cm Carl Zeiss Coud\\'e solar telescope. The etalons were calibrated for the solar spectral lines FeI 6173 {\\AA}, and CaII 8542 {\\AA}. In this work, we discuss the characterization of the Fabry-Perot etalons, specifically the temperature and voltage tuning of the system for the spectral lines proposed for observations. We present the details of the calibration set-up and various tuning parameters. We al...

  18. Hubble Space telescope thermal cycle test report for large solar array samples with BSFR cells (Sample numbers 703 and 704)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    The Hubble space telescope (HST) solar array was designed to meet specific output power requirements after 2 years in low-Earth orbit, and to remain operational for 5 years. The array, therefore, had to withstand 30,000 thermal cycles between approximately +100 and -100 C. The ability of the array to meet this requirement was evaluated by thermal cycle testing, in vacuum, two 128-cell solar cell modules that exactly duplicated the flight HST solar array design. Also, the ability of the flight array to survive an emergency deployment during the dark (cold) portion of an orbit was evaluated by performing a cold-roll test using one module.

  19. 9/10/08 12:52 PMSkyandTelescope.com -News from Sky & Telescope -Our "Goldilocks" Solar System Page 1 of 6http://www.printthis.clickability.com/pt/cpt?action=cpt&title=SkyandT...2F%2Fwww.skyandtelescope.com%2Fnews%2F26415724.html&partnerID=107891

    E-print Network

    Rasio, Frederic A.

    9/10/08 12:52 PMSkyandTelescope.com - News from Sky & Telescope - Our "Goldilocks" Solar System this > save this > rss > NEWS by Kelly Beatty Our "Goldilocks" Solar System For any of you contemplating Sky & Telescope - Our "Goldilocks" Solar System Page 2 of 6http://www.printthis

  20. The 2012 status of the MCAO testbed for the GREGOR solar telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Dirk; Berkefeld, Thomas; Heidecke, Frank

    2012-07-01

    We look back on two years of experience with the laboratory MCAO testbed for the GREGOR solar telescope. GREGOR’s MCAO features four adaptive mirrors, i. e. one tip-tilt mirror, and three DMs to compensate for turbulence around 0 km, 5 km, and 15.5 km above ground. Two different Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor units are used for wavefront tomography. A sensor with a narrow field of view and smaller subapertures is dedicated to high-order aberrations on the optical axis. This sensor directly follows the pupil plane DM and does not see the high-altitude DMs. The second sensor features larger subapertures and 19 guide regions spread over a wide field of view for off-axis wavefront sensing. We show that high-altitude DMs cause rapidly changing pupil distortions and thus misregistration, which renders the interaction of a pupil-plane DM and a subsequent wavefront sensor non-linear. We rewrote the control software for cleaner and more flexible code, and we switched to modal wavefront reconstruction from direct reconstruction. The original digital interfacing of the DMs high-voltage electronics didn’t prove to be reliable. Thus, we developed a new interface board that is based on CameraLink/ChannelLink technology to transmit the DM commands from the control computer. In this paper we present the innovations and some of the first experimental performance measurements with two DMs. One DM failed before scientific grade data was recorded with three DMs. This DM will be replaced soon. We conclude that GREGOR’s MCAO system is now ready for first on-sky tests at the telescope.

  1. Design of a space telescope for vibration control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dresner, Thomas L.; Freier, Larry J.; Chien, Tze T.; Gilmore, Jerold P.

    1994-10-01

    The end of the Cold War has made large-aperture telescope technologies from the U.S. Strategic Defense Initiative program available for non-defense missions. Now, a four-meter aperture space telescope, a seventy percent larger aperture than that of the Hubble space telescope, has been proposed for a dual military and astronomical mission. An important part of the preliminary design work was to determine how to meet the telescope's pointing and jitter criteria. The telescope will be required to maintain an rms pointing accuracy of 24 nrad, preferably over periods of several hours. Vibration was a critical issue in the study because of the stringent pointing requirement, the relatively light structures desirable for spacecraft, thermal transients, the presence of disturbances from many spacecraft mechanisms (solar array drives, momentum wheels, thrusters, antenna steering mechanisms, etc.), and the many external appendages. The four-meter telescope design uses an inertial optical reference system combined with an actively controlled `fast steering mirror' in the target beam path to actively counteract vibration.

  2. Appendix A Principles of Synthetic Aperture Radar Fraunhoffer diffraction

    E-print Network

    Sandwell, David T.

    the aperture of length L. We simulate coherent radiation by point sources of radiation distributed along illumination away from = 0. Such a phased array aperture is used in some radar systems to continuously aperture (radar altimeter or optical telescope) at an altitude of H. An optical system with the same 1 m

  3. Progress Report of the new Solar Sub-Millimeter Telescope Installation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, P.; Magun, A.; Levato, H.; Rovira, M.; Arzner, K.; Correia, E.; Costa, J. E. R.; Gimenez de Castro, C. G.; Kaempfer, N.; Raulin, J. P.; Rolli, E.; Silva, A. V. R.

    1998-11-01

    The Sub-Millimeter Solar Telescope (SST) project is now in his final phase of construction and a definitive schedule has been established. The 1.5 m diameter reflector has been completed by Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, presenting an excellent surface with a deviation of 18 microns (r.m.s.). The delay of the reflector construction was the result of the new technology employed, and mainly due to the slumping of the reflector which needed additional technological research (Kingsley et al. 1998). The SST building, including one 3.4 m ESSCO gore-tex radom and a room for two complementary optical imaging spectrographs (from IAP, Bern and OV, UFRJ, Brazil), has been completed now by CASLEO at El Leoncito, San Juan, Argentina. Numerous electrical, electronical, mechanical tests, as well as softwares tests, have been performed at the IAP, Bern, Switzerland, and at Itapetinga, Brazil. The 1.5 m reflector is in Bern, already assembled to the other SST parts: four 210 and two 405 GHZ radiometers built by RPG, the ORBIT positionner, the interface box between the reflector and the radiometers, the counter-weights. Test and integration of the SST are being done at Bern, with a co-participation of researchers and technicians of CRAAE and CASLEO. The shipment of the SST to El Leoncito will be mid-October, and the final installation is scheduled for the period January-April of 1999. The first tests and solar observations are planned for May of 1999. The SST project received main financial support from FAPESP (Proc. 93/3321-7), complemented by funds from the IAP, Switzerland, and, IAFE and CASLEO/CONICET, Argentina.

  4. DYNAMICS IN SUNSPOT UMBRA AS SEEN IN NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE AND INTERFACE REGION IMAGING SPECTROGRAPH DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Yurchyshyn, V.; Abramenko, V.; Kilcik, A.

    2015-01-10

    We analyze sunspot oscillations using Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) slit-jaw and spectral data and narrow-band chromospheric images from the New Solar Telescope (NST) for the main sunspot in NOAA AR 11836. We report that the difference between the shock arrival times as measured by the Mg II k 2796.35 Å and Si IV 1393.76 Å line formation levels changes during the observed period, and peak-to-peak delays may range from 40 s to zero. The intensity of chromospheric shocks also displays long-term (about 20 min) variations. NST's high spatial resolution H? data allowed us to conclude that, in this sunspot, umbral flashes (UFs) appeared in the form of narrow bright lanes stretched along the light bridges and around clusters of umbral bright points. The time series also suggested that UFs preferred to appear on the sunspot-center side of light bridges, which may indicate the existence of a compact sub-photospheric driver of sunspot oscillations. The sunspot's umbra as seen in the IRIS chromospheric and transition region data appears bright above the locations of light bridges and the areas where the dark umbra is dotted with clusters of umbral dots. Co-spatial and co-temporal data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory showed that the same locations were associated with bright footpoints of coronal loops suggesting that the light bridges may play an important role in heating the coronal sunspot loops. Finally, the power spectra analysis showed that the intensity of chromospheric and transition region oscillations significantly vary across the umbra and with height, suggesting that umbral non-uniformities and the structure of sunspot magnetic fields may play a role in wave propagation and heating of umbral loops.

  5. UPDATED ANALYSIS OF THE UPWIND INTERPLANETARY HYDROGEN VELOCITY AS OBSERVED BY THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE DURING SOLAR CYCLE 23

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, Frederic E.; Ben-Jaffel, Lotfi; Harris, Walter M.

    2011-09-10

    The interplanetary hydrogen (IPH), a population of neutrals that fill the space between planets inside the heliosphere, carries the signature of the interstellar medium (ISM) and the heliospheric interface. As the incoming ISM-ionized component deflects at the heliopause, charge exchange reactions decelerate the bulk motion of the neutrals that penetrate the heliosphere. Inside the heliosphere, the IPH bulk velocity is further affected by solar gravity, radiation pressure, and ionization processes, with the latter two processes dependent on solar activity. Solar cycle 23 provided the first partial temporal map of the IPH velocity, including measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) spectrometers (Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) and Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS)) and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Solar Wind ANisotropies (SWAN) instrument. We present an updated analysis of IPH velocity measurements from GHRS and STIS and compare these results with those of SWAN and two different time-dependent models. Our reanalysis of STIS data reveals a significant change in IPH velocity relative to earlier reports, because of the contamination by geocoronal oxygen that was not accounted for. While current models of the heliospheric interface predict the observed IPH velocity for solar maximum, they are not consistent with data covering solar minimum. With updates to the HST data points, we now find that all data can be fit by the existing models to within 1{sigma}, with the exception of SWAN observations taken at solar minimum (1997/1998). We conclude that the current data lack the temporal coverage and/or precision necessary to determine the detailed characteristics of the solar cycle dependence. Hence, new observations are merited.

  6. Forbush decreases and solar events seen in the 10 - 20GeV energy range by the Karlsruhe Muon Telescope

    E-print Network

    I. Braun; J. Engler; J. R. Hörandel; J. Milke

    2008-10-27

    Since 1993, a muon telescope located at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Karlsruhe Muon Telescope) has been recording the flux of single muons mostly originating from primary cosmic-ray protons with dominant energies in the 10 - 20 GeV range. The data are used to investigate the influence of solar effects on the flux of cosmic-rays measured at Earth. Non-periodic events like Forbush decreases and ground level enhancements are detected in the registered muon flux. A selection of recent events will be presented and compared to data from the Jungfraujoch neutron monitor. The data of the Karlsruhe Muon Telescope help to extend the knowledge about Forbush decreases and ground level enhancements to energies beyond the neutron monitor regime.

  7. MAGNETIC RECONNECTION BETWEEN SMALL-SCALE LOOPS OBSERVED WITH THE NEW VACUUM SOLAR TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Shuhong; Zhang, Jun; Xiang, Yongyuan

    2015-01-01

    Using the high tempo-spatial resolution H? images observed with the New Vacuum Solar Telescope, we report solid observational evidence of magnetic reconnection between two sets of small-scale, anti-parallel loops with an X-shaped topology. The reconnection process contains two steps: a slow step with a duration of more than several tens of minutes, and a rapid step lasting for only about three minutes. During the slow reconnection, two sets of anti-parallel loops gradually reconnect, and new loops are formed and stacked together. During the rapid reconnection, the anti-parallel loops approach each other quickly, and then rapid reconnection takes place, resulting in the disappearance of the former loops. In the meantime, new loops are formed and separate. The region between the approaching loops is brightened, and the thickness and length of this region are determined to be about 420 km and 1.4 Mm, respectively. During the rapid reconnection process, obvious brightenings at the reconnection site and apparent material ejections outward along reconnected loops are observed. These observed signatures are consistent with predictions by reconnection models. We suggest that the successive slow reconnection changes the conditions around the reconnection site and triggers instabilities, thus leading to the rapid approach of the anti-parallel loops and resulting in the rapid reconnection.

  8. The Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope data-acquisition and control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shand, Mark; Scharmer, Göran B.

    1998-11-01

    The performance of commodity computer systems doubles approximately every 18 months. Traditionally, the design of scientific data-acquisition and control systems has tended to ignore this fact, relying instead on custom hardware developments using the technology available at the time of instrument specification. Moreover, development manpower is usually limited, causing relatively long development cycles. Often the the result is that an instrument is technologically obsolete quite early in its projected lifetime. In contrast, all the digital processing for data acquisition and control at the Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope (SVST) on La Palma (Canary Islands) is performed with commodity workstations. The result is a flexible system with low development costs that can easily take advantage of the latest microprocessor advances. The SVST's use of commodity workstations in on-line real-time tasks is in large part made possible by its use of reconfigurable interface technology. Indeed the SVST has been a valuable proving ground for this technology. This article summarizes the instrumentation of the SVST and illustrates examples of data recorded with this instrumentation.

  9. Plate coil thermal test bench for the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) carousel cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelps, LeEllen; Murga, Gaizka; Montijo, Guillermo; Hauth, David

    2014-08-01

    Analyses have shown that even a white-painted enclosure requires active exterior skin-cooling systems to mitigate dome seeing which is driven by thermal nonuniformities that change the refractive index of the air. For the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) Enclosure, this active surface temperature control will take the form of a system of water cooled plate coils integrated into the enclosure cladding system. The main objective of this system is to maintain the surface temperature of the enclosure as close as possible to, but always below, local ambient temperature in order to mitigate this effect. The results of analyses using a multi-layer cladding temperature model were applied to predict the behavior of the plate coil cladding system and ultimately, with safety margins incorporated into the resulting design thermal loads, the detailed designs. Construction drawings and specifications have been produced. Based on these designs and prior to procurement of the system components, a test system was constructed in order to measure actual system behavior. The data collected during seasonal test runs at the DKIST construction site on Haleakal? are used to validate and/or refine the design models and construction documents as appropriate. The test fixture was also used to compare competing hardware, software, components, control strategies, and configurations. This paper outlines the design, construction, test protocols, and results obtained of the plate coil thermal test bench for the DKIST carousel cooling system.

  10. Fine pointing of the Solar Optical Telescope in the Space Shuttle environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gowrinathan, S.

    1985-01-01

    Instruments requiring fine (i.e., sub-arcsecond) pointing, such as the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), must be equipped with two-stage pointing devices, coarse and fine. Coarse pointing will be performed by a gimbal system, such as the Instrument Pointing System, while the image motion compensation (IMC) will provide fine pointing. This paper describes work performed on the SOT concept design that illustrates IMC as applied to SOT. The SOT control system was modeled in the frequency domain to evaluate performance, stability, and bandwidth requirements. The two requirements of the pointing control, i.e., the 2 arcsecond reproducibility and 0.03 arcsecond rms pointing jitter, can be satisfied by use of IMC at about 20 Hz bandwidth. The need for this high bandwidth is related to Shuttle-induced disturbances that arise primarily from man push-offs and vernier thruster firings. A block diagram of SOT model/stability analysis, schematic illustrations of the SOT pointing system, and a structural model summary are included.

  11. A search for small solar-system bodies near the earth using a ground-based telescope - Technique and observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, L. A.; Sigwarth, J. B.; Yeates, C. M.

    1990-01-01

    A large, previously undetected flux of small bodies near earth is identified by employing the standard technique of detection of an individual object in two consecutive frames. The observational periods and viewing coordinates for the search for small bodies are presented. A null test is performed in order to further demonstrate that the signatures in the images are not due to instrumental artifacts. The observed fluxes, orbital motions, and radii of the small bodies detected are in agreement with those for the small cometlike objects previously reported. It is pointed out that the radii of the small bodies would be in the range of meters. Since an alternative interpretation of the small bodies is possible, it is suggested that the use of a telescope with larger aperture and/or array detectors with lesser noise levels is necessary to confirm the present observations.

  12. Measurement of the point spread function and effective area of the Solar-A Soft X-ray Telescope mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemen, J. R.; Claflin, E. S.; Brown, W. A.; Bruner, M. E.; Catura, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    A grazing incidence solar X-ray telescope, Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT), will be flown on the Solar-A satellite in 1991. Measurements have been conducted to determine the focal length, Point Spread Function (PSF), and effective area of the SXT mirror. The measurements were made with pinholes, knife edges, a CCD, and a proportional counter. The results show the 1/r character of the PSF, and indicate a half power diameter of 4.9 arcsec and an effective area of 1.33 sq cm at 13.3 A (0.93 keV). The mirror was found to provide a high contrast image with very little X-ray scattering.

  13. An atlas of solar spectra between 1175 and 1950 angstroms recorded on Skylab with the NRL's Apollo Telescope Mount experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, L.

    1981-03-01

    Spectra of selected solar regions were recorded by the Naval Research Laboratory slit spectrograph on the Apollo Telescope Mount aboard Skylab. This atlas of those spectra is intended as a guide to the formulation of experiments and analysis of data obtained by extreme ultraviolet spectrographs and may be valuable to investigators analyzing International Ultraviolet Explorer spectra and data from Solar Maximum Mission and High Resolution Telescope Spectrograph. The slit spectrograph was used to cover the range 1175 A to 1950 A with a spectral resolution of 0.06 A and a spatial resolution at Sun center of 2 deg by 30 deg. Microdensitometer tracings of spectra from (1) a quiet region, (2) an active region, (3) a coronal hole, and (4) a flare are included and were computer processed to include the characteristic curve of the film. Line identifications for prominent features are included as well as a reference scale permitting the user to obtain absolute intensities.

  14. Diffraction-limited constant-resolution zoom lens across multi-wavelengths for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Hyun Kyoung; Pitalo, Stephen K.

    2007-01-01

    Zoom lenses are usually designed for a specified waveband and change magnification, and thus resolution, for different object sizes or different object distances. However, the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST)/ Visible Light Broadband Imager (VLBI), under development by the National Solar Observatory, require constant resolution for different wavelengths over a wide spectral range (388.3 nm 3o 854.2 nm). An eight-element zoom lens meeting this requirement is presented, and yields diffraction-limited performance over the field of view at nine specific wavelength/zoom positions. Each zoom position, corresponding to a specific wavelength, has a focal length and f/number for achieving constant CCD sampling. The Strehl ratio of the telescope is greater than 90% over all zoom positions.

  15. Witnessing magnetic twist with high-resolution observation from the 1.6-m New Solar Telescope

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haimin; Cao, Wenda; Liu, Chang; Xu, Yan; Liu, Rui; Zeng, Zhicheng; Chae, Jongchul; Ji, Haisheng

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic flux ropes are highly twisted, current-carrying magnetic fields. They are crucial for the instability of plasma involved in solar eruptions, which may lead to adverse space weather effects. Here we present observations of a flaring using the highest resolution chromospheric images from the 1.6-m New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory, supplemented by a magnetic field extrapolation model. A set of loops initially appear to peel off from an overall inverse S-shaped flux bundle, and then develop into a multi-stranded twisted flux rope, producing a two-ribbon flare. We show evidence that the flux rope is embedded in sheared arcades and becomes unstable following the enhancement of its twists. The subsequent motion of the flux rope is confined due to the strong strapping effect of the overlying field. These results provide a first opportunity to witness the detailed structure and evolution of flux ropes in the low solar atmosphere. PMID:25919706

  16. Witnessing magnetic twist with high-resolution observation from the 1.6-m New Solar Telescope.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haimin; Cao, Wenda; Liu, Chang; Xu, Yan; Liu, Rui; Zeng, Zhicheng; Chae, Jongchul; Ji, Haisheng

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic flux ropes are highly twisted, current-carrying magnetic fields. They are crucial for the instability of plasma involved in solar eruptions, which may lead to adverse space weather effects. Here we present observations of a flaring using the highest resolution chromospheric images from the 1.6-m New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory, supplemented by a magnetic field extrapolation model. A set of loops initially appear to peel off from an overall inverse S-shaped flux bundle, and then develop into a multi-stranded twisted flux rope, producing a two-ribbon flare. We show evidence that the flux rope is embedded in sheared arcades and becomes unstable following the enhancement of its twists. The subsequent motion of the flux rope is confined due to the strong strapping effect of the overlying field. These results provide a first opportunity to witness the detailed structure and evolution of flux ropes in the low solar atmosphere. PMID:25919706

  17. Witnessing magnetic twist with high-resolution observation from the 1.6-m New Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haimin; Cao, Wenda; Liu, Chang; Xu, Yan; Liu, Rui; Zeng, Zhicheng; Chae, Jongchul; Ji, Haisheng

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic flux ropes are highly twisted, current-carrying magnetic fields. They are crucial for the instability of plasma involved in solar eruptions, which may lead to adverse space weather effects. Here we present observations of a flaring using the highest resolution chromospheric images from the 1.6-m New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory, supplemented by a magnetic field extrapolation model. A set of loops initially appear to peel off from an overall inverse S-shaped flux bundle, and then develop into a multi-stranded twisted flux rope, producing a two-ribbon flare. We show evidence that the flux rope is embedded in sheared arcades and becomes unstable following the enhancement of its twists. The subsequent motion of the flux rope is confined due to the strong strapping effect of the overlying field. These results provide a first opportunity to witness the detailed structure and evolution of flux ropes in the low solar atmosphere.

  18. High resolution telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Massie, N.A.; Oster, Y.

    1990-12-31

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employs speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by an electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activities. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  19. High resolution telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Massie, N.A.; Oster, Y.

    1990-01-01

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employs speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by an electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activities. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  20. High resolution telescope

    DOEpatents

    Massie, Norbert A. (San Ramon, CA); Oster, Yale (Danville, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employs speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1 m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12 m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by an electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activites. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes.

  1. The High-Resolution Lightweight Telescope for the EUV (HiLiTE)

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Galarce, D S; Boerner, P; Soufli, R; De Pontieu, B; Katz, N; Title, A; Gullikson, E M; Robinson, J C; Baker, S L

    2008-06-02

    The High-resolution Lightweight Telescope for the EUV (HiLiTE) is a Cassegrain telescope that will be made entirely of Silicon Carbide (SiC), optical substrates and metering structure alike. Using multilayer coatings, this instrument will be tuned to operate at the 465 {angstrom} Ne VII emission line, formed in solar transition region plasma at {approx}500,000 K. HiLiTE will have an aperture of 30 cm, angular resolution of {approx}0.2 arc seconds and operate at a cadence of {approx}5 seconds or less, having a mass that is about 1/4 that of one of the 20 cm aperture telescopes on the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instrument aboard NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). This new instrument technology thus serves as a path finder to a post-AIA, Explorer-class missions.

  2. A Scanning Hartmann Focus Test for the EUVI Telescopes aboard STEREO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohl, R.; Antonille, S.; Aronstein, D.; Dean, B.; Delmont, M.; Eichord, W.; Frey, B.; Kubalak, D.; Wilson, M.; Redman, K.; Hynes, S.; Shiri, R.; Smith, J. S.; Thompson, P.

    2007-01-01

    The Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO), the third mission in NASA s Solar Terrestrial Probes program, was launched in 2006 on a two year mission to study solar phenomena like coronal mass ejections. STEREO consists of two nearly identical satellites, each carrying a suite of instruments that provide, among other data, simultaneous images of the Sun. One of these telescopes is the Extreme Ultraviolet Instrument (EUVI). There are two EUVI telescopes, one on each STEREO satellite (EUVI-A and EUVI-B). EUVI is a normal incidence, 98mm diameter, Ritchey-Chretien telescope designed to obtain wide field of view (approx.1deg) images of the Sun at short wavelengths (approx.20nm) using a CCD detector. The telescope entrance aperture is divided into four quadrants by a mask near the secondary mirror spider veins. A mechanism that rotates another mask allows only one of these sub-apertures to accept light from the Sun during an observation. The EUVI is thus four co-aligned, off-axis telescopes. Each off-axis segment on the primary and secondary mirrors has a different extreme ultraviolet coating stack. Furthermore, the aperture select mechanism is synchronized with a filter wheel mechanism near the CCD detector. The EUVI contains no focus mechanism. Models predict that the difference in on-orbit operating temperature and ambient clean room conditions yield a "best focus" difference between integration and operation of approx. 0.2mm.

  3. A normal incidence, high resolution X-ray telescope for solar coronal observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, L.

    1984-01-01

    A Normal Incidence high resolution X-ray Telescope is reported. The design of a telescope assembly which, after fabrication, will be integrated with the mirror fabrication process is described. The assembly is engineered to fit into the Black Brant rocket skin to survive sounding rocket launch conditions. A flight ready camera is modified and tested.

  4. EST: the European Solar Telescope D. Kiselman, M. Lofdahl & G. Scharmer

    E-print Network

    Löfdahl, Mats

    Telescope: ATST. It is planned as a 4-m off-axis reflect- ing telescope in a ventilated enclosed dome is lead by the Instituto de Astrof´isico de Canarias. There are 28 participating institutes and industrial this will be used to design the multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) system. The institute will also participate

  5. The first observation and data reduction of the Multi-wavelength Spectrometer on the New Vacuum Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui; Xu, Zhi; Jin, Zhen-Yu; Li, Zhi; Fu, Yu; Liu, Zhong

    2013-10-01

    The Multi-wavelength Spectrometer is a medium-dispersion (R ~ 130000) grating spectrometer installed on the New Vacuum Solar Telescope at the Fuxian Solar Observatory, Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences. It is designed to accurately observe the velocity and magnetic fields of the Sun. The present configuration of this spectrometer allows us to simultaneously observe three different solar spectral lines. This work is dedicated to showing the first observations carried out in both the H? and Ca II 8542 Å lines. We give a detailed description of the data reduction process, focusing on the retrieval of a flat field from the high-resolution spectral data. Two different methods are also performed and compared to eliminate the residual fringe in the reduced data. The real spectral resolution and instrumental profile are analyzed based on the final results, which indicate that this spectrometer presently satisfies the expected performance and it is ready for further scientific observations.

  6. Simulated Solar Flare X-Ray and Thermal Cycling Durability Evaluation of Hubble Space Telescope Thermal Control Candidate Replacement Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Sechkar, Edward A.; Scheiman, David A.

    1998-01-01

    During the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) second servicing mission (SM2), astronauts noticed that the multilayer insulation (MLI) covering the telescope was damaged. Large pieces of the outer layer of MLI (aluminized Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene (Al-FEP)) were torn in several locations around the telescope. A piece of curled up Al-FEP was retrieved by the astronauts and was found to be severely embrittled, as witnessed by ground testing. Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) organized a HST MLI Failure Review Board (FRB) to determine the damage mechanism of FEP in the HST environment, and to recommend replacement insulation material to be installed on HST during the third servicing mission (SM3) in 1999. Candidate thermal control replacement materials were chosen by the FRB and tested for environmental durability under various exposures and durations. This paper describes durability testing of candidate materials which were exposed to charged particle radiation, simulated solar flare x-ray radiation and thermal cycling under load. Samples were evaluated for changes in solar absorptance and tear resistance. Descriptions of environmental exposures and durability evaluations of these materials are presented.

  7. The chemical composition of micrometeoroids impacting upon the solar arrays of the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearsley, A. T.; Graham, G. A.; McDonnell, J. A. M.; Taylor, E. A.; Drolshagen, G.; Chater, R. J.; McPhail, D.; Burchell, M. J.

    Analytical scanning electron microscopy of solar cells returned from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) at the end of HST Service Missions SM-1 (1993) and SM-3B (2002) has revealed abundant remains of micrometeoroids. We have documented the most common residue compositions, and in this paper we suggest how they relate to mineral phases, and show how it is possible to estimate the proportion of the original micrometeoroid preserved. From a total of 273 impacts examined and analysed, we found 61/162 impacts on solar cells from SM-1 were produced by micrometeoroids, as were 45/111 from SM-3B. In each survey approximately 25% of damage features could not be assigned to a particular origin (micrometeoroid or space debris). A cumulative micrometeoroid flux curve for randomly selected cells shows impact features ranging from 3 to nearly 3800 ?m in size. To assist interpretation of space exposed surfaces, impact residues from known meteoritic and terrestrial analogue mineral phases were produced by light gas gun assisted acceleration of buckshot projectiles into solar cell targets at 5.5 6.3 km s-1. Mg- and Fe-rich residues were found in 30/61 impacts from SM-1 and 26/45 from SM-3B, with variable Mg:Fe ratio, usually lacking Ca, and likely to be from olivine or low-Ca pyroxene. Only in a few examples is it possible to determine the divalent cation to silicon ratio, and thereby positively identify olivine or pyroxene. Vesicular Fe-, Mg-, Ni- and S-rich residues, found in eight impacts from SM-1 and 5 from SM-3B, closely resemble residue from light gas gun shots of phyllosilicate-rich meteorite grains, and may be from a layered silicate such as serpentine or smectite interlayered with tochilinite. Fe- and S-rich immiscible melt droplets, low in nickel, are probably of troilite origin. Fe-, Ni- and P-rich residue is almost certainly from the phosphide schreibersite, and iron nickel metal residues show an elemental ratio characteristic of kamacite. One Mg-, Cr-, Fe- and O-rich residue suggests a spinel precursor. Ca-rich particles found within the spall zone of several craters closely resemble residue from calcium carbonate. Mg sulfates are also present. Very little aluminous silicate residue was found (one residue from each survey). One extraordinarily well-preserved assemblage contains residues from five mineral components and may represent impact by a chondrule fragment. Derivation of incident particle sizes from impact feature dimensions, by use of calibrated damage equations, reveals that the majority of impacting micrometeoroids had diameters of less than 10 ?m, although the mass flux is concentrated in grains of more than 50 ?m diameter. In one well-preserved crater, the mass of residue was calculated to be 60 ng, approximately 25% of the particle mass as suggested by experimental crater size calibration. The smallest impacts were produced by grains of between 600 nm and 1.3 ?m. The most common residue assemblages suggest that the majority of micron to millimetre scale micrometeoroids have an origin from chondritic material, similar to interplanetary dust particles, micrometeorites, and possibly the hydrous carbonaceous chondrites of the CM, CR or CI group. The relative contribution of cometary as opposed to asteroidal particle sources cannot yet be assessed from this data set.

  8. Re-evaluation of the Neutron Emission from the Solar Flare of 2005 September 7, Detected by the Solar Neutron Telescope at Sierra Negra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, L. X.; Valdés-Galicia, J. F.; Sánchez, F.; Muraki, Y.; Sako, T.; Watanabe, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Nagai, Y.; Shibata, S.; Sakai, T.; Musalem, O.; Hurtado, A.

    2015-12-01

    The X17.0 solar flare of 2005 September 7 released high-energy neutrons that were detected by the Solar Neutron Telescope (SNT) at Sierra Negra, Mexico. In three separate and independent studies of this solar neutron event, several of its unique characteristics were studied; in particular, a power-law energy spectra was estimated. In this paper, we present an alternative analysis, based on improved numerical simulations of the detector using GEANT4, and a different technique for processing the SNT data. The results indicate that the spectral index that best fits the neutron flux is around 3, in agreement with previous works. Based on the numerically calculated neutron energy deposition on the SNT, we confirm that the detected neutrons might have reached an energy of 1 GeV, which implies that 10 GeV protons were probably produced; these could not be observed at Earth, as their parent flare was an east limb event.

  9. The James Webb Space Telescopes plan for operations and instrument capabilities for observations in the Solar System

    E-print Network

    Milam, Stefanie N; Sonneborn, George; Thomas, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is optimized for observations in the near and mid infrared and will provide essential observations for targets that cannot be conducted from the ground or other missions during its lifetime. The state of the art science instruments, along with the telescopes moving target tracking, will enable the infrared study, with unprecedented detail, for nearly every object, Mars and beyond, in the solar system. The goals of this special issue are to stimulate discussion and encourage participation in JWST planning among members of the planetary science community. Key science goals for various targets, observing for JWST, and highlights for the complementary nature with other missions and observatories are described in this paper.

  10. Use of graphite epoxy composites in the Solar-A Soft X-Ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurcevich, B. K.; Bruner, M. E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the use of composite materials in the Soft X-Ray Telescope (SXT). One of the primary structural members of the telescope is a graphite epoxy metering tube. The metering tube maintains the structural stability of the telescope during launch as well as the focal length through various environmental conditions. The graphite epoxy metering tube is designed to have a negative coefficient of thermal expansion to compensate for the positive expansion of titanium structural supports. The focus is maintained to + or - 0.001 inch by matching the CTE of the composite tube to the remaining structural elements.

  11. Ultra high resolution images of the solar chromosphere and corona using coordinated rocket and balloon observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Timothy, J. G.; Hoover, Richard B.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A discussion is presented of the scientific objectives that can be pursued by simultaneous coronal/chromospheric observation with the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA), and a new balloon-borne observatory called the Ultra-High Resolution Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroheliograph (UHRVS). Attention is given to the proposed UHRVS observatory, which will incorporate two instruments, a 65-cm aperture telescope with narrowband filters for high resolution photographic and photoelectric spectroheliograms, and a very high resolution spectrograph which uses a 40-cm aperture telescope. The capabilities of the MSSTA, and the joint UHRVS/MSSTA observing program that is envisioned are reviewed.

  12. Roof aperture system for selective collection and control of solar energy for building heating, cooling and daylighting

    DOEpatents

    Sanders, William J. (Kansas City, KS); Snyder, Marvin K. (Overland Park, KS); Harter, James W. (Independence, MO)

    1983-01-01

    The amount of building heating, cooling and daylighting is controlled by at least one pair of solar energy passing panels, with each panel of the pair of panels being exposed to a separate direction of sun incidence. A shutter-shade combination is associated with each pair of panels and the shutter is connected to the shade so that rectilinear movement of the shutter causes pivotal movement of the shade.

  13. A normal incidence, high resolution X-ray telescope for solar coronal observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, L.

    1984-01-01

    Efforts directed toward the completion of an X-ray telescope assembly design, the procurement of major components, and the coordination of optical fabrication and X-ray multilayer testing are reported.

  14. Quiescent Prominence Dynamics Observed with the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope. I. Turbulent Upflow Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Thomas E.; Slater, Gregory; Hurlburt, Neal; Shine, Richard; Tarbell, Theodore; Title, Alan; Lites, Bruce W.; Okamoto, Takenori J.; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Katsukawa, Yukio; Magara, Tetsuya; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Shimizu, Toshifumi

    2010-06-01

    Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) observations reveal two new dynamic modes in quiescent solar prominences: large-scale (20-50 Mm) "arches" or "bubbles" that "inflate" from below into prominences, and smaller-scale (2-6 Mm) dark turbulent upflows. These novel dynamics are related in that they are always dark in visible-light spectral bands, they rise through the bright prominence emission with approximately constant speeds, and the small-scale upflows are sometimes observed to emanate from the top of the larger bubbles. Here we present detailed kinematic measurements of the small-scale turbulent upflows seen in several prominences in the SOT database. The dark upflows typically initiate vertically from 5 to 10 Mm wide dark cavities between the bottom of the prominence and the top of the chromospheric spicule layer. Small perturbations on the order of 1 Mm or less in size grow on the upper boundaries of cavities to generate plumes up to 4-6 Mm across at their largest widths. All plumes develop highly turbulent profiles, including occasional Kelvin-Helmholtz vortex "roll-up" of the leading edge. The flows typically rise 10-15 Mm before decelerating to equilibrium. We measure the flowfield characteristics with a manual tracing method and with the Nonlinear Affine Velocity Estimator (NAVE) "optical flow" code to derive velocity, acceleration, lifetime, and height data for several representative plumes. Maximum initial speeds are in the range of 20-30 km s-1, which is supersonic for a ~10,000 K plasma. The plumes decelerate in the final few Mm of their trajectories resulting in mean ascent speeds of 13-17 km s-1. Typical lifetimes range from 300 to 1000 s (~5-15 minutes). The area growth rate of the plumes (observed as two-dimensional objects in the plane of the sky) is initially linear and ranges from 20,000 to 30,000 km2 s-1 reaching maximum projected areas from 2 to 15 Mm2. Maximum contrast of the dark flows relative to the bright prominence plasma in SOT images is negative and ranges from -10% for smaller flows to -50% for larger flows. Passive scalar "cork movies" derived from NAVE measurements show that prominence plasma is entrained by the upflows, helping to counter the ubiquitous downflow streams in the prominence. Plume formation shows no clear temporal periodicity. However, it is common to find "active cavities" beneath prominences that can spawn many upflows in succession before going dormant. The mean flow recurrence time in these active locations is roughly 300-500 s (5-8 minutes). Locations remain active on timescales of tens of minutes up to several hours. Using a column density ratio measurement and reasonable assumptions on plume and prominence geometries, we estimate that the mass density in the dark cavities is at most 20% of the visible prominence density, implying that a single large plume could supply up to 1% of the mass of a typical quiescent prominence. We hypothesize that the plumes are generated from a Rayleigh-Taylor instability taking place on the boundary between the buoyant cavities and the overlying prominence. Characteristics, such as plume size and frequency, may be modulated by the strength and direction of the cavity magnetic field relative to the prominence magnetic field. We conclude that buoyant plumes are a source of quiescent prominence mass as well as a mechanism by which prominence plasma is advected upward, countering constant gravitational drainage.

  15. QUIESCENT PROMINENCE DYNAMICS OBSERVED WITH THE HINODE SOLAR OPTICAL TELESCOPE. I. TURBULENT UPFLOW PLUMES

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Thomas E.; Slater, Gregory; Hurlburt, Neal; Shine, Richard; Tarbell, Theodore; Title, Alan; Okamoto, Takenori J.; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Katsukawa, Yukio; Magara, Tetsuya; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Shimizu, Toshifumi

    2010-06-20

    Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) observations reveal two new dynamic modes in quiescent solar prominences: large-scale (20-50 Mm) 'arches' or 'bubbles' that 'inflate' from below into prominences, and smaller-scale (2-6 Mm) dark turbulent upflows. These novel dynamics are related in that they are always dark in visible-light spectral bands, they rise through the bright prominence emission with approximately constant speeds, and the small-scale upflows are sometimes observed to emanate from the top of the larger bubbles. Here we present detailed kinematic measurements of the small-scale turbulent upflows seen in several prominences in the SOT database. The dark upflows typically initiate vertically from 5 to 10 Mm wide dark cavities between the bottom of the prominence and the top of the chromospheric spicule layer. Small perturbations on the order of 1 Mm or less in size grow on the upper boundaries of cavities to generate plumes up to 4-6 Mm across at their largest widths. All plumes develop highly turbulent profiles, including occasional Kelvin-Helmholtz vortex 'roll-up' of the leading edge. The flows typically rise 10-15 Mm before decelerating to equilibrium. We measure the flowfield characteristics with a manual tracing method and with the Nonlinear Affine Velocity Estimator (NAVE) 'optical flow' code to derive velocity, acceleration, lifetime, and height data for several representative plumes. Maximum initial speeds are in the range of 20-30 km s{sup -1}, which is supersonic for a {approx}10,000 K plasma. The plumes decelerate in the final few Mm of their trajectories resulting in mean ascent speeds of 13-17 km s{sup -1}. Typical lifetimes range from 300 to 1000 s ({approx}5-15 minutes). The area growth rate of the plumes (observed as two-dimensional objects in the plane of the sky) is initially linear and ranges from 20,000 to 30,000 km{sup 2} s{sup -1} reaching maximum projected areas from 2 to 15 Mm{sup 2}. Maximum contrast of the dark flows relative to the bright prominence plasma in SOT images is negative and ranges from -10% for smaller flows to -50% for larger flows. Passive scalar 'cork movies' derived from NAVE measurements show that prominence plasma is entrained by the upflows, helping to counter the ubiquitous downflow streams in the prominence. Plume formation shows no clear temporal periodicity. However, it is common to find 'active cavities' beneath prominences that can spawn many upflows in succession before going dormant. The mean flow recurrence time in these active locations is roughly 300-500 s (5-8 minutes). Locations remain active on timescales of tens of minutes up to several hours. Using a column density ratio measurement and reasonable assumptions on plume and prominence geometries, we estimate that the mass density in the dark cavities is at most 20% of the visible prominence density, implying that a single large plume could supply up to 1% of the mass of a typical quiescent prominence. We hypothesize that the plumes are generated from a Rayleigh-Taylor instability taking place on the boundary between the buoyant cavities and the overlying prominence. Characteristics, such as plume size and frequency, may be modulated by the strength and direction of the cavity magnetic field relative to the prominence magnetic field. We conclude that buoyant plumes are a source of quiescent prominence mass as well as a mechanism by which prominence plasma is advected upward, countering constant gravitational drainage.

  16. The Solar/Stellar Coronal Explorer and the Solar/Stellar Coronal Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Lindblom, Joakim F.; Timothy, J. G.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Hoover, Richard B.; Tandberg-Hanssen, Einar; Wu, Shi T.; Sahade, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Solar/Stellar Coronal Explorer (SSCE) carries six identical Ritchey-Chretien Telescopes of 127 mm aperture each; their images will be recorded by multianode microchannel-array detectors. The mirrors of five of the telescopes are coated with multilayer reflecting structures that select narrow XUV wavelength bands corresponding to strong emission lines emitted by solar or stellar coronal plasmas. Also noted here is a larger explorer mission concept, that of the Solar/Stellar Coronal Observatory, which will undertake more extensive spectroscopic observations.

  17. Thermally Induced Vibrations of the Hubble Space Telescope's Solar Array 3 in a Test Simulated Space Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Early, Derrick A.; Haile, William B.; Turczyn, Mark T.; Griffin, Thomas J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) conducted a disturbance verification test on a flight Solar Array 3 (SA3) for the Hubble Space Telescope using the ESA Large Space Simulator (LSS) in Noordwijk, the Netherlands. The LSS cyclically illuminated the SA3 to simulate orbital temperature changes in a vacuum environment. Data acquisition systems measured signals from force transducers and accelerometers resulting from thermally induced vibrations of the SAI The LSS with its seismic mass boundary provided an excellent background environment for this test. This paper discusses the analysis performed on the measured transient SA3 responses and provides a summary of the results.

  18. Receive Transmit Telescope Telescope

    E-print Network

    Receive Transmit Telescope Telescope Acquisition, Tracking, and Pointing Technology Development technologies. BRMS utilizes two optically coupled telescopes to relay a laser source from the ground telescope is attached to the spacecraft bus with navigation and attitude control subsystems. The BRMS

  19. Formation metrology and control for large separated optics space telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mettler, E.; Quadrelli, M.; Breckenridge, W.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present formation flying performance analysis initial results for a representative large space telescope composed of separated optical elements [Mett 02]. A virtual-structure construct (an equivalent rigid body) is created by unique metrology and control that combines both centralized and decentralized methods. The formation may be in orbit at GEO for super-resolution Earth observation, as in the case of Figure 1, or it may be in an Earth-trailing orbit for astrophysics, Figure 2. Extended applications are envisioned for exo-solar planet interferometric imaging by a formation of very large separated optics telescopes, Figure 3. Space telescopes, with such large apertures and f/10 to f/100 optics, are not feasible if connected by massive metering structures. Instead, the new virtual-structure paradigm of information and control connectivity between the formation elements provides the necessary spatial rigidity and alignment precision for the telescope.

  20. Optica aperture synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Avoort, Casper

    2006-05-01

    Optical long baseline stellar interferometry is an observational technique in astronomy that already exists for over a century, but is truly blooming during the last decades. The undoubted value of stellar interferometry as a technique to measure stellar parameters beyond the classical resolution limit is more and more spreading to the regime of synthesis imaging. With optical aperture synthesis imaging, the measurement of parameters is extended to the reconstruction of high resolution stellar images. A number of optical telescope arrays for synthesis imaging are operational on Earth, while space-based telescope arrays are being designed. For all imaging arrays, the combination of the light collected by the telescopes in the array can be performed in a number of ways. In this thesis, methods are introduced to model these methods of beam combination and compare their effectiveness in the generation of data to be used to reconstruct the image of a stellar object. One of these methods of beam combination is to be applied in a future space telescope. The European Space Agency is developing a mission that can valuably be extended with an imaging beam combiner. This mission is labeled Darwin, as its main goal is to provide information on the origin of life. The primary objective is the detection of planets around nearby stars - called exoplanets- and more precisely, Earth-like exoplanets. This detection is based on a signal, rather than an image. With an imaging mode, designed as described in this thesis, Darwin can make images of, for example, the planetary system to which the detected exoplanet belongs or, as another example, of the dust disk around a star out of which planets form. Such images will greatly contribute to the understanding of the formation of our own planetary system and of how and when life became possible on Earth. The comparison of beam combination methods for interferometric imaging occupies most of the pages of this thesis. Additional chapters will treat related subjects, being experimental work on beam combination optics, a description of a novel formalism for aberration retrieval and experimental work on nulling interferometry. The Chapters on interferometric imaging are organized in such a way that not only the physical principles behind a stellar interferometer are clear, but these chapters also form a basis for the method of analysis applied to the interferometers - -or rather beam combination methods- under consideration. The imaging process in a stellar interferometer will be treated as the inversion of a linear system of equations. The definition of interferometric imaging in this thesis can be stated to be the reconstruction of a luminosity distribution function on the sky, that is, in angular measure, larger than the angular diffraction limited spot size -or Point-Spread Function (PSF)- of a single telescope in the array and that contains, again in angular measure, spatial structure that is much smaller than the PSF of a single telescope. This reconstruction has to be based on knowledge of the dimensions of the telescope array and the detector. The detector collects intensity data that is formed by observation of the polychromatic luminosity distribution on the sky and is deteriorated by the quantum-nature of light and an imperfect electronic detection process. Therefore, the imaging study presented in this thesis can be regarded to be a study on the signal characteristics of various interferometers while imaging a polychromatic wide-field stellar source. The collection of beam combination methods under consideration consists of four types. Among these are two well-known types, having either co-axially combined beams as in the Michelson-Morley experiment to demonstrate the existence of ether, or beams that follow optical paths as if an aperture mask were placed in front of a telescope, making the beams combine in the focus of that telescope, as suggested by Fizeau. For separated apertures rather than an aperture mask, these optical paths are stated to be homothetic. In short, these two types wi

  1. Ion implantation for figure correction of high-resolution x-ray telescope mirrors

    E-print Network

    Chalifoux, Brandon D

    2014-01-01

    Fabricating mirrors for future high-resolution, large-aperture x-ray telescopes continues to challenge the x-ray astronomy instrumentation community. Building a large-aperture telescope requires thin, lightweight mirrors; ...

  2. Thermal Performance of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Solar Array-3 During the Disturbance Verification Test (DVT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Daniel H.; Skladany, Lynn M.; Prats, Benito D.; Griffin, Thomas J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is one of NASA's most productive astronomical observatories. Launched in 1990, the HST continues to gather scientific data to help scientists around the world discover amazing wonders of the universe. To maintain HST in the fore front of scientific discoveries, NASA has routinely conducted servicing missions to refurbish older equipment as well as to replace existing scientific instruments with better, more powerful instruments. In early 2002, NASA will conduct its fourth servicing mission to the HST. This servicing mission is named Servicing Mission 3B (SM3B). During SM3B, one of the major refurbishment efforts will be to install new rigid-panel solar arrays as a replacement for the existing flexible-foil solar arrays. This is necessary in order to increase electrical power availability for the new scientific instruments. Prior to installing the new solar arrays on HST, the HST project must be certain that the new solar arrays will not cause any performance degradations to the observatory. One of the major concerns is any disturbance that can cause pointing Loss of Lock (LOL) for the telescope. While in orbit, the solar-array temperature transitions quickly from sun to shadow. The resulting thermal expansion and contraction can cause a "mechanical disturbance" which may result in LOL. To better characterize this behavior, a test was conducted at the European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) in the Large Space Simulator (LSS) thermal-vacuum chamber. In this test, the Sun simulator was used to simulate on-orbit effects on the solar arrays. This paper summarizes the thermal performance of the Solar Array-3 (SA3) during the Disturbance Verification Test (DVT). The test was conducted between 26 October 2000 and 30 October 2000. Included in this paper are: (1) brief description of the SA3's components and its thermal design; (2) a summary of the on-orbit temperature predictions; (3) pretest thermal preparations; (4) a description of the chamber and thermal monitoring sensors; and (6) presentation of test thermal data results versus flight predictions.

  3. A normal incidence, high resolution X-ray telescope for solar coronal observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, L.

    1985-01-01

    The following major activities were advanced or completed: complete design of the entire telescope assembly and fabrication of all front-end components; specification of all rocket skin sections including bulkheads, feedthroughs and access door; fabrication, curing, and delivery of the large graphite-epoxy telescope tube; engineering analysis of the primary mirror vibration test was completed and a decision made to redesign the mirror attachment to a kinematic three-point mount; detail design of the camera control, payload and housekeeping electronics; and multilayer mirror flats with 2d spacings of 50 A and 60 A.

  4. NEAT: an astrometric space telescope to search for habitable exoplanets in the solar neighborhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouzier, A.; Malbet, F.; Kern, P.; Feautrier, P.; Preiss, O.; Martin, G.; Henault, F.; Stadler, E.; Lafrasse, S.; Behar, E.; Saintpe, M.; Dupont, J.; Potin, S.; Lagage, P.-O.; Cara, C.; Leger, A.; Leduigou, J.-M.; Shao, M.; Goullioud, R.

    2014-03-01

    The last decade has witnessed a spectacular development of exoplanet detection techniques, which led to an exponential number of discoveries and a great diversity of known exoplanets. However, it must be noted that the quest for the holy grail of astrobiology, i.e. a nearby terrestrial exoplanet in habitable zone around a solar type star, is still ongoing and proves to be very hard. Radial velocities will have to overcome stellar noise if there are to discover habitable planets around stars more massive than M ones. For very close systems, transits are impeded by their low geometrical probability. Here we present an alternative concept: space astrometry. NEAT (Nearby Earth Astrometric Telescope) is a concept of astrometric mission proposed to ESA which goal is to make a whole sky survey of close (less then 20 pc) planetary systems. The detection limit required for the instrument is the astrometric signal of an Earth analog (at 10 pc). Differential astrometry is a very interesting tool to detect nearby habitable exoplanets. Indeed, for F, G and K main sequence stars, the astrophysical noise is smaller than the astrometric signal, contrary to the case for radial velocities. The difficulty lies in the fact that the signal of an exo-Earth around a G type star at 10 pc is a tiny 0.3 micro arc sec, which is equivalent to a coin on the moon, seen from the Earth: the main challenge is related to instrumentation. In order to reach this specification, NEAT consists of two formation flying spacecraft at a 40m distance, one carries the mirror and the other one the focal plane. Thus NEAT has a configuration with only one optical surface: an off-axis parabola. Consequently, beamwalk errors are common to the whole field of view and have a small effect on differential astrometry. Moreover a metrology system projects young fringes on the focal plane, which can characterize the pixels whenever necessary during the mission. NEAT has two main scientific objectives: combined with radial velocities and direct imaging, it will explore in a quasi systematic way the nearby planetary systems. The resulting catalog of planetary systems will be very useful to constrain planetary formation models. The second objective is to find very close Earth analogs. These will be top priority targets for a spectroscopic mission aimed at detecting biomarquers. The current activities related to NEAT revolve around 3 themes: i) a lab demonstration: an optical bench replicates the NEAT optical configuration and metrology system in order to demonstrate the feasibility of measuring centroids with a differential accuracy of 5 µpixels (corresponding to 0.3 micro arc sec on sky) ii) a definition phase study of the NEAT mission done by CNES (the "French Space Agency") iii) an end to end simulation of the NEAT data reduction pipeline: from astrometric and RVs measurements to planets All of these activities are focused on the need to answer the next ESA call for M class missions in 2014 with an improved NEAT concept.

  5. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 67 (2005) 11711177 Modelling high-power large-aperture radar meteor trails

    E-print Network

    Oppenheim, Meers

    2005-01-01

    -aperture radar meteor trails Lars P. Dyrud�, Licia Ray, Meers Oppenheim, Sigrid Close, Kelly Denney Center see high-power large-aperture (HPLA) radar observations of meteor phenomena called head echoes and non demonstrating that meteor trails are unstable to growth of Farley­Buneman gradient-drift (FBGD) waves

  6. The Hadean, Through a Glass Telescopically: Observations of Young Solar Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaidos, E. J.

    1998-01-01

    Investigations into the Earth's surface environment during the Hadean eon (prior to 3.8 Ga) are hampered by the paucity of the geological and geochemical record and the relative inaccessibility of better-preserved surfaces with possibly similar early histories (i.e., Mars). One approach is to observe nearby, young solar-mass stars as analogs to the Hadean Sun and its environment. A catalog of 38 G and early K stars within 25 pc was constructed based on main-sequence status, bolometric luminosity, lack of known stellar companions within 800 AU, and coronal X-ray luminosities commensurate with the higher activity of solar-mass stars <0.8 b.y. old. Spectroscopic data support the assignment of ages of 0.2 - 0.8 Ga for most of these stars. Observations of these objects will provide insight into external forces that influenced Hadean atmosphere, ocean, and surface evolution (and potential ecosystems), including solar luminosity evolution, the flux and spectrum of solar ultraviolet radiation, the intensity of the solar wind, and the intensity and duration of a late period of heavy bombardment. The standard model of solar evolution predicts a luminosity of 0.75 solar luminosity at the end of the Hadean, implying a terrestrial surface temperature inconsistent with the presence of liquid water and motivating atmospheric greenhouse models. An alternative model fo solar evolution that invokes mass loss, constructed to explain solar Li depletion, attenuates or reverses this luminosity evolution of the atmospheres of Earth and the other terrestrial planets. This model can be tested by Li abundance measurements. The continuum emission from stellar wind plasma during significant mass loss may be detectable at millimeter and radio wavelengths. The Earth (and Moon) experienced a period of intense bombardment prior to 3.8 Ga, long after accretion was completed in the inner solar system and possibly associated with the clearing of residual planetesimals in the outer solar system. Such a bombardment may have contributed volatiles and organics to the surface, but also have limited the appearacne of a biosphere. While planetary systems around solar systems cannot be detected directly with present technology, the thermal emission from the interplanetary dust generated during a similar heavy bombardment period can be. Midinfrared observations of a large uniform sample of solar analogs are used to constrain the frequency and duration of such events.

  7. A Scanning Hartmann Focus Test for the EUVI Telescopes aboard STEREO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohl, Ray; Antonille, Scott; Aronstein, Dave; Dean, Bruce; Eichhorn, Bil; Frey, Brad; Kubalak, Dave; Shiri, Ron; Smith, Scott; Wilson, Mark; Redman, Kevin; Janssen, Douglas; d'Entremont, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO), the third mission in NASA's Solar Terrestrial Probes program, was launched in 2006 on a two year mission to study solar phenomena. STEREO consists of two nearly identical satellites, each carrying an Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI) telescope as part of the Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation instrument suite. EUVI is a normal incidence, 98mm diameter, Ritchey-Chretien telescope designed to obtain wide field of view images of the Sun at short wavelengths (17.1-30.4nm) using a CCD detector. The telescope entrance aperture is divided into four quadrants by a mask near the secondary mirror spider veins. A mechanism that rotates another mask allows only one of these sub-apertures to accept light over an exposure. The EUVI contains no focus mechanism. Mechanical models predict a difference in telescope focus between ambient integration conditions and on-orbit operation. We describe an independent check of the ambient, ultraviolet, absolute focus setting of the EUVI telescopes after they were integrated with their respective spacecraft. A scanning Hartmann-like test design resulted from constraints implied by the EUVI aperture select mechanism. This inexpensive test was simultaneously coordinated with other NASA integration and test activities in a high-vibration, clean room environment. The total focus test error was required to be better than +/-0.05 mm. We describe the alignment and test procedure, sources of statistical and systematic error, and then the focus determination results using various algorithms. The results are consistent with other tests of focus alignment and indicate that the EUVI telescopes meet the ambient focus offset requirements. STEREO is functioning well on-orbit and the EUVI telescopes meet their on-orbit image quality requirements.

  8. Large bearings with incorporated gears, high stiffness, and precision for the Swedish Solar Telescope (SST) on La Palma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerschlag, Robert H.; Bettonvil, Felix C. M.; Jägers, Aswin P. L.; Scharmer, Göran B.

    2006-06-01

    The 1-meter Swedish Solar Telescope (SST) obtains images of the solar surface with an unprecedented resolution of 0.1 arcsec. It consists of a relatively slender tower with on top only the vacuum turret for reflecting downward the solar beam and no protective dome. This is a favourable situation to get good local seeing. Just in the case of some wind, seeing is best for daytime observations, therefore the precision bearings and drives of the elevation- and azimuth axis of the turret have to be stiff against wind. This requires line contact between the meshing teeth of the large gear wheel and the pinion. High preload forces to achieve line contact are not allowed because of appearing stick-slip effects. To reduce the risk on stick-slip a special design of the teeth for high stiffness combined with low friction and smooth transition from one tooth to the next was made. Furthermore, extreme precision in the fabrication was pursued such that relatively small contact forces give already line contact. This required a special order of the successive fabrication steps of the combination of bearing and gear teeth. An additional problem was the relatively thin section of the bearings required for a compact turret construction, needed for best local seeing and minimum wind load. Solutions for all these problems will be discussed. For the large gears the exceptional good DIN quality class 4 for the pitch precision and straightness plus direction of the teeth faces was achieved.

  9. Transverse Motions of Chromospheric Type II Spicules Observed by the New Solar Telescope

    E-print Network

    , V., Kilcik, A., Abramenko, V. Big Bear Solar Observatory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Big) may be at the origin. Moreover, Judge et al. (2011) argues that spicules II could be warps in 2D sheet

  10. OPTICAL APERTURE SYNTHESIS A COMPARISON OF TECHNIQUES FOR

    E-print Network

    OPTICAL APERTURE SYNTHESIS A COMPARISON OF TECHNIQUES FOR WIDE-FIELD INTERFEROMETRIC IMAGING and more spreading to the regime of syn- thesis imaging. With optical aperture synthesis imaging of optical telescope arrays for synthesis imaging are operational on Earth, while space-based tele- scope

  11. ATM photoheliograph. [at a solar observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prout, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    The design and fabrication are presented of a 65 cm photoheliograph functional verification unit (FVU) installed in a major solar observatory. The telescope is used in a daily program of solar observation while serving as a test bed for the development of instrumentation to be included in early space shuttle launched solar telescopes. The 65 cm FVU was designed to be mechanically compatible with the ATM spar/canister and would be adaptable to a second ATM flight utilizing the existing spar/canister configuration. An image motion compensation breadboard and a space-hardened, remotely tuned H alpha filter, as well as solar telescopes of different optical configurations or increased aperture are discussed.

  12. Telescopes and space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.; Maran, S. P.

    1976-01-01

    The necessity for different types of telescopes for astronomical investigations is discussed. Major findings in modern astronomy by ground-based and spaceborne telescopes are presented. Observations of the Crab Nebula, solar flares, interstellar gas, and the Black Hole are described. The theory of the oscillating universe is explored. Operating and planned telescopes are described.

  13. Effect of Solar Exposure on the Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Hubble Space Telescope Aluminized-Teflon Thermal Shields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Aobo; Ashmead, Claire C.; deGroh, Kim K.

    2012-01-01

    When exposed to low Earth orbital (LEO) environment, external spacecraft materials degrade due to radiation, thermal cycling, micrometeoroid and debris impacts, and atomic oxygen (AO) interaction. Collisions between AO and spacecraft can result in oxidation of external spacecraft surface materials, which can lead to erosion and severe structural and/or optical property deterioration. It is therefore essential to understand the AO erosion yield (Ey), the volume loss per incident oxygen atom (cu cm/atom), of polymers to assure durability of spacecraft materials. The objective of this study was to determine whether solar radiation exposure can increase the rate of AO erosion of polymers in LEO. The material studied was a section of aluminized-Teflon (DuPont) fluorinated ethylene propylene (Al-FEP) thermal shield exposed to space on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for 8.25 years. Retrieved samples were sectioned from the circular thermal shield and exposed to ground laboratory thermal energy AO. The results indicate that the average Ey of the solar facing HST Al-FEP was 1.9 10(exp -24)cu cm/atom, while the average Ey of the anti-solar HST Al-FEP was 1.5 10(exp -24)cu cm/atom. The Ey of the pristine samples was 1.6- 1.7 10(exp -24)cu cm/atom. These results indicate that solar exposure affects the post-flight erosion rate of FEP in a plasma asher. Therefore, it likely affects the erosion rate while in LEO.

  14. Fine-scale structures and material flows of quiescent filaments observed by the New Vacuum Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xiao-Li; Xue, Zhi-Ke; Xiang, Yong-Yuan; Yang, Li-Heng

    2015-10-01

    Study of the small-scale structures and material flows associated with solar quiescent filaments is very important for understanding the formation and equilibrium of solar filaments. Using high resolution H? data observed by the New Vacuum Solar Telescope, we present the structures of barbs and material flows along the threads across the spine in two quiescent filaments on 2013 September 29 and on 2012 November 2, respectively. During the evolution of the filament barb, several parallel tube-shaped structures formed and the width of the structures ranged from about 2.3 Mm to 3.3 Mm. The parallel tube-shaped structures merged together accompanied by material flows from the spine to the barb. Moreover, the boundary between the barb and surrounding atmosphere was very neat. The counter-streaming flows were not found to appear alternately in the adjacent threads of the filament. However, the large-scale patchy counter-streaming flows were detected in the filament. The flows in one patch of the filament have the same direction but flows in the adjacent patch have opposite direction. The patches of two opposite flows with a size of about 10? were alternately exhibited along the spine of the filament. The velocity of these material flows ranged from 5.6 km s?1 to 15.0 km s?1. The material flows along the threads of the filament did not change their direction for about two hours and fourteen minutes during the evolution of the filament. Our results confirm that the large-scale counter-streaming flows with a certain width along the threads of solar filaments exist and are coaligned well with the threads.

  15. Feasibility study of a layer-oriented wavefront sensor for solar telescopes: reply.

    PubMed

    Marino, Jose; Wöger, Friedrich

    2014-11-10

    We appreciate the thoughtful comments by Kellerer [Appl. Opt.53, 7643 (2014)10.1364/AO.53.007643] to our recent study [Appl. Opt.53, 685 (2014)10.1364/AO.53.000685] in which we evaluate the practicability of a layer-oriented wavefront sensing approach suggested for use in solar multiconjugate adaptive optics. After careful review of Kellerer's comment, we remain cautious about the feasibility of a solar-layer-oriented Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. However, we strongly encourage further analysis and proof-of-concept work that addresses the difficulties outlined in our original paper and that demonstrates the operating principles behind such an instrument. PMID:25402985

  16. Doppler winds mapped around the lower thermospheric terminator of Venus: 2012 solar transit observations from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, R. Todd; Sandor, Brad J.; Hoge, James

    2015-07-01

    Doppler shifts of sub-millimeter 12 CO (346 GHz) and 13 CO (330 GHz) and millimeter 12 CO (230 GHz) line absorptions were mapped around the circum-disk terminator of Venus before, during, and after the June 5, 2012 solar transit, employing the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). Radiative transfer analysis of the solar transit 12 CO thermal line absorptions yields cross-terminator winds in the Venus lower thermosphere (100-120 km) over the local time (LT) and latitude extent of the atmospheric limb presented by the inferior conjunction, nightside apparent disk of Venus. The unique solar transit geometry provides enhanced spatial resolution of the terminator (0.2 h in local time, LT) associated with solar illumination of this atmospheric limb region, and so provides the first characterization of the instantaneous distribution of cross terminator flow in the Venus lower thermosphere versus LT and latitude. Furthermore, by mapping Doppler winds over the nightside disk preceding and following the solar transit, we place the highly variable zonal and subsolar-to-antisolar (SSAS) circulation components of the nightside lower thermosphere (Clancy, R.T., Sandor, B.J., Moriarty-Schieven, G.H. [2012a]. Icarus 217, 794-812) in the context of the day-to-night cross terminator flow that drives this chaotic nightside dynamical regime. The solar transit observations indicate substantially supersonic (200-300 m/s) day-to-night cross terminator winds that are significantly (by 50-150 m/s) stronger over the evening versus the morning terminator. They also exhibit surprisingly large (50%) variations over a 1-2 h timescale that challenge explanation. These behaviors likely contribute to both the variability and the apparent retrograde zonal component of circulation in the Venus nightside upper atmosphere. Hence, these observations support dynamical arguments for preferential deceleration of the morning sector SSAS circulation (e.g., Alexander, M.J. [1992]. Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 2207-2210), as recently simulated in the Venus thermospheric general circulation model of Hoshino et al. (Hoshinom, N. et al. [2013]. J. Geophys. Res. 118, 2004-2015).

  17. Electron microscope aperture system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinemann, K. (inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An electron microscope including an electron source, a condenser lens having either a circular aperture for focusing a solid cone of electrons onto a specimen or an annular aperture for focusing a hollow cone of electrons onto the specimen, and an objective lens having an annular objective aperture, for focusing electrons passing through the specimen onto an image plane are described. The invention also entails a method of making the annular objective aperture using electron imaging, electrolytic deposition and ion etching techniques.

  18. Telescoping in on the Microscopic Origins of the Fast Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranmer, S. R.

    2011-12-01

    Despite many years of study, the basic physical processes that are responsible for producing the solar wind are not known (or at least not universally agreed upon). The fact that we have an overabundance of proposed ideas for solving the problems of coronal heating and wind acceleration can be seen as both a blessing and a curse. It is a blessing because it highlights the insight and creativity of the community, but it is a curse because we still do not know how to validate or falsify many of these ideas. Discerning the presence of any given proposed mechanism is difficult not only because measurements are limited, but also because many of the suggested processes act on a wide range of spatial scales (from centimeters to solar radii) with complex feedback effects that are not yet understood. This presentation will discuss a few key examples and controversies regarding the importance of small spatial and temporal scales in the regions where the solar wind is accelerated. For example, new observations have led to a revived debate about whether the hot plasma in the solar wind is injected dynamically from cooler regions below or whether it "evaporates" from the combined effects of radiation and conduction from above. There is also debate about how the open field lines are energized: Is the energy input from waves and turbulent eddies that propagate up from the Sun and dissipate, or is the constantly evolving magnetic carpet responsible for heating the plasma via reconnection? In some areas, traditional observational diagnostics of magnetohydrodynamic plasma properties may not be sufficient to distinguish between competing predictions. Thus, this presentation will also describe why it is probably wise to confront the truly microscopic (nonlinear, non-Maxwellian, collisionless) nature of the relevant particles and fields. Theories and measurements that "zoom in" to this level of kinetic detail have the greatest potential for improving our understanding of the origins of coronal heating and solar wind acceleration.

  19. Modular Assembled Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee D.; Budinoff, Jason; MacEwen, Howard; Matthews, Gary; Postman, Marc

    2013-01-01

    We present a new approach to building a modular segmented space telescope that greatly leverages the heritage of the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope. The modular design in which mirror segments are assembled into identical panels allows for economies of scale and for efficient space assembly that make a 20-m aperture approach cost effective. This assembly approach can leverage NASA's future capabilities and has the power to excite the public's imagination. We discuss the science drivers, basic architecture, technology, and leveraged NASA infrastructure, concluding with a proposed plan for going forward.

  20. Telescopic vision contact lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Eric J.; Beer, R. Dirk; Arianpour, Ashkan; Ford, Joseph E.

    2011-03-01

    We present the concept, optical design, and first proof of principle experimental results for a telescopic contact lens intended to become a visual aid for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), providing magnification to the user without surgery or external head-mounted optics. Our contact lens optical system can provide a combination of telescopic and non-magnified vision through two independent optical paths through the contact lens. The magnified optical path incorporates a telescopic arrangement of positive and negative annular concentric reflectors to achieve 2.8x - 3x magnification on the eye, while light passing through a central clear aperture provides unmagnified vision.

  1. Mission design for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, Johnny H.; Osmolovsky, Michael G.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is the fourth in NASA's series of Great Observatories. It will feature a one-meter class cryogenically cooled telescope. It is planned for a NASA fiscal start for the development phase in 1994 with a launch in about 2001. The launch vehicle will be the new upgraded Titan IV with a Centaur upper stage. The operational orbit will be circular at an altitude of about 100,000 km. The planned mission lifetime is 5 years. This paper addresses the rationale in the selection of the high altitude orbit, the performance of the launch vehicle in delivering the observatory to orbit, other orbit options, and the planned observational modes and capabilities of the observatory. The paper will also address the viewing geometry and viewing constraints affecting science observation, telescope aperture shade design, and spacecraft solar-panel and communication design.

  2. Power Challenges of Large Scale Research Infrastructures: the Square Kilometer Array and Solar Energy Integration; Towards a zero-carbon footprint next generation telescope

    E-print Network

    Barbosa, Domingos; Ruiz, Valeriano; Silva, Manuel; Verdes-Montenegro, Lourdes; Santander-Vela, Juande; Maia, Dalmiro; Antón, Sonia; van Ardenne, Arnold; Vetter, Matthias; Kramer, Michael; Keller, Reinhard; Pereira, Nuno; Silva, Vitor

    2012-01-01

    The Square Kilometer Array (SKA) will be the largest Global science project of the next two decades. It will encompass a sensor network dedicated to radioastronomy, covering two continents. It will be constructed in remote areas of South Africa and Australia, spreading over 3000Km, in high solar irradiance latitudes. Solar Power supply is therefore an option to power supply the SKA and contribute to a zero carbon footprint next generation telescope. Here we outline the major characteristics of the SKA and some innovation approaches on thermal solar energy Integration with SKA prototypes.

  3. Preliminary design analysis for the solar optical telescope main mirror actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    The resolution of the SOT Gregorian telescope was maintained if the conic foci of the elliptical secondary and parabolic primary were made to coincide within plus or minus 38 microns across the prime focus plane and to within 5 microns in focus. An error in coincidence across the focal plane caused all point images to show additional coma with all the comatic tails pointing in the same direction. An error in focus became magnified by the square of the magnification of the secondary and simply increased the diameter of the point source. Offsetting or rastering the sun may be accomplished by swinging the primary in an arc about the point of coincidence of the conic foci so long as the coincidence is kept to within the tolerance stated.

  4. CHROMOSPHERIC SIGNATURES OF SMALL-SCALE FLUX EMERGENCE AS OBSERVED WITH NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE AND HINODE INSTRUMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Yurchyshyn, V. B.; Goode, P. R.; Abramenko, V. I.; Chae, J.; Cao, W.; Andic, A.; Ahn, K.

    2010-10-20

    With the ever-increasing influx of high-resolution images of the solar surface obtained at a multitude of wavelengths, various processes occurring at small spatial scales have become a greater focus of our attention. Complex small-scale magnetic fields have been reported that appear to have enough stored energy to heat the chromosphere. While significant progress has been made in understanding small-scale phenomena, many specifics remain elusive. We present here a detailed study of a single event of disappearance of a magnetic dipole and associated chromospheric activity. Based on New Solar Telescope H{alpha} data and Hinode photospheric line-of-sight magnetograms and Ca II H images, we report the following. (1) Our analysis indicates that even very small dipoles (elements separated by about 0.''5 or less) may reach the chromosphere and trigger non-negligible chromospheric activity. (2) Careful consideration of the magnetic environment where the new flux is deposited may shed light on the details of magnetic flux removal from the solar surface. We argue that the apparent collision and disappearance of two opposite polarity elements may not necessarily indicate their cancellation (i.e., reconnection, emergence of a 'U' tube, or submergence of {Omega} loops). In our case, the magnetic dipole disappeared by reconnecting with overlying large-scale inclined plage fields. (3) Bright points (BPs) seen in off-band H{alpha} images are very well correlated with the Ca II H BPs, which in turn are cospatial with G-band BPs. We further speculate that, in general, H{alpha} BPs are expected to be cospatial with photospheric BPs; however, a direct comparison is needed to refine their relationship.

  5. Imaging of the solar atmosphere by the Siberian Solar Radio Telescope at 5.7 GHz with an enhanced dynamic range

    E-print Network

    Kochanov, Alexey; Prosovetsky, Dmitry; Rudenko, George; Grechnev, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The Siberian Solar Radio Telescope (SSRT) is a solar-dedicated directly-imaging interferometer observing the Sun at 5.7 GHz. The SSRT operates in the two-dimensional mode since 1996. The imaging principle of the SSRT restricts its opportunities in observations of very bright flare sources, while it is possible to use `dirty' images in studies of low brightness features, which do not overlap with side lobes from bright sources. The interactive CLEAN technique routinely used for the SSRT data provides imaging of active regions but consumes much time and efforts and does not reveal low-brightness features below the CLEAN threshold. The newly developed technique combines the CLEAN routine with the directly imaging capability of the SSRT and provides clean images with an enhanced dynamic range automatically. These elaborations considerably extend the range of tasks, which can be solved with the SSRT. We show some examples of the present opportunities of the SSRT and compare its data with the images produced by the...

  6. Thermal Properties of A Solar Coronal Cavity Observed with the X-Ray Telescope on Hinode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, Katherine K.; Gibson, Sarah E.; Kucera, Theresa A.; Hudson, Hugh S.; Kano, Ryouhei

    2011-01-01

    Coronal cavities are voids in coronal emission often observed above high latitude filament channels. Sometimes, these cavities have areas of bright X-ray emission in their centers. In this study, we use data from the X-ray Telescope (XRT) on the Hinode satellite to examine the thermal emission properties of a cavity observed during July 2008 that contains bright X-ray emission in its center. Using ratios of XRT filters, we find evidence for elevated temperatures in the cavity center. The area of elevated temperature evolves from a ring-shaped structure at the beginning of the observation, to an elongated structure two days later, finally appearing as a compact round source four days after the initial observation. We use a morphological model to fit the cavity emission, and find that a uniform structure running through the cavity does not fit the observations well. Instead, the observations are reproduced by modeling several short cylindrical cavity "cores" with different parameters on different days. These changing core parameters may be due to some observed activity heating different parts of the cavity core at different times. We find that core temperatures of 1.75 MK, 1.7 MK and 2.0 MK (for July 19, July 21 and July 23, respectively) in the model lead to structures that are consistent with the data, and that line-of-sight effects serve to lower the effective temperature derived from the filter ratio.

  7. THERMAL PROPERTIES OF A SOLAR CORONAL CAVITY OBSERVED WITH THE X-RAY TELESCOPE ON HINODE

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, Katharine K.; Gibson, Sarah E.; Hudson, Hugh S.; Kano, Ryouhei

    2012-02-20

    Coronal cavities are voids in coronal emission often observed above high latitude filament channels. Sometimes, these cavities have areas of bright X-ray emission in their centers. In this study, we use data from the X-ray Telescope (XRT) on the Hinode satellite to examine the thermal emission properties of a cavity observed during 2008 July that contains bright X-ray emission in its center. Using ratios of XRT filters, we find evidence for elevated temperatures in the cavity center. The area of elevated temperature evolves from a ring-shaped structure at the beginning of the observation, to an elongated structure two days later, finally appearing as a compact round source four days after the initial observation. We use a morphological model to fit the cavity emission, and find that a uniform structure running through the cavity does not fit the observations well. Instead, the observations are reproduced by modeling several short cylindrical cavity 'cores' with different parameters on different days. These changing core parameters may be due to some observed activity heating different parts of the cavity core at different times. We find that core temperatures of 1.75 MK, 1.7 MK, and 2.0 MK (for July 19, July 21, and July 23, respectively) in the model lead to structures that are consistent with the data, and that line-of-sight effects serve to lower the effective temperature derived from the filter ratio.

  8. MASS AND ENERGY OF ERUPTING SOLAR PLASMA OBSERVED WITH THE X-RAY TELESCOPE ON HINODE

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jin-Yi; Moon, Yong-Jae; Kim, Kap-Sung; Raymond, John C.; Reeves, Katharine K.

    2015-01-10

    We investigate seven eruptive plasma observations by Hinode/XRT. Their corresponding EUV and/or white light coronal mass ejection features are visible in some events. Five events are observed in several passbands in X-rays, which allows for the determination of the eruptive plasma temperature using a filter ratio method. We find that the isothermal temperatures vary from 1.6 to 10 MK. These temperatures are an average weighted toward higher temperature plasma. We determine the mass constraints of eruptive plasmas by assuming simplified geometrical structures of the plasma with isothermal plasma temperatures. This method provides an upper limit to the masses of the observed eruptive plasmas in X-ray passbands since any clumping causes the overestimation of the mass. For the other two events, we assume the temperatures are at the maximum temperature of the X-ray Telescope (XRT) temperature response function, which gives a lower limit of the masses. We find that the masses in XRT, ?3 × 10{sup 13}-5 × 10{sup 14} g, are smaller in their upper limit than the total masses obtained by LASCO, ?1 × 10{sup 15} g. In addition, we estimate the radiative loss, thermal conduction, thermal, and kinetic energies of the eruptive plasma in X-rays. For four events, we find that the thermal conduction timescales are much shorter than the duration of eruption. This result implies that additional heating during the eruption may be required to explain the plasma observations in X-rays for the four events.

  9. HILT - A heavy ion large area proportional counter telescope for solar and anomalous cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klecker, Berndt; Hovestadt, Dietrich; Scholer, M.; Arbinger, H.; Ertl, M.; Kaestle, H.; Kuenneth, E.; Laeverenz, P.; Seidenschwang, E.; Blake, J. B.

    1993-01-01

    The HILT sensor has been designed to measure heavy ion elemental abundances, energy spectra, and direction of incidence in the mass range from He to Fe and in the energy range 4 to 250 MeV/nucleon. With its large geometric factor of 60 sq cm sr the sensor is optimized to provide compositional and spectral measurements for low intensity cosmic rays (i.e. for small solar energetic particle events and for the anomalous component of cosmic rays). The instrument combines a large area ion drift chamber-proportional counter system with two arrays of 16 Li-drift solid state detectors and 16 CsI crystals. The multi dE/dx-E technique provides a low background mass and energy determination. The sensor also measures particle direction. Combining these measurements with the information on the spacecraft position and attitude in the low-altitude polar orbit, it will be possible to infer the ionic charge of the ions from the local cutoff of the Earth's magnetic field. The ionic charge in this energy range is of particular interest because it provides unique clues to the origin of these particles and has not been investigated systematically so far. Together with the other instruments on board SAMPEX (LEICA, MAST, and PET), a comprehensive measurement of the entire solar and anomalous particle population will be achieved.

  10. Debris Disks around Solar-Type Stars: Observations of the Pleiades with Spitzer Space Telescope

    E-print Network

    Sierchio, J M; Su, K Y L; Plavchan, P; Stauffer, J R; Gorlova, N I

    2010-01-01

    We present Spitzer MIPS observations at 24 um of 37 solar-type stars in the Pleiades and combine them with previous observations to obtain a sample of 71 stars. We report that 23 stars, or 32 +/- 6.8%, have excesses at 24 um at least 10% above their photospheric emission. We compare our results with studies of debris disks in other open clusters and with a study of A stars to show that debris disks around solar-type stars at 115 Myr occur at nearly the same rate as around A-type stars. We analyze the effects of binarity and X-ray activity on the excess flux. Stars with warm excesses tend not to be in equal-mass binary systems, possibly due to clearing of planetesimals by binary companions in similar orbits. We find that the apparent anti-correlations in the incidence of excess and both the rate of stellar rotation and also the level of activity as judged by X-ray emission are statistically weak.

  11. DISCOVERY OF FINELY STRUCTURED DYNAMIC SOLAR CORONA OBSERVED IN THE Hi-C TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Cirtain, Jonathan; Savage, Sabrina; Alexander, Caroline; Golub, Leon; DeLuca, Edward; Schuler, Timothy

    2014-05-20

    In the Summer of 2012, the High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew on board a NASA sounding rocket and collected the highest spatial resolution images ever obtained of the solar corona. One of the goals of the Hi-C flight was to characterize the substructure of the solar corona. We therefore examine how the intensity scales from AIA resolution to Hi-C resolution. For each low-resolution pixel, we calculate the standard deviation in the contributing high-resolution pixel intensities and compare that to the expected standard deviation calculated from the noise. If these numbers are approximately equal, the corona can be assumed to be smoothly varying, i.e., have no evidence of substructure in the Hi-C image to within Hi-C's ability to measure it given its throughput and readout noise. A standard deviation much larger than the noise value indicates the presence of substructure. We calculate these values for each low-resolution pixel for each frame of the Hi-C data. On average, 70% of the pixels in each Hi-C image show no evidence of substructure. The locations where substructure is prevalent is in the moss regions and in regions of sheared magnetic field. We also find that the level of substructure varies significantly over the roughly 160 s of the Hi-C data analyzed here. This result indicates that the finely structured corona is concentrated in regions of heating and is highly time dependent.

  12. Discovery of Finely Structured Dynamic Solar Corona Observed in the Hi-C Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; Golub, L.; DeLuca, E.; Savage, S.; Alexander, C.; Schuler, T.

    2014-01-01

    In the summer of 2012, the High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew aboard a NASA sounding rocket and collected the highest spatial resolution images ever obtained of the solar corona. One of the goals of the Hi-C flight was to characterize the substructure of the solar corona. We therefore examine how the intensity scales from AIA resolution to Hi-C resolution. For each low-resolution pixel, we calculate the standard deviation in the contributing high-resolution pixel intensities and compare that to the expected standard deviation calculated from the noise. If these numbers are approximately equal, the corona can be assumed to be smoothly varying, i.e. have no evidence of substructure in the Hi-C image to within Hi-C's ability to measure it given its throughput and readout noise. A standard deviation much larger than the noise value indicates the presence of substructure. We calculate these values for each low-resolution pixel for each frame of the Hi-C data. On average, 70 percent of the pixels in each Hi-C image show no evidence of substructure. The locations where substructure is prevalent is in the moss regions and in regions of sheared magnetic field. We also find that the level of substructure varies significantly over the roughly 160 s of the Hi-C data analyzed here. This result indicates that the finely structured corona is concentrated in regions of heating and is highly time dependent.

  13. The Substructure of the Solar Corona Observed in the Hi-C Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; Golub, L.; DeLuca, E.; Savage, S.; Alexander, C.; Schuler, T.

    2014-01-01

    In the summer of 2012, the High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew aboard a NASA sounding rocket and collected the highest spatial resolution images ever obtained of the solar corona. One of the goals of the Hi-C flight was to characterize the substructure of the solar corona. We therefore calculate how the intensity scales from a low-resolution (AIA) pixels to high-resolution (Hi-C) pixels for both the dynamic events and "background" emission (meaning, the steady emission over the 5 minutes of data acquisition time). We find there is no evidence of substructure in the background corona; the intensity scales smoothly from low-resolution to high-resolution Hi-C pixels. In transient events, however, the intensity observed with Hi-C is, on average, 2.6 times larger than observed with AIA. This increase in intensity suggests that AIA is not resolving these events. This result suggests a finely structured dynamic corona embedded in a smoothly varying background.

  14. Toward Active X-ray Telescopes II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Aldroft, Thomas L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Button, Timothy W.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Doel, Peter; Feldman, Charlotte H.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Lillie, Charles F.; Michette, Alan G.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Sanmartin, Daniel Rodriguez; Saha, Timo T.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan E.; Ulmer, Melville P.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Willingale, Richard; Zhang, William W.

    2012-01-01

    In the half century since the initial discovery of an astronomical (non-solar) x-ray source, the sensitivity for detection of cosmic x-ray sources has improved by ten orders of magnitude. Largely responsible for this dramatic progress has been the refinement of the (grazing-incidence) focusing x-ray telescope. The future of x-ray astronomy relies upon the development of x-ray telescopes with larger aperture areas (greater than 1 m2) and finer angular resolution (less than 1.). Combined with the special requirements of grazing-incidence optics, the mass and envelope constraints of space-borne telescopes render such advances technologically challenging.requiring precision fabrication, alignment, and assembly of large areas (greater than 100 m2) of lightweight (approximately 1 kg m2 areal density) mirrors. Achieving precise and stable alignment and figure control may entail active (in-space adjustable) x-ray optics. This paper discusses relevant programmatic and technological issues and summarizes progress toward active x-ray telescopes.

  15. X-ray spectrometer spectrograph telescope system. [for solar corona study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruner, E. C., Jr.; Acton, L. W.; Brown, W. A.; Salat, S. W.; Franks, A.; Schmidtke, G.; Schweizer, W.; Speer, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    A new sounding rocket payload that has been developed for X-ray spectroscopic studies of the solar corona is described. The instrument incorporates a grazing incidence Rowland mounted grating spectrograph and an extreme off-axis paraboloic sector feed system to isolate regions of the sun of order 1 x 10 arc seconds in size. The focal surface of the spectrograph is shared by photographic and photoelectric detection systems, with the latter serving as a part of the rocket pointing system control loop. Fabrication and alignment of the optical system is based on high precision machining and mechanical metrology techniques. The spectrograph has a resolution of 16 milliangstroms and modifications planned for future flights will improve the resolution to 5 milliangstroms, permitting line widths to be measured.

  16. H? Line Impact Linear Polarization Observed in the 23 July 2002 Flare with the Large Solar Vacuum Telescope (LSVT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firstova, N. M.; Polyakov, V. I.; Firstova, A. V.

    2012-08-01

    We present the results of studying the proton flare 2B/X4.8 on 23 July 2002, observed with the Large Solar Vacuum Telescope (LSVT) at the Baikal Astrophysical Observatory in spectropolarimetric mode with high spatial and spectral resolution. We have found some evidence for H? line impact linear polarization, predominantly during the initial moments of the flare. For the H? line 606 cuts were made along the dispersion in 53 spectrograms, and a polarization signal was found more or less confidently in 60 cuts (13 spectrograms). Polarization was mainly observed in one of the kernels of the flare. A particular feature of this kernel was that the H? line was observed to show a reversal in the central part of this kernel, which created a dip in the kernel center in the photometric cut. The size of these dips and the size of the sites with the linear polarization coincide and are equal to 3 - 6 arcsec. The maximum polarization degree in this kernel reached 15 %. The direction of the polarization in the kernel is radial, except for the first two frames, where the direction of the polarization was both radial and tangential. Furthermore, we found an analogy between the effects observed at the chromospheric level in this kernel (polarization and depression in H? line) and the temporal variation of the HXR sources.

  17. SYSTEMATIC MOTION OF FINE-SCALE JETS AND SUCCESSIVE RECONNECTION IN SOLAR CHROMOSPHERIC ANEMONE JET OBSERVED WITH THE SOLAR OPTICAL TELESCOPE/HINODE

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, K. A. P.; Nishida, K.; Shibata, K.; Isobe, H.

    2012-11-20

    The Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on board Hinode allows observations with high spatiotemporal resolution and stable image quality. A {lambda}-shaped chromospheric anemone jet was observed in high resolution with SOT/Hinode. We found that several fine-scale jets were launched from one end of the footpoint to the other. These fine-scale jets ({approx}1.5-2.5 Mm) gradually move from one end of the footpoint to the other and finally merge into a single jet. This process occurs recurrently, and as time progresses the jet activity becomes more and more violent. The time evolution of the region below the jet in Ca II H filtergram images taken with SOT shows that various parts (or knots) appear at different positions. These bright knots gradually merge into each other during the maximum phase. The systematic motion of the fine-scale jets is observed when different knots merge into each other. Such morphology would arise due to the emergence of a three-dimensional twisted flux rope in which the axial component (or the guide field) appears in the later stages of the flux rope emergence. The partial appearance of the knots could be due to the azimuthal magnetic field that appears during the early stage of the flux rope emergence. If the guide field is strong and reconnection occurs between the emerging flux rope and an ambient magnetic field, this could explain the typical feature of systematic motion in chromospheric anemone jets.

  18. Cooling Technology for Large Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiPirro, Michael; Cleveland, Paul; Durand, Dale; Klavins, Andy; Muheim, Daniella; Paine, Christopher; Petach, Mike; Tenerelli, Domenick; Tolomeo, Jason; Walyus, Keith

    2007-01-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program funded an effort to develop a system cooling technology, which is applicable to all future infrared, sub-millimeter and millimeter cryogenic space telescopes. In particular, this technology is necessary for the proposed large space telescope Single Aperture Far-Infrared Telescope (SAFIR) mission. This technology will also enhance the performance and lower the risk and cost for other cryogenic missions. The new paradigm for cooling to low temperatures will involve passive cooling using lightweight deployable membranes that serve both as sunshields and V-groove radiators, in combination with active cooling using mechanical coolers operating down to 4 K. The Cooling Technology for Large Space Telescopes (LST) mission planned to develop and demonstrate a multi-layered sunshield, which is actively cooled by a multi-stage mechanical cryocooler, and further the models and analyses critical to scaling to future missions. The outer four layers of the sunshield cool passively by radiation, while the innermost layer is actively cooled to enable the sunshield to decrease the incident solar irradiance by a factor of more than one million. The cryocooler cools the inner layer of the sunshield to 20 K, and provides cooling to 6 K at a telescope mounting plate. The technology readiness level (TRL) of 7 will be achieved by the active cooling technology following the technology validation flight in Low Earth Orbit. In accordance with the New Millennium charter, tests and modeling are tightly integrated to advance the technology and the flight design for "ST-class" missions. Commercial off-the-shelf engineering analysis products are used to develop validated modeling capabilities to allow the techniques and results from LST to apply to a wide variety of future missions. The LST mission plans to "rewrite the book" on cryo-thermal testing and modeling techniques, and validate modeling techniques to scale to future space telescopes such as SAFIR.

  19. An Engineering Design Reference Mission for a Future Large-Aperture UVOIR Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Clampin, Mark; Crooke, Julie A.; Redding, David; Rioux, Norman; Stahl, H. Philip

    2016-01-01

    From the 2010 NRC Decadal Survey and the NASA Thirty-Year Roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions, to the recent AURA report, From Cosmic Birth to Living Earths, multiple community assessments have recommended development of a large-aperture UVOIR space observatory capable of achieving a broad range of compelling scientific goals. Of these priority science goals, the most technically challenging is the search for spectroscopic biomarkers in the atmospheres of exoplanets in the solar neighborhood. Here we present an engineering design reference mission (EDRM) for the Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST), which was conceived from the start as capable of breakthrough science paired with an emphasis on cost control and cost effectiveness. An EDRM allows the engineering design trade space to be explored in depth to determine what are the most demanding requirements and where there are opportunities for margin against requirements. Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI study team has used community-provided science goals to derive mission needs, requirements, and candidate mission architectures for a future large-aperture, non-cryogenic UVOIR space observatory. The ATLAST observatory is designed to operate at a Sun-Earth L2 orbit, which provides a stable thermal environment and excellent field of regard. Our reference designs have emphasized a serviceable 36-segment 9.2 m aperture telescope that stows within a five-meter diameter launch vehicle fairing. As part of our cost-management effort, this particular reference mission builds upon the engineering design for JWST. Moreover, it is scalable to a variety of launch vehicle fairings. Performance needs developed under the study are traceable to a variety of additional reference designs, including options for a monolithic primary mirror.

  20. Rotating Aperture System

    DOEpatents

    Rusnak, Brian (Livermore, CA); Hall, James M. (Livermore, CA); Shen, Stewart (Danville, CA); Wood, Richard L. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2005-01-18

    A rotating aperture system includes a low-pressure vacuum pumping stage with apertures for passage of a deuterium beam. A stator assembly includes holes for passage of the beam. The rotor assembly includes a shaft connected to a deuterium gas cell or a crossflow venturi that has a single aperture on each side that together align with holes every rotation. The rotating apertures are synchronized with the firing of the deuterium beam such that the beam fires through a clear aperture and passes into the Xe gas beam stop. Portions of the rotor are lapped into the stator to improve the sealing surfaces, to prevent rapid escape of the deuterium gas from the gas cell.

  1. Switchable telescopic contact lens.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Eric J; Stamenov, Igor; Beer, R Dirk; Arianpour, Ashkan; Ford, Joseph E

    2013-07-01

    We present design and first demonstration of optics for a telescopic contact lens with independent optical paths for switching between normal and magnified vision. The magnified optical path incorporates a telescopic arrangement of positive and negative annular concentric reflectors to achieve 2.8 x magnification on the eye, while light passing through a central clear aperture provides unmagnified vision. We present an experimental demonstration of the contact lens mounted on a life-sized optomechanical model eye and, using a pair of modified commercial 3D television glasses, demonstrate electrically operated polarization switching between normal and magnified vision. PMID:23842384

  2. The South Pole Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Ruhl, J.E.; Ade, P.A.R.; Carlstrom, J.E.; Cho, H.M.; Crawford,T.; Dobbs, M.; Greer, C.H.; Halverson, N.W.; Holzapfel, W.L.; Lanting,T.M.; Lee, A.T.; Leitch, E.M.; Leong, J.; Lu, W.; Lueker, M.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S.S.; Mohr, J.J.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Runyan, M.C.; Schwan, D.; Sharp, M.K.; Spieler, H.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A.A.

    2004-11-04

    A new 10 meter diameter telescope is being constructed for deployment at the NSF South Pole research station. The telescope is designed for conducting large-area millimeter and sub-millimeter wave surveys of faint, low contrast emission, as required to map primary and secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. To achieve the required sensitivity and resolution, the telescope design employs an off-axis primary with a 10 m diameter clear aperture. The full aperture and the associated optics will have a combined surface accuracy of better than 20 microns rms to allow precision operation in the submillimeter atmospheric windows. The telescope will be surrounded with a large reflecting ground screen to reduce sensitivity to thermal emission from the ground and local interference. The optics of the telescope will support a square degree field of view at 2mm wavelength and will feed a new 1000-element micro-lithographed planar bolometric array with superconducting transition-edge sensors and frequency-multiplexed readouts. The first key project will be to conduct a survey over 4000 degrees for galaxy clusters using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect. This survey should find many thousands of clusters with a mass selection criteria that is remarkably uniform with redshift. Armed with redshifts obtained from optical and infrared follow-up observations, it is expected that the survey will enable significant constraints to be placed on the equation of state of the dark energy.

  3. LUTE telescope structural design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruthven, Gregory

    1993-01-01

    The major objective of the Lunar Ultraviolet Transit Experiment (LUTE) Telescope Structural Design Study was to investigate the feasibility of designing an ultralightweight 1-m aperture system within optical performance requirements and mass budget constraints. This study uses the results from our previous studies on LUTE as a basis for further developing the LUTE structural architecture. After summarizing our results in Section 2, Section 3 begins with the overall logic we used to determine which telescope 'structural form' should be adopted for further analysis and weight estimates. Specific telescope component analysis showing calculated fundamental frequencies and how they compare with our derived requirements are included. 'First-order' component stress analyses to ensure telescope optical and structural component (i.e. mirrors & main bulkhead) weights are realistic are presented. Layouts of both the primary and tertiary mirrors showing dimensions that are consistent with both our weight and frequency calculations also form part of Section 3. Section 4 presents our calculated values for the predicted thermally induced primary-to-secondary mirror despace motion due to the large temperature range over which LUTE must operate. Two different telescope design approaches (one which utilizes fused quartz metering rods and one which assumes the entire telescope is fabricated from beryllium) are considered in this analysis. We bound the secondary mirror focus mechanism range (in despace) based on these two telescope configurations. In Section 5 we show our overall design of the UVTA (Ultraviolet Telescope Assembly) via an 'exploded view' of the sub-system. The 'exploded view' is annotated to help aid in the understanding of each sub-assembly. We also include a two view layout of the UVTA from which telescope and telescope component dimensions can be measured. We conclude our study with a set of recommendations not only with respect to the LUTE structural architecture but also on other topics related to the overall feasibility of the LUTE telescope sub-system.

  4. Advance on solar instrumentation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yihua

    2015-08-01

    The solar observing facilities in China are introduced with the emphasis on the development in recent years and future plans for both ground and space-based solar instrumentations. The recent solar instruments are as follows: A new generation Chinese Spectral Radioreliograph (CSRH) has been constructed at Mingantu Observing Station in Zhengxiangbaiqi, inner Mongolia of China since 2013 and is in test observations now. CSRH has two arrays with 40 × 4.5 m and 60 × 2 m parabolic antennas covering 0.4-2 GHz and 2-15 GHz frequency range. CSRH is renamed as MUSER (Mingantu Ultrawide Spectral Radiheliograph) after its accomplishment. A new 1 m vacuum solar telescope (NVST) has been installed in 2010 at Fuxian lake, 60 km away from Kunming, Yunana. At present it is the best seeing place in China. A new telescope called ONSET (Optical and NIR Solar Eruption Tracer) has been established at the same site as NVST in 2011. ONSET has been put into operation since 2013. For future ground-based plans, Chinese Giant Solar Telescope (CGST) with spatial resolution equivalent to 8m and effective area of 5m full-aperture telescope has been proposed and was formally listed into the National Plans of Major Science & Technology Infrastructures in China. The pre-study and site survey for CGST have been pursued. A 1-meter mid-infrared telescope for precise measurement of the solar magnetic field has been funded by NSFC in 2014 as a national major scientific instrument development project. This project will develop the first mid-infrared solar magnetic observation instrument in the world aiming at increasing the precision of the transverse magnetic field measurement by one order of magnitude. For future ground-based plans, we promote the Deep-space Solar Observatory (DSO) with 1-m aperture telescope to be formally funded. The ASO-S (an Advanced Space-based Solar Observatory) has been supported in background phase by Space Science Program as a small mission. Other related space solar projects have also been proposed to promote the solar-terrestrial research.

  5. Solar astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, Robert; Noyes, Robert; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Canfield, Richard C.; Chupp, Edward L.; Deming, Drake; Doschek, George A.; Dulk, George A.; Foukal, Peter V.; Gilliland, Ronald L.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is given of modern solar physics. Topics covered include the solar interior, the solar surface, the solar atmosphere, the Large Earth-based Solar Telescope (LEST), the Orbiting Solar Laboratory, the High Energy Solar Physics mission, the Space Exploration Initiative, solar-terrestrial physics, and adaptive optics. Policy and related programmatic recommendations are given for university research and education, facilitating solar research, and integrated support for solar research.

  6. Variable-aperture screen

    DOEpatents

    Savage, G.M.

    1991-10-29

    Apparatus is described for separating material into first and second portions according to size including a plurality of shafts, a plurality of spaced disks radiating outwardly from each of the shafts to define apertures and linkage interconnecting the shafts for moving the shafts toward or away from one another to vary the size of the apertures while the apparatus is performing the separating function. 10 figures.

  7. A Lithium Abundance Study of Solar-type Stars in Blanco 1 using the 2.1m McDonald Telescope: Developing Undergraduate Research Experiences.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cargile, Phillip; James, D. J.; Villalon, K.; Girgenti, S.; Mermilliod, J.

    2007-12-01

    We present a new catalog of lithium equivalent widths for 20 solar-type stars in the young (60-100 Myr), nearby (250 pc) open cluster Blanco 1, measured from high-resolution spectra (R 30,000), taken during an observing run on the 2.1m telescope at McDonald Observatory. These new lithium data, coupled with the 20 or so extant measurements in the literature, are used in combination with the results of a recently completed standardized BVIc CCD survey, and corresponding 2MASS near-infrared colors, to derive precise lithium abundances for solar-type stars in Blanco 1. Comparing these new results with the existing lithium dataset for other open clusters, we investigate the mass- and age-dependent lithium depletion distribution among early-epoch (< 1Gyr) solar-type stars, and specifically, the lithium abundance scatter as a function of mass in Blanco 1. Our scientific project is highly synergystic with a pedagogical philosophy. We have instituted a program whereby undergraduate students - typically majoring in Liberal Arts and performing an independent study in Astronomy - receive hands-on research experience observing with the 2.1m telescope at the McDonald Observatory. After their observing run, these undergraduates take part in the reduction and analysis of the acquired spectra, and their research experience typically culminates in writing an undergraduate thesis and/or giving a professional seminar to the Astronomy group at Vanderbilt University.

  8. Study of some characteristics of large-scale solar magnetic fields during the global field polarity reversal according to observations at the telescope-magnetograph Kislovodsk Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tlatov, A. G.; Dormidontov, D. V.; Kirpichev, R. V.; Pashchenko, M. P.; Shramko, A. D.; Peshcherov, V. S.; Grigoryev, V. M.; Demidov, M. L.; Svidskii, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    The data obtained at the Routine Prediction Solar Telescope (RPST), which was designed and manufactured mainly at ISTP SB RAS and was installed at Kislovodsk MAS MAO RAN. The telescope is used to register weak large-scale fields throughout the solar disk with an angular resolution about 30 arcsec. The means square error of measurements is ~0.44 G in this case. The MAS MAO RPST observations have been compared with the magnetic fields and other solar activity parameters measured at different ground and space observatories. It was shown that the characteristics of the magnetic fields of active regions and largescale magnetic fields are interrelated. The evolution of the polar magnetic field was considered, and it was shown that the polarity in cycle 24 was reversed in June-July 2013 in the Northern Hemisphere and in December 2014-January 2015 in the Southern Hemisphere. At the same time, it has been noted that the magnetic field strength in the Northern Hemisphere at latitudes higher than 50° varied around zero in 2014, which indicates that the global field sign was reversed for a long time in the Northern Hemisphere.

  9. Optical observations of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko with the Nordic Optical Telescope. Comet activity before the solar conjunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaprudin, B.; Lehto, H. J.; Nilsson, K.; Pursimo, T.; Somero, A.; Snodgrass, C.; Schulz, R.

    2015-11-01

    Context. 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) is a short-period Jupiter-family comet that was chosen as a target for the Rosetta mission by the European Space Agency (ESA). Monitoring of 67P with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT; La Palma, Spain) intends to aid this mission by providing ground-based reference information about the overall activity of the target and its astrometric position before the rendezvous. One motivation for our observations was to monitor sudden major increases in activity because they might have affected the Rosetta mission planning. None were observed. Ground-based photometric observations register the global activity of the comet, while the Rosetta spacecraft mostly measures local events. These data combined can lead to new insights into the comet behavior. Aims: The aim of this work is to perform the photometric and the astrometric monitoring of comet 67P with the NOT and to compare the results with the latest predictions for its position and activity. A new method of fitting extended-source components to the target surface brightness distribution was developed and applied to the data to estimate the size and contribution of the coma to the total brightness of the target. Methods: Comet 67P was monitored by the NOT in service mode during the period between 12.5.2013 and 11.11.2014. The very first observations were performed in the V band alone, but in the latest observations, the R band was used as well to estimate the color and nature of activity of the target. We applied a new method for estimating the coma size by deconvolving the point spread function profile from the image, which used Markov chain Monte Carlo and Bayesian statistics. This method will also be used for coma size estimations in further observations after the solar conjunction of 67P. Results: Photometric magnitudes in two colors were monitored during the period of observations. At the end of April 2014, the beginning of activity was observed. In late September 2014, a minor dip in cometary activity was measured. Otherwise, the activity of the comet was close to the expected values. For some of the observations, we were able to determine limits for the physical size and brightness of the coma by studying the surface brightness distribution of the target. The astrometric calibration results we obtained were consistent with the predictions of the ephemerides of the Minor Planet Center, but at the moment these results are superseded with the more precise astrometric data from the Rosetta spacecraft.

  10. Depth-dependent global properties of a sunspot observed by Hinode using the Solar Optical Telescope/Spectropolarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Sanjiv K.; van Noort, Michiel; Solanki, Sami K.; Lagg, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Context. For the past two decades, the three-dimensional structure of sunspots has been studied extensively. A recent improvement in the Stokes inversion technique prompts us to revisit the depth-dependent properties of sunspots. Aims: In the present work, we aim to investigate the global depth-dependent thermal, velocity, and magnetic properties of a sunspot, as well as the interconnection between various local properties. Methods: We analysed high-quality Stokes profiles of the disk-centred, regular, leading sunspot of NOAA AR 10933, acquired by the Solar Optical Telescope/Spectropolarimeter (SOT/SP) on board the Hinode spacecraft. To obtain depth-dependent stratification of the physical parameters, we used the recently developed, spatially coupled version of the SPINOR inversion code. Results: First, we study the azimuthally averaged physical parameters of the sunspot. We find that the vertical temperature gradient in the lower- to mid-photosphere is at its weakest in the umbra, while it is considerably stronger in the penumbra, and stronger still in the spot's surroundings. The azimuthally averaged field becomes more horizontal with radial distance from the centre of the spot, but more vertical with height. At continuum optical depth unity, the line-of-sight velocity shows an average upflow of ~300 ms-1 in the inner penumbra and an average downflow of ~1300 ms-1 in the outer penumbra. The downflow continues outside the visible penumbral boundary. The sunspot shows, at most, a moderate negative twist of <5° at log (?) = 0, which increases with height. The sunspot umbra and the spines of the penumbra show considerable similarity with regard to their physical properties, albeit with some quantitative differences (weaker, somewhat more horizontal fields in spines, commensurate with their location being further away from the sunspot's core). The temperature shows a general anti-correlation with the field strength, with the exception of the heads of penumbral filaments, where a weak positive correlation is found. The dependence of the physical parameters on each other over the full sunspot shows a qualitative similarity to that of a standard penumbral filament and its surrounding spines. Conclusions: The large-scale variation in the physical parameters of a sunspot at various optical depths is presented. Our results suggest that the spines in the penumbra are basically the outward extension of the umbra. The spines and the penumbral filaments, together, are the basic elements that form a sunspot penumbra.

  11. Antennas in Radio Telescope Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellingson, S. W.

    2015-03-01

    Radio astronomy is the study of the universe by measurement of radio frequency emission at frequencies ranging from a few MHz to the far infrared. Signals of interest are typically extraordinarily weak, necessitating large effective aperture and resulting in some of the world's largest antenna systems. Technologies now commonly employed include reflector antennas ("dishes") using horn-type feeds or feed arrays, beamforming arrays consisting of elements ranging from dipoles to large dishes, and interferometry. Many problems in radio astronomy also require very fine angular resolution, leading to aperture synthesis imaging instruments consisting of antennas distributed over apertures ranging from hundreds of meters to intercontinental distances. This chapter provides a brief review of antenna systems used in operational modern radio telescopes and in anticipated new radio telescopes.

  12. Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Radiometer (SAIR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, C. S.

    1989-01-01

    The aperture size requirements of imaging microwave radiometers in geosynchronous orbit ruled out filled aperture antenna systems below 10 GHz. In the regions 10 to 30 GHz, filled apertures are only marginally practical. The size requirements in turn aggravate the problems with a mechanically steered antenna beam. Both the aperture size and steering problems are resolved with a synthetic aperture interferometric radiometer (SAIR). The SAIR imaging is discussed, along with the requirements of the two-dimensional antenna elements.

  13. Alignment telescope for Antares

    SciTech Connect

    Appert, Q.D.; Swann, T.A.; Ward, J.H.; Hardesty, C.; Wright, L.

    1983-01-01

    The Antares Automatic Alignment System employs a specially designed telescope for alignment of its laser beamlines. There are two telescopes in the system, and since each telescope is a primary alignment reference, stringent boresight accuracy and stability over the focus range were required. Optical and mechanical designs, which meet this requirement as well as that of image quality over a wide wavelength band, are described. Special test techniques for initial assembly and alignment of the telescope are also presented. The telescope, which has a 180-mm aperture FK51-KZF2 type glass doublet objective, requires a boresight accuracy of 2.8 ..mu..rad at two focal lengths, and object distances between 11 meters and infinity. Travel of a smaller secondary doublet provides focus from 11 m to infinity with approximately 7.8 m effective focal length. By flipping in a third doublet, the effective focal length is reduced to 2.5 m. Telescope alignment was accomplished by using a rotary air bearing to establish an axis in front of the system and placing the focus of a Laser Unequal Path Interferometer (LUPI) at the image plane.

  14. Differential Synthetic Aperture Ladar

    SciTech Connect

    Stappaerts, E A; Scharlemann, E

    2005-02-07

    We report a differential synthetic aperture ladar (DSAL) concept that relaxes platform and laser requirements compared to conventional SAL. Line-of-sight translation/vibration constraints are reduced by several orders of magnitude, while laser frequency stability is typically relaxed by an order of magnitude. The technique is most advantageous for shorter laser wavelengths, ultraviolet to mid-infrared. Analytical and modeling results, including the effect of speckle and atmospheric turbulence, are presented. Synthetic aperture ladars are of growing interest, and several theoretical and experimental papers have been published on the subject. Compared to RF synthetic aperture radar (SAR), platform/ladar motion and transmitter bandwidth constraints are especially demanding at optical wavelengths. For mid-IR and shorter wavelengths, deviations from a linear trajectory along the synthetic aperture length have to be submicron, or their magnitude must be measured to that precision for compensation. The laser coherence time has to be the synthetic aperture transit time, or transmitter phase has to be recorded and a correction applied on detection.

  15. Confocal coded aperture imaging

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William (Harriman, TN); Thomas, Jr., Clarence E. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A method for imaging a target volume comprises the steps of: radiating a small bandwidth of energy toward the target volume; focusing the small bandwidth of energy into a beam; moving the target volume through a plurality of positions within the focused beam; collecting a beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a non-diffractive confocal coded aperture; generating a shadow image of said aperture from every point source of radiation in the target volume; and, reconstructing the shadow image into a 3-dimensional image of the every point source by mathematically correlating the shadow image with a digital or analog version of the coded aperture. The method can comprise the step of collecting the beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a Fresnel zone plate.

  16. Space telescope leads a new generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The Space Telescope, approved for a space shuttle launch in 1985, will resolve visible and ultraviolet light orders of magnitude better than earth-based telescopes. Even though its aperture of 2.4 m will be less than half of the aperture of the reflector at Mt. Palomar, it is considered relatively large and immensely superior to existing orbiting telescopes. It is expected that the Space Telescope, with its freedom from thermal jitter and the hindrance of atmospheric absorption, will increase the user load on larger aperture earth-based telescopes, and construction of a new series of large telescopes is now in the planning stages. The National Academy of Sciences is expected to release shortly a report by its Astronomy Survey Committee, headed by George Field of the Harvard-Smithsonian Observatory, that will recommend building a 15-m optical-infrared ‘National Telescope’ [Phys. Today, August 1981, p. 17]. In addition, a 7.6-m single reflector is planned at the University of Texas, a 10-m segmented reflector is planned at the University of California, and the University of Arizona is experimenting with designs of a Multiple-Mirror Telescope (MMT) larger than their new 4.5 m (equivalent) MMT. All of these are larger than the Russian 6-m telescope, whose Pyrex reflector has not performed well, apparently because of gravitational sag and thermal inertial stresses.

  17. KAOS: kilo-aperture optical spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barden, Samuel C.; Dey, Arjun; Boyle, Brian; Glazebrook, Karl

    2004-09-01

    A design is described for a potential new facility capable of taking detailed spectroscopy of millions of objects in the Universe to explore the complexity of the Universe and to answer fundamental questions relating to the equation of state of dark energy and to how the Milky Way galaxy formed. The specific design described is envisioned for implementation on the Gemini 8-meter telescopes. It utilizes a 1.5° field of view and samples that field with up to ~5000 apertures. This Kilo-Aperture Optical Spectrograph (KAOS) is mounted at prime focus with a 4-element corrector, atmospheric dispersion compensator (ADC), and an Echidna-style fiber optic positioner. The ADC doubles as a wobble plate, allowing fast guiding that cancels out the wind buffeting of the telescope. The fibers, which can be reconfigured in less than 10 minutes, feed to an array of 12 spectrographs located in the pier of the telescope. The spectrographs are capable of provided spectral resolving powers of a few thousand up to about 40,000.

  18. Optimum synthetic-aperture imaging of extended astronomical objects.

    PubMed

    van der Avoort, Casper; Pereira, Silvania F; Braat, Joseph J M; den Herder, Jan-Willem

    2007-04-01

    In optical aperture-synthesis imaging of stellar objects, different beam combination strategies are used and proposed. Coaxial Michelson interferometers are very common and a homothetic multiaxial interferometer is recently realized in the Large Binocular Telescope. Laboratory experiments have demonstrated the working principles of two new approaches: densified pupil imaging and wide field-of-view (FOV) coaxial imaging using a staircase-shaped mirror. We develop a common mathematical formulation for direct comparison of the resolution and noise sensitivity of these four telescope configurations for combining beams from multiple apertures for interferometric synthetic aperture, wide-FOV imaging. Singular value decomposition techniques are used to compare the techniques and observe their distinct signal-to-noise ratio behaviors. We conclude that for a certain chosen stellar object, clear differences in performance of the imagers are identifiable. PMID:17361290

  19. Fluorescence and hybrid detection aperture of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Bellido, J.A.; D'Urso, D.; Geenen, H.; Guarino, F.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, Sergio; Prado, L., Jr.; Salamida, F.

    2005-07-01

    The aperture of the Fluorescence Detector (FD) of the Pierre Auger Observatory is evaluated from simulated events using different detector configurations: mono, stereo, 3-FD and 4-FD. The trigger efficiency has been modeled using shower profiles with ground impacts in the field of view of a single telescope and studying the trigger response (at the different levels) by that telescope and by its neighbors. In addition, analysis cuts imposed by event reconstruction have been applied. The hybrid aperture is then derived for the Auger final extension. Taking into account the actual Surface Detector (SD) array configuration and its trigger response, the aperture is also calculated for a typical configuration of the present phase.

  20. Imaging interplanetary CMEs at radio frequency from solar polar orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ji; Sun, Weiying; Zheng, Jianhua; Zhang, Cheng; Liu, Hao; Yan, Jingye; Wang, Chi; Wang, Chuanbing; Wang, Shui

    2011-09-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) represent a great concentration of mass and energy input into the lower corona. They have come to be recognized as the major driver of physical conditions change in the Sun-Earth system. Consequently, observations of CMEs are important for understanding and ultimately predicting space weather conditions. This paper discusses a proposed mission, the Solar Polar Orbit Radio Telescope (SPORT) mission, which will observe the propagation of interplanetary CMEs to distances of near 0.35 AU from the Sun. The orbit of SPORT is an elliptical solar polar orbit. The inclination angle between the orbit and ecliptic plane should be about 90°. The main payload on board SPORT will be an imaging radiometer working at the meter wavelength band (radio telescope), which can follow the propagation of interplanetary CMEs. The images that are obtained by the radio telescope embody the brightness temperature of the objectives. Due to the very large size required for the antenna aperture of the radio telescope, we adopt interferometric imaging technology to reduce it. Interferometric imaging technology is based on indirect spatial frequency domain measurements plus Fourier transformation. The SPORT spacecraft will also be equipped with a set of optical and in situ measurement instruments such as a EUV solar telescope, a solar wind ion instrument, an energetic particle detector, a magnetometer, a wave detector and a solar radio burst spectrometer.

  1. VLA, Very Large Array AreciboArecibo TelescopeTelescope...... in Puerto Rico

    E-print Network

    Briggs, Frank H.

    area #12;Radio telescopes are Diffraction Limited Incident waves #12;Radio telescopes are Diffraction aperture... When /2, get cancellation: Resolution = ~ /D #12;Celestial Radio Waves? #12;Actually #12;* *** (biblical status in field) #12;More references: · Synthesis Imaging in Radio Astronomy, 1998

  2. Space Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    This pamphlet describes the Space Telescope, an unmanned multi-purpose telescope observatory planned for launch into orbit by the Space Shuttle in the 1980s. The unique capabilities of this telescope are detailed, the major elements of the telescope are described, and its proposed mission operations are outlined. (CS)

  3. Implications of Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope observations for star formation histories in NGC 1275

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric P.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Bohlin, Ralph C.; Cheng, Kwang-Ping; Cornett, Robert H.; Hill, Jesse K.; Hill, Robert S.; Hintzen, Paul; Landsman, Wayne B.; Neff, Susan G.

    1992-01-01

    We discuss UV imagery of NGC 1275 obtained using the Goddard Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope. We are able to study the UV morphology down to mu 249 of about 25 mag/sq arcsec. There are significant nonaxisymmetric structures in the UV continuum associated with the low-velocity filament system. Continuum from the high-velocity system may also be present. The large aperture UV colors indicate that although the mass function extends to about 5 solar masses, more massive objects are not present. This implies either a cessation of star formation during the last 50-100 Myr or a truncated initial mass function.

  4. The Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odell, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    The Space Telescope, still under construction, is discussed in light of the constraints imposed on ground-based telescopes. The history of the Space Telescope is traced from its conceptual origin to its actual construction, and design considerations used to determine the Space Telescope construction are described. The optical system of the telescope will have an aperture of 2.4 m, a focal ratio of 24, and a front of primary to focus of 1.5 m. The fine guidance system will use astigmatic images at the edge of the field of view to provide the guidance signal for maintaining stability to 0.007 arcseconds. The guidestars are required for 85% of random fields located at the galactic poles, and the system sensitivity must meet performance specifications for stars brighter than 13.5 magnitude. The scientific instruments - the wide field camera, the faint object camera, the faint object spectrograph, the high resolution spectrograph, the high speed photometer, and the fine guidance sensors - are discussed in detail. Finally, the operations system, including schedule contraints and the Science Institute, is presented.

  5. The Active Sun Telescope Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Timothy, J. G.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Hoover, Richard B.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of the Active Sun Telescope Array (ASTA) designed as a part of the NASA Orbiting Solar Laboratory is described together with the details of the ASTA instrument package. The ASTA, which will investigate the phenomenology of the solar chromosphere and the corona, consists of six EUV/XUV solar telescopes designed to provide wide field solar images in narrow wavelength bands, high-resolution spectroheliograms, and line profiles of the solar plasma in the temperature range from 10,000 K to 30,000 K. The detectors used in the ASTA are of the multianode multichannel array photon-counting array detector type.

  6. High-contrast imaging with an arbitrary aperture: Active compensation of aperture discontinuities

    SciTech Connect

    Pueyo, Laurent; Norman, Colin

    2013-06-01

    We present a new method to achieve high-contrast images using segmented and/or on-axis telescopes. Our approach relies on using two sequential deformable mirrors (DMs) to compensate for the large amplitude excursions in the telescope aperture due to secondary support structures and/or segment gaps. In this configuration the parameter landscape of DM surfaces that yield high-contrast point-spread functions is not linear, and nonlinear methods are needed to find the true minimum in the optimization topology. We solve the highly nonlinear Monge-Ampere equation that is the fundamental equation describing the physics of phase-induced amplitude modulation. We determine the optimum configuration for our two sequential DM system and show that high-throughput and high-contrast solutions can be achieved using realistic surface deformations that are accessible using existing technologies. We name this process Active Compensation of Aperture Discontinuities (ACAD). We show that for geometries similar to the James Webb Space Telescope, ACAD can attain at least 10{sup –7} in contrast and an order of magnitude higher for both the future extremely large telescopes and on-axis architectures reminiscent of the Hubble Space Telescope. We show that the converging nonlinear mappings resulting from our DM shapes actually damp near-field diffraction artifacts in the vicinity of the discontinuities. Thus, ACAD actually lowers the chromatic ringing due to diffraction by segment gaps and struts while not amplifying the diffraction at the aperture edges beyond the Fresnel regime. This outer Fresnel ringing can be mitigated by properly designing the optical system. Consequently, ACAD is a true broadband solution to the problem of high-contrast imaging with segmented and/or on-axis apertures. We finally show that once the nonlinear solution is found, fine tuning with linear methods used in wavefront control can be applied to further contrast by another order of magnitude. Generally speaking, the ACAD technique can be used to significantly improve a broad class of telescope designs for a variety of problems.

  7. Secondary gamma-ray production in a coded aperture mask

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, A.; Frye, G. M., Jr.; Hall, C. J.; Jenkins, T. L.; Pendleton, G. N.; Carter, J. N.; Ramsden, D.; Agrinier, B.; Bonfand, E.; Gouiffes, C.

    1985-01-01

    The application of the coded aperture mask to high energy gamma-ray astronomy will provide the capability of locating a cosmic gamma-ray point source with a precision of a few arc-minutes above 20 MeV. Recent tests using a mask in conjunction with drift chamber detectors have shown that the expected point spread function is achieved over an acceptance cone of 25 deg. A telescope employing this technique differs from a conventional telescope only in that the presence of the mask modifies the radiation field in the vicinity of the detection plane. In addition to reducing the primary photon flux incident on the detector by absorption in the mask elements, the mask will also be a secondary radiator of gamma-rays. The various background components in a CAMTRAC (Coded Aperture Mask Track Chamber) telescope are considered. Monte-Carlo calculations are compared with recent measurements obtained using a prototype instrument in a tagged photon beam line.

  8. High-Resolution X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ODell, Stephen L.; Brissenden, Roger J.; Davis, William; Elsner, Ronald F.; Elvis, Martin; Freeman, Mark; Gaetz, Terry; Gorenstein, Paul; Gubarev, Mikhail V.

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental needs for future x-ray telescopes: a) Sharp images => excellent angular resolution. b) High throughput => large aperture areas. Generation-X optics technical challenges: a) High resolution => precision mirrors & alignment. b) Large apertures => lots of lightweight mirrors. Innovation needed for technical readiness: a) 4 top-level error terms contribute to image size. b) There are approaches to controlling those errors. Innovation needed for manufacturing readiness. Programmatic issues are comparably challenging.

  9. The Local Seeing Environment at Big Bear Solar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdoni, Angelo; Denker, Carsten

    2007-07-01

    The site survey for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) of the National Solar Observatory was initiated in 2002 to find the best location for a 4 m aperture solar telescope. At the end of a 4 year survey, three sites (Big Bear Solar Observatory [BBSO] in California, Mees Solar Observatory [MSO] on Haleakala, Maui, Hawaii, and Observatorio Roque de los Muchachos, on La Palma, Spain) were identified as excellent sites for high-resolution solar observations. MSO was ultimately chosen as the future ATST site. We present a subset of the ATST site survey data, focusing on the local seeing environment at BBSO. In particular, we are interested in the seeing characteristics at a mountain lake-site observatory, its relation to the local environment and climate, and its implications for the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope (NST) currently being built at BBSO. We find a close correlation of very good seeing conditions with the prevailing wind direction and speed. The observatory building, located at the end of a 300 m causeway, is surrounded by the cool waters of Big Bear Lake, which effectively suppress the ground-layer seeing. Very good seeing conditions from sunrise to sunset are a unique feature of BBSO, which makes it ideally suited for synoptic observations and sustained high-resolution studies of solar activity and space weather.

  10. Minimizing high spatial frequency residual in active space telescope mirrors

    E-print Network

    Gray, Thomas, S.M. (Thomas L.) Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01

    The trend in future space telescopes is towards large apertures and lightweight, rib-stiffened, and actively controlled deformable mirrors. These mirror architectures permit the development of segmented and deployed primary ...

  11. CTA telescopes as deep-space lasercom ground receivers

    E-print Network

    Carrasco-Casado, Alberto; Vergaz, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The amount of scientific data to be transmitted from deep-space probes is very limited due to RF-communications constraints. Free-space optical communication can alleviate this bottleneck, increasing data rate while reducing weight, mass and power of communication onboard equipment. Nevertheless, optimizing the power delivery from spacecraft to Earth is needed. In RF communications, the strategy has been to increase the aperture of ground terminals. Free-space optical communications can also follow it, as they share the limitation of low power received on Earth. As the cost of big telescopes increases exponentially with aperture, new ideas are required to maximize the aperture-to-cost ratio. This work explores the feasibility of using telescopes of the future Cherenkov Telescope Array as optical-communication ground stations. Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has the same power limitation, hence Cherenkov telescopes are designed to maximize receiver's aperture with minimum cost and some relaxed requirements. B...

  12. Telescopic limiting magnitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1990-01-01

    The prediction of the magnitude of the faintest star visible through a telescope by a visual observer is a difficult problem in physiology. Many prediction formulas have been advanced over the years, but most do not even consider the magnification used. Here, the prediction algorithm problem is attacked with two complimentary approaches: (1) First, a theoretical algorithm was developed based on physiological data for the sensitivity of the eye. This algorithm also accounts for the transmission of the atmosphere and the telescope, the brightness of the sky, the color of the star, the age of the observer, the aperture, and the magnification. (2) Second, 314 observed values for the limiting magnitude were collected as a test of the formula. It is found that the formula does accurately predict the average observed limiting magnitudes under all conditions.

  13. Nonmechanical bifocal zoom telescope.

    PubMed

    Valley, Pouria; Reza Dodge, Mohammad; Schwiegerling, Jim; Peyman, Gholam; Peyghambarian, N

    2010-08-01

    We report on a novel zoom lens with no moving parts in the form of a switchable Galilean telescope. This zoom telescope consists of two flat liquid-crystal diffractive lenses with apertures of 10mm that can each take on the focal lengths of -50 and +100cm, with a spacing of 50cm and, hence, a zoom ratio of 4x. The lenses are driven using a low-voltage ac source with 1.6V and exhibit millisecond switching times. The spectral characteristic of this diffractive zoom system is evaluated for light sources of various bandwidths. Potential applications for this technology include a zoom lens with no moving parts for camera phones and medical imaging devices. PMID:20680065

  14. Aperture center energy showcase

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, J. J.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia and Forest City have established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), and the partnership provides a unique opportunity to take technology research and development from demonstration to application in a sustainable community. A project under that CRADA, Aperture Center Energy Showcase, offers a means to develop exhibits and demonstrations that present feedback to community members, Sandia customers, and visitors. The technologies included in the showcase focus on renewable energy and its efficiency, and resilience. These technologies are generally scalable, and provide secure, efficient solutions to energy production, delivery, and usage. In addition to establishing an Energy Showcase, support offices and conference capabilities that facilitate research, collaboration, and demonstration were created. The Aperture Center project focuses on establishing a location that provides outreach, awareness, and demonstration of research findings, emerging technologies, and project developments to Sandia customers, visitors, and Mesa del Sol community members.

  15. Multi-transmitter aperture synthesis.

    PubMed

    Rabb, David J; Jameson, Douglas F; Stafford, Jason W; Stokes, Andrew J

    2010-11-22

    Multi-transmitter aperture synthesis is a method in which multiple transmitters can be used to improve resolution and contrast of distributed aperture systems. Such a system utilizes multiple transmitter locations to interrogate a target from multiple look angles thus increasing the angular spectrum content captured by the receiver aperture array. Furthermore, such a system can improve the contrast of sparsely populated receiver arrays by capturing field data in the region between sub-apertures by utilizing multiple transmitter locations. This paper discusses the theory behind multi-transmitter aperture synthesis and provides experimental verification that imagery captured using multiple transmitters will provide increased resolution. PMID:21164838

  16. Astron. Nachr. / AN 331, No. 6, 636 639 (2010) / DOI 10.1002/asna.201011390 Scientific instrumentation for the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope in Big Bear

    E-print Network

    2010-01-01

    instrumentation for the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope in Big Bear W. Cao1,2, , N. Gorceix2 , R. Coulter2 , K. Ahn3 , T, 323 Martin Luther King Blvd., Newark, NJ, U.S.A. 2 Big Bear Solar Observatory, 40386 North Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA, U.S.A. 3 Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Korea 4

  17. SOLAR MERIDIONAL CIRCULATION FROM DOPPLER SHIFTS OF THE Fe I LINE AT 5250 A AS MEASURED BY THE 150-FOOT SOLAR TOWER TELESCOPE AT THE MT. WILSON OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, Roger K.

    2010-12-10

    Doppler shifts of the Fe I spectral line at 5250 A from the full solar disk obtained over the period 1986 to 2009 are analyzed to determine the circulation velocity of the solar surface along meridional planes. Simultaneous measurements of the Zeeman splitting of this line are used to obtain measurements of the solar magnetic field that are used to select low field points and impose corrections for the magnetically induced Doppler shift. The data utilized is from a new reduction that preserves the full spatial resolution of the original observations so that the circulation flow can be followed to latitudes of 80{sup 0} N/S. The deduced meridional flow is shown to differ from the circulation velocities derived from magnetic pattern movements. A reversed circulation pattern is seen in polar regions for three successive solar minima. A surge in circulation velocity at low latitudes is seen during the rising phases of cycles 22 and 23.

  18. Synthetic Aperture Radiometer Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, David M.

    1999-01-01

    Aperture synthesis is a new technology for passive microwave remote sensing from space which has the potential to overcome the limitations set in the past by antenna size. This is an interferometric technique in which pairs of small antennas and signal processing are used to obtain the resolution of a single large antenna. The technique has been demonstrated successfully at L-band with the aircraft prototype instrument, ESTAR. Proposals have been submitted to demonstrate this technology in space (HYDROSTAR and MIRAS).

  19. SLS dynamic aperture optimisation

    SciTech Connect

    Streun, A.

    1995-09-01

    The method of harmonic compensation of sextupole resonances, successfully applied in the past to ESRF and other machines, was implemented into a PC program in a handy way to give a high degree of visualisation. The method proved to be useful for optimisation of the dynamic aperture of the SLS, a dedicated low emittance synchrotron light source. However, the method has to be used carefully and does not guarantee to obtain a good solution.

  20. Aperture Ion Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrero, Fred

    2012-01-01

    The aperture ion source was conceived to eliminate distortion in measurements of angular distributions of neutral atoms and molecules that require electron-impact ion sources. The approach simplifies the coupling between ion source and spectrometer while providing virtually distortion-free angular distributions and improved accuracy in the dimensions of the ionization region. Furthermore, it virtually eliminates the volume occupied by the ion source.

  1. A Space-Based Near-Earth Object Survey Telescope in Support of Human Exploration, Solar System Science, and Planetary Defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Human exploration of near-Earth objects (NEOs) beginning in 2025 is one of the stated objectives of U.S. National Space Policy. Piloted missions to these bodies would further development of deep space mission systems and technologies, obtain better understanding of the origin and evolution of our Solar System, and support research for asteroid deflection and hazard mitigation strategies. As such, mission concepts have received much interest from the exploration, science, and planetary defense communities. One particular system that has been suggested by all three of these communities is a space-based NEO survey telescope. Such an asset is crucial for enabling affordable human missions to NEOs circa 2025 and learning about the primordial population of objects that could present a hazard to the Earth in the future.

  2. Observing the fine structure of loops through high resolution spectroscopic observations of coronal rain with the CRISP instrument at the Swedish Solar Telescope

    E-print Network

    Antolin, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    We present here one of the first high resolution spectroscopic observations of coronal rain, performed with the CRISP instrument at the Swedish Solar Telescope. This work constitutes the first attempt to assess the importance of coronal rain in the understanding of the coronal magnetic field in active regions. A large statistical set is obtained in which dynamics (total velocities and accelerations), shapes (lengths and widths), trajectories (angles of fall) and thermodynamic properties (temperatures) of the condensations are derived. Specifically, we find that coronal rain is composed of small and dense chromospheric cores with average widths and lengths of 310 km and 710 km respectively, average temperatures below 7000 K, displaying a broad distribution of falling speeds with an average of 70 km/s and accelerations largely below the effective gravity along loops. Through estimates of the ion-neutral coupling in the blobs we show that coronal rain acts as a tracer of the coronal magnetic field, thus supporti...

  3. Pan-STARRS Telescope #1 Status and Science Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Kenneth C.

    2009-01-01

    PS1, the Pan-STARRS Telescope No. 1 is a prototype telescope for a distributed aperture cyclical sky survey telescope: the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System. The 3.5 year PS1 Science Mission begins Jan 1, 2009. The PS1 System, including the Observatory, Telescope, 1.4 Gigapixel Camera, Image Processing Pipeline , PSPS relational database and science specific software clients will be operated for the duration of the Mission by the PS1 Science Consortium. The PS1 Sky Surveys to be carried out include: (1) A 3pi Steradian survey with associated Calibration Fields; (2) A Medium Deep survey of 10 PS1 footprints spaced around the sky; (3) A solar system survey of NEO "Sweet Spots", (4) a Stellar Transit Survey; and (5) a Deep Survey of M31. These surveys, their scientific goals, and the observing strategy to meet these goals will be discussed. Images and commission data will be presented, along with a summary of the expected PS1 Mission data products. It should be emphasized that there will be some immediate release of PS1 data to the community, and all PS1 data and data products will be released to the astronomical community within one year of the completion of the PS1 Science Mission. The PS1 Science Consortium consists of The Institute for Astronomy at the University of Hawai'i in Manoa, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, The Johns Hopkins University, the University of Durham, the University of Edinburgh, the Queen's University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Los Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, and the National Central University of Taiwan. The Pan-STARRS project includes contributions from The Institute for Astronomy, the Maui High Performance Computing Center, SAIC, AFRL, and Lincoln Laboratory.

  4. High-energy Gamma-Ray Emission from Solar Flares: Summary of Fermi Large Area Telescope Detections and Analysis of Two M-class Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Bonamente, E.; Bottacini, E.; Bouvier, A.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chen, Q.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Desiante, R.; Digel, S. W.; Di Venere, L.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Inoue, Y.; Jackson, M. S.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Kawano, T.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Michelson, P. F.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Moretti, E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Murphy, R.; Nemmen, R.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Petrosian, V.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Ritz, S.; Schulz, A.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Takahashi, H.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, Y.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Tinivella, M.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Tronconi, V.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Werner, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, D. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Yang, Z.

    2014-05-01

    We present the detections of 18 solar flares detected in high-energy ?-rays (above 100 MeV) with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) during its first 4 yr of operation. This work suggests that particle acceleration up to very high energies in solar flares is more common than previously thought, occurring even in modest flares, and for longer durations. Interestingly, all these flares are associated with fairly fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We then describe the detailed temporal, spatial, and spectral characteristics of the first two long-lasting events: the 2011 March 7 flare, a moderate (M3.7) impulsive flare followed by slowly varying ?-ray emission over 13 hr, and the 2011 June 7 M2.5 flare, which was followed by ?-ray emission lasting for 2 hr. We compare the Fermi LAT data with X-ray and proton data measurements from GOES and RHESSI. We argue that the ?-rays are more likely produced through pion decay than electron bremsstrahlung, and we find that the energy spectrum of the proton distribution softens during the extended emission of the 2011 March 7 flare. This would disfavor a trapping scenario for particles accelerated during the impulsive phase of the flare and point to a continuous acceleration process at play for the duration of the flares. CME shocks are known for accelerating the solar energetic particles (SEPs) observed in situ on similar timescales, but it might be challenging to explain the production of ?-rays at the surface of the Sun while the CME is halfway to the Earth. A stochastic turbulence acceleration process occurring in the solar corona is another likely scenario. Detailed comparison of characteristics of SEPs and ?-ray-emitting particles for several flares will be helpful to distinguish between these two possibilities.

  5. High-energy gamma-ray emission from solar flares: Summary of Fermi large area telescope detections and analysis of two M-class flares

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Bottacini, E.; Buehler, R.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Buson, S.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Bissaldi, E.; Bonamente, E.; Bouvier, A.; Brandt, T. J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; and others

    2014-05-20

    We present the detections of 18 solar flares detected in high-energy ?-rays (above 100 MeV) with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) during its first 4 yr of operation. This work suggests that particle acceleration up to very high energies in solar flares is more common than previously thought, occurring even in modest flares, and for longer durations. Interestingly, all these flares are associated with fairly fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We then describe the detailed temporal, spatial, and spectral characteristics of the first two long-lasting events: the 2011 March 7 flare, a moderate (M3.7) impulsive flare followed by slowly varying ?-ray emission over 13 hr, and the 2011 June 7 M2.5 flare, which was followed by ?-ray emission lasting for 2 hr. We compare the Fermi LAT data with X-ray and proton data measurements from GOES and RHESSI. We argue that the ?-rays are more likely produced through pion decay than electron bremsstrahlung, and we find that the energy spectrum of the proton distribution softens during the extended emission of the 2011 March 7 flare. This would disfavor a trapping scenario for particles accelerated during the impulsive phase of the flare and point to a continuous acceleration process at play for the duration of the flares. CME shocks are known for accelerating the solar energetic particles (SEPs) observed in situ on similar timescales, but it might be challenging to explain the production of ?-rays at the surface of the Sun while the CME is halfway to the Earth. A stochastic turbulence acceleration process occurring in the solar corona is another likely scenario. Detailed comparison of characteristics of SEPs and ?-ray-emitting particles for several flares will be helpful to distinguish between these two possibilities.

  6. Electrostatically clean solar array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Theodore Garry (Inventor); Krumweide, Duane Eric (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Provided are methods of manufacturing an electrostatically clean solar array panel and the products resulting from the practice of these methods. The preferred method uses an array of solar cells, each with a coverglass where the method includes machining apertures into a flat, electrically conductive sheet so that each aperture is aligned with and undersized with respect to its matched coverglass sheet and thereby fashion a front side shield with apertures (FSA). The undersized portion about each aperture of the bottom side of the FSA shield is bonded to the topside portions nearest the edges of each aperture's matched coverglass. Edge clips are attached to the front side aperture shield edges with the edge clips electrically and mechanically connecting the tops of the coverglasses to the solar panel substrate. The FSA shield, edge clips and substrate edges are bonded so as to produce a conductively grounded electrostatically clean solar array panel.

  7. Image quality analysis of a spectra-radiometric sparse-aperture model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, Noah R.; Introne, Robert E.; Schott, John R.

    2004-09-01

    Sparse aperture (SA) telescopes represent a promising technology to increase the effective diameter of an optical system while reducing overall weight and stowable size. Although conceptually explored in the literature for decades, the technology has only recently matured to the point of being reasonably considered for certain applications. In general, a sparse aperture system consists of an array of sub-apertures that are phased to synthesize a larger effective aperture. The models used to date to create predictions of sparse aperture imagery typically make use of a "gray world" assumption, where the input is a resampled black and white panchromatic image. This input is then degraded and resampled with a so-called polychromatic system optical transfer function (OTF), which is a weighted average of the OTFs over the spectral bandpass. In reality, a physical OTF is spectrally dependent, exhibiting varying structure with spatial frequency (especially in the presence of optical aberrations or sub-aperture phase errors). Given this spectral variation with spatial frequency, there is some concern the traditional gray world resampling approach may not address significant features of the image quality associated with sparse aperture systems. This research investigates the subject of how the image quality of a sparse aperture system varies with respect to a conventional telescope from a spectra-radiometric perspective, with emphasis on whether the restored sparse aperture image will be beset by spectral artifacts.

  8. Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark; Flanagan, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Space telescopes have been a dominant force in astrophysics and astronomy over the last two decades. As Lyman Spitzer predicted in 1946, space telescopes have opened up much of the electromagnetic spectrum to astronomers, and provided the opportunity to exploit the optical performance of telescopes uncompromised by the turbulent atmosphere. This special section of Optical Engineering is devoted to space telescopes. It focuses on the design and implementation of major space observatories from the gamma-ray to far-infrared, and highlights the scientific and technical breakthroughs enabled by these telescopes. The papers accepted for publication include reviews of major space telescopes spanning the last two decades, in-depth discussions of the design considerations for visible and x-ray telescopes, and papers discussing concepts and technical challenges for future space telescopes.

  9. Large bearings with incorporated gears, high stiffness and precision for the Swedish Solar Telescope (SST) on La Palma

    E-print Network

    Rutten, Rob

    . It consists of a relatively slender tower with on top only the vacuum turret for reflecting downward the solar of the elevation- and azimuth axis of the turret have to be stiff against wind. This requires line contact between required for a compact turret construction, needed for best local seeing and minimum wind load. Solutions

  10. The Falcon Telescope Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, F.; Tippets, R.; Dearborn, M.; Gresham, K.; Freckleton, R.; Douglas, M.

    2014-09-01

    The Falcon Telescope Network (FTN) is a global network of small aperture telescopes developed by the Center for Space Situational Awareness Research in the Department of Physics at the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA). Consisting of commercially available equipment, the FTN is a collaborative effort between USAFA and other educational institutions ranging from two- and four-year colleges to major research universities. USAFA provides the equipment (e.g. telescope, mount, camera, filter wheel, dome, weather station, computers and storage devices) while the educational partners provide the building and infrastructure to support an observatory. The user base includes USAFA along with K-12 and higher education faculty and students. Since the FTN has a general use purpose, objects of interest include satellites, astronomical research, and STEM support images. The raw imagery, all in the public domain, will be accessible to FTN partners and will be archived at USAFA in the Cadet Space Operations Center. FTN users will be able to submit observational requests via a web interface. The requests will then be prioritized based on the type of user, the object of interest, and a user-defined priority. A network wide schedule will be developed every 24 hours and each FTN site will autonomously execute its portion of the schedule. After an observational request is completed, the FTN user will receive notification of collection and a link to the data. The Falcon Telescope Network is an ambitious endeavor, but demonstrates the cooperation that can be achieved by multiple educational institutions.

  11. Wearable telescopic contact lens.

    PubMed

    Arianpour, Ashkan; Schuster, Glenn M; Tremblay, Eric J; Stamenov, Igor; Groisman, Alex; Legerton, Jerry; Meyers, William; Amigo, Goretty Alonso; Ford, Joseph E

    2015-08-20

    We describe the design, fabrication, and testing of a 1.6 mm thick scleral contact lens providing both 1× and 2.8× magnified vision paths, intended for use as a switchable eye-borne telescopic low-vision aid. The F/9.7 telescopic vision path uses an 8.2 mm diameter annular entrance pupil and 4 internal reflections in a polymethyl methacrylate precision optic. This gas-impermeable insert is contained inside a smooth outer casing of rigid gas-permeable polymer, which also provides achromatic correction for refraction at the curved lens face. The unmagnified F/4.1 vision path is through the central aperture of the lens, with additional transmission between the annular telescope rings to enable peripheral vision. We discuss potential solutions for providing oxygenation for an extended wear version of the lens. The prototype lenses were characterized using a scale-model human eye, and telescope functionality was confirmed in a small-scale clinical (nondispensed) demonstration. PMID:26368753

  12. Early Results from the LRO Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) During this Historic Solar Minimum (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, H. E.; Kasper, J. C.; Golightly, M. J.; Blake, J. B.; Mazur, J. E.; Townsend, L. W.; Case, A. W.; Looper, M. D.; Larsen, B. A.; Stubbs, T. J.; Zeitlin, C. J.; Semones, E.; Onsager, T. G.; Huang, C.; Jordan, A.

    2009-12-01

    We describe early results from a new instrument, the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER), which is providing measurements of energetic particles while in orbit around the Moon onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission. CRaTER measures the effects of ionizing energy loss in matter due to penetrating solar energetic protons (SEP) and galactic cosmic rays (GCR), specifically in six silicon solid-state detectors and after interactions with tissue-equivalent plastic (TEP), a synthetic analog of human tissue. The CRaTER investigation quantifies the linear energy transfer (LET) spectrum in these materials through direct measurements with the lunar space radiation environment, particularly the interactions of ions with energies above 10 MeV. Combined with models of radiation transport through materials, CRaTER LET measurements constrain models of the biological effects of ionizing radiation in the lunar environment as well as provide valuable information on radiation effects on electronic systems in deep space. In addition to these human exploration goals, CRaTER measurement capabilities provide new insights on the spatial and temporal variability of the SEP and GCR populations and their interactions with the lunar surface. We present an overview of the CRaTER instrument, its exploration and science goals, and early results from flight observations obtained since LRO’s launch in June 2009 until present, an interesting interval during this historic solar minimum accompanied by record high GCR intensity.

  13. Solar Site Survey for the Advanced Technology Solar Telecope. I. Analysis of the Seeing Data

    E-print Network

    Socas-Navarro, H; Brandt, P; Briggs, J; Brown, T; Brown, W; Collados, M; Denker, C; Fletcher, S; Hegwer, S; Hill, F; Horst, T; Komsa, M; Kühn, J; Lecinski, A; Lin, H; Oncley, S; Penn, M; Rimmele, T; Streander, K

    2005-01-01

    The site survey for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope concluded recently after more than two years of data gathering and analysis. Six locations, including lake, island and continental sites, were thoroughly probed for image quality and sky brightness. The present paper describes the analysis methodology employed to determine the height stratification of the atmospheric turbulence. This information is crucial because day-time seeing is often very different between the actual telescope aperture (~30 m) and the ground. Two independent inversion codes have been developed to analyze simultaneously data from a scintillometer array and a solar differential image monitor. We show here the results of applying them to a sample subset of data from May 2003, which was used for testing. Both codes retrieve a similar seeing stratification through the height range of interest. A quantitative comparison between our analysis procedure and actual in situ measurements confirms the validity of the inversions. The sample d...

  14. Differential Optical Synthetic Aperture Radar

    DOEpatents

    Stappaerts, Eddy A. (San Ramon, CA)

    2005-04-12

    A new differential technique for forming optical images using a synthetic aperture is introduced. This differential technique utilizes a single aperture to obtain unique (N) phases that can be processed to produce a synthetic aperture image at points along a trajectory. This is accomplished by dividing the aperture into two equal "subapertures", each having a width that is less than the actual aperture, along the direction of flight. As the platform flies along a given trajectory, a source illuminates objects and the two subapertures are configured to collect return signals. The techniques of the invention is designed to cancel common-mode errors, trajectory deviations from a straight line, and laser phase noise to provide the set of resultant (N) phases that can produce an image having a spatial resolution corresponding to a synthetic aperture.

  15. Optimizing wide-field coded aperture imaging: radial mask holes and scanning

    E-print Network

    J. Grindlay; J. Hong

    2003-10-16

    Imaging at hard X-ray energies (~10-600 keV) over very large fields of view (~60 deg per telescope) is required to conduct a high sensitivity all-sky and all-time survey for black holes. The proposed Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) could achieve the high sensitivity required for the mission science objectives by scanning an array of widefield coded aperture telescopes with aperture mask holes radially aligned to minimize auto-collimation by the thick (~7mm) masks required for high energy imaging. Simulation results from a preliminary design study are reported which quantify the improvement in off-axis imaging sensitivity vs. the conventional case with mask holes all perpendicular to the mask. Such masks can be readily constructed from a stacked laminate of thin (1mm) laser-etched W sheets. An even more dramatic increase in coded aperture imaging sensitivity, and dynamic range, for a realistic telescope and imaging detector with typical systematic errors can be achieved by continuously scanning the field of view of the telescope over the source region to be imaged. Simulation results are reported for detectors with systematic errors 1-10%, randomly distributed but unknown in each detector pixel. For the simplified case of a 1-D coded aperture telescope scanning along its pattern, the systematics are removed identically. Results are also presented for the 2-D case with both 1-D and partial 2-D scanning which demonstrate the feasibility of a coded aperture scanning telescope with systematic errors achieving nearly Poisson-limited sensitivity for signal/background ratios S/B ~ 10^-4, in constrast to limits typically ~10- 100X worse that have been actually achieved by pointed or dithered coded aperture telescopes flown (or proposed) previously.

  16. A Fourier transform telescope for sub-arcsecond imaging of X-rays and gamma rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crannell, C. J.; Orwig, L. E.; Hurford, G. J.; Prince, T. A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a Fourier transform telescope designed to image solar flare X-rays and gamma rays at energies up to 1 MeV with arcsec resolution. The imaging technique makes use of a bigrid collimator divided into a number of smaller areas called subcollimators. The grids in each subcollimator consist of a set of linear apertures so configured that each subcollimator provides a measurement of a single Fourier component of the angular distribution of the source. The imaging concept is therefore a mathematical analog to aperture synthesis in radio astronomy. For X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy, this approach has significant advantages in terms of relaxed requirements for astronomy, this approach has significant advantages in terms of relaxed requirements for position sensitivity in the detector and for control of grid alignment in the large scale telescope structure. The concept of the Fourier transform telescope will be illustrated with numerical parameters of a version now under study for the Pinhole/Occulter Facility.

  17. SCIENTIFIC EFFICIENCY OF GROUND-BASED TELESCOPES

    SciTech Connect

    Abt, Helmut A.

    2012-10-01

    I scanned the six major astronomical journals of 2008 for all 1589 papers that are based on new data obtained from ground-based optical/IR telescopes worldwide. Then I collected data on numbers of papers, citations to them in 3+ years, the most-cited papers, and annual operating costs. These data are assigned to four groups by telescope aperture. For instance, while the papers from telescopes with an aperture >7 m average 1.29 more citations than those with an aperture of 2 to <4 m, this represents a small return for a factor of four difference in operating costs. Among the 17 papers that have received {>=}100 citations in 3+ years, only half come from the large (>7 m) telescopes. I wonder why the large telescopes do so relatively poorly and suggest possible reasons. I also found that papers based on archival data, such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, produce 10.6% as many papers and 20.6% as many citations as those based on new data. Also, the 577.2 papers based on radio data produced 36.3% as many papers and 33.6% as many citations as the 1589 papers based on optical/IR telescopes.

  18. AAVSOnet: The Robotic Telescope Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsen, M.

    2012-06-01

    (Abstract only) AAVSOnet is the growing network of robotic telescopes owned and operated by the American Association of Variable Star Observers. With telescopes ranging from 60-mm to 0.61-m in aperture located around the globe, the network fulfills a multitude of science goals. The largest telescopes will be fitted with instruments capable of doing both spectroscopy and photometry. We have pairs of 20-cm telescopes in Chile and New Mexico conducting an all-sky photometric survey (APASS) from 10th to 17th magnitude. These pairs of telescopes monitor the sky in two filters simultaneously in Johnson B and V, as well as Sloan g, r, i, and z. There are telescopes in the 25-35-cm range available to conduct automated programs of stars selected by AAVSO members, and five small telescopes monitoring poorly studied stars brighter than 10th magnitude in both the southern and northern hemispheres. All the data for every star on every image are archived at AAVSO headquarters for future data-mining; images are uploaded to member accounts where they can be analyzed by a powerful suite of photometric tools and observations submitted to the AAVSO International Database.

  19. AAVSOnet: The Robotic Telescope Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsen, Mike

    2011-05-01

    AAVSOnet is the growing network of robotic telescopes owned and operated by the American Association of Variable Star Observers. With telescopes ranging from 60mm to .61m in aperture located around the globe, the network fulfills a multitude of science goals. The largest telescopes will be fitted with instruments capable of doing both spectroscopy and photometry. We have pairs of 20cm telescopes in Chile and New Mexico conducting an all-sky photometric survey from 10th to 17th magnitude. These pairs of telescopes monitor the sky in two filters simultaneously in Johnson B and V, as well as Sloan g, r, i, and z. There are telescopes in the 25-35cm range available to conduct automated programs of stars selected by AAVSO members, and five small telescopes monitoring poorly studied stars brighter than 10th magnitude in both the southern and northern hemispheres. All the data for every star on every image is archived at AAVSO headquarters for future data-mining and images are uploaded to member accounts where they can be analyzed by a powerful suite of photometric tools and observations submitted to the AAVSO International Database.

  20. THE DUTCH OPEN TELESCOPE Robert J. Rutten

    E-print Network

    Rutten, Rob

    Chapter 1 THE DUTCH OPEN TELESCOPE Robert J. Rutten Sterrekundig Instituut Utrecht Postbus 80 000, NL-3508 TA Utrecht, The Netherlands R.J.Rutten@astro.uu.nl Abstract The Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) is an innovative optical solar telescope at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory in the Canary Islands. Its

  1. The development of the Schmidt telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, G.

    2009-06-01

    % Bernhard Schmidt (1879-1935) was born in Estonia. After a few years of studying engineering he ran an optical workshop in Mittweida, Saxonia, between 1901 and 1927. Astronomers appreciated the quality of his telescopes. Starting in 1925, on behalf of the Hamburg Observatory, he developed a short focal length optical system with a large field of view. For this purpose, Schmidt moved his workshop to the observatory. He succeeded in inventing the ``Schmidt telescope'' which allows the imaging of a large field of the sky without any distortions. Schmidt's first telescope (spherical mirror diameter 0.44 m, correction plate 0.36 m diameter, aperture ratio 1:1.75, and focal length 0.625 m) has been used since 1962 at the Boyden Observatory in Bloemfontein/South Africa. Apart from his 0.36 m telescope, Schmidt produced a second larger one of 0.60 m aperture. Shortly after Schmidt's death, the director of the observatory published details on the invention and production of the Schmidt telescope. After World War II, Schmidt telescopes have been widely used. The first large Schmidt telescope, the ``Big Schmidt'' (1.26 m), Mount Palomar, USA, was completed in 1948. The 0.80 m Schmidt telescope of Hamburg Observatory, planned since 1936, finished in 1954, is now on Calar Alto/Spain.

  2. A concept design of deployable space membrane diffractive telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yaohui; Ruan, Ping; Cao, Shang

    2015-10-01

    The traditional Space Telescope has a tremendous potential shortcoming for very large aperture space telescopes. The total mass of the conventional monolithic mirror will skyrocket along with the increase of the apertures; even so much as cannot be launched to space even with the best current lightweight mirror designs. The use of a membrane diffractive optical element (DOE) can reduce the mass of large space telescopes and achieve as much as a factor of seven in mass savings per unit aperture area compared to lightweight mirrors. The primary lens of this telescope is a transmissive membrane etched with a diffraction pattern that offers a significant relaxation in the control requirements on the membrane surface figure. In 2012, the meter-scale transmissive membrane DOE was successfully developed. In 2014, the brassboard telescope of 5-meter diameter successfully demonstrates the ability to collect polychromatic high resolution imagery over a representative object using the transmissive DOE technology. All in all, the development of diffractive telescope with apertures in excess of 5 meter diameter has been put on the agenda. In this paper we first discuss the diffractive imaging system. Then some traditional deployable space optical systems are analyzed in the aspects of deployment methods and characteristics and a conceptual design for a 10m-diameter diffraction telescope is proposed. At last we talk about the key technologies for membrane diffractive telescope.

  3. Convex approximation to the likelihood criterion for aperture synthesis imaging.

    PubMed

    Meimon, Serge; Mugnier, Laurent M; Le Besnerais, Guy

    2005-11-01

    Aperture synthesis allows one to measure visibilities at very high resolutions by coupling telescopes of reasonable diameters. We consider the case where visibility amplitudes and phase are measured separately. It leads to an estimation problem where the noise model yields a nonconvex data-likelihood criterion. We show how to optimally approximate the noise model while keeping the criterion convex. This approximation has been validated both on simulations and on experimental data. PMID:16302388

  4. Hubble Space Telescope satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope, named for the American astronomer Edwin Powell Hubble, will be the largest and most powerful astronomical instrument ever orbited. Placed above the obscuring effects of the earth's atmosphere in a 600-km orbit, this remotely-controlled, free-flying satellite observatory will expand the terrestrial-equivalent resolution of the universe by a factor of seven, or a volumetric factor of 350. This telescope has a 2.4-m primary mirror and can accommodate five scientific instruments (cameras, spectrographs and photometers). The optics are suitable for a spectral range from 1100 angstrom to 1 mm wavelength. With a projected service life of fifteen years, the spacecraft can be serviced on-orbit for replacement of degraded systems, to insert advanced scientific instruments, and to reboost the telescope from decayed altitudes. The anticipated image quality will be a result of extremely precise lambda/20 optics, stringent cleanliness, and very stable pointing: jitter will be held to less than 0.01 arcsecond for indefinite observation periods, consistent with instrument apertures as small as 0.1 arcsecond.

  5. Material Measurements Using Groundplane Apertures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komisarek, K.; Dominek, A.; Wang, N.

    1995-01-01

    A technique for material parameter determination using an aperture in a groundplane is studied. The material parameters are found by relating the measured reflected field in the aperture to a numerical model. Two apertures are studied which can have a variety of different material configurations covering the aperture. The aperture cross-sections studied are rectangular and coaxial. The material configurations involved combinations of single layer and dual layers with or without a resistive exterior resistive sheet. The resistivity of the resistive sheet can be specified to simulate a perfect electric conductor (PEC) backing (0 Ohms/square) to a free space backing (infinity Ohms/square). Numerical parameter studies and measurements were performed to assess the feasibility of the technique.

  6. Introduction to FAST: five hundred meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Rendong

    2008-07-01

    FAST is an Arecibo-type antenna with 3 outstanding aspects: the unique karst depression as the site; the active main reflector which corrects spherical aberration on the ground to achieve full polarization and wide band without involving complex feed system; and the light focus cabin driven by cables and servomechanism plus a parallel robot as secondary adjustable system to carry the most precise parts of the receivers. These design features will enable FAST to jumpstart many of science goals, such as HI neutral hydrogen line survey, pulsar survey, largest station in VLBI network, spectral line observations and Search for alien's technologies. The feasibility studies for FAST have been carried out for 14 years, being supported by Chinese and world astronomical communities. Funding for Project FAST has been approved by the National Development and Reform commission NDRC in July of 2007 with a capital budget ~ 600 millions RMB and a project time of 5.5 years from the foundation.

  7. Telescopic Alidade

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A high standard alidade; this type of alidade permits direct viewing through the telescope. The level is mounted below the inverting telescope and the base (blade) is solid brass with circular voids. Manufactured by Keuffel & Esser, New York & New Jersey. Object ID: USGS-000165...

  8. Ground-Based Telescope Parametric Cost Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Rowell, Ginger Holmes

    2004-01-01

    A parametric cost model for ground-based telescopes is developed using multi-variable statistical analysis, The model includes both engineering and performance parameters. While diameter continues to be the dominant cost driver, other significant factors include primary mirror radius of curvature and diffraction limited wavelength. The model includes an explicit factor for primary mirror segmentation and/or duplication (i.e.. multi-telescope phased-array systems). Additionally, single variable models based on aperture diameter are derived. This analysis indicates that recent mirror technology advances have indeed reduced the historical telescope cost curve.

  9. Adaptive Full Aperture Wavefront Sensor Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, William G.

    1997-01-01

    This grant and the work described was in support of a Seven Segment Demonstrator (SSD) and review of wavefront sensing techniques proposed by the Government and Contractors for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) Program. A team developed the SSD concept. For completeness, some of the information included in this report has also been included in the final report of a follow-on contract (H-27657D) entitled "Construction of Prototype Lightweight Mirrors". The original purpose of this GTRI study was to investigate how various wavefront sensing techniques might be most effectively employed with large (greater than 10 meter) aperture space based telescopes used for commercial and scientific purposes. However, due to changes in the scope of the work performed on this grant and in light of the initial studies completed for the NGST program, only a portion of this report addresses wavefront sensing techniques. The wavefront sensing techniques proposed by the Government and Contractors for the NGST were summarized in proposals and briefing materials developed by three study teams including NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, TRW, and Lockheed-Martin. In this report, GTRI reviews these approaches and makes recommendations concerning the approaches. The objectives of the SSD were to demonstrate functionality and performance of a seven segment prototype array of hexagonal mirrors and supporting electromechanical components which address design issues critical to space optics deployed in large space based telescopes for astronomy and for optics used in spaced based optical communications systems. The SSD was intended to demonstrate technologies which can support the following capabilities: Transportation in dense packaging to existing launcher payload envelopes, then deployable on orbit to form a space telescope with large aperture. Provide very large (greater than 10 meters) primary reflectors of low mass and cost. Demonstrate the capability to form a segmented primary or quaternary mirror into a quasi-continuous surface with individual subapertures phased so that near diffraction limited imaging in the visible wavelength region is achieved. Continuous compensation of optical wavefront due to perturbations caused by imperfections, natural disturbances, and equipment induced vibrations/deflections to provide near diffraction limited imaging performance in the visible wavelength region. Demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating such systems with reduced mass and cost compared to past approaches.

  10. Optimal pupil apodizations of arbitrary apertures for high-contrast imaging.

    PubMed

    Carlotti, A; Vanderbei, R; Kasdin, N J

    2011-12-19

    In the context of exoplanet direct detection and characterization, where high-contrast imaging is mandatory, we present fully optimized two-dimensional pupil apodizations for which no specific geometric constraints are put on the pupil plane apodization, apart from the shape of the aperture itself. Masks for circular and segmented apertures are displayed, with and without a central obstruction and spiders. We can now optimize apodizers for any aperture shape, and examples of optimal masks are shown for the Subaru telescope, the Space Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) and the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Several high-contrast regions are considered with different sizes, positions, shapes and contrasts. It is interesting to note that all the masks that result from these optimizations tend to have a binary transmission profile. PMID:22274262

  11. Phase-diverse adaptive optics for future telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paxman, Richard G.; Thelen, Brian J.; Murphy, Ryan J.; Gleichman, Kurt W.; Georges, James A., III

    2007-09-01

    Phase Diversity (PD) is a wavefront-sensing technology that offers certain advantages in an Adaptive-Optics (AO) system. Historically, PD has not been considered for use in AO applications because computations have been prohibitive. However, algorithmic and computational-hardware advances have recently allowed use of PD in AO applications. PD is an attractive candidate for AO applications for a variety of reasons. The optical hardware required is simple to implement and eliminates non-common path errors. In addition, PD has also been shown to work well with extended scenes that are encountered, for example, when imaging low-contrast solar granulation. PD can estimate high-order continuous aberrations as well as wavefront discontinuities characteristic of segmented-aperture or sparse-aperture telescope designs. Furthermore, the fundamental information content in a PD data set is shown to be greater than that of the correlation Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for the limiting case of unresolved objects. These advantages coupled with recent laboratory results (extended-scene closed-loop AO with PD sampling at 100 Hz) highlight the maturation of not only the PD concept and algorithm but the technology as an emerging and viable wavefront sensor for use in AO applications.

  12. Operations Concept for Moving Target Observations with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborne, George

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will provide breakthrough capabilities for the study of Solar System objects. JWST is a large aperture, cryogenic, infrared-optimized, general purpose space observatory under construction by NASA, ESA, and CSA for launch in 2018. The JWST instrumentation will provide imaging. coronagraphy, and spectroscopy between 6000A to 29 microns. This spectral region contains many atomic, molecular, and particulate diagnostics that are especially relevant for the study of gaseous, rocky and icy bodies in the Solar System. This talk describes the concept for observations of moving targets, including the system design for acquiring and tracking guide stars to hold the science target fIxed in the instrument field of view.

  13. Lucky imaging and aperture synthesis with low-redundancy apertures.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jennifer E; Rhodes, William T; Sheridan, John T

    2009-01-01

    Lucky imaging, used with some success in astronomical and even horizontal-path imaging, relies on fleeting conditions of the atmosphere that allow momentary improvements in image quality, at least in portions of an image. Aperture synthesis allows a larger aperture and, thus, a higher-resolution imaging system to be synthesized through the superposition of image spatial-frequency components gathered by cooperative combinations of smaller subapertures. A combination of lucky imaging and aperture synthesis strengthens both methods for obtaining improved images through the turbulent atmosphere. We realize the lucky imaging condition appropriate for aperture synthesis imaging for a pair of rectangular subapertures and demonstrate that this condition occurs when the signal energy associated with bandpass spatial-frequency components achieves its maximum value. PMID:19107157

  14. Zernike-like Orthogonal Basis Functions for Wavefront Characterization over Sampled, Irregular Apertures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aronstein, David L.; Dean, Bruce H.; Smith, J. Scott

    2007-01-01

    For optical systems with circular apertures, wavefronts are often analyzed using Zernike polynomials, and individual Zernike functions are associated with familiar optical aberrations. For systems with noncircular apertures, or in practical situations in which wavefronts are measured at a limited number of points in the aperture, the Zernike polynomials are no longer an orthogonal basis for the measured data. Although there are an endless number of ways to create a basis for such measured data, a "Zernike-like" basis is useful to connect with our experience with the usual optical aberrations. In this paper, the steps required to identify a Zernike-like basis for wavefronts over sampled, irregular apertures are presented, based on the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization technique. The benefits of analyzing optical wavefronts using an orthogonal basis specific to an optical system's aperture shape and wavefront sampling, instead of using the traditional Zernike polynomials, are detailed in two examples, from image-based wavefront sensing on a segmented-aperture telescope (the James Webb Space Telescope Testbed Telescope at Ball Aerospace) and from interferometer characterization for surface metrology of a hexagonal mirror segment.

  15. Analysis and simulation of aperture-sizing strategies with partial adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyson, Robert K.

    1994-05-01

    The central core intensity of a stellar image observed by a ground-based telescope can be maximized by a judicious balancing of the adaptive optics system and the size of the telescope entrance aperture. For a given aperture, increasing the number of degrees of adaptive optics turbulence compensation will maximize the brightness of the central core. However, for an observatory using an adaptive optics system with a fixed number of degrees-of-freedom, the largest aperture available will not necessarily result in a maximized image central core. The negative effects of atmospheric turbulence, roughly proportional to e(superscript -(D/r(subscript o))(superscript 5/3)), cannot always be compensated by the increased light gathering ability of a larger aperture (proportional to D(superscript 2)). It is shown and verified through simulation that the optimum aperture diameter is a function of N(superscript p) r(subscript o) where N is the number of adaptive optics degrees of freedom and r(subscript o) is the seeing cell size. The simulations show that the exponent p is related to the control algorithm or, more precisely, the figure-of-merit used to drive the deformable mirror actuators. Optimizing the useful aperture of the telescope/adaptive optics system is a strategy that can make use of the variation in site seeing conditions and benefit the astronomer by increasing the available number of observable science objects or reducing the observing time.

  16. Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ralston, Tyler S.; Marks, Daniel L.; Carney, P. Scott; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    State-of-the-art methods in high-resolution three-dimensional optical microscopy require that the focus be scanned through the entire region of interest. However, an analysis of the physics of the light–sample interaction reveals that the Fourier-space coverage is independent of depth. Here we show that, by solving the inverse scattering problem for interference microscopy, computed reconstruction yields volumes with a resolution in all planes that is equivalent to the resolution achieved only at the focal plane for conventional high-resolution microscopy. In short, the entire illuminated volume has spatially invariant resolution, thus eliminating the compromise between resolution and depth of field. We describe and demonstrate a novel computational image-formation technique called interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM). ISAM has the potential to broadly impact real-time three-dimensional microscopy and analysis in the fields of cell and tumour biology, as well as in clinical diagnosis where in vivo imaging is preferable to biopsy. PMID:25635181

  17. Sparse aperture endoscope

    DOEpatents

    Fitch, Joseph P. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-07-06

    An endoscope which reduces the volume needed by the imaging part thereof, maintains resolution of a wide diameter optical system, while increasing tool access, and allows stereographic or interferometric processing for depth and perspective information/visualization. Because the endoscope decreases the volume consumed by imaging optics such allows a larger fraction of the volume to be used for non-imaging tools, which allows smaller incisions in surgical and diagnostic medical applications thus produces less trauma to the patient or allows access to smaller volumes than is possible with larger instruments. The endoscope utilizes fiber optic light pipes in an outer layer for illumination, a multi-pupil imaging system in an inner annulus, and an access channel for other tools in the center. The endoscope is amenable to implementation as a flexible scope, and thus increases the utility thereof. Because the endoscope uses a multi-aperture pupil, it can also be utilized as an optical array, allowing stereographic and interferometric processing.

  18. Sparse aperture endoscope

    DOEpatents

    Fitch, J.P.

    1999-07-06

    An endoscope is disclosed which reduces the volume needed by the imaging part, maintains resolution of a wide diameter optical system, while increasing tool access, and allows stereographic or interferometric processing for depth and perspective information/visualization. Because the endoscope decreases the volume consumed by imaging optics such allows a larger fraction of the volume to be used for non-imaging tools, which allows smaller incisions in surgical and diagnostic medical applications thus produces less trauma to the patient or allows access to smaller volumes than is possible with larger instruments. The endoscope utilizes fiber optic light pipes in an outer layer for illumination, a multi-pupil imaging system in an inner annulus, and an access channel for other tools in the center. The endoscope is amenable to implementation as a flexible scope, and thus increases it's utility. Because the endoscope uses a multi-aperture pupil, it can also be utilized as an optical array, allowing stereographic and interferometric processing. 7 figs.

  19. Parametric Cost Models for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Henrichs, Todd; Dollinger, Courtney

    2010-01-01

    Multivariable parametric cost models for space telescopes provide several benefits to designers and space system project managers. They identify major architectural cost drivers and allow high-level design trades. They enable cost-benefit analysis for technology development investment. And, they provide a basis for estimating total project cost. A survey of historical models found that there is no definitive space telescope cost model. In fact, published models vary greatly [1]. Thus, there is a need for parametric space telescopes cost models. An effort is underway to develop single variable [2] and multi-variable [3] parametric space telescope cost models based on the latest available data and applying rigorous analytical techniques. Specific cost estimating relationships (CERs) have been developed which show that aperture diameter is the primary cost driver for large space telescopes; technology development as a function of time reduces cost at the rate of 50% per 17 years; it costs less per square meter of collecting aperture to build a large telescope than a small telescope; and increasing mass reduces cost.

  20. Intensity Masking to Get High Resolution Images from Low Quality Apertures

    SciTech Connect

    Theiler, J.P., Priedhorsky, W.C.

    1997-12-31

    The effort and expense required to build and maintain an optical-quality telescope increases dramatically with the size of the telescope aperture, and this is especially so in space. But scenarios have been proposed for deploying (for instance, inflatable) telescopes with very large but considerably lecithin optical-quality apertures. Our interest is in ameliorating the effects of the low quality aperture in order to exploit the raw size of the aperture to obtain high resolution images. We describe an algorithm for generating an adaptive binary mask to correct the time-varying aberrations of very large apertures which are many (possibly hundreds of) wavelengths out of figure. The technique is limited to monochromatic imagery, though the wavelength at which observations are taken can be readily changed on the fly, and for earth-pointing applications, the limited light-gathering power imposed by the monochromatic filter is not a problem. The mask itself can be placed at the exit pupil of the telescope, which permits implementation on a large scale. A similar approach, in which the pixels of the mask are half-wave phase shifters instead of opaque optical elements, was described by Love et al.

  1. The Solar-B Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, John M.

    2000-01-01

    The Solar-B mission is a joint enterprise between Japan, the United States of America and the United Kingdom. The collaboration is led by ISAS, the Japanese Institute for Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), NASA and PPARC (Particle Physics and Astrophysics Research Council) play supporting roles in the development of the scientific objectives and provision of the scientific instruments. The mission's primary objective is to conduct a systems study of the solar atmosphere through the acquisition of coordinated measurements of the photosphere, the transition region/low corona and the upper corona using three instruments: an optical telescope, an extreme ultraviolet imaging spectrometer and a soft x-ray telescope. Drs. Saku Tsuneta (NAOJ) and Alan Title (LMSAL) lead the optical imaging team. The optical telescope is a 50-cm aperture, diffraction limited, Gregorian. The focal plane package will record high resolution images, Dopplergrams, and vector magnetic fields on spatial scales dominated by elemental photospheric flux tubes, and over a field of view large enough to contain small active regions. Drs. Tetsuya Watanabe, Len Culhane (MSSL) and George Doschek (NRL) led the EUV imaging and spectroscopy team. The EUV telescope has a 15-cm primary mirror feeding a toroidal grating. The optics have multiplayer coatings which select two wavebands between 180-204 A and 250-290 A. Drs. Kiyoto Shibasaki (NAOJ) and Leon Golub (SAO) lead the X-ray imaging team. The x-ray telescope will provide full disk, soft x-ray images with twice the spatial resolution of the Yohkoh SXT and enhanced sensitivity to longer (>40 A) wavelengths. The launch of Solar-B, into a sun-synchronous orbit, is scheduled for August 2004. Solar-B is the second mission in the Sun-Earth Connection, Solar-Terrestrial Probe Program which is managed by the Goddard Space Flight Center. The Science Directorate of the Marshall Space Flight Center manages the Solar-B Project for the ST Probe Project Office. This paper discusses the objectives, specifications, and design of the scientific instruments as presented at the Preliminary Design Review held at MSFC in May 2000.

  2. The Solar-B Mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. M.

    2000-05-01

    The Solar-B mission is a joint enterprise between Japan, the United States of America and the United Kingdom. The collaboration is led by ISAS, the Japanese Institute for Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS). NASA and PPARC (Particle Physics and Astrophysics Research Council) play supporting roles in the development of the scientific objectives and provision of the scientific instruments. The mission's primary objective is to conduct a systems study of the solar atmosphere through the acquisition of coordinated measurements of the photosphere, the transition region/low corona and the upper corona using three instruments: an optical telescope, an extreme ultraviolet imaging spectrometer and a soft x-ray telescope. Drs. Saku Tsuneta (NAOJ) and Alan Title (LMSAL) lead the optical imaging team. The optical telescope is a 50-cm aperture, diffraction limited, Gregorian. The focal plane package will record high resolution images, Dopplergrams, and vector magnetic field maps on spatial scales dominated by elemental photospheric flux tubes, and over a field of view large enough to contain small active regions. Drs. Tetsuya Watanabe, Len Culhane (MSSL) and George Doschek (NRL) lead the EUV imaging and spectroscopy team. The EUV telescope has a 15-cm primary mirror feeding a toroidal grating. The optics have multilayer coatings which select two wavebands between 180-204 Å and 250-290 Å. Drs. Kiyoto Shibasaki (NAOJ) and Leon Golub (SAO) lead the X-ray imaging team. The x-ray telescope will provide full disk, soft x-ray images with twice the spatial resolution of the Yohkoh SXT and enhanced sensitivity to longer (> 40 Å) wavelengths. The launch of Solar-B, into a sun-synchronous orbit, is scheduled for August 2004. Solar-B is the second mission in the Sun-Earth Connection, Solar-Terrestrial Probe Program which is managed by the Goddard Space Flight Center. The Science Directorate of the Marshall Space Flight Center manages the Solar-B Project for the ST Probe Project Office. This paper discusses the objectives, specifications, and design of the scientific instruments as presented at the Preliminary Design Review held at MSFC in May 2000.

  3. Finite aperture waveguide laser resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, J. J.; Hall, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    A general theory of finite aperture waveguide laser resonators is developed which represents the external reflectors by matrices which couple linearly polarized waveguide modes having the same azimuthal symmetry. The theory allows the determination of resonator efficiency, resonator frequencies, and laser near and far field patterns. Computations of the coupling loss for the fundamental waveguide mode as a function of mirror curvature, separation, and aperture are in agreement with recent infinite aperture calculations in the limit of large apertures and indicate three low-loss configurations: large radius of curvature mirrors close to the guide; large radius of curvature mirrors centered at the guide entrance; and generally smaller curvature mirrors separated by half their curvature from the guide entrance. Design guidelines for construction of high efficiency CO2, CO and He-Ne waveguide laser resonators are summarized in tabular form.

  4. Large aperture optical switching devices

    SciTech Connect

    Goldhar, J.; Henesian, M.A.

    1983-12-12

    We have developed a new approach to constructing large aperture optical switches for next generation inertial confinement fusion lasers. A transparent plasma electrode formed in low pressure ionized gas acts as a conductive coating to allow the uniform charging of the optical faces of an electro-optic material. In this manner large electric fields can be applied longitudinally to large aperture, high aspect ratio Pockels cells. We propose a four-electrode geometry to create the necessary high conductivity plasma sheets, and have demonstrated fast (less than 10 nsec) switching in a 5x5 cm aperture KD*P Pockels cell with such a design. Detaid modelling of Pockels cell performance with plasma electrodes has been carried out for 15 and 30 cm aperture designs.

  5. Transit Detection with a Distributed Network of Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castellano, T.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The discovery since 1995 of more than 80 planets around nearby solar-like stars and the photometric detection of a transit of the planet orbiting HD 209458 (producing a more than 1% drop in brightness that lasts 3 hours) has heralded a new era in astronomy. It has now been demonstrated that small telescopes equipped with sensitive and stable electronic detectors can produce fundamental scientific discoveries regarding the frequency and nature of planets outside the solar system. The modest equipment requirements for the measurement of extrasolar planetary transits are achieved by commercial small aperture telescopes and CCD imagers common among amateur astronomers. With equipment already in hand and armed with target lists, observing techniques and software procedures developed b NASA's Ames Research Center and the University of California at Santa Cruz, non-professional astronomers can contribute significantly to the study of planets around others stars. Statistical analyses of the population of parent stars of the known extrasolar planets indicate that approximately one in ten metal-rich stars should harbor a short-period planet. Given the ten percent chance that a given short-period planet displays transits, we therefore expect that approximately 1% of the most metal rich stars will have a planetary companion detectable by this project. A catalog of 206 highly metal rich nearby F, G and K stars has been compiled, and this catalog will provide a rich source of targets. In addition, main sequence F, G, K and M stars identified to have "transit-like" features in the Hipparcos satellite photometry archive will also be monitored. A commercially available "amateur grade" telescope/CCD/software system acquired late during the 2001 "transit season" for HID 209458 has achieved 0.47% RMS precision for 13 minute time sampling from a suburban backyard under less than ideal observing conditions and a realistic range of airmass values.

  6. SNAP telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Lampton, Michael L.; Akerlof, C.W.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Bercovitz, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers Jr., W.C.; Commins, E.D.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.E.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis,R.S.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar,A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.E.; Harvey, P.R.; Heetderks, H.D.; Holland,S.E.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kim, A.G.; Kolbe, W.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Levi, M.E.; Levin, D.S.; Linder, E.V.; Loken,S.C.; Malina, R.; Massey, R.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.P.; Miquel, R.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi,H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto,E.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tarle, G.; Tomasch,A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, G.; Wang, G.

    2002-07-29

    The SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will require a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction limited images spanning a one degree field in the visible and near infrared wavelength regime. This requirement, equivalent to nearly one billion pixel resolution, places stringent demands on its optical system in terms of field flatness, image quality, and freedom from chromatic aberration. We discuss the advantages of annular-field three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) telescopes for applications such as SNAP, and describe the features of the specific optical configuration that we have baselined for the SNAP mission. We discuss the mechanical design and choice of materials for the telescope. Then we present detailed ray traces and diffraction calculations for our baseline optical design. We briefly discuss stray light and tolerance issues, and present a preliminary wavefront error budget for the SNAP Telescope. We conclude by describing some of tasks to be carried out during the upcoming SNAP research and development phase.

  7. Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, Jane R.

    2011-01-01

    The science of astronomy depends on modern-day temples called telescopes. Astronomers make pilgrimages to remote mountaintops where these large, intricate, precise machines gather light that rains down from the Universe. Bit, since Earth is a bright, turbulent planet, our finest telescopes are those that have been launched into the dark stillness of space. These space telescopes, named after heroes of astronomy (Hubble, Chandra, Spitzer, Herschel), are some of the best ideas our species has ever had. They show us, over 13 billion years of cosmic history, how galaxies and quasars evolve. They study planets orbiting other stars. They've helped us determine that 95% of the Universe is of unknown composition. In short, they tell us about our place in the Universe. The next step in this journey is the James Webb Space Telescope, being built by NASA, Europe, and Canada for a 2018 launch; Webb will reveal the first galaxies that ever formed.

  8. Bistatic synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, Gillian

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) allows all-weather, day and night, surface surveillance and has the ability to detect, classify and geolocate objects at long stand-off ranges. Bistatic SAR, where the transmitter and the receiver are on separate platforms, is seen as a potential means of countering the vulnerability of conventional monostatic SAR to electronic countermeasures, particularly directional jamming, and avoiding physical attack of the imaging platform. As the receiving platform can be totally passive, it does not advertise its position by RF emissions. The transmitter is not susceptible to jamming and can, for example, operate at long stand-off ranges to reduce its vulnerability to physical attack. This thesis examines some of the complications involved in producing high-resolution bistatic SAR imagery. The effect of bistatic operation on resolution is examined from a theoretical viewpoint and analytical expressions for resolution are developed. These expressions are verified by simulation work using a simple 'point by point' processor. This work is extended to look at using modern practical processing engines for bistatic geometries. Adaptations of the polar format algorithm and range migration algorithm are considered. The principal achievement of this work is a fully airborne demonstration of bistatic SAR. The route taken in reaching this is given, along with some results. The bistatic SAR imagery is analysed and compared to the monostatic imagery collected at the same time. Demonstrating high-resolution bistatic SAR imagery using two airborne platforms represents what I believe to be a European first and is likely to be the first time that this has been achieved outside the US (the UK has very little insight into US work on this topic). Bistatic target characteristics are examined through the use of simulations. This also compares bistatic imagery with monostatic and gives further insight into the utility of bistatic SAR.

  9. Beginning Research with the 1.8-meter Spacewatch Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Tom; Lane, Lynn A.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this grant was to bring the Spacewatch 1.8-m telescope to operational status for research on asteroids and comets. This objective was achieved; first light with the telescope was in May 2000 and since then several tests and demonstrations of the facility's capability to observe Earth-approaching Asteroids (EAs) have been made, including the first observations to be incorporated into a peer-reviewed publication. The Spacewatch 1.8-m telescope will be the largest in the world dedicated full time to finding and doing astrometry of asteroids and comets. It will be used to search for asteroids and comets anywhere from the space near Earth to regions beyond the orbit of Neptune, and to do astrometry and lightcurves on the fainter of such objects that are already known. Its comparatively large aperture will permit faster discovery of the very small asteroids in Earthlike orbits, such as 1998 KY(sub 26), that are coveted for their accessibility as material resources in space, as well as recovery of EAs on their return apparitions when they tend to be more distant and fainter than they were at the times of their discoveries. It will also tend to find EAs when they do not happen to be close to Earth. Discoveries made under those circumstances allow the objects to be followed for longer intervals, providing better determinations of their orbits during their discovery apparitions. In addition to its size, the 1.8-m Spacewatch telescope will have the unique capability of long strip scanning in any direction, for example along the ecliptic (the plane of the solar system), and along the line of variation of EAs with uncertain orbits that are being targeted for recovery.

  10. Optimization of the occulter for the Solar Orbiter/METIS coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landini, Federico; Vivès, Sébastien; Romoli, Marco; Guillon, Christophe; Pancrazzi, Maurizio; Escolle, Clement; Focardi, Mauro; Antonucci, Ester; Fineschi, Silvano; Naletto, Giampiero; Nicolini, Gianalfredo; Nicolosi, Piergiorgio; Spadaro, Daniele

    2012-09-01

    METIS (Multi Element Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy investigation), selected to fly aboard the Solar Orbiter ESA/NASA mission, is conceived to perform imaging (in visible, UV and EUV) and spectroscopy (in EUV) of the solar corona, by means of an integrated instrument suite located on a single optical bench and sharing the same aperture on the satellite heat shield. As every coronagraph, METIS is highly demanding in terms of stray light suppression. Coronagraphs history teaches that a particular attention must be dedicated to the occulter optimization. The METIS occulting system is of particular interest due to its innovative concept. In order to meet the strict thermal requirements of Solar Orbiter, METIS optical design has been optimized by moving the entrance pupil at the level of the external occulter on the S/C thermal shield, thus reducing the size of the external aperture. The scheme is based on an inverted external-occulter (IEO). The IEO consists of a circular aperture on the Solar Orbiter thermal shield. A spherical mirror rejects back the disk-light through the IEO. A breadboard of the occulting assembly (BOA) has been manufactured in order to perform stray light tests in front of two solar simulators (in Marseille, France and in Torino, Italy). A first measurement campaign has been carried on at the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille. In this paper we describe the BOA design, the laboratory set-up and the preliminary results.

  11. Overview and Status of the James Webb Space Telescope Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture (6.5 meter), cryogenic space telescope with a suite of near and mid-infrared instruments spanning the wavelength range of 0.6 microns to 28 microns. JWST's primary science goals are to detect and characterize the first galaxies, study the assembly of galaxies, star formation, and the formation of evolution of planetary systems. JWST has a unique design based on the concept of passive cooling by means of a multi-layer sunshield to achieve the telescope's cryogenic operating temperature. Each of the five layers of the sunshield is approximately the size of a tennis court, and made of aluminized kapton. By maintaining an observatory attitude whereby the sunshield keeps the telescope in the shade from the sun's rays, the telescope and science instruments can operate at cryogenic temperature (-40 K). On the sun facing side of the observatory the spacecraft bus houses most of the electronic sub-systems, and provides a platform for the solar array and communications hardware. JWST is sufficiently large that it cannot fit inside .the fairing of its Ariane 5 launcher without being stowed in a more compact configuration, so the ability to deploy its major SUb-systems such as the telescope optics and sunshield after launch are another major feature of the observatory. Development of observatory is making rapid progress as major hardware SUb-systems nearcompletion. Polishing of the JWST telescope mirrors is complete with 18 primary mirror segments, the secondary mirror, tertiary and fine steering mirror all gold coated and through acceptance testing. Engineering test articles of each sunshield membrane layer are underway. The first layer 3 membrane is complete and is undergoing testing to evaluate its tensioned shape for compliance with alignment tolerances. As each major SUb-system is tested, the expected scientific performance of the observatory can be evaluated using test results and integrated system models of the observatory. We will discuss key performance parameters of the observatory, including thermal performance, image quality, sensitivity, and the ability to achieve background-limited observations. The observatory deployment after launch will also be discussed in the context of recent sub-system testing of deployment mechanisms.

  12. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center solar observatory report, January - June 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Given here is a summary of the solar vector magnetic field, H-alpha, and white-light observations made at the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Solar Observatory during its daily periods of operation. The MSFC Solar Observatory facilities consist of the Solar Magnetograph, an f/13, 30-cm Cassegrain system with a 3.5-cm image of the Sun, housed on top of a 12.8-meter tower; a 12.5-cm Razdow H-alpha telescope housed at the base of the tower; an 18-cm Questar telescope with a full aperture white-light filter mounted at the base of the tower; a 30-cm Cassegrain telescope located in a second metal dome; and a 16.5-cm H-alpha telescope mounted on side of the Solar Vector Magnetograph. A concrete block building provides office space, a darkroom for developing film and performing optical testing, a workshop, video displays, and a computer facility for data reduction.

  13. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Solar Observatory report, July - December 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James E.

    1992-01-01

    A summary is given of the solar vector magnetic field, H-alpha, and white light observations made at the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Solar Observatory during its daily periods of observation. The MSFC Solar Observatory facilities consist of the Solar Magnetograph, an f-13, 30 cm Cassegrain system with a 3.5 cm image of the Sun housed on top of a 12.8 meter tower, a 12.5 cm Razdow H-alpha telescope housed at the base of the tower, an 18 cm Questar telescope with a full aperture white-light filter mounted at the base of the tower, a 30 cm Cassegrain telescope located in a second metal dome, and a 16.5 cm H-alpha telescope mounted on the side of the Solar Vector Magnetograph. A concrete block building provides office space, a darkroom for developing film and performing optical testing, a workshop, video displays, and a computer facility for data reduction.

  14. Beam Combination for Stellar Imager and its Application to Full-Aperture Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mozurkewich, D.; Carpenter, K. G.; Lyon, R. G.

    2007-01-01

    Stellar Imager (SI) will be a Space-Based telescope consisting of 20 to 30 separated apertures. It is designed for UV/Optical imaging of stellar surfaces and asteroseismology. This report describes details of an alternative optical design for the beam combiner, dubbed the Spatial Frequency Remapper (SFR). It sacrifices the large field of view of the Fizeau combiner. In return, spectral resolution is obtained with a diffraction grating rather than an array of energy-resolving detectors. The SFR design works in principle and has been implemented with MIRC at CHARA for a small number of apertures. Here, we show the number of optical surfaces can be reduced and the concept scales gracefully to the large number of apertures needed for Stellar Imager. We also describe a potential application of this spatial frequency remapping to improved imaging with filled aperture systems. For filled-aperture imaging, the SFR becomes the core of an improved aperture masking system. To date, aperture-masking has produced the best images with ground-based telescopes but at the expense of low sensitivity due to short exposures and discarding most of the light collected by the telescope. This design eliminates the light-loss problem previously claimed to be inherent in all aperture-masking designs. We also argue that at least in principle, the short-integration time limit can also be overcome. With these improvements, it becomes an ideal camera for TPF-C; since it can form speckle-free images in the presence of wavefront errors, it should significantly relax the stability requirements of the current designs.

  15. Solar Confocal Interferometers for Sub-Picometer-Resolution Spectral Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, G. Allen; Pietraszewski, Chris; West, Edward A.; Dines, Terence C.

    2006-01-01

    The confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer allows sub-picometer spectral resolution of Fraunhofer line profiles. Such high spectral resolution is needed to keep pace with the higher spatial resolution of the new set of large-aperture solar telescopes. The line-of-sight spatial resolution derived for line profile inversions would then track the improvements of the transverse spatial scale provided by the larger apertures. The confocal interferometer's unique properties allow a simultaneous increase in both etendue and spectral power. Methods: We have constructed and tested two confocal interferometers. Conclusions: In this paper we compare the confocal interferometer with other spectral imaging filters, provide initial design parameters, show construction details for two designs, and report on the laboratory test results for these interferometers, and propose a multiple etalon system for future testing of these units and to obtain sub-picometer spectral resolution information on the photosphere in both the visible and near-infrared.

  16. Synthetic-aperture imaging laser radar: laboratory demonstration and signal processing.

    PubMed

    Beck, Steven M; Buck, Joseph R; Buell, Walter F; Dickinson, Richard P; Kozlowski, David A; Marechal, Nicholas J; Wright, Timothy J

    2005-12-10

    The spatial resolution of a conventional imaging laser radar system is constrained by the diffraction limit of the telescope's aperture. We investigate a technique known as synthetic-aperture imaging laser radar (SAIL), which employs aperture synthesis with coherent laser radar to overcome the diffraction limit and achieve fine-resolution, long-range, two-dimensional imaging with modest aperture diameters. We detail our laboratory-scale SAIL testbed, digital signal-processing techniques, and image results. In particular, we report what we believe to be the first optical synthetic-aperture image of a fixed, diffusely scattering target with a moving aperture. A number of fine-resolution, well-focused SAIL images are shown, including both retroreflecting and diffuse scattering targets, with a comparison of resolution between real-aperture imaging and synthetic-aperture imaging. A general digital signal-processing solution to the laser waveform instability problem is described and demonstrated, involving both new algorithms and hardware elements. These algorithms are primarily data driven, without a priori knowledge of waveform and sensor position, representing a crucial step in developing a robust imaging system. PMID:16363787

  17. Synthetic-aperture imaging laser radar: laboratory demonstration and signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Steven M.; Buck, Joseph R.; Buell, Walter F.; Dickinson, Richard P.; Kozlowski, David A.; Marechal, Nicholas J.; Wright, Timothy J.

    2005-12-01

    The spatial resolution of a conventional imaging laser radar system is constrained by the diffraction limit of the telescope's aperture. We investigate a technique known as synthetic-aperture imaging laser radar (SAIL), which employs aperture synthesis with coherent laser radar to overcome the diffraction limit and achieve fine-resolution, long-range, two-dimensional imaging with modest aperture diameters. We detail our laboratory-scale SAIL testbed, digital signal-processing techniques, and image results. In particular, we report what we believe to be the first optical synthetic-aperture image of a fixed, diffusely scattering target with a moving aperture. A number of fine-resolution, well-focused SAIL images are shown, including both retroreflecting and diffuse scattering targets, with a comparison of resolution between real-aperture imaging and synthetic-aperture imaging. A general digital signal-processing solution to the laser waveform instability problem is described and demonstrated, involving both new algorithms and hardware elements. These algorithms are primarily data driven, without a priori knowledge of waveform and sensor position, representing a crucial step in developing a robust imaging system.

  18. VISUALIZATION AND ANALYTICS Galileo Galilei's improvements to early telescope

    E-print Network

    Knowles, David William

    VISUALIZATION AND ANALYTICS Galileo Galilei's improvements to early telescope design first opened is the center of the solar sys- tem. Thus, the telescope became the first device to make the unseeable seeable

  19. Limits of detection in debris disks around young stars with NaCo/Sparse Aperture Masking observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauchet, L.; Lacour, S.

    2014-09-01

    To understand the formation and evolution of solar systems and planets formations in the stars neighbourhood, we need to obtain information of their state at different time of their evolution. Here, we focus on debris disks around young stars aged of ten to few tens of Myr, we analyze NaCo/Sparse Aperture Masking (SAM) observations in the L' band (3.8 ?m) of eight objects (beta Pictoris, AU Mic, 49 Ceti, eta Tel, Fomalhaut, G Lupi, HD182327 and HR8799). The aim is to get limits of detection about the mass of the debris orbiting around their stars. The SAM technique consists in transforming a single telescope into a Fizeau interferometer using a non redundant mask inserted in a pupil plane of the instrument. The analysis of the observations was completed with the sparse aperture mode pipeline. Interference fringes are fitted to obtain complex visibilities of the object, then the closure phases are calibrated and evaluated. Finally, a map of the detection limits is obtained as it is related to the closure phases previously estimated. In order to obtain an estimation of the mass corresponding to the luminosity measured with the reduction pipeline we are using theoretical isochrones interpolated into synthetic color tables. The results are maps of detection limits in unit of Jupiter Mass in a range of up to 450 mas around the stars.

  20. Deployment status of the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickles, A. J.; Rosing, W.; Martinez, J.; Fulton, B. J.; Sand, D.

    2012-09-01

    Our global network of telescopes is designed to provide maximally available optical monitoring of time variable sources, from solar system to extra-galactic objects, and ranging in brightness from about 7-20m. We are providing a distributed network with varied apertures but homogeneous instrumentation: optical imaging, with spectroscopic capabilities. A key component is a single centralized process that accepts (in real time) and schedules TAC approved observing requests across the network; then continuously updates schedules based on status, weather and other availability criteria. Requests range from occasional to continuous monitoring, at slow to high-speed cadences (imaging and fast photometry), and includes rapid response to targets of opportunity. Each node of the network must be fully autonomous, with software agents to control and monitor all functions, to provide auto-recovery as necessary, and to announce their status and capabilities up the control structure. Real-time monitoring or interaction by humans should be infrequent. Equipment is designed to be reliable over long periods to minimize hands-on maintenance, by local or LCOGT staff. Our first 1m deployment was to McDonald Obs. in April 2012. Eight more 1m telescopes are close to deployment to complete the Southern ring, scheduled by end-2012.

  1. Large Space Telescope Program status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downey, J. A., III

    1975-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current status of the LST Program. The history of the program is treated briefly, with emphasis placed on the recent Phase B definition activity. The background and rationale leading to the decision of the aperture size of the LST primary mirror are discussed. The current technical definition status of the LST Optical Telescope Assembly and Support Systems Module is treated in a summary fashion. Key milestone events during the balance of the Phase B definition effort and schedule and over-all planning for the development phase of the program are described.

  2. RF/optical shared aperture for high availability wideband communication RF/FSO links

    DOEpatents

    Ruggiero, Anthony J; Pao, Hsueh-yuan; Sargis, Paul

    2014-04-29

    An RF/Optical shared aperture is capable of transmitting and receiving optical signals and RF signals simultaneously. This technology enables compact wide bandwidth communications systems with 100% availability in clear air turbulence, rain and fog. The functions of an optical telescope and an RF reflector antenna are combined into a single compact package by installing an RF feed at either of the focal points of a modified Gregorian telescope.

  3. RF/optical shared aperture for high availability wideband communication RF/FSO links

    DOEpatents

    Ruggiero, Anthony J; Pao, Hsueh-yuan; Sargis, Paul

    2015-03-24

    An RF/Optical shared aperture is capable of transmitting and receiving optical signals and RF signals simultaneously. This technology enables compact wide bandwidth communications systems with 100% availability in clear air turbulence, rain and fog. The functions of an optical telescope and an RF reflector antenna are combined into a single compact package by installing an RF feed at either of the focal points of a modified Gregorian telescope.

  4. Comet C2012 S1 (ISON): Observations of the Dust Grains From SOFIA and of the Atomic Gas From NSO Dunn and Mcmath-Pierce Solar Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Woodward, Charles E.; Harker, David E.; Kelley, Michael S. P.; Sitko, Michael; Reach, William T.; De Pater, Imke; Gehrz, Robert D.; Kolokolova, Ludmilla; Cochran, Anita L.; McKay, Adam J.; Reardon, Kevin; Cauzzi, Gianna; Tozzi, Gian Paolo; Christian, Damian J.; Jess, David B.; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Lisse, Carey Michael; Morgenthaler, Jeffrey P.; Knight, Matthew Manning

    2013-01-01

    Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) is unique in that it is a dynamically new comet derived from the Oort cloud reservoir of comets with a sun-grazing orbit. Infrared (IR) and visible wavelength observing campaigns were planned on NASA's Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) and on National Solar Observatory Dunn (DST) and McMath-Pierce Solar Telescopes, respectively. We highlight our SOFIA (+FORCAST) mid- to far-IR images and spectroscopy (approx. 5-35 microns) of the dust in the coma of ISON are to be obtained by the ISON-SOFIA Team during a flight window 2013 Oct 21-23 UT (r_h approx. = 1.18 AU). Dust characteristics, identified through the 10 micron silicate emission feature and its strength, as well as spectral features from cometary crystalline silicates (Forsterite) at 11.05-11.2 microns, and near 16, 19, 23.5, 27.5, and 33 microns are compared with other Oort cloud comets that span the range of small and/or highly porous grains (e.g., C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) and C/2001 Q4 (NEAT) to large and/or compact grains (e.g., C/2007 N4 (Lulin) and C/2006 P1 (McNaught)). Measurement of the crystalline peaks in contrast to the broad 10 and 20 micron amorphous silicate features yields the cometary silicate crystalline mass fraction, which is a benchmark for radial transport in our protoplanetary disk. The central wavelength positions, relative intensities, and feature asymmetries for the crystalline peaks may constrain the shapes of the crystals. Only SOFIA can look for cometary organics in the 5-8 micron region. Spatially resolved measurements of atoms and simple molecules from when comet ISON is near the Sun (r_h< 0.4 AU, near Nov-20-Dec-03 UT) were proposed for by the ISON-DST Team. Comet ISON is the first comet since comet Ikeya-Seki (1965f) suitable for studying the alkalai metals Na and K and the atoms specifically attributed to dust grains including Mg, Si, Fe, as well as Ca. DST's Horizontal Grating Spectrometer (HGS) measures 4 settings: Na I, K, C2 to sample cometary organics (along with Mg I), and [OI] as a proxy for activity from water (along with Si I and Fe I). State-of-the-art instruments that will also be employed include IBIS, which is a Fabry-Perot spectral imaging system that concurrently measures lines of Na, K, Ca II, or Fe, and ROSA (CSUN/QUB), which is a rapid imager that simultaneously monitors Ca II or CN. From McMath-Pierce, the Solar-Stellar Spectrograph also will target ISON (320-900 nm, R approx. 21,000, r_h<0.3 AU). Assuming survival, the intent is to target ISON over r_h<0.4 AU, characteristic of prior Na detections.

  5. Coherent multiple aperture optical imaging systems: Analysis and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergey, Dana J.

    1987-03-01

    The imaging of simple objects through coherent multiple aperture optical imaging systems was investigated. Multiple aperture telescopes are a candidate technology for the Strategic Defense Initiative missions of surveillance, tracking, and kill assessment. Multiaperture images of edges, slits, rectangles, and circles are theoretically predicted and experimentally produced. Photographs of the actual images produced in the lab were compared to the theoretical images, and the analytical and computer prediction techniques were found to be accurate. The results were analyzed to determine how different multiaperture geometries affected the images. It was found that multiaperture imaging produces edge enhancement. The position of a single edge could be found exactly, while multiple edges sometimes produced slight edge shifts. A computer program was developed predicting edge shifts that will be observed when imaging through a given multiple aperture. Larger subaperture spacings were found to exhibit better resolution but produced more ringing about the edges. The possibility of rotating the multiple aperture system to gather more infomation was discussed, as well as designs including a central subaperture.

  6. Metrology Requirements of Future X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, Mikhail

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental needs for future x-ray telescopes: a) Sharp images => excellent angular resolution. b) High throughput => large aperture areas. Generation-X optics technical challenges: a) High resolution => precision mirrors & alignment. b) Large apertures => lots of lightweight mirrors. Innovation needed for technical readiness: a) 4 top-level error terms contribute to image size. b) There are approaches to controlling those errors. Innovation needed for manufacturing readiness: Programmatic issues are at least as severe

  7. Solar Confocal interferometers for Sub-Picometer-Resolution Spectral Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, G. Allen; Pietraszewski, Chris; West, Edward A.; Dines. Terence C.

    2007-01-01

    The confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer allows sub-picometer spectral resolution of Fraunhofer line profiles. Such high spectral resolution is needed to keep pace with the higher spatial resolution of the new set of large-aperture solar telescopes. The line-of-sight spatial resolution derived for line profile inversions would then track the improvements of the transverse spatial scale provided by the larger apertures. In particular, profile inversion allows improved velocity and magnetic field gradients to be determined independent of multiple line analysis using different energy levels and ions. The confocal interferometer's unique properties allow a simultaneous increase in both etendue and spectral power. The higher throughput for the interferometer provides significant decrease in the aperture, which is important in spaceflight considerations. We have constructed and tested two confocal interferometers. A slow-response thermal-controlled interferometer provides a stable system for laboratory investigation, while a piezoelectric interferometer provides a rapid response for solar observations. In this paper we provide design parameters, show construction details, and report on the laboratory test for these interferometers. The field of view versus aperture for confocal interferometers is compared with other types of spectral imaging filters. We propose a multiple etalon system for observing with these units using existing planar interferometers as pre-filters. The radiometry for these tests established that high spectral resolution profiles can be obtained with imaging confocal interferometers. These sub-picometer spectral data of the photosphere in both the visible and near-infrared can provide important height variation information. However, at the diffraction-limited spatial resolution of the telescope, the spectral data is photon starved due to the decreased spectral passband.

  8. Minimizing actuator-induced residual error in active space telescope primary mirrors

    E-print Network

    Smith, Matthew William, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01

    Heritage space telescope mirror technology-i.e. large, monolithic glass primary mirrors-has reached an upper limit on allowable aperture diameter given launch vehicle volume and mass constraints. The next generation of ...

  9. Optical-level structural modelling of membrane mirrors for spaceborne telescopes

    E-print Network

    De Blonk, Brett Jeffrey, 1971-

    2003-01-01

    The astronomy and Earth observation communities desire ever-larger space telescopes, but launch costs limit mass and technology limits size. Current research in large aperture mirrors largely supports deployed rigid optics, ...

  10. Extra-solar planetary imager (ESPI) for space-based Jovian planetary detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, Richard G.; Gezari, Daniel Y.; Melnick, Gary J.; Nisenson, Peter; Papaliolios, Costas D.; Ridgway, Stephen T.; Friedman, Edward J.; Harwit, Martin; Graf, Paul

    2003-02-01

    The Extra-Solar Planetary Imager (ESPI) is envisioned as a space based, high dynamic range, visible imager capable of detecting Jovian like planets. Initially proposed as a NASA Midex (NASA/Medium Class Explorer) mission (PI:Gary Melnick), as a space-based 1.5 x 1.5 m2 Jacquinot apodized square aperture telescope. The combination of apodization and a square aperture telescope reduces the diffracted light from a bright central source increasing the planetary to stellar contrast over much of the telescope focal plane. As a result, observations of very faint astronomical objects next to bright sources with angular separations as small as 0.32 arcseconds become possible. This permits a sensitive search for exo-planets in reflected light. ESPI is capable of detecting a Jupiter-like planet in a relatively long-period orbit around as many as 160 to 175 stars with a signal-to-noise ratio > 5 in observations lasting maximally 100 hours per star out to ~16 parsecs. We discuss the scientific ramifications, an overview of the system design including apodizing a square aperture, signal to noise issues and the effect of wavefront errors and the scalability of ESPI with respect to NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder mission.

  11. Metamaterial apertures for computational imaging.

    PubMed

    Hunt, John; Driscoll, Tom; Mrozack, Alex; Lipworth, Guy; Reynolds, Matthew; Brady, David; Smith, David R

    2013-01-18

    By leveraging metamaterials and compressive imaging, a low-profile aperture capable of microwave imaging without lenses, moving parts, or phase shifters is demonstrated. This designer aperture allows image compression to be performed on the physical hardware layer rather than in the postprocessing stage, thus averting the detector, storage, and transmission costs associated with full diffraction-limited sampling of a scene. A guided-wave metamaterial aperture is used to perform compressive image reconstruction at 10 frames per second of two-dimensional (range and angle) sparse still and video scenes at K-band (18 to 26 gigahertz) frequencies, using frequency diversity to avoid mechanical scanning. Image acquisition is accomplished with a 40:1 compression ratio. PMID:23329043

  12. Fringe-washing function calibration in aperture synthesis microwave radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butora, R.; Martín-Neira, M.; Rivada-Antich, Angel-Luis

    2003-04-01

    This paper describes how the fringe-washing function of a wide field of view interferometric radiometer can be accurately estimated using a relatively simple method. Fringe washing is an undesired effect that can be avoided in radio-telescopes due to its narrow-beam nature, but which is unavoidable in wide field of view interferometers, as those built for Earth Observation applications. The 3-delay method is based on performing correlations at -T, 0 and +T lags of each baseline of the interferometer, when all receiver inputs are connected to a common noise source (centralized correlated noise injection). In addition, a fringe-washing function closure relationship is presented which allows to extend this concept to aperture synthesis radiometers using distributed correlated noise injection. The results presented in this paper are simulations based on real measurements of the end-to-end frequency response of the first prototype receivers of ESA's Microwave Imaging Radiometer with Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS).

  13. Infrared telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, G. R.; Hendricks, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    The development of the Infrared Telescope for Spacelab 2 is discussed. The design, development, and testing required to interface a stationary superfluid helium dewar with a scanning cryostate capable of operating in the zero-g environment in the space shuttle bay is described.

  14. Neutrino Telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez-Rey, Juan Jose

    2006-11-28

    We review the present status of high energy neutrino astronomy. The advantages of neutrinos as extra-terrestrial messengers are recalled and their possible extra-terrestrial sources examined. We review as well the status of present and future neutrino telescopes and summarize the results obtained so far in this field.

  15. OBSERVING THE FINE STRUCTURE OF LOOPS THROUGH HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF CORONAL RAIN WITH THE CRISP INSTRUMENT AT THE SWEDISH SOLAR TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Antolin, P.; Rouppe van der Voort, L. E-mail: v.d.v.l.rouppe@astro.uio.no

    2012-02-01

    Observed in cool chromospheric lines, such as H{alpha} or Ca II H, coronal rain corresponds to cool and dense plasma falling from coronal heights. Considered as a peculiar sporadic phenomenon of active regions, it has not received much attention since its discovery more than 40 years ago. Yet, it has been shown recently that a close relationship exists between this phenomenon and the coronal heating mechanism. Indeed, numerical simulations have shown that this phenomenon is most likely due to a loss of thermal equilibrium ensuing from a heating mechanism acting mostly toward the footpoints of loops. We present here one of the first high-resolution spectroscopic observations of coronal rain, performed with the CRisp Imaging Spectro Polarimeter (CRISP) instrument at the Swedish Solar Telescope. This work constitutes the first attempt to assess the importance of coronal rain in the understanding of the coronal magnetic field in active regions. With the present resolution, coronal rain is observed to literally invade the entire field of view. A large statistical set is obtained in which dynamics (total velocities and accelerations), shapes (lengths and widths), trajectories (angles of fall of the blobs), and thermodynamic properties (temperatures) of the condensations are derived. Specifically, we find that coronal rain is composed of small and dense chromospheric cores with average widths and lengths of {approx}310 km and {approx}710 km, respectively, average temperatures below 7000 K, displaying a broad distribution of falling speeds with an average of {approx}70 km s{sup -1}, and accelerations largely below the effective gravity along loops. Through estimates of the ion-neutral coupling in the blobs we show that coronal rain acts as a tracer of the coronal magnetic field, thus supporting the multi-strand loop scenario, and acts as a probe of the local thermodynamic conditions in loops. We further elucidate its potential in coronal heating. We find that the cooling in neighboring strands occurs simultaneously in general suggesting a similar thermodynamic evolution among strands, which can be explained by a common footpoint heating process. Constraints for coronal heating models of loops are thus provided. Estimates of the fraction of coronal volume with coronal rain give values between 7% and 30%. Estimates of the occurrence time of the phenomenon in loops set times between 5 and 20 hr, implying that coronal rain may be a common phenomenon, in agreement with the frequent observations of cool downflows in extreme-ultraviolet lines. The coronal mass drain rate in the form of coronal rain is estimated to be on the order of 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} g s{sup -1}, a significant quantity compared to the estimate of mass flux into the corona from spicules.

  16. (Optical) Telescopes Reference Reading

    E-print Network

    Peletier, Reynier

    (Optical) Telescopes Reference Reading: Observational Astronomy Ch6,7 #12;(Optical) Telescopes? #12;Optical Telescopes Describe the light path of the Palomar 5-m Hale telescope. #12;Optical Telescopes Describe the light path of the Keck 10-m telescope. #12;Telescope Optics: Basic Principles Two

  17. Selecting Your First Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Sherwood

    1982-01-01

    Designed for first-time telescope purchasers, provides information on how a telescope works; major telescope types (refractors, reflectors, compound telescopes); tripod, pier, altazimuth, and equatorial mounts; selecting a telescope; visiting an astronomy club; applications/limitations of telescope use; and tips on buying a telescope. Includes a…

  18. Test method for telescopes using a point source at a finite distance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, D. B.; Zissa, D. E.; Korsch, D.

    1985-01-01

    A test method for telescopes that makes use of a focused ring formed by an annular aperture when using a point source at a finite distance is evaluated theoretically and experimentally. The results show that the concept can be applied to near-normal, as well as grazing incidence. It is particularly suited for X-ray telescopes because of their intrinsically narrow annular apertures, and because of the largely reduced diffraction effects.

  19. Remote observing with the FAST telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ming

    2011-03-01

    The Five hundred meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) is a Chinese mega-science project that is currently under construction, with the aim to build the largest single dish radio telescope in the world. It has an Arecibo-type dish located on an unique Karst depression. Unlike the Arecibo, FAST has an active main reflector which corrects spherical aberration on the ground to achieve full polarization and wide band without involving complex feed systems, and it is equipped with a light focus cabin driven by cables and servomechanism plus a parallel robot as the secondary adjustable system to carry the receivers. Located at a remote, radio quite site, remote operation of the FAST telescope is highly desirable. This talk will discuss the initial design of the telescope control and monitoring system, and explore the possibility of remote observing with such a complicated system.

  20. Overview of the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture (6.5 meter), cryogenic space telescope with a suite of near and mid-infrared instruments covering the wavelength range of 0.6 microns to 28 microns. JWST's primary science goals are to detect and characterize the first galaxies, and study the assembly of galaxies, star formation, and the formation of evolution of planetary systems. JWST is a segmented mirror telescope operating at approx.40K, a temperature achieved by passive cooling of the observatory, via a large, 5-layer membrane-based sunshield. We will review the scientific capabilities of JWST in the context of their synergy with survey facilities, and with the next generation of ground-based Extremely Large Telescopes. We will also present an overview of the observatory design, and report on recent progress in the construction of the observatory and its science instruments.