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1

Transcription factor function and promoter architecture govern the evolution of bacterial regulons.  

PubMed

Evolutionary changes in ancestral regulatory circuits can bring about phenotypic differences between related organisms. Studies of regulatory circuits in eukaryotes suggest that these modifications result primarily from changes in cis-regulatory elements (as opposed to alterations in the transcription factors that act upon these sequences). It is presently unclear how the evolution of gene regulatory circuits has proceeded in bacteria, given the rampant effects of horizontal gene transfer, which has significantly altered the composition of bacterial regulons. We now demonstrate that the evolution of the regulons governed by the regulatory protein PhoP in the related human pathogens Salmonella enterica and Yersinia pestis has entailed functional changes in the PhoP protein as well as in the architecture of PhoP-dependent promoters. These changes have resulted in orthologous PhoP proteins that differ both in their ability to promote transcription and in their role as virulence regulators. We posit that these changes allow bacterial transcription factors to incorporate newly acquired genes into ancestral regulatory circuits and yet retain control of the core members of a regulon. PMID:19251636

Perez, J Christian; Groisman, Eduardo A

2009-02-27

2

RegulonDB (version 3.0): transcriptional regulation and operon organization in Escherichia coli K-12  

Microsoft Academic Search

RegulonDB is a database on transcription regulation and operon organization in Escherichia coli. The current version describes regulatory signals of tran- scription initiation, promoters, regulatory binding sites of specific regulators, ribosome binding sites and terminators, as well as information on genes clustered in operons. These specific annotations have been gathered from a constant search in the literature, as well as

Heladia Salgado; Alberto Santos-zavaleta; Socorro Gama-castro; Dulce Millán-zárate; Frederick R. Blattner; Julio Collado-vides

2000-01-01

3

Regulon-Specific Control of Transcription Elongation across the Yeast Genome  

PubMed Central

Transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II was often considered an invariant non-regulated process. However, genome-wide studies have shown that transcriptional pausing during elongation is a frequent phenomenon in tightly-regulated metazoan genes. Using a combination of ChIP-on-chip and genomic run-on approaches, we found that the proportion of transcriptionally active RNA polymerase II (active versus total) present throughout the yeast genome is characteristic of some functional gene classes, like those related to ribosomes and mitochondria. This proportion also responds to regulatory stimuli mediated by protein kinase A and, in relation to cytosolic ribosomal-protein genes, it is mediated by the silencing domain of Rap1. We found that this inactive form of RNA polymerase II, which accumulates along the full length of ribosomal protein genes, is phosphorylated in the Ser5 residue of the CTD, but is hypophosphorylated in Ser2. Using the same experimental approach, we show that the in vivo–depletion of FACT, a chromatin-related elongation factor, also produces a regulon-specific effect on the expression of the yeast genome. This work demonstrates that the regulation of transcription elongation is a widespread, gene class–dependent phenomenon that also affects housekeeping genes.

Pelechano, Vicent; Jimeno-Gonzalez, Silvia; Rodriguez-Gil, Alfonso; Garcia-Martinez, Jose; Perez-Ortin, Jose E.; Chavez, Sebastian

2009-01-01

4

Transcriptome analysis of differentiating trypanosomes reveals the existence of multiple post-transcriptional regulons  

PubMed Central

Background Trypanosome gene expression is regulated almost exclusively at the post-transcriptional level, with mRNA degradation playing a decisive role. When trypanosomes are transferred from the blood of a mammal to the midgut of a Tsetse fly, they transform to procyclic forms: gene expression is reprogrammed, changing the cell surface and switching the mode of energy metabolism. Within the blood, trypanosomes can pre-adapt for Tsetse transmission, becoming growth-arrested stumpy forms. We describe here the transitions in gene expression that occur during differentiation of in-vitro cultured bloodstream forms to procyclic forms. Results Some mRNAs showed changes within 30 min of cis-aconitate addition, whereas others responded 12-24 hours later. For the first 12 h after addition of cis-aconitate, cells accumulated at the G1 phase of the cell cycle, and showed decreases in mRNAs required for proliferation, mimicking the changes seen in stumpy forms: many mRNAs needed for ribosomal and flagellar biogenesis showed striking co-regulation. Other mRNAs encoding components of signal transduction pathways and potential regulators were specifically induced only during differentiation. Messenger RNAs encoding proteins required for individual metabolic pathways were often co-regulated. Conclusion Trypanosome genes form post-transcriptional regulons in which mRNAs with functions in particular pathways, or encoding components of protein complexes, show almost identical patterns of regulation.

Queiroz, Rafael; Benz, Corinna; Fellenberg, Kurt; Hoheisel, Jorg D; Clayton, Christine

2009-01-01

5

Transcriptional regulation of NAD metabolism in bacteria: genomic reconstruction of NiaR (YrxA) regulon.  

PubMed

A comparative genomic approach was used to reconstruct transcriptional regulation of NAD biosynthesis in bacteria containing orthologs of Bacillus subtilis gene yrxA, a previously identified niacin-responsive repressor of NAD de novo synthesis. Members of YrxA family (re-named here NiaR) are broadly conserved in the Bacillus/Clostridium group and in the deeply branching Fusobacteria and Thermotogales lineages. We analyzed upstream regions of genes associated with NAD biosynthesis to identify candidate NiaR-binding DNA motifs and assess the NiaR regulon content in these species. Representatives of the two distinct types of candidate NiaR-binding sites, characteristic of the Firmicutes and Thermotogales, were verified by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. In addition to transcriptional control of the nadABC genes, the NiaR regulon in some species extends to niacin salvage (the pncAB genes) and includes uncharacterized membrane proteins possibly involved in niacin transport. The involvement in niacin uptake proposed for one of these proteins (re-named NiaP), encoded by the B. subtilis gene yceI, was experimentally verified. In addition to bacteria, members of the NiaP family are conserved in multicellular eukaryotes, including human, pointing to possible NaiP involvement in niacin utilization in these organisms. Overall, the analysis of the NiaR and NrtR regulons (described in the accompanying paper) revealed mechanisms of transcriptional regulation of NAD metabolism in nearly a hundred diverse bacteria. PMID:18276644

Rodionov, Dmitry A; Li, Xiaoqing; Rodionova, Irina A; Yang, Chen; Sorci, Leonardo; Dervyn, Etienne; Martynowski, Dariusz; Zhang, Hong; Gelfand, Mikhail S; Osterman, Andrei L

2008-02-14

6

Global phenotypic analysis and transcriptional profiling defines the weak acid stress response regulon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Weak organic acids such as sorbate are potent fungistatic agents used in food preservation, but their intracellular targets are poorly understood. We thus searched for potential target genes and signaling components in the yeast genome using contemporary genome-wide functional assays as well as DNA microarray profiling. Phenotypic screening of the EUROSCARF collection revealed the existence of numerous sorbate-sensitive strains. Sorbate hypersensitivity was detected in mutants of the shikimate biosynthesis pathway, strains lacking the PDR12 efflux pump or WAR1, a transcription factor mediating stress induction of PDR12. Using DNA microarrays, we also analyzed the genome-wide response to acute sorbate stress, allowing for the identification of more than 100 genes rapidly induced by weak acid stress. Moreover, a novel War1p- and Msn2p/4p-independent regulon that includes HSP30 was identified. Although induction of the majority of sorbate-induced genes required Msn2p/4p, weak acid tolerance was unaffected by a lack of Msn2p/4p. Ectopic expression of PDR12 from the GAL1-10 promoter fully restored sorbate resistance in a strain lacking War1p, demonstrating that PDR12 is the major target of War1p under sorbic acid stress. Interestingly, comparison of microarray data with results from the phenotypic screening revealed that PDR12 remained as the only gene, which is both stress inducible and required for weak acid resistance. Our results suggest that combining functional assays with transcriptome profiling allows for the identification of key components in large datasets such as those generated by global microarray analysis. PMID:14617816

Schüller, Christoph; Mamnun, Yasmine M; Mollapour, Mehdi; Krapf, Gerd; Schuster, Michael; Bauer, Bettina E; Piper, Peter W; Kuchler, Karl

2003-11-14

7

Global Phenotypic Analysis and Transcriptional Profiling Defines the Weak Acid Stress Response Regulon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Weak organic acids such as sorbate are potent fungistatic agents used in food preservation, but their intracellular targets are poorly understood. We thus searched for potential target genes and signaling components in the yeast genome using contemporary genome-wide functional assays as well as DNA microarray profiling. Phenotypic screening of the EUROSCARF collection revealed the existence of numerous sorbate-sensitive strains. Sorbate hypersensitivity was detected in mutants of the shikimate biosynthesis pathway, strains lacking the PDR12 efflux pump or WAR1, a transcription factor mediating stress induction of PDR12. Using DNA microarrays, we also analyzed the genome-wide response to acute sorbate stress, allowing for the identification of more than 100 genes rapidly induced by weak acid stress. Moreover, a novel War1p- and Msn2p/4p-independent regulon that includes HSP30 was identified. Although induction of the majority of sorbate-induced genes required Msn2p/4p, weak acid tolerance was unaffected by a lack of Msn2p/4p. Ectopic expression of PDR12 from the GAL1-10 promoter fully restored sorbate resistance in a strain lacking War1p, demonstrating that PDR12 is the major target of War1p under sorbic acid stress. Interestingly, comparison of microarray data with results from the phenotypic screening revealed that PDR12 remained as the only gene, which is both stress inducible and required for weak acid resistance. Our results suggest that combining functional assays with transcriptome profiling allows for the identification of key components in large datasets such as those generated by global microarray analysis.

Schuller, Christoph; Mamnun, Yasmine M.; Mollapour, Mehdi; Krapf, Gerd; Schuster, Michael; Bauer, Bettina E.; Piper, Peter W.; Kuchler, Karl

2004-01-01

8

Defining the Bacillus subtilis sigma(W) regulon: a comparative analysis of promoter consensus search, run-off transcription/macroarray analysis (ROMA), and transcriptional profiling approaches.  

PubMed

The Bacillus subtilis extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor sigma(W) controls a large regulon that is strongly induced by alkali shock. To define the physiological role of sigma(W) we have sought to identify the complete set of genes under sigma(W) control. Previously, we described a promoter consensus search procedure to identify sigma(W) controlled genes. Herein, we introduce a novel method to identify additional target promoters: run-off transcription followed by macroarray analysis (ROMA). We compare the resulting list of targets with those identified in conventional transcriptional profiling studies and using the consensus search approach. While transcriptional profiling identifies genes that are strongly dependent on sigma(W) for in vivo expression, some sigma(W)-dependent promoters are not detected due to the masking effects of other promoter elements, overlapping recognition with other ECF sigma factors, or both. Taken together, the consensus search, ROMA, and transcriptional profiling approaches establish a minimum of 30 promoter sites (controlling approximately 60 genes) as direct targets for activation by sigma(W). Significantly, no single approach identifies more than approximately 80% of the regulon so defined. We therefore suggest that a combination of two or more complementary approaches be employed in studies seeking to achieve maximal coverage when defining bacterial regulons. Our results indicate that sigma(W) controls genes that protect the cell against agents that impair cell wall biosynthesis but fail to reveal any connection to operons likely to function in adaptation to alkaline growth conditions. This is consistent with the observation that a sigW mutant is unaffected in its ability to survive alkali shock. We conclude that in B. subtilis sudden imposition of alkali stress activates the sigma(W) stress response, perhaps by impairing the ability of the cell wall biosynthetic machinery to function. PMID:11866510

Cao, Min; Kobel, Phil A; Morshedi, Maud M; Wu, Ming Fang Winston; Paddon, Chris; Helmann, John D

2002-02-22

9

RegulonDB (version 6.0): gene regulation model of Escherichia coli K-12 beyond transcription, active (experimental) annotated promoters and Textpresso navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

RegulonDB (http:\\/\\/regulondb.ccg.unam.mx\\/) is the primary reference database offering curated knowl- edge of the transcriptional regulatory network of Escherichia coli K12, currently the best-known electronically encoded database of the genetic regulatory network of any free-living organism. This paper summarizes the improvements, new biology and new features available in version 6.0. Curation of original literature is, from now on, up to date

Socorro Gama-castro; Verónica Jiménez-jacinto; Martín Peralta-gil; Alberto Santos-zavaleta; Mónica I. Peñaloza-spínola; Bruno Contreras-moreira; Juan Segura-salazar; Luis Muñiz-rascado; Irma Martínez-flores; Heladia Salgado; César Bonavides-martínez; Cei Abreu-goodger; Carlos Rodríguez Penagos; Juan Miranda-ríos; Enrique Morett; Enrique Merino; Araceli M. Huerta; Luis Treviño-quintanilla; Julio Collado-vides

2008-01-01

10

Diverse Genetic Regulon of the Virulence-Associated Transcriptional Regulator MucR in Brucella abortus 2308  

PubMed Central

The Ros-type regulator MucR is one of the few transcriptional regulators that have been linked to virulence in Brucella. Here, we show that a Brucella abortus in-frame mucR deletion strain exhibits a pronounced growth defect during in vitro cultivation and, more importantly, that the mucR mutant is attenuated in cultured macrophages and in mice. The genetic basis for the attenuation of Brucella mucR mutants has not been defined previously, but in the present study the genes regulated by MucR in B. abortus have been elucidated using microarray analysis and real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). In B. abortus 2308, MucR regulates a wide variety of genes whose products may function in establishing and maintaining cell envelope integrity, polysaccharide biosynthesis, iron homeostasis, genome plasticity, and transcriptional regulation. Particularly notable among the MucR-regulated genes identified is arsR6 (nolR), which encodes a transcriptional regulator previously linked to virulence in Brucella melitensis 16 M. Importantly, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) determined that a recombinant MucR protein binds directly to the promoter regions of several genes repressed by MucR (including arsR6 [nolR]), and in Brucella, as in other alphaproteobacteria, MucR binds to its own promoter to repress expression of the gene that encodes it. Overall, these studies have uncovered the diverse genetic regulon of MucR in Brucella, and in doing so this work has begun to define the MucR-controlled genetic circuitry whose misregulation contributes to the virulence defect of Brucella mucR mutants.

Caswell, Clayton C.; Elhassanny, Ahmed E. M.; Planchin, Emilie E.; Roux, Christelle M.; Weeks-Gorospe, Jenni N.; Ficht, Thomas A.; Dunman, Paul M.

2013-01-01

11

Delineation of the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium HilA regulon through genome-wide location and transcript analysis.  

PubMed

The Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium HilA protein is the key regulator for the invasion of epithelial cells. By a combination of genome-wide location and transcript analysis, the HilA-dependent regulon has been delineated. Under invasion-inducing conditions, HilA binds to most of the known target genes and a number of new target genes. The sopB, sopE, and sopA genes, encoding effector proteins secreted by the type III secretion system on Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1), were identified as being both bound by HilA and differentially regulated in an HilA mutant. This suggests a cooperative role for HilA and InvF in the regulation of SPI-1-secreted effectors. Also, siiA, the first gene of SPI-4, is both bound by HilA and differentially regulated in an HilA mutant, thus linking this pathogenicity island to the invasion key regulator. Finally, the interactions of HilA with the SPI-2 secretion system gene ssaH and the flagellar gene flhD imply a repressor function for HilA under invasion-inducing conditions. PMID:17483226

Thijs, Inge M V; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C J; Fadda, Abeer; Engelen, Kristof; Zhao, Hui; McClelland, Michael; Marchal, Kathleen; Vanderleyden, Jos

2007-05-04

12

Transcription Factor Family-Based Reconstruction of Singleton Regulons and Study of the Crp/Fnr, ArsR, and GntR Families in Desulfovibrionales Genomes  

PubMed Central

Accurate detection of transcriptional regulatory elements is essential for high-quality genome annotation, metabolic reconstruction, and modeling of regulatory networks. We developed a computational approach for reconstruction of regulons operated by transcription factors (TFs) from large protein families and applied this novel approach to three TF families in 10 Desulfovibrionales genomes. Phylogenetic analyses of 125 regulators from the ArsR, Crp/Fnr, and GntR families revealed that 65% of these regulators (termed reference TFs) are well conserved in Desulfovibrionales, while the remaining 35% of regulators (termed singleton TFs) are species specific and show a mosaic distribution. For regulon reconstruction in the group of singleton TFs, the standard orthology-based approach was inefficient, and thus, we developed a novel approach based on the simultaneous study of all homologous TFs from the same family in a group of genomes. As a result, we identified binding for 21 singleton TFs and for all reference TFs in all three analyzed families. Within each TF family we observed structural similarities between DNA-binding motifs of different reference and singleton TFs. The collection of reconstructed regulons is available at the RegPrecise database (http://regprecise.lbl.gov/RegPrecise/Desulfovibrionales.jsp).

Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Price, Morgan N.; Arkin, Adam P.; Dubchak, Inna

2013-01-01

13

Transcription factor family-based reconstruction of singleton regulons and study of the Crp/Fnr, ArsR, and GntR families in Desulfovibrionales genomes.  

PubMed

Accurate detection of transcriptional regulatory elements is essential for high-quality genome annotation, metabolic reconstruction, and modeling of regulatory networks. We developed a computational approach for reconstruction of regulons operated by transcription factors (TFs) from large protein families and applied this novel approach to three TF families in 10 Desulfovibrionales genomes. Phylogenetic analyses of 125 regulators from the ArsR, Crp/Fnr, and GntR families revealed that 65% of these regulators (termed reference TFs) are well conserved in Desulfovibrionales, while the remaining 35% of regulators (termed singleton TFs) are species specific and show a mosaic distribution. For regulon reconstruction in the group of singleton TFs, the standard orthology-based approach was inefficient, and thus, we developed a novel approach based on the simultaneous study of all homologous TFs from the same family in a group of genomes. As a result, we identified binding for 21 singleton TFs and for all reference TFs in all three analyzed families. Within each TF family we observed structural similarities between DNA-binding motifs of different reference and singleton TFs. The collection of reconstructed regulons is available at the RegPrecise database (http://regprecise.lbl.gov/RegPrecise/Desulfovibrionales.jsp). PMID:23086211

Kazakov, Alexey E; Rodionov, Dmitry A; Price, Morgan N; Arkin, Adam P; Dubchak, Inna; Novichkov, Pavel S

2012-10-19

14

Structural Basis of Transcriptional Regulation of the Proline Utilization Regulon by Multifunctional PutA  

PubMed Central

Summary The multifunctional Escherichia coli PutA flavoprotein functions as both a membrane-associated proline catabolic enzyme and transcriptional repressor of the proline utilization genes putA and putP. To better understand the mechanism of transcriptional regulation by PutA, we have mapped the put regulatory region, determined a crystal structure of the PutA ribbon-helix-helix domain (PutA52) complexed with DNA and examined the thermodynamics of DNA binding to PutA52. Five operator sites, each containing the sequence motif 5?-GTTGCA-3?, were identified using gel-shift analysis. Three of the sites are shown to be critical for repression of putA, whereas the two other sites are important for repression of putP. The 2.25 Å resolution crystal structure of PutA52 bound to one of the operators (operator 2, 21-bp) shows that the protein contacts a 9-bp fragment, corresponding to the GTTGCA consensus motif plus three flanking base pairs. Since the operator sequences differ in flanking bases, the structure implies that PutA may have different affinities for the five operators. This hypothesis was explored using isothermal titration calorimetry. The binding of PutA52 to operator 2 is exothermic with an enthalpy of ?1.8 kcal/mol and a dissociation constant of 210 nM. Substitution of the flanking bases of operator 4 into operator 2 results in an unfavorable enthalpy of 0.2 kcal/mol and 15-fold lower affinity, which shows that base pairs outside of the consensus motif impact binding. The structural and thermodynamic data suggest that hydrogen bonds between Lys9 and bases adjacent to the GTTGCA motif contribute to transcriptional regulation by fine-tuning the affinity of PutA for put control operators.

Zhou, Yuzhen; Larson, John D.; Bottoms, Christopher A.; Arturo, Emilia C.; Henzl, Michael T.; Jenkins, Jermaine L.; Nix, Jay C.; Becker, Donald F.; Tanner, John J.

2009-01-01

15

Microneme Proteins in Apicomplexans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invasive stages (zoites) of most apicomplexan parasites are polarised cells that use their actinomyosin-powered gliding\\u000a motility or “glideosome” system to move over surfaces, migrate through biological barriers and invade and leave host cells.\\u000a Central to these processes is the timely engagement and disengagement of specific receptors upon the regulated release of\\u000a apical invasion proteins from parasite secretory organelles (micronemes,

Vern B. Carruthers; Fiona M. Tomley

16

Cytoskeleton of Apicomplexan Parasites  

PubMed Central

The Apicomplexa are a phylum of diverse obligate intracellular parasites including Plasmodium spp., the cause of malaria; Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum, opportunistic pathogens of immunocompromised individuals; and Eimeria spp. and Theileria spp., parasites of considerable agricultural importance. These protozoan parasites share distinctive morphological features, cytoskeletal organization, and modes of replication, motility, and invasion. This review summarizes our current understanding of the cytoskeletal elements, the properties of cytoskeletal proteins, and the role of the cytoskeleton in polarity, motility, invasion, and replication. We discuss the unusual properties of actin and myosin in the Apicomplexa, the highly stereotyped microtubule populations in apicomplexans, and a network of recently discovered novel intermediate filament-like elements in these parasites.

Morrissette, Naomi S.; Sibley, L. David

2002-01-01

17

Cell Envelope Stress Response in Bacillus licheniformis: Integrating Comparative Genomics, Transcriptional Profiling, and Regulon Mining To Decipher a Complex Regulatory Network?  

PubMed Central

The envelope is an essential structure of the bacterial cell, and maintaining its integrity is a prerequisite for survival. To ensure proper function, transmembrane signal-transducing systems, such as two-component systems (TCS) and extracytoplasmic function (ECF) ? factors, closely monitor its condition and respond to harmful perturbations. Both systems consist of a transmembrane sensor protein (histidine kinase or anti-? factor, respectively) and a corresponding cytoplasmic transcriptional regulator (response regulator or ? factor, respectively) that mediates the cellular response through differential gene expression. The regulatory network of the cell envelope stress response is well studied in the gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis. It consists of at least two ECF ? factors and four two-component systems. In this study, we describe the corresponding network in a close relative, Bacillus licheniformis. Based on sequence homology, domain architecture, and genomic context, we identified five TCS and eight ECF ? factors as potential candidate regulatory systems mediating cell envelope stress response in this organism. We characterized the corresponding regulatory network by comparative transcriptomics and regulon mining as an initial screening tool. Subsequent in-depth transcriptional profiling was applied to define the inducer specificity of each identified cell envelope stress sensor. A total of three TCS and seven ECF ? factors were shown to be induced by cell envelope stress in B. licheniformis. We noted a number of significant differences, indicative of a regulatory divergence between the two Bacillus species, in addition to the expected overlap in the respective responses.

Wecke, Tina; Veith, Birgit; Ehrenreich, Armin; Mascher, Thorsten

2006-01-01

18

The dual transcriptional regulator CysR in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 controls a subset of genes of the McbR regulon in response to the availability of sulphide acceptor molecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Regulation of sulphur metabolism in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 has been studied intensively in the last few years, due to its industrial as well as scientific importance. Previously, the gene cg0156 was shown to belong to the regulon of McbR, a global transcriptional repressor of sulphur metabolism in C. glutamicum. This gene encodes a putative ROK-type regulator, a paralogue

Christian Rückert; Johanna Milse; Andreas Albersmeier; Daniel J Koch; Alfred Pühler; Jörn Kalinowski

2008-01-01

19

Proteolytic degradation of Escherichia coli transcription activators SoxS and MarA as the mechanism for reversing the induction of the superoxide (SoxRS) and multiple antibiotic resistance (Mar) regulons.  

PubMed

In Escherichia coli, the SoxRS regulon confers resistance to redox-cycling compounds, and the Mar regulon provides a defence against multiple antibiotics. The response regulators, SoxS and MarA, are synthesized de novo in response to their inducing signals and directly activate transcription of a common set of target genes. Although the mechanisms of transcription activation by SoxS and MarA have been well studied, little is known about how the systems are shut-off once the inducing stress has subsided, except that de novo synthesis of the regulators is known to cease almost immediately. Here, we induced the SoxRS regulon and determined that, upon removal of the inducer, expression of the regulon's genes quickly returns to the preinduced level. This rapid shut-off indicates that the system is reset by an active process. We found that SoxS is unstable and infer that SoxS degradation is responsible for the rapid return of the system to the ground state upon removal of the inducing signal. We also found that MarA is unstable and that the instability of both proteins is intrinsic and unregulated. We used null mutations of protease genes to identify the proteases involved in the degradation of SoxS and MarA. Among single protease mutations, only lon mutations increased the half-life of SoxS and MarA. In addition, SoxS appeared to be nearly completely stable in a lon ftsH double mutant. Using hexahistidine tags placed at the respective ends of the activators, we found that access to the amino-terminus is essential for the proteolytic degradation. PMID:15009903

Griffith, Kevin L; Shah, Ishita M; Wolf, Richard E

2004-03-01

20

Genome Scale Identification of Regulons  

SciTech Connect

The DNA sequences of organisms are becoming available at an increasing rate and the biological information derived from the genome sequence data has been proven to be very useful in improving our understanding of cellular regulatory patterns. Detection of transcription factor binding sites in the promoter regions of genes helps to identify the potential regulons of transcriptional regulators, and this information can be used to establish the regulatory networks of organisms. In this study, we apply a motif pattern searching technique to detect the possible DNA binding sites in the intergenic upstream sequences of the genes of a bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, to investigate the interplay between the three known transcription factors. In contrast to PpsR and FnrL, we find that the PrrA acts as a global regulator in controlling the gene transcription in the R. sphaeroides organism.

Mao, Linyong; Resat, Haluk

2004-06-22

21

Probing key DNA contacts in AraR-mediated transcriptional repression of the Bacillus subtilis arabinose regulon  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the absence of arabinose, the AraR transcription factor represses the expression of genes involved in the utilization of arabinose, xylose and galactose in Bacillus subtilis. AraR exhibits a chimeric organi- zation: the N-terminal DNA-binding region belongs to the GntR family and the C-terminal effector- binding domain is homologous to the GalR\\/LacI family. Here, the AraR-DNA-binding interactions were characterized in

Irina Saraiva Franco; Luis Jaime Mota; Claudio Manuel Soares; I. de Sa-Nogueira

2007-01-01

22

A highly conserved transcriptional repressor controls a large regulon involved in lipid degradation in Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

The Mycobacterium tuberculosis TetR-type regulator Rv3574 has been implicated in pathogenesis as it is induced in vivo, and genome-wide essentiality studies show it is required for infection. As the gene is highly conserved in the mycobacteria, we deleted the Rv3574 orthologue in Mycobacterium smegmatis (MSMEG_6042) and used real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and microarray analyses to show that it represses the transcription both of itself and of a large number of genes involved in lipid metabolism. We identified a conserved motif within its own promoter (TnnAACnnGTTnnA) and showed that it binds as a dimer to 29 bp probes containing the motif. We found 16 and 31 other instances of the motif in intergenic regions of M. tuberculosis and M. smegmatis respectively. Combining the results of the microarray studies with the motif analyses, we predict that Rv3574 directly controls the expression of 83 genes in M. smegmatis, and 74 in M. tuberculosis. Many of these genes are known to be induced by growth on cholesterol in rhodococci, and palmitate in M. tuberculosis. We conclude that this regulator, designated elsewhere as kstR, controls the expression of genes used for utilizing diverse lipids as energy sources, possibly imported through the mce4 system.

Kendall, Sharon L; Withers, Mike; Soffair, Catherine N; Moreland, Nicole J; Gurcha, Sudagar; Sidders, Ben; Frita, Rosangela; ten Bokum, Annemieke; Besra, Gurdyal S; Lott, J Shaun; Stoker, Neil G

2007-01-01

23

A highly conserved transcriptional repressor controls a large regulon involved in lipid degradation in Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

The Mycobacterium tuberculosis TetR-type regulator Rv3574 has been implicated in pathogenesis as it is induced in vivo, and genome-wide essentiality studies show it is required for infection. As the gene is highly conserved in the mycobacteria, we deleted the Rv3574 orthologue in Mycobacterium smegmatis (MSMEG_6042) and used real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and microarray analyses to show that it represses the transcription both of itself and of a large number of genes involved in lipid metabolism. We identified a conserved motif within its own promoter (TnnAACnnGTTnnA) and showed that it binds as a dimer to 29 bp probes containing the motif. We found 16 and 31 other instances of the motif in intergenic regions of M. tuberculosis and M. smegmatis respectively. Combining the results of the microarray studies with the motif analyses, we predict that Rv3574 directly controls the expression of 83 genes in M. smegmatis, and 74 in M. tuberculosis. Many of these genes are known to be induced by growth on cholesterol in rhodococci, and palmitate in M. tuberculosis. We conclude that this regulator, designated elsewhere as kstR, controls the expression of genes used for utilizing diverse lipids as energy sources, possibly imported through the mce4 system. PMID:17635188

Kendall, Sharon L; Withers, Mike; Soffair, Catherine N; Moreland, Nicole J; Gurcha, Sudagar; Sidders, Ben; Frita, Rosangela; Ten Bokum, Annemieke; Besra, Gurdyal S; Lott, J Shaun; Stoker, Neil G

2007-08-01

24

The PrfA virulence regulon.  

PubMed

The PrfA protein, a member of the Crp/Cap-Fnr family of bacterial transcription factors, controls the expression of key virulence determinants of the facultative intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. Each of the steps of the listerial intracellular infection cycle-host cell invasion, phagosomal escape, cytosolic replication, and direct cell-to-cell spread-is mediated by products of the PrfA regulon. Only 10 of the 2853 genes of the L. monocytogenes EGDe genome have been confirmed as bona fide (directly regulated) members of this regulon, a number surprisingly small given the apparent complexity of listerial intracellular parasitism. PrfA activates transcription by binding as a dimer to a palindromic promoter element of canonical sequence tTAACanntGTtAa, with seven invariant nucleotides (in capitals) and a two-mismatch tolerance. PrfA integrates a number of environmental and bacteria-derived signals to ensure the correct spatio-temporal and niche-adapted expression of the regulon, with maximum induction in the host cell cytosol and repression in the environmental habitat. Regulation operates through changes in PrfA activity-presumably by cofactor-mediated allosteric shift-and concentration, and involves transcriptional, translational and post-translational control mechanisms. There is evidence that PrfA exerts a more global influence on L. monocytogenes physiology via indirect mechanisms. PMID:17764998

Scortti, Mariela; Monzó, Héctor J; Lacharme-Lora, Lizeth; Lewis, Deborah A; Vázquez-Boland, José A

2007-05-07

25

The inositol regulon controls viability in Candida glabrata  

PubMed Central

Inositol is essential in eukaryotes, and must be imported or synthesized. Inositol biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is controlled by three non-essential genes that make up the inositol regulon: ScINO2 and ScINO4, which together encode a heterodimeric transcriptional activator, and ScOPI1, which encodes a transcriptional repressor. ScOpi1p inhibits the ScIno2-ScIno4p activator in response to extracellular inositol levels. An important gene controlled by the inositol regulon is ScINO1, which encodes inositol-3-phosphate synthase, a key enzyme in inositol biosynthesis. In the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans, homologues of the S. cerevisiae inositol regulon genes are ‘transcriptionally rewired’. Instead of regulating the CaINO1 gene, CaINO2 and CaINO4 regulate ribosomal genes. Another Candida species that is a prevalent cause of infections is Candida glabrata; however, C. glabrata is phylogenetically more closely related to S. cerevisiae than C. albicans. Experiments were designed to determine if C. glabrata homologues of the inositol regulon genes function similarly to S. cerevisiae or are transcriptionally rewired. CgINO2, CgINO4 and CgOPI1 regulate CgINO1 in a manner similar to that observed in S. cerevisiae. However, unlike in S. cerevisiae, CgOPI1 is essential. Genetic data indicate that CgOPI1 is a repressor that affects viability by regulating activation of a target of the inositol regulon.

Bethea, Emily K.; Carver, Billy J.; Montedonico, Anthony E.; Reynolds, Todd B.

2010-01-01

26

The dual transcriptional regulator CysR in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 controls a subset of genes of the McbR regulon in response to the availability of sulphide acceptor molecules  

PubMed Central

Background Regulation of sulphur metabolism in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 has been studied intensively in the last few years, due to its industrial as well as scientific importance. Previously, the gene cg0156 was shown to belong to the regulon of McbR, a global transcriptional repressor of sulphur metabolism in C. glutamicum. This gene encodes a putative ROK-type regulator, a paralogue of the activator of sulphonate utilisation, SsuR. Therefore, it is an interesting candidate for study to further the understanding of the regulation of sulphur metabolism in C. glutamicum. Results Deletion of cg0156, now designated cysR, results in the inability of the mutant to utilise sulphate and aliphatic sulphonates. DNA microarray hybridisations revealed 49 genes with significantly increased and 48 with decreased transcript levels in presence of the native CysR compared to a cysR deletion mutant. Among the genes positively controlled by CysR were the gene cluster involved in sulphate reduction, fpr2 cysIXHDNYZ, and ssuR. Gel retardation experiments demonstrated that binding of CysR to DNA depends in vitro on the presence of either O-acetyl-L-serine or O-acetyl-L-homoserine. Mapping of the transcription start points of five transcription units helped to identify a 10 bp inverted repeat as the possible CysR binding site. Subsequent in vivo tests proved this motif to be necessary for CysR-dependent transcriptional regulation. Conclusion CysR acts as the functional analogue of the unrelated LysR-type regulator CysB from Escherichia coli, controlling sulphide production in response to acceptor availability. In both bacteria, gene duplication events seem to have taken place which resulted in the evolution of dedicated regulators for the control of sulphonate utilisation. The striking convergent evolution of network topology indicates the strong selective pressure to control the metabolism of the essential but often toxic sulphur-containing (bio-)molecules.

Ruckert, Christian; Milse, Johanna; Albersmeier, Andreas; Koch, Daniel J; Puhler, Alfred; Kalinowski, Jorn

2008-01-01

27

Calcium storage and function in apicomplexan parasites  

PubMed Central

Calcium is relevant for several vital functions in apicomplexan parasites including host cell invasion, parasite motility, and differentiation. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and calcium-rich acidocalcisomes have been identified as major calcium stores. Other potential calcium storage organelles include the Golgi, the mitochondrion, the apicoplast, and the recently described plant-like vacuole in T. gondii. Compared to most eukaryotic systems, apicomplexan parasites contain a reduced number of calcium-related genes, a vast majority of which remain uncharacterized. Several Ca2+-ATPases have been described in apicomplexans, several of which are annotated in the different genomes. There is experimental evidence for an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-dependent calcium response in Plasmodium spp. and T. gondii although no IP3 or ryanodine receptors have been identified. Genes encoding potential calcium channels are present in T. gondi but not in Plasmodium spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. Effector calcium binding proteins including calmodulins and calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) genes mainly found in plants have also been described. The characterized CDPKs were found to play important roles in protein secretion, host cell invasion and parasite differentiation. Together, the available information on calcium storage and function in apicomplexans, although fragmented, suggest the existence of unique calcium-mediated pathways in these parasites. An in-depth functional characterization of the apicomplexan calcium-related genes could lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets, and will improve our understanding of the role of calcium in parasite development and virulence.

Moreno, Silvia N.J.; Ayong, Lawrence; Pace, Douglas A.

2012-01-01

28

DNA topoisomerases in apicomplexan parasites: promising targets for drug discovery  

PubMed Central

The phylum Apicomplexa includes a large group of protozoan parasites responsible for a wide range of animal and human diseases. Destructive pathogens, such as Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, causative agents of human malaria, Cryptosporidium parvum, responsible of childhood diarrhoea, and Toxoplasma gondii, responsible for miscarriages and abortions in humans, are frequently associated with HIV immunosuppression in AIDS patients. The lack of effective vaccines, along with years of increasing pressure to eradicate outbreaks with the use of drugs, has favoured the formation of multi-drug resistant strains in endemic areas. Almost all apicomplexan of medical interest contain two endosymbiotic organelles that contain their own mitochondrial and apicoplast DNA. Apicoplast is an attractive target for drug testing because in addition to harbouring singular metabolic pathways absent in the host, it also has its own transcription and translation machinery of bacterial origin. Accordingly, apicomplexan protozoa contain an interesting mixture of enzymes to unwind DNA from eukaryotic and prokaryotic origins. On the one hand, the main mechanism of DNA unwinding includes the scission of one—type I—or both DNA strands—type II eukaryotic topoisomerases, establishing transient covalent bonds with the scissile end. These enzymes are targeted by camptothecin and etoposide, respectively, two natural drugs whose semisynthetic derivatives are currently used in cancer chemotherapy. On the other hand, DNA gyrase is a bacterial-borne type II DNA topoisomerase that operates within the apicoplast and is effectively targeted by bacterial antibiotics like fluoroquinolones and aminocoumarins. The present review is an update on the new findings concerning topoisomerases in apicomplexan parasites and the role of these enzymes as targets for therapeutic agents.

Garcia-Estrada, Carlos; Prada, Christopher Fernandez; Fernandez-Rubio, Celia; Rojo-Vazquez, Francisco; Balana-Fouce, Rafael

2010-01-01

29

Protein Palmitoylation and Pathogenesis in Apicomplexan Parasites  

PubMed Central

Apicomplexan parasites comprise a broad variety of protozoan parasites, including Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium, Eimeria, and Cryptosporidium species. Being intracellular parasites, the success in establishing pathogenesis relies in their ability to infect a host-cell and replicate within it. Protein palmitoylation is known to affect many aspects of cell biology. Furthermore, palmitoylation has recently been shown to affect important processes in T. gondii such as replication, invasion, and gliding. Thus, this paper focuses on the importance of protein palmitoylation in the pathogenesis of apicomplexan parasites.

Corvi, Maria Martha; Alonso, Andres Mariano; Caballero, Marina Cecilia

2012-01-01

30

Regulation of apicomplexan actin-based motility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apicomplexan parasites are an ancient group of protozoan parasites that includes several significant pathogens of humans and animals. To target and invade host cells they use a unique form of actin-based motility, called gliding motility. At the centre of the molecular motor that underlies this unique mode of locomotion are short, highly dynamic actin filaments. Recent molecular work, along with

Jake Baum; Anthony T. Papenfuss; Buzz Baum; Terence P. Speed; Alan F. Cowman

2006-01-01

31

Quorum sensing transcriptional regulator QseA is essential for the expression of multiple virulence regulons of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction and Objectives: QseA is one of several transcriptional regulators that regulates the virulence gene expression in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 through quorum sensing. QseA has been shown to regulate the expression of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), non-LEE...

32

Horizontal gene transfer of epigenetic machinery and evolution of parasitism in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and other apicomplexans  

PubMed Central

Background The acquisition of complex transcriptional regulatory abilities and epigenetic machinery facilitated the transition of the ancestor of apicomplexans from a free-living organism to an obligate parasite. The ability to control sophisticated gene expression patterns enabled these ancient organisms to evolve several differentiated forms, invade multiple hosts and evade host immunity. How these abilities were acquired remains an outstanding question in protistan biology. Results In this work, we study SET domain bearing genes that are implicated in mediating immune evasion, invasion and cytoadhesion pathways of modern apicomplexans, including malaria parasites. We provide the first conclusive evidence of a horizontal gene transfer of a Histone H4 Lysine 20 (H4K20) modifier, Set8, from an animal host to the ancestor of apicomplexans. Set8 is known to contribute to the coordinated expression of genes involved in immune evasion in modern apicomplexans. We also show the likely transfer of a H3K36 methyltransferase (Ashr3 from plants), possibly derived from algal endosymbionts. These transfers appear to date to the transition from free-living organisms to parasitism and coincide with the proposed horizontal acquisition of cytoadhesion domains, the O-glycosyltransferase that modifies these domains, and the primary family of transcription factors found in apicomplexan parasites. Notably, phylogenetic support for these conclusions is robust and the genes clearly are dissimilar to SET sequences found in the closely related parasite Perkinsus marinus, and in ciliates, the nearest free-living organisms with complete genome sequences available. Conclusions Animal and plant sources of epigenetic machinery provide new insights into the evolution of parasitism in apicomplexans. Along with the horizontal transfer of cytoadhesive domains, O-linked glycosylation and key transcription factors, the acquisition of SET domain methyltransferases marks a key transitional event in the evolution to parasitism in this important protozoan lineage.

2013-01-01

33

Comparative Genomics of the Dormancy Regulons in Mycobacteria ?†  

PubMed Central

In response to stresses, Mycobacterium cells become dormant. This process is regulated by the DosR transcription factor. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the dormancy regulon is well characterized and contains the dosR gene itself and dosS and dosT genes encoding DosR kinases, nitroreductases (acg; Rv3131), diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) (Rv3130c), and many universal stress proteins (USPs). In this study, we apply comparative genomic analysis to characterize the DosR regulons in nine Mycobacterium genomes, Rhodococcus sp. RHA1, Nocardia farcinica, and Saccharopolyspora erythraea. The regulons are highly labile, containing eight core gene groups (regulators, kinases, USPs, DGATs, nitroreductases, ferredoxins, heat shock proteins, and the orthologs of the predicted kinase [Rv2004c] from M. tuberculosis) and 10 additional genes with more restricted taxonomic distribution that are mostly involved in anaerobic respiration. The largest regulon is observed in M. marinum and the smallest in M. abscessus. Analysis of large gene families encoding USPs, nitroreductases, and DGATs demonstrates a mosaic distribution of regulated and nonregulated members, suggesting frequent acquisition and loss of DosR-binding sites.

Gerasimova, Anna; Kazakov, Alexey E.; Arkin, Adam P.; Dubchak, Inna; Gelfand, Mikhail S.

2011-01-01

34

Calcium-Dependent Signaling and Kinases in Apicomplexan Parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium controls many critical events in the complex life cycles of apicomplexan parasites including protein secretion, motility, and development. Calcium levels are normally tightly regulated and rapid release of calciuminto thecytosolactivates afamilyof calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs),which are normally characteristic of plants. CDPKs present in apicomplexans have acquired a number of unique domain struc- tures likely reflecting their diverse functions. Calcium

Oliver Billker; Sebastian Lourido; L. David Sibley

2009-01-01

35

Rhodopseudomonas palustris regulons detected by cross-species analysis of alphaproteobacterial genomes.  

PubMed

Rhodopseudomonas palustris, an alpha-proteobacterium, carries out three of the chemical reactions that support life on this planet: the conversion of sunlight to chemical-potential energy; the absorption of carbon dioxide, which it converts to cellular material; and the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia. Insight into the transcription-regulatory network that coordinates these processes is fundamental to understanding the biology of this versatile bacterium. With this goal in mind, we predicted regulatory signals genomewide, using a two-step phylogenetic-footprinting and clustering process that we had developed previously. In the first step, 4,963 putative transcription factor binding sites, upstream of 2,044 genes and operons, were identified using cross-species Gibbs sampling. Bayesian motif clustering was then employed to group the cross-species motifs into regulons. We have identified 101 putative regulons in R. palustris, including 8 that are of particular interest: a photosynthetic regulon, a flagellar regulon, an organic hydroperoxide resistance regulon, the LexA regulon, and four regulons related to nitrogen metabolism (FixK2, NnrR, NtrC, and sigma54). In some cases, clustering allowed us to assign functions to proteins that previously had been annotated with only putative functions; we have identified RPA0828 as the organic hydroperoxide resistance regulator and RPA1026 as a cell cycle methylase. In addition to predicting regulons, we identified a novel inverted repeat that likely forms a highly conserved stem-loop and that occurs downstream of over 100 genes. PMID:16269786

Conlan, Sean; Lawrence, Charles; McCue, Lee Ann

2005-11-01

36

Role of the iron mobilization and oxidative stress regulons in the genomic response of yeast to hydroxyurea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroxyurea (HU) is a specific inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase and thus impairs dNTP synthesis and DNA replication.\\u000a The long-term transcriptional response of yeast cells to hydroxyurea was investigated using DNA microarrays containing all\\u000a yeast coding sequences. We show that the redox-responsive Yap regulon and the iron-mobilization Aft regulon are activated\\u000a in yeast cells treated with HU. Yap1 accumulates in the

Caroline Dubacq; Anne Chevalier; Régis Courbeyrette; Cyrille Petat; Xavier Gidrol; Carl Mann

2006-01-01

37

The response of Bacillus licheniformis to heat and ethanol stress and the role of the SigB regulon.  

PubMed

The heat and ethanol stress response of Bacillus licheniformis DSM13 was analyzed at the transcriptional and/or translational level. During heat shock, regulons known to be heat-induced in Bacillus subtilis 168 are upregulated in B. licheniformis, such as the HrcA, SigB, CtsR, and CssRS regulon. Upregulation of the SigY regulon and of genes controlled by other extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors indicates a cell-wall stress triggered by the heat shock. Furthermore, tryptophan synthesis enzymes were upregulated in heat stressed cells as well as regulons involved in usage of alternative carbon and nitrogen sources. Ethanol stress led to an induction of the SigB, HrcA, and CtsR regulons. As indicated by the upregulation of a SigM-dependent protein, ethanol also triggered a cell wall stress. To characterize the SigB regulon of B. licheniformis, we analyzed the heat stress response of a sigB mutant. It is shown that the B. licheniformis SigB regulon comprises additional genes, some of which do not exist in B. subtilis, such as BLi03885, encoding a hypothetical protein, the Na/solute symporter gene BLi02212, the arginase homolog-encoding gene BLi00198 and mcrA, encoding a protein with endonuclease activity. PMID:23592518

Voigt, Birgit; Schroeter, Rebecca; Jürgen, Britta; Albrecht, Dirk; Evers, Stefan; Bongaerts, Johannes; Maurer, Karl-Heinz; Schweder, Thomas; Hecker, Michael

2013-07-01

38

Extracting regulatory networks of Escherichia coli from RegulonDB.  

PubMed

RegulonDB contains the largest and currently best-known data set on transcriptional regulation in a single free-living organism, that of Escherichia coli K-12 (Gama-Castro et al. Nucleic Acids Res 36:D120-D124, 2008). This organized knowledge has been the gold standard for the implementation of bioinformatic predictive methods on gene regulation in bacteria (Collado-Vides et al. J Bacteriol 191:23-31, 2009). Given the complexity of different types of interactions, the difficulty of visualizing in a single figure of the whole network, and the different uses of this knowledge, we are making available different views of the genetic network. This chapter describes case studies about how to access these views, via precomputed files, web services and SQL, including sigma-gene relationships corresponding to transcription of alternative RNA polymerase holoenzyme promoters; as well as, transcription factor (TF)-genes, TF-operons, TF-TF, and TF-regulon interactions. 17. PMID:22144154

Salgado, Heladia; Martínez-Flores, Irma; López-Fuentes, Alejandra; García-Sotelo, Jair Santiago; Porrón-Sotelo, Liliana; Solano, Hilda; Muñiz-Rascado, Luis; Collado-Vides, Julio

2012-01-01

39

Library of Apicomplexan Metabolic Pathways: a manually curated database for metabolic pathways of apicomplexan parasites.  

PubMed

The Library of Apicomplexan Metabolic Pathways (LAMP, http://www.llamp.net) is a web database that provides near complete mapping from genes to the central metabolic functions for some of the prominent intracellular parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa. This phylum includes the causative agents of malaria, toxoplasmosis and theileriosis-diseases with a huge economic and social impact. A number of apicomplexan genomes have been sequenced, but the accurate annotation of gene function remains challenging. We have adopted an approach called metabolic reconstruction, in which genes are systematically assigned to functions within pathways/networks for Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Cryptosporidium and Theileria species, and Babesia bovis. Several functions missing from pathways have been identified, where the corresponding gene for an essential process appears to be absent from the current genome annotation. For each species, LAMP contains interactive diagrams of each pathway, hyperlinked to external resources and annotated with detailed information, including the sources of evidence used. We have also developed a section to highlight the overall metabolic capabilities of each species, such as the ability to synthesize or the dependence on the host for a particular metabolite. We expect this new database will become a valuable resource for fundamental and applied research on the Apicomplexa. PMID:23193253

Shanmugasundram, Achchuthan; Gonzalez-Galarza, Faviel F; Wastling, Jonathan M; Vasieva, Olga; Jones, Andrew R

2012-11-27

40

Environmental distribution of coral-associated relatives of apicomplexan parasites.  

PubMed

A lineage of plastid-bearing eukaryotic microbes that is closely related to apicomplexan parasites was recently found in a specific association with coral reefs (apicomplexan-related lineage-V, or ARL-V). Here, we address the possible nature of this association using plastid 'contamination' in fine-scale bacterial sequence surveys. In a transect between corals and associated macroalgae, ARL-V is specifically associated with the coral, in contrast to all microalgal types (including diatoms, haptophytes, pelagophytes and photosynthetic apicomplexan relatives, Chromera and Vitrella), which are associated with macroalgae. ARL-V is associated with at least 20 species of symbiotic corals through extended time periods and large geographic distances. It is significantly enriched in healthy coral tissue and shallow reef depths. Altogether, the evidence points to a specific relationship between ARL-V and corals, and is suggestive of symbiosis, perhaps based on photosynthesis. PMID:23151646

Janouškovec, Jan; Horák, Aleš; Barott, Katie L; Rohwer, Forest L; Keeling, Patrick J

2012-11-15

41

Two-stage induction of the soxRS (superoxide response) regulon of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

soxR and soxS are adjacent genes that govern a superoxide response regulon. Previous studies revealed that induction of the regulon is accompanied by increased transcription of soxS, which can activate the target genes. Therefore, induction may occur in two stages: the soxR-dependent activation of soxS, followed by the soxS-dependent induction of other genes. However, the requirement for soxR was unproven because the only existing soxR mutations either were of the regulon-constitutive type or also involved soxS. Therefore, we produced an insertion mutation that was shown by complementation to inactivate only soxR. In confirmation of the two-stage model, soxR was required for the induction by paraquat of the target genes studied (nfo, zwf, and sodA), for paraquat resistance, and for the 47- to 76-fold induction of soxS-lacZ gene fusions. Paraquat did not affect the expression of soxR-lacZ gene fusions. In a soxRS deletion mutant, the regulon was constitutively activated by a runaway soxS+ plasmid. However, a lower-copy-number plasmid failed to activate nfo, zwf, or sodA but did increase the paraquat resistance of a soxRS mutant. Therefore, there is a differential response of the regulon genes to soxS overproduction. A soxR regulon-constitutive mutation was suppressed by a soxR+ plasmid, suggesting a competition between native and activated forms of SoxR. It is proposed that to enhance the sensitivity of the response, the cell minimizes such potential competition by manufacturing only a small amount of this sensor protein, thereby necessitating signal amplification via induction of soxS.

Wu, J; Weiss, B

1992-01-01

42

Comparison of the RpoH-Dependent Regulon and General Stress Response in Neisseria gonorrhoeae  

PubMed Central

In the gammaproteobacteria the RpoH regulon is often equated with the stress response, as the regulon contains many of the genes that encode what have been termed heat shock proteins that deal with the presence of damaged proteins. However, the betaproteobacteria primarily utilize the HrcA repressor protein to control genes involved in the stress response. We used genome-wide transcriptional profiling to compare the RpoH regulon and stress response of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a member of the betaproteobacteria. To identify the members of the RpoH regulon, a plasmid-borne copy of the rpoH gene was overexpressed during exponential-phase growth at 37°C. This resulted in increased expression of 12 genes, many of which encode proteins that are involved in the stress response in other species. The putative promoter regions of many of these up-regulated genes contain a consensus RpoH binding site similar to that of Escherichia coli. Thus, it appears that unlike other members of the betaproteobacteria, N. gonorrhoeae utilizes RpoH, and not an HrcA homolog, to regulate the stress response. In N. gonorrhoeae exposed to 42°C for 10 min, we observed a much broader transcriptional response involving 37 differentially expressed genes. Genes that are apparently not part of the RpoH regulon showed increased transcription during heat shock. A total of 13 genes were also down-regulated. From these results we concluded that although RpoH acts as the major regulator of protein homeostasis, N. gonorrhoeae has additional means of responding to temperature stress.

Gunesekere, Ishara C.; Kahler, Charlene M.; Powell, David R.; Snyder, Lori A. S.; Saunders, Nigel J.; Rood, Julian I.; Davies, John K.

2006-01-01

43

Nephromyces, a beneficial apicomplexan symbiont in marine animals  

PubMed Central

With malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.), Toxoplasma, and many other species of medical and veterinary importance its iconic representatives, the protistan phylum Apicomplexa has long been defined as a group composed entirely of parasites and pathogens. We present here a report of a beneficial apicomplexan: the mutualistic marine endosymbiont Nephromyces. For more than a century, the peculiar structural and developmental features of Nephromyces, and its unusual habitat, have thwarted characterization of the phylogenetic affinities of this eukaryotic microbe. Using short-subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) sequences as key evidence, with sequence identity confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we show that Nephromyces, originally classified as a chytrid fungus, is actually an apicomplexan. Inferences from rDNA data are further supported by the several apicomplexan-like structural features in Nephromyces, including especially the strong resemblance of Nephromyces infective stages to apicomplexan sporozoites. The striking emergence of the mutualistic Nephromyces from a quintessentially parasitic clade accentuates the promise of this organism, and the three-partner symbiosis of which it is a part, as a model for probing the factors underlying the evolution of mutualism, pathogenicity, and infectious disease.

Saffo, Mary Beth; McCoy, Adam M.; Rieken, Christopher; Slamovits, Claudio H.

2010-01-01

44

Nephromyces, a beneficial apicomplexan symbiont in marine animals.  

PubMed

With malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.), Toxoplasma, and many other species of medical and veterinary importance its iconic representatives, the protistan phylum Apicomplexa has long been defined as a group composed entirely of parasites and pathogens. We present here a report of a beneficial apicomplexan: the mutualistic marine endosymbiont Nephromyces. For more than a century, the peculiar structural and developmental features of Nephromyces, and its unusual habitat, have thwarted characterization of the phylogenetic affinities of this eukaryotic microbe. Using short-subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) sequences as key evidence, with sequence identity confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we show that Nephromyces, originally classified as a chytrid fungus, is actually an apicomplexan. Inferences from rDNA data are further supported by the several apicomplexan-like structural features in Nephromyces, including especially the strong resemblance of Nephromyces infective stages to apicomplexan sporozoites. The striking emergence of the mutualistic Nephromyces from a quintessentially parasitic clade accentuates the promise of this organism, and the three-partner symbiosis of which it is a part, as a model for probing the factors underlying the evolution of mutualism, pathogenicity, and infectious disease. PMID:20736348

Saffo, Mary Beth; McCoy, Adam M; Rieken, Christopher; Slamovits, Claudio H

2010-08-24

45

Identification of the CRE-1 Cellulolytic Regulon in Neurospora crassa  

PubMed Central

Background In filamentous ascomycete fungi, the utilization of alternate carbon sources is influenced by the zinc finger transcription factor CreA/CRE-1, which encodes a carbon catabolite repressor protein homologous to Mig1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In Neurospora crassa, deletion of cre-1 results in increased secretion of amylase and ?-galactosidase. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show that a strain carrying a deletion of cre-1 has increased cellulolytic activity and increased expression of cellulolytic genes during growth on crystalline cellulose (Avicel). Constitutive expression of cre-1 complements the phenotype of a N. crassa ?cre-1 strain grown on Avicel, and also results in stronger repression of cellulolytic protein secretion and enzyme activity. We determined the CRE-1 regulon by investigating the secretome and transcriptome of a ?cre-1 strain as compared to wild type when grown on Avicel versus minimal medium. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR of putative target genes showed that CRE-1 binds to only some adjacent 5?-SYGGRG-3? motifs, consistent with previous findings in other fungi, and suggests that unidentified additional regulatory factors affect CRE-1 binding to promoter regions. Characterization of 30 mutants containing deletions in genes whose expression level increased in a ?cre-1 strain under cellulolytic conditions identified novel genes that affect cellulase activity and protein secretion. Conclusions/Significance Our data provide comprehensive information on the CRE-1 regulon in N. crassa and contribute to deciphering the global role of carbon catabolite repression in filamentous ascomycete fungi during plant cell wall deconstruction.

Sun, Jianping; Glass, N. Louise

2011-01-01

46

Deep Sequencing Whole Transcriptome Exploration of the ?E Regulon in Neisseria meningitidis  

PubMed Central

Bacteria live in an ever-changing environment and must alter protein expression promptly to adapt to these changes and survive. Specific response genes that are regulated by a subset of alternative ?70-like transcription factors have evolved in order to respond to this changing environment. Recently, we have described the existence of a ?E regulon including the anti-?-factor MseR in the obligate human bacterial pathogen Neisseria meningitidis. To unravel the complete ?E regulon in N. meningitidis, we sequenced total RNA transcriptional content of wild type meningococci and compared it with that of mseR mutant cells (?mseR) in which ?E is highly expressed. Eleven coding genes and one non-coding gene were found to be differentially expressed between H44/76 wildtype and H44/76?mseR cells. Five of the 6 genes of the ?E operon, msrA/msrB, and the gene encoding a pepSY-associated TM helix family protein showed enhanced transcription, whilst aniA encoding a nitrite reductase and nspA encoding the vaccine candidate Neisserial surface protein A showed decreased transcription. Analysis of differential expression in IGRs showed enhanced transcription of a non-coding RNA molecule, identifying a ?E dependent small non-coding RNA. Together this constitutes the first complete exploration of an alternative ?-factor regulon in N. meningitidis. The results direct to a relatively small regulon indicative for a strictly defined response consistent with a relatively stable niche, the human throat, where N. meningitidis resides.

Huis in 't Veld, Robert Antonius Gerhardus; Willemsen, Antonius Marcellinus; van Kampen, Antonius Hubertus Cornelis; Bradley, Edward John; Baas, Frank; Pannekoek, Yvonne; van der Ende, Arie

2011-01-01

47

Defining the structure of the general stress regulon of Bacillus subtilis using targeted microarray analysis and random forest classification.  

PubMed

The structure of the SigB-dependent general stress regulon of Bacillus subtilis has previously been characterized by proteomics approaches as well as DNA array-based expression studies. However, comparing the SigB targets published in three previous major transcriptional profiling studies it is obvious that although each of them identified well above 100 target genes, only 67 were identified in all three studies. These substantial differences can likely be attributed to the different strains, growth conditions, microarray platforms and experimental setups used in the studies. In order to gain a better understanding of the structure of this important regulon, a targeted DNA microarray analysis covering most of the known SigB-inducing conditions was performed, and the changes in expression kinetics of 252 potential members of the SigB regulon and appropriate control genes were recorded. Transcriptional data for the B. subtilis wild-type strain 168 and its isogenic sigB mutant BSM29 were analysed using random forest, a machine learning algorithm, by incorporating the knowledge from previous studies. This analysis revealed a strictly SigB-dependent expression pattern for 166 genes following ethanol, butanol, osmotic and oxidative stress, low-temperature growth and heat shock, as well as limitation of oxygen or glucose. Kinetic analysis of the data for the wild-type strain identified 30 additional members of the SigB regulon, which were also subject to control by additional transcriptional regulators, thus displaying atypical SigB-independent induction patterns in the mutant strain under some of the conditions tested. For 19 of these 30 SigB regulon members, published reports support control by secondary regulators along with SigB. Thus, this microarray-based study assigns a total of 196 genes to the SigB-dependent general stress regulon of B. subtilis. PMID:22174379

Nannapaneni, Priyanka; Hertwig, Falk; Depke, Maren; Hecker, Michael; Mäder, Ulrike; Völker, Uwe; Steil, Leif; van Hijum, Sacha A F T

2011-12-15

48

Regulatory interactions between the Pho and rB-dependent general stress regulons of Bacillus subtilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

When Bacillus subtilis is subjected to phosphate starvation, the Pho and rB- dependent general stress regulons are activated to elicit, respectively, specific and non-specific responses to this nutrient-limitation stress. A set of isogenic mutants, with a b-galactosidase reporter gene transcriptionally fused to the inactivated target gene, was used to identify genes of unknown function that are induced or repressed under

Colin R. Harwood

2002-01-01

49

DNA Microarray and Proteomic Analyses of the RpoS Regulon in Geobacter sulfurreducens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regulon of the sigma factor RpoS was defined in Geobacter sulfurreducens by using a combination of DNA microarray expression profiles and proteomics. An rpoS mutant was examined under steady-state conditions with acetate as an electron donor and fumarate as an electron acceptor and with additional transcriptional profiling using Fe(III) as an electron acceptor. Expression analysis revealed that RpoS acts

Cinthia Nunez; Abraham Esteve-Nunez; Carol Giometti; Sandra Tollaksen; Tripti Khare; Winston Lin; Derek R. Lovley; Barbara A. Methe

2006-01-01

50

Host cell invasion by apicomplexans: what do we know?  

PubMed

Apicomplexan zoites enter host cells by forming and actively moving through a tight junction (TJ) formed between the parasite and host cell surfaces. Although the TJ was first described decades ago, its molecular characterization has proved difficult mainly because of its transient existence during an internalization process that lasts only seconds. In the past 7 years, work has led to a model of the TJ in which the association between AMA1 and RON proteins structures the TJ and bridges the cytoskeletons of the two cells. However, more recent work questions this view. Here, we critically discuss the current model and speculate on alternative models of the AMA1-RON association and of the apicomplexan TJ. PMID:22326913

Bargieri, Daniel; Lagal, Vanessa; Tardieux, Isabelle; Ménard, Robert

2012-02-10

51

Targeting purine and pyrimidine metabolism in human apicomplexan parasites.  

PubMed

Synthesis de novo, acquisition by salvage and interconversion of purines and pyrimidines represent the fundamental requirements for their eventual assembly into nucleic acids as nucleotides and the deployment of their derivatives in other biochemical pathways. A small number of drugs targeted to nucleotide metabolism, by virtue of their effect on folate biosynthesis and recycling, have been successfully used against apicomplexan parasites such as Plasmodium and Toxoplasma for many years, although resistance is now a major problem in the prevention and treatment of malaria. Many targets not involving folate metabolism have also been explored at the experimental level. However, the unravelling of the genome sequences of these eukaryotic unicellular organisms, together with increasingly sophisticated molecular analyses, opens up possibilities of introducing new drugs that could interfere with these processes. This review examines the status of established drugs of this type and the potential for further exploiting the vulnerability of apicomplexan human pathogens to inhibition of this key area of metabolism. PMID:17266529

Hyde, John E

2007-01-01

52

Evidence classification of high-throughput protocols and confidence integration in RegulonDB  

PubMed Central

RegulonDB provides curated information on the transcriptional regulatory network of Escherichia coli and contains both experimental data and computationally predicted objects. To account for the heterogeneity of these data, we introduced in version 6.0, a two-tier rating system for the strength of evidence, classifying evidence as either ‘weak’ or ‘strong’ (Gama-Castro,S., Jimenez-Jacinto,V., Peralta-Gil,M. et al. RegulonDB (Version 6.0): gene regulation model of Escherichia Coli K-12 beyond transcription, active (experimental) annotated promoters and textpresso navigation. Nucleic Acids Res., 2008;36:D120–D124.). We now add to our classification scheme the classification of high-throughput evidence, including chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and RNA-seq technologies. To integrate these data into RegulonDB, we present two strategies for the evaluation of confidence, statistical validation and independent cross-validation. Statistical validation involves verification of ChIP data for transcription factor-binding sites, using tools for motif discovery and quality assessment of the discovered matrices. Independent cross-validation combines independent evidence with the intention to mutually exclude false positives. Both statistical validation and cross-validation allow to upgrade subsets of data that are supported by weak evidence to a higher confidence level. Likewise, cross-validation of strong confidence data extends our two-tier rating system to a three-tier system by introducing a third confidence score ‘confirmed’. Database URL: http://regulondb.ccg.unam.mx/

Weiss, Verena; Medina-Rivera, Alejandra; Huerta, Araceli M.; Santos-Zavaleta, Alberto; Salgado, Heladia; Morett, Enrique; Collado-Vides, Julio

2013-01-01

53

In silico analysis of the cyclophilin repertoire of apicomplexan parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cyclophilins (Cyps) are peptidyl cis\\/trans isomerases implicated in diverse processes such as protein folding, signal transduction, and RNA processing. They are also candidate drug targets, in particular for the immunosuppressant cyclosporine A. In addition, cyclosporine is known to exhibit anti-parasitic effects on a wide range of organisms including several apicomplexa. In order to obtain new non-immunosuppressive drugs targeting apicomplexan

Jürgen Krücken; Gisela Greif; Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna

2009-01-01

54

The Bacillus subtilis ?M Regulon and its Contribution to Cell Envelope Stress Responses  

PubMed Central

The Bacillus subtilis extracytoplasmic function (ECF) ?M factor is activated by cell envelope stress elicited by antibiotics, and by acid, heat, ethanol, and superoxide stresses. Here, we have used several complementary approaches to identify genes controlled by ?M. In many cases, expression is only partially dependent on ?M due to both overlapping promoter recognition with other ECF ? factors and the presence of additional promoter elements. Genes regulated by ?M have a characteristic pattern of induction in response to cell envelope-acting antibiotics as evidenced by hierarchical clustering analysis. ?M also contributes to the expression of the Spx transcription factor and thereby indirectly regulates genes of the Spx regulon. Cell envelope stress responses also include regulons controlled by ?W, ?B, and several two-component regulatory systems (e.g. LiaRS, YycFG, BceRS). Activation of the ?M regulon increases expression of proteins functioning in transcriptional control, cell wall synthesis and shape determination, cell division, DNA damage monitoring, recombinational repair, and detoxification.

Eiamphungporn, Warawan; Helmann, John D.

2011-01-01

55

The BaeSR regulon is involved in defense against zinc toxicity in E. coli.  

PubMed

Intracellular zinc homeostasis is regulated by an extensive network of transporters, ligands and transcription factors. The zinc detoxification functions of three transporters and a periplasmic protein regulated by the BaeSR two-component system were explored in this work by evaluating the effect of single gene knockouts in the BaeSR regulon on the cell growth rate, free zinc, total zinc and total copper after zinc shock. Two exporters, MdtABC and MdtD, and the periplasmic protein, Spy, are involved in zinc detoxification based on the growth defects at high cell density and increases in free (>1000-fold) and total zinc/copper (>2-fold) that were observed in the single knockout strains upon exposure to zinc. These proteins complement the ATP-driven zinc export mediated by ZntA in E. coli to limit zinc toxicity. These results highlight the functions of the BaeSR regulon in metal homeostasis. PMID:23446818

Wang, Da; Fierke, Carol A

2013-04-01

56

Computational analysis of LexA regulons in Cyanobacteria  

PubMed Central

Background The transcription factor LexA plays an important role in the SOS response in Escherichia coli and many other bacterial species studied. Although the lexA gene is encoded in almost every bacterial group with a wide range of evolutionary distances, its precise functions in each group/species are largely unknown. More recently, it has been shown that lexA genes in two cyanobacterial genomes Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 might have distinct functions other than the regulation of the SOS response. To gain a general understanding of the functions of LexA and its evolution in cyanobacteria, we conducted the current study. Results Our analysis indicates that six of 33 sequenced cyanobacterial genomes do not harbor a lexA gene although they all encode the key SOS response genes, suggesting that LexA is not an indispensable transcription factor in these cyanobacteria, and that their SOS responses might be regulated by different mechanisms. Our phylogenetic analysis suggests that lexA was lost during the course of evolution in these six cyanobacterial genomes. For the 26 cyanobacterial genomes that encode a lexA gene, we have predicted their LexA-binding sites and regulons using an efficient binding site/regulon prediction algorithm that we developed previously. Our results show that LexA in most of these 26 genomes might still function as the transcriptional regulator of the SOS response genes as seen in E. coli and other organisms. Interestingly, putative LexA-binding sites were also found in some genomes for some key genes involved in a variety of other biological processes including photosynthesis, drug resistance, etc., suggesting that there is crosstalk between the SOS response and these biological processes. In particular, LexA in both Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 and Gloeobacter violaceus PCC7421 has largely diverged from those in other cyanobacteria in the sequence level. It is likely that LexA is no longer a regulator of the SOS response in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. Conclusions In most cyanobacterial genomes that we analyzed, LexA appears to function as the transcriptional regulator of the key SOS response genes. There are possible couplings between the SOS response and other biological processes. In some cyanobacteria, LexA has adapted distinct functions, and might no longer be a regulator of the SOS response system. In some other cyanobacteria, lexA appears to have been lost during the course of evolution. The loss of lexA in these genomes might lead to the degradation of its binding sites.

2010-01-01

57

Modulation of the Host Cell Proteome by the Intracellular Apicomplexan Parasite Toxoplasma gondii?  

PubMed Central

To investigate how intracellular parasites manipulate their host cell environment at the molecular level, we undertook a quantitative proteomic study of cells following infection with the apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Using conventional two-dimensional electrophoresis, difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE), and mass spectrometry, we identified host proteins that were consistently modulated in expression following infection. We detected modification of protein expression in key metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, lipid and sterol metabolism, mitosis, apoptosis, and structural-protein expression, suggestive of global reprogramming of cell metabolism by the parasite. Many of the differentially expressed proteins had not been previously implicated in the response to the parasite, while others provide important corroborative protein evidence for previously proposed hypotheses of pathogen-cell interactions. Significantly, over one-third of all modulated proteins were mitochondrial, and this was further investigated by DIGE analysis of a mitochondrion-enriched preparation from infected cells. Comparison of our proteomic data with previous transcriptional studies suggested that a complex relationship exits between transcription and protein expression that may be partly explained by posttranslational modifications of proteins and revealed the importance of investigating protein changes when interpreting transcriptional data. To investigate this further, we used phosphatase treatment and DIGE to demonstrate changes in the phosphorylation states of several key proteins following infection. Overall, our findings indicate that the host cell proteome responds in a dramatic way to T. gondii invasion, in terms of both protein expression changes and protein modifications, and reveal a complex and intimate molecular relationship between host and parasite.

Nelson, M. M.; Jones, A. R.; Carmen, J. C.; Sinai, A. P.; Burchmore, R.; Wastling, J. M.

2008-01-01

58

Characterization of the NifA-RpoN regulon in Rhizobium etli in free life and in symbiosis with Phaseolus vulgaris.  

PubMed

The NifA-RpoN complex is a master regulator of the nitrogen fixation genes in alphaproteobacteria. Based on the complete Rhizobium etli genome sequence, we constructed an R. etli CFN42 oligonucleotide (70-mer) microarray and utilized this tool, reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analysis (transcriptomics), proteomics, and bioinformatics to decipher the NifA-RpoN regulon under microaerobic conditions (free life) and in symbiosis with bean plants. The R. etli NifA-RpoN regulon was determined to contain 78 genes, including the genes involved in nitrogen fixation, and the analyses revealed 42 new NifA-RpoN-dependent genes. More importantly, this study demonstrated that the NifA-RpoN regulon is composed of genes and proteins that have very diverse functions, that play fundamental and previously less appreciated roles in regulating the normal physiology of the cell, and that have important functions in providing adequate conditions for efficient nitrogen fixation in symbiosis. The R. etli NifA-RpoN regulon defined here has some components in common with other NifA-RpoN regulons described previously, but the vast majority of the components have been found only in the R. etli regulon, suggesting that they have a specific role in this bacterium and particular requirements during nitrogen fixation compared with other symbiotic bacterial models. PMID:20453139

Salazar, Emmanuel; Díaz-Mejía, J Javier; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Martínez-Batallar, Gabriel; Mora, Yolanda; Mora, Jaime; Encarnación, Sergio

2010-05-07

59

Dual transcriptional regulation of the Escherichia coli phosphate-starvation-inducible psiE gene of the phosphate regulon by PhoB and the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP receptor protein complex.  

PubMed

We have shown that the Escherichia coli phosphate-starvation-inducible psiE gene is regulated by both phosphate and the carbon source by using both lacZ and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene (cat) fusions. Yet, under all conditions tested, a single transcriptional start site lying 7 bp downstream of a predicted -10 region was revealed by primer extension analysis. DNase I footprinting showed that the PhoB transcriptional-activator protein protects two predicted pho boxes lying upstream of and near the -35 promoter region. Similar analysis showed that the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP receptor protein (cAMP-CRP) complex binds a region that overlaps with the downstream pho box. These results, together with measurements of the in vivo psiE promoter activity under various conditions, show that expression of the psiE gene is under direct positive and negative control by PhoB and cAMP-CRP, respectively. PMID:10986267

Kim, S K; Kimura, S; Shinagawa, H; Nakata, A; Lee, K S; Wanner, B L; Makino, K

2000-10-01

60

Genome Sequence of Babesia bovis and Comparative Analysis of Apicomplexan Hemoprotozoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Babesia bovis is an apicomplexan tick-transmitted pathogen of cattle imposing a global risk and severe constraints to livestock health and economic development. The complete genome sequence was undertaken to facilitate vaccine antigen discovery, and to allow for comparative analysis with the related apicomplexan hemoprotozoa Theileria parva and Plasmodium falciparum. At 8.2 Mbp, the B. bovis genome is similar in size

Kelly A. Brayton; Audrey O. T. Lau; David R. Herndon; Linda Hannick; Lowell S. Kappmeyer; Shawn J. Berens; Shelby L. Bidwell; Wendy C. Brown; Jonathan Crabtree; Doug Fadrosh; Tamara Feldblum; Heather A. Forberger; Brian J. Haas; Jeanne M. Howell; Hoda Khouri; Hean Koo; David J. Mann; Junzo Norimine; Ian T. Paulsen; Diana Radune; Qinghu Ren; Roger K. Smith Jr; Carlos E. Suarez; Owen White; Jennifer R. Wortman; Donald P. Knowles Jr; Terry F. McElwain; Vishvanath M. Nene

2007-01-01

61

Growth Phase- and Cell Division-Dependent Activation and Inactivation of the ?32 Regulon in Escherichia coli? †  

PubMed Central

Alternative sigma factors allow bacteria to reprogram global transcription rapidly and to adapt to changes in the environment. Here we report on growth- and cell division-dependent ?32 regulon activity in Escherichia coli in batch culture. By analyzing ?32 expression in growing cells, an increase in ?32 protein levels is observed during the first round of cell division after exit from stationary phase. Increased ?32 protein levels result from transcriptional activation of the rpoH gene. After the first round of bulk cell division, rpoH transcript levels and ?32 protein levels decrease again. The late-logarithmic phase and the transition to stationary phase are accompanied by a second increase in ?32 levels and enhanced stability of ?32 protein but not by enhanced transcription of rpoH. Throughout growth, ?32 target genes show expression patterns consistent with oscillating ?32 protein levels. However, during the transition to early-stationary phase, despite high ?32 protein levels, the transcription of ?32 target genes is downregulated, suggesting functional inactivation of ?32. It is deduced from these data that there may be a link between ?32 regulon activity and cell division events. Further support for this hypothesis is provided by the observation that in cells in which FtsZ is depleted, ?32 regulon activation is suppressed.

Wagner, Maria Anna; Zahrl, Doris; Rieser, Gernot; Koraimann, Gunther

2009-01-01

62

In silico analysis of the cyclophilin repertoire of apicomplexan parasites  

PubMed Central

Background Cyclophilins (Cyps) are peptidyl cis/trans isomerases implicated in diverse processes such as protein folding, signal transduction, and RNA processing. They are also candidate drug targets, in particular for the immunosuppressant cyclosporine A. In addition, cyclosporine is known to exhibit anti-parasitic effects on a wide range of organisms including several apicomplexa. In order to obtain new non-immunosuppressive drugs targeting apicomplexan cyclophilins, a profound knowledge of the cyclophilin repertoire of this phylum would be necessary. Results BLAST and maximum likelihood analyses identified 16 different cyclophilin subfamilies within the genomes of Cryptosporidium hominis, Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium falciparum, Theileria annulata, Theileria parva, and Babesia bovis. In addition to good statistical support from the phylogenetic analysis, these subfamilies are also confirmed by comparison of cyclophilin domain architecture. Within an individual genome, the number of different Cyp genes that could be deduced varies between 7–9 for Cryptosporidia and 14 for T. gondii. Many of the putative apicomplexan cyclophilins are predicted to be nuclear proteins, most of them presumably involved in RNA processing. Conclusion The genomes of apicomplexa harbor a cyclophilin repertoire that is at least as complex as that of most fungi. The identification of Cyp subfamilies that are specific for lower eukaryotes, apicomplexa, or even the genus Plasmodium is of particular interest since these subfamilies are not present in host cells and might therefore represent attractive drug targets.

Krucken, Jurgen; Greif, Gisela; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

2009-01-01

63

Comparison of Protective Immune Responses to Apicomplexan Parasites  

PubMed Central

Members of the phylum Apicomplexa, which includes the species Plasmodium, Eimeria, Toxoplasma, and Babesia amongst others, are the most successful intracellular pathogens known to humankind. The widespread acquisition of antimicrobial resistance to most drugs used to date has sparked a great deal of research and commercial interest in the development of vaccines as alternative control strategies. A few antigens from the asexual and sexual stages of apicomplexan development have been identified and their genes characterised; however, the fine cellular and molecular details of the effector mechanisms crucial for parasite inhibition and stimulation of protective immunity are still not entirely understood. This paper provides an overview of what is currently known about the protective immune response against the various types of apicomplexan parasites and focuses mainly on the similarities of these pathogens and their host interaction. Finally, the evolutionary relationships of these parasites and their hosts, as well as the modulation of immune functions that are critical in determining the outcome of the infection by these pathogenic organisms, are discussed.

Frolich, Sonja; Entzeroth, Rolf; Wallach, Michael

2012-01-01

64

Haemophilus influenzae OxyR: Characterization of Its Regulation, Regulon and Role in Fitness  

PubMed Central

To prevent damage by reactive oxygen species, many bacteria have evolved rapid detection and response systems, including the OxyR regulon. The OxyR system detects reactive oxygen and coordinates the expression of numerous defensive antioxidants. In many bacterial species the coordinated OxyR-regulated response is crucial for in vivo survival. Regulation of the OxyR regulon of Haemophilus influenzae was examined in vitro, and significant variation in the regulated genes of the OxyR regulon among strains of H. influenzae was observed. Quantitative PCR studies demonstrated a role for the OxyR-regulated peroxiredoxin/glutaredoxin as a mediator of the OxyR response, and also indicated OxyR self-regulation through a negative feedback loop. Analysis of transcript levels in H. influenzae samples derived from an animal model of otitis media demonstrated that the members of the OxyR regulon were actively upregulated within the chinchilla middle ear. H. influenzae mutants lacking the oxyR gene exhibited increased sensitivity to challenge with various peroxides. The impact of mutations in oxyR was assessed in various animal models of H. influenzae disease. In paired comparisons with the corresponding wild-type strains, the oxyR mutants were unaffected in both the chinchilla model of otitis media and an infant model of bacteremia. However, in weanling rats the oxyR mutant was significantly impaired compared to the wild-type strain. In contrast, in all three animal models when infected with a mixture of equal numbers of both wild-type and mutant strains the mutant strain was significantly out competed by the wild-type strain. These findings clearly establish a crucial role for OxyR in bacterial fitness.

Whitby, Paul W.; Morton, Daniel J.; VanWagoner, Timothy M.; Seale, Thomas W.; Cole, Brett K.; Mussa, Huda J.; McGhee, Phillip A.; Bauer, Chee Yoon S.; Springer, Jennifer M.; Stull, Terrence L.

2012-01-01

65

Identification of a glycolytic regulon in the archaea Pyrococcus and Thermococcus.  

PubMed

The glycolytic pathway of the hyperthermophilic archaea that belong to the order Thermococcales (Pyrococcus, Thermococcus and Palaeococcus) differs significantly from the canonical Embden-Meyerhof pathway in bacteria and eukarya. This archaeal glycolysis variant consists of several novel enzymes, some of which catalyze unique conversions. Moreover, the enzymes appear not to be regulated allosterically, but rather at transcriptional level. To elucidate details of the gene expression control, the transcription initiation sites of the glycolytic genes in Pyrococcus furiosus have been mapped by primer extension analysis and the obtained promoter sequences have been compared with upstream regions of non-glycolytic genes. Apart from consensus sequences for the general transcription factors (TATA-box and BRE) this analysis revealed the presence of a potential transcription factor binding site (TATCAC-N(5)-GTGATA) in glycolytic and starch utilizing promoters of P. furiosus and several thermococcal species. The absence of this inverted repeat in Pyrococcus abyssi and Pyrococcus horikoshii probably reflects that their reduced catabolic capacity does not require this regulatory system. Moreover, this phyletic pattern revealed a TrmB-like regulator (PF0124 and TK1769) which may be involved in recognizing the repeat. This Thermococcales glycolytic regulon, with more than 20 genes, is the largest regulon that has yet been described for Archaea. PMID:16790020

van de Werken, Harmen J G; Verhees, Corné H; Akerboom, Jasper; de Vos, Willem M; van der Oost, John

2006-07-01

66

The PurR regulon in Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655  

PubMed Central

The PurR transcription factor plays a critical role in transcriptional regulation of purine metabolism in enterobacteria. Here, we elucidate the role of PurR under exogenous adenine stimulation at the genome-scale using high-resolution chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)–chip and gene expression data obtained under in vivo conditions. Analysis of microarray data revealed that adenine stimulation led to changes in transcript level of about 10% of Escherichia coli genes, including the purine biosynthesis pathway. The E. coli strain lacking the purR gene showed that a total of 56 genes are affected by the deletion. From the ChIP–chip analysis, we determined that over 73% of genes directly regulated by PurR were enriched in the biosynthesis, utilization and transport of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides, and 20% of them were functionally unknown. Compared to the functional diversity of the regulon of the other general transcription factors in E. coli, the functions and size of the PurR regulon are limited.

Cho, Byung-Kwan; Federowicz, Stephen A.; Embree, Mallory; Park, Young-Seoub; Kim, Donghyuk; Palsson, Bernhard ?.

2011-01-01

67

Members of the Sinorhizobium meliloti ChvI regulon identified by a DNA binding screen  

PubMed Central

Background The Sinorhizobium meliloti ExoS/ChvI two component regulatory system is required for N2-fixing symbiosis and exopolysaccharide synthesis. Orthologous systems are present in other Alphaproteobacteria, and in many instances have been shown to be necessary for normal interactions with corresponding eukaryotic hosts. Only a few transcriptional regulation targets have been determined, and as a result there is limited understanding of the mechanisms that are controlled by the system. Results In an attempt to better define the members of the regulon, we have applied a simple in vitro electrophoretic screen for DNA fragments that are bound by the ChvI response regulator protein. Several putative transcriptional targets were identified and three were further examined by reporter gene fusion experiments for transcriptional regulation. Two were confirmed to be repressed by ChvI, while one was activated by ChvI. Conclusions Our results suggest a role for ChvI as both a direct activator and repressor of transcription. The identities and functions of many of these genes suggest explanations for some aspects of the pleiotropic phenotype of exoS and chvI mutants. This work paves the way for in depth characterization of the ExoS/ChvI regulon and its potential role in directing bacteria-host relationships.

2013-01-01

68

The parasite specific substitution matrices improve the annotation of apicomplexan proteins  

PubMed Central

Background A number of apicomplexan genomes have been sequenced successfully in recent years and this would help in understanding the biology of apicomplexan parasites. The members of the phylum Apicomplexa are important protozoan parasites (Plasmodium, Toxoplasma and Cryptosporidium etc) that cause some of the deadly diseases in humans and animals. In our earlier studies, we have shown that the standard BLOSUM matrices are not suitable for compositionally biased apicomplexan proteins. So we developed a novel series (SMAT and PfFSmat60) of substitution matrices which performed better in comparison to standard BLOSUM matrices and developed ApicoAlign, a sequence search and alignment tool for apicomplexan proteins. In this study, we demonstrate the higher specificity of these matrices and make an attempt to improve the annotation of apicomplexan kinases and proteases. Results The ROC curves proved that SMAT80 performs best for apicomplexan proteins followed by compositionally adjusted BLOSUM62 (PSI-BLAST searches), BLOSUM90 and BLOSUM62 matrices in terms of detecting true positives. The poor E-values and/or bit scores given by SMAT80 matrix for the experimentally identified coccidia-specific oocyst wall proteins against hematozoan (non-coccidian) parasites further supported the higher specificity of the same. SMAT80 uniquely detected (missed by BLOSUM) orthologs for 1374 apicomplexan hypothetical proteins against SwissProt database and predicted 70 kinases and 17 proteases. Further analysis confirmed the conservation of functional residues of kinase domain in one of the SMAT80 detected kinases. Similarly, one of the SMAT80 detected proteases was predicted to be a rhomboid protease. Conclusions The parasite specific substitution matrices have higher specificity for apicomplexan proteins and are helpful in detecting the orthologs missed by BLOSUM matrices and thereby improve the annotation of apicomplexan proteins which are hypothetical or with unknown function.

2012-01-01

69

Activation of the latent PlcR regulon in Bacillus anthracis  

PubMed Central

Many genes in Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis are under the control of the transcriptional regulator PlcR and its regulatory peptide, PapR. In Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, PlcR is inactivated by truncation, and consequently genes having PlcR binding sites are expressed at very low levels when compared with B. cereus. We found that activation of the PlcR regulon in B. anthracis by expression of a PlcR–PapR fusion protein does not alter sporulation in strains containing the virulence plasmid pXO1 and thereby the global regulator AtxA. Using comparative 2D gel electrophoresis, we showed that activation of the PlcR regulon in B. anthracis leads to upregulation of many proteins found in the secretome of B. cereus, including phospholipases and proteases, such as the putative protease BA1995. Transcriptional analysis demonstrated expression of BA1995 to be dependent on PlcR–PapR, even though the putative PlcR recognition site of the BA1995 gene does not exactly match the PlcR consensus sequence, explaining why this protein had escaped recognition as belonging to the PlcR regulon. Additionally, while transcription of major PlcR-dependent haemolysins, sphingomyelinase and anthrolysin O is enhanced in response to PlcR activation in B. anthracis, only anthrolysin O contributes significantly to lysis of human erythrocytes. In contrast, the toxicity of bacterial culture supernatants from a PlcR-positive strain towards murine macrophages occurred independently of anthrolysin O expression in vitro and in vivo.

Sastalla, Inka; Maltese, Lauren M.; Pomerantseva, Olga M.; Pomerantsev, Andrei P.; Keane-Myers, Andrea; Leppla, Stephen H.

2010-01-01

70

Genomic reconstruction of the transcriptional regulatory network in Bacillus subtilis.  

PubMed

The adaptation of microorganisms to their environment is controlled by complex transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs), which are still only partially understood even for model species. Genome scale annotation of regulatory features of genes and TRN reconstruction are challenging tasks of microbial genomics. We used the knowledge-driven comparative-genomics approach implemented in the RegPredict Web server to infer TRN in the model Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis and 10 related Bacillales species. For transcription factor (TF) regulons, we combined the available information from the DBTBS database and the literature with bioinformatics tools, allowing inference of TF binding sites (TFBSs), comparative analysis of the genomic context of predicted TFBSs, functional assignment of target genes, and effector prediction. For RNA regulons, we used known RNA regulatory motifs collected in the Rfam database to scan genomes and analyze the genomic context of new RNA sites. The inferred TRN in B. subtilis comprises regulons for 129 TFs and 24 regulatory RNA families. First, we analyzed 66 TF regulons with previously known TFBSs in B. subtilis and projected them to other Bacillales genomes, resulting in refinement of TFBS motifs and identification of novel regulon members. Second, we inferred motifs and described regulons for 28 experimentally studied TFs with previously unknown TFBSs. Third, we discovered novel motifs and reconstructed regulons for 36 previously uncharacterized TFs. The inferred collection of regulons is available in the RegPrecise database (http://regprecise.lbl.gov/) and can be used in genetic experiments, metabolic modeling, and evolutionary analysis. PMID:23504016

Leyn, Semen A; Kazanov, Marat D; Sernova, Natalia V; Ermakova, Ekaterina O; Novichkov, Pavel S; Rodionov, Dmitry A

2013-03-15

71

The DtxR regulon of Corynebacterium glutamicum.  

PubMed

Previous studies with Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Mycobacterium species revealed that the transcriptional regulator DtxR and its ortholog IdeR play a central role in the control of iron metabolism. In the present work, we used genome-based approaches to determine the DtxR regulon of Corynebacterium glutamicum, a nonpathogenic relative of C. diphtheriae. First, global gene expression of a dtxR deletion mutant was compared with that of the wild type using DNA microarrays. Second, we used a computer-based approach to identify 117 putative DtxR binding sites in the C. glutamicum genome. In the third step, 74 of the corresponding genome regions were amplified by PCR, 51 of which were shifted by the DtxR protein. Finally, we analyzed which of the genes preceded by a functional DtxR binding site showed altered mRNA levels in the transcriptome comparison. Fifty-one genes organized in 27 putative operons displayed an increased mRNA level in the DeltadtxR mutant and thus are presumably repressed by DtxR. The majority of these genes are obviously involved in iron acquisition, three encode transcriptional regulators, e.g., the recently identified repressor of iron proteins RipA, and the others encode proteins of diverse or unknown functions. Thirteen genes showed a decreased mRNA level in the DeltadtxR mutant and thus might be activated by DtxR. This group included the suf operon, whose products are involved in the formation and repair of iron-sulfur clusters, and several genes for transcriptional regulators. Our results clearly establish DtxR as the master regulator of iron-dependent gene expression in C. glutamicum. PMID:16585752

Wennerhold, Julia; Bott, Michael

2006-04-01

72

folA, a New Member of the TyrR Regulon in Escherichia coli K-12?  

PubMed Central

The folA gene was identified as a new member of the TyrR regulon by genomic SELEX. Binding of TyrR to two sites in folA activated its transcription. Mutations in the N-terminal or central domain of TyrR, the ? subunit of RNA polymerase, or integration host factor all abolished activation of the folA promoter.

Yang, Ji; Ogawa, Yoshito; Camakaris, Helen; Shimada, Tomohiro; Ishihama, Akira; Pittard, A. J.

2007-01-01

73

The GroE chaperonin machine is a major modulator of the CIRCE heat shock regulon of Bacillus subtilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Class I heat-inducible genes in Bacillus subtilis consist of the heptacistronic dnaK and the bicistronic groE operon and form the CIRCE regulon. Both operons are negatively regulated at the level of transcription by the HrcA repressor interacting with its operator, the CIRCE element. Here, we demonstrate that the DnaK chaperone machine is not involved in the regulation of HrcA and

Axel Mogk; Georg Homuth; Christian Scholz; Lana Kim; Franz X. Schmid; Wolfgang Schumann

1997-01-01

74

Intertwinement of stress response regulons in Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003  

PubMed Central

Bifidobacteria constitute an important component of the microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract of humans and other mammals. Various bifidobacterial strains are commercially exploited because of their perceived beneficial role in the maintenance of gut homeostasis. We have determined the response of B. breve UCC2003, a Gram-positive bacterium originally isolated from the nursling stool of a breast-fed infant, to several stresses (heat, osmotic, solvent) using transcriptomics, classical techniques and in silico analysis, as well as the transcriptional response of B. breve UCC2003 to oxidative stresses caused by the exposure to diamide, peroxide and environmental oxygen. Integration of these results allowed the formulation of a model for an interacting regulatory network for stress response in B. breve UCC2003, where HspR controls SOS response and the ClgR regulon, which in turn regulates and is regulated by HrcA. This model of an interacting regulatory network is believed to represent the paradigm for stress adaptation in bifidobacteria.

Zomer, Aldert

2010-01-01

75

Intertwinement of stress response regulons in Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003.  

PubMed

Bifidobacteria constitute an important component of the microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract of humans and other mammals. Various bifidobacterial strains are commercially exploited because of their perceived beneficial role in the maintenance of gut homeostasis. We have determined the response of B. breve UCC2003, a Gram-positive bacterium originally isolated from the nursling stool of a breast-fed infant, to several stresses (heat, osmotic, solvent) using transcriptomics, classical techniques and in silico analysis, as well as the transcriptional response of B. breve UCC2003 to oxidative stresses caused by the exposure to diamide, peroxide and environmental oxygen. Integration of these results allowed the formulation of a model for an interacting regulatory network for stress response in B. breve UCC2003, where HspR controls SOS response and the ClgR regulon, which in turn regulates and is regulated by HrcA. This model of an interacting regulatory network is believed to represent the paradigm for stress adaptation in bifidobacteria. PMID:21326917

Zomer, Aldert; van Sinderen, Douwe

2010-02-11

76

Structures of apicomplexan calcium-dependent protein kinases reveal mechanism of activation by calcium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) have pivotal roles in the calcium-signaling pathway in plants, ciliates and apicomplexan parasites and comprise a calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMK)-like kinase domain regulated by a calcium-binding domain in the C terminus. To understand this intramolecular mechanism of activation, we solved the structures of the autoinhibited (apo) and activated (calcium-bound) conformations of CDPKs from the apicomplexan parasites Toxoplasma

Amy K Wernimont; Jennifer D. Artz; Finerty Jr. Patrick; Yu-Hui Lin; Mehrnaz Amani; Abdellah Allali-Hassani; Guillermo Senisterra; Masoud Vedadi; Wolfram Tempel; Farrell Mackenzie; Irene Chau; Sebastian Lourido; L. David Sibley; Raymond Hui

2010-01-01

77

Mechanical loading induces the expression of a Pol I regulon at the onset of skeletal muscle hypertrophy.  

PubMed

The main goal of the present study was to investigate the regulation of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene transcription at the onset of skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Mice were subjected to functional overload of the plantaris by bilateral removal of the synergist muscles. Mechanical loading resulted in muscle hypertrophy with an increase in rRNA content. rDNA transcription, as determined by 45S pre-rRNA abundance, paralleled the increase in rRNA content and was consistent with the onset of the hypertrophic response. Increased transcription and protein expression of c-Myc and its downstream polymerase I (Pol I) regulon (POL1RB, TIF-1A, PAF53, TTF1, TAF1C) was also consistent with the increase in rRNA. Similarly, factors involved in rDNA transcription, such as the upstream binding factor and the Williams syndrome transcription factor, were induced by mechanical loading in a corresponding temporal fashion. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that these factors, together with Pol I, were enriched at the rDNA promoter. This, in addition to an increase in histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation, demonstrates that mechanical loading regulates rRNA synthesis by inducing a gene expression program consisting of a Pol I regulon, together with accessory factors involved in transcription and chromatin remodeling at the rDNA promoter. Altogether, these data indicate that transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms take place in the regulation of ribosome production at the onset of muscle hypertrophy. PMID:22403788

von Walden, Ferdinand; Casagrande, Vandre; Östlund Farrants, Ann-Kristin; Nader, Gustavo A

2012-03-07

78

RegulonDB v8.0: omics data sets, evolutionary conservation, regulatory phrases, cross-validated gold standards and more  

PubMed Central

This article summarizes our progress with RegulonDB (http://regulondb.ccg.unam.mx/) during the past 2 years. We have kept up-to-date the knowledge from the published literature regarding transcriptional regulation in Escherichia coli K-12. We have maintained and expanded our curation efforts to improve the breadth and quality of the encoded experimental knowledge, and we have implemented criteria for the quality of our computational predictions. Regulatory phrases now provide high-level descriptions of regulatory regions. We expanded the assignment of quality to various sources of evidence, particularly for knowledge generated through high-throughput (HT) technology. Based on our analysis of most relevant methods, we defined rules for determining the quality of evidence when multiple independent sources support an entry. With this latest release of RegulonDB, we present a new highly reliable larger collection of transcription start sites, a result of our experimental HT genome-wide efforts. These improvements, together with several novel enhancements (the tracks display, uploading format and curational guidelines), address the challenges of incorporating HT-generated knowledge into RegulonDB. Information on the evolutionary conservation of regulatory elements is also available now. Altogether, RegulonDB version 8.0 is a much better home for integrating knowledge on gene regulation from the sources of information currently available.

Salgado, Heladia; Peralta-Gil, Martin; Gama-Castro, Socorro; Santos-Zavaleta, Alberto; Muniz-Rascado, Luis; Garcia-Sotelo, Jair S.; Weiss, Verena; Solano-Lira, Hilda; Martinez-Flores, Irma; Medina-Rivera, Alejandra; Salgado-Osorio, Gerardo; Alquicira-Hernandez, Shirley; Alquicira-Hernandez, Kevin; Lopez-Fuentes, Alejandra; Porron-Sotelo, Liliana; Huerta, Araceli M.; Bonavides-Martinez, Cesar; Balderas-Martinez, Yalbi I.; Pannier, Lucia; Olvera, Maricela; Labastida, Aurora; Jimenez-Jacinto, Veronica; Vega-Alvarado, Leticia; del Moral-Chavez, Victor; Hernandez-Alvarez, Alfredo; Morett, Enrique; Collado-Vides, Julio

2013-01-01

79

Ubiquitous associations and a peak fall prevalence between apicomplexan symbionts and reef corals in Florida and the Bahamas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although apicomplexans are a widely recognized and important parasitic group, little is known about those associated with invertebrates, such as reef-building scleractinian corals. To resolve the potential impact of apicomplexans on coral health, it is first necessary to further describe this group of putative parasites and determine their prevalence among host species. Here, it was hypothesized that apicomplexan prevalence would vary seasonally, similar to what occurs in other marine apicomplexans as well as some coral symbionts. To test this, Caribbean scleractinian species Porites astreoides, Montastraea (= Orbicella) annularis, M. (= O.) faveolata, and Siderastrea siderea were sampled seasonally from two reefs each in the Florida Keys and the Bahamas for 9- and 5.5-year periods, respectively. Utilizing a PCR-based screening assay, apicomplexan DNA was detected from most Floridian (80.1 %: n = 555/693) and Bahamian (90.7 %: n = 311/343) coral tissue samples collected over these multi-year periods. Furthermore, apicomplexan DNA was detected from nearly all (98.7 %: n = 78/79) single polyps sampled at multiple locations within six M. faveolata colonies, indicating little to no intracolonial variation in the screening assay. Mixed-model logistic regression was utilized to determine the effects of season, host species, and reef on apicomplexan prevalence. The model identified a significant seasonal effect, with the highest apicomplexan prevalence occurring during fall. There also was a large effect of host species, with apicomplexan prevalence significantly lower among S. siderea colonies relative to the other species. While reef did not have a significant effect in the full model, there was a significant difference in apicomplexan prevalence between Floridian and Bahamian reefs for S. siderea, implying regional differences in this host species. Despite seasonal and species-specific differences in prevalence, apicomplexans are ubiquitous constituents of these particular scleractinian coral species from Florida and the Bahamas.

Kirk, N. L.; Thornhill, D. J.; Kemp, D. W.; Fitt, W. K.; Santos, S. R.

2013-09-01

80

RpfF-dependent regulon of Xylella fastidiosa.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Xylella fastidiosa regulates traits important to both virulence of grape as well as colonization of sharpshooter vectors via its production of a fatty acid signal molecule known as DSF whose production is dependent on rpfF. Although X. fastidiosa rpfF mutants exhibit increased virulence to plants, they are unable to be spread from plant to plant by insect vectors. To gain more insight into the traits that contribute to these processes, a whole-genome Agilent DNA microarray for this species was developed and used to determine the RpfF-dependent regulon by transcriptional profiling. In total, 446 protein coding genes whose expression was significantly different between the wild type and an rpfF mutant (false discovery rate < 0.05) were identified when cells were grown in PW liquid medium. Among them, 165 genes were downregulated in the rpfF mutant compared with the wild-type strain whereas 281 genes were over-expressed. RpfF function was required for regulation of 11 regulatory and ? factors, including rpfE, yybA, PD1177, glnB, rpfG, PD0954, PD0199, PD2050, colR, rpoH, and rpoD. In general, RpfF is required for regulation of genes involved in attachment and biofilm formation, enhancing expression of hemagglutinin genes hxfA and hxfB, and suppressing most type IV pili and gum genes. A large number of other RpfF-dependent genes that might contribute to virulence or insect colonization were also identified such as those encoding hemolysin and colicin V, as well as genes with unknown functions. PMID:22877314

Wang, Nian; Li, Jian-Liang; Lindow, Steven E

2012-11-01

81

The Global Transcriptional Response of Bacillus subtilis to Peroxide Stress Is Coordinated by Three Transcription Factors  

PubMed Central

Bacillus subtilis exhibits a complex adaptive response to low levels of peroxides. We used global transcriptional profiling to monitor the magnitude and kinetics of changes in the mRNA population after exposure to either hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or tert-butyl peroxide (t-buOOH). The peroxide stimulons could be largely accounted for by three regulons controlled by the PerR, ?B, and OhrR transcription factors. Three members of the PerR regulon (katA, mrgA, and zosA) were strongly induced by H2O2 and weakly induced by t-buOOH. The remaining members of the PerR regulon were only modestly up-regulated by peroxide treatment. Overall, the magnitude of peroxide induction of PerR regulon genes corresponded well with the extent of derepression in a perR mutant strain. The ?B regulon was activated by 58 ?M H2O2 but not by 8 ?M H2O2 and was strongly activated by either t-buOOH or, in a control experiment, tert-butyl alcohol. Apart from the ?B regulon there was a single gene, ohrA, that was strongly and rapidly induced by t-buOOH exposure. This gene, controlled by the peroxide-sensing repressor OhrR, was not induced by any of the other conditions tested.

Helmann, John D.; Wu, Ming Fang Winston; Gaballa, Ahmed; Kobel, Phil A.; Morshedi, Maud M.; Fawcett, Paul; Paddon, Chris

2003-01-01

82

The global transcriptional response of Bacillus subtilis to peroxide stress is coordinated by three transcription factors.  

PubMed

Bacillus subtilis exhibits a complex adaptive response to low levels of peroxides. We used global transcriptional profiling to monitor the magnitude and kinetics of changes in the mRNA population after exposure to either hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) or tert-butyl peroxide (t-buOOH). The peroxide stimulons could be largely accounted for by three regulons controlled by the PerR, sigma(B), and OhrR transcription factors. Three members of the PerR regulon (katA, mrgA, and zosA) were strongly induced by H(2)O(2) and weakly induced by t-buOOH. The remaining members of the PerR regulon were only modestly up-regulated by peroxide treatment. Overall, the magnitude of peroxide induction of PerR regulon genes corresponded well with the extent of derepression in a perR mutant strain. The sigma(B) regulon was activated by 58 micro M H(2)O(2) but not by 8 micro M H(2)O(2) and was strongly activated by either t-buOOH or, in a control experiment, tert-butyl alcohol. Apart from the sigma(B) regulon there was a single gene, ohrA, that was strongly and rapidly induced by t-buOOH exposure. This gene, controlled by the peroxide-sensing repressor OhrR, was not induced by any of the other conditions tested. PMID:12486061

Helmann, John D; Wu, Ming Fang Winston; Gaballa, Ahmed; Kobel, Phil A; Morshedi, Maud M; Fawcett, Paul; Paddon, Chris

2003-01-01

83

In silico discovery of the dormancy regulons in a number of Actinobacteria genomes  

SciTech Connect

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a dangerous Actinobacteria infecting nearly one third of the human population. It becomes dormant and phenotypically drug resistant in response to stresses. An important feature of the M. tuberculosis pathogenesis is the prevalence of latent infection without disease, making understanding of the mechanisms used by the bacteria to exist in this state and to switch to metabolically active infectious form a vital problem to consider. M. tuberculosis dormancy is regulated by the three-component regulatory system of two kinases (DosT and DevS) and transcriprional regulator (DevR). DevR activates transcription of a set of genes, which allow the bacteria to survive long periods of anaerobiosis, and may be important for long-term survival within the host during latent infection. The DevR-regulon is studied experimentally in M. tuberculosis and few other phylogenetically close Mycobacteria spp. As many other two-component systems, the devRS operon is autoregulated. However, the mechanism of the dormancy is not completely clear even for these bacteria and there is no data describing the dormancy regulons in other species.

Gerasimova, Anna; Dubchak, Inna; Arkin, Adam; Gelfand, Mikhail

2010-11-16

84

The purine efflux pump PbuE in Bacillus subtilis modulates expression of the PurR and G-box (XptR) regulons by adjusting the purine base pool size.  

PubMed

In Bacillus subtilis, the expression of genes encoding enzymes and other proteins involved in purine de novo synthesis and salvage is affected by purine bases and phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP). The transcription of the genes belonging to the PurR regulon is negatively regulated by the PurR protein and PRPP. The expression of the genes belonging to the G-box (XptR) regulon, including the pbuE gene, is negatively regulated by a riboswitch-controlled transcription termination mechanism. The G-box regulon effector molecules are hypoxanthine and guanine. pbuE encodes a purine base efflux pump and is now recognized as belonging to a third purine regulon. The expression of the pbuE gene is positively regulated by a riboswitch that recognizes adenine. Here we show that the expression of pbuE'-lacZ transcriptional fusions are induced by adenine to the highest extent in mutants which do not express a functional PbuE pump. In a mutant defective in the metabolism of adenine, the ade apt mutant, we found a high intracellular level of adenine and constitutive high levels of PbuE. A growth test using a purine auxotroph provided further evidence for the role of PbuE in lowering the intracellular concentration of purine bases, including adenine. Purine analogs also affect the expression of pbuE, which might be of importance for the protection against toxic analogs. In a mutant that overexpresses PbuE, the expression of genes belonging to the PurR regulon was increased. Our findings provide further evidence for important functions of the PbuE protein, such as acting as a pump that lowers the purine base pool and affects the expression of the G-box and PurR regulons, including pbuE itself, and as a pump involved in protection against toxic purine base analogs. PMID:15629952

Nygaard, Per; Saxild, Hans H

2005-01-01

85

Evolutionarily Divergent, Unstable Filamentous Actin Is Essential for Gliding Motility in Apicomplexan Parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apicomplexan parasites rely on a novel form of actin-based motility called gliding, which depends on parasite actin polymerization, to migrate through their hosts and invade cells. However, parasite actins are divergent both in sequence and function and only form short, unstable filaments in contrast to the stability of conventional actin filaments. The molecular basis for parasite actin filament instability and

Kristen M. Skillman; Karthikeyan Diraviyam; Asis Khan; Keliang Tang; David Sept; L. David Sibley

2011-01-01

86

Apical membrane antigen 1 mediates apicomplexan parasite attachment but is dispensable for host cell invasion.  

PubMed

Apicomplexan parasites invade host cells by forming a ring-like junction with the cell surface and actively sliding through the junction inside an intracellular vacuole. Apical membrane antigen 1 is conserved in apicomplexans and a long-standing malaria vaccine candidate. It is considered to have multiple important roles during host cell penetration, primarily in structuring the junction by interacting with the rhoptry neck 2 protein and transducing the force generated by the parasite motor during internalization. Here, we generate Plasmodium sporozoites and merozoites and Toxoplasma tachyzoites lacking apical membrane antigen 1, and find that the latter two are impaired in host cell attachment but the three display normal host cell penetration through the junction. Therefore, apical membrane antigen 1, rather than an essential invasin, is a dispensable adhesin of apicomplexan zoites. These genetic data have implications on the use of apical membrane antigen 1 or the apical membrane antigen 1-rhoptry neck 2 interaction as targets of intervention strategies against malaria or other diseases caused by apicomplexans. PMID:24108241

Bargieri, Daniel Y; Andenmatten, Nicole; Lagal, Vanessa; Thiberge, Sabine; Whitelaw, Jamie A; Tardieux, Isabelle; Meissner, Markus; Ménard, Robert

2013-10-10

87

Fatty acid and sterol metabolism: potential antimicrobial targets in apicomplexan and trypanosomatid parasitic protozoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current treatments for diseases caused by apicomplexan and trypanosomatid parasites are inadequate due to toxicity, the development of drug resistance and an inability to eliminate all life cycle stages of these parasites from the host. New therapeutics agents are urgently required. It has recently been demonstrated that type II fatty acid biosynthesis occurs in the plastid of Plasmodium falciparum and

C. W. Roberts; R. McLeod; D. W. Rice; M. Ginger; M. L. Chance; L. J. Goad

2003-01-01

88

Host cell invasion by the apicomplexans: the significance of microneme protein proteolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intracellular life-style has been adopted by many pathogens as a successful immune evasion mechanism. To gain entry to a large variety of host cells and to establish an intracellular niche, Toxoplasma gondii and other apicomplexans rely on an active process distinct from phagocytosis. Calcium-regulated secretion of microneme proteins and parasite actin polymerization together with the action of at least one

Timothy Dowse; Dominique Soldati

2004-01-01

89

Genome-scale protein expression and structural biology of Plasmodium falciparum and related Apicomplexan organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasites from the protozoan phylum Apicomplexa are responsible for diseases, such as malaria, toxoplasmosis and cryptosporidiosis, all of which have significantly higher rates of mortality and morbidity in economically underdeveloped regions of the world. Advances in vaccine development and drug discovery are urgently needed to control these diseases and can be facilitated by production of purified recombinant proteins from Apicomplexan

Masoud Vedadi; Jocelyne Lew; Jennifer Artz; Mehrnaz Amani; Yong Zhao; Aiping Dong; Gregory A. Wasney; Mian Gao; Tanya Hills; Stephen Brokx; Wei Qiu; Sujata Sharma; Angelina Diassiti; Zahoor Alam; Michelle Melone; Anne Mulichak; Amy Wernimont; James Bray; Peter Loppnau; Olga Plotnikova; Kate Newberry; Emayavaram Sundararajan; Simon Houston; John Walker; Wolfram Tempel; Alexey Bochkarev; Ivona Kozieradzki; Aled Edwards; Cheryl Arrowsmith; David Roos; Kevin Kain; Raymond Hui

2007-01-01

90

Genome-wide analysis of the RpoN regulon in Geobacter sulfurreducens  

PubMed Central

Background The role of the RNA polymerase sigma factor RpoN in regulation of gene expression in Geobacter sulfurreducens was investigated to better understand transcriptional regulatory networks as part of an effort to develop regulatory modules for genome-scale in silico models, which can predict the physiological responses of Geobacter species during groundwater bioremediation or electricity production. Results An rpoN deletion mutant could not be obtained under all conditions tested. In order to investigate the regulon of the G. sulfurreducens RpoN, an RpoN over-expression strain was made in which an extra copy of the rpoN gene was under the control of a taclac promoter. Combining both the microarray transcriptome analysis and the computational prediction revealed that the G. sulfurreducens RpoN controls genes involved in a wide range of cellular functions. Most importantly, RpoN controls the expression of the dcuB gene encoding the fumarate/succinate exchanger, which is essential for cell growth with fumarate as the terminal electron acceptor in G. sulfurreducens. RpoN also controls genes, which encode enzymes for both pathways of ammonia assimilation that is predicted to be essential under all growth conditions in G. sulfurreducens. Other genes that were identified as part of the RpoN regulon using either the computational prediction or the microarray transcriptome analysis included genes involved in flagella biosynthesis, pili biosynthesis and genes involved in central metabolism enzymes and cytochromes involved in extracellular electron transfer to Fe(III), which are known to be important for growth in subsurface environment or electricity production in microbial fuel cells. The consensus sequence for the predicted RpoN-regulated promoter elements is TTGGCACGGTTTTTGCT. Conclusion The G. sulfurreducens RpoN is an essential sigma factor and a global regulator involved in a complex transcriptional network controlling a variety of cellular processes.

Leang, Ching; Krushkal, Julia; Ueki, Toshiyuki; Puljic, Marko; Sun, Jun; Juarez, Katy; Nunez, Cinthia; Reguera, Gemma; DiDonato, Raymond; Postier, Bradley; Adkins, Ronald M; Lovley, Derek R

2009-01-01

91

The pH-Responsive Regulon of HP0244 (FlgS), the Cytoplasmic Histidine Kinase of Helicobacter pylori?  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori colonizes the acidic gastric environment, in contrast to all other neutralophiles, whose acid resistance and tolerance responses allow only gastric transit. This acid adaptation is dependent on regulation of gene expression in response to pH changes in the periplasm and cytoplasm. The cytoplasmic histidine kinase, HP0244, which until now was thought only to regulate flagellar gene expression via its cognate response regulator, HP0703, was found to generate a response to declining medium pH. Although not required for survival at pH 4.5, HP0244 is required for survival at pH 2.5 with 10 mM urea after 30 min. Transcriptional profiling of a HP0244 deletion mutant grown at pH 7.4 confirmed the contribution of HP0244 to ?54 activation via HP0703 to coordinate flagellar biosynthesis by a pH-independent regulon that includes 14 flagellar genes. Microarray analysis of cells grown at pH 4.5 without urea revealed an additional 22 genes, including 4 acid acclimation genes (ureA, ureB, ureI, and amiE) that are positively regulated by HP0244. Additionally, 86 differentially expressed genes, including 3 acid acclimation genes (ureF, rocF [arginase], and ansB [asparaginase]), were found in cells grown at pH 2.5 with 30 mM urea. Hence, HP0244 has, in addition to the pH-independent flagellar regulon, a pH-dependent regulon, which allows adaptation to a wider range of environmental acid conditions. An acid survival study using an HP0703 mutant and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay with in vitro-phosphorylated HP0703 showed that HP0703 does not contribute to acid survival and does not bind to the promoter regions of several genes in the HP0244 pH-dependent regulon, suggesting that there is a pathway outside the HP0703 regulon which transduces the acid-responsive signal sensed by HP0244.

Wen, Yi; Feng, Jing; Scott, David R.; Marcus, Elizabeth A; Sachs, George

2009-01-01

92

Modulation of Toxin Production by the Flagellar Regulon in Clostridium difficile  

PubMed Central

We show in this study that toxin production in Clostridium difficile is altered in cells which can no longer form flagellar filaments. The impact of inactivation of fliC, CD0240, fliF, fliG, fliM, and flhB-fliR flagellar genes upon toxin levels in culture supernatants was assessed using cell-based cytotoxicity assay, proteomics, immunoassay, and immunoblotting approaches. Each of these showed that toxin levels in supernatants were significantly increased in a fliC mutant compared to that in the C. difficile 630 parent strain. In contrast, the toxin levels in supernatants secreted from other flagellar mutants were significantly reduced compared with that in the parental C. difficile 630 strain. Transcriptional analysis of the pathogenicity locus genes (tcdR, tcdB, tcdE, and tcdA) revealed a significant increase of all four genes in the fliC mutant strain, while transcription of all four genes was significantly reduced in fliM, fliF, fliG, and flhB-fliR mutants. These results demonstrate that toxin transcription in C. difficile is modulated by the flagellar regulon. More significantly, mutant strains showed a corresponding change in virulence compared to the 630 parent strain when tested in a hamster model of C. difficile infection. This is the first demonstration of differential flagellum-related transcriptional regulation of toxin production in C. difficile and provides evidence for elaborate regulatory networks for virulence genes in C. difficile.

Aubry, Annie; Hussack, Greg; Chen, Wangxue; KuoLee, Rhonda; Twine, Susan M.; Fulton, Kelly M.; Foote, Simon; Carrillo, Catherine D.; Tanha, Jamshid

2012-01-01

93

Genome-wide definition of the SigF regulon in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

In Mycobacterium tuberculosis the alternative sigma factor SigF controls the expression of a particular subset of genes by altering RNA polymerase specificity. Here, we utilize two genome-wide approaches to identify SigF-binding sites: chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-on-chip) and microarray analysis of SigF-mediated transcripts. Since SigF is not an abundant protein in the logarithmic phase of growth, a pristinamyin IA-inducible system was used to control its expression. We identified 67 high-affinity SigF-binding sites and 16 loci where a SigF promoter directs the expression of a transcript. These loci include sigF itself, genes involved in lipid and intermediary metabolism and virulence, and at least one transcriptional regulator (Rv2884), possibly acting downstream of SigF. In addition, SigF was also found to direct the transcription of the gene for small RNA F6. Many loci were also found where SigF may be involved in antisense transcription, and in two cases (Rv1358 and Rv1870c) the SigF-dependent promoter was located within the predicted coding sequence. Quantitative PCR confirmed the microarray findings and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends was used to map the SigF-specific transcriptional start points. A canonical SigF consensus promoter sequence GGTTT-N((15-17))-GGGTA was found prior to 11 genes. Together, these data help to define the SigF regulon and show that SigF not only governs expression of proteins such as the virulence factor, HbhA, but also impacts novel functions, such as noncoding RNAs and antisense transcripts. PMID:22307756

Hartkoorn, Ruben C; Sala, Claudia; Uplekar, Swapna; Busso, Philippe; Rougemont, Jacques; Cole, Stewart T

2012-02-03

94

Genome-Wide Definition of the SigF Regulon in Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

In Mycobacterium tuberculosis the alternative sigma factor SigF controls the expression of a particular subset of genes by altering RNA polymerase specificity. Here, we utilize two genome-wide approaches to identify SigF-binding sites: chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-on-chip) and microarray analysis of SigF-mediated transcripts. Since SigF is not an abundant protein in the logarithmic phase of growth, a pristinamyin IA-inducible system was used to control its expression. We identified 67 high-affinity SigF-binding sites and 16 loci where a SigF promoter directs the expression of a transcript. These loci include sigF itself, genes involved in lipid and intermediary metabolism and virulence, and at least one transcriptional regulator (Rv2884), possibly acting downstream of SigF. In addition, SigF was also found to direct the transcription of the gene for small RNA F6. Many loci were also found where SigF may be involved in antisense transcription, and in two cases (Rv1358 and Rv1870c) the SigF-dependent promoter was located within the predicted coding sequence. Quantitative PCR confirmed the microarray findings and 5?-rapid amplification of cDNA ends was used to map the SigF-specific transcriptional start points. A canonical SigF consensus promoter sequence GGTTT-N(15-17)-GGGTA was found prior to 11 genes. Together, these data help to define the SigF regulon and show that SigF not only governs expression of proteins such as the virulence factor, HbhA, but also impacts novel functions, such as noncoding RNAs and antisense transcripts.

Hartkoorn, Ruben C.; Sala, Claudia; Uplekar, Swapna; Busso, Philippe; Rougemont, Jacques

2012-01-01

95

The Apicomplexan Pathogen Neospora caninum Inhibits Host Cell Apoptosis in the Absence of Discernible NF-?B Activation?  

PubMed Central

Neospora caninum, a causative agent of bovine abortions, is an apicomplexan parasite that is closely related to the human pathogen Toxoplasma gondii. Since a number of intracellular parasites, including T. gondii, have been shown to modulate host cell apoptosis, the present study was conducted to establish whether N. caninum is similarly capable of subverting apoptotic pathways in its host cells. Our results indicated that death receptor-mediated apoptosis is repressed during N. caninum infection, and the data further showed that the executioner caspase, caspase 3, does not become activated in the infected cells. Surprisingly, nuclear translocation of the NF-?B subunit p65 was not detected in N. caninum-infected cells, although this host transcription factor has been shown to upregulate prosurvival genes in cells infected with T. gondii. Consistent with these findings, the distinct accumulation of phosphorylated I?B that is seen at the parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM) of T. gondii was not apparent on the N. caninum PVM. Although a putative I?B kinase activity was detected in N. caninum extracts, thereby implying that this parasite is capable of modulating NF-?B translocation into the host cell nucleus, the data collectively suggest that a profound and sustained activation of the NF-?B pathway is not central to the ability of N. caninum to prevent apoptosis of their host cells.

Herman, Rebecca K.; Molestina, Robert E.; Sinai, Anthony P.; Howe, Daniel K.

2007-01-01

96

Hyperosmotic shock induces the sigma32 and sigmaE stress regulons of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

The rise in the levels of sigmaS that accompanies hyperosmotic shock plays an important role in Escherichia coli survival by increasing the transcription of genes involved in the synthesis and transport of osmoprotectants. To determine if other stress regulons collaborate with sigmaS in dealing with high osmolality, we used single copy fusions of lacZ to representative promoters induced by protein misfolding in the cytoplasm (dnaK and ibp ), extracytoplasmic stress [P3rpoH and htrA(degP )] and cold shock (cspA). Both the sigma32-dependent, dnaK and ibp, promoters, and the sigmaE-dependent, P3rpoH and htrA, promoters were rapidly but transiently induced when mid-exponential phase cells were treated with 0.464 M sucrose. The cspA promoter, however, did not respond to the same treatment. Overproduction of the cytoplasmic domain of the sigmaE anti-sigma factor, RseA, reduced the magnitude of osmotic induction in lambdaphi(P3rpoH:lacZ ) lysogens, but had no effect on the activation of the dnaK and ibp promoters. Similarly, induction of the dnaK:lacZ and ibp:lacZ fusions was not altered in either rpoS or ompR genetic backgrounds. Osmotic upshift led to a twofold increase in the enzymatic activity of the lambdaTLF247 rpoH:lacZ translational fusion whether or not the cells were treated with rifampicin, indicating that both heat shock and exposure to high osmolality trigger a transient increase in rpoH translation. Our results suggest that the sigma32, sigmaE and sigmaS regulons closely co-operate in the managment of hyperosmotic stress. Induction of the sigma32 and sigmaE regulons appears to be an emergency response required to repair protein misfolding and facilitate the proper folding of proteins that are rapidly synthesized following loss of turgor, while providing a mechanism to increase the activity of sigmaS, the primary stress factor in osmoadaptation. PMID:10594827

Bianchi, A A; Baneyx, F

1999-12-01

97

A Novel Copper-Responsive Regulon in Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

In this work we describe the identification of a copper-inducible regulon in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Among the regulated genes was Rv0190/MT0200, a paralogue of the copper metalloregulatory repressor CsoR. The five-locus regulon, which includes a gene that encodes the copper-protective metallothionein MymT, was highly induced in wild type Mtb treated with copper, and highly expressed in an Rv0190/MT0200 mutant. Importantly, the Rv0190/MT0200 mutant was hyper-resistant to copper. The promoters of all five loci share a palindromic motif that was recognized by the gene product of Rv0190/MT0200. For this reason we named Rv0190/MT0200 RicR for regulated in copper repressor. Intriguingly, several of the RicR-regulated genes, including MymT, are unique to pathogenic Mycobacteria. The identification of a copper-responsive regulon specific to virulent mycobacterial species suggests copper homeostasis must be maintained during an infection. Alternatively, copper may provide a cue for the expression of genes unrelated to metal homeostasis, but nonetheless necessary for survival in a host.

Festa, Richard A.; Jones, Marcus B.; Butler-Wu, Susan; Sinsimer, Daniel; Gerads, Russell; Bishai, William R.; Peterson, Scott N.; Darwin, K. Heran

2010-01-01

98

Characterization of the ArsRS Regulon of Helicobacter pylori, Involved in Acid Adaptation†  

PubMed Central

The human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is extremely well adapted to the highly acidic conditions encountered in the stomach. The pronounced acid resistance of H. pylori relies mainly on the ammonia-producing enzyme urease; however, urease-independent mechanisms are likely to contribute to acid adaptation. Acid-responsive gene regulation is mediated at least in part by the ArsRS two-component system consisting of the essential OmpR-like response regulator ArsR and the nonessential cognate histidine kinase ArsS, whose autophosphorylation is triggered in response to low pH. In this study, by global transcriptional profiling of an ArsS-deficient H. pylori mutant grown at pH 5.0, we define the ArsR?P-dependent regulon consisting of 109 genes, including the urease gene cluster, the genes encoding the aliphatic amidases AmiE and AmiF, and the rocF gene encoding arginase. We show that ArsR?P controls the acid-induced transcription of amiE and amiF by binding to extended regions located upstream of the ?10 box of the respective promoters. In contrast, transcription of rocF is repressed by ArsR?P at neutral, acidic, and mildly alkaline pH via high-affinity binding of the response regulator to a site overlapping the promoter of the rocF gene.

Pflock, Michael; Finsterer, Nadja; Joseph, Biju; Mollenkopf, Hans; Meyer, Thomas F.; Beier, Dagmar

2006-01-01

99

Characterization of the Cpx regulon in Escherichia coli strain MC4100.  

PubMed

The Cpx two-component signal transduction pathway of Escherichia coli mediates adaptation to envelope protein misfolding. However, there is experimental evidence that at least 50 genes in 34 operons are part of the Cpx regulon and many have functions that are undefined or unrelated to envelope protein maintenance. No comprehensive analysis of the Cpx regulon has been presented to date. In order to identify strongly Cpx-regulated genes that might play an important role(s) in envelope protein folding and/or to further define the role of the Cpx response and to gain insight into what makes a gene subject to strong Cpx regulation, we have carried out a uniform characterization of a Cpx-regulated lux reporter library in a single-strain background. Strongly Cpx-regulated genes encode proteins that are directly linked to envelope protein folding, localized to the envelope but uncharacterized, or involved in limiting the cellular concentration of noxious molecules. Moderately Cpx-regulated gene clusters encode products implicated in biofilm formation. An analysis of CpxR binding sites in strongly regulated genes indicates that while neither a consensus match nor their orientation predicts the strength of Cpx regulation, most genes contain a CpxR binding site within 100 bp of the transcriptional start site. Strikingly, we found that while there appears to be little overlap between the Cpx and Bae envelope stress responses, the sigma(E) and Cpx responses reciprocally regulate a large group of strongly Cpx-regulated genes, most of which are uncharacterized. PMID:19103922

Price, Nancy L; Raivio, Tracy L

2008-12-19

100

Genome wide analysis of the complete GlnR nitrogen-response regulon in Mycobacterium smegmatis  

PubMed Central

Background Nitrogen is an essential element for bacterial growth and an important component of biological macromolecules. Consequently, responding to nitrogen limitation is critical for bacterial survival and involves the interplay of signalling pathways and transcriptional regulation of nitrogen assimilation and scavenging genes. In the soil dwelling saprophyte Mycobacterium smegmatis the OmpR-type response regulator GlnR is thought to mediate the transcriptomic response to nitrogen limitation. However, to date only ten genes have been shown to be in the GlnR regulon, a vastly reduced number compared to other organisms. Results We investigated the role of GlnR in the nitrogen limitation response and determined the entire GlnR regulon, by combining expression profiling of M. smegmatis wild type and glnR deletion mutant, with GlnR-specific chromatin immunoprecipitation and high throughput sequencing. We identify 53 GlnR binding sites during nitrogen limitation that control the expression of over 100 genes, demonstrating that GlnR is the regulator controlling the assimilation and utilisation of nitrogen. We also determine a consensus GlnR binding motif and identify key residues within the motif that are required for specific GlnR binding. Conclusions We have demonstrated that GlnR is the global nitrogen response regulator in M. smegmatis, directly regulating the expression of more than 100 genes. GlnR controls key nitrogen stress survival processes including primary nitrogen metabolism pathways, the ability to utilise nitrate and urea as alternative nitrogen sources, and the potential to use cellular components to provide a source of ammonium. These studies further our understanding of how mycobacteria survive nutrient limiting conditions.

2013-01-01

101

Refinement of the Listeria monocytogenes ?B regulon through quantitative proteomic analysis.  

PubMed

?(B) is an alternative ? factor that regulates stress response and virulence genes in the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. To gain further insight into ?(B)-dependent regulatory mechanisms in L. monocytogenes, we (i) performed quantitative proteomic comparisons between the L. monocytogenes parent strain 10403S and an isogenic ?sigB mutant and (ii) conducted a meta-analysis of published microarray studies on the 10403S ?(B) regulon. A total of 134 genes were found to be significantly positively regulated by ?(B) at the transcriptomic level with >75?% of these genes preceded by putative ?(B)-dependent promoters; 21 of these 134 genes were also found to be positively regulated by ?(B) through proteomics. In addition, 15 proteins were only found to be positively regulated by ?(B) through proteomics analyses, including Lmo1349, a putative glycine cleavage system protein. The lmo1349 gene is preceded by a 5' UTR that functions as a glycine riboswitch, which suggests regulation of glycine metabolism by ?(B) in L. monocytogenes. Herein, we propose a model where ?(B) upregulates pathways that facilitate biosynthesis and uptake of glycine, which may then activate this riboswitch. Our data also (i) identified a number of ?(B)-dependent proteins that appear to be encoded by genes that are co-regulated by multiple transcriptional regulators, in particular PrfA, and (ii) found ?(B)-dependent genes and proteins to be overrepresented in the 'energy metabolism' role category, highlighting contributions of the ?(B) regulon to L. monocytogenes energy metabolism as well as a role of PrfA and ?(B) interaction in regulating aspects of energy metabolism in L. monocytogenes. PMID:23618998

Mujahid, S; Orsi, R H; Vangay, P; Boor, K J; Wiedmann, M

2013-04-25

102

Prediction and overview of the RpoN-regulon in closely related species of the Rhizobiales  

PubMed Central

Background In the rhizobia, a group of symbiotic Gram-negative soil bacteria, RpoN (?54, ?N, NtrA) is best known as the sigma factor enabling transcription of the nitrogen fixation genes. Recent reports, however, demonstrate the involvement of RpoN in other symbiotic functions, although no large-scale effort has yet been undertaken to unravel the RpoN-regulon in rhizobia. We screened two complete rhizobial genomes (Mesorhizobium loti, Sinorhizobium meliloti) and four symbiotic regions (Rhizobium etli, Rhizobium sp. NGR234, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, M. loti) for the presence of the highly conserved RpoN-binding sites. A comparison was also made with two closely related non-symbiotic members of the Rhizobiales (Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Brucella melitensis). Results A highly specific weight-matrix-based screening method was applied to predict members of the RpoN-regulon, which were stored in a highly annotated and manually curated dataset. Possible enhancer-binding proteins (EBPs) controlling the expression of RpoN-dependent genes were predicted with a profile hidden Markov model. Conclusions The methodology used to predict RpoN-binding sites proved highly effective as nearly all known RpoN-controlled genes were identified. In addition, many new RpoN-dependent functions were found. The dependency of several of these diverse functions on RpoN seems species-specific. Around 30% of the identified genes are hypothetical. Rhizobia appear to have recruited RpoN for symbiotic processes, whereas the role of RpoN in A. tumefaciens and B. melitensis remains largely to be elucidated. All species screened possess at least one uncharacterized EBP as well as the usual ones. Lastly, RpoN could significantly broaden its working range by direct interfering with the binding of regulatory proteins to the promoter DNA.

Dombrecht, Bruno; Marchal, Kathleen; Vanderleyden, Jos; Michiels, Jan

2002-01-01

103

Cryptic organelle homology in apicomplexan parasites: insights from evolutionary cell biology.  

PubMed

The economic and clinical significance of apicomplexan parasites drives interest in their many evolutionary novelties. Distinctive intracellular organelles play key roles in parasite motility, invasion, metabolism, and replication, and understanding their relationship with the organelles of better-studied eukaryotic systems suggests potential targets for therapeutic intervention. Recent work has demonstrated divergent aspects of canonical eukaryotic components in the Apicomplexa, including Golgi bodies and mitochondria. The apicoplast is a relict plastid of secondary endosymbiotic origin, harboring metabolic pathways distinct from those of host species. The inner membrane complex (IMC) is derived from the cortical alveoli defining the superphylum Alveolata, but in apicomplexans functions in parasite motility and replication. Micronemes and rhoptries are associated with establishment of the intracellular niche, and define the apical complex for which the phylum is named. Morphological, cell biological and molecular evidence strongly suggest that these organelles are derived from the endocytic pathway. PMID:23932202

Klinger, Christen M; Nisbet, R Ellen; Ouologuem, Dinkorma T; Roos, David S; Dacks, Joel B

2013-08-08

104

Structures of apicomplexan calcium-dependent protein kinases reveal mechanism of activation by calcium  

SciTech Connect

Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) have pivotal roles in the calcium-signaling pathway in plants, ciliates and apicomplexan parasites and comprise a calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMK)-like kinase domain regulated by a calcium-binding domain in the C terminus. To understand this intramolecular mechanism of activation, we solved the structures of the autoinhibited (apo) and activated (calcium-bound) conformations of CDPKs from the apicomplexan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum. In the apo form, the C-terminal CDPK activation domain (CAD) resembles a calmodulin protein with an unexpected long helix in the N terminus that inhibits the kinase domain in the same manner as CaMKII. Calcium binding triggers the reorganization of the CAD into a highly intricate fold, leading to its relocation around the base of the kinase domain to a site remote from the substrate binding site. This large conformational change constitutes a distinct mechanism in calcium signal-transduction pathways.

Wernimont, Amy K; Artz, Jennifer D.; Jr, Patrick Finerty; Lin, Yu-Hui; Amani, Mehrnaz; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Senisterra, Guillermo; Vedadi, Masoud; Tempel, Wolfram; Mackenzie, Farrell; Chau, Irene; Lourido, Sebastian; Sibley, L. David; Hui, Raymond (Toronto); (WU-MED)

2010-09-21

105

Apicomplexan rhomboids have a potential role in microneme protein cleavage during host cell invasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apicomplexan parasites secrete transmembrane (TM) adhesive proteins as part of the process leading to host cell attachment and invasion. These microneme proteins are cleaved in their TM domains by an unidentified protease termed microneme protein protease 1 (MPP1). The cleavage site sequence (IA?GG), mapped in the Toxoplasma gondii microneme proteins TgMIC2 and TgMIC6, is conserved in microneme proteins of other

Timothy J. Dowse; John C. Pascall; Kenneth D. Brown; Dominique Soldati

2005-01-01

106

Comparative genome analysis reveals a conserved family of actin-like proteins in apicomplexan parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The phylum Apicomplexa is an early-branching eukaryotic lineage that contains a number of important human and animal pathogens. Their complex life cycles and unique cytoskeletal features distinguish them from other model eukaryotes. Apicomplexans rely on actin-based motility for cell invasion, yet the regulation of this system remains largely unknown. Consequently, we focused our efforts on identifying actin-related proteins in

Jennifer L Gordon; L David Sibley

2005-01-01

107

Triclosan inhibits the growth of Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii by inhibition of apicomplexan Fab I.  

PubMed

Fab I, enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase (ENR), is an enzyme used in fatty acid synthesis. It is a single chain polypeptide in plants, bacteria, and mycobacteria, but is part of a complex polypeptide in animals and fungi. Certain other enzymes in fatty acid synthesis in apicomplexan parasites appear to have multiple forms, homologous to either a plastid, plant-like single chain enzyme or more like the animal complex polypeptide chain. We identified a plant-like Fab I in Plasmodium falciparum and modelled the structure on the Brassica napus and Escherichia coli structures, alone and complexed to triclosan (5-chloro-2-[2,4 dichlorophenoxy] phenol]), which confirmed all the requisite features of an ENR and its interactions with triclosan. Like the remarkable effect of triclosan on a wide variety of bacteria, this compound markedly inhibits growth and survival of the apicomplexan parasites P. falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii at low (i.e. IC50 congruent with150-2000 and 62 ng/ml, respectively) concentrations. Discovery and characterisation of an apicomplexan Fab I and discovery of triclosan as lead compound provide means to rationally design novel inhibitory compounds. PMID:11239932

McLeod, R; Muench, S P; Rafferty, J B; Kyle, D E; Mui, E J; Kirisits, M J; Mack, D G; Roberts, C W; Samuel, B U; Lyons, R E; Dorris, M; Milhous, W K; Rice, D W

2001-02-01

108

Effects of Enrichment on Expression of Key Nutrient Regulons in Extremophiles in Hydrothermal Springs at Yellowstone National Park  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To cope with nutrient limitation, micro-organisms have evolved diverse means to increase acquisition of nutrients such as ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate and trace metals when they become limiting. These strategies typically involve production of compound-specific transporters (i.e., ammonium transporters) or extracellular enzymes (i.e., alkaline phosphatase). Genes that encode these proteins are often under the control of shared regulatory proteins called regulons. Regulons of genes for N, P, or Fe metabolism ultimately affect the transport of vital nutrients into and out of cells and thus help organisms deal with nutrient limitation. Regulons for N, P, and Fe have been found and studied ex situ for model organisms under various nutrient-limiting conditions but are relatively unstudied in the field, especially in hydrothermal systems. The aim of this study was to characterize transcription patterns of genes for N, P, and Fe processing under experimental nutrient enrichment in a complex microbial community from an alkaline hot spring located in Yellowstone National Park. Microbial mat samples and hot spring water were placed in bottles, subjected to a fully factorial manipulation of N (125 ?M N as ammonium nitrate), phosphorus (7.8 ?M P as sodium phosphate), and Fe (7.8 x 10-2 ?M Fe as ferric citrate), and incubated overnight at in situ temperatures. Following incubation, hot spring water was filtered and preserved for nutrient analyses and biomass subsamples were snap-frozen for molecular analysis. Chemical analysis showed a total removal of NH4 and PO4 from the water in all treatments. NO3 decreased slightly in most treatments (control, +N, +P, +Fe, +PFe, and +NPFe) but increased in the others (+NFe and +NP). Interestingly, Fe concentrations were lower in amended samples (+Fe, +NFe, +PFe, and +NPFe) than in unamended samples (control, +N, +P, +NP). To assess the transcriptional responses, primers were designed to target genes controlled by the ferric uptake regulator (Fur), phosphate-responsive signal transduction pathway (Pho), and the nitrogen transcriptional regulator TnrA. These genes-glnA, nrgAB, narB, yusV, asnRS, gltA, pstS, tagA, and phoA- have been successfully sequenced in our microbial mat community. Gene expression work is currently underway to determine if transcription of these genes is altered under single nutrient limitation and/or co-limitation, thus reflecting the results seen in the water chemistry data.

Knowlton, M.; Elser, J. J.; Poret-peterson, A. T.

2011-12-01

109

The NsrR Regulon in Nitrosative Stress Resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Nitric oxide (NO·) is an important mediator of innate immunity. The facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella has evolved mechanisms to detoxify and evade the antimicrobial actions of host-derived NO· produced during infection. Expression of the NO·-detoxifying flavohemoglobin Hmp is controlled by the NO·-sensing transcriptional repressor NsrR and is required for Salmonella virulence. In this study we show that NsrR responds to very low NO· concentrations, suggesting that it plays a primary role in the nitrosative stress response. Additionally, we have defined the NsrR regulon in Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium 14028s using transcriptional microarray, qRT-PCR and in silico methods. A novel NsrR-regulated gene designated STM1808 has been identified, along with hmp, hcp-hcr, yeaR-yoaG, ygbA and ytfE. STM1808 and ygbA are important for S. Typhimurium growth during nitrosative stress, and the hcp-hcr locus plays a supportive role in NO· detoxification. ICP-MS analysis of purified STM1808 suggests that it is a zinc metalloprotein, with histidine residues H32 and H82 required for NO· resistance and zinc binding. Moreover, STM1808 and ytfE promote Salmonella growth during systemic infection of mice. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that NsrR-regulated genes in addition to hmp are important for NO· detoxification, nitrosative stress resistance and Salmonella virulence.

Karlinsey, Joyce E.; Bang, Iel-Soo; Becker, Lynne A.; Frawley, Elaine R.; Porwollik, Steffen; Robbins, Hannah F.; Thomas, Vinai Chittezham; Urbano, Rodolfo; McClelland, Michael; Fang, Ferric C.

2012-01-01

110

Modeling and analysis of the dynamic behavior of the XlnR regulon in Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Background In this paper the dynamics of the transcription-translation system for XlnR regulon in Aspergillus niger is modeled. The model is based on Hill regulation functions and uses ordinary differential equations. The network response to a trigger of D-xylose is considered and stability analysis is performed. The activating, repressive feedback, and the combined effect of the two feedbacks on the network behavior are analyzed. Results Simulation and systems analysis showed significant influence of activating and repressing feedback on metabolite expression profiles. The dynamics of the D-xylose input function has an important effect on the profiles of the individual metabolite concentrations. Variation of the time delay in the feedback loop has no significant effect on the pattern of the response. The stability and existence of oscillatory behavior depends on which proteins are involved in the feedback loop. Conclusions The dynamics in the regulation properties of the network are dictated mainly by the transcription and translation degradation rate parameters, and by the D-xylose consumption profile. This holds true with and without feedback in the network. Feedback was found to significantly influence the expression dynamics of genes and proteins. Feedback increases the metabolite abundance, changes the steady state values, alters the time trajectories and affects the response oscillatory behavior and stability conditions. The modeling approach provides insight into network behavioral dynamics particularly for small-sized networks. The analysis of the network dynamics has provided useful information for experimental design for future in vitro experimental work.

2011-01-01

111

Evolution of a Membrane Protein Regulon in Saccharomyces  

PubMed Central

Expression variation is widespread between species. The ability to distinguish regulatory change driven by natural selection from the consequences of neutral drift remains a major challenge in comparative genomics. In this work, we used observations of mRNA expression and promoter sequence to analyze signatures of selection on groups of functionally related genes in Saccharomycete yeasts. In a survey of gene regulons with expression divergence between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. paradoxus, we found that most were subject to variation in trans-regulatory factors that provided no evidence against a neutral model. However, we identified one regulon of membrane protein genes controlled by unlinked cis- and trans-acting determinants with coherent effects on gene expression, consistent with a history of directional, nonneutral evolution. For this membrane protein group, S. paradoxus alleles at regulatory loci were associated with elevated expression and altered stress responsiveness relative to other yeasts. In a phylogenetic comparison of promoter sequences of the membrane protein genes between species, the S. paradoxus lineage was distinguished by a short branch length, indicative of strong selective constraint. Likewise, sequence variants within the S. paradoxus population, but not across strains of other yeasts, were skewed toward low frequencies in promoters of genes in the membrane protein regulon, again reflecting strong purifying selection. Our results support a model in which a distinct expression program for the membrane protein genes in S. paradoxus has been preferentially maintained by negative selection as the result of an increased importance to organismal fitness. These findings illustrate the power of integrating expression- and sequence-based tests of natural selection in the study of evolutionary forces that underlie regulatory change.

Martin, Hilary C.; Roop, Jeremy I.; Schraiber, Joshua G.; Hsu, Tiffany Y.; Brem, Rachel B.

2012-01-01

112

Pondering the puzzle of PML (promyelocytic leukemia) nuclear bodies: Can we fit the pieces together using an RNA regulon?  

PubMed Central

Summary The promyelocytic leukemia protein PML and its associated nuclear bodies are hot topics of investigation. This interest arises for multiple reasons including the tight link between the integrity of PML nuclear bodies and several disease states and the impact of the PML protein and PML nuclear bodies on proliferation, apoptosis and viral infection. Unfortunately, an understanding of the molecular underpinnings of PML nuclear body function remains elusive. Here, a general overview of the PML field is provided and is extended to discuss whether some of the basic tenets of “PML-ology” are still valid. For instance, recent findings suggest that some components of PML nuclear bodies form bodies in the absence of the PML protein. Also, a new model for PML nuclear body function is proposed which provides a unifying framework for its effects on diverse biochemical pathways such as Akt signaling and the p53-Mdm2 axis. In this model, the PML protein acts as an inhibitor of gene expression post-transcriptionally via inhibiting a network node in the eIF4E RNA regulon. An example is given for how the PML RNA regulon model provided the basis for the development of a new anti-cancer strategy being tested in the clinic.

Borden, Katherine L.B.

2008-01-01

113

Genetic characterization of the HrpL regulon of the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora reveals novel virulence factors.  

PubMed

The bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora is the causal agent of fire blight, an economically significant disease of apple and pear. Disease initiation by E. amylovora requires the translocation of effector proteins into host cells via the hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (hrp) type III secretion system (T3SS). The alternative sigma factor HrpL positively regulates the transcription of structural and translocated components of the T3SS via hrp promoter elements. To characterize genome-wide HrpL-dependent gene expression in E. amylovora Ea1189, wild-type and Ea1189?hrpL strains were cultured in hrp-inducing minimal medium, and total RNA was compared using a custom microarray designed to represent the annotated genes of E. amylovora ATCC 49946. The results revealed 24 genes differentially regulated in Ea1189?hrpL relative to Ea1189 with fold-change expression ratios greater than 1.5; of these, 19 genes exhibited decreased transcript abundance and five genes showed increased transcript abundance relative to Ea1189. To expand our understanding of the HrpL regulon and to elucidate direct versus indirect HrpL-mediated effects on gene expression, the genome of E. amylovora ATCC 49946 was examined in silico using a hidden Markov model assembled from known Erwinia spp. hrp promoters. This technique identified 15 putative type III novel hrp promoters, seven of which were validated with quantitative polymerase chain reaction based on expression analyses. It was found that HrpL-regulated genes encode all known components of the hrp T3SS, as well as five putative type III effectors. Eight genes displayed apparent indirect HrpL regulation, suggesting that the HrpL regulon is connected to downstream signalling networks. The construction of deletion mutants of three novel HrpL-regulated genes resulted in the identification of additional virulence factors as well as mutants displaying abnormal motility and biofilm phenotypes. PMID:21831138

McNally, R Ryan; Toth, Ian K; Cock, Peter J A; Pritchard, Leighton; Hedley, Pete E; Morris, Jenny A; Zhao, Youfu; Sundin, George W

2011-08-10

114

The apicomplexan Cryptosporidium parvum possesses a single mitochondrial-type ferredoxin and ferredoxin:NADP+ reductase system  

PubMed Central

We have successfully expressed recombinant mitochondrial-type ferredoxin (mtFd) and ferredoxin:NADP+ reductase (mtFNR) from Cryptosporidium parvum and characterized their biochemical features for the first time for an apicomplexan. Both C. parvum mtFd (CpmtFd) and FNR (CpmtFNR) were obtained and purified as holo-proteins, in which the correct assembly of [2Fe–2S] cluster in Fd and that of FAD in FNR were confirmed and characterized by UV/vis and electron paramagnetic resonance. These proteins were fully functional and CpmtFNR was capable of transferring electrons from NADPH to CpmtFd in a cytochrome c-coupled assay that followed a typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Apicomplexan mtFd and mtFNR proteins were evolutionarily divergent from their counterparts in humans and animals and could be explored as potential drug targets in Cryptosporidium and other apicomplexans.

Lei, Cheng; Rider, S Dean; Wang, Cai; Zhang, Haili; Tan, Xiangshi; Zhu, Guan

2010-01-01

115

In Silico Identification of Specialized Secretory-Organelle Proteins in Apicomplexan Parasites and In Vivo Validation in Toxoplasma gondii  

PubMed Central

Apicomplexan parasites, including the human pathogens Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum, employ specialized secretory organelles (micronemes, rhoptries, dense granules) to invade and survive within host cells. Because molecules secreted from these organelles function at the host/parasite interface, their identification is important for understanding invasion mechanisms, and central to the development of therapeutic strategies. Using a computational approach based on predicted functional domains, we have identified more than 600 candidate secretory organelle proteins in twelve apicomplexan parasites. Expression in transgenic T. gondii of eight proteins identified in silico confirms that all enter into the secretory pathway, and seven target to apical organelles associated with invasion. An in silico approach intended to identify possible host interacting proteins yields a dataset enriched in secretory/transmembrane proteins, including most of the antigens known to be engaged by apicomplexan parasites during infection. These domain pattern and projected interactome approaches significantly expand the repertoire of proteins that may be involved in host parasite interactions.

2008-01-01

116

Evolving Insights into Protein Trafficking to the Multiple Compartments of the Apicomplexan Plastid  

PubMed Central

The apicoplast is a relict plastid found in many medically important apicomplexan parasites, such as Plasmodium and Toxoplasma. Phylogenetic analysis and the presence of four bounding membranes indicate that the apicoplast arose from a secondary endosymbiosis. Here we review what has been discovered about the complex journey proteins take to reach compartments of the apicoplast. The targeting sequences for luminal proteins are well-defined, but those routing proteins to other compartments are only beginning to be studied. Recent work suggests that the trafficking mechanisms involve a variety of molecules of different phylogenetic origins. We highlight some remaining questions regarding protein trafficking to this divergent organelle.

PARSONS, MARILYN; KARNATAKI, ANURADHA; DEROCHER, AMY E.

2010-01-01

117

Regulon of the N-Acetylglucosamine Utilization Regulator NagR in Bacillus subtilis?†  

PubMed Central

N-Acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) is the most abundant carbon-nitrogen biocompound on earth and has been shown to be an important source of nutrients for both catabolic and anabolic purposes in Bacillus species. In this work we show that the GntR family regulator YvoA of Bacillus subtilis serves as a negative transcriptional regulator of GlcNAc catabolism gene expression. YvoA represses transcription by binding a 16-bp sequence upstream of nagP encoding the GlcNAc-specific EIIBC component of the sugar phosphotransferase system involved in GlcNAc transport and phosphorylation, as well as another very similar 16-bp sequence upstream of the nagAB-yvoA locus, wherein nagA codes for N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate deacetylase and nagB codes for the glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN-6-P) deaminase. In vitro experiments demonstrated that GlcN-6-P acts as an inhibitor of YvoA DNA-binding activity, as occurs for its Streptomyces ortholog, DasR. Interestingly, we observed that the expression of nag genes was still activated upon addition of GlcNAc in a ?yvoA mutant background, suggesting the existence of an auxiliary transcriptional control instance. Initial computational prediction of the YvoA regulon showed a distribution of YvoA binding sites limited to nag genes and therefore suggests renaming YvoA to NagR, for N-acetylglucosamine utilization regulator. Whole-transcriptome studies showed significant repercussions of nagR deletion for several major B. subtilis regulators, probably indirectly due to an excess of the crucial molecules acetate, ammonia, and fructose-6-phosphate, resulting from complete hydrolysis of GlcNAc. We discuss a model deduced from NagR-mediated gene expression, which highlights clear connections with pathways for GlcNAc-containing polymer biosynthesis and adaptation to growth under oxygen limitation.

Bertram, Ralph; Rigali, Sebastien; Wood, Natalie; Lulko, Andrzej T.; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Titgemeyer, Fritz

2011-01-01

118

Sphingolipid synthesis and scavenging in the intracellular apicomplexan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii.  

PubMed

Sphingolipids are essential components of eukaryotic cell membranes, particularly the plasma membrane, and are involved in a diverse array of signal transduction pathways. Mammals produce sphingomyelin (SM) as the primary complex sphingolipid via the well characterised SM synthase. In contrast yeast, plants and some protozoa utilise an evolutionarily related inositol phosphorylceramide (IPC) synthase to synthesise IPC. This activity has no mammalian equivalent and IPC synthase has been proposed as a target for anti-fungals and anti-protozoals. However, detailed knowledge of the sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway of the apicomplexan protozoan parasites was lacking. In this study bioinformatic analyses indicated a single copy orthologue of the putative SM synthase from the apicomplexan Plasmodium falciparum (the causative agent of malaria) was a bona fide sphingolipid synthase in the related model parasite, Toxoplasma gondii (TgSLS). Subsequently, TgSLS was indicated, by complementation of a mutant cell line, to be a functional orthologue of the yeast IPC synthase (AUR1p), demonstrating resistance to the well characterised AUR1p inhibitor aureobasidin A. In vitro, recombinant TgSLS exhibited IPC synthase activity and, for the first time, the presence of IPC was demonstrated in T. gondii lipid extracts by mass spectrometry. Furthermore, host sphingolipid biosynthesis was indicated to influence, but be non-essential for, T. gondii proliferation, suggesting that whilst scavenging does take place de novo sphingolipid synthesis may be important for parasitism. PMID:23246819

Pratt, Steven; Wansadhipathi-Kannangara, Nilu K; Bruce, Catherine R; Mina, John G; Shams-Eldin, Hosam; Casas, Josefina; Hanada, Kentaro; Schwarz, Ralph T; Sonda, Sabrina; Denny, Paul W

2012-12-16

119

Novel components of the Apicomplexan moving junction reveal conserved and coccidia-restricted elements  

PubMed Central

Apicomplexan parasites generally invade their host cells by anchoring the parasite to the host membrane through a structure called the moving junction (MJ). This moving junction is also believed to sieve host proteins from the nascent parasitophorous vacuole membrane, which likely protects the pathogen from lysosomal destruction. Previously identified constituents of the Toxoplasma MJ have orthologues in Plasmodium, indicating a conserved structure throughout the Apicomplexa. We report here two novel MJ proteins, RON5 and RON8. While RON5 is conserved in Plasmodium, RON8 appears restricted to the coccidia. RON8, which is likely essential, coimmunoprecipitates RON5 and known MJ proteins from extracellular parasites, indicating a preformed complex exists within the parasites. Upon secretion, we show that RON8 within the MJ localizes to the cytoplasmic face of the host plasma membrane. To examine interactions between RON8 and the host cell, we expressed RON8 in mammalian cells and show that it targets to its site of action at the periphery in a manner dependent on the C-terminal portion of the protein. The discovery of RON5 and RON8 provides new insight into conserved and unique elements of the MJ, furthering our understanding of how the moving junction contributes to the intricate mechanism of Apicomplexan invasion.

Straub, Kurtis W.; Cheng, Stephen J.; Sohn, Catherine S.; Bradley, Peter J.

2009-01-01

120

Sphingolipid synthesis and scavenging in the intracellular apicomplexan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii  

PubMed Central

Sphingolipids are essential components of eukaryotic cell membranes, particularly the plasma membrane, and are involved in a diverse array of signal transduction pathways. Mammals produce sphingomyelin (SM) as the primary complex sphingolipid via the well characterised SM synthase. In contrast yeast, plants and some protozoa utilise an evolutionarily related inositol phosphorylceramide (IPC) synthase to synthesise IPC. This activity has no mammalian equivalent and IPC synthase has been proposed as a target for anti-fungals and anti-protozoals. However, detailed knowledge of the sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway of the apicomplexan protozoan parasites was lacking. In this study bioinformatic analyses indicated a single copy orthologue of the putative SM synthase from the apicomplexan Plasmodium falciparum (the causative agent of malaria) was a bona fide sphingolipid synthase in the related model parasite, Toxoplasma gondii (TgSLS). Subsequently, TgSLS was indicated, by complementation of a mutant cell line, to be a functional orthologue of the yeast IPC synthase (AUR1p), demonstrating resistance to the well characterised AUR1p inhibitor aureobasidin A. In vitro, recombinant TgSLS exhibited IPC synthase activity and, for the first time, the presence of IPC was demonstrated in T. gondii lipid extracts by mass spectrometry. Furthermore, host sphingolipid biosynthesis was indicated to influence, but be non-essential for, T. gondii proliferation, suggesting that whilst scavenging does take place de novo sphingolipid synthesis may be important for parasitism.

Pratt, Steven; Wansadhipathi-Kannangara, Nilu K.; Bruce, Catherine R.; Mina, John G.; Shams-Eldin, Hosam; Casas, Josefina; Hanada, Kentaro; Schwarz, Ralph T.; Sonda, Sabrina; Denny, Paul W.

2013-01-01

121

Fur regulon of Salmonella typhimurium: identification of new iron-regulated genes.  

PubMed Central

In order to identify genes belonging to the Fur regulon of Salmonella typhimurium, a bank of 10,000 independent S. typhimurium MudJ insertion mutants was screened for lacZ fusions regulated by the iron response regulator Fur. In parallel, a plasmid gene bank of S. typhimurium consisting of 10,000 independent clones was screened for Fur-regulated promoters or iron binding proteins by the Fur titration assay (FURTA). Fur-regulated MudJ insertions and Fur-regulated promoters were mapped. In addition, iron-regulated promoter activities of transcriptional fusions from MudJ insertions and FURTA-positive clones were quantified. The nucleotide sequences of 11 FURTA-positive plasmids and of short fragments of DNA flanking three MudJ insertions were determined. By these methods we identified 14 Fur-regulated genes of S. typhimurium. For 11 of these genes, Fur-regulated homologs have been described in Escherichia coli or Yersinia enterocolitica, including fhuA,fhuB,fepA,fes,fepD,p43,entB,fur ,foxA,hemP, and fhuE. In addition, we identified three genes with homologs in other bacteria which have not previously been shown to be Fur regulated.

Tsolis, R M; Baumler, A J; Stojiljkovic, I; Heffron, F

1995-01-01

122

Sequential action of two-component genetic switches regulates the PHO regulon in Bacillus subtilis.  

PubMed Central

Bacillus subtilis has an alkaline phosphatase (APase) gene family composed of at least four genes. All members of this gene family are expressed postexponentially, either in response to phosphate starvation or sporulation induction or, in some cases, in response to both. The phoA gene (formerly called phoAIV) and the phoB gene (formerly called phoAIII) products have both been isolated from phosphate-starved cells, and a mutation in either gene decreased the total APase expressed under phosphate starvation conditions. Data presented here show that a phoA phoB double mutant reduced APase production during phosphate starvation by 98%, indicating that these two genes are responsible for most of the APase activity during phosphate-limited growth. The promoter for phoA was cloned and used, with the phoB promoter, to examine phosphate regulation in B. subtilis. phoA-lacZ reporter gene assays showed that the expression of the phoA gene commences as the culture enters stationary phase as a result of limiting phosphate concentrations in the growth medium, thereby mimicking the pattern of total APase expression. Induction persists for approximately 2 h and is then turned off. phoA is transcribed from a single promoter which initiates transcription 19 bp before the translation initiation codon. PhoP and PhoR are members of the two-component signal transduction system believed to regulate gene expression in response to limiting phosphate. The expression of phoA or phoB in response to phosphate starvation was equally dependent on PhoP and PhoR for induction. lacZ-promoter fusions showed that both phoA and phoB were hyperinduced, or failed to turn off induction after 2 h, in a spo0A strain of B. subtilis. Mutations in genes which are required for phosphorylation of Spo0A, spo0B and spo0F, also resulted in phoA and phoB hyperinduction, suggesting that phosphorylation of Spo0A is required for the repression of both APases in wild-type strains. The hyperinduction of either APase gene in a spo0A strain was dependent on PhoP and PhoR. Analysis of a phoP-lacZ promoter fusion showed that the phoPR operon is hyperinduced in a spo0A mutant strain, suggesting that Spo0A approximately P represses APases by repressing phoPR transcription. We propose a model for PHO regulation in B. subtilis whereby the phoPR operon is transcribed in response to limiting phosphate concentration, resulting in activation of the PHO regulon transcription, including transcription of phoA and phoB. When the phosphate response fails to overcome the nutrient deficiency, signals for phosphorylation of Spo0A result in production of Spo0A approximately P, which represses transcription of phoPR, thereby repressing synthesis of the PHO regulon. Images

Hulett, F M; Lee, J; Shi, L; Sun, G; Chesnut, R; Sharkova, E; Duggan, M F; Kapp, N

1994-01-01

123

The Apicomplexan Pathogen Neospora caninum Inhibits Host Cell Apoptosis in the Absence of Discernible NF B Activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 21 March 2007\\/Returned for modification 26 April 2007\\/Accepted 7 June 2007 Neospora caninum, a causative agent of bovine abortions, is an apicomplexan parasite that is closely related to the human pathogen Toxoplasma gondii. Since a number of intracellular parasites, including T. gondii, have been shown to modulate host cell apoptosis, the present study was conducted to establish whether N.

Rebecca K. Herman; Robert E. Molestina; Anthony P. Sinai; Daniel K. Howe

2007-01-01

124

Modulation of Hexa-Acyl Pyrophosphate Lipid A Population under Escherichia coli Phosphate (Pho) Regulon Activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental phosphate is an important signal for microorganism gene regulation, and it has recently been shown to trigger some key bacterial virulence mechanisms. In many bacteria, the Pho regulon is the major circuit involved in adaptation to phosphate limitation. The Pho regulon is controlled jointly by the two- component regulatory system PhoR\\/PhoB and by the phosphate-specific transport (Pst) system, which

Martin G. Lamarche; Sang-Hyun Kim; Sebastien Crepin; Michael Mourez; Nicolas Bertrand; Russell E. Bishop; J. Daniel Dubreuil; Josee Harel

2008-01-01

125

Genetic and phenotypic characterization of the RyhB regulon in Salmonella Typhimurium.  

PubMed

Salmonella encodes two homologs of RyhB, a small RNA (sRNA) involved in iron homeostasis. In Salmonella Typhimurium, the expression of both RyhB-1 and RyhB-2 is negatively regulated by the Fur repressor, while stationary phase is the primary signal inducing RyhB-2 expression. To identify the target mRNAs of RyhB-1 and RyhB-2, 9 predicted target genes were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR to monitor differential transcript levels between wild type and each of three mutants (?ryhB-1, ?ryhB-2 and ?ryhB-1?ryhB-2) under conditions that maximize the expression of both sRNAs. Our results, along with bioinformatic predictions, suggest that the genes acnA, sodB, ftn, STM1273.1n, and acnB are the primary targets of at least one of these sRNAs. To understand the biological roles of the RyhB regulon, the aforementioned deletions were created in either wild type or ?fur backgrounds and were subjected to various phenotypic assays. The results showed that these sRNAs are singularly or additively involved in the expression of multiple phenotypes, including acid resistance, resistance to hydrogen peroxide, and sensitivity to bactericidal antibiotics. The results support a model whereby RyhB-1 and RyhB-2 have a global regulatory effect on diverse cellular pathways in response to multiple environmental cues via post-transcriptional regulation of distinct sets of overlapping targets. PMID:22824499

Kim, Jeong Nam; Kwon, Young Min

2012-07-21

126

Genome-Wide Analysis of the Salmonella Fis Regulon and Its Regulatory Mechanism on Pathogenicity Islands  

PubMed Central

Fis, one of the most important nucleoid-associated proteins, functions as a global regulator of transcription in bacteria that has been comprehensively studied in Escherichia coli K12. Fis also influences the virulence of Salmonella enterica and pathogenic E. coli by regulating their virulence genes, however, the relevant mechanism is unclear. In this report, using combined RNA-seq and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-seq technologies, we first identified 1646 Fis-regulated genes and 885 Fis-binding targets in the S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, and found a Fis regulon different from that in E. coli. Fis has been reported to contribute to the invasion ability of S. enterica. By using cell infection assays, we found it also enhances the intracellular replication ability of S. enterica within macrophage cell, which is of central importance for the pathogenesis of infections. Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPI)-1 and SPI-2 are crucial for the invasion and survival of S. enterica in host cells. Using mutation and overexpression experiments, real-time PCR analysis, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we demonstrated that Fis regulates 63 of the 94 Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-1 and SPI-2 genes, by three regulatory modes: i) binds to SPI regulators in the gene body or in upstream regions; ii) binds to SPI genes directly to mediate transcriptional activation of themselves and downstream genes; iii) binds to gene encoding OmpR which affects SPI gene expression by controlling SPI regulators SsrA and HilD. Our results provide new insights into the impact of Fis on SPI genes and the pathogenicity of S. enterica.

Wang, Quan; Wang, Lei

2013-01-01

127

Positive and negative control of the glnA ntrBC regulon in Klebsiella pneumoniae.  

PubMed Central

The nitrogen regulation system of Klebsiella pneumoniae comprises three genes ntrA, ntrB and ntrC. We have found that the glnA ntrBC regulon in K. pneumoniae has a similar structure, P1 glnA P2 ntrBC, to that in other enterobacteria. We have constructed plasmids with glnA and ntrB translational lacZ fusions and measured expression from P1 and/or P2 in a K. pneumoniae delta (glnA ntrBC) background with different plasmids which provided the ntrB, ntrC or nifA products in trans. These studies demonstrate that, as in other enterobacteria, transcription of ntrBC is from P1 under nitrogen deficiency and from P2 under nitrogen excess. The P1 promoter can be regulated both positively and negatively; activation requires both ntrB and ntrC products but the ntrC product is sufficient to repress. The P2 promoter is negatively controlled by the ntrC product. Comparison of the modes of regulation of P1 and P2 with regulation of the promoter of the nifLA operon leads us to suggest that these may represent three different classes of ntr-regulated promoters. Although previous studies have shown that the nifA product can substitute for the ntrC product as a positive activator of transcription for a number of promoters, we find that nifA product cannot substitute for ntrC product as a negative regulator at P1 or P2.

Alvarez-Morales, A; Dixon, R; Merrick, M

1984-01-01

128

Deciphering the Ubiquitin-Mediated Pathway in Apicomplexan Parasites: A Potential Strategy to Interfere with Parasite Virulence  

PubMed Central

Background Reversible modification of proteins through the attachment of ubiquitin or ubiquitin-like modifiers is an essential post-translational regulatory mechanism in eukaryotes. The conjugation of ubiquitin or ubiquitin-like proteins has been demonstrated to play roles in growth, adaptation and homeostasis in all eukaryotes, with perturbation of ubiquitin-mediated systems associated with the pathogenesis of many human diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we describe the use of an HMM search of functional Pfam domains found in the key components of the ubiquitin-mediated pathway necessary to activate and reversibly modify target proteins in eight apicomplexan parasitic protozoa for which complete or late-stage genome projects exist. In parallel, the same search was conducted on five model organisms, single-celled and metazoans, to generate data to validate both the search parameters employed and aid paralog classification in Apicomplexa. For each of the 13 species investigated, a set of proteins predicted to be involved in the ubiquitylation pathway has been identified and demonstrates increasing component members of the ubiquitylation pathway correlating with organism and genome complexity. Sequence homology and domain architecture analyses facilitated prediction of apicomplexan-specific protein function, particularly those involved in regulating cell division during these parasite's complex life cycles. Conclusions/Significance This study provides a comprehensive analysis of proteins predicted to be involved in the apicomplexan ubiquitin-mediated pathway. Given the importance of such pathway in a wide variety of cellular processes, our data is a key step in elucidating the biological networks that, in part, direct the pathogenicity of these parasites resulting in a massive impact on global health. Moreover, apicomplexan-specific adaptations of the ubiquitylation pathway may represent new therapeutic targets for much needed drugs against apicomplexan parasites.

Ponts, Nadia; Yang, Jianfeng; Chung, Duk-Won Doug; Prudhomme, Jacques; Girke, Thomas; Horrocks, Paul; Le Roch, Karine G.

2008-01-01

129

Global Transcriptional Response of Bacillus subtilis to Heat Shock  

PubMed Central

In response to heat stress, Bacillus subtilis activates the transcription of well over 100 different genes. Many of these genes are members of a general stress response regulon controlled by the secondary sigma factor, ?B, while others are under control of the HrcA or CtsR heat shock regulators. We have used DNA microarrays to monitor the global transcriptional response to heat shock. We find strong induction of known ?B-dependent genes with a characteristic rapid induction followed by a return to near prestimulus levels. The HrcA and CtsR regulons are also induced, but with somewhat slower kinetics. Analysis of DNA sequences proximal to newly identified heat-induced genes leads us to propose ?70 additional members of the ?B regulon. We have also identified numerous heat-induced genes that are not members of known heat shock regulons. Notably, we observe very strong induction of arginine biosynthesis and transport operons. Induction of several genes was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. In addition, the transcriptional responses measured by microarray hybridization compare favorably with the numerous previous studies of heat shock in this organism. Since many different conditions elicit both specific and general stress responses, knowledge of the heat-induced general stress response reported here will be helpful for interpreting future microarray studies of other stress responses.

Helmann, John D.; Wu, Ming Fang Winston; Kobel, Phil A.; Gamo, Francisco-Javier; Wilson, Michael; Morshedi, Maud M.; Navre, Marc; Paddon, Chris

2001-01-01

130

Global transcriptional response of Bacillus subtilis to heat shock.  

PubMed

In response to heat stress, Bacillus subtilis activates the transcription of well over 100 different genes. Many of these genes are members of a general stress response regulon controlled by the secondary sigma factor, sigma(B), while others are under control of the HrcA or CtsR heat shock regulators. We have used DNA microarrays to monitor the global transcriptional response to heat shock. We find strong induction of known sigma(B)-dependent genes with a characteristic rapid induction followed by a return to near prestimulus levels. The HrcA and CtsR regulons are also induced, but with somewhat slower kinetics. Analysis of DNA sequences proximal to newly identified heat-induced genes leads us to propose ~70 additional members of the sigma(B) regulon. We have also identified numerous heat-induced genes that are not members of known heat shock regulons. Notably, we observe very strong induction of arginine biosynthesis and transport operons. Induction of several genes was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. In addition, the transcriptional responses measured by microarray hybridization compare favorably with the numerous previous studies of heat shock in this organism. Since many different conditions elicit both specific and general stress responses, knowledge of the heat-induced general stress response reported here will be helpful for interpreting future microarray studies of other stress responses. PMID:11717291

Helmann, J D; Wu, M F; Kobel, P A; Gamo, F J; Wilson, M; Morshedi, M M; Navre, M; Paddon, C

2001-12-01

131

Transcriptional regulation of protein complexes in yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Multiprotein complexes play an essential role in many cellular processes. But our knowledge of the mechanism of their formation,\\u000a regulation and lifetimes is very limited. We investigated transcriptional regulation of protein complexes in yeast using two\\u000a approaches. First, known regulons, manually curated or identified by genome-wide screens, were mapped onto the components\\u000a of multiprotein complexes. The complexes comprised manually curated

Nicolas Simonis; Jacques van Helden; George N Cohen; Shoshana J Wodak

2004-01-01

132

Sequencing of the smallest Apicomplexan genome from the human pathogen Babesia microti†  

PubMed Central

We have sequenced the genome of the emerging human pathogen Babesia microti and compared it with that of other protozoa. B. microti has the smallest nuclear genome among all Apicomplexan parasites sequenced to date with three chromosomes encoding ?3500 polypeptides, several of which are species specific. Genome-wide phylogenetic analyses indicate that B. microti is significantly distant from all species of Babesidae and Theileridae and defines a new clade in the phylum Apicomplexa. Furthermore, unlike all other Apicomplexa, its mitochondrial genome is circular. Genome-scale reconstruction of functional networks revealed that B. microti has the minimal metabolic requirement for intraerythrocytic protozoan parasitism. B. microti multigene families differ from those of other protozoa in both the copy number and organization. Two lateral transfer events with significant metabolic implications occurred during the evolution of this parasite. The genomic sequencing of B. microti identified several targets suitable for the development of diagnostic assays and novel therapies for human babesiosis.

Cornillot, Emmanuel; Hadj-Kaddour, Kamel; Dassouli, Amina; Noel, Benjamin; Ranwez, Vincent; Vacherie, Benoit; Augagneur, Yoann; Bres, Virginie; Duclos, Aurelie; Randazzo, Sylvie; Carcy, Bernard; Debierre-Grockiego, Francoise; Delbecq, Stephane; Moubri-Menage, Karina; Shams-Eldin, Hosam; Usmani-Brown, Sahar; Bringaud, Frederic; Wincker, Patrick; Vivares, Christian P.; Schwarz, Ralph T.; Schetters, Theo P.; Krause, Peter J.; Gorenflot, Andre; Berry, Vincent; Barbe, Valerie; Ben Mamoun, Choukri

2012-01-01

133

Recent insights into apicomplexan parasite egress provide new views to a kill.  

PubMed

A hallmark of apicomplexan pathogens such as Plasmodium, Toxoplasma and Cryptosporidium is that they invade, replicate within, and then egress from their host cells. Egress usually results in lysis of the host cell, with deleterious consequences for the host. In the case of malaria, for example, much of the disease pathology is associated with cyclical waves of host erythrocyte destruction. This review highlights recent advances in mapping the signaling pathways that lead to egress and the parasite molecules involved in responding to and transmitting those signals. The review also discusses new findings for effector molecules that mediate disruption of the bounding membranes that enclose the intracellular parasite and the manner in which membrane rupture occurs to finally release invasive forms of the parasite. PMID:23725669

Blackman, Michael J; Carruthers, Vern B

2013-05-28

134

The moving junction, a key portal to host cell invasion by apicomplexan parasites  

PubMed Central

One defining feature of apicomplexan parasites is their special ability to actively invade host cells. Although rapid, invasion is a complicated process that requires coordinated activities of host cell attachment, protein secretion, and motility by the parasite. Central to this process is the establishment of a structure called moving junction (MJ), which forms a tight connection between invading parasite and host cell membranes through which the parasite passes to enter into the host. Although recognized microscopically for decades, molecular characterization of the MJ was only enabled by the recent discovery of components that make up this multi-protein complex. Exciting progress made during the last few years on both the structure and function of the components of the MJ is reviewed here.

Shen, Bang; Sibley, L. David

2012-01-01

135

Sequencing of the smallest Apicomplexan genome from the human pathogen Babesia microti.  

PubMed

We have sequenced the genome of the emerging human pathogen Babesia microti and compared it with that of other protozoa. B. microti has the smallest nuclear genome among all Apicomplexan parasites sequenced to date with three chromosomes encoding ?3500 polypeptides, several of which are species specific. Genome-wide phylogenetic analyses indicate that B. microti is significantly distant from all species of Babesidae and Theileridae and defines a new clade in the phylum Apicomplexa. Furthermore, unlike all other Apicomplexa, its mitochondrial genome is circular. Genome-scale reconstruction of functional networks revealed that B. microti has the minimal metabolic requirement for intraerythrocytic protozoan parasitism. B. microti multigene families differ from those of other protozoa in both the copy number and organization. Two lateral transfer events with significant metabolic implications occurred during the evolution of this parasite. The genomic sequencing of B. microti identified several targets suitable for the development of diagnostic assays and novel therapies for human babesiosis. PMID:22833609

Cornillot, Emmanuel; Hadj-Kaddour, Kamel; Dassouli, Amina; Noel, Benjamin; Ranwez, Vincent; Vacherie, Benoît; Augagneur, Yoann; Brès, Virginie; Duclos, Aurelie; Randazzo, Sylvie; Carcy, Bernard; Debierre-Grockiego, Françoise; Delbecq, Stéphane; Moubri-Ménage, Karina; Shams-Eldin, Hosam; Usmani-Brown, Sahar; Bringaud, Frédéric; Wincker, Patrick; Vivarès, Christian P; Schwarz, Ralph T; Schetters, Theo P; Krause, Peter J; Gorenflot, André; Berry, Vincent; Barbe, Valérie; Ben Mamoun, Choukri

2012-07-24

136

Apicomplexan parasites co-opt host calpains to facilitate their escape from infected cells.  

PubMed

Apicomplexan parasites, including Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii (the causative agents of malaria and toxoplasmosis, respectively), are responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. These pathogenic protozoa replicate within an intracellular vacuole inside of infected host cells, from which they must escape to initiate a new lytic cycle. By integrating cell biological, pharmacological, and genetic approaches, we provide evidence that both Plasmodium and Toxoplasma hijack host cell calpain proteases to facilitate parasite egress. Immunodepletion or inhibition of calpain-1 in hypotonically lysed and resealed erythrocytes prevented the escape of P. falciparum parasites, which was restored by adding purified calpain-1. Similarly, efficient egress of T. gondii from mammalian fibroblasts was blocked by either small interfering RNA-mediated suppression or genetic deletion of calpain activity and could be restored by genetic complementation. PMID:19342550

Chandramohanadas, Rajesh; Davis, Paul H; Beiting, Daniel P; Harbut, Michael B; Darling, Claire; Velmourougane, Geetha; Lee, Ming Yeh; Greer, Peter A; Roos, David S; Greenbaum, Doron C

2009-04-02

137

Apicomplexan Parasites Co-Opt Host Calpains to Facilitate Their Escape from Infected Cells  

PubMed Central

Apicomplexan parasites, including Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii (the causative agents of malaria and toxoplasmosis, respectively), are responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. These pathogenic protozoa replicate within an intracellular vacuole inside of infected host cells, from which they must escape to initiate a new lytic cycle. By integrating cell biological, pharmacological, and genetic approaches, we provide evidence that both Plasmodium and Toxoplasma hijack host cell calpain proteases to facilitate parasite egress. Immunodepletion or inhibition of calpain-1 in hypotonically lysed and resealed erythrocytes prevented the escape of P. falciparum parasites, which was restored by adding purified calpain-1. Similarly, efficient egress of T. gondii from mammalian fibroblasts was blocked by either small interfering RNA–mediated suppression or genetic deletion of calpain activity and could be restored by genetic complementation.

Chandramohanadas, Rajesh; Davis, Paul H.; Beiting, Daniel P.; Harbut, Michael B.; Darling, Claire; Velmourougane, Geetha; Lee, Ming Yeh; Greer, Peter A.; Roos, David S.; Greenbaum, Doron C.

2009-01-01

138

Cryoelectron tomography reveals periodic material at the inner side of subpellicular microtubules in apicomplexan parasites  

PubMed Central

Microtubules are dynamic cytoskeletal structures important for cell division, polarity, and motility and are therefore major targets for anticancer and antiparasite drugs. In the invasive forms of apicomplexan parasites, which are highly polarized and often motile cells, exceptionally stable subpellicular microtubules determine the shape of the parasite, and serve as tracks for vesicle transport. We used cryoelectron tomography to image cytoplasmic structures in three dimensions within intact, rapidly frozen Plasmodium sporozoites. This approach revealed microtubule walls that are extended at the luminal side by an additional 3 nm compared to microtubules of mammalian cells. Fourier analysis revealed an 8-nm longitudinal periodicity of the luminal constituent, suggesting the presence of a molecule interacting with tubulin dimers. In silico generation and analysis of microtubule models confirmed this unexpected topology. Microtubules from extracted sporozoites and Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites showed a similar density distribution, suggesting that the putative protein is conserved among Apicomplexa and serves to stabilize microtubules.

Cyrklaff, Marek; Kudryashev, Mikhail; Leis, Andrew; Leonard, Kevin; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Menard, Robert; Meissner, Markus; Frischknecht, Friedrich

2007-01-01

139

Regulon and promoter analysis of the E. coli heat-shock factor, ?32, reveals a multifaceted cellular response to heat stress  

PubMed Central

The heat-shock response (HSR), a universal cellular response to heat, is crucial for cellular adaptation. In Escherichia coli, the HSR is mediated by the alternative ? factor, ?32. To determine its role, we used genome-wide expression analysis and promoter validation to identify genes directly regulated by ?32 and screened ORF overexpression libraries to identify ?32 inducers. We triple the number of genes validated to be transcribed by ?32 and provide new insights into the cellular role of this response. Our work indicates that the response is propagated as the regulon encodes numerous global transcriptional regulators, reveals that ?70 holoenzyme initiates from 12% of ?32 promoters, which has important implications for global transcriptional wiring, and identifies a new role for the response in protein homeostasis, that of protecting complex proteins. Finally, this study suggests that the response protects the cell membrane and responds to its status: Fully 25% of ?32 regulon members reside in the membrane and alter its functionality; moreover, a disproportionate fraction of overexpressed proteins that induce the response are membrane localized. The intimate connection of the response to the membrane rationalizes why a major regulator of the response resides in that cellular compartment.

Nonaka, Gen; Blankschien, Matthew; Herman, Christophe; Gross, Carol A.; Rhodius, Virgil A.

2006-01-01

140

Apicoplast and Endoplasmic Reticulum Cooperate in Fatty Acid Biosynthesis in Apicomplexan Parasite Toxoplasma gondii*  

PubMed Central

Apicomplexan parasites are responsible for high impact human diseases such as malaria, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis. These obligate intracellular pathogens are dependent on both de novo lipid biosynthesis as well as the uptake of host lipids for biogenesis of parasite membranes. Genome annotations and biochemical studies indicate that apicomplexan parasites can synthesize fatty acids via a number of different biosynthetic pathways that are differentially compartmentalized. However, the relative contribution of each of these biosynthetic pathways to total fatty acid composition of intracellular parasite stages remains poorly defined. Here, we use a combination of genetic, biochemical, and metabolomic approaches to delineate the contribution of fatty acid biosynthetic pathways in Toxoplasma gondii. Metabolic labeling studies with [13C]glucose showed that intracellular tachyzoites synthesized a range of long and very long chain fatty acids (C14:0–26:1). Genetic disruption of the apicoplast-localized type II fatty-acid synthase resulted in greatly reduced synthesis of saturated fatty acids up to 18 carbons long. Ablation of type II fatty-acid synthase activity resulted in reduced intracellular growth that was partially restored by addition of long chain fatty acids. In contrast, synthesis of very long chain fatty acids was primarily dependent on a fatty acid elongation system comprising three elongases, two reductases, and a dehydratase that were localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. The function of these enzymes was confirmed by heterologous expression in yeast. This elongase pathway appears to have a unique role in generating very long unsaturated fatty acids (C26:1) that cannot be salvaged from the host.

Ramakrishnan, Srinivasan; Docampo, Melissa D.; MacRae, James I.; Pujol, Francois M.; Brooks, Carrie F.; van Dooren, Giel G.; Hiltunen, J. Kalervo; Kastaniotis, Alexander J.; McConville, Malcolm J.; Striepen, Boris

2012-01-01

141

The Fur regulon in anaerobically grown Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium: identification of new Fur targets  

PubMed Central

Background The Ferric uptake regulator (Fur) is a transcriptional regulator that controls iron homeostasis in bacteria. Although the regulatory role of Fur in Escherichia coli is well characterized, most of the studies were conducted under routine culture conditions, i.e., in ambient oxygen concentration. To reveal potentially novel aspects of the Fur regulon in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium under oxygen conditions similar to that encountered in the host, we compared the transcriptional profiles of the virulent wild-type strain (ATCC 14028s) and its isogenic ?fur strain under anaerobic conditions. Results Microarray analysis of anaerobically grown ?fur S. Typhimurium identified 298 differentially expressed genes. Expression of several genes controlled by Fnr and NsrR appeared to be also dependent on Fur. Furthermore, Fur was required for the activity of the cytoplasmic superoxide disumutases (MnSOD and FeSOD). The regulation of FeSOD gene, sodB, occurred via small RNAs (i.e., the ryhB homologs, rfrA and rfrB) with the aid of the RNA chaperone Hfq. The transcription of sodA was increased in ?fur; however, the enzyme was inactive due to the incorporation of iron instead of manganese in SodA. Additionally, in ?fur, the expression of the gene coding for the ferritin-like protein (ftnB) was down-regulated, while the transcription of the gene coding for the nitric oxide (NO·) detoxifying flavohemoglobin (hmpA) was up-regulated. The promoters of ftnB and hmpA do not contain recognized Fur binding motifs, which indicated their probable indirect regulation by Fur. However, Fur activation of ftnB was independent of Fnr. In addition, the expression of the gene coding for the histone-like protein, H-NS (hns) was increased in ?fur. This may explain the observed down-regulation of the tdc operon, responsible for the anaerobic degradation of threonine, and ftnB in ?fur. Conclusions This study determined that Fur is a positive factor in ftnB regulation, while serving to repress the expression of hmpA. Furthermore, Fur is required for the proper expression and activation of the antioxidant enzymes, FeSOD and MnSOD. Finally, this work identified twenty-six new targets of Fur regulation, and demonstrates that H-NS repressed genes are down-regulated in ?fur.

2011-01-01

142

Characterization of the SOS Regulon of Caulobacter crescentus? ‡  

PubMed Central

The SOS regulon is a paradigm of bacterial responses to DNA damage. A wide variety of bacterial species possess homologs of lexA and recA, the central players in the regulation of the SOS circuit. Nevertheless, the genes actually regulated by the SOS have been determined only experimentally in a few bacterial species. In this work, we describe 37 genes regulated in a LexA-dependent manner in the alphaproteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus. In agreement with previous results, we have found that the direct repeat GTTCN7GTTC is the SOS operator of C. crescentus, which was confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis studies of the imuA promoter. Several potential promoter regions containing the SOS operator were identified in the genome, and the expression of the corresponding genes was analyzed for both the wild type and the lexA strain, demonstrating that the vast majority of these genes are indeed SOS regulated. Interestingly, many of these genes encode proteins with unknown functions, revealing the potential of this approach for the discovery of novel genes involved in cellular responses to DNA damage in prokaryotes, and illustrating the diversity of SOS-regulated genes among different bacterial species.

da Rocha, Raquel Paes; de Miranda Paquola, Apua Cesar; do Valle Marques, Marilis; Menck, Carlos Frederico Martins; Galhardo, Rodrigo S.

2008-01-01

143

Cellular Noise Regulons Underlie Fluctuations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Summary Stochasticity is a hallmark of cellular processes and different classes of genes show large differences in their cell-to-cell variability (noise). To decipher the sources and consequences of this noise, we systematically measured pairwise correlations between large numbers of genes, including those with high variability. We find that there is substantial pathway variability shared across similarly regulated genes. This induces quantitative correlations in the expression of functionally related genes such as those involved in the Msn2/4 stress response pathway, amino-acid biosynthesis, and mitochondrial maintenance. Bioinformatic analyses and genetic perturbations suggest that fluctuations in PKA and Tor signaling contribute to pathway-specific variability. Our results argue that a limited number of well-delineated “noise regulons” operate across a yeast cell, and that such coordinated fluctuations enable a stochastic but coherent induction of functionally related genes. Finally, we show that pathway noise is a quantitative tool for exploring pathway features and regulatory relationships in un-stimulated systems.

Stewart-Ornstein, Jacob; Weissman, Jonathan S.; El-Samad, Hana

2012-01-01

144

Genome-Wide Expression and Location Analyses of the Candida albicans Tac1p Regulon? †  

PubMed Central

A major mechanism of azole resistance in Candida albicans is overexpression of the genes encoding the ATP binding cassette transporters Cdr1p and Cdr2p due to gain-of-function mutations in Tac1p, a transcription factor of the zinc cluster family. To identify the Tac1p regulon, we analyzed four matched sets of clinical isolates representing the development of CDR1- and CDR2-mediated azole resistance by using gene expression profiling. We identified 31 genes that were consistently up-regulated with CDR1 and CDR2, including TAC1 itself, and 12 consistently down-regulated genes. When a resistant strain deleted for TAC1 was examined similarly, expression of almost all of these genes returned to levels similar to those in the matched azole-susceptible isolate. Using genome-wide location (ChIP-chip) analysis (a procedure combining chromatin immunoprecipitation with hybridization to DNA intergenic microarrays), we found 37 genes whose promoters were bound by Tac1p in vivo, including CDR1 and CDR2. Sequence analysis identified nine new genes whose promoters contain the previously reported Tac1p drug-responsive element (CGGN4CGG), including TAC1. In total, there were eight genes whose expression was modulated in the four azole-resistant clinical isolates in a TAC1-dependent manner and whose promoters were bound by Tac1p, qualifying them as direct Tac1p targets: CDR1, CDR2, GPX1 (putative glutathione peroxidase), LCB4 (putative sphingosine kinase), RTA3 (putative phospholipid flippase), and orf19.1887 (putative lipase), as well as IFU5 and orf19.4898 of unknown function. Our results show that Tac1p binds under nonactivating conditions to the promoters of its targets, including to its own promoter. They also suggest roles for Tac1p in regulating lipid metabolism (mobilization and trafficking) and oxidative stress response in C. albicans.

Liu, Teresa T.; Znaidi, Sadri; Barker, Katherine S.; Xu, Lijing; Homayouni, Ramin; Saidane, Saloua; Morschhauser, Joachim; Nantel, Andre; Raymond, Martine; Rogers, P. David

2007-01-01

145

Genome-wide expression and location analyses of the Candida albicans Tac1p regulon.  

PubMed

A major mechanism of azole resistance in Candida albicans is overexpression of the genes encoding the ATP binding cassette transporters Cdr1p and Cdr2p due to gain-of-function mutations in Tac1p, a transcription factor of the zinc cluster family. To identify the Tac1p regulon, we analyzed four matched sets of clinical isolates representing the development of CDR1- and CDR2-mediated azole resistance by using gene expression profiling. We identified 31 genes that were consistently up-regulated with CDR1 and CDR2, including TAC1 itself, and 12 consistently down-regulated genes. When a resistant strain deleted for TAC1 was examined similarly, expression of almost all of these genes returned to levels similar to those in the matched azole-susceptible isolate. Using genome-wide location (ChIP-chip) analysis (a procedure combining chromatin immunoprecipitation with hybridization to DNA intergenic microarrays), we found 37 genes whose promoters were bound by Tac1p in vivo, including CDR1 and CDR2. Sequence analysis identified nine new genes whose promoters contain the previously reported Tac1p drug-responsive element (CGGN(4)CGG), including TAC1. In total, there were eight genes whose expression was modulated in the four azole-resistant clinical isolates in a TAC1-dependent manner and whose promoters were bound by Tac1p, qualifying them as direct Tac1p targets: CDR1, CDR2, GPX1 (putative glutathione peroxidase), LCB4 (putative sphingosine kinase), RTA3 (putative phospholipid flippase), and orf19.1887 (putative lipase), as well as IFU5 and orf19.4898 of unknown function. Our results show that Tac1p binds under nonactivating conditions to the promoters of its targets, including to its own promoter. They also suggest roles for Tac1p in regulating lipid metabolism (mobilization and trafficking) and oxidative stress response in C. albicans. PMID:17905926

Liu, Teresa T; Znaidi, Sadri; Barker, Katherine S; Xu, Lijing; Homayouni, Ramin; Saidane, Saloua; Morschhäuser, Joachim; Nantel, André; Raymond, Martine; Rogers, P David

2007-09-28

146

Expression of the Streptomyces coelicolor SoxR regulon is intimately linked with actinorhodin production.  

PubMed

The [2Fe-2S]-containing transcription factor SoxR is conserved in diverse bacteria. SoxR is traditionally known as the regulator of a global oxidative stress response in Escherichia coli, but recent studies suggest that this function may be restricted to enteric bacteria. In the vast majority of nonenterics, SoxR is predicted to mediate a response to endogenously produced redox-active metabolites. We have examined the regulation and function of the SoxR regulon in the model antibiotic-producing filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor. Unlike the E. coli soxR deletion mutant, the S. coelicolor equivalent is not hypersensitive to oxidants, indicating that SoxR does not potentiate antioxidant defense in the latter. SoxR regulates five genes in S. coelicolor, including those encoding a putative ABC transporter, two oxidoreductases, a monooxygenase, and a possible NAD-dependent epimerase/dehydratase. Expression of these genes depends on the production of the benzochromanequinone antibiotic actinorhodin and requires intact [2Fe-2S] clusters in SoxR. These data indicate that actinorhodin, or a redox-active precursor, modulates SoxR activity in S. coelicolor to stimulate the production of a membrane transporter and proteins with homology to actinorhodin-tailoring enzymes. While the role of SoxR in S. coelicolor remains under investigation, these studies support the notion that SoxR has been adapted to perform distinct physiological functions to serve the needs of organisms that occupy different ecological niches and face different environmental challenges. PMID:20952574

Dela Cruz, Rica; Gao, Yang; Penumetcha, Sahitya; Sheplock, Rebecca; Weng, Katherine; Chander, Monica

2010-10-15

147

Alveolate mitochondrial metabolic evolution: dinoflagellates force reassessment of the role of parasitism as a driver of change in apicomplexans.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial metabolism is central to the supply of ATP and numerous essential metabolites in most eukaryotic cells. Across eukaryotic diversity, however, there is evidence of much adaptation of the function of this organelle according to specific metabolic requirements and/or demands imposed by different environmental niches. This includes substantial loss or retailoring of mitochondrial function in many parasitic groups that occupy potentially nutrient-rich environments in their metazoan hosts. Infrakingdom Alveolata comprises a well-supported alliance of three disparate eukaryotic phyla-dinoflagellates, apicomplexans, and ciliates. These major taxa represent diverse lifestyles of free-living phototrophs, parasites, and predators and offer fertile territory for exploring character evolution in mitochondria. The mitochondria of apicomplexan parasites provide much evidence of loss or change of function from analysis of mitochondrial protein genes. Much less, however, is known of mitochondrial function in their closest relatives, the dinoflagellate algae. In this study, we have developed new models of mitochondrial metabolism in dinoflagellates based on gene predictions and stable isotope labeling experiments. These data show that many changes in mitochondrial gene content previously only known from apicomplexans are found in dinoflagellates also. For example, loss of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and changes in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzyme complement are shared by both groups and, therefore, represent ancestral character states. Significantly, we show that these changes do not result in loss of typical TCA cycle activity fueled by pyruvate. Thus, dinoflagellate data show that many changes in alveolate mitochondrial metabolism are independent of the major lifestyle changes seen in these lineages and provide a revised view of mitochondria character evolution during evolution of parasitism in apicomplexans. PMID:22923466

Danne, Jillian C; Gornik, Sebastian G; Macrae, James I; McConville, Malcolm J; Waller, Ross F

2012-08-25

148

Holding back the microfilament--structural insights into actin and the actin-monomer-binding proteins of apicomplexan parasites.  

PubMed

Parasites from the phylum Apicomplexa are responsible for several major diseases of man, including malaria and toxoplasmosis. These highly motile protozoa use a conserved actomyosin-based mode of movement to power tissue traversal and host cell invasion. The mode termed as 'gliding motility' relies on the dynamic turnover of actin, whose polymerisation state is controlled by a markedly limited number of identifiable regulators when compared with other eukaryotic cells. Recent studies of apicomplexan actin regulator structure-in particular those of the core triad of monomer-binding proteins, actin-depolymerising factor/cofilin, cyclase-associated protein/Srv2, and profilin-have provided new insights into possible mechanisms of actin regulation in parasite cells, highlighting divergent structural features and functions to regulators from other cellular systems. Furthermore, the unusual nature of apicomplexan actin itself is increasingly coming into the spotlight. Here, we review recent advances in understanding of the structure and function of actin and its regulators in apicomplexan parasites. In particular we explore the paradox between there being an abundance of unpolymerised actin, its having a seemingly increased potential to form filaments relative to vertebrate actin, and the apparent lack of visible, stable filaments in parasite cells. PMID:22454107

Olshina, Maya A; Wong, Wilson; Baum, Jake

2012-03-27

149

Listeria monocytogenes Differential Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Temperature-Dependent Agr Regulation and Suggests Overlaps with Other Regulons  

PubMed Central

Listeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous, opportunistic pathogenic organism. Environmental adaptation requires constant regulation of gene expression. Among transcriptional regulators, AgrA is part of an auto-induction system. Temperature is an environmental cue critical for in vivo adaptation. In order to investigate how temperature may affect AgrA-dependent transcription, we compared the transcriptomes of the parental strain L. monocytogenes EGD-e and its ?agrA mutant at the saprophytic temperature of 25°C and in vivo temperature of 37°C. Variations of transcriptome were higher at 37°C than at 25°C. Results suggested that AgrA may be involved in the regulation of nitrogen transport, amino acids, purine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways and phage-related functions. Deregulations resulted in a growth advantage at 37°C, but affected salt tolerance. Finally, our results suggest overlaps with PrfA, ?B, ?H and CodY regulons. These overlaps may suggest that through AgrA, Listeria monocytogenes integrates information on its biotic environment.

Garmyn, Dominique; Augagneur, Yoann; Gal, Laurent; Vivant, Anne-Laure; Piveteau, Pascal

2012-01-01

150

Proteomic Analysis of the Quorum-Sensing Regulon in Pantoea stewartii and Identification of Direct Targets of EsaR.  

PubMed

The proteobacterium Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii causes Stewart's wilt disease in maize when it colonizes the xylem and secretes large amounts of stewartan, an exopolysaccharide. The success of disease pathogenesis lies in the timing of bacterial virulence factor expression through the different stages of infection. Regulation is achieved through a quorum-sensing (QS) system consisting of the acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) synthase, EsaI, and the transcription regulator EsaR. At low cell densities, EsaR represses transcription of itself and of rcsA, an activator of the stewartan biosynthesis operon; it also activates esaS, which encodes a small RNA (sRNA). Repression or activation ceases at high cell densities when EsaI synthesizes sufficient levels of the AHL ligand N-3-oxo-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone to bind and inactivate EsaR. This study aims to identify other genes activated or repressed by EsaR during the QS response. Proteomic analysis identified a QS regulon of more than 30 proteins. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays of promoters of genes encoding differentially expressed proteins distinguished direct targets of EsaR from indirect targets. Additional quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and DNA footprinting analysis established that EsaR directly regulates the promoters of dkgA, glpF, and lrhA. The proteins encoded by dkgA, glpF, and lrhA are a 2,5-diketogluconate reductase, glycerol facilitator, and transcriptional regulator of chemotaxis and motility, respectively, indicating a more global QS response in P. stewartii than previously recognized. PMID:23913428

Ramachandran, Revathy; Stevens, Ann M

2013-08-02

151

piggyBac Transposon-Mediated Transgenesis in the Apicomplexan Parasite Eimeria tenella  

PubMed Central

piggyBac, a type II transposon that is useful for efficient transgenesis and insertional mutagenesis, has been used for effective and stable transfection in a wide variety of organisms. In this study we investigate the potential use of the piggyBac transposon system for forward genetics studies in the apicomplexan parasite Eimeria tenella. Using the restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) method, E. tenella sporozoites were electroporated with a donor plasmid containing the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) gene flanked by piggyBac inverted terminal repeats (ITRs), an Asc I-linearized helper plasmid containing the transposase gene and the restriction enzyme Asc I. Subsequently, electroporated sporozoites were inoculated into chickens via the cloacal route and transfected progeny oocysts expressing EYFP were sorted by flow cytometry. A transgenic E. tenella population was selected by successive in vivo passage. Southern-blotting analysis showed that exogenous DNA containing the EYFP gene was integrated into the parasite genome at a limited number of integration sites and that the inserted part of the donor plasmid was the fragment located between the 5? and 3? ITRs as indicated by primer-specific PCR screening. Genome walking revealed that the insertion sites were TTAA-specific, which is consistent with the transposition characteristics of piggyBac.

Su, Huali; Liu, Xianyong; Yan, Wenchao; Shi, Tuanyuan; Zhao, Xinxin; Blake, Damer P.; Tomley, Fiona M.; Suo, Xun

2012-01-01

152

Subcellular localization of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in the apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii.  

PubMed

Apicomplexan parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii contain a primitive plastid, the apicoplast, whose genome consists of a 35-kb circular DNA related to the plastid DNA of plants. Plants synthesize fatty acids in their plastids. The first committed step in fatty acid synthesis is catalyzed by acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). This enzyme is encoded in the nucleus, synthesized in the cytosol, and transported into the plastid. In the present work, two genes encoding ACC from T. gondii were cloned and the gene structure was determined. Both ORFs encode multidomain proteins, each with an N-terminal extension, compared with the cytosolic ACCs from plants. The N-terminal extension of one isozyme, ACC1, was shown to target green fluorescent protein to the apicoplast of T. gondii. In addition, the apicoplast contains a biotinylated protein, consistent with the assertion that ACC1 is localized there. The second ACC in T. gondii appears to be cytosolic. T. gondii mitochondria also contain a biotinylated protein, probably pyruvate carboxylase. These results confirm the essential nature of the apicoplast and explain the inhibition of parasite growth in cultured cells by herbicides targeting ACC. PMID:11226307

Jelenska, J; Crawford, M J; Harb, O S; Zuther, E; Haselkorn, R; Roos, D S; Gornicki, P

2001-02-13

153

Subcellular localization of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in the apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii  

PubMed Central

Apicomplexan parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii contain a primitive plastid, the apicoplast, whose genome consists of a 35-kb circular DNA related to the plastid DNA of plants. Plants synthesize fatty acids in their plastids. The first committed step in fatty acid synthesis is catalyzed by acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). This enzyme is encoded in the nucleus, synthesized in the cytosol, and transported into the plastid. In the present work, two genes encoding ACC from T. gondii were cloned and the gene structure was determined. Both ORFs encode multidomain proteins, each with an N-terminal extension, compared with the cytosolic ACCs from plants. The N-terminal extension of one isozyme, ACC1, was shown to target green fluorescent protein to the apicoplast of T. gondii. In addition, the apicoplast contains a biotinylated protein, consistent with the assertion that ACC1 is localized there. The second ACC in T. gondii appears to be cytosolic. T. gondii mitochondria also contain a biotinylated protein, probably pyruvate carboxylase. These results confirm the essential nature of the apicoplast and explain the inhibition of parasite growth in cultured cells by herbicides targeting ACC.

Jelenska, J.; Crawford, M. J.; Harb, O. S.; Zuther, E.; Haselkorn, R.; Roos, D. S.; Gornicki, P.

2001-01-01

154

Posttranscriptional Activation of the Transcriptional Activator Rob by Dipyridyl in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transcriptional activator Rob consists of an N-terminal domain (NTD) of 120 amino acids responsible for DNA binding and promoter activation and a C-terminal domain (CTD) of 169 amino acids of unknown function. Although several thousand molecules of Rob are normally present per Escherichia coli cell, they activate promoters of the rob regulon poorly. We report here that in cells

Judah L. Rosner; Bindi Dangi; Angela M. Gronenborn; Robert G. Martin

2002-01-01

155

Regulons of Three Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 Iron Starvation Sigma Factors  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 contains genes for 15 sigma factors. The majority are members of the extracytoplasmic function class of sigma factors, including five that belong to the iron starvation subgroup. In this study, we identified the genes controlled by three iron starvation sigma factors. Their regulons are composed of a small number of genes likely to be involved in iron uptake.

Markel, Eric; Butcher, Bronwyn G.; Myers, Christopher R.; Stodghill, Paul; Cartinhour, Sam

2013-01-01

156

Global regulatory networks control the hrp regulon of the gall-forming bacterium Pantoea agglomerans pv. gypsophilae.  

PubMed

Gall formation by Pantoea agglomerans pv. gypsophilae is dependent on the hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (hrp) system. Previous studies demonstrated that PagR and PagI, regulators of the quorum-sensing system, induce expression of the hrp regulatory cascade (i.e., hrpXY, hrpS, and hrpL) that activates the HrpL regulon. Here, we isolated the genes of the Gac/Rsm global regulatory pathway (i.e., gacS, gacA, rsmB, and csrD) and of the post-transcriptional regulator rsmA. Our results demonstrate that PagR and PagI also upregulate expression of the Gac/Rsm pathway. PagR acts as a transcriptional activator of each of the hrp regulatory genes and gacA in a N-butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone-dependent manner as shown by gel shift experiments. Mutants of the Gac/Rsm genes or overexpression of rsmA significantly reduced Pantoea agglomerans virulence and colonization of gypsophila. Overexpression of rsmB sRNA abolished gall formation, colonization, and hypersensitive reaction on nonhost plants and prevented transcription of the hrp regulatory cascade, indicating a lack of functional type III secretion system. Expression of rsmB sRNA in the background of the csrD null mutant suggests that CsrD may act as a safeguard for preventing excessive production of rsmB sRNA. Results presented indicate that the hrp regulatory cascade is controlled directly by PagR and indirectly by RsmA, whereas deficiency in RsmA activity is epistatic to PagR induction. PMID:23745675

Panijel, Mary; Chalupowicz, Laura; Sessa, Guido; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit; Barash, Isaac

2013-09-01

157

Fatty acid and sterol metabolism: potential antimicrobial targets in apicomplexan and trypanosomatid parasitic protozoa.  

PubMed

Current treatments for diseases caused by apicomplexan and trypanosomatid parasites are inadequate due to toxicity, the development of drug resistance and an inability to eliminate all life cycle stages of these parasites from the host. New therapeutics agents are urgently required. It has recently been demonstrated that type II fatty acid biosynthesis occurs in the plastid of Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii and inhibitors of this pathway such as triclosan and thiolactomycin restrict their growth. Furthermore, Trypanosoma brucei has recently been demonstrated to use type II fatty acid biosynthesis for myristate synthesis and to be susceptible to thiolactomycin. As this pathway is absent from mammals, it may provide an excellent target for novel antimicrobial agents to combat these diverse parasites. Leishmania and Trypanosoma parasites produce ergosterol-related sterols by a biosynthetic pathway similar to that operating in pathogenic fungi and their growth is susceptible to sterol biosynthesis inhibitors. Thus, inhibition of squalene 2,3-epoxidase by terbinafine, 14alpha-methylsterol 14-demethylase by azole and triazole compounds and delta(24)-sterol methyl transferase by azasterols all cause a depletion of normal sterols and an accumulation of abnormal amounts of sterol precursors with cytostatic or cytoxic consequences. However, Leishmania parasites can survive with greatly altered sterol profiles induced by continuous treatment with low concentrations of some inhibitors and they also have some ability to utilise and metabolise host sterol. These properties may permit the parasites to evade treatment with sterol biosynthesis inhibitors in some clinical situations and need to be taken into account in the design of future drugs. PMID:12615312

Roberts, C W; McLeod, R; Rice, D W; Ginger, M; Chance, M L; Goad, L J

2003-02-01

158

Stage-specific expression of protease genes in the apicomplexan parasite, Eimeria tenella  

PubMed Central

Background Proteases regulate pathogenesis in apicomplexan parasites but investigations of proteases have been largely confined to the asexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii. Thus, little is known about proteases in other Apicomplexa, particularly in the sexual stages. We screened the Eimeria tenella genome database for proteases, classified these into families and determined their stage specific expression. Results Over forty protease genes were identified in the E. tenella genome. These were distributed across aspartic (three genes), cysteine (sixteen), metallo (fourteen) and serine (twelve) proteases. Expression of at least fifteen protease genes was upregulated in merozoites including homologs of genes known to be important in host cell invasion, remodelling and egress in P. falciparum and/or T. gondii. Thirteen protease genes were specifically expressed or upregulated in gametocytes; five of these were in two families of serine proteases (S1 and S8) that are over-represented in the coccidian parasites, E. tenella and T. gondii, distinctive within the Apicomplexa because of their hard-walled oocysts. Serine protease inhibitors prevented processing of EtGAM56, a protein from E. tenella gametocytes that gives rise to tyrosine-rich peptides that are incorporated into the oocyst wall. Conclusion Eimeria tenella possesses a large number of protease genes. Expression of many of these genes is upregulated in asexual stages. However, expression of almost one-third of protease genes is upregulated in, or confined to gametocytes; some of these appear to be unique to the Coccidia and may play key roles in the formation of the oocyst wall, a defining feature of this group of parasites.

2012-01-01

159

Global Phenotypic Analysis and Transcriptional Profiling Defines the Weak Acid Stress Response Regulon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weak organic acids such as sorbate are potent fungistatic agents used in food preservation, but their intracellular targets are poorly understood. We thus searched for potential target genes and signaling components in the yeast genome using contemporary genome-wide functional assays as well as DNA microarray profiling. Phenotypic screening of the EURO- SCARF collection revealed the existence of numerous sorbate-sensitive strains.

Christoph Schuller; Yasmine M. Mamnun; Mehdi Mollapour; Gerd Krapf; Michael Schuster; Bettina E. Bauer; Peter W. Piper; Karl Kuchler

2004-01-01

160

Role of the small RNA RyhB in the Fur regulon in mediating the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis and iron acquisition systems in Klebsiella pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

Background The capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and iron acquisition systems are important determinants of Klebsiella pneumoniae infections, and we have previously reported that the ferric uptake repressor (Fur) can play dual role in iron acquisition and CPS biosynthesis. In many bacteria, Fur negatively controls the transcription of the small non-coding RNA RyhB to modulate cellular functions and virulence. However, in K. pneumoniae, the role played by RyhB in the Fur regulon has not been characterised. This study investigated Fur regulation of ryhB transcription and the functional role of RyhB in K. pneumoniae. Results Deletion of fur from K. pneumoniae increased the transcription of ryhB; the electric mobility shift assay and the Fur-titration assay revealed that Fur could bind to the promoter region of ryhB, suggesting that Fur directly represses ryhB transcription. Additionally, in a ?fur strain with elevated CPS production, deletion of ryhB obviously reduced CPS production. The following promoter-reporter assay and quantitative real-time PCR of cps genes verified that RyhB activated orf1 and orf16 transcription to elevate CPS production. However, deletion of ryhB did not affect the mRNA levels of rcsA, rmpA, or rmpA2. These results imply that Fur represses the transcription of ryhB to mediate the biosynthesis of CPS, which is independent of RcsA, RmpA, and RmpA2. In addition, the ?fur strain’s high level of serum resistance was attenuated by the deletion of ryhB, indicating that RyhB plays a positive role in protecting the bacterium from serum killing. Finally, deletion of ryhB in ?fur reduced the expression of several genes corresponding to 3 iron acquisition systems in K. pneumoniae, and resulted in reduced siderophore production. Conclusions The regulation and functional role of RyhB in K. pneumoniae is characterized in this study. RyhB participates in Fur regulon to modulate the bacterial CPS biosynthesis and iron acquisition systems in K. pneumoniae.

2012-01-01

161

The GroE chaperonin machine is a major modulator of the CIRCE heat shock regulon of Bacillus subtilis.  

PubMed Central

Class I heat-inducible genes in Bacillus subtilis consist of the heptacistronic dnaK and the bicistronic groE operon and form the CIRCE regulon. Both operons are negatively regulated at the level of transcription by the HrcA repressor interacting with its operator, the CIRCE element. Here, we demonstrate that the DnaK chaperone machine is not involved in the regulation of HrcA and that the GroE chaperonin exerts a negative effect in the post-transcriptional control of HrcA. When expression of the groE operon was turned off, the dnaK operon was significantly activated and large amounts of apparently inactive HrcA repressor were produced. Overproduction of GroEL, on the other hand, resulted in decreased expression of the dnaK operon. Introduction of the hrcA gene and its operator into Escherichia coli was sufficient to elicit a transient heat shock response, indicating that no additional Bacillus-specific gene(s) was needed. As in B. subtilis, the groEL gene of E. coli negatively influenced the activity of HrcA. HrcA could be overproduced in E. coli, but formed inclusion bodies which could be dissolved in 8 M urea. Upon removal of urea, HrcA had a strong tendency to aggregate, but aggregation could be suppressed significantly by the addition of GroEL. Purified HrcA repressor was able specifically to retard a DNA fragment containing the CIRCE element, and the amount of retarded DNA was increased significantly in the presence of GroEL. These results suggest that the GroE chaperonin machine modulates the activity of the HrcA repressor and therefore point to a novel function of GroE as a modulator of the heat shock response.

Mogk, A; Homuth, G; Scholz, C; Kim, L; Schmid, F X; Schumann, W

1997-01-01

162

Involvement and necessity of the Cpx regulon in the event of aberrant ?-barrel outer membrane protein assembly  

PubMed Central

Summary The Cpx and ?E regulons help maintain outer membrane integrity; the Cpx pathway monitors the biogenesis of cell surface structures, such as pili, while the ?E pathway monitors the biogenesis of ?-barrel outer membrane proteins (OMPs). In this study we revealed the importance of the Cpx regulon in the event of ?-barrel OMP mis-assembly, by utilizing mutants expressing either a defective ?-barrel OMP assembly machinery (Bam) or assembly defective ?-barrel OMPs. Analysis of specific mRNAs showed that ?cpxR bam double mutants failed to induce degP expression beyond the wild type level, despite activation of the ?E pathway. The synthetic conditional lethal phenotype of ?cpxR in mutant Bam or ?-barrel OMP backgrounds was reversed by wild type DegP expressed from a heterologous plasmid promoter. Consistent with the involvement of the Cpx regulon in the event of aberrant ?-barrel OMP assembly, the expression of cpxP, the archetypal member of the cpx regulon, was upregulated in defective Bam backgrounds or in cells expressing a single assembly-defective ?-barrel OMP species. Together, these results showed that both the Cpx and ?E regulons are required to reduce envelope stress caused by aberrant ?-barrel OMP assembly, with the Cpx regulon principally contributing by controlling degP expression.

Gerken, Henri; Leiser, Owen P.; Bennion, Drew; Misra, Rajeev

2010-01-01

163

Identification of self-consistent modulons from bacterial microarray expression data with the help of structured regulon gene sets.  

PubMed

Identification of bacterial modulons from series of gene expression measurements on microarrays is a principal problem, especially relevant for inadequately studied but practically important species. Usage of a priori information on regulatory interactions helps to evaluate parameters for regulatory subnetwork inference. We suggest a procedure for modulon construction where a seed regulon is iteratively updated with genes having expression patterns similar to those for regulon member genes. A set of genes essential for a regulon is used to control modulon updating. Essential genes for a regulon were selected as a subset of regulon genes highly related by different measures to each other. Using Escherichia coli as a model, we studied how modulon identification depends on the data, including the microarray experiments set, the adopted relevance measure and the regulon itself. We have found that results of modulon identification are highly dependent on all parameters studied and thus the resulting modulon varies substantially depending on the identification procedure. Yet, modulons that were identified correctly displayed higher stability during iterations, which allows developing a procedure for reliable modulon identification in the case of less studied species where the known regulatory interactions are sparse. PMID:22803819

Permina, Elizaveta A; Medvedeva, Yulia A; Baeck, Pia M; Hegde, Shubhada R; Mande, Shekhar C; Makeev, Vsevolod J

2012-07-18

164

Evolution and diversity of secretome genes in the apicomplexan parasite Theileria annulata  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about how apicomplexan parasites have evolved to infect different host species and cell types. Theileria annulata and Theileria parva invade and transform bovine leukocytes but each species favours a different host cell lineage. Parasite-encoded proteins secreted from the intracellular macroschizont stage within the leukocyte represent a critical interface between host and pathogen systems. Genome sequencing has revealed that several Theileria-specific gene families encoding secreted proteins are positively selected at the inter-species level, indicating diversification between the species. We extend this analysis to the intra-species level, focusing on allelic diversity of two major secretome families. These families represent a well-characterised group of genes implicated in control of the host cell phenotype and a gene family of unknown function. To gain further insight into their evolution and function, this study investigates whether representative genes of these two families are diversifying or constrained within the T. annulata population. Results Strong evidence is provided that the sub-telomerically encoded SVSP family and the host-nucleus targeted TashAT family have evolved under contrasting pressures within natural T. annulata populations. SVSP genes were found to possess atypical codon usage and be evolving neutrally, with high levels of nucleotide substitutions and multiple indels. No evidence of geographical sub-structuring of allelic sequences was found. In contrast, TashAT family genes, implicated in control of host cell gene expression, are strongly conserved at the protein level and geographically sub-structured allelic sequences were identified among Tunisian and Turkish isolates. Although different copy numbers of DNA binding motifs were identified in alleles of TashAT proteins, motif periodicity was strongly maintained, implying conserved functional activity of these sites. Conclusions This analysis provides evidence that two distinct secretome genes families have evolved under contrasting selective pressures. The data supports current hypotheses regarding the biological role of TashAT family proteins in the management of host cell phenotype that may have evolved to allow adaptation of T. annulata to a specific host cell lineage. We provide new evidence of extensive allelic diversity in representative members of the enigmatic SVSP gene family, which supports a putative role for the encoded products in subversion of the host immune response.

2010-01-01

165

Computational analysis of LexA regulons in Cyanobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The transcription factor LexA plays an important role in the SOS response in Escherichia coli and many other bacterial species studied. Although the lexA gene is encoded in almost every bacterial group with a wide range of evolutionary distances, its precise functions in each group\\/species are largely unknown. More recently, it has been shown that lexA genes in two

Shan Li; Minli Xu; Zhengchang Su

2010-01-01

166

Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the PhoP Regulon in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Versus Typhimurium  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundS. Typhi, a human-restricted Salmonella enterica serovar, causes a systemic intracellular infection in humans (typhoid fever). In comparison, S. Typhimurium causes gastroenteritis in humans, but causes a systemic typhoidal illness in mice. The PhoP regulon is a well studied two component (PhoP\\/Q) coordinately regulated network of genes whose expression is required for intracellular survival of S. enterica.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsUsing high performance

Richelle C. Charles; Jason B. Harris; Michael R. Chase; Lauren M. Lebrun; Alaullah Sheikh; Regina C. Larocque; Tanya Logvinenko; Sean M. Rollins; Abdullah Tarique; Elizabeth L. Hohmann; Ian Rosenberg; Bryan Krastins; David A. Sarracino; Firdausi Qadri; Stephen B. Calderwood; Edward T. Ryan; Niyaz Ahmed

2009-01-01

167

Variation in the Group B Streptococcus CsrRS Regulon and Effects on Pathogenicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

CsrRS (or CovRS) is a two-component regulatory system that controls expression of multiple virulence factors in the important human pathogen group B Streptococcus (GBS). We now report global gene expression studies in GBS strains 2603V\\/R and 515 and their isogenic csrR and csrS mutants. Together with data reported previously for strain NEM316, the results reveal a conserved 39-gene CsrRS regulon.

Sheng-Mei Jiang; Nadeeza Ishmael; Julie Dunning Hotopp; Manuela Puliti; Luciana Tissi; Nikhil Kumar; Michael J. Cieslewicz; H. Tettelin; Michael R. Wessels

2008-01-01

168

The Streptococcus sanguinis Competence Regulon Is Not Required for Infective Endocarditis Virulence in a Rabbit Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streptococcus sanguinis is an important component of dental plaque and a leading cause of infective endocarditis. Genetic competence in S. sanguinis requires a quorum sensing system encoded by the early comCDE genes, as well as late genes controlled by the alternative sigma factor, ComX. Previous studies of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mutans have identified functions for the >100-gene com regulon

Jill E. Callahan; Cindy L. Munro; Todd Kitten

2011-01-01

169

Transcriptome Analysis of the Lactococcus lactis ArgR and AhrC Regulons?  

PubMed Central

In previous studies, we have shown that direct protein-protein interaction between the two regulators ArgR and AhrC in Lactococcus lactis is required for arginine-dependent repression of the biosynthetic argC promoter and the activation of the catabolic arcA promoter. Here, we establish the global ArgR and AhrC regulons by transcriptome analyses and show that both regulators are dedicated to the control of arginine metabolism in L. lactis.

Larsen, Rasmus; van Hijum, Sacha A. F. T.; Martinussen, Jan; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Kok, Jan

2008-01-01

170

The ArcA regulon and oxidative stress resistance in Haemophilus influenzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haemophilus influenzae transits between niches within the human host that are predicted to differ in oxygen levels. The ArcAB two-component signal transduction system controls gene expression in response to respiratory conditions of growth and has been implicated in bacterial pathogenesis, yet the mechanism is not understood. We undertook a genome-scale study to identify genes of the H. influenzae ArcA regulon.

Sandy M. S. Wong; Kishore R. Alugupalli; Sanjay Ram; Brian J. Akerley

2007-01-01

171

Identification of a CO2 Responsive Regulon in Bordetella  

PubMed Central

Sensing the environment allows pathogenic bacteria to coordinately regulate gene expression to maximize survival within or outside of a host. Here we show that Bordetella species regulate virulence factor expression in response to carbon dioxide levels that mimic in vivo conditions within the respiratory tract. We found strains of Bordetella bronchiseptica that did not produce adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) when grown in liquid or solid media with ambient air aeration, but produced ACT and additional antigens when grown in air supplemented to 5% CO2. Transcriptome analysis and quantitative real time-PCR analysis revealed that strain 761, as well as strain RB50, increased transcription of genes encoding ACT, filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin, fimbriae and the type III secretion system in 5% CO2 conditions, relative to ambient air. Furthermore, transcription of cyaA and fhaB in response to 5% CO2 was increased even in the absence of BvgS. In vitro analysis also revealed increases in cytotoxicity and adherence when strains were grown in 5% CO2. The human pathogens B. pertussis and B. parapertussis also increased transcription of several virulence factors when grown in 5% CO2, indicating that this response is conserved among the classical bordetellae. Together, our data indicate that Bordetella species can sense and respond to physiologically relevant changes in CO2 concentrations by regulating virulence factors important for colonization, persistence and evasion of the host immune response.

Hester, Sara E.; Lui, Minghsun; Nicholson, Tracy; Nowacki, Daryl; Harvill, Eric T.

2012-01-01

172

Evidence of tRNA cleavage in apicomplexan parasites: half-tRNAs as new potential regulatory molecules of Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium berghei  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several lines of evidence demonstrated that organisms ranging from bacteria to higher animals possess a regulated endonucleolytic cleavage pathway producing half-tRNA fragments. In the present study, we investigated the occurrence of this phenomenon in two distantly related apicomplexan parasites, T...

173

Identification of the Candida albicans Cap1p regulon.  

PubMed

Cap1p, a transcription factor of the basic region leucine zipper family, regulates the oxidative stress response (OSR) in Candida albicans. Alteration of its C-terminal cysteine-rich domain (CRD) results in Cap1p nuclear retention and transcriptional activation. To better understand the function of Cap1p in C. albicans, we used genome-wide location profiling (chromatin immunoprecipitation-on-chip) to identify its transcriptional targets in vivo. A triple-hemagglutinin (HA(3)) epitope was introduced at the C terminus of wild-type Cap1p (Cap1p-HA(3)) or hyperactive Cap1p with an altered CRD (Cap1p-CSE-HA(3)). Location profiling using whole-genome oligonucleotide tiling microarrays identified 89 targets bound by Cap1p-HA(3) or Cap1p-CSE-HA(3) (the binding ratio was at least twofold; P < or = 0.01). Strikingly, Cap1p binding was detected not only at the promoter region of its target genes but also at their 3' ends and within their open reading frames, suggesting that Cap1p may associate with the transcriptional or chromatin remodeling machinery to exert its activity. Overrepresented functional groups of the Cap1p targets (P < or = 0.02) included 11 genes involved in the OSR (CAP1, GLR1, TRX1, SOD1, CAT1, and others), 13 genes involved in response to drugs (PDR16, MDR1, FLU1, YCF1, FCR1, and others), 4 genes involved in phospholipid transport (PDR16, GIT1, RTA2, and orf19.932), and 3 genes involved in the regulation of nitrogen utilization (GST3, orf19.2693, and orf19.3121), suggesting that Cap1p has other cellular functions in addition to the OSR. Bioinformatic analyses of the bound sequences suggest that Cap1p recognizes the DNA motif 5'-MTKASTMA. Finally, transcriptome analyses showed that increased expression generally accompanies Cap1p binding at its targets, indicating that Cap1p functions as a transcriptional activator. PMID:19395663

Znaidi, Sadri; Barker, Katherine S; Weber, Sandra; Alarco, Anne-Marie; Liu, Teresa T; Boucher, Geneviève; Rogers, P David; Raymond, Martine

2009-04-24

174

Identification of the Candida albicans Cap1p Regulon ? †  

PubMed Central

Cap1p, a transcription factor of the basic region leucine zipper family, regulates the oxidative stress response (OSR) in Candida albicans. Alteration of its C-terminal cysteine-rich domain (CRD) results in Cap1p nuclear retention and transcriptional activation. To better understand the function of Cap1p in C. albicans, we used genome-wide location profiling (chromatin immunoprecipitation-on-chip) to identify its transcriptional targets in vivo. A triple-hemagglutinin (HA3) epitope was introduced at the C terminus of wild-type Cap1p (Cap1p-HA3) or hyperactive Cap1p with an altered CRD (Cap1p-CSE-HA3). Location profiling using whole-genome oligonucleotide tiling microarrays identified 89 targets bound by Cap1p-HA3 or Cap1p-CSE-HA3 (the binding ratio was at least twofold; P ? 0.01). Strikingly, Cap1p binding was detected not only at the promoter region of its target genes but also at their 3? ends and within their open reading frames, suggesting that Cap1p may associate with the transcriptional or chromatin remodeling machinery to exert its activity. Overrepresented functional groups of the Cap1p targets (P ? 0.02) included 11 genes involved in the OSR (CAP1, GLR1, TRX1, SOD1, CAT1, and others), 13 genes involved in response to drugs (PDR16, MDR1, FLU1, YCF1, FCR1, and others), 4 genes involved in phospholipid transport (PDR16, GIT1, RTA2, and orf19.932), and 3 genes involved in the regulation of nitrogen utilization (GST3, orf19.2693, and orf19.3121), suggesting that Cap1p has other cellular functions in addition to the OSR. Bioinformatic analyses of the bound sequences suggest that Cap1p recognizes the DNA motif 5?-MTKASTMA. Finally, transcriptome analyses showed that increased expression generally accompanies Cap1p binding at its targets, indicating that Cap1p functions as a transcriptional activator.

Znaidi, Sadri; Barker, Katherine S.; Weber, Sandra; Alarco, Anne-Marie; Liu, Teresa T.; Boucher, Genevieve; Rogers, P. David; Raymond, Martine

2009-01-01

175

The Zur regulon of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032  

PubMed Central

Background Zinc is considered as an essential element for all living organisms, but it can be toxic at large concentrations. Bacteria therefore tightly regulate zinc metabolism. The Cg2502 protein of Corynebacterium glutamicum was a candidate to control zinc metabolism in this species, since it was classified as metalloregulator of the zinc uptake regulator (Zur) subgroup of the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) family of DNA-binding transcription regulators. Results The cg2502 (zur) gene was deleted in the chromosome of C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 by an allelic exchange procedure to generate the zur-deficient mutant C. glutamicum JS2502. Whole-genome DNA microarray hybridizations and real-time RT-PCR assays comparing the gene expression in C. glutamicum JS2502 with that of the wild-type strain detected 18 genes with enhanced expression in the zur mutant. The expression data were combined with results from cross-genome comparisons of shared regulatory sites, revealing the presence of candidate Zur-binding sites in the mapped promoter regions of five transcription units encoding components of potential zinc ABC-type transporters (cg0041-cg0042/cg0043; cg2911-cg2912-cg2913), a putative secreted protein (cg0040), a putative oxidoreductase (cg0795), and a putative P-loop GTPase of the COG0523 protein family (cg0794). Enhanced transcript levels of the respective genes in C. glutamicum JS2502 were verified by real-time RT-PCR, and complementation of the mutant with a wild-type zur gene reversed the effect of differential gene expression. The zinc-dependent expression of the putative cg0042 and cg2911 operons was detected in vivo with a gfp reporter system. Moreover, the zinc-dependent binding of purified Zur protein to double-stranded 40-mer oligonucleotides containing candidate Zur-binding sites was demonstrated in vitro by DNA band shift assays. Conclusion Whole-genome expression profiling and DNA band shift assays demonstrated that Zur directly represses in a zinc-dependent manner the expression of nine genes organized in five transcription units. Accordingly, the Zur (Cg2502) protein is the key transcription regulator for genes involved in zinc homeostasis in C. glutamicum.

2010-01-01

176

The Streptococcus sanguinis Competence Regulon Is Not Required for Infective Endocarditis Virulence in a Rabbit Model  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus sanguinis is an important component of dental plaque and a leading cause of infective endocarditis. Genetic competence in S. sanguinis requires a quorum sensing system encoded by the early comCDE genes, as well as late genes controlled by the alternative sigma factor, ComX. Previous studies of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mutans have identified functions for the >100-gene com regulon in addition to DNA uptake, including virulence. We investigated this possibility in S. sanguinis. Strains deleted for the comCDE or comX master regulatory genes were created. Using a rabbit endocarditis model in conjunction with a variety of virulence assays, we determined that both mutants possessed infectivity equivalent to that of a virulent control strain, and that measures of disease were similar in rabbits infected with each strain. These results suggest that the com regulon is not required for S. sanguinis infective endocarditis virulence in this model. We propose that the different roles of the S. sanguinis, S. pneumoniae, and S. mutans com regulons in virulence can be understood in relation to the pathogenic mechanisms employed by each species.

Callahan, Jill E.; Munro, Cindy L.; Kitten, Todd

2011-01-01

177

The Gal3p transducer of the GAL regulon interacts with the Gal80p repressor in its ligand-induced closed conformation  

PubMed Central

A wealth of genetic information and some biochemical analysis have made the GAL regulon of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae a classic model system for studying transcriptional activation in eukaryotes. Galactose induces this transcriptional switch, which is regulated by three proteins: the transcriptional activator Gal4p, bound to DNA; the repressor Gal80p; and the transducer Gal3p. We showed previously that NADP appears to act as a trigger to kick the repressor off the activator. Sustained activation involves a complex of the transducer Gal3p and Gal80p mediated by galactose and ATP. We solved the crystal structure of the complex of Gal3p–Gal80p with ?-D-galactose and ATP to 2.1 Å resolution. The interaction between the proteins occurs only when Gal3p is in a “closed” state induced by ligand binding. The structure of the complex provides a rationale for the phenotypes of several well-known Gal80p and Gal3p mutants as well as the lack of galactokinase activity of Gal3p.

Lavy, Tali; Kumar, P. Rajesh; He, Hongzhen; Joshua-Tor, Leemor

2012-01-01

178

Deletion of mtrC in Haemophilus ducreyi Increases Sensitivity to Human Antimicrobial Peptides and Activates the CpxRA Regulon ?  

PubMed Central

Haemophilus ducreyi resists killing by antimicrobial peptides encountered during human infection, including cathelicidin LL-37, ?-defensins, and ?-defensins. In this study, we examined the role of the proton motive force-dependent multiple transferable resistance (MTR) transporter in antimicrobial peptide resistance in H. ducreyi. We found a proton motive force-dependent effect on H. ducreyi's resistance to LL-37 and ?-defensin HBD-3, but not ?-defensin HNP-2. Deletion of the membrane fusion protein MtrC rendered H. ducreyi more sensitive to LL-37 and human ?-defensins but had relatively little effect on ?-defensin resistance. The mtrC mutant 35000HPmtrC exhibited phenotypic changes in outer membrane protein profiles, colony morphology, and serum sensitivity, which were restored to wild type by trans-complementation with mtrC. Similar phenotypes were reported in a cpxA mutant; activation of the two-component CpxRA regulator was confirmed by showing transcriptional effects on CpxRA-regulated genes in 35000HPmtrC. A cpxR mutant had wild-type levels of antimicrobial peptide resistance; a cpxA mutation had little effect on defensin resistance but led to increased sensitivity to LL-37. 35000HPmtrC was more sensitive than the cpxA mutant to LL-37, indicating that MTR contributed to LL-37 resistance independent of the CpxRA regulon. The CpxRA regulon did not affect proton motive force-dependent antimicrobial peptide resistance; however, 35000HPmtrC had lost proton motive force-dependent peptide resistance, suggesting that the MTR transporter promotes proton motive force-dependent resistance to LL-37 and human ?-defensins. This is the first report of a ?-defensin resistance mechanism in H. ducreyi and shows that LL-37 resistance in H. ducreyi is multifactorial.

Rinker, Sherri D.; Trombley, Michael P.; Gu, Xiaoping; Fortney, Kate R.; Bauer, Margaret E.

2011-01-01

179

Induction of the Pho Regulon Suppresses the Growth Defect of an Escherichia coli sgrS Mutant, Connecting Phosphate Metabolism to the Glucose-Phosphate Stress Response  

PubMed Central

Some bacteria experience stress when glucose-6-phosphate or analogues like ?-methyl glucoside-6-phosphate (?MG6P) accumulate in the cell. In Escherichia coli, the small SgrS RNA is vital to recovery from glucose-phosphate stress; the growth of sgrS mutants is strongly inhibited by ?MG. SgrS helps to restore growth in part through inhibiting translation of the ptsG mRNA, which encodes the major glucose transporter EIICBGlc. While the regulatory mechanism of SgrS has been characterized, little is known about how glucose-phosphate stress connects to other aspects of cell physiology. In the present study, we discovered that mutation of pitA, which encodes the low-affinity transporter of inorganic phosphate, partially suppresses the ?MG growth defect of an sgrS mutant. Induction of the stress response was also reduced in the sgrS pitA mutant compared to its sgrS parent. Microarray analysis suggested that expression of phosphate (Pho) regulon genes is increased in the sgrS pitA mutant compared to the sgrS parent. Consistent with this, we found increased PhoA (alkaline phosphatase) activity in the sgrS pitA mutant compared to the sgrS strain. Further, direct induction of the Pho regulon (in a pitA+ background) also resulted in partial suppression of the sgrS growth defect. The suppression was reversed when Pho induction was prevented by mutation of phoB, which encodes the Pho transcriptional activator. Deletion of individual Pho structural genes in suppressed strains did not identify a single gene responsible for suppression. Altogether, this work describes one of the first studies of glucose-phosphate stress physiology and suggests a novel connection of carbon and phosphate metabolism.

Richards, Gregory R.

2012-01-01

180

Induction of the Pho regulon suppresses the growth defect of an Escherichia coli sgrS mutant, connecting phosphate metabolism to the glucose-phosphate stress response.  

PubMed

Some bacteria experience stress when glucose-6-phosphate or analogues like ?-methyl glucoside-6-phosphate (?MG6P) accumulate in the cell. In Escherichia coli, the small SgrS RNA is vital to recovery from glucose-phosphate stress; the growth of sgrS mutants is strongly inhibited by ?MG. SgrS helps to restore growth in part through inhibiting translation of the ptsG mRNA, which encodes the major glucose transporter EIICB(Glc). While the regulatory mechanism of SgrS has been characterized, little is known about how glucose-phosphate stress connects to other aspects of cell physiology. In the present study, we discovered that mutation of pitA, which encodes the low-affinity transporter of inorganic phosphate, partially suppresses the ?MG growth defect of an sgrS mutant. Induction of the stress response was also reduced in the sgrS pitA mutant compared to its sgrS parent. Microarray analysis suggested that expression of phosphate (Pho) regulon genes is increased in the sgrS pitA mutant compared to the sgrS parent. Consistent with this, we found increased PhoA (alkaline phosphatase) activity in the sgrS pitA mutant compared to the sgrS strain. Further, direct induction of the Pho regulon (in a pitA(+) background) also resulted in partial suppression of the sgrS growth defect. The suppression was reversed when Pho induction was prevented by mutation of phoB, which encodes the Pho transcriptional activator. Deletion of individual Pho structural genes in suppressed strains did not identify a single gene responsible for suppression. Altogether, this work describes one of the first studies of glucose-phosphate stress physiology and suggests a novel connection of carbon and phosphate metabolism. PMID:22427626

Richards, Gregory R; Vanderpool, Carin K

2012-03-16

181

miRNA Regulons Associated with Synaptic Function  

PubMed Central

Differential RNA localization and local protein synthesis regulate synapse function and plasticity in neurons. MicroRNAs are a conserved class of regulatory RNAs that control mRNA stability and translation in tissues. They are abundant in the brain but the extent into which they are involved in synaptic mRNA regulation is poorly known. Herein, a computational analysis of the coding and 3?UTR regions of 242 presynaptic and 304 postsynaptic proteins revealed that 91% of them are predicted to be microRNA targets. Analysis of the longest 3?UTR isoform of synaptic transcripts showed that presynaptic mRNAs have significantly longer 3?UTR than control and postsynaptic mRNAs. In contrast, the shortest 3?UTR isoform of postsynaptic mRNAs is significantly shorter than control and presynaptic mRNAs, indicating they avert microRNA regulation under specific conditions. Examination of microRNA binding site density of synaptic 3?UTRs revealed that they are twice as dense as the rest of protein-coding transcripts and that approximately 50% of synaptic transcripts are predicted to have more than five different microRNA sites. An interaction map exploring the association of microRNAs and their targets revealed that a small set of ten microRNAs is predicted to regulate 77% and 80% of presynaptic and postsynaptic transcripts, respectively. Intriguingly, many of these microRNAs have yet to be identified outside primate mammals, implicating them in cognition differences observed between high-level primates and non-primate mammals. Importantly, the identified miRNAs have been previously associated with psychotic disorders that are characterized by neural circuitry dysfunction, such as schizophrenia. Finally, molecular dissection of their KEGG pathways showed enrichment for neuronal and synaptic processes. Adding on current knowledge, this investigation revealed the extent of miRNA regulation at the synapse and predicted critical microRNAs that would aid future research on the control of neuronal plasticity and etiology of psychiatric diseases.

Paschou, Maria; Paraskevopoulou, Maria D.; Vlachos, Ioannis S.; Koukouraki, Pelagia; Hatzigeorgiou, Artemis G.; Doxakis, Epaminondas

2012-01-01

182

Control site location and transcriptional regulation in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

The regulatory regions for 119 Escherichia coli promoters have been analyzed, and the locations of the regulatory sites have been cataloged. The following observations emerge. (i) More than 95% of promoters are coregulated with at least one other promoter. (ii) Virtually all sigma 70 promoters contain at least one regulatory site in a proximal position, touching at least position -65 with respect to the start point of transcription. There are not yet clear examples of upstream regulation in the absence of a proximal site. (iii) Operators within regulons appear in very variable proximal positions. By contrast, the proximal activation sites of regulons are much more fixed. (iv) There is a forbidden zone for activation elements downstream from approximately position -20 with respect to the start of transcription. By contrast, operators can occur throughout the proximal region. When activation elements appear in the forbidden zone, they repress. These latter examples usually involve autoregulation. (v) Approximately 40% of repressible promoters contain operator duplications. These occur either in certain regulons where duplication appears to be a requirement for repressor action or in promoters subject to complex regulation. (vi) Remote operator duplications occur in approximately 10% of repressible promoters. They generally appear when a multiple promoter region is coregulated by cyclic AMP receptor protein. (vii) Sigma 54 promoters do not require proximal or precisely positioned activator elements and are not generally subject to negative regulation. Rationales are presented for all of the above observations.

Collado-Vides, J; Magasanik, B; Gralla, J D

1991-01-01

183

Genome-Wide Analysis of Cell Type-Specific Gene Transcription during Spore Formation in Clostridium difficile.  

PubMed

Clostridium difficile, a Gram positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium is an emergent pathogen and the most common cause of nosocomial diarrhea. Although transmission of C. difficile is mediated by contamination of the gut by spores, the regulatory cascade controlling spore formation remains poorly characterized. During Bacillus subtilis sporulation, a cascade of four sigma factors, ?(F) and ?(G) in the forespore and ?(E) and ?(K) in the mother cell governs compartment-specific gene expression. In this work, we combined genome wide transcriptional analyses and promoter mapping to define the C. difficile ?(F), ?(E), ?(G) and ?(K) regulons. We identified about 225 genes under the control of these sigma factors: 25 in the ?(F) regulon, 97 ?(E)-dependent genes, 50 ?(G)-governed genes and 56 genes under ?(K) control. A significant fraction of genes in each regulon is of unknown function but new candidates for spore coat proteins could be proposed as being synthesized under ?(E) or ?(K) control and detected in a previously published spore proteome. SpoIIID of C. difficile also plays a pivotal role in the mother cell line of expression repressing the transcription of many members of the ?(E) regulon and activating sigK expression. Global analysis of developmental gene expression under the control of these sigma factors revealed deviations from the B. subtilis model regarding the communication between mother cell and forespore in C. difficile. We showed that the expression of the ?(E) regulon in the mother cell was not strictly under the control of ?(F) despite the fact that the forespore product SpoIIR was required for the processing of pro-?(E). In addition, the ?(K) regulon was not controlled by ?(G) in C. difficile in agreement with the lack of pro-?(K) processing. This work is one key step to obtain new insights about the diversity and evolution of the sporulation process among Firmicutes. PMID:24098137

Saujet, Laure; Pereira, Fátima C; Serrano, Monica; Soutourina, Olga; Monot, Marc; Shelyakin, Pavel V; Gelfand, Mikhail S; Dupuy, Bruno; Henriques, Adriano O; Martin-Verstraete, Isabelle

2013-10-03

184

Genome-Wide Analysis of Cell Type-Specific Gene Transcription during Spore Formation in Clostridium difficile  

PubMed Central

Clostridium difficile, a Gram positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium is an emergent pathogen and the most common cause of nosocomial diarrhea. Although transmission of C. difficile is mediated by contamination of the gut by spores, the regulatory cascade controlling spore formation remains poorly characterized. During Bacillus subtilis sporulation, a cascade of four sigma factors, ?F and ?G in the forespore and ?E and ?K in the mother cell governs compartment-specific gene expression. In this work, we combined genome wide transcriptional analyses and promoter mapping to define the C. difficile ?F, ?E, ?G and ?K regulons. We identified about 225 genes under the control of these sigma factors: 25 in the ?F regulon, 97 ?E-dependent genes, 50 ?G-governed genes and 56 genes under ?K control. A significant fraction of genes in each regulon is of unknown function but new candidates for spore coat proteins could be proposed as being synthesized under ?E or ?K control and detected in a previously published spore proteome. SpoIIID of C. difficile also plays a pivotal role in the mother cell line of expression repressing the transcription of many members of the ?E regulon and activating sigK expression. Global analysis of developmental gene expression under the control of these sigma factors revealed deviations from the B. subtilis model regarding the communication between mother cell and forespore in C. difficile. We showed that the expression of the ?E regulon in the mother cell was not strictly under the control of ?F despite the fact that the forespore product SpoIIR was required for the processing of pro-?E. In addition, the ?K regulon was not controlled by ?G in C. difficile in agreement with the lack of pro-?K processing. This work is one key step to obtain new insights about the diversity and evolution of the sporulation process among Firmicutes.

Saujet, Laure; Soutourina, Olga; Monot, Marc; Shelyakin, Pavel V.; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Dupuy, Bruno; Henriques, Adriano O.; Martin-Verstraete, Isabelle

2013-01-01

185

Tetrapyrrole Synthesis of Photosynthetic Chromerids Is Likely Homologous to the Unusual Pathway of Apicomplexan Parasites[C][W  

PubMed Central

Most photosynthetic eukaryotes synthesize both heme and chlorophyll via a common tetrapyrrole biosynthetic pathway starting from glutamate. This pathway was derived mainly from cyanobacterial predecessor of the plastid and differs from the heme synthesis of the plastid-lacking eukaryotes. Here, we show that the coral-associated alveolate Chromera velia, the closest known photosynthetic relative to Apicomplexa, possesses a tetrapyrrole pathway that is homologous to the unusual pathway of apicomplexan parasites. We also demonstrate that, unlike other eukaryotic phototrophs, Chromera synthesizes chlorophyll from glycine and succinyl-CoA rather than glutamate. Our data shed light on the evolution of the heme biosynthesis in parasitic Apicomplexa and photosynthesis-related biochemical processes in their ancestors.

Koreny, Ludek; Sobotka, Roman; Janouskovec, Jan; Keeling, Patrick J.; Obornik, Miroslav

2011-01-01

186

Activation of the SoxR regulon in Streptomyces coelicolor by the extracellular form of the pigmented antibiotic actinorhodin.  

PubMed

The redox-sensitive transcription factor SoxR in enteric bacteria senses and regulates the cellular response to superoxide and nitric oxide. In other bacterial groups, however, it may respond to redox-active small molecules, as demonstrated for pyocyanin sensing in pseudomonads. The antibiotic-producing soil bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor contains a gene for an SoxR homologue (SCO1697) whose DNA recognition helix is identical to that of Escherichia coli SoxR. Using the E. coli SoxR binding sequence, we predicted five candidate genes of the SoxR regulon and demonstrated that SoxR binds to their promoter regions and activates their expression concurrently with the production of the blue antibiotic actinorhodin (a benzoisochromanequinone). These genes encode a probable NADPH-dependent flavin reductase (SCO2478), an NADPH-dependent quinone reductase (SCO4266), an ABC transporter (SCO7008), a monooxygenase (SCO1909), and a hypothetical protein (SCO1178). Addition of actinorhodin to exponentially growing cells activated the expression of SoxR target genes in an SoxR-dependent manner. The secreted ?-actinorhodin was over 10-fold more effective in activation than the intracellular form of actinorhodin, suggesting that SoxR is specified to respond more to exogenous signals than to intracellular metabolites. The ?soxR mutant was not compromised in resistance against oxidants but was slow in forming aerial mycelium on R2YE medium with reduced sporulation, and its production of actinorhodin and undecylprodigiosin was lowered by about 50% and 30%, respectively, compared to that of the wild type. These results support the proposal that SoxR senses redox-active molecules, such as actinorhodin in S. coelicolor, and induces a protective function against them. It also functions to ensure that cells undergo optimal differentiation and secondary metabolite production. PMID:21037009

Shin, Jung-Ho; Singh, Atul K; Cheon, Dong-Joo; Roe, Jung-Hye

2010-10-29

187

Mathematical model of GAL regulon dynamics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Genetic switches are prevalent in nature and provide cells with a strategy to adapt to changing environments. The GAL switch is an intriguing example which is not understood in all detail. The GAL switch allows organisms to metabolize galactose, and controls whether the machinery responsible for the galactose metabolism is turned on or off. Currently, it is not known exactly how the galactose signal is sensed by the transcriptional machinery. Here we utilize quantitative tools to understand the S. cerevisiae cell response to galactose challenge, and to analyze the plausible molecular mechanisms underlying its operation. We work at a population level to develop a dynamic model based on the interplay of the key regulatory proteins Gal4p, Gal80p, and Gal3p. To our knowledge, the model presented here is the first to reproduce qualitatively the bistable network behavior found experimentally. Given the current understanding of the GAL circuit induction (Wightman et al., 2008; Jiang et al., 2009), we propose that the most likely in vivo mechanism leading to the transcriptional activation of the GAL genes is the physical interaction between galactose-activated Gal3p and Gal80p, with the complex Gal3p-Gal80p remaining bound at the GAL promoters. Our mathematical model is in agreement with the flow cytometry profiles of wild type, gal3? and gal80? mutant strains from Acar et al. (2005), and involves a fraction of actively transcribing cells with the same qualitative features as in the data set collected by Acar et al. (2010). Furthermore, the computational modeling provides an explanation for the contradictory results obtained by independent laboratories when tackling experimentally the issue of binary versus graded response to galactose induction. PMID:22024631

Apostu, Raluca; Mackey, Michael C

2011-10-19

188

Three Chymotrypsin Genes Are Members of the AdpA Regulon in the A-Factor Regulatory Cascade in Streptomyces griseus  

PubMed Central

AdpA is a key transcriptional activator in the A-factor regulatory cascade in Streptomyces griseus, activating a number of genes required for secondary metabolism and morphological differentiation. Of the five chymotrypsin-type serine protease genes, sprA, sprB, and sprD were transcribed in response to AdpA, showing that these protease genes are members of the AdpA regulon. These proteases were predicted to play the same physiological role, since these protease genes were transcribed in a similar time course during growth and the matured enzymes showed high end-to-end similarity to one another. AdpA bound two sites upstream of the sprA promoter approximately at positions ?375 and ?50 with respect to the transcriptional start point of sprA. Mutational analysis of the AdpA-binding sites showed that both AdpA-binding sites were essential for transcriptional activation. AdpA bound a single site at position ?50 in front of the sprB promoter and greatly enhanced the transcription of sprB. The AdpA-binding site at position ?40 was essential for transcription of sprD, although there was an additional AdpA-binding site at position ?180. Most chymotrypsin activity excreted by S. griseus was attributed to SprA and SprB, because mutant ?sprAB, having a deletion in both sprA and sprB, lost almost all chymotrypsin activity, as did mutant ?adpA. Even the double mutant ?sprAB and triple mutant ?sprABD grew normally and developed aerial hyphae and spores over the same time course as the wild-type strain.

Tomono, Ayami; Tsai, Yisan; Ohnishi, Yasuo; Horinouchi, Sueharu

2005-01-01

189

The Eimeria Transcript DB: an integrated resource for annotated transcripts of protozoan parasites of the genus Eimeria  

PubMed Central

Parasites of the genus Eimeria infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts, including chickens. We have recently reported a comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella, integrating ORESTES data produced by our group and publicly available Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs). All cDNA reads have been assembled, and the reconstructed transcripts have been submitted to a comprehensive functional annotation pipeline. Additional studies included orthology assignment across apicomplexan parasites and clustering analyses of gene expression profiles among different developmental stages of the parasites. To make all this body of information publicly available, we constructed the Eimeria Transcript Database (EimeriaTDB), a web repository that provides access to sequence data, annotation and comparative analyses. Here, we describe the web interface, available sequence data sets and query tools implemented on the site. The main goal of this work is to offer a public repository of sequence and functional annotation data of reconstructed transcripts of parasites of the genus Eimeria. We believe that EimeriaTDB will represent a valuable and complementary resource for the Eimeria scientific community and for those researchers interested in comparative genomics of apicomplexan parasites. Database URL: http://www.coccidia.icb.usp.br/eimeriatdb/

Rangel, Luiz Thiberio; Novaes, Jeniffer; Durham, Alan M.; Madeira, Alda Maria B. N.; Gruber, Arthur

2013-01-01

190

Comparative genomic reconstruction of transcriptional networks controlling central metabolism in the Shewanella genus  

SciTech Connect

Genome-scale prediction of gene regulation and reconstruction of transcriptional regulatory networks in bacteria is one of the critical tasks of modern genomics. Despite the growing number of genome-scale gene expression studies, our abilities to convert the results of these studies into accurate regulatory annotations and to project them from model to other organisms are extremely limited. The comparative genomics approaches and computational identification of regulatory sites are useful for the in silico reconstruction of transcriptional regulatory networks in bacteria. The Shewanella genus is comprised of metabolically versatile gamma-proteobacteria, whose lifestyles and natural environments are substantially different from Escherichia coli and other model bacterial species. To explore conservation and variations in the Shewanella transcriptional networks we analyzed the repertoire of transcription factors and performed genomics-based reconstruction and comparative analysis of regulons in 16 Shewanella genomes. The inferred regulatory network includes 82 transcription factors and their DNA binding sites, 8 riboswitches and 6 translational attenuators. Forty five regulons were newly inferred from the genome context analysis, whereas others were propagated from previously characterized regulons in the Enterobacteria and Pseudomonas spp.. However, even orthologous regulators with conserved DNA-binding motifs may control substantially different gene sets, revealing striking differences in regulatory strategies between the Shewanella spp. and E. coli. Multiple examples of regulatory network rewiring include regulon contraction and expansion (as in the case of PdhR, HexR, FadR), and numerous cases of recruiting non-orthologous regulators to control equivalent pathways (e.g. NagR for N-acetylglucosamine catabolism and PsrA for fatty acid degradation) and, conversely, orthologous regulators to control distinct pathways (e.g. TyrR, ArgR, Crp).

Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Novichkov, Pavel; Stavrovskaya, Elena D.; Rodionova, Irina A.; Li, Xiaoqing; Kazanov, Marat D.; Ravcheev, Dmitry A.; Gerasimova, Anna V.; Kazakov, Alexey E.; Kovaleva, Galina Y.; Permina, Elizabeth A.; Laikova, Olga N.; Overbeek, Ross; Romine, Margaret F.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Arkin, Adam P.; Dubchak, Inna; Osterman, Andrei L.; Gelfand, Mikhail S.

2011-06-15

191

DosS Responds to a Reduced Electron Transport System To Induce the Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosR Regulon?  

PubMed Central

The DosR regulon in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is involved in respiration-limiting conditions, its induction is controlled by two histidine kinases, DosS and DosT, and recent experimental evidence indicates DosS senses either molecular oxygen or a redox change. Under aerobic conditions, induction of the DosR regulon by DosS, but not DosT, was observed after the addition of ascorbate, a powerful cytochrome c reductant, demonstrating that DosS responds to a redox signal even in the presence of high oxygen tension. During hypoxic conditions, regulon induction was attenuated by treatment with compounds that occluded electron flow into the menaquinone pool or decreased the size of the menaquinone pool itself. Increased regulon expression during hypoxia was observed when exogenous menaquinone was added, demonstrating that the menaquinone pool is a limiting factor in regulon induction. Taken together, these data demonstrate that a reduced menaquinone pool directly or indirectly triggers induction of the DosR regulon via DosS. Biochemical analysis of menaquinones upon entry into hypoxic/anaerobic conditions demonstrated the disappearance of the unsaturated species and low-level maintenance of the mono-saturated menaquinone. Relative to the unsaturated form, an analog of the saturated form is better able to induce signaling via DosS and rescue inhibition of menaquinone synthesis and is less toxic. The menaquinone pool is central to the electron transport system (ETS) and therefore provides a mechanistic link between the respiratory state of the bacilli and DosS signaling. Although this report demonstrates that DosS responds to a reduced ETS, it does not rule out a role for oxygen in silencing signaling.

Honaker, Ryan W.; Dhiman, Rakesh K.; Narayanasamy, Prabagaran; Crick, Dean C.; Voskuil, Martin I.

2010-01-01

192

Global Regulatory Impact of ClpP Protease of Staphylococcus aureus on Regulons Involved in Virulence, Oxidative Stress Response, Autolysis, and DNA Repair†  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen, causing a wide range of infections including sepsis, wound infections, pneumonia, and catheter-related infections. In several pathogens ClpP proteases were identified by in vivo expression technologies to be important for virulence. Clp proteolytic complexes are responsible for adaptation to multiple stresses by degrading accumulated and misfolded proteins. In this report clpP, encoding the proteolytic subunit of the ATP-dependent Clp protease, was deleted, and gene expression of ?clpP was determined by global transcriptional analysis using DNA-microarray technology. The transcriptional profile reveals a strong regulatory impact of ClpP on the expression of genes encoding proteins that are involved in the pathogenicity of S. aureus and adaptation of the pathogen to several stresses. Expression of the agr system and agr-dependent extracellular virulence factors was diminished. Moreover, the loss of clpP leads to a complete transcriptional derepression of genes of the CtsR- and HrcA-controlled heat shock regulon and a partial derepression of genes involved in oxidative stress response, metal homeostasis, and SOS DNA repair controlled by PerR, Fur, MntR, and LexA. The levels of transcription of genes encoding proteins involved in adaptation to anaerobic conditions potentially regulated by an Fnr-like regulator were decreased. Furthermore, the expression of genes whose products are involved in autolysis was deregulated, leading to enhanced autolysis in the mutant. Our results indicate a strong impact of ClpP proteolytic activity on virulence, stress response, and physiology in S. aureus.

Michel, Antje; Agerer, Franziska; Hauck, Christof R.; Herrmann, Mathias; Ullrich, Joachim; Hacker, Jorg; Ohlsen, Knut

2006-01-01

193

Inconsistencies of genome annotations in apicomplexan parasites revealed by 5'-end-one-pass and full-length sequences of oligo-capped cDNAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Apicomplexan parasites are causative agents of various diseases including malaria and have been targets of extensive genomic sequencing. We generated 5'-EST collections for six apicomplexa parasites using our full-length oligo-capping cDNA library method. To improve upon the current genome annotations, as well as to validate the importance for physical cDNA clone resources, we generated a large-scale collection of full-length

Hiroyuki Wakaguri; Yutaka Suzuki; Masahide Sasaki; Sumio Sugano; Junichi Watanabe

2009-01-01

194

Ribulokinase and Transcriptional Regulation of Arabinose Metabolism in Clostridium acetobutylicum  

PubMed Central

The transcription factor AraR controls utilization of l-arabinose in Bacillus subtilis. In this study, we combined a comparative genomic reconstruction of AraR regulons in nine Clostridium species with detailed experimental characterization of AraR-mediated regulation in Clostridium acetobutylicum. Based on the reconstructed AraR regulons, a novel ribulokinase, AraK, present in all analyzed Clostridium species was identified, which was a nonorthologous replacement of previously characterized ribulokinases. The predicted function of the araK gene was confirmed by inactivation of the araK gene in C. acetobutylicum and biochemical assays using purified recombinant AraK. In addition to the genes involved in arabinose utilization and arabinoside degradation, extension of the AraR regulon to the pentose phosphate pathway genes in several Clostridium species was revealed. The predicted AraR-binding sites in the C. acetobutylicum genome and the negative effect of l-arabinose on DNA-regulator complex formation were verified by in vitro binding assays. The predicted AraR-controlled genes in C. acetobutylicum were experimentally validated by testing gene expression patterns in both wild-type and araR-inactivated mutant strains during growth in the absence or presence of l-arabinose.

Zhang, Lei; Leyn, Semen A.; Gu, Yang; Jiang, Weihong

2012-01-01

195

A miR-19 regulon that controls NF-?B signaling  

PubMed Central

Fine-tuning of inflammatory responses by microRNAs (miRNAs) is complex, as they can both enhance and repress expression of pro-inflammatory mediators. In this study, we investigate inflammatory responses following global miRNA depletion, to better define the overall contribution of miRNAs to inflammation. We demonstrate that miRNAs positively regulate Toll-like receptor signaling using inducible Dicer1 deletion and global miRNA depletion. We establish an important contribution of miR-19b in this effect, which potentiates nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activity in human and mouse cells. Positive regulation of NF-?B signaling by miR-19b involves the coordinated suppression of a regulon of negative regulators of NF-?B signaling (including A20/Tnfaip3, Rnf11, Fbxl11/Kdm2a and Zbtb16). Transfection of miR-19b mimics exacerbated the inflammatory activation of rheumatoid arthritis primary fibroblast-like synoviocytes, demonstrating its physiological importance in the pathology of this disease. This study constitutes, to our knowledge, the first description of a miR-19 regulon that controls NF-?B signaling, and suggests that targeting this miRNA and linked family members could regulate the activity of NF-?B signaling in inflammation.

Gantier, Michael P.; Stunden, H. James; McCoy, Claire E.; Behlke, Mark A.; Wang, Die; Kaparakis-Liaskos, Maria; Sarvestani, Soroush T.; Yang, Yuan H.; Xu, Dakang; Corr, Sinead C.; Morand, Eric F.; Williams, Bryan R. G.

2012-01-01

196

Characterization of the CopR regulon of Lactococcus lactis IL1403.  

PubMed

To identify components of the copper homeostatic mechanism of Lactococcus lactis, we employed two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to detect changes in the proteome in response to copper. Three proteins upregulated by copper were identified: glyoxylase I (YaiA), a nitroreductase (YtjD), and lactate oxidase (LctO). The promoter regions of these genes feature cop boxes of consensus TACAnnTGTA, which are the binding site of CopY-type copper-responsive repressors. A genome-wide search for cop boxes revealed 28 such sequence motifs. They were tested by electrophoretic mobility shift assays for the interaction with purified CopR, the CopY-type repressor of L. lactis. Seven of the cop boxes interacted with CopR in a copper-sensitive manner. They were present in the promoter region of five genes, lctO, ytjD, copB, ydiD, and yahC; and two polycistronic operons, yahCD-yaiAB and copRZA. Induction of these genes by copper was confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR. The copRZA operon encodes the CopR repressor of the regulon; a copper chaperone, CopZ; and a putative copper ATPase, CopA. When expressed in Escherichia coli, the copRZA operon conferred copper resistance, suggesting that it functions in copper export from the cytoplasm. Other member genes of the CopR regulon may similarly be involved in copper metabolism. PMID:17993525

Magnani, David; Barré, Olivier; Gerber, Simon D; Solioz, Marc

2007-11-09

197

Rewiring of Posttranscriptional RNA Regulons: Puf4p in Fungi as an Example  

PubMed Central

It has been increasingly clear that changes in gene regulation play important roles in physiological and phenotypic evolution. Rewiring gene-regulatory networks, i.e., alteration of the gene-regulation system for different biological functions, has been demonstrated in various species. Posttranscriptional regulons have prominent roles in coordinating gene expression in a variety of eukaryotes. In this study, using Puf4p in fungi as an example, we demonstrate that posttranscriptional regulatory networks can also be rewired during evolution. Although Puf4p is highly conserved in fungi, targets of the posttranscriptional regulon are functionally diverse among known fungal species. In the Saccharomycotina subdivision, target genes of Puf4p mostly conduct function in the nucleolus; however, in the Pezizomycotina subdivision, they are enriched in the mitochondria. Furthermore, we demonstrate different regulation efficiencies of mitochondrial function by PUF proteins in different fungal clades. Our results indicate that rewiring of posttranscription regulatory networks may be an important way of generating genetic novelties in gene regulation during evolution.

Jiang, Huifeng; Guo, Xiaoxian; Xu, Lin; Gu, Zhenglong

2012-01-01

198

A Boolean Model of the Pseudomonas syringae hrp Regulon Predicts a Tightly Regulated System  

PubMed Central

The Type III secretion system (TTSS) is a protein secretion machinery used by certain gram-negative bacterial pathogens of plants and animals to deliver effector molecules to the host and is at the core of the ability to cause disease. Extensive molecular and biochemical study has revealed the components and their interactions within this system but reductive approaches do not consider the dynamical properties of the system as a whole. In order to gain a better understanding of these dynamical behaviours and to create a basis for the refinement of the experimentally derived knowledge we created a Boolean model of the regulatory interactions within the hrp regulon of Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato strain DC3000 Pseudomonas syringae. We compared simulations of the model with experimental data and found them to be largely in accordance, though the hrpV node shows some differences in state changes to that expected. Our simulations also revealed interesting dynamical properties not previously predicted. The model predicts that the hrp regulon is a biologically stable two-state system, with each of the stable states being strongly attractive, a feature indicative of selection for a tightly regulated and responsive system. The model predicts that the state of the GacS/GacA node confers control, a prediction that is consistent with experimental observations that the protein has a role as master regulator. Simulated gene “knock out” experiments with the model predict that HrpL is a central information processing point within the network.

MacLean, Daniel; Studholme, David J.

2010-01-01

199

Cross-Reactive Immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosR Regulon-Encoded Antigens in Individuals Infected with Environmental, Nontuberculous Mycobacteria? †  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosR regulon-encoded antigens are highly immunogenic in M. tuberculosis-infected humans and are associated with latent tuberculosis infection. We have investigated the hypothesis that infection with or exposure to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) can induce cross-reactive immunity to M. tuberculosis DosR regulon-encoded antigens since responsiveness has been observed in non-M. tuberculosis-exposed but purified protein derivative-responsive individuals. M. tuberculosis DosR regulon-encoded antigen-specific T-cell responses were studied in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of NTM-infected/exposed individuals. BLASTP was used to determine the presence of M. tuberculosis DosR regulon-encoded protein orthologs among environmental mycobacteria and nonmycobacteria. Significant gamma interferon production was observed in PBMCs from NTM-infected/exposed individuals in response to M. tuberculosis DosR regulon-encoded antigens. DosR regulon-encoded protein orthologs were prominently present in tuberculous and environmental mycobacteria and surprisingly also in nonmycobacteria. The ubiquitous presence of the highly conserved DosR master regulator protein Rv3133c suggests that this is a general adaptive bacterial response regulator. We report a first series of M. tuberculosis antigens to which cross-reactive immunity is induced by NTM infection/exposure. The high conservation of M. tuberculosis DosR regulon-encoded antigens most likely enables them to induce cross-reactive T-cell responses.

Lin, May Young; Reddy, T. B. K.; Arend, Sandra M.; Friggen, Annemieke H.; Franken, Kees L. M. C.; van Meijgaarden, Krista E.; Verduyn, Marleen J. C.; Schoolnik, Gary K.; Klein, Michel R.; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.

2009-01-01

200

The plant signal salicylic acid shuts down expression of the vir regulon and activates quormone-quenching genes in Agrobacterium  

PubMed Central

Agrobacterium tumefaciens is capable of transferring and integrating an oncogenic T-DNA (transferred DNA) from its tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid into dicotyledonous plants. This transfer requires that the virulence genes (vir regulon) be induced by plant signals such as acetosyringone in an acidic environment. Salicylic acid (SA) is a key signal molecule in regulating plant defense against pathogens. However, how SA influences Agrobacterium and its interactions with plants is poorly understood. Here we show that SA can directly shut down the expression of the vir regulon. SA specifically inhibited the expression of the Agrobacterium virA/G two-component regulatory system that tightly controls the expression of the vir regulon including the repABC operon on the Ti plasmid. We provide evidence suggesting that SA attenuates the function of the VirA kinase domain. Independent of its effect on the vir regulon, SA up-regulated the attKLM operon, which functions in degrading the bacterial quormone N-acylhomoserine lactone. Plants defective in SA accumulation were more susceptible to Agrobacterium infection, whereas plants overproducing SA were relatively recalcitrant to tumor formation. Our results illustrate that SA, besides its well known function in regulating plant defense, can also interfere directly with several aspects of the Agrobacterium infection process.

Yuan, Ze-Chun; Edlind, Merritt P.; Liu, Pu; Saenkham, Panatda; Banta, Lois M.; Wise, Arlene A.; Ronzone, Erik; Binns, Andrew N.; Kerr, Kathleen; Nester, Eugene W.

2007-01-01

201

The Phosphate-Binding Protein of Escherichia coli Is Not Essential for Pi-Regulated Expression of the pho Regulon  

PubMed Central

Disruption of pstS encoding the Pi-binding protein in Escherichia coli generally leads to the constitutive expression of the pho regulon. We demonstrate that Pi-controlled expression is restored when the activity of the Pi transporter PitA or PitB is increased. Apparently, PstS is not an essential component of the signal transduction pathway.

Hoffer, Sally M.; Tommassen, Jan

2001-01-01

202

Immunogenicity of Eight Dormancy Regulon-Encoded Proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in DNA-Vaccinated and Tuberculosis-Infected Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypoxia and low concentrations of nitric oxide have been reported to upregulate in vitro gene expression of 48 proteins of the dormancy (DosR) regulon of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These proteins are thought to be essential for the survival of bacteria during persistence in vivo and are targeted by the immune system during latent infection in humans. Here we have analyzed the

Virginie Roupie; Marta Romano; Lei Zhang; Hannelie Korf; May Young Lin; Kees L. M. C. Franken; Tom H. M. Ottenhoff; Michel R. Klein; Kris Huygen

2007-01-01

203

Modulation of activation-associated host cell gene expression by the apicomplexan parasite Theileria annulata  

PubMed Central

Summary Infection of bovine leucocytes by Theileria annulata results in establishment of transformed, infected cells. Infection of the host cell is known to promote constitutive activation of pro-inflammatory transcription factors that have the potential to be beneficial or detrimental. In this study we have compared the effect of LPS activation on uninfected bovine leucocytes (BL20 cells) and their Theileria-infected counterpart (TBL20). Gene expression profiles representing activated uninfected BL20 relative to TBL20 cells were also compared. The results show that while prolonged stimulation with LPS induces cell death and activation of NF-?B in BL20 cells, the viability of Theileria-infected cells was unaffected. Analysis of gene expression networks provided evidence that the parasite establishes tight control over pathways associated with cellular activation by modulating reception of extrinsic stimuli and by significantly altering the expression outcome of genes targeted by infection-activated transcription factors. Pathway analysis of the data set identified novel candidate genes involved in manipulation of cellular functions associated with the infected transformed cell. The data indicate that the T. annulata parasite can irreversibly reconfigure host cell gene expression networks associated with development of inflammatory disease and cancer to generate an outcome thatis beneficial to survival and propagation of the infected leucocyte.

Durrani, Zeeshan; Weir, William; Pillai, Sreerekha; Kinnaird, Jane; Shiels, Brian

2012-01-01

204

Cross-talk between iron and nitrogen regulatory networks in anabaena (Nostoc) sp. PCC 7120: identification of overlapping genes in FurA and NtcA regulons.  

PubMed

Nitrogen signalling in cyanobacteria involves a complex network in which the availability of iron plays an important role. In the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, iron uptake is controlled by FurA, while NtcA is the master regulator of nitrogen metabolism and shows a mutual dependence with HetR in the first steps of heterocyst development. Expression of FurA is modulated by NtcA and it is enhanced in a hetR(-) background. Iron starvation in cells grown in the presence of combined nitrogen causes a moderate increase in the transcription of glnA that is more evident in a ntcA(-) background. Those results evidence a tight link between the reserves of iron and nitrogen metabolism that leads us to search for target genes potentially co-regulated by FurA and NtcA. Using a bioinformatic approach we have found a significant number of NtcA-regulated genes exhibiting iron boxes in their upstream regions. Our computational predictions have been validated using electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) analysis. These candidates for dual regulation are involved in different functions such as photosynthesis (i.e. psaL, petH, rbcL, isiA), heterocyst differentiation (i.e. xisA, hanA, prpJ, nifH), transcriptional regulation (several alternative sigma factors) or redox balance (i.e. trxA, ftrC, gor). The identification of common elements overlapping the NtcA and FurA regulons allows us to establish a previously unrecognized transcriptional regulatory connection between iron homeostasis, redox control and nitrogen metabolism. PMID:17920076

López-Gomollón, Sara; Hernández, José A; Pellicer, Silvia; Angarica, Vladimir Espinosa; Peleato, M Luisa; Fillat, María F

2007-09-11

205

Rab11A-Controlled Assembly of the Inner Membrane Complex Is Required for Completion of Apicomplexan Cytokinesis  

PubMed Central

The final step during cell division is the separation of daughter cells, a process that requires the coordinated delivery and assembly of new membrane to the cleavage furrow. While most eukaryotic cells replicate by binary fission, replication of apicomplexan parasites involves the assembly of daughters (merozoites/tachyzoites) within the mother cell, using the so-called Inner Membrane Complex (IMC) as a scaffold. After de novo synthesis of the IMC and biogenesis or segregation of new organelles, daughters bud out of the mother cell to invade new host cells. Here, we demonstrate that the final step in parasite cell division involves delivery of new plasma membrane to the daughter cells, in a process requiring functional Rab11A. Importantly, Rab11A can be found in association with Myosin-Tail-Interacting-Protein (MTIP), also known as Myosin Light Chain 1 (MLC1), a member of a 4-protein motor complex called the glideosome that is known to be crucial for parasite invasion of host cells. Ablation of Rab11A function results in daughter parasites having an incompletely formed IMC that leads to a block at a late stage of cell division. A similar defect is observed upon inducible expression of a myosin A tail-only mutant. We propose a model where Rab11A-mediated vesicular traffic driven by an MTIP-Myosin motor is necessary for IMC maturation and to deliver new plasma membrane to daughter cells in order to complete cell division.

Rached, Fathia Ben; Rauch, Manuel; Kretzschmar, Angelika; Thiberge, Sabine; Menard, Robert; Ferguson, David J. P.; Meissner, Markus; Langsley, Gordon

2009-01-01

206

Two Amino Acid Residues from the DNA-binding Domain of MalT Play a Crucial Role in Transcriptional Activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

MalT is the transcriptional activator of theEscherichia colimaltose regulon. Several lines of evidence suggest that MalT might act by interacting with RNA polymerase. Here, we show that ?MalT, the DNA-binding domain of MalT, activates transcription. In order to identify amino acids of ?MalT playing a specific role in activation, and therefore possibly involved in the putative contact(s) with RNA polymerase,

Olivier Danot; Dominique Vidal-Ingigliardi; Olivier Raibaud

1996-01-01

207

Expression of OsDREB2A transcription factor confers enhanced dehydration and salt stress tolerance in rice ( Oryza sativa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress responsive transcriptional regulation is an adaptive strategy of plants that alleviates the adverse effects of environmental\\u000a stresses. The ectopic overexpression of Dehydration-Responsive Element Binding transcription factors (DREBs) either in homologous\\u000a or in heterologous plants improved stress tolerance indicating the DRE\\/DREB regulon is conserved across plants. We developed\\u000a 30 transgenic T0 rice plants overexpressing OsDREB2A which were devoid of any

Garladinne Mallikarjuna; Kokkanti Mallikarjuna; M. K. Reddy; Tanushri Kaul

2011-01-01

208

The organization of the fuc regulon specifying L-fucose dissimilation in Escherichia coli K12 as determined by gene cloning.  

PubMed

In Escherichia coli the six known genes specifying the utilization of L-fucose as carbon and energy source cluster at 60.2 min and constitute a regulon. These genes include fucP (encoding L-fucose permease), fucI (encoding L-fucose isomerase), fucK (encoding L-fuculose kinase), fucA (encoding L-fuculose 1-phosphate aldolase), fucO (encoding L-1,2-propanediol oxidoreductase), and fucR (encoding the regulatory protein). In this study the fuc genes were cloned and their positions on the chromosome were established by restriction endonuclease and complementation analyses. Clockwise, the gene order is: fucO-fucA-fucP-fucI-fucK-fucR. The operons comprising the structural genes and the direction of transcription were determined by complementation analysis and Southern blot hybridization. The fucPIK and fucA operons are transcribed clockwise. The fucO operon is transcribed counterclockwise. The fucR gene product activates the three structural operons in trans. PMID:3325779

Chen, Y M; Zhu, Y; Lin, E C

1987-12-01

209

TrxR, a New CovR-Repressed Response Regulator That Activates the Mga Virulence Regulon in Group A Streptococcus? †  

PubMed Central

Coordinate regulation of virulence factors by the group A streptococcus (GAS) Streptococcus pyogenes is important in this pathogen's ability to cause disease. To further elucidate the regulatory network in this human pathogen, the CovR-repressed two-component system (TCS) trxSR was chosen for further analysis based on its homology to a virulence-related TCS in Streptococcus pneumoniae. In a murine skin infection model, an insertion mutation in the response regulator gene, trxR, led to a significant reduction in lesion size, lesion severity, and lethality. Curing the trxR mutation restored virulence comparable to the wild-type strain. The trxSR operon was defined in vivo, and CovR was found to directly repress its promoter in vitro. DNA microarray analysis established that TrxR activates transcription of Mga-regulated virulence genes, which may explain the virulence attenuation of the trxR mutant. This regulation appears to occur by activation of the mga promoter, Pmga, as demonstrated by analysis of a luciferase reporter fusion. Complementation of the trxR mutant with trxR on a plasmid restored expression of Mga regulon genes and restored virulence in the mouse model to wild-type levels. TrxR is the first TCS shown to regulate Mga expression. Because it is CovR repressed, TrxR defines a new pathway by which CovR can influence Mga to affect pathogenesis in the GAS.

Leday, Temekka V.; Gold, Kathryn M.; Kinkel, Traci L.; Roberts, Samantha A.; Scott, June R.; McIver, Kevin S.

2008-01-01

210

soxR, a locus governing a superoxide response regulon in Escherichia coli K-12  

SciTech Connect

The nfo (endonuclease IV) gene of Escherichia coli is induced by superoxide generators such as paraquat (methyl viologen). An nfo{prime}-lacZ operon fusion was used to isolate extragenic mutations affecting its expression. The mutations also affected the expression of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, Mn{sup 2+}-superoxide dismutase (sodA), and three lacZ fusions to soil (superoxide-inducible) genes of unknown function. The mutations were located 2 kilobases clockwise of ssb at 92 min on the current linkage map. One set of mutations, in a new gene designated soxR, caused constitutive overexpression of nfo and the other genes. It included insertions or deletions affecting the carboxyl end of a 17-kilodalton polypeptide. The results define a new regulon, controlled by soxR, mediating at least part of the global response to superoxide in E. coli.

Tsaneva, I.R.; Weiss, B. (Univ. of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor (USA))

1990-08-01

211

1,3-Propanediol production by Escherichia coli expressing genes from the Klebsiella pneumoniae dha regulon  

SciTech Connect

The dha regulon in Klebsiella pneumoniae enables the organism to grown anaerobically on glycerol and produce 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD). Escherichia coli, which does not have a dha system, is unable to grow anaerobically on glycerol without an exogenous electron acceptor and does not produce 1,3-PD. A genomic library of K. pneumoniae ATCC 25955 constructed in E. coli AG1 was enriched for the ability to grow anaerobically on glycerol and dihydoxyacetone and was screened for the production of 1, 3-PD. The cosmid pTC1 (42.5 kn total with an 18.2-kb major insert) was isolated from a 1,3-PD-producing strain of E. coli and found to possess enzymatic activities associated with four genes of the dha regulon: glycersol dehydratase (dhaB), 1,3-PD oxidoreductase (dhaT), glycerol dehydrogenase (dhaD), and dihydroxyacetone kinase (dhaK). All four activities were inducible by the presence of glycerol. When E. coli AG1/pTC1 was grown on complex medium plus glycerol, the yield of 1, 3-PD from glycerol was 0.46 mol/mol. The major fermentation by-products were formate, acetate, and D-lactate. 1,3-PD is an intermediate in organic synthesis and polymer production. The 1,3-PD fermentation provides a useful model system for studying the interaction of a biochemical pathway in a foreign host and for developing strategies for metabolic pathway engineering.

I-Teh Tong; Hans H. Liao; Cameron, D.C. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States))

1991-12-01

212

Probing regulon of ArcA in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 by integrated genomic analyses  

PubMed Central

Background The Arc two-component system is a global regulator controlling many genes involved in aerobic/anaerobic respiration and fermentative metabolism in Escherichia coli. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 contains a gene encoding a putative ArcA homolog with ~81% amino acid sequence identity to the E. coli ArcA protein but not a full-length arcB gene. Results To understand the role of ArcA in S. oneidensis, an arcA deletion strain was constructed and subjected to both physiological characterization and microarray analysis. Compared to the wild-type MR-1, the mutant exhibited impaired aerobic growth and a defect in utilizing DMSO in the absence of O2. Microarray analyses on cells grown aerobically and anaerobically on fumarate revealed that expression of 1009 genes was significantly affected (p < 0.05) by the mutation. In contrast to E. coli ArcA, the protein appears to be dispensable in regulation of the TCA cycle in S. oneidensis. To further determine genes regulated by the Arc system, an ArcA recognition weight matrix from DNA-binding data and bioinformatics analysis was generated and used to produce an ArcA sequence affinity map. By combining both techniques, we identified an ArcA regulon of at least 50 operons, of which only 6 were found to be directly controlled by ArcA in E. coli. Conclusion These results indicate that the Arc system in S. oneidensis differs from that in E. coli substantially in terms of its physiological function and regulon while their binding motif are strikingly similar.

Gao, Haichun; Wang, Xiaohu; Yang, Zamin K; Palzkill, Timothy; Zhou, Jizhong

2008-01-01

213

Probing regulon of ArcA in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 by integrated genomic analyses  

SciTech Connect

The Arc two-component system is a global regulator controlling many genes involved in aerobic/anaerobic respiration and fermentative metabolism in Escherichia coli. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 contains a gene encoding a putative ArcA homolog with {approx} 81% amino acid sequence identity to the E. coli ArcA protein but not a full-length arcB gene. To understand the role of ArcA in S. oneidensis, an arcA deletion strain was constructed and subjected to both physiological characterization and microarray analysis. Compared to the wild-type MR-1, the mutant exhibited impaired aerobic growth and a defect in utilizing DMSO in the absence of O{sub 2}. Microarray analyses on cells grown aerobically and anaerobically on fumarate revealed that expression of 1009 genes was significantly affected (p < 0.05) by the mutation. In contrast to E. coli ArcA, the protein appears to be dispensable in regulation of the TCA cycle in S. oneidensis. To further determine genes regulated by the Arc system, an ArcA recognition weight matrix from DNA-binding data and bioinformatics analysis was generated and used to produce an ArcA sequence affinity map. By combining both techniques, we identified an ArcA regulon of at least 50 operons, of which only 6 were found to be directly controlled by ArcA in E. coli. These results indicate that the Arc system in S. oneidensis differs from that in E. coli substantially in terms of its physiological function and regulon while their binding motif are strikingly similar.

Gao, Haichun [University of Oklahoma; Wang, Xiaohu [Baylor College of Medicine, Huston; Yang, Zamin Koo [ORNL; Palzkill, Timothy [Baylor College of Medicine, Huston; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma

2008-01-01

214

Combined Amplicon Pyrosequencing Assays Reveal Presence of the Apicomplexan "type-N" (cf. Gemmocystis cylindrus) and Chromera velia on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia  

PubMed Central

Background The coral is predominantly composed of the metabolically dependent coral host and the photosynthetic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp. The system as a whole interacts with symbiotic eukaryotes, bacteria and viruses. Gemmocystiscylindrus (cf. “type-N” symbiont) belonging to the obligatory parasitic phylum Apicomplexa (Alveolata) is ubiquitous in the Caribbean coral, but its presence in the Great Barrier Reef coral has yet to be documented. Approaches allowing identification of the healthy community from the pathogenic or saprobic organisms are needed for sustainable coral reef monitoring. Methods & Principal Findings We investigated the diversity of eukaryotes associated with a common reef-building corals from the southern Great Barrier Reef. We used three tag encoded 454 amplicon pyrosequencing assays targeting eukaryote small-subunit rRNA gene to demonstrate the presence of the apicomplexan type-N and a photosynthetic sister species to Apicomplexa - Chromeravelia. Amplicon pyrosequencing revealed presence of the small-subunit rRNA genes of known eukaryotic pathogens (Cryptosporidium and Cryptococcus). We therefore conducted bacterial tag encoded amplicon pyrosequencing assay for small-subunit rRNA gene to support effluent exposure of the coral. Bacteria of faecal origin (Enterobacteriales) formed 41% of total sequences in contrast to 0-2% of the coral-associated bacterial communities with and without C. velia, respectively. Significance This is the first time apicomplexan type-N has been detected in the Great Barrier Reef. Eukaryote tag encoded amplicon pyrosequencing assays demonstrate presence of apicomplexan type-N and C. Velia in total coral DNA. The data highlight the need for combined approaches for eukaryotic diversity studies coupled with bacterial community assessment to achieve a more realistic goals of defining the holobiont community and assessing coral disease. With increasing evidence of Apicomplexa in coral reef environments, it is important not only to understand the evolution of these organisms but also identify their potential as pathogens.

Slapeta, Jan; Linares, Marjorie C.

2013-01-01

215

CcpA Causes Repression of the phoPR Promoter through a Novel Transcription Start Site, PA6  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bacillus subtilis PhoPR two-component system is directly responsible for activation or repression of Pho regulon genes in response to phosphate deprivation. The response regulator, PhoP, and the histidine kinase, PhoR, are encoded in a single operon with a complex promoter region that contains five known transcription start sites, which respond to at least two regulatory proteins. We report here

Ankita Puri-Taneja; Salbi Paul; Yinghua Chen; F. Marion Hulett

2006-01-01

216

Deep Sequencing Analysis of Small Noncoding RNA and mRNA Targets of the Global PostTranscriptional Regulator, Hfq  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in high-throughput pyrosequencing (HTPS) technology now allow a thorough analysis of RNA bound to cellular proteins, and, therefore, of post-transcriptional regulons. We used HTPS to discover the Salmonella RNAs that are targeted by the common bacterial Sm-like protein, Hfq. Initial transcriptomic analysis revealed that Hfq controls the expression of almost a fifth of all Salmonella genes, including several

Alexandra Sittka; Sacha Lucchini; Kai Papenfort; Cynthia M. Sharma; Katarzyna Rolle; Tim T. Binnewies; Jay C. D. Hinton; Jörg Vogel

2008-01-01

217

Differential Regulation of Multiple Proteins of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium by the Transcriptional Regulator SlyA  

Microsoft Academic Search

SlyA is a transcriptional regulator of Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, and other bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae. The SlyA protein has been shown to be involved in the virulence of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, but its role in E. coli is unclear. In this study, we employed the proteome technology to analyze the SlyA regulons of enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC)

Andrea Spory; Armin Bosserhoff; Christine von Rhein; Werner Goebel; Albrecht Ludwig

2002-01-01

218

RcoM: A New Single-Component Transcriptional Regulator of CO Metabolism in Bacteria?  

PubMed Central

Genomic analysis suggested the existence of a CO-sensing bacterial transcriptional regulator that couples an N-terminal PAS fold domain to a C-terminal DNA-binding LytTR domain. UV/visible-light spectral analyses of heterologously expressed, purified full-length proteins indicated that they contained a hexacoordinated b-type heme moiety that avidly binds CO and NO. Studies of protein variants strongly suggested that the PAS domain residues His74 and Met104 serve as the heme Fe(II) axial ligands, with displacement of Met104 upon binding of the gaseous effectors. Two RcoM (regulator of CO metabolism) homologs were shown to function in vivo as CO sensors capable of regulating an aerobic CO oxidation (cox) regulon. The genetic linkage of rcoM with both aerobic (cox) and anaerobic (coo) CO oxidation systems suggests that in different organisms RcoM proteins may control either regulon type.

Kerby, Robert L.; Youn, Hwan; Roberts, Gary P.

2008-01-01

219

Analysis of the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ArcA Regulon Identifies Fumarate Reductase as a Determinant of Virulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

response to anaerobic conditions, and we recently showed that an A. pleuropneumoniae arcA mutant had reduced virulence compared to the wild type (F. F. Buettner, A. Maas, and G.-F. Gerlach, Vet. Microbiol. 127:106-115, 2008). In order to understand the attenuated phenotype, we investigated the ArcA regulon of A. pleuropneumoniae by using a combination of transcriptome (microarray) and proteome (two-dimensional difference

Falk F. R. Buettner; Ibrahim M. Bendallah; Janine T. Bosse; Karla Dreckmann; John H. E. Nash; Paul R. Langford; G.-F. Gerlach

2008-01-01

220

In silico analysis reveals substantial variability in the gene contents of the gamma proteobacteria LexA-regulon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: Motif-prediction algorithm capabilities for the anal- ysis of bacterial regulatory networks and the prediction of new regulatory sites can be greatly enhanced by the use of com- parative genomics approaches. In this study, we make use of a consensus-building algorithm and comparative genomics to conduct an in-depth analysis of the LexA-regulon of gamma proteobacteria, and we use the inferred

Ivan Erill; Marcos Escribano; Susana Campoy; Jordi Barbé

2003-01-01

221

Lack of Immune Responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosR Regulon Proteins following Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vaccination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium bovis BCG is widely used as a vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), despite its variable protective efficacy. Relatively little is known about the immune response profiles following BCG vaccination in relation to protection against TB. Here we tested whether BCG vaccination results in immune responses to DosR (Rv3133c) regulon-encoded proteins. These so-called TB latency antigens are targeted by the immune

M. Y. Lin; A. Geluk; S. G. Smith; A. L. Stewart; A. H. Friggen; K. L. M. C. Franken; M. J. C. Verduyn; K. E. van Meijgaarden; M. I. Voskuil; H. M. Dockrell; K. Huygen; T. H. M. Ottenhoff; M. R. Klein

2007-01-01

222

The W-Beijing Lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Overproduces Triglycerides and Has the DosR Dormancy Regulon Constitutively Upregulated?  

PubMed Central

The Beijing family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains has been associated with epidemic spread and an increased likelihood of developing drug resistance. The characteristics that predispose this family to such clinical outcomes have not been identified, although one potential candidate, the phenolic glycolipid PGL-tb, has been shown to mediate a fulminant lethal disease in mice and rabbits due to lipid-mediated immunosuppression. However, PGL-tb is not uniformly expressed throughout the Beijing lineage and may not be the only unique virulence trait associated with this family. In an attempt to define phenotypes common to all Beijing strains, we interrogated a carefully selected set of isolates representing the five extant lineages of the Beijing family. Comparison of lipid production in this set revealed that all Beijing strains accumulated large quantities of triacylglycerides in in vitro aerobic culture. This accumulation was found to be coincident with upregulation of Rv3130c, whose product was previously characterized as a triacylglyceride synthase. Rv3130c is a member of the DosR-controlled regulon of M. tuberculosis, and further examination revealed that several members of this regulon were upregulated throughout this strain family. The upregulation of the DosR regulon may confer an adaptive advantage for growth in microaerophilic or anaerobic environments encountered by the bacillus during infection and thus may be related to the epidemiological phenomena associated with this important strain lineage.

Reed, Michael B.; Gagneux, Sebastien; DeRiemer, Kathryn; Small, Peter M.; Barry, Clifton E.

2007-01-01

223

Comprehensive assessment of the regulons controlled by the FixLJ-FixK2-FixK1 cascade in Bradyrhizobium japonicum.  

PubMed

Symbiotic N(2) fixation in Bradyrhizobium japonicum is controlled by a complex transcription factor network. Part of it is a hierarchically arranged cascade in which the two-component regulatory system FixLJ, in response to a moderate decrease in oxygen concentration, activates the fixK(2) gene. The FixK(2) protein then activates not only a number of genes essential for microoxic respiration in symbiosis (fixNOQP and fixGHIS) but also further regulatory genes (rpoN(1), nnrR, and fixK(1)). The results of transcriptome analyses described here have led to a comprehensive and expanded definition of the FixJ, FixK(2), and FixK(1) regulons, which, respectively, consist of 26, 204, and 29 genes specifically regulated in microoxically grown cells. Most of these genes are subject to positive control. Particular attention was addressed to the FixK(2)-dependent genes, which included a bioinformatics search for putative FixK(2) binding sites on DNA (FixK(2) boxes). Using an in vitro transcription assay with RNA polymerase holoenzyme and purified FixK(2) as the activator, we validated as direct targets eight new genes. Interestingly, the adjacent but divergently oriented fixK(1) and cycS genes shared the same FixK(2) box for the activation of transcription in both directions. This recognition site may also be a direct target for the FixK(1) protein, because activation of the cycS promoter required an intact fixK(1) gene and either microoxic or anoxic, denitrifying conditions. We present evidence that cycS codes for a c-type cytochrome which is important, but not essential, for nitrate respiration. Two other, unexpected results emerged from this study: (i) specifically FixK(1) seemed to exert a negative control on genes that are normally activated by the N(2) fixation-specific transcription factor NifA, and (ii) a larger number of genes are expressed in a FixK(2)-dependent manner in endosymbiotic bacteroids than in culture-grown cells, pointing to a possible symbiosis-specific control. PMID:18689489

Mesa, Socorro; Hauser, Felix; Friberg, Markus; Malaguti, Emmanuelle; Fischer, Hans-Martin; Hennecke, Hauke

2008-08-08

224

Transcriptional response of Escherichia coli to external copper.  

PubMed

Transcriptional response of Escherichia coli upon exposure to external copper was studied using DNA microarray and in vivo and in vitro transcription assays. Transcription of three hitherto-identified copper-responsive genes, copA (copper efflux transporter), cueO (multicopper oxidase) and cusC (tripartite copper pump component) became maximum at 5 min after addition of copper sulphate, and thereafter decreased to the preshift levels within 30 min. Microarray analysis at 5 min after addition of copper indicated that a total of at least 29 genes including these three known genes were markedly and specifically affected (28 upregulated and one downregulated). Transcription of the divergent operons, cusCFB and cusRS, was found to be activated by CusR, which bound to a CusR box between the cusC and cusR promoters. Except for this site, the CusR box was not identified in the entire E. coli genome. On the other hand, transcription of copA and cueO was found to be activated by another copper-responsive factor CueR, which bound to a conserved inverted repeat sequence, CueR box. A total of 197 CueR boxes were identified on the E. coli genome, including the CueR box associated with the moa operon for molybdenum cofactor synthesis. At least 10 copper-induced genes were found to be under the control of CpxAR two-component system, indicating that copper is one of the signals for activation of the CpxAR system. In addition, transcription of yedWV, a putative two-component system, was activated by copper in CusR-dependent manner. Taken together we conclude that the copper-responsive genes are organized into a hierarchy of the regulation network, forming at least four regulons, i.e. CueR, CusR, CpxR and YedW regulons. These copper-responsive regulons appear to sense and respond to different concentrations of external copper. PMID:15773991

Yamamoto, Kaneyoshi; Ishihama, Akira

2005-04-01

225

Transcription factors in Escherichia coli prefer the holo conformation.  

PubMed

The transcriptional regulatory network of Escherichia coli K-12 is among the best studied gene networks of any living cell. Transcription factors bind to DNA either with their effector bound (holo conformation), or as a free protein (apo conformation) regulating transcription initiation. By using RegulonDB, the functional conformations (holo or apo) of transcription factors, and their mode of regulation (activator, repressor, or dual) were exhaustively analyzed. We report a striking discovery in the architecture of the regulatory network, finding a strong under-representation of the apo conformation (without allosteric metabolite) of transcription factors when binding to their DNA sites to activate transcription. This observation is supported at the level of individual regulatory interactions on promoters, even if we exclude the promoters regulated by global transcription factors, where three-quarters of the known promoters are regulated by a transcription factor in holo conformation. This genome-scale analysis enables us to ask what are the implications of these observations for the physiology and for our understanding of the ecology of E. coli. We discuss these ideas within the framework of the demand theory of gene regulation. PMID:23776535

Balderas-Martínez, Yalbi Itzel; Savageau, Michael; Salgado, Heladia; Pérez-Rueda, Ernesto; Morett, Enrique; Collado-Vides, Julio

2013-06-12

226

MicA sRNA links the PhoP regulon to cell envelope stress  

PubMed Central

Numerous small RNAs regulators of gene expression exist in bacteria. A large class of them binds to the RNA chaperone Hfq and act by base-pairing interactions with their target-mRNA, thereby affecting their translation and/or stability. They often have multiple direct targets, some of which may be regulators themselves, and production of a single sRNA can therefore affect the expression of dozens of genes. We show in this study that the synthesis of the E. coli pleiotropic PhoPQ two-component system is repressed by MicA, a ?E-dependent sRNA regulator of porin biogenesis. MicA directly pairs with phoPQ mRNA in the translation initiation region of phoP and presumably inhibits translation by competiting with ribosome binding. Consequently, MicA down-regulates several members of the PhoPQ regulon. By linking PhoPQ to ?E, our findings suggest that major cellular processes such as Mg2+ transport, virulence, LPS modification or resistance to antimicrobial peptides are modulated in response to envelope stress. In addition, we found that Hfq strongly affects the expression of phoP independently of MicA, raising the possibility that even more sRNAs, that remain to be identified, could regulate PhoPQ synthesis.

Coornaert, Audrey; Lu, Alisa; Mandin, Pierre; Springer, Mathias; Gottesman, Susan; Guillier, Maude

2010-01-01

227

Computational prediction of the Crc regulon identifies genus-wide and species-specific targets of catabolite repression control in Pseudomonas bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background Catabolite repression control (CRC) is an important global control system in Pseudomonas that fine tunes metabolism in order optimise growth and metabolism in a range of different environments. The mechanism of CRC in Pseudomonas spp. centres on the binding of a protein, Crc, to an A-rich motif on the 5' end of an mRNA resulting in translational down-regulation of target genes. Despite the identification of several Crc targets in Pseudomonas spp. the Crc regulon has remained largely unexplored. Results In order to predict direct targets of Crc, we used a bioinformatics approach based on detection of A-rich motifs near the initiation of translation of all protein-encoding genes in twelve fully sequenced Pseudomonas genomes. As expected, our data predict that genes related to the utilisation of less preferred nutrients, such as some carbohydrates, nitrogen sources and aromatic carbon compounds are targets of Crc. A general trend in this analysis is that the regulation of transporters is conserved across species whereas regulation of specific enzymatic steps or transcriptional activators are often conserved only within a species. Interestingly, some nucleoid associated proteins (NAPs) such as HU and IHF are predicted to be regulated by Crc. This finding indicates a possible role of Crc in indirect control over a subset of genes that depend on the DNA bending properties of NAPs for expression or repression. Finally, some virulence traits such as alginate and rhamnolipid production also appear to be regulated by Crc, which links nutritional status cues with the regulation of virulence traits. Conclusions Catabolite repression control regulates a broad spectrum of genes in Pseudomonas. Some targets are genus-wide and are typically related to central metabolism, whereas other targets are species-specific, or even unique to particular strains. Further study of these novel targets will enhance our understanding of how Pseudomonas bacteria integrate nutritional status cues with the regulation of traits that are of ecological, industrial and clinical importance.

2010-01-01

228

Investigation of the Staphylococcus aureus GraSR Regulon Reveals Novel Links to Virulence, Stress Response and Cell Wall Signal Transduction Pathways  

PubMed Central

The GraS/GraR two-component system has been shown to control cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) resistance in the major human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. We demonstrated that graX, also involved in CAMP resistance and cotranscribed with graRS, encodes a regulatory cofactor of the GraSR signaling pathway, effectively constituting a three-component system. We identified a highly conserved ten base pair palindromic sequence (5? ACAAA TTTGT 3?) located upstream from GraR-regulated genes (mprF and the dlt and vraFG operons), which we show to be essential for transcriptional regulation by GraR and induction in response to CAMPs, suggesting it is the likely GraR binding site. Genome-based predictions and transcriptome analysis revealed several novel GraR target genes. We also found that the GraSR TCS is required for growth of S. aureus at high temperatures and resistance to oxidative stress. The GraSR system has previously been shown to play a role in S. aureus pathogenesis and we have uncovered previously unsuspected links with the AgrCA peptide quorum-sensing system controlling virulence gene expression. We also show that the GraSR TCS controls stress reponse and cell wall metabolism signal transduction pathways, sharing an extensive overlap with the WalKR regulon. This is the first report showing a role for the GraSR TCS in high temperature and oxidative stress survival and linking this system to stress response, cell wall and pathogenesis control pathways.

Falord, Melanie; Mader, Ulrike; Hiron, Aurelia; Debarbouille, Michel; Msadek, Tarek

2011-01-01

229

Transcript versus transcription?  

PubMed

Numerous sense-antisense gene pairs have been discovered in various organisms. Antisense genes play important roles in establishing parentally imprinted gene expression patterns in mammals. Typically, protein-coding sense genes are reciprocally regulated by their non-coding antisense partners. One example for antisense regulation is the Xist (X-inactive specific transcript) and Tsix gene pair, which is pivotal in X-inactivation. Xist works as a functional RNA molecule that recruits repressive chromatin factors towards one of the female Xs for inactivation. Antisense Tsix transcription negatively regulates Xist and protects one X-chromosome in cis from inactivation by Xist. Albeit, the precise molecular mechanism is still obscure it has been shown that Tsix transcription regulates the chromatin structure by altering histone tail modifications and DNA methylation at the Xist promoter. In addition, Xist and Tsix RNA form an RNA duplexes in vivo and are processed to small RNAs, which have a potential regulatory function. Here we review the latest findings and based on ample experimental data consider models for antisense-mediated gene regulation in X-inactivation. PMID:19013827

Shibata, Shinwa; Wutz, Anton

2008-09-01

230

Comparative Apicomplexan genomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power of comparative genomics has, until recently, been limited to model organisms and prokaryotes, mainly because of the cost and difficulty of sequencing eukaryotic genomes. However, as costs fall and technology advances, comparative genomics are more widely applied. In addition to a member of the Chloroflexi, two specific examples from the parasitic world are also discussed this week, both

Arnab Pain; Lisa Crossman; Julian Parkhill

2005-01-01

231

Comparative Genomics of CytR, an Unusual Member of the LacI Family of Transcription Factors  

PubMed Central

CytR is a transcription regulator from the LacI family, present in some gamma-proteobacteria including Escherichia coli and known not only for its cellular role, control of transport and utilization of nucleosides, but for a number of unusual structural properties. The present study addressed three related problems: structure of CytR-binding sites and motifs, their evolutionary conservation, and identification of new members of the CytR regulon. While the majority of CytR-binding sites are imperfect inverted repeats situated between binding sites for another transcription factor, CRP, other architectures were observed, in particular, direct repeats. While the similarity between sites for different genes in one genome is rather low, and hence the consensus motif is weak, there is high conservation of orthologous sites in different genomes (mainly in the Enterobacteriales) arguing for the presence of specific CytR-DNA contacts. On larger evolutionary distances candidate CytR sites may migrate but the approximate distance between flanking CRP sites tends to be conserved, which demonstrates that the overall structure of the CRP-CytR-DNA complex is gene-specific. The analysis yielded candidate CytR-binding sites for orthologs of known regulon members in less studied genomes of the Enterobacteriales and Vibrionales and identified a new candidate member of the CytR regulon, encoding a transporter named NupT (YcdZ).

Sernova, Natalia V.; Gelfand, Mikhail S.

2012-01-01

232

Large-scale mapping and validation of Escherichia coli transcriptional regulation from a compendium of expression profiles.  

PubMed

Machine learning approaches offer the potential to systematically identify transcriptional regulatory interactions from a compendium of microarray expression profiles. However, experimental validation of the performance of these methods at the genome scale has remained elusive. Here we assess the global performance of four existing classes of inference algorithms using 445 Escherichia coli Affymetrix arrays and 3,216 known E. coli regulatory interactions from RegulonDB. We also developed and applied the context likelihood of relatedness (CLR) algorithm, a novel extension of the relevance networks class of algorithms. CLR demonstrates an average precision gain of 36% relative to the next-best performing algorithm. At a 60% true positive rate, CLR identifies 1,079 regulatory interactions, of which 338 were in the previously known network and 741 were novel predictions. We tested the predicted interactions for three transcription factors with chromatin immunoprecipitation, confirming 21 novel interactions and verifying our RegulonDB-based performance estimates. CLR also identified a regulatory link providing central metabolic control of iron transport, which we confirmed with real-time quantitative PCR. The compendium of expression data compiled in this study, coupled with RegulonDB, provides a valuable model system for further improvement of network inference algorithms using experimental data. PMID:17214507

Faith, Jeremiah J; Hayete, Boris; Thaden, Joshua T; Mogno, Ilaria; Wierzbowski, Jamey; Cottarel, Guillaume; Kasif, Simon; Collins, James J; Gardner, Timothy S

2007-01-01

233

RegTransBase - a database of regulatory sequences and interactions based on literature: a resource for investigating transcriptional regulation in prokaryotes  

PubMed Central

Background Due to the constantly growing number of sequenced microbial genomes, comparative genomics has been playing a major role in the investigation of regulatory interactions in bacteria. Regulon inference mostly remains a field of semi-manual examination since absence of a knowledgebase and informatics platform for automated and systematic investigation restricts opportunities for computational prediction. Additionally, confirming computationally inferred regulons by experimental data is critically important. Description RegTransBase is an open-access platform with a user-friendly web interface publicly available at http://regtransbase.lbl.gov. It consists of two databases – a manually collected hierarchical regulatory interactions database based on more than 7000 scientific papers which can serve as a knowledgebase for verification of predictions, and a large set of curated by experts transcription factor binding sites used in regulon inference by a variety of tools. RegTransBase captures the knowledge from published scientific literature using controlled vocabularies and contains various types of experimental data, such as: the activation or repression of transcription by an identified direct regulator; determination of the transcriptional regulatory function of a protein (or RNA) directly binding to DNA or RNA; mapping of binding sites for a regulatory protein; characterization of regulatory mutations. Analysis of the data collected from literature resulted in the creation of Putative Regulons from Experimental Data that are also available in RegTransBase. Conclusions RegTransBase is a powerful user-friendly platform for the investigation of regulation in prokaryotes. It uses a collection of validated regulatory sequences that can be easily extracted and used to infer regulatory interactions by comparative genomics techniques thus assisting researchers in the interpretation of transcriptional regulation data.

2013-01-01

234

Tiling array study of MNNG treated Escherichia coli reveals a widespread transcriptional response.  

PubMed

The alkylating agent N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) is known to trigger the adaptive response by inducing the ada-regulon - consisting of three DNA repair enzymes Ada, AlkB, AlkA and the enigmatic AidB. We have applied custom designed tiling arrays to study transcriptional changes in Escherichia coli following a MNNG challenge. Along with the expected upregulation of the adaptive response genes (ada, alkA and alkB), we identified a number of differentially expressed transcripts, both novel and annotated. This indicates a wider regulatory response than previously documented. There were 250 differentially-expressed and 2275 similarly-expressed unannotated transcripts. We found novel upregulation of several stress-induced transcripts, including the SOS inducible genes recN and tisAB, indicating a novel role for these genes in alkylation repair. Furthermore, the ada-regulon A and B boxes were found to be insufficient to explain the regulation of the adaptive response genes after MNNG exposure, suggesting that additional regulatory elements must be involved. PMID:24157950

Booth, James A; Thomassen, Gard O S; Rowe, Alexander D; Weel-Sneve, Ragnhild; Lagesen, Karin; Kristiansen, Knut I; Bjørås, Magnar; Rognes, Torbjørn; Lindvall, Jessica M

2013-10-25

235

Environmental conditions and transcriptional regulation in Escherichia coli: a physiological integrative approach.  

PubMed

Bacteria develop a number of devices for sensing, responding, and adapting to different environmental conditions. Understanding within a genomic perspective how the transcriptional machinery of bacteria is modulated, as a response for changing conditions, is a major challenge for biologists. Knowledge of which genes are turned on or turned off under specific conditions is essential for our understanding of cell behavior. In this study we describe how the information pertaining to gene expression and associated growth conditions (even with very little knowledge of the associated regulatory mechanisms) is gathered from the literature and incorporated into RegulonDB, a database on transcriptional regulation and operon organization in E. coli. The link between growth conditions, signal transduction, and transcriptional regulation is modeled in the database in a simple format that highlights biological relevant information. As far as we know, there is no other database that explicitly clarifies the effect of environmental conditions on gene transcription. We discuss how this knowledge constitutes a benchmark that will impact future research aimed at integration of regulatory responses in the cell; for instance, analysis of microarrays, predicting culture behavior in biotechnological processes, and comprehension of dynamics of regulatory networks. This integrated knowledge will contribute to the future goal of modeling the behavior of E. coli as an entire cell. The RegulonDB database can be accessed on the web at the URL: http://www.cifn.unam.mx/Computational_Biology/regulondb/. PMID:14708114

Martínez-Antonio, Agustino; Salgado, Heladia; Gama-Castro, Socorro; Gutiérrez-Ríos, Rosa María; Jiménez-Jacinto, Verónica; Collado-Vides, Julio

2003-12-30

236

A mutant crp allele that differentially activates the operons of the fuc regulon in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

L-Fucose is used by Escherichia coli through an inducible pathway mediated by a fucP-encoded permease, a fucI-encoded isomerase, a fucK-encoded kinase, and a fucA-encoded aldolase. The adolase catalyzes the formation of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and L-lactaldehyde. Anaerobically, lactaldehyde is converted by a fucO-encoded oxidoreductase to L-1,2-propanediol, which is excreted. The fuc genes belong to a regulon comprising four linked operons: fucO, fucA, fucPIK, and fucR. The positive regulator encoded by fucR responds to fuculose 1-phosphate as the effector. Mutants serially selected for aerobic growth on propanediol became constitutive in fucO and fucA [fucO(Con) fucA(Con)], but noninducible in fucPIK [fucPIK(Non)]. An external suppressor mutation that restored growth on fucose caused constitutive expression of fucPIK. Results from this study indicate that this suppressor mutation occurred in crp, which encodes the cyclic AMP-binding (or receptor) protein. When the suppressor allele (crp-201) was transduced into wild-type strains, the recipient became fucose negative and fucose sensitive (with glycerol as the carbon and energy source) because of impaired expression of fucA. The fucPIK operon became hyperinducible. The growth rate on maltose was significantly reduced, but growth on L-rhamnose, D-galactose, L-arabinose, glycerol, or glycerol 3-phosphate was close to normal. Lysogenization of fuc+ crp-201 cells by a lambda bacteriophage bearing crp+ restored normal growth ability on fucose. In contrast, lysogenization of [fucO(Con)fucA(Con)fucPIK(Non)crp-201] cells by the same phage retarded their growth on fucose. PMID:2834341

Zhu, Y; Lin, E C

1988-05-01

237

Microarray-Based Identification of a Novel Streptococcus pneumoniae Regulon Controlled by an Autoinduced Peptide  

PubMed Central

We have identified in the Streptococcus pneumoniae genome sequence a two-component system (TCS13, Blp [bacteriocin-like peptide]) which is closely related to quorum-sensing systems regulating cell density-dependent phenotypes such as the development of genetic competence or the production of antimicrobial peptides in lactic acid bacteria. In this study we present evidence that TCS13 is a peptide-sensing system that controls a regulon including genes encoding Blps. Downstream of the Blp TCS (BlpH R) we identified open reading frames (blpAB) that have the potential to encode an ABC transporter that is homologous to the ComA/B export system for the competence-stimulating peptide ComC. The putative translation product of blpC, a small gene located downstream of blpAB, has a leader peptide with a Gly-Gly motif. This leader peptide is typical of precursors processed by this family of transporters. Microarray-based expression profiling showed that a synthetic oligopeptide corresponding to the processed form of BlpC (BlpC*) induces a distinct set of 16 genes. The changes in the expression profile elicited by synthetic BlpC* depend on BlpH since insertional inactivation of its corresponding gene abolishes differential gene induction. Comparison of the promoter regions of the blp genes disclosed a conserved sequence element formed by two imperfect direct repeats upstream of extended ?10 promoter elements. We propose that BlpH is the sensor for BlpC* and the conserved sequence element is a recognition sequence for the BlpR response regulator.

de Saizieu, Antoine; Gardes, Christophe; Flint, Nicholas; Wagner, Christian; Kamber, Markus; Mitchell, Timothy J.; Keck, Wolfgang; Amrein, Kurt E.; Lange, Roland

2000-01-01

238

Extending the classification of bacterial transcription factors beyond the helix-turn-helix motif as an alternative approach to discover new cis/trans relationships.  

PubMed

Transcription factors (TFs) of bacterial helix-turn-helix superfamilies exhibit different effector-binding domains (EBDs) fused to a DNA-binding domain with a common feature. In a previous study of the GntR superfamily, we demonstrated that classifying members into subfamilies according to the EBD heterogeneity highlighted unsuspected and accurate TF-binding site signatures. In this work, we present how such in silico analysis can provide prediction tools to discover new cis/trans relationships. The TF-binding site consensus of the HutC/GntR subfamily was used to (i) predict target sites within the Streptomyces coelicolor genome, (ii) discover a new HutC/GntR regulon and (iii) discover its specific TF. By scanning the S.coelicolor genome we identified a presumed new HutC regulon that comprises genes of the phosphotransferase system (PTS) specific for the uptake of N-acetylglucosamine (PTS(Nag)). A weight matrix was derived from the compilation of the predicted cis-acting elements upstream of each gene of the presumed regulon. Under the assumption that TFs are often subject to autoregulation, we used this matrix to scan the upstream region of the 24 HutC-like members of S.coelicolor. orf SCO5231 (dasR) was selected as the best candidate according to the high score of a 16 bp sequence identified in its upstream region. Our prediction that DasR regulates the PTS(Nag) regulon was confirmed by in vivo and in vitro experiments. In conclusion, our in silico approach permitted to highlight the specific TF of a regulon out of the 673 orfs annotated as 'regulatory proteins' within the genome of S.coelicolor. PMID:15247334

Rigali, Sébastien; Schlicht, Maximilian; Hoskisson, Paul; Nothaft, Harald; Merzbacher, Matthias; Joris, Bernard; Titgemeyer, Fritz

2004-06-24

239

CANDIDATE REGULATORS OF THE COLD STRESS RESPONSE GENE REGULON OF RICE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Transcriptional regulatory network is an important component of the mechanisms that define the adaptive responses of plants to cold stress. In cold-acclimating plants, the centerpiece of such network is the CBF/DREB family of AP2-type transcription factors. In non-acclimating plants like rice, the n...

240

Elucidating the Regulon of Multidrug Resistance Regulator RarA in Klebsiella pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

RarA is an AraC-type regulator in Klebsiella pneumoniae, which, when overexpressed, confers a low-level multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotype linked to the upregulation of both the acrAB and oqxAB efflux genes. Increased rarA expression has also been shown to be integral in the development of tigecycline resistance in the absence of ramA in K. pneumoniae. Given its phenotypic role in MDR, microarray analyses were performed to determine the RarA regulon. Transcriptome analysis was undertaken using strains Ecl8?rarA/pACrarA-2 (rarA-expressing construct) and Ecl8?rarA/pACYC184 (vector-only control) using bespoke microarray slides consisting of probes derived from the genomic sequences of K. pneumoniae MGH 78578 (NC_009648.1) and Kp342 (NC_011283.1). Our results show that rarA overexpression resulted in the differential expression of 66 genes (42 upregulated and 24 downregulated). Under the COG (clusters of orthologous groups) functional classification, the majority of affected genes belonged to the category of cell envelope biogenesis and posttranslational modification, along with genes encoding the previously uncharacterized transport proteins (e.g., KPN_03141, sdaCB, and leuE) and the porin OmpF. However, genes associated with energy production and conversion and amino acid transport/metabolism (e.g., nuoA, narJ, and proWX) were found to be downregulated. Biolog phenotype analyses demonstrated that rarA overexpression confers enhanced growth of the overexpresser in the presence of several antibiotic classes (i.e., beta-lactams and fluoroquinolones), the antifungal/antiprotozoal compound clioquinol, disinfectants (8-hydroxyquinoline), protein synthesis inhibitors (i.e., minocycline and puromycin), membrane biogenesis agents (polymyxin B and amitriptyline), DNA synthesis (furaltadone), and the cytokinesis inhibitor (sanguinarine). Both our transcriptome and phenotypic microarray data support and extend the role of RarA in the MDR phenotype of K. pneumoniae.

De Majumdar, Shyamasree; Veleba, Mark; Finn, Sarah; Fanning, Seamus

2013-01-01

241

Elucidating the regulon of multidrug resistance regulator RarA in Klebsiella pneumoniae.  

PubMed

RarA is an AraC-type regulator in Klebsiella pneumoniae, which, when overexpressed, confers a low-level multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotype linked to the upregulation of both the acrAB and oqxAB efflux genes. Increased rarA expression has also been shown to be integral in the development of tigecycline resistance in the absence of ramA in K. pneumoniae. Given its phenotypic role in MDR, microarray analyses were performed to determine the RarA regulon. Transcriptome analysis was undertaken using strains Ecl8?rarA/pACrarA-2 (rarA-expressing construct) and Ecl8?rarA/pACYC184 (vector-only control) using bespoke microarray slides consisting of probes derived from the genomic sequences of K. pneumoniae MGH 78578 (NC_009648.1) and Kp342 (NC_011283.1). Our results show that rarA overexpression resulted in the differential expression of 66 genes (42 upregulated and 24 downregulated). Under the COG (clusters of orthologous groups) functional classification, the majority of affected genes belonged to the category of cell envelope biogenesis and posttranslational modification, along with genes encoding the previously uncharacterized transport proteins (e.g., KPN_03141, sdaCB, and leuE) and the porin OmpF. However, genes associated with energy production and conversion and amino acid transport/metabolism (e.g., nuoA, narJ, and proWX) were found to be downregulated. Biolog phenotype analyses demonstrated that rarA overexpression confers enhanced growth of the overexpresser in the presence of several antibiotic classes (i.e., beta-lactams and fluoroquinolones), the antifungal/antiprotozoal compound clioquinol, disinfectants (8-hydroxyquinoline), protein synthesis inhibitors (i.e., minocycline and puromycin), membrane biogenesis agents (polymyxin B and amitriptyline), DNA synthesis (furaltadone), and the cytokinesis inhibitor (sanguinarine). Both our transcriptome and phenotypic microarray data support and extend the role of RarA in the MDR phenotype of K. pneumoniae. PMID:23318802

De Majumdar, Shyamasree; Veleba, Mark; Finn, Sarah; Fanning, Séamus; Schneiders, Thamarai

2013-01-14

242

Transcriptional regulation of the carbohydrate utilization network in Thermotoga maritima  

PubMed Central

Hyperthermophilic bacteria from the Thermotogales lineage can produce hydrogen by fermenting a wide range of carbohydrates. Previous experimental studies identified a large fraction of genes committed to carbohydrate degradation and utilization in the model bacterium Thermotoga maritima. Knowledge of these genes enabled comprehensive reconstruction of biochemical pathways comprising the carbohydrate utilization network. However, transcriptional factors (TFs) and regulatory mechanisms driving this network remained largely unknown. Here, we used an integrated approach based on comparative analysis of genomic and transcriptomic data for the reconstruction of the carbohydrate utilization regulatory networks in 11 Thermotogales genomes. We identified DNA-binding motifs and regulons for 19 orthologous TFs in the Thermotogales. The inferred regulatory network in T. maritima contains 181 genes encoding TFs, sugar catabolic enzymes and ABC-family transporters. In contrast to many previously described bacteria, a transcriptional regulation strategy of Thermotoga does not employ global regulatory factors. The reconstructed regulatory network in T. maritima was validated by gene expression profiling on a panel of mono- and disaccharides and by in vitro DNA-binding assays. The observed upregulation of genes involved in catabolism of pectin, trehalose, cellobiose, arabinose, rhamnose, xylose, glucose, galactose, and ribose showed a strong correlation with the UxaR, TreR, BglR, CelR, AraR, RhaR, XylR, GluR, GalR, and RbsR regulons. Ultimately, this study elucidated the transcriptional regulatory network and mechanisms controlling expression of carbohydrate utilization genes in T. maritima. In addition to improving the functional annotations of associated transporters and catabolic enzymes, this research provides novel insights into the evolution of regulatory networks in Thermotogales.

Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Rodionova, Irina A.; Li, Xiaoqing; Ravcheev, Dmitry A.; Tarasova, Yekaterina; Portnoy, Vasiliy A.; Zengler, Karsten; Osterman, Andrei L.

2013-01-01

243

Structural Determinants of DNA Binding by a P. falciparum ApiAP2 Transcriptional Regulator  

SciTech Connect

Putative transcription factors have only recently been identified in the Plasmodium spp., with the major family of regulators comprising the Apicomplexan Apetala2 (AP2) proteins. To better understand the DNA-binding mechanisms of these transcriptional regulators, we characterized the structure and in vitro function of an AP2 DNA-binding domain from a prototypical Apicomplexan AP2 protein, PF14{_}0633 from Plasmodium falciparum. The X-ray crystal structure of the PF14{_}0633 AP2 domain bound to DNA reveals a {beta}-sheet fold that binds the DNA major groove through base-specific and backbone contacts; a prominent {alpha}-helix supports the {beta}-sheet structure. Substitution of predicted DNA-binding residues with alanine weakened or eliminated DNA binding in solution. In contrast to plant AP2 domains, the PF14{_}0633 AP2 domain dimerizes upon binding to DNA through a domain-swapping mechanism in which the {alpha}-helices of the AP2 domains pack against the {beta}-sheets of the dimer mates. DNA-induced dimerization of PF14{_}0633 may be important for tethering two distal DNA loci together in the nucleus and/or for inducing functional rearrangements of its domains to facilitate transcriptional regulation. Consistent with a multisite binding mode, at least two copies of the consensus sequence recognized by PF14{_}0633 are present upstream of a previously identified group of sporozoite-stage genes. Taken together, these findings illustrate how Plasmodium has adapted the AP2 DNA-binding domain for genome-wide transcriptional regulation.

Lindner, Scott E.; De Silva, Erandi K.; Keck, James L.; Llinás, Manuel (Princeton); (UW-MED)

2010-11-05

244

Identification of the REST regulon reveals extensive transposable element-mediated binding site duplication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genome-wide mapping of gene-regulatory motifs remains a major goal that will facilitate the modelling of gene-regulatory networks and their evo- lution. The repressor element 1 is a long, conserved transcription factor-binding site which recruits the transcriptional repressor REST to numerous neuron- specific target genes. REST plays important roles in multiple biological processes and disease states. To map RE1 sites

Rory Johnson; Richard J. Gamblin; Lezanne Ooi; Alexander W. Bruce; Ian J. Donaldson; David R. Westhead; Ian C. Wood; Richard M. Jackson; Noel J. Buckley

2006-01-01

245

Immunogenicity of Novel DosR Regulon-Encoded Candidate Antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Three High-Burden Populations in Africa? †  

PubMed Central

Increasing knowledge about DosR regulon-encoded proteins has led us to produce novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens for immunogenicity testing in human populations in three countries in Africa to which tuberculosis (TB) is endemic. A total of 131 tuberculin skin test-positive and/or ESAT-6/CFP10-positive, human immunodeficiency virus-negative adult household contacts of active pulmonary TB cases from South Africa (n = 56), The Gambia (n = 26), and Uganda (n = 49) were tested for gamma interferon responses to 7 classical and 51 DosR regulon-encoded M. tuberculosis recombinant protein antigens. ESAT-6/CFP10 fusion protein evoked responses in >75% of study participants in all three countries. Of the DosR regulon-encoded antigens tested, Rv1733c was the most commonly recognized by participants from both South Africa and Uganda and the third most commonly recognized antigen in The Gambia. The four most frequently recognized DosR regulon-encoded antigens in Uganda (Rv1733c, Rv0081, Rv1735c, and Rv1737c) included the three most immunogenic antigens in South Africa. In contrast, Rv3131 induced the highest percentage of responders in Gambian contacts (38%), compared to only 3.4% of Ugandan contacts and no South African contacts. Appreciable percentages of TB contacts with a high likelihood of latent M. tuberculosis infection responded to several novel DosR regulon-encoded M. tuberculosis proteins. In addition to significant similarities in antigen recognition profiles between the three African population groups, there were also disparities, which may stem from genetic differences between both pathogen and host populations. Our findings have implications for the selection of potential TB vaccine candidates and for determining biosignatures of latent M. tuberculosis infection, active TB disease, and protective immunity.

Black, Gillian F.; Thiel, Bonnie A.; Ota, Martin O.; Parida, Shreemanta K.; Adegbola, Richard; Boom, W. Henry; Dockrell, Hazel M.; Franken, Kees L. M. C.; Friggen, Annemiek H.; Hill, Philip C.; Klein, Michel R.; Lalor, Maeve K.; Mayanja, Harriet; Schoolnik, Gary; Stanley, Kim; Weldingh, Karin; Kaufmann, Stefan H. E.; Walzl, Gerhard; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.

2009-01-01

246

Septal localization of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis MtrB sensor kinase promotes MtrA regulon expression.  

PubMed

The mechanisms responsible for activation of the MtrAB two-component regulatory signal transduction system, which includes sensor kinase MtrB and response regulator MtrA, are unknown. Here, we show that an MtrB-GFP fusion protein localized to the cell membrane, the septa, and the poles in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis. This localization was independent of MtrB phosphorylation status but dependent upon the assembly of FtsZ, the initiator of cell division. The M. smegmatis mtrB mutant was filamentous, defective for cell division, and contained lysozyme-sensitive cell walls. The mtrB phenotype was complemented by either production of MtrB protein competent for phosphorylation or overproduction of MtrA(Y102C) and MtrA(D13A) mutant proteins exhibiting altered phosphorylation potential, indicating that either MtrB phosphorylation or MtrB independent expression of MtrA regulon genes, including those involved in cell wall processing, are necessary for regulated cell division. In partial support of this observation, we found that the essential cell wall hydrolase ripA is an MtrA target and that the expression of bona fide MtrA targets ripA, fbpB, and dnaA were compromised in the mtrB mutant and partially rescued upon MtrA(Y102C) and MtrA(D13A) overproduction. MtrB septal assembly was compromised upon FtsZ depletion and exposure of cells to mitomycin C, a DNA damaging agent, which interferes with FtsZ ring assembly. Expression of MtrA targets was also compromised under the above conditions, indicating that MtrB septal localization and MtrA regulon expression are linked. We propose that MtrB septal association is a necessary feature of MtrB activation that promotes MtrA phosphorylation and MtrA regulon expression. PMID:22610443

Plocinska, Renata; Purushotham, Gorla; Sarva, Krishna; Vadrevu, Indumathi S; Pandeeti, Emmanuel V P; Arora, Naresh; Plocinski, Przemyslaw; Madiraju, Murty V; Rajagopalan, Malini

2012-05-20

247

Transcriptional Regulator PerA Influences Biofilm-Associated, Platelet Binding, and Metabolic Gene Expression in Enterococcus faecalis  

PubMed Central

Enterococcus faecalis is an opportunistic pathogen and a leading cause of nosocomial infections, traits facilitated by the ability to quickly acquire and transfer virulence determinants. A 150 kb pathogenicity island (PAI) comprised of genes contributing to virulence is found in many enterococcal isolates and is known to undergo horizontal transfer. We have shown that the PAI-encoded transcriptional regulator PerA contributes to pathogenicity in the mouse peritonitis infection model. In this study, we used whole-genome microarrays to determine the PerA regulon. The PerA regulon is extensive, as transcriptional analysis showed 151 differentially regulated genes. Our findings reveal that PerA coordinately regulates genes important for metabolism, amino acid degradation, and pathogenicity. Further transcriptional analysis revealed that PerA is influenced by bicarbonate. Additionally, PerA influences the ability of E. faecalis to bind to human platelets. Our results suggest that PerA is a global transcriptional regulator that coordinately regulates genes responsible for enterococcal pathogenicity.

Maddox, Scott M.; Coburn, Phillip S.; Shankar, Nathan; Conway, Tyrrell

2012-01-01

248

Mycobacterial Dormancy Regulon Protein Rv2623 as a Novel Biomarker for the Diagnosis of Latent and Active Tuberculous Meningitis  

PubMed Central

The present study was designed to investigate Rv2623 antigen, a major dormancy regulon protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in CSF of suspected latent and active tuberculous meningitis (TBM) patients. A total of 100 CSF samples from TBM (n = 31), suspected latent TBM (n = 22), and suitable noninfectious control subjects (n = 47) were collected and evaluated for Rv2623 antigen level using ELISA protocol. A significantly high (P < 0.05) mean absorbance was observed in samples of suspected latent TBM and active TBM patients as compared to non-TBM control patients. However, no significant difference in Rv2623 level was observed between suspected latent TBM and TBM patients. Our preliminary findings suggest that Rv2623 may be useful as a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of the latent as well as active TBM infection. Futher evaluation of this biomarker in large number of samples is therefore needed to confirm the result.

Jain, Ruchika K.; Nayak, Amit R.; Husain, Aliabbas A.; Panchbhai, Milind S.; Chandak, Nitin; Purohit, Hemant J.; Taori, Girdhar M.; Daginawala, Hatim F.; Kashyap, Rajpal S.

2013-01-01

249

Immunogenicity of eight dormancy regulon-encoded proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in DNA-vaccinated and tuberculosis-infected mice.  

PubMed

Hypoxia and low concentrations of nitric oxide have been reported to upregulate in vitro gene expression of 48 proteins of the dormancy (DosR) regulon of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These proteins are thought to be essential for the survival of bacteria during persistence in vivo and are targeted by the immune system during latent infection in humans. Here we have analyzed the immunogenicity of eight DosR regulon-encoded antigens by plasmid DNA vaccination of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, i.e., Rv1733c, Rv1738, Rv2029c (pfkB), Rv2031c/hspX (acr), Rv2032 (acg), Rv2626c, Rv2627c, and Rv2628. Strong humoral and/or cellular Th1-type (interleukin-2 and gamma interferon) immune responses could be induced against all but one (Rv1738) of these antigens. The strongest Th1 responses were measured following vaccination with DNA encoding Rv2031c and Rv2626c. Using synthetic 20-mer overlapping peptides, 11 immunodominant, predicted major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted epitopes and one K(d)-restricted T-cell epitope could be identified. BALB/c and (B6D2)F(1) mice persistently infected with M. tuberculosis developed immune responses against Rv1733c, Rv2031c, and Rv2626c. These findings have implications for proof-of-concept studies in mice mimicking tuberculosis (TB) latency models and their extrapolation to humans for potential new vaccination strategies against TB. PMID:17145953

Roupie, Virginie; Romano, Marta; Zhang, Lei; Korf, Hannelie; Lin, May Young; Franken, Kees L M C; Ottenhoff, Tom H M; Klein, Michèl R; Huygen, Kris

2006-12-04

250

MOLECULAR ASSESSMENT OF APICOMPLEXAN PARASITES IN THE SNAKE PSAMMOPHIS FROM NORTH AFRICA: DO MULTIPLE PARASITE LINEAGES REFLECT THE FINAL VERTEBRATE HOST DIET?  

PubMed

Abstract The Apicomplexa are intracellular pathogens of animals, with the Coccidia being the largest group. Among these are the hemogregarines, which include some of the most common hemoparasites found in reptiles. Several studies have reported a possible pattern of prey-predator transmission for some of these parasites. Snakes from the Mediterranean region have been found to be parasitized with Hepatozoon spp. similar to those in lacertids and gekkonids, supporting the prey-predator transmission hypothesis. Here we analyzed specimens of the saurophagous genus Psammophis from North Africa, an ecologically different region. Through molecular analysis of tissue samples we detected 3 different apicomplexan parasites: Caryospora, Sarcocystis and Hepatozoon. Caryospora was detected in a Forskål's sand snake P. schokari from Algeria, constituting the first time these parasites have been detected from a tissue sample through molecular screening. The obtained Sarcocystis phylogeny does not reflect the relationships of their final hosts, with the parasites identified from snakes forming at least 3 unrelated groups, indicating that it is still premature to predict definitive host based on the phylogeny of these parasites. Three unrelated lineages of Hepatozoon parasites were identified in Psammophis, each closely related to lineages previously identified from different lizard groups, on which these snakes feed. This once again indicates that diet might be a key element in transmission, at least for Hepatozoon species of saurophagous snakes. PMID:23537006

Tomé, Beatriz; Maia, João P M C; Harris, David James

2013-03-28

251

Characterization of the Fur regulon in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 is found in a wide variety of environments and as a result must monitor and respond to various environmental signals. In previous studies, we investigated the transcriptional response of DC3000 to iron, an essential element for bacterial grow...

252

Transcription factories  

PubMed Central

There is considerable evidence that transcription does not occur homogeneously or diffusely throughout the nucleus, but rather at a number of specialized, discrete sites termed transcription factories. The factories are composed of ~4–30 RNA polymerase molecules, and are associated with many other molecules involved in transcriptional activation and mRNA processing. Some data suggest that the polymerase molecules within a factory remain stationary relative to the transcribed DNA, which is thought to be reeled through the factory site. There is also some evidence that transcription factories could help organize chromatin and nuclear structure, contributing to both the formation of chromatin loops and the clustering of active and co-regulated genes.

Rieder, Dietmar; Trajanoski, Zlatko; McNally, James G.

2012-01-01

253

The YEASTRACT database: a tool for the analysis of transcription regulatory associations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

We present the YEAst Search for Transcriptional Regulators And Consensus Tracking (YEASTRACT; ) database, a tool for the analysis of transcription regulatory associations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This database is a repository of 12 346 regulatory associations between transcription factors and target genes, based on experimental evidence which was spread throughout 861 bibliographic references. It also includes 257 specific DNA-binding sites for more than a hundred characterized transcription factors. Further information about each yeast gene included in the database was obtained from Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD), Regulatory Sequences Analysis Tools and Gene Ontology (GO) Consortium. Computational tools are also provided to facilitate the exploitation of the gathered data when solving a number of biological questions as exemplified in the Tutorial also available on the system. YEASTRACT allows the identification of documented or potential transcription regulators of a given gene and of documented or potential regulons for each transcription factor. It also renders possible the comparison between DNA motifs, such as those found to be over-represented in the promoter regions of co-regulated genes, and the transcription factor-binding sites described in the literature. The system also provides an useful mechanism for grouping a list of genes (for instance a set of genes with similar expression profiles as revealed by microarray analysis) based on their regulatory associations with known transcription factors.

Teixeira, Miguel C.; Monteiro, Pedro; Jain, Pooja; Tenreiro, Sandra; Fernandes, Alexandra R.; Mira, Nuno P.; Alenquer, Marta; Freitas, Ana T.; Oliveira, Arlindo L.; Sa-Correia, Isabel

2006-01-01

254

Dehydrogenase GRD1 Represents a Novel Component of the Cellulase Regulon in Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina) ? † §  

PubMed Central

Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina) is nowadays the most important industrial producer of cellulase and hemicellulase enzymes, which are used for pretreatment of cellulosic biomass for biofuel production. In this study, we introduce a novel component, GRD1 (glucose-ribitol dehydrogenase 1), which shows enzymatic activity on cellobiose and positively influences cellulase gene transcription, expression, and extracellular endo-1,4-?-d-glucanase activity. grd1 is differentially transcribed upon growth on cellulose and the induction of cellulase gene expression by sophorose. The transcription of grd1 is coregulated with that of cel7a (cbh1) under inducing conditions. GRD1 is further involved in carbon source utilization on several carbon sources, such as those involved in lactose and d-galactose catabolism, in several cases in a light-dependent manner. We conclude that GRD1 represents a novel enhancer of cellulase gene expression, which by coregulation with the major cellulase may act via optimization of inducing mechanisms.

Schuster, Andre; Kubicek, Christian P.; Schmoll, Monika

2011-01-01

255

Isolation of reductase for SoxR that governs an oxidative response regulon from Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

SoxR is a transcription factor triggered by oxidative stress in Escherichia coli. Recent evidence suggests that novel redox regulation couples oxidation state to promoter activation. We have isolated the reductase for SoxR in E. coli using an assay of NADPH- and SoxR-dependent cytochrome c reductase activity. When the purified protein was incubated in an anaerobic reaction mixture containing SoxR and

Kazuo Kobayashi; Seiichi Tagawa

1999-01-01

256

Computational identification of the Spo0A-phosphate regulon that is essential for the cellular differentiation and development in Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spo0A-phosphate is essential for the initiation of cellular differentiation and developmental pro- cesses in Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria. Here we combined comparative genomics with analyses of microarray expression profiles to iden- tify the Spo0A-phosphate regulon in Bacillus subti- lis. The consensus Spo0A-phosphate DNA-binding motif identified from the training set based on differ- ent computational algorithms is an 8 bp sequence, TTGTCGAA.

Jiajian Liu; Kai Tan; Gary D. Stormo

2003-01-01

257

CpxP, a Stress-Combative Member of the Cpx Regulon  

PubMed Central

The CpxA/R two-component signal transduction system of Escherichia coli can combat a variety of extracytoplasmic protein-mediated toxicities. The Cpx system performs this function, in part, by increasing the synthesis of the periplasmic protease, DegP. However, other factors are also employed by the Cpx system for this stress-combative function. In an effort to identify these remaining factors, we screened a collection of random lacZ operon fusions for those fusions whose transcription is regulated by CpxA/R. Through this approach, we have identified a new locus, cpxP, whose transcription is stimulated by activation of the Cpx pathway. cpxP specifies a periplasmic protein that can combat the lethal phenotype associated with the synthesis of a toxic envelope protein. In addition, we show that cpxP transcription is strongly induced by alkaline pH in a CpxA-dependent manner and that cpxP and cpx mutant strains display hypersensitivity to growth in alkaline conditions.

Danese, Paul N.; Silhavy, Thomas J.

1998-01-01

258

Effects of triclocarban on the transcription of estrogen, androgen and aryl hydrocarbon receptor responsive genes in human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Triclocarban (TCC) is an antimicrobial agent that is used in detergents, soaps and other personal hygiene products. Similarly to triclosan the widespread use of TCC has raised concerns about its endocrine potential. In luciferase-based reporter assays TCC has been shown to enhance estrogenic and androgenic activities following cellular coexposure with estrogen or dihydrotestosterone, respectively. The present study demonstrates that although coexposure with TCC enhances the estrogenic and androgenic readout of luciferase-based reporter cell lines such as HeLa9908 and MDA-kb2, it fails to act as a xenoandrogen on transcriptional level, nor does it induce cell proliferation in the estrogen sensitive E-screen. In addition TCC did not alter the expression of estrogen responsive genes in human mammary carcinoma MCF-7 cells exposed to 17?-estradiol, bisphenol A, butylparaben or genistein. However, TCC was shown to interfere with the regulon of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) as TCC showed a costimulatory effect on transcription of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, effectively lowering the transcriptional threshold for both genes in the presence of estrogens. It thus seems, that while the induction of the respective luciferase reporter assays by TCC is an unspecific false positive signal caused by luciferase stabilisation, TCC has the potential to interfere with the regulatory crosstalk of the estrogen receptor (ER) and the AhR regulon. PMID:23524099

Tarnow, Patrick; Tralau, Tewes; Hunecke, Danele; Luch, Andreas

2013-03-21

259

Cholesterol utilization in mycobacteria is controlled by two TetR-type transcriptional regulators: kstR and kstR2  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is able to use a variety of carbon sources in vivo and current knowledge suggests that cholesterol is used as a carbon source during infection. The catabolized cholesterol is used both as an energy source (ATP generation) and as a source of precursor molecules for the synthesis of complex methyl-branched fatty acids. In previous studies, we described a TetR-type transcriptional repressor, kstR, that controls the expression of a number of genes involved in cholesterol catabolism. In this study, we describe a second TetR-type repressor, which we call kstR2. We knocked this gene out in Mycobacterium smegmatis and used microarrays and quantitative RT-PCR to examine the effects on gene expression. We identified a palindromic regulatory motif for KstR2, showed that this motif is present in three promoter regions in mycobacteria and rhodococcus, and demonstrated binding of purified KstR2 to the motif. Using a combination of motif location analysis, gene expression analysis and the examination of gene conservation, we suggest that kstR2 controls the expression of a 15 gene regulon. Like kstR, kstR2 and the kstR2 regulon are highly conserved among the actinomycetes and studies in rhodococcus suggest a role for these genes in cholesterol catabolism. The functional significance of the regulon and implications for the control of cholesterol utilization are discussed.

Kendall, Sharon L.; Burgess, Philippa; Balhana, Ricardo; Withers, Mike; ten Bokum, Annemieke; Lott, J. Shaun; Gao, Chen; Uhia-Castro, Iria; Stoker, Neil G.

2010-01-01

260

Cholesterol utilization in mycobacteria is controlled by two TetR-type transcriptional regulators: kstR and kstR2.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is able to use a variety of carbon sources in vivo and current knowledge suggests that cholesterol is used as a carbon source during infection. The catabolized cholesterol is used both as an energy source (ATP generation) and as a source of precursor molecules for the synthesis of complex methyl-branched fatty acids. In previous studies, we described a TetR-type transcriptional repressor, kstR, that controls the expression of a number of genes involved in cholesterol catabolism. In this study, we describe a second TetR-type repressor, which we call kstR2. We knocked this gene out in Mycobacterium smegmatis and used microarrays and quantitative RT-PCR to examine the effects on gene expression. We identified a palindromic regulatory motif for KstR2, showed that this motif is present in three promoter regions in mycobacteria and rhodococcus, and demonstrated binding of purified KstR2 to the motif. Using a combination of motif location analysis, gene expression analysis and the examination of gene conservation, we suggest that kstR2 controls the expression of a 15 gene regulon. Like kstR, kstR2 and the kstR2 regulon are highly conserved among the actinomycetes and studies in rhodococcus suggest a role for these genes in cholesterol catabolism. The functional significance of the regulon and implications for the control of cholesterol utilization are discussed. PMID:20167624

Kendall, Sharon L; Burgess, Philippa; Balhana, Ricardo; Withers, Mike; Ten Bokum, Annemieke; Lott, J Shaun; Gao, Chen; Uhia-Castro, Iria; Stoker, Neil G

2010-02-18

261

Species boundaries in gregarine apicomplexan parasites: a case study-comparison of morphometric and molecular variability in Lecudina cf. tuzetae (Eugregarinorida, Lecudinidae).  

PubMed

Trophozoites of gregarine apicomplexans are large feeding cells with diverse morphologies that have played a prominent role in gregarine systematics. The range of variability in trophozoite shapes and sizes can be very high even within a single species depending on developmental stages and host environmental conditions; this makes the delimitation of different species of gregarines based on morphological criteria alone very difficult. Accordingly, comparisons of morphological variability and molecular variability in gregarines are necessary to provide a pragmatic framework for establishing species boundaries within this diverse and poorly understood group of parasites. We investigated the morphological and molecular variability present in the gregarine Lecudina cf. tuzetae from the intestines of Nereis vexillosa (Polychaeta) collected in two different locations in Canada. Three distinct morphotypes of trophozoites were identified and the small subunit (SSU) rDNA was sequenced either from multicell isolates of the same morphotype or from single cells. The aim of this investigation was to determine whether the different morphotypes and localities reflected phylogenetic relatedness as inferred from the SSU rDNA sequence data. Phylogenetic analyses of the SSU rDNA demonstrated that the new sequences did not cluster according to morphotype or locality and instead were intermingled within a strongly supported clade. A comparison of 1,657 bp from 45 new sequences demonstrated divergences between 0% and 3.9%. These data suggest that it is necessary to acquire both morphological and molecular data in order to effectively delimit the "clouds" of variation associated with each gregarine species and to unambiguously reidentify these species in the future. PMID:21569160

Rueckert, Sonja; Villette, Petra M A H; Leander, Brian S

2011-05-13

262

Organization and function of the YsiA regulon of Bacillus subtilis involved in fatty acid degradation.  

PubMed

The organization and function of the Bacillus subtilis YsiA regulon involved in fatty acid degradation were investigated. Northern and primer extension analyses indicated that this regulon comprises five operons, i.e. lcfA-ysiA-B-etfB-A, ykuF-G, yhfL, yusM-L-K-J, and ywjF-acdA-rpoE. YusJ and AcdA, YsiB and YusL, and YusK presumably encode acyl-CoA dehydrogenases, 3-hydroxyl-CoA dehydrogenase/enoyl-CoA hydratase complexes, and acetyl-CoA C-acyltransferase, respectively, which are directly involved in the fatty acid beta-oxidation cycle. In addition, LcfA and YhfL are likely to encode long chain acyl-CoA ligases. On gel retardation and footprinting analyses involving the purified YsiA protein, we identified cis-sequences for YsiA binding (YsiA boxes) in the promoter regions upstream of ysiA, ykuF, yusL, yhfL, and ywjF, the equilibrium dissociation constants (K(d)) for YsiA binding being 20, 21, 37, 43, and 65 nm, respectively. YsiA binding was specifically inhibited by long chain acyl-CoAs with 14-20 carbon atoms, acyl-CoAs with 18 carbon atoms being more effective; out of long chain acyl-CoAs tested, monounsaturated oleoyl-CoA, and branched chain 12-metyltetradecanoyl-CoA were most effective. These in vitro findings were supported by the in vivo observation that the knock-out of acyl-CoA dehydrogenation through yusJ, etfA, or etfB disruption resulted in YsiA inactivation, probably because of the accumulation of long chain acyl-CoAs in the cells. Furthermore, the disruption of yusL, yusK, yusJ, etfA, etfB, or ykuG affected the utilization of palmitic acid, a representative long chain fatty acid. Based on this work, ysiA, ysiB, ykuF, ykuG, yhfL, yusM, yusL, yusK, yusJ, and ywjF can be renamed fadR, fadB, fadH, fadG, lcfB, fadM, fadN, fadA, fadE, and fadF. PMID:17189250

Matsuoka, Hiroshi; Hirooka, Kazutake; Fujita, Yasutaro

2006-12-22

263

Mapping the regulon of Vibrio cholerae ferric uptake regulator expands its known network of gene regulation  

PubMed Central

ChIP coupled with next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) has revolutionized whole-genome mapping of DNA-binding protein sites. Although ChIP-seq rapidly gained support in eukaryotic systems, it remains underused in the mapping of bacterial transcriptional regulator-binding sites. Using the virulence-required iron-responsive ferric uptake regulator (Fur), we report a simple, broadly applicable ChIP-seq method in the pathogen Vibrio cholerae. Combining our ChIP-seq results with available microarray data, we clarify direct and indirect Fur regulation of known iron-responsive genes. We validate a subset of Fur-binding sites in vivo and show a common motif present in all Fur ChIP-seq peaks that has enhanced binding affinity for purified V. cholerae Fur. Further analysis shows that V. cholerae Fur directly regulates several additional genes associated with Fur-binding sites, expanding the role of this transcription factor into the regulation of ribosome formation, additional transport functions, and unique sRNAs.

Davies, Bryan W.; Bogard, Ryan W.; Mekalanos, John J.

2011-01-01

264

The copper regulon of the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans H99.  

PubMed

Cryptococcus neoformans is a human fungal pathogen that is the causative agent of cryptococcosis and fatal meningitis in immuno-compromised hosts. Recent studies suggest that copper (Cu) acquisition plays an important role in C. neoformans virulence, as mutants that lack Cuf1, which activates the Ctr4 high affinity Cu importer, are hypo-virulent in mouse models. To understand the constellation of Cu-responsive genes in C. neoformans and how their expression might contribute to virulence, we determined the transcript profile of C. neoformans in response to elevated Cu or Cu deficiency. We identified two metallothionein genes (CMT1 and CMT2), encoding cysteine-rich Cu binding and detoxifying proteins, whose expression is dramatically elevated in response to excess Cu. We identified a new C. neoformans Cu transporter, CnCtr1, that is induced by Cu deficiency and is distinct from CnCtr4 and which shows significant phylogenetic relationship to Ctr1 from other fungi. Surprisingly, in contrast to other fungi, we found that induction of both CnCTR1 and CnCTR4 expression under Cu limitation, and CMT1 and CMT2 in response to Cu excess, are dependent on the CnCuf1 Cu metalloregulatory transcription factor. These studies set the stage for the evaluation of the specific Cuf1 target genes required for virulence in C. neoformans. PMID:21819456

Ding, Chen; Yin, Jun; Tovar, Edgar Mauricio Medina; Fitzpatrick, David A; Higgins, Desmond G; Thiele, Dennis J

2011-08-23

265

RegR Virulence Regulon of Rabbit-Specific Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Strain E22  

PubMed Central

AraC-like regulators play a key role in the expression of virulence factors in enteric pathogens, such as enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli, enteroaggregative E. coli, and Citrobacter rodentium. Bioinformatic analysis of the genome of rabbit-specific EPEC (REPEC) strain E22 (O103:H2) revealed the presence of a gene encoding an AraC-like regulatory protein, RegR, which shares 71% identity to the global virulence regulator, RegA, of C. rodentium. Microarray analysis demonstrated that RegR exerts 25- to 400-fold activation on transcription of several genes encoding putative virulence-associated factors, including a fimbrial operon (SEF14), a serine protease, and an autotransporter adhesin. These observations were confirmed by proteomic analysis of secreted and heat-extracted surface-associated proteins. The mechanism of RegR-mediated activation was investigated by using its most highly upregulated gene target, sefA. Transcriptional analyses and electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that RegR activates the expression of sefA by binding to a region upstream of the sefA promoter, thereby relieving gene silencing by the global regulatory protein H-NS. Moreover, RegR was found to contribute significantly to virulence in a rabbit infection experiment. Taken together, our findings indicate that RegR controls the expression of a series of accessory adhesins that significantly enhance the virulence of REPEC strain E22.

Srikhanta, Yogitha N.; Hocking, Dianna M.; Praszkier, Judyta; Wakefield, Matthew J.; Yang, Ji; Tauschek, Marija

2013-01-01

266

Comparative genomics analysis of NtcA regulons in cyanobacteria: regulation of nitrogen assimilation and its coupling to photosynthesis  

PubMed Central

We have developed a new method for prediction of cis-regulatory binding sites and applied it to predicting NtcA regulated genes in cyanobacteria. The algorithm rigorously utilizes concurrence information of multiple binding sites in the upstream region of a gene and that in the upstream regions of its orthologues in related genomes. A probabilistic model was developed for the evaluation of prediction reliability so that the prediction false positive rate could be well controlled. Using this method, we have predicted multiple new members of the NtcA regulons in nine sequenced cyanobacterial genomes, and showed that the false positive rates of the predictions have been reduced on an average of 40-fold compared to the conventional methods. A detailed analysis of the predictions in each genome showed that a significant portion of our predictions are consistent with previously published results about individual genes. Intriguingly, NtcA promoters are found for many genes involved in various stages of photosynthesis. Although photosynthesis is known to be tightly coordinated with nitrogen assimilation, very little is known about the underlying mechanism. We postulate for the fist time that these genes serve as the regulatory points to orchestrate these two important processes in a cyanobacterial cell.

Su, Zhengchang; Olman, Victor; Mao, Fenglou; Xu, Ying

2005-01-01

267

Energetic Consequences of Nitrite Stress in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, Inferred from Global Transcriptional Analysis†  

PubMed Central

Many of the proteins that are candidates for bioenergetic pathways involved with sulfate respiration in Desulfovibrio spp. have been studied, but complete pathways and overall cell physiology remain to be resolved for many environmentally relevant conditions. In order to understand the metabolism of these microorganisms under adverse environmental conditions for improved bioremediation efforts, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough was used as a model organism to study stress response to nitrite, an important intermediate in the nitrogen cycle. Previous physiological studies demonstrated that growth was inhibited by nitrite and that nitrite reduction was observed to be the primary mechanism of detoxification. Global transcriptional profiling with whole-genome microarrays revealed coordinated cascades of responses to nitrite in pathways of energy metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, oxidative stress response, and iron homeostasis. In agreement with previous observations, nitrite-stressed cells showed a decrease in the expression of genes encoding sulfate reduction functions in addition to respiratory oxidative phosphorylation and ATP synthase activity. Consequently, the stressed cells had decreased expression of the genes encoding ATP-dependent amino acid transporters and proteins involved in translation. Other genes up-regulated in response to nitrite include the genes in the Fur regulon, which is suggested to be involved in iron homeostasis, and genes in the Per regulon, which is predicted to be responsible for oxidative stress response.

He, Qiang; Huang, Katherine H.; He, Zhili; Alm, Eric J.; Fields, Matthew W.; Hazen, Terry C.; Arkin, Adam P.; Wall, Judy D.; Zhou, Jizhong

2006-01-01

268

Energetic Consequences of nitrite stress in Desulfovibrio vulgarisHildenborough, inferred from global transcriptional analysis  

SciTech Connect

Many of the proteins that are candidates for bioenergetic pathways involved with sulfate respiration in Desulfovibrio spp. have been studied, but complete pathways and overall cell physiology remain to be resolved for many environmentally relevant conditions. In order to understand the metabolism of these microorganisms under adverse environmental conditions for improved bioremediation efforts, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough was used as a model organism to study stress response to nitrite, an important intermediate in the nitrogen cycle. Previous physiological studies demonstrated that growth was inhibited by nitrite and that nitrite reduction was observed to be the primary mechanism of detoxification. Global transcriptional profiling with whole-genome microarrays revealed coordinated cascades of responses to nitrite in pathways of energy metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, oxidative stress response, and iron homeostasis. In agreement with previous observations, nitrite-stressed cells showed a decrease in the expression of genes encoding sulfate reduction functions in addition to respiratory oxidative phosphorylation and ATP synthase activity. Consequently, the stressed cells had decreased expression of the genes encoding ATP-dependent amino acid transporters and proteins involved in translation. Other genes up-regulated in response to nitrite include the genes in the Fur regulon, which is suggested to be involved in iron homeostasis, and genes in the Per regulon, which is predicted to be responsible for oxidative stress response.

He, Qiang; Huang, Katherine H.; He, Zhili; Alm, Eric J.; Fields,Matthew W.; Hazen, Terry C.; Arkin, Adam P.; Wall, Judy D.; Zhou, Jizhong

2005-11-03

269

Establishment of a TGF?-induced post-transcriptional EMT gene signature.  

PubMed

A major challenge in the clinical management of human cancers is to accurately stratify patients according to risk and likelihood of a favorable response. Stratification is confounded by significant phenotypic heterogeneity in some tumor types, often without obvious criteria for subdivision. Despite intensive transcriptional array analyses, the identity and validation of cancer specific 'signature genes' remains elusive, partially because the transcriptome does not mirror the proteome. The simplification associated with transcriptomic profiling does not take into consideration changes in the relative expression among transcripts that arise due to post-transcriptional regulatory events. We have previously shown that TGF? post-transcriptionally regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by causing increased expression of two transcripts, Dab2 and ILEI, by modulating hnRNP E1 phosphorylation. Using a genome-wide combinatorial approach involving expression profiling and RIP-Chip analysis, we have identified a cohort of translationally regulated mRNAs that are induced during TGF?-mediated EMT. Coordinated translational regulation by hnRNP E1 constitutes a post-transcriptional regulon inhibiting the expression of related EMT-facilitating genes, thus enabling the cell to rapidly and coordinately regulate multiple EMT-facilitating genes. PMID:23285117

Hussey, George S; Link, Laura A; Brown, Andrew S; Howley, Breege V; Chaudhury, Arindam; Howe, Philip H

2012-12-20

270

The promoter architectural landscape of the Salmonella PhoP regulon  

PubMed Central

Sumary The DNA binding protein PhoP controls virulence and Mg2+ homeostasis in the Gram-negative pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. PhoP regulates expression of a large number of genes that differ both in their ancestry and in the biochemical functions and physiological roles of the encoded products. This suggests that PhoP-regulated genes are differentially expressed. To understand how a bacterial activator might generate varied gene expression behavior, we investigated the cis-acting promoter features (i.e., the number of PhoP-binding sites, as well as their orientation and location with respect to the sites bound by RNA polymerase and the sequences that constitute the PhoP binding sites) in 23 PhoP-activated promoters. Our results show that natural PhoP-activated promoters utilize only a limited number of combinations of cis-acting features – or promoter architectures. We determine that PhoP activates transcription by different mechanisms, and that ancestral and horizontally-acquired PhoP-activated genes have distinct promoter architectures.

Zwir, Igor; Latifi, Tammy; Perez, J. Christian; Huang, Henry; Groisman, Eduardo A.

2012-01-01

271

The transcriptional program underlying the physiology of clostridial sporulation  

PubMed Central

Background Clostridia are ancient soil organisms of major importance to human and animal health and physiology, cellulose degradation, and the production of biofuels from renewable resources. Elucidation of their sporulation program is critical for understanding important clostridial programs pertaining to their physiology and their industrial or environmental applications. Results Using a sensitive DNA-microarray platform and 25 sampling timepoints, we reveal the genome-scale transcriptional basis of the Clostridium acetobutylicum sporulation program carried deep into stationary phase. A significant fraction of the genes displayed temporal expression in six distinct clusters of expression, which were analyzed with assistance from ontological classifications in order to illuminate all known physiological observations and differentiation stages of this industrial organism. The dynamic orchestration of all known sporulation sigma factors was investigated, whereby in addition to their transcriptional profiles, both in terms of intensity and differential expression, their activity was assessed by the average transcriptional patterns of putative canonical genes of their regulon. All sigma factors of unknown function were investigated by combining transcriptional data with predicted promoter binding motifs and antisense-RNA downregulation to provide a preliminary assessment of their roles in sporulation. Downregulation of two of these sigma factors, CAC1766 and CAP0167, affected the developmental process of sporulation and are apparently novel sporulation-related sigma factors. Conclusion This is the first detailed roadmap of clostridial sporulation, the most detailed transcriptional study ever reported for a strict anaerobe and endospore former, and the first reported holistic effort to illuminate cellular physiology and differentiation of a lesser known organism.

Jones, Shawn W; Paredes, Carlos J; Tracy, Bryan; Cheng, Nathan; Sillers, Ryan; Senger, Ryan S; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T

2008-01-01

272

Global Transcriptional Control by NsrR in Bacillus subtilis  

PubMed Central

The NO-sensitive NsrR repressor of Bacillus subtilis, which carries a [4Fe-4S] cluster, controls transcription of nasD and hmp (class I regulation) under anaerobic conditions. Here, we describe another class of NsrR regulation (class II regulation) that controls a more diverse collection of genes. Base substitution analysis showed that [4Fe-4S]-NsrR recognizes a partial dyad symmetry within the class I cis-acting sites, whereas NO-insensitive interaction of NsrR with an A+T-rich class II regulatory site showed relaxed sequence specificity. Genome-wide transcriptome studies identified genes that are under the control of the class II NsrR regulation. The class II NsrR regulon includes genes controlled by both AbrB and Rok repressors, which also recognize A+T-rich sequences, and by the Fur repressor. Transcription of class II genes was elevated in an nsrR mutant during anaerobic fermentative growth with pyruvate. Although NsrR binding to the class II regulatory sites was NO insensitive in vitro, transcription of class II genes was moderately induced by NO, which involved reversal of NsrR-dependent repression, suggesting that class II repression is also NO sensitive. In all NsrR-repressed genes tested, the loss of NsrR repressor activity was not sufficient to induce transcription as induction required the ResD response regulator. The ResD-ResE signal transduction system is essential for activation of genes involved in aerobic and anaerobic respiration. This study indicated coordinated regulation between ResD and NsrR and uncovered a new role of ResD and NsrR in transcriptional regulation during anaerobiosis of B. subtilis.

Kommineni, Sushma; Lama, Amrita; Popescu, Benjamin

2012-01-01

273

The H-NS-like protein StpA represses the RpoS (sigma 38) regulon during exponential growth of Salmonella Typhimurium.  

PubMed

StpA is a paralogue of the nucleoid-associated protein H-NS that is conserved in a range of enteric bacteria and had no known function in Salmonella Typhimurium. We show that 5% of the Salmonella genome is regulated by StpA, which contrasts with the situation in Escherichia coli where deletion of stpA only had minor effects on gene expression. The StpA-dependent genes of S. Typhimurium are a specific subset of the H-NS regulon that are predominantly under the positive control of sigma(38) (RpoS), CRP-cAMP and PhoP. Regulation by StpA varied with growth phase; StpA controlled sigma(38) levels at mid-exponential phase by preventing inappropriate activation of sigma(38) during rapid bacterial growth. In contrast, StpA only activated the CRP-cAMP regulon during late exponential phase. ChIP-chip analysis revealed that StpA binds to PhoP-dependent genes but not to most genes of the CRP-cAMP and sigma(38) regulons. In fact, StpA indirectly regulates sigma(38)-dependent genes by enhancing sigma(38) turnover by repressing the anti-adaptor protein rssC. We discovered that StpA is essential for the dynamic regulation of sigma(38) in response to increased glucose levels. Our findings identify StpA as a novel growth phase-specific regulator that plays an important physiological role by linking sigma(38) levels to nutrient availability. PMID:19843227

Lucchini, Sacha; McDermott, Paul; Thompson, Arthur; Hinton, Jay C D

2009-10-19

274

Activity of purified QscR, a Pseudomonas aeruginosa orphan quorum-sensing transcription factor.  

PubMed

The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa has two acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) signalling systems, LasR-I and RhlR-I. LasI catalyses the synthesis of N-3-oxododecanoyl homoserine lactone (3OC12) and LasR is a transcription factor that requires 3OC12 as a ligand. RhlI catalyses the synthesis of N-butanoyl homoserine lactone (C4) and RhlR is a transcription factor that responds to C4. LasR and RhlR control the transcription of hundreds of P. aeruginosa genes. There is a third P. aeruginosa LasR-RhlR homologue encoded by qscR for which there is no cognate acyl-HSL synthase gene. To test the hypothesis that QscR functions by direct control of specific promoters in an acyl-HSL-dependent manner we purified QscR and characterized QscR activity in vitro. We also studied QscR activity in recombinant Escherichia coli. QscR binds to promoters that have elements similar in sequence to those found in LasR- or RhlR-dependent promoters but QscR does not bind to the LasR- or RhlR-specific promoters we examined. QscR binding to DNA requires 3OC12, but QscR exhibits a relaxed acyl-HSL specificity compared with the 3OC12-cognate signal receptor LasR. Our results support the hypothesis that there is a specific QscR-dependent regulon. We show that QscR controls genes in this regulon directly and that regulation is dependent on an acyl-HSL produced by LasI. Because of its relaxed signal specificity QscR may also respond to acyl-HSLs made by other bacteria in mixed bacterial communities. PMID:16390453

Lee, Joon-Hee; Lequette, Yannick; Greenberg, E Peter

2006-01-01

275

Role of the Fur Regulon in Iron Transport in Bacillus subtilis  

PubMed Central

The Bacillus subtilis ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein mediates the iron-dependent repression of at least 20 operons encoding ?40 genes. We investigated the physiological roles of Fur-regulated genes by the construction of null mutations in 14 transcription units known or predicted to function in siderophore biosynthesis or iron uptake. We demonstrate that ywbLMN, encoding an elemental iron uptake system orthologous to the copper oxidase-dependent Fe(III) uptake system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is essential for growth in low iron minimal medium lacking citric acid. 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoyl-glycine (Itoic acid), the siderophore precursor produced by laboratory strains of B. subtilis, is of secondary importance. In the presence of citrate, the YfmCDEF ABC transporter is required for optimal growth. B. subtilis is unable to grow in minimal medium containing the iron chelator EDDHA unless the ability to synthesize the intact bacillibactin siderophore is restored (by the introduction of a functional sfp gene) or exogenous siderophores are provided. Utilization of the catecholate siderophores bacillibactin and enterobactin requires the FeuABC importer and the YusV ATPase. Utilization of hydroxamate siderophores requires the FhuBGC ABC transporter together with the FhuD (ferrichrome) or YxeB (ferrioxamine) substrate-binding proteins. Growth with schizokinen or arthrobactin is at least partially dependent on the YfhA YfiYZ importer and the YusV ATPase. We have also investigated the effects of a fur mutation on the proteome and documented the derepression of 11 Fur-regulated proteins, including a newly identified thioredoxin reductase homolog, YcgT.

Ollinger, Juliane; Song, Kyung-Bok; Antelmann, Haike; Hecker, Michael; Helmann, John D.

2006-01-01

276

Transcriptome Analysis of the Rhodobacter sphaeroides PpsR Regulon: PpsR as a Master Regulator of Photosystem Development†  

PubMed Central

PpsR from the anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides has been known as an oxygen- and light-dependent repressor of bacteriochlorophyll and carotenoid biosynthesis genes and puc operons involved in photosystem development. However, the putative PpsR-binding sites, TGTN12ACA, are also located upstream of numerous nonphotosystem genes, thus raising the possibility that the role of PpsR is broader. To characterize the PpsR regulon, transcriptome profiling was performed on the wild-type strain grown at high and low oxygen tensions, on the strain overproducing PpsR, and on the ppsR mutant. Transcriptome analysis showed that PpsR primarily regulates photosystem genes; the consensus PpsR binding sequence is TGTcN10gACA (lowercase letters indicate lesser conservation); the presence of two binding sites is required for repression in vivo. These findings explain why numerous single TGTN12ACA sequences are nonfunctional. In addition to photosystem genes, the hemC and hemE genes involved in the early steps of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis were identified as new direct targets of PpsR repression. Unexpectedly, PpsR was found to indirectly repress the puf and puhA operons encoding photosystem core proteins. The upstream regions of these operons contain no PpsR binding sites. Involvement in regulation of these operons suggests that PpsR functions as a master regulator of photosystem development. Upregulation of the puf and puhA operons that resulted from ppsR inactivation was sufficient to restore the ability to grow phototrophically to the prrA mutant. PrrA, the global redox-dependent activator, was previously considered indispensable for phototrophic growth. It is revealed that the PrrBA and AppA-PpsR systems, believed to work independently, in fact interact and coordinately regulate photosystem development.

Moskvin, Oleg V.; Gomelsky, Larissa; Gomelsky, Mark

2005-01-01

277

Time-Resolved Determination of the CcpA Regulon of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363?  

PubMed Central

Carbon catabolite control protein A (CcpA) is the main regulator involved in carbon catabolite repression in gram-positive bacteria. Time series gene expression analyses of Lactococcus lactis MG1363 and L. lactis MG1363?ccpA using DNA microarrays were used to define the CcpA regulon of L. lactis. Based on a comparison of the transcriptome data with putative CcpA binding motifs (cre sites) in promoter sequences in the genome of L. lactis, 82 direct targets of CcpA were predicted. The main differences in time-dependent expression of CcpA-regulated genes were differences between the exponential and transition growth phases. Large effects were observed for carbon and nitrogen metabolic genes in the exponential growth phase. Effects on nucleotide metabolism genes were observed primarily in the transition phase. Analysis of the positions of putative cre sites revealed that there is a link between either repression or activation and the location of the cre site within the promoter region. Activation was observed when putative cre sites were located upstream of the hexameric ?35 sequence at an average position of ?56.5 or further upstream with decrements of 10.5 bp. Repression was observed when the cre site was located in or downstream of putative ?35 and ?10 sequences. The highest level of repression was observed when the cre site was present at a defined side of the DNA helix relative to the canonical ?10 sequence. Gel retardation experiments, Northern blotting, and enzyme assays showed that CcpA represses its own expression and activates the expression of the divergently oriented prolidase-encoding pepQ gene, which constitutes a link between regulation of carbon metabolism and regulation of nitrogen metabolism.

Zomer, Aldert L.; Buist, Girbe; Larsen, Rasmus; Kok, Jan; Kuipers, Oscar P.

2007-01-01

278

Inference of Self-Regulated Transcriptional Networks by Comparative Genomics  

PubMed Central

The assumption of basic properties, like self-regulation, in simple transcriptional regulatory networks can be exploited to infer regulatory motifs from the growing amounts of genomic and meta-genomic data. These motifs can in principle be used to elucidate the nature and scope of transcriptional networks through comparative genomics. Here we assess the feasibility of this approach using the SOS regulatory network of Gram-positive bacteria as a test case. Using experimentally validated data, we show that the known regulatory motif can be inferred through the assumption of self-regulation. Furthermore, the inferred motif provides a more robust search pattern for comparative genomics than the experimental motifs defined in reference organisms. We take advantage of this robustness to generate a functional map of the SOS response in Gram-positive bacteria. Our results reveal definite differences in the composition of the LexA regulon between Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, and confirm that regulation of cell-division inhibition is a widespread characteristic of this network among Gram-positive bacteria.

Cornish, Joseph P.; Matthews, Fialelei; Thomas, Julien R.; Erill, Ivan

2012-01-01

279

Cell Envelope Stress Response in Bacillus licheniformis: Integrating Comparative Genomics, Transcriptional Profiling, and Regulon Mining To Decipher a Complex Regulatory Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The envelope is an essential structure of the bacterial cell, and maintaining its integrity is a prerequisite for survival. To ensure proper function, transmembrane signal-transducing systems, such as two-component systems (TCS) and extracytoplasmic function (ECF) factors, closely monitor its condition and respond to harmful perturbations. Both systems consist of a transmembrane sensor protein (histidine kinase or anti- factor, respectively) and

Tina Wecke; Birgit Veith; Armin Ehrenreich; Thorsten Mascher

2006-01-01

280

Pho regulon promoter-mediated transcription of the key pathway gene aroG Fbr improves the performance of an l -phenylalanine-producing Escherichia coli strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

DAHP synthase (EC 4.1.2.15) is one of the key enzymes involved in aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. An approximately twofold decrease in DAHP synthase activity level was detected in the late growth phase of the l-phenylalanine (Phe)-producing E. coli strain, in which this enzyme encoded by aroG4 is resistant to feedback inhibition. An additional copy of aroG4 that

Vera G. Doroshenko; Irina S. Tsyrenzhapova; Alexander A. Krylov; Evgeniya M. Kiseleva; Vladimir Yu. Ermishev; Svetlana M. Kazakova; Irina V. Biryukova; Sergey V. Mashko

2010-01-01

281

Direct stimulus perception and transcription activation by a membrane-bound DNA binding protein.  

PubMed

Few membrane proteins with a role in transcriptional regulation have been studied, and none are able to perceive their respective stimuli and activate transcription of their regulons without the aid of auxiliary proteins. The bacitracin resistance regulator, BcrR, of Enterococcus faecalis is a membrane-bound DNA binding protein and is required for bacitracin-dependent expression of the bacitracin resistance genes, bcrABD. Here, we show that BcrR interacts directly with Zn2+ bacitracin (Kd = 2-5 micropM), but not metal-free bacitracin. A solution-based DNA binding assay demonstrated that the affinity of BcrR for its target DNA is much higher (Kd = 40 nM) than previously found for transmembrane regulators and is comparable to that of soluble DNA binding proteins. A construct of BcrR that lacked the transmembrane domain was unable to bind to DNA, indicating that membrane localization was important for DNA binding. Bacitracin did not cause a change in the DNaseI footprint of BcrR on the bcrA promoter, but in vitro transcription assays with BcrR proteoliposomes showed bacitracin-dependent activation of transcription. These findings demonstrate that BcrR is a bona fide one-component transmembrane signal transduction system, which perceives an extracellular stimulus (presence of bacitracin) and relays it to an intracellular transcriptional response independent of any auxiliary proteins. PMID:19602149

Gebhard, Susanne; Gaballa, Ahmed; Helmann, John D; Cook, Gregory M

2009-07-07

282

Direct Stimulus Perception and Transcription Activation by a Membrane-bound DNA Binding Protein  

PubMed Central

Summary Few membrane proteins with a role in transcriptional regulation have been studied, and none are able to perceive their respective stimuli and activate transcription of their regulons without the aid of auxiliary proteins. The bacitracin resistance regulator, BcrR, of Enterococcus faecalis is a membrane-bound DNA-binding protein and is required for bacitracin-dependent expression of the bacitracin resistance genes, bcrABD. Here, we show that BcrR interacts directly with Zn2+-bacitracin (Kd = 2–5 ?M), but not metal-free bacitracin. A solution-based DNA binding assay demonstrated that the affinity of BcrR for its target DNA is much higher (Kd = 40 nM) than previously found for transmembrane regulators and is comparable to that of soluble DNA binding proteins. A construct of BcrR that lacked the transmembrane domain was unable to bind to DNA, indicating that membrane-localization was important for DNA binding. Bacitracin did not cause a change in the DNaseI footprint of BcrR on the bcrA promoter, but in vitro transcription assays with BcrR-proteoliposomes showed bacitracin-dependent activation of transcription. These findings demonstrate that BcrR is a bona fide one-component transmembrane signal transduction system, which perceives an extracellular stimulus (presence of bacitracin) and relays it to an intracellular transcriptional response independent of any auxiliary proteins.

Gebhard, Susanne; Gaballa, Ahmed; Helmann, John D.; Cook, Gregory M.

2009-01-01

283

Effect of FliK mutation on the transcriptional activity of the ?54 sigma factor RpoN in Helicobacter pylori  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori is a motile Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes and persists in the human gastric mucosa. The flagellum gene regulatory circuitry of H. pylori is unique in many aspects compared with the Salmonella/Escherichia coli paradigms, and some regulatory checkpoints remain unclear. FliK controls the hook length during flagellar assembly. Microarray analysis of a fliK-null mutant revealed increased transcription of genes under the control of the ?54 sigma factor RpoN. This sigma factor has been shown to be responsible for transcription of the class II flagellar genes, including flgE and flaB. No genes higher in the flagellar hierarchy had altered expression, suggesting specific and localized FliK-dependent feedback on the RpoN regulon. FliK thus appears to be involved in three processes: hook-length control, export substrate specificity and control of RpoN transcriptional activity.

Douillard, Francois P.; Ryan, Kieran A.; Hinds, Jason; O'Toole, Paul W.

2011-01-01

284

Is PhoR-PhoP partner fidelity strict? PhoR is required for the activation of the pho regulon in Streptomyces coelicolor.  

PubMed

Two-component regulatory systems play a key role in the cell metabolism adaptation to changing nutritional and environmental conditions. The fidelity between the two cognate proteins of a two-component system is important since it determines whether a specific response regulator integrates the signals transmitted by different sensor kinases. Phosphate regulation in Streptomyces coelicolor is mostly mediated by the PhoR-PhoP two-component system. Previous studies elucidated the mechanisms that control phosphate regulation as well as the genes directly regulated by the response regulator PhoP (pho regulon) in this organism. However, the role of the histidine kinase PhoR in Streptomyces coelicolor had not been unveiled so far. In this work, we report the characterization of a non-polar ?phoR deletion mutant in S. coelicolor that keeps its native promoter. Induction of the phoRP operon was dependent upon phosphorylation of PhoP, but the ?phoR mutant expressed phoP at a basal level. RT-PCR and reporter luciferase assays demonstrated that PhoR plays a key role in the activation of the pho regulon in this organism. Our results point towards a strict cognate partner specificity in terms of the phosphorylation of PhoP by PhoR thus corroborating the tight interaction between the two-components of this system. PMID:22643908

Fernández-Martínez, Lorena T; Santos-Beneit, Fernando; Martín, Juan F

2012-05-30

285

Analysis of growth-phase regulated genes in Streptococcus agalactiae by global transcript profiling  

PubMed Central

Background Bacteria employ multiple mechanisms to control gene expression and react to their constantly changing environment. Bacterial growth in rich laboratory medium is a dynamic process in which bacteria utilize nutrients from simple to complex and change physical properties of the medium, as pH, during the process. To determine which genes are differentially expressed throughout growth from mid log to stationary phase, we performed global transcript analysis. Results The S. agalactiae transcriptome is dynamic in response to growth conditions. Several genes and regulons involved in virulence factor production and utilization of alternate carbon sources were differentially expressed throughout growth. Conclusion These data provide new information about the magnitude of plasticity of the S. agalactiae transcriptome and its adaptive response to changing environmental conditions. The resulting information will greatly assist investigators studying S. agalactiae physiology and pathogenesis.

2009-01-01

286

Induction of the heat shock regulon of Escherichia coli markedly increases production of bacterial viruses at high temperatures.  

PubMed Central

Production of bacteriophages T2, T4, and T6 at 42.8 to 44 degrees C was increased from 8- to 260-fold by adapting the Escherichia coli host (grown at 30 degrees C) to growth at the high temperature for 8 min before infection; this increase was abolished if the host htpR (rpoH) gene was inactive. Others have shown that the htpR protein increases or activates the synthesis of at least 17 E. coli heat shock proteins upon raising the growth temperature above a certain level. At 43.8 to 44 degrees C in T4-infected, unadapted cells, the rates of RNA, DNA, and protein synthesis were about 100, 70, and 70%, respectively, of those in T4-infected, adapted cells. Production of the major processed capsid protein, gp23, was reduced significantly more than that of most other T4 proteins in unadapted cells relative to adapted cells. Only 4.6% of the T4 DNA made in unadapted cells was resistant to micrococcal nuclease, versus 50% in adapted cells. Thus, defective maturation of T4 heads appears to explain the failure of phage production in unadapted cells. Overproduction of the heat shock protein GroEL from plasmids restored T4 production in unadapted cells to about 50% of that seen in adapted cells. T4-infected, adapted E. coli B at around 44 degrees C exhibited a partial tryptophan deficiency; this correlated with reduced uptake of uracil that is probably caused by partial induction of stringency. Production of bacteriophage T7 at 44 degrees C was increased two- to fourfold by adapting the host to 44 degrees C before infection; evidence against involvement of the htpR (rpoH) gene is presented. This work and recent work with bacteriophage lambda (C. Waghorne and C.R. Fuerst, Virology 141:51-64, 1985) appear to represent the first demonstrations for any virus that expression of the heat shock regulon of a host is necessary for virus production at high temperature. Images

Wiberg, J S; Mowrey-McKee, M F; Stevens, E J

1988-01-01

287

Control of Proteobacterial Central Carbon Metabolism by the HexR Transcriptional Regulator  

PubMed Central

Bacteria exploit multiple mechanisms for controlling central carbon metabolism (CCM). Thus, a bioinformatic analysis together with some experimental data implicated the HexR transcriptional factor as a global CCM regulator in some lineages of Gammaproteobacteria operating as a functional replacement of the Cra regulator characteristic of Enterobacteriales. In this study, we combined a large scale comparative genomic reconstruction of HexR-controlled regulons in 87 species of Proteobacteria with the detailed experimental analysis of the HexR regulatory network in the Shewanella oneidensis model system. Although nearly all of the HexR-controlled genes are associated with CCM, remarkable variations were revealed in the scale (from 1 to 2 target operons in Enterobacteriales up to 20 operons in Aeromonadales) and gene content of HexR regulons between 11 compared lineages. A predicted 17-bp pseudo-palindrome with a consensus tTGTAATwwwATTACa was confirmed as a HexR-binding motif for 15 target operons (comprising 30 genes) by in vitro binding assays. The negative effect of the key CCM intermediate, 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate, on the DNA-regulator complex formation was verified. A dual mode of HexR action on various target promoters, repression of genes involved in catabolic pathways and activation of gluconeogenic genes, was for the first time predicted by the bioinformatic analysis and experimentally verified by changed gene expression pattern in S. oneidensis ?hexR mutant. Phenotypic profiling revealed the inability of this mutant to grow on lactate or pyruvate as a single carbon source. A comparative metabolic flux analysis of wild-type and mutant strains of S. oneidensis using [13C]lactate labeling and GC-MS analysis confirmed the hypothesized HexR role as a master regulator of gluconeogenic flux from pyruvate via the transcriptional activation of phosphoenolpyruvate synthase (PpsA).

Leyn, Semen A.; Li, Xiaoqing; Zheng, Qingxiang; Novichkov, Pavel S.; Reed, Samantha; Romine, Margaret F.; Fredrickson, James K.; Yang, Chen; Osterman, Andrei L.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.

2011-01-01

288

Inferring a transcriptional regulatory network from gene expression data using nonlinear manifold embedding.  

PubMed

Transcriptional networks consist of multiple regulatory layers corresponding to the activity of global regulators, specialized repressors and activators as well as proteins and enzymes shaping the DNA template. Such intrinsic complexity makes uncovering connections difficult and it calls for corresponding methodologies, which are adapted to the available data. Here we present a new computational method that predicts interactions between transcription factors and target genes using compendia of microarray gene expression data and documented interactions between genes and transcription factors. The proposed method, called Kernel Embedding of Regulatory Networks (KEREN), is based on the concept of gene-regulon association, and captures hidden geometric patterns of the network via manifold embedding. We applied KEREN to reconstruct transcription regulatory interactions on a genome-wide scale in the model bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli). Application of the method not only yielded accurate predictions of verifiable interactions, which outperformed on certain metrics comparable methodologies, but also demonstrated the utility of a geometric approach in the analysis of high-dimensional biological data. We also described possible applications of kernel embedding techniques to other function and network discovery algorithms. PMID:21857910

Zare, Hossein; Kaveh, Mostafa; Khodursky, Arkady

2011-08-12

289

Partially observed bipartite network analysis to identify predictive connections in transcriptional regulatory networks  

PubMed Central

Background Messenger RNA expression is regulated by a complex interplay of different regulatory proteins. Unfortunately, directly measuring the individual activity of these regulatory proteins is difficult, leaving us with only the resulting gene expression pattern as a marker for the underlying regulatory network or regulator-gene associations. Furthermore, traditional methods to predict these regulator-gene associations do not define the relative importance of each association, leading to a large number of connections in the global regulatory network that, although true, are not useful. Results Here we present a Bayesian method that identifies which known transcriptional relationships in a regulatory network are consistent with a given body of static gene expression data by eliminating the non-relevant ones. The Partially Observed Bipartite Network (POBN) approach developed here is tested using E. coli expression data and a transcriptional regulatory network derived from RegulonDB. When the regulatory network for E. coli was integrated with 266 E. coli gene chip observations, POBN identified 93 out of 570 connections that were either inconsistent or not adequately supported by the expression data. Conclusion POBN provides a systematic way to integrate known transcriptional networks with observed gene expression data to better identify which transcriptional pathways are likely responsible for the observed gene expression pattern.

2011-01-01

290

Transcription and splicing  

PubMed Central

Splicing can occur co-transcriptionally. What happens when the splicing reaction lags after the completed transcriptional process? We found that elongation rates are independent of ongoing splicing on the examined genes and suggest that when transcription has completed but splicing has not, the splicing machinery is retained at the site of transcription, independently of the polymerase.

Brody, Yehuda

2011-01-01

291

Transcriptional activation: risky business  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcriptional regulation is all about getting RNA polymerase to the right place on the gene at the right time and making sure that it is competent to conduct transcription. Traditional views of this process place most of their emphasis on the events that precede initiation of transcription. We imagine a promoter-bound transcriptional activator (or collection of activators) recruiting components of

William P. Tansey

2001-01-01

292

Relationship of the superoxide dismutase genes, sodA and sodB, to the iron uptake (/ital fur/) regulon in /ital Escherichia coli/ K-12  

SciTech Connect

Expression of sodA, as indicated by MnSod activity is normal in /ital fur/ mutants. This suggests that sodA is not a member of the /ital fur/ regulon and that the putative Fe-binding, regulatory protein of sodA, suggested by Moody and Hassan is not the Fur protein. by contrast, expression of sodB, as indicated by FeSod activity, is completely blocked in /ital fur/ mutants and the effect is restored by transformation with a plasmid having a normal /ital fur/ locus. The observations suggest that Fur, either directly or indirectly, controls SodB biosynthesis. Additional observations are described which indicate that SodB and Fur act together in a complicated fashion to control the biosynthesis of enterobactin. 26 refs., 3 tabs.

Niederhoffer, E.C.; Naranjo, C.M.; Fee, J.A.

1988-01-01

293

Interconnection of competence, stress and CiaR regulons in Streptococcus pneumoniae: competence triggers stationary phase autolysis of ciaR mutant cells.  

PubMed

Of the 13 two-component signal transduction systems (TCS) identified in Streptococcus pneumoniae, two, ComDE and CiaRH, are known to affect competence for natural genetic transformation. ComD and ComE act together with the comC-encoded competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) and with ComAB, the CSP-dedicated exporter, to co-ordinate activation of genes required for differentiation to competence. Several lines of evidence suggest that the CiaRH TCS and competence regulation are interconnected, including the observation that inactivation of the CiaR response regulator derepresses competence. However, the nature of the interconnection remains poorly understood. Interpretation of previous transcriptome analyses of ciaR mutants was complicated by competence derepression in the mutants. To circumvent this problem, we have used microarray analysis to investigate the transition from non-competence to competence in a comC-null wild-type strain and its ciaR derivative after the addition of CSP. This study increased the number of known CSP-induced genes from approximately 47 to 105 and revealed approximately 42 genes with reduced expression in competent cells. Induction of the CiaR regulon, as well as the entire HrcA and part of the CtsR stress response regulons, was observed in wild-type competent cells. Enhanced induction of stress response genes was detected in ciaR competent cells. In line with these observations, CSP was demonstrated to trigger growth arrest and stationary phase autolysis in ciaR cells. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that differentiation to competence imposes a temporary stress on cells, and that the CiaRH TCS is required for the cells to exit normally from the competent state. PMID:14763981

Dagkessamanskaia, Adilia; Moscoso, Miriam; Hénard, Vincent; Guiral, Sébastien; Overweg, Karin; Reuter, Mark; Martin, Bernard; Wells, Jerry; Claverys, Jean-Pierre

2004-02-01

294

GntR-Type Transcriptional Regulator PckR Negatively Regulates the Expression of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase in Corynebacterium glutamicum  

PubMed Central

The pck (cg3169) gene of Corynebacterium glutamicum encodes a phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). Here, a candidate transcriptional regulator that binds to the promoter region of pck was detected using a DNA affinity purification approach. An isolated protein was identified to be PckR (Cg0196), a GntR family transcriptional regulator which consists of 253 amino acids with a mass of 27 kDa as measured by peptide mass fingerprinting. The results of electrophoretic mobility shift assays verified that PckR specifically binds to the pck promoter. The putative regulator binding region extended from position ?44 to ?27 (an 18-bp sequence) relative to the transcriptional start point of the pck gene. We measured the expression of pck in a pckR deletion mutant by using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR. The expression level of pck in the pckR mutant was 7.6 times higher than that in wild-type cells grown in glucose. Comparative DNA microarray hybridizations and bioinformatic searches revealed the gene composition of the transcriptional regulon of C. glutamicum. Based on these results, PckR seemed to play an important role in the regulation of PEPCK in C. glutamicum grown in glucose. In particular, these assays revealed that PckR acts as a repressor of pck expression during glucose metabolism.

Hyeon, Jeong Eun; Kang, Dae Hee; Kim, Young In; You, Seung Kyou

2012-01-01

295

Regulons of the Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 iron starvation sigma factors PSPTO_0444, PSPTO_1209 and PSPTO_1286  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pseudomonas syringae is a globally dispersed environmental bacteria that is well known for its ability to cause destructive plant diseases in agricultural and horticultural settings. The ability of bacteria to survive in diverse environments is correlated with a large number of transcription regulat...

296

Multiple regulators and their interactions in vivo and in vitro with the cbb regulons of Rhodobacter capsulatus.  

PubMed

The cbb(I) and cbb(II) operons encode structural genes which are important for carbon dioxide fixation via the Calvin-Benson-Bassham reductive pentose phosphate pathway in Rhodobacter capsulatus. Each operon is regulated by cognate LysR-type transcriptional activators, CbbR(I) and CbbR(II), with the product of the cbbR(I) gene, CbbR(I), able to control its own transcription under some growth conditions. Furthermore, CbbR(I) may at least partially regulate the cbb(II) operon, with significant, yet regulated transcription of the cbb(II) operon occurring in the absence of any CbbR. These results suggested the importance of additional regulators. Thus, in addition to the rather specific control exerted by CbbR, a more globally significant regulatory system, the RegA-RegB (PrrA-PrrB) two-component system, was found to contribute to transcriptional regulation of each cbb operon. The regA and regB mutant strains were found to contain constitutive levels of form I and form II RubisCO, the major proteins encoded by the cbb(I) and cbb(II) operons, respectively. In addition, DNaseI footprint analyses indicated that RegA*, a constitutively active mutant form of RegA, binds specifically to cbb(I) and cbb(II) promoter-operator regions. CbbR(I), CbbR(II), and RegA binding loci were localized relative to transcription start sites, leading to a coherent picture of how each of these regulators interacts with specific promoter-operator sequences of the cbb operons. PMID:10903856

Vichivanives, P; Bird, T H; Bauer, C E; Robert Tabita, F

2000-07-28

297

DREB1/CBF transcription factors: their structure, function and role in abiotic stress tolerance in plants.  

PubMed

Drought, high salinity and low temperature are major abiotic stresses that influence survival, productivity and geographical distribution of many important crops across the globe. Plants respond to these environmental challenges via physiological, cellular and molecular processes, which results in adjusted metabolic and structural alterations. The dehydration-responsiveelement-binding (DREB) protein / C-repeat binding factors (CBFs) belong to APETALA2 (AP2) family transcription factors that bind to DRE/CRT cis-element and regulate the expression of stress-responsive genes. DREB1/CBF genes, therefore, play an important role in increasing stress tolerance in plants and their deployment using transgenic technology seems to be a potential alternative in management of abiotic stresses in crop plants. This review is mainly focussed on the structural characteristics as well as transcriptional regulation of gene expression in response to various abiotic stresses, with particular emphasis on the role of DREB1/CBF regulon in stress-responsive gene expression. The recent progress related to genetic engineering of DREB1/CBF transcription factors in various crops and model plants is also summarized. PMID:23271026

Akhtar, M; Jaiswal, A; Taj, G; Jaiswal, J P; Qureshi, M I; Singh, N K

2012-12-01

298

Transcription-Defective soxR Mutants of Escherichia coli: Isolation and In Vivo Characterization  

PubMed Central

The soxRS regulon protects Escherichia coli from superoxide and nitric oxide stress. SoxR protein, a transcription factor that senses oxidative stress via its [2Fe-2S] centers, transduces the signal to the soxS promoter to stimulate RNA polymerase. Here we describe 29 mutant alleles of soxR that cause defects in the activation of soxS transcription in response to paraquat, a superoxide stress agent. Owing to the selection and screen used in their isolation, most of these mutant alleles encode proteins that retained specific binding activity for the soxS promoter in vivo. The mutations were found throughout the SoxR polypeptide, although those closer to the N terminus typically exhibited greater defects in DNA binding. The degree of the defect in the transcriptional response to superoxide caused by each mutation was closely paralleled by its impaired response to nitric oxide. This work begins the general identification of the residues in the SoxR polypeptide that are critical for transducing oxidative stress signals into gene activation.

Chander, Monica; Raducha-Grace, Laura; Demple, Bruce

2003-01-01

299

The HU Regulon Is Composed of Genes Responding to Anaerobiosis, Acid Stress, High Osmolarity and SOS Induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe Escherichia coli heterodimeric HU protein is a small DNA-bending protein associated with the bacterial nucleoid. It can introduce negative supercoils into closed circular DNA in the presence of topoisomerase I. Cells lacking HU grow very poorly and display many phenotypes.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe analyzed the transcription profile of every Escherichia coli gene in the absence of one or both HU subunits.

Jacques Oberto; Sabrina Nabti; Valérie Jooste; Hervé Mignot; Josette Rouviere-Yaniv; Axel Imhof

2009-01-01

300

Genomic Expression Program Involving the Haa1p-Regulon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Response to Acetic Acid  

PubMed Central

Abstract The alterations occurring in yeast genomic expression during early response to acetic acid and the involvement of the transcription factor Haa1p in this transcriptional reprogramming are described in this study. Haa1p was found to regulate, directly or indirectly, the transcription of approximately 80% of the acetic acid-activated genes, suggesting that Haa1p is the main player in the control of yeast response to this weak acid. The genes identified in this work as being activated in response to acetic acid in a Haa1p-dependent manner include protein kinases, multidrug resistance transporters, proteins involved in lipid metabolism, in nucleic acid processing, and proteins of unknown function. Among these genes, the expression of SAP30 and HRK1 provided the strongest protective effect toward acetic acid. SAP30 encode a subunit of a histone deacetylase complex and HRK1 encode a protein kinase belonging to a family of protein kinases dedicated to the regulation of plasma membrane transporters activity. The deletion of the HRK1 gene was found to lead to the increase of the accumulation of labeled acetic acid into acid-stressed yeast cells, suggesting that the role of both HAA1 and HRK1 in providing protection against acetic acid is, at least partially, related with their involvement in the reduction of intracellular acetate concentration.

Becker, Jorg D.; Sa-Correia, Isabel

2010-01-01

301

A generic approach to identify Transcription Factor-specific operator motifs; Inferences for LacI-family mediated regulation in Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1  

PubMed Central

Background A key problem in the sequence-based reconstruction of regulatory networks in bacteria is the lack of specificity in operator predictions. The problem is especially prominent in the identification of transcription factor (TF) specific binding sites. More in particular, homologous TFs are abundant and, as they are structurally very similar, it proves difficult to distinguish the related operators by automated means. This also holds for the LacI-family, a family of TFs that is well-studied and has many members that fulfill crucial roles in the control of carbohydrate catabolism in bacteria including catabolite repression. To overcome the specificity problem, a comprehensive footprinting approach was formulated to identify TF-specific operator motifs and was applied to the LacI-family of TFs in the model gram positive organism, Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. The main premise behind the approach is that only orthologous sequences that share orthologous genomic context will share equivalent regulatory sites. Results When the approach was applied to the 12 LacI-family TFs of the model species, a specific operator motif was identified for each of them. With the TF-specific operator motifs, potential binding sites were found on the genome and putative minimal regulons could be defined. Moreover, specific inducers could in most cases be linked to the TFs through phylogeny, thereby unveiling the biological role of these regulons. The operator predictions indicated that the LacI-family TFs can be separated into two subfamilies with clearly distinct operator motifs. They also established that the operator related to the 'global' regulator CcpA is not inherently distinct from that of other LacI-family members, only more degenerate. Analysis of the chromosomal position of the identified putative binding sites confirmed that the LacI-family TFs are mostly auto-regulatory and relate mainly to carbohydrate uptake and catabolism. Conclusion Our approach to identify specific operator motifs for different TF-family members is specific and in essence generic. The data infer that, although the specific operator motifs can be used to identify minimal regulons, experimental knowledge on TF activity especially is essential to determine complete regulons as well as to estimate the overlap between TF affinities.

Francke, Christof; Kerkhoven, Robert; Wels, Michiel; Siezen, Roland J

2008-01-01

302

Short Day-Mediated Cessation of Growth Requires the Downregulation of AINTEGUMENTALIKE1 Transcription Factor in Hybrid Aspen  

PubMed Central

Day length is a key environmental cue regulating the timing of major developmental transitions in plants. For example, in perennial plants such as the long-lived trees of the boreal forest, exposure to short days (SD) leads to the termination of meristem activity and bud set (referred to as growth cessation). The mechanism underlying SD–mediated induction of growth cessation is poorly understood. Here we show that the AIL1-AIL4 (AINTEGUMENTALIKE) transcription factors of the AP2 family are the downstream targets of the SD signal in the regulation of growth cessation response in hybrid aspen trees. AIL1 is expressed in the shoot apical meristem and leaf primordia, and exposure to SD signal downregulates AIL1 expression. Downregulation of AIL gene expression by SDs is altered in transgenic hybrid aspen plants that are defective in SD perception and/or response, e.g. PHYA or FT overexpressors. Importantly, SD–mediated regulation of growth cessation response is also affected by overexpression or downregulation of AIL gene expression. AIL1 protein can interact with the promoter of the key cell cycle genes, e.g. CYCD3.2, and downregulation of the expression of D-type cyclins after SD treatment is prevented by AIL1 overexpression. These data reveal that execution of SD–mediated growth cessation response requires the downregulation of AIL gene expression. Thus, while early acting components like PHYA and the CO/FT regulon are conserved in day-length regulation of flowering time and growth cessation between annual and perennial plants, signaling pathways downstream of SD perception diverge, with AIL transcription factors being novel targets of the CO/FT regulon connecting the perception of SD signal to the regulation of meristem activity.

Karlberg, Anna; Bako, Laszlo; Bhalerao, Rishikesh P.

2011-01-01

303

Short day-mediated cessation of growth requires the downregulation of AINTEGUMENTALIKE1 transcription factor in hybrid aspen.  

PubMed

Day length is a key environmental cue regulating the timing of major developmental transitions in plants. For example, in perennial plants such as the long-lived trees of the boreal forest, exposure to short days (SD) leads to the termination of meristem activity and bud set (referred to as growth cessation). The mechanism underlying SD-mediated induction of growth cessation is poorly understood. Here we show that the AIL1-AIL4 (AINTEGUMENTALIKE) transcription factors of the AP2 family are the downstream targets of the SD signal in the regulation of growth cessation response in hybrid aspen trees. AIL1 is expressed in the shoot apical meristem and leaf primordia, and exposure to SD signal downregulates AIL1 expression. Downregulation of AIL gene expression by SDs is altered in transgenic hybrid aspen plants that are defective in SD perception and/or response, e.g. PHYA or FT overexpressors. Importantly, SD-mediated regulation of growth cessation response is also affected by overexpression or downregulation of AIL gene expression. AIL1 protein can interact with the promoter of the key cell cycle genes, e.g. CYCD3.2, and downregulation of the expression of D-type cyclins after SD treatment is prevented by AIL1 overexpression. These data reveal that execution of SD-mediated growth cessation response requires the downregulation of AIL gene expression. Thus, while early acting components like PHYA and the CO/FT regulon are conserved in day-length regulation of flowering time and growth cessation between annual and perennial plants, signaling pathways downstream of SD perception diverge, with AIL transcription factors being novel targets of the CO/FT regulon connecting the perception of SD signal to the regulation of meristem activity. PMID:22072988

Karlberg, Anna; Bako, Laszlo; Bhalerao, Rishikesh P

2011-11-03

304

Control of Proteobacterial Central Carbon Metabolism by the HexR Transcriptional Regulator. A Case Study in Shewanella oneidensis  

SciTech Connect

Bacteria exploit multiple mechanisms for controlling central carbon metabolism (CCM). Thus, a bioinformatic analysis together with some experimental data implicated HexR transcriptional factor as a global CCM regulator in some lineages of Gammaproteobacteria operating as a functional replacement of Cra regulator characteristic of Enterobacteriales. In this study we combined a large-scale comparative genomic reconstruction of HexRcontrolled regulons in 87 species of Proteobacteria with the detailed experimental analysis of HexR regulatory network in Shewanella oneidensis model system. Although nearly all of the HexR-controlled genes are associated with CCM, remarkable variations were revealed in the scale (from 1-2 target operons in Enterobacteriales up to 20 operons in Aeromonadales) and gene content of HexR regulons between 11 compared lineages. A predicted 17-bp pseudo-palindrome with a consensus tTGTAATwwwATTACa, was confirmed as HexR-binding motif for 15 target operons (comprising 30 genes) by in vitro binding assays. The negative effect of the key CCM intermediate, 2-keto-3-deoxy-6- phosphogluconate, on the DNA-regulator complex formation was verified. A dual mode of HexR action on various target promoters, repression of genes involved in catabolic pathways and activation of gluconeogenic genes, was for the first time predicted by the bioinformatc analysis and experimentally verified by changed gene expression pattern in S. oneidensis AhexR mutant. Phenotypic profiling revealed the inability of this mutant to grow on lactate or pyruvate as a single carbon source. A comparative metabolic flux analysis of wild-type and mutant strains of S. oneidensis using 13Clactate labeling and GC-MS analysis confirmed the hypothesized HexR role as a master regulator of gluconeogenic flux from pyruvate via the transcriptional activation of phosphoenolpyruvate synthase (PpsA).

Leyn, Semen; Li, Xiaoqing; Zheng, Qijing; Novichkov, Pavel; Reed, Samantha B.; Romine, Margaret F.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Yang, Chen; Osterman, Andrei L.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.

2011-08-17

305

High-resolution detection of DNA binding sites of the global transcriptional regulator GlxR in Corynebacterium glutamicum.  

PubMed

The transcriptional regulator GlxR has been characterized as a global hub within the gene-regulatory network of Corynebacterium glutamicum. Chromatin immunoprecipitation with a specific anti-GlxR antibody and subsequent high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) was applied to C. glutamicum to get new in vivo insights into the gene composition of the GlxR regulon. In a comparative approach, C. glutamicum cells were grown with either glucose or acetate as the sole carbon source prior to immunoprecipitation. High-throughput sequencing resulted in 69 million reads and 2.6 Gb of genomic information. After mapping of these data on the genome sequence of C. glutamicum, 107 enriched DNA fragments were detected from cells grown with glucose as carbon source. GlxR binding sites were identified in the sequence of 79 enriched DNA fragments, of which 21 sites were not previously reported. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays with 40-mer oligomers covering the GlxR binding sites were performed for validation of the in vivo results. The detection of new binding sites confirmed the role of GlxR as a regulator of carbon source metabolism and energy conversion, but additionally revealed binding of GlxR in front of the 6C non-coding RNA gene and to non-canonical DNA binding sites within protein-coding regions. The present study underlines the dynamics within the GlxR regulon by identifying in vivo targets during growth on glucose and contributes to the expansion of knowledge of this important transcriptional regulator. PMID:23103979

Jungwirth, Britta; Sala, Claudia; Kohl, Thomas A; Uplekar, Swapna; Baumbach, Jan; Cole, Stewart T; Pühler, Alfred; Tauch, Andreas

2012-10-25

306

Discovery of a diverse clade of gregarine apicomplexans (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinorida) from Pacific eunicid and onuphid polychaetes, including descriptions of Paralecudina n. gen., Trichotokara japonica n. sp., and T. eunicae n. sp.  

PubMed

Marine gregarines are poorly understood apicomplexan parasites with large trophozoites that inhabit the body cavities of marine invertebrates. Two novel species of gregarines were discovered in polychaete hosts collected in Canada and Japan. The trophozoites of Trichotokara japonica n. sp. were oval to rhomboidal shaped, and covered with longitudinal epicytic folds with a density of six to eight folds/micron. The nucleus was situated in the middle of the cell, and the mucron was elongated and covered with hair-like projections; antler-like projections also extended from the anterior tip of the mucron. The distinctively large trophozoites of Trichotokara eunicae n. sp. lacked an elongated mucron and had a tadpole-like cell shape consisting of a bulbous anterior region and a tapered tail-like posterior region. The cell surface was covered with longitudinal epicytic folds with a density of three to five folds/micron. Small subunit (SSU) rDNA sequences of both species were very divergent and formed a strongly supported clade with the recently described species Trichotokara nothriae and an environmental sequence (AB275074). This phylogenetic context combined with the morphological features of T. eunicae n. sp. required us to amend the description for Trichotokara. The sister clade to the Trichotokara clade consisted of environmental sequences and Lecudina polymorpha, which also possesses densely packed epicyctic folds (3-5 folds/micron) and a prominently elongated mucron. This improved morphological and molecular phylogenetic context justified the establishment of Paralecudina (ex. Lecudina) polymorpha n. gen. et comb. PMID:23347320

Rueckert, Sonja; Wakeman, Kevin C; Leander, Brian S

2013-01-24

307

Toxoplasma Transcription Factor TgAP2XI-5 Regulates the Expression of Genes Involved in Parasite Virulence and Host Invasion.  

PubMed

Gene regulation in apicomplexan parasites, a phylum containing important protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium and Toxoplasma, is poorly understood. The life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii is complex, with multiple proliferation and differentiation steps, of which tachyzoite proliferation is the most relevant to pathogenesis in humans and animals. Tachyzoites express invasion and virulence factors that are crucial for their survival and manipulation of host cell functions. The expression of those factors is tightly controlled during the tachyzoite cell cycle to permit their correct packaging in newly formed apical secretory organelles named micronemes and rhoptries in the daughter cells. However, little is known about the factors that control the expression of genes encoding the virulence factors present in these parasite-specific secretory organelles. We report that the plant-like nuclear factor TgAP2XI-5 targets more than 300 gene promoters and actively controls the transcription of these genes. Most of these target genes, including those that are essential for parasite virulence, showed a peak of expression in the S and M phases of the cell cycle. Furthermore, we identified the cis-regulatory element recognized by TgAP2XI-5 and demonstrated its ability to actively drive gene transcription. Our results demonstrated that TgAP2XI-5 is a novel DNA sequence-specific transcription factor associated with promoter activation. TgAP2XI-5 may regulate gene transcription of crucial virulence factors in T. gondii. PMID:24025328

Walker, Robert; Gissot, Mathieu; Huot, Ludovic; Alayi, Tchilabalo Dilezitoko; Hot, David; Marot, Guillemette; Schaeffer-Reiss, Christine; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Kim, Kami; Tomavo, Stanislas

2013-09-10

308

ATP-dependent RecG Helicase Is Required for the Transcriptional Regulator OxyR Function in Pseudomonas species*  

PubMed Central

The oxyR gene appears to reside in an operon with the recG helicase gene in many bacteria, including pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida. Analysis of P. putida transcriptomes shows that many OxyR-controlled genes are regulated by the ATP-dependent RecG helicase and that RecG alone modulates the expression of many genes. We found that purified RecG binds to the promoters of many OxyR-controlled genes and that expression of these genes was not induced under conditions of oxidative stress in recG mutants of P. aeruginosa, P. putida, and Escherichia coli. In vitro data revealed that promoters containing palindromic sequences are essential for RecG binding and that single-strand binding proteins and ATP are also needed for RecG to promote transcription, whereas a magnesium ion has the opposite effect. The OxyR tetramer preferentially binds to promoters after RecG has generated linear DNA in the presence of ATP; otherwise, the OxyR dimer has higher affinity. This study provides new insights into the mechanism of bacterial transcription by demonstrating that RecG might be required for the induction of the OxyR regulon by unwinding palindromic DNA for transcription. This work describes a novel bacterial transcriptional function by RecG helicase with OxyR and may provide new targets for controlling Pseudomonas species pathogen.

Yeom, Jinki; Lee, Yunho; Park, Woojun

2012-01-01

309

A novel role for the transcription factor Cwt1p as a negative regulator of nitrosative stress in Candida albicans.  

PubMed

The ability of Candida albicans to survive in the presence of nitrosative stress during the initial contact with the host immune system is crucial for its ability to colonize mammalian hosts. Thus, this fungus must activate robust mechanisms to neutralize and repair nitrosative-induced damage. Until now, very little was known regarding the regulatory circuits associated with reactive nitrogen species detoxification in fungi. To gain insight into the transcriptional regulatory networks controlling nitrosative stress response (NRS) in C. albicans a compilation of transcriptional regulator-defective mutants were screened. This led to the identification of Cwt1p as a negative regulator of NSR. By combining genome-wide location and expression analyses, we have characterized the Cwt1p regulon and demonstrated that Cwt1p is directly required for proper repression of the flavohemoglobin Yhb1p, a key NO-detoxification enzyme. Furthermore, Cwt1p operates both by activating and repressing genes of specific functions solicited upon NSR. Additionally, we used Gene Set Enrichment Analysis to reinvestigate the C. albicans NSR-transcriptome and demonstrate a significant similarity with the transcriptional profiles of C. albicans interacting with phagocytic host-cells. In summary, we have characterized a novel negative regulator of NSR and bring new insights into the transcriptional regulatory network governing fungal NSR. PMID:22952822

Sellam, Adnane; Tebbji, Faiza; Whiteway, Malcolm; Nantel, André

2012-08-29

310

Deciphering Transcriptional Regulatory Mechanisms Associated with Hemicellulose Degradation in Neurospora crassa  

PubMed Central

Hemicellulose, the second most abundant plant biomass fraction after cellulose, is widely viewed as a potential substrate for the production of liquid fuels and other value-added materials. Degradation of hemicellulose by filamentous fungi requires production of many different enzymes, which are induced by biopolymers or its derivatives and regulated mainly at the transcriptional level through transcription factors (TFs). Neurospora crassa, a model filamentous fungus, expresses and secretes enzymes required for plant cell wall deconstruction. To better understand genes specifically associated with degradation of hemicellulose, we applied secretome and transcriptome analysis to N. crassa grown on beechwood xylan. We identified 34 secreted proteins and 353 genes with elevated transcription on xylan. The xylanolytic phenotype of strains with deletions in genes identified from the secretome and transcriptome analysis of the wild type was assessed, revealing functions for known and unknown proteins associated with hemicellulose degradation. By evaluating phenotypes of strains containing deletions of predicted TF genes in N. crassa, we identified a TF (XLR-1; xylan degradation regulator 1) essential for hemicellulose degradation that is an ortholog to XlnR/XYR1 in Aspergillus and Trichoderma species, respectively, a major transcriptional regulator of genes encoding both cellulases and hemicellulases. Deletion of xlr-1 in N. crassa abolished growth on xylan and xylose, but growth on cellulose and cellulolytic activity were only slightly affected. To determine the regulatory mechanisms for hemicellulose degradation, we explored the transcriptional regulon of XLR-1 under xylose, xylanolytic, and cellulolytic conditions. XLR-1 regulated only some predicted hemicellulase genes in N. crassa and was required for a full induction of several cellulase genes. Hemicellulase gene expression was induced by a combination of release from carbon catabolite repression (CCR) and induction. This systematic analysis illustrates the similarities and differences in regulation of hemicellulose degradation among filamentous fungi.

Sun, Jianping; Tian, Chaoguang; Diamond, Spencer

2012-01-01

311

Dissecting the expression patterns of transcription factors across conditions using an integrated network-based approach  

PubMed Central

In prokaryotes, regulation of gene expression is predominantly controlled at the level of transcription. Transcription in turn is mediated by a set of DNA-binding factors called transcription factors (TFs). In this study, we map the complete repertoire of ?300 TFs of the bacterial model, Escherichia coli, onto gene expression data for a number of nonredundant experimental conditions and show that TFs are generally expressed at a lower level than other gene classes. We also demonstrate that different conditions harbor varying number of active TFs, with an average of about 15% of the total repertoire, with certain stress and drug-induced conditions exhibiting as high as one-third of the collection of TFs. Our results also show that activators are more frequently expressed than repressors, indicating that activation of promoters might be a more common phenomenon than repression in bacteria. Finally, to understand the association of TFs with different conditions and to elucidate their dynamic interplay with other TFs, we develop a network-based framework to identify TFs which act as markers, defined as those which are responsible for condition-specific transcriptional rewiring. This approach allowed us to pinpoint several marker TFs as being central in various specialized conditions such as drug induction or growth condition variations, which we discuss in light of previously reported experimental findings. Further analysis showed that a majority of identified markers effectively control the expression of their regulons and, in general, transcriptional programs of most conditions can be effectively rewired by a very small number of TFs. It was also found that closeness is a key centrality measure which can aid in the successful identification of marker TFs in regulatory networks. Our results suggest the utility of the network-based approaches developed in this study to be applicable for understanding other interactomic data sets.

Janga, Sarath Chandra; Contreras-Moreira, Bruno

2010-01-01

312

Deciphering transcriptional regulatory mechanisms associated with hemicellulose degradation in Neurospora crassa.  

PubMed

Hemicellulose, the second most abundant plant biomass fraction after cellulose, is widely viewed as a potential substrate for the production of liquid fuels and other value-added materials. Degradation of hemicellulose by filamentous fungi requires production of many different enzymes, which are induced by biopolymers or its derivatives and regulated mainly at the transcriptional level through transcription factors (TFs). Neurospora crassa, a model filamentous fungus, expresses and secretes enzymes required for plant cell wall deconstruction. To better understand genes specifically associated with degradation of hemicellulose, we applied secretome and transcriptome analysis to N. crassa grown on beechwood xylan. We identified 34 secreted proteins and 353 genes with elevated transcription on xylan. The xylanolytic phenotype of strains with deletions in genes identified from the secretome and transcriptome analysis of the wild type was assessed, revealing functions for known and unknown proteins associated with hemicellulose degradation. By evaluating phenotypes of strains containing deletions of predicted TF genes in N. crassa, we identified a TF (XLR-1; xylan degradation regulator 1) essential for hemicellulose degradation that is an ortholog to XlnR/XYR1 in Aspergillus and Trichoderma species, respectively, a major transcriptional regulator of genes encoding both cellulases and hemicellulases. Deletion of xlr-1 in N. crassa abolished growth on xylan and xylose, but growth on cellulose and cellulolytic activity were only slightly affected. To determine the regulatory mechanisms for hemicellulose degradation, we explored the transcriptional regulon of XLR-1 under xylose, xylanolytic, and cellulolytic conditions. XLR-1 regulated only some predicted hemicellulase genes in N. crassa and was required for a full induction of several cellulase genes. Hemicellulase gene expression was induced by a combination of release from carbon catabolite repression (CCR) and induction. This systematic analysis illustrates the similarities and differences in regulation of hemicellulose degradation among filamentous fungi. PMID:22345350

Sun, Jianping; Tian, Chaoguang; Diamond, Spencer; Glass, N Louise

2012-02-17

313

Comparative genomics supports a deep evolutionary origin for the large, four-module transcriptional mediator complex  

PubMed Central

The multisubunit Mediator (MED) complex bridges DNA-bound transcriptional regulators to the RNA polymerase II (PolII) initiation machinery. In yeast, the 25 MED subunits are distributed within three core subcomplexes and a separable kinase module composed of Med12, Med13 and the Cdk8-CycC pair thought to control the reversible interaction between MED and PolII by phosphorylating repeated heptapeptides within the Rpb1 carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD). Here, MED conservation has been investigated across the eukaryotic kingdom. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Med2, Med3/Pgd1 and Med5/Nut1 subunits are apparent homologs of metazoan Med29/Intersex, Med27/Crsp34 and Med24/Trap100, respectively, and these and other 30 identified human MED subunits have detectable counterparts in the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, indicating that none is specific to metazoans. Indeed, animal/fungal subunits are also conserved in plants, green and red algae, entamoebids, oomycetes, diatoms, apicomplexans, ciliates and the ‘deep-branching’ protists Trichomonas vaginalis and Giardia lamblia. Surprisingly, although lacking CTD heptads, T. vaginalis displays 44 MED subunit homologs, including several CycC, Med12 and Med13 paralogs. Such observations have allowed the identification of a conserved 17-subunit framework around which peripheral subunits may be assembled, and support a very ancient eukaryotic origin for a large, four-module MED. The implications of this comprehensive work for MED structure–function relationships are discussed.

Bourbon, Henri-Marc

2008-01-01

314

Global transcriptional responses of the toxic cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa, to nitrogen stress, phosphorus stress, and growth on organic matter.  

PubMed

Whole transcriptome shotgun sequencing (RNA-seq) was used to assess the transcriptomic response of the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa during growth with low levels of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (low N), low levels of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (low P), and in the presence of high levels of high molecular weight dissolved organic matter (HMWDOM). Under low N, one third of the genome was differentially expressed, with significant increases in transcripts observed among genes within the nir operon, urea transport genes (urtBCDE), and amino acid transporters while significant decreases in transcripts were observed in genes related to photosynthesis. There was also a significant decrease in the transcription of the microcystin synthetase gene set under low N and a significant decrease in microcystin content per Microcystis cell demonstrating that N supply influences cellular toxicity. Under low P, 27% of the genome was differentially expressed. The Pho regulon was induced leading to large increases in transcript levels of the alkaline phosphatase phoX, the Pst transport system (pstABC), and the sphX gene, and transcripts of multiple sulfate transporter were also significantly more abundant. While the transcriptional response to growth on HMWDOM was smaller (5-22% of genes differentially expressed), transcripts of multiple genes specifically associated with the transport and degradation of organic compounds were significantly more abundant within HMWDOM treatments and thus may be recruited by Microcystis to utilize these substrates. Collectively, these findings provide a comprehensive understanding of the nutritional physiology of this toxic, bloom-forming cyanobacterium and the role of N in controlling microcystin synthesis. PMID:23894552

Harke, Matthew J; Gobler, Christopher J

2013-07-23

315

Transcriptional kinetic analyses of cereulide synthetase genes with respect to growth, sporulation and emetic toxin production in Bacillus cereus.  

PubMed

In light of the increasing number of serious food borne outbreaks caused by emetic Bacillus cereus, a better understanding of the cereulide synthetase (ces) gene expression and toxin synthesis is required. Here, the relative expression levels of three ces genes (cesP, cesA and cesB) were investigated using quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR in relation to growth, degree of sporulation and toxin production of the emetic reference strain B. cereus F4810/72 and the weakly emetic strain IH41385. The strict co-transcription of all three genes confirmed the operon structure of the ces gene cluster responsible for cereulide formation. ces transcription turned out to be highly temporal and tightly regulated; ces mRNA was only detectable during mid to late exponential growth in both strains. The low toxigenic potential of the weakly emetic strain IH41385 correlated well with its respective ces transcripts, showing reduced activity at a transcriptional level. Two non-sporulating mutants (F4810/72?spo0A and F4810/72INsigH) demonstrated that cereulide synthesis is part of the Spo0A regulon but independent of later sporulation processes. Besides strain specific intrinsic factors, ces transcription was found to be significantly influenced by the cellular growth state as well as by extrinsic abiotic factors, like salt. An increase of sodium chloride in the media resulted in lower ces transcription and coincided with lower cereulide toxin levels. Interestingly, at 25 gl(-1) NaCl, toxin levels were already reduced without strongly affecting the growth of B. cereus, indicating an inhibitory effect of NaCl on cereulide biosynthesis independent of growth. This illustrates that ces gene expression and toxicity cannot be predicted solely from growth rates or cell numbers, but is influenced by complex interactions of various intrinsic as well as extrinsic factors, which remain to be clarified in detail. PMID:21315985

Dommel, Monica K; Lücking, Genia; Scherer, Siegfried; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

2010-07-13

316

Transcription of the Staphylococcus aureus cid and lrg murein hydrolase regulators is affected by sigma factor B.  

PubMed

The Staphylococcus aureus lrg and cid loci are homologous operons that have been shown to regulate murein hydrolase activity and affect sensitivity to penicillin. Although the mode of action of these operons has not been demonstrated, a model based on the similarities of the lrgA and cidA gene products to the bacteriophage holin family of proteins has been proposed. In this study, the transcription organization and regulation of these operons were examined by Northern blot analyses. Unexpectedly, cidB and a gene located immediately downstream, designated cidC, were found to be cotranscribed on a 2.7-kb transcript. Maximal cidBC transcription occurred during early exponential growth, and high-level transcription of cidBC was dependent on the rsbU-mediated activation of the alternative sigma factor B (sigmaB). In contrast, lrgAB transcription in stationary phase was negatively regulated by sigmaB. Although cidABC transcription was not detected by Northern blot analysis, reverse transcriptase PCR revealed that these genes are also cotranscribed as a single RNA message in early exponential growth. Primer extension analysis revealed the presence of two cidBC transcription start sites, but no apparent sigmaB-dependent promoter consensus sequence was identified in these regions. The rsbU gene was also shown to have a positive impact on murein hydrolase activity but a negligible effect on sensitivity to penicillin-induced killing. These results suggest that the lrgAB and cidBC genes may be part of the S. aureus sigmaB-controlled stress regulon. PMID:15126464

Rice, Kelly C; Patton, Toni; Yang, Soo-Jin; Dumoulin, Alexis; Bischoff, Markus; Bayles, Kenneth W

2004-05-01

317

Organization of Transcription  

PubMed Central

Investigations into the organization of transcription have their origins in cell biology. Early studies characterized nascent transcription in relation to discernable nuclear structures and components. Advances in light microscopy, immunofluorescence, and in situ hybridization helped to begin the difficult task of naming the countless individual players and components of transcription and placing them in context. With the completion of mammalian genome sequences, the seemingly boundless task of understanding transcription of the genome became finite and began a new period of rapid advance. Here we focus on the organization of transcription in mammals drawing upon information from lower organisms where necessary. The emerging picture is one of a highly organized nucleus with specific conformations of the genome adapted for tissue-specific programs of transcription and gene expression.

Chakalova, Lyubomira; Fraser, Peter

2010-01-01

318

Activating transcription factor 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) belongs to the ATF\\/CREB (activating transcription factor\\/cyclic AMP response element binding protein) family of basic region-leucine zipper (bZip) transcription factors, which have the consensus binding site cAMP responsive element (CRE). ATF4 has numerous dimerization partners. ATF4 is induced by stress signals including anoxia\\/hypoxia, endoplasmic reticulum stress, amino acid deprivation, and oxidative stress. ATF4 expression is

Kurosh Ameri; Adrian L. Harris

2008-01-01

319

Promoter and regulon analysis of nitrogen assimilation factor, ?54, reveal alternative strategy for E. coli MG1655 flagellar biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Bacteria core RNA polymerase (RNAP) must associate with a ? factor to recognize promoter sequences. Promoters recognized by the ?54 (or ?N) associated RNA polymerase are unique in having conserved positions around ?24 and ?12 nucleotides upstream from the transcriptional start site. Using DNA microarrays representing the entire Escherichia coli genome and promoter validation approaches, we identify 40 in vivo targets of ?54, the nitrogen assimilation ? factor, and estimate that there are 70 ?54 promoters in total. Immunoprecipitation assays have been performed to further evaluate the efficiency of our approaches. In addition, promoter consensus binding search and primer extension assay helped us to identify a new ?54 promoter carried by insB-5 in the upstream of flhDC operon. The involvement of ?54 in flagellar biosynthesis in sequenced E. coli strain MG1655 indicates a fluid gene regulation phenomenon carried by some mobile elements in bacteria genome.

Zhao, Kai; Liu, Mingzhu; Burgess, Richard R.

2010-01-01

320

Proteins Needed to Activate a Transcriptional Response to the Reactive Oxygen Species Singlet Oxygen  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Singlet oxygen (1O2) is a reactive oxygen species generated by energy transfer from one or more excited donors to molecular oxygen. Many biomolecules are prone to oxidation by 1O2, and cells have evolved systems to protect themselves from damage caused by this compound. One way that the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides protects itself from 1O2 is by inducing a transcriptional response controlled by ChrR, an anti-? factor which releases an alternative sigma factor, ?E, in the presence of 1O2. Here we report that induction of ?E-dependent gene transcription is decreased in the presence of 1O2 when two conserved genes in the ?E regulon are deleted, including one encoding a cyclopropane fatty acid synthase homologue (RSP2144) or one encoding a protein of unknown function (RSP1091). Thus, we conclude that RSP2144 and RSP1091 are each necessary to increase ?E activity in the presence of 1O2. In addition, we found that unlike in wild-type cells, where ChrR is rapidly degraded when 1O2 is generated, turnover of this anti-? factor is slowed when cells lacking RSP2144, RSP1091, or both of these proteins are exposed to 1O2. Further, we demonstrate that the organic hydroperoxide tert-butyl hydroperoxide promotes ChrR turnover in both wild-type cells and mutants lacking RSP2144 or RSP1091, suggesting differences in the ways different types of oxidants increase ?E activity.

Nam, Tae-Wook; Ziegelhoffer, Eva C.; Lemke, Rachelle A. S.; Donohue, Timothy J.

2013-01-01

321

Functional diversification of ROK-family transcriptional regulators of sugar catabolism in the Thermotogae phylum  

PubMed Central

Large and functionally heterogeneous families of transcription factors have complex evolutionary histories. What shapes specificities toward effectors and DNA sites in paralogous regulators is a fundamental question in biology. Bacteria from the deep-branching lineage Thermotogae possess multiple paralogs of the repressor, open reading frame, kinase (ROK) family regulators that are characterized by carbohydrate-sensing domains shared with sugar kinases. We applied an integrated genomic approach to study functions and specificities of regulators from this family. A comparative analysis of 11 Thermotogae genomes revealed novel mechanisms of transcriptional regulation of the sugar utilization networks, DNA-binding motifs and specific functions. Reconstructed regulons for seven groups of ROK regulators were validated by DNA-binding assays using purified recombinant proteins from the model bacterium Thermotoga maritima. All tested regulators demonstrated specific binding to their predicted cognate DNA sites, and this binding was inhibited by specific effectors, mono- or disaccharides from their respective sugar catabolic pathways. By comparing ligand-binding domains of regulators with structurally characterized kinases from the ROK family, we elucidated signature amino acid residues determining sugar-ligand regulator specificity. Observed correlations between signature residues and the sugar-ligand specificities provide the framework for structure functional classification of the entire ROK family.

Kazanov, Marat D.; Li, Xiaoqing; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Osterman, Andrei L.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.

2013-01-01

322

Phenotypic analysis of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis 32777 response regulator mutants: new insights into two-component system regulon plasticity in bacteria.  

PubMed

Two-component regulatory systems (2CSs) typically comprise a sensor kinase and a response regulator that, in concert, monitor the concentration of particular extracellular factors and mediate the transcription of specific genes accordingly. As such, 2CSs play an important role in the regulation of bacterial pathogenesis. On the basis of genome-wide in silico analysis, the Gram-negative enteropathogenic bacterium Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is thought to encode 24 complete 2CSs. In the present work, we mutated the corresponding 2CS response regulator-encoding genes in Y. pseudotuberculosis strain 32777 and assessed the in vitro resistance of each mutant to the various types of stress encountered by Yersinia cells in the digestive tract. Eight of the generated regulatory mutants (phoP, ompR, pmrA, ntrC-, arcA-, rstA-, rcsB-, and yfhA-like mutants) showed significant changes in tolerance towards at least one type of stress, when compared with the wild-type strain. Of these eight, four (ompR, phoP, rstA-, and yfhA-like mutants) were found to be less virulent than the wild type in the BALB/c mouse model. Although some mutant phenotypes were consistent with those (when known) of the corresponding, putative ortholog mutants in other pathogenic species, several response regulators behaved differently in Y. pseudotuberculosis; these included the PmrA, PhoP, and ArcA-like response regulators, which were found to control bile salt resistance in a manner different from that observed in Salmonella. Hence, in addition to genome evolution, transcriptional network remodeling may be a major cause of phenotypic adaptation (and thus species divergence) in Y. pseudotuberculosis. PMID:17765656

Flamez, Claire; Ricard, Isabelle; Arafah, Sonia; Simonet, Michel; Marceau, Michaël

2007-08-31

323

February 12, 2013: Transcript  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Risk Communication Advisory Committee. 2013 Risk Communication Advisory Committee Meeting Materials; ... February 12, 2013: Transcript. -. ... More results from www.fda.gov/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials/riskcommunicationadvisorycommittee

324

Modeling DNA transcriptional openings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We calculate the opening probabilities along specific DNA viral sequences used in experimental transcription studies. A nonlinear dynamical model for the base-pair openings is able to account for the details of the openings need to initiate transcription. The obtained results for different viruses and for a few mutations are in a very good correlation with the corresponding experimental data.

George Kalosakas; Kim O. Rasmussen; Alan R. Bishop; Anny Usheva

2003-01-01

325

Transcriptional regulation in lymphocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lymphocytes have been used to investigate many cellular processes, including lineage commitment, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. The transcription factors that mediate these processes are often expressed broadly in many cell types. The emerging theme is one of cell-type-specific regulation, affecting not only the functional activation of transcription factors but also their access to appropriate regions of DNA.

Heidi Okamura; Anjana Rao

2001-01-01

326

Inferring transcript phylogenies  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing, an unknown mechanism 20 years ago, is now recognized as a major mechanism for proteome and transcriptome diversity, particularly in mammals--some researchers conjecture that up to 90% of human genes are alternatively spliced. Despite much research on exon and intron evolution, little is known about the evolution of transcripts. In this paper, we present a model of transcript evolution and an associated algorithm to reconstruct transcript phylogenies. The evolution of the gene structure--exons and introns--is used as basis for the reconstruction of transcript phylogenies. We apply our model and reconstruction algorithm on two well-studied genes, MAG and PAX6, obtaining results consistent with current knowledge and thereby providing evidence that a phylogenetic analysis of transcripts is feasible and likely to be informative.

2012-01-01

327

Molecular Characterization of Transcriptional Regulation of rovA by PhoP and RovA in Yersinia pestis  

PubMed Central

Background Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of plague. The two transcriptional regulators, PhoP and RovA, are required for the virulence of Y. pestis through the regulation of various virulence-associated loci. They are the global regulators controlling two distinct large complexes of cellular pathways. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on the LacZ fusion, primer extension, gel mobility shift, and DNase I footprinting assays, RovA is shown to recognize both of the two promoters of its gene in Y. pestis. The autoregulation of RovA appears to be a conserved mechanism shared by Y. pestis and its closely related progenitor, Y. pseudotuberculosis. In Y. pestis, the PhoP regulator responds to low magnesium signals and then negatively controls only one of the two promoters of rovA through PhoP-promoter DNA association. Conclusions/Significance RovA is a direct transcriptional activator for its own gene in Y. pestis, while PhoP recognizes the promoter region of rovA to repress its transcription. The direct regulatory association between PhoP and RovA bridges the PhoP and RovA regulons in Y. pestis.

Wang, Li; Xiao, Xiao; Tan, Yafang; Guo, Zhaobiao; Zhou, Dongsheng; Yang, Ruifu

2011-01-01

328

On the Choice and Number of Microarrays for Transcriptional Regulatory Network Inference  

PubMed Central

Background Transcriptional regulatory network inference (TRNI) from large compendia of DNA microarrays has become a fundamental approach for discovering transcription factor (TF)-gene interactions at the genome-wide level. In correlation-based TRNI, network edges can in principle be evaluated using standard statistical tests. However, while such tests nominally assume independent microarray experiments, we expect dependency between the experiments in microarray compendia, due to both project-specific factors (e.g., microarray preparation, environmental effects) in the multi-project compendium setting and effective dependency induced by gene-gene correlations. Herein, we characterize the nature of dependency in an Escherichia coli microarray compendium and explore its consequences on the problem of determining which and how many arrays to use in correlation-based TRNI. Results We present evidence of substantial effective dependency among microarrays in this compendium, and characterize that dependency with respect to experimental condition factors. We then introduce a measure neff of the effective number of experiments in a compendium, and find that corresponding to the dependency observed in this particular compendium there is a huge reduction in effective sample size i.e., neff = 14.7 versus n = 376. Furthermore, we found that the neff of select subsets of experiments actually exceeded neff of the full compendium, suggesting that the adage 'less is more' applies here. Consistent with this latter result, we observed improved performance in TRNI using subsets of the data compared to results using the full compendium. We identified experimental condition factors that trend with changes in TRNI performance and neff , including growth phase and media type. Finally, using the set of known E. coli genetic regulatory interactions from RegulonDB, we demonstrated that false discovery rates (FDR) derived from neff -adjusted p-values were well-matched to FDR based on the RegulonDB truth set. Conclusions These results support utilization of neff as a potent descriptor of microarray compendia. In addition, they highlight a straightforward correlation-based method for TRNI with demonstrated meaningful statistical testing for significant edges, readily applicable to compendia from any species, even when a truth set is not available. This work facilitates a more refined approach to construction and utilization of mRNA expression compendia in TRNI.

2010-01-01

329

Transcription in Mycoplasma pneumoniae.  

PubMed

Very little is understood of the structure of mycoplasma promoters, and this limits interpretation of genomic sequence data in these species. In this study the transcriptional start points of 22 genes of Mycoplasma pneumoniae were identified and the regions 5' to the start point compared. Although a strong consensus -10 region could be seen, there was only a weak consensus in the -35 region. A high proportion of transcripts had heterogeneous 5'-ends and characterisation of the sequence of the 5'-ends of two transcripts established that the heterogeneity was derived from initiation of transcription at reduced levels between 1 and 4 bases 5' to the major starting point. In addition to this apparently unique feature, a high proportion of transcripts lacked a 5' untranslated leader region that could contain a ribosomal binding site. Such leaderless transcripts are seen rarely in other bacterial species. Although the promoter regions for a number of members of lipoprotein multigene families were examined, no obvious explanation for regulation of expression was apparent. Using the data from this study an improved matrix for prediction of M.pneumoniae promoters was derived. Application of this matrix to the sequences immediately 3' and 5' to each predicted start codon in the genome suggested that most M. pneumoniae transcriptional start points were likely to occur between 5 and 30 bases 5' to the start codon. PMID:11071937

Weiner, J; Herrmann, R; Browning, G F

2000-11-15

330

Bioinformatics-enabled identification of the HrpL regulon and type III secretion system effector proteins of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola 1448A.  

PubMed

The ability of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola to cause halo blight of bean is dependent on its ability to translocate effector proteins into host cells via the hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (Hrp) type III secretion system (T3SS). To identify genes encoding type III effectors and other potential virulence factors that are regulated by the HrpL alternative sigma factor, we used a hidden Markov model, weight matrix model, and type III targeting-associated patterns to search the genome of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola 1448A, which recently was sequenced to completion. We identified 44 high-probability putative Hrp promoters upstream of genes encoding the core T3SS machinery, 27 candidate effectors and related T3SS substrates, and 10 factors unrelated to the Hrp system. The expression of 13 of these candidate HrpL regulon genes was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and all were found to be upregulated by HrpL. Six of the candidate type III effectors were assayed for T3SS-dependent translocation into plant cells using the Bordetella pertussis calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase (Cya) translocation reporter, and all were translocated. PSPPH1855 (ApbE-family protein) and PSPPH3759 (alcohol dehydrogenase) have no apparent T3SS-related function; however, they do have homologs in the model strain P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (PSPTO2105 and PSPTO0834, respectively) that are similarly upregulated by HrpL. Mutations were constructed in the DC3000 homologs and found to reduce bacterial growth in host Arabidopsis leaves. These results establish the utility of the bioinformatic or candidate gene approach to identifying effectors and other genes relevant to pathogenesis in P. syringae genomes. PMID:17073302

Vencato, Monica; Tian, Fang; Alfano, James R; Buell, C Robin; Cartinhour, Samuel; DeClerck, Genevieve A; Guttman, David S; Stavrinides, John; Joardar, Vinita; Lindeberg, Magdalen; Bronstein, Philip A; Mansfield, John W; Myers, Christopher R; Collmer, Alan; Schneider, David J

2006-11-01

331

Differential gene expression in response to hydrogen peroxide and the putative PerR regulon of Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803.  

PubMed

We utilized a full genome cDNA microarray to identify the genes that comprise the peroxide stimulon in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. We determined that a gene (slr1738) encoding a protein similar to PerR in Bacillus subtilis was induced by peroxide. We constructed a PerR knockout strain and used it to help identify components of the PerR regulon, and we found that the regulatory properties were consistent with the hypothesis that PerR functions as a repressor. This effort was guided by finding putative PerR boxes in positions upstream of specific genes and by careful statistical analysis. PerR and sll1621 (ahpC), which codes for a peroxiredoxin, share a divergent promoter that is regulated by PerR. We found that isiA, encoding a Chl protein that is induced under low-iron conditions, was strongly induced by a short-term peroxide stress. Other genes that were strongly induced by peroxide included sigD, sigB, and genes encoding peroxiredoxins and Dsb-like proteins that have not been studied yet in this strain. A gene (slr1894) that encoded a protein similar to MrgA in B. subtilis was upregulated by peroxide, and a strain containing an mrgA knockout mutation was highly sensitive to peroxide. A number of genes were downregulated, including key genes in the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway and numerous regulatory genes, including those encoding histidine kinases. We used PerR mutants and a thioredoxin mutant (TrxA1) to study differential expression in response to peroxide and determined that neither PerR nor TrxA1 is essential for the peroxide protective response. PMID:15150218

Li, Hong; Singh, Abhay K; McIntyre, Lauren M; Sherman, Louis A

2004-06-01

332

Cationic antimicrobial peptides serve as activation signals for the Salmonella Typhimurium PhoPQ and PmrAB regulons in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium uses two-component regulatory systems (TCRSs) to respond to environmental stimuli. Upon infection, the TCRSs PhoP-PhoQ (PhoPQ) and PmrA-PmrB (PmrAB) are activated by environmental signals detected in the lumen of the intestine and within host cells. TCRS-mediated gene expression leads to upregulation of genes involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) modification and cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) resistance. This research expands on previous studies which have shown that CAMPs can activate Salmonella TCRSs in vitro. The focus of this work was to determine if CAMPs can act as environmental signals for PhoPQ- and PmrAB-mediated gene expression in vitro, during infection of macrophages and in a mouse model of infection. Monitoring of PhoPQ and PmrAB activation using recombinase-based in vivo expression technology (RIVET), alkaline phosphtase and ?-galactosidase reporter fusion constructs demonstrated that S. Typhimurium PhoQ can sense CAMPs in vitro. In mouse macrophages, the cathelecidin CRAMP does not activate the PhoPQ regulon. Acidification of the Salmonella-containing vacuole activates PhoP- and PmrA-regulated loci but blocking acidification still does not reveal a role for CRAMP in TCRS activation in mouse macrophages. However, assays performed in susceptible wild type (WT), CRAMP knockout (KO), and matrilysin (a metalloproteinase necessary for activating murine ?-defensins) KO mice suggest CRAMP, but not ?-defensins, serve as a putative direct TCRS activation signal in the mouse intestine. These studies provide a better understanding of the in vivo environments that result in activation of these virulence-associated TCRSs.

Richards, Susan M.; Strandberg, Kristi L.; Conroy, Megan; Gunn, John S.

2012-01-01

333

Cationic antimicrobial peptides serve as activation signals for the Salmonella Typhimurium PhoPQ and PmrAB regulons in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium uses two-component regulatory systems (TCRSs) to respond to environmental stimuli. Upon infection, the TCRSs PhoP-PhoQ (PhoPQ) and PmrA-PmrB (PmrAB) are activated by environmental signals detected in the lumen of the intestine and within host cells. TCRS-mediated gene expression leads to upregulation of genes involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) modification and cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) resistance. This research expands on previous studies which have shown that CAMPs can activate Salmonella TCRSs in vitro. The focus of this work was to determine if CAMPs can act as environmental signals for PhoPQ- and PmrAB-mediated gene expression in vitro, during infection of macrophages and in a mouse model of infection. Monitoring of PhoPQ and PmrAB activation using recombinase-based in vivo expression technology (RIVET), alkaline phosphtase and ?-galactosidase reporter fusion constructs demonstrated that S. Typhimurium PhoQ can sense CAMPs in vitro. In mouse macrophages, the cathelecidin CRAMP does not activate the PhoPQ regulon. Acidification of the Salmonella-containing vacuole activates PhoP- and PmrA-regulated loci but blocking acidification still does not reveal a role for CRAMP in TCRS activation in mouse macrophages. However, assays performed in susceptible wild type (WT), CRAMP knockout (KO), and matrilysin (a metalloproteinase necessary for activating murine ?-defensins) KO mice suggest CRAMP, but not ?-defensins, serve as a putative direct TCRS activation signal in the mouse intestine. These studies provide a better understanding of the in vivo environments that result in activation of these virulence-associated TCRSs. PMID:22919691

Richards, Susan M; Strandberg, Kristi L; Conroy, Megan; Gunn, John S

2012-07-27

334

Conjugational hyperrecombination achieved by derepressing the LexA regulon, altering the properties of RecA protein and inactivating mismatch repair in Escherichia coli K-12.  

PubMed Central

The frequency of recombinational exchanges (FRE) that disrupt co-inheritance of transferred donor markers in Escherichia coli Hfr by F(-) crosses differs by up to a factor of two depending on physiological factors and culture conditions. Under standard conditions we found FRE to be 5.01 +/- 0.43 exchanges per 100-min units of DNA length for wild-type strains of the AB1157 line. Using these conditions we showed a cumulative effect of various mutations on FRE. Constitutive SOS expression by lexA gene inactivation (lexA71::Tn5) and recA gene mutation (recA730) showed, respectively, approximately 4- and 7-fold increases of FRE. The double lexA71 recA730 combination gave an approximately 17-fold increase in FRE. Addition of mutS215::Tn10, inactivating the mismatch repair system, to the double lexA recA mutant increased FRE to approximately 26-fold above wild-type FRE. Finally, we showed that another recA mutation produced as much SOS expression as recA730 but increased FRE only 3-fold. We conclude that three factors contribute to normally low FRE under standard conditions: repression of the LexA regulon, the properties of wild-type RecA protein, and a functioning MutSHL mismatch repair system. We discuss mechanisms by which the lexA, recA, and mutS mutations may elevate FRE cumulatively to obtain hyperrecombination.

Lanzov, Vladislav A; Bakhlanova, Irina V; Clark, Alvin J

2003-01-01

335

Transcriptional control of erythropoiesis.  

PubMed

Over the past year, substantial progress was made toward understanding transcriptional control of red cell differentiation. Complementary DNAs encoding two novel erythroid-restricted transcription factors--globin locus control region regulatory factor NF-E2 and CACC-binding protein EKLF--were cloned and characterized. Other DNA-binding activities have been implicated in developmental regulation of hemoglobin expression; these are postulated to mediate competitive interactions between globin gene promoters. As individual transcriptional regulatory factors are better understood, attention must turn to how they interact among themselves and with other proteins to initiate and maintain the erythroid program. PMID:9371270

Andrews, N C; Orkin, S H

1994-03-01

336

'TRANSCRIPT Open Session 0  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. 'TRANSCRIPT Open Session 0 Page 2. r--ý 'ýVYIIý FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION Z5. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM DEVICES PANEL ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

337

Transcriptional Regulation of Angiogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently, the transcription factors necessary for regulating vascular development were largely unknown. This is in sharp\\u000a contrast with other developmental processes, such as hematopoiesis and myogenesis, in which several cell- or tissue-specific\\u000a transcription factors have been identified. Vascular development requires the differentiation of endothelial cells from pluripotent\\u000a stem cells. Progress in identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying vascular development has

Peter Oettgen

338

TGF-beta-mediated phosphorylation of hnRNP E1 induces EMT via transcript-selective translational induction of Dab2 and ILEI.  

PubMed

Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) induces epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) accompanied by cellular differentiation and migration. Despite extensive transcriptomic profiling, the identification of TGF-beta-inducible, EMT-specific genes has met with limited success. Here we identify a post-transcriptional pathway by which TGF-beta modulates the expression of EMT-specific proteins and of EMT itself. We show that heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein E1 (hnRNP E1) binds a structural, 33-nucleotide TGF-beta-activated translation (BAT) element in the 3' untranslated region of disabled-2 (Dab2) and interleukin-like EMT inducer (ILEI) transcripts, and represses their translation. TGF-beta activation leads to phosphorylation at Ser 43 of hnRNP E1 by protein kinase Bbeta/Akt2, inducing its release from the BAT element and translational activation of Dab2 and ILEI messenger RNAs. Modulation of hnRNP E1 expression or its post-translational modification alters the TGF-beta-mediated reversal of translational silencing of the target transcripts and EMT. These results suggest the existence of a TGF-beta-inducible post-transcriptional regulon that controls EMT during the development and metastatic progression of tumours. PMID:20154680

Chaudhury, Arindam; Hussey, George S; Ray, Partho S; Jin, Ge; Fox, Paul L; Howe, Philip H

2010-02-14

339

A Single, Specific Thymine Mutation in the ComK-Binding Site Severely Decreases Binding and Transcription Activation by the Competence Transcription Factor ComK of Bacillus subtilis?  

PubMed Central

The competence transcription factor ComK plays a central role in competence development in Bacillus subtilis by activating the transcription of the K regulon. ComK-activated genes are characterized by the presence of a specific sequence to which ComK binds, a K-box, in their upstream DNA region. Each K-box consists of two AT-boxes with the consensus sequence AAAA-(N)5-TTTT, which are separated by a flexible spacer resulting in either two, three, or four helical turns between the starting nucleotides of the repeating AT-box units. In this study, the effects of potential determinants of ComK regulation in K-boxes were investigated by testing ComK's transcription activation and DNA-binding affinity on altered K-boxes with mutations either in the spacer between the AT-boxes or in the consensus sequence of the AT-boxes. The most striking result demonstrates the importance of the second thymine base in the AT-boxes. Mutation of this T into a guanine resulted in a threefold reduction in transcription activation and DNA binding by ComK. Transcription activation, as well as DNA binding, was almost completely abolished when both AT-boxes contained a T2-to-G mutation. This result was corroborated by in silico analyses demonstrating that a combination of mutations at the T2 positions of both AT-boxes is not found among any ComK-activated K-boxes, indicating that at least one consensus T2 position is required to maintain a functional K-box. The results suggest an important structural role for T2 in ComK binding, probably by its specific position in the minor groove of the DNA.

Susanna, Kim A.; Mironczuk, Aleksandra M.; Smits, Wiep Klaas; Hamoen, Leendert W.; Kuipers, Oscar P.

2007-01-01

340

The Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M49 Nra-Ralp3 transcriptional regulatory network and its control of virulence factor expression from the novel eno ralp3 epf sagA pathogenicity region.  

PubMed

Many Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus [GAS]) virulence factor- and transcriptional regulator-encoding genes cluster together in discrete genomic regions. Nra is a central regulator of the FCT region. Previous studies exclusively described Nra as a transcriptional repressor of adhesin and toxin genes. Here transcriptome and proteome analysis of a serotype M49 GAS strain and an isogenic Nra mutant of this strain revealed the complete Nra regulon profile. Nra is active in all growth phases tested, with the largest regulon in the transition phase. Almost exclusively, virulence factor-encoding genes are repressed by Nra; these genes include the GAS pilus operon, the capsule synthesis operon, the cytolysin-mediated translocation system genes, all Mga region core virulence genes, and genes encoding other regulators, like the Ihk/Irr system, Rgg, and two additional RofA-like protein family regulators. Surprisingly, our experiments revealed that Nra additionally acts as a positive regulator, mostly for genes encoding proteins and enzymes with metabolic functions. Epidemiological investigations revealed strong genetic linkage of one particular Nra-repressed regulator, Ralp3 (SPy0735), with a gene encoding Epf (extracellular protein factor from Streptococcus suis). In a serotype-specific fashion, this ralp3 epf gene block is integrated, most likely via transposition, into the eno sagA virulence gene block, which is present in all GAS serotypes. In GAS serotypes M1, M4, M12, M28, and M49 this novel discrete genetic region is therefore designated the eno ralp3 epf sagA (ERES) pathogenicity region. Functional experiments showed that Epf is a novel GAS plasminogen-binding protein and revealed that Ralp3 activity counteracts Nra and MsmR regulatory activity. In addition to the Mga and FCT regions, the ERES region is the third discrete chromosomal pathogenicity region. All of these regions are transcriptionally linked, adding another level of complexity to the known GAS growth phase-dependent regulatory network. PMID:17893125

Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Nakata, Masanobu; Köller, Thomas; Hildisch, Hendrikje; Kourakos, Vassilios; Standar, Kerstin; Kawabata, Shigetada; Glocker, Michael O; Podbielski, Andreas

2007-09-24

341

Identification of Genes in the ?22 Regulon of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Required for Cell Envelope Homeostasis in Either the Planktonic or the Sessile Mode of Growth  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The Pseudomonas aeruginosa extracytoplasmic functioning (ECF) sigma factor ?22 is encoded by algT/algU and is inhibited by anti-sigma factor MucA. ?22 was originally discovered for its essential role in the expression of the exopolysaccharide alginate by mucoid strains associated with chronic pulmonary infection. However, ?22 is now known to also have a large regulon associated with the response to cell wall stress. Our recent transcriptome analysis identified 293 open reading frames (ORFs) in the ?22 stress stimulon that include genes for outer envelope biogenesis and remodeling, although most of the genes have undefined functions. To better understand the ?22-dependent stress response, mutants affected in 27 genes of the ?22 stimulon were examined and expression was studied with lacZ fusions. Mutants constructed in the 27 genes showed no major change in response to cell wall-acting antibiotics or growth at elevated temperatures nor in alginate production. The mutants were examined for their effects on the expression of the ?22-dependent promoter of the alginate biosynthetic operon (PalgD) as a measure of ?22 derepression from MucA. By testing PalgD expression under both planktonic and sessile growth conditions, 11 genes were found to play a role in the stress response that activates ?22. Some mutations caused an increase or a decrease in the response to cell wall stress. Interestingly, mutations in 7 of the 11 genes caused constitutive PalgD expression under nonstressed conditions and thus showed that these genes are involved in maintaining envelope homeostasis. Mutations in PA0062 and PA1324 showed constitutive PalgD expression during both the planktonic and the sessile modes of growth. However, the PA5178 mutation caused constitutive PalgD expression only during planktonic growth. In contrast, mutations in PA2717, PA0567, PA3040, and PA0920 caused constitutive PalgD expression only in the sessile/biofilm mode of growth. This provides evidence that the ?22 stimulon for cell envelope homeostasis overlaps with biofilm control mechanisms.

Wood, Lynn F.; Ohman, Dennis E.

2012-01-01

342

The NifA-RpoN Regulon of Mesorhizobium loti Strain R7A and Its Symbiotic Activation by a Novel LacI/GalR-Family Regulator  

PubMed Central

Mesorhizobium loti is the microsymbiont of Lotus species, including the model legume L. japonicus. M. loti differs from other rhizobia in that it contains two copies of the key nitrogen fixation regulatory gene nifA, nifA1 and nifA2, both of which are located on the symbiosis island ICEMlSymR7A. M. loti R7A also contains two rpoN genes, rpoN1 located on the chromosome outside of ICEMlSymR7A and rpoN2 that is located on ICEMlSymR7A. The aims of the current work were to establish how nifA expression was activated in M. loti and to characterise the NifA-RpoN regulon. The nifA2 and rpoN2 genes were essential for nitrogen fixation whereas nifA1 and rpoN1 were dispensable. Expression of nifA2 was activated, possibly in response to an inositol derivative, by a novel regulator of the LacI/GalR family encoded by the fixV gene located upstream of nifA2. Other than the well-characterized nif/fix genes, most NifA2-regulated genes were not required for nitrogen fixation although they were strongly expressed in nodules. The NifA-regulated nifZ and fixU genes, along with nifQ which was not NifA-regulated, were required in M. loti for a fully effective symbiosis although they are not present in some other rhizobia. The NifA-regulated gene msi158 that encodes a porin was also required for a fully effective symbiosis. Several metabolic genes that lacked NifA-regulated promoters were strongly expressed in nodules in a NifA2-dependent manner but again mutants did not have an overt symbiotic phenotype. In summary, many genes encoded on ICEMlSymR7A were strongly expressed in nodules but not free-living rhizobia, but were not essential for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. It seems likely that some of these genes have functional homologues elsewhere in the genome and that bacteroid metabolism may be sufficiently plastic to adapt to loss of certain enzymatic functions.

Sullivan, John T.; Brown, Steven D.; Ronson, Clive W.

2013-01-01

343

Global transcriptional control by glucose and carbon regulator CcpA in Clostridium difficile  

PubMed Central

The catabolite control protein CcpA is a pleiotropic regulator that mediates the global transcriptional response to rapidly catabolizable carbohydrates, like glucose in Gram-positive bacteria. By whole transcriptome analyses, we characterized glucose-dependent and CcpA-dependent gene regulation in Clostridium difficile. About 18% of all C. difficile genes are regulated by glucose, for which 50% depend on CcpA for regulation. The CcpA regulon comprises genes involved in sugar uptake, fermentation and amino acids metabolism, confirming the role of CcpA as a link between carbon and nitrogen pathways. Using combination of chromatin immunoprecipitation and genome sequence analysis, we detected 55 CcpA binding sites corresponding to ?140 genes directly controlled by CcpA. We defined the C. difficile CcpA consensus binding site (creCD motif), that is, ‘RRGAAAANGTTTTCWW’. Binding of purified CcpA protein to 19 target creCD sites was demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. CcpA also directly represses key factors in early steps of sporulation (Spo0A and SigF). Furthermore, the C. difficile toxin genes (tcdA and tcdB) and their regulators (tcdR and tcdC) are direct CcpA targets. Finally, CcpA controls a complex and extended regulatory network through the modulation of a large set of regulators.

Antunes, Ana; Camiade, Emilie; Monot, Marc; Courtois, Emmanuelle; Barbut, Frederic; Sernova, Natalia V.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Martin-Verstraete, Isabelle; Dupuy, Bruno

2012-01-01

344

Improved predictions of transcription factor binding sites using physicochemical features of DNA  

PubMed Central

Typical approaches for predicting transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) involve use of a position-specific weight matrix (PWM) to statistically characterize the sequences of the known sites. Recently, an alternative physicochemical approach, called SiteSleuth, was proposed. In this approach, a linear support vector machine (SVM) classifier is trained to distinguish TFBSs from background sequences based on local chemical and structural features of DNA. SiteSleuth appears to generally perform better than PWM-based methods. Here, we improve the SiteSleuth approach by considering both new physicochemical features and algorithmic modifications. New features are derived from Gibbs energies of amino acid–DNA interactions and hydroxyl radical cleavage profiles of DNA. Algorithmic modifications consist of inclusion of a feature selection step, use of a nonlinear kernel in the SVM classifier, and use of a consensus-based post-processing step for predictions. We also considered SVM classification based on letter features alone to distinguish performance gains from use of SVM-based models versus use of physicochemical features. The accuracy of each of the variant methods considered was assessed by cross validation using data available in the RegulonDB database for 54 Escherichia coli TFs, as well as by experimental validation using published ChIP-chip data available for Fis and Lrp.

Maienschein-Cline, Mark; Dinner, Aaron R.; Hlavacek, William S.; Mu, Fangping

2012-01-01

345

Theoretical and empirical quality assessment of transcription factor-binding motifs  

PubMed Central

Position-specific scoring matrices (PSSMs) are routinely used to predict transcription factor (TF)-binding sites in genome sequences. However, their reliability to predict novel binding sites can be far from optimum, due to the use of a small number of training sites or the inappropriate choice of parameters when building the matrix or when scanning sequences with it. Measures of matrix quality such as E-value and information content rely on theoretical models, and may fail in the context of full genome sequences. We propose a method, implemented in the program ‘matrix-quality’, that combines theoretical and empirical score distributions to assess reliability of PSSMs for predicting TF-binding sites. We applied ‘matrix-quality’ to estimate the predictive capacity of matrices for bacterial, yeast and mouse TFs. The evaluation of matrices from RegulonDB revealed some poorly predictive motifs, and allowed us to quantify the improvements obtained by applying multi-genome motif discovery. Interestingly, the method reveals differences between global and specific regulators. It also highlights the enrichment of binding sites in sequence sets obtained from high-throughput ChIP-chip (bacterial and yeast TFs), and ChIP–seq and experiments (mouse TFs). The method presented here has many applications, including: selecting reliable motifs before scanning sequences; improving motif collections in TFs databases; evaluating motifs discovered using high-throughput data sets.

Medina-Rivera, Alejandra; Abreu-Goodger, Cei; Thomas-Chollier, Morgane; Salgado, Heladia; Collado-Vides, Julio; van Helden, Jacques

2011-01-01

346

Phosphate concentration regulates transcription of the Acinetobacter polyhydroxyalkanoic acid biosynthetic genes.  

PubMed Central

The polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA) biosynthetic gene locus was cloned and characterized from an Acinetobacter sp. isolated from activated sludge. Nucleotide sequence analysis identified three clustered genes, phaAAc (encoding a beta-ketothiolase), phaBAc (encoding an acetoacetyl coenzyme A reductase), and phaCAc (encoding a PHA synthase). In addition, an open reading frame (ORF1) with potential to encode a 13-kDa protein was identified within this locus. The sequence of the putative translational product of ORF1 does not show significant similarity to any sequences in the database. A plasmid containing the Acinetobacter pha locus conferred the ability to accumulate poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate on its Escherichia coli host. These genes appear to lie in an operon transcribed by two promoters upstream of phaBAc, an apparent constitutive promoter, and a second promoter induced by phosphate starvation and under pho regulon control. These as well as a number of additional potential transcription start points were identified by a combination of primer extension and promoter-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene fusion studies carried out in Acinetobacter or E. coli transformants.

Schembri, M A; Bayly, R C; Davies, J K

1995-01-01

347

Orthologous transcription factors in bacteria have differentfunctions and regulate different genes  

SciTech Connect

Transcription factors (TFs) form large paralogous genefamilies and have complex evolutionary histories. Here, we ask whetherputative orthologs of TFs, from bidirectional best BLAST hits (BBHs), areevolutionary orthologs with conserved functions. We show that BBHs of TFsfrom distantly related bacteria are usually not evolutionary orthologs.Furthermore, the false orthologs usually respond to different signals andregulate distinct pathways, while the few BBHs that are evolutionaryorthologs do have conserved functions. To test the conservation ofregulatory interactions, we analyze expression patterns. We find thatregulatory relationships between TFs and their regulated genes areusually not conserved for BBHs in Escherichia coli K12 and Bacillussubtilis. Even in the much more closely related bacteria Vibrio choleraeand Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, predicting regulation from E. coli BBHshas high error rates. Using gene-regulon correlations, we identify geneswhose expression pattern differs between E. coli and S. oneidensis. Usingliterature searches and sequence analysis, we show that these changes inexpression patterns reflect changes ingene regulation, even forevolutionary orthologs. We conclude that the evolution of bacterialregulation should be analyzed with phylogenetic trees, rather than BBHs,and that bacterial regulatory networks evolve more rapidly thanpreviously thought.

Price, Morgan N.; Dehal, Paramvir S.; Arkin, Adam P.

2007-07-25

348

RegPrecise web services interface: programmatic access to the transcriptional regulatory interactions in bacteria reconstructed by comparative genomics  

PubMed Central

Web services application programming interface (API) was developed to provide a programmatic access to the regulatory interactions accumulated in the RegPrecise database (http://regprecise.lbl.gov), a core resource on transcriptional regulation for the microbial domain of the Department of Energy (DOE) Systems Biology Knowledgebase. RegPrecise captures and visualize regulogs, sets of genes controlled by orthologous regulators in several closely related bacterial genomes, that were reconstructed by comparative genomics. The current release of RegPrecise 2.0 includes >1400 regulogs controlled either by protein transcription factors or by conserved ribonucleic acid regulatory motifs in >250 genomes from 24 taxonomic groups of bacteria. The reference regulons accumulated in RegPrecise can serve as a basis for automatic annotation of regulatory interactions in newly sequenced genomes. The developed API provides an efficient access to the RegPrecise data by a comprehensive set of 14 web service resources. The RegPrecise web services API is freely accessible at http://regprecise.lbl.gov/RegPrecise/services.jsp with no login requirements.

Novichkov, Pavel S.; Brettin, Thomas S.; Novichkova, Elena S.; Dehal, Paramvir S.; Arkin, Adam P.; Dubchak, Inna; Rodionov, Dmitry A.

2012-01-01

349

Transcription start sites for syrM and nodD3 flank an insertion sequence relic in Rhizobium meliloti.  

PubMed Central

In Rhizobium meliloti the syrM regulatory gene positively controls nod D3 and syrA, and nodD3 positively controls syrM and nod regulon genes such as nodABC, syrM and nodD3 are divergently transcribed and are separated by approximately 2.8 kb of DNA. The 885-bp SphI DNA fragment between syrM and nodD3 was subcloned and sequenced. Analysis of this intergenic region showed two open reading frames similar to those found in insertion elements of the IS3 family. We determined transcription initiation sites for both syrM and nodD3 using primer extension. The syrM transcription initiation site is 499 bp upstream of the syrM protein-coding region and downstream of a nod box which shows several differences from the R. meliloti nod box consensus sequence. We demonstrated binding of NodD3 to DNA containing the syrM nod box. The nodD3 start site maps 659 bp upstream of the nodD3 translation initiation site. A putative SyrM binding site was identified upstream of the nodD3 start site on the basis of sequence similarity to the upstream region of syrA, another locus regulated by SyrM.

Barnett, M J; Rushing, B G; Fisher, R F; Long, S R

1996-01-01

350

The APSES transcription factor Efg1 is a global regulator that controls morphogenesis and biofilm formation in Candida parapsilosis.  

PubMed

Efg1 (a member of the APSES family) is an important regulator of hyphal growth and of the white-to-opaque transition in Candida albicans and very closely related species. We show that in Candida parapsilosis?Efg1 is a major regulator of a different morphological switch at the colony level, from a concentric to smooth morphology. The rate of switching is at least 20-fold increased in an efg1 knockout relative to wild type. Efg1 deletion strains also have reduced biofilm formation, attenuated virulence in an insect model, and increased sensitivity to SDS and caspofungin. Biofilm reduction is more dramatic in in vitro than in in vivo models. An Efg1 paralogue (Efh1) is restricted to Candida species, and does not regulate concentric-smooth phenotype switching, biofilm formation or stress response. We used ChIP-seq to identify the Efg1 regulon. A total of 931 promoter regions bound by Efg1 are highly enriched for transcription factors and regulatory proteins. Efg1 also binds to its own promoter, and negatively regulates its expression. Efg1 targets are enriched in binding sites for 93 additional transcription factors, including Ndt80. Our analysis suggests that Efg1 has an ancient role as regulator of development in fungi, and is central to several regulatory networks. PMID:23895281

Connolly, Leona A; Riccombeni, Alessandro; Grózer, Zsuzsana; Holland, Linda M; Lynch, Denise B; Andes, David R; Gácser, Attila; Butler, Geraldine

2013-08-15

351

RegPrecise web services interface: programmatic access to the transcriptional regulatory interactions in bacteria reconstructed by comparative genomics.  

PubMed

Web services application programming interface (API) was developed to provide a programmatic access to the regulatory interactions accumulated in the RegPrecise database (http://regprecise.lbl.gov), a core resource on transcriptional regulation for the microbial domain of the Department of Energy (DOE) Systems Biology Knowledgebase. RegPrecise captures and visualize regulogs, sets of genes controlled by orthologous regulators in several closely related bacterial genomes, that were reconstructed by comparative genomics. The current release of RegPrecise 2.0 includes >1400 regulogs controlled either by protein transcription factors or by conserved ribonucleic acid regulatory motifs in >250 genomes from 24 taxonomic groups of bacteria. The reference regulons accumulated in RegPrecise can serve as a basis for automatic annotation of regulatory interactions in newly sequenced genomes. The developed API provides an efficient access to the RegPrecise data by a comprehensive set of 14 web service resources. The RegPrecise web services API is freely accessible at http://regprecise.lbl.gov/RegPrecise/services.jsp with no login requirements. PMID:22700702

Novichkov, Pavel S; Brettin, Thomas S; Novichkova, Elena S; Dehal, Paramvir S; Arkin, Adam P; Dubchak, Inna; Rodionov, Dmitry A

2012-06-14

352

Quorum sensing modulates transcription of cpsQ-mfpABC and mfpABC in Vibrio parahaemolyticus.  

PubMed

Vibrio parahaemolyticus AphA and OpaR are the two master regulators of quorum sensing (QS) that are abundantly produced and operate at low cell density (LCD) and high cell density (HCD), respectively, with an outcome of reciprocally gradient production of these two proteins with transition between LCD and HCD. The cpsQ-mfpABC gene cluster is transcribed as two operons cpsQ-mfpABC and mfpABC in V. parahaemolyticus. MfpABC is a putative membrane fusion transporter that contributes to biofilm development. CpsQ is a c-di-GMP-binding regulator that activates the expression of capsular polysaccharide genes and mfpABC and, thus, induces biofilm development. As shown in this study, OpaR and AphA bind to the promoter region of mfpABC to enhance and repress its transcription, respectively. In contrast, the positive and negative regulation of cpsQ-mfpABC by AphA and OpaR, respectively, achieves probably through acting of AphA or OpaR on additional unknown regulator(s) of cpsQ-mfpABC. The transcriptional levels of cpsQ-mfpABC and mfpABC enhance gradually with transition from LCD to HCD due to the above reciprocal regulatory action of OpaR and AphA. Data presented here present a novel paradigm of combined action of the two master QS regulators in controlling expression of the QS regulon members. PMID:24036587

Zhou, Dongsheng; Yan, Xiaojuan; Qu, Fen; Wang, Li; Zhang, Yiquan; Hou, Jun; Hu, Yan; Li, Jin; Xin, Shaojie; Qiu, Jingfu; Yang, Ruifu; Mao, Panyong

2013-07-17

353

Transcriptional Regulation: a Genomic Overview  

PubMed Central

The availability of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence allows a comprehensive analysis of transcriptional regulation in plants using novel genomic approaches and methodologies. Such a genomic view of transcription first necessitates the compilation of lists of elements. Transcription factors are the most numerous of the different types of proteins involved in transcription in eukaryotes, and the Arabidopsis genome codes for more than 1,500 of them, or approximately 6% of its total number of genes. A genome-wide comparison of transcription factors across the three eukaryotic kingdoms reveals the evolutionary generation of diversity in the components of the regulatory machinery of transcription. However, as illustrated by Arabidopsis, transcription in plants follows similar basic principles and logic to those in animals and fungi. A global view and understanding of transcription at a cellular and organismal level requires the characterization of the Arabidopsis transcriptome and promoterome, as well as of the interactome, the localizome, and the phenome of the proteins involved in transcription.

Riechmann, Jose Luis

2002-01-01

354

Transcriptional activation by recruitment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recruitment model for gene activation stipulates that an activator works by bringing the transcriptional machinery to the DNA. Recent experiments in bacteria and yeast indicate that many genes can be activated by this mechanism. These findings have implications for our understanding of the nature of activating regions and their targets, and for the role of histones in gene regulation.

Mark Ptashne; Alexander Gann

1997-01-01

355

Actinomycin and DNA transcription  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in understanding how actinomycin binds to DNA have suggested its mechanism of action. Actinomycin binds to a premelted DNA conformation present within the transcriptional complex. This immobilizes the complex, interfering with the elongation of growing RNA chains. The model has a number of implications for understanding RNA synthesis.

H. M. Sobell

1985-01-01

356

Actinomycin and DNA transcription  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in understanding how actinomycin binds to DNA have suggested its mechanism of action. Actinomycin binds to a premelted DNA conformation present within the transcriptional complex. This immobilizes the complex, interfering with the elongation of growing RNA chains. The model has a number of implications for understanding RNA synthesis.

Sobell, H.M.

1985-08-01

357

Actinomycin and DNA Transcription  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in understanding how actinomycin binds to DNA have suggested its mechanism of action. Actinomycin binds to a premelted DNA conformation present within the transcriptional complex. This immobilizes the complex, interfering with the elongation of growing RNA chains. The model has a number of implications for understanding RNA synthesis.

Sobell, Henry M.

1985-08-01

358

Transcription of Russian Names  

Microsoft Academic Search

WITH regard to the recent correspondence in NATURE on the transcription of Russian names, may I direct attention to the fact that the Russian Academy of Sciences adopted a system of transliteration many years ago, and a note by Prof. J. W. Gregory giving the new rules appeared in NATURE on May 14, 1908, p. 42. In all the publications

Cecil A. Hoare

1922-01-01

359

Transcription of Vowels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the special problems of transcribing vowels in the evaluation of speech samples. It reviews the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) symbols and diacritics for transcribing vowels and discusses their importance in the transcription of disordered speech and dialect variation. (Contains references.) (Author/DB)

Pollock, Karen E.; Berni, Mary C.

2001-01-01

360

Inducer responses of BenM, a LysR-type transcriptional regulator from Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1  

SciTech Connect

BenM and CatM control transcription of a complex regulon for aromatic compound degradation. These Acinetobacter baylyi paralogues belong to the largest family of prokaryotic transcriptional regulators, the LysR-type proteins. Whereas BenM activates transcription synergistically in response to two effectors, benzoate and cis,cis-muconate, CatM responds only to cis,cis-muconate. Here, site-directed mutagenesis was used to determine the physiological significance of an unexpected benzoate-binding pocket in BenM discovered during structural studies. Residues in BenM were changed to match those of CatM in this hydrophobic pocket. Two BenM residues, R160 and Y293, were found to mediate the response to benzoate. Additionally, alteration of these residues caused benzoate to inhibit activation by cis,cis-muconate, positioned in a separate primary effector-binding site of BenM. The location of the primary site, in an interdomain cleft, is conserved in diverse LysR-type regulators. To improve understanding of this important family, additional regulatory mutants were analysed. The atomic-level structures were characterized of the effector-binding domains of variants that do not require inducers for activation, CatM(R156H) and BenM(R156H,T157S). These structures clearly resemble those of the wild-type proteins in their activated muconate-bound complexes. Amino acid replacements that enable activation without effectors reside at protein interfaces that may impact transcription through effects on oligomerization.

Craven, Sarah H.; Ezezika, Obidimma C.; Haddad, Sandra; Hall, Ruth A.; Momany, Cory; Neidle, Ellen L.; Georgia

2009-06-25

361

Toxicogenomic analysis incorporating operon-transcriptional coupling and toxicant concentration-expression response: analysis of MX-treated Salmonella  

PubMed Central

Background Deficiencies in microarray technology cause unwanted variation in the hybridization signal, obscuring the true measurements of intracellular transcript levels. Here we describe a general method that can improve microarray analysis of toxicant-exposed cells that uses the intrinsic power of transcriptional coupling and toxicant concentration-expression response data. To illustrate this approach, we characterized changes in global gene expression induced in Salmonella typhimurium TA100 by 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX), the primary mutagen in chlorinated drinking water. We used the co-expression of genes within an operon and the monotonic increases or decreases in gene expression relative to increasing toxicant concentration to augment our identification of differentially expressed genes beyond Bayesian-t analysis. Results Operon analysis increased the number of altered genes by 95% from the list identified by a Bayesian t-test of control to the highest concentration of MX. Monotonic analysis added 46% more genes. A functional analysis of the resulting 448 differentially expressed genes yielded functional changes beyond what would be expected from only the mutagenic properties of MX. In addition to gene-expression changes in DNA-damage response, MX induced changes in expression of genes involved in membrane transport and porphyrin metabolism, among other biological processes. The disruption of porphyrin metabolism might be attributable to the structural similarity of MX, which is a chlorinated furanone, to ligands indigenous to the porphyrin metabolism pathway. Interestingly, our results indicate that the lexA regulon in Salmonella, which partially mediates the response to DNA damage, may contain only 60% of the genes present in this regulon in E. coli. In addition, nanH was found to be highly induced by MX and contains a putative lexA regulatory motif in its regulatory region, suggesting that it may be regulated by lexA. Conclusion Operon and monotonic analyses improved the determination of differentially expressed genes beyond that of Bayesian-t analysis, showing that MX alters cellular metabolism involving pathways other than DNA damage. Because co-expression of similarly functioning genes also occurs in eukaryotes, this method has general applicability for improving analysis of toxicogenomic data.

Ward, William O; Swartz, Carol D; Porwollik, Steffen; Warren, Sarah H; Hanley, Nancy M; Knapp, Geremy W; McClelland, Michael; DeMarini, David M

2007-01-01

362

Screening of transcription factors with transcriptional initiation activity.  

PubMed

A majority of mammalian promoters are associated with CpG islands. CpG island promoters frequently lack common core promoter elements, such as the TATA box, and often have dispersed transcription start sites. The mechanism through which CpG island promoters are transcriptionally initiated remains unclear. We speculate that some transcription factors can direct transcription initiation by themselves. To test this hypothesis, we screened a variety of transcription factors to see whether they could initiate transcription. Most transcription factors, including specificity protein 1 (Sp1) and nuclear factor Y (NF-Y), showed little transcriptional initiation activity. However, nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1), the basic helix-loop-helix/leucine zipper (bHLH/ZIP) family of proteins and the E-twenty six (Ets) family of proteins had strong transcriptional activity. We further demonstrated that these transcription factors initiate dispersed transcription. Our studies provide perspectives to the mechanism of transcription initiation from CpG island promoters. PMID:23933270

Zhang, Lang; Yu, Haoyue; Wang, Pan; Ding, Qingyang; Wang, Zhao

2013-08-09

363

How eukaryotic transcriptional activators work  

Microsoft Academic Search

A specific protein, bound to DNA, can activate transcription of a wide array of genes in many eukaryotes. Further analysis suggests a general outline for how eukaryotic transcriptional activators function and are controlled.

Mark Ptashne

1988-01-01

364

Tailoring the Models of Transcription  

PubMed Central

Molecular biology is a rapidly evolving field that has led to the development of increasingly sophisticated technologies to improve our capacity to study cellular processes in much finer detail. Transcription is the first step in protein expression and the major point of regulation of the components that determine the characteristics, fate and functions of cells. The study of transcriptional regulation has been greatly facilitated by the development of reporter genes and transcription factor expression vectors, which have become versatile tools for manipulating promoters, as well as transcription factors in order to examine their function. The understanding of promoter complexity and transcription factor structure offers an insight into the mechanisms of transcriptional control and their impact on cell behaviour. This review focuses on some of the many applications of molecular cut-and-paste tools for the manipulation of promoters and transcription factors leading to the understanding of crucial aspects of transcriptional regulation.

Pance, Alena

2013-01-01

365

Transcription Dynamics in Plant Immunity  

PubMed Central

Plant cells maintain sophisticated gene transcription programs to regulate their development, communication, and response to the environment. Environmental stress cues, such as pathogen encounter, lead to dramatic reprogramming of transcription to favor stress responses over normal cellular functions. Transcription reprogramming is conferred by the concerted action of myriad transcription (co)factors that function directly or indirectly to recruit or release RNA Polymerase II. To establish an effective defense response, cells require transcription (co)factors to deploy their activity rapidly, transiently, spatially, and hierarchically. Recent findings suggest that in plant immunity these requirements are met by posttranslational modifications that accurately regulate transcription (co)factor activity as well as by sequential pulse activation of specific gene transcription programs that provide feedback and feedforward properties to the defense gene network. Here, we integrate these recent findings from plant defense studies into the emerging field of transcription dynamics in eukaryotes.

Moore, John W.; Loake, Gary J.; Spoel, Steven H.

2011-01-01

366

HIV-1 Reverse Transcription.  

PubMed

Reverse transcription is an obligatory step in retrovirus replication in the course of which the retroviral RNA/DNA-dependent DNA polymerase (RT) copies the single-stranded positive sense RNA genome to synthesize the double-stranded viral DNA. At the same time the RT-associated RNaseH activity degrades the genomic RNA template, which has just been copied. The viral nucleocapsid protein NCp7 is an obligatory partner of RT, chaperoning synthesis of the complete viral DNA flanked by the two long-terminal repeats (LTR), required for viral DNA integration into the host genome and its expression. Here we describe assays for in vitro and ex vivo monitoring of reverse transcription and the chaperoning role of the nucleocapsid protein (NC). PMID:24158814

Cimarelli, Andrea; Darlix, Jean-Luc

2014-01-01

367

Transcription under torsion.  

PubMed

In cells, RNA polymerase (RNAP) must transcribe supercoiled DNA, whose torsional state is constantly changing, but how RNAP deals with DNA supercoiling remains elusive. We report direct measurements of individual Escherichia coli RNAPs as they transcribed supercoiled DNA. We found that a resisting torque slowed RNAP and increased its pause frequency and duration. RNAP was able to generate 11 ± 4 piconewton-nanometers (mean ± standard deviation) of torque before stalling, an amount sufficient to melt DNA of arbitrary sequence and establish RNAP as a more potent torsional motor than previously known. A stalled RNAP was able to resume transcription upon torque relaxation, and transcribing RNAP was resilient to transient torque fluctuations. These results provide a quantitative framework for understanding how dynamic modification of DNA supercoiling regulates transcription. PMID:23812716

Ma, Jie; Bai, Lu; Wang, Michelle D

2013-06-28

368

The OxyR regulon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli cells with low doses of hydrogen peroxide results in the induction of thirty proteins and resistance to killing by higher doses of hydrogen peroxide. The expression of nine of the hydrogen peroxide-inducible proteins, including catalase, glutathione reductase and a novel alkyl hydroperoxide reductase is controlled by the positive regulator oxyR. OxyR is homologous

Gisela Storz; Louis A. Tartaglia; Bruce N. Ames

1990-01-01

369

Transcription Analysis of the Bacillus subtilis PucR Regulon and Identification of a cis-Acting Sequence Required for PucR-Regulated Expression of Genes Involved in Purine Catabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PucR protein of Bacillus subtilis has previously been suggested to regulate the expression of 15 genes, pucABCDE, pucFG, pucH, pucI, pucJKLM, pucR, and gde, all of which encode proteins involved in purine catabolism. When cells are grown under nitrogen-limiting conditions, the expression of these genes is induced and intermediary compounds of the purine catabolic pathway affect this expression. By

Lars Beier; Per Nygaard; Hanne Jarmer; Hans H. Saxild

2002-01-01

370

Estrogen Receptor-Mediated Transcription In Vitro.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Estrogen receptor (ER) is a ligand activated transcription activator. The detailed mechanism of ER mediated transcription is unclear. We demonstrated that ER mediated transcription in cell free transcription system is ligand dependent. Antiestrogens ICI 1...

H. Liu M. Brown

1997-01-01

371

Changes in DnaA-Dependent Gene Expression Contribute to the Transcriptional and Developmental Response of Bacillus subtilis to Manganese Limitation in Luria-Bertani Medium? †  

PubMed Central

The SOS response to DNA damage in bacteria is a well-known component of the complex transcriptional responses to genotoxic environmental stresses such as exposure to reactive oxygen species, alkylating agents, and many of the antibiotics targeting DNA replication. However, bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis also respond to conditions that perturb DNA replication via a transcriptional response mediated by the replication initiation protein DnaA. In addition to regulating the initiation of DNA replication, DnaA directly regulates the transcription of specific genes. Conditions that perturb DNA replication can trigger the accumulation of active DnaA, activating or repressing the transcription of genes in the DnaA regulon. We report here that simply growing B. subtilis in LB medium altered DnaA-dependent gene expression in a manner consistent with the accumulation of active DnaA and that this was part of a general transcriptional response to manganese limitation. The SOS response to DNA damage was not induced under these conditions. One of the genes positively regulated by DnaA in Bacillus subtilis encodes a protein that inhibits the initiation of sporulation, Sda. Sda expression was induced as cells entered stationary phase in LB medium but not in LB medium supplemented with manganese, and the induction of Sda inhibited sporulation-specific gene expression and the onset of spore morphogenesis. In the absence of Sda, manganese-limited cells initiated spore development but failed to form mature spores. These data highlight that DnaA-dependent gene expression may influence the response of bacteria to a range of environmental conditions, including conditions that are not obviously associated with genotoxic stress.

Hoover, Sharon E.; Xu, Weihong; Xiao, Wenzhong; Burkholder, William F.

2010-01-01

372

Mechanogenetic regulation of transcription.  

PubMed

In many biological systems mechanical forces regulate gene expression: in bacteria changes in turgor pressure cause a deformation of the membrane and induce the expression of osmoregulatory genes; in plants gravity regulates cell growth ('geotropism'); in mammals stretching a muscle induces hypertrophy which is accompanied by qualitative changes in protein synthesis. Consequently, the term 'mechanogenetic control' seems to be a suitable common name for all these processes. The mechanism by which mechanical factors modulate transcriptional activity is still unknown. The purpose of this review is to bring together data from different fields in order to obtain a better understanding of the mechanogenetic control of cell growth. PMID:1747387

Erdos, T; Butler-Browne, G S; Rappaport, L

1991-09-01

373

Single Molecule Transcription Elongation  

PubMed Central

Single molecule optical trapping assays have now been applied to a great number of macromolecular systems including DNA, RNA, cargo motors, restriction enzymes, DNA helicases, chromosome remodelers, DNA polymerases and both viral and bacterial RNA polymerases. The advantages of the technique are the ability to observe dynamic, unsynchronized molecular processes, to determine the distributions of experimental quantities and to apply force to the system while monitoring the response over time. Here, we describe the application of these powerful techniques to study the dynamics of transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Galburt, Eric A.; Grill, Stephan W.; Bustamante, Carlos

2009-01-01

374

Transcription factor complexes.  

PubMed

Considerable progress has been made during the past year on structural studies of the eukaryotic and bacterial transcription factors that control RNA polymerase function via the formation of multiprotein complexes on promoter DNA. Recently determined structures include negative cofactor 2 recognizing a preformed TATA-box-binding protein-DNA binary complex, a dimer of BmrR bound to both DNA and tetra-phenylphosphonium, DNA-bound complexes of SarA and FadR, leukemia-associated AML1-CBFbeta-DNA ternary complexes and a SAP1-SRF-DNA ternary complex. PMID:11959501

Burley, Stephen K; Kamada, Katsuhiko

2002-04-01

375

Output targets and transcriptional regulation by a cyclic dimeric GMP-responsive circuit in the Vibrio parahaemolyticus Scr network.  

PubMed

The Vibrio parahaemolyticus Scr system modulates decisions pertinent to surface colonization by affecting the cellular level of cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP). In this work, we explore the scope and mechanism of this regulation. Transcriptome comparison of ?scrABC and wild-type strains revealed expression differences with respect to ?100 genes. Elevated c-di-GMP repressed genes in the surface-sensing regulon, including those encoding the lateral flagellar and type III secretion systems and N-acetylglucosamine-binding protein GpbA while inducing genes encoding other cell surface molecules and capsular polysaccharide. The transcription of a few regulatory genes was also affected, and the role of one was characterized. Mutations in cpsQ suppressed the sticky phenotype of scr mutants. cpsQ encodes one of four V. parahaemolyticus homologs in the CsgD/VpsT family, members of which have been implicated in c-di-GMP signaling. Here, we demonstrate that CpsQ is a c-di-GMP-binding protein. By using a combination of mutant and reporter analyses, CpsQ was found to be the direct, positive regulator of cpsA transcription. This c-di-GMP-responsive regulatory circuit could be reconstituted in Escherichia coli, where a low level of this nucleotide diminished the stability of CpsQ. The molecular interplay of additional known cps regulators was defined by establishing that CpsS, another CsgD family member, repressed cpsR, and the transcription factor CpsR activated cpsQ. Thus, we are developing a connectivity map of the Scr decision-making network with respect to its wiring and output strategies for colonizing surfaces and interaction with hosts; in doing so, we have isolated and reproduced a c-di-GMP-sensitive regulatory module in the circuit. PMID:22194449

Ferreira, Rosana B R; Chodur, Daniel M; Antunes, Luis Caetano M; Trimble, Michael J; McCarter, Linda L

2011-12-22

376

DNA methylation and transcriptional noise  

PubMed Central

Background DNA methylation is one of the most phylogenetically widespread epigenetic modifications of genomic DNA. In particular, DNA methylation of transcription units (‘gene bodies’) is highly conserved across diverse taxa. However, the functional role of gene body methylation is not yet fully understood. A long-standing hypothesis posits that gene body methylation reduces transcriptional noise associated with spurious transcription of genes. Despite the plausibility of this hypothesis, an explicit test of this hypothesis has not been performed until now. Results Using nucleotide-resolution data on genomic DNA methylation and abundant microarray data, here we investigate the relationship between DNA methylation and transcriptional noise. Transcriptional noise measured from microarrays scales down with expression abundance, confirming findings from single-cell studies. We show that gene body methylation is significantly negatively associated with transcriptional noise when examined in the context of other biological factors. Conclusions This finding supports the hypothesis that gene body methylation suppresses transcriptional noise. Heavy methylation of vertebrate genomes may have evolved as a global regulatory mechanism to control for transcriptional noise. In contrast, promoter methylation exhibits positive correlations with the level of transcriptional noise. We hypothesize that methylated promoters tend to undergo more frequent transcriptional bursts than those that avoid DNA methylation.

2013-01-01

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