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Sample records for apheresis show equivalent

  1. [Multiple apheresis].

    PubMed

    Coffe, C

    2007-05-01

    Multiple apheresis makes it possible to obtain at least two labile blood components from a single donor using a cell separator. It can be either multicomponent apheresis leading to the preparation of at least two different blood component types or red blood cell apheresis providing two identical red blood cell concentrates. These techniques available in addition to whole blood donation, are modifying collection strategies in many Etablissements Français du Sang and will contribute to improve stock logistics in the future. In areas with insufficient stock, these procedures will help achieve blood component self-sufficiency. The author first describes the principle underlying different--current or future--techniques as well as their advantages and drawbacks. He finally addresses the potential impact of these processes on the evolution of blood collection and the advantages to be gained. PMID:17521944

  2. The ABC of apheresis.

    PubMed

    Dierickx, D; Macken, E

    2015-04-01

    Apheresis is a collective term for several activities in which a desirable specific blood component is separated and collected or a harmful component is removed. During the last decades the application of apheresis has expanded to a broad spectrum of diseases due to various studies on the clinical efficacy of this therapy as well as the innovation of new techniques. However, adverse events quite often occur during apheresis. In this article we will give a brief overview on general principles, indications and complications of apheresis. PMID:25366579

  3. Calculations in apheresis.

    PubMed

    Neyrinck, Marleen M; Vrielink, Hans

    2015-02-01

    It's important to work smoothly with your apheresis equipment when you are an apheresis nurse. Attention should be paid to your donor/patient and the product you're collecting. It gives additional value to your work when you are able to calculate the efficiency of your procedures. You must be capable to obtain an optimal product without putting your donor/patient at risk. Not only the total blood volume (TBV) of the donor/patient plays an important role, but also specific blood values influence the apheresis procedure. Therefore, not all donors/patients should be addressed in the same way. Calculation of TBV, extracorporeal volume, and total plasma volume is needed. Many issues determine your procedure time. By knowing the collection efficiency (CE) of your apheresis machine, you can calculate the number of blood volumes to be processed to obtain specific results. You can calculate whether you need one procedure to obtain specific results or more. It's not always needed to process 3× the TBV. In this way, it can be avoided that the donor/patient is needless long connected to the apheresis device. By calculating the CE of each device, you can also compare the various devices for quality control reasons, but also nurses/operators. PMID:25041907

  4. Apheresis activity in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Saltiel, Christiane

    2005-07-01

    Interest for apheresis activity has been growing in Venezuela. In 1976 there were only a few devices; in 2003, 80 apheresis machines performed 27,675 donor apheresis procedures and 547 therapeutic procedures countrywide. We report the activity at the Metropolitan Blood Bank (the largest one of the country) in the period 1999-2003: 597 therapeutic procedures were performed in 171 patients, during 212 crisis episodes. The average age was 38 +/- 16 years, 65% male and 35% female. Most of the therapeutic procedures were therapeutic plasma exchange for hematology diseases (mainly thrombotic thrombocitopenic purpura and hemophilia inhibitors), including 184 therapeutic procedures with the Autopheresis-C (Baxter Healthcare Corp., Deerfield, IL). Most common adverse effects (3.9%) were hypotension and allergic reactions to the plasma. PMID:15880361

  5. World apheresis association--world apheresis registry.

    PubMed

    Stegmayr, B G; Ivanovich, P; Korach, J M; Rock, G; Norda, R; Ramlow, W

    2005-04-01

    In 2002 WAA decided to start a world-wide apheresis registry to gain insight into the extent of treatment, adverse events, and to facilitate contacts among centers when treatment indications are rare and experience limited. Stem cell and other blood products collections intended for therapeutic application can also be entered. The WAA planned to use the French Registry. Its translation into English has not been accomplished and the fiscal obligations for that registry has not, as yet, been determined or considered and approved by the WAA Board. From Dec 2002 the proposed registry (a merged version of the French, Canadian and Swedish registries) can be immediately implemented. We now cordially invite all centers to join that registry. Please, also inform colleagues at other centers in your country to join. E-mail and address lists of colleagues in your country who have not registered will be welcomed. The site is at: Go to World Apheresis Registry; Login code to test the Registry is: al61tms. Then apply for a specific login code for your center. We welcome you to this registry for your input of data. You will not be charged any registration fee. The registry includes a randomization system that can be used for local or multi center studies (randomization by in-center basis allows you to make your own studies). It includes a formula that increases the chance to get a more even distribution between groups also for smaller sample sizes. PMID:15784455

  6. [Low density lipoprotein apheresis].

    PubMed

    Zaliūnas, Remigijus; Slapikas, Rimvydas; Gustiene, Olivija; Siurkus, Jonas; Vaitkus, Eduardas

    2003-01-01

    Increased blood cholesterol concentration is one of the main factors in ischemic heart disease, development of which is determined by atherosclerotic changes in coronary vessels. Diet and treatment with 3-hydroxi-3-metilglutaril coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors helps to reduce low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-Ch) blood concentration up to recommended level of 3.0 mmol/l in most patients but in some patients particularly with familial dyslipidemias cholesterol concentration remains increased even after treatment with maximal doses of lipid-regulating agents or their combinations. The most frequently used mechanical methods of cholesterol removal from blood include the procedures of extracorporeal apheresis. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis not only significantly reduces the blood concentrations of total cholesterol (TCh), and LDL-Ch, lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a) and fibrinogen but also stops the progression of atherosclerosis in coronary vessels. PMID:14704503

  7. Lipoprotein-apheresis reduces circulating microparticles in individuals with familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Katherine D; Willis, Gareth R; Datta, Dev B N; Ellins, Elizabeth A; Ladell, Kristin; Price, David A; Guschina, Irina A; Rees, D Aled; James, Philip E

    2014-10-01

    Lipoprotein-apheresis (apheresis) removes LDL-cholesterol in patients with severe dyslipidemia. However, reduction is transient, indicating that the long-term cardiovascular benefits of apheresis may not solely be due to LDL removal. Microparticles (MPs) are submicron vesicles released from the plasma membrane of cells. MPs, particularly platelet-derived MPs, are increasingly being linked to the pathogenesis of many diseases. We aimed to characterize the effect of apheresis on MP size, concentration, cellular origin, and fatty acid concentration in individuals with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Plasma and MP samples were collected from 12 individuals with FH undergoing routine apheresis. Tunable resistive pulse sensing (np200) and nanoparticle tracking analysis measured a fall in MP concentration (33 and 15%, respectively; P < 0.05) pre- to post-apheresis. Flow cytometry showed MPs were predominantly annexin V positive and of platelet (CD41) origin both pre- (88.9%) and post-apheresis (88.4%). Fatty acid composition of MPs differed from that of plasma, though apheresis affected a similar profile of fatty acids in both compartments, as measured by GC-flame ionization detection. MP concentration was also shown to positively correlate with thrombin generation potential. In conclusion, we show apheresis nonselectively removes annexin V-positive platelet-derived MPs in individuals with FH. These MPs are potent inducers of coagulation and are elevated in CVD; this reduction in pathological MPs could relate to the long-term benefits of apheresis. PMID:25121984

  8. Low-Density Lipoprotein Apheresis

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    to 62%, Lp(a) 55 to 68% and fibrinogen 56 to 65%. The mean chronic2 relative decreases in LDL-C and TC with HELP LDL apheresis ranged from 9 to 46% and 5 to 34%, respectively. Familial hypercholesterolemia patients treated with HELP did not achieve the target LDL-C value set by international guidelines (LDL-C < 2.5mmol/L, 100mg/dL). The chronic mean relative increase in HDL-C ranged from 12 to 27%. The ratio of LDL:HDL and the ratio of TC:HDL are 2 measures that have been shown to be important risk factors for cardiac events. In high-risk patients, the recommended target LDL:HDL ratio is less than or equal to 2, and the target TC:HDL ratio is less than 4. In the studies that reported chronic lipid changes, the LDL:HDL and TC:HDL ratios exceeded targeted values. Three studies investigated the effects of HELP on coronary outcomes and atherosclerotic changes. One noted that twice as many lesions displayed regression in comparison to those displaying progression. The second study found that there was a decrease in Agatston scores3 and in the volume of coronary calcium. The last study noted that 2 of 5 patients showed regression of coronary atherosclerosis, and 3 of the 5 patients showed no change as assessed by a global change score. Adverse effects were typically mild and transient, and the majority of events were related to problems with vascular access. Of the 3 studies that provided quantitative information, the proportion of adverse events ranged from 2.9 to 5.1%. GRADE Quality of Evidence In general, studies were of low quality, i.e., case series studies (Tables 1-3). No controlled studies were identified and no studies directly compared the effectiveness of the HELP system with PE or with diet and drug therapy. Conducting trials with a sufficiently large control group would not have been feasible or acceptable given that HELP represents a last alternative in these patients who are resistant to conventional therapeutic strategies. A major limitation is that there

  9. The Dresden Apheresis Center - experience with LDL apheresis and immunoadsorption.

    PubMed

    Julius, Ulrich; Tselmin, Sergey; Fischer, Sabine; Passauer, Jens; Bornstein, Stefan R

    2009-12-29

    The first apheresis center in former German Democratic Republic was established in Dresden November 1990 following the reunification of Germany. We here summarize the activities of this center to date. From the center's establishment until the end of July 2009 13,291 sessions of therapeutic apheresis have been performed. Four LDL apheresis methods, namely DALI, Therasorb LDL, HELP and lipidfiltration, are available and several comparative studies of these methods have been published. In addition, we have established the Therasorb IG method and two rheophoresis methods (Rheofilter SR 20; TheraSorb-Rheo Adsorber). Currently we treat 53 high-risk patients with LDL apheresis, including 6 post- heart transplant patients and 5 patients with immunoadsorption. Since November 1990 we have seen a marked reduction in the number of new cardiovascular events by apheresis intervention, but they could not be totally prevented and 2 patients died despite LDL apheresis treatment. In our clinical experience all 4 LDL apheresis methods appear equally effective. However, it is an advantage to have the ability to switch methods in patients in whom one method was less effective or less well tolerated. We also successfully treated patients suffering from Evans' syndrome, pemphigus, urticaria vasculitis with monoclonal gammopathy IgM Type Kappa, lichen myxoedematosus or lupus erythematodes with immunoadsorption. The rheophoresis approach has been used in patients with age-dependent degeneration of the macula, sudden hearing loss, leg ulcers, and diabetic foot syndrome. PMID:20129367

  10. Apheresis in developing countries around the World.

    PubMed

    Eichbaum, Quentin; Smid, W Martin; Crookes, Robert; Naim, Norris; Mendrone, Alfredo; Marques, José Francisco Comenalli; Marques, Marisa B

    2015-08-01

    At the combined American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) Annual Meeting/World Apheresis Association (WAA) Congress in San Francisco, California, in April of 2014, the opening session highlighted the status of apheresis outside of the United States. The organizers invited physicians active in apheresis in countries not usually represented at such international gatherings to give them a forum to share their experiences, challenges, and expectations in their respective countries with regard to both donor and therapeutic apheresis. Apheresis technology is expensive as well as technically and medically demanding, and low and median income countries have different experiences to share with the rest of the world. Apheresis procedures also require resources taken for granted in the developed world, such as reliable electrical power, that can be unpredictable in parts of the developing world. On the other hand, it was obvious that there are significant disparities in access to apheresis within the same country (such as in Brazil), as well as between neighboring nations in Africa and South America. A common trend in the presentations from Brazil, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, and South Africa, was the need for more and better physicians and practitioners' training in the indications of the various apheresis modalities and patient oversight during the procedures. As ASFA and WAA continue to work together, and globalization allows for increased knowledge-sharing, improved access to apheresis procedures performed by qualified personnel with safety and high-quality standards will be increasingly available. PMID:25346394

  11. Therapeutic apheresis in Sweden: update of epidemiology and adverse events.

    PubMed

    Norda, Rut; Stegmayr, Bernd G

    2003-10-01

    The indications of apheresis have changed over time due to results from various studies as well as the innovation of new techniques and ideas. To get an overview of the indications used for apheresis by colleagues elsewhere, data from registries are valuable. In addition, registries can be used for detection of severe adverse events as well as extent of adverse events in various types of treatment. To have a basis for statistical calculations, apheresis units need to be very large or centralisation of data needs to be performed. Data from more than 20000 procedures show that in about 4.3% of occasions adverse events and other problems will develop. Interruption of the procedure was done in 1%, most frequently a plasma exchange. Technical problems can be expected more frequent when performing LDL apheresis and immunoadsorption. Severe adverse events needing medication or interruption of the treatment, such as hypotension and arrhythmia, will develop in about 1% of the procedures. Such an episode occurs more often in patients with TTP/HUS and Guillain-Barré syndrome than in hypercholesterolemia, hyperviscosity syndrome or septic shock/MODS. The non-severe adverse events have increased over time. The results will provide focus in analyses for the reduction of such adverse events. PMID:12941356

  12. Successful Direct Adsorption of Lipoproteins (DALI) Apheresis During Pregnancy in an Omani Woman with Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dughaishi, Tamima; Al-Waili, Khalid; Banerjee, Yajnavalka; Sheik, Shahila; Al-Sabti, Hilal; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Mukhaini, Suad; Al Wahaibi, Khalifa; Al-Hinai, Ali T.; Al-Rasadi, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    We report our experience with Direct Adsorption of Lipoproteins (DALI) apheresis in an Omani pregnant woman affected by homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. To the best of our knowledge this is the first successful pregnancy treated with DALI apheresis. The patient had a history of coronary artery disease, supra-aortic valvular stenosis and severe carotid artery disease with right carotid artery stenting. She was on a regular biweekly DALI apheresis since 2008. In May 2013, she became pregnant and rosuvastatin and ezetimibe were stopped while she continued on DALI apheresis biweekly. This treatment during pregnancy was successful with no major complications. The average low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction during therapy was 50%. She spontaneously delivered a healthy male infant (2,400 g) at 37 weeks. We showed that DALI apheresis therapy was safe during pregnancy with a good outcome for both mother and neonate. PMID:27006714

  13. Advances in apheresis therapy for glomerular diseases.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Wada, Takashi; Zhang, Wei; Yamaya, Hideki; Asaka, Mitsuhiro

    2007-06-01

    This article is an overview of the immunomodulatory effects of apheresis in renal diseases, especially primary and secondary glomerulonephritis, and the clinical evidence for the efficacy of apheresis therapy. Permeability factor(s) derived from circulating T cells are speculated to have a crucial role in the proteinuria of nephrotic syndrome (NS). Plasma exchange (PE); immunoadsorption plasmapheresis (IAPP), using protein A sepharose cartridges; low-density lipoprotein apheresis; and lymphocytapheresis (LCAP) have been used to remove such factors or pathogenic T cells. Other glomerular diseases induced by specific antibodies such as anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, and immune-complexes have also been treated with PE, double-filtration plasmapheresis, IAPP, and LCAP. Recommendations, based on the evidence from recent randomized controlled studies, have been established in apheresis therapy for various glomerular diseases. PMID:17593511

  14. [Position of lipoprotein apheresis in present].

    PubMed

    Bláha, Vladimír; Bláha, Milan; Lánská, Miriam; Havel, Eduard; Vyroubal, Pavel; Zadák, Zdeněk; Vrablík, Michal; Piťha, Jan; Žák, Pavel; Sobotka, Luboš

    2015-11-01

    Lipoprotein apheresis (LA) is an effective treatment method the patients with severe hypercholesterolemia, resistant to the standard therapy. LA is an extracorporeal elimination technique, which specifically removes low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol from the circulation. At present, lipoprotein apheresis, combined with high-dose statin and ezetimibe therapy, is the best available means of treating patients with homozygous and statin refractory heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). However, the extent of cholesterol-lowering achieved is often insufficient to meet the targets set by current guidelines. The recent advent of new classes of lipid-lowering agents provides new hope that the latter objective may now be achievable. These compounds act either by reducing low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol production by inhibiting apolipoprotein B synthesis with an antisense oligonucleotide (mipomersen), or by inhibiting microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (lomitapid), or by enhancing LDL catabolism via monoclonal antibody-mediated inhibition of the activity of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9-alirocumab, evolocumab etc). The promising is the combination of LDL-apheresis with new drugs, namely for its potential to further decrease of LDL-cholesterol between apheresis. Depending on the outcome of current trials, it seems likely that these compounds, used alone or combined with lipoprotein apheresis, will markedly improve the management of refractory FH. PMID:26652784

  15. LDL-Apheresis: Technical and Clinical Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Bambauer, Rolf; Bambauer, Carolin; Lehmann, Boris; Latza, Reinhard; Schiel, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The prognosis of patients suffering from severe hyperlipidemia, sometimes combined with elevated lipoprotein (a) levels, and coronary heart disease refractory to diet and lipid-lowering drugs is poor. For such patients, regular treatment with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis is the therapeutic option. Today, there are five different LDL-apheresis systems available: cascade filtration or lipid filtration, immunoadsorption, heparin-induced LDL precipitation, dextran sulfate LDL adsorption, and the LDL hemoperfusion. There is a strong correlation between hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Besides the elimination of other risk factors, in severe hyperlipidemia therapeutic strategies should focus on a drastic reduction of serum lipoproteins. Despite maximum conventional therapy with a combination of different kinds of lipid-lowering drugs, sometimes the goal of therapy cannot be reached. Hence, in such patients, treatment with LDL-apheresis is indicated. Technical and clinical aspects of these five different LDL-apheresis methods are shown here. There were no significant differences with respect to or concerning all cholesterols, or triglycerides observed. With respect to elevated lipoprotein (a) levels, however, the immunoadsorption method seems to be most effective. The different published data clearly demonstrate that treatment with LDL-apheresis in patients suffering from severe hyperlipidemia refractory to maximum conservative therapy is effective and safe in long-term application. PMID:22654591

  16. Therapeutic apheresis--state of the art in the year 2005.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Thomas

    2005-12-01

    Therapeutic apheresis is an extracorporeal blood purification method for the treatment of diseases in which pathological proteins or cells have to be eliminated. Selective plasma processing is more efficient in pathogen removal than unselective plasma exchange and does not require a substitution fluid like albumin. This overview presents the various selective devices for the treatment of plasma (plasmapheresis) and blood cells (leukocyte apheresis). Prospective randomized trials were performed for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration (Rheopheresis), sudden hearing loss (heparin-induced lipoprotein precipitation [HELP]), rheumatoid arthritis (Prosorba), dilative cardiomyopathy (Ig-Therasorb, Immunosorba), acute-on-chronic liver failure (molecular adsorbent recirculating system [MARS]), and ulcerative colitis (Cellsorba). Prospective non-randomized controlled trials were carried out treating hypercholesterolemia (Liposorber) and crossmatch-positive recipients before kidney transplantation (Immunosorba). Uncontrolled studies were done for ABO-incompatibility in living donor kidney transplantation (KT) (Glycosorb), acute humoral rejection after KT (Immunosorba) and acute liver failure (Prometheus). According to the 2002 International Apheresis Registry covering 11428 sessions in 811 patients, 79% of the patients showed an improvement of their condition by apheresis and only a few sessions were fraught with adverse effects (AE). The major AE were blood access difficulties (3.1%) and hypotension (1.6%). In summary, therapeutic apheresis is a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of diseases refractory to drug therapy. PMID:16354277

  17. Therapeutic apheresis in Asia: An Indonesia single center experience.

    PubMed

    Triyono, Teguh; Vrielink, Hans

    2015-06-01

    In developing countries, like Indonesia, apheresis is still a relative new procedure. Nowadays, therapeutic apheresis procedures are performed in the field of hematology and neurology, especially in the teaching hospitals in Indonesia. Therapeutic apheresis procedure, that is, leukocytapheresis, therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), and thrombocytapheresis are already performed. In the period 2009-2013, 204 apheresis procedures in 137 patients to reduce the leukocytes, 72 TPE procedures in 17 patients, and 14 thrombocyte reductions were performed in the Sardjito hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. In the future, to improve the therapeutic apheresis implementation, it is important to increase the insurance coverage and also should be considered to introduce the apheresis medicine into the curriculum of appropriate physician programs in Indonesia. Especially in Indonesia, a lot of efforts are still being needed to improve implementation of therapeutic apheresis. PMID:25116034

  18. Guidelines for apheresis personnel--an overview.

    PubMed

    Cole, B

    1985-01-01

    The Guidelines for Apheresis Specialists were prepared by the Standards Committee of the Society of Hemopheresis Specialists (SHS) in response to a need to safeguard donors and patients undergoing apheresis from the viewpoint of the technical staff performing the procedures. The Guidelines address technical and administrative topics not covered by instrument manufacturer's training sessions and manuals. The Guidelines contain the following objectives: To assure that apheresis procedures are performed and supervised by qualified personnel, thereby safeguarding the donors, patients and recipients of the components harvested. To assure that apheresis procedures are carried out in a safe, efficient and appropriate manner with minimum risk and maximum benefit. To assure donor/patient safety and high quality component preparation through an effective quality control program. The Guidelines are flexible, adaptable to various physical settings, applicable to different types of instruments, and useful for both therapeutic and donor hemopheresis procedures. They avoid references to issues that may be considered to interfere with internal or external policymaking bodies. In addition, they provide a base from which policies and procedures can be formulated and amended to account for advances in technology and expertise. PMID:4066632

  19. Unusual hand postures but not familiar tools show motor equivalence with precision grasping.

    PubMed

    Tang, Rixin; Whitwell, Robert L; Goodale, Melvyn A

    2016-06-01

    A central question in sensorimotor control is whether or not actions performed with the hands and corresponding actions performed with tools share a common underlying motor plan, even though different muscles and effectors are engaged. There is certainly evidence that tools used to extend the reach of the limb can be incorporated into the body schema after training. But even so, it is not clear whether or not actions such as grasping with tools and grasping with the fingers share the same programming network, i.e. show 'motor equivalence'. Here we first show that feedback-appropriate motor programming for grasps with atypical hand postures readily transfers to stereotypical precision grasps. In stark contrast, however, we find no evidence for an analogous transfer of the programming for grasps using tools to the same stereotypical precision grasps. These findings have important implications for our understanding of body schema. Although the extension of the limb that is afforded by tool use may be incorporated into the body schema, the programming of a grasping movement made with tools appears to resist such incorporation. It could be the case that the proprioceptive signals from the limb can be easily updated to reflect the end of a tool held in the hand, but the motor programs and sensory signals associated with grasping with the thumb and finger cannot be easily adapted to control the opening and closing of a tool. Instead, new but well-practiced motor programs are put in place for tool use that do not exhibit motor equivalence with manual grasping. PMID:26945228

  20. Endothelin B receptors on human endothelial and smooth-muscle cells show equivalent binding pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Flynn, M A; Haleen, S J; Welch, K M; Cheng, X M; Reynolds, E E

    1998-07-01

    We have described the pharmacologic profiles of endothelin B receptors in human endothelial cells and vascular and nonvascular smooth-muscle cells. First, by amplifying endothelin B receptor numbers through the use of phosphoramidon and intact cell-binding techniques, we demonstrated the presence of these receptors in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (100% endothelin B receptors), human aortic smooth-muscle cells (22% endothelin B, 78% endothelin A receptors), and human bronchial smooth-muscle cells (55% endothelin B, 45% endothelin A receptors) by using [125I]-endothelin-1 radioligand binding. The typical binding profiles of the endothelin B receptors were established through competition binding curve analysis with endothelin-1, endothelin-3, sarafotoxin 6c, and the endothelin A receptor-selective antagonist BQ-123. In the presence of BQ-123, a diverse group of antagonists, including PD 142893, BQ-788, SB 209670, and Ro 47-0203, were used to probe for binding differences indicative of multiple endothelin B-receptor subtypes. The results indicate a rank order of potency for the antagonists of BQ-788 > SB 209670 > PD 142893 > Ro 47-0203 for each cell line, and that between any of these human cell lines, measurements of [125I]-endothelin-1-binding antagonism for each of the four test compounds differed by less than twofold. Although this study cannot discount the possibility of more than one endothelin B-receptor subtype in humans, it does indicate that these tissues express receptors that show equivalent binding pharmacology. PMID:9676729

  1. LDL apheresis and inflammation--implications for atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hovland, A; Lappegård, K T; Mollnes, T E

    2012-09-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis is an extracorporeal treatment modality used in high-risk patients when LDL cholesterol levels cannot be reduced adequately with medication. The treatment is highly effective, but could be affected by potential unwanted effects on pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers. In this paper, we review the literature regarding the effect of LDL apheresis on pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers important in atherosclerosis, also as patients in LDL apheresis have high risk for atherosclerotic complications. We discuss the effect of LDL apheresis on complement, cytokines and finally a group of other selected pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers. The complement system is affected by LDL apheresis, and there are differences between different LDL apheresis systems. The plasma separation columns seem to trigger the formation of proinflammatory complement factors including C3a and C5a, while the same anaphylatoxins are adsorbed by the LDL apheresis columns, however, to varying degree. Proinflammatory cytokines are to some extent adsorbed by the LDL apheresis columns, while some of the anti-inflammatory cytokines increase during treatment. Finally, we discuss the effect of apheresis on different biomarkers including C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, adhesion molecules, myeloperoxidase and HDL cholesterol. In conclusion, even if there are differences between pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers during LDL apheresis, the consequences for the patients are largely unknown and larger studies need to be performed. Preferably, they should be comparing the effect of different LDL apheresis columns on the total inflammatory profile, and this should be related to clinical endpoints. PMID:22670805

  2. Low-density lipoprotein apheresis: an overview.

    PubMed

    Bambauer, Rolf; Schiel, Ralf; Latza, Reinhard

    2003-08-01

    Atherosclerosis with myocardial infarction, stroke, and peripheral cellular disease still maintains its position at the top of morbidity and mortality statistics in industrialized nations. Established risk factors widely accepted are smoking, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and central obesity. Furthermore, there is a strong correlation between hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. The prognosis of patients suffering from severe hyperlipidemia, sometimes combined with elevated lipoprotein (a) (Lpa) levels, and coronary heart disease (CHD) refractory to diet and lipid-lowering drugs is poor. For such patients, regular treatment with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis is the therapeutic option. Today, there are four different LDL apheresis systems available: immunoadsorption, heparin-induced extracorporeal LDL/fibrinogen precipitation, dextran sulfate LDL adsorption and LDL hemoperfusion. Regarding the different LDL apheresis systems used, there is no significant difference with respect to the clinical outcome or concerning total cholesterol, LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or triglyceride concentrations. With respect to elevated Lpa levels, however, the immunoadsorption method seems to be the most effective. In 45 patients (25 women, 20 men) suffering from familial hypercholesterolemia resistant to diet and lipid lowering drugs, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis was performed over 95.6 +/- 44.7 months. Four different systems (Liposorber, 32 of 45, Kaneka, Osaka, Japan; Therasorb, 6 of 45, Baxter, Munich, Germany; Lipopak, 2 of 45, Pocard, Moscow, Russia; and Dali, 5 of 45, Fresenius, St. Wendel, Germany) were used. With all methods, average reductions of 57% for total cholesterol, 55.9% for LDL, 75.8% for lipoprotein a (Lpa), and 45.9% for triglycerides, and an average increase of 14.3% for HDL were reached. Severe side-effects such as shock or allergic reactions were very rare (0.3%) in all methods. In the course of treatment, an improvement

  3. Namibia’s transition from whole blood–derived pooled platelets to single-donor apheresis platelet collections

    PubMed Central

    Pitman, John P.; Basavaraju, Sridhar V.; Shiraishi, Ray W.; Wilkinson, Robert; von Finckenstein, Bjorn; Lowrance, David W.; Marfin, Anthony A.; Postma, Maarten; Mataranyika, Mary; Sibinga, Cees Th. Smit

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Few African countries separate blood donations into components; however, demand for platelets (PLTs) is increasing as regional capacity to treat causes of thrombocytopenia, including chemotherapy, increases. Namibia introduced single-donor apheresis PLT collections in 2007 to increase PLT availability while reducing exposure to multiple donors via pooling. This study describes the impact this transition had on PLT availability and safety in Namibia. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Annual national blood collections and PLT units issued data were extracted from a database maintained by the Blood Transfusion Service of Namibia (NAMBTS). Production costs and unit prices were analyzed. RESULTS In 2006, NAMBTS issued 771 single and pooled PLT doses from 3054 whole blood (WB) donations (drawn from 18,422 WB donations). In 2007, NAMBTS issued 486 single and pooled PLT doses from 1477 WB donations (drawn from 18,309 WB donations) and 131 single-donor PLT doses. By 2011, NAMBTS issued 837 single-donor PLT doses per year, 99.1% of all PLT units. Of 5761 WB donations from which PLTs were made in 2006 to 2011, a total of 20 (0.35%) were from donors with confirmed test results for human immunodeficiency virus or other transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs). Of 2315 single-donor apheresis donations between 2007 and 2011, none of the 663 donors had a confirmed positive result for any pathogen. As apheresis replaced WB-derived PLTs, apheresis production costs dropped by a mean of 8.2% per year, while pooled PLT costs increased by an annual mean of 21.5%. Unit prices paid for apheresis- and WB-derived PLTs increased by 9 and 7.4% per year on average, respectively. CONCLUSION Namibia’s PLT transition shows that collections from repeat apheresis donors can reduce TTI risk and production costs. PMID:25727921

  4. A lipidomic analysis approach in patients undergoing lipoprotein apheresis.

    PubMed

    Schmöcker, C; Kassner, U; Kiesler, S; Bismarck, M; Rothe, M; Steinhagen-Thiessen, E; Weylandt, K H

    2016-06-01

    Lipoprotein apheresis such as heparin-induced extracorporal LowDensityLipoprotein (LDL) Cholesterol precipitation (HELP) reduces apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins, most importantly low-density-lipoprotein (LDL), and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)]. It is used in patients with atherosclerotic disease and therapy-refractory hypercholesterolemia or progressive atherosclerotic disease in patients with elevated Lp(a). While lipid-lowering effects of lipoprotein apheresis are well-established, there are only sparse data regarding the effect of apheresis on individual omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFA and n-3 PUFA), such as arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which could increase (AA) or decrease (EPA and DHA) cardiovascular risk. Here we analyzed different omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in the blood of patients undergoing a single HELP apheresis procedure using gas chromatography (GC). Furthermore, we assessed the effect of HELP treatment on formation of lipid metabolites and mediators arising from these polyunsaturated fatty acids in the plasma by LC/ESI-MS/MS. Lipoprotein apheresis reduced the concentrations of fatty acids analyzed in the plasma by 40-50%. This was similar for AA, EPA and DHA. The reduction in fatty acid plasma levels was similar to the reduction of total triglycerides. However there was a trend towards an increase of PUFA metabolites associated with platelet activation, such as 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) and 14-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (14-HDHA). These data indicate that HELP apheresis could interfere with achieving higher levels of n-3 PUFA in the plasma. Lipid apheresis treatment might also increase the formation of potentially pro- as well as anti-inflammatory lipid mediators derived from AA or EPA and DHA. PMID:27062407

  5. Tubes, tables and traps: great apes solve two functionally equivalent trap tasks but show no evidence of transfer across tasks.

    PubMed

    Martin-Ordas, Gema; Call, Josep; Colmenares, Fernando

    2008-07-01

    Previous studies on tool using have shown that presenting subjects with certain modifications in the experimental setup can substantially improve their performance. However, procedural modifications (e.g. trap table task) may not only remove task constraints but also simplify the problem conceptually. The goal of this study was to design a variation of the trap-table that was functionally equivalent to the trap-tube task. In this new task, the subjects had to decide where to insert the tool and in which direction the reward should be pushed. We also administered a trap-tube task that allowed animals to push or rake the reward with the tool to compare the subjects' performance on both tasks. We used a larger sample of subjects than in previous studies and from all the four species of great apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, and Pongo pygmaeus). The results showed that apes performed better in the trap-platform task than in the trap-tube task. Subjects solved the tube task faster than in previous studies and they also preferred to rake in rather than to push the reward out. There was no correlation in the level of performance between both tasks, and no indication of interspecies differences. These data are consistent with the idea that apes may possess some specific causal knowledge of traps but may lack the ability to establish analogical relations between functional equivalent tasks. PMID:18183433

  6. Overview: techniques and indications of LDL-apheresis.

    PubMed

    Bosch, T; Gurland, H J

    1991-01-01

    In recent years, LDL-apheresis has emerged to be an efficient treatment of hyperlipidemia in patients who do not respond sufficiently to diet and lipid lowering drugs. A survey of LDL lowering extracorporeal procedures is presented. Among them, to date 5 procedures have been used clinically on a routine basis: unselective plasma exchange, semi-selective double filtration (including its modifications like thermofiltration and predilution/backflush) and three highly selective LDL-apheresis systems: LDL-adsorption on dextran sulfate coated cellulose beads or anti-apoprotein B-linked sepharose and heparin induced extracorporeal LDL and fibrinogen precipitation (the so-called HELP system). Advantages, limitations and special indications of these commercially available systems are discussed. If atherosclerosis can really be made regress by drastic reduction of elevated serum cholesterol levels as indicated by recent publications, lipid apheresis will no doubt play a major role in attaining this goal. PMID:1751662

  7. Blood banking and transfusion medicine for the apheresis medicine practitioner.

    PubMed

    Jeffus, Susanne; Wehrli, Gay

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a concise overview of blood banking and transfusion medicine (BBTM) for the therapeutic apheresis medicine practitioner. It addresses the complete pathway from blood donor qualification to blood collection, to processing and storing blood components, to patient testing, to ordering blood components for therapeutic apheresis (TA) procedures, to preparing the component for transfusion, and finally to transfusion. The nurses, technologists, and physicians orchestrate these activities in concert to best serve patients undergoing TA procedures. Enhancing knowledge of these processes may improve the quality of patient care and the utilization of blood products. PMID:22532095

  8. Solid-State 2H NMR Shows Equivalence of Dehydration and Osmotic Pressures in Lipid Membrane Deformation

    PubMed Central

    Mallikarjunaiah, K.J.; Leftin, Avigdor; Kinnun, Jacob J.; Justice, Matthew J.; Rogozea, Adriana L.; Petrache, Horia I.; Brown, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    Lipid bilayers represent a fascinating class of biomaterials whose properties are altered by changes in pressure or temperature. Functions of cellular membranes can be affected by nonspecific lipid-protein interactions that depend on bilayer material properties. Here we address the changes in lipid bilayer structure induced by external pressure. Solid-state 2H NMR spectroscopy of phospholipid bilayers under osmotic stress allows structural fluctuations and deformation of membranes to be investigated. We highlight the results from NMR experiments utilizing pressure-based force techniques that control membrane structure and tension. Our 2H NMR results using both dehydration pressure (low water activity) and osmotic pressure (poly(ethylene glycol) as osmolyte) show that the segmental order parameters (SCD) of DMPC approach very large values of ≈0.35 in the liquid-crystalline state. The two stresses are thermodynamically equivalent, because the change in chemical potential when transferring water from the interlamellar space to the bulk water phase corresponds to the induced pressure. This theoretical equivalence is experimentally revealed by considering the solid-state 2H NMR spectrometer as a virtual osmometer. Moreover, we extend this approach to include the correspondence between osmotic pressure and hydrostatic pressure. Our results establish the magnitude of the pressures that lead to significant bilayer deformation including changes in area per lipid and volumetric bilayer thickness. We find that appreciable bilayer structural changes occur with osmotic pressures in the range of 10−100 atm or lower. This research demonstrates the applicability of solid-state 2H NMR spectroscopy together with bilayer stress techniques for investigating the mechanism of pressure sensitivity of membrane proteins. PMID:21190661

  9. Complement profile and activation mechanisms by different LDL apheresis systems.

    PubMed

    Hovland, Anders; Hardersen, Randolf; Nielsen, Erik Waage; Enebakk, Terje; Christiansen, Dorte; Ludviksen, Judith Krey; Mollnes, Tom Eirik; Lappegård, Knut Tore

    2012-07-01

    Extracorporeal removal of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol by means of selective LDL apheresis is indicated in otherwise uncontrolled familial hypercholesterolemia. During blood-biomaterial interaction other constituents than the LDL particles are affected, including the complement system. We set up an ex vivo model in which human whole blood was passed through an LDL apheresis system with one of three different apheresis columns: whole blood adsorption, plasma adsorption and plasma filtration. The concentrations of complement activation products revealed distinctly different patterns of activation and adsorption by the different systems. Evaluated as the final common terminal complement complex (TCC) the whole blood system was inert, in contrast to the plasma systems, which generated substantial and equal amounts of TCC. Initial classical pathway activation was revealed equally for both plasma systems as increases in the C1rs-C1inh complex and C4d. Alternative pathway activation (Bb) was most pronounced for the plasma adsorption system. Although the anaphylatoxins (C3a and C5a) were equally generated by the two plasma separation systems, they were efficiently adsorbed to the plasma adsorption column before the "outlet", whereas they were left free in the plasma in the filtration system. Consequently, during blood-biomaterial interaction in LDL apheresis the complement system is modulated in different manners depending on the device composition. PMID:22373816

  10. MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells in human skin equivalents show differential migration and phenotypic plasticity after allergen or irritant exposure.

    PubMed

    Kosten, Ilona J; Spiekstra, Sander W; de Gruijl, Tanja D; Gibbs, Susan

    2015-08-15

    After allergen or irritant exposure, Langerhans cells (LC) undergo phenotypic changes and exit the epidermis. In this study we describe the unique ability of MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells (MUTZ-LC) to display similar phenotypic plasticity as their primary counterparts when incorporated into a physiologically relevant full-thickness skin equivalent model (SE-LC). We describe differences and similarities in the mechanisms regulating LC migration and plasticity upon allergen or irritant exposure. The skin equivalent consisted of a reconstructed epidermis containing primary differentiated keratinocytes and CD1a(+) MUTZ-LC on a primary fibroblast-populated dermis. Skin equivalents were exposed to a panel of allergens and irritants. Topical exposure to sub-toxic concentrations of allergens (nickel sulfate, resorcinol, cinnamaldehyde) and irritants (Triton X-100, SDS, Tween 80) resulted in LC migration out of the epidermis and into the dermis. Neutralizing antibody to CXCL12 blocked allergen-induced migration, whereas anti-CCL5 blocked irritant-induced migration. In contrast to allergen exposure, irritant exposure resulted in cells within the dermis becoming CD1a(-)/CD14(+)/CD68(+) which is characteristic of a phenotypic switch of MUTZ-LC to a macrophage-like cell in the dermis. This phenotypic switch was blocked with anti-IL-10. Mechanisms previously identified as being involved in LC activation and migration in native human skin could thus be reproduced in the in vitro constructed skin equivalent model containing functional LC. This model therefore provides a unique and relevant research tool to study human LC biology in situ under controlled in vitro conditions, and will provide a powerful tool for hazard identification, testing novel therapeutics and identifying new drug targets. PMID:26028481

  11. MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells in human skin equivalents show differential migration and phenotypic plasticity after allergen or irritant exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Kosten, Ilona J.; Spiekstra, Sander W.; Gruijl, Tanja D. de; Gibbs, Susan

    2015-08-15

    After allergen or irritant exposure, Langerhans cells (LC) undergo phenotypic changes and exit the epidermis. In this study we describe the unique ability of MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells (MUTZ-LC) to display similar phenotypic plasticity as their primary counterparts when incorporated into a physiologically relevant full-thickness skin equivalent model (SE-LC). We describe differences and similarities in the mechanisms regulating LC migration and plasticity upon allergen or irritant exposure. The skin equivalent consisted of a reconstructed epidermis containing primary differentiated keratinocytes and CD1a{sup +} MUTZ-LC on a primary fibroblast-populated dermis. Skin equivalents were exposed to a panel of allergens and irritants. Topical exposure to sub-toxic concentrations of allergens (nickel sulfate, resorcinol, cinnamaldehyde) and irritants (Triton X-100, SDS, Tween 80) resulted in LC migration out of the epidermis and into the dermis. Neutralizing antibody to CXCL12 blocked allergen-induced migration, whereas anti-CCL5 blocked irritant-induced migration. In contrast to allergen exposure, irritant exposure resulted in cells within the dermis becoming CD1a{sup −}/CD14{sup +}/CD68{sup +} which is characteristic of a phenotypic switch of MUTZ-LC to a macrophage-like cell in the dermis. This phenotypic switch was blocked with anti-IL-10. Mechanisms previously identified as being involved in LC activation and migration in native human skin could thus be reproduced in the in vitro constructed skin equivalent model containing functional LC. This model therefore provides a unique and relevant research tool to study human LC biology in situ under controlled in vitro conditions, and will provide a powerful tool for hazard identification, testing novel therapeutics and identifying new drug targets. - Highlights: • MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells integrated into skin equivalents are fully functional. • Anti-CXCL12 blocks allergen-induced MUTZ-LC migration.

  12. Teaching and learning apheresis medicine: The Bermuda Triangle in Education.

    PubMed

    Crookston, Kendall P; Richter, Deana M

    2010-01-01

    Apheresis Medicine has evolved markedly due to an explosion of knowledge and technology, whereas the time available for training has shrunk as curricula have become increasingly overloaded. Apheresis teaching has inherited a strong clinical context where real patient problems are used in a hands-on environment. To optimize instruction, those involved in the education of apheresis professionals need to have (1) knowledge of how clinical laboratory medicine education has developed as a field, (2) an understanding of what is known from theory and research about how people learn, and (3) the skills to design teaching/learning activities in ways consistent with literature-based principles of adult education. These developments in education provide a context for curriculum projects currently underway by the American Society for Apheresis. Teachers must determine which competencies are central to the essence of a trained professional. Specific, robust, learning objectives targeted toward the development of higher levels of thinking, professional attitudes, and requisite skills are formulated to guide the learner toward mastering those competencies. Curriculum is developed for each objective, consisting of content and the best teaching/learning methods to help learners attain the objective. Appropriate assessment strategies are identified to determine whether the objective is being achieved. The integration of objectives, curriculum, and assessment creates The Bermuda Triangle of Education (Richter, The Circle of Learning and Bermuda Triangle in Education, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, 2004). When educators do not effectively navigate The Bermuda Triangle of Education, learning may disappear into the murky depths of confusion and apathy. When successfully navigated, the result will be a significant learning experience that leads to transformation through education. PMID:20824624

  13. Guidelines on the Use of Therapeutic Apheresis in Clinical Practice-Evidence-Based Approach from the Writing Committee of the American Society for Apheresis: The Seventh Special Issue.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Joseph; Padmanabhan, Anand; Aqui, Nicole; Balogun, Rasheed A; Connelly-Smith, Laura; Delaney, Meghan; Dunbar, Nancy M; Witt, Volker; Wu, Yanyun; Shaz, Beth H

    2016-06-01

    The American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) Journal of Clinical Apheresis (JCA) Special Issue Writing Committee is charged with reviewing, updating, and categorizing indications for the evidence-based use of therapeutic apheresis in human disease. Since the 2007 JCA Special Issue (Fourth Edition), the Committee has incorporated systematic review and evidence-based approaches in the grading and categorization of apheresis indications. This Seventh Edition of the JCA Special Issue continues to maintain this methodology and rigor to make recommendations on the use of apheresis in a wide variety of diseases/conditions. The JCA Seventh Edition, like its predecessor, has consistently applied the category and grading system definitions in the fact sheets. The general layout and concept of a fact sheet that was used since the fourth edition has largely been maintained in this edition. Each fact sheet succinctly summarizes the evidence for the use of therapeutic apheresis in a specific disease entity. The Seventh Edition discusses 87 fact sheets (14 new fact sheets since the Sixth Edition) for therapeutic apheresis diseases and medical conditions, with 179 indications, which are separately graded and categorized within the listed fact sheets. Several diseases that are Category IV which have been described in detail in previous editions and do not have significant new evidence since the last publication are summarized in a separate table. The Seventh Edition of the JCA Special Issue serves as a key resource that guides the utilization of therapeutic apheresis in the treatment of human disease. J. Clin. Apheresis 31:149-162, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27322218

  14. [Single-donor (apheresis) platelets and pooled whole-blood-derived platelets--significance and assessment of both blood products].

    PubMed

    Hitzler, Walter E

    2014-01-01

    The transfusion efficacy of ATK, which contain fully functional platelets, is beyond all doubt. The equivalence of ATK and PTK has been subject of many studies. Some of those studies show the superiority of ATK's, while others do not, but there have been no studies that demonstrated a superiority of PTK's. The superiority of platelets stored in plasma and in third generation additive solution was demonstrated in clinical studies; therefore, it cannot be said that all the platelet concentrates on the German market are equivalent in efficacy. Of decisive importance, above all, is the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections with known pathogens, or those not yet discovered. This risk is different for ATK compared to PTK. Taking this difference in risk and the difference in donor exposure of transfused patients into account, it can definitely be said that ATK and PTK are not equivalent. In 2012, the Robert-Koch-Institute (RKI) published a mathematical risk model for different platelet concentrates and assessed the risk of transmitting known pathogens such as HIV, HCV, and HBV. The risk was higher for PTK compared to ATK. The relative risks for PTK derived from 4BCs were 2.2 (95%--CI: 2.1-2.4) for HIV, 2.7 (95%--CI: 2.5-3.0) for HCV, and 2.2 (95%--CI: 2.8-3.7) for HBV. At the present time, these are the relative risks of transfusion-transmitted infections with the traditional pathogens for PTK compared to ATK. In addition to the RKI assessed risks, there is the theoretical risk of a new, unknown agent, transmitted through blood exposure. The magnitude of this risk is hardly predictable for PTK. The experience gathered so far, especially in the last three decades, with the emergence of HIV, prions, and West Nil virus, shows that the biological nature of a next transfusion-transmissible infectious agent cannot be predictable. This agent, if we think at a conventional sexually transmissible agent with nucleic acid and long latent period, would spread first in areas with

  15. Role of therapeutic apheresis and phlebotomy techniques in anaesthesia and critical care

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Neeta; Kanzariya, Hitendra

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic transfusion techniques such as apheresis and phlebotomy are frequently used in intensive care units. Use of the apheresis technique for the treatment of various diseases in critically ill patients is growing day by day. There are increasing evidences for using apheresis as a primary therapy or as an adjunct to other therapies for various diseases such as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, haemolytic uremic syndrome, drug toxicities, autoimmune disease, sepsis and fulminant hepatic failure. Apheresis is an invasive procedure. It has significant physiologic consequences, so the care of these patients requires continuous supervision. Phlebotomy is performed as an intervention for some disease management. Its use is nowadays restricted to conditions such as polycythaemia, haemochromatosis and porphyria cutanea tarda. In this review, we have looked at various indications, procedure and complications of apheresis and phlebotomy in critical care unit. PMID:25535434

  16. Thrombocyte adhesion and release of extracellular microvesicles correlate with surface morphology of adsorbent polymers for lipid apheresis.

    PubMed

    Weiss, René; Spittler, Andreas; Schmitz, Gerd; Fischer, Michael B; Weber, Viktoria

    2014-07-14

    Whole blood lipid apheresis is clinically applied to reduce low density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. Here, we studied the correlation between physicochemical parameters, in particular, surface roughness and blood compatibility, of two polyacrylate-based and a dextran sulfate-based polymer for lipid apheresis. The adsorbent surface roughness was assessed by atomic force microscopy. Freshly isolated human thrombocytes were circulated over adsorbent columns downscaled equivalent to clinical use to study thrombocyte adhesion and microvesicle generation. Quantification of thrombocytes and microvesicles in the flow-through of the columns revealed that both thrombocyte adhesion and microvesicle generation increased with increasing adsorbent surface roughness. Activation of thrombocytes with thrombin receptor-activating peptide-6 favored their adhesion to the adsorbents, as demonstrated by preferential depletion of CD62(+) and PAC-1(+) thrombocytes. Taken together, enhanced polymer surface roughness fostered cell adhesion and microvesicle release, underscoring the role of extracellular microvesicles as markers of cellular activation and of blood compatibility. PMID:24844344

  17. Quality assessment of platelet concentrates prepared by platelet rich plasma-platelet concentrate, buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-PC) and apheresis-PC methods

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ravindra P.; Marwaha, Neelam; Malhotra, Pankaj; Dash, Sumitra

    2009-01-01

    preparation of BC-PC. As compared to the above two platelet concentrates, all the units of apheresis-PC fulfilled the desired quality control criteria of volume. Apheresis-PC units showed better swirling and platelet count than PRP-PCs and BC-PCs. All the platelet concentrates units had pH well above the recommended norm. PMID:20808653

  18. Changing perspectives of apheresis in India in the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, R

    2002-04-01

    Globally, the last century (20th) has seen many changes in terms of amazing advancements and applications of modern science, medicine, biotechnology and computers. One of the dramatic outcomes of such great inventions and discoveries was that the medical profession got the wonderful tool of immunomodulation and haemapheresis which has changed the outlook of the entire spectrum of immune complex disorders both in terms of the great success in treatment and the rehabilitation from so-called incurable diseases. Additionally this has resulted in a better quality of life and lower morbidity and mortality. Organ transplants have become a reality and immunomodulation plays a pivotal role in their success. India also has tasted this sweet recipe of modern medicine and has imbibed it in its medical culture. India is not only famous for the Taj Mahal and Hawa Mahal (Agra and Jaipur) but also for its brain (of brain drain/otherwise) and betz cells which have brought glories and laurels in the field of medicine, mathematics, engineering, literature, physics and computers, etc. to the native countries and India equally. Apheresis has now invaded the Indian scenario also and there is a growing interest, demand and application for it in the clinical field. But, being a unique country, the problems encountered are also unique. This paper deals with an overview of the changing perspectives of apheresis in India in the 20th century. PMID:12121072

  19. Use of Vascular Ports for Long-Term Apheresis in Children.

    PubMed

    Chand, Rajat; Sertic, Madeleine; Nemec, Rose; Tomlin, Keturah; Connolly, Bairbre

    2015-11-01

    High-flow ports have been used for apheresis in adults. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of ports for apheresis in children and to survey satisfaction of patients and their families with their use. A retrospective review of clinical details was combined with a prospective assessment of the experience of patients and their families. Eight patients (mean age, 10.4 y; mean weight, 35 kg) had nine ports placed for long-term apheresis. All 246 treatment sessions were completed successfully. Access difficulties occurred in eight of 246 sessions (3%). Alarms occurred in 40 of 246 sessions (16%), resulting in delays in 10 of 246 sessions (4%). A survey of early experience indicated overall satisfaction with and a preference for ports for apheresis. PMID:26505938

  20. Removal of Soluble Fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase-1 by Dextran Sulfate Apheresis in Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Thadhani, Ravi; Hagmann, Henning; Schaarschmidt, Wiebke; Roth, Bernhard; Cingoez, Tuelay; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Wenger, Julia; Lucchesi, Kathryn J; Tamez, Hector; Lindner, Tom; Fridman, Alexander; Thome, Ulrich; Kribs, Angela; Danner, Marco; Hamacher, Stefanie; Mallmann, Peter; Stepan, Holger; Benzing, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Preeclampsia is a devastating complication of pregnancy. Soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) is an antiangiogenic protein believed to mediate the signs and symptoms of preeclampsia. We conducted an open pilot study to evaluate the safety and potential efficacy of therapeutic apheresis with a plasma-specific dextran sulfate column to remove circulating sFlt-1 in 11 pregnant women (20-38 years of age) with very preterm preeclampsia (23-32 weeks of gestation, systolic BP ≥140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg, new onset protein/creatinine ratio >0.30 g/g, and sFlt-1/placental growth factor ratio >85). We evaluated the extent of sFlt-1 removal, proteinuria reduction, pregnancy continuation, and neonatal and fetal safety of apheresis after one (n=6), two (n=4), or three (n=1) apheresis treatments. Mean sFlt-1 levels were reduced by 18% (range 7%-28%) with concomitant reductions of 44% in protein/creatinine ratios. Pregnancy continued for 8 days (range 2-11) and 15 days (range 11-21) in women treated once and multiple times, respectively, compared with 3 days (range 0-14) in untreated contemporaneous preeclampsia controls (n=22). Transient maternal BP reduction during apheresis was managed by withholding pre-apheresis antihypertensive therapy, saline prehydration, and reducing blood flow through the apheresis column. Compared with infants born prematurely to untreated women with and without preeclampsia (n=22 per group), no adverse effects of apheresis were observed. In conclusion, therapeutic apheresis reduced circulating sFlt-1 and proteinuria in women with very preterm preeclampsia and appeared to prolong pregnancy without major adverse maternal or fetal consequences. A controlled trial is warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:26405111

  1. Certification of donor apheresis nurses: keys to develop an effective training program.

    PubMed

    Vrielink, H; van den Burg, P J M; van Antwerpen, C; van Dongen, R; Durant, M; de Fijter, A; van de Griendt, A; Kivit, R; Lubberdink, A; de Kort, W L A M

    2013-06-01

    Within Sanquin Blood Supply, a training program to train apheresis nurses was developed. The parts of the work for which qualification should be necessary was analysed. Based on this analysis, a modular program with theoretical and practical information and knowledge was developed. The modular program consists of two sections: a theoretical and technical / practical. The theoretical section consists of by the project group identified themes including basic hematology (e.g. the characteristics, kinetics, physiology and function of blood cells), basic apheresis physiology, indications for apheresis procedures, criteria for donors apheresis, difficulties and risks of procedures as well as the actions to be taken in case of side effects, and introduction to the apheresis machine available, including the mechanism of the machine. The program for the technical / practical section consists of machine and procedure knowledge (in theory and practise) and troubleshooting. To conclude each individual module, tests in theory and capability to perform procedures are taken. Each trainee needs to demonstrate to have sufficient insight and skill to master all the relevant critical features of the work. Also a text-book for the trainee was written. This educational program provides an approach to educate and test apheresis donor nurses. The combination of theoretical and practical components and monitoring of the progression are an important basis. PMID:23619330

  2. The Effect of LDL-Apheresis and Rheohaemapheresis Treatment on Vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Solichová, Dagmar; Bláha, Milan; Aufartová, Jana; Krcmová, Lenka Kujovská; Plíšek, Jirí; Honegrová, Barbora; Kasalová, Eva; Lánská, Miriam; Urbánek, Lubor; Sobotka, Luboš

    2015-01-01

    Lipid apheresis (extracorporeal lipoprotein elimination) is administered to patients with familial hypercholesterolemia who fail to respond to standard therapy. The nature of the treatment process raises the suspicion that it decreases not only cholesterol but also antioxidants. A group of 12 patients (average age 47±17 y, 4 homozygous and 8 heterozygous individuals) with familial hypercholesterolemia treated by LDL-apheresis or rheohaemapheresis for 3-12 y was included in the study. In addition to cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels, vitamin E and vitamin A and also other markers of antioxidant activity were investigated. Nevertheless, the most important determined parameter was the vitamin E/cholesterol ratio in serum and lipoproteins. The results indicate that both extracorporeal elimination methods are effective and suitable ways to treat severe familial hypercholesterolemia, as the LDL fraction of cholesterol decreased by approximately 77% and 66% following LDL-apheresis and rheohaemapheresis, respectively. In addition, the serum vitamin E decreased by 54% and 57% and the decrease of the serum vitamin A was approximately 20%. However, the main marker of antioxidant capacity, vitamin E/cholesterol ratio, in the serum, VLDL and LDL significantly increased. The increase of vitamin E levels in the erythrocyte membranes of 2% following LDL-apheresis and a significant increase of 4% following rheohaemapheresis were confirmed. The presented results indicate that LDL-apheresis and rheohaemapheresis can be considered to be safe procedures according to the antioxidant capacity of the serum, VLDL and LDL lipoprotein fractions and the erythrocyte membrane. PMID:26052140

  3. Therapeutic apheresis in pregnancy: General considerations and current practice.

    PubMed

    Marson, Piero; Gervasi, Maria Teresa; Tison, Tiziana; Colpo, Anna; De Silvestro, Giustina

    2015-12-01

    It is widely known that pregnancy does not represent a contraindication to therapeutic apheresis (TA) techniques. In fact, since the first experiences of TA in pregnancy for the prevention of hemolytic disease of the newborn, several diseases are at present treated with TA, mainly within 6 clinical categories: (a) TA is a priority and has no alternative equally effective treatment (e.g., thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura); (b) TA is a priority but there are alternative therapies not contraindicated in pregnancy (e.g., myasthenia gravis); (c) TA is an effective tool of saving/avoiding drugs contraindicated in pregnancy (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus); (d) TA is a treatment of specific conditions/complications of pregnancy with maternal and/or fetal risk (e.g., antiphospholipid syndrome); (e) TA is a treatment of specific conditions of pregnancy with exclusive fetal risk (e.g., hemolytic disease of the newborn); (f) TA is a treatment of disease which is strongly indicated and can exceptionally occur during pregnancy (e.g., Goodpasture's syndrome). When dealing with TA pregnant patients, some technical aspects due to the physiological changes of gestation have to be carefully considered, in particular the increase of the circulating blood volume. Moreover a multidisciplinary medical team, including an obstetrician, a clinical consultant, specialist in TA and in transfusion medicine, and a neonatologist stand as a basic requirement for the proper management of some clinical conditions that may be characterized by high maternal and fetal risk. PMID:26621537

  4. Myeloperoxidase modulation by LDL apheresis in Familial Hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a marker of plaque vulnerability and a mechanistic bridge between inflammation and cardiovascular disease, and thus is a suitable target for therapeutic strategy against cardiovascular disease. Methods Since hypercholesterolemia is associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation, we tested whether MPO serum levels were up-regulated in Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) and whether acute reduction of total cholesterol (TC) would also reduce MPO concentration. FH subjects undergoing LDL-apheresis (LDL-A) treatment are a paradigmatic clinical model where TC rapidly plunges from extremely high to extremely low levels after selective LDL removal, and then spontaneously rebounds to baseline conditions. This clinical setting allows multiple intra-patient observations at different plasma TC concentrations. We measured MPO levels in serum by ELISA tests, and in peripheral leukocytes by immunofluorescence, to learn whether they were affected by the changes in TC levels. Serum MPO was measured before and serially up to the 14th day following LDL-A. Results In both serum and peripheral leukocytes, MPO concentrations were i) higher than in sex- and age-matched healthy controls (p < 0.01); ii) decreased with TC reduction; iii) parallel with TC time course; iv) correlated with plasma TC. At regression analysis, plasma TC was the only variable considered that influenced MPO serum levels (β 0.022 ± 0.010, p < 0.0001). Conclusions In FH the MPO serum levels were modulated through changes in the TC concentrations carried out by LDL-A. Further study is needed to determine whether reduced MPO levels obtained by LDL-A could have any therapeutic impact. PMID:22014237

  5. A Prospective Observational Survey on the Long-Term Effect of LDL Apheresis on Drug-Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Muso, Eri; Mune, Masatoshi; Hirano, Tsutomu; Hattori, Motoshi; Kimura, Kenjiro; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Sato, Hiroshi; Uchida, Shunya; Wada, Takashi; Shoji, Tetsuo; Takemura, Tsukasa; Yuzawa, Yukio; Ogahara, Satoru; Sugiyama, Satoshi; Iino, Yasuhiko; Sakai, Soichi; Ogura, Yousuke; Yukawa, Susumu; Nishizawa, Yoshiki; Yorioka, Noriaki; Imai, Enyu; Matsuo, Seiichi; Saito, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims LDL apheresis (LDL-A) is used for drug-resistant nephrotic syndrome (NS) as an alternative therapy to induce remission by improvement of hyperlipidemia. Several clinical studies have suggested the efficacy of LDL-A for refractory NS, but the level of evidence remains insufficient. A multicenter prospective study, POLARIS (Prospective Observational Survey on the Long-Term Effects of LDL Apheresis on Drug-Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome), was conducted to evaluate its clinical efficacy with high-level evidence. Methods Patients with NS who showed resistance to primary medication for at least 4 weeks were prospectively recruited to the study and treated with LDL-A. The long-term outcome was evaluated based on the rate of remission of NS 2 years after treatment. Factors affecting the outcome were also examined. Results A total of 58 refractory NS patients from 40 facilities were recruited and enrolled as subjects of the POLARIS study. Of the 44 subjects followed for 2 years, 21 (47.7%) showed remission of NS based on a urinary protein (UP) level <1.0 g/day. The UP level immediately after LDL-A and the rates of improvement of UP, serum albumin, serum creatinine, eGFR, and total and LDL cholesterol after the treatment session significantly affected the outcome. Conclusions Almost half of the cases of drug-resistant NS showed remission 2 years after LDL-A. Improvement of nephrotic parameters at termination of the LDL-A treatment was a predictor of a favorable outcome. PMID:26557843

  6. Guidelines on the use of therapeutic apheresis in clinical practice-evidence-based approach from the Writing Committee of the American Society for Apheresis: the sixth special issue.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Joseph; Winters, Jeffrey L; Padmanabhan, Anand; Balogun, Rasheed A; Delaney, Meghan; Linenberger, Michael L; Szczepiorkowski, Zbigniew M; Williams, Mark E; Wu, Yanyun; Shaz, Beth H

    2013-07-01

    The American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) JCA Special Issue Writing Committee is charged with reviewing, updating and categorizating indications for therapeutic apheresis. Beginning with the 2007 ASFA Special Issue (Fourth Edition), the committee has incorporated systematic review and evidence-based approach in the grading and categorization of indications. This Sixth Edition of the ASFA Special Issue has further improved the process of using evidence-based medicine in the recommendations by consistently applying the category and GRADE system definitions, but eliminating the "level of evidence" criteria (from the University HealthCare Consortium) utilized in prior editions given redundancy between GRADE and University HealthCare Consortium systems. The general layout and concept of a fact sheet that was utilized in the Fourth and Fifth Editions, has been largely maintained in this edition. Each fact sheet succinctly summarizes the evidence for the use of therapeutic apheresis in a specific disease entity. This article consists of 78 fact sheets (increased from 2010) for therapeutic indications in ASFA categories I through IV, with many diseases categorized having multiple clinical presentations/situations which are individually graded and categorized. PMID:23868759

  7. Long-term efficacy of lipoprotein apheresis in the management of familial hypercholesterolaemia: Application of two different apheresis techniques in childhood.

    PubMed

    Gokay, Songul; Kendirci, Mustafa; Kaynar, Leylagul; Solmaz, Musa; Cetin, Aysun; Kardas, Fatih; Soylu Ustkoyuncu, Pembe

    2016-04-01

    Lipoprotein apheresis is used to treat patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). The aim of the present study is to clarify the lipoprotein apheresis procedure performed by cascade filtration (CF) or double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) on pediatric patients in terms of side effects, laboratory results and cardiovascular follow-up. Data of ten pediatric patients were analyzed retrospectively. The average age of the patients was 12.1 ± 3.4 years. Percentage of long term reduction of low density lipoprotein cholesterol was 62.35 ± 7.19% (n = 3) for CF and 63.66 ± 6.63% (n = 3) for CF plus DFPP, 64.79 ± 8.29% (n = 7) for DFPP. Cardiovascular disease was not detected in thirty percent of the patients. Lesions remained stable in fifty percent of patients with heart valve lesions. Valvular lesions worsened in twenty percent of patients. Lipoprotein apheresis can be used effectively and successfully in pediatric patients as well as adults for homozygous FH. PMID:26577019

  8. LDL-apheresis depletes apoE-HDL and pre-β1-HDL in familial hypercholesterolemia: relevance to atheroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Orsoni, Alexina; Saheb, Samir; Levels, Johannes H. M.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje; Atassi, Marielle; Bittar, Randa; Robillard, Paul; Bruckert, Eric; Kontush, Anatol; Carrié, Alain; Chapman, M. John

    2011-01-01

    Subnormal HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein (apo)AI levels are characteristic of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), reflecting perturbed intravascular metabolism with compositional anomalies in HDL particles, including apoE enrichment. Does LDL-apheresis, which reduces HDL-cholesterol, apoAI, and apoE by adsorption, induce selective changes in HDL subpopulations, with relevance to atheroprotection? Five HDL subpopulations were fractionated from pre- and post-LDL-apheresis plasmas of normotriglyceridemic FH subjects (n = 11) on regular LDL-apheresis (>2 years). Apheresis lowered both plasma apoE (−62%) and apoAI (−16%) levels, with preferential, genotype-independent reduction in apoE. The mass ratio of HDL2:HDL3 was lowered from ∼1:1 to 0.72:1 by apheresis, reflecting selective removal of HDL2 mass (80% of total HDL adsorbed). Pre-LDL-apheresis, HDL2 subpopulations were markedly enriched in apoE, consistent with ∼1 copy of apoE per 4 HDL particles. Large amounts (50-66%) of apoE-HDL were removed by apheresis, preferentially in the HDL2b subfraction (−50%); minor absolute amounts of apoE-HDL were removed from HDL3 subfractions. Furthermore, pre-β1-HDL particle levels were subnormal following removal (−53%) upon apheresis, suggesting that cellular cholesterol efflux may be defective in the immediate postapheresis period. In LDL-receptor (LDL-R) deficiency, LDL-apheresis may enhance flux through the reverse cholesterol transport pathway and equally attenuate potential biglycan-mediated deposition of apoE-HDL in the arterial matrix. PMID:21957200

  9. Treatment of hyperlipidemia with a modified low density lipoprotein apheresis system with dextran sulfate.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yi-Hua; Zou, Yuan-Guo; Sun, Qi-Jun; Xi, Dai; Xing, Chang-Ying

    2007-08-01

    Many low density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis systems have been applied to patients with hyperlipidemia, but these systems usually work on the basis of complicated equipment and the cost of treatment is expensive. In order to achieve effective treatment of hyperlipidemia at a lower cost, we developed a new LDL apheresis system with dextran sulfate (LAS-DS). In this study, 50 patients with hyperlipidemia were treated 120 times with the new LAS-DS. In each treatment, 600 +/- 100 mL of plasma (equal to approximately 25% of the total plasma of patients) was collected by apheresis, and DS solution and calcium chloride solution were added into the collected plasma as LDL absorber and catalyzer, respectively. DS selectively binds LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) under the catalysis of calcium ion and the LDL-C-DS complex is removed by centrifugation. The treated plasma was transfused back into the patients and the excessive calcium in the plasma was removed by the cation exchange column integrated in the transfusion set. After treatment with our new system, the acute mean LDL-C reduction was 97% in the apheresis plasma of hyperlipidemia patients. The corresponding reduction was 55.2% and 69.4% for total cholesterol and total triglyceride. There were insignificant reductions of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and albumin. The new LDL apheresis system with DS that we developed is very simple to operate without relying on complicated equipment, and it can achieve significant clinical results at a much lower cost compared with existing systems. Based on this study we think the new system can provide a safe, effective and much cheaper means for the treatment of hyperlipidemia patients. PMID:17661829

  10. Modulation of chemokine gradients by apheresis redirects leukocyte trafficking to different compartments during sepsis, studies in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Prior work suggests that leukocyte trafficking is determined by local chemokine gradients between the nidus of infection and the plasma. We recently demonstrated that therapeutic apheresis can alter immune mediator concentrations in the plasma, protect against organ injury, and improve survival. Here we aimed to determine whether the removal of chemokines from the plasma by apheresis in experimental peritonitis changes chemokine gradients and subsequently enhances leukocyte localization into the infected compartment, and away from healthy tissues. Methods In total, 76 male adult Sprague–Dawley rats weighing 400 g to 600 g were included in this study. Eighteen hours after inducing sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture, we randomized these rats to apheresis or sham treatment for 4 hours. Cytokines, chemokines, and leukocyte counts from blood, peritoneal cavity, and lung were measured. In a separate experiment, we labeled neutrophils from septic donor animals and injected them into either apheresis or sham-treated animals. All numeric data with normal distributions were compared with one-way analysis of variance, and numeric data not normally distributed were compared with the Mann–Whitney U test. Results Apheresis significantly removed plasma cytokines and chemokines, increased peritoneal fluid-to-blood chemokine (C-X-C motif ligand 1, ligand 2, and C-C motif ligand 2) ratios, and decreased bronchoalveolar lavage fluid-to-blood chemokine ratios, resulting in enhanced leukocyte recruitment into the peritoneal cavity and improved bacterial clearance, but decreased recruitment into the lung. Apheresis also reduced myeloperoxidase activity and histologic injury in the lung, liver, and kidney. These Labeled donor neutrophils exhibited decreased localization in the lung when infused into apheresis-treated animals. Conclusions Our results support the concept of chemokine gradient control of leukocyte trafficking and demonstrate the efficacy of apheresis

  11. Evaluation of platelets prepared by apheresis and stored for 5 days. In vitro and in vivo studies

    SciTech Connect

    Shanwell, A.; Gulliksson, H.; Berg, B.K.; Jansson, B.A.; Svensson, L.A.

    1989-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of storage on apheresis platelets collected with a closed-system blood cell separator, an in vitro investigation was performed, with measurements of pH, lactate, ATP, the ratio of ATP to the total adenine nucleotide content, and adenylate kinase. Unmodified apheresis platelets and apheresis platelets with plasma added were compared with conventional platelets stored in PL-1240 or PL-732 plastic containers. During 6 days of storage, there were similar changes in all variables with one exception: the extracellular activity of adenylate kinase was lower in apheresis platelets with plasma than in the other three groups (p less than 0.01). In vivo studies were carried out with 111Indium-labeled autologous platelets in eight volunteers. Apheresis platelets with 100 mL of plasma added were stored in two 1000-mL containers (PL-732) at 22 degrees C during agitation. Platelets from one of the containers were labeled with 111Indium and transfused into the volunteer within 24 hours. Platelets from the other container were labeled after 5 days of storage and transfused into the same donor. There were no significant differences between apheresis platelets stored for 1 day and those stored for 5 days: the mean percentage of recovery was 58.4 and 57.6 percent, t1/2 was 69 and 67 hours, and the survival time was 5.5 and 5.6 days, respectively.

  12. Assessing risks of invasion through gamete performance: farm Atlantic salmon sperm and eggs show equivalence in function, fertility, compatibility and competitiveness to wild Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Yeates, Sarah E; Einum, Sigurd; Fleming, Ian A; Holt, William V; Gage, Matthew Jg

    2014-04-01

    Adaptations at the gamete level (a) evolve quickly, (b) appear sensitive to inbreeding and outbreeding and (c) have important influences on potential to reproduce. We apply this understanding to problems posed by escaped farm salmon and measure their potential to reproduce in the wild. Farm Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are a threat to biodiversity, because they escape in large numbers and can introgress, dilute or disrupt locally adapted wild gene pools. Experiments at the whole fish level have found farm reproductive potential to be significant, but inferior compared to wild adults, especially for males. Here, we assess reproductive performance at the gamete level through detailed in vitro comparisons of the form, function, fertility, compatibility and competitiveness of farm versus wild Atlantic salmon sperm and eggs, in conditions mimicking the natural gametic microenvironment, using fish raised under similar environmental conditions. Despite selective domestication and reduced genetic diversity, we find functional equivalence in all farm fish gamete traits compared with their wild ancestral strain. Our results identify a clear threat of farm salmon reproduction with wild fish and therefore encourage further consideration of using triploid farm strains with optimized traits for aquaculture and fish welfare, as triploid fish remain reproductively sterile following escape. PMID:24822083

  13. Platelet apheresis in a deployed maritime environment: experiences from Operation GRITROCK.

    PubMed

    Robinson, M A; Bailey, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    When the Primary Casualty Receiving Facility (PCRF) on Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) ARGUS deployed to Operation GRITROCK in October 2014, platelet apheresis had yet to be proven as a sustainable and usable capability for improving provision of blood products on a maritime platform. This paper explores the difficulties encountered by nurses tasked with setting up this capability once deployed and the requirements needed to ensure that this capability is maintained for future operations. PMID:26867408

  14. Reduction of dendritic cells by granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis in patients with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Waitz, Grit; Petermann, Sebastian; Liebe, Stefan; Emmrich, Joerg; Ramlow, Wolfgang

    2008-09-01

    The influence of the granulocyte/monocyte apheresis (GMCAP) on cell populations participating in mechanisms of tolerance, e.g. dendritic cells (DCs), is still not very clear. In a first step, we aimed to investigate changes in the DC population of patients suffering from ulcerative colitis (UC) (n = 13) compared to healthy subjects (n = 9). In a second step, we studied the changes in peripheral DCs in a small group of patients with active UC before and after Adacolumn apheresis (n = 7). For this purpose, plasmacytoid and myeloid DCs and their maturation markers CD40, CD80, and CD86 were measured using four-color flow cytometry in the peripheral blood. After apheresis, and in acute flare-ups, we identified a significantly lower number of lymphocytes, plasmacytoid, and myeloid DCs. In conclusion, the additional removal of peripheral DCs by GMCAP, which otherwise would contribute to the inflammatory process in the gut, may lead to a higher tolerogeneic status towards luminal antigens. PMID:18253828

  15. Hematologic and hemostatic changes induced by different columns during LDL apheresis.

    PubMed

    Hovland, Anders; Hardersen, Randolf; Nielsen, Erik Waage; Mollnes, Tom Eirik; Lappegård, Knut Tore

    2010-01-01

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis is a long-term treatment and its impact on risk factors other than lipoproteins could be of importance. Three patients with familial hypercholesterolemia participated in six consecutive treatments with three different LDL apheresis columns in random order: DL-75, LA-15, and EC-50W. We compared treatment effects on hemoglobin, leukocytes, platelets, fibrinogen, thrombin-antithrombin complexes (TAT), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and homocysteine. Hemoglobin, leukocytes and platelets decreased significantly with DL-75 (P < 0.05). Hemoglobin and leukocytes increased significantly with LA-15 and EC-50W (P < 0.05). Platelets were unchanged. The DL-75 column was statistically different from LA-15 and EC-50W regarding these parameters. With the columns DL-75, LA-15, and EC-50W fibrinogen decreased significantly by 28%, 32%, and 42%, PAI-1 decreased significantly by 72%, 58%, and 30% while TAT increased significantly by 138%, 3%, and 251%, respectively (P < 0.05 for all). When comparing the columns there were significant differences between all of them regarding fibrinogen, no differences regarding TAT and a difference between DL-75 and EC-50W regarding PAI-1. With the columns DL-75, LA-15 and EC-50W homocysteine decreased 22%, 9%, and 13%, respectively, but there were no inter column differences. In conclusion, the three LDL apheresis columns affected important hematological and hemostatic risk factors differently. PMID:20806414

  16. Apheresis research-more abstracts should be published as full manuscripts to provide more evidence for clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Pham, Huy P; Jiang, Ning; Pan, Zhi; Williams, Lance A; Marques, Marisa B

    2016-08-01

    High-quality evidence to support clinical practice is lacking in apheresis medicine compared to other therapeutic modalities. A potential source of evidence comes from the abstracts submitted to the Annual Meetings of the American Society for Apheresis (ASFA). Therefore, the goal of this study is to determine the proportion of abstracts from the 2005 to 2012 ASFA Annual Meetings that subsequently became PubMed-indexed publications. Furthermore, we sought to determine the factor(s) that were associated with the likelihood of abstracts to be published as full manuscripts. During the 8-year study period, 684 abstracts were available for analysis (median: 82/year, range: 64-118). Most abstracts (74%) were from US institutions, and 67% of first authors were affiliated with academic centers. There were more abstracts (64%) on therapeutic versus donor apheresis (20%) and cellular therapy (16%). Overall, 16% of the abstracts have been published in PubMed-indexed journals, with a median time of 17 months from the ASFA Annual Meeting (range: 1-96 months). Abstracts whose first authors were affiliated with academic institutions were 3.14 times more likely to have been published than abstracts with ones affiliated with an apheresis organization and/or a community hospital. However, neither the first author's location nor the type of apheresis procedure significantly affected the publication rate after adjusting for other covariates. In conclusion, the rate of publication is low and authors should be encouraged to follow their presentations at the meeting with peer-reviewed manuscripts. This change is essential to provide more published evidence for future apheresis practice guidelines. J. Clin. Apheresis 31:353-358, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26011563

  17. NHLBI state of the science symposium in therapeutic apheresis: Knowledge gaps and research opportunities in the area of hematology-oncology.

    PubMed

    Karafin, Matthew S; Sachais, Bruce S; Connelly-Smith, Laura; Field, Joshua J; Linenberger, Michael L; Padmanabhan, Anand

    2016-02-01

    The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) hosted a two-day state of the science symposium on therapeutic apheresis in Bethesda, MD on November 28th-29th, 2012. The purpose of the symposium was multifaceted, and included the following aims: (a) To discuss this state of research and key scientific questions in apheresis medicine; (b) To identify gaps in knowledge for relevant cardiovascular diseases, hematological and oncological diseases, infectious diseases and sepsis, renal diseases, and neurological diseases where there may be strong therapeutic rationale for the application of apheresis treatments; (c) To explore ways of coordinating therapeutic apheresis with other medical disciplines and treatment modalities; (d) To identify and prioritize the most important research questions to be answered in apheresis medicine; and (e) To offer NHLBI suggestions on how a structured research approach can be applied to the therapeutic apheresis research agenda in future years. The following document summarizes three such key proposals presented at the meeting for evaluating apheresis therapy for the treatment of pain in sickle cell disease, heparin induced thrombocytopenia, and leukostasis from acute myeloid leukemia. The challenges and limitations regarding apheresis therapy for each disease are discussed, and avenues for future investigation for each disease are outlined. PMID:25940408

  18. A case of severe acute pancreatitis treated with CTR-001 direct hemoperfusion for cytokine apheresis.

    PubMed

    Saotome, Takao; Endo, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Teiji; Tabata, Takahisa; Hamamoto, Tetsu; Fujino, Kazunori; Andoh, Akira; Eguchi, Yutaka; Tani, Tohru; Fujiyama, Yoshihide

    2005-08-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis is a clinical entity that can develop into multiple organ failure (MOF), and still has a poor prognosis. It is generally agreed that excessive humoral mediators such as pro-inflammatory cytokines play important roles in the pathogenesis of organ failure in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Furthermore, it has been reported that continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF) can remove the excess humoral mediators during the hypercytokinemic state of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). We experienced a case of severe acute pancreatitis induced by alcohol abuse, on whom we performed cytokine apheresis. The patient was a 46 year-old male. He received 14 cytokine apheresis procedures, for about 4 hours in each session, using a CTR-001 direct hemoperfusion (DHP) cartridge. His serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6; 1649.1+/-667.1-1257.1+/-489.4 pg/mL, P=0.013) decreased significantly after the CTR-001 procedures. However tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) (26.2+/-1.7-24.3+/-1.9 pg/mL, P=0.087), IL-1beta (6.1+/-2.9-3.49+/-1.1 pg/mL, P=0.477), IL-8 (192.5+/-33.4-229.5+/-51.8 pg/mL, P=0.754) and IL-10 (14.4+/-2.7-14.0+/-1.9 pg/mL, P=0.726) did not decrease statistically. Therefore, we conclude that in this case, cytokine apheresis using a CTR-001 cartridge was effective for reducing the pro-inflammatory cytokines during severe acute pancreatitis. PMID:16076384

  19. Effectiveness of the haemonetics MCS cell separator in the collection of apheresis platelets.

    PubMed

    Keklik, Muzaffer; Keklik, Ertugrul; Korkmaz, Serdal; Aygun, Bilal; Arik, Ferhat; Kilic, Ozcan; Sarikoc, Murat

    2015-12-01

    Platelet (PLT) transfusions play an important role in patients with thrombocytopenia or severely impaired platelet function. Platelet concentrates are prepared from whole-blood donations or by plateletpheresis. In recent years, different instruments have been developed to perform plateletpheresis. We evaluated an apheresis instrument, the Haemonetics MCS(®) + with regard to PLT yield, collection efficiency (CE), and collection rate (CR) in a retrospective, randomized study in 526 donors. In this system, we used leukoreduction filters post collection to obtain leukoreduced products. The Haemonetics MCS(®) + cell separator efficiently collected apheresis platelets with median PLT yields of 3.7 × 10(11), mean CE of 66.69 ± 13.73% and mean CR of 0.063 ± 0.013 × 10(11)/min. The median blood volume processed was 3290 (2420-4370) ml, and the median volume of acid citrate dextrose-A (ACD-A) used in collections on the device was 385 (196-517) ml. Also, this device allowed the collection of white blood cell (WBC) reduced plateletpheresis with mean 0.07 ± 0.15 × 10(6) WBC content. No serious donor or recipient reactions occurred. PMID:26283175

  20. Time-based analysis of the apheresis platelet supply chain in England.

    PubMed

    Wilding, R; Cotton, S; Dobbin, J; Chapman, J; Yates, N

    2011-10-01

    During 2009/2010 loss of platelets within NHS Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) due to time expiry was 9.3%. Hospitals remain reluctant to hold stocks of platelets due to the poor shelf life at issue. The purpose of this study was to identify areas for time compression in the apheresis platelet supply chain to extend the shelf life available for hospitals and reduce wastage in NHSBT. This was done within the context of NHSBT reconfiguring their supply chain and moving towards a consolidated and centralised approach. Time based process mapping was applied to identify value and non-value adding time in two manufacturing models. A large amount of the non-value adding time in the apheresis platelet supply chain is due to transportation and waiting for the next process in the manufacturing process to take place. Time based process mapping provides an effective 'lens' for supply chain professionals to identify opportunities for improvement in the platelet supply chain. PMID:21521234

  1. Separation of Circulating MicroRNAs Using Apheresis in Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Kusaoi, Makio; Yamaji, Ken; Ishibe, Yusuke; Murayama, Go; Nemoto, Takuya; Sekiya, Fumio; Kon, Takayuki; Ogasawara, Michihiro; Kempe, Kazuo; Tamura, Naoto; Takasaki, Yoshinari

    2016-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which are important inhibitors of mRNA translation, participate in differentiation, migration, cell proliferation, and cell death. The pathology of miRNAs results in alterations in protein expression. Recently, miRNAs circulating in peripheral blood have been shown to control the synthesis and translation of proteins at distal sites after intake into local cells. A number of studies are currently being conducted to investigate how to use miRNAs in disease treatment, but no studies have attempted to alleviate disease by directly eliminating miRNAs from blood. Therefore, we examined whether the removal or reduction of circulating miRNAs with apheresis improved pathologies caused by miRNAs. After approval of the study by our medical school's ethics committee, we collected blood and separated plasma samples from three patients with systemic lupus erythematosus who were undergoing plasmapheresis at our hospital. Peripheral blood was collected before and after it was passed through a primary membrane, centrifuged, and used to extract circulating miRNAs. A comprehensive expression analysis was then performed with a miRNA array chip. The levels of expression of a large number of circulating miRNAs were measured in the plasma samples separated by the primary membranes from all 3 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. We present the first report that circulating miRNAs in peripheral blood can be separated and possibly directly removed using membrane separation apheresis. PMID:27523074

  2. The role of lipoprotein(a) in clotting reactions during lipoprotein apheresis-A case report.

    PubMed

    Matney, Kathryn; Berg, Mary; Falko, James M; Draper, Nicole L

    2016-01-01

    In individuals with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) who are unable to reach a target low-density lipoprotein level on a drug regimen, lipoprotein apheresis (LA) may be the treatment of choice. Severe reactions involving clotting during LA are not well described in the literature. We report a case of a 63-year-old woman with FH and markedly elevated lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) levels who experienced such a reaction while undergoing LA with a dextran-sulfate cellulose column on the Kaneka MA-01 Liposorber system. Owing to the clotting as well as a blood pressure drop to <100 mm Hg systolic, the procedure was stopped early. Before her second procedure, she was given an increased loading dose of unfractionated heparin. She did not develop clotting during this second procedure. A growing body of literature on the role of Lp(a) in atherothrombotic complications and hemostasis supports a possible mechanism by which clotting in the instrument could occur during apheresis. Our patient's initial pretreatment Lp(a) was 3.5 times greater than the mean Lp(a) levels in patients with FH. This theory is consistent with our case in that the patient's Lp(a) levels progressively declined with each procedure, and she had no subsequent clotting. PMID:27055976

  3. Adverse events in apheresis: An update of the WAA registry data.

    PubMed

    Mörtzell Henriksson, M; Newman, E; Witt, V; Derfler, K; Leitner, G; Eloot, S; Dhondt, A; Deeren, D; Rock, G; Ptak, J; Blaha, M; Lanska, M; Gasova, Z; Hrdlickova, R; Ramlow, W; Prophet, H; Liumbruno, G; Mori, E; Griskevicius, A; Audzijoniene, J; Vrielink, H; Rombout, S; Aandahl, A; Sikole, A; Tomaz, J; Lalic, K; Mazic, S; Strineholm, V; Brink, B; Berlin, G; Dykes, J; Toss, F; Axelsson, C G; Stegmayr, B; Nilsson, T; Norda, R; Knutson, F; Ramsauer, B; Wahlström, A

    2016-02-01

    Apheresis with different procedures and devices are used for a variety of indications that may have different adverse events (AEs). The aim of this study was to clarify the extent and possible reasons of various side effects based on data from a multinational registry. The WAA-apheresis registry data focus on adverse events in a total of 50846 procedures in 7142 patients (42% women). AEs were graded as mild, moderate (need for medication), severe (interruption due to the AE) or death (due to AE). More AEs occurred during the first procedures versus subsequent (8.4 and 5.5%, respectively). AEs were mild in 2.4% (due to access 54%, device 7%, hypotension 15%, tingling 8%), moderate in 3% (tingling 58%, urticaria 15%, hypotension 10%, nausea 3%), and severe in 0.4% of procedures (syncope/hypotension 32%, urticaria 17%, chills/fever 8%, arrhythmia/asystole 4.5%, nausea/vomiting 4%). Hypotension was most common if albumin was used as the replacement fluid, and urticaria when plasma was used. Arrhythmia occurred to similar extents when using plasma or albumin as replacement. In 64% of procedures with bronchospasm, plasma was part of the replacement fluid used. Severe AEs are rare. Although most reactions are mild and moderate, several side effects may be critical for the patient. We present side effects in relation to the procedures and suggest that safety is increased by regular vital sign measurements, cardiac monitoring and by having emergency equipment nearby. PMID:26776481

  4. Single Low-Density Lipoprotein Apheresis Does Not Improve Vascular Endothelial Function in Chronically Treated Hypercholesterolemic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Kevin D.; Mah, Eunice; Guo, Yi; Bruno, Richard S.; Taylor, Beth A.; Beam, Jo Ellen; Polk, Donna M.; Thompson, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate vascular endothelial function (VEF) responses to a single low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis session in hypercholesterolemic patients undergoing chronic treatment. Methods. We measured brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), plasma lipids, vitamin E (α- and γ-tocopherol), markers of oxidative/nitrative stress (malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitro-γ-tocopherol (NGT)), and regulators of NO metabolism (arginine (ARG) and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA)) prior to (Pre) and immediately following (Post) LDL apheresis and at 1, 3, 7, and 14 d Post in 5 hypercholesterolemic patients (52 ± 11 y). Results. Relative to Pre, total cholesterol (7.8 ± 1.5 mmol/L) and LDL-cholesterol (6.2 ± 1.2 mmol/L) were 61% and 70% lower (P < 0.01), respectively, at Post and returned to Pre levels at 14 d. Brachial FMD responses (6.9 ± 3.6%) and plasma MDA, ARG, and ADMA concentrations were unaffected by LDL apheresis. Plasma α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and NGT concentrations were 52–69% lower at Post (P < 0.01), and α-tocopherol remained 36% lower at 1 d whereas NGT remained 41% lower at d 3. Conclusions. Acute cholesterol reduction by LDL apheresis does not alter VEF, oxidative stress, or NO homeostasis in patients treated chronically for hypercholesterolemia. PMID:26998360

  5. Influence of apheresis container size on the maintenance of platelet in vitro storage properties after a 30-h interruption of agitation.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Stephen J; Skripchenko, Andrey; Seetharaman, Shalini; Myrup, Andrew; Kurtz, James; Thomas-Montgomery, Dedeene; Awatefe, Helen; Moroff, Gary

    2010-08-01

    We have previously conducted studies investigating maintenance of apheresis platelet in vitro quality measures during storage under simulated shipping conditions in which agitation was interrupted. This study examines the effect of increasing bag surface area on the preservation of in vitro platelet properties during storage with continuous agitation and with a 30 h interruption of agitation. Apheresis platelets were collected in 100% plasma with the Amicus separator to provide two identical platelet products, each with approximately 4-5 x 10(11) platelets. After collection, the volume was divided equally between 1.0 and 1.3 L PL2410 containers. In an initial study, both products were continuously agitated. In a second study, both products were subjected to a single 30-h period of interrupted agitation between Days 2 and 3 of storage by placement in a standard shipping box at room temperature. In each study, units were assayed during storage for standard in vitro platelet quality measures. Platelets stored in the 1.3 L container maintained slightly greater mean pH during 7 day storage with either continuous agitation (n=6) or with a 30-h interruption of agitation (n=12) than those of similarly treated identical platelets stored in the 1.0 L container. Most noteworthy, in experiments with products stored in the 1.0 L container in which there was a large decrease in pH to levels <6.7 or <6.3 on days 5 or 7, respectively, the pH in the matched product stored in the 1.3 L container was substantially greater (0.17+/-06 and 0.37+/-0.09 pH units greater, n=4, respectively). Other measures showed either small differences or comparability of platelet in vitro parameters with storage in the two containers after an interruption of agitation. PMID:20554476

  6. Equivalence of Dirac formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, William P.; Martin, Jeremy G.

    2002-06-01

    We construct general Dirac theories in both ⊗ ℓ(3, 1) and ⊗ ℓ(1, 3) using a first order left acting Dirac operator. Any two such theories are equivalent provided they have the same dimension. We also show that every 16- or 8-dimensional real Dirac theory in ℓ(3, 1) is equivalent to some (complex) Dirac theory in ⊗ ℓ(1, 3). As an immediate consequence of this we have that the Hestenes and original Dirac formulations are equivalent.

  7. Granulo-monocyto apheresis is more effective in mild ulcerative colitis than in moderate to severe disease

    PubMed Central

    De Cassan, Chiara; Savarino, Edoardo; Marson, Piero; Tison, Tiziana; Hatem, Giorgia; Sturniolo, Giacomo Carlo; D’Incà, Renata

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether the effectiveness of Granulo-monocyto apheresis (GMA), a technique that consists of the extracorporeal removal of granulocytes and monocytes from the peripheral blood, might vary according to the severity of ulcerative colitis (UC) in patients with mild to moderate-severe disease UC activity. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed prospectively collected data of patients undergoing GMA at our inflammatory bowel disease centre who had at least a 6 mo of follow-up. The demographics, clinical and laboratory data were extracted from the patients’ charts and electronic records. The severity of UC was scored according to the Modified Truelove Witts Severity Index (MTWSI). A clinical response was defined as a decrease from baseline of ≥ 2 points or a value of MTWSI ≤ 2 points. RESULTS: A total of 41 (24 males/17 females; mean age 47 years) patients were included in the study. After GMA cycle completion, 21/28 (75%) of mild UC patients showed a clinical response compared with 7/13 (54%) of patients with moderate to severe disease (P = 0.27). At 6-mo, 14/28 (50%) of the mild UC patients maintained a clinical response compared with 2/13 (15%) of the patients with moderate to severe disease (P = 0.04). After the GMA cycle completion and during the 6-mo follow up period, 13/16 (81%) and 9/16 (56%) of mild UC patients with intolerance, resistance and contraindications to immunosuppressants and/or biologics showed a clinical response compared with 2/6 (33%) and 0/6 (0%) of patients with moderate to severe disease activity with these characteristics (P = 0.05 and P = 0.04, respectively). CONCLUSION: Patients with mild UC benefit from GMA more than patients with moderate to severe disease in the short-term period. GMA should be considered a valid therapeutic option in cases of contraindications to immunosuppressants, corticosteroids and/or biologics. PMID:25493030

  8. Acute impact of apheresis on oxidized phospholipids in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia1

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Kiyohito; Orsoni, Alexina; Mallat, Ziad; Tedgui, Alain; Witztum, Joseph L.; Bruckert, Eric; Tselepis, Alexandros D.; Chapman, M. John; Tsimikas, Sotirios

    2012-01-01

    We measured oxidized phospholipids (OxPL), lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)], and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) pre- and postapheresis in 18 patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and with low(∼10 mg/dl; range 10–11 mg/dl), intermediate (∼50 mg/dl; range 30–61 mg/dl), or high (>100 mg/dl; range 78–128 mg/dl) Lp(a) levels. By using enzymatic and immunoassays, the content of OxPL and Lp-PLA2 mass and activity were quantitated in lipoprotein density fractions plated in microtiter wells, as well as directly on apoB-100, Lp(a), and apoA-I immunocaptured within each fraction (i.e., OxPL/apoB and Lp-PLA2/apoB). In whole fractions, OxPL was primarily detected in the Lp(a)-containing fractions, whereas Lp-PLA2 was primarily detected in the small, dense LDL and light Lp(a) range. In lipoprotein capture assays, OxPL/apoB and OxPL/apo(a) increased proportionally with increasing Lp(a) levels. Lp-PLA2/apoB and Lp-PLA2/apoA-I levels were highest in the low Lp(a) group but decreased proportionally with increasing Lp(a) levels. Lp-PLA2/apo(a) was lowest in patients with low Lp(a) levels and increased proportionally with increasing Lp(a) levels. Apheresis significantly reduced levels of OxPL and Lp-PLA2 on apoB and Lp(a) (50–75%), particularly in patients with intermediate and high Lp(a) levels. In contrast, apheresis increased Lp-PLA2-specific activity (activity/mass ratio) in buoyant LDL fractions. The impact of apheresis on Lp(a), OxPL, and Lp-PLA2 provides insights into its therapeutic benefits beyond lowering apoB-containing lipoproteins. PMID:22628616

  9. Efficacy of granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis for treatment of palmoplantar pustulosis.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Tomomi; Tawada, Chisato; Mizutani, Yoko; Doi, Tomoaki; Yoshida, Shozo; Ogura, Shinji; Seishima, Mariko

    2014-06-01

    Palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP) is characterized by neutrophilic pustules with erythema, which are limited to the hands and feet. Although granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis (GMA) has shown remarkable effects on generalized pustular psoriasis, there are few reports of PPP treated with GMA. We treated three refractory PPP patients using GMA weekly for 5 weeks. The skin eruptions were assessed by a 5-grade score for scales, pustules, and erythema. GMA decreased the total grade from 9 to 2 in patients 1 and 2, and from 7 to 3 in patient 3. The GMA effects were estimated to be excellent in all three patients. Pustule formation and pain disappeared in all cases. The treatment effect lasted for at least 5 months after GMA. GMA was also effective for relieving the arthralgia in one patient, but it recurred at 6 weeks. Based on these findings, GMA could be an effective therapy for refractory PPP. PMID:24965289

  10. Ulcerative colitis and granulocyte-monocyte-apheresis: safety and efficacy of maintenance therapy during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    D'Ovidio, Valeria; Meo, Donatella; Gozer, Maria; Bazuro, Marco E; Vernia, Piero

    2015-02-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease characteristically affects young adults in their reproductive ages. Thus the medication used for the treatment of active disease should not compromise fertility and, also, should not have teratogenic effect on baby. A lot of data are available about effects of steroids, antibiotics, and mesalazine but no data are available about safety and efficacy of granulocyte-monocyte-apheresis (GMA) during pregnancy. In this case report, the 37 year-old pregnant woman with chronically active and steroid dependent ulcerative colitis (UC), at risk of abortion, refused more aggressive pharmacological therapeutic options and gave the informed consent to GMA. To minimize symptoms and the risk of severe clinical relapse, a maintenance GMA treatment was performed throughout pregnancy. The course of pregnancy was uneventful with no side effects; the mother and the baby were all healthy and well at the delivery. PMID:25181523

  11. Freezing of Apheresis Platelet Concentrates in 6% Dimethyl Sulfoxide: The First Preliminary Study in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yılmaz, Soner; Çetinkaya, Rıza Aytaç; Eker, İbrahim; Ünlü, Aytekin; Uyanık, Metin; Tapan, Serkan; Pekoğlu, Ahmet; Pekel, Aysel; Erkmen, Birgül; Muşabak, Uğur; Yılmaz, Sebahattin; Avcı, İsmail Yaşar; Avcu, Ferit; Kürekçi, Emin; Eyigün, Can Polat

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Transfusion of platelet suspensions is an essential part of patient care for certain clinical indications. In this pioneering study in Turkey, we aimed to assess the in vitro hemostatic functions of platelets after cryopreservation. Materials and Methods: Seven units of platelet concentrates were obtained by apheresis. Each apheresis platelet concentrate (APC) was divided into 2 equal volumes and frozen with 6% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The 14 frozen units of APCs were kept at -80 °C for 1 day. APCs were thawed at 37 °C and diluted either with autologous plasma or 0.9% NaCl. The volume and residual numbers of leukocytes and platelets were tested in both before-freezing and post-thawing periods. Aggregation and thrombin generation tests were used to analyze the in vitro hemostatic functions of platelets. Flow-cytometric analysis was used to assess the presence of frozen treated platelets and their viability. Results: The residual number of leukocytes in both dilution groups was <1x106. The mean platelet recovery rate in the plasma-diluted group (88.1±9.5%) was higher than that in the 0.9% NaCl-diluted group (63±10%). These results were compatible with the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines quality criteria. Expectedly, there was no aggregation response to platelet aggregation test. The mean thrombin generation potential of post-thaw APCs was higher in the plasma-diluted group (2411 nmol/L per minute) when compared to both the 0.9% NaCl-diluted group (1913 nmol/L per minute) and the before-freezing period (1681 nmol/L per minute). The flow-cytometric analysis results for the viability of APCs after cryopreservation were 94.9% and 96.6% in the plasma and 0.9% NaCl groups, respectively. Conclusion: Cryopreservation of platelets with 6% DMSO and storage at -80 °C increases their shelf life from 7 days to 2 years. Besides the increase in hemostatic functions of platelets, the cryopreservation process also does not affect their viability

  12. Comparison of two low-density lipoprotein apheresis systems in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Drouin-Chartier, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, André J; Bergeron, Jean; Pelletier, Maude; Laflamme, Nathalie; Lamarche, Benoît; Couture, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis (LA) is a reliable method to decrease LDL-C concentrations and remains the gold standard therapy in homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH). The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of two LA systems [heparin-induced extracorporeal LDL precipitation (HELP) vs. dextran sulfate adsorption (DS) on the reduction of lipids, inflammatory markers, and adhesion molecules in a sample of genetically defined HoFH subjects (n = 9)]. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after LA. All subjects served as their own control and were first treated with the HELP system then with DS in this single sequence study. Compared with HELP, DS led to significantly greater reductions in total cholesterol (-63.3% vs. -59.9%; P = 0.05), LDL-C (-70.5% vs. -63.0%; P = 0.02), CRP (-75.3% vs. -48.8%; P < 0.0001), and TNF-α (-23.7% vs. +14.7%; P = 0.003). Reductions in the plasma levels of PCSK9 (-45.3% vs. -63.4%; P = 0.31), lipoprotein (a) (-70.6% vs. -65.0%; P = 0.30), E-selectin (-16.6% vs. -18.3%; P = 0.65), ICAM-1 (-4.0 vs. 5.6%; P = 0.56), and VCAM-1 (8.3% vs. -1.8%; P = 0.08) were not different between the two systems. For the same volume of filtered plasma (3,000 mL), however, HELP led to greater reductions in plasma apoB (-63.1% vs. -58.3%; P = 0.04), HDL-C (-20.6% vs. -6.5%; P = 0.003), and PCSK9 (-63.4% vs. -28.5%; P = 0.02) levels. These results suggest that both LA systems are effective in reducing plasma lipids and inflammatory markers in HoFH. Compared with HELP, greater reductions in lipid levels and inflammatory markers were achieved with DS, most likely because this method allows for a larger plasma volume to be filtered. J. Clin. Apheresis 31:359-367, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26011648

  13. Development of model for analysing respective collections of intended hematopoietic stem cells and harvests of unintended mature cells in apheresis for autologous hematopoietic stem cell collection.

    PubMed

    Hequet, O; Le, Q H; Rodriguez, J; Dubost, P; Revesz, D; Clerc, A; Rigal, D; Salles, G; Coiffier, B

    2014-04-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) required to perform peripheral hematopoietic autologous stem cell transplantation (APBSCT) can be collected by processing several blood volumes (BVs) in leukapheresis sessions. However, this may cause granulocyte harvest in graft and decrease in patient's platelet blood level. Both consequences may induce disturbances in patient. One apheresis team's current purpose is to improve HSC collection by increasing HSC collection and prevent increase in granulocyte and platelet harvests. Before improving HSC collection it seemed important to know more about the way to harvest these types of cells. The purpose of our study was to develop a simple model for analysing respective collections of intended CD34+ cells among HSC (designated here as HSC) and harvests of unintended platelets or granulocytes among mature cells (designated here as mature cells) considering the number of BVs processed and factors likely to influence cell collection or harvest. For this, we processed 1, 2 and 3 BVs in 59 leukapheresis sessions and analysed corresponding collections and harvests with a referent device (COBE Spectra). First we analysed the amounts of HSC collected and mature cells harvested and second the evolution of the respective shares of HSC and mature cells collected or harvested throughout the BV processes. HSC collections and mature cell harvests increased globally (p<0.0001) and their respective shares remained stable throughout the BV processes (p non-significant). We analysed the role of intrinsic (patient's features) and extrinsic (features before starting leukapheresis sessions) factors in collections and harvests, which showed that only pre-leukapheresis blood levels (CD34+cells and platelets) influenced both cell collections and harvests (CD34+cells and platelets) (p<0.001) and shares of HSC collections and mature unintended cells harvests (p<0.001) throughout the BV processes. Altogether, our results suggested that the main factors likely

  14. Exploratory studies of extended storage of apheresis platelets in a platelet additive solution (PAS).

    PubMed

    Slichter, Sherrill J; Corson, Jill; Jones, Mary Kay; Christoffel, Todd; Pellham, Esther; Bailey, S Lawrence; Bolgiano, Doug

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the poststorage viability of apheresis platelets stored for up to 18 days in 80% platelet additive solution (PAS)/20% plasma, 117 healthy subjects donated platelets using the Haemonetics MCS+, COBE Spectra (Spectra), or Trima Accel (Trima) systems. Control platelets from the same subjects were compared with their stored test PAS platelets by radiolabeling their stored and control platelets with either (51)chromium or (111)indium. Trima platelets met Food and Drug Administration poststorage platelet viability criteria for only 7 days vs almost 13 days for Haemonetics platelets; ie, platelet recoveries after these storage times averaged 44 ± 3% vs 49 ± 3% and survivals were 5.4 ± 0.3 vs 4.6 ± 0.3 days, respectively. The differences in storage duration are likely related to both the collection system and the storage bag. The Spectra and Trima platelets were hyperconcentrated during collection, and PAS was added, whereas the Haemonetics platelets were elutriated with PAS, which may have resulted in less collection injury. When Spectra and Trima platelets were stored in Haemonetics' bags, poststorage viability was significantly improved. Platelet viability is better maintained in vitro than in vivo, allowing substantial increases in platelet storage times. However, implementation will require resolution of potential bacterial overgrowth during storage. PMID:24258816

  15. Evaluation of store lesion in platelet obtained by apheresis compared to platelet derived from whole blood and its impact on the in vitro functionality.

    PubMed

    Quintero, M; Núñez, M; Mellado, S; Maldonado, M; Wehinger, S

    2015-12-01

    Platelet units for transfusion purposes are obtained manually from whole blood or by apheresis, in an automated process. In both methods, platelets during storage present a characteristics grouped under the name "storage lesion" that are associated with adverse effects on platelet units. Oxidative stress has been claimed to be one of major causes, leading to activation and apoptosis processes affecting their post transfusion functionality. In this work, we observed an association between apheresis and a reduced presence of oxidative stress and better results in functional markers in stored platelets, compared to manually obtained platelets. Then, apheresis which would ensure a greater number of functional platelets during the 5 days of storage, compared to concentrates obtained from whole blood. PMID:26043812

  16. Motivational Differences between Whole Blood and Apheresis Donors in Quebec, Canada: A Questionnaire-Based Survey in a Voluntary Nonremunerated Context

    PubMed Central

    Charbonneau, Johanne; Cloutier, Marie-Soleil; Carrier, Élianne

    2015-01-01

    Background. Finding ways to recruit apheresis donors is crucial. The aim of this study was to provide a quantitative analysis of the motivations of regular plasma/platelets donors (PPDs) in comparison with those of regular whole blood donors (WBDs), in a voluntary and nonremunerated context. Study Design and Methods. Motives to donate blood and demographic characteristics were collected through questionnaires completed by 795 WBDs and 473 PPDs. Chi-square tests were completed to determine which motivations stand out across the two blood donor groups. Results. The motivator selected by the highest percentage was “my blood can save lives.” Comparison of WBDs and PPDs showed that 12 out of 23 items were statistically significantly different from one group to another. Conclusion. The belief that helping others is in their nature is more prevalent among PPDs. In this sense, their profile is unique. Four other motivators distinguish this group from the WBDs: “I think there is a strong need for blood products,” “it gives me a sense of pride,” “I like to have goals,” and “I receive telephone reminders.” These motivators point to the role the ongoing support provided by blood collection agencies (BCAs) plays with PPDs. PMID:26295006

  17. Hemostatic function of apheresis platelets stored at 4 °C and 22 °C

    PubMed Central

    Reddoch, Kristin M.; Pidcoke, Heather F.; Montgomery, Robbie K.; Fedyk, Criselda G.; Aden, James K.; Ramasubramanian, Anand K.; Cap, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Platelet refrigeration decreases the risk of bacterial contamination and may preserve function better than standard-of-care room temperature storage. Benefits could include lower transfusion-related complications, decreased costs, improved hemostasis in acutely bleeding patients, and extended shelf-life. In this study, we compared the effects of 22°C and 4°C storage on the functional and activation status of apheresis platelets (APs). Methods APs (n = 5 per group) were stored for 5 days at 22°C with agitation (RT) versus at 4°C with agitation (4C+AG) and without (4C). Measurements included platelet counts, mean platelet volume, blood gas analytes, aggregation response, thromboelastography, TxB2 and sCD40L release, activation markers and microparticle formation. Results Sample pH levels were within acceptable limits for storage products (pH 6.2-7.4). Platelet glucose metabolism (P < 0.05), aggregation response (ADP: RT 0; 4C+AG 5.0 ± 0.8; 4C 5.6 ± 0.9; P < 0.05), and clot strength (MA: RT 58 ± 2; 4C+AG 63 ± 2; 4C 67 ± 2; P < 0.05) were better preserved at 4°C compared to RT storage. Refrigerated samples were more activated compared to RT (P < 0.05), although TxB2 (P < 0.05) and sCD40L release (P < 0.05) were higher at RT. Agitation did not improve the quality of 4°C-stored samples. Conclusion AP stored at 4°C maintain more viable metabolic characteristics, are hemostatically more effective, and release fewer pro-inflammatory mediators than AP stored at RT over 5 days. Given the superior bacteriologic safety of refrigerated products, these data suggest that cold-stored platelets may improve outcomes for acutely bleeding patients. PMID:24169210

  18. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Transcriptomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudo, María Marcela; Powers, Stephen J.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Shewry, Peter R.

    Regulatory authorities in Western Europe require transgenic crops to be substantially equivalent to conventionally bred forms if they are to be approved for commercial production. One way to establish substantial equivalence is to compare the transcript profiles of developing grain and other tissues of transgenic and conventionally bred lines, in order to identify any unintended effects of the transformation process. We present detailed protocols for transcriptomic comparisons of developing wheat grain and leaf material, and illustrate their use by reference to our own studies of lines transformed to express additional gluten protein genes controlled by their own endosperm-specific promoters. The results show that the transgenes present in these lines (which included those encoding marker genes) did not have any significant unpredicted effects on the expression of endogenous genes and that the transgenic plants were therefore substantially equivalent to the corresponding parental lines.

  19. Equivalence Principle and Gravitational Redshift

    SciTech Connect

    Hohensee, Michael A.; Chu, Steven; Mueller, Holger; Peters, Achim

    2011-04-15

    We investigate leading order deviations from general relativity that violate the Einstein equivalence principle in the gravitational standard model extension. We show that redshift experiments based on matter waves and clock comparisons are equivalent to one another. Consideration of torsion balance tests, along with matter-wave, microwave, optical, and Moessbauer clock tests, yields comprehensive limits on spin-independent Einstein equivalence principle-violating standard model extension terms at the 10{sup -6} level.

  20. Pyoderma Gangrenosum with Ulcerative Colitis Successfully Treated by the Combination of Granulocyte and Monocyte Adsorption Apheresis and Corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Masashi; Koyama, Shigeki; Ohara, Mariko; Shimamoto, Kazumi; Kobayashi, Yu; Nakamura, Fumiyasu; Mitsuru, Kazuki; Andoh, Akira

    2016-01-01

    A 36-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital due to swelling and redness of the left lateral malleolus and dorsum of the left foot with severe pain, with a flare-up of ulcerative colitis (UC). A pathologic examination by skin biopsy led to a diagnosis of pyoderma gangrenosum (PG). She was treated with the intravenous administration of prednisolone (60 mg/day), and granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis (GMA) was performed twice-a-week for 5 weeks. This treatment dramatically improved both the skin and colonic mucosal lesions. These results suggest that a combination of GMA and corticosteroids might be recommendable to induce the remission of serious PG complicated with UC. PMID:26726081

  1. Preliminary map showing freshwater heads for the Mission Canyon and Lodgepole limestones and equivalent rocks of Mississippian age in the Northern Great Plains of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, W. Roger; Strausz, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    A potentiometric-surface map showing freshwater heads for the Mission Canyon and Lodgepole Limestones of Mississippian age has been prepared as part of a study to determine the water-resources potential of the Mississippian Madison Limestone and associated rocks in the Northern Great Plains of Montana, North and South Dakota, and Wyoming. Most of the data used to prepare the map are from drill-stem tests of exploration and development wells drilled by the petroleum industry from 1946 to 1978. Some data are also from cased oil wells, water-production wells, and springs. A short explanation describes the seven categories of reliability used to evaluate the drill-stem-test data and identifies several factors that might explain the apparent anomalous highs and lows on the potentiometric surface. The map is at a scale of 1:1,000,000 and the potentiometric contour intervals are 100, 200, and 500 feet. (USGS)

  2. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  3. Hemostatic Function and Transfusion Efficacy of Apheresis Platelet Concentrates Treated with Gamma Irradiation in Use for Thrombocytopenic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Mei; Xu, Wei; Wang, Bao-Long; Su, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background During the transfusion of blood components, the transfer of allogeneic donor white blood cells (WBCs) can mediate transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD). To minimize the reaction, exposure of blood products to gamma irradiation is currently the standard of care. The aim of our study was to evaluate and compare hemostatic function, transfusion efficacy, and safety of gamma-irradiated single-donor apheresis platelet concentrates (PCs) and of conventional non-irradiated PCs in patients with chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia. Methods 20 double-dose single-donor leukoreduced PCs were split in two identical units; one was gamma-irradiated with 25 Gy (study arm A) and the other remains non-irradiated (study arm B). Both units were stored under equal conditions. Hematologic patients were randomly assigned to receive gamma-irradiated or conventional non-irradiated PCs. Hemostatic function was evaluated by thrombelastography (TEG). TEG measurements were taken pre transfusion and 1 and 24 h post transfusion. TEG profiles were measured, noting the time to initiate clotting (R), the angle of clot formation (α), and the maximum amplitude (clot strength (MA)). Whole blood samples were collected from these thrombocytopenic patients at 1 and 24 h for PLT count increments (CIs) and corrected count increments (CCIs) with assessments of transfusion efficacy. Time to next PLT transfusion, transfusion requirement of RBCs, active bleeding, and adverse events (AEs), were analyzed. Results No differences could be found in hemostatic function parameters (MA, R, and α) between study arms A and B (all p values > 0.096) pre transfusion as well as 1 and 24 h post transfusion. No differences between study arms A and B were observed for mean (± standard deviation (SD)) 1-hour CCI (12.83 ± 6.33 vs. 11.59 ± 5.97) and 24-hour CCI (6.56 ± 4.10 vs. 5.76 ± 4.05). Mean 1-hour CI and 24-hour CI were not significantly different in both study arms (p = 0

  4. PATHOGEN EQUIVALENCY COMMITTEE UPDATE: PFRP EQUIVALENCY DETERMINATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will:

    Review the mandate of the Pathogen Equivalency Committee
    Review the PEC's current membership of 10
    Discuss how a typical application is evaluated
    Note where information can be found
    List present deliberations/applications and describe t...

  5. National Institutes of Health State of the Science Symposium in Therapeutic Apheresis: scientific opportunities in extracorporeal photopheresis.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, Nora; Dunbar, Nancy M; Adamski, Jill; Couriel, Daniel; Edelson, Richard; Kitko, Carrie L; Levine, John E; Morgan, Shanna; Schneiderman, Jennifer; Sloan, Steve; Wu, Yanyun; Szczepiorkowski, Zbigniew M; Cooling, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The clinical use of extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) for accepted indications such as graft-versus-host disease, transplant rejection, and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma continues to increase. Expanded applications for ECP, such as the treatment of select autoimmune diseases, are being explored. Extracorporeal photopheresis's capacity to both immunotolerize in the autoreactive setting, while immunizing against a lymphoma is unusual and suggestive of a unique mechanism. It is likely that ECP's induction of dendritic cells is key to its efficacy in both of these settings, but exactly how ECP impacts other immune components and their interactions is not fully understood. Further basic science research is necessary to elucidate how these dissimilar cellular activities are functionally integrated. On the clinical side, collaborative multicenter trials designed to recognize the principal variables controlling therapeutic responses and improve prognostic indicators may enable tailoring devices, treatment schedules, and doses to the needs of the individual patients or diseases. This review describes our current understanding of how ECP influences the immune system, reviews the existing clinical applications of ECP, and explores areas for future basic science and clinical research as presented at the National Institutes of Health State of the Science Symposium in Therapeutic Apheresis in November 2012. PMID:25459074

  6. Treatment of Antibody-Mediated Rejection After Kidney Transplantation - 10 Years' Experience With Apheresis at a Single Center.

    PubMed

    Gubensek, Jakob; Buturovic-Ponikvar, Jadranka; Kandus, Aljosa; Arnol, Miha; Lindic, Jelka; Kovac, Damjan; Rigler, Andreja Ales; Romozi, Karmen; Ponikvar, Rafael

    2016-06-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) is a major cause of kidney graft failure. We aimed to analyze treatment and outcome of AMR in a national cohort of 75 biopsy-proven acute (43 patients, 57%) or chronic active (32 patients, 43%) AMR episodes between 2000 and 2015. The mean patients' age was 46 ± 16 years, the majority was treated with plasma exchange, 4% received immunoadsorption and 7% received both. The majority received pulse methylprednisolone and low-dose CMV hyperimmune globulin, 20% received bortezomib and 13% rituximab. Concomitant infection was treated in 40% of patients. The immediate treatment outcome was successful in 91%, the 1- and 3-year graft survival rates were 71% and 57%, while 3-year patient survival was 97%. Chronic active AMR was associated with worse graft survival than acute AMR (log rank P = 0.06). To conclude, intensive treatment with apheresis and additional immunosuppression was effective in reversing AMR, but long-term graft survival remains markedly decreased, especially in chronic active AMR. PMID:27312908

  7. Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury: Incidence, Pathogenesis and the Role of Multicomponent Apheresis in Its Prevention.

    PubMed

    Popovsky, Mark A

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY: Although transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is now appreciated as the most common cause of death from transfusion, its incidence remains unknown. The most frequently cited figure is 1:5,000 plasma-containing components. Certain patient groups may be at significantly higher risk. TRALI is both underdiagnosed and un-derreported. It is misdiagnosed as transfusion-associated circulatory overload. Several mechanisms have been proposed for its pathogenesis-leukocyte antibodies and the 2-hit model. These may overlap, and both involve transfusion of leukocyte antibodies. Passive transfusion of leukocyte antibodies is strongly associated with TRALI; these are identified in 60-85% of cases. Multiparous blood donors are the most frequent source of these antibody-containing components. The antibodies are HLA class I and II and/or granulocyte-specific. In 50% of cases the antibody corresponds to an epitope in the patient. HLA class I antibodies have been shown to prime and activate neutrophils. Clinical reports and animal models link HNA-3a antibodies with severe lung injury. A number of TRALI prevention and risk mitigation strategies have been proposed. In the UK and the USA, these strategies have centered upon excluding 'high risk' (HLA/HNA antibody containing) plasma from fresh frozen plasma and platelet products. Multicomponent apheresis collection of platelets, plasma and red blood cells is a means of accomplishing this objective. PMID:21512631

  8. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the state's best…

  9. Equivalent Neutral Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. Timothy; Tang, Wenqing

    1996-01-01

    The definition of equivalent neutral wind and the rationale for using it as the geophysical product of a spaceborne scatterometer are reviewed. The differences between equivalent neutral wind and actual wind, which are caused by atmospheric density stratification, are demonstrated with measurements at selected locations. A method of computing this parameter from ship and buoy measurements is described and some common fallacies in accounting for the effects of atmospheric stratification on wind shear are discussed. The computer code for the model to derive equivalent neutral wind is provided.

  10. Neutron dose equivalent meter

    DOEpatents

    Olsher, Richard H.; Hsu, Hsiao-Hua; Casson, William H.; Vasilik, Dennis G.; Kleck, Jeffrey H.; Beverding, Anthony

    1996-01-01

    A neutron dose equivalent detector for measuring neutron dose capable of accurately responding to neutron energies according to published fluence to dose curves. The neutron dose equivalent meter has an inner sphere of polyethylene, with a middle shell overlying the inner sphere, the middle shell comprising RTV.RTM. silicone (organosiloxane) loaded with boron. An outer shell overlies the middle shell and comprises polyethylene loaded with tungsten. The neutron dose equivalent meter defines a channel through the outer shell, the middle shell, and the inner sphere for accepting a neutron counter tube. The outer shell is loaded with tungsten to provide neutron generation, increasing the neutron dose equivalent meter's response sensitivity above 8 MeV.

  11. Evaluation of platelet function using the in vitro bleeding time and corrected count increment of transfused platelets. Comparison between platelet concentrates derived from pooled buffy coates and apheresis.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, L; Kristensen, J; Olsson, K; Bring, J; Högman, C F

    1996-01-01

    The functional capacity of transfused platelets was evaluated with in vitro bleeding time (IVBT) and corrected count increment (CCI) in order to compare platelet concentrates (PCs) derived from pooled buffy coats (BC-PCs) with PCs collected by apheresis (A-PCs). The suspension medium in the BC-PCs was 30% CPD plasma and 70% of an additive solution (containing sodium and potassium chloride, sodium citrate and phosphate, mannitol), and in the A-PCs the medium was 100% CPD plasma. IVBT was evaluated using a Thrombostat 4000/2. BC-PC and A-PC were transfused 57 and 41 times, respectively to 36 patients with chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia. PCs transfused within 2 days of donation were considered fresh, and those transfused within 3-5 days were considered stored. IVBT was determined before, as well as 10-30 min and 24 h after transfusion; CCI was determined 10-30 min and 24 h after transfusion. The median pretransfusion IVBT value was 486 s. It was measurable in 21 of 98 (21%) of the transfusions, i.e. below the cutoff limit of 486 s. Ten to 30 min after transfusion, the IVBT showed a measurable reduction in 90% of the transfusions with fresh BC-PCs, 92% of those with fresh a-PCs, 63% of those with stored BC-PCs and 79% of those with stored A-PCs. After 24 h, the corresponding values were 63% for fresh BC-PCs, 50% for fresh A-PCs, 26% for stored BC-PCs and 38% for stored A-PCs. The median value of CCI 10-30 min after transfusion was 20 for fresh BC-PCs, 17 for fresh A-PCs, 16 for stored BC-PCs and 14 for stored A-PCs. The difference in IVBT between fresh and stored BC-PCs was significant (p = 0.032), unlike that between fresh and stored A-PC. After 24 h the corresponding values were 7 for fresh BC-PCs, 4 for fresh A-PCs, 4 for stored BC-PCs and 3 for stored A-PCs. When all transfusions with fresh PCs (BC-PCs + A-PCs) were compared with all transfusions with stored PCs, a statistical difference was demonstrated in both CCI (p = 0.027) and IVBT (p = 0.043). Spearman

  12. The Interaction Equivalency Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyazoe, Terumi; Anderson, Terry

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the key issues regarding The Interaction Equivalency Theorem posited by Anderson (2003a), which consists of the three interaction elements found in formal education courses among teacher, student, and content. It first examines the core concepts of the theorem and argues that two theses of different dimensions can be…

  13. PATHOGEN EQUIVALENCY COMMITTEE (PEC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency created the PEC in 1985 to make recommendations to EPA and State managers on the equivalency of unproven sewage sludge disinfection technologies/processes to either a Process to Significantly Reduce Pathogens (PSRP) or a Process to Further...

  14. Equivalent Colorings with "Maple"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecil, David R.; Wang, Rongdong

    2005-01-01

    Many counting problems can be modeled as "colorings" and solved by considering symmetries and Polya's cycle index polynomial. This paper presents a "Maple 7" program link http://users.tamuk.edu/kfdrc00/ that, given Polya's cycle index polynomial, determines all possible associated colorings and their partitioning into equivalence classes. These…

  15. Five Equivalent d Orbitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauling, Linus; McClure, Vance

    1970-01-01

    Amplifies and clarifies a previous paper on pyramidal d orbitals. Discusses two sets of pyramid d orbitals with respect to their maximum bond strength and their symmetry. Authors described the oblate and prolate pentagonal antiprisms arising from the two sets of five equivalent d orbitals. (RR)

  16. Equivalent Imperfections In Arched Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallemule, Marian

    2015-09-01

    There are currently three design methods to verify the in-plane buckling of an arched structure: substitute member method, the method of equivalent imperfection with recommendations for arched bridges, and the equivalent unique global and local initial imperfection method (EUGLI), which uses the critical elastic buckling mode as an imperfection. The latter method is included in the EN 1993-1-1 cl. 5.3.2 (11) since 2002; however, to this day it is neither utilized in the design practice nor is it incorporated in ordinary structural analysis software. The main purpose of this article is to show the application of the proposed methods in a step-by-step manner to the numerical example considered and to compare these design methods for various arched structures. Verification of the in-plane buckling of an arch is explained in detail.

  17. Donor selection criteria to maximize double platelet products (DPP) by platelet apheresis.

    PubMed

    Wollersheim, Jacques; Dautzenberg, Maaike; van de Griendt, Astrid; Sybesma, Bob

    2006-04-01

    Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease brought us to perform a study to diminish donor exposure from transfusion of platelet concentrates. The current study aimed to develop donor selection criteria that maximize the likelihood of deriving single donor platelets and producing double platelet products (DPP). Donors were recruited among plasmapheresis donors and among other donors when the selected donors did not show up. Donor precount and body weight and haematocrit were examined as determinants of higher split-rates combined with procedure time. When the criterion was set on 225; 82% of the procedures (n=717) with a precount of >225 yielded DPP compared to 54% of the procedures with a precount <225 (p<.01). Body weight >65 kg gave good results in split-rate. Procedure time showed an inverse correlation with the highest correlating precount (r=-.14; p<.001). Eighty one percent of the donors reported a willingness to donate at least seven times a year and 75% accepted the mean procedure time. This confirmed logistical feasibility of the conversion to AP-PC although profits would be reduce 13% compared to platelets from pooled buffy coats. PMID:16574489

  18. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Metabolomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beale, Michael H.; Ward, Jane L.; Baker, John M.

    Modern ‘metabolomic’ methods allow us to compare levels of many structurally diverse compounds in an automated fashion across a large number of samples. This technology is ideally suited to screening of populations of plants, including trials where the aim is the determination of unintended effects introduced by GM. A number of metabolomic methods have been devised for the determination of substantial equivalence. We have developed a methodology, using [1H]-NMR fingerprinting, for metabolomic screening of plants and have applied it to the study of substantial equivalence of field-grown GM wheat. We describe here the principles and detail of that protocol as applied to the analysis of flour generated from field plots of wheat. Particular emphasis is given to the downstream data processing and comparison of spectra by multivariate analysis, from which conclusions regarding metabolome changes due to the GM can be assessed against the background of natural variation due to environment.

  19. Plutonium 239 Equivalency Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, J

    2011-05-31

    This document provides the basis for converting actual weapons grade plutonium mass to a plutonium equivalency (PuE) mass of Plutonium 239. The conversion can be accomplished by performing calculations utilizing either: (1) Isotopic conversions factors (CF{sub isotope}), or (2) 30-year-old weapons grade conversion factor (CF{sub 30 yr}) Both of these methods are provided in this document. Material mass and isotopic data are needed to calculate PuE using the isotopic conversion factors, which will provide the actual PuE value at the time of calculation. PuE is the summation of the isotopic masses times their associated isotopic conversion factors for plutonium 239. Isotopic conversion factors are calculated by a normalized equation, relative to Plutonium 239, of specific activity (SA) and cumulated dose inhalation affects based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). The isotopic conversion factors for converting weapons grade plutonium to PuE are provided in Table-1. The unit for specific activity (SA) is curies per gram (Ci/g) and the isotopic SA values come from reference [1]. The cumulated dose inhalation effect values in units of rem/Ci are based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). A person irradiated by gamma radiation outside the body will receive a dose only during the period of irradiation. However, following an intake by inhalation, some radionuclides persist in the body and irradiate the various tissues for many years. There are three groups CEDE data representing lengths of time of 0.5 (D), 50 (W) and 500 (Y) days, which are in reference [2]. The CEDE values in the (W) group demonstrates the highest dose equivalent value; therefore they are used for the calculation.

  20. Apheresis in high risk antiphospholipid syndrome pregnancy and autoimmune congenital heart block.

    PubMed

    Ruffatti, Amelia; Favaro, Maria; Brucato, Antonio; Ramoni, Veronique; Facchinetti, Myriam; Tonello, Marta; Del Ross, Teresa; Calligaro, Antonia; Hoxha, Ariela; Grava, Chiara; De Silvestro, Giustina

    2015-12-01

    In the first part a prospective cohort study was reported to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a treatment protocol including plasma exchange (PE) or PE plus intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) or immunoadsorption (IA) plus IVIG administered in addition to conventional therapy to 22 pregnant women with high-risk APS. The results indicate that PE or IA treatments administered along with IVIG and conventional antithrombotic therapy could be a valuable and safe therapeutic option in pregnant APS women with triple antiphospholipid antibody positivity along with a history of thrombosis and/or one or more severe pregnancy complications. In the second part the efficacy and safety of PE combined with IVIG and steroids were evaluated for the treatment of 10 patients with autoimmune congenital heart block (CHB) by comparing maternal features, pregnancy outcome and side effects with those of 24 CHB patients treated with steroids only. The patients treated with the combined therapy showed a statistically significant regression of 2nd degree blocks, an increase in heart rate at birth and a significantly lower prevalence of pacing in the first year of life. Moreover, no side effects were observed except for a few steroid-related events. If these results are confirmed by large-scale studies, the apheretic procedures could lead to improved outcomes in the treatment of these devastating diseases. PMID:26626966

  1. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  2. Comments on TNT Equivalence

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, P.W.

    1994-07-01

    The term ``TNT Equivalence`` is used throughout the explosives and related industries to compare the effects of the output of a given explosive to that of TNT. This is done for technical design reasons in scaling calculation such as for the prediction of blast waves, craters, and structural response, and is also used as a basis for government regulations controlling the shipping, handling and storage of explosive materials, as well as for the siting and design of explosive facilities. TNT equivalence is determined experimentally by several different types of tests, the most common of which include: plate dent, ballistic mortar, trauzl, sand crush, and air blast. All of these tests do not necessarily measure the same output property of the sample explosive. As examples of this, some tests depend simply upon the CJ pressure, some depend upon the PV work in the CJ zone and in the Taylor wave behind the CJ plane, some are functions of the total work which includes that from secondary combustion in the air mixing region of the fireball and are acutely effected by the shape of the pressure-time profile of the wave. Some of the tests incorporate systematic errors which are not readily apparent, and which have a profound effect upon skewing the resultant data. Further, some of the tests produce different TNT Equivalents for the same explosive which are a function of the conditions at which the test is run. This paper describes the various tests used, discusses the results of each test and makes detailed commentary on what the test is actually measuring, how the results may be interpreted, and if and how these results can be predicted by first principals based calculations. Extensive data bases are referred to throughout the paper and used in examples for each point in the commentaries.

  3. Platelet Donation (Apheresis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... an appointment. You can also download the free Blood Donor App . Donating Blood Why Donate Blood? Eligibility Requirements ... Directed First Time Donors The Fear of Needles Blood Donor Community Real Stories SleevesUp Games Facebook Fanbox Avatars ...

  4. Platelet Donation (Apheresis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be ideal for a simultaneous platelet and plasma donation. Anyone in need can receive your plasma, it is universal. Only 4% of the U.S. ... can donate up to 24 times per year. Plasma can be collected simultaneously with a platelet donation. ...

  5. Local unitary equivalence of quantum states and simultaneous orthogonal equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Naihuan; Yang, Min; Zhao, Hui

    2016-06-01

    The correspondence between local unitary equivalence of bipartite quantum states and simultaneous orthogonal equivalence is thoroughly investigated and strengthened. It is proved that local unitary equivalence can be studied through simultaneous similarity under projective orthogonal transformations, and four parametrization independent algorithms are proposed to judge when two density matrices on ℂd1 ⊗ ℂd2 are locally unitary equivalent in connection with trace identities, Kronecker pencils, Albert determinants and Smith normal forms.

  6. Waste Determination Equivalency - 12172

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, Rebecca D.

    2012-07-01

    Secretary of Energy in January of 2006 based on proposed processing techniques with the expectation that it could be revised as new processing capabilities became viable. Once signed, however, it became evident that any changes would require lengthy review and another determination signed by the Secretary of Energy. With the maturation of additional salt removal technologies and the extension of the SWPF start-up date, it becomes necessary to define 'equivalency' to the processes laid out in the original determination. For the purposes of SRS, any waste not processed through Interim Salt Processing must be processed through SWPF or an equivalent process, and therefore a clear statement of the requirements for a process to be equivalent to SWPF becomes necessary. (authors)

  7. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Proteomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovegrove, Alison; Salt, Louise; Shewry, Peter R.

    Wheat is a major crop in world agriculture and is consumed after processing into a range of food products. It is therefore of great importance to determine the consequences (intended and unintended) of transgenesis in wheat and whether genetically modified lines are substantially equivalent to those produced by conventional plant breeding. Proteomic analysis is one of several approaches which can be used to address these questions. Two-dimensional PAGE (2D PAGE) remains the most widely available method for proteomic analysis, but is notoriously difficult to reproduce between laboratories. We therefore describe methods which have been developed as standard operating procedures in our laboratory to ensure the reproducibility of proteomic analyses of wheat using 2D PAGE analysis of grain proteins.

  8. Intracoronary infusion of autologous mononuclear cells from bone marrow or G-CSF mobilised apheresis product may not improve remodelling, contractile function, perfusion or infarct size in a swine model of large myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    de Silva, Ranil; Raval, Amish N.; Hadi, Mohiuddin; Gildea, Karena M.; Bonifacino, Aylin C.; Yu, Zu-Xi; Yau, Yu Ying; Leitman, Susan F.; Bacharach, Stephen L.; Donahue, Robert E.; Read, Elizabeth J.; Lederman, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Background In a blinded, placebo controlled study, we investigated whether intracoronary infusion of autologous mononuclear cells from G-CSF mobilised apheresis product or bone marrow (BM) improved sensitive outcome measures in a swine model of large MI. Methods and Results Four days after LAD occlusion and reperfusion, cells from BM or apheresis product of saline (Placebo) or G-CSF injected animals were infused into the LAD. Large infarcts were created: baseline ejection fraction (EF) by MRI of 35.3 ± 8.5%, no difference between the Placebo, G-CSF and BM groups (p=0.16 by ANOVA). At 6 weeks EF fell to a similar degree in the Placebo, G-CSF and BM groups (−7.9±6.0%, −8.5±8.8% and −10.9±7.6%, p=0.78 by ANOVA). Left ventricular volumes and infarct size by MRI deteriorated similarly in all 3 groups. Quantitative PET demonstrated significant decline in FDG uptake rate in the LAD territory at follow-up, with no histological, angiographic or PET perfusion evidence of functional neovascularisation. Immunofluorescence failed to demonstrate transdifferentiation of infused cells. Conclusion Intracoronary infusion of mononuclear cells from either bone marrow or G-CSF mobilised apheresis product may not improve or limit deterioration in systolic function, adverse ventricular remodelling, infarct size or perfusion in a swine model of large MI. PMID:18502738

  9. Equivalence of superspace groups

    PubMed Central

    van Smaalen, Sander; Campbell, Branton J.; Stokes, Harold T.

    2013-01-01

    An algorithm is presented which determines the equivalence of two settings of a (3 + d)-dimensional superspace group (d = 1, 2, 3). The algorithm has been implemented as a web tool on , providing the transformation of any user-given superspace group to the standard setting of this superspace group in . It is shown how the standard setting of a superspace group can be directly obtained by an appropriate transformation of the external-space lattice vectors (the basic structure unit cell) and a transformation of the internal-space lattice vectors (new modulation wavevectors are linear combinations of old modulation wavevectors plus a three-dimensional reciprocal-lattice vector). The need for non-standard settings in some cases and the desirability of employing standard settings of superspace groups in other cases are illustrated by an analysis of the symmetries of a series of compounds, comparing published and standard settings and the transformations between them. A compilation is provided of standard settings of compounds with two- and three-dimensional modulations. The problem of settings of superspace groups is discussed for incommensurate composite crystals and for chiral superspace groups. PMID:23250064

  10. Biomonitoring Equivalents for triclosan.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Kannan; Gagné, Michelle; Nong, Andy; Aylward, Lesa L; Hays, Sean M

    2010-10-01

    Recent efforts worldwide have resulted in a growing database of measured concentrations of chemicals in blood and urine samples taken from the general population. However, few tools exist to assist in the interpretation of the measured values in a health risk context. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) are defined as the concentration or range of concentrations of a chemical or its metabolite(s) in a biological medium (blood, urine, or other medium) consistent with an existing health-based exposure guideline, and are derived by integrating available data on pharmacokinetics with existing chemical risk assessments. This study reviews available health-based exposure guidance values for triclosan based on recent evaluations from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), the European Commission's Scientific Committee on Consumer Products (EC SCCP) and the Australian National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme (NICNAS). BE values corresponding to the reference dose (RfD) or margin of safety (MOS) targets from these agencies were derived based on kinetic data (urinary excretion and plasma clearance) from human studies and measured blood concentration data in animal studies. Estimated BE values for urinary total triclosan (free plus conjugates) corresponding to the US EPA RfD and the EC-identified margin of safety target from the NOAEL are 6.4 and 2.6 mg/L, respectively (corresponding to 8.3 and 3.3mg/g creatinine, respectively). Plasma BE values corresponding to the US EPA, EC, and Australian NICNAS values are 0.3, 0.9, and 0.4 mg/L, respectively. These values may be used as screening tools for evaluation of population biomonitoring data for triclosan in a risk assessment context. PMID:20541577

  11. Therapeutic Plasma Apheresis as a Treatment for 35 Severely Ill Children and Adolescents with Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Latimer, M. Elizabeth; L'Etoile, Nathan; Seidlitz, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Because of its reported similarities to Sydenham chorea, therapeutic plasma apheresis (TPA) has been proposed as a potential treatment of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS). To date, support for the use of TPA has been limited to a few anecdotal reports and a small placebo-controlled trial demonstrating dramatic symptom improvements at 1 month and 1 year follow-up. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of TPA further, we undertook a retrospective review of all PANDAS patients treated with TPA at Georgetown University Hospital between August 2009 and October 2013. Methods: Forty patients were identified, and sufficient information was available from medical records and telephone interview for 35 cases (88%). All 35 (23 boys; 12 girls) met diagnostic criteria for PANDAS (Swedo et al. 1998) and had severe symptoms. The TPA procedures were performed at Georgetown University Hospital using a protocol that processes a total of 4.5 blood volumes over 3–5 days (three treatments of 1.5 volumes each). Overall symptom improvements at 6 months post-TPA and long-term follow-up were estimated by parents, who also rated changes in individual symptoms to provide information about patterns of improvement. Results: All patients were reported to have received at least some benefit from TPA, with average improvement of 65% at 6 months post-TPA and 78% at longer-term follow-up. A decrease in the number of reported symptoms also occurred, with particular improvements in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), anxiety, tics, and somatic symptoms, including dysgraphia, sleep difficulties, and urinary urgency or frequency. Contrary to expectations, preceding duration of illness was not correlated with degree of improvement following TPA, suggesting that acuity of illness is not a factor affecting response. Only two adverse events were reported: both involved reopening of the site where the central line had

  12. Estimating equivalence with quantile regression.

    PubMed

    Cade, Brian S

    2011-01-01

    Equivalence testing and corresponding confidence interval estimates are used to provide more enlightened statistical statements about parameter estimates by relating them to intervals of effect sizes deemed to be of scientific or practical importance rather than just to an effect size of zero. Equivalence tests and confidence interval estimates are based on a null hypothesis that a parameter estimate is either outside (inequivalence hypothesis) or inside (equivalence hypothesis) an equivalence region, depending on the question of interest and assignment of risk. The former approach, often referred to as bioequivalence testing, is often used in regulatory settings because it reverses the burden of proof compared to a standard test of significance, following a precautionary principle for environmental protection. Unfortunately, many applications of equivalence testing focus on establishing average equivalence by estimating differences in means of distributions that do not have homogeneous variances. I discuss how to compare equivalence across quantiles of distributions using confidence intervals on quantile regression estimates that detect differences in heterogeneous distributions missed by focusing on means. I used one-tailed confidence intervals based on inequivalence hypotheses in a two-group treatment-control design for estimating bioequivalence of arsenic concentrations in soils at an old ammunition testing site and bioequivalence of vegetation biomass at a reclaimed mining site. Two-tailed confidence intervals based both on inequivalence and equivalence hypotheses were used to examine quantile equivalence for negligible trends over time for a continuous exponential model of amphibian abundance. PMID:21516905

  13. A Case of Old Age-Onset Generalized Pustular Psoriasis with a Deficiency of IL-36RN (DITRA) Treated by Granulocyte and Monocyte Apheresis

    PubMed Central

    Tominaga, Chiharu; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Imai, Yasutomo; Yamanishi, Kiyofumi

    2015-01-01

    A 78-year-old woman who had been suffering from psoriasis vulgaris for 31 years was admitted to hospital because of her erythroderma. A toxic eruption was suspected and she was treated with prednisolone 30 mg daily. However, it was ineffective and, suspecting psoriatic erythroderma, cyclosporine 150 mg daily was administered with tapering of the prednisolone. Two weeks after a dose reduction of cyclosporine to 100 mg/day, erythroderma with widespread generalized pustules and fever developed. Histology of a biopsy revealed inflammatory infiltrates in the skin with a spongiform pustule of Kogoj, which was consistent with generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP). Her pustules improved with additional etretinate 20 mg/day, but the erythroderma persisted and she consulted us. Three sessions of granulocyte and monocyte apheresis once weekly were effective for her condition and decreased her serum levels of IL-6 and IL-8. She had homozygous mutations of c.[28C>T] in IL36RN which cause p.[Arg10Ter]. She is the oldest reported case of GPP with a deficiency of interleukin-36 receptor antagonist (DITRA), although GPP in DITRA has been suggested to usually occur in younger cases with no pre-existing psoriasis vulgaris. PMID:25848350

  14. Equivalent weight of humic acid from peat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pommer, A.M.; Breger, I.A.

    1960-01-01

    By means of discontinuous titration, the equivalent weight of humic acid isolated from a peat was found to increase from 144 to 183 between the third and fifty-second day after the humic acid was dissolved. Infra-red studies showed that the material had probably condensed with loss of carbonyl groups. ?? 1960.

  15. Equivalence between XY and dimerized models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos Venuti, Lorenzo; Roncaglia, Marco

    2010-06-01

    The spin-1/2 chain with XY anisotropic coupling in the plane and the XX isotropic dimerized chain are shown to be equivalent in the bulk. For finite systems, we prove that the equivalence is exact in given parity sectors, after taking care of the precise boundary conditions. The proof is given constructively by finding unitary transformations that map the models onto each other. Moreover, we considerably generalized our mapping and showed that even in the case of fully site-dependent couplings the XY chain can be mapped onto an XX model. This result has potential application in the study of disordered systems.

  16. Psychotropic dose equivalence in Japan.

    PubMed

    Inada, Toshiya; Inagaki, Ataru

    2015-08-01

    Psychotropic dose equivalence is an important concept when estimating the approximate psychotropic doses patients receive, and deciding on the approximate titration dose when switching from one psychotropic agent to another. It is also useful from a research viewpoint when defining and extracting specific subgroups of subjects. Unification of various agents into a single standard agent facilitates easier analytical comparisons. On the basis of differences in psychopharmacological prescription features, those of available psychotropic agents and their approved doses, and racial differences between Japan and other countries, psychotropic dose equivalency tables designed specifically for Japanese patients have been widely used in Japan since 1998. Here we introduce dose equivalency tables for: (i) antipsychotics; (ii) antiparkinsonian agents; (iii) antidepressants; and (iv) anxiolytics, sedatives and hypnotics available in Japan. Equivalent doses for the therapeutic effects of individual psychotropic compounds were determined principally on the basis of randomized controlled trials conducted in Japan and consensus among dose equivalency tables reported previously by psychopharmacological experts. As these tables are intended to merely suggest approximate standard values, physicians should use them with discretion. Updated information of psychotropic dose equivalence in Japan is available at http://www.jsprs.org/en/equivalence.tables/. [Correction added on 8 July 2015, after first online publication: A link to the updated information has been added.]. PMID:25601291

  17. Equivalence-Equivalence: Matching Stimuli with Same Discriminative Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpentier, Franck; Smeets, Paul M.; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that after being trained on A-B and A-C match-to-sample tasks, adults match not only same-class B and C stimuli (equivalence) but also BC compounds with same-class elements and with different-class elements (BC-BC). The assumption was that the BC-BC performances are based on matching equivalence and nonequivalence…

  18. Equivalency Theory and Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonson, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Discusses distance education and the need for an accepted theory. Highlights include theories of independent study; theory of industrialization of teaching; theory of interaction and communication; and equivalency theory that is based on local control, personalized instruction, and telecommunications. (LRW)

  19. Optical metrics and projective equivalence

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Stephen; Dunajski, Maciej; Gibbons, Gary; Warnick, Claude

    2011-04-15

    Trajectories of light rays in a static spacetime are described by unparametrized geodesics of the Riemannian optical metric associated with the Lorentzian spacetime metric. We investigate the uniqueness of this structure and demonstrate that two different observers, moving relative to one another, who both see the Universe as static may determine the geometry of the light rays differently. More specifically, we classify Lorentzian metrics admitting more than one hyper-surface orthogonal timelike Killing vector and analyze the projective equivalence of the resulting optical metrics. These metrics are shown to be projectively equivalent up to diffeomorphism if the static Killing vectors generate a group SL(2,R), but not projectively equivalent in general. We also consider the cosmological C metrics in Einstein-Maxwell theory and demonstrate that optical metrics corresponding to different values of the cosmological constant are projectively equivalent.

  20. Equivalent magnetization over the World Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyment, J.; Hamoudi, M.; Choi, Y.; Thebault, E.; Quesnel, Y.; Roest, W. R.; Lesur, V.

    2012-12-01

    , the Mid-Atlantic Ridge displays a more uniform signature, although off-axis variations seem associated to the Tristan and St Helena hotspots. In the Indian Ocean, a strong equivalent magnetization characterizes areas of hotspot-ridge interaction such as the Gulf of Aden, the Central Indian Ridge near Rodrigues Island, the Southwest Indian Ridge near Marion Island, and the Southeast Indian Ridge near St Paul and Amsterdam Islands. A weaker one is observed in colder area, at the Australian-Antarctic Discordance and around the Rodrigues Triple Junction. The Pacific Ocean is characterized by a generally stronger equivalent magnetization, both near ridges and in abyssal plains. Time variations, i.e. along seafloor spreading flowlines, are apparent across the Mid-Atlantic and Pacific-Antarctic ridges, with highs near the ridge axis (younger than 10 Ma) and between ~83 and 60 Ma, just after the Cretaceous Normal Superchron and lows between ~60 and 10 Ma. The Mesozoic basins of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans show a weaker equivalent magnetization before ~155 Ma and a stronger one after. Basins covered by thick sediments such as the Bengal Bay, Great Australian Bight, Nova Scotia Basin, and Western Somali Basin show a very weak equivalent magnetization, reflecting both a deeper basement and a possible thermal demagnetization. Some of these variations coincide with satellite magnetic anomalies.

  1. Quantum mechanics from an equivalence principle

    SciTech Connect

    Faraggi, A.E.; Matone, M.

    1997-05-15

    The authors show that requiring diffeomorphic equivalence for one-dimensional stationary states implies that the reduced action S{sub 0} satisfies the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the Planck constant playing the role of a covariantizing parameter. The construction shows the existence of a fundamental initial condition which is strictly related to the Moebius symmetry of the Legendre transform and to its involutive character. The universal nature of the initial condition implies the Schroedinger equation in any dimension.

  2. Proteomics Approach Identifies Factors Associated With the Response to Low-Density Lipoprotein Apheresis Therapy in Patients With Steroid-Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuribayashi-Okuma, Emiko; Shibata, Shigeru; Arai, Shigeyuki; Ota, Tatsuru; Watanabe, Sumiyo; Hisaki, Harumi; Okazaki, Tomoki; Toda, Tosifusa; Uchida, Shunya

    2016-04-01

    Low-density lipoprotein apheresis (LDL-A) has been shown to reduce proteinuria in a subgroup of nephrotic syndrome patients refractory to immunosuppressive therapy. Factors influencing the efficacy of LDL-A in nephrotic syndrome are completely unknown. Using a proteomics approach, we aimed to identify biological markers that predict the response to LDL-A in patients with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS). Identification of plasma proteins bound to the dextran-sulfate column at the first session of LDL-A was determined by mass spectrometry. To investigate biological factors associated with the response to LDL-A, we compared profiles of column-bound proteins between responders (defined by more than 50% reduction of proteinuria after the treatment) and non-responders by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled to mass spectrometry in seven patients with SRNS. Evaluation of proteins adsorbed to LDL-A column in patients with SRNS revealed the identity of 62 proteins, which included apolipoproteins, complement components, and serum amyloid P-component (SAP). Comparative analysis of the column-bound proteins between responders and non-responders by 2-DE demonstrated that apolipoprotein E (APOE) and SAP levels were increased in non-responders as compared with responders. These results were confirmed by western blotting. Moreover, serum levels of APOE and SAP were significantly higher in the non-responder group than in the responder group by ELISA. Our data provide comprehensive analysis of proteins adsorbed by LDL-A in SRNS, and demonstrate that the serum levels of APOE and SAP may be used to predict the response to LDL-A in these patients. PMID:26771065

  3. Transfusion Efficacy of Apheresis Platelet Concentrates Irradiated at the Day of Transfusion Is Significantly Superior Compared to Platelets Irradiated in Advance

    PubMed Central

    Julmy, Friedgard; Ammann, Roland A.; Fontana, Stefano; Taleghani, Behrouz Mansouri; Hirt, Andreas; Leibundgut, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Gamma irradiation is currently the standard care to avoid transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease. Guidelines on gamma irradiation of blood components state that platelets (PLTs) can be irradiated at any stage in their 5-day storage and can thereafter be stored up to their normal shelf life of 5 days after collection. In this study, we explored whether the timing of irradiation has an effect on transfusion efficacy of apheresis PLT concentrates (APCs). Methods Based on the 1-hour percent PLT recovery (PPR1h), transfusion efficacy of 1,000 eligible APCs transfused to 144 children were evaluated retrospectively. PPR1h was compared in transfused APCs irradiated at the day of transfusion and APCs irradiated in advance. Results In univariate analysis, transfusion efficacy of APCs irradiated in advance was significantly lower than that of APCs irradiated at the day of transfusion (mean PPR1h 27.7 vs. 35.0%; p = 0.007). This was confirmed in multivariate analysis (p = 0.030). Compared to non-irradiated APCs, transfusion efficacy of APCs irradiated at the day of transfusion was not significantly inferior (mean difference −2.8%; 95% CI −6.1 to 0.5%; p = 0.092), but APCs irradiated in advance were clearly less efficient (mean difference −8.1%; 95% CI −12.2 to −4.0%; p < 0.001). Conclusion Our data strongly support that APCs should not be irradiated in advance, 1.e., ≥24 h before transfusion. PMID:25053930

  4. Equivalent damage: A critical assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laflen, J. R.; Cook, T. S.

    1982-01-01

    Concepts in equivalent damage were evaluated to determine their applicability to the life prediction of hot path components of aircraft gas turbine engines. Equivalent damage was defined as being those effects which influence the crack initiation life-time beyond the damage that is measured in uniaxial, fully-reversed sinusoidal and isothermal experiments at low homologous temperatures. Three areas of equivalent damage were examined: mean stress, cumulative damage, and multiaxiality. For each area, a literature survey was conducted to aid in selecting the most appropriate theories. Where possible, data correlations were also used in the evaluation process. A set of criteria was developed for ranking the theories in each equivalent damage regime. These criteria considered aspects of engine utilization as well as the theoretical basis and correlative ability of each theory. In addition, consideration was given to the complex nature of the loading cycle at fatigue critical locations of hot path components; this loading includes non-proportional multiaxial stressing, combined temperature and strain fluctuations, and general creep-fatigue interactions. Through applications of selected equivalent damage theories to some suitable data sets it was found that there is insufficient data to allow specific recommendations of preferred theories for general applications. A series of experiments and areas of further investigations were identified.

  5. Sievert, gray and dose equivalent.

    PubMed

    Pfalzner, P M

    1983-12-01

    The concepts of physical quantity and physical units of measurement are presented. The relations between quantities, the names and symbols for SI (International System) base units, derived units and special names of SI units are illustrated. From the definition of the radiation quantity dose equivalent, the SI unit for this quantity is shown to be dimensionally identical with the joule per kilogram. The sievert (Sv) is the special (restricted) name for the SI unit of the quantity dose equivalent, with 1 Sv = 1 J/kg. PMID:6668293

  6. Estimating Equivalency of Explosives Through A Thermochemical Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Maienschein, J L

    2002-07-08

    The Cheetah thermochemical computer code provides an accurate method for estimating the TNT equivalency of any explosive, evaluated either with respect to peak pressure or the quasi-static pressure at long time in a confined volume. Cheetah calculates the detonation energy and heat of combustion for virtually any explosive (pure or formulation). Comparing the detonation energy for an explosive with that of TNT allows estimation of the TNT equivalency with respect to peak pressure, while comparison of the heat of combustion allows estimation of TNT equivalency with respect to quasi-static pressure. We discuss the methodology, present results for many explosives, and show comparisons with equivalency data from other sources.

  7. Response of a tissue equivalent proportional counter to neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Robbins, D. E.; Gibbons, F.; Braby, L. A.

    2002-01-01

    The absorbed dose as a function of lineal energy was measured at the CERN-EC Reference-field Facility (CERF) using a 512-channel tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC), and neutron dose equivalent response evaluated. Although there are some differences, the measured dose equivalent is in agreement with that measured by the 16-channel HANDI tissue equivalent counter. Comparison of TEPC measurements with those made by a silicon solid-state detector for low linear energy transfer particles produced by the same beam, is presented. The measurements show that about 4% of dose equivalent is delivered by particles heavier than protons generated in the conducting tissue equivalent plastic. c2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Modified Equivalent Circuit for Organic Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Nazmul

    In this work a newly fabricated organic solar cell based on a composite of fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and regioregular poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) with an added interfacial layer of AgOx in between the PEDOT:PSS layer and the ITO layer is investigated. Previous equivalent circuit models are discussed and an equivalent circuit model is proposed for the fabricated device. Incorporation of the AgOx interfacial layer shows an increase in fill factor (by 33%) and power conversion efficiency (by 28%). Moreover proper correlation has been achieved between the experimental and simulated I-V plots. The simulation shows that device characteristics can be explained with accuracy by the proposed model.

  9. Probability of Equivalence Formation: Familiar Stimuli and Training Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arntzen, Erik

    2004-01-01

    The present study was conducted to show how responding in accord with equivalence relations changes as a function of position of familiar stimuli, pictures, and with the use of nonsense syllables in an MTO-training structure. Fifty college students were tested for responding in accord with equivalence in an AB, CB, DB, and EB training structure.…

  10. Equivalence Class Formation: A Method for Teaching Statistical Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Lanny; Travis, Robert; Roy, Deborah; Yadlovker, Eytan; de Aguiar-Rocha, Liliane; Sturmey, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Many students struggle with statistical concepts such as interaction. In an experimental group, participants took a paper-and-pencil test and then were given training to establish equivalent classes containing four different statistical interactions. All participants formed the equivalence classes and showed maintenance when probes contained novel…

  11. Some equivalences between the auxiliary field method and envelope theory

    SciTech Connect

    Buisseret, Fabien; Semay, Claude; Silvestre-Brac, Bernard

    2009-03-15

    The auxiliary field method has been recently proposed as an efficient technique to compute analytical approximate solutions of eigenequations in quantum mechanics. We show that the auxiliary field method is completely equivalent to the envelope theory, which is another well-known procedure to analytically solve eigenequations, although relying on different principles a priori. This equivalence leads to a deeper understanding of both frameworks.

  12. Expanding the Interaction Equivalency Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Brenda Cecilia Padilla; Armellini, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Although interaction is recognised as a key element for learning, its incorporation in online courses can be challenging. The interaction equivalency theorem provides guidelines: Meaningful learning can be supported as long as one of three types of interactions (learner-content, learner-teacher and learner-learner) is present at a high level. This…

  13. Acquired Equivalence Changes Stimulus Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeter, M.; Shohamy, D.; Myers, C. E.

    2009-01-01

    Acquired equivalence is a paradigm in which generalization is increased between two superficially dissimilar stimuli (or antecedents) that have previously been associated with similar outcomes (or consequents). Several possible mechanisms have been proposed, including changes in stimulus representations, either in the form of added associations or…

  14. USEPA PATHOGEN EQUIVALENCY COMMITTEE RETREAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pathogen Equivalency Committee held its retreat from September 20-21, 2005 at Hueston Woods State Park in College Corner, Ohio. This presentation will update the PEC’s membership on emerging pathogens, analytical methods, disinfection techniques, risk analysis, preparat...

  15. Equivalence to the Minimum Qualifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academic Senate for California Community Colleges, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In 1988 the Community College Reform Act (AB 1725) began a phase out of credentials in favor of a process for establishing minimum qualifications and the determination of equivalencies that are at least equal to the state-adopted minimum qualifications for a particular discipline. According to Education Code sections 87359 and 87360, someone…

  16. Multiple Functions in Equivalence Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McVeigh, Brian; Keenan, Mickey

    2009-01-01

    Four experiments examined the effects of training a "drawing" response to each of three stimuli in a 5-member equivalence class. In Experiment 1 the stimuli were an arbitrary word, a shape, or a mathematical symbol. Subjects then were trained to draw a separate component of a stickman at each of the 3 stimuli. Subsequent tests for function…

  17. Children's Equivalence Judgments: Crossmapping Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mix, Kelly S.

    2008-01-01

    Preschoolers made numerical comparisons between sets with varying degrees of shared surface similarity. When surface similarity was pitted against numerical equivalence (i.e., crossmapping), children made fewer number matches than when surface similarity was neutral (i.e, all sets contained the same objects). Only children who understood the…

  18. Equivalence to the Minimum Qualifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Academic Senate.

    Assembly Bill (AB) 1725 provides for the hiring of faculty who do not meet the precise letter of the minimum qualifications, provided that the governing board of an institution determines that an applicant possesses qualifications that are at least equivalent. In order to make these determinations, each district must have and use an equivalency…

  19. Equivalence theorem and infrared divergences

    SciTech Connect

    Torma, T.

    1996-08-01

    We look at the equivalence theorem as a statement about the absence of polynomial infrared divergences when {ital m}{sub {ital W}}{r_arrow}0. We prove their absence in a truncated toy model and conjecture that, if they exist at all, they are due to couplings between light particles. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  20. Experiencing Equivalence but Organizing Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asghari, Amir H.

    2009-01-01

    The notion of equivalence relation is arguably one of the most fundamental ideas of mathematics. Accordingly, it plays an important role in teaching mathematics at all levels, whether explicitly or implicitly. Our success in introducing this notion for its own sake or as a means to teach other mathematical concepts, however, depends largely on our…

  1. Are All Wrong FCI Answers Equivalent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedic, Helena; Rosenfield, Steven; Lasry, Nathaniel

    2010-10-01

    The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) has been efficiently used to assess conceptual learning in mechanics. Each FCI question has one Newtonian answer and four wrong answers (distracters). Researchers and practitioners most frequently use measures of total score to assess learning. Yet, are all wrong answers equivalent? We conducted Latent Markov Chain Modeling (LMCM) analyses of all choices (right and wrong) on a subset of four FCI questions. LMCM assesses whether there are groups of students sharing similar patterns of responses. We infer that students sharing similar patterns also share similar reasoning. Our results show seven reasoning-groups. LMCM also computes probabilities of transition from one reasoning-group to another after instruction. Examining transitions between groups, we note a clear hierarchy. Groups at the top of the hierarchy are comprised of students that use Newtonian thinking more consistently but also choose certain wrong answers more frequently; suggesting that not all wrong answers are equivalent.

  2. Explosive materials equivalency, test methods and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koger, D. M.; Mcintyre, F. L.

    1980-01-01

    Attention is given to concepts of explosive equivalency of energetic materials based on specific airblast parameters. A description is provided of a wide bandwidth high accuracy instrumentation system which has been used extensively in obtaining pressure time profiles of energetic materials. The object of the considered test method is to determine the maximum output from the detonation of explosive materials in terms of airblast overpressure and positive impulse. The measured pressure and impulse values are compared with known characteristics of hemispherical TNT data to determine the equivalency of the test material in relation to TNT. An investigation shows that meaningful comparisons between various explosives and a standard reference material such as TNT should be based upon the same parameters. The tests should be conducted under the same conditions.

  3. The Great Cometary Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer, which allows astronomers to scrutinise objects with a precision equivalent to that of a 130-m telescope, is proving itself an unequalled success every day. One of the latest instruments installed, AMBER, has led to a flurry of scientific results, an anthology of which is being published this week as special features in the research journal Astronomy & Astrophysics. ESO PR Photo 06a/07 ESO PR Photo 06a/07 The AMBER Instrument "With its unique capabilities, the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) has created itself a niche in which it provide answers to many astronomical questions, from the shape of stars, to discs around stars, to the surroundings of the supermassive black holes in active galaxies," says Jorge Melnick (ESO), the VLT Project Scientist. The VLTI has led to 55 scientific papers already and is in fact producing more than half of the interferometric results worldwide. "With the capability of AMBER to combine up to three of the 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes, we can really achieve what nobody else can do," added Fabien Malbet, from the LAOG (France) and the AMBER Project Scientist. Eleven articles will appear this week in Astronomy & Astrophysics' special AMBER section. Three of them describe the unique instrument, while the other eight reveal completely new results about the early and late stages in the life of stars. ESO PR Photo 06b/07 ESO PR Photo 06b/07 The Inner Winds of Eta Carinae The first results presented in this issue cover various fields of stellar and circumstellar physics. Two papers deal with very young solar-like stars, offering new information about the geometry of the surrounding discs and associated outflowing winds. Other articles are devoted to the study of hot active stars of particular interest: Alpha Arae, Kappa Canis Majoris, and CPD -57o2874. They provide new, precise information about their rotating gas envelopes. An important new result concerns the enigmatic object Eta Carinae. Using AMBER with

  4. Representing Identity and Equivalence for Scientific Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickett, K. M.; Sacchi, S.; Dubin, D.; Renear, A. H.

    2012-12-01

    Matters of equivalence and identity are central to the stewardship of scientific data. In order to properly prepare for and manage the curation, preservation and sharing of digitally-encoded data, data stewards must be able to characterize and assess the relationships holding between data-carrying digital resources. However, identity-related questions about resources and their information content may not be straightforward to answer: for example, what exactly does it mean to say that two files contain the same data, but in different formats? Information content is frequently distinguished from particular representations, but there is no adequately developed shared understanding of what this really means and how the relationship between content and its representations hold. The Data Concepts group at the Center for Informatics Research in Science and Scholarship (CIRSS), University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, is developing a logic-based framework of fundamental concepts related to scientific data to support curation and integration. One project goal is to develop precise accounts of information resources carrying the same data. We present two complementary conceptual models for information representation: the Basic Representation Model (BRM) and the Systematic Assertion Model (SAM). We show how these models provide an analytical account of digitally-encoded scientific data and a precise understanding of identity and equivalence. The Basic Representation Model identifies the core entities and relationships involved in representing information carried by digital objects. In BRM, digital objects are symbol structures that express propositional content, and stand in layered encoding relationships. For example, an RDF description may be serialized as either XML or N3, and those expressions in turn may be encoded as either UTF-8 or UTF-16 sequences. Defining this encoding stack reveals distinctions necessary for a precise account of identity and equivalence

  5. Information Leakage from Logically Equivalent Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher, Shlomi; McKenzie, Craig R. M.

    2006-01-01

    Framing effects are said to occur when equivalent frames lead to different choices. However, the equivalence in question has been incompletely conceptualized. In a new normative analysis of framing effects, we complete the conceptualization by introducing the notion of information equivalence. Information equivalence obtains when no…

  6. Dioxin equivalency: Challenge to dose extrapolation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.F. Jr.; Silkworth, J.B.

    1995-12-31

    Extensive research has shown that all biological effects of dioxin-like agents are mediated via a single biochemical target, the Ah receptor (AhR), and that the relative biologic potencies of such agents in any given system, coupled with their exposure levels, may be described in terms of toxic equivalents (TEQ). It has also shown that the TEQ sources include not only chlorinated species such as the dioxins (PCDDs), PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs, but also non-chlorinated substances such as the PAHs of wood smoke, the AhR agonists of cooked meat, and the indolocarbazol (ICZ) derived from cruciferous vegetables. Humans have probably had elevated exposures to these non-chlorinated TEQ sources ever since the discoveries of fire, cooking, and the culinary use of Brassica spp. Recent assays of CYP1A2 induction show that these ``natural`` or ``traditional`` AhR agonists are contributing 50--100 times as much to average human TEQ exposures as do the chlorinated xenobiotics. Currently, the safe doses of the xenobiotic TEQ sources are estimated from their NOAELs and large extrapolation factors, derived from arbitrary mathematical models, whereas the NOAELs themselves are regarded as the safe doses for the TEQs of traditional dietary components. Available scientific data can neither support nor refute either approach to assessing the health risk of an individual chemical substance. However, if two substances be toxicologically equivalent, then their TEQ-adjusted health risks must also be equivalent, and the same dose extrapolation procedure should be used for both.

  7. Semantic relatedness for evaluation of course equivalencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Beibei

    Semantic relatedness, or its inverse, semantic distance, measures the degree of closeness between two pieces of text determined by their meaning. Related work typically measures semantics based on a sparse knowledge base such as WordNet or Cyc that requires intensive manual efforts to build and maintain. Other work is based on a corpus such as the Brown corpus, or more recently, Wikipedia. This dissertation proposes two approaches to applying semantic relatedness to the problem of suggesting transfer course equivalencies. Two course descriptions are given as input to feed the proposed algorithms, which output a value that can be used to help determine if the courses are equivalent. The first proposed approach uses traditional knowledge sources such as WordNet and corpora for courses from multiple fields of study. The second approach uses Wikipedia, the openly-editable encyclopedia, and it focuses on courses from a technical field such as Computer Science. This work shows that it is promising to adapt semantic relatedness to the education field for matching equivalencies between transfer courses. A semantic relatedness measure using traditional knowledge sources such as WordNet performs relatively well on non-technical courses. However, due to the "knowledge acquisition bottleneck," such a resource is not ideal for technical courses, which use an extensive and growing set of technical terms. To address the problem, this work proposes a Wikipedia-based approach which is later shown to be more correlated to human judgment compared to previous work.

  8. Probing Quantum Violations of the Equivalence Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adunas, G. Z.; Rodriguez-Milla, E.; Ahluwalia, D. V.

    2001-02-01

    The joint realm of quantum mechanics and general-relativistic description of gravitation is becoming increasingly accessible to terrestrial experiments and observations. In this essay we study the emerging indications of the violation of equivalence principle (VEP). While the solar neutrino anomaly may find its natural explanation in a VEP, the statistically significant discrepancy observed in the gravitationally induced phases of neutron interferometry seems to be the first indication of a VEP. However, such a view would seem immediately challenged by the atomic interferometry results. The latter experiments see no indications of VEP, in apparent contradiction to the neutron interferometry results. Here we show that these, and related torsion pendulum experiments, probe different aspects of gravity; and that current experimental techniques, when coupled to the solar-neutrino data, may be able to explore quantum mechanically induced violations of the equivalence principle. We predict quantum violation of the equivalence principle (qVEP) for next generation of atomic interferometry experiments. The prediction entails comparing free fall of two different linear superpositions of Cesium atomic states.

  9. Surface-Treated versus Untreated Large-Bore Catheters as Vascular Access in Hemodialysis and Apheresis Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Bambauer, Rolf; Schiel, Ralf; Bambauer, Carolin; Latza, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Background. Catheter-related infections, thrombosis, and stenosis are among the most frequent complications associated with catheters, which are inserted in vessels. Surface treatment processes of the outer surface, such as ion-beam-assisted deposition, can be used to mitigate such complications. Methods. This retrospective study (1992–2007) evaluated silver-coated (54 patients) and noncoated (105 patients) implanted large-bore catheters used for extracorporeal detoxification. The catheters were inserted into the internal jugular or subclavian veins. After removal, the catheters were cultured for bacterial colonization using standard microbiologic assays. They also were examined using scanning electron microscope. Results. The silver coated catheters showed a tendency towards longer in situ time. The microbiologic examinations of the catheter tips were in both catheter types high positive, but not significant. Conclusion. The silver-coated catheters showed no significantly reduction in infection rate by evaluation of all collected data in this retrospective study. There was no association between both catheters in significantly reducing savings in treatment costs and in reducing patient discomfort. Other new developed catheter materials such as the microdomain-structured inner and outer surface are considered more biocompatible because they mimic the structure of natural biological surface. PMID:22577548

  10. Thévenin equivalence in disorderless quantum networks

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, C. A.; Wu, C. H.

    2015-01-14

    We outline the procedure of extending the Thévenin equivalence principle for classical electric circuits to reducing Aharonov-Bohm-based quantum networks into equivalent models. With examples, we show from first principles how the requirements are related to the electron band structure's Fermi level and the lattice spacing of the network. Quantum networks of varying degrees of coupling strength from four basic classifications of single and double entangled loops sharing symmetry and highly correlated band structures are used to demonstrate the concept. We show the limitations of how the principle may be applied. Several classes of examples are given and their equivalent forms are shown.

  11. On Vasyliunas's equivalent conductivity formalism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pontius, D. H., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The Vasyliunas's (1972) equivalent conductivity formalism (ECF) for representing the coupling of the ionosphere and the magnetosphere is discussed, and a new, simpler, derivation is presented of the ECF, in which certain of the underlying assumptions and their implications are made transparent. The derivation presented indicates that the only role of the ions in the ECF is to insure quasi-neutrality. It is shown that the ECF is not as robust as usually assumed and that caution must be used to insure that reasonable results are obtained.

  12. The equivalence principle in a quantum world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N. E. J.; Donoghue, John F.; El-Menoufi, Basem Kamal; Holstein, Barry R.; Planté, Ludovic; Vanhove, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    We show how modern methods can be applied to quantum gravity at low energy. We test how quantum corrections challenge the classical framework behind the equivalence principle (EP), for instance through introduction of nonlocality from quantum physics, embodied in the uncertainty principle. When the energy is small, we now have the tools to address this conflict explicitly. Despite the violation of some classical concepts, the EP continues to provide the core of the quantum gravity framework through the symmetry — general coordinate invariance — that is used to organize the effective field theory (EFT).

  13. Mechanical equivalent of quantum heat engines.

    PubMed

    Arnaud, Jacques; Chusseau, Laurent; Philippe, Fabrice

    2008-06-01

    Quantum heat engines employ as working agents multilevel systems instead of classical gases. We show that under some conditions quantum heat engines are equivalent to a series of reservoirs at different altitudes containing balls of various weights. A cycle consists of picking up at random a ball from one reservoir and carrying it to the next, thereby performing or absorbing some work. In particular, quantum heat engines, employing two-level atoms as working agents, are modeled by reservoirs containing balls of weight 0 or 1. The mechanical model helps us prove that the maximum efficiency of quantum heat engines is the Carnot efficiency. Heat pumps and negative temperatures are considered. PMID:18643212

  14. Speed analyses of stimulus equivalence.

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, T J; Chase, P N

    1996-01-01

    The functional substitutability of stimuli in equivalence classes was examined through analyses of the speed of college students' accurate responding. After training subjects to respond to 18 conditional relations, subjects' accuracy and speed of accurate responding were compared across trial types (baseline, symmetry, transitivity, and combined transitivity and symmetry) and nodal distance (one- through five-node transitive and combined transitive and symmetric relations). Differences in accuracy across nodal distance and trial type were significant only on the first tests of equivalence, whereas differences in speed were significant even after extended testing. Response speed was inversely related to the number of nodes on which the tested relations were based. Significant differences in response speed were also found across trial types, except between transitivity and combined trials. To determine the generality of these comparisons, three groups of subjects were included: An instructed group was given an instruction that specified the interchangeability of stimuli related through training; a queried group was queried about the basis for test-trial responding: and a standard group was neither instructed nor queried. There were no significant differences among groups. These results suggest the use of response speed and response accuracy to measure the strength of matching relations. PMID:8636663

  15. Therapeutic equivalents in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Benson, M D

    2001-01-01

    With increasing debate over the rising expenses of health care, a variety of cost-saving measures has been attempted over the years. Use of primary care physicians as "gate keepers," reduction in the length of hospital stays, and pushing women toward vaginal birth after Cesarean section have all been utilized despite on going issues with patient satisfaction and even safety. One remarkable success in stretching health-care dollars that has often been overlooked is the prescription of therapeutic equivalents, or generic drugs. Although available on a limited basis for decades, off-brand manufacture of pharmaceuticals with identical active ingredients as those of the branded drug received a large boost through Congressional legislation in 1984 with the Hatch-Waxman Act. "Fast-track" FDA approval was initiated by Congress to introduce competition into the marketplace for drugs whose patients had expired. While giving close scrutiny to the manufacturing process and requiring the same level of regulatory supervision for factors such as bioavailability and shelf life, the Hatch-Waxman Act removed the burden and expense from generic manufacturers of proving the safety and efficacy all over again of a previously FDA-approved drug. With less than a 20% market share of all prescribed drugs in 1984, the generic drug industry has captured roughly 44% of the market in recent years while accounting for only 8% of expenditures on prescription medication. The prescription of therapeutic equivalents is one method of keeping health care costs down without compromising patient satisfaction or safety. PMID:11374660

  16. Structural analysis of artificial skin equivalents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Robert; Marx, Ulrich; Walles, Heike; Schober, Lena

    2011-06-01

    Artificial skin equivalents ASEs based on primary fibroblasts and keratinocytes show a high batch variance in their structural and morphological characteristics. Due to biological fluctuations and variable donor age, the growth processes of 3D tissue structure show a non constant quality. Since theses ASEs are used as testing system for chemicals, pharmaceuticals or cosmetics it is of major interest to know detailed and significant characteristics about each individual ASE. Until now, the microscopic analysis process is based on the destructive preparation of histologies allowing only the characterization on a random basis. In this study we present analytical methods to characterise each individual ASE by Optical Coherence Tomography OCT in combination with image processing tools. Therefore, we developed a fully automated OCT device, that performs automatic measurements of microtiter plates MTPs holing the ASEs in a sterile environment. We developed image processing algorithms to characterize the surface structure which may function as an indicator for defects in the epidermal stratum corneum. Further, we analysed the tomographic morphological structure of the ASEs. The results show, that variances in the growth state as well different collagen formation is detectable. In combination with dynamic threshold levels, we found, that OCT is a well suited technology for automatically characterizing artificial skin equivalents and may partly substitute the preparation of histologies.

  17. Equivalence of topological insulators and superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobanera, Emilio; Ortiz, Gerardo

    2015-10-01

    Systems of free fermions are classified by symmetry, space dimensionality, and topological properties described by K homology. Those systems belonging to different classes are inequivalent. In contrast, we show that by taking a many-body/Fock-space viewpoint it becomes possible to establish equivalences of topological insulators and superconductors in terms of duality transformations. These mappings connect topologically inequivalent systems of fermions, jumping across entries in existent classification tables, because of the phenomenon of symmetry transmutation by which a symmetry and its dual partner have identical algebraic properties but very different physical interpretations. To constrain our study to established classification tables, we define and characterize mathematically Gaussian dualities as dualities mapping free fermions to free fermions (and interacting to interacting). By introducing a large, flexible class of Gaussian dualities we show that any insulator is dual to a superconductor, and that fermionic edge modes are dual to Majorana edge modes, that is, the Gaussian dualities of this paper preserve the bulk-boundary correspondence. Transmutation of relevant symmetries, particle number, translation, and time reversal is also investigated in detail. As illustrative examples, we show the duality equivalence of the dimerized Peierls chain and the Majorana chain of Kitaev, and a two-dimensional Kekulé-type topological insulator, including graphene as a special instance in coupling space, dual to a p -wave superconductor. Since our analysis extends to interacting fermion systems, we also briefly discuss some such applications.

  18. Determination and analysis of torsion equivalent stress-equivalent strain relation of low carbon alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Jiang, Gongfeng; Yu, Xiutao; Deng, Tianhua; Zhang, Yiliang

    2008-11-01

    Typical pressure vessel materials' torsion equivalent stress-equivalent strain relationships under large deformation condition are researched in this paper. Because the length and the diameter of the specimen may change under uniaxial tension, it's impossible to make effective measurement and analysis for the mechanical properties of the specimen, especially after the necking. The form and cross-section size of cylindrical specimen do not change in torsion test, so that the large strain's constitutive relationship is more accurate than that obtained from an axial tension test. So that cylindrical specimen's torsion test is attempted to obtain the shear stress-shear strain curves of typical pressure vessel materials 16MnR and Q235. Consider that the stress is non-homogeneous in the cross-section of cylindrical specimen, thin wall tube specimen is also used in the torsion test, and the maximum differences between cylindrical specimen's results and thin-wall tube's are 10% and 13% respectively. Tension true stress-true strain curves, torsion equivalent stress-equivalent strain curves are also compared in this paper and the results showed that description of the torsion constitutive relationship is more complete than that of tension. At last, constitutive equations are fitted and the mathematical representations are obtained.

  19. Lattice study of planar equivalence: The quark condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Armoni, Adi; Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino; Pica, Claudio

    2008-08-15

    We study quenched SU(N) gauge theories with fermions in the two-index symmetric, antisymmetric and the adjoint representations. Our main motivation is to check whether at large number of colors those theories become nonperturbatively equivalent. We prove the equivalence assuming that the charge-conjugation symmetry is not broken in pure Yang-Mills theory. We then carry out a quenched lattice simulation of the quark condensate in the symmetric, antisymmetric and the adjoint representations for SU(2), SU(3), SU(4), SU(6), and SU(8). We show that the data support the equivalence and discuss the size of subleading corrections.

  20. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  1. Equivalent crystal theory of alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Ferrante, John

    1991-01-01

    Equivalent Crystal Theory (ECT) is a new, semi-empirical approach to calculating the energetics of a solid with defects. The theory has successfully reproduced surface energies in metals and semiconductors. The theory of binary alloys to date, both with first-principles and semi-empirical models, has not been very successful in predicting the energetics of alloys. This procedure is used to predict the heats of formation, cohesive energy, and lattice parameter of binary alloys of Cu, Ni, Al, Ag, Au, Pd, and Pt as functions of composition. The procedure accurately reproduces the heats of formation versus composition curves for a variety of binary alloys. The results are then compared with other approaches such as the embedded atom and lattice parameters of alloys from pure metal properties more accurately than Vegard's law is presented.

  2. Light WIMPs and Equivalent Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigman, Gary; Nollett, Kenneth M.

    Very light WIMPs (χ), thermal relics that annihilate late in the early Universe, change the energy and entropy densities at BBN and at recombination. BBN, in combination with the CMB, can remove some of the degeneracies among light WIMPs and equivalent neutrinos, constraining the existence and properties of each. Depending on the nature of the light WIMP (Majorana or Dirac fermion, real or complex scalar) the joint BBN + CMB analyses set lower bounds to mχ in the range 0.5 - 5 MeV (mχ/me ≲1 - 10), and they identify best fit values for mχ in the range 5 - 10 MeV. The joint BBN + CMB analysis finds a best fit value for the number of equivalent neutrinos, ΔNν ≈ 0.65, nearly independent of the nature of the WIMP. In the absence of a light WIMP (mχ ≲20 MeV), Neff = 3.05(1 + ΔNν/3). In this case, there is excellent agreement between BBN and the CMB, but the joint fit reveals ΔNν = 0.40 ± 0.17, disfavoring standard big bang nucleosynthesis (SBBN) (ΔNν = 0) at ∼ 2.4 σ, as well as a sterile neutrino (ΔNν = 1) at ∼ 3.5 σ. The best BBN + CMB joint fit disfavors the absence of dark radiation (ΔNν = 0 at ∼ 95% confidence), while allowing for the presence of a sterile neutrino (ΔNν = 1 at ≲1 σ). For all cases considered here, the lithium problem persists. These results, presented at the TAUP 2013 Conference, are based on Nollett & Steigman [14].

  3. Breaking of Ensemble Equivalence in Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squartini, Tiziano; de Mol, Joey; den Hollander, Frank; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2015-12-01

    It is generally believed that, in the thermodynamic limit, the microcanonical description as a function of energy coincides with the canonical description as a function of temperature. However, various examples of systems for which the microcanonical and canonical ensembles are not equivalent have been identified. A complete theory of this intriguing phenomenon is still missing. Here we show that ensemble nonequivalence can manifest itself also in random graphs with topological constraints. We find that, while graphs with a given number of links are ensemble equivalent, graphs with a given degree sequence are not. This result holds irrespective of whether the energy is nonadditive (as in unipartite graphs) or additive (as in bipartite graphs). In contrast with previous expectations, our results show that (1) physically, nonequivalence can be induced by an extensive number of local constraints, and not necessarily by long-range interactions or nonadditivity, (2) mathematically, nonequivalence is determined by a different large-deviation behavior of microcanonical and canonical probabilities for a single microstate, and not necessarily for almost all microstates. The latter criterion, which is entirely local, is not restricted to networks and holds in general.

  4. 46 CFR 110.20-1 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalents. 110.20-1 Section 110.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Equivalents... engineering evaluations and tests to demonstrate the equivalence of the substitute....

  5. 46 CFR 110.20-1 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equivalents. 110.20-1 Section 110.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Equivalents... engineering evaluations and tests to demonstrate the equivalence of the substitute....

  6. 46 CFR 110.20-1 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equivalents. 110.20-1 Section 110.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Equivalents... engineering evaluations and tests to demonstrate the equivalence of the substitute....

  7. 21 CFR 26.6 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Equivalence assessment. 26.6 Section 26.6 Food and... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.6 Equivalence assessment... or processes. (c) The equivalence assessment shall include information exchanges...

  8. 21 CFR 26.39 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Equivalence assessment. 26.39 Section 26.39 Food... Specific Sector Provisions for Medical Devices § 26.39 Equivalence assessment. (a) In the final 6 months of the transition period, the parties shall proceed to a joint assessment of the equivalence of...

  9. 21 CFR 26.39 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Equivalence assessment. 26.39 Section 26.39 Food... Specific Sector Provisions for Medical Devices § 26.39 Equivalence assessment. (a) In the final 6 months of the transition period, the parties shall proceed to a joint assessment of the equivalence of...

  10. 21 CFR 26.6 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Equivalence assessment. 26.6 Section 26.6 Food and... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.6 Equivalence assessment... or processes. (c) The equivalence assessment shall include information exchanges...

  11. Equivalency Testing in Development of Health Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Margaret A.

    1974-01-01

    A faculty must think effectivelyto build a congruent meaningful equivalency testing effort as an intimate part of its curriculum. No faculty should feel embarrassed if its conclusion, after careful assessment, is that it cannot or should not offer equivalency testing. Each faculty should study equivalency testing and its feasibility. (Author/AJ)

  12. Classroom Activities for Introducing Equivalence Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Equivalence relations and partitions are two interconnected ideas that play important roles in advanced mathematics. While students encounter the informal notion of equivalence in many courses, the formal definition of an equivalence relation is typically introduced in a junior level transition-to-proof course. This paper reports the results of a…

  13. 46 CFR 110.20-1 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equivalents. 110.20-1 Section 110.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Equivalents... engineering evaluations and tests to demonstrate the equivalence of the substitute....

  14. 46 CFR 110.20-1 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equivalents. 110.20-1 Section 110.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Equivalents... engineering evaluations and tests to demonstrate the equivalence of the substitute....

  15. The Wordpath Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderton, Alice

    The Intertribal Wordpath Society is a nonprofit educational corporation formed to promote the teaching, status, awareness, and use of Oklahoma Indian languages. The Society produces "Wordpath," a weekly 30-minute public access television show about Oklahoma Indian languages and the people who are teaching and preserving them. The show aims to…

  16. A restricted proof that the weak equivalence principle implies the Einstein equivalence principle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lightman, A. P.; Lee, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    Schiff has conjectured that the weak equivalence principle (WEP) implies the Einstein equivalence principle (EEP). A proof is presented of Schiff's conjecture, restricted to: (1) test bodies made of electromagnetically interacting point particles, that fall from rest in a static, spherically symmetric gravitational field; (2) theories of gravity within a certain broad class - a class that includes almost all complete relativistic theories that have been found in the literature, but with each theory truncated to contain only point particles plus electromagnetic and gravitational fields. The proof shows that every nonmentric theory in the class (every theory that violates EEP) must violate WEP. A formula is derived for the magnitude of the violation. It is shown that WEP is a powerful theoretical and experimental tool for constraining the manner in which gravity couples to electromagnetism in gravitation theories.

  17. A Holographic Road Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  18. Show What You Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eccleston, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Big things come in small packages. This saying came to the mind of the author after he created a simple math review activity for his fourth grade students. Though simple, it has proven to be extremely advantageous in reinforcing math concepts. He uses this activity, which he calls "Show What You Know," often. This activity provides the perfect…

  19. The Ozone Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    Uses a talk show activity for a final assessment tool for students to debate about the ozone hole. Students are assessed on five areas: (1) cooperative learning; (2) the written component; (3) content; (4) self-evaluation; and (5) peer evaluation. (SAH)

  20. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  1. Talk Show Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  2. Stage a Water Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Debra

    2008-01-01

    In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

  3. Showing What They Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    Having students show their skills in three dimensions, known as performance-based assessment, dates back at least to Socrates. Individual schools such as Barrington High School--located just outside of Providence--have been requiring students to actively demonstrate their knowledge for years. The Rhode Island's high school graduating class became…

  4. It Pays to Be Organized: Organizing Arithmetic Practice around Equivalent Values Facilitates Understanding of Math Equivalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Nicole M.; Chesney, Dana L.; Matthews, Percival G.; Fyfe, Emily R.; Petersen, Lori A.; Dunwiddie, April E.; Wheeler, Mary C.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that organizing arithmetic fact practice by equivalent values facilitates children's understanding of math equivalence. Children (M age = 8 years 6 months, N = 104) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 practice conditions: (a) equivalent values, in which problems were grouped by equivalent sums (e.g., 3 + 4 = 7, 2…

  5. Expressivism, Relativism, and the Analytic Equivalence Test.

    PubMed

    Frápolli, Maria J; Villanueva, Neftalí

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that, pace (Field, 2009), MacFarlane's assessment relativism and expressivism should be sharply distinguished. We do so by arguing that relativism and expressivism exemplify two very different approaches to context-dependence. Relativism, on the one hand, shares with other contemporary approaches a bottom-up, building block, model, while expressivism is part of a different tradition, one that might include Lewis' epistemic contextualism and Frege's content individuation, with which it shares an organic model to deal with context-dependence. The building-block model and the organic model, and thus relativism and expressivism, are set apart with the aid of a particular test: only the building-block model is compatible with the idea that there might be analytically equivalent, and yet different, propositions. PMID:26635690

  6. Expressivism, Relativism, and the Analytic Equivalence Test

    PubMed Central

    Frápolli, Maria J.; Villanueva, Neftalí

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that, pace (Field, 2009), MacFarlane’s assessment relativism and expressivism should be sharply distinguished. We do so by arguing that relativism and expressivism exemplify two very different approaches to context-dependence. Relativism, on the one hand, shares with other contemporary approaches a bottom–up, building block, model, while expressivism is part of a different tradition, one that might include Lewis’ epistemic contextualism and Frege’s content individuation, with which it shares an organic model to deal with context-dependence. The building-block model and the organic model, and thus relativism and expressivism, are set apart with the aid of a particular test: only the building-block model is compatible with the idea that there might be analytically equivalent, and yet different, propositions. PMID:26635690

  7. Equivalence of topological insulators and superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Gerardo; Cobanera, Emilio

    Systems of free fermions are classified by symmetry, space dimensionality, and topological properties described by K-homology. We show that by taking a many-body/Fock space viewpoint it becomes possible to establish equivalences of topological insulators and superconductors in terms of duality transformations. These mappings connect topologically inequivalent systems of fermions, jumping across entries in existent classification tables, because of the phenomenon of symmetry transmutation by which a symmetry and its dual partner have identical algebraic properties but very different physical interpretations and electromagnetic response. Since our analysis extends to interacting fermion systems we also briefly discuss some such applications. To illustrate main concepts we will present dual superconducting partners of paradigmatic models, such as the Haldane Chern insulator as well as a quantum spin Hall effect graphene model.

  8. Taking in a Show.

    PubMed

    Boden, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    Many medical practices have cut back on education and staff development expenses, especially those costs associated with conventions and conferences. But there are hard-to-value returns on your investment in these live events--beyond the obvious benefits of acquired knowledge and skills. Major vendors still exhibit their services and wares at many events, and the exhibit hall is a treasure-house of information and resources for the savvy physician or administrator. Make and stick to a purposeful plan to exploit the trade show. You can compare products, gain new insights and ideas, and even negotiate better deals with representatives anxious to realize returns on their exhibition investments. PMID:27249887

  9. Not a "reality" show.

    PubMed

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show. PMID:23631336

  10. 21 CFR 26.6 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.6 Equivalence...

  11. 21 CFR 26.9 - Equivalence determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.9 Equivalence...

  12. Public medical shows.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre. PMID:25273491

  13. Pooling Morphometric Estimates: A Statistical Equivalence Approach.

    PubMed

    Pardoe, Heath R; Cutter, Gary R; Alter, Rachel; Hiess, Rebecca Kucharsky; Semmelroch, Mira; Parker, Donna; Farquharson, Shawna; Jackson, Graeme D; Kuzniecky, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    Changes in hardware or image-processing settings are a common issue for large multicenter studies. To pool MRI data acquired under these changed conditions, it is necessary to demonstrate that the changes do not affect MRI-based measurements. In these circumstances, classical inference testing is inappropriate because it is designed to detect differences, not prove similarity. We used a method known as statistical equivalence testing to address this limitation. Equivalence testing was carried out on 3 datasets: (1) cortical thickness and automated hippocampal volume estimates obtained from healthy individuals imaged using different multichannel head coils; (2) manual hippocampal volumetry obtained using two readers; and (3) corpus callosum area estimates obtained using an automated method with manual cleanup carried out by two readers. Equivalence testing was carried out using the "two one-sided tests" (TOST) approach. Power analyses of the TOST were used to estimate sample sizes required for well-powered equivalence testing analyses. Mean and standard deviation estimates from the automated hippocampal volume dataset were used to carry out an example power analysis. Cortical thickness values were found to be equivalent over 61% of the cortex when different head coils were used (q < .05, false discovery rate correction). Automated hippocampal volume estimates obtained using the same two coils were statistically equivalent (TOST P = 4.28 × 10(-15) ). Manual hippocampal volume estimates obtained using two readers were not statistically equivalent (TOST P = .97). The use of different readers to carry out limited correction of automated corpus callosum segmentations yielded equivalent area estimates (TOST P = 1.28 × 10(-14) ). Power analysis of simulated and automated hippocampal volume data demonstrated that the equivalence margin affects the number of subjects required for well-powered equivalence tests. We have presented a statistical method for determining if

  14. Testing the equivalence principle with atomic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Sven; Dittus, Hansjörg; Lämmerzahl, Claus; pre="the" post=""> QUANTUS,

    2012-09-01

    The weak equivalence principle (WEP), that is, the universality of free fall, states that all point-like neutral particles in a gravitational field fall in the same way. This is the basis of the geometrization of the gravitational interaction. Together with further requirements on the behavior of point particles, light propagation and clocks one can show that gravity is modeled by a Riemannian geometry. Since in the quantum domain all objects are extended, it is not clear whether the notion of a WEP in the quantum domain makes sense at all. We show that for matter wave interferometry the notion of WEP still can be given a meaning. We give a short overview over schemes which allows a violation of the WEP and emphasize that there are also schemes which show that there might be violations of the WEP in the quantum regime which are not present classically. This makes a test of the WEP with quantum matter necessary. We also give a brief outline of the efforts made for testing the WEP with interferometry with cold atoms in the Bremen drop tower carried out by the QUANTUS and PRIMUS collaboration.

  15. The impact of sunlight on high-latitude equivalent currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laundal, K. M.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Østgaard, N.; Reistad, J. P.; Haaland, S.; Snekvik, K.; Tenfjord, P.; Ohtani, S.; Milan, S. E.

    2016-03-01

    Ground magnetic field measurements can be mathematically related to an overhead ionospheric equivalent current. In this study we look in detail at how the global equivalent current, calculated using more than 30 years of SuperMAG magnetometer data, changes with sunlight conditions. The calculations are done using spherical harmonic analysis in quasi-dipole coordinates, a technique which leads to improved accuracy compared to previous studies. Sorting the data according to the location of the sunlight terminator and orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), we find that the equivalent current resembles ionospheric convection patterns on the sunlit side of the terminator but not on the dark side. On the dark side, with southward IMF, the current is strongly dominated by a dawn cell and the current across the polar cap has a strong dawnward component. The contrast between the sunlit and dark side increases with increasing values of the F10.7 index, showing that increasing solar EUV flux changes not only the magnitude but also the morphology of the equivalent current system. The results are consistent with a recent study showing that Birkeland currents indirectly determine the equivalent current in darkness and that Hall currents dominate in sunlight. This has implication for the interpretation of ground magnetic field measurements and suggests that the magnetic disturbances at conjugate points will be asymmetrical when the solar illumination is different.

  16. 7 CFR 1126.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1126.54 Section 1126.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1126.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  17. 7 CFR 1006.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1006.54 Section 1006.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1006.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  18. 7 CFR 1033.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1033.54 Section 1033.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1033.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  19. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  20. 7 CFR 1000.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1000.54 Section 1000.54 Agriculture... Prices § 1000.54 Equivalent price. If for any reason a price or pricing constituent required for computing the prices described in § 1000.50 is not available, the market administrator shall use a price...

  1. 7 CFR 1131.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1131.54 Section 1131.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1131.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  2. 7 CFR 1030.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1030.54 Section 1030.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1030.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54....

  3. 7 CFR 1007.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1007.54 Section 1007.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1007.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  4. 7 CFR 1124.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1124.54 Section 1124.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1124.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  5. 7 CFR 1001.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1001.54 Section 1001.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1001.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  6. 7 CFR 1005.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1005.54 Section 1005.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1005.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  7. 33 CFR 106.130 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equivalents. 106.130 Section 106.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES General § 106.130 Equivalents. For any...

  8. 33 CFR 106.130 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equivalents. 106.130 Section 106.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES General § 106.130 Equivalents. For any...

  9. 46 CFR 114.540 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... equivalence of the substitute. (b) The Commandant may accept compliance by a high speed craft with the provisions of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) “Code of Safety for High Speed Craft” as an... approve a novel lifesaving appliance or arrangement as an equivalent if it has performance...

  10. 46 CFR 175.540 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Commandant may accept compliance by a high speed craft with the provisions of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) “Code of Safety for High Speed Craft” as an equivalent to compliance with applicable... lifesaving appliance or arrangement as an equivalent if it has performance characteristics at...

  11. 33 CFR 106.130 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equivalents. 106.130 Section 106.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES General § 106.130 Equivalents. For any...

  12. 7 CFR 1030.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1030.54 Section 1030.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1030.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54....

  13. 7 CFR 1033.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1033.54 Section 1033.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1033.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  14. 7 CFR 1124.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1124.54 Section 1124.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1124.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  15. 7 CFR 1131.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1131.54 Section 1131.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1131.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  16. 7 CFR 1033.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1033.54 Section 1033.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1033.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  17. 7 CFR 1006.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1006.54 Section 1006.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1006.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  18. 7 CFR 1007.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1007.54 Section 1007.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1007.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  19. 7 CFR 1033.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1033.54 Section 1033.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1033.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  20. 7 CFR 1001.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1001.54 Section 1001.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1001.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  1. 7 CFR 1000.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1000.54 Section 1000.54 Agriculture... Prices § 1000.54 Equivalent price. If for any reason a price or pricing constituent required for computing the prices described in § 1000.50 is not available, the market administrator shall use a price...

  2. 7 CFR 1007.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1007.54 Section 1007.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1007.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  3. 7 CFR 1131.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1131.54 Section 1131.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1131.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  4. 7 CFR 1007.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1007.54 Section 1007.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1007.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  5. 7 CFR 1001.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1001.54 Section 1001.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1001.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  6. 7 CFR 1030.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1030.54 Section 1030.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1030.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54....

  7. 7 CFR 1126.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1126.54 Section 1126.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1126.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  8. 7 CFR 1126.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1126.54 Section 1126.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1126.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  9. 7 CFR 1006.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1006.54 Section 1006.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1006.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  10. 7 CFR 1007.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1007.54 Section 1007.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1007.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  11. 7 CFR 1006.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1006.54 Section 1006.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1006.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  12. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  13. 7 CFR 1000.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1000.54 Section 1000.54 Agriculture... Prices § 1000.54 Equivalent price. If for any reason a price or pricing constituent required for computing the prices described in § 1000.50 is not available, the market administrator shall use a price...

  14. 7 CFR 1126.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1126.54 Section 1126.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1126.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  15. 7 CFR 1126.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1126.54 Section 1126.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1126.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  16. 7 CFR 1001.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1001.54 Section 1001.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1001.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  17. 7 CFR 1000.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1000.54 Section 1000.54 Agriculture... Prices § 1000.54 Equivalent price. If for any reason a price or pricing constituent required for computing the prices described in § 1000.50 is not available, the market administrator shall use a price...

  18. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  19. 7 CFR 1001.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1001.54 Section 1001.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1001.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  20. 7 CFR 1006.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1006.54 Section 1006.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1006.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  1. 7 CFR 1124.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1124.54 Section 1124.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1124.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  2. 7 CFR 1030.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1030.54 Section 1030.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1030.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54....

  3. 7 CFR 1124.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1124.54 Section 1124.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1124.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  4. 7 CFR 1033.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1033.54 Section 1033.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1033.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  5. 7 CFR 1131.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1131.54 Section 1131.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1131.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  6. 7 CFR 1124.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1124.54 Section 1124.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1124.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  7. 7 CFR 1000.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1000.54 Section 1000.54 Agriculture... Prices § 1000.54 Equivalent price. If for any reason a price or pricing constituent required for computing the prices described in § 1000.50 is not available, the market administrator shall use a price...

  8. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  9. 7 CFR 1030.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1030.54 Section 1030.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1030.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54....

  10. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential...

  11. 7 CFR 1131.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1131.54 Section 1131.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1131.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices...

  12. 33 CFR 159.19 - Testing equivalency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing equivalency. 159.19 Section 159.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Certification Procedures § 159.19 Testing equivalency. (a) If a...

  13. Equivalent Mass of a Coil Spring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruby, Lawrence

    2000-01-01

    Finds that first-year college students can understand in detail the origin of the equivalent mass. Provides both a simple calculation derivation of this result as well as a noncalculus derivation. Argues that for every soft spring, the equivalent mass should be somewhere between m0/3 and m0/2. (CCM)

  14. 29 CFR 825.215 - Equivalent position.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equivalent position. 825.215 Section 825.215 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.215 Equivalent position. (a)...

  15. 46 CFR 169.109 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equivalents. 169.109 Section 169.109 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS General Provisions § 169.109 Equivalents. Substitutes for a fitting, appliance, apparatus, or equipment, may...

  16. 46 CFR 169.109 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equivalents. 169.109 Section 169.109 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS General Provisions § 169.109 Equivalents. Substitutes for a fitting, appliance, apparatus, or equipment, may...

  17. 46 CFR 169.109 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equivalents. 169.109 Section 169.109 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS General Provisions § 169.109 Equivalents. Substitutes for a fitting, appliance, apparatus, or equipment, may...

  18. 46 CFR 169.109 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalents. 169.109 Section 169.109 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS General Provisions § 169.109 Equivalents. Substitutes for a fitting, appliance, apparatus, or equipment, may...

  19. 46 CFR 169.109 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equivalents. 169.109 Section 169.109 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS General Provisions § 169.109 Equivalents. Substitutes for a fitting, appliance, apparatus, or equipment, may...

  20. 46 CFR 170.010 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalents. 170.010 Section 170.010 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY STABILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL INSPECTED VESSELS General Provisions § 170.010 Equivalents. Substitutions for fittings,...

  1. Equivalence-Equivalence Responding: Training Conditions Involved in Obtaining a Stable Baseline Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Andres; Bohorquez, Cristobal; Perez, Vicente; Gutierrez, Maria Teresa; Gomez, Jesus; Luciano, Carmen; Wilson, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Recent research has focused on the variables associated with equivalence-equivalence responding, in which participants match pairs of equivalent or nonequivalent stimuli. One such variable is the presence of response competition from nonarbitrary (physical) relational response options. In the current analysis, the experimenters examined the effect…

  2. 77 FR 55832 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of a New Equivalent Method

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... made under the provisions of 40 CFR part 53, as ] amended on August 31, 2011 (76 FR 54326-54341). The... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of a New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of a new equivalent method...

  3. 77 FR 60985 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... 53, as amended on August 31, 2011 (76 FR 54326-54341). The new equivalent methods are automated... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of three new...

  4. Matching Derived Functionally-Same Stimulus Relations: Equivalence-Equivalence and Classical Analogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpentier, Franck; Smeets, Paul M.; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Stewart, Ian

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that, after being trained on A-B and A-C matching tasks, subjects match not only functionally-same B and C stimuli (stimulus equivalence), but also BC compounds with same-class elements and BC compounds with different-class elements (equivalence-equivalence). Similar performances are required in classical analogies (a :…

  5. Equivalence relations for the 9972-9975 SARP

    SciTech Connect

    Niemer, K.A.; Frost, R.L.

    1994-10-01

    Equivalence relations required to determine mass limits for mixtures of nuclides for the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) of the Savannah River Site 9972, 9973, 9974, and 9975 shipping casks were calculated. The systems analyzed included aqueous spheres, homogeneous metal spheres, and metal ball-and-shell configurations, all surrounded by an effectively infinite stainless steel or water reflector. Comparison of the equivalence calculations with the rule-of-fractions showed conservative agreement for aqueous solutions, both conservative and non-conservative agreement for the metal homogeneous sphere systems, and non-conservative agreement for the majority of metal ball-and-shell systems. Equivalence factors for the aqueous solutions and homogeneous metal spheres were calculated. The equivalence factors for the non-conservative metal homogeneous sphere systems were adjusted so that they were conservative. No equivalence factors were calculated for the ball-and-shell systems since the -SARP assumes that only homogeneous or uniformly distributed material will be shipped in the 9972-9975 shipping casks, and an unnecessarily conservative critical mass may result if the ball-and-shell configurations are included.

  6. The equivalent depth of burst for impact cratering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holsapple, K. A.

    1980-01-01

    The concept of modeling an impact cratering event with an explosive event with the explosive buried at some equivalent depth of burst (d.o.b.) is discussed. Various and different ways to define this equivalent d.o.b. are identified. Recent experimental results for a dense quartz sand are used to determine the equivalent d.o.b. for various conditions of charge type, event size, and impact conditions. The results show a decrease in equivalent d.o.b. with increasing energy for fixed impact velocity and a decrease in equivalent d.o.b. with increasing velocity for fixed energy. The values for an iron projectile are on the order of 2-3 projectile radii for energy equal to one ton of TNT, decreasing to about 1.5 radii at a megaton of TNT. The dependence on projectile and target mass density matches that included in common jet-penetration formulas for projectile densities greater than target densities and for the higher energies.

  7. The effect of gender and remainder on effective dose equivalent

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    Effective dose equivalent methodology, as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in ICRP-26, may be implemented for routine evaluation of occupational exposures to external sources of penetrating radiation, such as neutrons and photons. The calculational techniques for determining effective dose equivalent are being developed and evaluated at Pacific Northwest Laboratories. These studies show that the estimated effective dose equivalent is strongly influenced by several factors, including the source energy, source geometry, phantom gender type, and remainder scheme used. Since the concept of effective dose equivalent relies on determining organ doses, the organ doses for these studies were calculated using the MIRD-V mathematical phantom and MCNP, a general-purpose Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport code. Calculations of organ doses were performed for several irradiation geometries at a series of energies from 10 keV to 10 MeV. The geometries were the anterior-posterior (AP) parallel beam, the posterior-anterior parallel beam, the lateral parallel beam, and an isotropic field. These calculations were performed for both the male and female phantoms. For whole-body irradiations, the use of sex-specific weighting factors instead of the average values can result in large differences in the effective dose equivalent. The largest differences were found for the case of the male phantom in an AP beam.

  8. PACCE: Perl Algorithm to Compute Continuum and Equivalent Widths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riffel, Rogério; Borges Vale, Tibério

    2011-05-01

    We present Perl Algorithm to Compute continuum and Equivalent Widths (pacce). We describe the methods used in the computations and the requirements for its usage. We compare the measurements made with pacce and "manual" ones made using iraf splot task. These tests show that for SSP models the equivalent widths strengths are very similar (differences <0.2A) for both measurements. In real stellar spectra, the correlation between both values is still very good, but with differences of up to 0.5A. pacce is also able to determine mean continuum and continuum at line center values, which are helpful in stellar population studies. In addition, it is also able to compute the uncertainties in the equivalent widths using photon statistics.

  9. Multi-port frequency dependent network equivalents for the EMTP

    SciTech Connect

    Morched, A.S.; Ottevangers, J.H.; Marti, L. )

    1993-07-01

    A method is developed to reduce large power systems to single and multi-port frequency dependent equivalents. These equivalents consist of simple RLC modules that faithfully reproduce the frequency characteristics of the network. The method is implemented in the EMTP and has been extensively tested at Ontario Hydro. The implementation involves a pre-processor program to generate the model: the Frequency Dependent Equivalent (FDNE), and a EMTP time step loop module to calculate the transient response. The use of the FDNE results in major reductions in computer time and is especially beneficial for multi-case statistical EMTP studies. An example showing the accuracy and efficiency of the FDNE when used to reduce a large 500 kV network is presented.

  10. Algebraic method for finding equivalence groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bihlo, Alexander; Dos Santos Cardoso-Bihlo, Elsa; Popovych, Roman O.

    2015-06-01

    The algebraic method for computing the complete point symmetry group of a system of differential equations is extended to finding the complete equivalence group of a class of such systems. The extended method uses the knowledge of the corresponding equivalence algebra. Two versions of the method are presented, where the first involves the automorphism group of this algebra and the second is based on a list of its megaideals. We illustrate the megaideal-based version of the method with the computation of the complete equivalence group of a class of nonlinear wave equations with applications in nonlinear elasticity.

  11. Equivalent Sensor Radiance Generation and Remote Sensing from Model Parameters. Part 1; Equivalent Sensor Radiance Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wind, Galina; DaSilva, Arlindo M.; Norris, Peter M.; Platnick, Steven E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe a general procedure for calculating equivalent sensor radiances from variables output from a global atmospheric forecast model. In order to take proper account of the discrepancies between model resolution and sensor footprint the algorithm takes explicit account of the model subgrid variability, in particular its description of the probably density function of total water (vapor and cloud condensate.) The equivalent sensor radiances are then substituted into an operational remote sensing algorithm processing chain to produce a variety of remote sensing products that would normally be produced from actual sensor output. This output can then be used for a wide variety of purposes such as model parameter verification, remote sensing algorithm validation, testing of new retrieval methods and future sensor studies. We show a specific implementation using the GEOS-5 model, the MODIS instrument and the MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS) Data Collection 5.1 operational remote sensing cloud algorithm processing chain (including the cloud mask, cloud top properties and cloud optical and microphysical properties products.) We focus on clouds and cloud/aerosol interactions, because they are very important to model development and improvement.

  12. Relating equivalence relations to equivalence relations: A relational framing model of complex human functioning

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Dermot; Hegarty, Neil; Smeets, Paul M.

    1997-01-01

    The current study aimed to develop a behavior-analytic model of analogical reasoning. In Experiments 1 and 2 subjects (adults and children) were trained and tested for the formation of four, three-member equivalence relations using a delayed matching-to-sample procedure. All subjects (Experiments 1 and 2) were exposed to tests that examined relations between equivalence and non-equivalence relations. For example, on an equivalence-equivalence relation test, the complex sample B1/C1 and the two complex comparisons B3/C3 and B3/C4 were used, and on a nonequivalence-nonequivalence relation test the complex sample B1/C2 was presented with the same two comparisons. All subjects consistently related equivalence relations to equivalence relations and nonequivalence relations to nonequivalence relations (e.g., picked B3/C3 in the presence of B1/C1 and picked B3/C4 in the presence of B1/C2). In Experiment 3, the equivalence responding, the equivalence-equivalence responding, and the nonequivalence-nonequivalence responding was successfully brought under contextual control. Finally, it was shown that the contextual cues could function successfully as comparisons, and the complex samples and comparisons could function successfully as contextual cues and samples, respectively. These data extend the equivalence paradigm and contribute to a behaviour-analytic interpretation of analogical reasoning and complex human functioning, in general. PMID:22477120

  13. Asymptotic unitary equivalence in C*-algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H.; Niu, Z.

    2015-07-01

    Let C = C( X) be the unital C*-algebra of all continuous functions on a finite CW complex X and let A be a unital simple C*-algebra with tracial rank at most one. We show that two unital monomorphisms φ, ψ: C → A are asymptotically unitarily equivalent, i.e., there exists a continuous path of unitaries { u t : t ∈ [0, 1)} ⊂ A such that lim t→1 u* t φ( f) u t = ψ( f) for all f ∈ C( X) if and only if [ φ] = [ ψ] in KK( C, A), τ ◦ φ = τ ◦ ψ for all τ ∈ T( A), and φ † = ψ †, where T( A) is the simplex of tracial states of A and φ †, ψ †: U ∞( C)/ DU ∞( C) → U ∞( A)/ DU ∞( A) are the induced homomorphisms and where U ∞( A) = ∪ k=1 ∞ U( M k ( A)) and U ∞(C) = ∪ k=1 ∞ ( M k ( C)) are usual infinite unitary groups, respectively, and DU ∞( A) and DU ∞( C) are the commutator subgroups of U ∞( A) and U ∞( C), respectively. We actually prove a more general result for the case in which C is any general unital AH-algebra.

  14. REFractions: The Representing Equivalent Fractions Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Stephen I.

    2014-01-01

    Stephen Tucker presents a fractions game that addresses a range of fraction concepts including equivalence and computation. The REFractions game also improves students' fluency with representing, comparing and adding fractions.

  15. SUPPORT FOR REFERENCE AND EQUIVALENCY PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Federal Reference Methods (FRMs) and Federal Equivalent Methods (FEMs) form the backbone of the EPA's national monitoring strategy. They are the measurement methodologies that define attainment of a National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). As knowledge and technology adva...

  16. Distinguishing Provenance Equivalence of Earth Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt; Yesha, Ye; Halem, M.

    2010-01-01

    Reproducibility of scientific research relies on accurate and precise citation of data and the provenance of that data. Earth science data are often the result of applying complex data transformation and analysis workflows to vast quantities of data. Provenance information of data processing is used for a variety of purposes, including understanding the process and auditing as well as reproducibility. Certain provenance information is essential for producing scientifically equivalent data. Capturing and representing that provenance information and assigning identifiers suitable for precisely distinguishing data granules and datasets is needed for accurate comparisons. This paper discusses scientific equivalence and essential provenance for scientific reproducibility. We use the example of an operational earth science data processing system to illustrate the application of the technique of cascading digital signatures or hash chains to precisely identify sets of granules and as provenance equivalence identifiers to distinguish data made in an an equivalent manner.

  17. The endotopism semigroups of an equivalence relation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuchok, Yu V; Toichkina, E A

    2014-05-31

    In this work we investigate six types of endotopism semigroups for a given equivalence relation. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of all such endotopisms are presented. Conditions for the regularity and coregularity of each of the endotopism semigroups of a given type are established. The notion of the endotype of a binary relation with respect to its endotopisms is introduced and the endotype of an arbitrary equivalence relation is calculated. Bibliography: 26 titles.

  18. Dark matter and the equivalence principle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frieman, Joshua A.; Gradwohl, Ben-Ami

    1993-01-01

    A survey is presented of the current understanding of dark matter invoked by astrophysical theory and cosmology. Einstein's equivalence principle asserts that local measurements cannot distinguish a system at rest in a gravitational field from one that is in uniform acceleration in empty space. Recent test-methods for the equivalence principle are presently discussed as bases for testing of dark matter scenarios involving the long-range forces between either baryonic or nonbaryonic dark matter and ordinary matter.

  19. Equivalence Relations, Contextual Control, and Naming

    PubMed Central

    Randell, Tom; Remington, Bob

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports two experiments that investigated the role of verbal behavior in the emergence and generalization of contextually controlled equivalence classes. During both experiments, participants were trained with two different combinations of the same easily nameable, yet formally unrelated, pictorial stimuli. Match-to-sample baselines for eight four-member classes were established under the contextual control of two colors. In the presence of one color, conditional relations were established between stimuli whose normative names rhymed. In the presence of the other color, conditional relations were established between stimuli whose normative names did not rhyme. Although, during Experiment 1, all participants demonstrated equivalence classes involving rhyming stimuli, none demonstrated the formation of nonrhyme equivalence classes. To investigate this finding, Experiment 2 evaluated whether participants would demonstrate both rhyme and nonrhyme equivalence classes given more extensive exposure to the experimental contingencies. All participants demonstrated contextually controlled rhyme and nonrhyme equivalence classes, although rhyme classes were demonstrated with greater facility than nonrhyme classes. Results indicate that visual stimuli are named, that verbal bases for stimulus classification can affect the emergence of contextually controlled equivalence classes, and that untrained contextually controlled conditional discriminations involving novel stimuli can emerge on the basis of participants' verbal behavior. PMID:17191757

  20. Motor equivalence during multi-finger accurate force production

    PubMed Central

    Mattos, Daniela; Schöner, Gregor; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.; Latash, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    We explored stability of multi-finger cyclical accurate force production action by analysis of responses to small perturbations applied to one of the fingers and inter-cycle analysis of variance. Healthy subjects performed two versions of the cyclical task, with and without an explicit target. The “inverse piano” apparatus was used to lift/lower a finger by 1 cm over 0.5 s; the subjects were always instructed to perform the task as accurate as they could at all times. Deviations in the spaces of finger forces and modes (hypothetical commands to individual fingers) were quantified in directions that did not change total force (motor equivalent) and in directions that changed the total force (non-motor equivalent). Motor equivalent deviations started immediately with the perturbation and increased progressively with time. After a sequence of lifting-lowering perturbations leading to the initial conditions, motor equivalent deviations were dominating. These phenomena were less pronounced for analysis performed with respect to the total moment of force with respect to an axis parallel to the forearm/hand. Analysis of inter-cycle variance showed consistently higher variance in a subspace that did not change the total force as compared to the variance that affected total force. We interpret the results as reflections of task-specific stability of the redundant multi-finger system. Large motor equivalent deviations suggest that reactions of the neuromotor system to a perturbation involve large changes of neural commands that do not affect salient performance variables, even during actions with the purpose to correct those salient variables. Consistency of the analyses of motor equivalence and variance analysis provides additional support for the idea of task-specific stability ensured at a neural level. PMID:25344311

  1. Frequencies and Flutter Speed Estimation for Damaged Aircraft Wing Using Scaled Equivalent Plate Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, Thiagarajan

    2010-01-01

    Equivalent plate analysis is often used to replace the computationally expensive finite element analysis in initial design stages or in conceptual design of aircraft wing structures. The equivalent plate model can also be used to design a wind tunnel model to match the stiffness characteristics of the wing box of a full-scale aircraft wing model while satisfying strength-based requirements An equivalent plate analysis technique is presented to predict the static and dynamic response of an aircraft wing with or without damage. First, a geometric scale factor and a dynamic pressure scale factor are defined to relate the stiffness, load and deformation of the equivalent plate to the aircraft wing. A procedure using an optimization technique is presented to create scaled equivalent plate models from the full scale aircraft wing using geometric and dynamic pressure scale factors. The scaled models are constructed by matching the stiffness of the scaled equivalent plate with the scaled aircraft wing stiffness. It is demonstrated that the scaled equivalent plate model can be used to predict the deformation of the aircraft wing accurately. Once the full equivalent plate geometry is obtained, any other scaled equivalent plate geometry can be obtained using the geometric scale factor. Next, an average frequency scale factor is defined as the average ratio of the frequencies of the aircraft wing to the frequencies of the full-scaled equivalent plate. The average frequency scale factor combined with the geometric scale factor is used to predict the frequency response of the aircraft wing from the scaled equivalent plate analysis. A procedure is outlined to estimate the frequency response and the flutter speed of an aircraft wing from the equivalent plate analysis using the frequency scale factor and geometric scale factor. The equivalent plate analysis is demonstrated using an aircraft wing without damage and another with damage. Both of the problems show that the scaled

  2. Predicting the extension of equivalence classes from primary generalization gradients: the merger of equivalence classes and perceptual classes.

    PubMed Central

    Fields, L; Reeve, K F; Adams, B J; Brown, J L; Verhave, T

    1997-01-01

    In Experiment 1, 6 college students were given generalization tests using 25 line lengths as samples with a long line, a short line, and a "neither" option as comparisons. The neither option was to be used if a sample did not go with the other comparisons. Then, four-member equivalence classes were formed. Class 1 included three nonsense words and the short line. Class 2 included three other nonsense words and the long line. After repeating the generalization test for line length, additional tests were conducted using members of the equivalence classes (i.e., nonsense words and lines) as comparisons and intermediate-length lines as samples. All Class 2 comparisons were selected in the presence of the test lines that also evoked the selection of the long line in the generalization test that had been given before equivalence class formation. Class 1 yielded complementary findings. Thus, the preclass primary generalization gradient predicted which test lines acted as members of each equivalence class. Regardless of using comparisons that were nonsense words or lines, the post-class-formation gradients overlapped, showing the substitutability of class members. Experiment 2 assessed the discriminability of the intermediate-length test lines from the Class 1 (shortest) and Class 2 (longest) lines. The test lines that functioned as members of an equivalence class were discriminable from the line that was a member of the same class by training. Thus, these test lines also acted as members of a dimensionally defined class of "long" or "short" lines. Extension of an equivalence class, then, involved its merger with a dimensionally defined class, which converted a close-ended class to an open-ended class. These data suggest a means of predicting class membership in naturally occurring categories. PMID:9241863

  3. Platelet lysate from whole blood-derived pooled platelet concentrates and apheresis-derived platelet concentrates for the isolation and expansion of human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells: production process, content and identification of active components

    PubMed Central

    Fekete, Natalie; Gadelorge, Mélanie; Fürst, Daniel; Maurer, Caroline; Dausend, Julia; Fleury-Cappellesso, Sandrine; Mailänder, Volker; Lotfi, Ramin; Ignatius, Anita; Sensebé, Luc; Bourin, Philippe; Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Rojewski, Markus Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background aims The clinical use of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) requires ex vivo expansion in media containing supplements such as fetal bovine serum or, alternatively, human platelet lysate (PL). Methods Platelet concentrates were frozen, quarantine stored, thawed and sterile filtered to obtain PL. PL content and its effect on fibroblast-colony-forming unit (CFU-F) formation, MSC proliferation and large-scale expansion were studied. Results PL contained high levels of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), soluble CD40L (sCD40L), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), platelet-derived growth factor AA (PDGF-AA), platelet-derived growth factor AB/BB (PDGF-AB/BB), chemokine (C-C) ligand 5 (CCL5; RANTES) transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and chemokine (C-X-C) ligand 1/2/3 (GRO), with low batch-to-batch variability, and most were stable for up to 14 days. Inhibition of PDGF-BB and bFGF decreased MSC proliferation by about 20% and 50%, respectively. The strongest inhibition (about 75%) was observed with a combination of anti-bFGF + anti-PDGF-BB and anti-bFGF + anti-TGF-β1 + anti-PDGF-BB. Interestingly, various combinations of recombinant PDGF-BB, bFGF and TGF-β1 were not sufficient to promote cell proliferation. PL from whole blood-derived pooled platelet concentrates and apheresis platelet concentrates did not differ significantly in their growth-promoting activity on MSC. Conclusions PL enhances MSC proliferation and can be regarded as a safe tool for MSC expansion for clinical purposes. \\in particular, PDGF-BB and bFGF are essential components for the growth-promoting effect of PL, but are not sufficient for MSC proliferation. PMID:22296115

  4. Equivalent Skin Analysis of Wing Structures Using Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Youhua; Kapania, Rakesh K.

    2000-01-01

    An efficient method of modeling trapezoidal built-up wing structures is developed by coupling. in an indirect way, an Equivalent Plate Analysis (EPA) with Neural Networks (NN). Being assumed to behave like a Mindlin-plate, the wing is solved using the Ritz method with Legendre polynomials employed as the trial functions. This analysis method can be made more efficient by avoiding most of the computational effort spent on calculating contributions to the stiffness and mass matrices from each spar and rib. This is accomplished by replacing the wing inner-structure with an "equivalent" material that combines to the skin and whose properties are simulated by neural networks. The constitutive matrix, which relates the stress vector to the strain vector, and the density of the equivalent material are obtained by enforcing mass and stiffness matrix equities with rec,ard to the EPA in a least-square sense. Neural networks for the material properties are trained in terms of the design variables of the wing structure. Examples show that the present method, which can be called an Equivalent Skin Analysis (ESA) of the wing structure, is more efficient than the EPA and still fairly good results can be obtained. The present ESA is very promising to be used at the early stages of wing structure design.

  5. Generalization of Equivalent Crystal Theory to Include Angular Dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, John; Zypman, Fredy R.

    2004-01-01

    In the original Equivalent Crystal Theory, each atomic site in the real crystal is assigned an equivalent lattice constant, in general different from the ground state one. This parameter corresponds to a local compression or expansion of the lattice. The basic method considers these volumetric transformations and, in addition, introduces the possibility that the reference lattice is anisotropically distorted. These distortions however, were introduced ad-hoc. In this work, we generalize the original Equivalent Crystal Theory by systematically introducing site-dependent directional distortions of the lattice, whose corresponding distortions account for the dependence of the energy on anisotropic local density variations. This is done in the spirit of the original framework, but including a gradient term in the density. This approach is introduced to correct a deficiency in the original Equivalent Crystal Theory and other semiempirical methods in quantitatively obtaining the correct ratios of the surface energies of low index planes of cubic metals (100), (110), and (111). We develop here the basic framework, and apply it to the calculation of Fe (110) and Fe (111) surface energy formation. The results, compared with first principles calculations, show an improvement over previous semiempirical approaches.

  6. A comparison of quantum limited dose and noise equivalent dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Job, Isaias D.; Boyce, Sarah J.; Petrillo, Michael J.; Zhou, Kungang

    2016-03-01

    Quantum-limited-dose (QLD) and noise-equivalent-dose (NED) are performance metrics often used interchangeably. Although the metrics are related, they are not equivalent unless the treatment of electronic noise is carefully considered. These metrics are increasingly important to properly characterize the low-dose performance of flat panel detectors (FPDs). A system can be said to be quantum-limited when the Signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) is proportional to the square-root of x-ray exposure. Recent experiments utilizing three methods to determine the quantum-limited dose range yielded inconsistent results. To investigate the deviation in results, generalized analytical equations are developed to model the image processing and analysis of each method. We test the generalized expression for both radiographic and fluoroscopic detectors. The resulting analysis shows that total noise content of the images processed by each method are inherently different based on their readout scheme. Finally, it will be shown that the NED is equivalent to the instrumentation-noise-equivalent-exposure (INEE) and furthermore that the NED is derived from the quantum-noise-only method of determining QLD. Future investigations will measure quantum-limited performance of radiographic panels with a modified readout scheme to allow for noise improvements similar to measurements performed with fluoroscopic detectors.

  7. Equivalence of cost generators for minimum cost flow phase unwrapping.

    PubMed

    Hubig, Michael; Suchandt, Steffen; Adam, Nico

    2002-01-01

    Phase unwrapping represents a crucial step in processing phase data obtained with techniques such as synthetic aperture radar interferometry, speckle interferometry, and magnetic resonance imaging. The so-called branch-cut approaches form an important class of phase unwrapping algorithms. In 1996, Costantini proposed to transform the problem of correctly placing branch cuts into a minimum cost flow problem [Proceedings of the Fringe '96 Workshop (European Space Agency, Munich, 1996), pp. 261-272]. The critical point of this new approach is to generate cost functions that have to represent all the a priori knowledge necessary for phase unwrapping. Any function transforming a priori knowledge into a cost function is called a cost generator. Several types of algorithms ranging from heuristic approaches to generators based on probability-theory interpretations were suggested. A problem arising from the growing diversity of algorithms is to find a criterion for the equivalence of different cost generators. Two cost generators are equivalent if they produce cost functions with the same minimal flow for every residue configuration on every image with all possible a priori knowledge. Comparing the results of different cost generators on test scenes can show only their non-equivalence. We solve this problem by proving the following mathematical classification theorem: Two cost generators are equivalent if and only if one can be transformed into the other by multiplication by a fixed constant. PMID:11778734

  8. Local equivalence, surface-code states, and matroids

    SciTech Connect

    Sarvepalli, Pradeep; Raussendorf, Robert

    2010-08-15

    Recently, Ji et al. disproved the local-unitary-local Clifford (LU-LC) conjecture and showed that the local unitary (LU) and local Clifford (LC) equivalence classes of the stabilizer states are not always the same. Despite the fact that this settles the LU-LC conjecture, a sufficient condition for stabilizer states that violate the LU-LC conjecture is not known. In this paper, we investigate further the properties of stabilizer states with respect to local equivalence. Our first result shows that there exist infinitely many stabilizer states that violate the LU-LC conjecture. In particular, we show that for all numbers of qubits n{>=}28, there exist distance-two stabilizer states which are counterexamples to the LU-LC conjecture. We prove that, for all odd n{>=}195, there exist stabilizer states with distance greater than two that are LU equivalent but not LC equivalent. Two important classes of stabilizer states that are of great interest in quantum computation are the cluster states and stabilizer states of the surface codes. We show that, under some minimal restrictions, both these classes of states preclude any counterexamples. In this context, we also show that the associated surface codes do not have any encoded non-Clifford transversal gates. We characterize the Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) surface-code states in terms of a class of minor closed binary matroids. In addition to making a connection to an important open problem in binary matroid theory, this characterization does in some cases provide an efficient test for CSS states that are not counterexamples.

  9. The New Wind Chill Equivalent Temperature Chart.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osczevski, Randall; Bluestein, Maurice

    2005-10-01

    The formula used in the U.S. and Canada to express the combined effect of wind and low temperature on how cold it feels was changed in November 2001. Many had felt that the old formula for equivalent temperature, derived in the 1960s from Siple and Passel's flawed but quite useful Wind Chill Index, unnecessarily exaggerated the severity of the weather. The new formula is based on a mathematical model of heat flow from the upwind side of a head-sized cylinder moving at walking speed into the wind. The paper details the assumptions that were made in generating the new wind chill charts. It also points out weaknesses in the concept of wind chill equivalent temperature, including its steady-state character and a seemingly paradoxical effect of the internal thermal resistance of the cylinder on comfort and equivalent temperature. Some improvements and alternatives are suggested.

  10. Equivalent source current formulation in impedance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilmoniemi, Risto J.; Ahlfors, Seppo P.

    1994-04-01

    Changes in the conductivity distribution of a body modify the electromagnetic field due to injected current in the same way as an equivalent source current distribution J(sup eq)(r) does. In the limit of small perturbations, it is shown that J(sup eq)(r) = Sigma(sup 1)(r)E(sup 0)(r), where Sigma(sup 1)(r) is a deviation in the conductivity and E(sup 0)(r) is the non-perturbed electric field. A model experiment demonstrates how a conductivity anomaly can be located using the minimum-norm estimate of the equivalent currents. The minimum-norm solution for small perturbation Sigma(sup 1)(r) is derived as well. The equivalent-source formulation allows the direct application of biomagnetic and bioelectric source-determination methods to conductivity imaging.

  11. Electrophysiological Correlates of Stimulus Equivalence Processes

    PubMed Central

    Haimson, Barry; Wilkinson, Krista M; Rosenquist, Celia; Ouimet, Carolyn; McIlvane, William J

    2009-01-01

    Research reported here concerns neural processes relating to stimulus equivalence class formation. In Experiment 1, two types of word pairs were presented successively to normally capable adults. In one type, the words had related usage in English (e.g., uncle, aunt). In the other, the two words were not typically related in their usage (e.g., wrist, corn). For pairs of both types, event-related cortical potentials were recorded during and immediately after the presentation of the second word. The obtained waveforms differentiated these two types of pairs. For the unrelated pairs, the waveforms were significantly more negative about 400 ms after the second word was presented, thus replicating the “N400” phenomenon of the cognitive neuroscience literature. In addition, there was a strong positive-tending wave form difference post-stimulus presentation (peaked at about 500 ms) that also differentiated the unrelated from related stimulus pairs. In Experiment 2, the procedures were extended to study arbitrary stimulus–stimulus relations established via matching-to-sample training. Participants were experimentally naïve adults. Sample stimuli (Set A) were trigrams, and comparison stimuli (Sets B, C, D, E, and F) were nonrepresentative forms. Behavioral tests evaluated potentially emergent equivalence relations (i.e., BD, DF, CE, etc.). All participants exhibited classes consistent with the arbitrary matching training. They were also exposed also to an event-related potential procedure like that used in Experiment 1. Some received the ERP procedure before equivalence tests and some after. Only those participants who received ERP procedures after equivalence tests exhibited robust N400 differentiation initially. The positivity observed in Experiment 1 was absent for all participants. These results support speculations that equivalence tests may provide contextual support for the formation of equivalence classes including those that emerge gradually during testing

  12. What Semantic Equivalences Are Suitable for Non-interference Properties in Computer Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaowei; Jiao, Li; Lu, Weiming

    Non-interference properties are an important class of security properties. Many different non-interference properties have been presented based on different underlying models including the process algebraic languages. Usually, in specifying the non-interference properties using process algebraic languages, a specific semantic equivalence is introduced. Though weak bisimulation based non-interference properties have been studied extensively, it is not always satisfactory. This paper considers the topic on pursuing a probably more suitable semantic equivalence for specifying the non-interference properties. We find several alternatives, e.g., should testing equivalence, impossible future equivalence and possible future equivalence, etc. As another topic in the paper, based on the structural operational semantics, we suggest a compositional rule format, the SISNNI format, for an impossible future equivalence based non-interference property, i.e., the SISNNI property. We show that the SISNNI property is compositional in any SISNNI languages, i.e., languages in the SISNNI format.

  13. An equivalence relation for the Ginzburg-Landau equations of superconductivity.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaper, H. G.; Takac, P.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. Rostock

    1997-01-01

    Gauge invariance is used to establish an equivalence relation between solutions of the time-independent and time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations that describe the same physical state of a superconductor. The equivalence relation shows how equilibrium configurations are obtained as large-time asymptotic limits of solutions of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations.

  14. Principle of Equivalence and the Deflection of Light by the Sun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Robert P.; Lathrop, John D.

    1978-01-01

    Explains the discrepancy between the principle-of-equivalence and the general theory of relativity in calculating the deflection of light by the sun. Shows that the total deflection is the sum of the deflection given by the principle-of-equivalence, and the deflection of infinitely fast particles. ( GA)

  15. Stability of functional equivalence and stimulus equivalence: effects of baseline reversals.

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Oliver; Chase, Philip N

    2002-01-01

    Functional equivalence and stimulus equivalence classes were established, reversed, and tested for stability with college students. Functional stimulus classes were established using a task in which students were trained to say nonsense words in the presence of arbitrarily assigned sets of symbols. Computer-controlled speech-recognition technology was used to record and analyze students' vocal responses for accuracy. After the establishment of stimulus classes was demonstrated with a transfer-of-function test, the effects of reversing selected baseline simple discriminations were assessed during an additional transfer-of-function test and a follow-up test that occurred several weeks later. With the same students, stimulus equivalence classes were established and demonstrated with computerized matching-to-sample procedures. The effects of reversing selected baseline conditional discriminations also were assessed during a postreversal equivalence test and a follow-up test. Both functional stimulus classes and stimulus equivalence were sensitive to contingency reversals, but the reversals with stimulus equivalence closses affected stimulus class organization whereas reversals with functional stimulus classes did not. Follow-up performances were largely consistent with the original baseline contingencies. The similarities and differences between stimulus equivalence and functional equivalence are related to the specific contingencies that select responding in the presence of the stimuli that form the classes. PMID:11831781

  16. High School Equivalency Testing in Arizona. Forum: Responding to Changes in High School Equivalency Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Sheryl

    2015-01-01

    For decades, the state of Arizona has used the General Educational Development (GED) Test to award the Arizona High School Equivalency (HSE) Diploma, as the GED Test was the only test available, recognized and accepted in the United States as the measure by which adults could demonstrate the educational attainment equivalent to high school…

  17. 21 CFR 26.9 - Equivalence determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Equivalence determination. 26.9 Section 26.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT...

  18. 33 CFR 157.07 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR 30.15-1, of a design or an equipment to fulfill a requirement in this part, except an operational... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equivalents. 157.07 Section 157.07 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED)...

  19. 33 CFR 157.07 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR 30.15-1, of a design or an equipment to fulfill a requirement in this part, except an operational... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equivalents. 157.07 Section 157.07 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED)...

  20. 33 CFR 157.07 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 30.15-1, of a design or an equipment to fulfill a requirement in this part, except an operational... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equivalents. 157.07 Section 157.07 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED)...

  1. 33 CFR 157.07 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR 30.15-1, of a design or an equipment to fulfill a requirement in this part, except an operational... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equivalents. 157.07 Section 157.07 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED)...

  2. 33 CFR 157.07 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR 30.15-1, of a design or an equipment to fulfill a requirement in this part, except an operational... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equivalents. 157.07 Section 157.07 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED)...

  3. 21 CFR 26.39 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE PRODUCT EVALUATION REPORTS: UNITED STATES AND THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY Specific Sector Provisions for Medical Devices § 26.39 Equivalence assessment. (a) In the final 6 months...

  4. 21 CFR 26.39 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE PRODUCT EVALUATION REPORTS: UNITED STATES AND THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY Specific Sector Provisions for Medical Devices § 26.39 Equivalence assessment. (a) In the final 6 months...

  5. HOW TO PASS HIGH SCHOOL EQUIVALENCY EXAMINATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KLAGSBRUN, FRANCINE, ED.

    ORGANIZED INTO A FIVE-DAY STUDY PLAN, ALLOWING ONE DAY'S STUDY TO EACH PART OF THE EQUIVALENCY EXAMINATION (SPELLING AND GRAMMAR, SOCIAL STUDIES, SCIENCE, LITERATURE, AND MATHEMATICS), THIS BOOK PROVIDES SAMPLE TESTS AND ANSWER SHEETS, A TEST SCORE RECORD AND SELF EVALUATION PROFILE, AND SUPPLEMENTARY TESTS FOR EACH SUBJECT. THE EXAMINEE CAN ORDER…

  6. CP Violation, Neutral Currents, and Weak Equivalence

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Fitch, V. L.

    1972-03-23

    Within the past few months two excellent summaries of the state of our knowledge of the weak interactions have been presented. Correspondingly, we will not attempt a comprehensive review but instead concentrate this discussion on the status of CP violation, the question of the neutral currents, and the weak equivalence principle.

  7. Procedures for Determining the Equivalence of Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunivant, Noel

    Eight different methods are reviewed for determining whether two or more tests are equivalent measures. These methods vary in restrictiveness from the Wilks-Votaw test of compound symmetry (which requires that all means, variances, and covariances are equal), to Joreskog's theory of congeneric tests (which requires only that the tests are measures…

  8. 33 CFR 67.01-30 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equivalents. 67.01-30 Section 67.01-30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements §...

  9. 33 CFR 67.01-30 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equivalents. 67.01-30 Section 67.01-30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements §...

  10. 33 CFR 67.01-30 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equivalents. 67.01-30 Section 67.01-30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements §...

  11. 33 CFR 67.01-30 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equivalents. 67.01-30 Section 67.01-30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements §...

  12. 33 CFR 67.01-30 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equivalents. 67.01-30 Section 67.01-30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements §...

  13. Spin-Gravity Interactions and Equivalence Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obukhov, Yu. N.; Silenko, A. J.; Teryaev, O. V.

    2016-02-01

    The spin-gravity interactions imply the new manifestation of the equivalence principle leading to the absence of gravitoelectric and anomalous gravitomagnetic moments for fermions. This property is still valid in the presence of the space-time torsion due to the covariance arguments. The experimental bounds for the torsion, which may be extracted from modern co-magnetometer experiments, are discussed.

  14. 46 CFR 175.540 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Safety Management (ISM) Code (IMO Resolution A.741(18)) for the purpose of determining that an equivalent safety management system is in place on board a vessel. The Commandant will consider the size and..., appliance, apparatus, equipment, calculation, information, or test, which provides a level of...

  15. 46 CFR 175.540 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Safety Management (ISM) Code (IMO Resolution A.741(18)) for the purpose of determining that an equivalent safety management system is in place on board a vessel. The Commandant will consider the size and..., appliance, apparatus, equipment, calculation, information, or test, which provides a level of...

  16. 46 CFR 175.540 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Safety Management (ISM) Code (IMO Resolution A.741(18)) for the purpose of determining that an equivalent safety management system is in place on board a vessel. The Commandant will consider the size and..., appliance, apparatus, equipment, calculation, information, or test, which provides a level of...

  17. Electrophysiological Correlates of Stimulus Equivalence Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haimson, Barry; Wilkinson, Krista M.; Rosenquist, Celia; Ouimet, Carolyn; McIlvane, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Research reported here concerns neural processes relating to stimulus equivalence class formation. In Experiment 1, two types of word pairs were presented successively to normally capable adults. In one type, the words had related usage in English (e.g., uncle, aunt). In the other, the two words were not typically related in their usage (e.g.,…

  18. Are Letter Detection and Proofreading Tasks Equivalent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Aubin, Jean; Losier, Marie-Claire; Roy, Macha; Lawrence, Mike

    2015-01-01

    When readers search for misspellings in a proofreading task or for a letter in a letter detection task, they are more likely to omit function words than content words. However, with misspelled words, previous findings for the letter detection task were mixed. In two experiments, the authors tested the functional equivalence of both tasks. Results…

  19. 33 CFR 155.120 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equivalents. 155.120 Section 155.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS General § 155.120...

  20. 33 CFR 155.120 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equivalents. 155.120 Section 155.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS General § 155.120...

  1. 33 CFR 155.120 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equivalents. 155.120 Section 155.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS General § 155.120...

  2. Reading adn Auditory-Visual Equivalences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidman, Murray

    1971-01-01

    A retarded boy, unable to read orally or with comprehension, was taught to match spoken to printed words and was then capable of reading comprehension (matching printed words to picture) and oral reading (naming printed words aloud), demonstrating that certain learned auditory-visual equivalences are sufficient prerequisites for reading…

  3. 21 CFR 26.6 - Equivalence assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Equivalence assessment. 26.6 Section 26.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT...

  4. Pseudo-Equivalent Groups and Linking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Shelby J.

    2015-01-01

    Adjustment by minimum discriminant information provides an approach to linking test forms in the case of a nonequivalent groups design with no satisfactory common items. This approach employs background information on individual examinees in each administration so that weighted samples of examinees form pseudo-equivalent groups in the sense that…

  5. AN UPDATE ON TECHNOLOGIES SEEKING PFRP EQUIVALENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will: 1) Review the mandate of the Pathogen Equivalency Committee (PEC), 2) Review the PEC's current membership (of 10), 3) Discuss how a typical application is evaluated, 4) Note where information can be found by those interested in applying to the PEC, 5) List...

  6. Structural Equivalence in a Journal Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doreian, Patrick; Fararo, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques used in contemporary social network analysis are applied to citation data for a network of journals from three time periods--1970/71, 1975/76, 1980/81. Blocks or positions in journal network based on structural equivalence correspond closely to categorization by aims and objectives. Hypotheses concerning journal networks are advanced.…

  7. 33 CFR 155.120 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equivalents. 155.120 Section 155.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS General § 155.120...

  8. 36 CFR 1194.5 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 1194.5 Section 1194.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS General § 1194.5...

  9. 36 CFR 1192.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the procedure set forth in 49 CFR 37.7. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 1192.2 Section 1192.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION...

  10. 36 CFR 1192.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the procedure set forth in 49 CFR 37.7. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 1192.2 Section 1192.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION...

  11. 36 CFR 1194.5 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 1194.5 Section 1194.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS General § 1194.5...

  12. 36 CFR 1192.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the procedure set forth in 49 CFR 37.7. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 1192.2 Section 1192.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION...

  13. 36 CFR 1192.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the procedure set forth in 49 CFR 37.7. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 1192.2 Section 1192.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION...

  14. 36 CFR 1194.5 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Equivalent facilitation. 1194.5 Section 1194.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS General § 1194.5...

  15. 36 CFR 1192.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the procedure set forth in 49 CFR 37.7. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Equivalent facilitation. 1192.2 Section 1192.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION...

  16. 36 CFR 1194.5 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 1194.5 Section 1194.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS General § 1194.5...

  17. 36 CFR 1194.5 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 1194.5 Section 1194.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS General § 1194.5...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1526 - Medical equivalence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical equivalence. 404.1526 Section 404.1526 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Medical Considerations § 404.1526...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1526 - Medical equivalence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical equivalence. 404.1526 Section 404.1526 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Medical Considerations § 404.1526...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1526 - Medical equivalence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical equivalence. 404.1526 Section 404.1526 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Medical Considerations § 404.1526...

  1. 20 CFR 404.1526 - Medical equivalence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical equivalence. 404.1526 Section 404.1526 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Medical Considerations § 404.1526...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1526 - Medical equivalence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical equivalence. 404.1526 Section 404.1526 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Medical Considerations § 404.1526...

  3. Identifiability and Equivalence of GLLIRM Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revuelta, Javier

    2009-01-01

    The generalized logit-linear item response model (GLLIRM) is a linearly constrained nominal categories model (NCM) that computes the scale and intercept parameters for categories as a weighted sum of basic parameters. This paper addresses the problems of the identifiability of the basic parameters and the equivalence between different GLLIRM…

  4. 46 CFR 175.540 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... lifesaving appliance or arrangement as an equivalent if it has performance characteristics at least... IMO Resolution A. 520(13) (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600); or (2) Has successfully... Safety Management (ISM) Code (IMO Resolution A.741(18)) for the purpose of determining that an...

  5. SUPPORT FOR USEPA'S PATHOGEN EQUIVALENCY COMMITTEE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will discuss recommended and new resources for the USEPA's Pathogen Equivalency Committee including: 1) Committee's creation in 1985 and its purpose 2) Drexel University Professor Chuck Haas' 2001 report (Assessment of the PEC Process) and its findings 3) NAS/NR...

  6. 7 CFR 1005.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1005.54 Section 1005.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order...

  7. 7 CFR 1005.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1005.54 Section 1005.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order...

  8. 7 CFR 1005.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1005.54 Section 1005.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order...

  9. 7 CFR 1005.54 - Equivalent price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equivalent price. 1005.54 Section 1005.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order...

  10. 33 CFR 155.120 - Equivalents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equivalents. 155.120 Section 155.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS General § 155.120...

  11. Downhole steam generator shows merit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    Production from a 5-spot pattern in Kern River Field reached 25,000 bbl during a 5-month test of a down-hole steam generator-equivalent to the amount of oil expected if steam injection from the conventional source had been continued. The test evaluated the down-hole generator as a steam source relatively free of atmospheric pollutants. The biggest objection to steam recovery of heavy crude is the volume of combustion products vented to the atmosphere, and these frequently contain small amounts of sulfur compounds. One big advantage of generating steam down hole is elimination of heat losses in the injection well. The practical limit for conventional steam injection is in a reservoir approximately 2,500 ft deep; the down-hole generator should operate economically to 6,000 ft. The test proved the feasibility of the method, and cleared the way for a series of down-hole generator installation and retrieval tests.

  12. Quantum-classical equivalence and ground-state factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abouie, Jahanfar; Sepehrinia, Reza

    2016-02-01

    We have performed an analytical study of quantum-classical equivalence for quantum XY-spin chains with arbitrary interactions to explore the classical counterpart of the factorizing magnetic fields that drive the system into a separable ground state. We demonstrate that the factorizing line in the parameter space of a quantum model is equivalent to the so-called natural boundary that emerges in mapping the quantum XY-model onto the two-dimensional classical Ising model. As a result, we show that the quantum systems with the non-factorizable ground state could not be mapped onto the classical Ising model. Based on the presented correspondence we suggest a promising method for obtaining the factorizing field of quantum systems through the commutation of the quantum Hamiltonian and the transfer matrix of the classical model.

  13. High latitude equivalent current systems during extremely quiet times

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rostoker, G.; Chen, A. J.; Yasuhara, F.; Akasofu, S.-I.; Kawasaki, K.

    1974-01-01

    The magnetic perturbation patterns in the polar cap and auroral zone regions are obtained for extremely quiet days using two different techniques. It is shown that the form of the equivalent current flow pattern is extremely sensitive to the level of quietness, and that even so-called quiet days are at times disturbed by substorm activity. Certain characteristic equivalent flow not typically observed during substorms is noted in the polar cap, and this flow appears to be associated with effects of polar cap perturbations discussed by Svalgaard (1973). A region of equatorward flow at high latitudes near the dawn meridian, appears to be Hall current driven by an eastward electric field. The dayside sub-auroral zone is dominated by the Sq-current system, while the nightside shows no significant current flow in the absence of substorm activity.

  14. Equivalent Pairs of Words and Points of Connection

    PubMed Central

    Mushtaq, Qaiser; Razaq, Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Higman has defined coset diagrams for PGL(2, ℤ). The coset diagrams are composed of fragments, and the fragments are further composed of two or more circuits. A condition for the existence of a certain fragment γ in a coset diagram is a polynomial f in ℤ[𝔃], obtained by choosing a pair of words F[wi, wj] such that both wi and wj fix a vertex v in γ. Two pairs of words are equivalent if and only if they have the same polynomial. In this paper, we find distinct pairs of words that are equivalent. We also show there are certain fragments, which have the same orientations as those of their mirror images. PMID:25333072

  15. Derivation of Equivalent Continuous Dilution for Cyclic, Unsteady Driving Forces

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering; Mortensen, Dorthe K.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2010-12-15

    This article uses an analytical approach to determine the dilution of an unsteadily-generated solute in an unsteady solvent stream, under cyclic temporal boundary conditions. The goal is to find a simplified way of showing equivalence of such a process to a reference case where equivalent dilution is defined as a weighted average concentration. This derivation has direct applications to the ventilation of indoor spaces where indoor air quality and energy consumption cannot in general be simultaneously optimized. By solving the equation we can specify how much air we need to use in one ventilation pattern compared to another to obtain same indoor air quality. Because energy consumption is related to the amount of air exchanged by a ventilation system, the equation can be used as a first step to evaluate different ventilation patterns effect on the energy consumption. The use of the derived equation is demonstrated by representative cases of interest in both residential and non-residential buildings.

  16. Performance of low pressure tissue equivalent chambers and a new method for parameterizing the dose equivalent

    SciTech Connect

    Eisen, Y.; Vasilik, D.G.; Brake, R.J.; Erkkila, B.H.; Littlejohn, G.J.

    1986-09-01

    The performance of spherical tissue equivalent chambers with equivalent diameters between 0.5 and 2..mu.. was tested experimentally using monoenergetic and polyenergetic neutron sources in the energy region of 10 keV to 14.5 MeV. Theoretical calculations were performed in order to obtain a simple algorithm for deriving the dose equivalent from the measured data. The algorithm relates the number of recoil particles to the dose equivalent, rather than having a one-to-one correspondence between the lineal energy and the linear energy transfer of the recoil particles. The calculations took into account neutron interactions with hydrogen atoms in the chamber wall as well as in the gas, and also the finite energy resolution determined by both the detector and the electronic system. Qualitatively, the calculations well dscribe the experimental results. The algorithm that was developed determines the neutron dose equivalent, from the data of the 0.5..mu.. chamber, to better than +-20% over the energy range of 30 keV to 14.5 MeV. The same algorithm also determines the dose equivalent from the data of the 2..mu.. chamber to better than +-20% over the energy of 70 keV to 14.5 MeV. The efficiency of the chambers is low and has an average value of 330 counts per mrem, or equivalently about 0.2 c/s per mrem/h. This efficiency enables the measurement of dose equivalent rates only above 100 mrem/h for an integration period of 3 seconds. However, integrated dose equivalents can be mesured as low as 0.1 mrem.

  17. Scaling Laws for Hydrodynamically Equivalent Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Masakatsu

    2001-10-01

    The EPOC (equivalent physics of confinement) scenario for the proof of principle of high gain inertial confinement fusion is presented, where the key concept "hydrodynamically equivalent implosions" plays a crucial role. Scaling laws on the target and confinement parameters are derived by applying the Lie group analysis to the PDE (partially differential equations) chain of the hydrodynamic system. It turns out that the conventional scaling law based on adiabatic approximation significantly differs from one which takes such energy transport effect as electron heat conduction into account. Confinement plasma parameters of the hot spot such as the central temperature and the areal mass density at peak compression are obtained with a self-similar solution for spherical implosions.

  18. Anomalies, equivalence and renormalization of cosmological frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero-Valea, Mario

    2016-05-01

    We study the question of whether two frames of a given physical theory are equivalent or not in the presence of quantum corrections. By using field theory arguments, we claim that equivalence is broken in the presence of anomalous symmetries in one of the frames. This is particularized to the case of the relation between the Einstein and Jordan frames in scalar-tensor theories used to describe early Universe dynamics. Although in this case a regularization that cancels the anomaly exists, the renormalized theory always develops a nonvanishing contribution to the S matrix that is present only in the Jordan frame, promoting the different frames to different physical theories that must be UV completed in a different way.

  19. Minimal information to determine affine shape equivalence.

    PubMed

    Wagemans, J; Van Gool, L; Lamote, C; Foster, D H

    2000-04-01

    Participants judged the affine equivalence of 2 simultaneously presented 4-point patterns. Performance level (d') varied between 1.5 and 2.7, depending on the information available for solving the correspondence problem (insufficient in Experiment 1a, superfluous in Experiment 1b, and minimal in Experiments 1c, 2a, 2b) and on the exposure time (unlimited in Experiments 1 and 2a and 500 ms in Experiment 2b), but it did not vary much with the complexity of the affine transformation (rotation and slant in Experiment 1 and same plus tilt in Experiment 2). Performance in Experiment 3 was lower with 3-point patterns than with 4-point patterns, whereas blocking the trials according to the affine transformation parameters had little effect. Determining affine shape equivalence with minimal-information displays is based on a fast assessment of qualitatively or quasi-invariant properties such as convexity/ concavity, parallelism, and collinearity. PMID:10811156

  20. On equivalent resistance of electrical circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagan, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    While the standard (introductory physics) way of computing the equivalent resistance of nontrivial electrical circuits is based on Kirchhoff's rules, there is a mathematically and conceptually simpler approach, called the method of nodal potentials, whose basic variables are the values of the electric potential at the circuit's nodes. In this paper, we review the method of nodal potentials and illustrate it using the Wheatstone bridge as an example. We then derive a closed-form expression for the equivalent resistance of a generic circuit, which we apply to a few sample circuits. The result unveils a curious interplay between electrical circuits, matrix algebra, and graph theory and its applications to computer science. The paper is written at a level accessible by undergraduate students who are familiar with matrix arithmetic. Additional proofs and technical details are provided in appendices.

  1. Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worden, Paul

    1994-01-01

    This grant provided support for the STEP (Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle) program between October 1991 and September 1993. STEP, previously supported by NASA under Grant NAG8-837 'A Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle,' was selected by the European Space Agency for a Phase A study as a candidate for ESA's next medium size mission (M2). STEP was conceived as a joint NASA/ESA mission with equal participation by both agencies. ESA's contribution to the program would be the spacecraft; NASA would provide the launcher and half of the instrument, while the other half of the instrument would be provided by various European agencies. STEP was in competition with three other programs, INTEGRAL, PRISMA, and MARSNET. The final selection of a single mission for M2 took place in April 1993. STEP was not selected for M2 but made a very close second. The program is continuing in modified form.

  2. Equivalent dynamic model of DEMES rotary joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jianwen; Wang, Shu; Xing, Zhiguang; McCoul, David; Niu, Junyang; Huang, Bo; Liu, Liwu; Leng, Jinsong

    2016-07-01

    The dielectric elastomer minimum energy structure (DEMES) can realize large angular deformations by a small voltage-induced strain of the dielectric elastomer (DE), so it is a suitable candidate to make a rotary joint for a soft robot. Dynamic analysis is necessary for some applications, but the dynamic response of DEMESs is difficult to model because of the complicated morphology and viscoelasticity of the DE film. In this paper, a method composed of theoretical analysis and experimental measurement is presented to model the dynamic response of a DEMES rotary joint under an alternating voltage. Based on measurements of equivalent driving force and damping of the DEMES, the model can be derived. Some experiments were carried out to validate the equivalent dynamic model. The maximum angle error between model and experiment is greater than ten degrees, but it is acceptable to predict angular velocity of the DEMES, therefore, it can be applied in feedforward–feedback compound control.

  3. Equivalent impedance of a rough interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuk, N. P.; Tret'iakov, O. A.

    1987-10-01

    An equivalent-impedance (EI) dyad is constructed for a rough and plane (on the average) interface dividing two plane-stratified magnetodielectric media. Its characteristics are related to those of a smooth surface and to the scattering properties of the roughnesses. It is shown that the Hermitian part of an EI dyad is formed through field scattering by roughnesses into the propagating natural modes of the regular medium.

  4. Equivalent Circuit Modeling of Hysteresis Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Nitao, J J; Scharlemann, E T; Kirkendall, B A

    2009-08-31

    We performed a literature review and found that many equivalent circuit models of hysteresis motors in use today are incorrect. The model by Miyairi and Kataoka (1965) is the correct one. We extended the model by transforming it to quadrature coordinates, amenable to circuit or digital simulation. 'Hunting' is an oscillatory phenomenon often observed in hysteresis motors. While several works have attempted to model the phenomenon with some partial success, we present a new complete model that predicts hunting from first principles.

  5. Capacitors with low equivalent series resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleig, Patrick Franz (Inventor); Lakeman, Charles D. E. (Inventor); Fuge, Mark (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) in a coin or button cell configuration having low equivalent series resistance (ESR). The capacitor comprises mesh or other porous metal that is attached via conducting adhesive to one or both the current collectors. The mesh is embedded into the surface of the adjacent electrode, thereby reducing the interfacial resistance between the electrode and the current collector, thus reducing the ESR of the capacitor.

  6. Global equivalent magnetization of the oceanic lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyment, J.; Choi, Y.; Hamoudi, M.; Lesur, V.; Thebault, E.

    2015-11-01

    As a by-product of the construction of a new World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map over oceanic areas, we use an original approach based on the global forward modeling of seafloor spreading magnetic anomalies and their comparison to the available marine magnetic data to derive the first map of the equivalent magnetization over the World's ocean. This map reveals consistent patterns related to the age of the oceanic lithosphere, the spreading rate at which it was formed, and the presence of mantle thermal anomalies which affects seafloor spreading and the resulting lithosphere. As for the age, the equivalent magnetization decreases significantly during the first 10-15 Myr after its formation, probably due to the alteration of crustal magnetic minerals under pervasive hydrothermal alteration, then increases regularly between 20 and 70 Ma, reflecting variations in the field strength or source effects such as the acquisition of a secondary magnetization. As for the spreading rate, the equivalent magnetization is twice as strong in areas formed at fast rate than in those formed at slow rate, with a threshold at ∼40 km/Myr, in agreement with an independent global analysis of the amplitude of Anomaly 25. This result, combined with those from the study of the anomalous skewness of marine magnetic anomalies, allows building a unified model for the magnetic structure of normal oceanic lithosphere as a function of spreading rate. Finally, specific areas affected by thermal mantle anomalies at the time of their formation exhibit peculiar equivalent magnetization signatures, such as the cold Australian-Antarctic Discordance, marked by a lower magnetization, and several hotspots, marked by a high magnetization.

  7. The Otto-engine-equivalent vehicle concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowdy, M. W.; Couch, M. D.

    1978-01-01

    A vehicle comparison methodology based on the Otto-Engine Equivalent (OEE) vehicle concept is described. As an illustration of this methodology, the concept is used to make projections of the fuel economy potential of passenger cars using various alternative power systems. Sensitivities of OEE vehicle results to assumptions made in the calculational procedure are discussed. Factors considered include engine torque boundary, rear axle ratio, performance criteria, engine transient response, and transmission shift logic.

  8. Equivalence of optical and electrical noise equivalent power of hybrid NbTiN-Al microwave kinetic inductance detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, R. M. J.; Endo, A.; Visser, P. J. de; Klapwijk, T. M.; Baselmans, J. J. A.

    2014-11-10

    We have measured and compared the response of hybrid NbTiN-Al Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) to changes in bath temperature and illumination by sub-mm radiation. We show that these two stimulants have an equivalent effect on the resonance feature of hybrid MKIDs. We determine an electrical noise equivalent power (NEP) from the measured temperature responsivity, quasiparticle recombination time, superconducting transition temperature, and noise spectrum, all of which can be measured in a dark environment. For the two hybrid NbTiN-Al MKIDs studied in detail, the electrical NEP is within a factor of two of the optical NEP, which is measured directly using a blackbody source.

  9. TNT equivalency of M10 propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintyre, F. L.; Price, P.

    1978-01-01

    Peak, side-on blast overpressure and scaled, positive impulse have been measured for M10 single-perforated propellant, web size 0.018 inches, using configurations that simulate the handling of bulk material during processing and shipment. Quantities of 11.34, 22.7, 45.4, and 65.8 kg were tested in orthorhombic shipping containers and fiberboard boxes. High explosive equivalency values for each test series were obtained as a function of scaled distance by comparison to known pressure, arrival time and impulse characteristics for hemispherical TNT surface bursts. The equivalencies were found to depend significantly on scaled distance, with higher values of 150-100 percent (pressure) and 350-125 percent (positive impulse) for the extremes within the range from 1.19 to 3.57 m/cube root of kg. Equivalencies as low as 60-140 percent (pressure) and 30-75 percent (positive impulse) were obtained in the range of 7.14 to 15.8 m/cube root of kg. Within experimental error, both peak pressure and positive impulse scaled as a function of charge weight for all quantities tested in the orthorhombic configuration.

  10. VIEW SHOWING WEST ELEVATION, EAST SIDE OF MEYER AVENUE. SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SHOWING WEST ELEVATION, EAST SIDE OF MEYER AVENUE. SHOWS 499-501, MUNOZ HOUSE (AZ-73-37) ON FAR RIGHT - Antonio Bustamente House, 485-489 South Meyer Avenue & 186 West Kennedy Street, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  11. pacce: Perl algorithm to compute continuum and equivalent widths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riffel, Rogério; Borges Vale, Tibério

    2011-08-01

    We present Perl Algorithm to Compute continuum and Equivalent Widths ( pacce). We describe the methods used in the computations and the requirements for its usage. We compare the measurements made with pacce and "manual" ones made using iraf splot task. These tests show that for synthetic simple stellar population (SSP) models the equivalent widths strengths are very similar (differences ≲0.2 Å) for both measurements. In real stellar spectra, the correlation between both values is still very good, but with differences of up to 0.5 Å. pacce is also able to determine mean continuum and continuum at line center values, which are helpful in stellar population studies. In addition, it is also able to compute the uncertainties in the equivalent widths using photon statistics. The code is made available for the community through the web at http://www.if.ufrgs.br/~riffel/software.html .

  12. Potency Determination of Antidandruff Shampoos in Nystatin International Unit Equivalents

    PubMed Central

    Anusha Hewage, D. B. G.; Pathirana, W.; Pinnawela, Amara

    2008-01-01

    A convenient standard microbiological potency determination test for the antidandruff shampoos was developed by adopting the pharmacopoeial microbiological assay procedure of the drug nystatin. A standard curve was drawn consisting of the inhibition zone diameters vs. logarithm of nystatin concentrations in international units using the fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) strain National Collection of Type Culture (NCTC) 1071606 as the test organism. From the standard curve the yeast inhibitory potencies of the shampoos in nystatin international unit equivalents were determined from the respective inhibition zones of the test samples of the shampoos. Under test conditions four shampoo samples showed remarkable fungal inhibitory potencies of 10227, 10731, 12396 and 18211 nystatin international unit equivalents/ml while two shampoo samples had extremely feeble inhibitory potencies 4.07 and 4.37 nystatin international unit equivalents/ml although the latter two products claimed antifungal activity. The potency determination method could be applied to any antidandruff shampoo with any one or a combination of active ingredients. PMID:21394271

  13. 15. Detail showing lower chord pinconnected to vertical member, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail showing lower chord pin-connected to vertical member, showing floor beam riveted to extension of vertical member below pin-connection, and showing brackets supporting cantilevered sidewalk. View to southwest. - Selby Avenue Bridge, Spanning Short Line Railways track at Selby Avenue between Hamline & Snelling Avenues, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  14. Equivalences Between GIT Quotients of Landau-Ginzburg B-Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segal, Ed

    2011-06-01

    We define the category of B-branes in a (not necessarily affine) Landau-Ginzburg B-model, incorporating the notion of R-charge. Our definition is a direct generalization of the category of perfect complexes. We then consider pairs of Landau-Ginzburg B-models that arise as different GIT quotients of a vector space by a one-dimensional torus, and show that for each such pair the two categories of B-branes are quasi-equivalent. In fact we produce a whole set of quasi-equivalences indexed by the integers, and show that the resulting auto-equivalences are all spherical twists.

  15. Average areal water equivalent of snow in a mountain basin using microwave and visible satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, Albert; Van Katwijk, Victor F.; Martinec, Jaroslav; Chang, Alfred T. C.; Foster, James L.

    1989-01-01

    Satellite microwave data were used to evaluate the average areal water equivalent of snow cover in the mountainous Rio Grande basin of Colorado. Areal water equivalent data for the basin were obtained from contoured values of point measurements and from zonal water volume values generated by a snowmelt runoff model. Comparison of these snow water equivalent values shows the model values to consistently exceed the contoured values, probably because of the narrow elevation range in the lower part of the basin where the point measurements are concentrated. A significant relationship between the difference in microwave brightness temperatures at two different wavelengths and a basin-wide average snow water equivalent value is obtained. The average water equivalent of the snow cover in the basin was derived from differences of the microwave brightness temperatures.

  16. Average areal water equivalent of snow in a mountain basin using microwave and visible satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.; Martinec, J.; Chang, A. T. C.; Foster, J. L.; Vankatwijk, V.

    1988-01-01

    Satellite microwave data were used to evaluate the average areal water equivalent of snow cover in the mountainous Rio Grande basin of Colorado. Areal water equivalent data for the basin were obtained from contoured values of point measurements and from zonal water volume values generated by a snowmelt runoff model. Comparison of these snow water equivalent values shows the model values to consistently exceed the contoured values, probably because of the narrow elevation range in the lower part of the basin where the point measurements are concentrated. A significant relationship between the difference in microwave brightness temperatures at two different wavelengths and a basin-wide average snow water equivalent value is obtained. The average water equivalent of the snow cover in the basin was derived from differences of the microwave brightness temperatures.

  17. Experimental demonstration of a multi-wavelength distributed feedback semiconductor laser array with an equivalent chirped grating profile based on the equivalent chirp technology.

    PubMed

    Li, Wangzhe; Zhang, Xia; Yao, Jianping

    2013-08-26

    We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first realization of a multi-wavelength distributed feedback (DFB) semiconductor laser array with an equivalent chirped grating profile based on equivalent chirp technology. All the lasers in the laser array have an identical grating period with an equivalent chirped grating structure, which are realized by nonuniform sampling of the gratings. Different wavelengths are achieved by changing the sampling functions. A multi-wavelength DFB semiconductor laser array is fabricated and the lasing performance is evaluated. The results show that the equivalent chirp technology is an effective solution for monolithic integration of a multi-wavelength laser array with potential for large volume fabrication. PMID:24105542

  18. Protocol analysis of the correspondence of verbal behavior and equivalence class formation.

    PubMed

    Wulfert, E; Dougher, M J; Greenway, D E

    1991-11-01

    In two equivalence experiments, a "think aloud" procedure modeled after Ericsson and Simon's (1980) protocol analysis was implemented to examine subjects' covert verbal responses during matching to sample. The purpose was to identify variables that might explain individual differences in equivalence class formation. The results from Experiment 1 suggested that subjects who formed equivalence classes described the relations among stimuli, whereas those not showing equivalence described sample and comparison stimuli as unitary compounds. Because Experiment 1 only demonstrated a correlation between describing stimulus compounds and the absence of equivalence classes, a second study was conducted. In Experiment 2, equivalence class formation was brought under experimental control through pretraining manipulations that facilitated responding either to stimulus compounds or to relations among stimuli. The results demonstrated that a history of describing stimulus compounds, when compared with describing the relations among the stimuli, interfered with the emergence of stimulus equivalence. These findings clarify individual differences in stimulus equivalence. They also demonstrate the utility of analyzing verbal reports to identify possible variables that can be manipulated experimentally. PMID:1774541

  19. Toxic equivalence factors, problems and limitations.

    PubMed

    Neumann, H G

    1996-01-01

    It is a particular problem to set tolerance levels for mixtures containing chemicals classified as carcinogens. In the case of chlorinated dioxin and furan congeners, 'toxicity equivalence factors' (TEFs) were introduced. This concept has problems in itself and cannot be readily transferred to other mixtures, such as those of monocyclic nitroarenes in wastes of trinitrotoluene (TNT)-based explosives. The difficulties in finding suitable endpoints to compare the components are discussed (methaemoglobin formation; quantitative structure-activity relationships; mutagenicity; carcinogenicity). An alternative approach for the development tolerance levels in this instance is based on results obtained by measuring haemoglobin adducts as biomarkers of the most prevalent mixture components in humans. PMID:9119314

  20. Tissue equivalent proportional counter neutron monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.C.; Strode, J.N.

    1980-06-01

    The Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) is a sensitive area monitoring instrument that can be used either in place at fixed locations or as a portable neutron exposure measuring device. The system monitors low levels of neutron radiation exposure and has the capability of accurately measuring neutron exposure rates as low as 0.1 mrem/hr. The computerized analysis system calculates the quality factor which is important for situations where the neutron to gamma ratio may vary significantly and irregularly such as in fuel fabrication or handling facilities.

  1. Dark matter and the equivalence principle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frieman, Joshua A.; Gradwohl, Ben-Ami

    1991-01-01

    If the dark matter in galaxies and clusters is nonbaryonic, it can interact with additional long-range fields that are invisible to experimental tests of the equivalence principle. The astrophysical and cosmological implications of a long-range force coupled only to the dark matter are discussed and rather tight constraints on its strength are found. If the force is repulsive (attractive), the masses of galaxy groups and clusters (and the mean density of the universe inferred from them) have been systematically underestimated (overestimated). Such an interaction also has unusual implications for the growth of large-scale structure.

  2. 28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS LINCOLN BOULEVARD, BIG LOST RIVER, AND NAVAL REACTORS FACILITY. F.C. TORKELSON DRAWING NUMBER 842-ARVFS-101-2. DATED OCTOBER 12, 1965. INEL INDEX CODE NUMBER: 075 0101 851 151969. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. 8. Detail showing concrete abutment, showing substructure of bridge, specifically ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail showing concrete abutment, showing substructure of bridge, specifically west side of arch and substructure. - Presumpscot Falls Bridge, Spanning Presumptscot River at Allen Avenue extension, 0.75 mile west of U.S. Interstate 95, Falmouth, Cumberland County, ME

  4. Granger Causality and Transfer Entropy Are Equivalent for Gaussian Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Lionel; Barrett, Adam B.; Seth, Anil K.

    2009-12-01

    Granger causality is a statistical notion of causal influence based on prediction via vector autoregression. Developed originally in the field of econometrics, it has since found application in a broader arena, particularly in neuroscience. More recently transfer entropy, an information-theoretic measure of time-directed information transfer between jointly dependent processes, has gained traction in a similarly wide field. While it has been recognized that the two concepts must be related, the exact relationship has until now not been formally described. Here we show that for Gaussian variables, Granger causality and transfer entropy are entirely equivalent, thus bridging autoregressive and information-theoretic approaches to data-driven causal inference.

  5. Rotating black holes in the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nashed, Gamal G. L.

    2016-05-01

    We derive set of solutions with flat transverse sections in the framework of a teleparallel equivalent of general relativity which describes rotating black holes. The singularities supported from the invariants of torsion and curvature are explained. We investigate that there appear more singularities in the torsion scalars than in the curvature ones. The conserved quantities are discussed using Einstein-Cartan geometry. The physics of the constants of integration is explained through the calculations of conserved quantities. These calculations show that there is a unique solution that may describe true physical black hole.

  6. LARES/WEBER-SAT and the equivalence principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iorio, L.

    2007-11-01

    It has often been claimed that the proposed Earth artificial satellite LARES/WEBER-SAT —whose primary goal is, in fact, the measurement of the general relativistic Lense-Thirring effect at a some percent level— would allow greatly improving, among (many) other things, the present-day (10-13) level of accuracy in testing the equivalence principle as well. Recent claims point towards even two orders of magnitude better, i.e. 10-15. In this letter we show that such a goal is, in fact, unattainable by many orders of magnitude being, instead, the achievable level ≈10-9.

  7. Validation Of Equivalent Viscous Damping Methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquer Araujo, Xavier; Fransen, S. H. J. A.; Germes, S.; Thiry, N.

    2012-07-01

    An important step in the design and verification process of spacecraft structures is the coupled dynamic analysis with the launch vehicle in the low-frequency domain. To obtain accurate predictions of the satellite’s dynamic environment it is essential that the damping of the system is correctly defined and taken into account within the resolution methodologies for the Coupled Loads Analysis (CLA). When working with finite element models, the materials’ damping is characterized by structural damping ratios. In addition, most of the load cases present in the CLA are transient excitations so the resolution of the equations of motion must be done in the time domain. Unfortunately, transient analyses cannot be carried out using structural damping models. Thus, a transformation from a structural to a viscous damping characterization is necessary. Nevertheless, this transformation is not trivial. There exist many methodologies aiming at computing an equivalent viscous damping matrix of the system so it can be used in transient analyses. This paper describes the results obtained in the validation of equivalent viscous damping methodologies used in the European Space Agency. This work permitted to identify the limitations of these methodologies and to come up with an enhanced methodology that predicts more reliable results.

  8. Equivalent Relaxations of Optimal Power Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, S; Low, SH; Teeraratkul, T; Hassibi, B

    2015-03-01

    Several convex relaxations of the optimal power flow (OPF) problem have recently been developed using both bus injection models and branch flow models. In this paper, we prove relations among three convex relaxations: a semidefinite relaxation that computes a full matrix, a chordal relaxation based on a chordal extension of the network graph, and a second-order cone relaxation that computes the smallest partial matrix. We prove a bijection between the feasible sets of the OPF in the bus injection model and the branch flow model, establishing the equivalence of these two models and their second-order cone relaxations. Our results imply that, for radial networks, all these relaxations are equivalent and one should always solve the second-order cone relaxation. For mesh networks, the semidefinite relaxation and the chordal relaxation are equally tight and both are strictly tighter than the second-order cone relaxation. Therefore, for mesh networks, one should either solve the chordal relaxation or the SOCP relaxation, trading off tightness and the required computational effort. Simulations are used to illustrate these results.

  9. Equivalence of trans paths in ion channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Juan; Hajek, Bruce

    2006-04-01

    We explore stochastic models for the study of ion transport in biological cells. Analysis of these models explains and explores an interesting feature of ion transport observed by biophysicists. Namely, the average time it takes ions to cross certain ion channels is the same in either direction, even if there is an electric potential difference across the channels. It is shown for simple single ion models that the distribution of a path (i.e., the history of location versus time) of an ion crossing the channel in one direction has the same distribution as the time-reversed path of an ion crossing the channel in the reverse direction. Therefore, not only is the mean duration of these paths equal, but other measures, such as the variance of passage time or the mean time a path spends within a specified section of the channel, are also the same for both directions of traversal. The feature is also explored for channels with interacting ions. If a system of interacting ions is in reversible equilibrium (net flux is zero), then the equivalence of the left-to-right trans paths with the time-reversed right-to-left trans paths still holds. However, if the system is in equilibrium, but not reversible equilibrium, then such equivalence need not hold.

  10. Planck Constant Determination from Power Equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, David B.

    2000-04-01

    Equating mechanical to electrical power links the kilogram, the meter, and the second to the practical realizations of the ohm and the volt derived from the quantum Hall and the Josephson effects, yielding an SI determination of the Planck constant. The NIST watt balance uses this power equivalence principle, and in 1998 measured the Planck constant with a combined relative standard uncertainty of 8.7 x 10-8, the most accurate determination to date. The next generation of the NIST watt balance is now being assembled. Modification to the experimental facilities have been made to reduce the uncertainty components from vibrations and electromagnetic interference. A vacuum chamber has been installed to reduce the uncertainty components associated with performing the experiment in air. Most of the apparatus is in place and diagnostic testing of the balance should begin this year. Once a combined relative standard uncertainty of one part in 10-8 has been reached, the power equivalence principle can be used to monitor the possible drift in the artifact mass standard, the kilogram, and provide an accurate alternative definition of mass in terms of fundamental constants. *Electricity Division, Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory, Technology Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. Contribution of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, not subject to copyright in the U.S.

  11. Investigating Starburst Galaxy Emission Line Equivalent Widths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meskhidze, Helen; Richardson, Chris T.

    2016-01-01

    Modeling star forming galaxies with spectral synthesis codes allows us to study the gas conditions and excitation mechanisms that are necessary to reproduce high ionization emission lines in both local and high-z galaxies. Our study uses the locally optimally-emitting clouds model to develop an atlas of starburst galaxy emission line equivalent widths. Specifically, we address the following question: What physical conditions are necessary to produce strong high ionization emission lines assuming photoionization via starlight? Here we present the results of our photoionization simulations: an atlas spanning 15 orders of magnitude in ionizing flux and 10 orders of magnitude in hydrogen density that tracks over 150 emission lines ranging from the UV to the near IR. Each simulation grid contains ~1.5x104 photoionization models calculated by supplying a spectral energy distribution, grain content, and chemical abundances. Specifically, we will be discussing the effects on the emission line equivalent widths of varying the metallicity of the cloud, Z = 0.2 Z⊙ to Z = 5.0 Z⊙, and varying the star-formation history, using the instantaneous and continuous evolution tracks and the newly released Starburst99 Geneva rotation tracks.

  12. Water equivalent phantom materials for (192)Ir brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Andreas A; Harder, Dietrich; Poppe, Björn; Chofor, Ndimofor

    2015-12-21

    Several solid phantom materials have been tested regarding their suitability as water substitutes for dosimetric measurements in brachytherapy with (192)Ir as a typical high energy photon emitter. The radial variations of the spectral photon fluence, of the total, primary and scattered photon fluence and of the absorbed dose to water in the transversal plane of the tested cylindrical phantoms surrounding a centric and coaxially arranged Varian GammaMed afterloading (192)Ir brachytherapy source were Monte-Carlo simulated in EGSnrc. The degree of water equivalence of a phantom material was evaluated by comparing the radial dose-to-water profile in the phantom material with that in water. The phantom size was varied over a large range since it influences the dose contribution by scattered photons with energies diminished by single and multiple Compton scattering. Phantom axis distances up to 10 cm were considered as clinically relevant. Scattered photons with energies reaching down into the 25 keV region dominate the photon fluence at source distances exceeding 3.5 cm.The tested phantom materials showed significant differences in the degree of water equivalence. In phantoms with radii up to 10 cm, RW1, RW3, Solid Water, HE Solid Water, Virtual Water, Plastic Water DT, and Plastic Water LR phantoms show excellent water equivalence with dose deviations from a water phantom not exceeding 0.8%, while Original Plastic Water (as of 2015), Plastic Water (1995), Blue Water, polyethylene, and polystyrene show deviations up to 2.6%. For larger phantom radii up to 30 cm, the deviations for RW1, RW3, Solid Water, HE Solid Water, Virtual Water, Plastic Water DT, and Plastic Water LR remain below 1.4%, while Original Plastic Water (as of 2015), Plastic Water (1995), Blue Water, polyethylene, and polystyrene produce deviations up to 8.1%. PMMA plays a separate role, with deviations up to 4.3% for radii not exceeding 10 cm, but below 1% for radii up to 30 cm.As suggested

  13. Water equivalent phantom materials for 192Ir brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenfeld, Andreas A.; Harder, Dietrich; Poppe, Björn; Chofor, Ndimofor

    2015-12-01

    Several solid phantom materials have been tested regarding their suitability as water substitutes for dosimetric measurements in brachytherapy with 192Ir as a typical high energy photon emitter. The radial variations of the spectral photon fluence, of the total, primary and scattered photon fluence and of the absorbed dose to water in the transversal plane of the tested cylindrical phantoms surrounding a centric and coaxially arranged Varian GammaMed afterloading 192Ir brachytherapy source were Monte-Carlo simulated in EGSnrc. The degree of water equivalence of a phantom material was evaluated by comparing the radial dose-to-water profile in the phantom material with that in water. The phantom size was varied over a large range since it influences the dose contribution by scattered photons with energies diminished by single and multiple Compton scattering. Phantom axis distances up to 10 cm were considered as clinically relevant. Scattered photons with energies reaching down into the 25 keV region dominate the photon fluence at source distances exceeding 3.5 cm. The tested phantom materials showed significant differences in the degree of water equivalence. In phantoms with radii up to 10 cm, RW1, RW3, Solid Water, HE Solid Water, Virtual Water, Plastic Water DT, and Plastic Water LR phantoms show excellent water equivalence with dose deviations from a water phantom not exceeding 0.8%, while Original Plastic Water (as of 2015), Plastic Water (1995), Blue Water, polyethylene, and polystyrene show deviations up to 2.6%. For larger phantom radii up to 30 cm, the deviations for RW1, RW3, Solid Water, HE Solid Water, Virtual Water, Plastic Water DT, and Plastic Water LR remain below 1.4%, while Original Plastic Water (as of 2015), Plastic Water (1995), Blue Water, polyethylene, and polystyrene produce deviations up to 8.1%. PMMA plays a separate role, with deviations up to 4.3% for radii not exceeding 10 cm, but below 1% for radii up to 30 cm. As suggested by

  14. Planning a Successful Tech Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikirk, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Tech shows are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech show allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact…

  15. Hey Teacher, Your Personality's Showing!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, James R.

    1977-01-01

    A study of 30 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade teachers and 300 of their students showed that a teacher's age, sex, and years of experience did not relate to students' mathematics achievement, but that more effective teachers showed greater "freedom from defensive behavior" than did less effective teachers. (DT)

  16. What Do Blood Tests Show?

    MedlinePlus

    ... shows the ranges for blood glucose levels after 8 to 12 hours of fasting (not eating). It shows the normal range and the abnormal ranges that are a sign of prediabetes or diabetes. Plasma Glucose Results (mg/dL)* Diagnosis 70 to 99 ...

  17. A new equation for the Cr equivalent in 9 to 12 pct Cr steels

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, S.H.; Yu, J.

    1998-06-01

    In advanced 9 to 12 pct Cr steels, the Cr equivalent is used as a measure to check the formation of {delta}-ferrite. In the present analysis, 29 alloys of varying composition were vacuum induction melted, and the amounts of {delta}-ferrite were measured in as-tempered conditions. Based on this and previous results on 9 to 12 pct Cr steels, a new equation for the Cr equivalent is proposed and correlated with the amount of {delta}-ferrite formation. Results indicate that the new Cr equivalent equation shows better correlation than previous equations and predicts the amount of {delta}-ferrite formed reasonably well.

  18. Impact velocity vs target hardness relationships for equivalent response of cask structures

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, T.F.; Chen, J.C.; Witte, M.C.; Fischer, L.E.

    1993-06-01

    In this paper, impact velocity vs. target hardness relationships for cask structures are reviewed. The relationships are based on equivalent cask responses in terms of equal deceleration or similar cask damages. By examining several past cask or container tests as well as some analytical results, some conclusions can be drawn about the relationship between target hardness and equivalent impact velocities. This relationship clearly shows that the cask response to impact is cask-dependent and that the rigid sphere impact model results in an unconservative estimate of equivalent velocity.

  19. Equivalent magnetization over the World's Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyment, J.; Choi, Y.; Hamoudi, M.; Erwan, T.; Lesur, V.

    2014-12-01

    As a by-product of our recent work to build a candidate model over the oceans for the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map (WDMAM) version 2, we derived global distributions of the equivalent magnetization in oceanic domains. In a first step, we use classic point source forward modeling on a spherical Earth to build a forward model of the marine magnetic anomalies at sea-surface. We estimate magnetization vectors using the age map of the ocean floor, the relative plate motions, the apparent polar wander path for Africa, and a geomagnetic reversal time scale. As magnetized source geometry, we assume 1 km-thick layer bearing a 10 A/m magnetization following the topography of the oceanic basement as defined by the bathymetry and sedimentary thickness. Adding a present-day geomagnetic field model allows the computation of our initial magnetic anomaly model. In a second step, we adjust this model to the existing marine magnetic anomaly data, in order to make it consistent with these data. To do so, we extract synthetic magnetic along the ship tracks for which real data are available and we compare quantitatively the measured and computed anomalies on 100, 200 or 400 km-long sliding windows (depending the spreading rate). Among the possible comparison criteria, we discard the maximal range - too dependent on local values - and the correlation and coherency - the geographical adjustment between model and data being not accurate enough - to favor the standard deviation around the mean value. The ratio between the standard deviations of data and model on each sliding window represent an estimate of the magnetization ratio causing the anomalies, which we interpolate to adjust the initial magnetic anomaly model to the data and therefore compute a final model to be included in our WDMAM candidate over the oceanic regions lacking data. The above ratio, after division by the magnetization of 10 A/m used in the model, represents an estimate of the equivalent magnetization under the

  20. Satellite Movie Shows Erika Dissipate

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite from Aug. 27 to 29 shows Tropical Storm Erika move through the Eastern Caribbean Sea and dissipate near eastern Cuba. ...

  1. Torsion Balance Test of Einstein's Equivalence Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abercrombie, Michael; Archibald, Adam; Nussinov, Tsitsi; Wagoner, Kasey; Cowsik, Ramanath

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a torsion balance experiment to test the equivalence principle (EP) which follows the solar attractor approach pioneered by Dicke in the early 1960s. By monitoring the response of a balance arranged as a composition dipole with an azimuthally symmetric mass distribution to the gravitational field produced by the Sun, we search for a diurnal modulation of the balance which would indicate a violation of the EP. Since reporting on the status of this experiment last year, the instrument has begun collecting data at a remote underground site. This talk will cover the design and fundamental sensitivity of the balance, and present the results of preliminary analysis of over 1200 hours of data.

  2. Equivalent Hamiltonian for the Lee model

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, H. F.

    2008-03-15

    Using the techniques of quasi-Hermitian quantum mechanics and quantum field theory we use a similarity transformation to construct an equivalent Hermitian Hamiltonian for the Lee model. In the field theory confined to the V/N{theta} sector it effectively decouples V, replacing the three-point interaction of the original Lee model by an additional mass term for the V particle and a four-point interaction between N and {theta}. While the construction is originally motivated by the regime where the bare coupling becomes imaginary, leading to a ghost, it applies equally to the standard Hermitian regime where the bare coupling is real. In that case the similarity transformation becomes a unitary transformation.

  3. Phenomenological approaches of inflation and their equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boubekeur, Lotfi; Giusarma, Elena; Mena, Olga; Ramírez, Héctor

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we analyze two possible alternative and model-independent approaches to describe the inflationary period. The first one assumes a general equation of state during inflation due to Mukhanov, while the second one is based on the slow-roll hierarchy suggested by Hoffman and Turner. We find that, remarkably, the two approaches are equivalent from the observational viewpoint, as they single out the same areas in the parameter space, and agree with the inflationary attractors where successful inflation occurs. Rephrased in terms of the familiar picture of a slowly rolling, canonically normalized scalar field, the resulting inflaton excursions in these two approaches are almost identical. Furthermore, once the Galactic dust polarization data from Planck are included in the numerical fits, inflaton excursions can safely take sub-Planckian values.

  4. Equivalent damage validation by variable cluster analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drago, Carlo; Ferlito, Rachele; Zucconi, Maria

    2016-06-01

    The main aim of this work is to perform a clustering analysis on the damage relieved in the old center of L'Aquila after the earthquake occurred on April 6, 2009 and to validate an Indicator of Equivalent Damage ED that summarizes the information reported on the AeDES card regarding the level of damage and their extension on the surface of the buildings. In particular we used a sample of 13442 masonry buildings located in an area characterized by a Macroseismic Intensity equal to 8 [1]. The aim is to ensure the coherence between the clusters and its hierarchy identified in the data of damage detected and in the data of the ED elaborated.

  5. Levothyroxine sodium tablets: chemical equivalence and bioequivalence.

    PubMed

    Curry, S H; Gums, J G; Williams, L L; Curry, R W; Wolfson, B B

    1988-01-01

    Two brands of levothyroxine sodium tablets were compared in vivo for bioequivalence in a double-blind, randomized study. The tablets were identical in levothyroxine content. Evaluation was by means of triiodothyronine (uptake), tetraiodothyronine, free thyroxine index, total triiodothyronine by radioimmunoassay, and thyroid-stimulating hormone measurements. No differences in clinical response were found in a study with a high statistical power. It was concluded that the two brands were bioequivalent because of chemical equivalence, use of micronized levothyroxine powder in tablet production with at least one of the brands, and scrupulous attention to quality control during the manufacturing process, all of which contributed to assurance of homogeneity of the products and close adherence (+/- five percent) to the claimed potency. PMID:3046889

  6. Multiband signal reconstruction for random equivalent sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y. J.; Liu, C. J.

    2014-10-01

    The random equivalent sampling (RES) is a sampling approach that can be applied to capture high speed repetitive signals with a sampling rate that is much lower than the Nyquist rate. However, the uneven random distribution of the time interval between the excitation pulse and the signal degrades the signal reconstruction performance. For sparse multiband signal sampling, the compressed sensing (CS) based signal reconstruction algorithm can tease out the band supports with overwhelming probability and reduce the impact of uneven random distribution in RES. In this paper, the mathematical model of RES behavior is constructed in the frequency domain. Based on the constructed mathematical model, the band supports of signal can be determined. Experimental results demonstrate that, for a signal with unknown sparse multiband, the proposed CS-based signal reconstruction algorithm is feasible, and the CS reconstruction algorithm outperforms the traditional RES signal reconstruction method.

  7. Klein factors and Fermi-Bose equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taejin

    2016-06-01

    Generalizing the kink operator of the Heisenberg spin 1/2 model, we construct a set of Klein factors explicitly such that (1+1)-dimensional fermion theories with an arbitrary number of species are mapped onto the corresponding boson theories with the same number of species and vice versa. The actions for the resultant theories do not possess a nontrivial Klein factor. With this set of Klein factors, we are also able to map the simple boundary states, such as the Neumann and the Dirichlet boundary states, of the fermion (boson) theory onto those of the boson (fermion) theory. Applications of the Fermi-Bose equivalence with the constructed Klein factors to well-known (1+1)-dimensional theories have been discussed.

  8. Multiband signal reconstruction for random equivalent sampling.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y J; Liu, C J

    2014-10-01

    The random equivalent sampling (RES) is a sampling approach that can be applied to capture high speed repetitive signals with a sampling rate that is much lower than the Nyquist rate. However, the uneven random distribution of the time interval between the excitation pulse and the signal degrades the signal reconstruction performance. For sparse multiband signal sampling, the compressed sensing (CS) based signal reconstruction algorithm can tease out the band supports with overwhelming probability and reduce the impact of uneven random distribution in RES. In this paper, the mathematical model of RES behavior is constructed in the frequency domain. Based on the constructed mathematical model, the band supports of signal can be determined. Experimental results demonstrate that, for a signal with unknown sparse multiband, the proposed CS-based signal reconstruction algorithm is feasible, and the CS reconstruction algorithm outperforms the traditional RES signal reconstruction method. PMID:25362458

  9. Snow water equivalent determination by microwave radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.; Foster, J. L.; Hall, D. K.; Rango, A.; Hartline, B. K.

    1981-01-01

    One of the most important parameters for accurate snowmelt runoff prediction is snow water equivalent (SWE) which is contentionally monitored using observations made at widely scattered points in or around specific watersheds. Remote sensors which provide data with better spatial and temporal coverage can be used to improve the SWE estimates. Microwave radiation, which can penetrate through a snowpack, may be used to infer the SWE. Calculations made from a microscopic scattering model were used to simulate the effect of varying SWE on the microwave brightness temperature. Data obtained from truck mounted, airborne and spaceborne systems from various test sites were studied. The simulated SWE compares favorable with the measured SWE. In addition, whether the underlying soil is frozen or thawed can be discriminated successfully on the basis of the polarization of the microwave radiation.

  10. Distributed resonance self-shielding using the equivalence principle

    SciTech Connect

    Altiparmakov, D.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents an extension of the equivalence principle to allow distributed resonance self-shielding in a multi-region fuel configuration. Rational expansion of fuel-to-fuel collision probability is applied in order to establish equivalence between the actual fuel configuration and a homogeneous mixture of hydrogen and resonant absorber, which is a commonly used model to calculate library tables of resonance integrals. The main steps in derivation are given along with the basic physics assumptions on which the presented approach relies. The method has been implemented in the lattice code WIMS-AECL and routinely used for calculation of CANDU-type reactor lattices. Its capabilities are illustrated by comparison of WIMS-AECL and MCNP results of {sup 238}U resonance capture in a CANDU lattice cell. In order to determine optimal rational expansion of fuel-to-fuel collision probability, the calculations were carried out by varying the number of rational terms from 1 to 6. The results show that 4 terms are sufficient. The further increase of the number of terms affects the computing time, while the impact on accuracy is negligible. To illustrate the convergence of the results, the fuel subdivision is gradually refined varying the number of fuel pin subdivisions from 1 to 32 equal-area annuli. The results show very good agreement with the reference MCNP calculation. (authors)

  11. Simulation of absolute amplitudes of ultrasound signals using equivalent circuits.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Jonny; Martinsson, Pär-Erik; Delsing, Jerker

    2007-10-01

    Equivalent circuits for piezoelectric devices and ultrasonic transmission media can be used to cosimulate electronics and ultrasound parts in simulators originally intended for electronics. To achieve efficient system-level optimization, it is important to simulate correct, absolute amplitude of the ultrasound signal in the system, as this determines the requirements on the electronics regarding dynamic range, circuit noise, and power consumption. This paper presents methods to achieve correct, absolute amplitude of an ultrasound signal in a simulation of a pulse-echo system using equivalent circuits. This is achieved by taking into consideration loss due to diffraction and the effect of the cable that connects the electronics and the piezoelectric transducer. The conductive loss in the transmission line that models the propagation media of the ultrasound pulse is used to model the loss due to diffraction. Results show that the simulated amplitude of the echo follows measured values well in both near and far fields, with an offset of about 10%. The use of a coaxial cable introduces inductance and capacitance that affect the amplitude of a received echo. Amplitude variations of 60% were observed when the cable length was varied between 0.07 m and 2.3 m, with simulations predicting similar variations. The high precision in the achieved results show that electronic design and system optimization can rely on system simulations alone. This will simplify the development of integrated electronics aimed at ultrasound systems. PMID:18019234

  12. Elementary equivalence of Chevalley groups over local rings

    SciTech Connect

    Bunina, Elena I

    2010-05-11

    It is proved that (elementary) Chevalley groups over local rings with invertible 2 are elementarily equivalent if and only if their types and weight lattices coincide and the initial rings are elementarily equivalent. Bibliography: 25 titles.

  13. Optimizing Equivalence-Based Instruction: Effects of Training Protocols on Equivalence Class Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fienup, Daniel M.; Wright, Nicole A.; Fields, Lanny

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments evaluated the effects of the simple-to-complex and simultaneous training protocols on the formation of academically relevant equivalence classes. The simple-to-complex protocol intersperses derived relations probes with training baseline relations. The simultaneous protocol conducts all training trials and test trials in separate…

  14. 77 FR 32632 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ...Notice is hereby given that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has designated, in accordance with 40 CFR Part 53, three new equivalent methods: One for measuring concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and two for measuring concentrations of lead (Pb) in the ambient...

  15. 78 FR 67360 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Five New Equivalent Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... 31, 2011 (76 FR 54326-54341). Two of the new equivalent methods for PM are automated monitoring... meteorological sensor. With or without optional ESTEL analog inputs/outputs, serial link: 1 RS-232/422; USB port... inlet and zero check enabled; sample permeation dryer. Serial link: 2 RS-232; USB port; Ethernet...

  16. High School Equivalency Testing in Washington. Forum: Responding to Changes in High School Equivalency Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Jon

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, as new high school equivalency exams were being developed and implemented across the nation and states were deciding which test was best for their population, Washington state identified the need to adopt the most rigorous test so that preparation to take it would equip students with the skills to be able to move directly from adult…

  17. FROM CONCEPT TO EQUIVALENCY: THE 503 REGULATIONS AND THE PATHOGEN EQUIVALENCY COMMITTEE (PAPER)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since its creation in 1985, the Pathogen Equivalency Committee (PEC) has been reviewing innovative and alternative sludge disinfection technologies with regards to their abilities to protect human health and the environment. The PEC is charged to make recommendations on whether t...

  18. FROM CONCEPT TO EQUIVALENCY: THE 503 REGULATIONS AND THE PATHOGEN EQUIVALENCY COMMITTEE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since its creation in 1985, the Pathogen Equivalency Committee (PEC) has been reviewing innovative and alternative sludge disinfection technologies with regards to their abilities to protect human health and the environment. The PEC is charged to make recommendations on whether t...

  19. Examination of the equivalence of self-report survey-based paper-and-pencil and internet data collection methods.

    PubMed

    Weigold, Arne; Weigold, Ingrid K; Russell, Elizabeth J

    2013-03-01

    Self-report survey-based data collection is increasingly carried out using the Internet, as opposed to the traditional paper-and-pencil method. However, previous research on the equivalence of these methods has yielded inconsistent findings. This may be due to methodological and statistical issues present in much of the literature, such as nonequivalent samples in different conditions due to recruitment, participant self-selection to conditions, and data collection procedures, as well as incomplete or inappropriate statistical procedures for examining equivalence. We conducted 2 studies examining the equivalence of paper-and-pencil and Internet data collection that accounted for these issues. In both studies, we used measures of personality, social desirability, and computer self-efficacy, and, in Study 2, we used personal growth initiative to assess quantitative equivalence (i.e., mean equivalence), qualitative equivalence (i.e., internal consistency and intercorrelations), and auxiliary equivalence (i.e., response rates, missing data, completion time, and comfort completing questionnaires using paper-and-pencil and the Internet). Study 1 investigated the effects of completing surveys via paper-and-pencil or the Internet in both traditional (i.e., lab) and natural (i.e., take-home) settings. Results indicated equivalence across conditions, except for auxiliary equivalence aspects of missing data and completion time. Study 2 examined mailed paper-and-pencil and Internet surveys without contact between experimenter and participants. Results indicated equivalence between conditions, except for auxiliary equivalence aspects of response rate for providing an address and completion time. Overall, the findings show that paper-and-pencil and Internet data collection methods are generally equivalent, particularly for quantitative and qualitative equivalence, with nonequivalence only for some aspects of auxiliary equivalence. PMID:23477606

  20. National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Jimenez Sheri Raborn, CPA; Tom Baker

    2008-03-31

    National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration created a 400KW Photovoltaic self-generation plant at the National Orange Show Events Center (NOS). The NOS owns a 120-acre state fairground where it operates an events center and produces an annual citrus fair known as the Orange Show. The NOS governing board wanted to employ cost-saving programs for annual energy expenses. It is hoped the Photovoltaic program will result in overall savings for the NOS, help reduce the State's energy demands as relating to electrical power consumption, improve quality of life within the affected grid area as well as increase the energy efficiency of buildings at our venue. In addition, the potential to reduce operational expenses would have a tremendous effect on the ability of the NOS to service its community.

  1. Zonal Dynamic Equivalents Based on the Concept of Relative Electrical Distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Rimjhim; Dhadbanjan, Thukaram

    2013-05-01

    Abstract: This article presents a systematic approach to construct the zonal dynamic equivalents of a large-power system based on the concept of relative electrical distance (RED). The task of dynamic equivalencing is to eliminate the full model of the external system and replace it with an equivalent model, which has dynamic characteristics close enough to the full model. The dynamic equivalent models are used for large-scale power system offline transient stability analysis with large disturbance. Dynamic equivalencing also helps in reducing the computation burden and memory requirements in wide area monitoring system (WAMS) for online stability assessment. The procedure is illustrated on IEEE 39 bus system and on a practical 205 bus system consisting of three zones of Indian Southern grid, where an equivalent of a zone has been constructed. The simulation results of the original system and equivalent system are compared. The proposed approach is also compared with the existing Ward equivalent method and the results are found to be similar. The simulation results show that the developed equivalent system has close accuracy in representing the dynamic characteristics of the original system.

  2. 12 CFR 28.15 - Capital equivalency deposits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Capital equivalency deposits. 28.15 Section 28... ACTIVITIES Federal Branches and Agencies of Foreign Banks § 28.15 Capital equivalency deposits. (a) Capital... provided by the OCC, a foreign bank's capital equivalency deposits (CED) must consist of: (i)...

  3. 7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be determined by dividing the weight of the pitted dates by 0.83. Identification and... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105 Section...

  4. 7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be determined by dividing the weight of the pitted dates by 0.83. Identification and... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105 Section...

  5. 7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be determined by dividing the weight of the pitted dates by 0.83. Identification and... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105 Section...

  6. 7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be determined by dividing the weight of the pitted dates by 0.83. Identification and... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105 Section...

  7. 7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be determined by dividing the weight of the pitted dates by 0.83. Identification and... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105 Section...

  8. 49 CFR 391.33 - Equivalent of road test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalent of road test. 391.33 Section 391.33... AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.33 Equivalent of road test. (a) In place of, and as equivalent to, the road test required by § 391.31, a person who seeks to drive...

  9. 49 CFR 391.33 - Equivalent of road test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equivalent of road test. 391.33 Section 391.33... AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.33 Equivalent of road test. (a) In place of, and as equivalent to, the road test required by § 391.31, a person who seeks to drive...

  10. 49 CFR 391.33 - Equivalent of road test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equivalent of road test. 391.33 Section 391.33... AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.33 Equivalent of road test. (a) In place of, and as equivalent to, the road test required by § 391.31, a person who seeks to drive...

  11. 49 CFR 391.33 - Equivalent of road test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equivalent of road test. 391.33 Section 391.33... AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.33 Equivalent of road test. (a) In place of, and as equivalent to, the road test required by § 391.31, a person who seeks to drive...

  12. 49 CFR 391.33 - Equivalent of road test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equivalent of road test. 391.33 Section 391.33... AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.33 Equivalent of road test. (a) In place of, and as equivalent to, the road test required by § 391.31, a person who seeks to drive...

  13. 12 CFR 28.15 - Capital equivalency deposits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Capital equivalency deposits. 28.15 Section 28.15 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INTERNATIONAL BANKING ACTIVITIES Federal Branches and Agencies of Foreign Banks § 28.15 Capital equivalency deposits. (a) Capital equivalency deposits—(1) General....

  14. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 154 - Equivalent Stress

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equivalent Stress A Appendix A to Part 154 Shipping...—Equivalent Stress I. Equivalent stress (σ c) is calculated by the following formula or another formula... normal stress in “x” direction. σy=total normal stress in “y” direction. τxy=total shear stress in...

  15. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 154 - Equivalent Stress

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalent Stress A Appendix A to Part 154 Shipping...—Equivalent Stress I. Equivalent stress (σ c) is calculated by the following formula or another formula... normal stress in “x” direction. σy=total normal stress in “y” direction. τxy=total shear stress in...

  16. Reasons for the Decalage between Identity Conservation and Equivalence Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Ron

    1983-01-01

    Two experiments investigated which of two factors is responsible for decalage between Piaget's equivalence and identity conservation tasks. Performance of 78 primary school students between 57 and 79 months of age was compared on equivalence and identity tasks and a third task, equivalence I, which retains transitivity requirement of Piaget's task…

  17. Creating Slide Show Book Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Harriet G.; Stuhlmann, Janice M.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of "Kid Pix 2" software by fourth grade students to develop slide-show book reports. Highlights include collaboration with education majors from Louisiana State University, changes in attitudes of the education major students and elementary students, and problems with navigation and disk space. (LRW)

  18. Producing Talent and Variety Shows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szabo, Chuck

    1995-01-01

    Identifies key aspects of producing talent shows and outlines helpful hints for avoiding pitfalls and ensuring a smooth production. Presents suggestions concerning publicity, scheduling, and support personnel. Describes types of acts along with special needs and problems specific to each act. Includes a list of resources. (MJP)

  19. Tests of the weak equivalence principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speake, C. C.; Will, C. M.

    2012-09-01

    The Einstein equivalence principle is the foundation for general relativity and all metric theories of gravity. Of its three tenets—the equality of acceleration of test bodies, or weak equivalence principle; the validity of Lorentz invariance in local freely falling frames; and the position invariance of local physical laws—the weak equivalence principle has played the most important role historically, and continues to be a focus of intense theoretical and experimental investigation. From the probably apocryphal 16th century demonstrations by Galileo at Pisa's leaning tower to the sensitive torsion-balance measurements of today (both pictured on the cover of this issue), this principle, dubbed WEP, has been crucial to the development of gravitation theory. The universality of the rate of acceleration of all types of matter in a gravitational field can be taken as evidence that gravitation is fundamentally determined by the geometry, or metric, of spacetime. Newton began his magnum opus 'The Principia' with a discussion of WEP and his experiments to verify it, while Einstein took WEP for granted in his construction of general relativity, never once referring to the epochal experiments by Baron Eötvös. The classic 1964 experiment of Roll, Krotkov and Dicke ushered in the modern era of high-precision tests, and the search for a 'fifth force' during the late 1980s (instigated, ironically, by purported anomalies in Eötvös's old data) caused the enterprise to pivot from pure tests of the foundation of GR to searches for new physics beyond the standard model of the non-gravitational interactions. Today, the next generation of experimental tests of WEP are being prepared for launch or are being developed, with the goal of reaching unprecedented levels of sensitivity, in search of signatures of interactions inspired by string theory, extra dimensions and other concepts from the world of high-energy physics. At the same time observations continue using lunar laser

  20. Improved equivalent circuit for twin slot terahertz receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGrath, W. R.

    2002-01-01

    Series-fed coplanar waveguide embedding circuits are being developed for terahertz mixers using, in particular, submicron-sized superconducting devices, such as hot electron bolometers as the nonlinear element. Although these mixers show promising performance, they usually also show a considerable downward shift in the center frequency, when compared with simulations obtained by using simplified models. This makes it very difficult to design low-noise mixers for a given THz frequency. This shiftis principally caused by parasitics due to the extremely small details (in terms of wavelength) of the device, and by the electrical properties of the RF choke filter in the DC/IF line. In this paper, we present an improved equivalent network model of such mixer circuits which agrees with measured results at THz frequencies and we propose a new set of THz bolometric mixers that have been fabricated and are currently being tested.

  1. Magic Carpet Shows Its Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The upper left image in this display is from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, showing the 'Magic Carpet' region near the rover at Gusev Crater, Mars, on Sol 7, the seventh martian day of its journey (Jan. 10, 2004). The lower image, also from the panoramic camera, is a monochrome (single filter) image of a rock in the 'Magic Carpet' area. Note that colored portions of the rock correlate with extracted spectra shown in the plot to the side. Four different types of materials are shown: the rock itself, the soil in front of the rock, some brighter soil on top of the rock, and some dust that has collected in small recesses on the rock face ('spots'). Each color on the spectra matches a line on the graph, showing how the panoramic camera's different colored filters are used to broadly assess the varying mineral compositions of martian rocks and soils.

  2. Equivalence of ELISpot Assays Demonstrated between Major HIV Network Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Gail L.; Sambor, Anna; Carter, Donald K.; Sato, Alicia; Kopycinski, Jakub; Hayes, Peter; Hahn, Bridget; Birungi, Josephine; Tarragona-Fiol, Tony; Wan, Hong; Randles, Mark; Cooper, Andrew Raxworthy; Ssemaganda, Aloysius; Clark, Lorna; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Self, Steven G.; Koup, Richard; Wood, Blake; McElrath, M. Juliana; Cox, Josephine H.; Hural, John; Gilmour, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Background The Comprehensive T Cell Vaccine Immune Monitoring Consortium (CTC-VIMC) was created to provide standardized immunogenicity monitoring services for HIV vaccine trials. The ex vivo interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) ELISpot is used extensively as a primary immunogenicity assay to assess T cell-based vaccine candidates in trials for infectious diseases and cancer. Two independent, GCLP-accredited central laboratories of CTC-VIMC routinely use their own standard operating procedures (SOPs) for ELISpot within two major networks of HIV vaccine trials. Studies are imperatively needed to assess the comparability of ELISpot measurements across laboratories to benefit optimal advancement of vaccine candidates. Methods We describe an equivalence study of the two independently qualified IFN-g ELISpot SOPs. The study design, data collection and subsequent analysis were managed by independent statisticians to avoid subjectivity. The equivalence of both response rates and positivity calls to a given stimulus was assessed based on pre-specified acceptance criteria derived from a separate pilot study. Findings Detection of positive responses was found to be equivalent between both laboratories. The 95% C.I. on the difference in response rates, for CMV (−1.5%, 1.5%) and CEF (−0.4%, 7.8%) responses, were both contained in the pre-specified equivalence margin of interval [−15%, 15%]. The lower bound of the 95% C.I. on the proportion of concordant positivity calls for CMV (97.2%) and CEF (89.5%) were both greater than the pre-specified margin of 70%. A third CTC-VIMC central laboratory already using one of the two SOPs also showed comparability when tested in a smaller sub-study. Interpretation The described study procedure provides a prototypical example for the comparison of bioanalytical methods in HIV vaccine and other disease fields. This study also provides valuable and unprecedented information for future vaccine candidate evaluations on the comparison and pooling of

  3. Infrared lens thermal effect: equivalent focal shift and calculating model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng-shuo; Shi, Zelin; Feng, Bin; Xu, Bao-shu

    2014-11-01

    It's well-know that the focal shift of infrared lens is the major factor in degeneration of imaging quality when temperature change. In order to figure out the connection between temperature change and focal shift, partial differential equations of thermal effect on light path are obtained by raytrace method, to begin with. The approximately solution of the PDEs show that focal shift is proportional to temperature change. And a formula to compute the proportional factor is given. In order to understand infrared lens thermal effect deeply, we use defocus by image plane shift at constant temperature to equivalently represent thermal effect on infrared lens. So equivalent focal shift (EFS) is defined and its calculating model is proposed at last. In order to verify EFS and its calculating model, Physical experimental platform including a motorized linear stage with built-in controller, blackbody, target, collimator, IR detector, computer and other devices is developed. The experimental results indicate that EFS make the image plane shift at constant temperature have the same influence on infrared lens as thermal effect and its calculating model is correct.

  4. Equivalent Continuum Modeling for Shock Wave Propagation in Jointed Media

    SciTech Connect

    Vorobiev, O; Antoun, T

    2009-12-11

    This study presents discrete and continuum simulations of shock wave propagating through jointed media. The simulations were performed using the Lagrangian hydrocode GEODYN-L with joints treated explicitly using an advanced contact algorithm. They studied both isotropic and anisotropic joint representations. For an isotropically jointed geologic medium, the results show that the properties of the joints can be combined with the properties of the intact rock to develop an equivalent continuum model suitable for analyzing wave propagation through the jointed medium. For an anisotropically jointed geologic medium, they found it difficult to develop an equivalent continuum (EC) model that matches the response derived from mesoscopic simulation. They also performed simulations of wave propagation through jointed media. Two appraoches are suggested for modeling the rock mass. In one approach, jointed are modeled explicitly in a Lagrangian framework with appropriate contact algorithms used to track motion along the interfaces. In the other approach, the effect of joints is taken into account using a constitutive model derived from mesoscopic simulations.

  5. An equivalent relative utility metric for evaluating screening mammography

    PubMed Central

    Abbey, Craig K.; Eckstein, Miguel P.; Boone, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Comparative studies of performance in screening mammography are often ambiguous. A new method will frequently show a higher sensitivity or detection rate than an existing standard with a concomitant increase in false positives or recalls. We propose an equivalent relative utility (ERU) metric based on signal detection theory to quantify screening performance in such comparisons. The metric is defined as the relative utility, as defined in classical signal detection theory, needed to make two systems equivalent. ERU avoids the problem of requiring a predefined putative relative utility, which has limited application of utility theory in ROC analysis. The metric can be readily estimated from recall and detection rates commonly reported in comparative clinical studies. An important practical advantage of ERU is that in prevalence matched populations, the measure can be estimated without an independent estimate of disease prevalence. Thus estimating ERU does not require a study with long term follow up to find cases of missed disease. The approach is applicable to any comparative screening study that reports results in terms of recall and detection rates, although we focus exclusively on screening mammography in this work. We derive the ERU from the definition of utility given in classical treatments of signal detection theory. We also investigate reasonable values of relative utility in screening mammography for use in interpreting ERU using data from a large clinical study. As examples of application of ERU, we re-analyze two recently published reports using recall and detection rates in screening mammography. PMID:19706880

  6. Long-lived nuclear spin states far from magnetic equivalence.

    PubMed

    Stevanato, Gabriele; Roy, Soumya Singha; Hill-Cousins, Joe; Kuprov, Ilya; Brown, Lynda J; Brown, Richard C D; Pileio, Giuseppe; Levitt, Malcolm H

    2015-02-28

    Clusters of coupled nuclear spins may form long-lived nuclear spin states, which interact weakly with the environment, compared to ordinary nuclear magnetization. All experimental demonstrations of long-lived states have so far involved spin systems which are close to the condition of magnetic equivalence, in which the network of spin-spin couplings is conserved under all pair exchanges of symmetry-related nuclei. We show that the four-spin system of trans-[2,3-(13)C2]-but-2-enedioate exhibits a long-lived nuclear spin state, even though this spin system is very far from magnetic equivalence. The 4-spin long-lived state is accessed by slightly asymmetric chemical substitutions of the centrosymmetric molecular core. The long-lived state is a consequence of the locally centrosymmetric molecular geometry for the trans isomer, and is absent for the cis isomer. A general group theoretical description of long-lived states is presented. It is shown that the symmetries of coherent and incoherent interactions are both important for the existence of long-lived states. PMID:25633837

  7. Temporal patterns of energy equivalence in temperate soil invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Werner; Hoste-Danyłow, Alexia; Faleńczyk-Koziróg, Katarzyna; Hajdamowicz, Izabela; Ilieva-Makulec, Krassimira; Olejniczak, Izabella; Stańska, Marzena; Wytwer, Jolanta

    2015-09-01

    The question whether total population energy use is invariant to species body size (the energy equivalence hypothesis) is central to metabolic ecology and continues to be controversial. While recent comparative field work and meta-analyses pointed to systematic deviations of the underlying allometric scaling laws from predictions of metabolic theory none of these studies included the variability of metabolic scaling in ecological time. Here we used extensive data on the invertebrate soil fauna of Kampinos National Park (Poland) obtained from six consecutive quantitative sampling seasons to show that phylogenetically corrected species density-body weight and population energy use-body weight relationships across all soil fauna species and within trophic groups and body weight classes were highly variable in time. On average, population energy use tended to increase with species body weight in decomposers and phytophages, but not in predators. Despite these trends, our data do not exclude the possibility that energy equivalence marks the central tendency of energy use in the edaphon. Our results highlight the need for long-term studies on energy use to unequivocally assess predictions of metabolic theory. PMID:25903389

  8. Neutron kerma factors and water equivalence of some tissue substitutes.

    PubMed

    Singh, V P; Badiger, N M; Vega-Carrillo, Hector Rene

    2015-09-01

    The Kerma factors and Kerma relative to the air and water of 24 compounds that are used as tissue substitutes were calculated for neutron energies ranging from 2.53×10(-8) to 29 MeV. The Kerma ratios of the tissue substitutes relative to air and water were calculated. The water equivalence of the selected tissue substitutes was observed above neutron energies of 100 eV. The Kerma ratio relative to the air for poly-vinylidene fluoride and Teflon were nearest to unity at very low energy (up to 1 eV) and above 63 eV, respectively. It was found that the natural rubber was a water-equivalent tissue substitute compound. The results of the Kerma factors in our investigation show good agreement with those published in ICRU-44. We found that at higher neutron energies, the Kerma factors and Kerma ratios of the selected tissue substitute compounds were approximately the same, but though the differences were large for energies below 100 eV. PMID:26073270

  9. Universal Decoherence under Gravity: A Perspective through the Equivalence Principle.

    PubMed

    Pang, Belinda H; Chen, Yanbei; Khalili, Farid Ya

    2016-08-26

    Pikovski et al. [Nat. Phys. 11, 668 (2015)] show that a composite particle prepared in a pure initial quantum state and propagated in a uniform gravitational field undergoes a decoherence process at a rate determined by the gravitational acceleration. By assuming Einstein's equivalence principle to be valid, we analyze a physical realization of the (1+1)D thought experiment of Pikovski et al. to demonstrate that the dephasing between the different internal states arises not from gravity but rather from differences in their rest mass, and the mass dependence of the de Broglie wave's dispersion relation. We provide an alternative view to the situation considered by Pikovski et al., where we propose that gravity plays a kinematic role by providing a relative velocity to the detector frame with respect to the particle; visibility can be easily recovered by giving the screen an appropriate uniform velocity. We then apply this insight to their thought experiment in (1+1)D to draw a direct correspondence, and obtain the same mathematical result for dephasing. We finally propose that dephasing due to gravity may in fact take place for certain modifications to the gravitational potential where the equivalence principle is violated. PMID:27610833

  10. ENVITEC shows off air technologies

    SciTech Connect

    McIlvaine, R.W.

    1995-08-01

    The ENVITEC International Trade Fair for Environmental Protection and Waste Management Technologies, held in June in Duesseldorf, Germany, is the largest air pollution exhibition in the world and may be the largest environmental technology show overall. Visitors saw thousands of environmental solutions from 1,318 companies representing 29 countries and occupying roughly 43,000 square meters of exhibit space. Many innovations were displayed under the category, ``thermal treatment of air pollutants.`` New technologies include the following: regenerative thermal oxidizers; wet systems for removing pollutants; biological scrubbers;electrostatic precipitators; selective adsorption systems; activated-coke adsorbers; optimization of scrubber systems; and air pollution monitors.

  11. Enuresis: a functional equivalent of a fetish.

    PubMed

    Calef, V; Weinshel, E M; Renik, O; Mayer, E L

    1980-01-01

    The split in the ego between consciousness and unconsciousness which sometimes eventuates in fetishism can also be clinically manifested in sleep disturbances, depersonalization, dejà vu and a variety of alterations in the sense of reality. It is suggested that this same split comprises the central dynamic mechanism in enuresis. The sleep disturbance which accompanies enuresis involves a confusion between waking and sleeping, sometimes taking the form of a dream that one is awake. Three patients(adult males) revealed in the course of their analyses that they suffered from childhood enuresis accompanied by a sleep disturbance. Milder forms of sleep disturbances persisted into adult life. In these analyses, certain perceptual distortions, difficulties in the sense of reality, and between fantasy and reality, confusions between waking and sleeping, could all be linked to the functional split between consciousness and unconsciousness and eventually to disavowal of the female genitals. The enuresis represented a functional equivalent of the fetish (and it may be that the urinary stream itself actually served as a fetish). Psychological test data from nine enuretic boys were examined as well. This material clearly demonstrated that these boys wished to deny the differences between males and females, that they suffered from sleep disturbances and that they confused reality and fantasy, sleeping and waking. The combined data suggest the existence of a functional split in the ego used in the service of defence, the product of a regressive fixation and a reinstatement of an archaic mode of thought. PMID:7440069

  12. Symmetry, Equivalence and Self-Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Jack

    2006-03-01

    Molecular self-assembly at equilibrium is central to the formation of many biological structures and the emulation of this process through the creation of synthetic counterparts offers great promise for nanofabrication. The central problems in this field are an understanding of how the symmetry of the interacting particles encodes the geometrical structure of the organized structure and the nature of the thermodynamic transitions involved. Our approach is inspired by the self-assembly of actin, tubulin and icosahedral structures of plant and animal viruses. We observe chain, membrane,`nanotube' and hollow icosahedron structures using `equivalent' particles exhibiting an interplay between directional (dipolar and multi-polar) interactions and short-range (van der Waals) interactions. Specifically, a dipolar potential (continuous rotational symmetry) gives rise to chain formation, while potentials having discrete rotational symmetries (e.g., square quadrupole or triangular ring of dipoles) led to the self-organization of nanotube and icosahedral structures with some resemblance to tubulin and icosahedral viruses. The simulations are compared to theoretical models of molecular self-assembly, especially in the case of dipolar fluids where the corresponding analytic theory of equilibrium polymerization is well developed. These computations give insights into the design elements required for the development of synthetic systems exhibiting this type of organization.

  13. Challenging a culture of racial equivalence.

    PubMed

    Song, Miri

    2014-03-01

    We live at a time when our understandings and conceptualizations of 'racism' are often highly imprecise, broad, and used to describe a wide range of racialized phenomena. In this article, I raise some important questions about how the term racism is used and understood in contemporary British society by drawing on some recent cases of alleged racism in football and politics, many of which have been played out via new media technologies. A broader understanding of racism, through the use of the term 'racialization', has been helpful in articulating a more nuanced and complex understanding of racial incidents, especially of people's (often ambivalent) beliefs and behaviours. However, the growing emphasis upon 'racialization' has led to a conceptualization of racism which increasingly involves multiple perpetrators, victims, and practices without enough consideration of how and why particular interactions and practices constitute racism as such. The trend toward a growing culture of racial equivalence is worrying, as it denudes the idea of racism of its historical basis, severity and power. These frequent and commonplace assertions of racism in the public sphere paradoxically end up trivializing and homogenizing quite different forms of racialized interactions. I conclude that we need to retain the term 'racism', but we need to differentiate more clearly between 'racism' (as an historical and structured system of domination) from the broader notion of 'racialization'. PMID:24697716

  14. Dynamical ensembles equivalence in fluid mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallavotti, G.

    1997-02-01

    An attempt to put together various theoretical, mathematical, or experimental results recently developed in apparently unrelated subjects. Namely Ruelle's (1980) approach to turbulence, the body of Nosé-Hoover type of molecular dynamics experiments, (Evans and Morriss, 1990; Evans et al., 1993; Bonetto et al., 1996), mathematical results on Lyapunov exponents (the pairing rule, Dressler (1988) and Dettman and Morriss (1995)) and experimental results on them (Sarman et al., 1992; Bohr et al., 1996), theoretical as well as mathematical results on fluctuations, Frisch and Parisi (1984) (multifractality), and Gallavoti and Cohen (1995) (chaotic hypothesis). The key idea that we try to clarify is that of “dynamical ensembles”, as a generalization of the classical “equilibrium ensembles”, arguing that they should be identified with the SRB distributions and that they share several properties with the classical ensembles. Most of the results invoked here did not deal directly with the Navier-Stokes equations and yet they seem to have a lot to do with them (as we shall argue): here the discussion will focus on the Navier-Stokes and dissipative Euler equations with the aim of proposing several experiments apt to test the equivalence of dynamical ensembles and the chaotic hypothesis. The ideas developed, to a great extent, from the efforts put in interpreting the experimental results in (Bonetto et al., 1996).

  15. VERSE - Virtual Equivalent Real-time Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Yang; Martin, Bryan J.; Villaume, Nathaniel

    2005-01-01

    Distributed real-time simulations provide important timing validation and hardware in the- loop results for the spacecraft flight software development cycle. Occasionally, the need for higher fidelity modeling and more comprehensive debugging capabilities - combined with a limited amount of computational resources - calls for a non real-time simulation environment that mimics the real-time environment. By creating a non real-time environment that accommodates simulations and flight software designed for a multi-CPU real-time system, we can save development time, cut mission costs, and reduce the likelihood of errors. This paper presents such a solution: Virtual Equivalent Real-time Simulation Environment (VERSE). VERSE turns the real-time operating system RTAI (Real-time Application Interface) into an event driven simulator that runs in virtual real time. Designed to keep the original RTAI architecture as intact as possible, and therefore inheriting RTAI's many capabilities, VERSE was implemented with remarkably little change to the RTAI source code. This small footprint together with use of the same API allows users to easily run the same application in both real-time and virtual time environments. VERSE has been used to build a workstation testbed for NASA's Space Interferometry Mission (SIM PlanetQuest) instrument flight software. With its flexible simulation controls and inexpensive setup and replication costs, VERSE will become an invaluable tool in future mission development.

  16. Applying a polynomial formula to photon beam output and equivalent square field.

    PubMed

    Chen, F S

    1990-01-01

    The polynomial formula proposed by Chen [Med. Phys. 15, 348 (1988)] in calculating the electron beam output from a Therac 20 linear accelerator has been applied to generating the output factor of various machines with photon energies ranging from 100 kVp to 18 MeV. The calculated outputs are within 1% of the measured values. This formula can be very useful to the physicist in preparing an output table of photon beams or electron beams for a therapeutic unit. An equation is derived from this formula to calculate the equivalent square. The derivation shows that only under special circumstances is the equivalent square field equivalent to 2ab/(a + b); otherwise the equivalent square field depends on the formula's parameters as well as the sides of the rectangular field. These parameters, in turn, are dependent on the photon energy, the medium irradiated, and the collimator design. PMID:2117228

  17. Equivalent width evaluation methods for Doppler, Lorentz, and Voigt profiles.

    PubMed

    Habib, Abdel Aziz M; Rammah, Yasser S

    2014-01-01

    An accurate technique has been developed to calculate the equivalent width of absorption lines. The calculations have been carried out for the pure Doppler and pure Lorentz limiting forms of the equivalent width. A novel expression for the equivalent width for Lorentz profile is given from direct integration of the line profile. The more general case of a Voigt profile leads to an analytical formula that permits a rapid estimate of the equivalent width for a wide range of maximum optical depths. The reliability of the approach is verified using a numerical application calculating the equivalent width for nickel resonance lines at 232.0 and 352.3 nm from atomic absorption (AA) measurements. The dependence of equivalent width on the number density of absorbing atoms is also provided. The results obtained for the equivalent width for the Voigt profile were compared with the data in the available literature obtained by different approaches. PMID:24480275

  18. Macrostate equivalence of two general ensembles and specific relative entropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    The two criteria of ensemble equivalence, i.e., macrostate equivalence and measure equivalence, are investigated for a general pair of states. Macrostate equivalence implies the two ensembles are indistinguishable by the measurement of macroscopic quantities obeying the large-deviation principle, and measure equivalence means that the specific relative entropy of these two states vanishes in the thermodynamic limit. It is shown that measure equivalence implies a macrostate equivalence for a general pair of states by deriving an inequality connecting the large-deviation rate functions to the specific relative Renyi entropies. The result is applicable to both quantum and classical systems. As applications, a sufficient condition for thermalization, the time scale of quantum dynamics of macrovariables, and the second law with strict irreversibility in a quantum quench are discussed.

  19. An analytic model of neutron ambient dose equivalent and equivalent dose for proton radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Pérez-Andújar, Angélica; Fontenot, Jonas D; Taddei, Phillip J; Newhauser, Wayne D

    2010-01-01

    Stray neutrons generated in passively scattered proton therapy are of concern because they increase the risk that a patient will develop a second cancer. Several investigations characterized stray neutrons in proton therapy using experimental measurements and Monte Carlo simulations, but capabilities of analytical methods to predict neutron exposures are less well developed. The goal of this study was to develop a new analytical model to calculate neutron ambient dose equivalent in air and equivalent dose in phantom based on Monte Carlo modeling of a passively scattered proton therapy unit. The accuracy of the new analytical model is superior to a previous analytical model and comparable to the accuracy of typical Monte Carlo simulations and measurements. Predictions from the new analytical model agreed reasonably well with corresponding values predicted by a Monte Carlo code using an anthropomorphic phantom. PMID:21076197

  20. ShowMe3D

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from themore » displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.« less

  1. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  2. The Role of Multiple-Exemplar Training and Naming in Establishing Derived Equivalence in an Infant

    PubMed Central

    Luciano, Carmen; Becerra, Inmaculada Gómez; Valverde, Miguel Rodríguez

    2007-01-01

    The conditions under which symmetry and equivalence relations develop are still controversial. This paper reports three experiments that attempt to analyze the impact of multiple-exemplar training (MET) in receptive symmetry on the emergence of visual–visual equivalence relations with a very young child, Gloria. At the age of 15 months 24 days (15m24d), Gloria was tested for receptive symmetry and naming and showed no evidence of either repertoire. In the first experiment, MET in immediate and delayed receptive symmetrical responding or listener behavior (from object–sound to immediate and delayed sound–object selection) proceeded for one month with 10 different objects. This was followed, at 16m25d, by a second test conducted with six new objects. Gloria showed generalized receptive symmetry with a 3-hr delay; however no evidence of naming with new objects was found. Experiment 2 began at 17m with the aim of establishing derived visual–visual equivalence relations using a matching-to-sample format with two comparisons. Visual–visual equivalence responding emerged at 19m, although Gloria still had not shown evidence of naming. Experiment 3 (22m to 23m25d) used a three-comparison matching-to-sample procedure to establish visual–visual equivalence. Equivalence responding emerged as in Experiment 2, and naming emerged by the end of Experiment 3. Results are discussed in terms of the history of training in bidirectional relations responsible for the emergence of visual–visual equivalence relations and of their implications for current theories of stimulus equivalence. PMID:17575901

  3. Deterministic Polynomial Time Equivalence between Factoring and Key-Recovery Attack on Takagi's RSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunihiro, Noboru; Kurosawa, Kaoru

    For RSA, May showed a deterministic polynomial time equivalence of computing d to factoring N(=pq). On the other hand, Takagi showed a variant of RSA such that the decryption algorithm is faster than the standard RSA, where N=prq while ed=1 mod (p-1)(q-1). In this paper, we show that a deterministic polynomial time equivalence also holds in this variant. The coefficient matrix T to which LLL algorithm is applied is no longer lower triangular, and hence we develop a new technique to overcome this problem.

  4. Principle of Spacetime and Black Hole Equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tianxi

    2016-06-01

    Modelling the universe without relying on a set of hypothetical entities (HEs) to explain observations and overcome problems and difficulties is essential to developing a physical cosmology. The well-known big bang cosmology, widely accepted as the standard model, stands on two fundamentals, which are Einstein’s general relativity (GR) that describes the effect of matter on spacetime and the cosmological principle (CP) of spacetime isotropy and homogeneity. The field equation of GR along with the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) metric of spacetime derived from CP generates the Friedmann equation (FE) that governs the development and dynamics of the universe. The big bang theory has made impressive successes in explaining the universe, but still has problems and solutions of them rely on an increasing number of HEs such as inflation, dark matter, dark energy, and so on. Recently, the author has developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which, instead of making many those hypotheses, only includes a new single postulate (or a new principle) to the cosmology - Principle of Spacetime and Black Hole Equivalence (SBHEP) - to explain all the existing observations of the universe and overcome all the existing problems in conventional cosmologies. This study thoroughly demonstrates how this newly developed black hole universe model, which therefore stands on the three fundamentals (GR, CP, and SBHEP), can fully explain the universe as well as easily conquer the difficulties according to the well-developed physics, thus, neither needing any other hypotheses nor existing any unsolved difficulties. This work was supported by NSF/REU (Grant #: PHY-1263253) at Alabama A & M University.

  5. Mass, Special Relativity and the Equivalence Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vayenas, Constantinos G.; Souentie, Stamatios N.-A.

    The equivalence principle states that inertial mass of a particle, i.e. the ratio of force and acceleration, is equal to the gravitational mass, i.e. equal to the quantity responsible for the gravitational force. Special relativity dictates that this inertial or gravitational mass of a particle equals γ3 m o where m o is the rest mass of the particle and γ(=(1-v2/c2)-1/2) is the Lorentz factor. The latter is unbound when the particle velocity relative to a laboratory observer approaches the speed of light c. This is a well-known result for linear motions and, using instantaneous frames of reference, is shown here to be valid also for arbitrary particle motion. Thus it is the gravitational mass γ3 m o, rather than the relativistic mass, γm o, defined from Einstein's famous E = γm o c 2 which must be used in Newton's gravitational law. This difference is totally negligible for non-relativistic velocities, e.g. v < 0. 1c, but can become quite important when v approaches c. Thus special relativity coupled with Newton's gravitational law dictates that the gravitational attraction becomes much stronger under relativistic conditions than that expected from the simple Newton's gravitational law using the rest, m o, or relativistic mass, γm o of the particles involved. This is consistent with the expectation, based on general relativity, that Newton's gravitational law when used with rest or the relativistic masses, may not be valid under highly relativistic conditions. The implications are quite significant for fast subatomic particles.

  6. Pea Plants Show Risk Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Dener, Efrat; Kacelnik, Alex; Shemesh, Hagai

    2016-07-11

    Sensitivity to variability in resources has been documented in humans, primates, birds, and social insects, but the fit between empirical results and the predictions of risk sensitivity theory (RST), which aims to explain this sensitivity in adaptive terms, is weak [1]. RST predicts that agents should switch between risk proneness and risk aversion depending on state and circumstances, especially according to the richness of the least variable option [2]. Unrealistic assumptions about agents' information processing mechanisms and poor knowledge of the extent to which variability imposes specific selection in nature are strong candidates to explain the gap between theory and data. RST's rationale also applies to plants, where it has not hitherto been tested. Given the differences between animals' and plants' information processing mechanisms, such tests should help unravel the conflicts between theory and data. Measuring root growth allocation by split-root pea plants, we show that they favor variability when mean nutrient levels are low and the opposite when they are high, supporting the most widespread RST prediction. However, the combination of non-linear effects of nitrogen availability at local and systemic levels may explain some of these effects as a consequence of mechanisms not necessarily evolved to cope with variance [3, 4]. This resembles animal examples in which properties of perception and learning cause risk sensitivity even though they are not risk adaptations [5]. PMID:27374342

  7. Casimir experiments showing saturation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Sernelius, Bo E.

    2009-10-15

    We address several different Casimir experiments where theory and experiment disagree. First out is the classical Casimir force measurement between two metal half spaces; here both in the form of the torsion pendulum experiment by Lamoreaux and in the form of the Casimir pressure measurement between a gold sphere and a gold plate as performed by Decca et al.; theory predicts a large negative thermal correction, absent in the high precision experiments. The third experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between a metal plate and a laser irradiated semiconductor membrane as performed by Chen et al.; the change in force with laser intensity is larger than predicted by theory. The fourth experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between an atom and a wall in the form of the measurement by Obrecht et al. of the change in oscillation frequency of a {sup 87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensate trapped to a fused silica wall; the change is smaller than predicted by theory. We show that saturation effects can explain the discrepancies between theory and experiment observed in all these cases.

  8. Modelling, property verification and behavioural equivalence of lactose operon regulation.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Marcelo Cezar; Foss, Luciana; Mombach, José Carlos Merino; Ribeiro, Leila

    2007-02-01

    Understanding biochemical pathways is one of the biggest challenges in the field of molecular biology nowadays. Computer science can contribute in this area by providing formalisms and tools to simulate and analyse pathways. One formalism that is suited for modelling concurrent systems is Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems (CCS). This paper shows the viability of using CCS to model and reason about biochemical networks. As a case study, we describe the regulation of lactose operon. After describing this operon formally using CCS, we validate our model by automatically checking some known properties for lactose regulation. Moreover, since biological systems tend to be very complex, we propose to use multiple descriptions of the same system at different levels of abstraction. The compatibility of these multiple views can be assured via mathematical proofs of observational equivalence. PMID:16620804

  9. Calculations of a wideband metamaterial absorber using equivalent medium theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaojun; Yang, Helin; Wang, Danqi; Yu, Shengqing; Lou, Yanchao; Guo, Ling

    2016-08-01

    Metamaterial absorbers (MMAs) have drawn increasing attention in many areas due to the fact that they can achieve electromagnetic (EM) waves with unity absorptivity. We demonstrate the design, simulation, experiment and calculation of a wideband MMA based on a loaded double-square-loop (DSL) array of chip resisters. For a normal incidence EM wave, the simulated results show that the absorption of the full width at half maximum is about 9.1 GHz, and the relative bandwidth is 87.1%. Experimental results are in agreement with the simulations. More importantly, equivalent medium theory (EMT) is utilized to calculate the absorptions of the DSL MMA, and the calculated absorptions based on EMT agree with the simulated and measured results. The method based on EMT provides a new way to analysis the mechanism of MMAs.

  10. Quantum macrostates, equivalence of ensembles, and an H-theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Roeck, Wojciech; Maes, Christian; Netočný, Karel

    2006-07-01

    Before the thermodynamic limit, macroscopic averages need not commute for a quantum system. As a consequence, aspects of macroscopic fluctuations or of constrained equilibrium require a careful analysis, when dealing with several observables. We propose an implementation of ideas that go back to John von Neumann's writing about the macroscopic measurement. We apply our scheme to the relation between macroscopic autonomy and an H-theorem, and to the problem of equivalence of ensembles. In particular, we show how the latter is related to the asymptotic equipartition theorem. The main point of departure is an expression of a law of large numbers for a sequence of states that start to concentrate, as the size of the system gets larger, on the macroscopic values for the different macroscopic observables. Deviations from that law are governed by the entropy.

  11. Searching for cosmological signatures of the Einstein equivalence principle breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holanda, R. F. L.; Barros, K. N. N. O.

    2016-07-01

    Modifications of gravity generated by a multiplicative coupling of a scalar field to the electromagnetic Lagrangian lead to a breaking of the Einstein equivalence principle (EEPB), as well as to variations of fundamental constants. In these theoretical frameworks, deviations of standard values of the fine structure constant, Δ α /α =ϕ , and of the cosmic distance duality relation, DL(1 +z )-2/DA=η =1 , where DL and DA are the luminosity and angular diameter distances, respectively, are unequivocally linked. In this paper, we search for cosmological signatures of the EEPB by using angular diameter distance from galaxy clusters, obtained via their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) and x-ray observations, and distance modulus of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). The crucial point here is that we take into account the dependence of the SZE/x-ray technique with ϕ and η . Our new results show no indication of the EEPB.

  12. Searches on star graphs and equivalent oracle problems

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jaehak; Lee, Hai-Woong; Hillery, Mark

    2011-02-15

    We examine a search on a graph among a number of different kinds of objects (vertices), one of which we want to find. In a standard graph search, all of the vertices are the same, except for one, the marked vertex, and that is the one we wish to find. We examine the case in which the unmarked vertices can be of different types, so the background against which the search is done is not uniform. We find that the search can still be successful, but the probability of success is lower than in the uniform background case, and that probability decreases with the number of types of unmarked vertices. We also show how the graph searches can be rephrased as equivalent oracle problems.

  13. Galilei covariance and Einstein's equivalence principle in quantum reference frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, S. T.; Angelo, R. M.

    2015-02-01

    The covariance of the Schrödinger equation under Galilei boosts and the compatibility of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics with Einstein's equivalence principle have been constrained for so long to the existence of a superselection rule which would prevent a quantum particle from being found in superposition states of different masses. In an effort to avoid this expedient, and thus allow nonrelativistic quantum mechanics to account for unstable particles, recent works have suggested that the usual Galilean transformations are inconsistent with the nonrelativistic limit implied by the Lorentz transformation. Here we approach the issue in a fundamentally different way. Using a formalism of unitary transformations and employing quantum reference frames rather than immaterial coordinate systems, we show that the Schrödinger equation, although form variant, is fully compatible with the aforementioned principles of relativity.

  14. Lowered Humidity Produces Human Epidermal Equivalents with Enhanced Barrier Properties

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Richard; Celli, Anna; Crumrine, Debra; Hupe, Melanie; Adame, Lillian C.; Pennypacker, Sally D.; Park, Kyungho; Uchida, Yoshikazu; Feingold, Kenneth R.; Elias, Peter M.; Ilic, Dusko

    2015-01-01

    Multilayered human keratinocyte cultures increasingly are used to model human epidermis. Until now, studies utilizing human epidermal equivalents (HEEs) have been limited because previous preparations do not establish a normal epidermal permeability barrier. In this report, we show that reducing environmental humidity to 50% relative humidity yields HEEs that closely match human postnatal epidermis and have enhanced repair of the permeability barrier. These cultures display low transepidermal water loss and possess a calcium and pH gradient that resembles those seen in human epidermis. These cultures upregulate glucosylceramide synthase and make normal-appearing lipid lamellar bilayers. The epidermal permeability barrier of these cultures can be perturbed, using the identical tools previously described for human skin, and recover in the same time course seen during in vivo barrier recovery. These cultures will be useful for basic and applied studies on epidermal barrier function. PMID:24803151

  15. Mimas Showing False Colors #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    False color images of Saturn's moon, Mimas, reveal variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

    During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

    The image at the left is a narrow angle clear-filter image, which was separately processed to enhance the contrast in brightness and sharpness of visible features. The image at the right is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined into a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences. This 'color map' was then superimposed over the clear-filter image at the left.

    The combination of color map and brightness image shows how the color differences across the Mimas surface materials are tied to geological features. Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

    Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of each image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in

  16. Equivalence of Two Solutions of Wahba's Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markley, F. Landis

    2013-12-01

    Many attitude estimation methods are based on an optimization problem posed in 1965 by Grace Wahba. All these methods yield the same optimal estimate, except for inevitable computer roundoff errors. This note shows shows that Shuster's Quaternion Estimator (QUEST) and Mortari's Estimator of the Optimal Quaternion (ESOQ) are essentially identical even in the presence of roundoff errors. It also shows some connections between two other algorithms for solving Wahba's problem: Davenport's q method and the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) method.

  17. Comparison of physically- and economically-based CO2-equivalences for methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, O.

    2012-01-01

    There is a controversy on the role methane (and other short-lived species) should play in climate mitigation policies and no consensus on what an optimal methane CO2-equivalence should be. We revisit this question by discussing the relative merits of physically-based (i.e. Global Warming Potential or GWP and Global Temperature change Potential or GTP) and socio-economically-based climate metrics. To this effect we use a simplified Global Damage Potential (GDP) that was introduced by earlier authors and investigate the uncertainties in the methane CO2-equivalence that arise from physical and socio-economic factors. The median value of the methane GDP comes out very close to the widely used methane 100-year GWP because of various compensating effects. However there is a large spread in possible methane CO2-equivalences (1-99% interval: 10.0-42.5; 5-95% interval: 12.5-38.0) that is essentially due to the choice in some socio-economic parameters (i.e. the damage cost function and the discount rate). The methane 100-year GTP falls outside these ranges. It is legitimate to increase the methane CO2-equivalence in the future as global warming unfolds. While changes in biogeochemical cycles and radiative efficiencies cause some small changes to physically-based metrics, a systematic increase in the methane CO2-equivalence can only be achieved by some ad-hoc shortening of the time horizon. In contrast using a convex damage cost function provides a natural increase in the methane CO2-equivalence for the socio-economically-based metrics. We also show that a methane CO2-equivalence based on a pulse emission is sufficient to inform multi-year climate policies and emissions reductions as long as there is some degree of visibility on CO2 prices and CO2-equivalences.

  18. Dose sculpting with generalized equivalent uniform dose

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Qiuwen; Djajaputra, David; Liu, Helen H.; Dong Lei; Mohan, Radhe; Wu, Yan

    2005-05-01

    With intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), a variety of user-defined dose distribution can be produced using inverse planning. The generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) has been used in IMRT optimization as an alternative objective function to the conventional dose-volume-based criteria. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of gEUD optimization to fine tune the dose distributions of IMRT plans. We analyzed the effect of gEUD-based optimization parameters on plan quality. The objective was to determine whether dose distribution to selected structures could be improved using gEUD optimization without adversely altering the doses delivered to other structures, as in sculpting. We hypothesized that by carefully defining gEUD parameters (EUD{sub 0} and n) based on the current dose distributions, the optimization system could be instructed to search for alternative solutions in the neighborhood, and we could maintain the dose distributions for structures already satisfactory and improve dose for structures that need enhancement. We started with an already acceptable IMRT plan optimized with any objective function. The dose distribution was analyzed first. For structures that dose should not be changed, a higher value of n was used and EUD{sub 0} was set slightly higher/lower than the EUD value at the current dose distribution for critical structures/targets. For structures that needed improvement in dose, a higher to medium value of n was used, and EUD{sub 0} was set to the EUD value or slightly lower/higher for the critical structure/target at the current dose distribution. We evaluated this method in one clinical case each of head and neck, lung and prostate cancer. Dose volume histograms, isodose distributions, and relevant tolerance doses for critical structures were used for the assessment. We found that by adjusting gEUD optimization parameters, the dose distribution could be improved with only a few iterations. A larger value of n

  19. Method for the prediction of the effective dose equivalent to the crew of the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Jaby, Samy; Tomi, Leena; Sihver, Lembit; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Richardson, Richard B.; Lewis, Brent J.

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes a methodology for assessing the pre-mission exposure of space crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS) in terms of an effective dose equivalent. In this approach, the PHITS Monte Carlo code was used to assess the particle transport of galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) and trapped radiation for solar maximum and minimum conditions through an aluminum shield thickness. From these predicted spectra, and using fluence-to-dose conversion factors, a scaling ratio of the effective dose equivalent rate to the ICRU ambient dose equivalent rate at a 10 mm depth was determined. Only contributions from secondary neutrons, protons, and alpha particles were considered in this analysis. Measurements made with a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) located at Service Module panel 327, as captured through a semi-empirical correlation in the ISSCREM code, where then scaled using this conversion factor for prediction of the effective dose equivalent. This analysis shows that at this location within the service module, the total effective dose equivalent is 10-30% less than the total TEPC dose equivalent. Approximately 75-85% of the effective dose equivalent is derived from the GCR. This methodology provides an opportunity for pre-flight predictions of the effective dose equivalent and therefore offers a means to assess the health risks of radiation exposure on ISS flight crew.

  20. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL... Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement...

  1. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL... Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement...

  2. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL... Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement...

  3. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL... Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement...

  4. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL... Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement...

  5. Equivalent Plate Analysis of Aircraft Wing with Discrete Source Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, T.; Mason, Brian H.

    2006-01-01

    An equivalent plate procedure is developed to provide a computationally efficient means of matching the stiffness and frequencies of flight vehicle wing structures for prescribed loading conditions. First, the equivalent plate is used to match the stiffness of a stiffened panel without damage and the stiffness of a stiffened panel with damage. For both stiffened panels, the equivalent plate models reproduce the deformation of a corresponding detailed model exactly for the given loading conditions. Once the stiffness was matched, the equivalent plate models were then used to predict the frequencies of the panels. Two analytical procedures using the lumped-mass matrix were used to match the first five frequencies of the corresponding detailed model. In both the procedures, the lumped-mass matrix for the equivalent plate is constructed by multiplying the diagonal terms of the consistent-mass matrix by a proportionality constant. In the first procedure, the proportionality constant is selected such that the total mass of the equivalent plate is equal to that of the detailed model. In the second method, the proportionality constant is selected to minimize the sum of the squares of the errors in a set of pre-selected frequencies between the equivalent plate model and the detailed model. The equivalent plate models reproduced the fundamental first frequency accurately in both the methods. It is observed that changing only the mass distribution in the equivalent plate model did not provide enough flexibility to match all of the frequencies.

  6. Data-Driven Method to Estimate Nonlinear Chemical Equivalence

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Michael; Collier, Zachary A.; Winton, Corey; Chappell, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    There is great need to express the impacts of chemicals found in the environment in terms of effects from alternative chemicals of interest. Methods currently employed in fields such as life-cycle assessment, risk assessment, mixtures toxicology, and pharmacology rely mostly on heuristic arguments to justify the use of linear relationships in the construction of “equivalency factors,” which aim to model these concentration-concentration correlations. However, the use of linear models, even at low concentrations, oversimplifies the nonlinear nature of the concentration-response curve, therefore introducing error into calculations involving these factors. We address this problem by reporting a method to determine a concentration-concentration relationship between two chemicals based on the full extent of experimentally derived concentration-response curves. Although this method can be easily generalized, we develop and illustrate it from the perspective of toxicology, in which we provide equations relating the sigmoid and non-monotone, or “biphasic,” responses typical of the field. The resulting concentration-concentration relationships are manifestly nonlinear for nearly any chemical level, even at the very low concentrations common to environmental measurements. We demonstrate the method using real-world examples of toxicological data which may exhibit sigmoid and biphasic mortality curves. Finally, we use our models to calculate equivalency factors, and show that traditional results are recovered only when the concentration-response curves are “parallel,” which has been noted before, but we make formal here by providing mathematical conditions on the validity of this approach. PMID:26158701

  7. Test of the Equivalence Principle in the Dark sector on galactic scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapi, N.; Hees, A.; Larena, J.

    2016-03-01

    The Einstein Equivalence Principle is a fundamental principle of the theory of General Relativity. While this principle has been thoroughly tested with standard matter, the question of its validity in the Dark sector remains open. In this paper, we consider a general tensor-scalar theory that allows to test the equivalence principle in the Dark sector by introducing two different conformal couplings to standard matter and to Dark matter. We constrain these couplings by considering galactic observations of strong lensing and of velocity dispersion. Our analysis shows that, in the case of a violation of the Einstein Equivalence Principle, data favour violations through coupling strengths that are of opposite signs for ordinary and Dark matter. At the same time, our analysis does not show any significant deviations from General Relativity.

  8. Rallian "equivalent" cylinders reconsidered: comparisons with literal compartments.

    PubMed

    Goldfinger, M D

    2005-06-01

    In Rall's "equivalent" cylinder morphological-to-electrical transformation, neuronal arborizations are reduced to single unbranched core-conductors. The conventional assumption that such an "equivalent" reconstructs the electrical properties of the fibers it represents was tested directly; electrical properties and responses of "equivalent" cylinders were compared with those of their literal branch constituents for fibers with a single symmetrical bifurcation. The numerical solution methods were validated independently by their accurate reconstruction of the responses of an analog circuit configured with compartmental architecture to solve the cable equation for passive fibers with a symmetrical bifurcation. In passive fibers, "equivalent" cylinders misestimated the spatial distribution of voltage amplitudes and steady-state input resistance, partly due to the lack of axial current bifurcation. In active fibers with a single propagating action potential, the spatial distributions of point-to-point conduction velocity values (measured in meters/second) for a literal branch point differed significantly from those of their "equivalent" cylinders. "Equivalent" cylinders also underestimated the diameter-dependent delay in propagation through the branch point and branches, due to the larger "equivalent" diameter. Corrections to the "equivalent" cylinder did not reconcile differences between "equivalent" and literal models. However, "equivalent" and literal branch fibers had the same (a) steady-state resistance "looking into" an isolated symmetrical branch point and (b) geometry-independent point-to-point propagation velocity when measured in space constants per millisecond except within +/-1 space constant from the geometrical inhomogeneity. In summary, Rall's "equivalent" cylinders did not accurately reconstruct all passive or active electrophysiological properties and responses of their literal compartments. For the modeling of individual neurons, the requirement of

  9. Irradiated PVAl membrane swelled with chitosan solution as dermal equivalent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodas, A. C. D.; Ohnuki, T.; Mathor, M. B.; Lugao, A. B.

    2005-07-01

    Synthetic membranes as dermal equivalent can be applied at in vitro studies for developing new transdermal drugs or cosmetics. These membranes could be composed to mimic the dermis and seed cultivated keratinocytes as epidermal layer on it. The endothelial cells ingrowth to promote neovascularization and fibroblasts ingrowth to promote the substitution of this scaffold by natural components of the dermis. As, they can mimic the scaffold function of dermis; the membranes with biological interaction could be used for in vivo studies as dermal equivalent. For this application, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAl) membranes crosslinked by gamma radiation were swelled with chitosan solution. PVAl do not interact with the organism when implanted and is intended to mimic the mechanical characteristics of the dermal scaffold. The chitosan as a biocompatible biosynthetic polysaccharide were incorporated into PVAl membranes to improve the organism response. Degradation of chitosan by the organism occurs preferably by hydrolysis or enzymatic action, for example, by lysozyme. For this purpose the swelling kinetic of PVAl membranes with chitosan solution were performed and it was verified their degradation in vitro. The results showed that the swelling equilibrium of the PVAl membranes with chitosan membranes was reached in 120 h with average swelling of 1730%. After swelling, PVAl and chitosan/PVAl membranes were dried and immersed in phosphate buffer solution pH 5.7 and pH 7.4, with and without lysozyme, as those pH values are the specific physiologic pH for external skin and the general physiological pH for the organism, respectively. It was verified that the pure PVAl membrane did not showed change in their mass during 14 days. PVAl membranes swelled with chitosan solution showed mass decrease from 1 to 14 days inside these solutions. The highest mass decrease was verified at pH 5.7 in phosphate buffer solution without lysozyme. The smallest mass decrease was verified at pH 7.4 in

  10. Equivalence of interest rate models and lattice gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirjol, Dan

    2012-04-01

    We consider the class of short rate interest rate models for which the short rate is proportional to the exponential of a Gaussian Markov process x(t) in the terminal measure r(t)=a(t)exp[x(t)]. These models include the Black-Derman-Toy and Black-Karasinski models in the terminal measure. We show that such interest rate models are equivalent to lattice gases with attractive two-body interaction, V(t1,t2)=-Cov[x(t1),x(t2)]. We consider in some detail the Black-Karasinski model with x(t) as an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, and show that it is similar to a lattice gas model considered by Kac and Helfand, with attractive long-range two-body interactions, V(x,y)=-α(e-γ|x-y|-e-γ(x+y)). An explicit solution for the model is given as a sum over the states of the lattice gas, which is used to show that the model has a phase transition similar to that found previously in the Black-Derman-Toy model in the terminal measure.

  11. Can we use the equivalent sphere model to approximate organ doses in space radiation environments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zi-Wei

    an earlier study. The radius parameters for the dose equivalent in GCR environments are approximately between 10 and 11 cm for the BFO, 3.7 to 4.8 cm for eyes, and 3.5 to 5.6 cm for the skin; while the radius parameters are between 10 and 13 cm for the BFO dose. In the proposed modified equivalent sphere model, the range of each of the two radius parameters for the skin (or eyes) is much tighter than that in the equivalent sphere model with one radius parameter. Our results thus show that the equivalent sphere model works better in galactic cosmic rays environments than in solar particle events. The model works well or marginally well for BFO but usually does not work for eyes or the skin. A modified model with two radius parameters works much better in approximating the dose and dose equivalent in eyes or the skin.

  12. Thermodynamics and Mechanical Equivalent of Heat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kipnis, Nahum

    2014-01-01

    This paper is the first part of a three-part project "How the principle of energy conservation evolved between 1842 and 1870: the view of a participant". This paper aims at showing how the new ideas of Mayer and Joule were received, what constituted the new theory in the period under study, and how it was supported experimentally. A…

  13. Basis for equivalent fluence concept in space solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meulenberg, A.

    1982-01-01

    The equivalent fluence concept is defined, and its use and potential problems are noted. Silicon and GaAs solar cells are compared in a radiation environment. The analysis indicates that valid equivalent fluence values may be easier to obtain in GaAs than in silicon.

  14. 33 CFR 101.130 - Equivalent security measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equivalent security measures. 101... MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: GENERAL General § 101.130 Equivalent security measures. (a) For any measure required by part 104, 105, or 106 of this subchapter, the owner or operator may substitute...

  15. 33 CFR 101.130 - Equivalent security measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equivalent security measures. 101... MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: GENERAL General § 101.130 Equivalent security measures. (a) For any measure required by part 104, 105, or 106 of this subchapter, the owner or operator may substitute...

  16. 33 CFR 101.130 - Equivalent security measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equivalent security measures. 101... MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: GENERAL General § 101.130 Equivalent security measures. (a) For any measure required by part 104, 105, or 106 of this subchapter, the owner or operator may substitute...

  17. 33 CFR 101.130 - Equivalent security measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equivalent security measures. 101... MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: GENERAL General § 101.130 Equivalent security measures. (a) For any measure required by part 104, 105, or 106 of this subchapter, the owner or operator may substitute...

  18. 33 CFR 101.130 - Equivalent security measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equivalent security measures. 101... MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: GENERAL General § 101.130 Equivalent security measures. (a) For any measure required by part 104, 105, or 106 of this subchapter, the owner or operator may substitute...

  19. Teaching Statistical Variability with Equivalence-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Leif; Reeve, Kenneth F.; Reeve, Sharon A.; Kisamore, April N.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, equivalence-based instruction was used to teach 2 4-member classes representing high and low statistical variability to 10 college students. Computerized equivalence-based instruction with multiple-exemplar training was used to teach the classes. A pretest-training-posttest design evaluated performances on both computer-based…

  20. 40 CFR 61.66 - Equivalent equipment and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... satisfaction to be equivalent in terms of reducing vinyl chloride emissions to the atmosphere to those... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.66 Equivalent equipment and procedures. Upon written application from an owner or...