Science.gov

Sample records for aphasia

  1. Aphasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disorders conduct and support a broad range of scientific investigations to increase our understanding of aphasia, find better treatments, and discover improved methods to restore lost function to people who have ...

  2. Communicating with someone with aphasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of aphasia. Expressive aphasia may be non-fluent, in which case a person has trouble: Finding ... Speaking overall Another kind of expressive aphasia is fluent aphasia. People who have fluent aphasia may be ...

  3. National Aphasia Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... difficulties expressing themselves, finding the […] Aphasia awareness through music and song June, 2016 Aphasia Awareness Month What ... Program in Ontario, Canada, did. They created a music video and invited persons with Aphasia to star ...

  4. Aphasia(s) in Alzheimer.

    PubMed

    Teichmann, M; Ferrieux, S

    2013-10-01

    Language disorders of degenerative origin are frequently tied to Alzheimer disease (AD) the different variants of which can result in primary and secondary aphasia syndromes. More specifically, Alzheimer pathology can primarily erode frontal, temporal or parietal language cortices resulting in three genuine AD language variants which account for about 30% of primary degenerative aphasias. Likewise, it can spread from non-language to language cortices leading to secondary language disorders like in typical amnesic AD and in several atypical AD variants. This paper reviews the whole set of AD variants by characterising their impact on the neural language system and on linguistic functioning. It also provides cues for diagnostic strategies which are essential for linguistic, syndromic and nosological patient classification, for adequate clinical follow-up and for guiding language rehabilitation. Such diagnostic approaches, founded on detailed linguistic phenotyping while integrating anatomical and neuropathological findings, also represent a crucial issue for future drug trials targeting the physio-pathological processes in degenerative aphasias. PMID:24035593

  5. Childhood aphasias.

    PubMed

    Martins, I P

    1997-01-01

    The study of acquired childhood aphasia has shown that the aphasic syndromes found in adults are reproducible in children with identical lesion sites and that some brain areas are essential for aphasia recovery. Besides, language deficits and learning difficulties are very common in the long-term follow-up of those children. This suggests that the adult pattern of cerebral organization for speech is established early in life and alternative organizations have a lasting price. Yet in contradiction with this, children with focal lesions sustained pre- or perinatally do not show developmentally the aphasic syndromes observed in older children and adults. One possible explanation is that the areas responsible for learning a function are different from those subserving that function as a more mature stage of development. Concerning specific language impairment in children, there is a growing evidence that such syndromes are genetically determined, but there is still a missing link between this predisposition and the structural/functional defects underlying them. The finding that these children are often impaired in other areas of mental development indicates that there may be a more basic cognitive defect underlying their language disorders. PMID:9059756

  6. [Aphasia: debates].

    PubMed

    Roch Lecours, A

    1999-10-01

    Quarrels over aphasia are no recent phenomena and have not always been explicit. Lordat and Gall can be cited in this respect as well as Dax and Bouillaud. Reference is also made to Broca-Dax and Trousseau-Lordat. The creation of the Chair in honour of Charcot, which contributed so greatly (thanks to Charcot himself, the others Masters and their students) to the birth of neurology, then to that of the neurological sciences and eventually to that of the neurocognitive sciences. Next, the most explicit of quarrels on aphasia is dealt with, namely that in which, during three meetings of the French Society of Neurology in 1908, Joseph Jules Dejerine and Pierre Marie crossed swords. Their duel in the Bois de Boulogne in 1893 having fortunately been cancelled, it was in 1908 merely a battle of words. Fulgence Raymond was soon to retire. Dejerine and Pierre Marie each put forward their proposal to the Society for a discussion program and Dejerine's was accepted following a vote. The meeting on 11th June, in accordance with the program proposed by Dejerine, was largely restricted to clinical facts. Fulgence Raymond was not present. Dejerine always spoke first, but some of the replies from Pierre Marie received a degree of approval from the audience. It was during this meeting that Achille Souques, the future founder of the history of neurology, cleverly defended the ideas of Pierre Marie. A little later, Dejerine went on the defensive and agreed to a change in the program along the lines suggested by Pierre Marie: he then presented his ideas on the manifest clinical difference between Broca's aphasia and that of Wernicke. After Souques, Edouard Brissaud also came to the rescue of Pierre Marie by mentioning the Leborgne case published by Broca in the spring 1861. Matters were unresolved and André-Thomas, the future founder of neuropaediatrics, produced a highly intelligent deference of his Master Dejerine. Gilbert Ballet and Ernest Dupré also came down largely on his side

  7. [Dominant Thalamus and Aphasia].

    PubMed

    Nakano, Akiko; Shimomura, Tatsuo

    2015-12-01

    Many studies have shown that lesions of the dominant thalamus precipitate language disorders in a similar manner to transcortical aphasias, in a phenomenon known as "thalamic aphasia." In some cases, however, aphasia may not occur or may appear transiently following thalamic lesions. Furthermore, dominant thalamic lesions can produce changes in character, as observed in patients with amnesic disorder. Previous work has explored the utility of thalamic aphasia as a discriminative feature for classification of aphasia. Although the thalamus may be involved in the function of the brainstem reticular activating system and play a role in attentional network and in memory of Papez circuit or Yakovlev circuit, the mechanism by which thalamic lesion leads to the emergence of aphasic disorders is unclear. In this review, we we survey historical and recent literature on thalamic aphasia in an attempt to understand the neural processes affected by thalamic lesions. PMID:26618763

  8. Treatment of aphasia.

    PubMed

    Albert, M L

    1998-11-01

    Approximately 1 million people have aphasia in the United States today, yet with properly targeted therapy in selected patients effective communication can be restored. Current approaches to treatment of aphasia include psycholinguistic theory-driven therapy, cognitive neurorehabilitation, computer-aided techniques, psychosocial management, and (still on an experimental basis) pharmacotherapy. PMID:9823824

  9. Family Adjustment to Aphasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... this time. Seek additional counseling services as necessary. Communication Skills Family members also can help the person ... aphasia develop new skills to compensate for the communication problems. Some suggestion include: Continue to talk to ...

  10. Aphasia vs. Apraxia

    MedlinePlus

    ... comfortable Dysarthria & Apraxia - How Stroke Affects Speech Auditory Overload Reading, Writing and Math Reading Rehab (PDF opens ... 2013. American Speech-Language Hearing Association For more information on aphasia, or to find an ASHA-certified ...

  11. [Aphasia in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Moreaud, Olivier; David, Danielle; Brutti-Mairesse, Marie-Pierre; Debray, Matthieu; Mémin, Armelle

    2010-03-01

    Aphasia is common in elderly patients in the context of vascular or neurodegenerative disorders. In some cases, aphasia is an isolated symptom, occurring suddenly after a stroke, or developing progressively as a primary progressive aphasia. The diagnosis and treatment are then very similar in older and younger patients. Therapy may be more complicated because of the high prevalence, in older patients, of associated non linguistic symptoms (attentional and dysexecutive symptoms, behavioral and psychological symptoms or sensorial deficits), fatigability, and comprehension deficits. It may then become very difficult to recognize aphasia among all these disorders and to appreciate the physiopathology. A complete evaluation of language, cognitive functions, psychopathology, and behavior is very helpful, as are neuroimaging techniques (MRI is the most relevant). A good knowledge of classical aphasic pictures associated with stroke, Alzheimer disease or related disorders, is highly recommended. Rehabilitation must be proposed even for older patients, so far as aphasia alters the communication abilities. It must be kept in mind that associated symptoms may limit considerably the therapy. PMID:20215098

  12. Aphasia in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Kertesz, Andrew

    1983-01-01

    Aphasia is a central language impairment with word finding and comprehension deficit and paraphasias. The highlights of the essential language tests and the classification based on a scorable assessment are presented. The clinical syndromes of Broca's, global, Wernicke, conduction, anomic and transcortical aphasias are detailed with definition, localization, and prognosis. Modality specific disorders associated with aphasic syndromes are discussed. The management of the aphasic patient, consisting of informed support and coordination of available services, is often the responsibility of the family physician. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:21286589

  13. Closed head trauma and aphasia1

    PubMed Central

    Heilman, Kenneth M.; Safran, Arthur; Geschwind, Norman

    1971-01-01

    A prospective study has been done on the relationship between closed head trauma and aphasia. The most frequent type of aphasia seen after closed head injury is an anomic aphasia. This aphasia is often associated with other defects of higher cortical function. The second most common type of aphasia is a Wernicke's aphasia. Other types of aphasia were not seen in this study. The areas of the head which when injured produce aphasia are the right orbitofrontal region and the left temporoparietal region. The prognosis for recovery appeared highly variable. PMID:5571313

  14. Primary progressive aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Mesulam, Marsel

    2014-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a clinical syndrome diagnosed when three core criteria are met. First, there should be a language impairment (i.e., aphasia) that interferes with the usage or comprehension of words. Second, the neurological work-up should determine that the disease is neurodegenerative, and therefore progressive. Third, the aphasia should arise in relative isolation, without equivalent deficits of comportment or episodic memory. The language impairment can be fluent or non-fluent and may or may not interfere with word comprehension. Memory for recent events is preserved although memory scores obtained in verbally mediated tests may be abnormal. Minor changes in personality and behavior may be present but are not the leading factors that bring the patient to medical attention or that limit daily living activities. This distinctive clinical pattern is most conspicuous in the initial stages of the disease, and reflects a relatively selective atrophy of the language network, usually located in the left hemisphere. There are different clinical variants of PPA, each with a characteristic pattern of atrophy. The underlying neuropathological diseases are heterogeneous and can include Alzheimer’s disease as well as frontotemporal lobar degeneration. The clinician’s task is to recognize PPA and differentiate it from other neurodegenerative phenotypes, use biomarkers to surmise the nature of the underlying neuropathology, and institute the most fitting multimodal interventions. PMID:24707349

  15. First Aid for Aphasia: Home Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Joseph S.

    This pamphlet is designed for use by nonprofessionals as a guide to providing speech therapy for persons with aphasia. It includes an introduction that reviews the causes of aphasia, its immediate effects at onset, and the reactions typical to persons who develop aphasia. Uncomplicated aphasia is described first with eleven specific therapy…

  16. A Behavioral Conceptualization of Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Jonathan C.; LeBlanc, Linda A.; Raetz, Paige B.

    2008-01-01

    Aphasia is an acquired language impairment that affects over 1 million individuals, the majority of whom are over age 65 (Groher, 1989). This disorder has typically been conceptualized within a cognitive neuroscience framework, but a behavioral interpretation of aphasia is also possible. Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior proposes a…

  17. Communicating with someone with aphasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... cases, aphasia will not get better. Improving Daily Communication There are many ways to help people with ... words about common topics or people so that communication is easier. Always try to keep people with ...

  18. Developing a Clinician-Friendly Aphasia Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Robert C.; Wright, Heather Harris

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The Kentucky Aphasia Test (KAT) is an objective measure of language functioning for persons with aphasia. This article describes materials, administration, and scoring of the KAT; presents the rationale for development of test items; reports information from a pilot study; and discusses the role of the KAT in aphasia assessment. Method:…

  19. Clinicoanatomical correlation in stroke related aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Bohra, Vikram; Khwaja, Geeta Anjum; Jain, Sneh; Duggal, Ashish; Ghuge, Vijay Vishwanath; Srivastava, Abhilekh

    2015-01-01

    Context: With advances in neuroimaging, traditional views regarding the clinicoanatomic correlation in stroke patients with aphasia are being challenged and it has been observed that lesions at a given cortical or subcortical site may manifest with different aphasia profiles. Aims: To study as to whether there is a strict clinicoanatomical correlation between the type of aphasia and lesion site in patients with first ever stroke. Settings and Design: Observational study, based in a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: Stroke patient's ≥18 years of age were screened and those with first ever stroke and aphasia were subjected to a detailed stroke workup and language assessment using the Hindi version of Western Aphasia Battery (WAB). Statistical analysis was done with χ2 test with Yates correction and Kruskal-Wallis test. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: Overall aphasia was detected in 27.9% of the 260 screened cases with stroke. Amongst 60 cases with first ever stroke and aphasia, the aphasia type was: Global (33.33%), Broca's (28.3%), transcortical motor (13.33%), transcortical sensory (10%), Wernicke's (8.33%), anomic (5%), and conduction (1.67%) aphasia. A definite correlation between the lesion site and the type of aphasia as per the traditional classification was observed in 35% cases only. Conclusions: No absolute correlation exists between the lesion site and the type of clinical aphasia syndrome in majority of the patients with cortical and subcortical stroke. PMID:26713015

  20. Optic Aphasia: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Hong

    2006-01-01

    Optic aphasia is a rare syndrome in which patients are unable to name visually presented objects but have no difficulty in naming those objects on tactile or verbal presentation. We report a 79-year-old man who exhibited anomic aphasia after a left posterior cerebral artery territory infarction. His naming ability was intact on tactile and verbal semantic presentation. The results of the systematic assessment of visual processing of objects and letters indicated that he had optic aphasia with mixed features of visual associative agnosia. Interestingly, although he had difficulty reading Hanja (an ideogram), he could point to Hanja letters on verbal description of their meaning, suggesting that the processes of recognizing objects and Hanja share a common mechanism. PMID:20396529

  1. Aphasia Centers and the Life Participation Approach to Aphasia: A Paradigm Shift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elman, Roberta J.

    2016-01-01

    The Aphasia Center is a service delivery model that provides an interactive community for persons with aphasia. This model has been increasing in popularity over the last 20 years. Aphasia Centers are consistent with a social model of health care and disability. They offer the potential for linguistic, communicative, and psychosocial benefits. The…

  2. An Aphasia Mentoring Program: Perspectives of Speech-Language Pathology Students and of Mentors with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purves, Barbara A.; Petersen, Jill; Puurveen, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In contrast to clinician-as-expert models, social models of clinical practice typically acknowledge people with aphasia as equal partners in intervention. Given this, there may be a place within speech-language pathology education for programs situating people with aphasia as experts. This paper describes an aphasia mentoring program that…

  3. Primary Progressive Aphasia and Apraxia of Speech

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Youngsin; Duffy, Joseph R.; Josephs, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by progressive language dysfunction. The majority of primary progressive aphasia cases can be classified into three subtypes: non-fluent/agrammatic, semantic, and logopenic variants of primary progressive aphasia. Each variant presents with unique clinical features, and is associated with distinctive underlying pathology and neuroimaging findings. Unlike primary progressive aphasia, apraxia of speech is a disorder that involves inaccurate production of sounds secondary to impaired planning or programming of speech movements. Primary progressive apraxia of speech is a neurodegenerative form of apraxia of speech, and it should be distinguished from primary progressive aphasia given its discrete clinicopathological presentation. Recently, there have been substantial advances in our understanding of these speech and language disorders. Here, we review clinical, neuroimaging, and histopathological features of primary progressive aphasia and apraxia of speech. The distinctions among these disorders will be crucial since accurate diagnosis will be important from a prognostic and therapeutic standpoint. PMID:24234355

  4. Aphasia centers in North America: a survey.

    PubMed

    Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Holland, Audrey L

    2011-08-01

    There is a growing trend toward dedicated programs designed to improve the lives of people with aphasia and their families. We are referring to these programs collectively as "aphasia centers." These programs purportedly differ from more traditional medically based aphasia rehabilitation. However, there is no directory of aphasia centers and no definition of what constitutes such a program. Therefore, an online survey was designed to identify and describe aphasia centers in the United States and Canada. A 37-question survey was posted online via SurveyMonkey. An introductory letter was distributed by electronic mail to a listserv and mailing lists of programs associated with aphasia. Potential respondents who considered themselves an aphasia center were asked to complete the survey. A total of 33 survey responses were analyzed, and descriptive data were compiled resulting in a description of the following aspects of aphasia centers: demographic information, mission, admission and discharge policies, assessment practices, program logistics, staffing patterns, marketing, funding, and services offered. In addition, a qualitative analysis of written text responses revealed the following key themes that appear to characterize the responding programs: services that differ from traditional aphasia rehabilitation; a sense of community; a holistic focus on quality of life, psychosocial well-being, participation, and social support; the centrality of group interaction; and variety/intensity of services. PMID:21968557

  5. BIOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO APHASIA TREATMENT

    PubMed Central

    Small, Steven L.; Llano, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Herein, we review the basic mechanisms neural regeneration and repair and attempt to correlate the findings from animal models of stroke recovery to clinical trials for aphasia. Several randomized, controlled clinical trials that have involved manipulation of different neurotransmitter systems, including noradrenergic, dopaminergic, cholinergic and glutamatergic systems, have shown signals of efficacy. Biological approaches such as anti-Nogo and cell-replacement therapy have shown efficacy in preclinical models, but have yet to reach proof of concept in the clinic. Finally, noninvasive cortical stimulation techniques have been used in a few small trials, and have shown promising results. It appears that the efficacy of all of these platforms can be potentiated through coupling with speech-language therapy. Given this array of potential mechanisms that exist to augment and/or stimulate neural reorganization after stroke, we are optimistic that approaches to aphasia therapy will transition from compensatory models to models where brain reorganization is the goal. PMID:19818231

  6. Therapy efficacy in chronic aphasia.

    PubMed

    Basso, Anna; Macis, Margherita

    2011-01-01

    There is good evidence that aphasia therapy is effective if sufficiently prolonged or intensive and that chronic aphasic individuals can also benefit from therapy, but data on chronic aphasia are scanty. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate whether chronic aphasia benefits from a very intensive therapeutic regimen. We revised the files (January 2000 to December 2008) of the chronic subjects whom we suggested have periodic sessions in our Unit (generally once a week) and 2-3 hours daily of homework with the help of a family member, supervised and controlled by the speech-therapist. Treatment would go on as long as amelioration is evident. Results for 23 chronic aphasic subjects are reported. All subjects had undergone previous therapy and 10 had been dismissed because no further recovery was expected. Recovery was significant in oral and written nouns and actions naming, oral and written sentence production and Token Test scores. Only 4 subjects did not improve. Severity of the disorder did not predict success or failure. We conclude that recovery was due to the intense work done. Further, we believe such a regimen could be successful in a number of patients for whom a less intensive regimen would not be effective. PMID:22063820

  7. Semantic Dementia and Persisting Wernicke's Aphasia: Linguistic and Anatomical Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogar, J. M.; Baldo, J. V.; Wilson, S. M.; Brambati, S. M.; Miller, B. L.; Dronkers, N. F.; Gorno-Tempini, M. L.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have directly compared the clinical and anatomical characteristics of patients with progressive aphasia to those of patients with aphasia caused by stroke. In the current study we examined fluent forms of aphasia in these two groups, specifically semantic dementia (SD) and persisting Wernicke's aphasia (WA) due to stroke. We compared…

  8. Pharmacotherapy of Aphasia: Myth or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Boissezon, Xavier; Peran, Patrice; de Boysson, Chloe; Demonet, Jean-Francois

    2007-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy of aphasia had been discussed for the last twenty years with first bromocriptine and amphetamine and then serotoninergic, GABAergic and cholinergic agents. Here, we reviewed the MEDLINE available reports of drug therapy for aphasia. So far, proofs of efficiency were found indubitable for none of the studied molecules. However, some…

  9. Aphasia Handbook for Adults and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agranowitz, Aleen; McKeown, Milfred Riddle

    The occurance of aphasia in adults and children is discussed along with therapeutic measures. An orientation of what aphasia is and the problems it presents for adults is followed by a statement of present methods of retraining. Consideration is given to an evaluation of defects, attitudes and techniques in retraining, group therapy, and…

  10. Outcome Assessment in Aphasia: A Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Threats, Travis T.; Kagan, Aura

    2005-01-01

    There has been a marked increase in attention to the measurement of ''outcomes'' after speech-language intervention for adult aphasia. Consumers, speech-language pathologists (SLPs), and funding sources desire evidence of therapy outcomes that improve communication and enhance the quality of life for people with aphasia. While many assessment…

  11. Crossed aphasia in Chinese: a clinical survey.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y H; Qiou, Y G; Zhong, G Q

    1990-10-01

    According to our clinical observations from various aspects of stroke patients, such as the total incidence of aphasia, the incidence of aphasia after left brain damage of the dextrals, the aphasia that occurs in patients without hemiplegia, and the types of aphasia, a much higher incidence of crossed aphasia is seen among the stroke patients of the Han (the largest ethnic group in China) as compared with the Uighur-Kazaks (U-K) in China and the Occidentals documented in the literature. Motor aphasia is most common and pure sensory or posterior aphasia is rarely seen in Han patients. The distinct features of the Chinese language is a possible explanation for this difference. We suspect that language function of the Han is not localized in the left brain but in the right or both hemispheres. There is no definite Wernicke's area in the left brain of the Chinese people and the neural pathway of the language function in the brain of the Chinese people is not similar to people who speak phonetic languages. Consequently the universal applicability of the theories of cerebral laterality of the language function and dominant hemisphere established by Dax and Broca are questioned in this paper. PMID:1704810

  12. Varieties of semantic 'access' deficit in Wernicke's aphasia and semantic aphasia.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Hannah E; Robson, Holly; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    Comprehension deficits are common in stroke aphasia, including in cases with (i) semantic aphasia, characterized by poor executive control of semantic processing across verbal and non-verbal modalities; and (ii) Wernicke's aphasia, associated with poor auditory-verbal comprehension and repetition, plus fluent speech with jargon. However, the varieties of these comprehension problems, and their underlying causes, are not well understood. Both patient groups exhibit some type of semantic 'access' deficit, as opposed to the 'storage' deficits observed in semantic dementia. Nevertheless, existing descriptions suggest that these patients might have different varieties of 'access' impairment-related to difficulty resolving competition (in semantic aphasia) versus initial activation of concepts from sensory inputs (in Wernicke's aphasia). We used a case series design to compare patients with Wernicke's aphasia and those with semantic aphasia on Warrington's paradigmatic assessment of semantic 'access' deficits. In these verbal and non-verbal matching tasks, a small set of semantically-related items are repeatedly presented over several cycles so that the target on one trial becomes a distractor on another (building up interference and eliciting semantic 'blocking' effects). Patients with Wernicke's aphasia and semantic aphasia were distinguished according to lesion location in the temporal cortex, but in each group, some individuals had additional prefrontal damage. Both of these aspects of lesion variability-one that mapped onto classical 'syndromes' and one that did not-predicted aspects of the semantic 'access' deficit. Both semantic aphasia and Wernicke's aphasia cases showed multimodal semantic impairment, although as expected, the Wernicke's aphasia group showed greater deficits on auditory-verbal than picture judgements. Distribution of damage in the temporal lobe was crucial for predicting the initially 'beneficial' effects of stimulus repetition: cases with

  13. Varieties of semantic ‘access’ deficit in Wernicke’s aphasia and semantic aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Holly; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Comprehension deficits are common in stroke aphasia, including in cases with (i) semantic aphasia, characterized by poor executive control of semantic processing across verbal and non-verbal modalities; and (ii) Wernicke’s aphasia, associated with poor auditory–verbal comprehension and repetition, plus fluent speech with jargon. However, the varieties of these comprehension problems, and their underlying causes, are not well understood. Both patient groups exhibit some type of semantic ‘access’ deficit, as opposed to the ‘storage’ deficits observed in semantic dementia. Nevertheless, existing descriptions suggest that these patients might have different varieties of ‘access’ impairment—related to difficulty resolving competition (in semantic aphasia) versus initial activation of concepts from sensory inputs (in Wernicke’s aphasia). We used a case series design to compare patients with Wernicke’s aphasia and those with semantic aphasia on Warrington’s paradigmatic assessment of semantic ‘access’ deficits. In these verbal and non-verbal matching tasks, a small set of semantically-related items are repeatedly presented over several cycles so that the target on one trial becomes a distractor on another (building up interference and eliciting semantic ‘blocking’ effects). Patients with Wernicke’s aphasia and semantic aphasia were distinguished according to lesion location in the temporal cortex, but in each group, some individuals had additional prefrontal damage. Both of these aspects of lesion variability—one that mapped onto classical ‘syndromes’ and one that did not—predicted aspects of the semantic ‘access’ deficit. Both semantic aphasia and Wernicke’s aphasia cases showed multimodal semantic impairment, although as expected, the Wernicke’s aphasia group showed greater deficits on auditory-verbal than picture judgements. Distribution of damage in the temporal lobe was crucial for predicting the initially

  14. Assessment and treatment of aphasia in czech.

    PubMed

    Lehečková, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Intervention approaches to aphasia differ in different countries. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the situation in the Czech Republic. The following topics are summarized: (1) Czech logopedics in aphasiology; (2) the assessment of aphasia; (3) the treatment of aphasia; (4) Czech aphasiologic material; (5) the qualification of clinical logopedists, and (6) regulations of aphasiologic care. Czech is a very intricate language, both phonetically and grammatically. The prevalence of consonants appearing in long sequences (a whole sentence can be constructed purely of consonants) makes it difficult to pronounce. The strong inflecting character with hundreds of grammatical forms for each inflected word makes it difficult to use correct morphology and syntax. These facts make Czech a real challenge both for aphasics and logopedists. An overview of aphasia tests and treatment methods used in the Czech Republic, as well as conditions of logopedic care are given. The paper will allow comparison with the situation in other countries. PMID:23108445

  15. Computerized Script Training for Aphasia: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Cherney, Leora R.; Halper, Anita S.; Holland, Audrey L.; Cole, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This article describes computer software that was developed specifically for training conversational scripts and illustrates its use with three individuals with aphasia. Methods Three participants with chronic aphasia (Broca’s, Wernicke’s and anomic) were assessed before and after nine weeks of a computer script training program. For each participant, three individualized scripts were developed, recorded on the software, and practiced sequentially at home. Weekly meetings with the speech-language pathologist occurred to monitor practice and assess progress. Baseline and post-treatment scripts were audio-taped, transcribed, and compared to the target scripts for content, grammatical productivity and rate of production of script-related words. Interviews with the person with aphasia and their significant other were conducted at the conclusion of treatment. Results All measures (content, grammatical productivity and rate of production of script-related words) improved for each participant on every script. Two participants gained more than five points on the Aphasia Quotient of the Western Aphasia Battery. Five positive themes were consistently identified from the exit interviews - increased verbal communication, improvements in other modalities and situations, communication changes noticed by others, increased confidence, and satisfaction with the software. Conclusion Computer-based script training potentially may be an effective intervention for persons with chronic aphasia. PMID:18230811

  16. Neuroscience insights improve neurorehabilitation of poststroke aphasia.

    PubMed

    Berthier, Marcelo L; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2011-02-01

    The treatment of aphasias-acquired language disorders-caused by stroke and other neurological conditions has benefitted from insights from neuroscience and neuropsychology. Hebbian mechanisms suggest that massed practice and exploitation of residual neurological capacities can aid neurorehabilitation of patients with poststroke aphasia, and progress in basic neuroscience research indicates that the language system of the human brain is functionally interwoven with perceptual and motor systems. Intensive speech and language therapies, including constraint-induced aphasia therapy, that activate both the linguistic and concordant motor circuits utilize the knowledge gained from these advances in neuroscience research and can lead to surprisingly rapid improvements in language performance, even in patients with chronic aphasia. Drug-based therapies alone and in conjunction with behavioral language therapies also increase language performance in patients with aphasia. Furthermore, noninvasive transcranial magnetic stimulation and electrical stimulation techniques that target neuronal activity within perilesional areas might help patients with aphasia to regain lost language functions. Intensive language-action therapies that lead to rapid improvements in language skills might provide a new opportunity for investigating fast plastic neuronal changes in the areas of the brain associated with language processing. Here, we review progress in basic neuroscience research and its translational impact on the neurorehabilitation of language disorders after stroke. PMID:21297651

  17. AphasiaBank: Methods for Studying Discourse

    PubMed Central

    MacWhinney, Brian; Fromm, Davida; Forbes, Margaret; Holland, Audrey

    2011-01-01

    Background AphasiaBank is a computerized database of interviews between persons with aphasia (PWAs) and clinicians. By February 2011, the database had grown to include 145 PWAs and 126 controls from 12 sites across the United States. The data and related analysis programs are available free over the web. Aims The overall goal of AphasiaBank is the construction of a system for accumulating and sharing data on language usage by PWAs. To achieve this goal, we have developed a standard elicitation protocol and systematic automatic and manual methods for transcription, coding, and analysis. Methods & Procedures We present sample analyses of transcripts from the retelling of the Cinderella story. These analyses illustrate the application of our methods for the study of phonological, lexical, semantic, morphological, syntactic, temporal, prosodic, gestural, and discourse features. Main Contribution AphasiaBank will allow researchers access to a large, shared database that can facilitate hypothesis testing and increase methodological replicability, precision, and transparency. Conclusions AphasiaBank will provide researchers with an important new tool in the study of aphasia. PMID:22923879

  18. Fluent Aphasia in Telugu: A Case Comparison Study of Semantic Dementia and Stroke Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alladi, Suvarna; Mridula, Rukmini; Mekala, Shailaja; Rupela, Vani; Kaul, Subhash

    2010-01-01

    This study presents two cases with fluent aphasia in Telugu with semantic dementia and post-stroke fluent aphasia. Comparable scores were obtained on the conventional neuropsychological and language tests that were administered on the two cases. Both cases demonstrated fluent, grammatical and well-articulated speech with little content, impaired…

  19. The Role of the Arcuate Fasciculus in Conduction Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Byron; Ardila, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    In aphasia literature, it has been considered that a speech repetition defect represents the main constituent of conduction aphasia. Conduction aphasia has frequently been interpreted as a language impairment due to lesions of the arcuate fasciculus (AF) that disconnect receptive language areas from expressive ones. Modern neuroradiological…

  20. Phonological Therapy in Jargon Aphasia: Effects on Naming and Neologisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bose, Arpita

    2013-01-01

    Background: Jargon aphasia is one of the most intractable forms of aphasia with limited recommendation on amelioration of associated naming difficulties and neologisms. The few naming therapy studies that exist in jargon aphasia have utilized either semantic or phonological approaches, but the results have been equivocal. Moreover, the effect of…

  1. The Trouble with Nouns and Verbs in Greek Fluent Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kambanaros, Maria

    2008-01-01

    In the past verb retrieval problems were associated primarily with agrammatism and noun retrieval difficulties with fluent aphasia. With regards to fluent aphasia, so far in the literature, three distinct patterns of verb/noun dissociations have been described for individuals with fluent anomic aphasia in languages with different underlying forms;…

  2. Progressive Non-Fluent Aphasia in Malayalam: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Annamma; Mathuranath, P. S.

    2010-01-01

    Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA) is a degenerative condition characterized by deterioration in language for at least two years without deterioration in other cognitive domains. This report highlights the language profile in a 79-year-old male with progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA) who was assessed using the Western Aphasia Battery and the…

  3. Social Participation through the Eyes of People with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalemans, Ruth J. P.; de Witte, Luc; Wade, Derick; van den Heuvel, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the way people with aphasia perceive their social participation and its influencing factors. Aims: To explore how people with aphasia perceive participation in society and to investigate influencing factors. Methods & Procedures: In this qualitative study thirteen persons with aphasia and twelve central caregivers…

  4. Ambient Experience in Restitutive Treatment of Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    McClung, Jill S.; Rothi, Leslie J. Gonzalez; Nadeau, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges to language rehabilitation is reconciling the fact that the same therapeutic intervention, provided to different individuals with similar types of stroke-induced aphasia, may result in divergent outcomes. In this paper, the authors reviewed existing literature to identify relevant ambient factors – those outside the control of the clinician – that may potentially influence functional language recovery in aphasia and response to treatment. The goal was to develop a clinical history-taking tool to assist clinicians in gathering information germane to each individual's unique circumstances and environment, elements that may have previously been underestimated, to provide a complete inventory of potentially potent prognostic factors. First, two of the authors, speech–language pathologists experienced in aphasia rehabilitation, identified and categorized factors that seemed likely to influence aphasia outcomes. Then, a wide range of literature was reviewed in an effort to identify factors empirically found to be potent influences on aphasia recovery. Where studies relating these factors to aphasia were not found, relevant research from allied fields that examined recovery from brain injury is reported. Moreover, some factors thought to be potentially potent have yet to be examined. Finally, the ambient factors supported by evidence were categorized as facilitators or barriers to functional improvement, and the Ambient Influences on Outcome Checklist (AOC) was developed, including only those factors shown to be potent in the recovery process. It is hoped that this checklist can be used to more broadly assess potential prognostic influences in aphasia restitution, as well as spawn further research. PMID:21103021

  5. Aphasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by damage to the parts of the brain that control language. It can make it hard for you to read, write, and say what you mean to say. It is most common in adults who have had a stroke. Brain tumors, infections, injuries, and dementia can also cause ...

  6. Aphasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... her brain injury. Most individuals will undergo a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) scan to confirm ... on using advanced imaging methods, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), to explore how language is processed in ...

  7. Passive imaging technology in aphasia therapy.

    PubMed

    Burke, Kiernan; Franklin, Sue; Gowan, Olive

    2011-10-01

    We describe a brief pilot study undertaken to investigate the potential benefit(s) of using a SenseCam in aphasia therapy. Five post-stroke persons with aphasia and their caregivers agreed to participate. Each person with aphasia wore the SenseCam for 1 day during the daytime. Slide shows and printed images were created from the images obtained and presented at a (videotaped) weekly group conversation session. Therapists' observations, reflections, and opinions were subsequently elicited in a group interview and online survey. Wearable, sensor-triggered automatic imaging devices offer potential advantages over both conventional cameras and generic pictures when used in aphasia therapy. We identified three advantages of a SenseCam over conventional imaging methods: Images can be acquired without the presence of the researcher, no action is required by the wearer for image acquisition and the continuous point of view is that of the wearer. Acquired images are of personal relevance to the wearer and may have greater efficacy for the person with aphasia in aiding conversation, and for the speech language therapist in setting functional language goals. PMID:21391108

  8. Stroke rehabilitation using noninvasive cortical stimulation: aphasia.

    PubMed

    Mylius, Veit; Zouari, Hela G; Ayache, Samar S; Farhat, Wassim H; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal

    2012-08-01

    Poststroke aphasia results from the lesion of cortical areas involved in the motor production of speech (Broca's aphasia) or in the semantic aspects of language comprehension (Wernicke's aphasia). Such lesions produce an important reorganization of speech/language-specific brain networks due to an imbalance between cortical facilitation and inhibition. In fact, functional recovery is associated with changes in the excitability of the damaged neural structures and their connections. Two main mechanisms are involved in poststroke aphasia recovery: the recruitment of perilesional regions of the left hemisphere in case of small lesion and the acquisition of language processing ability in homotopic areas of the nondominant right hemisphere when left hemispheric language abilities are permanently lost. There is some evidence that noninvasive cortical stimulation, especially when combined with language therapy or other therapeutic approaches, can promote aphasia recovery. Cortical stimulation was mainly used to either increase perilesional excitability or reduce contralesional activity based on the concept of reciprocal inhibition and maladaptive plasticity. However, recent studies also showed some positive effects of the reinforcement of neural activities in the contralateral right hemisphere, based on the potential compensatory role of the nondominant hemisphere in stroke recovery. PMID:23002940

  9. Living with aphasia: three Indigenous Australian stories.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Elizabeth; Hersh, Deborah; Hayward, Colleen; Fraser, Joan; Brown, Melita

    2012-06-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular disorders and stroke in Australian Aboriginal communities is more than twice as high as non-Indigenous Australians. Approximately 30% of people who survive stroke are left with some level of aphasia, and yet Indigenous Australians appear to be infrequent users of speech-language pathology services, and there is virtually no research literature about the experiences of aphasia for this group of people. This paper presents the stories of living with aphasia for three Indigenous Australian men living in Perth, Western Australia. Their narratives were collected by an Indigenous researcher through in-depth, supported interviews, and were explored using both within-case and cross-case analyses for common and recurring themes. It is argued that there is value for speech-language pathologists, and other health professionals, to be aware of the broad experiences of living with aphasia for Indigenous Australians because their stories are rarely heard and because, as with people with aphasia generally, they are at risk of social isolation and tend to lack visibility in the community. This study explores the key issues which emerge for these three men and highlights the need for further research in this area. PMID:22472033

  10. [Aphasia in acute apoplexy. Incidence, background factors and course].

    PubMed

    Pedersen, P M; Jørgensen, H S; Nakayama, H; Raaschou, H O; Olsen, T S

    1997-02-17

    Knowledge of the frequency and remission of aphasia is essential for the rehabilitation of stroke patients. Information on its determinants provides insight on brain organization of language. Therefore, a community based sample of 881 unselected, acute stroke patients was studied prospectively and consecutively. Assessment of aphasia was done on admission, weekly during hospital stay, and again at a six-month follow-up using the aphasia score of the Scandinavian Stroke Scale. Thirty-eight percent had aphasia at the time of admission, while at discharge it was 18%. Sex was not a significant determinant of aphasia in stroke, and no sex difference was found in the anterior-posterior distribution of lesions causing aphasia. There was, however, a higher rate of women with aphasia with right-sided lesions. The remission curve was steep: stationary language function in 95% was reached within two weeks in those with initial mild aphasia, within six weeks with moderate, and within ten weeks with severe aphasia. Initial severity of aphasia was the only clinically relevant predictor of aphasia outcome in multiple linear regression analysis. Sex, handedness, and side of stroke lesion were not independent outcome predictors, and the influence of age was minimal. PMID:9072858

  11. Vocabulary acquisition in aphasia: Modality can matter

    PubMed Central

    Tuomiranta, Leena; Grönroos, Ann-Mari; Martin, Nadine; Laine, Matti

    2014-01-01

    The present case study investigated modality-specific aspects of novel word acquisition in aphasia. It was prompted by recent aphasia case studies indicating great interindividual variability in the ability to learn and maintain novel words in aphasia. Moreover, two previous case studies revealed a striking effect of input modality by showing effective word learning and re-learning via visual input only (Kohen, Sola, Tuomiranta, Laine, & Martin, 2012; Tuomiranta et al., 2014). The present participant TS with chronic nonfluent aphasia and post-semantic anomia was administered novel word–referent learning tasks. In the first experiment, the learning phase included simultaneous phonological and orthographic input, while the follow-up was probed separately for spoken and written responses. In the second experiment, we studied the effect of four different input and output modality combinations on her ability to learn to name the novel items. In the first experiment, TS’s spoken naming performance during the learning phase was just within the range of healthy controls. Maintenance declined and remained outside that range during the whole 6-month follow-up. However, TS maintained the learned words better in written than in spoken naming throughout the follow-up, and in written naming, her maintenance stayed within the control’s range up to 8 weeks post-training. The second experiment indicated that the best learning outcome was achieved with orthographic input. Orthographic input combined with orthographic output resulted in fast and accurate learning of the novel words. Interestingly, TS’s test profile was opposite to her learning profile, as she repeated better than she read aloud in the linguistic background assessment. The results from the present case highlight the importance of multiple learning channels for word acquisition in individuals with aphasia. Probing the functionality of different input and output channels for learning may also prove valuable in

  12. Shared neural substrates of apraxia and aphasia.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Georg; Randerath, Jennifer

    2015-08-01

    Apraxia is regularly associated with aphasia, but there is controversy whether their co-occurrence is the expression of a common basic deficit or results from anatomical proximity of their neural substrates. However, neither aphasia nor apraxia is an indivisible entity. Both diagnoses embrace diverse manifestations that may occur more or less independently from each other. Thus, the question whether apraxia is always accompanied by aphasia may lead to conflicting answers depending on which of their manifestations are considered. We used voxel based lesion symptom mapping (VLSM) for exploring communalities between lesion sites associated with aphasia and with apraxia. Linguistic impairment was assessed by the Aachen Aphasia Test (AAT) subtests naming, comprehension, repetition, written language, and Token Test. Apraxia was examined for imitation of meaningless hand and finger postures and for pantomime of tool use. There were two areas of overlap between aphasia and apraxia. Lesions in the anterior temporal lobe interfered with pantomime of tool use and with all linguistic tests. In the left inferior parietal lobe there was a large area where lesions were associated with defective imitation of hand postures and with poor scores on written language and the Token Test. Within this large area there were also two spots in supramarginal and angular gyrus where lesions were also associated with defective pantomime. We speculate that the coincidence of language impairment and defective pantomime after anterior temporal lesions is due to impaired access to semantic memory. The combination of defective imitation of hand postures with poor scores on Token Test and written language is not easily compatible with a crucial role of parietal regions for the conversion of concepts of intended actions into motor commands. It accords better with a role of left inferior parietal lobe regions for the categorical perception of spatial relationships. PMID:26004063

  13. Aphasia therapy on a neuroscience basis

    PubMed Central

    Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Berthier, Marcelo L.

    2008-01-01

    Background Brain research has documented that the cortical mechanisms for language and action are tightly interwoven and, concurrently, new approaches to language therapy in neurological patients are being developed that implement language training in the context of relevant linguistic and non-linguistic actions, therefore taking advantage of the mutual connections of language and action systems in the brain. A further well-known neuroscience principle is that learning at the neuronal level is driven by correlation; consequently, new approaches to language therapy emphasise massed practice in a short time, thus maximising therapy quantity and frequency and, therefore, correlation at the behavioural and neuronal levels. Learned non-use of unsuccessful actions plays a major role in the chronification of neurological deficits, and behavioural approaches to therapy have therefore employed shaping and other learning techniques to counteract such non-use. Aims Advances in theoretical and experimental neuroscience have important implications for clinical practice. We exemplify this in the domain of aphasia rehabilitation. Main Contribution Whereas classical wisdom had been that aphasia cannot be significantly improved at a chronic stage, we here review evidence that one type of intensive language-action therapy (ILAT)—constraint-induced aphasia therapy—led to significant improvement of language performance in patients with chronic aphasia. We discuss perspectives for further improving speech-language therapy, including drug treatment that may be particularly fruitful when applied in conjunction with behavioural treatment. In a final section we highlight intensive and rapid therapy studies in chronic aphasia as a unique tool for exploring the cortical reorganisation of language. Conclusions We conclude that intensive language action therapy is an efficient tool for improving language functions even at chronic stages of aphasia. Therapy studies using this technique can

  14. Disrupted Intrinsic Local Synchronization in Poststroke Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mi; Li, Jiao; Yao, Dezhong; Chen, Huafu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Evidence has accumulated from the task-related and task-free (i.e., resting state) studies that alternations of intrinsic neural networks exist in poststroke aphasia (PSA) patients. However, information is lacking on the changes in the local synchronization of spontaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging blood–oxygen level-dependent fluctuations in PSA at rest. We investigated the altered intrinsic local synchronization using regional homogeneity (ReHo) on PSA (n = 17) and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs) (n = 20). We examined the correlations between the abnormal ReHo values and the aphasia severity and language performance in PSA. Compared with HCs, the PSA patients exhibited decreased intrinsic local synchronization in the right lingual gyrus, the left calcarine, the left cuneus, the left superior frontal gyrus (SFG), and the left medial of SFG. The local synchronization (ReHo value) in the left medial of SFG was positively correlated with aphasia severity (r = 0.55, P = 0.027) and the naming scores of Aphasia Battery of Chinese (r = 0.66, P = 0.005). This result is consistent with the important role of this value in language processing even in the resting state. The pathogenesis of PSA may be attributed to abnormal intrinsic local synchronous in multiple brain regions. PMID:26986152

  15. A Computational Account of Bilingual Aphasia Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiran, Swathi; Grasemann, Uli; Sandberg, Chaleece; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2013-01-01

    Current research on bilingual aphasia highlights the paucity in recommendations for optimal rehabilitation for bilingual aphasic patients (Edmonds & Kiran, 2006; Roberts & Kiran, 2007). In this paper, we have developed a computational model to simulate an English-Spanish bilingual language system in which language representations can vary by age…

  16. Aphasia: Current Concepts in Theory and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Tippett, Donna C.; Niparko, John K.; Hillis, Argye E.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging contribute to a new insights regarding brain-behavior relationships and expand understanding of the functional neuroanatomy of language. Modern concepts of the functional neuroanatomy of language invoke rich and complex models of language comprehension and expression, such as dual stream networks. Increasingly, aphasia is seen as a disruption of cognitive processes underlying language. Rehabilitation of aphasia incorporates evidence based and person-centered approaches. Novel techniques, such as methods of delivering cortical brain stimulation to modulate cortical excitability, such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation, are just beginning to be explored. In this review, we discuss the historical context of the foundations of neuroscientific approaches to language. We sample the emergent theoretical models of the neural substrates of language and cognitive processes underlying aphasia that contribute to more refined and nuanced concepts of language. Current concepts of aphasia rehabilitation are reviewed, including the promising role of cortical stimulation as an adjunct to behavioral therapy and changes in therapeutic approaches based on principles of neuroplasticity and evidence-based/person-centered practice to optimize functional outcomes. PMID:24904925

  17. Can Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis Cause Aphasia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.

    2003-01-01

    Aphasia implies the loss or impairment of language caused by brain damage. The key to understanding the nature of aphasic symptoms is the neuro-anatomical site of brain damage, and not the causative agent. However, because "Herpes simplex" virus (HSV) encephalitis infection usually affects the frontal and temporal lobes, subcortical structures and…

  18. Counseling and Aphasia Treatment: Missed Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Damico, Jack S.

    2011-01-01

    During clinical interactions between speech-language pathologists and adults with aphasia, a variety of emotional issues arise. The literature suggests that while counseling is within the scope of practice, SLPs tend to avoid emotional issues in therapy (A. Holland, 2007a). The precise mechanisms employed for circumventing emotional issues in…

  19. Temporal Processing Capabilities in Repetition Conduction Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidiropoulos, Kyriakos; Ackermann, Hermann; Wannke, Michael; Hertrich, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the temporal resolution capacities of the central-auditory system in a subject (NP) suffering from repetition conduction aphasia. More specifically, the patient was asked to detect brief gaps between two stretches of broadband noise (gap detection task) and to evaluate the duration of two biphasic (WN-3) continuous noise…

  20. Accent Identification by Adults with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Caroline; Burns, Rebecca; Bruce, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    The UK is a diverse society where individuals regularly interact with speakers with different accents. Whilst there is a growing body of research on the impact of speaker accent on comprehension in people with aphasia, there is none which explores their ability to identify accents. This study investigated the ability of this group to identify the…

  1. Measuring Working Memory Deficits in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Jamie F.; Murray, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many adults with aphasia demonstrate concomitant deficits in working memory (WM), but such deficits are difficult to quantify because of a lack of validated measures as well as the complex interdependence between language and WM. We examined the feasibility, reliability, and internal consistency of an "n"-back task for evaluating WM in…

  2. Further Evidence of Auditory Extinction in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Rebecca Shisler; Basilakos, Alexandra; Love-Myers, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Preliminary research ( Shisler, 2005) suggests that auditory extinction in individuals with aphasia (IWA) may be connected to binding and attention. In this study, the authors expanded on previous findings on auditory extinction to determine the source of extinction deficits in IWA. Method: Seventeen IWA (M[subscript age] = 53.19 years)…

  3. Semantic Weight and Verb Retrieval in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barde, Laura H. F.; Schwartz, Myrna F.; Boronat, Consuelo B.

    2006-01-01

    Individuals with agrammatic aphasia may have difficulty with verb production in comparison to nouns. Additionally, they may have greater difficulty producing verbs that have fewer semantic components (i.e., are semantically "light") compared to verbs that have greater semantic weight. A connectionist verb-production model proposed by Gordon and…

  4. Implications of Connectionist Parsing for Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Cottrell, Garrison W.

    1985-01-01

    The relation of a neural network model of the human sentence processing mechanism to the syndrome of agrammatic aphasia is explored. The model is shown to be adequate for accounting for some recent results, and suggests further experiments. The model is submitted as evidence of the potential of Cognitive Science for generating fruitful interaction between disciplines.

  5. Disrupted Intrinsic Local Synchronization in Poststroke Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mi; Li, Jiao; Yao, Dezhong; Chen, Huafu

    2016-03-01

    Evidence has accumulated from the task-related and task-free (i.e., resting state) studies that alternations of intrinsic neural networks exist in poststroke aphasia (PSA) patients. However, information is lacking on the changes in the local synchronization of spontaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging blood-oxygen level-dependent fluctuations in PSA at rest.We investigated the altered intrinsic local synchronization using regional homogeneity (ReHo) on PSA (n = 17) and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs) (n = 20). We examined the correlations between the abnormal ReHo values and the aphasia severity and language performance in PSA.Compared with HCs, the PSA patients exhibited decreased intrinsic local synchronization in the right lingual gyrus, the left calcarine, the left cuneus, the left superior frontal gyrus (SFG), and the left medial of SFG. The local synchronization (ReHo value) in the left medial of SFG was positively correlated with aphasia severity (r = 0.55, P = 0.027) and the naming scores of Aphasia Battery of Chinese (r = 0.66, P = 0.005). This result is consistent with the important role of this value in language processing even in the resting state.The pathogenesis of PSA may be attributed to abnormal intrinsic local synchronous in multiple brain regions. PMID:26986152

  6. Drawing: Its Contribution to Naming in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farias, Dana; Davis, Christine; Harrington, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    Drawing in aphasia therapy has been used predominately as a substitution for speech or to augment communication when other modalities are non-functional. The value of drawing as a route for facilitating verbal expression has not been a focus of prior research. We compared the usefulness of drawing and writing as compensatory strategies for…

  7. Writing Treatment for Aphasia: A Texting Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeson, Pelagie M.; Higginson, Kristina; Rising, Kindle

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Treatment studies have documented the therapeutic and functional value of lexical writing treatment for individuals with severe aphasia. The purpose of this study was to determine whether such retraining could be accomplished using the typing feature of a cellular telephone, with the ultimate goal of using text messaging for…

  8. Epidural cortical stimulation and aphasia therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cherney, Leora R.; Harvey, Richard L.; Babbitt, Edna M.; Hurwitz, Rosalind; Kaye, Rosalind C.; Lee, Jaime B.; Small, Steven. L.

    2013-01-01

    Background There are several methods of delivering cortical brain stimulation to modulate cortical excitability and interest in their application as an adjuvant strategy in aphasia rehabilitation after stroke is growing. Epidural cortical stimulation, although more invasive than other methods, permits high frequency stimulation of high spatial specificity to targeted neuronal populations. Aims First, we review evidence supporting the use of epidural cortical stimulation for upper limb recovery after focal cortical injury in both animal models and human stroke survivors. These data provide the empirical and theoretical platform underlying the use of epidural cortical stimulation in aphasia. Second, we summarize evidence for the application of epidural cortical stimulation in aphasia. We describe the procedures and primary outcomes of a safety and feasibility study (Cherney, Erickson & Small, 2010), and provide previously unpublished data regarding secondary behavioral outcomes from that study. Main Contribution In a controlled study comparing epidural cortical stimulation plus language treatment (CS/LT) to language treatment alone (LT), eight stroke survivors with nonfluent aphasia received intensive language therapy for 6 weeks. Four of these participants also underwent surgical implantation of an epidural stimulation device which was activated only during therapy sessions. Behavioral data were collected before treatment, immediately after treatment, and at 6 and 12 weeks following the end of treatment. The effect size for the primary outcome measure, the Western Aphasia Battery Aphasia Quotient, was benchmarked as moderate from baseline to immediately post-treatment, and large from baseline to the 12-week follow-up. Similarly, effect sizes obtained at the 12-week follow-up for the Boston Naming Test, the Communicative Effectiveness Index, and for correct information units on a picture description task were greater than those obtained immediately post treatment

  9. Cerebral glucose metabolism in Wernicke's, Broca's, and conduction aphasia

    SciTech Connect

    Metter, E.J.; Kempler, D.; Jackson, C.; Hanson, W.R.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Phelps, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    Cerebral glucose metabolism was evaluated in patients with either Wernicke's (N = 7), Broca's (N = 11), or conduction (N = 10) aphasia using /sup 18/F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose with positron emission tomography. The three aphasic syndromes differed in the degree of left-to-right frontal metabolic asymmetry, with Broca's aphasia showing severe asymmetry and Wernicke's aphasia mild-to-moderate metabolic asymmetry, while patients with conduction aphasia were metabolically symmetric. On the other hand, the three syndromes showed the same degree of metabolic decline in the left temporal region. The parietal region appeared to separate conduction aphasia from both Broca's and Wernicke's aphasias. Common aphasic features in the three syndromes appear to be due to common changes in the temporal region, while unique features were associated with frontal and parietal metabolic differences.

  10. "Speaking for another": the management of participant frames in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Kingston, Debbie; Schultz, Misty

    2004-05-01

    A sociolinguistic analysis of an interaction between a woman with aphasia and a nonaphasic speaking partner was conducted to investigate participant framing in aphasia. Participant frames, or the stances that people take in conversation, help conversational participants structure their talk and collaboratively negotiate meaning (I. Goffman, 1974). This analysis revealed a configuration in which a person with severe aphasia enlisted her speaking partner to speak for her. That is, the interaction was framed such that the nonaphasic speaking partner served as the "spokesperson" for messages that were authored by the person with aphasia. The clinical requirements of adopting a "speaking for another" framework are discussed. PMID:15198631

  11. Aphasia Therapy in the Age of Globalization: Cross-Linguistic Therapy Effects in Bilingual Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Ansaldo, Ana Inés; Saidi, Ladan Ghazi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Globalization imposes challenges to the field of behavioural neurology, among which is an increase in the prevalence of bilingual aphasia. Thus, aphasiologists have increasingly focused on bilingual aphasia therapy and, more recently, on the identification of the most efficient procedures for triggering language recovery in bilinguals with aphasia. Therapy in both languages is often not available, and, thus, researchers have focused on the transfer of therapy effects from the treated language to the untreated one. Aim. This paper discusses the literature on bilingual aphasia therapy, with a focus on cross-linguistic therapy effects from the language in which therapy is provided to the untreated language. Methods. Fifteen articles including two systematic reviews, providing details on pre- and posttherapy in the adult bilingual population with poststroke aphasia and anomia are discussed with regard to variables that can influence the presence or absence of cross-linguistic transfer of therapy effects. Results and Discussion. The potential for CLT of therapy effects from the treated to the untreated language depends on the word type, the degree of structural overlap between languages, the type of therapy approach, the pre- and postmorbid language proficiency profiles, and the status of the cognitive control circuit. PMID:24825963

  12. Non-invasive repeated therapeutic stimulation for aphasia recovery: a multilingual, multicenter aphasia trial.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Alexander; Black, Sandra E; Rochon, Elizabeth A; Lanthier, Sylvain; Hartmann, Alexander; Chen, Joyce L; Mochizuki, George; Zumbansen, Anna; Heiss, Wolf-Dieter

    2015-04-01

    Noninvasive brain stimulation such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been used in case series and small randomized controlled trials to improve recovery from poststroke aphasia in combination with speech and language therapy. Results of these studies suggest possible clinical efficacy and an excellent safety profile. Therefore, a larger international multicenter proof-of-concept trial was launched, to directly compare the safety and efficacy of rTMS, tDCS, and sham stimulation as adjuvant therapy to speech and language therapy in subacute poststroke aphasia. In the 4 participating centers, subacute stroke patients with aphasia are randomized between 5 and 30 days after ischemic stroke to either receive rTMS, tDCS, or sham stimulation in combination with a daily 45 minutes speech and language therapy session for 10 days. Efficacy is evaluated at 1 and 30 days after the last of the 10 treatment sessions using 3 outcome measures, validated in all participating languages: Boston naming test, Token test, and verbal fluency test. Additionally, adverse events are recorded to prove safety. In this study, a total of 90 patients will be recruited, and data analysis will be completed in 2016. This is the first multilingual and multinational randomized and controlled trial in poststroke aphasia and if positive, will add an effective new strategy for early stage poststroke aphasia rehabilitation. PMID:25735707

  13. The Nature of Naming Errors in Primary Progressive Aphasia Versus Acute Post-Stroke Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Budd, Maggi A.; Kortte, Kathleen; Cloutman, Lauren; Newhart, Melissa; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Davis, Cameron; Heidler-Gary, Jennifer; Seay, Margaret W.; Hillis, Argye E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the distribution of error types across subgroups of primary progressive aphasia and poststroke aphasia in different vascular locations. Method We analyzed naming errors in 49 individuals with acute left hemisphere ischemic stroke and 55 individuals with three variants of primary progressive aphasia. Location of atrophy or ischemic stroke was characterized using MRI. Results We found that distribution of error types was very similar across all subgroups, irrespective of the site or etiology of the lesion. The only significant difference across groups was the percentage of circumlocutions (F(7, 96) = 3.02, p = .005). Circumlocution errors were highest among logopenic variant PPA (24%) and semantic variant PPA (24%). Semantic coordinate errors were common in all groups, probably because they can arise from disruption of different cognitive processes underlying naming and, therefore, from different locations of brain damage. Conclusions Semantic errors are common among all types of primary progressive aphasia and poststroke aphasia, and the type of error depends in part on the location of damage. PMID:20804246

  14. [Aphasia in practice--recent progress].

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Mika

    2008-11-01

    In terms of practical view, the type of aphasia can be classified by four elementary symptoms: anarthria (apraxia of speech), phonemic paraphasia, word comprehension impairment, word finding difficulty. Each elementary symptom has been established by causative lesion: anarthria for lowed posterior part of the left precentral gyrus, phonemic paraphasia for the left marginal gyrus and underlying white matter, word comprehension impairment for the left middle frontal gyrus or the posterior part of superior and middle temporal gyrus (the area called Wernickle's area), word finding difficulty for the left inferior frontal gyrus or the left angular gyrus or the left posterior part of the inferior temporal gyrus. In addition to ordinary estimation of language some devised examination enables distinction of the symptoms due to frontal lesion and the symptom due to the posterior lesion. This methods taking advantage of the symptoms related apahasia is also useful for making diagnosis and knowing prognosis of progressive aphasia. PMID:19198099

  15. AphasiaBank as BigData.

    PubMed

    MacWhinney, Brian; Fromm, Davida

    2016-02-01

    AphasiaBank has used a standardized protocol to collect narrative, procedural, personal, and descriptive discourse from 290 persons with aphasia, as well as 190 control participants. These data have been transcribed in the Codes for the Human Analysis of Transcripts (CHAT) format for analysis by the Computerized Language Analysis (CLAN) programs. Here, we review results from 45 studies based on these data that investigate aphasic productions in terms of these eight areas: discourse, grammar, lexicon, gesture, fluency, syndrome classification, social factors, and treatment effects. For each area, we also indicate how use of the CLAN programs has facilitated the analysis. We conclude with an examination of ways in which the size of the database could be increased through on-site recordings and data from teletherapy. PMID:26882361

  16. Aphasia Practice in the Year 2026.

    PubMed

    Hinckley, Jacqueline J

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to envision how the clinical practice of aphasia management might be done 10 years in the future. The vision of how an individual clinician's daily tasks are changed is built on current trends, including the aging of the population, the life participation approach to aphasia, development and use of evidence-based practices, person-centered care, and technology. To be prepared for the future of these trends, we will need to develop clinical capacity, not only in the number of speech-language pathologists but also most importantly in their competence for using evidence-based practices and training others to support effective communication, including other health care providers. Research needs that will support the future are also described. PMID:27232092

  17. Baudelaire's aphasia: from poetry to cursing.

    PubMed

    Dieguez, Sebastian; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2007-01-01

    At 45 years of age, Charles Baudelaire suffered a left hemispheric stroke that left him with a right hemiplegia and severe aphasia. In this chapter, we investigate the nature of his symptoms, drawing mostly on his own and his contemporaries' correspondence. Before specifically examining his aphasia, we put the poet's life, work, and health in context, notably his tormented mind, his probable syphilitic infection and the intellectual milieu of 19th century France. The time when Baudelaire was struck with aphasia coincides with early discoveries and debates that centered on the nature and implications of this neurological disorder. Many of the questions raised at that time still await definitive answers. Here, we compare Baudelaire's language disorder with recent research that has shed new light on the poet's disease. Most interestingly, we explore the nature of his dramatic use of the expletive Cré nom!, which was the only word he was able to express. Finally, we discuss the links between disease and creativity and dismiss the frequent notion that Baudelaire, in the end, paid the price of his genius. PMID:17495509

  18. Brain Perfusion in Corticobasal Syndrome with Progressive Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Yoshitake; Kimura, Noriyuki; Goto, Megumi; Aso, Yasuhiro; Matsubara, Etsuro

    2016-01-01

    Background Brain perfusion may differ between patients with corticobasal syndrome (CBS) with and without aphasia. Methods Twenty-six (9 males and 17 females; mean age 76 ± 5.3 years) patients with CBS were enrolled in the study. Brain MRI and single-photon emission computed tomography were performed in all subjects. Language was evaluated using the Standard Language Test of Aphasia. The patients were divided into two subgroups according to the presence or absence of progressive aphasia. Differences in the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) between the two groups were detected based on voxel-by-voxel group analysis using Statistical Parametric Mapping 8. Results All patients exhibited asymmetric motor symptoms and signs, including limb apraxia, bradykinesia, and akinetic rigidity. Of 26 patients, 9 had a clinically obvious language disturbance, characterized as nonfluent aphasia. Almost all CBS patients with aphasia exhibited cortical atrophy predominantly in the left frontal and temporal lobes with widening of the Sylvian fissure on MRI. The rCBF in the left middle frontal gyrus differed significantly between CBS patients with and without aphasia. Conclusion CBS patients with aphasia exhibit motor symptoms predominantly on the right side and cortical atrophy mainly in the left perisylvian cortices. In particular, left frontal dysfunction might be related to nonfluent aphasia in CBS. PMID:27195001

  19. Principles Underlying the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) and Its Uses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradis, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) is designed to be objective (so it can be administered by a lay native speaker of the language) and equivalent across languages (to allow for a comparison between the languages of a given patient as well as across patients from different institutions). It has been used not only with aphasia but also with any…

  20. Aphasia and Topic Initiation in Conversation: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Scott E.; Candlin, Christopher N.; Ferguson, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aphasiologists often research, assess and treat linguistic impairment and its consequences for daily life separately. Studies that link the language used by people with aphasia to routine communicative activities may expand the linguistic forms treated as relevant for successful communication by people with aphasia. Previous research…

  1. Acquired dyslexia in Serbian speakers with Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Mile; Vuković, Irena; Miller, Nick

    2016-01-01

    This study examined patterns of acquired dyslexia in Serbian aphasic speakers, comparing profiles of groups with Broca's versus Wernicke's aphasia. The study also looked at the relationship of reading and auditory comprehension and between reading comprehension and reading aloud in these groups. Participants were 20 people with Broca's and 20 with Wernicke's aphasia. They were asked to read aloud and to understand written material from the Serbian adaptation of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination. A Serbian Word Reading Aloud Test was also used. The people with Broca's aphasia achieved better results in reading aloud and in reading comprehension than those with Wernicke's aphasia. Those with Wernicke's aphasia showed significantly more semantic errors than those with Broca's aphasia who had significantly more morphological and phonological errors. From the data we inferred that lesion sites accorded with previous work on networks associated with Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia and with a posterior-anterior axis for reading processes centred on (left) parietal-temporal-frontal lobes. PMID:27135368

  2. Paraphasias in Multilingual Conduction Aphasia: A Single Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegde, Medha; Bhat, Sapna

    2007-01-01

    Conduction aphasia is a type of fluent aphasia, which is caused due to the damage to the supramarginal gyrus and arcuate fasciculus resulting in repetition disturbance. It has been speculated that linguistic system in bilingual aphasics can breakdown in different ways across languages. There is a lack of detailed linguistic studies in specific…

  3. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Presenting as Progressive Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Shuttleworth, Edwin C.; Yates, Allan J.; Paltan-Ortiz, Jose D.

    1985-01-01

    The syndrome of slowly progressive aphasia usually has been associated with Pick's disease, Alzheimer's disease, or an isolated focal degenerative disorder of unknown etiology involving the left perisylvian cortex. This report is of a patient with progressive aphasia due to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:3900429

  4. Aphasia and the Process of Revision in Writing a Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrns, Ingrid; Ahlsen, Elisabeth; Wengelin, Asa

    2008-01-01

    Most of the previous research on aphasia and writing ability concentrates on the production of words in isolation. The purpose of the current study was to examine the process of producing written texts by clients with aphasia. By using keystroke logging, it was possible to analyse the participants' ongoing work during text writing. Results showed…

  5. International Patterns of the Public Awareness of Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Code, Chris; Papathanasiou, Ilias; Rubio-Bruno, Silvia; Cabana, María de la Paz; Villanueva, Maria Marta; Haaland-Johansen, Line; Prizl-Jakovac, Tatjana; Leko, Ana; Zemva, Nada; Patterson, Ruth; Berry, Richard; Rochon, Elizabeth; Leonard, Carol; Robert, Amelie

    2016-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that public awareness of aphasia is vital for extending services, research support, social inclusion and targeted raising of awareness. Earlier studies show that knowledge of aphasia varies across a range of variables, but is very low compared with other conditions. Aims: To report a series of surveys of public…

  6. Who Benefits from an Intensive Comprehensive Aphasia Program?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babbitt, Edna M.; Worrall, Linda; Cherney, Leora R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This article summarizes current outcomes from intensive comprehensive aphasia programs (ICAPs) and examines data from one ICAP to identify those who respond and do not respond to treatment. Methods: Participants were divided into 2 groups, responders and nonresponders, based on ±5-point change score on the Western Aphasia Battery-Revised…

  7. Management of Discourse in Group Therapy for Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Elman, Roberta J.; Holland, Audrey L.; Damico, Jack S.

    2007-01-01

    A qualitative study of group therapy for aphasia was undertaken in order to discover interaction patterns and discourse management strategies that help define "social" or "conversation" group therapy for aphasia. Specifically, an analysis of the discourse of clients and therapists was conducted to identify patterns across therapists and settings.…

  8. Mild Aphasia: Is This the Place for an Argument?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Elizabeth; Fox, Sarah; Wilkinson, Ray

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Individuals with mild aphasia often report significant disruption to their communication despite seemingly minor impairment. This study explored this phenomenon through examining conversations of a person with mild aphasia engaging in argumentation--a skill she felt had significantly deteriorated after her stroke. Method: A person with…

  9. Aphasia friendly written health information: content and design characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rose, Tanya A; Worrall, Linda E; Hickson, Louise M; Hoffmann, Tammy C

    2011-08-01

    People with aphasia need communicatively accessible written health information. Healthcare providers require knowledge of how to develop printed education materials (PEMs) in formats that people with aphasia prefer and can read. This study aimed to explore formatting characteristics considered to be barriers and facilitators to reading PEMs. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 40 adults with aphasia who were selected using maximum variation sampling across aphasia severity, reading ability, and time post-stroke. Participants were shown stroke and aphasia PEMs obtained from the recruiting stroke services, asked to rank them from most liked to least liked, and comment on factors that made the PEMs easier and harder to read. The majority of participants ranked the aphasia friendly stroke (56.4%, n = 22) and aphasia (87.2%, n = 34) PEMs as most liked. Forty-five facilitator and 46 barrier codes were identified using qualitative content analysis and grouped into two categories; (1) content characteristics and (2) design characteristics. Findings support many of the recommendations found within the literature for developing best practice PEMs and accessible information for other patient groups. Routine consideration of the facilitators and barriers identified will contribute to making written information more accessible to people with aphasia. PMID:21682542

  10. Predicting aphasia type from brain damage measured with structural MRI.

    PubMed

    Yourganov, Grigori; Smith, Kimberly G; Fridriksson, Julius; Rorden, Chris

    2015-12-01

    Chronic aphasia is a common consequence of a left-hemisphere stroke. Since the early insights by Broca and Wernicke, studying the relationship between the loci of cortical damage and patterns of language impairment has been one of the concerns of aphasiology. We utilized multivariate classification in a cross-validation framework to predict the type of chronic aphasia from the spatial pattern of brain damage. Our sample consisted of 98 patients with five types of aphasia (Broca's, Wernicke's, global, conduction, and anomic), classified based on scores on the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB). Binary lesion maps were obtained from structural MRI scans (obtained at least 6 months poststroke, and within 2 days of behavioural assessment); after spatial normalization, the lesions were parcellated into a disjoint set of brain areas. The proportion of damage to the brain areas was used to classify patients' aphasia type. To create this parcellation, we relied on five brain atlases; our classifier (support vector machine - SVM) could differentiate between different kinds of aphasia using any of the five parcellations. In our sample, the best classification accuracy was obtained when using a novel parcellation that combined two previously published brain atlases, with the first atlas providing the segmentation of grey matter, and the second atlas used to segment the white matter. For each aphasia type, we computed the relative importance of different brain areas for distinguishing it from other aphasia types; our findings were consistent with previously published reports of lesion locations implicated in different types of aphasia. Overall, our results revealed that automated multivariate classification could distinguish between aphasia types based on damage to atlas-defined brain areas. PMID:26465238

  11. What People Living with Aphasia Think about the Availability of Aphasia Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinckley, Jacqueline J.; Hasselkus, Amy; Ganzfried, Ellayne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Obtaining health information and resources can influence an individual's (a) access to services, (b) interactions with health care providers, and (c) ability to manage one's own health needs. The purpose of this study was to gather the perceptions of consumers living with aphasia about resource availability and information needs. Method:…

  12. A new life with aphasia: everyday activities and social support.

    PubMed

    Sjöqvist Nätterlund, Birgitta

    2010-01-01

    People who develop aphasia must adjust their lifestyles and learn to cope with the activity limitations that may follow from their disability. The purpose of this study was to describe aphasic individuals' experiences of everyday activities and social support in daily life. Interviews were conducted with 20 people with aphasia, and analysed with qualitative content analysis. The results show that everyday activities changed considerably with the onset of aphasia, and the participants were hindered from participating in activities by communication problems or physical disabilities. Aphasia led to the loss of friends and colleagues, and the interviewees often felt lonely. They generally received a lot of social support from close relatives, but support from the healthcare system was lacking. They need different kinds of social support to help them manage their aphasia and everyday activities and to improve their participation in society. Further studies are needed to improve our knowledge of everyday activity and social support for people with aphasia, and what it means to live with aphasia. PMID:20370533

  13. The anterior temporal lobes support residual comprehension in Wernicke's aphasia.

    PubMed

    Robson, Holly; Zahn, Roland; Keidel, James L; Binney, Richard J; Sage, Karen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2014-03-01

    Wernicke's aphasia occurs after a stroke to classical language comprehension regions in the left temporoparietal cortex. Consequently, auditory-verbal comprehension is significantly impaired in Wernicke's aphasia but the capacity to comprehend visually presented materials (written words and pictures) is partially spared. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural basis of written word and picture semantic processing in Wernicke's aphasia, with the wider aim of examining how the semantic system is altered after damage to the classical comprehension regions. Twelve participants with chronic Wernicke's aphasia and 12 control participants performed semantic animate-inanimate judgements and a visual height judgement baseline task. Whole brain and region of interest analysis in Wernicke's aphasia and control participants found that semantic judgements were underpinned by activation in the ventral and anterior temporal lobes bilaterally. The Wernicke's aphasia group displayed an 'over-activation' in comparison with control participants, indicating that anterior temporal lobe regions become increasingly influential following reduction in posterior semantic resources. Semantic processing of written words in Wernicke's aphasia was additionally supported by recruitment of the right anterior superior temporal lobe, a region previously associated with recovery from auditory-verbal comprehension impairments. Overall, the results provide support for models in which the anterior temporal lobes are crucial for multimodal semantic processing and that these regions may be accessed without support from classic posterior comprehension regions. PMID:24519979

  14. Neuropsychiatric Aspects of Primary Progressive Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Fatemi, Yasaman; Boeve, Bradley F.; Duffy, Joseph; Petersen, Ronald C.; Knopman, David S.; Cejka, Vladimir; Smith, Glenn E.; Geda, Yonas E.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have reported neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA), a neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects the left hemisphere. Depression is associated with left-sided stroke, but it remains unclear if depression and other NPS are also associated with PPA. The authors compared the frequency of NPS in 55 cases of PPA with 110 cognitively normal persons matched for age, sex and education. Depression, apathy, agitation, anxiety, appetite change, and irritability are associated with PPA. Hallucinations, delusion and night time behavior were not associated with PPA. PMID:21677245

  15. Parallel Recovery in a Trilingual Speaker: The Use of the Bilingual Aphasia Test as a Diagnostic Complement to the Comprehensive Aphasia Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, David W.; Ruffle, Louise; Grogan, Alice; Ali, Nilufa; Ramsden, Sue; Schofield, Tom; Leff, Alex P.; Crinion, Jenny; Price, Cathy J.

    2011-01-01

    We illustrate the value of the Bilingual Aphasia Test in the diagnostic assessment of a trilingual speaker post-stroke living in England for whom English was a non-native language. The Comprehensive Aphasia Test is routinely used to assess patients in English, but only in combination with the Bilingual Aphasia Test is it possible and practical to…

  16. Drawing objects from memory in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Gainotti, G; Silveri, M C; Villa, G; Caltagirone, C

    1983-09-01

    The ability of aphasic patients to draw from memory objects with a characteristic shape has been investigated. Their capacity to reproduce the form of real objects was studied by showing them for a short time line drawings of simple objects. When the patient had analysed and recognized the figure, the model was hidden from view and the subject was asked to draw the same object from memory. This Drawing from Memory task was administered to 54 aphasics, 67 patients with right hemisphere lesions, 44 nonaphasic left brain-damaged patients and 23 normal controls. The influence of visuoconstructive disabilities was controlled by administering to the same patients a standard test for constructional apraxia (copying 10 geometrical figures). The severity and clinical form of the aphasia and the presence of semantic-lexical impairment at the receptive level were also examined in the aphasic patients. The following results were obtained. (1) Aphasic patients scored significantly less well than the control groups on the Drawing from Memory task and the intergroup differences became greater when the scores from the test for constructional apraxia were included by an analysis of covariance. (2) No significant correlation was detected between the severity and clinical form of the aphasia and the scores obtained on the Drawing from Memory task. (3) There was a significant correlation between impaired drawing from memory and disruption at the semantic-lexical level of language integration. PMID:6640272

  17. Writing Treatment for Aphasia: A Texting Approach

    PubMed Central

    Beeson, Pélagie M.; Higginson, Kristina; Rising, Kindle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Treatment studies have documented the therapeutic and functional value of lexical writing treatment for individuals with severe aphasia. The purpose of this study was to determine whether such retraining could be accomplished using the typing feature of a cellular telephone, with the ultimate goal of using text messaging for communication. Method A 31-year-old man with persistent Broca’s aphasia, severe apraxia of speech, global dysgraphia, and right hemiparesis participated in this study. Using a multiple baseline design, relearning and maintenance of single-word spellings (and oral naming) of targeted items were examined in response to traditional Copy and Recall Treatment (CART) for handwriting and a new paradigm using 1-handed typing on a cell phone keyboard (i.e., a texting version of CART referred to as T-CART). Results Marked improvements were documented in spelling and spoken naming trained in either modality, with stronger maintenance for handwriting than cell phone typing. Training resulted in functional use of texting that continued for 2 years after treatment. Conclusions These results suggest that orthographic retraining using a cell phone keyboard has the potential to improve spelling knowledge and provide a means to improve functional communication skills. Combined training with both handwriting and cell phone typing should be considered in order to maximize the durability of treatment effects. PMID:23811474

  18. Adaptation to aphasia: grammar, prosody and interaction.

    PubMed

    Rhys, Catrin S; Ulbrich, Christiane; Ordin, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates recurrent use of the phrase very good by a speaker with non-fluent agrammatic aphasia. Informal observation of the speaker's interaction reveals that she appears to be an effective conversational partner despite very severe word retrieval difficulties that result in extensive reliance on variants of the phrase very good. The question that this paper addresses using an essentially conversation analytic framework is: What is the speaker achieving through these variants of very good and what are the linguistic and interactional resources that she draws on to achieve these communicative effects? Tokens of very good in the corpus were first analyzed in a bottom-up fashion, attending to sequential position, structure and participant orientation. This revealed distinct uses that were subsequently subjected to detailed acoustic analysis in order to investigate specific prosodic characteristics within and across the interactional variants. We identified specific clusters of prosodic cues that were exploited by the speaker to differentiate interactional uses of very good. The analysis thus shows how, in the adaptation to aphasia, the speaker exploits the rich interface between prosody, grammar and interaction both to manage the interactional demands of conversation and to communicate propositional content. PMID:23237417

  19. Temporoparietal cortex in aphasia. Evidence from positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Metter, E.J.; Hanson, W.R.; Jackson, C.A.; Kempler, D.; van Lancker, D.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Phelps, M.E. )

    1990-11-01

    Forty-four aphasic patients were examined with (F18)-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in a resting state to determine whether consistent glucose metabolic abnormalities were present. Ninety-seven percent of subjects showed metabolic abnormalities in the angular gyrus, 89% in the supramarginal gyrus, and 87% in the lateral and transverse superior temporal gyrus. Pearson product moment correlations were calculated between regional metabolic measures and performance on the Western Aphasia Battery. No significant correlations were found between the Western Aphasia Battery scores and right hemisphere metabolic measures. Most left hemisphere regions correlated with more than one score from the Western Aphasia Battery. Temporal but not frontal regions had significant correlations to the comprehension score. The left temporoparietal region was consistently affected in these subjects, suggesting that common features in the aphasias were caused by left temporoparietal dysfunction, while behavioral differences resulted from (1) the extent of temporoparietal changes, and (2) dysfunction elsewhere in the brain, particularly the left frontal and subcortical areas.

  20. Dissociated disorders of speaking and writing in aphasia.

    PubMed Central

    Basso, A; Taborelli, A; Vignolo, L A

    1978-01-01

    Of 500 left brain-damaged patients with educational level above elementary school investigated with a standard quantitative battery for dissociation between oral and written expression, speech was found to be selectively impaired in seven (three with "pure anarthria," two with anarthria in the context of Broca's aphasia, and two with fluent aphasia with remarkable sparing of writing), and writing in another seven (two with "pure" agraphia, two with "agraphia with mild alexia," and three with "agraphia with mild fluent aphasia.") The nature of three conditions (pure anarthria, fluent aphasia with sparing of writing, and pure agraphia) is discussed, with evidence of a selective association between pure agraphia and lesions of the upper left parietal lobule. PMID:671067

  1. Implicit and Explicit Learning in Individuals with Agrammatic Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Schuchard, Julia; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2013-01-01

    Implicit learning is a process of acquiring knowledge that occurs without conscious awareness of learning, whereas explicit learning involves the use of overt strategies. To date, research related to implicit learning following stroke has been largely restricted to the motor domain and has rarely addressed implications for language. The present study investigated implicit and explicit learning of an auditory word sequence in 10 individuals with stroke-induced agrammatic aphasia and 18 healthy age-matched participants using an adaptation of the Serial Reaction Time task. Individuals with aphasia showed significant learning under implicit, but not explicit, conditions, whereas age-matched participants learned under both conditions. These results suggest significant implicit learning ability in agrammatic aphasia. Furthermore, results of an auditory sentence span task indicated working memory deficits in individuals with agrammatic aphasia, which are discussed in relation to explicit and implicit learning processes. PMID:23532578

  2. Measuring the lexical semantics of picture description in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Jean K

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Individuals with non-fluent aphasia have difficulty producing syntactically laden words, such as function words, whereas individuals with fluent aphasia often have difficulty producing semantically specific words. It is hypothesised that such dissociations arise, at least in part, from a trade-off between syntactic and semantic sources of input to lexical retrieval. AIMS: The aims of this study were (a) to identify quantitative measures of the semantic content of narrative for people with aphasia that are reliable indicators of semantic competence, independent of overall aphasia severity; (b) to determine whether these measures distinguish between fluent and non-fluent aphasia; and (c) to assess whether individuals with fluent and non-fluent aphasia show a trade-off between measures of syntactic and semantic production. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: Connected speech samples were elicited from 16 participants with aphasia, 8 fluent and 8 non-fluent. The semantic sufficiency of the samples was analysed by measuring the proportion of correct information units (CIUs), the type-token ratios (TTRs) of content words, and the proportion of semantically specific ("heavy") to semantically general ("light") verbs produced. These measures were then correlated with syntactic measures from the QPA (Berndt, Wayland, Rochon, Saffran, & Schwartz, 2000) across and within participant groups. OUTCOMES #ENTITYSTARTX00026; RESULTS: CIUs were found to reflect primarily aphasia severity, and not to differentiate between fluent and non-fluent groups. TTRs were also strongly influenced by severity among fluent, but not non-fluent, participants. The ratio of heavy to light verbs reliably distinguished the groups, and showed different patterns of correlation with the syntactic measures. CONCLUSIONS: Results show some evidence for a trade-off between syntactic and semantic inputs to word retrieval, at least among non-fluent participants. The heavy-light verb ratio

  3. A case of crossed aphasia with apraxia of speech.

    PubMed

    Patidar, Yogesh; Gupta, Meena; Khwaja, Geeta A; Chowdhury, Debashish; Batra, Amit; Dasgupta, Abhijit

    2013-07-01

    Apraxia of speech (AOS) is a rare, but well-defined motor speech disorder. It is characterized by irregular articulatory errors, attempts of self-correction and persistent prosodic abnormalities. Similar to aphasia, AOS is also localized to the dominant cerebral hemisphere. We report a case of Crossed Aphasia with AOS in a 48-year-old right-handed man due to an ischemic infarct in right cerebral hemisphere. PMID:24101837

  4. [Specificities of the logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia].

    PubMed

    Magnin, E; Teichmann, M; Martinaud, O; Moreaud, O; Ryff, I; Belliard, S; Pariente, J; Moulin, T; Vandel, P; Démonet, J-F

    2015-01-01

    The logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia is a syndrome with neuropsychological and linguistic specificities, including phonological loop impairment for which diagnosis is currently mainly based on the exclusion of the two other variants, semantic and nonfluent/agrammatic primary progressive aphasia. The syndrome may be underdiagnosed due (1) to mild language difficulties during the early stages of the disease or (2) to being mistaken for mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease when the evaluation of episodic memory is based on verbal material and (3) finally, it is not uncommon that the disorders are attributed to psychiatric co-morbidities such as, for example, anxiety. Moreover, compared to other variants of primary progressive aphasia, brain abnormalities are different. The left temporoparietal junction is initially affected. Neuropathology and biomarkers (cerebrospinal fluid, molecular amyloid nuclear imaging) frequently reveal Alzheimer's disease. Consequently this variant of primary progressive aphasia does not fall under the traditional concept of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. These distinctive features highlight the utility of correct diagnosis, classification, and use of biomarkers to show the neuropathological processes underlying logopenic primary progressive aphasia. The logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia is a specific form of Alzheimer's disease frequently presenting a rapid decline; specific linguistic therapies are needed. Further investigation of this syndrome is needed to refine screening, improve diagnostic criteria and better understand the epidemiology and the biological mechanisms involved. PMID:25444173

  5. Some early cases of aphasia and the capacity to sing.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Julene K; Graziano, Amy B

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines early cases of aphasia that include observations of the capacity to sing. Although the majority of these cases were published in the late nineteenth century, earlier reports exist and provide insights into the early thinking about the capacity to sing in aphasia, a topic that continues to the present day. The observation that some patients with aphasia and limited speech output were able to sing the texts of songs inspired scholars to examine the relationship between music and language. Early ideas about the capacity to sing were provided by well-known neurologists, such as John Hughlings Jackson and Adolf Kussmaul. The work of Herbert Spencer about the origins and function of music heavily influenced Jackson and others in their thinking about aphasia. This work also led to an increased interest in understanding music abilities in persons with aphasia and, later, in the brain mechanisms of music. The chapter provides a background as to why there was an interest in the capacity to sing in persons with aphasia and what influenced early thinking on this topic. PMID:25684286

  6. The Nature of Lexical-Semantic Access in Bilingual Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, Swathi; Balachandran, Isabel; Lucas, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Background. Despite a growing clinical need, there are no clear guidelines on assessment of lexical access in the two languages in individuals with bilingual aphasia. Objective. In this study, we examined the influence of language proficiency on three tasks requiring lexical access in English and Spanish bilingual normal controls and in bilingual individuals with aphasia. Methods. 12 neurologically healthy Spanish-English bilinguals and 10 Spanish-English bilinguals with aphasia participated in the study. All participants completed three lexical retrieval tasks: two picture-naming tasks (BNT, BPNT) and a category generation (CG) task. Results. This study found that across all tasks, the greatest predictors for performance were the effect of group and language ability rating (LAR). Bilingual controls had a greater score or produced more correct responses than participants with bilingual aphasia across all tasks. The results of our study also indicate that normal controls and bilinguals with aphasia make similar types of errors in both English and Spanish and develop similar clustering strategies despite significant performance differences between the groups. Conclusions. Differences between bilingual patients and controls demonstrate a fundamental lexical retrieval deficit in bilingual individuals with aphasia, but one that is further influenced by language proficiency in the two languages. PMID:24825956

  7. Asymmetric inhibitory treatment effects in multilingual aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Goral, Mira; Naghibolhosseini, Maryam; Conner, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Findings from recent psycholinguistic studies of bilingual processing support the hypothesis that both languages of a bilingual are always active and that bilinguals continually engage in processes of language selection. This view aligns with the convergence hypothesis of bilingual language representation (Abutalebi & Green, 2008). Furthermore, it is hypothesized that when bilinguals perform a task in one language they need to inhibit their other, non-target language(s) (e.g., Costa, Miozzo, & Caramazza, 1999) and that stronger inhibition is required when the task is performed in the weaker language than in the stronger one (e.g., Costa & Santesteban, 2004). The study of multilingual individuals who acquire aphasia resulting from a focal brain lesion offers a unique opportunity to test the convergence hypothesis and the inhibition asymmetry. We report on a trilingual person with chronic non-fluent aphasia who at the time of testing demonstrated greater impairment in her first acquired language (Persian) than in her third, later-learned language (English). She received treatment in English followed by treatment in Persian. An examination of her connected language production revealed improvement in her grammatical skills in each language following intervention in that language, but decreased grammatical accuracy in English following treatment in Persian. The increased error rate was evident in structures that are not shared by the two languages (e.g., use of auxiliary verbs). The results support the prediction that greater inhibition is applied to the stronger language than to the weaker language, regardless of their age of acquisition. We interpret the findings as consistent with convergence theories that posit overlapping neuronal representation and simultaneous activation of multiple languages, and with proficiency-dependent asymmetric inhibition in multilinguals. PMID:24499302

  8. Telerehabilitation of Anomia in Primary Progressive Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Aaron M.; Getz, Heidi R.; Brennan, David M.; Hu, Tang M.; Friedman, Rhonda B.

    2015-01-01

    Background The efficacy of telerehabilitation-based treatment for anomia has been demonstrated in post-stroke aphasia, but the efficacy of this method of anomia treatment delivery has not been established within the context of degenerative illness. Aims The current study evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of a telerehabilitation-based approach to anomia treatment within the three subtypes of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). Methods & Procedures Each of the three telerehabilitation participants represented a distinct subtype of PPA. Following a baseline evaluation of language and cognition, a phonological treatment and an orthographic treatment were administered to all participants over the course of six months. One month after the end of treatment, a post-treatment evaluation began. All treatment sessions and the majority of the evaluation sessions were administered via telerehabilitation. Treatment effects were examined within each subject, and treatment effects were also compared between each telerehabilitation participant and a group of in-person participants who had the same subtype of PPA. Outcomes & Results All three telerehabilitation participants exhibited positive treatment effects. CGR (nonfluent/agrammatic variant PPA) and WCH (logopenic variant PPA) showed maintenance of naming for prophylaxis items in both treatment conditions, while ACR (semantic variant PPA) demonstrated increased naming of remediation items in the phonological treatment condition. Compared to in-person participants with the same subtype of PPA, each of the telerehabilitation participants typically showed effects that were either within the expected range or larger than expected. Conclusions Telerehabilitation-based anomia treatment is feasible and effective in all three subtypes of PPA. PMID:27087732

  9. The Aphasia Communication Outcome Measure (ACOM): Dimensionality, Item Bank Calibration, and Initial Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hula, William D.; Doyle, Patrick J.; Stone, Clement A.; Hula, Shannon N. Austermann; Kellough, Stacey; Wambaugh, Julie L.; Ross, Katherine B.; Schumacher, James G.; St. Jacque, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the structure and measurement properties of the Aphasia Communication Outcome Measure (ACOM), a patient-reported outcome measure of communicative functioning for persons with aphasia. Method: Three hundred twenty-nine participants with aphasia responded to 177 items asking about communicative…

  10. An Examination of Strategy Implementation during Abstract Nonlinguistic Category Learning in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallila-Rohter, Sofia; Kiran, Swathi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Our purpose was to study strategy use during nonlinguistic category learning in aphasia. Method: Twelve control participants without aphasia and 53 participants with aphasia (PWA) completed a computerized feedback-based category learning task consisting of training and testing phases. Accuracy rates of categorization in testing phases…

  11. Neural Correlates of Phonological and Semantic-Based Anomia Treatment in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fridriksson, Julius; Moser, Dana; Bonilha, Leonardo; Morrow-Odom, K. Leigh; Shaw, Heather; Fridriksson, Astrid; Baylis, Gordon C.; Rorden, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Most naming treatments in aphasia either assume a phonological or semantic emphasis or a combination thereof. However, it is unclear whether semantic or phonological treatments recruit the same or different cortical areas in chronic aphasia. Employing three persons with aphasia, two of whom were non-fluent, the present study compared changes in…

  12. Computer-Based Script Training for Aphasia: Emerging Themes from Post-Treatment Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherney, Leora R.; Halper, Anita S.; Kaye, Rosalind C.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents results of post-treatment interviews following computer-based script training for persons with chronic aphasia. Each of the 23 participants received 9 weeks of AphasiaScripts training. Post-treatment interviews were conducted with the person with aphasia and/or a significant other person. The 23 interviews yielded 584 coded…

  13. Exploring the Processing Continuum of Single-Word Comprehension in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moineau, Suzanne; Dronkers, Nina F.; Bates, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the vulnerability of lexical processing in individuals with aphasia. Though classical teaching of aphasia syndromes holds that people with Broca's aphasia have intact comprehension at the single-word level, the nature and extent of this purported sparing were explored under suboptimal processing conditions. A combination of…

  14. Quality of life measurement and outcome in aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Spaccavento, Simona; Craca, Angela; Del Prete, Marina; Falcone, Rosanna; Colucci, Antonia; Di Palma, Angela; Loverre, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Background Quality of life (QL) can be defined as the individual’s perception of their own well-being. Aphasia is the most important potential consequence of stroke and has a profound effect on a patient’s life, causing emotional distress, depression, and social isolation, due to loss of language functions. Aims To draw up a QL questionnaire for aphasics (QLQA) focusing particularly on difficulties in interpersonal relationships and on the loss of independence as a result of language disorders. We reported the results of a psychometric evaluation of this measure. Moreover, we experimentally focused on the differences in QLQA between patients affected only by neurological motor impairment and hemiparetic patients with aphasia (PWA) in order to verify the specific role of aphasia on QL. We also explored if the QLQA is sensitive to the severity of aphasia and to the time elapsing from the stroke. Methods A total of 146 consecutive PWA and 37 control subjects were enrolled to evaluate the reliability (internal consistency and test–retest reliability) and validity of the QLQA, using standard psychometric methods. Patients were divided into acute (within 3 months since stroke) and chronic (beyond 3 months) groups, and into mild and severe according to the severity of aphasia. The experimental group of only acute PWA was compared to control subjects, with right hemispherical lesion and without aphasia in QLQA total and partial scores. Results The QLQA had good internal consistency and test–retest reliability. Acute and chronic PWA and mild and severe ones differed in QLQA total, communication, and autonomy subscales. No differences were found in psychological condition. Between aphasic and control patients, significant differences were found in all QLQA subscales. Conclusion The QLQA is a valid measure of QL in PWA, contributing to a better distinction between severe and mild aphasia, and it is sensitive also to the variations in QL depending on the time interval

  15. Audiovisual integration of speech in a patient with Broca's Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Tobias S.; Starrfelt, Randi

    2015-01-01

    Lesions to Broca's area cause aphasia characterized by a severe impairment of the ability to speak, with comparatively intact speech perception. However, some studies have found effects on speech perception under adverse listening conditions, indicating that Broca's area is also involved in speech perception. While these studies have focused on auditory speech perception other studies have shown that Broca's area is activated by visual speech perception. Furthermore, one preliminary report found that a patient with Broca's aphasia did not experience the McGurk illusion suggesting that an intact Broca's area is necessary for audiovisual integration of speech. Here we describe a patient with Broca's aphasia who experienced the McGurk illusion. This indicates that an intact Broca's area is not necessary for audiovisual integration of speech. The McGurk illusions this patient experienced were atypical, which could be due to Broca's area having a more subtle role in audiovisual integration of speech. The McGurk illusions of a control subject with Wernicke's aphasia were, however, also atypical. This indicates that the atypical McGurk illusions were due to deficits in speech processing that are not specific to Broca's aphasia. PMID:25972819

  16. A hierarchical fuzzy rule-based approach to aphasia diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Akbarzadeh-T, Mohammad-R; Moshtagh-Khorasani, Majid

    2007-10-01

    Aphasia diagnosis is a particularly challenging medical diagnostic task due to the linguistic uncertainty and vagueness, inconsistencies in the definition of aphasic syndromes, large number of measurements with imprecision, natural diversity and subjectivity in test objects as well as in opinions of experts who diagnose the disease. To efficiently address this diagnostic process, a hierarchical fuzzy rule-based structure is proposed here that considers the effect of different features of aphasia by statistical analysis in its construction. This approach can be efficient for diagnosis of aphasia and possibly other medical diagnostic applications due to its fuzzy and hierarchical reasoning construction. Initially, the symptoms of the disease which each consists of different features are analyzed statistically. The measured statistical parameters from the training set are then used to define membership functions and the fuzzy rules. The resulting two-layered fuzzy rule-based system is then compared with a back propagating feed-forward neural network for diagnosis of four Aphasia types: Anomic, Broca, Global and Wernicke. In order to reduce the number of required inputs, the technique is applied and compared on both comprehensive and spontaneous speech tests. Statistical t-test analysis confirms that the proposed approach uses fewer Aphasia features while also presenting a significant improvement in terms of accuracy. PMID:17293167

  17. The Changing “Face” of Aphasia Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaime B.; Cherney, Leora R.

    2009-01-01

    A growing literature suggests that with intensive treatment, individuals with chronic aphasia continue to demonstrate language recovery for years post stroke. For example, Bhogal and colleagues conducted a literature review which suggests that intensive speech language therapy delivered over a short period of time (average of 8.8 hours per week for 11.2 weeks) resulted in significant improvements, while lower-intensity therapy provided over a longer period of time (average of 2 hours per week over 22.9 weeks) did not result in positive change (Bhogal, Teasell, Speechley, & Albert, 2003). Similarly, the constraint induced aphasia therapy data emphasize the importance of massed-practice in the improvement of language skills of individuals with chronic aphasia (Pulvermuller et al., 2001; Maher et al., 2006). However, providing intensive treatment to individuals with chronic aphasia can be costly, and the current healthcare environment in the United States is one which does not recognize its value. As a result, clinicians and researchers in the field are left searching for cost effective ways to deliver aphasia treatment. One method of providing less costly but intensive treatment is via the computer. PMID:20617109

  18. Chapter 36: history of aphasia: from brain to language.

    PubMed

    Eling, Paul; Whitaker, Harry

    2010-01-01

    An historical overview is presented that focuses on the changes both in approach and topics with respect to language disturbances due to brain lesions. Early cases of language disorders were described without any theorizing about language or its relation to the brain. Also, three forms of speech disorder were distinguished: traulotes, psellotes and ischophonia, which are only marginally related to aphasia. In the 18th century some authors, in particular Gesner and Crichton, attempted to explain language disorders in terms of mental processes. The great debate on both the anatomical (Broca, Wernicke) and functional (Wernicke, Lichtheim) aspects of aphasia dominated late 19th century discussion of localization of function, leading to the development of what we now call the cognitive neurosciences. In this period, language processing was described in terms of a simple functional model of word recognition and production; linguistic principles played no role. At the beginning of the 20th century the discussion on language disorders waned due to a decrease of interest in the issue of localization; aphasia became primarily a clinical issue of how best to classify patients. In the second half of the 20th century, the field of aphasia developed rapidly due to studies performed at the Boston Aphasia Unit and, more importantly, to a change of orientation to linguistic notions of language structure, as introduced by Chomsky. PMID:19892139

  19. Wernicke's Aphasia Reflects a Combination of Acoustic-Phonological and Semantic Control Deficits: A Case-Series Comparison of Wernicke's Aphasia, Semantic Dementia and Semantic Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Holly; Sage, Karen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Wernicke's aphasia (WA) is the classical neurological model of comprehension impairment and, as a result, the posterior temporal lobe is assumed to be critical to semantic cognition. This conclusion is potentially confused by (a) the existence of patient groups with semantic impairment following damage to other brain regions (semantic dementia and…

  20. The World Report on Disability as a blueprint for international, national, and local aphasia services.

    PubMed

    Worrall, Linda E; Howe, Tami; O'Callaghan, Anna; Hill, Anne J; Rose, Miranda; Wallace, Sarah J; Rose, Tanya; Brown, Kyla; Power, Emma; O'Halloran, Robyn; Rohde, Alexia

    2013-02-01

    This commentary aims to extend the debate of the lead article authors (Wylie, McAllister, Davidson, and Marshall, 2013) by translating the nine recommendations of the World Report on Disability into a plan of action for the aphasia community. Solutions for the advancement of aphasia science and services are presented at international (macro), national (meso), and local (micro) levels. Implications for speech-language pathologists and aphasia service delivery are discussed. An overarching call to action is the need for speech-language pathologists to support a strong and vibrant aphasia community at all levels, so that the voices of people with aphasia can be heard. PMID:23101515

  1. FDG positron emission computed tomography in a study of aphasia

    SciTech Connect

    Metter, E.J.; Wasterlain, C.G.; Kuhl, D.E.; Hanson, W.R.; Phelps, M.E.

    1981-08-01

    Positron emission computed tomography (PECT) using 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) was used to investigate the correlations between clinical status, anatomy (as described by CT), and metabolism in five patients with stable aphasia resulting from ischemic cerebral infarction. Local cerebral metabolic activity was diminished in an area larger than the area of infarction demonstrated by CT. In one patient, FDG PECT revealed a metabolic lesion that probably caused the aphasic syndrome and was not apparent by CT. The data suggest that reliance on CT in delineating the extent of the brain lesion in aphasia or other neuropsychological defects can be misleading; FDG PECT may provide important additional information. Two patients with similar metabolic lesions had very different clinical syndromes, showing that even when currently available methods are combined, major gaps remain in clinicoanatomical correlations in aphasia.

  2. Parallel recovery in a trilingual speaker: the use of the Bilingual Aphasia Test as a diagnostic complement to the Comprehensive Aphasia Test

    PubMed Central

    GREEN, DAVID W.; RUFFLE, LOUISE; GROGAN, ALICE; ALI, NILUFA; RAMSDEN, SUE; SCHOFIELD, TOM; LEFF, ALEX P.; CRINION, JENNY; PRICE, CATHY J.

    2011-01-01

    We illustrate the value of the Bilingual Aphasia Test in the diagnostic assessment of a trilingual speaker post-stroke living in England for whom English was a non-native language. The Comprehensive Aphasia Test is routinely used to assess patients in English but only in combination with the Bilingual Aphasia Test is it possible and practical to provide a fuller picture of the language impairment. We describe our test selection and the assessment it allows us to make. PMID:21453044

  3. Tracking Passive Sentence Comprehension in Agrammatic Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Aaron M.; Mack, Jennifer E.; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2011-01-01

    People with agrammatic aphasia often experience greater difficulty comprehending passive compared to active sentences. The Trace Deletion Hypothesis (TDH; Grodzinsky, 2000) proposes that aphasic individuals cannot generate accurate syntactic representations of passive sentences and, hence, use an agent-first processing strategy which leads to at-chance performance. We tested this claim using the eyetracking-while-listening paradigm in order to reveal online processing routines. Ten agrammatic aphasic participants and 10 age-matched controls listened to passive and active sentences and performed a sentence-picture matching task (i.e., selecting between two pictures with reversed thematic roles), while their eye movements were monitored. Control participants’ performance was at ceiling, whereas accuracy for the aphasic participants was above chance for active sentences and at chance for passive sentences. Further, for the control participants, the eye movement data showed an initial agent-first processing bias, followed by fixation on the correct picture in the vicinity of the verb in both active and passive sentences. However, the aphasic participants showed no evidence of agent-first processing, counter the predictions of the TDH. In addition, in active sentences, they reliably fixated the correct picture only at sentence offset, reflecting slowed processing. During passive sentence processing, fixations were at chance throughout the sentence, but different patterns were noted for correct and incorrect trials. These results are consistent with the proposal that agrammatic sentence comprehension failure involves lexical processing and/or lexical integration deficits. PMID:22043134

  4. Inner speech deficits in people with aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Langland-Hassan, Peter; Faries, Frank R.; Richardson, Michael J.; Dietz, Aimee

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of inner speech in our mental lives, methods for objectively assessing inner speech capacities remain underdeveloped. The most common means of assessing inner speech is to present participants with tasks requiring them to silently judge whether two words rhyme. We developed a version of this task to assess the inner speech of a population of patients with aphasia and corresponding language production deficits. Patients’ performance on the silent rhyming task was severely impaired relative to controls. Patients’ performance on this task did not, however, correlate with their performance on a variety of other standard tests of overt language and rhyming abilities. In particular, patients who were generally unimpaired in their abilities to overtly name objects during confrontation naming tasks, and who could reliably judge when two words spoken to them rhymed, were still severely impaired (relative to controls) at completing the silent rhyme task. A variety of explanations for these results are considered, as a means to critically reflecting on the relations among inner speech, outer speech, and silent rhyme judgments more generally. PMID:25999876

  5. Grammatical category dissociation in multilingual aphasia.

    PubMed

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Waked, Arifi N

    2010-03-01

    Word retrieval deficits for specific grammatical categories, such as verbs versus nouns, occur as a consequence of brain damage. Such deficits are informative about the nature of lexical organization in the human brain. This study examined retrieval of grammatical categories across three languages in a trilingual person with aphasia who spoke Arabic, French, and English. In order to delineate the nature of word production difficulty, comprehension was tested, and a variety of concomitant lexical-semantic variables were analysed. The patient demonstrated a consistent noun-verb dissociation in picture naming and narrative speech, with severely impaired production of verbs across all three languages. The cross-linguistically similar noun-verb dissociation, coupled with little evidence of semantic impairment, suggests that (a) the patient has a true "nonsemantic" grammatical category specific deficit, and (b) lexical organization in multilingual speakers shares grammatical class information between languages. The findings of this study contribute to our understanding of the architecture of lexical organization in bilinguals. PMID:20830631

  6. Psycholinguistics of Aphasia Pharmacotherapy: Asking the Right Questions

    PubMed Central

    Cahana-Amitay, Dalia; Albert, Martin L.; Oveis, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    Background Among the obstacles to demonstrating efficacy of pharmacological intervention for aphasia is quantifying patients’ responses to treatment in a statistically valid and reliable manner. In many of the review papers on this topic (e.g., Berthier et al., 2011; de Boissezon, Peran, de Boysson, & Démonet, 2007; Small & Llano, 2009), detailed discussions of various methodological problems are highlighted, with some suggestions on how these shortcomings should be addressed. Given this deep understanding of caveats associated with the experimental design of aphasia pharmacotherapy studies (e.g., Berthier et al., 2011), investigations continue to produce inconsistent results. Aim In this review paper we suggest that inclusion of theory-driven linguistic measures in aphasia pharmacotherapy studies would add an important step toward elucidating precise patterns of improvement in language performance resulting from pharmacotherapeutic intervention. Main Contribution We provide a brief review of the clinical approaches currently used in pharmacotherapy studies of aphasia, which often lack psycholinguistic grounding. We then present ways in which psycholinguistic models can complement this approach, offering a rationale for task selection, and as a result, lead to a better understanding of treatment effects. We then follow with an example of how such an integrative approach can be implemented in studies targeting stress reduction in people with aphasia, via beta-blocking agents, as a means to augment language performance, using the psycholinguistic framework of “linguistic anxiety” outlined in Cahana-Amitay et al, 2011 as our guideline. Conclusion We conclude that the incorporation of psycholinguistic models into aphasia pharmacotherapy studies can increase the resolution with which we can identify functional changes. PMID:24489425

  7. Phonological Processing in Primary Progressive Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Henry, Maya L; Wilson, Stephen M; Babiak, Miranda C; Mandelli, Maria Luisa; Beeson, Pelagie M; Miller, Zachary A; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2016-02-01

    Individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) show selective breakdown in regions within the proposed dorsal (articulatory-phonological) and ventral (lexical-semantic) pathways involved in language processing. Phonological STM impairment, which has been attributed to selective damage to dorsal pathway structures, is considered to be a distinctive feature of the logopenic variant of PPA. By contrast, phonological abilities are considered to be relatively spared in the semantic variant and are largely unexplored in the nonfluent/agrammatic variant. Comprehensive assessment of phonological ability in the three variants of PPA has not been undertaken. We investigated phonological processing skills in a group of participants with PPA as well as healthy controls, with the goal of identifying whether patterns of performance support the dorsal versus ventral functional-anatomical framework and to discern whether phonological ability differs among PPA subtypes. We also explored the neural bases of phonological performance using voxel-based morphometry. Phonological performance was impaired in patients with damage to dorsal pathway structures (nonfluent/agrammatic and logopenic variants), with logopenic participants demonstrating particular difficulty on tasks involving nonwords. Binary logistic regression revealed that select phonological tasks predicted diagnostic group membership in the less fluent variants of PPA with a high degree of accuracy, particularly in conjunction with a motor speech measure. Brain-behavior correlations indicated a significant association between the integrity of gray matter in frontal and temporoparietal regions of the left hemisphere and phonological skill. Findings confirm the critical role of dorsal stream structures in phonological processing and demonstrate unique patterns of impaired phonological processing in logopenic and nonfluent/agrammatic variants of PPA. PMID:26544920

  8. Phonological processing in primary progressive aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Henry, M.L.; Wilson, S.M.; Babiak, M.C.; Mandelli, M.L; Beeson, P.M.; Miller, Z.A.; Gorno-Tempini, M.L.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) show selective breakdown in regions within the proposed dorsal (articulatory-phonological) and ventral (lexical-semantic) pathways involved in language processing. Phonological short-term memory impairment, which has been attributed to selective damage to dorsal pathway structures, is considered to be a distinctive feature of the logopenic variant of PPA. By contrast, phonological abilities are considered to be relatively spared in the semantic variant and are largely unexplored in the nonfluent/agrammatic variant. Comprehensive assessment of phonological ability in the three variants of PPA has not been undertaken. We investigated phonological processing skills in a group of participants with PPA as well as healthy controls, with the goal of identifying whether patterns of performance support the dorsal versus ventral functional-anatomical framework and to discern whether phonological ability differs amongst PPA subtypes. We also explored the neural bases of phonological performance using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Phonological performance was impaired in patients with damage to dorsal pathway structures (nonfluent/agrammatic and logopenic variants), with logopenic participants demonstrating particular difficulty on tasks involving nonwords. Binary logistic regression revealed that select phonological tasks predicted diagnostic group membership in the less fluent variants of PPA with a high degree of accuracy, particularly in conjunction with a motor speech measure. Brain-behavior correlations indicated a significant association between the integrity of gray matter in frontal and temporoparietal regions of the left hemisphere and phonological skill. Findings confirm the critical role of dorsal stream structures in phonological processing and demonstrate unique patterns of impaired phonological processing in logopenic and nonfluent/agrammatic variants of PPA. PMID:26544920

  9. Health science students’ perceptions of motor and sensory aphasia caused by stroke

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Haewon; Koh, Hyeung Woo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study explored health science students’ perceptions of motor aphasia and sensory aphasia caused by stroke to provide basic material for the improvement of rehabilitation practitioners’ perceptions of aphasia. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 642 freshmen and sophomores majoring in health science. Perceptions of aphasia were surveyed on a semantic differential scale using the Anchoring Vignette Method and the difference in perception of the two types of aphasia was analyzed using multi-dimensional scaling. [Results] The analysis revealed that motor aphasia and sensory aphasia have mutually corresponding images. Motor aphasia had high levels of ‘quiet’, ‘passive’ ‘dumb’, ‘unstable’ and ‘gloomy’ images, while sensory aphasia had high levels of ‘noisy’, ‘unstable’, ‘cheerful’, ‘sensitive’, ‘fluctuating in emotions’, ‘active’, ‘dumb’ and ‘gloomy’ images. [Conclusion] A systematic education is required to be implemented in the future to improve health science students’ negative perceptions of the aftereffects of stroke such as aphasia. PMID:27390413

  10. Patterns of Dysgraphia in Primary Progressive Aphasia Compared to Post-Stroke Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Andreia V.; Crinion, Jenny; Tsapkini, Kyrana; Newhart, Melissa; Davis, Cameron; Cooley, Shannon; Mori, Susumu; Hillis, Argye E.

    2013-01-01

    We report patterns of dysgraphia in participants with primary progressive aphasia that can be explained by assuming disruption of one or more cognitive processes or representations in the complex process of spelling. These patterns are compared to those described in participants with focal lesions (stroke). Using structural imaging techniques, we found that damage to the left extrasylvian regions, including the uncinate, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and sagittal stratum (including geniculostriate pathway and inferior longitudinal fasciculus), as well as other deep white and grey matter structures, was significantly associated with impairments in access to orthographic word forms and semantics (with reliance on phonology-to-orthography to produce a plausible spelling in the spelling to dictation task). These results contribute not only to our understanding of the patterns of dysgraphia following acquired brain damage but also the neural substrates underlying spelling. PMID:22713396

  11. Cognition and Aphasia: A Discussion and a Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helm-Estabrooks, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 13 right-handed, left hemisphere stroke patients with aphasia investigated the relationship between linguistic and nonlinguistic skills. No significant relationship was found between linguistic and nonlinguistic skills, and between nonlinguistic skills and age, education, or time post onset. Instead, individual profiles of…

  12. Measuring and Inducing Brain Plasticity in Chronic Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fridriksson, Julius

    2011-01-01

    Brain plasticity associated with anomia recovery in aphasia is poorly understood. Here, I review four recent studies from my lab that focused on brain modulation associated with long-term anomia outcome, its behavioral treatment, and the use of transcranial brain stimulation to enhance anomia treatment success in individuals with chronic aphasia…

  13. Speech Errors in Progressive Non-Fluent Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Sharon; McMillan, Corey; Gunawardena, Delani; Avants, Brian; Morgan, Brianna; Khan, Alea; Moore, Peachie; Gee, James; Grossman, Murray

    2010-01-01

    The nature and frequency of speech production errors in neurodegenerative disease have not previously been precisely quantified. In the present study, 16 patients with a progressive form of non-fluent aphasia (PNFA) were asked to tell a story from a wordless children's picture book. Errors in production were classified as either phonemic,…

  14. Production of Modal and Negative Particles in Greek Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koukoulioti, Vasiliki

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the production of the Greek modal and negative particles by non-fluent aphasic patients. These particles belong to the highest part of the verb periphrasis, so they are likely to be impaired in non-fluent aphasia, according to some hypotheses about agrammatic language. Moreover, there is an agreement relation…

  15. Gesturing by Speakers with Aphasia: How Does It Compare?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mol, Lisette; Krahmer, Emiel; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To study the independence of gesture and verbal language production. The authors assessed whether gesture can be semantically compensatory in cases of verbal language impairment and whether speakers with aphasia and control participants use similar depiction techniques in gesture. Method: The informativeness of gesture was assessed in 3…

  16. Script Training and Generalization for People with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Samantha; Haley, Katarina L.; Jacks, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effects and generalization of a modified script training intervention, delivered partly via videoconferencing, on dialogue scripts that were produced by 2 individuals with aphasia. Method: Each participant was trained on 2 personally relevant scripts. Intervention sessions occurred 3 times per week, with a combination of…

  17. A Computational Evaluation of Sentence Processing Deficits in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patil, Umesh; Hanne, Sandra; Burchert, Frank; De Bleser, Ria; Vasishth, Shravan

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia experience difficulty when processing reversible non-canonical sentences. Different accounts have been proposed to explain this phenomenon. The Trace Deletion account (Grodzinsky, 1995, 2000, 2006) attributes this deficit to an impairment in syntactic representations, whereas others (e.g., Caplan,…

  18. Improving Language without Words: First Evidence from Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marangolo, Paola; Bonifazi, Silvia; Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Craighero, Laila; Coccia, Michela; Altoe, Gianmarco; Provinciali, Leandro; Cantagallo, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The pervasiveness of word-finding difficulties in aphasia has motivated several theories regarding management of the deficit and its effectiveness. Recently, the hypothesis was advanced that instead of simply accompanying speech gestures participate in language production by increasing the semantic activation of words grounded in sensory-motor…

  19. Progranulin-Associated Primary Progressive Aphasia: A Distinct Phenotype?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Warrington, Elizabeth K.; Warren, Jason D.

    2010-01-01

    The neuropsychological features of the primary progressive aphasia (PPA) syndromes continue to be defined. Here we describe a detailed neuropsychological case study of a patient with a mutation in the progranulin ("GRN") gene who presented with progressive word-finding difficulty. Key neuropsychological features in this case included gravely…

  20. Script Templates: A Practical Approach to Script Training in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Rosalind C.; Cherney, Leora R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Script training for aphasia involves repeated practice of relevant phrases and sentences that, when mastered, can potentially be used in other communicative situations. Although an increasingly popular approach, script development can be time-consuming. We provide a detailed summary of the evidence supporting this approach. We then…

  1. Donnees linguistiques, communication et aphasie (Linguistic Assumptions, Communication and Aphasia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legrand-Gelber, Regine

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses communication as a subject of psycholinguistic study, with reference to amnesiacal aphasia. The aphasic's problem is presented as a rupture of the communicative act, on the linguistic as well as on the extra-linguistic level. (Text is in French.) (AM)

  2. Phoneme-Based Rehabilitation of Anomia in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Diane L.; Rosenbek, John C.; Heilman, Kenneth M.; Conway, Tim; Klenberg, Karen; Gonzalez Rothi, Leslie J.; Nadeau, Stephen E.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of phonologic treatment for anomia in aphasia. We proposed that if treatment were directed at the level of the phonologic processor, opportunities for naming via a phonological route, as opposed to a strictly whole word route, would be enhanced, thereby improving naming. The participants, ten people with anomia…

  3. Pre-Lexical Disorders in Repetition Conduction Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidiropoulos, Kyriakos; de Bleser, Ria; Ackermann, Hermann; Preilowski, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    At the level of clinical speech/language evaluation, the repetition type of conduction aphasia is characterized by repetition difficulties concomitant with reduced short-term memory capacities, in the presence of fluent spontaneous speech as well as unimpaired naming and reading abilities. It is still unsettled which dysfunctions of the…

  4. A Study of Syntactic Processing in Aphasia II: Neurological Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, David; Waters, Gloria; Kennedy, David; Alpert, Nathanial; Makris, Nikos; DeDe, Gayle; Michaud, Jennifer; Reddy, Amanda

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of the effects of left hemisphere strokes on syntactically-based comprehension in aphasic patients. We studied 42 patients with aphasia secondary to left hemisphere strokes and 25 control subjects for the ability to assign and interpret three syntactic structures (passives, object extracted relative…

  5. Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Three Individuals with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orenstein, Ellen; Basilakos, Alexandra; Marshall, Rebecca Shisler

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is evidence to suggest that people with aphasia (PWA) may have deficits in attention stemming from the inefficient allocation of resources. The inaccurate perception of task demand, or sense of effort, may underlie the misallocation of the available attention resources. Given the lack of treatment options for improving attention…

  6. A Comparison between Written and Spoken Narratives in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrns, Ingrid; Wengelin, Asa; Broberg, Malin; Hartelius, Lena

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore how a personal narrative told by a group of eight persons with aphasia differed between written and spoken language, and to compare this with findings from 10 participants in a reference group. The stories were analysed through holistic assessments made by 60 participants without experience of aphasia…

  7. Verbal Neuropsychological Functions in Aphasia: An Integrative Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigliecca, Nora Silvana; Báez, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical framework which considers the verbal functions of the brain under a multivariate and comprehensive cognitive model was statistically analyzed. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed to verify whether some recognized aphasia constructs can be hierarchically integrated as latent factors from a homogenously verbal test. The Brief…

  8. Prosodic Disturbance in Aphasia: Speech Timing versus Intonation Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seddoh, S. Amebu

    2004-01-01

    Temporal control has often been suspected to be a critical factor in intonation production. In particular, disturbance in the production of fundamental frequency (F0) associated with intonation in patients with aphasia has been attributed to a primary underlying deficit in speech timing. The present study examined the speech timing abilities of…

  9. Framing Ideas in Aphasia: The Need for Thinking Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jane

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that some of the patterns seen in aphasia may reflect difficulties in the cognitive preparations for language. In particular, some individuals might be unable to carry out processes of "Thinking for Speaking" (Slobin 1996), which frame thoughts for language production. Evidence to support this proposal is presented, together with…

  10. The Neural Basis of Syntactic Deficits in Primary Progressive Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Stephen M.; Galantucci, Sebastiano; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2012-01-01

    Patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) vary considerably in terms of which brain regions are impacted, as well as in the extent to which syntactic processing is impaired. Here we review the literature on the neural basis of syntactic deficits in PPA. Structural and functional imaging studies have most consistently associated syntactic…

  11. Working Memory in Aphasia: Theory, Measures, and Clinical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Heather Harris; Shisler, Rebecca J.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, researchers have suggested that deficits in working memory capacity contribute to language-processing difficulties observed in individuals with aphasia (e.g., I. Caspari, S. Parkinson, L. LaPointe, & R. Katz, 1998; R. A. Downey et al., 2004; N. Friedmann & A. Gvion, 2003; H. H. Wright, M. Newhoff, R. Downey, & S. Austermann, 2003). A…

  12. Effects of Utterance Length on Lip Kinematics in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bose, Arpita; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    Most existing models of language production and speech motor control do not explicitly address how language requirements affect speech motor functions, as these domains are usually treated as separate and independent from one another. This investigation compared lip movements during bilabial closure between five individuals with mild aphasia and…

  13. Training Volunteers as Conversation Partners for People with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner, Helen; Marshall, Jane

    2003-01-01

    Background: One of the most disabling consequences of aphasia is the way it excludes the person from conversation. A number of studies have attempted to tackle this problem by training the conversational partners of aphasic people. This study offers an evaluation of this approach. Aims: Six volunteers were trained in conversing with people with…

  14. Non-verbal communication in severe aphasia: influence of aphasia, apraxia, or semantic processing?

    PubMed

    Hogrefe, Katharina; Ziegler, Wolfram; Weidinger, Nicole; Goldenberg, Georg

    2012-09-01

    Patients suffering from severe aphasia have to rely on non-verbal means of communication to convey a message. However, to date it is not clear which patients are able to do so. Clinical experience indicates that some patients use non-verbal communication strategies like gesturing very efficiently whereas others fail to transmit semantic content by non-verbal means. Concerns have been expressed that limb apraxia would affect the production of communicative gestures. Research investigating if and how apraxia influences the production of communicative gestures, led to contradictory outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of limb apraxia on spontaneous gesturing. Further, linguistic and non-verbal semantic processing abilities were explored as potential factors that might influence non-verbal expression in aphasic patients. Twenty-four aphasic patients with highly limited verbal output were asked to retell short video-clips. The narrations were videotaped. Gestural communication was analyzed in two ways. In the first part of the study, we used a form-based approach. Physiological and kinetic aspects of hand movements were transcribed with a notation system for sign languages. We determined the formal diversity of the hand gestures as an indicator of potential richness of the transmitted information. In the second part of the study, comprehensibility of the patients' gestural communication was evaluated by naive raters. The raters were familiarized with the model video-clips and shown the recordings of the patients' retelling without sound. They were asked to indicate, for each narration, which story was being told and which aspects of the stories they recognized. The results indicate that non-verbal faculties are the most important prerequisites for the production of hand gestures. Whereas results on standardized aphasia testing did not correlate with any gestural indices, non-verbal semantic processing abilities predicted the formal diversity

  15. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Intervention in Long-Term Aphasia Post-Stroke: The Experience from CHANT (Communication Hub for Aphasia in North Tyneside)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumby, Katharyn; Whitworth, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Background: Despite recognition of the need for increased long-term support for people with aphasia following stroke, there remains limited evidence for effective service-level interventions. Aims: To evaluate the outcomes and experiences of people participating in the Communication Hub for Aphasia in North Tyneside (CHANT), a 2-year partnership…

  16. Bilateral brain reorganization with memantine and constraint-induced aphasia therapy in chronic post-stroke aphasia: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Barbancho, Miguel A; Berthier, Marcelo L; Navas-Sánchez, Patricia; Dávila, Guadalupe; Green-Heredia, Cristina; García-Alberca, José M; Ruiz-Cruces, Rafael; López-González, Manuel V; Dawid-Milner, Marc S; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Lara, J Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Changes in ERP (P100 and N400) and root mean square (RMS) were obtained during a silent reading task in 28 patients with chronic post-stroke aphasia in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of both memantine and constraint-induced aphasia therapy (CIAT). Participants received memantine/placebo alone (weeks 0-16), followed by drug treatment combined with CIAT (weeks 16-18), and then memantine/placebo alone (weeks 18-20). ERP/RMS values (week 16) decreased more in the memantine group than in the placebo group. During CIAT application (weeks 16-18), improvements in aphasia severity and ERP/RMS values were amplified by memantine and changes remained stable thereafter (weeks 18-20). Changes in ERP/RMS occurred in left and right hemispheres and correlated with gains in language performance. No changes in ERP/RMS were found in a healthy group in two separated evaluations. Our results show that aphasia recovery induced by both memantine alone and in combination with CIAT is indexed by bilateral cortical potentials. PMID:25932618

  17. Constraint-Induced Aphasia Therapy for Treatment of Chronic Post-Stroke Aphasia: A Randomized, Blinded, Controlled Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Szaflarski, Jerzy P.; Ball, Angel L.; Vannest, Jennifer; Dietz, Aimee R.; Allendorfer, Jane B.; Martin, Amber N.; Hart, Kimberly; Lindsell, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have documented the possibility of treatment-induced improvements in language functions 12 months or longer after stroke. The purpose of the current study was to provide a preliminary estimate of efficacy of constraint-induced aphasia therapy (CIAT) when compared to no-intervention in patients with chronic (>1 year) post-stroke aphasia in order to provide the data needed to design an appropriately powered trial. Material/Methods This was a randomized, controlled, single-blinded, pilot trial. We identified 32 patients with chronic post-stroke aphasia. Of these, 27 were offered participation, and 24 were randomized (CONSORT diagram): 14 to CIAT and to 10 to no-intervention. CIAT groups received up to 4 hours/day of intervention for 10 consecutive business days (40 hours of therapy). Outcomes were assessed within 1 week of intervention and at 1 and 12 weeks after intervention and included several linguistic measures and a measure of overall subjective communication abilities (mini-Communicative Abilities Log (mini-CAL)). To maintain blinding, clinicians treating patients (CIAT group) did not communicate with other team members and the testing team members were blinded to treatment group assignment. Results Overall, the results of this pilot trial support the results of previous observational studies that CIAT may lead to improvements in linguistic abilities. At 12 weeks, the treatment group reported better subjective communication abilities (mini-CAL) than the no-intervention group (p=0.019). Other measures trended towards better performance in the CIAT group. Conclusions In this randomized, controlled, and blinded pilot study, intensive language therapy (CIAT) led to an improvement in subjective language abilities. The effects demonstrated allow the design of a definitive trial of CIAT in patients with a variety of post-stroke aphasia types. In addition, our experiences have identified important considerations for designing subsequent trial

  18. Chronic Broca's Aphasia Is Caused by Damage to Broca's and Wernicke's Areas.

    PubMed

    Fridriksson, Julius; Fillmore, Paul; Guo, Dazhou; Rorden, Chris

    2015-12-01

    Despite being perhaps the most studied form of aphasia, the critical lesion location for Broca's aphasia has long been debated, and in chronic patients, cortical damage often extends far beyond Broca's area. In a group of 70 patients, we examined brain damage associated with Broca's aphasia using voxel-wise lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM). We found that damage to the posterior portion of Broca's area, the pars opercularis, is associated with Broca's aphasia. However, several individuals with other aphasic patterns had considerable damage to pars opercularis, suggesting that involvement of this region is not sufficient to cause Broca's aphasia. When examining only individuals with pars opercularis damage, we found that patients with Broca's aphasia had greater damage in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG; roughly Wernicke's area) than those with other aphasia types. Using discriminant function analysis and logistic regression, based on proportional damage to the pars opercularis and Wernicke's area, to predict whether individuals had Broca's or another types of aphasia, over 95% were classified correctly. Our findings suggest that persons with Broca's aphasia have damage to both Broca's and Wernicke's areas, a conclusion that is incongruent with classical neuropsychology, which has rarely considered the effects of damage to both areas. PMID:25016386

  19. Frontotemporal dementia and primary progressive aphasia, a review

    PubMed Central

    Kirshner, Howard S

    2014-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementias are neurodegenerative diseases in which symptoms of frontal and/or temporal lobe disease are the first signs of the illness, and as the diseases progress, they resemble a focal left hemisphere process such as stroke or traumatic brain injury, even more than a neurodegenerative disease. Over time, some patients develop a more generalized dementia. Four clinical subtypes characterize the predominant presentations of this illness: behavioral or frontal variant FTD, progressive nonfluent aphasia, semantic dementia, and logopenic primary progressive aphasia. These clinical variants correlate with regional patterns of atrophy on brain imaging studies such as MRI and PET scanning, as well as with biochemical and molecular genetic variants of the disorder. The treatment is as yet only symptomatic, but advances in molecular genetics promise new therapies. PMID:24966676

  20. Verbal Neuropsychological Functions in Aphasia: An Integrative Model.

    PubMed

    Vigliecca, Nora Silvana; Báez, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    A theoretical framework which considers the verbal functions of the brain under a multivariate and comprehensive cognitive model was statistically analyzed. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed to verify whether some recognized aphasia constructs can be hierarchically integrated as latent factors from a homogenously verbal test. The Brief Aphasia Evaluation was used. A sample of 65 patients with left cerebral lesions, and two supplementary samples comprising 35 patients with right cerebral lesions and 30 healthy participants were studied. A model encompassing an all inclusive verbal organizer and two successive organizers was validated. The two last organizers were: three factors of comprehension, expression and a "complementary" verbal factor which included praxia, attention, and memory; followed by the individual (and correlated) factors of auditory comprehension, repetition, naming, speech, reading, writing, and the "complementary" factor. By following this approach all the patients fall inside the classification system; consequently, theoretical improvement is guaranteed. PMID:25168953

  1. Web based aphasia test using service oriented architecture (SOA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voos, J. A.; Vigliecca, N. S.; Gonzalez, E. A.

    2007-11-01

    Based on an aphasia test for Spanish speakers which analyze the patient's basic resources of verbal communication, a web-enabled software was developed to automate its execution. A clinical database was designed as a complement, in order to evaluate the antecedents (risk factors, pharmacological and medical backgrounds, neurological or psychiatric symptoms, brain injury -anatomical and physiological characteristics, etc) which are necessary to carry out a multi-factor statistical analysis in different samples of patients. The automated test was developed following service oriented architecture and implemented in a web site which contains a tests suite, which would allow both integrating the aphasia test with other neuropsychological instruments and increasing the available site information for scientific research. The test design, the database and the study of its psychometric properties (validity, reliability and objectivity) were made in conjunction with neuropsychological researchers, who participate actively in the software design, based on the patients or other subjects of investigation feedback.

  2. Conversation Therapy for Agrammatism: Exploring the Therapeutic Process of Engagement and Learning by a Person with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckley, Firle; Best, Wendy; Johnson, Fiona; Edwards, Susan; Maxim, Jane; Beeke, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims: A recent systematic review of conversation training for communication partners of people with aphasia has shown that it is effective, and improves participation in conversation for people with chronic aphasia. Other research suggests that people with aphasia are better able to learn communication strategies in an environment…

  3. Neuronavigation-guided Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woo-Jin; Hahn, Soo Jung; Kim, Won-Seok; Paik, Nam-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is widely used for several neurological conditions, as it has gained acknowledgement for its potential therapeutic effects. Brain excitability is non-invasively modulated by rTMS, and rTMS to the language areas has proved its potential effects on treatment of aphasia. In our protocol, we aim to artificially induce virtual aphasia in healthy subjects by inhibiting Brodmann area 44 and 45 using neuronavigational TMS (nTMS), and F3 of the International 10-20 EEG system for conventional TMS (cTMS). To measure the degree of aphasia, changes in reaction time to a picture naming task pre- and post-stimulation are measured and compare the delay in reaction time between nTMS and cTMS. Accuracy of the two TMS stimulation methods is compared by averaging the Talairach coordinates of the target and the actual stimulation. Consistency of stimulation is demonstrated by the error range from the target. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate use of nTMS and to describe the benefits and limitations of the nTMS compared to those of cTMS. PMID:27214154

  4. Verbal Comprehension Ability in Aphasia: Demographic and Lexical Knowledge Effects

    PubMed Central

    Simos, Panagiotis G.; Kasselimis, Dimitrios; Potagas, Constantin; Evdokimidis, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    Background. Assessment of sentence-level auditory comprehension can be performed with a variety of tests varying in response requirements. A brief and easy to administer measure, not requiring an overt verbal or a complex motor response, is essential in any test battery for aphasia. Objective. The present study examines the clinical utility of receptive language indices for individuals with aphasia based on the Comprehension of Instructions in Greek (CIG), a variant of the Token Test, and the Greek version of PPVT-R. Methods. Normative data from a large community sample of Greek adults aged 46–80 years was available on both measures. A word-level-independent measure of auditory comprehension was computed as the standard score difference between the two tests and used to compare patients with and without comprehension deficits as indicated by their Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination profile. Results and Conclusions. Indices of internal consistency and test-retest reliability were very good. Education and age effects on performance were significant, with the former being stronger. The potential clinical utility of differential ability indices (contrasting sentence- and word-level auditory comprehension tests) is discussed. PMID:24825951

  5. Lexical and Prosodic Effects on Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution in Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    DeDe, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether and when individuals with aphasia and healthy controls use lexical and prosodic information during on-line sentence comprehension. Individuals with aphasia and controls (n = 12 per group) participated in a self-paced listening experiment. The stimuli were early closure sentences, such as “While the parents watched(,) the child sang a song.” Both lexical and prosodic cues were manipulated. The cues were biased toward the subject- or object- of the ambiguous noun phrase (the child). Thus, there were two congruous conditions (in which both lexical cues and prosodic cues were consistent) and two incongruous conditions (in which lexical and prosodic cues conflicted). The results showed that the people with aphasia had longer listening times for the ambiguous noun phrase (the child) when the cues were conflicting, rather than consistent. The controls showed effects earlier in the sentence, at the subordinate verb (watched or danced). Both groups showed evidence of reanalysis at the main verb (sang). These effects demonstrate that the aphasic group was sensitive to the lexical and prosodic cues, but used them on a delayed time course relative to the control group. PMID:22143353

  6. Primary progressive aphasia: A dementia of the language network.

    PubMed

    Mesulam, Marsel

    2013-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a clinical syndrome diagnosed when three core criteria are met. First, there should be a language impairment (i.e., aphasia) that interferes with the usage or comprehension of words. Second, the neurological work-up should determine that the disease is neurodegenerative, and therefore progressive. Third, the aphasia should arise in relative isolation, without equivalent deficits of comportment or episodic memory. The language impairment can be fluent or non-fluent and may or may not interfere with word comprehension. Memory for recent events is preserved although memory scores obtained in verbally mediated tests may be abnormal. Minor changes in personality and behavior may be present but are not the leading factors that bring the patient to medical attention or that limit daily living activities. This distinctive clinical pattern is most conspicuous in the initial stages of the disease, and reflects a relatively selective atrophy of the language network, usually located in the left hemisphere. There are different clinical variants of PPA, each with a characteristic pattern of atrophy. The underlying neuropathological diseases are heterogeneous and can include Alzheimer's disease as well as frontotemporal lobar degeneration. The clinician's task is to recognize PPA and differentiate it from other neurodegenerative phenotypes, use biomarkers to surmise the nature of the underlying neuropathology, and institute the most fitting multimodal interventions. PMID:24707349

  7. Building on residual speech: a portable processing prosthesis for aphasia.

    PubMed

    Linebarger, Marcia C; Romania, John F; Fink, Ruth B; Bartlett, Megan R; Schwartz, Myrna F

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the challenges of developing electronic communication aids for individuals with mild-to-moderate aphasia and introduces a new portable aid designed for this population. People with some residual speech are often reluctant to use communication aids that replace their natural speech with synthesized speech or the recorded utterances of another individual. SentenceShaper (computer software; Psycholinguistic Technologies, Inc; Jenkintown, Pennsylvania; www.sentenceshaper.com), a computerized "processing prosthesis," allows the user to record spoken sentence fragments and hold them in memory long enough to combine them into larger structures. Previous studies have shown that spoken narratives created with SentenceShaper--composed of concatenated, recorded segments in the user's own voice--may show marked superiority to the individual's spontaneous speech and that sustained use may engender treatment effects. However, these findings do not guarantee the program's efficacy to support functional communication or its acceptance by people with aphasia. Here, we examine strengths and weaknesses of SentenceShaper as the basis for a communication aid for individuals with mild-to-moderate aphasia and review factors guiding the design of SentenceShaper To Go, a portable extension to the program. Data from a "proof-of-concept" pilot study with the portable system suggest the viability of providing computer-based support for users' residual speech in composing and delivering spoken messages. PMID:19319763

  8. Speech-Like and Non-Speech Lip Kinematics and Coordination in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bose, Arpita; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Background: In addition to the well-known linguistic processing impairments in aphasia, oro-motor skills and articulatory implementation of speech segments are reported to be compromised to some degree in most types of aphasia. Aims: This study aimed to identify differences in the characteristics and coordination of lip movements in the production…

  9. Using Semantic Feature Analysis to Improve Contextual Discourse in Adults with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rider, Jill Davis; Wright, Heather Harris; Marshall, Robert C.; Page, Judith L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Semantic feature analysis (SFA) was used to determine whether training contextually related words would improve the discourse of individuals with nonfluent aphasia in preselected contexts. Method: A modified multiple-probes-across-behaviors design was used to train target words using SFA in 3 adults with nonfluent aphasia. Pretreatment,…

  10. Communication Difficulties and the Use of Communication Strategies: From the Perspective of Individuals with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Monica Blom; Carlsson, Marianne; Sonnander, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Background: To enhance communicative ability and thereby the possibility of increased participation of persons with aphasia, the use of communication strategies has been proposed. However, little is known about how persons with aphasia experience having conversations and how they perceive their own and their conversation partner's use of…

  11. Attention and Other Cognitive Deficits in Aphasia: Presence and Relation to Language and Communication Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to further elucidate the relationship between cognition and aphasia, with a focus on attention. It was hypothesized that individuals with aphasia would display variable deficit patterns on tests of attention and other cognitive functions and that their attention deficits, particularly those of complex attention…

  12. Using Text-to-Speech Reading Support for an Adult with Mild Aphasia and Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Judy; Hux, Karen; Snell, Jeffry

    2013-01-01

    This single case study served to examine text-to-speech (TTS) effects on reading rate and comprehension in an individual with mild aphasia and cognitive impairment. Findings showed faster reading, given TTS presented at a normal speaking rate, but no significant comprehension changes. TTS may support reading in people with aphasia when time…

  13. Rehabilitation in Bilingual Aphasia: Evidence for within- and between-Language Generalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiran, Swathi; Sandberg, Chaleece; Gray, Teresa; Ascenso, Elsa; Kester, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to examine if there was a principled way to understand the nature of rehabilitation in bilingual aphasia such that patterns of acquisition and generalization are predictable and logical. Method: Seventeen Spanish-English bilingual individuals with aphasia participated in the experiment. For each participant,…

  14. Use of the BAT with a Cantonese-Putonghua Speaker with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Weekes, Brendan Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to illustrate the use of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) with a Cantonese-Putonghua speaker. We describe G, who is a relatively young Chinese bilingual speaker with aphasia. G's communication abilities in his L2, Putonghua, were impaired following brain damage. This impairment caused specific difficulties in…

  15. Revealing and Quantifying the Impaired Phonological Analysis Underpinning Impaired Comprehension in Wernicke's Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Holly; Keidel, James L.; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Sage, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Wernicke's aphasia is a condition which results in severely disrupted language comprehension following a lesion to the left temporo-parietal region. A phonological analysis deficit has traditionally been held to be at the root of the comprehension impairment in Wernicke's aphasia, a view consistent with current functional neuroimaging which finds…

  16. Singing Therapy Can Be Effective for a Patient with Severe Nonfluent Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Akanuma, Kyoko; Hatayama, Yuka; Otera, Masako; Meguro, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    Patients with severe aphasia are rarely treated using speech therapy. We used music therapy to continue to treat a 79-year-old patient with chronic severe aphasia. Interventions 1, 2, and 3 were to practice singing a song that the patient knew, to practice singing a song with a therapist, and to practice saying a greeting using a song with lyrics,…

  17. Exposed and Embedded Corrections in Aphasia Therapy: Issues of Voice and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Damico, Jack S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Because communication after the onset of aphasia can be fraught with errors, therapist corrections are pervasive in therapy for aphasia. Although corrections are designed to improve the accuracy of communication, some corrections can have social and emotional consequences during interactions. That is, exposure of errors can potentially…

  18. Error Variability and the Differentiation between Apraxia of Speech and Aphasia with Phonemic Paraphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Katarina L.; Jacks, Adam; Cunningham, Kevin T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical utility of error variability for differentiating between apraxia of speech (AOS) and aphasia with phonemic paraphasia. Method: Participants were 32 individuals with aphasia after left cerebral injury. Diagnostic groups were formed on the basis of operationalized measures of recognized…

  19. The Auditory Comprehension of "Wh"-Questions in Aphasia: Support for the Intervener Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Shannon M.; Walenski, Matthew; Love, Tracy; Shapiro, Lewis P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines 3 hypotheses about the processing of "wh"-questions in both neurologically healthy adults and adults with Broca's aphasia. Method: We used an eye tracking while listening method with 32 unimpaired participants (Experiment 1) and 8 participants with Broca's aphasia (Experiment 2). Accuracy, response time, and…

  20. Asking New Questions and Seeking New Answers: The Reality of Aphasia Practice in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Emerging policy in South Africa has had a marked impact on delivery of service by speech-language pathologists, particularly in the field of aphasia. This article describes major policy influences in the areas of language use, health, education, disability, and the elderly, which have had an impact on service delivery. Aphasia assessment and…

  1. Supervised Home Training of Dialogue Skills in Chronic Aphasia: A Randomized Parallel Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nobis-Bosch, Ruth; Springer, Luise; Radermacher, Irmgard; Huber, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to prove the efficacy of supervised self-training for individuals with aphasia. Linguistic and communicative performance in structured dialogues represented the main study parameters. Method: In a cross-over design for randomized matched pairs, 18 individuals with chronic aphasia were examined during 12 weeks of…

  2. Nonlinguistic Learning in Individuals with Aphasia: Effects of Training Method and Stimulus Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallila-Rohter, Sofia; Kiran, Swathi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the current study was to explore nonlinguistic learning ability in individuals with aphasia, examining the impact of stimulus typicality and feedback on success with learning. Method: Eighteen individuals with aphasia and 8 nonaphasic controls participated in this study. All participants completed 4 computerized,…

  3. Speech-Language Therapists' Process of Including Significant Others in Aphasia Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallé, Marie-Christine; Le Dorze, Guylaine; Mingant, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although aphasia rehabilitation should include significant others, it is currently unknown how this recommendation is adopted in speech-language therapy practice. Speech-language therapists' (SLTs) experience of including significant others in aphasia rehabilitation is also understudied, yet a better understanding of clinical…

  4. "You Needed to Rehab...Families as Well": Family Members' Own Goals for Aphasia Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Tami; Davidson, Bronwyn; Worrall, Linda; Hersh, Deborah; Ferguson, Alison; Sherratt, Sue; Gilbert, Jocelyn

    2012-01-01

    Background: Aphasia affects family members in addition to the individuals with the communication disorder. In order to develop appropriate services for the relatives of people with aphasia post-stroke, their rehabilitation goals need to be identified. Aim: The aim of the current investigation was to identify the rehabilitation goals that family…

  5. Effects of Word Frequency and Modality on Sentence Comprehension Impairments in People with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeDe, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: It is well known that people with aphasia have sentence comprehension impairments. The present study investigated whether lexical factors contribute to sentence comprehension impairments in both the auditory and written modalities using online measures of sentence processing. Method: People with aphasia and non brain-damaged controls…

  6. Group Effects of Instrumentality and Name Relation on Action Naming in Bilingual Anomic Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kambanaros, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Verb production in sentences was investigated in two groups of late bilingual Greek-English speakers: individuals with anomic aphasia and a control group. Verb retrieval in sentences was significantly impaired in both languages for the individuals with anomic aphasia. Additional results revealed no effect of instrumentality on action naming in…

  7. Development of a Short Form of the Boston Naming Test for Individuals with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Toro, Christina M.; Bislick, Lauren P.; Comer, Matthew; Velozo, Craig; Romero, Sergio; Rothi, Leslie J. Gonzalez; Kendall, Diane L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a short form of the Boston Naming Test (BNT; Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 2001) for individuals with aphasia and compare it with 2 existing short forms originally analyzed with responses from people with dementia and neurologically healthy adults. Method: Development of the new BNT-Aphasia Short…

  8. The Use of a Modified Semantic Features Analysis Approach in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Naomi; Frome, Amber

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have reported improved naming using the semantic feature analysis (SFA) approach in individuals with aphasia. Whether the SFA can be modified and still produce naming improvements in aphasia is unknown. The present study was designed to address this question by using a modified version of the SFA approach. Three, rather than the…

  9. Changes in N400 Topography Following Intensive Speech Language Therapy for Individuals with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, K. Ryan; O'Rourke, Heather; Wozniak, Linda A.; Kostopoulos, Ellina; Marchand, Yannick; Newman, Aaron J.

    2012-01-01

    Our goal was to characterize the effects of intensive aphasia therapy on the N400, an electrophysiological index of lexical-semantic processing. Immediately before and after 4 weeks of intensive speech-language therapy, people with aphasia performed a task in which they had to determine whether spoken words were a "match" or a "mismatch" to…

  10. A 3-Year Evolution of Linguistic Disorders in Aphasia after Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Hachioui, Hanane; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke W. M. E.; Dippel, Diederik W. J.; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Visch-Brink, Evy G.

    2011-01-01

    Aphasia recovery after stroke has been the subject of several studies, but in none the deficits on the various linguistic levels were examined, even though in the diagnosis and treatment of aphasia the emphasis lays more and more on these linguistic level disorders. In this observational prospective follow-up study, we explored whether it is…

  11. Language Assessment of a Farsi-Norwegian Bilingual Speaker with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koumanidi Knoph, Monica I.

    2011-01-01

    The increased occurrence of strokes combined with the high incidence of bilingualism in many regions of the world has led to an increasing number of bilingual adults with aphasia. The literature on bilingual aphasia shows the need for valid, comprehensive and reliable assessment tools for diagnostic and treatment purposes. In spite of a growing…

  12. Gesture and Speech Integration: An Exploratory Study of a Man with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocks, Naomi; Sautin, Laetitia; Kita, Sotaro; Morgan, Gary; Zlotowitz, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Background: In order to comprehend fully a speaker's intention in everyday communication, information is integrated from multiple sources, including gesture and speech. There are no published studies that have explored the impact of aphasia on iconic co-speech gesture and speech integration. Aims: To explore the impact of aphasia on co-speech…

  13. Community-Based Resources for Persons with Aphasia and Their Families.

    PubMed

    Klein, K

    1996-01-01

    The article traces the emergence of associations for persons with aphasia and their families in Finland, Germany, Sweden, England, Japan, and the United States, and the subsequent formation of pan-national associations. Historical and current contributions of American associations to resources availableto persons with aphasia and their families are also explored. PMID:27620149

  14. A Comparison of Intention and Pantomime Gesture Treatment for Noun Retrieval in People with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Neina F.; Evans, Kelli; Raymer, Anastasia M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of intention gesture treatment (IGT) and pantomime gesture treatment (PGT) on word retrieval were compared in people with aphasia. Method: Four individuals with aphasia and word retrieval impairments subsequent to left-hemisphere stroke participated in a single-participant crossover treatment design. Each participant viewed…

  15. An Exploration of Factors Affecting Performance of Adults with Aphasia on a Functional Communication Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Luke Marcus

    2013-01-01

    In traditional aphasia testing and treatment, clinicians administer a standardized aphasia test that measures language impairment, followed by a linguistic approach to treatment. Many clinicians have argued the need for emphasis on functional communication, and third party payers desire functional information to determine patient progress. This…

  16. Linguistic and Neuropsychological Deficits in Crossed Conduction Aphasia: Report of Three Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartha, Lisa; Marien, Peter; Poewe, Werner; Benke, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the linguistic and neuropsychological findings in three right-handed patients with crossed conduction aphasia. Despite the location of the lesion in the right hemisphere, all patients displayed a combination of linguistic deficits typically found in conduction aphasia following analogous damage to the left hemisphere.…

  17. Real-Time Comprehension of Wh- Movement in Aphasia: Evidence from Eyetracking while Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickey, Michael Walsh; Choy, JungWon Janet; Thompson, Cynthia, K.

    2007-01-01

    Sentences with non-canonical wh- movement are often difficult for individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia to understand (Carramazza & Zurif, 1976, inter alia). However, the explanation of this difficulty remains controversial, and little is known about how individuals with aphasia try to understand such sentences in real time. This study uses…

  18. Using mobile technology with individuals with aphasia: native iPad features and everyday apps.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Gretchen; Dittelman, Janice

    2014-02-01

    The use of mobile technology, including smartphones and tablet devices, is a growing trend among adults nationwide, and its potential use in aphasia rehabilitation has generated widespread interest. Despite this trend, adults living with disability are less likely than other adults to go online. Complicating things further, most adults living with aphasia come from a generation where computers and technology were not an integral part of their lives. Additionally, training adults with aphasia requires a different approach than training those in the same age bracket without a disability. This article describes the mobile technology program at the Adler Aphasia Center in Maywood, New Jersey. The goal of this program is to improve access to mobile technology for people with aphasia. The use of mobile devices is the focus of the article. Mobile technology concepts and skills needed to establish a strong foundation for successful iPad (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA) use are suggested. We discuss how apps may be used to support aphasia therapy with a focus on apps that are native to the iPad and on other apps that were not specifically developed for aphasia rehabilitation. Challenges in implementing a mobile technology program for people with aphasia and individual member success stories are included. PMID:24449461

  19. Support for Anterior Temporal Involvement in Semantic Error Production in Aphasia: New Evidence from VLSM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Grant M.; Schwartz, Myrna F.; Kimberg, Daniel Y.; Faseyitan, Olufunsho; Brecher, Adelyn; Dell, Gary S.; Coslett, H. Branch

    2011-01-01

    Semantic errors in aphasia (e.g., naming a horse as "dog") frequently arise from faulty mapping of concepts onto lexical items. A recent study by our group used voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) methods with 64 patients with chronic aphasia to identify voxels that carry an association with semantic errors. The strongest associations were…

  20. A MEG Investigation of Single-Word Auditory Comprehension in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zipse, Lauryn; Kearns, Kevin; Nicholas, Marjorie; Marantz, Alec

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To explore whether individuals with aphasia exhibit differences in the M350, an electrophysiological marker of lexical activation, compared with healthy controls. Method: Seven people with aphasia, 9 age-matched controls, and 10 younger controls completed an auditory lexical decision task while cortical activity was recorded with…

  1. Default-Mode Network Functional Connectivity in Aphasia: Therapy-Induced Neuroplasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcotte, Karine; Perlbarg, Vincent; Marrelec, Guillaume; Benali, Habib; Ansaldo, Ana Ines

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on participants with aphasia has mainly been based on standard functional neuroimaging analysis. Recent studies have shown that functional connectivity analysis can detect compensatory activity, not revealed by standard analysis. Little is known, however, about the default-mode network in aphasia. In the current study, we studied…

  2. A Comparison of Aphasia Therapy Outcomes before and after a Very Early Rehabilitation Programme Following Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godecke, Erin; Ciccone, Natalie A.; Granger, Andrew S.; Rai, Tapan; West, Deborah; Cream, Angela; Cartwright, Jade; Hankey, Graeme J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Very early aphasia rehabilitation studies have shown mixed results. Differences in therapy intensity and therapy type contribute significantly to the equivocal results. Aims: To compare a standardized, prescribed very early aphasia therapy regimen with a historical usual care control group at therapy completion (4-5 weeks post-stroke)…

  3. Releasing the Constraints on Aphasia Therapy: The Positive Impact of Gesture and Multimodality Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Miranda L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: There is a 40-year history of interest in the use of arm and hand gestures in treatments that target the reduction of aphasic linguistic impairment and compensatory methods of communication (Rose, 2006). Arguments for constraining aphasia treatment to the verbal modality have arisen from proponents of constraint-induced aphasia therapy…

  4. Masked Priming Effects in Aphasia: Evidence of Altered Automatic Spreading Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silkes, JoAnn P.; Rogers, Margaret A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Previous research has suggested that impairments of automatic spreading activation may underlie some aphasic language deficits. The current study further investigated the status of automatic spreading activation in individuals with aphasia as compared with typical adults. Method: Participants were 21 individuals with aphasia (12 fluent, 9…

  5. Impact of Personal Relevance and Contextualization on Word-Picture Matching by People with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelvey, Miechelle L.; Hux, Karen; Dietz, Aimee; Beukelman, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of personal relevance and contextualization of images on the preferences and word-picture matching accuracy of people with severe aphasia. Method: Eight adults with aphasia performed 2 experimental tasks to reveal their preferences and accuracy during word-picture matching. The researchers used 3 types of visual…

  6. How Does Severity of Aphasia Influence Individual Responsiveness to Rehabilitation? Using Big Data to Understand Theories of Aphasia Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Kiran, Swathi

    2016-02-01

    Our ability to make great progress in delivering, optimizing, and predicting rehabilitation outcomes for individuals with aphasia is challenged by factors that influence rehabilitation outcomes. These include patient demographic factors such as age, education, and neurologic factors such as time poststroke, the site and size of the lesion, and the resulting severity of language impairment. Also variable across individuals is the type of treatment and its duration and intensity. This article examines the utility of big data analysis for understanding one of these factors, severity of impairment, and how individual responsiveness to rehabilitation is influenced by a patient's severity of language and cognitive impairment(s). Using examples from two studies and a larger data set, we show that when rehabilitation is tailored to an individual's specific level of impairment, severe and mild patients both show improvements in accuracy and latency. Furthermore, more severe patients tend to show substantial gains on targeted rehabilitation tasks as well as on standardized tests. These results provide support for recent reviews of aphasia rehabilitation studies in concluding that systematic aphasia rehabilitation is indeed effective, and importantly, severity is not a negative prognostic indicator for successful outcomes. PMID:26882364

  7. C-Speak Aphasia Alternative Communication Program for People with Severe Aphasia: Importance of Executive Functioning and Semantic Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Marjorie; Sinotte, Michele P.; Helm-Estabrooks, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Learning how to use a computer-based communication system can be challenging for people with severe aphasia even if the system is not word-based. This study explored cognitive and linguistic factors relative to how they affected individual patients’ ability to communicate expressively using C-Speak Aphasia, (CSA), an alternative communication computer program that is primarily picture-based. Ten individuals with severe non-fluent aphasia received at least six months of training with CSA. To assess carryover of training, untrained functional communication tasks (i.e., answering autobiographical questions, describing pictures, making telephone calls, describing a short video, and two writing tasks) were repeatedly probed in two conditions: 1) using CSA in addition to natural forms of communication, and 2) using only natural forms of communication, e.g., speaking, writing, gesturing, drawing. Four of the ten participants communicated more information on selected probe tasks using CSA than they did without the computer. Response to treatment also was examined in relation to baseline measures of non-linguistic executive function skills, pictorial semantic abilities, and auditory comprehension. Only nonlinguistic executive function skills were significantly correlated with treatment response. PMID:21506045

  8. Automated MRI-based classification of primary progressive aphasia variants.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Stephen M; Ogar, Jennifer M; Laluz, Victor; Growdon, Matthew; Jang, Jung; Glenn, Shenly; Miller, Bruce L; Weiner, Michael W; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2009-10-01

    Degeneration of language regions in the dominant hemisphere can result in primary progressive aphasia (PPA), a clinical syndrome characterized by progressive deficits in speech and/or language function. Recent studies have identified three variants of PPA: progressive non-fluent aphasia (PNFA), semantic dementia (SD) and logopenic progressive aphasia (LPA). Each variant is associated with characteristic linguistic features, distinct patterns of brain atrophy, and different likelihoods of particular underlying pathogenic processes, which makes correct differential diagnosis highly clinically relevant. Evaluation of linguistic behavior can be challenging for non-specialists, and neuroimaging findings in single subjects are often difficult to evaluate by eye. We investigated the utility of automated structural MR image analysis to discriminate PPA variants (N=86) from each other and from normal controls (N=115). T1 images were preprocessed to obtain modulated grey matter (GM) images. Feature selection was performed with principal components analysis (PCA) on GM images as well as images of lateralized atrophy. PC coefficients were classified with linear support vector machines, and a cross-validation scheme was used to obtain accuracy rates for generalization to novel cases. The overall mean accuracy in discriminating between pairs of groups was 92.2%. For one pair of groups, PNFA and SD, we also investigated the utility of including several linguistic variables as features. Models with both imaging and linguistic features performed better than models with only imaging or only linguistic features. These results suggest that automated methods could assist in the differential diagnosis of PPA variants, enabling therapies to be targeted to likely underlying etiologies. PMID:19501654

  9. Core auditory processing deficits in primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Grube, Manon; Bruffaerts, Rose; Schaeverbeke, Jolien; Neyens, Veerle; De Weer, An-Sofie; Seghers, Alexandra; Bergmans, Bruno; Dries, Eva; Griffiths, Timothy D; Vandenberghe, Rik

    2016-06-01

    The extent to which non-linguistic auditory processing deficits may contribute to the phenomenology of primary progressive aphasia is not established. Using non-linguistic stimuli devoid of meaning we assessed three key domains of auditory processing (pitch, timing and timbre) in a consecutive series of 18 patients with primary progressive aphasia (eight with semantic variant, six with non-fluent/agrammatic variant, and four with logopenic variant), as well as 28 age-matched healthy controls. We further examined whether performance on the psychoacoustic tasks in the three domains related to the patients' speech and language and neuropsychological profile. At the group level, patients were significantly impaired in the three domains. Patients had the most marked deficits within the rhythm domain for the processing of short sequences of up to seven tones. Patients with the non-fluent variant showed the most pronounced deficits at the group and the individual level. A subset of patients with the semantic variant were also impaired, though less severely. The patients with the logopenic variant did not show any significant impairments. Significant deficits in the non-fluent and the semantic variant remained after partialling out effects of executive dysfunction. Performance on a subset of the psychoacoustic tests correlated with conventional verbal repetition tests. In sum, a core central auditory impairment exists in primary progressive aphasia for non-linguistic stimuli. While the non-fluent variant is clinically characterized by a motor speech deficit (output problem), perceptual processing of tone sequences is clearly deficient. This may indicate the co-occurrence in the non-fluent variant of a deficit in working memory for auditory objects. Parsimoniously we propose that auditory timing pathways are altered, which are used in common for processing acoustic sequence structure in both speech output and acoustic input. PMID:27060523

  10. Progranulin-associated primary progressive aphasia: A distinct phenotype?

    PubMed Central

    Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Warrington, Elizabeth K.; Warren, Jason D.

    2010-01-01

    The neuropsychological features of the primary progressive aphasia (PPA) syndromes continue to be defined. Here we describe a detailed neuropsychological case study of a patient with a mutation in the progranulin (GRN) gene who presented with progressive word-finding difficulty. Key neuropsychological features in this case included gravely impoverished propositional speech with anomia and prolonged word-finding pauses, impaired speech repetition most marked for sentences, and severely impaired verbal (with preserved spatial) short-term memory. There was a dissociated profile of performance on semantic processing tasks: visual semantic processing was intact, while within the verbal domain, verb comprehension was impaired and processing of nouns was intact on tasks requiring direct semantic processing but impaired on tasks requiring associative or inferential processing. Brain MRI showed asymmetric left cerebral atrophy particularly affecting the temporo-parietal junction, supero-lateral temporal and inferior frontal lobes. This case most closely resembles the PPA syndrome known as the logopenic/phonological aphasia variant (LPA) however there were also deficits of grammar and speech repetition suggesting an overlap with the progressive non-fluent aphasia (agrammatic) variant (PNFA). Certain prominent features of this case (in particular, the profile of semantic impairment) have not been emphasised in previous descriptions of LPA or PNFA, suggesting that GRN may cause an overlapping PPA syndrome but with a distinctive cognitive profile. This neuropsychological evidence suggests that GRN-PPA may result from damage involving the temporo-parietal junction and its functional connections in both the dorsal and ventral language networks, with implications for our understanding of language network pathophysiology. PMID:19766663

  11. Mirror neuron system based therapy for aphasia rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenli; Ye, Qian; Ji, Xiangtong; Zhang, Sicong; Yang, Xi; Zhou, Qiumin; Cong, Fang; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Bing; Xia, Yang; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Shan, Chunlei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of hand action observation training, i.e., mirror neuron system (MNS) based training, on language function of aphasic patients after stroke. In addition, to reveal the tentative mechanism underlying this effect. Methods: Six aphasic patients after stroke, meeting the criteria, undergo 3 weeks' training protocol (30 min per day, 6 days per week). Among them, four patients accepted an ABA training design, i.e., they implemented Protocol A (hand action observation combined with repetition) in the first and third weeks and carried out Protocol B (static object observation combined with repetition) in the second week. Conversely, for the other two patients, BAB training design was adopted, i.e., patients took Protocol B in the first and third weeks and accepted Protocol A in the second week. Picture naming test, western aphasia battery (WAB) and Token Test were applied to evaluate the changes of language function before and after each week's training. Furthermore, two subjects (one aphasic patient and one healthy volunteer) attended a functional MRI (fMRI) experiment, by which we tried to reveal the mechanism underlying possible language function changes after training. Results: Compared with static object observation and repetition training (Protocol B), hand action observation and repetition training (Protocol A) effectively improved most aspects of the language function in all six patients, as demonstrated in the picture naming test, subtests of oral language and aphasia quotient (AQ) of WAB. In addition, the fMRI experiment showed that Protocol A induced more activations in the MNS of one patient and one healthy control when compared to Protocol B. Conclusion: The mirror neuron based therapy may facilitate the language recovery for aphasic patients and this, to some extent, provides a novel direction of rehabilitation for aphasia patients. PMID:26579046

  12. Core auditory processing deficits in primary progressive aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Grube, Manon; Bruffaerts, Rose; Schaeverbeke, Jolien; Neyens, Veerle; De Weer, An-Sofie; Seghers, Alexandra; Bergmans, Bruno; Dries, Eva; Griffiths, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which non-linguistic auditory processing deficits may contribute to the phenomenology of primary progressive aphasia is not established. Using non-linguistic stimuli devoid of meaning we assessed three key domains of auditory processing (pitch, timing and timbre) in a consecutive series of 18 patients with primary progressive aphasia (eight with semantic variant, six with non-fluent/agrammatic variant, and four with logopenic variant), as well as 28 age-matched healthy controls. We further examined whether performance on the psychoacoustic tasks in the three domains related to the patients’ speech and language and neuropsychological profile. At the group level, patients were significantly impaired in the three domains. Patients had the most marked deficits within the rhythm domain for the processing of short sequences of up to seven tones. Patients with the non-fluent variant showed the most pronounced deficits at the group and the individual level. A subset of patients with the semantic variant were also impaired, though less severely. The patients with the logopenic variant did not show any significant impairments. Significant deficits in the non-fluent and the semantic variant remained after partialling out effects of executive dysfunction. Performance on a subset of the psychoacoustic tests correlated with conventional verbal repetition tests. In sum, a core central auditory impairment exists in primary progressive aphasia for non-linguistic stimuli. While the non-fluent variant is clinically characterized by a motor speech deficit (output problem), perceptual processing of tone sequences is clearly deficient. This may indicate the co-occurrence in the non-fluent variant of a deficit in working memory for auditory objects. Parsimoniously we propose that auditory timing pathways are altered, which are used in common for processing acoustic sequence structure in both speech output and acoustic input. PMID:27060523

  13. A tutorial on aphasia test development in any language: Key substantive and psychometric considerations

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Maria V.; Hallowell, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    Background There are a limited number of aphasia language tests in the majority of the world's commonly spoken languages. Furthermore, few aphasia tests in languages other than English have been standardized and normed, and few have supportive psychometric data pertaining to reliability and validity. The lack of standardized assessment tools across many of the world's languages poses serious challenges to clinical practice and research in aphasia. Aims The current review addresses this lack of assessment tools by providing conceptual and statistical guidance for the development of aphasia assessment tools and establishment of their psychometric properties. Main Contribution A list of aphasia tests in the 20 most widely spoken languages is included. The pitfalls of translating an existing test into a new language versus creating a new test are outlined. Factors to consider in determining test content are discussed. Further, a description of test items corresponding to different language functions is provided, with special emphasis on implementing important controls in test design. Next, a broad review of principal psychometric properties relevant to aphasia tests is presented, with specific statistical guidance for establishing psychometric properties of standardized assessment tools. Conclusions This article may be used to help guide future work on developing, standardizing and validating aphasia language tests. The considerations discussed are also applicable to the development of standardized tests of other cognitive functions. PMID:23976813

  14. “Better But No Cigar”: Persons with Aphasia Speak about their Speech

    PubMed Central

    Fromm, Davida; Holland, Audrey; Armstrong, Elizabeth; Forbes, Margaret; MacWhinney, Brian; Risko, Amy; Mattison, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study examined responses of persons with aphasia (PWAs) to a general question about their speech. The goal was to describe their evaluative responses as positive, negative, or neutral/mixed and determine if responses differed, based on time post-onset, aphasia severity, and aphasia type. Methods 71 participants from the AphasiaBank project were included. As part of a larger protocol, investigators asked, “How do you think your speech is these days?” Responses were videotaped and transcribed using CLAN. Two authors coded the evaluative responses and categorized themes in the elaborative content provided by the participants. Results Positive responses accounted for 59% of all responses, followed by neutral/mixed (18%), and negative (17%). Participants also mentioned specific speech problems (35%), improvement (31%), and therapy (8%) in their responses. Time post-onset and aphasia type were not significantly associated with nature of response. Aphasia severity was significantly associated with nature of response, with higher AQ scores in the positive group and vice versa. Conclusions The responses are discussed in the context of self-image and self-expression in PWA and social models in aphasia therapy. Results are also compared with those of others with chronic disabilities and research on resilience, positive affect, and optimism. PMID:22347765

  15. Online Sentence Reading in People With Aphasia: Evidence From Eye Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Knilans, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Purpose There is a lot of evidence that people with aphasia have more difficulty understanding structurally complex sentences (e.g., object clefts) than simpler sentences (subject clefts). However, subject clefts also occur more frequently in English than object clefts. Thus, it is possible that both structural complexity and frequency affect how people with aphasia understand these structures. Method Nine people with aphasia and 8 age-matched controls participated in the study. The stimuli consisted of 24 object cleft and 24 subject cleft sentences. The task was eye tracking during reading, which permits a more fine-grained analysis of reading performance than measures such as self-paced reading. Results As expected, controls had longer reading times for critical regions in object cleft sentences compared with subject cleft sentences. People with aphasia showed the predicted effects of structural frequency. Effects of structural complexity in people with aphasia did not emerge on their first pass through the sentence but were observed when they were rereading critical regions of complex sentences. Conclusions People with aphasia are sensitive to both structural complexity and structural frequency when reading. However, people with aphasia may use different reading strategies than controls when confronted with relatively infrequent and complex sentence structures. PMID:26383779

  16. Antonio Berti and the early history of aphasia in Italy.

    PubMed

    Zago, S; Randazzo, C

    2006-12-01

    Whilst the debate about cerebral localisation of articulate speech was raging in France in the 1860s and in particular with reference to the observations of Paul Broca, there were also some Italians who attempted to make a contribution on the subject. Among those was the physician Antonio Berti, who in 1865 furnished some interesting observations on the association of aphasia with the frontal lobe. In this paper we intend to revive this forgotten episode that represents one of the early Italian observations on the issue of cortical localisation of speech. PMID:17205235

  17. Aphasia with elation, hypermusia, musicophilia and compulsive whistling.

    PubMed Central

    Jacome, D E

    1984-01-01

    A musically naive patient with dominant fronto-temporal and anterior parietal infarct developed transcortical mixed aphasia. From early convalescence, he exhibited elated mood with hyperprosody and repetitive, spontaneous whistling and whistling in response to questions. He often spontaneously sang without error in pitch, melody, rhythm and lyrics, and spent long periods of time listening to music. His behaviour progressively improved in parallel with very good recovery of verbal skills. Musicality and singing are rarely tested at the bedside. Preservation of these abilities in aphasics might portend eventual recovery. PMID:6707680

  18. Dissociations Between Fluency And Agrammatism In Primary Progressive Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Cynthia K; Cho, Soojin; Hsu, Chien-Ju; Wieneke, Christina; Rademaker, Alfred; Weitner, Bing Bing; Mesulam, M-Marsel; Weintraub, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Classical aphasiology, based on the study of stroke sequelae, fuses speech fluency and grammatical ability. Nonfluent (Broca's) aphasia often is accompanied by agrammatism; whereas in the fluent aphasias grammatical deficits are not typical. The assumption that a similar relationship exists in primary progressive aphasia (PPA) has led to the dichotomization of this syndrome into fluent and nonfluent subtypes. AIMS: This study compared elements of fluency and grammatical production in the narrative speech of individuals with PPA to determine if they can be dissociated from one another. METHOD: Speech samples from 37 individuals with PPA, clinically assigned to agrammatic (N=11), logopenic (N=20) and semantic (N=6) subtypes, and 13 cognitively healthy control participants telling the "Cinderella Story" were analyzed for fluency (i.e., words per minute (WPM) and mean length of utterance in words (MLU-W)) and grammaticality (i.e., the proportion of grammatically correct sentences, open-to-closed-class word ratio, noun-to-verb ratio, and correct production of verb inflection, noun morphology, and verb argument structure.) Between group differences were analyzed for each variable. Correlational analyses examined the relation between WPM and each grammatical variable, and an off-line measure of sentence production. OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: Agrammatic and logopenic groups both had lower scores on the fluency measures and produced significantly fewer grammatical sentences than did semantic and control groups. However, only the agrammatic group evinced significantly impaired production of verb inflection and verb argument structure. In addition, some semantic participants showed abnormal open-to-closed and noun-to-verb ratios in narrative speech. When the sample was divided on the basis of fluency, all the agrammatic participants fell in the nonfluent category. The logopenic participants varied in fluency but those with low fluency showed variable performance on

  19. Recovery of language function in Korean-Japanese crossed bilingual aphasia following right basal ganglia hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Boram; Moon, Hyun Im; Lim, Sung Hee; Cho, Hyesuk; Choi, Hyunjoo; Pyun, Sung-Bom

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have investigated language recovery patterns and the mechanisms of crossed bilingual aphasia following a subcortical stroke. In particular, Korean-Japanese crossed bilingual aphasia has not been reported. A 47-year-old, right-handed man was diagnosed with an extensive right basal ganglia hemorrhage. He was bilingual, fluent in both Korean and Japanese. After his stroke, the patient presented with crossed aphasia. We investigated changes in the Korean (L1) and Japanese (L2) language recovery patterns. Both Korean and Japanese versions of the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) were completed one month after the stroke, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed using picture-naming tasks. The WAB showed a paradoxical pattern of bilingual aphasia, with an aphasia quotient (AQ) of 32 for Korean and 50.6 for Japanese, with Broca's aphasia. The patient scored better in the Japanese version of all domains of the tests. The fMRI study showed left lateralized activation in both language tasks, especially in the inferior frontal gyrus. After six months of language therapy targeting L1, the Korean-WAB score improved significantly, while the Japanese-WAB score showed slight improvement. In this case, the subcortical lesion contributed to crossed bilingual aphasia more highly affecting L1 due to loss of the cortico-subcortical control mechanism in the dominant hemisphere. The paradoxical pattern of bilingual aphasia disappeared after lengthy language therapy targeting L1, and the therapy effect did not transfer to L2. Language recovery in L1 might have been accomplished by reintegrating language networks, including the contralesional language homologue area in the left hemisphere. PMID:26853846

  20. Novel word acquisition in aphasia: Facing the word-referent ambiguity of natural language learning contexts.

    PubMed

    Peñaloza, Claudia; Mirman, Daniel; Tuomiranta, Leena; Benetello, Annalisa; Heikius, Ida-Maria; Järvinen, Sonja; Majos, Maria C; Cardona, Pedro; Juncadella, Montserrat; Laine, Matti; Martin, Nadine; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2016-06-01

    Recent research suggests that some people with aphasia preserve some ability to learn novel words and to retain them in the long-term. However, this novel word learning ability has been studied only in the context of single word-picture pairings. We examined the ability of people with chronic aphasia to learn novel words using a paradigm that presents new word forms together with a limited set of different possible visual referents and requires the identification of the correct word-object associations on the basis of online feedback. We also studied the relationship between word learning ability and aphasia severity, word processing abilities, and verbal short-term memory (STM). We further examined the influence of gross lesion location on new word learning. The word learning task was first validated with a group of forty-five young adults. Fourteen participants with chronic aphasia were administered the task and underwent tests of immediate and long-term recognition memory at 1 week. Their performance was compared to that of a group of fourteen matched controls using growth curve analysis. The learning curve and recognition performance of the aphasia group was significantly below the matched control group, although above-chance recognition performance and case-by-case analyses indicated that some participants with aphasia had learned the correct word-referent mappings. Verbal STM but not word processing abilities predicted word learning ability after controlling for aphasia severity. Importantly, participants with lesions in the left frontal cortex performed significantly worse than participants with lesions that spared the left frontal region both during word learning and on the recognition tests. Our findings indicate that some people with aphasia can preserve the ability to learn a small novel lexicon in an ambiguous word-referent context. This learning and recognition memory ability was associated with verbal STM capacity, aphasia severity and the integrity

  1. Quantitative application of the primary progressive aphasia consensus criteria

    PubMed Central

    Wicklund, Meredith R.; Duffy, Joseph R.; Strand, Edythe A.; Machulda, Mary M.; Whitwell, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine how well the consensus criteria could classify subjects with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) using a quantitative speech and language battery that matches the test descriptions provided by the consensus criteria. Methods: A total of 105 participants with a neurodegenerative speech and language disorder were prospectively recruited and underwent neurologic, neuropsychological, and speech and language testing and MRI in this case-control study. Twenty-one participants with apraxia of speech without aphasia served as controls. Select tests from the speech and language battery were chosen for application of consensus criteria and cutoffs were employed to determine syndromic classification. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to examine participants who could not be classified. Results: Of the 84 participants, 58 (69%) could be classified as agrammatic (27%), semantic (7%), or logopenic (35%) variants of PPA. The remaining 31% of participants could not be classified. Of the unclassifiable participants, 2 clusters were identified. The speech and language profile of the first cluster resembled mild logopenic PPA and the second cluster semantic PPA. Gray matter patterns of loss of these 2 clusters of unclassified participants also resembled mild logopenic and semantic variants. Conclusions: Quantitative application of consensus PPA criteria yields the 3 syndromic variants but leaves a large proportion unclassified. Therefore, the current consensus criteria need to be modified in order to improve sensitivity. PMID:24598709

  2. Aphasia owing to subcortical brain infarcts in childhood.

    PubMed

    Gout, Ariel; Seibel, Nathalie; Rouvière, Constance; Husson, Béatrice; Hermans, Brigitte; Laporte, Nicole; Kadhim, Hazim; Grin, Cécile; Landrieu, Pierre; Sébire, Guillaume

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to further define the clinical features of subcortical aphasia in children with deep brain infarcts and to define the sequelae associated with childhood strokes. We retrospectively studied nine children with left subcortical brain infarcts who presented with acquired language disorder and underwent language investigations based on standardized tests. Stroke in these patients involved the left internal capsule, lenticular or thalamic nuclei, or a combination of these. Early aphasic manifestations following the deep cerebral infarcts affected language expression. These included mutism, nonfluent speech, word finding difficulties, and phonemic and semantic paraphasia. Speech comprehension was generally more preserved. All patients subsequently improved, although variably; sequelae such as dysfluency, word finding difficulties, and written language learning impairment could be detected through standardized tests in six of them (all younger than 6 years at the time of the infarct). Two of the three remaining patients (both older than 6 years at the time of the infarct) had a full recovery. Our study confirms the concept of childhood subcortical aphasia, depicts the linguistic profile in these patients, and sustains the indication of systematic formal language assessment during the follow-up of all children with subcortical infarct involving the dominant hemisphere. PMID:16417851

  3. Dystypia: isolated typing impairment without aphasia, apraxia or visuospatial impairment.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Mika; Soma, Yoshiaki; Arihiro, Shoji; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Naritomi, Hiroaki

    2002-01-01

    We report a 60-year-old right-handed Japanese man who showed an isolated persistent typing impairment without aphasia, agraphia, apraxia or any other neuropsychological deficit. We coined the term 'dystypia' for this peculiar neuropsychological manifestation. The symptom was caused by an infarction in the left frontal lobe involving the foot of the second frontal convolution and the frontal operculum. The patient's typing impairment was not attributable to a disturbance of the linguistic process, since he had no aphasia or agraphia. The impairment was not attributable to the impairment of the motor execution process either, since he had no apraxia. Thus, his typing impairment was deduced to be based on a disturbance of the intermediate process where the linguistic phonological information is converted into the corresponding performance. We hypothesized that there is a specific process for typing which branches from the motor programming process presented in neurolinguistic models. The foot of the left second frontal convolution and the operculum may play an important role in the manifestation of 'dystypia'. PMID:11914550

  4. Motor Speech Disorders Associated with Primary Progressive Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Joseph R.; Strand, Edythe A.; Josephs, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) and conditions that overlap with it can be accompanied by motor speech disorders. Recognition and understanding of motor speech disorders can contribute to a fuller clinical understanding of PPA and its management as well as its localization and underlying pathology. Aims To review the types of motor speech disorders that may occur with PPA, its primary variants, and its overlap syndromes (progressive supranuclear palsy syndrome, corticobasal syndrome, motor neuron disease), as well as with primary progressive apraxia of speech. Main Contribution The review should assist clinicians' and researchers' understanding of the relationship between motor speech disorders and PPA and its major variants. It also highlights the importance of recognizing neurodegenerative apraxia of speech as a condition that can occur with little or no evidence of aphasia. Conclusion Motor speech disorders can occur with PPA. Their recognition can contribute to clinical diagnosis and management of PPA and to understanding and predicting the localization and pathology associated with PPA variants and conditions that can overlap with them. PMID:25309017

  5. Co-verbal gestures among speakers with aphasia: Influence of aphasia severity, linguistic and semantic skills, and hemiplegia on gesture employment in oral discourse

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Law, Sam-Po; Wat, Watson Ka-Chun; Lai, Christy

    2015-01-01

    The use of co-verbal gestures is common in human communication and has been reported to assist word retrieval and to facilitate verbal interactions. This study systematically investigated the impact of aphasia severity, integrity of semantic processing, and hemiplegia on the use of co-verbal gestures, with reference to gesture forms and functions, by 131 normal speakers, 48 individuals with aphasia and their controls. All participants were native Cantonese speakers. It was found that the severity of aphasia and verbal-semantic impairment was associated with significantly more co-verbal gestures. However, there was no relationship between right-sided hemiplegia and gesture employment. Moreover, significantly more gestures were employed by the speakers with aphasia, but about 10% of them did not gesture. Among those who used gestures, content-carrying gestures, including iconic, metaphoric, deictic gestures, and emblems, served the function of enhancing language content and providing information additional to the language content. As for the non-content carrying gestures, beats were used primarily for reinforcing speech prosody or guiding speech flow, while non-identifiable gestures were associated with assisting lexical retrieval or with no specific functions. The above findings would enhance our understanding of the use of various forms of co-verbal gestures in aphasic discourse production and their functions. Speech-language pathologists may also refer to the current annotation system and the results to guide clinical evaluation and remediation of gestures in aphasia. PMID:26186256

  6. Unusual Recovery of Aphasia in a Polyglot Iranian Patient after Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Mehrpour, Masoud; Motamed, Mohammad R.; Aghaei, Mahboubeh; Jalali, Nazanin; Ghoreishi, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Aphasia is a language disorder resulting from a lesion in the cerebral cortex. In this case report, we present a polyglot patient who recovered from aphasia by speaking his newly active learned language Case Report A 69 years old male referred with acute onset right hemiparesis and global aphasia. After imaging, he treated with 75 mg r-TPA (0.9 mg/kg). After the fourth day of hospitalization, he could name some objects and some short phrases but interestingly only in French language (although his mother language was Persian). Discussion In our patient, recovery was first in the last learned language and his learning memory was recovered earlier than his native languages. As in our case, we can expect to have different recovery theory that means active learning language could be the first part of recovery in aphasia. PMID:25337377

  7. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) and Aphasia: The Case of Mr. C

    PubMed Central

    Cherney, Leora R.; Babbitt, Edna M.; Hurwitz, Rosalind; Rogers, Lynn M.; Stinear, James; Wang, Xue; Harvey, Richard L.; Parrish, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To illustrate the ethical challenges that arose from investigating a novel treatment procedure, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), in a research participant with aphasia. Method First, we reviewed the current evidence supporting the use of tDCS in aphasia research, highlighting methodological gaps in our knowledge of tDCS. Second, we examined the case of Mr. C, a person with chronic aphasia who participated in a research protocol investigating the impact of tDCS on aphasia treatment. Results We describe the procedures that he underwent and the resulting behavioral and neurophysiological outcomes bed. Finally, we share the steps that were taken to balance beneficence and nonmaleficence, and to ensure Mr. C’s autonomy. Conclusion: Researchers must consider not only the scientific integrity of their studies, but also potential ethical issues and consequences to the research participants. PMID:23340067

  8. What's in a sentence? The crucial role of lexical content in sentence production in nonfluent aphasia.

    PubMed

    Speer, Paula; Wilshire, Carolyn E

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of lexical content on sentence production in nonfluent aphasia. Five participants with nonfluent aphasia, four with fluent aphasia, and eight controls were asked to describe pictured events in subject-verb-object sentences. Experiment 1 manipulated speed of lexical retrieval by varying the frequency of sentence nouns. Nonfluent participants' accuracy was consistently higher for sentences commencing with a high- than with a low-frequency subject noun, even when errors on those nouns were themselves excluded. This was not the case for the fluent participants. Experiment 2 manipulated the semantic relationship between subject and object nouns. The nonfluent participants produced sentences less accurately when they contained related than when they contained unrelated lexical items. The fluent participants exhibited the opposite trend. We propose that individuals with nonfluent aphasia are disproportionately reliant on activated conceptual-lexical representations to drive the sentence generation process, an idea we call the content drives structure (COST) hypothesis. PMID:24512548

  9. Evidence for Intensive Aphasia Therapy: Consideration of Theories From Neuroscience and Cognitive Psychology.

    PubMed

    Dignam, Jade K; Rodriguez, Amy D; Copland, David A

    2016-03-01

    Treatment intensity is a critical component to the delivery of speech-language pathology and rehabilitation services. Within aphasia rehabilitation, however, insufficient evidence currently exists to guide clinical decision making with respect to the optimal treatment intensity. This review considers perspectives from 2 key bodies of research, the neuroscience and cognitive psychology literature, with respect to the scheduling of aphasia rehabilitation services. Neuroscience research suggests that intensive training is a key element of rehabilitation and is necessary to achieve functional and neurologic changes after a stroke occurs. In contrast, the cognitive psychology literature suggests that optimal long-term learning is achieved when training is provided in a distributed or nonintensive schedule. These perspectives are evaluated and discussed with respect to the current evidence for treatment intensity in aphasia rehabilitation. In addition, directions for future research are identified, including study design, methods of defining and measuring treatment intensity, and selection of outcome measures in aphasia rehabilitation. PMID:26107539

  10. "Waiting on the words": procedures and outcomes of a drama class for individuals with aphasia.

    PubMed

    Cherney, Leora R; Oehring, Ann K; Whipple, Keith; Rubenstein, Ted

    2011-08-01

    Drama therapy offers an authentic medium through which people with aphasia can interact and share their experiences. We describe the rationale and procedures of a drama class, informed by the principles and practices of drama therapy, in which individuals with chronic aphasia conceptualized, wrote, and produced a play addressing their experiences of having, living with, and coping with the effects of aphasia. Sessions were cofacilitated by a speech-language pathologist and a drama therapist. We describe the drama activities and techniques in each of four distinct stages of a drama therapy process through which the group transitioned. We also summarize patient-reported outcomes of a representational group of seven participants. Subscales of the Burden of Stroke Scale and the Communication Confidence Rating Scale for Aphasia were administered before and after participation in the 18-week class. Means, standard deviations, and effect sizes were computed. Results indicated perceived improvements in both communication and mood. PMID:21968559

  11. Talking to Individuals with Aphasia: A Challenge for the Rehabilitation Team.

    PubMed

    Holland, A L; Halpery, A S

    1996-01-01

    This article provides the rehabilitation team with some tips concerning how to maximize their chances for successful communication with individuals who have aphasia. These ideas can be applied across the range of settings in which health care is provided. The notions described here can increase the effectiveness of interpersonal communication with aphasictalkers, as well as helpto improve the quality of life after aphasia. PMID:27620150

  12. Classification and clinicoradiologic features of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) and apraxia of speech.

    PubMed

    Botha, Hugo; Duffy, Joseph R; Whitwell, Jennifer L; Strand, Edythe A; Machulda, Mary M; Schwarz, Christopher G; Reid, Robert I; Spychalla, Anthony J; Senjem, Matthew L; Jones, David T; Lowe, Val; Jack, Clifford R; Josephs, Keith A

    2015-08-01

    The consensus criteria for the diagnosis and classification of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) have served as an important tool in studying this group of disorders. However, a large proportion of patients remain unclassifiable whilst others simultaneously meet criteria for multiple subtypes. We prospectively evaluated a large cohort of patients with degenerative aphasia and/or apraxia of speech using multidisciplinary clinical assessments and multimodal imaging. Blinded diagnoses were made using operational definitions with important differences compared to the consensus criteria. Of the 130 included patients, 40 were diagnosed with progressive apraxia of speech (PAOS), 12 with progressive agrammatic aphasia, 9 with semantic dementia, 52 with logopenic progressive aphasia, and 4 with progressive fluent aphasia, while 13 were unclassified. The PAOS and progressive fluent aphasia groups were least impaired. Performance on repetition and sentence comprehension was especially poor in the logopenic group. The semantic and progressive fluent aphasia groups had prominent anomia, but only semantic subjects had loss of word meaning and object knowledge. Distinct patterns of grey matter loss and white matter changes were found in all groups compared to controls. PAOS subjects had bilateral frontal grey matter loss, including the premotor and supplementary motor areas, and bilateral frontal white matter involvement. The agrammatic group had more widespread, predominantly left sided grey matter loss and white matter abnormalities. Semantic subjects had bitemporal grey matter loss and white matter changes, including the uncinate and inferior occipitofrontal fasciculi, whereas progressive fluent subjects only had left sided temporal involvement. Logopenic subjects had diffuse and bilateral grey matter loss and diffusion tensor abnormalities, maximal in the posterior temporal region. A diagnosis of logopenic aphasia was strongly associated with being amyloid positive (46

  13. Spared musical abilities in a conductor with global aphasia and ideomotor apraxia.

    PubMed Central

    Basso, A; Capitani, E

    1985-01-01

    A conductor suddenly developed global aphasia and severe ideomotor apraxia as a result of an infarct in the territory of the left middle cerebral artery. Although aphasia and apraxia remained unchanged during the following six years, his musical capacities were largely spared and he was still able to conduct. This case provides some evidence in favour of right hemisphere dominance for music. Images PMID:2582094

  14. The effect of literacy on oral language processing: Implications for aphasia tests.

    PubMed

    Tsegaye, Mulugeta Tarekegne; De Bleser, Ria; Iribarren, Carolina

    2011-06-01

    Most studies investigating the impact of literacy on oral language processing have shown that literacy provides phonological awareness skills in the processing of oral language. The implications of these results on aphasia tests could be significant and pose questions on the adequacy of such tools for testing non-literate individuals. Aiming at examining the impact of literacy on oral language processing and its implication on aphasia tests, this study tested 12 non-literate and 12 literate individuals with a modified Amharic version of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (Paradis and Amberber, 1991, Bilingual Aphasia Test. Amharic version. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.). The problems of phonological awareness skills in oral language processing in non-literates are substantiated. In addition, compared with literate participants, non-literate individuals demonstrated difficulties in the word/sentence-picture matching tasks. This study has also revealed that the Amharic version of the Bilingual Aphasia Test may be viable for testing Amharic-speaking non-literate individuals with aphasia when modifications are incorporated. PMID:21631306

  15. A qualitative study of legal and social justice needs for people with aphasia.

    PubMed

    Morris, Karen; Ferguson, Alison; Worrall, Linda

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents an exploratory investigation of situations in which people with aphasia may be vulnerable to legal and access to justice issues. The study used a qualitative descriptive approach to analyse 167 de-identified transcriptions of previously collected interviews, with 50 participants with mild-to-severe aphasia following stroke, 48 family members, and their treating speech-language pathologists. Situations experienced by people with aphasia and their family members were coded using key-word searches based on the previously published framework developed by Ellison and colleagues to describe situations of vulnerability to legal and access to justice needs for older people. Health and financial and consumer situations were most frequently identified in the data. Additionally, there were a number of situations found specifically relating to people with aphasia involving their signatures and credit card use. Instances of discrimination and abuse were also identified, and, although infrequent, these issues point to the profound impact of aphasia on the ability to complain and, hence, to ensure rights to care are upheld. The findings of this study are consistent with previous research in suggesting that legal and access to justice needs are an important issue for people with aphasia and their families. PMID:24228890

  16. Time reference in agrammatic aphasia: A cross-linguistic study

    PubMed Central

    Bastiaanse, Roelien; Bamyaci, Elif; Hsu, Chien-Ju; Lee, Jiyeon; Duman, Tuba Yarbay; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown across several languages that verb inflection is difficult for agrammatic aphasic speakers. In particular, Tense inflection is vulnerable. Several theoretical accounts for this have been posed, for example, a pure syntactic one suggesting that the Tense node is unavailable due to its position in the syntactic tree (Friedmann & Grodzinsky, 1997); one suggesting that the interpretable features of the Tense node are underspecified (Burchert, Swoboda-Moll, & De Bleser, 2005; Wenzlaff & Clahsen, 2004, 2005); and a morphosemantic one, arguing that the diacritic Tense features are affected in agrammatism (Faroqi–Shah & Dickey, 2009; Lee, Milman, & Thompson, 2008). However recent findings (Bastiaanse, 2008) and a reanalysis of some oral production studies (e.g. Lee et al., 2008; Nanousi, Masterson, Druks, & Atkinson, 2006) suggest that both Tense and Aspect are impaired and, most importantly, reference to the past is selectively impaired, both through simple verb forms (such as simple past in English) and through periphrastic verb forms (such as the present perfect, ‘has V-ed’, in English). It will be argued that reference to the past is discourse linked and reference to the present and future is not (Zagona, 2003, in press). In-line with Avrutin’s (2000) theory that suggests discourse linking is impaired in Broca’s aphasia, the PAst DIscourse LInking Hypothesis (PADILIH) has been formulated. Three predictions were tested: (1) patients with agrammatic aphasia are selectively impaired in use of grammatical morphology associated with reference to the past, whereas, inflected forms which refer to the present and future are relatively spared; (2) this impairment is language-independent; and (3) this impairment will occur in both production and comprehension. Agrammatic Chinese, English and Turkish speakers were tested with the Test for Assessing Reference of Time (TART; Bastiaanse, Jonkers, & Thompson, unpublished). Results showed that both the

  17. A new modified listening span task to enhance validity of working memory assessment for people with and without aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Maria V.; Hallowell, Brooke

    2014-01-01

    Deficits in working memory (WM) are an important subset of cognitive processing deficits associated with aphasia. However, there are serious limitations to research on WM in aphasia largely due to the lack of an established valid measure of WM impairment for this population. The aim of the current study was to address shortcomings of previous measures by developing and empirically evaluating a novel WM task with a sentence-picture matching processing component designed to circumvent confounds inherent in existing measures of WM in aphasia. The novel WM task was presented to persons with (n = 27) and without (n = 33) aphasia. Results demonstrated high concurrent validity of a novel WM task. Individuals with aphasia performed significantly worse on all conditions of the WM task compared to individuals without aphasia. Different patterns of performance across conditions were observed for the two groups. Additionally, WM capacity was significantly related to auditory comprehension abilities in individuals with mild aphasia but not those with moderate aphasia. Strengths of the novel WM task are that it allows for differential control for length versus complexity of verbal stimuli and indexing of the relative influence of each, minimizes metalinguistic requirements, enables control for complexity of processing components, allows participants to respond with simple gestures or verbally, and eliminates reading requirements. Results support the feasibility and validity of using a novel task to assess WM in individuals with and without aphasia. PMID:24986153

  18. The language–gesture connection: Evidence from aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Dipper, Lucy; Pritchard, Madeleine; Morgan, Gary; Cocks, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A significant body of evidence from cross-linguistic and developmental studies converges to suggest that co-speech iconic gesture mirrors language. This paper aims to identify whether gesture reflects impaired spoken language in a similar way. Twenty-nine people with aphasia (PWA) and 29 neurologically healthy control participants (NHPs) produced a narrative discourse, retelling the story of a cartoon video. Gesture and language were analysed in terms of semantic content and structure for two key motion events. The aphasic data showed an influence on gesture from lexical choices but no corresponding clausal influence. Both the groups produced gesture that matched the semantics of the spoken language and gesture that did not, although there was one particular gesture–language mismatch (semantically “light” verbs paired with semantically richer gesture) that typified the PWA narratives. These results indicate that gesture is both closely related to spoken language impairment and compensatory. PMID:26169504

  19. The language-gesture connection: Evidence from aphasia.

    PubMed

    Dipper, Lucy; Pritchard, Madeleine; Morgan, Gary; Cocks, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    A significant body of evidence from cross-linguistic and developmental studies converges to suggest that co-speech iconic gesture mirrors language. This paper aims to identify whether gesture reflects impaired spoken language in a similar way. Twenty-nine people with aphasia (PWA) and 29 neurologically healthy control participants (NHPs) produced a narrative discourse, retelling the story of a cartoon video. Gesture and language were analysed in terms of semantic content and structure for two key motion events. The aphasic data showed an influence on gesture from lexical choices but no corresponding clausal influence. Both the groups produced gesture that matched the semantics of the spoken language and gesture that did not, although there was one particular gesture-language mismatch (semantically "light" verbs paired with semantically richer gesture) that typified the PWA narratives. These results indicate that gesture is both closely related to spoken language impairment and compensatory. PMID:26169504

  20. [Aphasia in a polyglot: description and neuropsychological course].

    PubMed

    Martinell-Gispert-Saúch, M; Gil-Saladié, D; Delgado-González, M

    1997-04-01

    We present a case of aphasia due to an ischaemic lesion in the left temporo-occipital region of the brain of a 60 year old right-handed polyglot. Mother tongues: French, Italian, Arabic. Educated at school in English. Languages learnt as an adult: German, Portuguese, Spanish. Language habitually spoken prior to illness: Spanish. His language disorder was of non-fluent type and progressed to an anomic disorder. The non-parallel recovery of languages led to an initial and predominant recovery of English (language at school) followed by French (his first language). This type of non-parallel recovery may be compatible with the inhibition-disinhibition mechanism hypothesis. This would mean that the languages of least recovery are inhibited by raising the threshold of some circuits while still permitting comprehension. PMID:9172921

  1. Friends and Foes in the Lexicon: Homophone Naming in Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Erica L.; Chen, Qi; Verkuilen, Jay

    2014-01-01

    The study of homophones—words with different meanings that sound the same--has great potential to inform models of language production. Of particular relevance is a phenomenon termed frequency inheritance, where a low frequency word (e.g., deer) is produced more fluently than would be expected based on its frequency characteristics, presumably because of shared phonology with a high-frequency homophone counterpart (e.g., dear). However, prior studies have been inconsistent in showing frequency inheritance. To explain this inconsistency, we propose a dual nature account of homophony: a high-frequency counterpart exerts two counterposing effects on a low frequency homophone target during the two main stages of naming: (1) a detrimental impact during semantically-driven lexical retrieval; (2) a beneficial impact during phonological retrieval. In a study of naming in participants with chronic aphasia followed by computational investigations, we find strong evidence for the dual nature account of homophony. PMID:25329091

  2. Brain contusion with aphasia following an ice hockey injury.

    PubMed

    Degen, Ryan M; Fink, Matthew E; Callahan, Lisa; Fibel, Kenton H; Ramsay, Jim; Kelly, Bryan T

    2016-09-01

    Head injuries are relatively common in ice hockey, with the majority represented by concussions, a form of mild traumatic brain injury. More severe head injuries are rare since the implementation of mandatory helmet use in the 1960s. We present a case of a 27 year-old male who sustained a traumatic intraparenchymal hemorrhage with an associated subdural hematoma resulting after being struck by a puck shot at high velocity. The patient presented with expressive aphasia, with no other apparent neurologic deficits. Acutely, he was successfully treated with observation and serial neuroimaging studies ensuring an absence of hematoma expansion. After a stable clinical picture following 24 hours of observation, the patient was discharged and managed with outpatient speech therapy with full resolution of symptoms and return to play 3 months later. We will outline the patient presentation and pertinent points in the management of acute head injuries in athletes. PMID:27074595

  3. Is in vivo amyloid distribution asymmetric in primary progressive aphasia?

    PubMed

    Martersteck, Adam; Murphy, Christopher; Rademaker, Alfred; Wieneke, Christina; Weintraub, Sandra; Chen, Kewei; Mesulam, M-Marsel; Rogalski, Emily

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to determine whether (18) F-florbetapir amyloid positron emission tomography imaging shows a clinically concordant, left-hemisphere-dominant pattern of deposition in primary progressive aphasia (PPA). Elevated cortical amyloid (Aβ(+) ) was found in 19 of 32 PPA patients. Hemispheric laterality of amyloid burden was compared between Aβ(+) PPA and an Aβ(+) amnestic dementia groups (n = 22). The parietal region showed significantly greater left lateralized amyloid uptake in the PPA group than the amnestic group (p < 0.007), consistent with the left lateralized pattern of neurodegeneration in PPA. These results suggest that the cortical distribution of amyloid may have a greater clinical concordance than previously reported. PMID:26600088

  4. Elicitation of specific syntactic structures in primary progressive aphasia

    PubMed Central

    DeLeon, Jessica; Gesierich, Benno; Besbris, Max; Ogar, Jennifer; Henry, Maya L.; Miller, Bruce L.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Wilson, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    Many patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) are impaired in syntactic production. Because most previous studies of expressive syntax in PPA have relied on quantitative analysis of connected speech samples, which is a relatively unconstrained task, it is not well understood which specific syntactic structures are most challenging for these patients. We used an elicited syntactic production task to identify which syntactic structures pose difficulties for 31 patients with three variants of PPA: non-fluent/agrammatic, semantic and logopenic. Neurodegenerative and healthy age-matched participants were included as controls. As expected, non-fluent/agrammatic patients made the most syntactic errors. The structures that resulted in the most errors were constructions involving third person singular present agreement, and constructions involving embedded clauses. Deficits on this elicited production task were associated with atrophy of the left posterior inferior frontal gyrus. PMID:23046707

  5. Verb and auxiliary movement in agrammatic Broca’s aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Bastiaanse, Roelien; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2011-01-01

    Verb production in agrammatic Broca’s aphasia has repeatedly been shown to be impaired by a number of investigators. Not only is the number of verbs produced often significantly reduced, but verb inflections and auxiliaries are often omitted as well (e.g., Bastiaanse, Jonkers, & Moltmaker-Osinga, 1996; Saffran, Berndt, & Schwartz, 1989; Thompson, Shapiro, Li, & Schendel, 1994, 1997). It has been suggested that these problems are, in part, caused by the fact that finite verbs need to be moved from their base-generated position to inflectional nodes in the syntactic tree (e.g., Bastiaanse & Van Zonneveld, 1998). Others have suggested that production deficits in agrammatism can be predicted based on the position that certain structures take in the syntactic tree (Friedmann & Grodzinsky, 1997; Hagiwara, 1995). If the former theory is correct, several predictions can be made. First of all, the discrepancy between production of finite verbs in the matrix and embedded clause that has been found for Dutch (Bastiaanse & Van Zonneveld, 1998) should not be observed in English, since the word order of the matrix and embedded clause are the same in the latter language. Second, if verb movement (including movement of auxiliaries) is problematic for speakers with agrammatic aphasia, then a hierarchy in the production of auxiliaries in yes/no questions, auxiliaries, and finite verbs in declarative sentences in English would be expected, since the former has been moved and the two latter are in base-generated position. In the present paper, these hypotheses were tested in a cross-linguistic study of Dutch and English. Results showed the position in the syntactic tree does not predict deficit patterns; rather the critical factor appears to relate to whether or not verb or auxiliary movement is required. PMID:12590917

  6. Beyond the temporal pole: limbic memory circuit in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Rachel H; Wong, Stephanie; Kril, Jillian J; Piguet, Olivier; Hornberger, Michael; Hodges, John R; Halliday, Glenda M

    2014-07-01

    Despite accruing evidence for relative preservation of episodic memory in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (previously semantic dementia), the neural basis for this remains unclear, particularly in light of their well-established hippocampal involvement. We recently investigated the Papez network of memory structures across pathological subtypes of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and demonstrated severe degeneration of all relay nodes, with the anterior thalamus in particular emerging as crucial for intact episodic memory. The present study investigated the status of key components of Papez circuit (hippocampus, mammillary bodies, anterior thalamus, cingulate cortex) and anterior temporal cortex using volumetric and quantitative cell counting methods in pathologically-confirmed cases with semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (n = 8; 61-83 years; three males), behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia with TDP pathology (n = 9; 53-82 years; six males) and healthy controls (n = 8, 50-86 years; four males). Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia cases with TDP pathology were selected because of the association between the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia and TDP pathology. Our findings revealed that the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia and behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia show similar degrees of anterior thalamic atrophy. The mammillary bodies and hippocampal body and tail were preserved in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia but were significantly atrophic in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia. Importantly, atrophy in the anterior thalamus and mild progressive atrophy in the body of the hippocampus emerged as the main memory circuit regions correlated with increasing dementia severity in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia. Quantitation of neuronal populations in the cingulate cortices confirmed the selective loss of anterior cingulate

  7. Profiling Performance in L1 and L2 Observed in Greek-English Bilingual Aphasia Using the Bilingual Aphasia Test: A Case Study from Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kambanaros, Maria; Grohmann, Kleanthes K.

    2011-01-01

    The Greek and the English versions of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) were used to assess the linguistic abilities of a premorbidly highly proficient late bilingual female after a haemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident involving the left temporo-parietal lobe. The BAT was administered in the two languages on separate occasions by the first author,…

  8. Influences of Electromagnetic Articulography Sensors on Speech Produced by Healthy Adults and Individuals with Aphasia and Apraxia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, William F.; Bharadwaj, Sneha V.; Stettler, Monica P.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined whether the intraoral transducers used in electromagnetic articulography (EMA) interfere with speech and whether there is an added risk of interference when EMA systems are used to study individuals with aphasia and apraxia. Method: Ten adult talkers (5 individuals with aphasia/apraxia, 5 controls) produced 12 American…

  9. An Integrated Approach for Treating Discourse in Aphasia: Bridging the Gap between Language Impairment and Functional Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milman, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A primary goal of aphasia intervention is to improve everyday communication. Although a large body of research focuses on treatment generalization, transfer of learning to real-world interactions involving discourse does not always occur. The goal of an integrated discourse treatment for aphasia (IDTA) approach is to facilitate such…

  10. Using Computers to Enable Self-Management of Aphasia Therapy Exercises for Word Finding: The Patient and Carer Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Rebecca; Enderby, Pam; Paterson, Gail

    2013-01-01

    Background: Speech and language therapy (SLT) for aphasia can be difficult to access in the later stages of stroke recovery, despite evidence of continued improvement with sufficient therapeutic intensity. Computerized aphasia therapy has been reported to be useful for independent language practice, providing new opportunities for continued…

  11. The Participants' Perspective: How Biographic-Narrative Intervention Influences Identity Negotiation and Quality of Life in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsten, Sabine; Schimpf, Erika J.; Konradi, Jürgen; Keilmann, Annerose; Hardering, Friedericke

    2015-01-01

    Background: People with aphasia experience a pronounced decrease in quality of life (QoL). Beyond that identity negotiation is hindered, which is crucial for QoL. Biographic-narrative approaches use life story telling to support identity (re)development after disruptive events like stroke. Because of the language deficits inherent in aphasia such…

  12. Grammatical Planning Units during Real-Time Sentence Production in Speakers with Agrammatic Aphasia and Healthy Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jiyeon; Yoshida, Masaya; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Grammatical encoding (GE) is impaired in agrammatic aphasia; however, the nature of such deficits remains unclear. We examined grammatical planning units during real-time sentence production in speakers with agrammatic aphasia and control speakers, testing two competing models of GE. We queried whether speakers with agrammatic aphasia…

  13. "That Doesn't Translate": The Role of Evidence-Based Practice in Disempowering Speech Pathologists in Acute Aphasia Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Abby; Worrall, Linda; Rose, Miranda; O'Halloran, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    Background: An evidence-practice gap has been identified in current acute aphasia management practice, with the provision of services to people with aphasia in the acute hospital widely considered in the literature to be inconsistent with best-practice recommendations. The reasons for this evidence-practice gap are unclear; however, speech…

  14. The Influence of Phonomotor Treatment on Word Retrieval Abilities in 26 Individuals with Chronic Aphasia: An Open Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Diane L.; Oelke, Megan; Brookshire, Carmel Elizabeth; Nadeau, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The ultimate goal of aphasia therapy should be to achieve gains in function that generalize to untrained exemplars and daily conversation. Anomia is one of the most disabling features of aphasia. The predominantly lexical/semantic approaches used to treat anomia have low potential for generalization due to the orthogonality of semantic…

  15. Improved Vocabulary Production after Naming Therapy in Aphasia: Can Gains in Picture Naming Generalise to Connected Speech?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Paul; Sage, Karen; Ralph, Matt Lambon

    2009-01-01

    Background: Naming accuracy for nouns and verbs in aphasia can vary across different elicitation contexts, for example, simple picture naming, composite picture description, narratives, and conversation. For some people with aphasia, naming may be more accurate to simple pictures as opposed to naming in spontaneous, connected speech; for others,…

  16. Aphasia Rehabilitation in Asia and the Pacific Region: Japan, China, India, Australia and New Zealand. Monograph #45.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarno, Martha Taylor, Ed.; Woods, Diane E., Ed.

    This monograph presents a "state of the art" overview of contemporary aphasia rehabilitation policies and resources in Asia and the Pacific region. Following Martha Taylor Sarno's introduction, Sumiko Sasanuma discusses the history and development of Japan's aphasia rehabilitation services, focusing on demography and data sources, assessment and…

  17. Frontal dynamic aphasia in progressive supranuclear palsy: Distinguishing between generation and fluent sequencing of novel thoughts.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Gail A; Spooner, Donna; Harrison, William J

    2015-10-01

    Frontal dynamic aphasia is characterised by a profound reduction in spontaneous speech despite well-preserved naming, repetition and comprehension. Since Luria (1966, 1970) designated this term, two main forms of dynamic aphasia have been identified: one, a language-specific selection deficit at the level of word/sentence generation, associated with left inferior frontal lesions; and two, a domain-general impairment in generating multiple responses or connected speech, associated with more extensive bilateral frontal and/or frontostriatal damage. Both forms of dynamic aphasia have been interpreted as arising due to disturbances in early prelinguistic conceptual preparation mechanisms that are critical for language production. We investigate language-specific and domain-general accounts of dynamic aphasia and address two issues: one, whether deficits in multiple conceptual preparation mechanisms can co-occur; and two, the contribution of broader cognitive processes such as energization, the ability to initiate and sustain response generation over time, to language generation failure. Thus, we report patient WAL who presented with frontal dynamic aphasia in the context of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). WAL was given a series of experimental tests that showed that his dynamic aphasia was not underpinned by a language-specific deficit in selection or in microplanning. By contrast, WAL presented with a domain-general deficit in fluent sequencing of novel thoughts. The latter replicated the pattern documented in a previous PSP patient (Robinson, et al., 2006); however, unique to WAL, generating novel thoughts was impaired but there was no evidence of a sequencing deficit because perseveration was absent. Thus, WAL is the first unequivocal case to show a distinction between novel thought generation and subsequent fluent sequencing. Moreover, WAL's generation deficit encompassed verbal and non-verbal responses, showing a similar (but more profoundly reduced) pattern

  18. Primary progressive aphasia in a bilingual speaker: a single-case study.

    PubMed

    Zanini, Sergio; Angeli, Valentina; Tavano, Alessandro

    2011-06-01

    We report on the case of an elderly bilingual woman presenting with a diagnosis of primary progressive aphasia. The participant's native language was Friulian (L1), a predominantly oral Romance language, and her second language was Italian (L2), formally learned at primary school in oral and written forms. We investigated her linguistic abilities by means of the Bilingual Aphasia Test ( Paradis, M., & Libben, G. (1987). The assessment of bilingual aphasia. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates), which is specifically devised for studying language levels and skills in bilingual/polyglot individuals with aphasia. Specifically, we focused on different tasks extracted from the Bilingual Aphasia Test, targeting phonology, morphology, syntax and lexical semantics. Results show that both languages were affected to a clinically significant degree, but with different profiles in terms of linguistic levels, suggesting the presence of greater phonological, morphological, grammatical and syntactic impairments in L2. Results are discussed in terms of possible dissociations both within the language system of each language and between languages, within the Procedural/Declarative theoretical framework of language acquisition in bilinguals. PMID:21631307

  19. Validating new diagnostic imaging criteria for primary progressive aphasia via anatomical likelihood estimation meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Bisenius, S; Neumann, J; Schroeter, M L

    2016-04-01

    Recently, diagnostic clinical and imaging criteria for primary progressive aphasia (PPA) have been revised by an international consortium (Gorno-Tempini et al. Neurology 2011;76:1006-14). The aim of this study was to validate the specificity of the new imaging criteria and investigate whether different imaging modalities [magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)] require different diagnostic subtype-specific imaging criteria. Anatomical likelihood estimation meta-analyses were conducted for PPA subtypes across a large cohort of 396 patients: firstly, across MRI studies for each of the three PPA subtypes followed by conjunction and subtraction analyses to investigate the specificity, and, secondly, by comparing results across MRI vs. FDG-PET studies in semantic dementia and progressive nonfluent aphasia. Semantic dementia showed atrophy in temporal, fusiform, parahippocampal gyri, hippocampus, and amygdala, progressive nonfluent aphasia in left putamen, insula, middle/superior temporal, precentral, and frontal gyri, logopenic progressive aphasia in middle/superior temporal, supramarginal, and dorsal posterior cingulate gyri. Results of the disease-specific meta-analyses across MRI studies were disjunct. Similarly, atrophic and hypometabolic brain networks were regionally dissociated in both semantic dementia and progressive nonfluent aphasia. In conclusion, meta-analyses support the specificity of new diagnostic imaging criteria for PPA and suggest that they should be specified for each imaging modality separately. PMID:26901360

  20. Effects of Word Frequency and Modality on Sentence Comprehension Impairments in People with Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    DeDe, Gayle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose It is well known that people with aphasia have sentence comprehension impairments. The present study investigated whether lexical factors contribute to sentence comprehension impairments in both the auditory and written modalities using on-line measures of sentence processing. Methods People with aphasia and non-brain-damaged controls participated in the experiment (n=8 per group). Twenty-one sentence pairs containing high and low frequency words were presented in self-paced listening and reading tasks. The sentences were syntactically simple and differed only in the critical words. The dependent variables were response times for critical segments of the sentence and accuracy on the comprehension questions. Results The results showed that word frequency influences performance on measures of sentence comprehension in people with aphasia. The accuracy data on the comprehension questions suggested that people with aphasia have more difficulty understanding sentences containing low frequency words in the written compared to auditory modality. Both group and single case analyses of the response time data also pointed to more difficulty with reading than listening. Conclusions The results show that sentence comprehension in people with aphasia is influenced by word frequency and presentation modality. PMID:22294411

  1. Verb Production in Aphasia: Testing the Division of Labor between Syntax and Semantics.

    PubMed

    Thorne, Julia; Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen

    2016-02-01

    Some individuals with aphasia preferably use semantically general light verbs, whereas others prefer semantically specific heavy verbs. This study aimed to test Gordon and Dell's "division of labor" hypothesis that light versus heavy verb usage depends on syntactic and semantic processes, respectively. In a retrospective analysis of data from the AphasiaBank corpus, narrative language of neurologically healthy individuals and individuals with aphasia was analyzed for the proportion of light verbs used, and its relationship with narrative measures of syntactic and semantic sophistication and verb naming scores was examined. In individuals with aphasia, light verb usage was positively correlated with a syntactic measure (developmental sentence score) and negatively associated with two semantic measures (idea density and verb naming). For healthy individuals, the number of verbs per utterance, which is a measure of syntactic complexity, predicted light verb use. These findings suggest that light verb usage in aphasia observes an inverse relationship with syntactic and semantic abilities, supporting the division of labor hypothesis. PMID:26882362

  2. Using others' words: conversational use of reported speech by individuals with aphasia and their communication partners.

    PubMed

    Hengst, Julie A; Frame, Simone R; Neuman-Stritzel, Tiffany; Gannaway, Rachel

    2005-02-01

    Reported speech, wherein one quotes or paraphrases the speech of another, has been studied extensively as a set of linguistic and discourse practices. Researchers agree that reported speech is pervasive, found across languages, and used in diverse contexts. However, to date, there have been no studies of the use of reported speech among individuals with aphasia. Grounded in an interactional sociolinguistic perspective, the study presented here documents and analyzes the use of reported speech by 7 adults with mild to moderately severe aphasia and their routine communication partners. Each of the 7 pairs was videotaped in 4 everyday activities at home or around the community, yielding over 27 hr of conversational interaction for analysis. A coding scheme was developed that identified 5 types of explicitly marked reported speech: direct, indirect, projected, indexed, and undecided. Analysis of the data documented reported speech as a common discourse practice used successfully by the individuals with aphasia and their communication partners. All participants produced reported speech at least once, and across all observations the target pairs produced 400 reported speech episodes (RSEs), 149 by individuals with aphasia and 251 by their communication partners. For all participants, direct and indirect forms were the most prevalent (70% of RSEs). Situated discourse analysis of specific episodes of reported speech used by 3 of the pairs provides detailed portraits of the diverse interactional, referential, social, and discourse functions of reported speech and explores ways that the pairs used reported speech to successfully frame talk despite their ongoing management of aphasia. PMID:15934449

  3. Guiding principles for printed education materials: design preferences of people with aphasia.

    PubMed

    Rose, Tanya A; Worrall, Linda E; Hickson, Louise M; Hoffmann, Tammy C

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to obtain the preferences of people with aphasia for the design of stroke and aphasia printed education materials (PEMs) and to compare these preferences with recommendations in the literature for developing written information for other populations. A face-to-face quantitative questionnaire was completed with 40 adults with aphasia post-stroke. The questionnaire explored preferences for: (1) the representation of numbers, (2) font size and type, (3) line spacing, (4) document length, and (5) graphic type. Most preferences (62.4%, n = 146) were for numbers expressed as figures rather than words. The largest proportion of participants selected 14 point (28.2%, n = 11) and Verdana ref (33.3%, n = 13) as the easiest font size and type to read, and a preference for 1.5 line spacing (41.0%, n = 16) was identified. Preference for document length was not related to the participant's reading ability or aphasia severity. Most participants (95.0%, n = 38) considered graphics to be helpful, with photographs more frequently reported as a helpful graphic type. The identified preferences support many of the formatting recommendations found within the literature. This research provides guiding principles for developing PEMs in preferred formats for people with aphasia. PMID:22136650

  4. Verbal Description of Concrete Objects: A Method for Assessing Semantic Circumlocution in Persons With Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    MacWilliam, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We investigated from a theoretically motivated perspective what information differentiated sufficient from insufficient descriptions of objects provided by persons with aphasia. Method Twenty-one adults with aphasia consequent to single left-hemisphere stroke verbally described 9 living and 9 nonliving objects. Responses were scored for accuracy (i.e., sufficiency) and tallied for type and quantity of semantic feature information provided. Main effects and interactions were identified using repeated measures analyses of variance, with significant findings followed up with planned comparisons. Results Differences between correct and incorrect descriptions were identified with respect to both feature type and feature distinctiveness for living and nonliving items, in particular highlighting the importance of distinctive features in descriptions of both domains. Conclusions These findings add to the relatively small body of literature investigating semantic feature processing in adults with aphasia. This is a critical gap to close when considered in light of the preponderance of semantically based treatments for word-retrieval impairment in stroke-aphasia. Our findings provide preliminary support for the notion that semantically guided treatments for word-retrieval impairment in stroke-aphasia may be geared toward increasing specificity of semantic circumlocution to increase semantic self-cueing and to improve communication of information to conversation partners. PMID:26381474

  5. Severe Generalized Weakness, Paralysis, and Aphasia following Administration of Irinotecan and Oxaliplatin during FOLFIRINOX Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Chandar, Manisha; de Wilton Marsh, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background Irinotecan is commonly used in combination with oxaliplatin as a component of FOLFIRINOX chemotherapy for several gastrointestinal malignancies. The purpose of this case report is to describe a patient who developed acute paralysis and aphasia while receiving her initial infusion of irinotecan. Case Report A 67-year-old woman with newly diagnosed metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma presented for her first cycle of FOLFIRINOX chemotherapy. During her infusion of irinotecan, she developed acute onset of generalized weakness, paralysis of all extremities, and nonfluent aphasia with complete inability to communicate. This episode was self-limited and resolved within 2 h. Prior to subsequent infusions she received intravenous repletion of potassium and had no recurrence of symptoms. Discussion In selected cases, coadministration of irinotecan and oxaliplatin may result in severe generalized weakness and aphasia, which may be triggered by underlying electrolyte disturbances. Careful monitoring and correction of potassium may help prevent this reaction. PMID:25873880

  6. Bilingualism and memory: early 19th century ideas about the significance of polyglot aphasia.

    PubMed

    Lorch, Marjorie

    2007-07-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, there was very little attention given to bilingual speakers within the growing clinical literature on aphasia. The first major publication on this topic (Pitres, 1895), appeared three decades after Broca's seminal work. Previously, Ribot (1881) had discussed the phenomenon of bilingual aphasia in the context of diseases of memory. Although interest in the neurological basis of the language faculty was in fact present throughout the century, the theoretical implications of the knowledge of more than one language did not appear to be linked to this issue. A number of British authors writing in the first half of the 19th century have been identified who did consider the significance of these cases. Importantly, these writers speculated on the implication of bilingual aphasia specifically with regard to ideas about memory rather than language. Consideration of these writings helps to illuminate the history of ideas about the organization of language in the brain. PMID:17715800

  7. Aphasia in polyglots: report of two cases and analysis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mastronardi, L; Ferrante, L; Celli, P; Acqui, M; Fortuna, A

    1991-10-01

    Two cases of aphasia in polyglot patients who experienced different symptoms in each of the languages they knew are reported. The authors discuss the problem and analyze the available literature in an attempt to formulate a pathogenetic hypothesis of the different involvement of the known idioms sometimes observed in aphasic polyglots. In particular, when time has elapsed between the learning of the mother tongue and other languages, and all the known languages are, consequently, functionally independent, it is possible that the two or more known idioms have distinct anatomical representations, probably localized separately in the two hemispheres. This could explain why, in some polyglots, aphasia affects one of the known languages preferentially. In subjects in whom the different known idioms were learned during early childhood, the anatomical representation of the languages is similar, which explains why, in this kind of polyglot, all the known languages can be equally affected by cerebral damage that causes aphasia. PMID:1944849

  8. Why Is It Difficult to Predict Language Impairment and Outcome in Patients with Aphasia after Stroke?

    PubMed Central

    Kasselimis, Dimitrios; Varkanitsa, Maria; Selai, Caroline; Potagas, Constantin; Evdokimidis, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    One of the most devastating consequences of stroke is aphasia. Communication problems after stroke can severely impair the patient's quality of life and make even simple everyday tasks challenging. Despite intense research in the field of aphasiology, the type of language impairment has not yet been localized and correlated with brain damage, making it difficult to predict the language outcome for stroke patients with aphasia. Our primary objective is to present the available evidence that highlights the difficulties of predicting language impairment after stroke. The different levels of complexity involved in predicting the lesion site from language impairment and ultimately predicting the long-term outcome in stroke patients with aphasia were explored. Future directions and potential implications for research and clinical practice are highlighted. PMID:24829592

  9. Contributions of bilateral white matter to chronic aphasia symptoms as assessed by diffusion tensor MRI

    PubMed Central

    Geva, Sharon; Correia, Marta M.; Warburton, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Language reorganisation following stroke has been studied widely. However, while studies of brain activation and grey matter examined both hemispheres, studies of white matter changes have mostly focused on the left hemisphere. Here we examined the relationship between bilateral hemispheric white matter and aphasia symptoms. 15 chronic stroke patients with aphasia and 18 healthy adults were studied using Diffusion Weighted Imaging data. By applying histogram analysis, Tract-Based Spatial Statistics, tractography and lesion-tract overlap methods, it was found that damage to the left hemisphere in general, and to the arcuate fasciculus in particular, correlated with impairments on word repetition, object naming, sentence comprehension and homophone and rhyme judgement. However, no such relationship was found in the right hemisphere. It is suggested that while some language function in aphasia can be explained by damage to the left arcuate fasciculus, it cannot be explained by looking at the contra-lesional tract. PMID:26401977

  10. Progression of logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia to apraxia and semantic memory deficits

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to the nature of neurodegenerative disorders, patients with primary progressive aphasia develop cognitive impairment other than aphasia as the disorder progresses. The progression of logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA), however, has not been well described. In particular, praxic disorders and semantic memory deficits have rarely been reported. Case presentations We report three patients in the initial stage of lvPPA who subsequently developed apraxia in the middle stage and developed clinically evident semantic memory deficits in the advanced stages. Conclusions The present case series suggests that some patients with lvPPA develop an atypical type of dementia with apraxia and semantic memory deficits, suggesting that these cases should be classified as a type of early-onset Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:24176108

  11. Frontotemporal networks and behavioral symptoms in primary progressive aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Mesulam, Marsel M.; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Murphy, Declan; Wieneke, Christina; Martersteck, Adam; Cobia, Derin; Rogalski, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine if behavioral symptoms in patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) were associated with degeneration of a ventral frontotemporal network. Methods: We used diffusion tensor imaging tractography to quantify abnormalities of the uncinate fasciculus that connects the anterior temporal lobe and the ventrolateral frontal cortex. Two additional ventral tracts were studied: the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus. We also measured cortical thickness of anterior temporal and orbitofrontal regions interconnected by these tracts. Thirty-three patients with PPA and 26 healthy controls were recruited. Results: In keeping with the PPA diagnosis, behavioral symptoms were distinctly less prominent than the language deficits. Although all 3 tracts had structural pathology as determined by tractography, significant correlations with scores on the Frontal Behavioral Inventory were found only for the uncinate fasciculus. Cortical atrophy of the orbitofrontal and anterior temporal lobe cortex was also correlated with these scores. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that damage to a frontotemporal network mediated by the uncinate fasciculus may underlie the emergence of behavioral symptoms in patients with PPA. PMID:26992858

  12. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in primary progressive aphasia and apraxia of speech

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Tarun D.; Duffy, Joseph R; Strand, Edythe A.; Machulda, Mary M.; Whitwell, Jennifer L.; Josephs, Keith A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To conduct a prospective analysis of the neuropsychiatric symptoms(NPS) across the three categories of primary progressive aphasia(PPA) and apraxia of speech(PPAOS), to compare the prevalence and nature of the symptoms, and look at which symptoms could be helpful to better differentiate these PPA and PPAOS categories. Methods 106 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of semantic variant{svPPA}(13), logopenic variant{lvPPA}(37), agrammatic variant{agPPA}(15) or PPAOS(41), were included in this prospective study. The NPS were measured by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q). Results There were 65 patients with PPA and 41 with PPAOS diagnosis. The most distinguishing features between the two groups were anxiety, apathy, aberrant motor behavior and appetite, while among the subtypes of PPA were disinhibition and appetite changes. PPA and PPAOS patients initially exhibited depression but with increase in disease duration, the PPAOS patients showed apathy (55.5%) while the PPA patients showed disinhibition (28.6%) and aberrant motor behavior (14.3%). Conclusion Mood symptoms like anxiety and appetite changes are more likely to be present in initial stages of PPA whereas behavioral symptoms like aberrant motor behavior and apathy are likely to occur in PPAOS. The NPS seems to evolve with the progression of the disease in both PPA and PPAOS. PMID:25613190

  13. Speech Therapy in Primary Progressive Aphasia: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Farrajota, Luísa; Maruta, Carolina; Maroco, João; Martins, Isabel Pavão; Guerreiro, Manuela; de Mendonça, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    Background Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative disorder with no effective pharmacological treatment. Cognition-based interventions are adequate alternatives, but their benefit has not been thoroughly explored. Our aim was to study the effect of speech and language therapy (SLT) on naming ability in PPA. Methods An open parallel prospective longitudinal study involving two centers was designed to compare patients with PPA submitted to SLT (1 h/week for 11 months) with patients receiving no therapy. Twenty patients were enrolled and undertook baseline language and neuropsychological assessments; among them, 10 received SLT and 10 constituted an age- and education-matched historical control group. The primary outcome measure was the change in group mean performance on the Snodgrass and Vanderwart naming test between baseline and follow-up assessments. Results Intervention and control groups did not significantly differ on demographic and clinical variables at baseline. A mixed repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant main effect of therapy (F(1,18) = 10.763; p = 0.005) on the performance on the Snodgrass and Vanderwart naming test. Conclusion Although limited by a non-randomized open study design with a historical control group, the present study suggests that SLT may have a benefit in PPA, and it should prompt a randomized, controlled, rater-blind clinical trial. PMID:22962556

  14. Acute Lyme Neuroborreliosis With Transient Hemiparesis and Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, Arseny A; Lienhard, Reto; Du Pasquier, Renaud; Erard, Véronique

    2015-07-01

    Nervous system involvement in Lyme disease often mimics other conditions and thus represents a diagnostic challenge, especially in an emergency department setting. We report a case of a female teenager presenting with sudden-onset aphasia and transient right-sided faciobrachial hemiplegia, along with headache and agitation. Ischemia, vasculitis, or another structural lesion was excluded by brain imaging. Toxicologic evaluation results were negative. Cerebral perfusion computed tomography and electroencephalography showed left parietotemporal brain dysfunction. Lumbar puncture result, although atypical, suggested bacterial infection and intravenous ceftriaxone was initiated. Finally, microbiological cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed Lyme neuroborreliosis, showing specific intrathecal antibody production and high level of C-X-C motif chemokine 13. The patient rapidly recovered. To our knowledge, this report for the first time illustrates that acute-onset language and motor symptoms may be directly related to Lyme neuroborreliosis. Neuroborreliosis may mimic other acute neurologic events such as stroke and should be taken into diagnostic consideration even in the absence of classic symptoms and evolution. PMID:25728308

  15. Multimodal Communication Training in Aphasia: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Purdy, Mary; Van Dyke, Julie A

    2011-09-01

    Management of patients with aph asia often focuses on training nonverbal augmentative communication strategies; however, these strategies frequently do not generalize to natural situations. The limited success may be because training waS not sufficient to produce an integrated multimodal semantic representation. The purpose of this study was to examine whether simultaneous training of stimuli in both verbal and nonverbal modalities would solidify the links within the semantic network and improve switching among modalities as needed in conversation. Two individuals with severe aphasia participated in 6 to 8 hours of Multi moda I Communication Training (MeT), during which they conveyed a concept by verbalizing, gesturing, writing, and drawing. After practice with all modalities for a single concept, a new concept was introduced. Results showed that one participant increased conveyance of concepts on the functional communication task using a variety of modalities. Although some improvement was seen with the second participant, his overall performance remained poor, likely because of a greater impairment in semantic knowledge. After a brief period of semantic training, the second participant demonstrated additional gains. Thus, MeT may serve to increase switching among verbal and nonverbal modalities in individuals with intact semantic representations, thereby increasing the likelihood that individuals will use an alternative method to communicate. PMID:24558295

  16. Short Term Memory, Working Memory, and Syntactic Comprehension in Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, David; Michaud, Jennifer; Hufford, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Sixty one people with aphasia were tested on ten tests of short term memory (STM) and for the ability to use syntactic structure to determine the meanings of eleven types of sentences in three tasks – object manipulation, picture matching and picture matching with self-paced listening. Multilevel models showed relationships between measures of the ability to retain and manipulate item and order information in STM and accuracy and RT, and a greater relationship between these STM measures and accuracy and RT for several more complex sentence types in individual tasks. There were no effects of measures of STM that reflect the use of phonological codes or rehearsal on comprehension. There was only one effect of STM measures on self-paced listening times. There were double dissociations between performance on STM and individual comprehension tasks, indicating that normal STM is not necessary to perform normally on these tasks. The results are most easily related to the view that STM plays a facilitatory role in supporting the use of the products of the comprehension process to accomplish operations related to tasks. PMID:23865692

  17. Distinctive pathological mechanisms involved in primary progressive aphasias.

    PubMed

    Leyton, Cristian E; Britton, Anna K; Hodges, John R; Halliday, Glenda M; Kril, Jillian J

    2016-02-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) comprises a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative conditions that can be classified in three cliniconeuroanatomic syndromes. Limited information exists, however, about patterns of neuropathologic spreading and microscopic changes underpinning each syndrome. We performed an analysis of a longitudinal in vivo cohort and a postmortem PPA cohort to investigate neurodegeneration over time and to quantify microscopic changes in key language brain areas. The longitudinal analyses demonstrated distinctive patterns of topological extension of brain atrophy. Although semantic variant (sv-PPA) showed an eccentric pattern, nonfluent and/or agrammatic (nfv-PPA) and logopenic (lv-PPA) variants showed additional multifocal extension. The quantitative pathology showed that sv-PPA had neuronal loss and thinning in BA 38, whereas nfv-PPA showed thinning in BA 44/45 and evidence of microscopic involvement in BA 40/22. Although lv-PPA showed neuronal loss focused on BA 40/22, imaging results demonstrated widespread left-sided brain atrophy. These analyses provide an account of the pathologic process whereby each variant has stereotypical patterns of brain atrophy extension, which is largely determined by the specific pathologic type. PMID:26827646

  18. Measuring Lexical Diversity in Narrative Discourse of People With Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Wright, Heather H.; West, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose A microlinguistic content analysis for assessing lexical semantics in people with aphasia (PWA) is lexical diversity (LD). Sophisticated techniques have been developed to measure LD. However, validity evidence for these methodologies when applied to the discourse of PWA is lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate four measures of LD to determine how effective they were at measuring LD in PWA. Method Four measures of LD were applied to short discourse samples produced by 101 PWA: (a) the Measure of Textual Lexical Diversity (MTLD; McCarthy, 2005), (b) the Moving-Average Type-Token Ratio (MATTR; Covington, 2007), (c) D (McKee, Malvern, & Richards, 2000), and (d) the Hypergeometric Distribution (HD-D; McCarthy & Jarvis, 2007). LD was estimated using each method, and the scores were subjected to a series of analyses (e.g., curve-fitting, analysis of variance, confirmatory factor analysis). Results Results from the confirmatory factor analysis suggested that MTLD and MATTR reflect LD and little of anything else. Further, two indices (HD-D and D) were found to be equivalent, suggesting that either one can be used when samples are >50 tokens. Conclusion MTLD and MATTR yielded the strongest evidence for producing unbiased LD scores, suggesting that they may be the best measures for capturing LD in PWA. PMID:23695912

  19. Delayed auditory feedback simulates features of nonfluent primary progressive aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Maruta, Carolina; Makhmood, Sonya; Downey, Laura E.; Golden, Hannah L.; Fletcher, Phillip D.; Witoonpanich, Pirada; Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Warren, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    The pathophysiology of nonfluent primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA) remains poorly understood. Here, we compared quantitatively speech parameters in patients with nfvPPA versus healthy older individuals under altered auditory feedback, which has been shown to modulate normal speech output. Patients (n = 15) and healthy volunteers (n = 17) were recorded while reading aloud under delayed auditory feedback [DAF] with latency 0, 50 or 200 ms and under DAF at 200 ms plus 0.5 octave upward pitch shift. DAF in healthy older individuals was associated with reduced speech rate and emergence of speech sound errors, particularly at latency 200 ms. Up to a third of the healthy older group under DAF showed speech slowing and frequency of speech sound errors within the range of the nfvPPA cohort. Our findings suggest that (in addition to any anterior, primary language output disorder) these key features of nfvPPA may reflect distorted speech input signal processing, as simulated by DAF. DAF may constitute a novel candidate pathophysiological model of posterior dorsal cortical language pathway dysfunction in nfvPPA. PMID:25305712

  20. Classification of primary progressive aphasia and its variants

    PubMed Central

    Hillis, A.E.; Weintraub, S.; Kertesz, A.; Mendez, M.; Cappa, S.F.; Ogar, J.M.; Rohrer, J.D.; Black, S.; Boeve, B.F.; Manes, F.; Dronkers, N.F.; Vandenberghe, R.; Rascovsky, K.; Patterson, K.; Miller, B.L.; Knopman, D.S.; Hodges, J.R.; Mesulam, M.M.; Grossman, M.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a classification of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) and its 3 main variants to improve the uniformity of case reporting and the reliability of research results. Criteria for the 3 variants of PPA—nonfluent/agrammatic, semantic, and logopenic—were developed by an international group of PPA investigators who convened on 3 occasions to operationalize earlier published clinical descriptions for PPA subtypes. Patients are first diagnosed with PPA and are then divided into clinical variants based on specific speech and language features characteristic of each subtype. Classification can then be further specified as “imaging-supported” if the expected pattern of atrophy is found and “with definite pathology” if pathologic or genetic data are available. The working recommendations are presented in lists of features, and suggested assessment tasks are also provided. These recommendations have been widely agreed upon by a large group of experts and should be used to ensure consistency of PPA classification in future studies. Future collaborations will collect prospective data to identify relationships between each of these syndromes and specific biomarkers for a more detailed understanding of clinicopathologic correlations. PMID:21325651

  1. THE NON-FLUENT/AGRAMMATIC VARIANT OF PRIMARY PROGRESSIVE APHASIA

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, Murray

    2012-01-01

    In an era of disease-modifying treatments, the non-fluent/agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia (naPPA) may help screen for a specific cause of neurodegenerative disease. However, there are controversies surrounding the identification of naPPA. This review describes the characteristic features associated with this discrete, young-onset neurodegenerative condition. Patients with naPPA have a distinct limitation in language emphasizingtheir poor grammatical comprehension and expression, as well as a disorder of speech sound production. Imaging studies associate an impairment of this uniquely human language capacity with disruption of a large-scale neural network centered in left inferior frontal and anterior-superior temporal regions. This corresponds to thepathologic burden of disease anatomically focused in left inferior frontal and anterior-superior temporal regions. A review of the histopathology underlying naPPA relates this condition to frontotemporal lobar degeneration spectrum pathology involving the microtubule-associated protein tau in a majority of cases. While much work remains to be done, these observations point to unique clinical-pathological correlations that can advance care for an important class of diseases while supplementing our knowledge of human cognitive neuroscience. PMID:22608668

  2. Verbal repetition in primary progressive aphasia and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Leyton, Cristian E; Savage, Sharon; Irish, Muireann; Schubert, Samantha; Piguet, Olivier; Ballard, Kirrie J; Hodges, John R

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to explore the nature of verbal repetition deficits and infer the cognitive systems involved in primary progressive aphasia (PPA) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). A total of 63 patients (13 semantic variant (sv-PPA), 17 nonfluent/agrammatic variant (nfv-PPA), 10 logopenic variant (lv-PPA), 23 AD) and 13 matched healthy controls completed a battery of tests that included naming, word comprehension, digit span, repetition of multisyllabic single words, monosyllabic word span presented under similar and dissimilar phonological conditions, and sentence repetition. All patient groups displayed some level of impairment, however, specific patterns emerged in each variant. Participants with sv-PPA were the least impaired, showing marginal difficulties exclusively for sentence repetition, whereas those with lv-PPA had the worst overall performance. Cases with nfv-PPA showed compromised repetition of multisyllabic and phonologically similar words. The deficit in cases with AD was confined to span tasks. These distinctive patterns of language impairments can assist in the differential diagnosis of PPA variants and point toward the vulnerability of specific cognitive systems in each syndrome. PMID:24662100

  3. Case Studies Illustrating Focal Alzheimer's, Fluent Aphasia, Late-Onset Memory Loss, and Rapid Dementia.

    PubMed

    Camsari, Gamze Balci; Murray, Melissa E; Graff-Radford, Neill R

    2016-08-01

    Many dementia subtypes have more shared signs and symptoms than defining ones. We review 8 cases with 4 overlapping syndromes and demonstrate how to distinguish the cases. These include focal cortical presentations of Alzheimer's disease (AD; posterior cortical atrophy and corticobasal syndrome [CBS]), fluent aphasia (semantic dementia and logopenic aphasia), late-onset slowly progressive dementia (hippocampal sclerosis and limbic predominant AD) and rapidly progressive dementia (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and limbic encephalitis). Recognizing the different syndromes can help the clinician to improve their diagnostic skills, leading to improved patient outcomes by early and accurate diagnosis, prompt treatment, and appropriate counseling and guidance. PMID:27445249

  4. Evidence for multiple routes of speech production in a case of fluent aphasia.

    PubMed

    Ingles, J L; Mate-Kole, C C; Connolly, J F

    1996-06-01

    A case study is reported of a 24-year old woman who developed fluent aphasia with superior reading relative to auditory comprehension following herpes simplex encephalitis. Her language disturbance showed exceptional features: oral reading, repetition and naming to confrontation were severely impaired and yet her spontaneous speech recovered to be relatively intact. These features are not consistent with Wernicke's aphasia, pure word deafness or any classic aphasic syndromes. These findings indicate the presence of several routes for phonological output that may be differentially impaired. PMID:8800611

  5. Primary progressive aphasia as the initial manifestation of corticobasal degeneration. A "three in one " syndrome?

    PubMed

    Ioannides, Panos; Karacostas, Dimitris; Hatzipantazi, Maria; Ioannis, Milonas

    2005-01-01

    In 1994, the term "Pick complex" was proposed to indicate significant clinical and pathological overlapping between primary progressive aphasia, frontal lobe dementia and corticobasal degeneration. We report the case of a 60-year-old man, who initially presented progressive non-fluent aphasia with orofacial apraxia, and subsequently, over a period of 3 years, developed mutism, pathological laughter, extrapyramidal rigidity, dystonia, alien hand syndrome and bulbar signs. An extensive haematological, immunological and biochemical work up was normal. The results of neuroimaging studies and neuropsychological tests, along with the clinical evolution, finally led us to the ?three in one? diagnosis, supporting the concept of Pick complex. PMID:16324238

  6. Asymmetry and heterogeneity of Alzheimer’s and frontotemporal pathology in primary progressive aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Weintraub, Sandra; Rogalski, Emily J.; Wieneke, Christina; Geula, Changiz; Bigio, Eileen H.

    2014-01-01

    Fifty-eight autopsies of patients with primary progressive aphasia are reported. Twenty-three of these were previously described (Mesulam et al., 2008) but had their neuropathological diagnoses updated to fit current criteria. Thirty-five of the cases are new. Their clinical classification was guided as closely as possible by the 2011 consensus guidelines (Gorno-Tempini et al., 2011). Tissue diagnoses included Alzheimer’s disease in 45% and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) in the others, with an approximately equal split between TAR DNA binding protein 43 proteinopathies and tauopathies. The most common and distinctive feature for all pathologies associated with primary progressive aphasia was the asymmetric prominence of atrophy, neuronal loss, and disease-specific proteinopathy in the language-dominant (mostly left) hemisphere. The Alzheimer’s disease pathology in primary progressive aphasia displayed multiple atypical features. Males tended to predominate, the neurofibrillary pathology was more intense in the language-dominant hemisphere, the Braak pattern of hippocampo-entorhinal prominence was tilted in favour of the neocortex, and the APOE e4 allele was not a risk factor. Mean onset age was under 65 in the FTLD as well as Alzheimer’s disease groups. The FTLD-TAR DNA binding protein 43 group had the youngest onset and fastest progression whereas the Alzheimer’s disease and FTLD-tau groups did not differ from each other in either onset age or progression rate. Each cellular pathology type had a preferred but not invariant clinical presentation. The most common aphasic manifestation was of the logopenic type for Alzheimer pathology and of the agrammatic type for FTLD-tau. The progressive supranuclear palsy subtype of FTLD-tau consistently caused prominent speech abnormality together with agrammatism whereas FTLD-TAR DNA binding protein 43 of type C consistently led to semantic primary progressive aphasia. The presence of agrammatism made

  7. A Dextral Primary Progressive Aphasia Patient with Right Dominant Hypometabolism and Tau Accumulation and Left Dominant Amyloid Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Young Kyoung; Park, Seongbeom; Kim, Hee Jin; Cho, Hanna; Lyoo, Chul Hyoung; Seo, Sang Won; Na, Duk L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a degenerative disease that presents as progressive decline of language ability with preservation of other cognitive functions in the early stages. Three subtypes of PPA are known: progressive nonfluent aphasia, semantic dementia, and logopenic aphasia (LPA). Patients and Methods We report the case of a 77-year-old patient with PPA whose clinical findings did not correspond to the three subtypes but mainly fit LPA. Unlike other LPA patients, however, this patient showed a right hemisphere predominant glucose hypometabolism and tau accumulation and a left hemisphere predominant amyloid deposition. The right-handed patient presented with comprehension difficulty followed by problems naming familiar objects. This isolated language problem had deteriorated rapidly for 2 years, followed by memory difficulties and impairment of daily activities. Using a Korean version of the Western Aphasia Battery, aphasia was consistent with a severe form of Wernicke's aphasia. According to the brain magnetic resonance imaging and 18F-fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography results, right hemisphere atrophy and hypometabolism, more predominant on the right hemisphere than the left, were apparent despite the fact that Edinburgh Handedness Questionnaire scores indicated strong right-handedness. On Pittsburgh compound B-PET, amyloid accumulation was asymmetrical with the left hemisphere being more predominant than the right, whereas 18F-T807-PET showed a right dominant tau accumulation. Conclusions This is the first report of atypical PPA, in which the patient exhibited crossed aphasia and asymmetrical amyloid accumulation. PMID:27194988

  8. Profiling performance in L1 and L2 observed in Greek-English bilingual aphasia using the Bilingual Aphasia Test: a case study from Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Kambanaros, Maria; Grohmann, Kleanthes K

    2011-06-01

    The Greek and the English versions of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) were used to assess the linguistic abilities of a premorbidly highly proficient late bilingual female after a haemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident involving the left temporo-parietal lobe. The BAT was administered in the two languages on separate occasions by the first author, a bilingual English-Greek speech pathologist. The results revealed a non-parallel recovery in the two languages. This information will be used not only to guide clinical intervention for the patient but also to provide the first report on the manifestations of aphasia in Greek. Moreover, the use of the (Standard Modern) Greek version of the BAT to investigate Greek Cypriot aphasics has implications for the use of the BAT on underspecified languages or dialects. Such studies may help with the development of assessment measures and therapy strategies that focus on specific characteristics of one or multiple languages. PMID:21453038

  9. Verbal creativity in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Teresa Q; Miller, Zachary A; Adhimoolam, Babu; Zackey, Diana D; Khan, Baber K; Ketelle, Robin; Rankin, Katherine P; Miller, Bruce L

    2015-02-01

    Emergence of visual and musical creativity in the setting of neurologic disease has been reported in patients with semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), also called semantic dementia (SD). It is hypothesized that loss of left anterior frontotemporal function facilitates activity of the right posterior hemispheric structures, leading to de novo creativity observed in visual artistic representation. We describe creativity in the verbal domain, for the first time, in three patients with svPPA. Clinical presentations are carefully described in three svPPA patients exhibiting verbal creativity, including neuropsychology, neurologic exam, and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was performed to quantify brain atrophy patterns in these patients against age-matched healthy controls. All three patients displayed new-onset creative writing behavior and produced extensive original work during the course of disease. Patient A developed interest in wordplay and generated a large volume of poetry. Patient B became fascinated with rhyming and punning. Patient C wrote and published a lifestyle guidebook. An overlap of their structural MR scans showed uniform sparing in the lateral portions of the language-dominant temporal lobe (superior and middle gyri) and atrophy in the medial temporal cortex (amygdala, limbic cortex). New-onset creativity in svPPA may represent a paradoxical functional facilitation. A similar drive for production is found in visually artistic and verbally creative patients. Mirroring the imaging findings in visually artistic patients, verbal preoccupation and creativity may be associated with medial atrophy in the language-dominant temporal lobe, but sparing of lateral dominant temporal and non-dominant posterior cortices. PMID:24329034

  10. Verbal creativity in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Wu, T.Q.; Miller, Z.A.; Adhimoolam, B.; Zackey, D.C.; Khan, B.K.; Ketelle, R.; Miller, B.L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Emergence of visual and musical creativity in the setting of neurologic disease has been reported in patients with semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), also called semantic dementia (SD). It is hypothesized that loss of left anterior frontotemporal function facilitates activity of the right posterior hemispheric structures, leading to de novo creativity observed in visual artistic representation. We describe creativity in the verbal domain, for the first time, in three patients with svPPA. Methods Clinical presentations are carefully described in three svPPA patients exhibiting verbal creativity, including neuropsychology, neurologic exam, and structural MRI. Voxel based morphometry (VBM) was performed to quantify brain atrophy patterns in these patients against age-matched healthy controls. Results All three patients displayed new-onset creative writing behavior and produced extensive original work during the course of disease. Patient A developed interest in wordplay and generated a large volume of poetry. Patient B became fascinated with rhyming and punning. Patient C wrote and published a lifestyle guidebook. An overlap of their structural MR scans showed uniform sparing in the lateral portions of the language-dominant temporal lobe (superior and middle gyri) and atrophy in the medial temporal cortex (amygdala, limbic cortex). Conclusions New-onset creativity in svPPA may represent a paradoxical functional facilitation. A similar drive for production is found in visually artistic and verbally creative patients. Mirroring the imaging findings in visually artistic patients, verbal preoccupation and creativity may associate with medial atrophy in the language-dominant temporal lobe but sparing of lateral dominant temporal and non-dominant posterior cortices. PMID:24329034

  11. The forgotten grammatical category: Adjective use in agrammatic aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer-Asscher, Aya; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2014-01-01

    Background In contrast to nouns and verbs, the use of adjectives in agrammatic aphasia has not been systematically studied. However, because of the linguistic and psycholinguistic attributes of adjectives, some of which overlap with nouns and some with verbs, analysis of adjective production is important for testing theories of word class production deficits in agrammatism. Aims The objective of the current study was to compare adjective use in agrammatic and healthy individuals, focusing on three factors: overall adjective production rate, production of predicative and attributive adjectives, and production of adjectives with complex argument structure. Method & Procedures Narratives elicited from 14 agrammatic and 14 control participants were coded for open class grammatical category production (i.e., nouns, verbs, adjectives), with each adjective also coded for its syntactic environment (attributive/predicative) and argument structure. Outcomes & Results Overall, agrammatic speakers used adjectives in proportions similar to that of cognitively healthy speakers. However, they exhibited a greater proportion of predicative adjectives and a lesser proportion of attributive adjectives, compared to controls. Additionally, agrammatic participants produced adjectives with less complex argument structure than controls. Conclusions The overall normal-like frequency of adjectives produced by agrammatic speakers suggests that agrammatism does not involve an inherent difficulty with adjectives as a word class or with predication, or that it entails a deficit in processing low imageability words. However, agrammatic individuals’ reduced production of attributive adjectives and adjectives with complements extends previous findings of an adjunction deficit and of impairment in complex argument structure processing, respectively, to the adjectival domain. The results suggest that these deficits are not tied to a specific grammatical category. PMID:24882945

  12. Typicality of Inanimate Category Exemplars in Aphasia Treatment: Further Evidence for Semantic Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiran, Swathi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The typicality treatment approach on improving naming was investigated within 2 inanimate categories ("furniture" and "clothing") using a single-subject experimental design across participants and behaviors in 5 patients with aphasia. Method: Participants received a semantic feature treatment to improve naming of either typical or…

  13. TMS Suppression of Right Pars Triangularis, but Not Pars Opercularis, Improves Naming in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naeser, Margaret A.; Martin, Paula I.; Theoret, Hugo; Kobayashi, Masahito; Fregni, Felipe; Nicholas, Marjorie; Tormos, Jose M.; Steven, Megan S.; Baker, Errol H.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to discover if an optimum 1 cm[squared] area in the non-damaged right hemisphere (RH) was present, which could temporarily improve naming in chronic, nonfluent aphasia patients when suppressed with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Ten minutes of slow, 1 Hz rTMS was applied to suppress different RH ROIs in…

  14. Altered Intrinsic Regional Activity and Interregional Functional Connectivity in Post-stroke Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mi; Li, Jiao; Li, Yibo; Li, Rong; Pang, Yajing; Yao, Dezhong; Liao, Wei; Chen, Huafu

    2016-01-01

    Several neuroimaging studies have examined cerebral function in patients who suffer from aphasia, but the mechanism underlying this disorder remains poorly understood. In this study, we examined alterations in the local regional and remote interregional network cerebral functions in aphasia combined with amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations and interregional functional connectivity (FC) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 17 post-stroke aphasic patients, all having suffered a stroke in the left hemisphere, as well as 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls, were enrolled in this study. The aphasic patients showed significantly increased intrinsic regional activity mainly in the contralesional mesial temporal (hippocampus/parahippocampus, [HIP/ParaHIP]) and lateral temporal cortices. In addition, intrinsic regional activity in the contralesional HIP/ParaHIP was negatively correlated with construction score. Aphasic patients showed increased remote interregional FC between the contralesional HIP/ParaHIP and fusiform gyrus, but reduced FC in the ipsilesional occipital and parietal cortices. These findings suggested that the intrinsic regional brain dysfunctions in aphasia were related to interregional functional connectivity. Changes in the intrinsic regional brain activity and associated remote functional connectivity pattern would provide valuable information to enhance the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of aphasia. PMID:27091494

  15. Reaction Time and Accuracy in Individuals with Aphasia during Auditory Vigilance Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laures, Jacqueline S.

    2005-01-01

    Research indicates that attentional deficits exist in aphasic individuals. However, relatively little is known about auditory vigilance performance in individuals with aphasia. The current study explores reaction time (RT) and accuracy in 10 aphasic participants and 10 nonbrain-damaged controls during linguistic and nonlinguistic auditory…

  16. Perspectives on Public Awareness of Stroke and Aphasia among Turkish Patients in a Neurology Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavis, Ilknur

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies on awareness have drawn attention to the fact that aphasia is a little known disorder to the public, in spite of all the publicity about this frequently occurring neurogenic language disorder. Being a very new concept, studies of awareness are rare in Turkey. This survey study assessed the extent of public awareness of neurological…

  17. Gesture and Naming Therapy for People with Severe Aphasia: A Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jane; Best, Wendy; Cocks, Naomi; Cruice, Madeline; Pring, Tim; Bulcock, Gemma; Creek, Gemma; Eales, Nancy; Mummery, Alice Lockhart; Matthews, Niina; Caute, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors (a) investigated whether a group of people with severe aphasia could learn a vocabulary of pantomime gestures through therapy and (b) compared their learning of gestures with their learning of words. The authors also examined whether gesture therapy cued word production and whether naming therapy cued gestures.…

  18. Primary Progressive Aphasia in a Bilingual Speaker: A Single-Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanini, Sergio; Angeli, Valentina; Tavano, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    We report on the case of an elderly bilingual woman presenting with a diagnosis of primary progressive aphasia. The participant's native language was Friulian (L1), a predominantly oral Romance language, and her second language was Italian (L2), formally learned at primary school in oral and written forms. We investigated her linguistic abilities…

  19. Treatment of Semantic Verb Classes in Aphasia: Acquisition and Generalization Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Graham, Lauren E.

    2011-01-01

    Verb retrieval difficulties are common in aphasia; however, few successful treatments have been documented (e.g. Conroy, P., Sage, K., & Lambon Ralph, M. A. (2006). Towards theory-driven therapies for aphasic verb impairments: A review of current theory and practice. "Aphasiology", 20, 1159-1185). This study investigated the efficacy of a novel…

  20. The Use of Semantic- and Phonological-Based Feature Approaches to Treat Naming Deficits in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare approaches highlighting either semantic or phonological features to treat naming deficits in aphasia. Treatment focused on improving picture naming. An alternating treatments design was used with a multiple baseline design across stimuli to examine effects of both approaches in two participants with varying…

  1. Perceived Liveliness and Speech Comprehensibility in Aphasia: The Effects of Direct Speech in Auditory Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groenewold, Rimke; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Nickels, Lyndsey; Huiskes, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that in semi-spontaneous speech, individuals with Broca's and anomic aphasia produce relatively many direct speech constructions. It has been claimed that in "healthy" communication direct speech constructions contribute to the liveliness, and indirectly to the comprehensibility, of speech.…

  2. Semantic Interference during Object Naming in Agrammatic and Logopenic Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Cynthia K.; Cho, Soojin; Price, Charis; Wieneke, Christina; Bonakdarpour, Borna; Rogalski, Emily; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M-Marsel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the time course of object naming in 21 individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) (8 agrammatic (PPA-G); 13 logopenic (PPA-L)) and healthy age-matched speakers (n=17) using a semantic interference paradigm with related and unrelated interfering stimuli presented at stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) of -1000, -500, -100…

  3. Adapting the Bilingual Aphasia Test to Rarotongan (Cook Islands Maori): Linguistic and Clinical Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amberber, Amanda Miller

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the adaptation of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) to the Rarotongan dialect of Cook Islands Maori, a Polynesian language spoken in the Cook Islands and expatriate communities. A brief linguistic sketch of Rarotongan is presented. As Rarotongan is characterised by a complex pronominal system, "a" versus "o" possession and…

  4. Effect of Semantic Naming Treatment on Crosslinguistic Generalization in Bilingual Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Lisa A.; Kiran, Swathi

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The effect of semantic naming treatment on crosslinguistic generalization was investigated in 3 participants with English-Spanish bilingual aphasia. Method: A single-subject experimental designed was used. Participants received semantic treatment to improve naming of English or Spanish items, while generalization was tested to untrained…

  5. The Effect of a Therapy Dog on the Communication Skills of an Adult with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFrance, Caroline; Garcia, Linda J.; Labreche, Julianne

    2007-01-01

    Little evidence-based research has been published within the field of communication disorders on the role of dogs as catalysts for human communication. This single participant study, a point of entry into this realm of research, explores the effects of a therapy dog on the communication skills of a patient with aphasia receiving intensive speech…

  6. Variability in Subcortical Aphasia Is Due to Variable Sites of Cortical Hypoperfusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillis, Argye E.; Barker, Peter B.; Wityk, Robert J.; Aldrich, Eric M.; Restrepo, Lucas; Breese, Elisabeth L.; Work, Melissa

    2004-01-01

    A variety of fluent and nonfluent aphasias have been reported after left basal ganglia stroke. It has been speculated that this heterogeneity may reflect variations in cortical hypoperfusion resulting from large vessel stenosis. To test this hypothesis, a consecutive series of 24 patients with left caudate infarct identified with…

  7. The Merest L"ogomachy": The 1868 Norwich Discussion of Aphasia by Hughlings Jackson and Broca

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorch, Marjorie Perlman

    2008-01-01

    This article reconsiders the events that took place at the 1868 meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (BA) in Norwich. Paul Broca and John Hughlings Jackson were invited to speak on the new and controversial subject of aphasia. Over the ensuing decades, there have been repeated references made to a debate between Broca…

  8. Patterns of Comprehension Performance in Agrammatic Broca's Aphasia: A Test of the Trace Deletion Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caramazza, A.; Capasso, R.; Capitani, E.; Miceli, G.

    2005-01-01

    We tested the core prediction of the Trace Deletion Hypothesis (TDH) of agrammatic Broca's aphasia, which contends that such patients' comprehension performance is normal for active reversible sentences but at chance level for passive reversible sentences. We analyzed the comprehension performance of 38 Italian Broca's aphasics with verified…

  9. Listening to the Voice of Living Life with Aphasia: Anne's Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Rozanne

    2008-01-01

    Background: Listening to how people talk about the consequences of acquired aphasia helps one gain insight into how people construe disability and communication disability in particular. It has been found that some of these construals can be more of a disabling barrier in re-engaging with life than the communication impairment itself. Aims: To…

  10. Visuomotor Tracking Abilities of Speakers with Apraxia of Speech or Conduction Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robin, Donald A.; Jacks, Adam; Hageman, Carlin; Clark, Heather M.; Woodworth, George

    2008-01-01

    This investigation examined the visuomotor tracking abilities of persons with apraxia of speech (AOS) or conduction aphasia (CA). In addition, tracking performance was correlated with perceptual judgments of speech accuracy. Five individuals with AOS and four with CA served as participants, as well as an equal number of healthy controls matched by…

  11. Word-Category Violations in Patients with Broca's Aphasia: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wassenaar, Marlies; Hagoort, Peter

    2005-01-01

    An event-related brain potential experiment was carried out to investigate on-line syntactic processing in patients with Broca's aphasia. Subjects were visually presented with sentences that were either syntactically correct or contained violations of word-category. Three groups of subjects were tested: Broca patients (N=11), non-aphasic patients…

  12. A Comparison of Two Theoretically Driven Treatments for Verb Inflection Deficits in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen

    2008-01-01

    Errors in the production of verb inflections, especially tense inflections, are pervasive in agrammatic Broca's aphasia ("*The boy eat"). The neurolinguistic underpinnings of these errors are debated. One group of theories attributes verb inflection errors to disruptions in encoding the verb's morphophonological form, resulting from either a…

  13. Treating Verbs in Aphasia: Exploring the Impact of Therapy at the Single Word and Sentence Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Janet; Whitworth, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Background: In recent years there has been significant interest in the differential processing of nouns and verbs in people with aphasia, but more limited consideration about whether the differences have implications for therapy. It remains unclear whether verbs can be treated in a similar way to nouns or should be treated using approaches that…

  14. Anatomic, Clinical, and Neuropsychological Correlates of Spelling Errors in Primary Progressive Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, HyungSub; Hurley, Robert S.; Rogalski, Emily; Mesulam, M.-Marsel

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates spelling errors in the three subtypes of primary progressive aphasia (PPA): agrammatic (PPA-G), logopenic (PPA-L), and semantic (PPA-S). Forty-one PPA patients and 36 age-matched healthy controls were administered a test of spelling. The total number of errors and types of errors in spelling to dictation of regular words,…

  15. The Time-Course of Lexical Activation during Sentence Comprehension in People with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrill, Michelle; Love, Tracy; Walenski, Matthew; Shapiro, Lewis P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the time-course of processing of lexical items in auditorily presented canonical (subject-verb-object) constructions in young, neurologically unimpaired control participants and participants with left-hemisphere damage and agrammatic aphasia. Method: A cross modal picture priming (CMPP) paradigm was used to test 114 control…

  16. Role of Importance and Distinctiveness of Semantic Features in People with Aphasia: A Replication Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason-Baughman, Mary Beth; Wallace, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that people with aphasia have incomplete lexical-semantic representations with decreased low-importance distinctive (LID) feature knowledge. In addition, decreased LID feature knowledge correlates with ability to discriminate among semantically related words. The current study seeks to replicate and extend previous…

  17. Reconciling the Perspective of Practitioner and Service User: Findings from The Aphasia in Scotland Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, James; Huby, Guro; Irving, Anne-Marie; Pringle, Ann-Marie; Conochie, Douglas; Haworth, Catherine; Burston, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Background: It is widely accepted that service users should be actively involved in new service developments, but there remain issues about how best to consult with them and how to reconcile their views with those of service providers. Aims: This paper uses data from The Aphasia in Scotland study, set up by NHS Quality Improvement Scotland to…

  18. Health-Related Quality of Life in People with Severe Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilari, Katerina; Byng, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Background: Health-related quality of life (HRQL) measures are increasingly used to help us understand the impact of disease or disability on a person's life and to measure the effectiveness of interventions. A small number of studies have looked at perceived HRQL in people with mild or moderate aphasia. They report that reduced HRQL is associated…

  19. Biomarkers of "Linguistic Anxiety" in aphasia: a proof-of-concept case study.

    PubMed

    Cahana-Amitay, Dalia; Oveis, Abigail C; Sayers, Jesse T; Pineles, Suzanne L; Spiro, Avron; Albert, Martin L

    2015-05-01

    This is a proof-of-concept case study designed to evaluate the presence of "Linguistic Anxiety" in a person with mild aphasia. The participant (aged 68) was tested on linguistic and non-linguistic cognitive tasks administered under conditions that differed in levels of anxiety. A validated anxiety-induction technique rarely used in previous aphasia studies was employed: the participant was instructed to prepare for a public speaking presentation. Measures of linguistic and non-linguistic cognitive performance, and anxiety (self-report and psychophysiologic) were obtained. The participant exhibited increased psychophysiologic stress reactivity (heart rate, skin conductance and self-report ratings) in the high-anxiety condition. In the state of increased anxiety, performance on language tasks, in particular discourse production, declined relative to performance in low-anxiety settings. Even in mild aphasia, language-based anxiety can interfere with language performance. This finding provides a basis for carrying out a study with a larger sample that can open a new path to assessment and treatment of persons with aphasia. PMID:25815438

  20. Cognitive and Cognate-Based Treatments for Bilingual Aphasia: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohnert, Kathryn

    2004-01-01

    Two consecutive treatments were conducted to investigate skill learning and generalization within and across cognitive-linguistic domains in a 62-year-old Spanish-English bilingual man with severe non-fluent aphasia. Treatment 1 was a cognitive-based treatment that emphasized non-linguistic skills, such as visual scanning, categorization, and…

  1. Evaluation of Attention Training and Metacognitive Facilitation to Improve Reading Comprehension in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaime B.; Sohlberg, McKay Moore

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This pilot study investigated the impact of direct attention training combined with metacognitive facilitation on reading comprehension in individuals with aphasia. Method: A single-subject, multiple baseline design was employed across 4 participants to evaluate potential changes in reading comprehension resulting from an 8-week…

  2. Lesion Characteristics Related to Treatment Improvement in Object and Action Naming for Patients with Chronic Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, R. Bruce; Raymer, Anastasia; Chang, Yu-Ling; FitzGerald, David B.; Crosson, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between degree of lesion in various locations and improvement during treatment in stroke patients with chronic aphasia. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether the degree of lesion in specific brain regions was related to magnitude of improvement over the course of object and action naming…

  3. Mechanisms of Aphasia Recovery after Stroke and the Role of Noninvasive Brain Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Roy H.; Chrysikou, Evangelia G.; Coslett, Branch

    2011-01-01

    One of the most frequent symptoms of unilateral stroke is aphasia, the impairment or loss of language functions. Over the past few years, behavioral and neuroimaging studies have shown that rehabilitation interventions can promote neuroplastic changes in aphasic patients that may be associated with the improvement of language functions. Following…

  4. Overcoming Unintelligibility in Aphasia: The Impact of Non-Verbal Interactive Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damico, Jack S.; Wilson, Brent T.; Simmons-Mackie, Nina N.; Tetnowski, John A.

    2008-01-01

    As a follow-up to previous research, this report focuses on the wide range of gestures employed by an individual with aphasia to overcome instances of unintelligibility and re-establish intelligibility. The gestures observed are woven seamlessly into the fabric of the interactions and range from deictic to metaphorical or symbolic in nature.…

  5. Acquired aphasia without deafness in childhood--the Landau-Kleffner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hughes, A P; Appleton, R E; Hodgson, J

    1993-07-01

    A young boy presented with loss of speech and behaviour disturbance and was thought to be deaf. He was subsequently found to have the Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS), or acquired aphasia with epilepsy. Children with this disorder commonly present to an audiology or ENT clinic. Early recognition is important to initiate supportive, speech and educational care. PMID:15125283

  6. Model Choice and Sample Size in Item Response Theory Analysis of Aphasia Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hula, William D.; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Martin, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the most appropriate item response theory (IRT) measurement model for aphasia tests requiring 2-choice responses and to determine whether small samples are adequate for estimating such models. Method: Pyramids and Palm Trees (Howard & Patterson, 1992) test data that had been collected from…

  7. Where language meets meaningful action: a combined behavior and lesion analysis of aphasia and apraxia.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Peter H; Ubben, Simon D; Kaesberg, Stephanie; Kalbe, Elke; Kessler, Josef; Liebig, Thomas; Fink, Gereon R

    2016-01-01

    It is debated how language and praxis are co-represented in the left hemisphere (LH). As voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping in LH stroke patients with aphasia and/or apraxia may contribute to this debate, we here investigated the relationship between language and praxis deficits at the behavioral and lesion levels in 50 sub-acute stroke patients. We hypothesized that language and (meaningful) action are linked via semantic processing in Broca's region. Behaviorally, half of the patients suffered from co-morbid aphasia and apraxia. While 24% (n = 12) of all patients exhibited aphasia without apraxia, apraxia without aphasia was rare (n = 2, 4%). Left inferior frontal, insular, inferior parietal, and superior temporal lesions were specifically associated with deficits in naming, reading, writing, or auditory comprehension. In contrast, lesions affecting the left inferior frontal gyrus, premotor cortex, and the central region as well as the inferior parietal lobe were associated with apraxic deficits (i.e., pantomime, imitation of meaningful and meaningless gestures). Thus, contrary to the predictions of the embodied cognition theory, lesions to sensorimotor and premotor areas were associated with the severity of praxis but not language deficits. Lesions of Brodmann area (BA) 44 led to combined apraxic and aphasic deficits. Data suggest that BA 44 acts as an interface between language and (meaningful) action thereby supporting parcellation schemes (based on connectivity and receptor mapping) which revealed a BA 44 sub-area involved in semantic processing. PMID:25352157

  8. Should Pantomime and Gesticulation Be Assessed Separately for Their Comprehensibility in Aphasia? A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Nispen, Karin; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke; Mol, Lisette; Krahmer, Emiel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gesticulation (gestures accompanying speech) and pantomime (gestures in the absence of speech) can each be comprehensible. Little is known about the differences between these two gesture modes in people with aphasia. Aims: To discover whether there are differences in the communicative use of gesticulation and pantomime in QH, a person…

  9. Jean-Martin Charcot's Role in the 19th Century Study of Music Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Julene K.; Lorch, Marjorie; Nicolas, Serge; Graziano, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-93) was a well-known French neurologist. Although he is widely recognized for his discovery of several neurological disorders and his research into aphasia, Charcot's ideas about how the brain processes music are less well known. Charcot discussed the music abilities of several patients in the context of his "Friday…

  10. Aphasia and Cognitive Sciences: Problems of Appraisal Tests in Indian Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Santosh

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the urgency of therapeutic appraisal tests for various types of aphasia in India, where the clinical population comes from multilingual, multiethnic, and multicultural backgrounds; has a low literacy level; and hails from various geographical regions. The need for good diagnostic tests is imperative for a detailed evaluation of language…

  11. Do Particular Design Features Assist People with Aphasia to Comprehend Text? An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Lucy; Read, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Background: Much of the evidence underlying guidelines for producing accessible information for people with aphasia focuses on client preference for particular design features. There is limited evidence regarding the effects of these features on comprehension. Aims: To examine the effects of specific design features on text comprehension. It was…

  12. The Potential of Virtual Reality to Assess Functional Communication in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Linda J.; Rebolledo, Mercedes; Metthe, Lynn; Lefebvre, Renee

    2007-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) who work with adults with cognitive-linguistic impairments, including aphasia, have long needed an assessment tool that predicts ability to function in the real world. In this article, it is argued that virtual reality (VR)-supported approaches can address this need. Using models of disability such as the…

  13. Beginning to Teach the End: The Importance of Including Discharge from Aphasia Therapy in the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersh, Deborah; Cruice, Madeline

    2010-01-01

    Background: Discharging clients with long-term aphasia from therapy services constitutes a challenging dilemma for practising clinicians for a multitude of reasons. Although discharge was raised and discussed as a contentious issue in the field of aphasiology ten years ago, it remains an aspect of practice which is complex and underexplored. We…

  14. Learning to Fail in Aphasia: An Investigation of Error Learning in Naming

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Erica L.; Schwartz, Myrna F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine if the naming impairment in aphasia is influenced by error learning and if error learning is related to type of retrieval strategy. Method Nine participants with aphasia and ten neurologically-intact controls named familiar proper noun concepts. When experiencing tip-of-the-tongue naming failure (TOT) in an initial TOT-elicitation phase, participants were instructed to adopt phonological or semantic self-cued retrieval strategies. In the error learning manipulation, items evoking TOT states during TOT-elicitation were randomly assigned to a short or long time condition where participants were encouraged to continue to try to retrieve the name for either 20 seconds (short interval) or 60 seconds (long). The incidence of TOT on the same items was measured on a post test after 48-hours. Error learning was defined as a higher rate of recurrent TOTs (TOT at both TOT-elicitation and post test) for items assigned to the long (versus short) time condition. Results In the phonological condition, participants with aphasia showed error learning whereas controls showed a pattern opposite to error learning. There was no evidence for error learning in the semantic condition for either group. Conclusion Error learning is operative in aphasia, but dependent on the type of strategy employed during naming failure. PMID:23816662

  15. Intentional and Reactive Inhibition during Spoken-Word Stroop Task Performance in People with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pompon, Rebecca Hunting; McNeil, Malcolm R.; Spencer, Kristie A.; Kendall, Diane L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The integrity of selective attention in people with aphasia (PWA) is currently unknown. Selective attention is essential for everyday communication, and inhibition is an important part of selective attention. This study explored components of inhibition--both intentional and reactive inhibition--during spoken-word production in PWA and in…

  16. Fluent Versus Nonfluent Primary Progressive Aphasia: A Comparison of Clinical and Functional Neuroimaging Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, D.G.; Charuvastra, A.; Miller, B.L.; Shapira, J.S.; Mendez, M.F.

    2005-01-01

    To better characterize fluent and nonfluent variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). Although investigators have recognized both fluent and nonfluent patients with PPA (Mesulam, 2001), the clinical and neuroimaging features of these variants have not been fully defined. We present clinical and neuropsychological data on 47 PPA patients…

  17. A Note on the Organization of Fluent Speech in a Semantic Kind of Amnestic Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luria, A. R.

    1975-01-01

    A thirty-year case study of a Russian soldier suffering from a severe syndrome of parietal aphasia is discussed. Luria's book, "The Man with a Shattered World," is based on the soldier's 3,000-page diary, written after a period of training wherein he was told to write as fast as possible. (SCC)

  18. The Phonomotor Approach to Treating Phonological-Based Language Deficits in People with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Diane L.; Nadeau, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    The phonomotor treatment program for treating word-retrieval deficits among people with aphasia is inspired by a parallel distributed processing model of lexical processing and is focused at the level of individual phonemes and phoneme sequences. Because verbal production of words involves the translation of a lexical-semantic representation into…

  19. Bilingual Aphasia and Language Control: A Follow-Up fMRI and Intrinsic Connectivity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abutalebi, Jubin; Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Tettamanti, Marco; Green, David W.; Cappa, Stefano F.

    2009-01-01

    In a world that is becoming more multilingual, bilingual aphasia is a clinical problem with a major clinical impact. However, at present we lack causal explanations of the many features of recovery patterns and there is no consensus about the language in which the patient should receive speech therapy. Further advance requires an understanding of…

  20. Effect of Verb Network Strengthening Treatment in Moderate-to-Severe Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Lisa A.; Babb, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This Phase II treatment study examined the effect of Verb Network Strengthening Treatment (VNeST) on individuals with moderate-to-severe aphasia. Research questions addressed (a) pre- to posttreatment changes and pretreatment to treatment phase changes on probe sentences containing trained verbs (e.g., "The carpenter is 'measuring' the…

  1. Legal Decision-Making by People with Aphasia: Critical Incidents for Speech Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Alison; Duffield, Gemma; Worrall, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Background: The assessment and management of a person with aphasia for whom decision-making capacity is queried represents a highly complex clinical issue. In addition, there are few published guidelines and even fewer published accounts of empirical research to assist. Aims: The research presented in this paper aimed to identify the main issues…

  2. The Effects of Modified Melodic Intonation Therapy on Nonfluent Aphasia: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklyn, Dwyer; Novak, Eric; Boissy, Adrienne; Bethoux, Francois; Chemali, Kamal

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Positive results have been reported with melodic intonation therapy (MIT) in nonfluent aphasia patients with damage to their left-brain speech processes, using the patient's intact ability to sing to promote functional language. This pilot study sought to determine the immediate effects of introducing modified melodic intonation therapy…

  3. Coverbal Gestures in the Recovery from Severe Fluent Aphasia: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlomagno, Sergio; Zulian, Nicola; Razzano, Carmelina; De Mercurio, Ilaria; Marini, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    This post hoc study investigated coverbal gesture patterns in two persons with chronic Wernicke's aphasia. They had both received therapy focusing on multimodal communication therapy, and their pre- and post-therapy verbal and gestural skills in face-to-face conversational interaction with their speech therapist were analysed by administering a…

  4. The problem of aphasia in the assessment of consciousness in brain-damaged patients.

    PubMed

    Majerus, Steve; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Schnakers, Caroline; Giacino, Joseph T; Laureys, Steven

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of the level and content of consciousness in brain-damaged patients relies to a large extent on behavioral assessment techniques. The limited behavioral repertoire displayed by vegetative and minimally conscious states requires the use of highly sensitive and reliable behavioral assessment methods, allowing the detection of subtle changes in behavior and associated level of consciousness. This situation is further complicated when patients with such disorders of consciousness have underlying deficits in the domain of communication functions, such as aphasia. The present paper examines the consequences of receptive and/or productive aphasia on the already limited behavioral repertoire presented in these patients and discusses a number of behavioral and neuroimaging assessment procedures designed to: (1) detect the presence of aphasia in patients with disorders of consciousness, and (2) reliably assess the level of consciousness of brain-damaged patients while taking into account the existence of receptive and/or expressive language deficits. The combined use of behavioral and neuroimaging assessment techniques appears to be particularly promising for disentangling impaired consciousness and aphasia. PMID:19818894

  5. Sparing of Written Production of Proper Nouns and Dates in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Darren; Buchanan, Lori

    2004-01-01

    Aphasia is a total or partial loss of the ability to produce or understand language, usually caused by brain disease or injury. In this case study, the aphasic patient (BMW) has a profound impairment of oral production and a very moderate impairment in comprehension. Several years of informal observation lead to the current study that contrasts…

  6. Evolution of Phonemic Word Fluency Performance in Post-Stroke Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarno, Martha Taylor; Postman, Whitney Anne; Cho, Young Susan; Norman, Robert G.

    2005-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, quantitative and qualitative changes in responses of people with aphasia were examined on a phonemic fluency task. Eighteen patients were tested at 3-month intervals on the letters F-A-S while they received comprehensive, intensive treatment from 3 to 12 months post-stroke. They returned for a follow-up evaluation at an…

  7. Tell Me Your Story: Analysis of Script Topics Selected by Persons with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Audrey L.; Halper, Anita S.; Cherney, Leora R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the content of 100 short scripts, co-constructed by persons with aphasia (PWA) and a clinician. The PWA subsequently learned the scripts by interacting with a computerized virtual therapist. The goal was to provide clinicians with ideas regarding content for treatment that is meaningful to PWAs. Method: Thirty-three…

  8. Word Order and Finiteness in Dutch and English Broca's and Wernicke's Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastiaanse, Roelien; Edwards, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The effect of two linguistic factors in Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia was examined using Dutch and English subjects. Three tasks were used to test (1) the comprehension and (2) the construction of sentences, where verbs (in Dutch) and verb arguments (in Dutch and English) are in canonical versus non-canonical position; (3) the production of…

  9. Production and comprehension in aphasia: gains and pitfalls in using macrostructure tasks in Aesop's fables.

    PubMed

    Ulatowska, Hanna K; Reyes, Belinda; Olea Santos, Tricia; Garst, Diane; Mak, Kelly; Graham, Kelly

    2013-12-01

    Macrostructures provide the global meaning of a text. Using Aesop's fables, the main goal of this study has been to identify the advantages and limitations in using the macrostructure tasks of retell, summary, lesson, and gist as clinical tools in understanding 16 patients with mild-to-moderate aphasia. Results suggest that all of the macrostructure tasks are important in determining the production skills of patients with aphasia. Comprehension, on the other hand, is best determined through the macrostructure tasks of retell and lesson. In addition to the language processing skills of patients with aphasia, macrostructures also provide a cognitive picture of how patients manipulate information from stories (i.e., reducing information, making inferences, and generalizing didactic information). Inherent limitations, however, are seen when interpreting possible reasons why patients with aphasia are unable to perform some of these tasks. Given that the potential gains of using macrostructure tasks outweigh the limitations, this study suggests that macrostructures may have clinical value as a diagnostic tool in understanding the cognitive-linguistic processes of patients with brain injury. PMID:23721371

  10. Treatment of verb anomia in aphasia: efficacy of self-administered therapy using a smart tablet.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Monica; Routhier, Sonia; Légaré, Annie; Macoir, Joël

    2016-01-01

    Aphasia is a chronic condition that usually requires long-term rehabilitation. However, even if many effective treatments can be offered to patients and families, speech therapy services for individuals with aphasia often remain limited because of logistical and financial considerations, especially more than 6 months after stroke. Therefore, the need to develop tools to maximize rehabilitation potential is unquestionable. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a self-administered treatment delivered with a smart tablet to improve written verb naming skills in CP, a 63-year-old woman with chronic aphasia. An ABA multiple baseline design was used to compare CP's performance in verb naming on three equivalent lists of stimuli trained with a hierarchy of cues, trained with no cues, and not trained. Results suggest that graphemic cueing therapy, done four times a week for 3 weeks, led to better written verb naming compared to baseline and to the untrained list. Moreover, generalization of the effects of treatment was observed in verb production, assessed with a noun-to-verb production task. Results of this study suggest that self-administered training with a smart tablet is effective in improving naming skills in chronic aphasia. Future studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness of new technologies in self-administered treatment of acquired language deficits. PMID:26007615

  11. Stronger Accent Following a Stroke: The Case of a Trilingual with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Erika S.; Goral, Mira; De Diesbach, Catharine Castelluccio; Law, Franzo, II

    2011-01-01

    This study documents patterns of change in speech production in a multilingual with aphasia following a cerebrovascular accident (CVA). EC, a right-handed Hebrew-English-French trilingual man, had a left fronto-temporo-parietal CVA, after which he reported that his (native) Hebrew accent became stronger in his (second language) English. Recordings…

  12. Treatment Fidelity: Its Importance and Reported Frequency in Aphasia Treatment Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinckley, Jacqueline J.; Douglas, Natalie F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Treatment fidelity is a measure of the reliability of the administration of an intervention in a treatment study. It is an important aspect of the validity of a research study, and it has implications for the ultimate implementation of evidence-supported interventions in typical clinical settings. Method: Aphasia treatment studies…

  13. A Novel Pupillometric Method for Indexing Word Difficulty in Individuals with and without Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Laura R.; Hallowell, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Cognitive effort is a clinically important facet of linguistic processing that is often overlooked in the assessment and treatment of people with aphasia (PWA). Furthermore, there is a paucity of valid ways to index cognitive effort in PWA. The construct of cognitive effort has been indexed for decades via pupillometry (measurement of…

  14. The Time Course of Neurolinguistic and Neuropsychological Symptoms in Three Cases of Logopenic Primary Progressive Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etcheverry, Louise; Seidel, Barbara; Grande, Marion; Schulte, Stephanie; Pieperhoff, Peter; Sudmeyer, Martin; Minnerop, Martina; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Huber, Walter; Grodzinsky, Yosef; Amunts, Katrin; Heim, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a rare clinical dementia syndrome affecting predominantly language abilities. Word-finding difficulties and comprehension deficits despite relatively preserved cognitive functions are characteristic symptoms during the first two years, and distinguish PPA from other dementia types like Alzheimer's disease.…

  15. A Proposed Regional Hierarchy in Recovery of Post-Stroke Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiss, W.-D.; Thiel, A.

    2006-01-01

    Activation studies in patients with aphasia due to stroke or tumours in the dominant hemisphere have revealed effects of disinhibition in ipsilateral perilesional and in contralateral homotopic cortical regions, referred to as collateral and transcallosal disinhibition. These findings were supported by studies with selective disturbance of…

  16. The Linguistic Interpretation of Broca's Aphasia: A Reply to M.-L. Kean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolk, Herman H. J.

    1978-01-01

    Kean (EJ 165 107) presented a linguistic model to account for the features of the syndrome of Broca's aphasia, especially their agrammatism. This paper critiques Kean's paper by describing and evaluating her five major arguments. It is concluded that Kean's phonological model cannot account for agrammatism as well as syntactic models can.…

  17. Excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation induces improvements in chronic post-stroke aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Szaflarski, Jerzy P.; Vannest, Jennifer; Wu, Steve W.; DiFrancesco, Mark W.; Banks, Christi; Gilbert, Donald L.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Aphasia affects 1/3 of stroke patients with improvements noted only in some of them. The goal of this exploratory study was to provide preliminary evidence regarding safety and efficacy of fMRI-guided excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the residual left-hemispheric Broca’s area for chronic aphasia treatment. Material/Methods We enrolled 8 patients with moderate or severe aphasia >1 year after LMCA stroke. Linguistic battery was administered pre-/post-rTMS; a semantic decision/tone decision (SDTD) fMRI task was used to localize left-hemispheric Broca’s area. RTMS protocol consisted of 10 daily treatments of 200 seconds each using an excitatory stimulation protocol called intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS). Coil placement was targeted individually to the left Broca’s. Results 6/8 patients showed significant pre-/post-rTMS improvements in semantic fluency (p=0.028); they were able to generate more appropriate words when prompted with a semantic category. Pre-/post-rTMS fMRI maps showed increases in left fronto-temporo-parietal language networks with a significant left-hemispheric shift in the left frontal (p=0.025), left temporo-parietal (p=0.038) regions and global language LI (p=0.018). Patients tended to report subjective improvement on Communicative Activities Log (mini-CAL; p=0.075). None of the subjects reported ill effects of rTMS. Conclusions FMRI-guided, excitatory rTMS applied to the affected Broca’s area improved language skills in patients with chronic post-stroke aphasia; these improvements correlated with increased language lateralization to the left hemisphere. This rTMS protocol appears to be safe and should be further tested in blinded studies assessing its short- and long-term safety/efficacy for post-stroke aphasia rehabilitation. PMID:21358599

  18. The psychometric properties of the Turkish Stroke and Aphasia Quality Of Life Scale-39.

    PubMed

    Atamaz Calis, Funda; Celik, Serpil; Demir, Orcun; Aykanat, Dilek; Yagiz On, Arzu

    2016-06-01

    The Stroke and Aphasia Quality Of Life Scale (SAQOL-39) is a widely used instrument in assessing the quality of life in aphasic patients. Our purpose was to translate the SAQOL-39 into the Turkish language (SAQOL-39/TR) and assess its reliability and validity in patients who had aphasia. SAQOL-39/TR was obtained using the 'translation-backward translation' method and administered to 40 patients with aphasia. The reliability studies were performed by means of internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The validation studies were carried out by means of construct validity using within-scale analyses and analyses against the external criteria. Correlation analysis was performed between scales and the Ege Aphasia Test, the Barthel index, the 12-item General Health Questionnaire and the Brunnstrom recovery stages (BRS) of the arm, hand, and lower extremity. In the results, the scores of the SAQOL-39 were not different between groups. Cronbach's α variables were good for all domains (0.80, 0.88, 0.89, 0.82, and 0.83). Test-retest reliability was also high (0.96, 0.97, 0.91, 0.70, and 0.96). There were significant correlations with coefficients ranging from 0.36 to 0.60 among the domains of scale and other measures. Moderate-high correlations were also seen with BRS-arm, BRS-hand, and BRS-lower extremity (r, 0.27-0.58). It was found that all domains were highly related with all domains of Ege aphasia test, except praxia (P<0.001). This study showed that the SAQOL-39/TR has acceptable validity and reliability in assessing the quality of life. However, similar results of the scale in patients with dysarthria suggest that the SAQOL-39 may not be specific to only aphasic patients. PMID:26954990

  19. Adaptation and validation of stroke-aphasia quality of life (SAQOL-39) scale to Malayalam

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Ria; Krishnan, Gopee

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aphasia, an acquired inability to understand and/or speak language, is a common repercussion of stroke that denigrates the quality of life (QOL) in the affected persons. Several languages in India experience the dearth of instruments to measure the QOL of persons with aphasia. Malayalam, the language spoken by more than 33 million people in Kerala, the southern state of India, is not an exception to this. Objective: This study aimed to adapt and validate the widely-used stroke-aphasia quality of life (SAQOL-39) scale to Malayalam. Materials and Methods: We required seven Malayalam-speaking Speech Language Pathologists (SLPs), hailing from different regions of Kerala, to examine the socio-cultural suitability of the original items in SAQOL-39 and indicate modifications, wherever necessary. Subsequently, the linguistic adaptation was performed through a forward-backward translation scheme. The socio-culturally and linguistically adapted Malayalam version was then administered on a group of 48 Malayalam-speaking persons with aphasia to examine the test-retest reliability, acceptability, as well as the internal consistency of the instrument. Results: The Malayalam SAQOL-39 scale showed high test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.91) as well as acceptability with minimal missing data (0.52%). Further, it yielded high internal consistency (Chronbach's ∝ = 0.98) as well as item-to-total and inter-domain correlations. Conclusions: The Malayalam version of SAQOL-39 is the first socio-culturally and linguistically adapted tool to measure the QOL of persons with stroke-aphasia speaking this language. It may serve as a potential tool to measure the QOL of this population in both clinical practice and future research endeavors. PMID:26713018

  20. Nao-Xue-Shu Oral Liquid Improves Aphasia of Mixed Stroke.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yuping; Wang, Mingzhe; Zhang, Liang; Qiu, Zhenwei; Jiang, Wenfei; Xu, Men; Pan, Weidong; Chen, Xiangjun

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The objective is to observe whether the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Nao-Xue-Shu oral liquid improves aphasia of mixed stroke. Methods. A total of 102 patients with aphasia of mixed stroke were divided into two groups by a single blind random method. The patients treated by standard Western medicine plus Nao-Xue-Shu oral liquid (n = 58) were assigned to the treatment group while the remaining patients treated only by standard Western medicine (n = 58) constituted the control group. Changes in the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB), Modified Rankin Scale (mRS), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), and hemorheology parameters were assessed to evaluate the effects of the treatments. Results. Excluding the patients who dropped out, 54 patients in the treatment group and 51 patients in the control group were used to evaluate the effects. Significant and persistent improvements in the WAB score, specifically comprehension, repetition, naming, and calculating, were found in the treatment group when the effects were evaluated at the end of week 2 and week 4, respectively, compared with baseline. The naming and writing scores were also improved at the end of week 4 in this group. The comprehension and reading scores were improved at the end of week 4 in the control group compared with the baseline, but the improvements were smaller than those in the treatment group. The percentages of patients at the 0-1 range of mRS were increased at the end of week 2 and week 4 in both groups, but the improvements in the treatment group were much larger than those in the control group. Greater improvements in the NIHSS scores and the hemorheology parameters in the treatment group were also observed compared with the control group at the end of week 2 and week 4. Conclusion. Nao-Xue-Shu oral liquid formulation improved aphasia in mixed stroke patients and thus might be a potentially effective drug for treating stroke aphasia. PMID:26557863

  1. Nao-Xue-Shu Oral Liquid Improves Aphasia of Mixed Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yuping; Wang, Mingzhe; Zhang, Liang; Qiu, Zhenwei; Jiang, Wenfei; Xu, Men; Pan, Weidong; Chen, Xiangjun

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The objective is to observe whether the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Nao-Xue-Shu oral liquid improves aphasia of mixed stroke. Methods. A total of 102 patients with aphasia of mixed stroke were divided into two groups by a single blind random method. The patients treated by standard Western medicine plus Nao-Xue-Shu oral liquid (n = 58) were assigned to the treatment group while the remaining patients treated only by standard Western medicine (n = 58) constituted the control group. Changes in the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB), Modified Rankin Scale (mRS), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), and hemorheology parameters were assessed to evaluate the effects of the treatments. Results. Excluding the patients who dropped out, 54 patients in the treatment group and 51 patients in the control group were used to evaluate the effects. Significant and persistent improvements in the WAB score, specifically comprehension, repetition, naming, and calculating, were found in the treatment group when the effects were evaluated at the end of week 2 and week 4, respectively, compared with baseline. The naming and writing scores were also improved at the end of week 4 in this group. The comprehension and reading scores were improved at the end of week 4 in the control group compared with the baseline, but the improvements were smaller than those in the treatment group. The percentages of patients at the 0-1 range of mRS were increased at the end of week 2 and week 4 in both groups, but the improvements in the treatment group were much larger than those in the control group. Greater improvements in the NIHSS scores and the hemorheology parameters in the treatment group were also observed compared with the control group at the end of week 2 and week 4. Conclusion. Nao-Xue-Shu oral liquid formulation improved aphasia in mixed stroke patients and thus might be a potentially effective drug for treating stroke aphasia. PMID:26557863

  2. Grammatical Planning Units During Real-Time Sentence Production in Speakers With Agrammatic Aphasia and Healthy Speakers

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Masaya; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Grammatical encoding (GE) is impaired in agrammatic aphasia; however, the nature of such deficits remains unclear. We examined grammatical planning units during real-time sentence production in speakers with agrammatic aphasia and control speakers, testing two competing models of GE. We queried whether speakers with agrammatic aphasia produce sentences word by word without advanced planning or whether hierarchical syntactic structure (i.e., verb argument structure; VAS) is encoded as part of the advanced planning unit. Method Experiment 1 examined production of sentences with a predefined structure (i.e., “The A and the B are above the C”) using eye tracking. Experiment 2 tested production of transitive and unaccusative sentences without a predefined sentence structure in a verb-priming study. Results In Experiment 1, both speakers with agrammatic aphasia and young and age-matched control speakers used word-by-word strategies, selecting the first lemma (noun A) only prior to speech onset. However, in Experiment 2, unlike controls, speakers with agrammatic aphasia preplanned transitive and unaccusative sentences, encoding VAS before speech onset. Conclusions Speakers with agrammatic aphasia show incremental, word-by-word production for structurally simple sentences, requiring retrieval of multiple noun lemmas. However, when sentences involve functional (thematic to grammatical) structure building, advanced planning strategies (i.e., VAS encoding) are used. This early use of hierarchical syntactic information may provide a scaffold for impaired GE in agrammatism. PMID:25908309

  3. Deciphering logopenic primary progressive aphasia: a clinical, imaging and biomarker investigation.

    PubMed

    Teichmann, Marc; Kas, Aurélie; Boutet, Claire; Ferrieux, Sophie; Nogues, Marie; Samri, Dalila; Rogan, Christina; Dormont, Didier; Dubois, Bruno; Migliaccio, Raffaella

    2013-11-01

    Within primary progressive aphasia the logopenic variant remains less understood than the two other main variants, namely semantic and non-fluent progressive aphasia. This may be because of the relatively small number of explored patients and because of the lack of investigations with a comprehensive three-level characterization of cognitive, brain localization and biological aspects. The aim of the present study was to decipher the logopenic variant through a multimodal approach with a large cohort of 19 patients (age 66.5 ± 8.7 years, symptom duration 3.2 ± 0.6 years) using detailed cognitive and linguistic assessments, magnetic resonance imaging and perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography as well as cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers screening for Alzheimer pathology. The linguistic assessment unveiled that language dysfunction is not limited to the typical feature of word finding and verbal working memory impairments but that it extends into the language system affecting to some degree syntactic production, phonological encoding and semantic representations. Perfusion tomography revealed damage of the temporal-parietal junction with a peak of significance in the superior temporal gyrus (Brodmann area 42), and of some less significant prefrontal areas (Brodmann areas 8, 9 and 46), whereas hippocampal cortices were unaffected. Magnetic resonance imaging, which was visually assessed in a larger group of 54 patients with logopenic, non-fluent, semantic variants as well as with posterior cortical atrophy, confirmed that the logopenic variant demonstrates predominant atrophy of left temporal-parietal junction, but that this atrophy pattern has a relatively poor sensitivity and specificity for clinical diagnosis. Finally, the biomarker study revealed that two-thirds of the logopenic patients demonstrated a profile indicative of Alzheimer pathology whereas one-third had a non-Alzheimer profile. Splitting the two groups showed that logopenic aphasia due to

  4. Verb and sentence production and comprehension in aphasia: Northwestern Assessment of Verbs and Sentences (NAVS)

    PubMed Central

    Cho-Reyes, Soojin; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Verbs and sentences are often impaired in individuals with aphasia, and differential impairment patterns are associated with different types of aphasia. With currently available test batteries, however, it is challenging to provide a comprehensive profile of aphasic language impairments because they do not examine syntactically important properties of verbs and sentences. Aims This study presents data derived from the Northwestern Assessment of Verbs and Sentences (NAVS; Thompson, 2011), a new test battery designed to examine syntactic deficits in aphasia. The NAVS includes tests for verb naming and comprehension, and production of verb argument structure in simple active sentences, with each examining the effects of the number and optionality of arguments. The NAVS also tests production and comprehension of canonical and non-canonical sentences. Methods & Procedures A total of 59 aphasic participants (35 agrammatic and 24 anomic) were tested using a set of action pictures. Participants produced verbs or sentences for the production subtests and identified pictures corresponding to auditorily provided verbs or sentences for the comprehension subtests. Outcomes & Results The agrammatic group, compared to the anomic group, performed significantly more poorly on all subtests except verb comprehension, and for both groups comprehension was less impaired than production. On verb naming and argument structure production tests both groups exhibited difficulty with three-argument verbs, affected by the number and optionality of arguments. However, production of sentences using three-argument verbs was more impaired in the agrammatic, compared to the anomic, group. On sentence production and comprehension tests, the agrammatic group showed impairments in all types of non-canonical sentences, whereas the anomic group exhibited difficulty primarily with the most difficult, object relative, structures. Conclusions Results show that verb and sentence deficits seen in

  5. Effects of language proficiency and language of the environment on aphasia therapy in a multilingual

    PubMed Central

    Goral, Mira; Rosas, Jason; Conner, Peggy S.; Maul, Kristen K.; Obler, Loraine K.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the relative proficiency of four languages (Spanish, German, French, English) of a multilingual speaker with aphasia, JM. JM’s self-rated proficiency was consistent with his naming accuracy for nouns and verbs (The Object and Action Naming Battery, Druks & Masterson, 2000) and with his performance on selected subtests of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (Paradis & Libben, 1987). Within and between-language changes were measured following two periods of language treatment, one in a highly-proficient language (Spanish) and one in a less-proficient language (English). The various outcome measures differed in their sensitivity to treatment-associated changes. Cross-language treatment effects were linked to the language of the environment at the time of testing and to relative language proficiency. PMID:23185107

  6. Neurophysiological sensitivity for impaired phonological processing in the acute stage of aphasia.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Annelies; van Mierlo, Pieter; Hartsuiker, Robert J; Santens, Patrick; De Letter, Miet

    2015-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate neurophysiological substrates of phoneme and word processing in 10 patients with acute aphasia (PWA). More specifically, phoneme discrimination was studied in a passive and active oddball task with respect to different phonemic contrasts, while lexical detection was investigated by presenting infrequent pseudowords among frequent words in a passive oddball task. Concerning phoneme discrimination, PWA in the acute stage had smaller MMN and P300 amplitudes than the norm group for voicing, whereas for place and manner they only demonstrated smaller P300 amplitudes. PWA showed a distinct pattern of impaired phonemic contrast sensitivity, with place displaying the largest amplitude and voicing the smallest. Concerning lexical detection, pseudowords elicited larger responses than words in both groups, but with a delay and larger P200 amplitude for pseudowords in PWA compared to the norm group. For clinical practice, passive tasks seem more suitable than active tasks in acute aphasia. PMID:26197257

  7. Examining the Value of Lexical Retrieval Treatment in Primary Progressive Aphasia: Two Positive Cases

    PubMed Central

    Rising, K.; DeMarco, A.T.; Miller, B.L.; Gorno-Tempini, M.L.; Beeson, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) suffer a gradual decline in communication ability as a result of neurodegenerative disease. Language treatment shows promise as a means of addressing these difficulties but much remains to be learned with regard to the potential value of treatment across variants and stages of the disorder. We present two cases, one with semantic variant of PPA and the other with logopenic PPA, each of whom underwent treatment that was unique in its focus on training self-cueing strategies to engage residual language skills. Despite differing language profiles and levels of aphasia severity, each individual benefited from treatment and showed maintenance of gains as well as generalization to untrained lexical items. These cases highlight the potential for treatment to capitalize on spared cognitive and neural systems in individuals with PPA, improving current language function as well as potentially preserving targeted skills in the face of disease progression. PMID:23871425

  8. Some critical concerns for adapting the Bilingual Aphasia Test to Bahasa Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Postman, Whitney Anne

    2011-06-01

    One of the most widely spoken languages of the world, Bahasa Indonesia (BI), became standardized as the official language of Indonesia. Based on Malay, it served as lingua franca in various forms throughout the Indonesian archipelago for centuries. Although BI has been habitually learned as a second language, the number of native speakers of BI continues to increase. As a member of the Western Austronesian branch of the Austronesian language family, its grammar and usage bear some resemblance to related languages such as Tagalog. At the same time, certain morphosyntactic and pragmatic characteristics of BI that distinguish it from other languages have been the subject of extensive research and deliberation. For these reasons, the clinical utility of adapting the Bilingual Aphasia Test ( Paradis, M., & Libben, G. (1987) . The assessment of bilingual aphasia. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates) is as evident as it is essential. PMID:21631309

  9. Intensive therapy induces contralateral white matter changes in chronic stroke patients with Broca's aphasia.

    PubMed

    Wan, Catherine Y; Zheng, Xin; Marchina, Sarah; Norton, Andrea; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2014-09-01

    Using a pre-post design, eleven chronic stroke patients with large left hemisphere lesions and nonfluent aphasia underwent diffusion tensor imaging and language testing before and after receiving 15 weeks of an intensive intonation-based speech therapy. This treated patient group was compared to an untreated patient group (n=9) scanned twice over a similar time period. Our results showed that the treated group, but not the untreated group, had reductions in fractional anisotropy in the white matter underlying the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, pars opercularis and pars triangularis), the right posterior superior temporal gyrus, and the right posterior cingulum. Furthermore, we found that greater improvements in speech production were associated with greater reductions in FA in the right IFG (pars opercularis). Thus, our findings showed that an intensive rehabilitation program for patients with nonfluent aphasia led to structural changes in the right hemisphere, which correlated with improvements in speech production. PMID:25041868

  10. Substance use history in behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia versus primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Kalapatapu, Raj K; Delucchi, Kevin L; Wang, Sophia; Harbison, John D; Nelson, Emily E; Kramer, Joel H

    2016-01-01

    As older adults are prone to cognitive disorders, the interaction of the fields of substance use and misuse and cognitive neuroscience is an emerging area of research. Substance use has been reported in some subtypes of frontotemporal dementia, such as behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia. However, characterization of substance use in other subtypes of frontotemporal dementia, such as primary progressive aphasia, is unknown. The objective of this baseline analysis was to explore whether any measures of substance use history differed significantly among behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (n = 842) and primary progressive aphasia (n = 526) in a large national dataset. The National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center's Uniform Data Set study is a national dataset that collects data on patients with various cognitive disorders and includes some questions on substance use. Each substance use variable was used as the outcome and the frontotemporal dementia subtype as the predictor. Total years smoked cigarettes, age when last smoked cigarettes, average number of packs/day smoked when participants smoked, and any recent, remote, or combined recent/remote history of alcohol abuse or drug abuse did not significantly differ between the behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia and primary progressive aphasia subtypes (all p-values > .001). A significantly greater percentage of participants smoked in the last 30 days in the behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia subtype (10.4%, n = 834) compared to the primary progressive aphasia subtype (3.3%, n = 517; p < .001). Clinical providers in both the dementia and substance use fields are encouraged to screen for and monitor substance use in all frontotemporal dementia subtypes. PMID:26485480

  11. Neuroimaging in aphasia treatment research: Issues of experimental design for relating cognitive to neural changes

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, Brenda; Caplan, David; Edwards, Susan; Visch-Brink, Evy; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2012-01-01

    The design of functional neuroimaging studies investigating the neural changes that support treatment-based recovery of targeted language functions in acquired aphasia faces a number of challenges. In this paper, we discuss these challenges and focus on experimental tasks and experimental designs that can be used to address the challenges, facilitate the interpretation of results and promote integration of findings across studies. PMID:22974976

  12. The Wernicke conundrum and the anatomy of language comprehension in primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Mesulam, M-Marsel; Thompson, Cynthia K; Weintraub, Sandra; Rogalski, Emily J

    2015-08-01

    Wernicke's aphasia is characterized by severe word and sentence comprehension impairments. The location of the underlying lesion site, known as Wernicke's area, remains controversial. Questions related to this controversy were addressed in 72 patients with primary progressive aphasia who collectively displayed a wide spectrum of cortical atrophy sites and language impairment patterns. Clinico-anatomical correlations were explored at the individual and group levels. These analyses showed that neuronal loss in temporoparietal areas, traditionally included within Wernicke's area, leave single word comprehension intact and cause inconsistent impairments of sentence comprehension. The most severe sentence comprehension impairments were associated with a heterogeneous set of cortical atrophy sites variably encompassing temporoparietal components of Wernicke's area, Broca's area, and dorsal premotor cortex. Severe comprehension impairments for single words, on the other hand, were invariably associated with peak atrophy sites in the left temporal pole and adjacent anterior temporal cortex, a pattern of atrophy that left sentence comprehension intact. These results show that the neural substrates of word and sentence comprehension are dissociable and that a circumscribed cortical area equally critical for word and sentence comprehension is unlikely to exist anywhere in the cerebral cortex. Reports of combined word and sentence comprehension impairments in Wernicke's aphasia come almost exclusively from patients with cerebrovascular accidents where brain damage extends into subcortical white matter. The syndrome of Wernicke's aphasia is thus likely to reflect damage not only to the cerebral cortex but also to underlying axonal pathways, leading to strategic cortico-cortical disconnections within the language network. The results of this investigation further reinforce the conclusion that the left anterior temporal lobe, a region ignored by classic aphasiology, needs to be

  13. Aphasia and Auditory Processing after Stroke through an International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Lens.

    PubMed

    Purdy, Suzanne C; Wanigasekara, Iruni; Cañete, Oscar M; Moore, Celia; McCann, Clare M

    2016-08-01

    Aphasia is an acquired language impairment affecting speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Aphasia occurs in about a third of patients who have ischemic stroke and significantly affects functional recovery and return to work. Stroke is more common in older individuals but also occurs in young adults and children. Because people experiencing a stroke are typically aged between 65 and 84 years, hearing loss is common and can potentially interfere with rehabilitation. There is some evidence for increased risk and greater severity of sensorineural hearing loss in the stroke population and hence it has been recommended that all people surviving a stroke should have a hearing test. Auditory processing difficulties have also been reported poststroke. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) can be used as a basis for describing the effect of aphasia, hearing loss, and auditory processing difficulties on activities and participation. Effects include reduced participation in activities outside the home such as work and recreation and difficulty engaging in social interaction and communicating needs. A case example of a young man (M) in his 30s who experienced a left-hemisphere ischemic stroke is presented. M has normal hearing sensitivity but has aphasia and auditory processing difficulties based on behavioral and cortical evoked potential measures. His principal goal is to return to work. Although auditory processing difficulties (and hearing loss) are acknowledged in the literature, clinical protocols typically do not specify routine assessment. The literature and the case example presented here suggest a need for further research in this area and a possible change in practice toward more routine assessment of auditory function post-stroke. PMID:27489401

  14. “Pre-semantic” cognition revisited: Critical differences between semantic aphasia and semantic dementia

    PubMed Central

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T.; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with semantic dementia show a specific pattern of impairment on both verbal and non-verbal “pre-semantic” tasks: e.g., reading aloud, past tense generation, spelling to dictation, lexical decision, object decision, colour decision and delayed picture copying. All seven tasks are characterised by poorer performance for items that are atypical of the domain and “regularisation errors” (irregular/atypical items are produced as if they were domain-typical). The emergence of this pattern across diverse tasks in the same patients indicates that semantic memory plays a key role in all of these types of “pre-semantic” processing. However, this claim remains controversial because semantically-impaired patients sometimes fail to show an influence of regularity. This study demonstrates that (a) the location of brain damage and (b) the underlying nature of the semantic deficit affect the likelihood of observing the expected relationship between poor comprehension and regularity effects. We compared the effect of multimodal semantic impairment in the context of semantic dementia and stroke aphasia on the seven “pre-semantic” tasks listed above. In all of these tasks, the semantic aphasia patients were less sensitive to typicality than the semantic dementia patients, even though the two groups obtained comparable scores on semantic tests. The semantic aphasia group also made fewer regularisation errors and many more unrelated and perseverative responses. We propose that these group differences reflect the different locus for the semantic impairment in the two conditions: patients with semantic dementia have degraded semantic representations, whereas semantic aphasia patients show deregulated semantic cognition with concomitant executive deficits. These findings suggest a reinterpretation of single case studies of comprehension-impaired aphasic patients who fail to show the expected effect of regularity on “pre-semantic” tasks. Consequently, such

  15. Making sense of progressive non-fluent aphasia: an analysis of conversational speech.

    PubMed

    Knibb, Jonathan A; Woollams, Anna M; Hodges, John R; Patterson, Karalyn

    2009-10-01

    The speech of patients with progressive non-fluent aphasia (PNFA) has often been described clinically, but these descriptions lack support from quantitative data. The clinical classification of the progressive aphasic syndromes is also debated. This study selected 15 patients with progressive aphasia on broad criteria, excluding only those with clear semantic dementia. It aimed to provide a detailed quantitative description of their conversational speech, along with cognitive testing and visual rating of structural brain imaging, and to examine which, if any features were consistently present throughout the group; as well as looking for sub-syndromic associations between these features. A consistent increase in grammatical and speech sound errors and a simplification of spoken syntax relative to age-matched controls were observed, though telegraphic speech was rare; slow speech was common but not universal. Almost all patients showed impairments in picture naming, syntactic comprehension and executive function. The degree to which speech was affected was independent of the severity of the other cognitive deficits. A partial dissociation was also observed between slow speech with simplified grammar on the one hand, and grammatical and speech sound errors on the other. Overlap between these sets of impairments was however, the rule rather than the exception, producing continuous variation within a single consistent syndrome. The distribution of atrophy was remarkably variable, with frontal, temporal and medial temporal areas affected, either symmetrically or asymmetrically. The study suggests that PNFA is a coherent, well-defined syndrome and that varieties such as logopaenic progressive aphasia and progressive apraxia of speech may be seen as points in a space of continuous variation within progressive non-fluent aphasia. PMID:19696033

  16. Are vowel errors influenced by consonantal context in the speech of persons with aphasia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfer, Carole E.; Bell-Berti, Fredericka; Boyle, Mary

    2001-05-01

    The literature suggests that vowels and consonants may be affected differently in the speech of persons with conduction aphasia (CA) or nonfluent aphasia with apraxia of speech (AOS). Persons with CA have shown similar error rates across vowels and consonants, while those with AOS have shown more errors for consonants than vowels. These data have been interpreted to suggest that consonants have greater gestural complexity than vowels. However, recent research [M. Boyle et al., Proc. International Cong. Phon. Sci., 3265-3268 (2003)] does not support this interpretation: persons with AOS and CA both had a high proportion of vowel errors, and vowel errors almost always occurred in the context of consonantal errors. To examine the notion that vowels are inherently less complex than consonants and are differentially affected in different types of aphasia, vowel production in different consonantal contexts for speakers with AOS or CA was examined. The target utterances, produced in carrier phrases, were bVC and bV syllables, allowing us to examine whether vowel production is influenced by consonantal context. Listener judgments were obtained for each token, and error productions were grouped according to the intended utterance and error type. Acoustical measurements were made from spectrographic displays.

  17. Cases of aphasia in a work on medicine from the 16th century.

    PubMed

    Munoz-Sanz, Augustin; Garcia-Avila, Juan Fernando; Vallejo, Jose Ramon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to bring to the attention of the international community the role in the history of aphasiology of the eminent Renaissance figure, the Extremaduran Francisco Arceo de Fregenal. To present the subject, after a brief biography of this surgeon, we will trace the development of the concept of aphasia up to the 16th century. In some ancient cultures we find that this disorder was described as a "cerebral accident", to be presented subsequently in the Middle Ages as a divine punishment, only for the original idea to be taken up again during the Renaissance. This return to the concept of the early civilisations was not to lead to the formal classification of this condition however, until the studies of Broca and Wernicke were published in the 19th century. The contribution of Arceo lies in the description of clinical cases included in his book De Recta cvrandorum, which are presented in their original written version in Latin accompanied by a translation in English. The first of these cases tells of spontaneous recovery from the disease, and the second of the evolution of a patient with aphasia secondary to traumatic brain injury following surgery. Despite the great value of Arceo's report, the historical context and his professional attitude did not allow for a localisationist interpretation of the concept of aphasia. PMID:25811692

  18. The association of aphasia and right-sided motor impairment in corticobasal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Levin, Johannes; Bak, Thomas H; Rominger, Axel; Mille, Erik; Arzberger, Thomas; Giese, Armin; Ackl, Nibal; Lorenzl, Stefan; Bader, Benedikt; Patzig, Maximilian; Bötzel, Kai; Danek, Adrian

    2015-10-01

    Corticobasal syndrome is defined clinically on the basis of symptoms and findings related to dysfunction of the cerebral cortex and the basal ganglia. Usually, marked asymmetry of motor findings is observed. Although aphasia has now been recognized as a frequent feature of corticobasal syndrome, it remains unclear whether it is usually associated with right-sided motor symptoms, pointing to the involvement of the left hemisphere. Hence, we set out to examine the relationship between the presence of language symptoms and the side affected by extrapyramidal symptoms. We analyzed the electronic care records of patients seen in the years 2003-2013 in the Neurology Department of the University Hospital of Munich. The diagnosis of corticobasal syndrome was discussed in ninety-two individuals. Of those, 38 cases fulfilled diagnostic criteria for corticobasal syndrome. Aphasia correlated highly with a predominant right-sided movement disorder (p = 0.002). In contrast, it was less common in patients with left-sided motor presentation. Dysarthria did not show a preferential correlation (p = 0.25). Our analysis suggests a characteristic presentation of corticobasal syndrome in which motor dysfunction of the right side of the body is associated with aphasia. PMID:26143172

  19. Neuroimaging in aphasia treatment research: Consensus and practical guidelines for data analysis

    PubMed Central

    Meinzer, Marcus; Beeson, Pélagie M.; Cappa, Stefano; Crinion, Jenny; Kiran, Swathi; Saur, Dorothee; Parrish, Todd; Crosson, Bruce; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2012-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging is the most widely used imaging technique to study treatment-induced recovery in post-stroke aphasia. The longitudinal design of such studies adds to the challenges researchers face when studying patient populations with brain damage in cross-sectional settings. The present review focuses on issues specifically relevant to neuroimaging data analysis in aphasia treatment research identified in discussions among international researchers at the Neuroimaging in Aphasia Treatment Research Workshop held at Northwestern University (Evanston, Illinois, USA). In particular, we aim to provide the reader with a critical review of unique problems related to the pre-processing, statistical modeling and interpretation of such data sets. Despite the fact that data analysis procedures critically depend on specific design features of a given study, we aim to discuss and communicate a basic set of practical guidelines that should be applicable to a wide range of studies and useful as a reference for researchers pursuing this line of research. PMID:22387474

  20. Feasibility and cost analysis of implementing high intensity aphasia clinics within a sub-acute setting.

    PubMed

    Wenke, Rachel; Lawrie, Melissa; Hobson, Tania; Comben, Wendy; Romano, Michelle; Ward, Elizabeth; Cardell, Elizabeth

    2014-06-01

    The current study explored the clinical feasibility and costs of embedding three different intensive service delivery models for aphasia treatment (computer, group therapy, and therapy with a speech pathology therapy assistant) within three sub-acute facilities. The study employed a two cohort comparison design, with the first cohort (n = 22) receiving the standard service of treatment currently offered. This treatment was delivered by a speech-language pathologist and involved on average 3 hours of treatment/week over 8 weeks. Participants in the second cohort (n = 31) received one of the three intensive treatment models providing up to 9 hours of therapy/week for 11 weeks. Organizational data was collected throughout treatment, with participant, caregiver, and clinician satisfaction with the intensive models also being measured. Participants completed the spoken language production sub-tests and the Disability Questionnaire of the Comprehensive Aphasia Test (CAT) pre- and post-treatment. All intensive models yielded high participant attendance, satisfaction, and significant improvements to the CAT sub-tests. The pro-rata cost of providing treatment per hour per client for the computer and group therapy models was found to be ˜ 30% cheaper compared to the standard service. The outcomes support the potential feasibility of embedding the different models into sub-acute facilities to enhance client access to intensive treatment for aphasia. PMID:24597463

  1. The Auditory Comprehension of Wh-Questions in Aphasia: Support for the Intervener Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Walenski, Matthew; Love, Tracy; Shapiro, Lewis P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study examines 3 hypotheses about the processing of wh-questions in both neurologically healthy adults and adults with Broca's aphasia. Method We used an eye tracking while listening method with 32 unimpaired participants (Experiment 1) and 8 participants with Broca's aphasia (Experiment 2). Accuracy, response time, and online gaze data were collected. Results In Experiment 1, we established a baseline for how unimpaired processing and comprehension of 4 types of wh-question (subject- and object-extracted who- and which-questions) manifest. There was no unambiguous support found for any of the 3 hypotheses in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2 with the Broca's participants, however, we found significantly lower accuracy, slower response times, and increased interference in our gaze data in the object-extracted which-questions relative to the other conditions. Conclusions Our results provide support for the intervener hypothesis, which states that sentence constructions that contain an intervener (a lexical noun phrase) between a displaced noun phrase and its gap site result in a significant processing disadvantage relative to other constructions. We argue that this hypothesis offers a compelling explanation for the comprehension deficits seen in some participants with Broca's aphasia. PMID:25675427

  2. Single subject controlled experiments in aphasia: The science and the state of the science

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of single subject controlled experimental designs for investigating the effect of treatment for aphasia. A brief historical perspective is presented, followed by discussions of the advantages and disadvantages of single subject and group approaches, the basic requirements of single subject experimental research, and crucial considerations in design selection. In the final sections, results of reviews of published single subject controlled experiments are discussed, with emphasis on internal validity issues, the number of participants enrolled in published studies, operational specification of the dependent and independent variables, and reliability of measurement. Learning outcomes As a result of reading this paper, the participant will: (1) understand the mechanisms required for demonstration of internal and external validity using single subject controlled experimental designs, (2) become familiar with the basic requirements of single subject controlled experimental research, (3) understand the types of single subject controlled experimental designs that are the most appropriate for studying the effects of treatment for aphasia, and (4) become familiar with trends in the published aphasia treatment literature in which single subject controlled experimental designs have been used. PMID:16635494

  3. The heterogeneity of verbal short-term memory impairment in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Majerus, Steve; Attout, Lucie; Artielle, Marie-Amélie; Van der Kaa, Marie-Anne

    2015-10-01

    Verbal short-term memory (STM) impairment represents a frequent and long-lasting deficit in aphasia, and it will prevent patients from recovering fully functional language abilities. The aim of this study was to obtain a more precise understanding of the nature of verbal STM impairment in aphasia, by determining whether verbal STM impairment is merely a consequence of underlying language impairment, as suggested by linguistic accounts of verbal STM, or whether verbal STM impairment reflects an additional, specific deficit. We investigated this question by contrasting item-based STM measures, supposed to depend strongly upon language activation, and order-based STM measures, supposed to reflect the operation of specific, serial order maintenance mechanisms, in a sample of patients with single-word processing deficits at the phonological and/or lexical level. A group-level analysis showed robust impairment for both item and serial order STM aspects in the aphasic group relative to an age-matched control group. An analysis of individual profiles revealed an important heterogeneity of verbal STM profiles, with patients presenting either selective item STM deficits, selective order STM deficits, generalized item and serial order STM deficits or no significant STM impairment. Item but not serial order STM impairment correlated with the severity of phonological impairment. These results disconfirm a strong version of the linguistic account of verbal STM impairment in aphasia, by showing variable impairment to both item and serial order processing aspects of verbal STM. PMID:26275964

  4. Semantic Knowledge Use in Discourse Produced by Individuals with Anomic Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Kintz, Stephen; Wright, Heather Harris; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos

    2015-01-01

    Background Researchers have demonstrated that people with aphasia (PWA) have preserved semantic knowledge (Dell et al., 1997; Jefferies & Lambon Ralph, 2006). However, Antonucci (2014) demonstrated that some PWA have impaired access to certain types of knowledge more than others. Yet, all these studies used single concepts. It has not been demonstrated whether PWA have difficulty accessing certain types of features within a discourse sample. Aims The main goals of this study were to determine if semantic knowledge and two category types were used differently within discourse produced by participants with anomic aphasia and healthy controls. Method & Procedures Participants with anomic aphasia (n=19) and healthy controls (n=19) told stories that were transcribed and coded for 10 types of semantic knowledge and two category types, living and nonliving things. Outcomes & Results A Poisson regression model was conducted. The results indicated a significant difference between the groups for the semantic knowledge types, sound and internal state, but no difference was found for category types. Yet the distribution of semantic knowledge and category types produced within the discourse samples were similar between the groups. Conclusion PWA might have differential access to certain types of semantic knowledge within discourse production, but it does not rise to the level of categorical deficits. These findings extend single-concept research into the realm of discourse.

  5. Jean-Martin Charcot's role in the 19th century study of music aphasia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Julene K; Lorch, Marjorie; Nicolas, Serge; Graziano, Amy

    2013-05-01

    Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-93) was a well-known French neurologist. Although he is widely recognized for his discovery of several neurological disorders and his research into aphasia, Charcot's ideas about how the brain processes music are less well known. Charcot discussed the music abilities of several patients in the context of his 'Friday Lessons' on aphasia, which took place at the Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris in 1883-84. In his most comprehensive discussion about music, Charcot described a professional trombone player who developed difficulty copying music notation and playing his instrument, thereby identifying a new isolated syndrome of music agraphia without aphasia. Because the description of this case was published only in Italian by one of his students, Domenico Miliotti, there has been considerable confusion and under-acknowledgement of Charcot's ideas about music and the brain. In this paper, we describe Charcot's ideas regarding music and place them within the historical context of the growing interest in the neurological underpinnings of music abilities that took place in the 1880s. PMID:23576129

  6. Language specificity of lexical-phonological therapy in bilingual aphasia: A clinical and electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Radman, Narges; Spierer, Lucas; Laganaro, Marina; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Colombo, Françoise

    2016-08-01

    Based on findings for overlapping representations of bilingual people's first (L1) and second (L2) languages, unilingual therapies of bilingual aphasia have been proposed to benefit the untrained language. However, the generalisation patterns of intra- and cross-language and phonological therapy and their neural bases remain unclear. We tested whether the effects of an intensive lexical-phonological training (LPT) in L2 transferred to L1 word production in a Persian-French bilingual stroke patient with Broca's aphasia. Language performance was assessed using the Bilingual Aphasia Test, a 144-item picture naming (PN) task and a word-picture verification (WPV) task. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded during PN and WPV in both languages before and after an LPT in French on a wordlist from the PN task. After the therapy, naming improved only for the treated L2 items. The naming performance improved neither in the untrained L2 items nor in the corresponding items in L1. EEG analyses revealed a Language x Session topographic interaction at 540 ms post-stimulus, driven by a modification of the electrophysiological response to the treated L2 but not L1 items. These results indicate that LPT modified the brain networks engaged in the phonological-phonetic processing during naming only in the trained language for the trained items. PMID:26010483

  7. [Crossed aphasia in right-handed patients. I. Review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Joanette, Y; Puel, M; Nespoulous, J L; Rascol, A; Lecours, A R

    1982-01-01

    More than 70 cases of crossed dextral aphasia have been reported in the literature since the end of the XIXth century. If a genetic, environmental or even pathological factor--or lack of information about it--could be suspected to be responsible of a majority of these cases, 10 of them in which all these factors were eliminated still remain. A summary of the neurological, neuropsychological and neurolinguistic features of these 10 cases shows, among other things: 1. that nearly all of them present a (left) motor deficit associated with a quite large and deep right-hemispheric lesion; 2. that most of them also report the presence of one or the other of the neuropsychological signs usually seen in right hemisphere lesions in dextrals; 3. that if reduction and agrammatism are frequent aphasic signs, fluent jargon is also reported, more so in written than in oral expression. Some of the hypotheses put forward to explain crossed aphasia in dextrals are discussed in the light of these facts. It appears that none of these hypotheses can satisfactorily account for the occurrence of a right hemisphere aphasia in some dextrals. PMID:6185997

  8. A Novel Pupillometric Method for Indexing Word Difficulty in Individuals With and Without Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Hallowell, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cognitive effort is a clinically important facet of linguistic processing that is often overlooked in the assessment and treatment of people with aphasia (PWA). Furthermore, there is a paucity of valid ways to index cognitive effort in PWA. The construct of cognitive effort has been indexed for decades via pupillometry (measurement of pupil dilation and constriction during a cognitive task), yet pupillometry has not been implemented in studies including PWA. In the present study, we tested a novel method for indexing cognitive effort during linguistic processing in people with and without aphasia. Method Forty control participants and 39 PWA listened to semantically easy and difficult single nouns and looked at images while their pupillary responses were monitored. Mean pupil dilation in response to easy versus difficult nouns was calculated to index cognitive effort. Results Larger mean pupil dilation values were obtained for difficult compared with easy nouns for both groups. Conclusion Results provide preliminary evidence that pupillometry can be used to index cognitive effort during linguistic processing of single nouns in people with and without aphasia. Methods for indexing cognitive effort will be a valuable addition to existing assessment methods. Suggestions for further research are offered. PMID:26163655

  9. Electrophysiological responses to argument structure violations in healthy adults and individuals with agrammatic aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Kielar, Aneta; Meltzer-Asscher, Aya; Thompson, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Sentence comprehension requires processing of argument structure information associated with verbs, i.e. the number and type of arguments that they select. Many individuals with agrammatic aphasia show impaired production of verbs with greater argument structure density. The extent to which these participants also show argument structure deficits during comprehension, however, is unclear. Some studies find normal access to verb arguments, whereas others report impaired ability. The present study investigated verb argument structure processing in agrammatic aphasia by examining event-related potentials associated with argument structure violations in healthy young and older adults as well as aphasic individuals. A semantic violation condition was included to investigate possible differences in sensitivity to semantic and argument structure information during sentence processing. Results for the healthy control participants showed a negativity followed by a positive shift (N400-P600) in the argument structure violation condition, as found in previous ERP studies (Friederici & Frisch, 2000; Frisch, Hahne, & Friederici, 2004). In contrast, individuals with agrammatic aphasia showed a P600, but no N400, response to argument structure mismatches. Additionally, compared to the control groups, the agrammatic participants showed an attenuated, but relatively preserved, N400 response to semantic violations. These data show that agrammatic individuals do not demonstrate normal real-time sensitivity to verb argument structure requirements during sentence processing. PMID:23022079

  10. Assessing Cortisol Reactivity to a Linguistic Task as a Marker of Stress in Individuals with Left-Hemisphere Stroke and Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laures-Gore, Jacqueline; Heim, Christine M.; Hsu, Yu-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors explore a method of measuring physiologic and perceived stress in individuals with aphasia by investigating salivary cortisol reactivity and subjectively perceived stress in response to a standardized linguistic task. Method: Fifteen individuals with aphasia and 15 age-matched healthy controls participated in a…

  11. Constrained versus Unconstrained Intensive Language Therapy in Two Individuals with Chronic, Moderate-to-Severe Aphasia and Apraxia of Speech: Behavioral and fMRI Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurland, Jacquie; Pulvermuller, Friedemann; Silva, Nicole; Burke, Katherine; Andrianopoulos, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This Phase I study investigated behavioral and functional MRI (fMRI) outcomes of 2 intensive treatment programs to improve naming in 2 participants with chronic moderate-to-severe aphasia with comorbid apraxia of speech (AOS). Constraint-induced aphasia therapy (CIAT; Pulvermuller et al., 2001) has demonstrated positive outcomes in some…

  12. Conduction Aphasia, Sensory-Motor Integration, and Phonological Short-Term Memory--An Aggregate Analysis of Lesion and fMRI Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchsbaum, Bradley R.; Baldo, Juliana; Okada, Kayoko; Berman, Karen F.; Dronkers, Nina; D'Esposito, Mark; Hickok, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Conduction aphasia is a language disorder characterized by frequent speech errors, impaired verbatim repetition, a deficit in phonological short-term memory, and naming difficulties in the presence of otherwise fluent and grammatical speech output. While traditional models of conduction aphasia have typically implicated white matter pathways,…

  13. A Comparison of the Visual Attention Patterns of People with Aphasia and Adults without Neurological Conditions for Camera-Engaged and Task-Engaged Visual Scenes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiessen, Amber; Beukelman, David; Hux, Karen; Longenecker, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to compare the visual attention patterns of adults with aphasia and adults without neurological conditions when viewing visual scenes with 2 types of engagement. Method: Eye-tracking technology was used to measure the visual attention patterns of 10 adults with aphasia and 10 adults without neurological…

  14. A Comparison of the BAT and BDAE-SF Batteries in Determining the Linguistic Ability in Greek-Speaking Patients with Broca's Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peristeri, Eleni; Tsapkini, Kyrana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to test the validity and reliability of the Bilingual Aphasia Test as a measure of language impairment in a Greek-speaking Broca's aphasic population and to investigate relationships with the same aphasic group's performance on the Greek version of the short form of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination battery, mainly…

  15. Outcomes of Treatment Targeting Syntax Production in People with Broca's-Type Aphasia: Evidence from Psycholinguistic Assessment Tasks and Everyday Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carragher, Marcella; Sage, Karen; Conroy, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Capturing evidence of the effects of therapy within everyday communication is the holy grail of aphasia treatment design and evaluation. Whilst impaired sentence production is a predominant symptom of Broca's-type aphasia, the effects of sentence production therapy on everyday conversation have not been investigated. Given the…

  16. Effects of Cognate Status and Language of Therapy during Intensive Semantic Naming Treatment in a Case of Severe Nonfluent Bilingual Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurland, Jacquie; Falcon, Marahu

    2011-01-01

    As bilingualism becomes less exceptional in the world, and with the growing incidence of stroke and aphasia, a better understanding of how bilingualism affects aphasia recovery is increasingly important. The present study examined the effect of intensive semantic naming therapy in three phases (Spanish, English and mixed) on within- and…

  17. Evidence-Based Systematic Review: Effects of Intensity of Treatment and Constraint-Induced Language Therapy for Individuals with Stroke-Induced Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherney, Leora R.; Patterson, Janet P.; Raymer, Anastasia; Frymark, Tobi; Schooling, Tracy

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This systematic review summarizes evidence for intensity of treatment and constraint-induced language therapy (CILT) on measures of language impairment and communication activity/participation in individuals with stroke-induced aphasia. Method: A systematic search of the aphasia literature using 15 electronic databases (e.g., PubMed,…

  18. The influence of event-related knowledge on verb-argument processing in aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Dickey, Michael Walsh; Warren, Tessa

    2014-01-01

    Event-related conceptual knowledge outside the language system rapidly affects verb-argument processing in unimpaired adults (McRae & Matsuki, 2009). Some have argued that verb-argument processing is in fact reducible to the activation of such event-related knowledge. However, data favoring this conclusion have come primarily from college-aged healthy adults, for whom both linguistic and conceptual semantic processing is fast and automatic. This study examined the influence of event-related knowledge on verb-argument processing among adults with aphasia (n=8) and older unimpaired controls (n=60), in two self-paced reading studies. Participants read sentences containing a plausible verb-argument combination (Mary used a knife to chop the large carrots before dinner), a combination that violated event-related world knowledge (Mary used some bleach to clean the large carrots before dinner), or a combination that violated the verb’s selectional restrictions (Mary used a pump to inflate the large carrots before dinner). The participants with aphasia naturally split into two groups: Group 1 (n=4) had conceptual-semantic impairments (evidenced by poor performance on tasks like Pyramids & Palm Trees) but reasonably intact language processing (higher Western Aphasia Battery Aphasia Quotients), while Group 2 (n=4) had intact conceptual semantics but poorer language processing. Older unimpaired controls and aphasic Group 1 showed rapid on-line disruption for sentences with selectional-restriction violations (SRVs) and event-related knowledge violations, and also showed SRV-specific penalties in sentence-final acceptability judgments (Experiment 1) and comprehension questions (Experiment 2). In contrast, Group 2 showed very few reliable differences across conditions in either on-line or off-line measures. This difference between aphasic groups suggests that verb-related information and event-related knowledge may be dissociated in aphasia. Furthermore, it suggests that

  19. Verb production in agrammatic aphasia: The influence of semantic class and argument structure properties on generalisation

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Sandra L.; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Some individuals with agrammatic aphasia have difficulty producing verbs when naming and generating sentences (Miceli, Silveri, Villa, & Caramazza, 1984; Saffran, Schwartz, & Marin, 1980; Zingeser & Berndt, 1990). And when verbs are produced there is an over-reliance on verbs requiring simple argument structure arrangements (Thompson, Lange, Schneider, & Shapiro, 1997; Thompson, Shapiro, Schneider, & Tait, 1994). Verbs, as argument-taking elements, show especially complex semantic and argument structure properties. This study investigated the role these properties have on verb production in individuals with agrammatic aphasia. Aim This treatment study examined the extent to which semantic class and argument structure properties of verbs influenced the ability of seven individuals with agrammatic Broca’s aphasia to retrieve verbs and then use them in correct sentence production. Verbs from two semantic classes and two argument structure categories were trained using either a semantic or an argument structure verb retrieval treatment. Specifically, acquisition and generalisation to trained and untrained verbs within and across semantic and argument structure categories was examined. In addition, the influence of verb production on each participant’s sentence production was also examined. Methods & Procedures Utilising a single-subject crossover design in combination with a multiple baseline design across subjects and behaviours, seven individuals with agrammatic aphasia were trained to retrieve verbs with specific argument structures from two semantic classes under two treatment conditions—semantic verb retrieval treatment and verb argument structure retrieval treatment. Treatment was provided on two-place and three-place motion or change of state verbs, counterbalanced across subjects and behaviours. A total of 102 verbs, depicted in black and white drawings, were utilised in the study, divided equally into motion and change of state verbs (semantic

  20. Speech entrainment enables patients with Broca's aphasia to produce fluent speech.

    PubMed

    Fridriksson, Julius; Hubbard, H Isabel; Hudspeth, Sarah Grace; Holland, Audrey L; Bonilha, Leonardo; Fromm, Davida; Rorden, Chris

    2012-12-01

    A distinguishing feature of Broca's aphasia is non-fluent halting speech typically involving one to three words per utterance. Yet, despite such profound impairments, some patients can mimic audio-visual speech stimuli enabling them to produce fluent speech in real time. We call this effect 'speech entrainment' and reveal its neural mechanism as well as explore its usefulness as a treatment for speech production in Broca's aphasia. In Experiment 1, 13 patients with Broca's aphasia were tested in three conditions: (i) speech entrainment with audio-visual feedback where they attempted to mimic a speaker whose mouth was seen on an iPod screen; (ii) speech entrainment with audio-only feedback where patients mimicked heard speech; and (iii) spontaneous speech where patients spoke freely about assigned topics. The patients produced a greater variety of words using audio-visual feedback compared with audio-only feedback and spontaneous speech. No difference was found between audio-only feedback and spontaneous speech. In Experiment 2, 10 of the 13 patients included in Experiment 1 and 20 control subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine the neural mechanism that supports speech entrainment. Group results with patients and controls revealed greater bilateral cortical activation for speech produced during speech entrainment compared with spontaneous speech at the junction of the anterior insula and Brodmann area 47, in Brodmann area 37, and unilaterally in the left middle temporal gyrus and the dorsal portion of Broca's area. Probabilistic white matter tracts constructed for these regions in the normal subjects revealed a structural network connected via the corpus callosum and ventral fibres through the extreme capsule. Unilateral areas were connected via the arcuate fasciculus. In Experiment 3, all patients included in Experiment 1 participated in a 6-week treatment phase using speech entrainment to improve speech production. Behavioural and

  1. The temporal sequence of aura-sensations in patients with complex focal seizures with particular attention to ictal aphasia.

    PubMed Central

    Kanemoto, K; Janz, D

    1989-01-01

    The sequences of aura sensations in 143 patients with complex partial seizures, were analysed with special emphasis on aphasic symptoms. Anxiety, epigastric sensation and visual hallucination were experienced early in the course of the aura, while illusion of familiarity and aphasia occurred late in the course of the aura. Three groups of interconnections of aura sensations were found which corresponded possibly to the types of seizure constellations proposed by Weiser. Close interconnections between impairment of verbal comprehension during seizures and paroxysmal thought disorder, as well as between paroxysmal paraphasia and illusion of familiarity were noted. Paroxysmal aphasia in patients with complex partial seizures was characterised as a positive symptom in contrast to stable aphasia. PMID:2468740

  2. Neural mechanisms underlying the facilitation of naming in aphasia using a semantic task: an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous attempts to investigate the effects of semantic tasks on picture naming in both healthy controls and people with aphasia have typically been confounded by inclusion of the phonological word form of the target item. As a result, it is difficult to isolate any facilitatory effects of a semantically-focused task to either lexical-semantic or phonological processing. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study examined the neurological mechanisms underlying short-term (within minutes) and long-term (within days) facilitation of naming from a semantic task that did not include the phonological word form, in both participants with aphasia and age-matched controls. Results Behavioral results showed that a semantic task that did not include the phonological word form can successfully facilitate subsequent picture naming in both healthy controls and individuals with aphasia. The whole brain neuroimaging results for control participants identified a repetition enhancement effect in the short-term, with modulation of activity found in regions that have not traditionally been associated with semantic processing, such as the right lingual gyrus (extending to the precuneus) and the left inferior occipital gyrus (extending to the fusiform gyrus). In contrast, the participants with aphasia showed significant differences in activation over both the short- and the long-term for facilitated items, predominantly within either left hemisphere regions linked to semantic processing or their right hemisphere homologues. Conclusions For control participants in this study, the short-lived facilitation effects of a prior semantic task that did not include the phonological word form were primarily driven by object priming and episodic memory mechanisms. However, facilitation effects appeared to engage a predominantly semantic network in participants with aphasia over both the short- and the long-term. The findings of the present study also suggest that right

  3. Development and validation of Australian aphasia rehabilitation best practice statements using the RAND/UCLA appropriateness method

    PubMed Central

    Power, Emma; Thomas, Emma; Worrall, Linda; Rose, Miranda; Togher, Leanne; Nickels, Lyndsey; Hersh, Deborah; Godecke, Erin; O'Halloran, Robyn; Lamont, Sue; O'Connor, Claire; Clarke, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To develop and validate a national set of best practice statements for use in post-stroke aphasia rehabilitation. Design Literature review and statement validation using the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method (RAM). Participants A national Community of Practice of over 250 speech pathologists, researchers, consumers and policymakers developed a framework consisting of eight areas of care in aphasia rehabilitation. This framework provided the structure for the development of a care pathway containing aphasia rehabilitation best practice statements. Nine speech pathologists with expertise in aphasia rehabilitation participated in two rounds of RAND/UCLA appropriateness ratings of the statements. Panellists consisted of researchers, service managers, clinicians and policymakers. Main outcome measures Statements that achieved a high level of agreement and an overall median score of 7–9 on a nine-point scale were rated as ‘appropriate’. Results 74 best practice statements were extracted from the literature and rated across eight areas of care (eg, receiving the right referrals, providing intervention). At the end of Round 1, 71 of the 74 statements were rated as appropriate, no statements were rated as inappropriate, and three statements were rated as uncertain. All 74 statements were then rated again in the face-to-face second round. 16 statements were added through splitting existing items or adding new statements. Seven statements were deleted leaving 83 statements. Agreement was reached for 82 of the final 83 statements. Conclusions This national set of 82 best practice statements across eight care areas for the rehabilitation of people with aphasia is the first to be validated by an expert panel. These statements form a crucial component of the Australian Aphasia Rehabilitation Pathway (AARP) (http://www.aphasiapathway.com.au) and provide the basis for more consistent implementation of evidence-based practice in stroke rehabilitation. PMID:26137883

  4. Comparison of metabolic rates, language, and memory in subcortical aphasias. [Tomographic studies using /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglulcose

    SciTech Connect

    Metter, E.J.; Riege, W.H.; Hanson, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    Four patients with subcortical lesions and either aphasia or amnesia were compared to four patients with cortical lesions and aphasia. Each patient had /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission computed tomography and language and memory evaluations. Metabolic depression was found in the thalamus and caudate in both groups, while only the cortical group showed cortical changes. Language changes were mild in the subcortical, while moderate to severe in the cortical group. Both groups showed severe verbal memory dysfunction. The only common abnormalities in the two groups were metabolic changes in thalamus, and severity of verbal memory dysfunction. These findings suggest a relationship between verbal memory and thalamic function.

  5. Neurology of anomia in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Rogalski, Emily; Wieneke, Christina; Cobia, Derin; Rademaker, Alfred; Thompson, Cynthia; Weintraub, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    The semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is characterized by the combination of word comprehension deficits, fluent aphasia and a particularly severe anomia. In this study, two novel tasks were used to explore the factors contributing to the anomia. The single most common factor was a blurring of distinctions among members of a semantic category, leading to errors of overgeneralization in word–object matching tasks as well as in word definitions and object descriptions. This factor was more pronounced for natural kinds than artifacts. In patients with the more severe anomias, conceptual maps were more extensively disrupted so that inter-category distinctions were as impaired as intra-category distinctions. Many objects that could not be named aloud could be matched to the correct word in patients with mild but not severe anomia, reflecting a gradual intensification of the semantic factor as the naming disorder becomes more severe. Accurate object descriptions were more frequent than accurate word definitions and all patients experienced prominent word comprehension deficits that interfered with everyday activities but no consequential impairment of object usage or face recognition. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed three characteristics: greater atrophy of the left hemisphere; atrophy of anterior components of the perisylvian language network in the superior and middle temporal gyri; and atrophy of anterior components of the face and object recognition network in the inferior and medial temporal lobes. The left sided asymmetry and perisylvian extension of the atrophy explains the more profound impairment of word than object usage and provides the anatomical basis for distinguishing the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia from the partially overlapping group of patients that fulfil the widely accepted diagnostic criteria for semantic dementia. PMID:19506067

  6. A multimodal neuroimaging study of a case of crossed nonfluent/agrammatic primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Edoardo G; Caso, Francesca; Agosta, Federica; Gambina, Giuseppe; Magnani, Giuseppe; Canu, Elisa; Blasi, Valeria; Perani, Daniela; Comi, Giancarlo; Falini, Andrea; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Filippi, Massimo

    2015-10-01

    Crossed aphasia has been reported mainly as post-stroke aphasia resulting from brain damage ipsilateral to the dominant right hand. Here, we described a case of a crossed nonfluent/agrammatic primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA), who developed a corticobasal syndrome (CBS). We collected clinical, cognitive, and neuroimaging data for four consecutive years from a 55-year-old right-handed lady (JV) presenting with speech disturbances. 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET) and DaT-scan with (123)I-Ioflupane were obtained. Functional MRI (fMRI) during a verb naming task was acquired to characterize patterns of language lateralization. Diffusion tensor MRI was used to evaluate white matter damage within the language network. At onset, JV presented with prominent speech output impairment and right frontal atrophy. After 3 years, language deficits worsened, with the occurrence of a mild agrammatism. The patient also developed a left-sided mild extrapyramidal bradykinetic-rigid syndrome. The clinical picture was suggestive of nfvPPA with mild left-sided extrapyramidal syndrome. At this time, voxel-wise SPM analyses of (18)F-FDG PET and structural MRI showed right greater than left frontal hypometabolism and damage, which included the Broca's area. DaT-scan showed a reduced uptake in the right striatum. FMRI during naming task demonstrated bilateral language activations, and tractography showed right superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) involvement. Over the following year, JV became mute and developed frank left-sided motor signs and symptoms, evolving into a CBS clinical picture. Brain atrophy worsened in frontal areas bilaterally, and extended to temporo-parietal regions, still with a right-sided asymmetry. Tractography showed an extension of damage to the left SLF and right inferior longitudinal fasciculus. We report a case of crossed nfvPPA followed longitudinally and studied with advanced neuroimaging techniques. The results highlight a

  7. IMITATE: An intensive computer-based treatment for aphasia based on action observation and imitation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaime; Fowler, Robert; Rodney, Daniel; Cherney, Leora; Small, Steven L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Neurophysiological evidence from primates has demonstrated the presence of mirror neurons, with visual and motor properties, that discharge both when an action is performed and during observation of the same action. A similar system for observation-execution matching may also exist in humans. We postulate that behavioral stimulation of this parietal-frontal system may play an important role in motor learning for speech and thereby aid language recovery after stroke. Aims The purpose of this article is to describe the development of IMITATE, a computer-assisted system for aphasia therapy based on action observation and imitation. We also describe briefly the randomized controlled clinical trial that is currently underway to evaluate its efficacy and mechanism of action. Methods and Procedures IMITATE therapy consists of silent observation of audio-visually presented words and phrases spoken aloud by six different speakers, followed by a period during which the participant orally repeats the stimuli. We describe the rationale for the therapeutic features, stimulus selection, and delineation of treatment levels. The clinical trial is a randomized single blind controlled trial in which participants receive two pre-treatment baseline assessments, six weeks apart, followed by either IMITATE or a control therapy. Both treatments are provided intensively (90 minutes per day). Treatment is followed by a post-treatment assessment, and a six-week follow-up assessment. Outcomes & Results Thus far, five participants have completed IMITATE. We expect the results of the randomized controlled trial to be available by late 2010. Conclusions IMITATE is a novel computer-assisted treatment for aphasia that is supported by theoretical rationales and previous human and primate data from neurobiology. The treatment is feasible, and preliminary behavioral data are emerging. However, the results will not be known until the clinical trial data are available to evaluate fully the

  8. A cortical pathway to olfactory naming: evidence from primary progressive aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Rogalski, Emily; Harrison, Theresa; Mesulam, M.-Marsel; Gottfried, Jay A.

    2013-01-01

    It is notoriously difficult to name odours. Without the benefit of non-olfactory information, even common household smells elude our ability to name them. The neuroscientific basis for this olfactory language ‘deficit’ is poorly understood, and even basic models to explain how odour inputs gain access to transmodal representations required for naming have not been put forward. This study used patients with primary progressive aphasia, a clinical dementia syndrome characterized by primary deficits in language, to investigate the interactions between olfactory inputs and lexical access by assessing behavioural performance of olfactory knowledge and its relationship to brain atrophy. We specifically hypothesized that the temporal pole would play a key role in linking odour object representations to transmodal networks, given its anatomical proximity to olfactory and visual object processing areas. Behaviourally, patients with primary progressive aphasia with non-semantic subtypes were severely impaired on an odour naming task, in comparison with an age-matched control group. However, with the availability of picture cues or word cues, odour matching performance approached control levels, demonstrating an inability to retrieve but not to recognize the name and nature of the odorant. The magnitude of cortical thinning in the temporal pole was found to correlate with reductions in odour familiarity and odour matching to visual cues, whereas the inferior frontal gyrus correlated with both odour naming and matching. Volumetric changes in the mediodorsal thalamus correlated with the proportion of categorical mismatch errors, indicating a possible role of this region in error-signal monitoring to optimize recognition of associations linked to the odour. A complementary analysis of patients with the semantic subtype of primary progressive aphasia, which is associated with marked temporopolar atrophy, revealed much more pronounced impairments of odour naming and matching

  9. Extended turn construction and test question sequences in the conversations of three speakers with agrammatic aphasia.

    PubMed

    Beeke, Suzanne; Beckley, Firle; Best, Wendy; Johnson, Fiona; Edwards, Susan; Maxim, Jane

    2013-01-01

    The application of Conversation Analysis (CA) to the investigation of agrammatic aphasia reveals that utterances produced by speakers with agrammatism engaged in everyday conversation differ significantly from utterances produced in response to decontextualised assessment and therapy tasks. Early studies have demonstrated that speakers with agrammatism construct turns from sequences of nouns, adjectives, discourse markers and conjunctions, packaged by a distinct pattern of prosody. This article presents examples of turn construction methods deployed by three people with agrammatism as they take an extended turn, in order to recount a past event, initiate a discussion or have a disagreement. This is followed by examples of sequences occurring in the talk of two of these speakers that result in different, and more limited, turn construction opportunities, namely "test" questions asked in order to initiate a new topic of talk, despite the conversation partner knowing the answer. The contrast between extended turns and test question sequences illustrates the effect of interactional context on aphasic turn construction practices, and the potential of less than optimal sequences to mask turn construction skills. It is suggested that the interactional motivation for test question sequences in these data are to invite people with aphasia to contribute to conversation, rather than to practise saying words in an attempt to improve language skills. The idea that test question sequences may have their origins in early attempts to deal with acute aphasia, and the potential for conversation partnerships to become "stuck" in such interactional patterns after they may have outlived their usefulness, are discussed with a view to clinical implications. PMID:23848370

  10. A novel frontal pathway underlies verbal fluency in primary progressive aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Mesulam, Marsel M.; Jakobsen, Estrid; Malik, Farah; Martersteck, Adam; Wieneke, Christina; Thompson, Cynthia K.; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Dell’Acqua, Flavio; Weintraub, Sandra; Rogalski, Emily

    2013-01-01

    The frontal aslant tract is a direct pathway connecting Broca’s region with the anterior cingulate and pre-supplementary motor area. This tract is left lateralized in right-handed subjects, suggesting a possible role in language. However, there are no previous studies that have reported an involvement of this tract in language disorders. In this study we used diffusion tractography to define the anatomy of the frontal aslant tract in relation to verbal fluency and grammar impairment in primary progressive aphasia. Thirty-five patients with primary progressive aphasia and 29 control subjects were recruited. Tractography was used to obtain indirect indices of microstructural organization of the frontal aslant tract. In addition, tractography analysis of the uncinate fasciculus, a tract associated with semantic processing deficits, was performed. Damage to the frontal aslant tract correlated with performance in verbal fluency as assessed by the Cinderella story test. Conversely, damage to the uncinate fasciculus correlated with deficits in semantic processing as assessed by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Neither tract correlated with grammatical or repetition deficits. Significant group differences were found in the frontal aslant tract of patients with the non-fluent/agrammatic variant and in the uncinate fasciculus of patients with the semantic variant. These findings indicate that degeneration of the frontal aslant tract underlies verbal fluency deficits in primary progressive aphasia and further confirm the role of the uncinate fasciculus in semantic processing. The lack of correlation between damage to the frontal aslant tract and grammar deficits suggests that verbal fluency and grammar processing rely on distinct anatomical networks. PMID:23820597

  11. Extended turn construction and test question sequences in the conversations of three speakers with agrammatic aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Beckley, Firle; Best, Wendy; Johnson, Fiona; Edwards, Susan; Maxim, Jane

    2013-01-01

    The application of Conversation Analysis (CA) to the investigation of agrammatic aphasia reveals that utterances produced by speakers with agrammatism engaged in everyday conversation differ significantly from utterances produced in response to decontextualised assessment and therapy tasks. Early studies have demonstrated that speakers with agrammatism construct turns from sequences of nouns, adjectives, discourse markers and conjunctions, packaged by a distinct pattern of prosody. This article presents examples of turn construction methods deployed by three people with agrammatism as they take an extended turn, in order to recount a past event, initiate a discussion or have a disagreement. This is followed by examples of sequences occurring in the talk of two of these speakers that result in different, and more limited, turn construction opportunities, namely “test” questions asked in order to initiate a new topic of talk, despite the conversation partner knowing the answer. The contrast between extended turns and test question sequences illustrates the effect of interactional context on aphasic turn construction practices, and the potential of less than optimal sequences to mask turn construction skills. It is suggested that the interactional motivation for test question sequences in these data are to invite people with aphasia to contribute to conversation, rather than to practise saying words in an attempt to improve language skills. The idea that test question sequences may have their origins in early attempts to deal with acute aphasia, and the potential for conversation partnerships to become “stuck” in such interactional patterns after they may have outlived their usefulness, are discussed with a view to clinical implications. PMID:23848370

  12. Primary progressive aphasia as the initial manifestation of corticobasal degeneration and unusual tauopathies.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, I; Hernández, I; Boada, M; Llorente, A; Rey, M J; Cardozo, A; Ezquerra, M; Puig, B

    2003-11-01

    The clinical, neuroradiological, neuropathological and biochemical findings in four patients with primary progressive aphasia and tauopathy are described. The aphasic syndrome preceded by several years the appearance of other symptoms in every case. Asymmetrical apraxia with alien hand phenomenon occurred in one case. Frontotemporal symptoms occurred in three cases, but progressed to dramatic cognitive devastation in only one of these. Generalized dementia consistent with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) developed with time in another. Cerebral computer tomography scans, magnetic resonance imaging and SPECT studies revealed marked asymmetries in one case, and showed nonspecific cerebral atrophy in the remaining ones. The neuropathological examination revealed typical corticobasal degeneration (CBD) in one case; CBD and AD in another; and atypical CBD, argyrophilic grain disease (AGD) and alpha-synucleinopathy consistent with Parkinson's disease in a third. Unique neuropathological findings were found in the remaining case. This was characterized by severe cerebral atrophy, marked neuronal loss in the cerebral cortex and abnormal tau deposition in neurons of the cerebral cortex, diencephalon and brain stem. Ballooned neurons, Pick bodies, generalized cortical neurofibrillary tangles and astrocytic plaques were absent. However, massive globular inclusions, containing phospho-tau, occurred in glial cells, mainly oligodendrocytes, in the white matter. Biochemical studies of frontal homogenates revealed four bands of 73/74, 68, 64 and 60 kDa of phosphorylated tau (using antibodies recognizing phospho-tau Thr181, Ser262 and Ser422) in the patient with AD and CBD, suggesting a predominant AD pattern in this case. Two bands of 68 and 64 kDa of phospho-tau were recovered in the sarkosyl-insoluble fraction in the other three cases. This pattern is similar to that found in CBD, progressive supranuclear palsy and AGD. Taken together, the present series further supports pure

  13. Comparison of emotional and non-emotional word repetitions in patients with aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiyari, Jalal; Khatoonabadi, Seyyed Ahmad Reza; Dadgar, Hooshang; Bakhtiari, Behrooz Mahmoodi; Khosravizadeh, Parvaneh; Shaygannejad, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aphasia is a language disorder caused by left hemisphere damage. For treatment of aphasia, in some of therapeutic approaches, the right hemisphere (RH) abilities, such as, emotional perception, is used for stimulation of the language process in the left hemisphere. The aim of this study is to investigate emotional word repetition in aphasia after a stroke, in Persian language patients. Materials and Methods: Fifteen aphasic patients (eleven male and four female) between 45 and 65 (58/4 ± 7/8) years of age, participated in this cross-sectional study. A list of 20 emotional words and a list of 20 neutral words as stimuli were prepared and the patients were asked to repeat each word after five seconds; if a patient needed to repeat a word again, it was repeated for him/her again, and the total score for each subject was calculated. The paired t-test was used to test group mean differences and the significant level was 0.05. Results: The mean and standard deviation for emotional word repetitions were 6.93 ± 1.72 and for non-emotional word repetition was 7.10 ± 2.23, and the P value = 0.892, thus, no significant difference between emotional and non-emotional word repetitions was noticed. The mean and standard deviation for the positive emotional word repetitions were 3.53 ± 3.29 and for negative word repetitions were 3.40 ± 3.56, (P = 0.751), with no significant difference between positive and negative emotional word repetitions. Conclusion: Despite the main hypothesis that the right hemisphere is involved in the processing of emotions, it can be stated that both hemispheres are involved in the processing of emotional words, albeit in a different and probably complementary manner. PMID:26436078

  14. Emergence delirium with transient associative agnosia and expressive aphasia reversed by flumazenil in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Drobish, Julie K; Kelz, Max B; DiPuppo, Patricia M; Cook-Sather, Scott D

    2015-06-01

    Multiple factors may contribute to the development of emergence delirium in a child. We present the case of a healthy 12-year-old girl who received preoperative midazolam with the desired anxiolytic effect, underwent a brief general anesthetic, and then exhibited postoperative delirium, consisting of a transient associative agnosia and expressive aphasia. Administration of flumazenil led to immediate and lasting resolution of her symptoms. We hypothesize that γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor-mediated effects, most likely related to an atypical offset of midazolam, are an important subset of emergence delirium that is amenable to pharmacologic therapy with flumazenil. PMID:26035220

  15. A Case of Semantic Variant Primary Progressive Aphasia with Severe Insular Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Chow, T. W.; Links, K. A.; Masterman, D. L.; Mendez, M.F.; Vinters, H. V.

    2012-01-01

    Insular degeneration has been linked to symptoms of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Presented in this case is a patient exhibiting semantic variant primary progressive aphasia, behavioral disturbance. Upon autopsy, he was found to have severe insular atrophy. In addition, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) were ineffective in reducing symptoms of obsessive-compulsive behaviours or emotional blunting. This case suggests that Seeley et al.'s hypothesis that VEN and fork cell-rich brain regions, particularly in the insula, are targeted in additional subtypes of FTD beyond the behavioral variant. PMID:22150361

  16. Eye movements as probes of lexico-semantic processing in a patient with primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Seckin, Mustafa; Mesulam, M-Marsel; Rademaker, Alfred W; Voss, Joel L; Weintraub, Sandra; Rogalski, Emily J; Hurley, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    Eye movement trajectories during a verbally cued object search task were used as probes of lexico-semantic associations in an anomic patient with primary progressive aphasia. Visual search was normal on trials where the target object could be named but became lengthy and inefficient on trials where the object failed to be named. The abnormality was most profound if the noun denoting the object could not be recognized. Even trials where the name of the target object was recognized but not retrieved triggered abnormal eye movements, demonstrating that retrieval failures can have underlying associative components despite intact comprehension of the corresponding noun. PMID:25982291

  17. Effects of context and word class on lexical retrieval in Chinese speakers with anomic aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Law, Sam-Po; Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Lai, Loretta Wing-Shan; Lai, Christy

    2014-01-01

    Background Differences in processing nouns and verbs have been investigated intensely in psycholinguistics and neuropsychology in past decades. However, the majority of studies examining retrieval of these word classes have involved tasks of single word stimuli or responses. While the results have provided rich information for addressing issues about grammatical class distinctions, it is unclear whether they have adequate ecological validity for understanding lexical retrieval in connected speech which characterizes daily verbal communication. Previous investigations comparing retrieval of nouns and verbs in single word production and connected speech have reported either discrepant performance between the two contexts with presence of word class dissociation in picture naming but absence in connected speech, or null effects of word class. In addition, word finding difficulties have been found to be less severe in connected speech than picture naming. However, these studies have failed to match target stimuli of the two word classes and between tasks on psycholinguistic variables known to affect performance in response latency and/or accuracy. Aims The present study compared lexical retrieval of nouns and verbs in picture naming and connected speech from picture description, procedural description, and story-telling among 19 Chinese speakers with anomic aphasia and their age, gender, and education matched healthy controls, to understand the influence of grammatical class on word production across speech contexts when target items were balanced for confounding variables between word classes and tasks. Methods & Procedures Elicitation of responses followed the protocol of the AphasiaBank consortium (http://talkbank.org/AphasiaBank/). Target words for confrontation naming were based on well-established naming tests, while those for narrative were drawn from a large database of normal speakers. Selected nouns and verbs in the two contexts were matched for age

  18. Emergence Delirium with Transient Associative Agnosia and Expressive Aphasia Reversed by Flumazenil in a Pediatric Patient

    PubMed Central

    Drobish, Julie K.; Kelz, Max B.; DiPuppo, Patricia M.; Cook-Sather, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple factors may contribute to the development of emergence delirium in a child. We present the case of a healthy 12-year-old girl who received preoperative midazolam with the desired anxiolytic effect, underwent a brief general anesthetic, and then exhibited postoperative delirium, consisting of a transient associative agnosia and expressive aphasia. Administration of flumazenil led to immediate and lasting resolution of her symptoms. We hypothesize that γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor-mediated effects, most likely related to an atypical offset of midazolam, are an important subset of emergence delirium that is amenable to pharmacologic therapy with flumazenil. PMID:26035220

  19. Language control and parallel recovery of language in individuals with aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Green, David W.; Grogan, Alice; Crinion, Jenny; Ali, Nilufa; Sutton, Catherine; Price, Cathy J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The causal basis of the different patterns of language recovery following stroke in bilingual speakers is not well understood. Our approach distinguishes the representation of language from the mechanisms involved in its control. Previous studies have suggested that difficulties in language control can explain selective aphasia in one language as well as pathological switching between languages. Here we test the hypothesis that difficulties in managing and resolving competition will also be observed in those who are equally impaired in both their languages even in the absence of pathological switching. Aims: To examine difficulties in language control in bilingual individuals with parallel recovery in aphasia and to compare their performance on different types of conflict task. Methods & Procedures: Two right-handed, non-native English-speaking participants who showed parallel recovery of two languages after stroke and a group of non-native English-speaking, bilingual controls described a scene in English and in their first language and completed three explicit conflict tasks. Two of these were verbal conflict tasks: a lexical decision task in English, in which individuals distinguished English words from non-words, and a Stroop task, in English and in their first language. The third conflict task was a non-verbal flanker task. Outcomes & Results: Both participants with aphasia were impaired in the picture description task in English and in their first language but showed different patterns of impairment on the conflict tasks. For the participant with left subcortical damage, conflict was abnormally high during the verbal tasks (lexical decision and Stroop) but not during the non-verbal flanker task. In contrast, for the participant with extensive left parietal damage, conflict was less abnormal during the Stroop task than the flanker or lexical decision task. Conclusions: Our data reveal two distinct control impairments associated with parallel

  20. Modulation of N400 in Chronic Non-Fluent Aphasia Using Low Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barwood, Caroline H. S.; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Whelan, Brooke-Mai; Lloyd, David; Riek, Stephan; O'Sullivan, John D.; Coulthard, Alan; Wong, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Low frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) has previously been applied to language homologues in non-fluent populations of persons with aphasia yielding significant improvements in behavioral language function up to 43 months post stimulation. The present study aimed to investigate the electrophysiological correlates…

  1. Stimulating Conversation: Enhancement of Elicited Propositional Speech in a Patient with Chronic Non-Fluent Aphasia following Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Roy H.; Sanders, Linda; Benson, Jennifer; Faseyitan, Olufunsho; Norise, Catherine; Naeser, Margaret; Martin, Paula; Coslett, H. Branch

    2010-01-01

    Although evidence suggests that patients with left hemisphere strokes and non-fluent aphasia who receive 1Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the intact right inferior frontal gyrus experience persistent benefits in naming, it remains unclear whether the effects of rTMS in these patients generalize to other language…

  2. The Relationship between Phonological and Morphological Deficits in Broca's Aphasia: Further Evidence from Errors in Verb Inflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braber, N.; Patterson, K.; Ellis, K.; Lambon Ralph, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    A previous study of 10 patients with Broca's aphasia demonstrated that the advantage for producing the past tense of irregular over regular verbs exhibited by these patients was eliminated when the two sets of past-tense forms were matched for phonological complexity (Bird, Lambon Ralph, Seidenberg, McClelland, & Patterson, 2003). The…

  3. Impaired L1 and Executive Control after Left Basal Ganglia Damage in a Bilingual Basque-Spanish Person with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrover-Roig, Daniel; Galparsoro-Izagirre, Nekane; Marcotte, Karine; Ferre, Perrine; Wilson, Maximiliano A.; Ansaldo, Ana Ines

    2011-01-01

    Bilinguals must focus their attention to control competing languages. In bilingual aphasia, damage to the fronto-subcortical loop may lead to pathological language switching and mixing and the attrition of the more automatic language (usually L1). We present the case of JZ, a bilingual Basque-Spanish 53-year-old man who, after haematoma in the…

  4. Auditory Masking Effects on Speech Fluency in Apraxia of Speech and Aphasia: Comparison to Altered Auditory Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacks, Adam; Haley, Katarina L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To study the effects of masked auditory feedback (MAF) on speech fluency in adults with aphasia and/or apraxia of speech (APH/AOS). We hypothesized that adults with AOS would increase speech fluency when speaking with noise. Altered auditory feedback (AAF; i.e., delayed/frequency-shifted feedback) was included as a control condition not…

  5. Effects of Syntactic Complexity, Semantic Reversibility, and Explicitness on Discourse Comprehension in Persons with Aphasia and in Healthy Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Joshua; Hoover, Elizabeth; Waters, Gloria; Kiran, Swathi; Caplan, David; Berardino, Alex; Sandberg, Chaleece

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Prior studies of discourse comprehension have concluded that the deficits of persons with aphasia (PWA) in syntactically based comprehension of sentences in isolation are not predictive of deficits in comprehension of sentences in discourse (Brookshire & Nicholas, 1984; Caplan & Evans, 1990). However, these studies used semantically…

  6. A Propos de la comprehension de sujets atteints d'aphasie (On the Comprehension of Subjects Afflicted with Aphasia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godblum, Marie Claire; Kremin, Helgard

    1977-01-01

    A report on results of a study of a large number of subjects afflicted with different types of aphasia. Topics reported are: an experimental study of verbal comprehension and a qualitative study of errors in standard verbal tests. Statistical tables and a bibliography are attached. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  7. The Impact of Semantic Impairment on Verbal Short-Term Memory in Stroke Aphasia and Semantic Dementia: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Hoffman, Paul; Jones, Roy; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents the first direct comparison of immediate serial recall in semantic dementia (SD) and transcortical sensory aphasia (TSA). Previous studies of the effect of semantic impairment on verbal short-term memory (STM) have led to important theoretical advances. However, different conclusions have been drawn from these two groups. This…

  8. Improved Picture Naming in Chronic Aphasia after Tms to Part of Right Broca's Area: An Open-Protocol Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naeser, M.A.; Martin, P.I.; Nicholas, M.; Baker, E.H.; Seekins, H.; Kobayashi, M.; Theoret, H.; Fregni, F.; Maria-Tormos, J.; Kurland, J.; Doron, K.W.; Pascual-Leone, A.

    2005-01-01

    Functional imaging studies with nonfluent aphasia patients have observed ''over-activation'' in right (R) language homologues. This may represent a maladaptive strategy; suppression may result in language improvement. We applied slow, 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to an anterior portion of R Broca's homologue daily, for…

  9. Extending the Use of Spanish Computer-Assisted Anomia Rehabilitation Program (CARP-2) in People with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrian, Jose A.; Gonzalez, Mercedes; Buiza, Juan J.; Sage, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To extend the use of the Spanish Computer-assisted Anomia Rehabilitation Program (CARP-2) for anomia from a single case to a group of 15 people with aphasia. To evaluate whether the treatment is active (Phase 1) for this group (Robey & Schultz, 1998), providing potential explanations as to why. Methods: Fifteen participants with chronic…

  10. It's Either a Cook or a Baker: Patients with Conduction Aphasia Get the Gist but Lose the Trace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldo, Juliana V.; Klostermann, Ellen C.; Dronkers, Nina F.

    2008-01-01

    Patients with conduction aphasia have been characterized as having a short-term memory deficit that leads to relative difficulty on span and repetition tasks. It has also been observed that these same patients often get the gist of what is said to them, even if they are unable to repeat the information verbatim. To study this phenomenon…

  11. Apraxia of Speech and Phonological Errors in the Diagnosis of Nonfluent/Agrammatic and Logopenic Variants of Primary Progressive Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croot, Karen; Ballard, Kirrie; Leyton, Cristian E.; Hodges, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The International Consensus Criteria for the diagnosis of primary progressive aphasia (PPA; Gorno-Tempini et al., 2011) propose apraxia of speech (AOS) as 1 of 2 core features of nonfluent/agrammatic PPA and propose phonological errors or absence of motor speech disorder as features of logopenic PPA. We investigated the sensitivity and…

  12. Knowledge Is BLISS: An Investigation into the Transparency of BLISS Symbol Strings Directed by a Person with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Tony; Bruce, Carolyn; Black, Maria; Clayton, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Background: Since his stroke 15 years ago, Tony O'Donnell has worked with BLISS, a symbolic, graphical language. BLISS has been used with a variety of clinical populations, including people with severe aphasia. O'Donnell found his adapted version of BLISS was meaningful to him when spoken and written English was not. The present study is part of a…

  13. Assessment and Treatment of Short-Term and Working Memory Impairments in Stroke Aphasia: A Practical Tutorial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salis, Christos; Kelly, Helen; Code, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aphasia following stroke refers to impairments that affect the comprehension and expression of spoken and/or written language, and co-occurring cognitive deficits are common. In this paper we focus on short-term and working memory impairments that impact on the ability to retain and manipulate auditory-verbal information. Evidence from…

  14. Verb and Noun Word Retrieval in Bilingual Aphasia: A Case Study of Language- and Modality-Specific Levels of Breakdown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kambanaros, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the pattern of performance on spoken and written naming, spelling to dictation, and oral reading of single verbs and nouns in a bilingual speaker with aphasia in two first languages that differ in morphological complexity, orthographic transparency, and script: Greek (L1a) and English (L1b). The results reveal no verb/noun…

  15. [Neuropsychological intervention in memory consolidation in patients with acoustic-mnestic aphasia. An exploratory and preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Cortés, Norma A; Reyna-Cervantes, Karla P; Poblano, Adrián

    2013-12-01

    Neuropsychological alterations after stroke depend on the type and site of the injury and may result in cognitive, mood or social disabilities. The disorders may disturb daily motor activities and may alter language and short- and long-term memory. Patients that have suffered a stroke in the left temporal hemisphere may present acoustic-mnestic aphasia and memory alterations. Our objective was to evaluate the results of the implementation of a memory reinforcement training program in patients with acoustic-mnestic aphasia, and to know if the program improves memory consolidation for a better patient's quality of life. We performed a case-report study, before and after implementation of a memory reinforcement program in two patients with acoustic-mnestic aphasia and memory alterations. The program was constructed with 20 supra-ordinal categories, each with 10 sub-ordinal words, with a total of 200 words to evoke. We found significant differences in the number of evoked words and in memory consolidation after the implementation of the program in the two studied patients. Our observations suggest that implementation of a memory reinforcement program in subjects with acoustic-mnestic aphasia may be useful in the rehabilitation of memory alterations in these patients. PMID:24502178

  16. Analysis and Remediation of Aphasia in the U.S.S.R.: The Contribution of A. R. Luria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatfield, Frances M.

    1981-01-01

    The paper surveys contribution of A. Luria to aphasiology, emphasizing unique extent to which he integrated theory and therapeutic practice. Luria's view of primary defects underlying main forms of aphasia is summarized; this is followed by brief account of his application of certain notions of structural linguists, including R. Jakobson's…

  17. Economic Aspects of a Therapy and Support Service for People with Long-Term Stroke and Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Gaag, Anna; Brooks, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Background: This paper considers some economic aspects of a therapy and support service for people with stroke and aphasia. This material was part of a broader evaluation of the service, which is reported elsewhere (van der Gaag et al. 2005, van der Gaag and Mowles 2005). Aims: The purpose of this part of the study was to investigate the…

  18. "Hopeless, Sorry, Hopeless": Co-Constructing Narratives of Care with People Who Have Aphasia Post-Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersh, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Despite widespread support for user involvement in health care, people with aphasia (PWA) report feeling ignored and disempowered in care contexts. They also rarely have the opportunity to give feedback on their experiences of care post-stroke. However, it is important for health care professionals to hear this feedback, both to understand the…

  19. Interaction-focused intervention for acquired language disorders: facilitating mutual adaptation in couples where one partner has aphasia.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Ray; Lock, Sarah; Bryan, Karen; Sage, Karen

    2011-02-01

    This paper discusses the implementation and evaluation of an interaction-focused intervention single case study for a couple where one partner has aphasia. Drawing on conversation analytic research, naturally occurring conversations of the couple at home pre- and post-intervention were collected and analysed. Analysis of the speaker with aphasia's topic initiating turns in the pre-intervention conversation showed that in each case a feature of the attempt was that the speaker had difficulty in getting the topic initiation accepted and established. Drawing on conversation analytic work on topic initiations in normal conversation, intervention focused on training the couple to co-produce these topic initiating turns of the speaker with aphasia in a collaborative and step-by-step manner. Post-intervention, there was evidence that the couple were now using this new method, albeit in a slightly different way to that worked on in the intervention sessions. Drawing on work into adaptation by speakers with aphasia and their conversation partners, these results are discussed in terms of a process of mutual adaptation by the couple. PMID:21329413

  20. Measuring Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in Aphasia: Reliability, Validity, and Sensitivity to Change of the Scenario Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Meulen, Ineke; van de Sandt-Koenderman, W. Mieke E.; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Ribbers, Gerard M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study explores the psychometric qualities of the Scenario Test, a new test to assess daily-life communication in severe aphasia. The test is innovative in that it: (1) examines the effectiveness of verbal and non-verbal communication; and (2) assesses patients' communication in an interactive setting, with a supportive…

  1. Production of Verb Tense in Agrammatic Aphasia: A Meta-Analysis and Further Data

    PubMed Central

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Friedman, Laura

    2015-01-01

    In a majority of languages, the time of an event is expressed by marking tense on the verb. There is substantial evidence that the production of verb tense in sentences is more severely impaired than other functional categories in persons with agrammatic aphasia. The underlying source of this verb tense impairment is less clear, particularly in terms of the relative contribution of conceptual-semantic and processing demands. This study aimed to provide a more precise characterization of verb tense impairment by examining if there is dissociation within tenses (due to conceptual-semantic differences) and an effect of experimental task (mediated by processing limitations). Two sources of data were used: a meta-analysis of published research (which yielded 143 datasets) and new data from 16 persons with agrammatic aphasia. Tensed verbs were significantly more impaired than neutral (nonfinite) verbs, but there were no consistent differences between past, present, and future tenses. Overall, tense accuracy was mediated by task, such that picture description task was the most challenging, relative to sentence completion, sentence production priming, and grammaticality judgment. An interaction between task and tense revealed a past tense disadvantage for a sentence production priming task. These findings indicate that verb tense impairment is exacerbated by processing demands of the elicitation task and the conceptual-semantic differences between tenses are too subtle to show differential performance in agrammatism. PMID:26457004

  2. Theories of Spoken Word Recognition Deficits in Aphasia: Evidence from Eye-Tracking and Computational Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Mirman, Daniel; Yee, Eiling; Blumstein, Sheila E.; Magnuson, James S.

    2011-01-01

    We used eye tracking to investigate lexical processing in aphasic participants by examining the fixation time course for rhyme (e.g., carrot – parrot) and cohort (e.g., beaker – beetle) competitors. Broca’s aphasic participants exhibited larger rhyme competition effects than age-matched controls. A reanalysis of previously reported data (Yee, Blumstein, & Sedivy, 2008) confirmed that Wernicke’s aphasic participants exhibited larger cohort competition effects. Individual-level analyses revealed a negative correlation between rhyme and cohort competition effect size across both groups of aphasic participants. Computational model simulations were performed to examine which of several accounts of lexical processing deficits in aphasia might account for the observed effects. Simulation results revealed that slower deactivation of lexical competitors could account for increased cohort competition in Wernicke’s aphasic participants; auditory perceptual impairment could account for increased rhyme competition in Broca's aphasic participants; and a perturbation of a parameter controlling selection among competing alternatives could account for both patterns, as well as the correlation between the effects. In light of these simulation results, we discuss theoretical accounts that have the potential to explain the dynamics of spoken word recognition in aphasia and the possible roles of anterior and posterior brain regions in lexical processing and cognitive control. PMID:21371743

  3. Maladaptive Plasticity in Aphasia: Brain Activation Maps Underlying Verb Retrieval Errors.

    PubMed

    Spielmann, Kerstin; Durand, Edith; Marcotte, Karine; Ansaldo, Ana Inés

    2016-01-01

    Anomia, or impaired word retrieval, is the most widespread symptom of aphasia, an acquired language impairment secondary to brain damage. In the last decades, functional neuroimaging techniques have enabled studying the neural basis underlying anomia and its recovery. The present study aimed to explore maladaptive plasticity in persistent verb anomia, in three male participants with chronic nonfluent aphasia. Brain activation maps associated with semantic verb paraphasia occurring within an oral picture-naming task were identified with an event-related fMRI paradigm. These maps were compared with those obtained in our previous study examining adaptive plasticity (i.e., successful verb naming) in the same participants. The results show that activation patterns related to semantic verb paraphasia and successful verb naming comprise a number of common areas, contributing to both maladaptive and adaptive neuroplasticity mechanisms. This finding suggests that the segregation of brain areas provides only a partial view of the neural basis of verb anomia and successful verb naming. Therefore, it indicates the importance of network approaches which may better capture the complexity of maladaptive and adaptive neuroplasticity mechanisms in anomia recovery. PMID:27429808

  4. Language processing in bilingual aphasia: a new insight into the problem.

    PubMed

    Khachatryan, Elvira; Vanhoof, Gertie; Beyens, Hilde; Goeleven, Ann; Thijs, Vincent; Van Hulle, Marc M

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that a bilingual person should not be considered as two monolinguals in a single body, a view that has gradually been adopted in the diagnosis and treatment of bilingual aphasia. However, its investigation is complicated due to the large variety in possible language combinations, pre- and postmorbid language proficiencies, and age of second language acquisition. Furthermore, the tests and tasks used to assess linguistic capabilities differ in almost every study, hindering a direct comparison of their outcomes. Behavioral, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging data from healthy population show that the processing of second language domains (semantics, syntax, morphology) depends on factors such as age and method of acquisition, proficiency level and environment in which the second language was acquired. A number of single and multiple case reports that rely on behavioral testing of bilingual aphasics replicate these results. Additionally, they show that the patient's performance depends on the size and location of the lesion, as well as language typology and morphological characteristics. Furthermore, the impairment and recovery patterns and recovery generalization from treated to untreated language depend on the lexical and orthographic distances between the two languages. For healthy bilinguals, language processing is usually studied in comparison to monolinguals. We advocate that a good starting point for identifying patterns specific for bilingual aphasia is to compare patient studies of bilinguals and monolinguals. PMID:26990465

  5. Impact of Personal Relevance on Acquisition and Generalization of Script Training for Aphasia: A Preliminary Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, Rosalind C.; Lee, Jaime B.; van Vuuren, Sarel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The importance of personalization in script training in aphasia has been assumed but never tested. This study compared acquisition and generalization of personally relevant versus generic words or phrases appearing in the same scripts. Method Eight individuals (6 men; 2 women) with chronic aphasia received 3 weeks of intensive computer-based script training. For each participant, 2 scripts, a trained and an untrained generalization script, were embedded with 4 personally relevant word choices and 2–4 generic items that were similar across participants. Scripts were probed for accuracy at baseline and posttreatment. Significance testing was conducted on baseline and posttreatment scores, and for gains in personally relevant versus generic items. Effect sizes were computed. Results Both personally relevant and generic items improved significantly on trained scripts. Improvements on untrained scripts were smaller, with only personally relevant items reaching significance. There was no significant difference on gains made on personalized versus generic items for trained scripts (p = .059), but the effect size was large (d = 0.90). For generalization scripts, this effect was small (d = 0.25) and nonsignificant. Conclusions Personally relevant words and phrases were acquired, although not generalized, more successfully than generic words and phrases. Data supports the importance of personalization in script training, but the degree of that importance requires further investigation. PMID:26340806

  6. Phonetic basis of phonemic paraphasias in aphasia: Evidence for cascading activation.

    PubMed

    Kurowski, Kathleen; Blumstein, Sheila E

    2016-02-01

    Phonemic paraphasias are a common presenting symptom in aphasia and are thought to reflect a deficit in which selecting an incorrect phonemic segment results in the clear-cut substitution of one phonemic segment for another. The current study re-examines the basis of these paraphasias. Seven left hemisphere-damaged aphasics with a range of left hemisphere lesions and clinical diagnoses including Broca's, Conduction, and Wernicke's aphasia, were asked to produce syllable-initial voiced and voiceless fricative consonants, [z] and [s], in CV syllables followed by one of five vowels [i e a o u] in isolation and in a carrier phrase. Acoustic analyses were conducted focusing on two acoustic parameters signaling voicing in fricative consonants: duration and amplitude properties of the fricative noise. Results show that for all participants, regardless of clinical diagnosis or lesion site, phonemic paraphasias leave an acoustic trace of the original target in the error production. These findings challenge the view that phonemic paraphasias arise from a mis-selection of phonemic units followed by its correct implementation, as traditionally proposed. Rather, they appear to derive from a common mechanism with speech errors reflecting the co-activation of a target and competitor resulting in speech output that has some phonetic properties of both segments. PMID:26808838

  7. Unravelling Boléro: progressive aphasia, transmodal creativity and the right posterior neocortex.

    PubMed

    Seeley, William W; Matthews, Brandy R; Crawford, Richard K; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Foti, Dean; Mackenzie, Ian R; Miller, Bruce L

    2008-01-01

    Most neurological lesion studies emphasize performance deficits that result from focal brain injury. Here, we describe striking gains of function in a patient with primary progressive aphasia, a degenerative disease of the human language network. During the decade before her language deficits arose, Anne Adams (AA), a lifelong scientist, developed an intense drive to produce visual art. Paintings from AA's artistic peak revealed her capacity to create expressive transmodal art, such as renderings of music in paint, which may have reflected an increased subjective relatedness among internal perceptual and conceptual images. AA became fascinated with Maurice Ravel, the French composer who also suffered from a progressive aphasia, and painted his best-known work, 'Boléro', by translating its musical elements into visual form. Later paintings, achieved when AA was nearly mute, moved towards increasing photographic realism, perhaps because visual representations came to dominate AA's mental landscape during this phase of her illness. Neuroimaging analyses revealed that, despite severe degeneration of left inferior frontal-insular, temporal and striatal regions, AA showed increased grey matter volume and hyperperfusion in right posterior neocortical areas implicated in heteromodal and polysensory integration. The findings suggest that structural and functional enhancements in non-dominant posterior neocortex may give rise to specific forms of visual creativity that can be liberated by dominant inferior frontal cortex injury. PMID:18057074

  8. Maladaptive Plasticity in Aphasia: Brain Activation Maps Underlying Verb Retrieval Errors

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Edith; Marcotte, Karine; Ansaldo, Ana Inés

    2016-01-01

    Anomia, or impaired word retrieval, is the most widespread symptom of aphasia, an acquired language impairment secondary to brain damage. In the last decades, functional neuroimaging techniques have enabled studying the neural basis underlying anomia and its recovery. The present study aimed to explore maladaptive plasticity in persistent verb anomia, in three male participants with chronic nonfluent aphasia. Brain activation maps associated with semantic verb paraphasia occurring within an oral picture-naming task were identified with an event-related fMRI paradigm. These maps were compared with those obtained in our previous study examining adaptive plasticity (i.e., successful verb naming) in the same participants. The results show that activation patterns related to semantic verb paraphasia and successful verb naming comprise a number of common areas, contributing to both maladaptive and adaptive neuroplasticity mechanisms. This finding suggests that the segregation of brain areas provides only a partial view of the neural basis of verb anomia and successful verb naming. Therefore, it indicates the importance of network approaches which may better capture the complexity of maladaptive and adaptive neuroplasticity mechanisms in anomia recovery. PMID:27429808

  9. The validity of Barlow's 1877 case of acquired childhood aphasia: case notes versus published reports.

    PubMed

    Hellal, Paula; Lorch, Marjorie Perlman

    2007-01-01

    In 1877, Barlow described a ten-year-old boy with right hemiplegia and aphasia, quick recovery of language function, and subsequent left hemiplegia and aphasia, who was shown to have symmetrical left and right Broca's area lesions at autopsy. The report of this case motivated many writers in the second half of the nineteenth century to develop theories on localization, laterality, equipotentiality and development of specialization, recovery of function, and the role of the right hemisphere (see Finger et al., 2003, for review). This paper presents an analysis of the original archived case notes that have recently come to light. Examination reveals discrepancies in significant details of the history of the case and raises questions about the degree of impairment and recovery throughout his illness as reported in the published article. Consideration of these differences between the presentation of the case in the British Medical Journal publication and the documentation in the original patient records raises issues about the validity of this case as evidence for the many arguments it was to support that have persisted to the present. PMID:17966055

  10. Rehabilitation of aphasia: application of melodic-rhythmic therapy to Italian language.

    PubMed

    Cortese, Maria Daniela; Riganello, Francesco; Arcuri, Francesco; Pignataro, Luigina Maria; Buglione, Iolanda

    2015-01-01

    Aphasia is a complex disorder, frequent after stroke (with an incidence of 38%), with a detailed pathophysiological characterization. Effective approaches are crucial for devising an efficient rehabilitative strategy, in order to address the everyday life and professional disability. Several rehabilitative procedures are based on psycholinguistic, cognitive, psychosocial or pragmatic approaches, including amongst those with a neurobehavioral approach the Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT). Van Eeckhout's adaptation of MIT to French language (Melodic-Rhythmic Therapy: MRT) has implemented the training strategy by adding a rhythmic structure reproducing French prosody. The purpose of this study was to adapt MRT rehabilitation procedures to Italian language and to verify its efficacy in a group of six chronic patients (five males) with severe non-fluent aphasia and without specific aphasic treatments during the previous 9 months. The patients were treated 4 days a week for 16 weeks, with sessions of 30-40 min. They were assessed 6 months after the end of the treatment (follow-up). The patients showed a significant improvement at the Aachener Aphasie Test (AAT) in different fields of spontaneous speech, with superimposable results at the follow-up. Albeit preliminary, these findings support the use of MRT in the rehabilitation after stroke. Specifically, MRT seems to benefit from its stronger structure than the available stimulation-facilitation procedures and allows a better quantification of the rehabilitation efficacy. PMID:26441615

  11. Protocol evaluation for effective music therapy for persons with nonfluent aphasia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mijin; Tomaino, Concetta M

    2008-01-01

    Although the notion of the language specificity of neural correlates has been widely accepted in the past (e.g., lefthemispheric dominance including Broca's and Wernike's area, N400 ERP component of semantic processing, and the P600 ERP component of syntactic processing, etc.), recent studies have shown that music and language share some important neurological aspects in their processing, both involving bilateral hemispheric activities. In line with this are the frequent behavioral clinical observations that persons with aphasia show improved articulation and prosody of speech in musically assisted phrases. Connecting recent neurological findings with clinical observations would not only inform clinical practice but would enhance understanding of the neurological mechanisms involved in the processing of speech/language and music. This article presents a music therapy treatment protocol study of 7 nonfluent patients with aphasia. The data and findings are discussed with regard to some of the recent focuses and issues addressed in the experimental studies using cognitive-behavioral, electrophysiological, and brain-imaging techniques. PMID:19158063

  12. The unknown source of John Hughlings Jackson's early interest in aphasia and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Lorch, Marjorie Perlman

    2004-09-01

    The National Hospital for Paralysis and Epilepsy in London (founded 1859) was the scene of great discoveries in the new specialty of neurology, carried out in great part by John Hughlings Jackson (1834-1911). The clinicians Jonathan Hutchinson and Charles Edward Brown-Sequard are typically identified as Jackson's mentors. This paper discusses the previously neglected role of Jabez Spence Ramskill (1824-1897), founding physician of the National Hospital. Ramskill appears to have been significant in providing the opportunity and context that led Jackson to develop his theories concerning higher cerebral function disorders. As assistant physician to Ramskill at the National Hospital, Jackson was provided with a vast caseload of epileptic, hemiplegic, and aphasic patients. Ramskill and Jackson both published papers on aphasia in the London Hospital Reports in 1864. Consideration of the similarities and differences between these 2 papers highlight significant issues in the clinical and theoretical development of understanding language organization in the brain. The early writings of Jackson and case notes of Ramskill document a close link between the 2 and indicate the debt that Jackson had to Ramskill for providing him with the opportunities to develop his original ideas on epilepsy and aphasia. PMID:15536299

  13. Integrating the iPad into an intensive, comprehensive aphasia program.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Elizabeth L; Carney, Anne

    2014-02-01

    The proliferation of tablet technology and the development of apps to support aphasia rehabilitation offer increasing opportunities for speech-language pathologists in a clinical setting. This article describes the components of an Intensive Comprehensive Aphasia Program at Boston University and details how usage of the iPad (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA) was incorporated. We describe how the iPad was customized for use in individual, dyadic, and group treatment formats and how its use was encouraged through home practice tasks. In addition to providing the participants with step-by-step instructions for the usage of each new app, participants had multiple opportunities for practice across various treatment formats. Examples of how the participants continued using their iPad beyond the program suggest how the usage of this device has generalized into their day-to-day life. An overall summary of performance on targeted linguistic measures as well as an analysis of functional and quality-of-life measures reveal statistically significant improvements pre- to posttreatment. PMID:24449463

  14. Dissociation between singing and speaking in expressive aphasia: the role of song familiarity.

    PubMed

    Straube, Thomas; Schulz, Alexander; Geipel, Katja; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim; Miltner, Wolfgang H R

    2008-04-01

    There are several reports on the ability aphasic patients have to sing familiar songs, despite having severe speech impairments. Based on these observations it was also suggested that singing might improve speech production. However, recent experimental studies with aphasic patients found no evidence to illustrate that singing improves word production under controlled experimental conditions. This study investigated the role of singing during repetition of word phrases in a patient severely affected with non-fluent aphasia (GS) who had an almost complete lesion of the left hemisphere. GS showed a pronounced increase in the number of correctly reproduced words during singing as compared to speaking excerpts of familiar lyrics. This dissociation between singing and speaking was not seen for novel song lyrics, regardless of whether these were coupled with an unfamiliar, a familiar, or a spontaneously generated melody during the singing conditions. These findings propose that singing might help word phrase production in at least some cases of severe expressive aphasia. However, the association of melody and text in long-term memory seems to be responsible for this effect. PMID:18294661

  15. Typicality of Inanimate Category Exemplars in Aphasia Treatment: Further Evidence for Semantic Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, Swathi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The typicality treatment approach on improving naming was investigated within two inanimate categories (furniture and clothing) using a single subject experimental design across participants and behaviors in five patients with aphasia. Method Participants received a semantic feature treatment to improve naming of either typical or atypical items within semantic categories, while generalization was tested to untrained items of the category. The order of typicality and category trained was counterbalanced across participants. Results Results indicated that two out of four patients trained on naming of atypical examples demonstrated generalization to naming untrained typical examples. One patient showed trends towards generalization but did not achieve criterion. Further, four out of four patients trained on typical examples demonstrated no generalized naming to untrained atypical examples within the category. Also, analysis of errors indicated an evolution of errors as a result of treatment, from those with no apparent relationship to the target to primarily semantic and phonemic paraphasias. Conclusions These results extend our previous findings (Kiran & Thompson, 2003) to patients with nonfluent aphasia and to inanimate categories such as furniture and clothing. Additionally, the results provide support for the claim that training atypical examples is a more efficient method to facilitating generalization to untrained items within a category than training typical examples (Kiran, 2007). PMID:18695023

  16. Rehabilitation of aphasia: application of melodic-rhythmic therapy to Italian language

    PubMed Central

    Cortese, Maria Daniela; Riganello, Francesco; Arcuri, Francesco; Pignataro, Luigina Maria; Buglione, Iolanda

    2015-01-01

    Aphasia is a complex disorder, frequent after stroke (with an incidence of 38%), with a detailed pathophysiological characterization. Effective approaches are crucial for devising an efficient rehabilitative strategy, in order to address the everyday life and professional disability. Several rehabilitative procedures are based on psycholinguistic, cognitive, psychosocial or pragmatic approaches, including amongst those with a neurobehavioral approach the Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT). Van Eeckhout’s adaptation of MIT to French language (Melodic-Rhythmic Therapy: MRT) has implemented the training strategy by adding a rhythmic structure reproducing French prosody. The purpose of this study was to adapt MRT rehabilitation procedures to Italian language and to verify its efficacy in a group of six chronic patients (five males) with severe non-fluent aphasia and without specific aphasic treatments during the previous 9 months. The patients were treated 4 days a week for 16 weeks, with sessions of 30–40 min. They were assessed 6 months after the end of the treatment (follow-up). The patients showed a significant improvement at the Aachener Aphasie Test (AAT) in different fields of spontaneous speech, with superimposable results at the follow-up. Albeit preliminary, these findings support the use of MRT in the rehabilitation after stroke. Specifically, MRT seems to benefit from its stronger structure than the available stimulation-facilitation procedures and allows a better quantification of the rehabilitation efficacy. PMID:26441615

  17. Phonological facilitation effects on naming latencies and viewing times during noun and verb naming in agrammatic and anomic aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jiyeon; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Phonological priming has been shown to facilitate naming in individuals with aphasia as well as healthy speakers, resulting in faster naming latencies. However, the mechanisms of phonological facilitation (PF) in aphasia remain unclear. Aims Within discrete vs. interactive models of lexical access, this study examined whether PF occurs via the sub-lexical or lexical route during noun and verb naming in agrammatic and anomic aphasia. Methods and Procedures Thirteen participants with agrammatic aphasia and 10 participants with anomic aphasia and their young and age-matched controls (n=20/each) were tested. Experiment 1 examined noun and verb naming deficit patterns in an off-line confrontation naming task. Experiment 2 examined PF effects on naming both word categories using eyetracking priming paradigm. Results Results of Experiment 1 showed greater naming difficulty for verbs than for nouns in the agrammatic group, with no difference between the two word categories in the anomic group. For both participant groups, errors were dominated by semantic paraphasias, indicating impaired lexical selection. In the phonological priming task (Experiment 2), young and age-matched control groups showed PF in both noun and verb naming. Interestingly, the agrammatic group showed PF when naming verbs, but not nouns, whereas the anomic group showed PF for nouns only. Conclusions Consistent with lexically mediated PF in interactive models of lexical access, selective PF for different word categories in our agrammatic and anomic groups suggest that phonological primes facilitate lexical selection via feedback activation, resulting in greater PF for more difficult (i.e., verbs in agrammatic and possibly nouns in anomic group) lexical items. PMID:26412922

  18. Methodological issues in the design and evaluation of supported communication for aphasia training: a cluster-controlled feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Simon; Clark, Allan; Barton, Garry; Lane, Kathleen; Pomeroy, Valerie M

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the feasibility and acceptability of training stroke service staff to provide supported communication for people with moderate–severe aphasia in the acute phase; assess the suitability of outcome measures; collect data to inform sample size and Health Economic evaluation in a definitive trial. Design Phase II cluster-controlled, observer-blinded feasibility study. Settings In-patient stroke rehabilitation units in the UK matched for bed numbers and staffing were assigned to control and intervention conditions. Participants 70 stroke rehabilitation staff from all professional groups, excluding doctors, were recruited. 20 patients with moderate-severe aphasia were recruited. Intervention Supported communication for aphasia training, adapted to the stroke unit context versus usual care. Training was supplemented by a staff learning log, refresher sessions and provision of communication resources. Main outcome measures Feasibility of recruitment and acceptability of the intervention and of measures required to assess outcomes and Health Economic evaluation in a definitive trial. Staff outcomes: Measure of Support in Conversation; patient outcomes: Stroke and Aphasia Quality of Life Scale; Communicative Access Measure for Stroke; Therapy Outcome Measures for aphasia; EQ-5D-3L was used to assess health outcomes. Results Feasibility of staff recruitment was demonstrated. Training in the intervention was carried out with 28 staff and was found to be acceptable in qualitative reports. 20 patients consented to take part, 6 withdrew. 18 underwent all measures at baseline; 16 at discharge; and 14 at 6-month follow-up. Of 175 patients screened 71% were deemed to be ineligible, either lacking capacity or too unwell to participate. Poor completion rates impacted on assessment of patient outcomes. We were able to collect sufficient data at baseline, discharge and follow-up for economic evaluation. Conclusions The feasibility study informed components of the

  19. A propos de l'agraphie des aphasiques sensoriels: etude comparative italien-francais (On Agraphia of Subjects with Sensory Aphasia: A Comparative Study of Italian and French)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Agostini, Maria

    1977-01-01

    A report on research on agraphia using subjects afflicted with sensory aphasia. It compares performance in Italian, a phonetic language, with performance in French. The disorders in the Italian language appear less varied than in French. (Text is in French.)

  20. Rapid improvement in verbal fluency and aphasia following perispinal etanercept in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Tobinick, Edward L; Gross, Hyman

    2008-01-01

    Background Recent clinical studies point to rapid and sustained clinical, cognitive, and behavioral improvement in both Alzheimer's disease and primary progressive aphasia following weekly perispinal administration of etanercept, a TNF-alpha inhibitor that acts by blocking the binding of this cytokine to its receptors. This outcome is concordant with recent basic science studies suggesting that TNF-alpha functions in vivo as a gliotransmitter that regulates synaptic function in the brain. We hypothesized that perispinal etanercept had the potential to improve verbal function in Alzheimer's disease, so we included several standarized measures of verbal ability to evaluate language skills in a clinical trial of perispinal etanercept for Alzheimer's disease. Methods This was a prospective, single-center, open-label, pilot study, in which 12 patients with mild-to-severe Alzheimer's disease were administered etanercept, 25–50 mg, weekly by perispinal administration for six months. Two additional case studies are presented. Results Two-tailed, paired t-tests were conducted comparing baseline performance to 6-month performance on all neuropsychological measures. Test batteries included the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition, Adult Version; Logical Memory I and II(WMS-LM-II) from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Abbreviated; the Comprehensive Trail Making Test (TMT); Boston Naming Test; and letter(FAS) and category verbal fluency. All measures revealed a significant effect except for the Boston Naming Test and the TMT-4, with WMS-LM-II being marginally significant at p = .05. The FAS test for letter fluency was most highly significant with a p < 0.0007. In addition, rapid improvement in verbal fluency and aphasia in two patients with dementia, beginning minutes after perispinal etanercept administration, is documented. Conclusion In combination with the previously reported results of perispinal etanercept in Alzheimer's disease and primary progressive aphasia, these

  1. Use of the Progressive Aphasia Severity Scale (PASS) in monitoring speech and language status in PPA

    PubMed Central

    Sapolsky, Daisy; Domoto-Reilly, Kimiko; Dickerson, Bradford C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a devastating neurodegenerative syndrome involving the gradual development of aphasia, slowly impairing the patient’s ability to communicate. Pharmaceutical treatments do not currently exist and intervention often focuses on speech-language behavioral therapies, although further investigation is warranted to determine how best to harness functional benefits. Efforts to develop pharmaceutical and behavioral treatments have been hindered by a lack of standardized methods to monitor disease progression and treatment efficacy. Aims Here we describe our current approach to monitoring progression of PPA, including the development and applications of a novel clinical instrument for this purpose, the Progressive Aphasia Severity Scale (PASS). We also outline some of the issues related to initial evaluation and longitudinal monitoring of PPA. Methods & Procedures In our clinical and research practice we perform initial and follow-up assessments of PPA patients using a multi-faceted approach. In addition to standardized assessment measures, we use the PASS to rate presence and severity of symptoms across distinct domains of speech, language, and functional and pragmatic aspects of communication. Ratings are made using the clinician’s best judgment, integrating information from patient test performance in the office as well as a companion’s description of routine daily functioning. Outcomes & Results Monitoring symptom characteristics and severity with the PASS can assist in developing behavioral therapies, planning treatment goals, and counseling patients and families on clinical status and prognosis. The PASS also has potential to advance the implementation of PPA clinical trials. Conclusions PPA patients display heterogeneous language profiles that change over time given the progressive nature of the disease. The monitoring of symptom progression is therefore crucial to ensure that proposed treatments are appropriate at

  2. Capturing multidimensionality in stroke aphasia: mapping principal behavioural components to neural structures

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    Stroke aphasia is a multidimensional disorder in which patient profiles reflect variation along multiple behavioural continua. We present a novel approach to separating the principal aspects of chronic aphasic performance and isolating their neural bases. Principal components analysis was used to extract core factors underlying performance of 31 participants with chronic stroke aphasia on a large, detailed battery of behavioural assessments. The rotated principle components analysis revealed three key factors, which we labelled as phonology, semantic and executive/cognition on the basis of the common elements in the tests that loaded most strongly on each component. The phonology factor explained the most variance, followed by the semantic factor and then the executive-cognition factor. The use of principle components analysis rendered participants’ scores on these three factors orthogonal and therefore ideal for use as simultaneous continuous predictors in a voxel-based correlational methodology analysis of high resolution structural scans. Phonological processing ability was uniquely related to left posterior perisylvian regions including Heschl’s gyrus, posterior middle and superior temporal gyri and superior temporal sulcus, as well as the white matter underlying the posterior superior temporal gyrus. The semantic factor was uniquely related to left anterior middle temporal gyrus and the underlying temporal stem. The executive-cognition factor was not correlated selectively with the structural integrity of any particular region, as might be expected in light of the widely-distributed and multi-functional nature of the regions that support executive functions. The identified phonological and semantic areas align well with those highlighted by other methodologies such as functional neuroimaging and neurostimulation. The use of principle components analysis allowed us to characterize the neural bases of participants’ behavioural performance more robustly and

  3. Conversation focused aphasia therapy: investigating the adoption of strategies by people with agrammatism

    PubMed Central

    Beeke, Suzanne; Beckley, Firle; Johnson, Fiona; Heilemann, Claudia; Edwards, Susan; Maxim, Jane; Best, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Background: A recent review of interaction (or conversation)-focused therapy highlighted the potential of programmes targeting the person with aphasia (PWA) directly. However, it noted the key limitations of current work in this field to be a reliance on single case analyses and qualitative evidence of change, a situation that is not unusual when a complex behavioural intervention is in the early stages of development and evaluation. Aims: This article aims to evaluate an intervention that targeted a PWA and their conversation partner (CP), a dyad, as equals in a novel conversation therapy for agrammatic aphasia, using both quantitative and qualitative evidence of change. The intervention aimed to increase the insight of a dyad into facilitator and barrier conversation behaviours, to increase the understanding of the effect of agrammatism on communication, and to support each speaker to choose three strategies to work on in therapy to increase mutual understanding and enhance conversation. Methods & Procedures: Quantitative and qualitative methods are used to analyse multiple pre-therapy and follow up assessments of conversation for two dyads. Outcomes & Results: Results show that one person with severe and chronic agrammatic aphasia was able to select and practise strategies that led to qualitative and quantitative changes in his post-therapy conversations. The other PWA showed a numerical increase in one of his three strategies post therapy, but no significant quantitative change. Although both CPs significantly reduced barrier behaviours in their post-therapy conversations, neither showed a significant increase in the strategies they chose to work on. For one CP, there was qualitative evidence of the use of different turn types. Conclusions: Individually tailored input from a speech and language therapist can assist some people with chronic agrammatism to develop conversational strategies that enhance communication. Outcomes are influenced by the severity and

  4. Effects of Noun-Verb Conceptual/ Phonological Relatedness on Verb Production Changes in Broca’s Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Goral, Mira; Verkuilen, Jay; Kempler, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Background Individuals with Broca’s aphasia show better performance on nouns than on verbs, but distinction between nouns and verbs is not always clear; some verbs are conceptually and/ or phonologically related to nouns, while others are not. Inconsistent results on effects of noun-verb relatedness on verb production have been reported in the literature. Aims We investigated (1) whether verb instrumentality (a conceptual relationship to nouns) or homonymy (a phonological relationship to nouns) would affect verb production in individuals with Broca’s aphasia and (2) whether conceptual/ phonological noun-verb relationship would affect responsiveness to aphasia therapy that focused on verb production. Methods & Procedures Three English speaking individuals with Broca’s aphasia produced 96 verbs in sentences in response to picture stimuli. The target verbs included those that use an instrument and those that do not (e.g., to hammer vs. to yawn) and verbs that are phonologically identical to a related noun (e.g., to comb – a comb), morpho-phonologically-related to a noun (e.g., to grind – a grinder), and verbs for which there is no phonologically similar noun (e.g., to lean). The participants’ verb retrieval ability was assessed before and after a 4-week period of aphasia therapy. Outcomes & Results The participants produced more accurate instrumental than non-instrumental verbs both pre- and post-treatment. They also produced more verbs correctly that are homonyms of nouns than verbs that are phonologically related or unrelated to nouns before treatment. However, the effect of homonymy was not observed following treatment. Conclusion Individuals with Broca’s aphasia were more accurate in their production of verbs that were conceptually and phonologically related to nouns than on verb that were not. The performance on verb production improved significantly after therapy. We interpret the results to indicate that whereas prior to treatment the participants

  5. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in primary progressive aphasia: phenomenology, pathophysiology, and approach to assessment and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Modirrousta, Mandana; Price, Bruce H; Dickerson, Bradford C

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by insidious and progressive loss of language. Current diagnostic criteria require symptoms to be largely restricted to language dysfunction for at least the first 2 years of the syndrome. However, as the disorder progresses – and sometimes even in the early stages – patients with PPA may exhibit neuropsychiatric symptoms. In this article, we review the phenomenology and frequency of neuropsychiatric symptoms in PPA. Among the few studies of this topic that have been performed, there is consistent agreement that neuropsychiatric symptoms are not uncommon among PPA patients. In some cases, particularly the semantic variant of PPA, symptoms are similar to those found in the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia. We further review the approach to assessment of behavioral symptoms in PPA and their possible management strategies, and speculate regarding their potential neurobiological substrates. PMID:23997827

  6. Cognitive neuropsychological analysis of differential reading and spelling disorder mechanisms in a patient with aphasia.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Kosei; Uno, Akira

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if differential reading and spelling mechanisms were involved in a Japanese patient with aphasia. In our case, the patient scored low on all of the administered reading tasks, suggesting that both the reading lexical and non-lexical routes were impaired. In contrast, his writing-to-dictation score for Kana nonwords was high, suggesting that the spelling non-lexical route was intact. However, the patient scored low on a writing-to-dictation task comprised of high-familiarity Kanji words. The spelling lexical route was thought to be impaired. Therefore, the mechanism(s) involved in reading and spelling may differ in this case. PMID:26927940

  7. Recurrent Transcortical Motor Aphasia-Another CNS Infectious Syndrome Associated with Herpes Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Raghav; Salgado, Efrain

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis is an acute/subacute illness that causes both general and focal signs of cerebral dysfunction with fever, headache, and confusion as cardinal features. Recurrent herpes simplex meningitis, also known as Mollaret's meningitis, is another manifestation of central nervous system herpetic infection with recurrent episodes of fever, headache, and nuchal rigidity associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) evidence of active herpes simplex infection. Bell's palsy is yet another manifestation of a herpes virus infection in at least some reported cases documented by CSF analysis. We report a case of a 70-year-old male who presented with acute transcortical motor aphasia initiating a stroke work-up that was negative. Physical examination revealed genital vesicles, and the CSF was consistent with active herpes simplex infection. PMID:26958155

  8. Adapting the Bilingual Aphasia Test to Rarotongan (Cook Islands Maori): Linguistic and clinical considerations.

    PubMed

    Amberber, Amanda Miller

    2011-06-01

    This article describes the adaptation of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) to the Rarotongan dialect of Cook Islands Maori, a Polynesian language spoken in the Cook Islands and expatriate communities. A brief linguistic sketch of Rarotongan is presented. As Rarotongan is characterised by a complex pronominal system, 'a' versus 'o' possession and optional topicalisation and focus constructions, particular issues arose in obtaining a rigorous adaptation of the BAT. Methods for ensuring effective adaptation across contrastive language pairs and sociocultural aspects of adapting the BAT to Rarotongan are discussed. Obtaining adaptations from several proficient bilingual consultants, comparing versions and group discussion to resolve discrepancies were used for this adaptation and are recommended. It is asserted that every individual has the right to receive accurate, detailed language assessment in each of their languages, irrespective of the languages spoken in the wider community. Further adaptations of the BAT will assist this to be achieved. PMID:21631310

  9. Recovery from aphasia and neglect after subcortical stroke: neuropsychological and cerebral perfusion study.

    PubMed Central

    Vallar, G; Perani, D; Cappa, S F; Messa, C; Lenzi, G L; Fazio, F

    1988-01-01

    Cortical regional cerebral perfusion was assessed by N, N, N1-trimethyl-N1-(2)-hydroxy-3-methyl-5-(I-123) iodobenzyl-1, 3-propanediamine 2 HCl I-123 (HIPDM) and single photon emission computerised tomography (SPECT) in six aphasic and two neglect patients with unilateral subcortical vascular lesions. Assessments were carried out both in the acute phase and after a period ranging from 1 to 6 months after stroke onset. In all patients an almost complete spontaneous recovery occurred and was associated with a significant improvement of cortical perfusion. A relationship between severity of aphasia and degree of cortical hypoperfusion was found, in both the acute and the follow up assessments, in the aphasic subgroup. Images PMID:2465386

  10. Somatic aphasia: Mismatch of body sensations with autonomic stress reactivity in psychopathy

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Schug, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although one of the main characteristics of psychopaths is a deficit in emotion, it is unknown whether they show a fundamental impairment in appropriately recognizing their own body sensations during an emotion-inducing task. Method Skin conductance and heart rate were recorded in 138 males during a social stressor together with subjective reports of body sensations. Psychopathic traits were assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist – Revised (PCL-R) 2nd edition (Hare, 2003). Results Nonpsychopathic controls who reported higher body sensations showed higher heart rate reactivity, but this verbal-autonomic consistency was not found in psychopathic individuals. This mind-body disconnection is particularly associated with the interpersonal-affective factor of psychopathy. Conclusions Findings are the first to document this body sensations– autonomic mismatch in psychopaths, and suggest that somatic aphasia the inaccurate identification and recognition of one‘s own somatic states may partly underlie the interpersonal-affective features of psychopaths. PMID:22490763

  11. [Jargon agraphia in a case with Broca aphasia: dissociation between language and writing dominancy].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, K; Yamadori, A; Endo, K; Fujii, T

    1997-05-01

    A 69-year-old left-handed man developed Broca aphasia and jargon agraphia following a right cerebral infarction. He learned to write with his right hand. There is no family history of left-handedness. Neurological examination revealed hemiparesis, sensory impairment, and hyperreflexia with pathological reflexes on the left side. An MRI demonstrated lesions in the area including the pre- and post-central gyri, the posterior part of the middle and inferior frontal gyri, and inferior parietal lobule on the right side. Neuropsychologically he was alert and cooperative. He demonstrated severe Broca aphasia and his verbal output was limited to a few residual words. On the other hand, he could communicate through writing Kanji words. Writing words was relatively preserved with Kanji but not with Kana characters. Asked to write a Japanese folk tale, he showed jargon agraphia mixed with some correct Kanji words. His comprehension of spoken and written sentences was well preserved. He showed mild ideomotor and buccofacial apraxia, left unilateral spatial neglect, and constructional impairment. Dissociation between spoken and written language is a prominent feature of this patient's language output. In this patient, right hemisphere seems to be dominant for language and praxis, and left hemisphere for motor engram of writing. Learning to write with the right hand may have enhanced the establishment and maintenance of motor engram for writing in the left hemisphere. The intact motor engram of characters in the left hemisphere could be retrieved by the right hand without control from the language area in the diseased right hemisphere, resulting in jargon agraphia especially with Kana characters. In left handed people, the hand with which they learn to write may effect interhemisphere lateralization of language functions. PMID:9294324

  12. Rehabilitation in bilingual aphasia: Evidence for within and between-language generalization

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, Swathi; Sandberg, Chaleece; Gray, Teresa; Ascenso, Elsa; Kester, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this project was to examine if there was a principled way to understand the nature of rehabilitation in bilingual aphasia such that patterns of acquisition and generalization are predictable and logical. Methods Seventeen Spanish-English bilinguals with aphasia participated in the therapy experiment. For each participant, three sets of stimuli were developed for each language: (a) English Set 1, (b) English Set 2 (semantically related to each item in English Set 1), (c) English Set 3 (unrelated control items), (d) Spanish Set 1 (translations of English Set 1), (e) Spanish Set 2 (translations of English Set 2; semantically related to each item in Spanish Set 1), and (f) Spanish Set 3 (translations of English Set 3; unrelated control items). A single subject experimental multiple baseline design across participants was implemented. Treatment was conducted in one language whereas generalization to within and between-language untrained items was examined. Results Treatment for naming on Set 1 items resulted in significant improvement (ES > 4.0) on the trained items in 14/17 participants. Of the 14 participants who showed improvement, within-language generalization to semantically related items was observed in 10 participants. Between-language generalization to the translations of trained items was observed for 5 participants; whereas between-language generalization to the translations of the untrained semantically related items was observed for 6 participants. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate within and between-language patterns that are variable across participants, these differences are indicative of the interplay between facilitation (generalization) and inhibition. PMID:23695906

  13. Training verb argument structure production in agrammatic aphasia: Behavioral and neural recovery patterns

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Cynthia K.; Riley, Ellyn A.; den Ouden, Dirk-Bart; Meltzer-Asscher, Aya; Lukic, Sladjana

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Neuroimaging and lesion studies indicate a left hemisphere network for verb and verb argument structure processing, involving both frontal and temporoparietal brain regions. Although their verb comprehension is generally unimpaired, it is well known that individuals with agrammatic aphasia often present with verb production deficits, characterized by an argument structure complexity hierarchy, indicating faulty access to argument structure representations for production and integration into syntactic contexts. Recovery of verb processing in agrammatism, however, has received little attention and no studies have examined the neural mechanisms associated with improved verb and argument structure processing. In the present study we trained agrammatic individuals on verbs with complex argument structure in sentence contexts and examined generalization to verbs with less complex argument structure. The neural substrates of improved verb production were examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods Eight individuals with chronic agrammatic aphasia participated in the study (four experimental and four control participants). Production of three-argument verbs in active sentences was trained using a sentence generation task emphasizing the verb’s argument structure and the thematic roles of sentential noun phrases. Before and after training, production of trained and untrained verbs was tested in naming and sentence production and fMRI scans were obtained, using an action naming task. Results Significant pre- to post-training improvement in trained and untrained (one- and two-argument) verbs was found for treated, but not control, participants, with between-group differences found for verb naming, production of verbs in sentences, and production of argument structure. fMRI activation derived from post-treatment compared to pre-treatment scans revealed upregulation in cortical regions implicated for verb and argument structure processing

  14. Effects of Dual Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for Aphasia in Chronic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Yeol; Cheon, Hee-Jung; Yoon, Kyoung Jae; Chang, Won Hyuk

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate any additional effect of dual transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) compared with single tDCS in chronic stroke patients with aphasia. Methods Eleven chronic stroke patients (aged 52.6±13.4 years, nine men) with aphasia were enrolled. Single anodal tDCS was applied over the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and a cathodal electrode was placed over the left buccinator muscle. Dual tDCS was applied as follows: 1) anodal tDCS over the left IFG and cathodal tDCS over the left buccinator muscle and 2) cathodal tDCS over the right IFG and anodal tDCS over the right buccinator muscle. Each tDCS was delivered for 30 minutes at a 2-mA intensity. Speech therapy was provided during the last 15 minutes of the tDCS. Before and after the stimulation, the Korean-Boston Naming Test and a verbal fluency test were performed. Results The dual tDCS produced a significant improvement in the response time for the Korean-Boston Naming Test compared with the baseline assessment, with a significant interaction between the time and type of interventions. Both single and dual tDCS produced a significant improvement in the number of correct responses after stimulation with no significant interaction. No significant changes in the verbal fluency test were observed after single or dual tDCS. Conclusion The results conveyed that dual tDCS using anodal tDCS over the left IFG and cathodal tDCS over the right IFG may be more effective than a single anodal tDCS over the left IFG. PMID:24233579

  15. Recursive Subsystems in Aphasia and Alzheimer's Disease: Case Studies in Syntax and Theory of Mind.

    PubMed

    Bánréti, Zoltán; Hoffmann, Ildikó; Vincze, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between recursive sentence embedding and theory-of-mind (ToM) inference is investigated in three persons with Broca's aphasia, two persons with Wernicke's aphasia, and six persons with mild and moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). We asked questions of four types about photographs of various real-life situations. Type 4 questions asked participants about intentions, thoughts, or utterances of the characters in the pictures ("What may X be thinking/asking Y to do?"). The expected answers typically involved subordinate clauses introduced by conjunctions or direct quotations of the characters' utterances. Broca's aphasics did not produce answers with recursive sentence embedding. Rather, they projected themselves into the characters' mental states and gave direct answers in the first person singular, with relevant ToM content. We call such replies "situative statements." Where the question concerned the mental state of the character but did not require an answer with sentence embedding ("What does X hate?"), aphasics gave descriptive answers rather than situative statements. Most replies given by persons with AD to Type 4 questions were grammatical instances of recursive sentence embedding. They also gave a few situative statements but the ToM content of these was irrelevant. In more than one third of their well-formed sentence embeddings, too, they conveyed irrelevant ToM contents. Persons with moderate AD were unable to pass secondary false belief tests. The results reveal double dissociation: Broca's aphasics are unable to access recursive sentence embedding but they can make appropriate ToM inferences; moderate AD persons make the wrong ToM inferences but they are able to access recursive sentence embedding. The double dissociation may be relevant for the nature of the relationship between the two recursive capacities. Broca's aphasics compensated for the lack of recursive sentence embedding by recursive ToM reasoning represented in very simple

  16. Imaging short- and long-term training success in chronic aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Menke, Ricarda; Meinzer, Marcus; Kugel, Harald; Deppe, Michael; Baumgärtner, Annette; Schiffbauer, Hagen; Thomas, Marion; Kramer, Kira; Lohmann, Hubertus; Flöel, Agnes; Knecht, Stefan; Breitenstein, Caterina

    2009-01-01

    Background To date, functional imaging studies of treatment-induced recovery from chronic aphasia only assessed short-term treatment effects after intensive language training. In the present study, we show with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), that different brain regions may be involved in immediate versus long-term success of intensive language training in chronic post-stroke aphasia patients. Results Eight patients were trained daily for three hours over a period of two weeks in naming of concrete objects. Prior to, immediately after, and eight months after training, patients overtly named trained and untrained objects during event-related fMRI. On average the patients improved from zero (at baseline) to 64.4% correct naming responses immediately after training, and treatment success remained highly stable at follow-up. Regression analyses showed that the degree of short-term treatment success was predicted by increased activity (compared to the pretraining scan) bilaterally in the hippocampal formation, the right precuneus and cingulate gyrus, and bilaterally in the fusiform gyri. A different picture emerged for long-term training success, which was best predicted by activity increases in the right-sided Wernicke's homologue and to a lesser degree in perilesional temporal areas. Conclusion The results show for the first time that treatment-induced language recovery in the chronic stage after stroke is a dynamic process. Initially, brain regions involved in memory encoding, attention, and multimodal integration mediated treatment success. In contrast, long-term treatment success was predicted mainly by activity increases in the so-called 'classical' language regions. The results suggest that besides perilesional and homologue language-associated regions, functional integrity of domain-unspecific memory structures may be a prerequisite for successful (intensive) language interventions. PMID:19772660

  17. Is the logopenic-variant of primary progressive aphasia a unitary disorder?

    PubMed

    Leyton, Cristian E; Hodges, John R; McLean, Catriona A; Kril, Jillian J; Piguet, Olivier; Ballard, Kirrie J

    2015-06-01

    Logopenic progressive aphasia is one of the clinical presentations of primary progressive aphasia and formally defined by the co-occurrence of impaired naming and sentence repetition. Impaired naming is attributed to failure of lexical retrieval, which is a multi-staged process subserved by anatomically segregated brain regions. By dissecting the neurocognitive processes involved in impaired naming, we aimed to disentangle the clinical and neuroanatomical heterogeneity of this syndrome. Twenty-one individuals (66.7% females, age range 53-83 years) who fulfilled diagnostic criteria for logopenic variant and had at least two clinical and language assessments, 1 year apart, were recruited and matched for age, sex distribution and level of education with a healthy control sample (n = 18). All participants underwent a structural brain scan at the first visit and surface-wise statistical analysis using Freesurfer. Seventeen participants with logopenic variant underwent amyloid imaging, with 14 demonstrating high amyloid retention. Based on their performance on single-word comprehension, repetition and confrontation naming, three subgroups of logopenic cases with distinctive linguistic profiles and distribution of atrophy were identified. The first subgroup (n = 10) demonstrated pure anomia and left-sided atrophy in the posterior inferior parietal lobule and lateral temporal cortex. The second subgroup (n = 6), presented additional mild deficits in single-word comprehension, and also exhibited bilateral thinning of the fusiform gyri. The third subgroup (n = 5) showed additional impaired single-word repetition, and cortical thinning focused on the left superior temporal gyrus. The subgroups differed in the proportion of cases with high amyloid retention and in the rate of decline of naming performance over time, suggesting that neurodegeneration spreads differentially throughout regions subserving word processing. In line with previous reports, these results

  18. Nonverbal oral apraxia in primary progressive aphasia and apraxia of speech

    PubMed Central

    Botha, Hugo; Duffy, Joseph R.; Strand, Edythe A.; Machulda, Mary M.; Whitwell, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to explore the prevalence of nonverbal oral apraxia (NVOA), its association with other forms of apraxia, and associated imaging findings in patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) and progressive apraxia of speech (PAOS). Methods: Patients with a degenerative speech or language disorder were prospectively recruited and diagnosed with a subtype of PPA or with PAOS. All patients had comprehensive speech and language examinations. Voxel-based morphometry was performed to determine whether atrophy of a specific region correlated with the presence of NVOA. Results: Eighty-nine patients were identified, of which 34 had PAOS, 9 had agrammatic PPA, 41 had logopenic aphasia, and 5 had semantic dementia. NVOA was very common among patients with PAOS but was found in patients with PPA as well. Several patients exhibited only one of NVOA or apraxia of speech. Among patients with apraxia of speech, the severity of the apraxia of speech was predictive of NVOA, whereas ideomotor apraxia severity was predictive of the presence of NVOA in those without apraxia of speech. Bilateral atrophy of the prefrontal cortex anterior to the premotor area and supplementary motor area was associated with NVOA. Conclusions: Apraxia of speech, NVOA, and ideomotor apraxia are at least partially separable disorders. The association of NVOA and apraxia of speech likely results from the proximity of the area reported here and the premotor area, which has been implicated in apraxia of speech. The association of ideomotor apraxia and NVOA among patients without apraxia of speech could represent disruption of modules shared by nonverbal oral movements and limb movements. PMID:24727315

  19. Syntactic and morphosyntactic processing in stroke–induced and primary progressive aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Cynthia K.; Meltzer-Asscher, Aya; Cho, Soojin; Lee, Jiyeon; Wieneke, Christina; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M.-Marsel

    2013-01-01

    The paper reports findings derived from three experiments examining syntactic and morphosyntactic processing in individuals with agrammatic and logopenic variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA-G and PPA-L, respectively) and stroke-induced agrammatic and anomic aphasia (StrAg and StrAn, respectively). We examined comprehension and production of canonical and noncanonical sentence structures and production of tensed and nontensed verb forms using constrained tasks in experiments 1 and 2 using the Northwestern Assessment of Verbs and Sentences (NAVS [57]) and the Northwestern Assessment of Verb Inflection (NAVI, Thompson and Lee, experimental version), respectively. Experiment 3 examined free narrative samples, focusing on syntactic and morphosyntactic measures, i.e. production of grammatical sentences, noun to verb ratio, open-class to closed-class word production ratio, and the production of correctly inflected verbs. Results indicate that the two agrammatic groups (i.e., PPA-G and StrAg) pattern alike on syntactic and morphosyntactic measures, showing more impaired noncanonical compared to canonical sentence comprehension and production and greater difficulties producing tensed compared to nontensed verb forms. Their spontaneous speech also contained significantly fewer grammatical sentences and correctly inflected verbs, and they produced a greater proportion of nouns compared to verbs, than healthy speakers. In contrast, PPA-L and StrAn individuals did not display these deficits, and performed significantly better than the agrammatic groups on these measures. The findings suggest that agrammatism, whether induced by degenerative disease or stroke, is associated with characteristic deficits in syntactic and morphosyntactic processing. We therefore recommend that linguistically sophisticated tests and narrative analysis procedures be used to systematically evaluate the linguistic ability of individuals with PPA, contributing to our understanding of the

  20. Effect of lexical cues on the production of active and passive sentences in Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the sentence production abilities of individuals with Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia in an attempt to explore the extent to which impaired lexical retrieval impedes sentence production. The ability to produce active and passive reversible and non-reversible sentences was examined when varying amounts of lexical information was provided. The results showed that both Wernicke's and Broca's aphasic individuals were impaired in passive sentence production and that these difficulties were not overcome when lexical cues (the relevant nouns and uninflected verb) were provided. However when auxiliary and past tense morphemes were provided along with the verb stem, production of passive sentences improved drastically for both groups. Analysis of error patterns, however, revealed differences between the two groups, suggesting that Broca's aphasic subjects mayfind passive sentences difficult due to problems with retrieving the relevant grammatical morphemes. Subjects with Wernicke's aphasia may have been unable to automatically access the passive sentence structure. PMID:12744953

  1. Changes in functional connectivity related to direct training and generalization effects of a word finding treatment in chronic aphasia.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Chaleece W; Bohland, Jason W; Kiran, Swathi

    2015-11-01

    The neural mechanisms that underlie generalization of treatment-induced improvements in word finding in persons with aphasia (PWA) are currently poorly understood. This study aimed to shed light on changes in functional network connectivity underlying generalization in aphasia. To this end, we used fMRI and graph theoretic analyses to examine changes in functional connectivity after a theoretically-based word-finding treatment in which abstract words were used as training items with the goal of promoting generalization to concrete words. Ten right-handed native English-speaking PWA (7 male, 3 female) ranging in age from 47 to 75 (mean=59) participated in this study. Direct training effects coincided with increased functional connectivity for regions involved in abstract word processing. Generalization effects coincided with increased functional connectivity for regions involved in concrete word processing. Importantly, similarities between training and generalization effects were noted as were differences between participants who generalized and those who did not. PMID:26398158

  2. The relationships between the amount of spared tissue, percent signal change, and accuracy in semantic processing in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Sims, Jordyn A; Kapse, Kushal; Glynn, Peter; Sandberg, Chaleece; Tripodis, Yorghos; Kiran, Swathi

    2016-04-01

    Recovery from aphasia, loss of language following a cerebrovascular incident (stroke), is a complex process involving both left and right hemispheric regions. In our study, we analyzed the relationships between semantic processing behavioral data, lesion size and location, and percent signal change from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. This study included 14 persons with aphasia in the chronic stage of recovery (six or more months post stroke), along with normal controls, who performed semantic processing tasks of determining whether a written semantic feature matched a picture or whether two written words were related. Using region of interest (ROI) analysis, we found that left inferior frontal gyrus pars opercularis and pars triangularis, despite significant damage, were the only regions to correlate with behavioral accuracy. Additionally, bilateral frontal regions including superior frontal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, and anterior cingulate appear to serve as an assistive network in the case of damage to traditional language regions that include inferior frontal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, and angular gyrus. Right hemisphere posterior regions including right middle temporal gyrus, right supramarginal gyrus, and right angular gyrus are engaged in the case of extensive damage to left hemisphere language regions. Additionally, right inferior frontal gyrus pars orbitalis is presumed to serve a monitoring function. These results reinforce the importance of the left hemisphere in language processing in aphasia, and provide a framework for the relative importance of left and right language regions in the brain. PMID:26775192

  3. Combining Teletherapy and On-line Language Exercises in the Treatment of Chronic Aphasia: An Outcome Study

    PubMed Central

    STEELE, RICHARD D.; BAIRD, ALLISON; MCCALL, DENISE; HAYNES, LISA

    2015-01-01

    We report a 12-week outcome study in which nine persons with long-term chronic aphasia received individual and group speech-language teletherapy services, and also used on-line language exercises to practice from home between therapy sessions. Participants were assessed at study initiation and completion using the Western Aphasia Battery, a portion of the Communicative Effectiveness Index, ASHA National Outcome Measurement System, and RIC Communication Confidence Rating Scale for Aphasia; additionally participants were polled regarding satisfaction at discharge. Pretreatment and post-treatment means were calculated and compared, and matched t-tests were used to determine significance of improvements following treatment, with patterns of independent on-line activity analyzed. Analysis of scores shows that means improved on most measures following treatment, generally significantly: the WAB AQ improved +3.5 (p = .057); the CETI Overall (of items administered) — +17.8 (p = .01), and CCRSA Overall — + 10.4 (p = .0004). Independent work increased with time, and user satisfaction following participation was high. PMID:25945225

  4. Impaired L1 and executive control after left basal ganglia damage in a bilingual Basque-Spanish person with aphasia.

    PubMed

    Adrover-Roig, Daniel; Galparsoro-Izagirre, Nekane; Marcotte, Karine; Ferré, Perrine; Wilson, Maximiliano A; Inés Ansaldo, Ana

    2011-06-01

    Bilinguals must focus their attention to control competing languages. In bilingual aphasia, damage to the fronto-subcortical loop may lead to pathological language switching and mixing and the attrition of the more automatic language (usually L1). We present the case of JZ, a bilingual Basque-Spanish 53-year-old man who, after haematoma in the left basal ganglia, presented with executive deficits and aphasia, characterised by more impaired language processing in Basque, his L1. Assessment with the Bilingual Aphasia Test revealed impaired spontaneous and automatic speech production and speech rate in L1, as well as impaired L2-to-L1 sentence translation. Later observation led to the assessment of verbal and non-verbal executive control, which allowed JZ's impaired performance on language tasks to be related to executive dysfunction. In line with previous research, we report the significant attrition of L1 following damage to the left basal ganglia, reported for the first time in a Basque-Spanish bilingual. Implications for models of declarative and procedural memory are discussed. PMID:21453016

  5. Translational treatment of aphasia combining neuromodulation and behavioral intervention for lexical retrieval: implications from a single case study

    PubMed Central

    Galletta, Elizabeth E.; Vogel-Eyny, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive method of brain stimulation, is an adjunctive research-therapy for aphasia. The concept supporting translational application of tDCS is that brain plasticity, facilitated by language intervention, can be enhanced by non-invasive brain stimulation. This study combined tDCS with an ecologically focused behavioral approach that involved training nouns and verbs in sentences. Method: Participant: A 43-year-old, right-handed male with fluent-anomic aphasia who sustained a single-left-hemisphere-temporal-parietal stroke was recruited. Treatment: Instrumentation included the Soterix Medical 1 × 1 Device. Anodal tDCS was applied over Broca’s area. Behavioral materials included: sentence production, naming in the sentence context, and implementation of a social-conversational-discourse treatment. Design and Procedures: The independent variable of this crossover case-study was tDCS, and the dependent variables were language and quality-of-life measures. In each session the subject received language treatment with the first 20 minutes additionally including tDCS. Results: Performance in naming nouns and verbs in single words and sentences were obtained. Verb production in the sentence context increased after active anodal tDCS and speech-language treatment. Conclusion: Aphasia treatment that involves naming in the sentence context in conjunction with translational application of tDCS may be a promising approach for language-recovery post stroke. PMID:26347634

  6. Evaluating the Benefits of Aphasia Intervention Delivered in Virtual Reality: Results of a Quasi-Randomised Study

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Jane; Booth, Tracey; Devane, Niamh; Galliers, Julia; Greenwood, Helen; Hilari, Katerina; Talbot, Richard; Wilson, Stephanie; Woolf, Celia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This study evaluated an intervention for people with aphasia delivered in a novel virtual reality platform called EVA Park. EVA Park contains a number of functional and fantastic locations and allows for interactive communication between multiple users. Twenty people with aphasia had 5 weeks’ intervention, during which they received daily language stimulation sessions in EVA Park from a support worker. The study employed a quasi randomised design, which compared a group that received immediate intervention with a waitlist control group. Outcome measures explored the effects of intervention on communication and language skills, communicative confidence and feelings of social isolation. Compliance with the intervention was also explored through attrition and usage data. Results There was excellent compliance with the intervention, with no participants lost to follow up and most (18/20) receiving at least 88% of the intended treatment dose. Intervention brought about significant gains on a measure of functional communication. Gains were achieved by both groups of participants, once intervention was received, and were well maintained. Changes on the measures of communicative confidence and feelings of social isolation were not achieved. Results are discussed with reference to previous aphasia therapy findings. PMID:27518188

  7. iPractice: piloting the effectiveness of a tablet-based home practice program in aphasia treatment.

    PubMed

    Kurland, Jacquie; Wilkins, Abigail R; Stokes, Polly

    2014-02-01

    The current study investigated the effectiveness of a home practice program based on the iPad (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA), implemented after 2 weeks of intensive language therapy, for maintaining and augmenting treatment gains in people with chronic poststroke aphasia. Five of eight original participants completed the 6-month home practice program in which they autonomously practiced retrieving words for objects and actions. Half of these words had been trained and half were untrained during therapy. Practice included tasks such as naming to confrontation, repeating from a video model, and picture/word matching presented on an iPad. All participants maintained advances made on words trained during the intensive treatment and additionally were able to learn new words by practicing daily over a 6-month period. The iPad and other tablet devices have great potential for personalized home practice to maintain and augment traditional aphasia rehabilitation. It appears that motivation to use the technology and adequate training are more important factors than age, aphasia type or severity, or prior experience with computers. PMID:24449465

  8. Community-applied research of a traditional Chinese medicine rehabilitation scheme on Broca’s aphasia after stroke: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Aphasia is a common and severely disabling complication in stroke patients. It usually brings about lower rates of functional recovery, longer rehabilitation length of stay (LOS), and significantly poorer LOS efficiency (LOS-Eff), resulting in higher rehabilitation costs compared to patients without aphasia. It also decreases the quality of life and increases the mortality of stroke patients. The evidence currently available suggests that the effect of acupuncture combined with language training for apoplectic aphasia is statistically better than speech and language therapy (SLT) alone, but there remains a lack of high-quality randomized controlled trials. Acupuncture combined with language training is relatively low-cost and especially suitable for community-based rehabilitation for aphasia patients after stroke, taking its medical and health facilities which are always deficient in manpower and material resources into account. The aim of the present study is to develop an effective standard therapeutic program for apoplectic aphasia in communities. Methods/Design In a randomized controlled clinical trial with blinded assessment, 290 eligible patients with aphasia due to stroke will be randomly allocated into a control group or an experimental group. The course of this trial will comprise a 4-week intervention and a 12-week follow-up period. Five assessment points, including baseline, 2 and 4 weeks after treatment, 6 and 12 weeks after follow-up, are set to dynamically observe the changes of curative effects. Primary outcome measures are the differences in the score on both the China rehabilitation research center aphasia examination (CRRCAE) and Boston diagnostic aphasia examination - Chinese version (BDAE-C) after intervention and follow-up. The Modified Barthel Index (MBI), 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and results of blood oxygen level dependent-functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) examination are considered as the

  9. Barriers to and Facilitators of Access and Participation in Community-Based Exercise Programmes from the Perspective of Adults with Post-stroke Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Blonski, Diane C.; Covert, Megan; Gauthier, Roxanne; Monas, Alanna; Murray, Danielle; O'Brien, Kelly K.; Mendelson, Anita Debbie

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To explore communication-related experiences with accessing and participating in community-based exercise programmes from the perspective of adults with post-stroke aphasia. Methods: Adults with mild to severe post-stroke aphasia were recruited from the Aphasia Institute (AI), Toronto, Canada, for a qualitative descriptive study using semi-structured, in-depth one-on-one interviews. Participants were asked to identify facilitators of, barriers to, and strategies for joining and participating in exercise programmes. Interview data were analyzed using conventional content analysis. Results: Ten adults with mild (40%), moderate (40%), or severe (20%) aphasia participated in this study. The majority of participants were men (60%) aged 60–69 years (40%). Participants experienced a combination of communication, environmental, and personal facilitators of and barriers to accessing and participating in community-based exercise programmes. Strategies to enhance participation can be applied at both programme and individual levels. Conclusions: Findings may inform clinical practice and programming to optimize access to and participation in community-based exercise programmes for adults with post-stroke aphasia. PMID:25922558

  10. A Novel Eye-Tracking Method to Assess Attention Allocation in Individuals with and without Aphasia Using a Dual-Task Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Heuer, Sabine; Hallowell, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    Numerous authors report that people with aphasia have greater difficulty allocating attention than people without neurological disorders. Studying how attention deficits contribute to language deficits is important. However, existing methods for indexing attention allocation in people with aphasia pose serious methodological challenges. Eye-tracking methods have great potential to address such challenges. We developed and assessed the validity of a new dual-task method incorporating eye tracking to assess attention allocation. Twenty-six adults with aphasia and 33 control participants completed auditory sentence comprehension and visual search tasks. To test whether the new method validly indexes well-documented patterns in attention allocation, demands were manipulated by varying task complexity in single- and dual-task conditions. Differences in attention allocation were indexed via eye-tracking measures. For all participants significant increases in attention allocation demands were observed from single- to dual-task conditions and from simple to complex stimuli. Individuals with aphasia had greater difficulty allocating attention with greater task demands. Relationships between eye-tracking indices of comprehension during single and dual tasks and standardized testing were examined. Results support the validity of the novel eye-tracking method for assessing attention allocation in people with and without aphasia. Clinical and research implications are discussed. PMID:25913549

  11. Real-time comprehension of wh- movement in aphasia: Evidence from eyetracking while listening

    PubMed Central

    Dickey, Michael Walsh; Choy, JungWon Janet; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2007-01-01

    Sentences with non-canonical wh- movement are often difficult for individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia to understand (Caramazza & Zurif, 1976, inter alia). However, the explanation of this difficulty remains controversial, and little is known about how individuals with aphasia try to understand such sentences in real time. This study uses an eyetracking while listening paradigm (Tanenhaus, et al., 1995) to examine agrammatic aphasic individuals' on-line comprehension of movement sentences. Participants' eye-movements were monitored while they listened to brief stories. These stories were followed by comprehension probes involving wh- movement, and looked at visual displays depicting elements mentioned in the story. In line with previous results for young normal listeners (Sussman & Sedivy, 2003), the study finds that both older unimpaired control participants (n=8) and aphasic individuals (n=12) showed visual evidence of successful automatic comprehension of wh- questions (like “Who did the boy kiss that day at school?”). Specifically, both groups fixated on a picture corresponding to the moved element (“who,” the person kissed in the story) at the position of the verb. Interestingly, aphasic participants showed qualitatively different fixation patterns for trials eliciting correct and incorrect responses. Aphasic individuals looked to first the moved-element picture and then to a competitor following the verb in the incorrect trials, indicating initially correct automatic processing. However, they only showed looks to the moved-element picture for the correct trials, parallel to control participants. Furthermore, aphasic individuals' fixations during movement sentences were just as fast as control participants' fixations. These results are unexpected under slowed-processing accounts of aphasic comprehension deficits, in which the source of failed comprehension should be delayed application of the same processing routines used in successful

  12. Recursive Subsystems in Aphasia and Alzheimer's Disease: Case Studies in Syntax and Theory of Mind

    PubMed Central

    Bánréti, Zoltán; Hoffmann, Ildikó; Vincze, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between recursive sentence embedding and theory-of-mind (ToM) inference is investigated in three persons with Broca's aphasia, two persons with Wernicke's aphasia, and six persons with mild and moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). We asked questions of four types about photographs of various real-life situations. Type 4 questions asked participants about intentions, thoughts, or utterances of the characters in the pictures (“What may X be thinking/asking Y to do?”). The expected answers typically involved subordinate clauses introduced by conjunctions or direct quotations of the characters' utterances. Broca's aphasics did not produce answers with recursive sentence embedding. Rather, they projected themselves into the characters' mental states and gave direct answers in the first person singular, with relevant ToM content. We call such replies “situative statements.” Where the question concerned the mental state of the character but did not require an answer with sentence embedding (“What does X hate?”), aphasics gave descriptive answers rather than situative statements. Most replies given by persons with AD to Type 4 questions were grammatical instances of recursive sentence embedding. They also gave a few situative statements but the ToM content of these was irrelevant. In more than one third of their well-formed sentence embeddings, too, they conveyed irrelevant ToM contents. Persons with moderate AD were unable to pass secondary false belief tests. The results reveal double dissociation: Broca's aphasics are unable to access recursive sentence embedding but they can make appropriate ToM inferences; moderate AD persons make the wrong ToM inferences but they are able to access recursive sentence embedding. The double dissociation may be relevant for the nature of the relationship between the two recursive capacities. Broca's aphasics compensated for the lack of recursive sentence embedding by recursive ToM reasoning represented in very

  13. APOE4 influences β-amyloid burden in primary progressive aphasia and speech apraxia

    PubMed Central

    Josephs, Keith A.; Duffy, Joseph R.; Strand, Edythe A.; Machulda, Mary M.; Senjem, Matthew L.; Lowe, Val J.; Jack, Clifford R.; Whitwell, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 (APOE4) is a risk factor for β-amyloid deposition in Alzheimer’s dementia. Its influence on β-amyloid deposition in speech and language disorders, including primary progressive aphasia (PPA), is unclear. Methods One hundred and thirty subjects with PPA or speech apraxia underwent APOE genotyping and Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) PET scanning. The relationship between APOE4 and PiB status, as well as severity and regional distribution of PiB, was assessed. Results Forty-five subjects had an APOE4 allele and 60 subjects were PiB-positive. The odds ratio for a subject with APOE4 being PiB-positive compared to a subject without APOE4 being PiB-positive was 10.2 (4.4–25.5, p<0.0001). APOE4 status did not influence regional PiB distribution or severity. Conclusion APOE4 increases the risk of β-amyloid deposition in PPA and speech apraxia, but does not influence regional β-amyloid distribution or severity. PMID:24985533

  14. Jonathan Osborne (1794-1864) and his recognition of conduction aphasia in 1834.

    PubMed

    Breathnach, C S

    2011-03-01

    In 1833 an accomplished 26-year-old linguist suffered a non-paralytic stroke. After he recovered, though he could utter a variety of syllables with ease, he spoke an unintelligible jargon that caused him to be mistaken as a foreigner. He was examined repeatedly over the course of a year by Jonathan Osborne (1794-1864), a Dublin physician and professor of materia medica, who found that the patient understood whatever was said to him, that he could read and write fluently, but had difficulty repeating words read to him or in reading aloud. Osborne recommended that he learn to speak English, his natural language, de novo and over 8 months measured his considerable improvement. To explain the patient's singular difficulty in repeating spoken words Osborne argued it was 'highly probable that, having been conversant with five languages, the muscular apparatus ranged among them, forming a kind of polyglot jargon [that was] wholly unintelligible' and the patient was 'unable to penetrate into and select the contents of the store according as the [words] were required'. The discrepancy between comprehension and repetition was later termed conduction aphasia. PMID:21052861

  15. Primary progressive aphasia and the evolving neurology of the language network

    PubMed Central

    Mesulam, M.-Marsel; Rogalski, Emily J.; Wieneke, Christina; Hurley, Robert S.; Geula, Changiz; Bigio, Eileen H.; Thompson, Cynthia K.; Weintraub, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is caused by selective neurodegeneration of the language-dominant cerebral hemisphere; a language deficit initially arises as the only consequential impairment and remains predominant throughout most of the course of the disease. Agrammatic, logopenic and semantic subtypes, each reflecting a characteristic pattern of language impairment and corresponding anatomical distribution of cortical atrophy, represent the most frequent presentations of PPA. Such associations between clinical features and the sites of atrophy have provided new insights into the neurology of fluency, grammar, word retrieval, and word comprehension, and have necessitated modification of concepts related to the functions of the anterior temporal lobe and Wernicke’s area. The underlying neuropathology of PPA is, most commonly, frontotemporal lobar degeneration in the agrammatic and semantic forms, and Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology in the logopenic form; the AD pathology often displays atypical and asymmetrical anatomical features consistent with the aphasic phenotype. The PPA syndrome reflects complex interactions between disease-specific neuropathological features and patient-specific vulnerability. A better understanding of these interactions might help us to elucidate the biology of the language network and the principles of selective vulnerability in neurodegenerative diseases. We review these aspects of PPA, focusing on advances in our understanding of the clinical features and neuropathology of PPA and what they have taught us about the neural substrates of the language network. PMID:25179257

  16. Praxis and Writing in a Right-Hander with Crossed Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Falchook, Adam D.; Burtis, D. Brandon; Acosta, Lealani M.; Salazar, Liliana; Hedna, Vishnumurthy Shushrutha; Khanna, Anna Y.; Heilman, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of patients with brain lesions have demonstrated that language and praxis are mediated by dissociable networks. However, language has the capacity to influence the selection of purposeful actions. The abilities to use language and to program purposeful movements are often mediated by networks that have anatomic proximity. With hemispheric injury, the diagnosis of apraxia is often confounded by the specific influence of language impairments on the ability to select and produce transitive gestures. We report a patient who illustrates this confound. This patient is a right-handed man who developed global aphasia and neglect after a right hemispheric stroke. His right hand remained deft, and when asked to produce specific transitive gestures (pantomimes), he often performed normally but did make some body part as object and perseverative errors. However, he did not demonstrate the temporal or spatial errors typical of ideomotor apraxia. He also had a perseverative agraphia. Our patient’s left hemisphere praxis system appeared to be intact, and the error types demonstrated during production of transitive gestures cannot be attributed to a degradation of postural and movement (praxis) programs mediated by his left hemisphere. The praxis errors types are most consistent with a deficit in the ability to select the necessary praxis programs. Thus, our patient appeared to have dissociation between language and praxis programs that resulted in body part as object and perseverative errors. PMID:23557340

  17. Brain atrophy in primary progressive aphasia involves the cholinergic basal forebrain and Ayala’s nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Teipel, Stefan J.; Flatz, Wilhelm; Ackl, Nibal; Grothe, Michel; Kilimann, Ingo; Bokde, Arun L.W.; Grinberg, Lea; Amaro, Edson; Kljajevic, Vanja; Alho, Eduardo; Knels, Christina; Ebert, Anne; Heinsen, Helmut; Danek, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is characterized by left hemispheric frontotemporal cortical atrophy. Evidence from anatomical studies suggests that the nucleus subputaminalis (NSP), a subnucleus of the cholinergic basal forebrain, may be involved in the pathological process of PPA. Therefore, we studied the pattern of cortical and basal forebrain atrophy in 10 patients with a clinical diagnosis of PPA and 18 healthy age-matched controls using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We determined the cholinergic basal forebrain nuclei according to Mesulam’s nomenclature and the NSP in MRI reference space based on histological sections and the MRI scan of a post-mortem brain in cranio. Using voxel-based analysis, we found left hemispheric cortical atrophy in PPA patients compared with controls, including prefrontal, lateral temporal and medial temporal lobe areas. We detected cholinergic basal forebrain atrophy in left predominant localizations of Ch4p, Ch4am, Ch4al, Ch3 and NSP. For the first time, we have described the pattern of basal forebrain atrophy in PPA and confirmed the involvement of NSP that had been predicted based on theoretical considerations. Our findings may enhance understanding of the role of cholinergic degeneration for the regional specificity of the cortical destruction leading to the syndrome of PPA. PMID:24434193

  18. Automatic processing of wh- and NP-movement in agrammatic aphasia: Evidence from eyetracking

    PubMed Central

    Dickey, Michael Walsh; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with agrammatic Broca’s aphasia show deficits in comprehension of non-canonical wh-movement and NP-movement sentences. Previous work using eyetracking has found that agrammatic and unimpaired listeners show very similar patterns of automatic processing for wh-movement sentences. The current study attempts to replicate this finding for sentences with wh-movement (in object relatives in the current study) and to extend it to sentences with NP movement (passives). For wh-movement sentences, aphasic and control participants’ eye-movements differed most dramatically in late regions of the sentence and post-offset, with aphasic participants exhibiting lingering attention to a salient but grammatically impermissible competitor. The eye-movement differences between correct and incorrect trials for wh-movement sentences were similar, with incorrect trials also exhibiting competition from an impermissible interpretation late in the sentence. Furthermore, the two groups exhibited similar eye-movement patterns in response to passive NP-movement sentences, but showed little evidence of gap-filling for passives. The results suggest that aphasic and unimpaired individuals may generate similar representations during comprehension, but that aphasics are highly vulnerable to interference from alternative interpretations (Ferreira, 2003). PMID:20161014

  19. Interhemispheric Plasticity following Intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation in Chronic Poststroke Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Griffis, Joseph C.; Nenert, Rodolphe; Allendorfer, Jane B.; Szaflarski, Jerzy P.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of noninvasive neurostimulation on brain structure and function in chronic poststroke aphasia are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) applied to residual language-responsive cortex in chronic patients using functional and anatomical MRI data acquired before and after iTBS. Lateralization index (LI) analyses, along with comparisons of inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) activation and connectivity during covert verb generation, were used to assess changes in cortical language function. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to assess effects on regional grey matter (GM). LI analyses revealed a leftward shift in IFG activity after treatment. While left IFG activation increased, right IFG activation decreased. Changes in right to left IFG connectivity during covert verb generation also decreased after iTBS. Behavioral correlations revealed a negative relationship between changes in right IFG activation and improvements in fluency. While anatomical analyses did not reveal statistically significant changes in grey matter volume, the fMRI results provide evidence for changes in right and left IFG function after iTBS. The negative relationship between post-iTBS changes in right IFG activity during covert verb generation and improvements in fluency suggests that iTBS applied to residual left-hemispheric language areas may reduce contralateral responses related to language production and facilitate recruitment of residual language areas after stroke. PMID:26881111

  20. Behavioural and neuroimaging changes after naming therapy for semantic variant primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Jokel, Regina; Kielar, Aneta; Anderson, Nicole D; Black, Sandra E; Rochon, Elizabeth; Graham, Simon; Freedman, Morris; Tang-Wai, David F

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of a successful naming intervention on naming performance and brain activity in individuals with the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA). Four participants with svPPA were scanned while performing phonologically- and semantically-based tasks before and after an intense, 20-h naming therapy that followed the principles of errorless learning whereby errors were eliminated from the learning process. Five healthy control participants were scanned at the outset of the study and did not receive treatment. The results showed that in svPPA participants, successful re-learning of forgotten vocabulary was accompanied by activation of a larger network in bilateral brain regions and that the level of activation in the left anterior lobe may be inversely correlated with severity of semantic impairment. Our findings have implications for treatment in svPPA patients and suggest that semantic cues can improve naming, in spite of significant semantic impairment. The results indicate that intensive language therapy can lead to behavioural gains and neuroplastic changes even in individuals with more advanced anterior temporal lobe atrophy. PMID:27297727