These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Post-transcriptional RNA regulons affecting cell cycle and proliferation.  

PubMed

The cellular growth cycle is initiated and maintained by punctual, yet agile, regulatory events involving modifications of cell cycle proteins as well as coordinated gene expression to support cyclic checkpoint decisions. Recent evidence indicates that post-transcriptional partitioning of messenger RNA subsets by RNA-binding proteins help physically localize, temporally coordinate, and efficiently translate cell cycle proteins. This dynamic organization of mRNAs encoding cell cycle components contributes to the overall economy of the cell cycle consistent with the post-transcriptional RNA regulon model of gene expression. This review examines several recent studies demonstrating the coordination of mRNA subsets encoding cell cycle proteins during nuclear export and subsequent coupling to protein synthesis, and discusses evidence for mRNA coordination of p53 targets and the DNA damage response pathway. We consider how these observations may connect to upstream and downstream post-transcriptional coordination and coupling of splicing, export, localization, and translation. Published examples from yeast, nematode, insect, and mammalian systems are discussed, and we consider genetic evidence supporting the conclusion that dysregulation of RNA regulons may promote pathogenic states of growth such as carcinogenesis. PMID:24882724

Blackinton, Jeff G; Keene, Jack D

2014-10-01

2

Comparative genomics and evolution of regulons of the LacI-family transcription factors  

PubMed Central

DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs) are essential components of transcriptional regulatory networks in bacteria. LacI-family TFs (LacI-TFs) are broadly distributed among certain lineages of bacteria. The majority of characterized LacI-TFs sense sugar effectors and regulate carbohydrate utilization genes. The comparative genomics approaches enable in silico identification of TF-binding sites and regulon reconstruction. To study the function and evolution of LacI-TFs, we performed genomics-based reconstruction and comparative analysis of their regulons. For over 1300 LacI-TFs from over 270 bacterial genomes, we predicted their cognate DNA-binding motifs and identified target genes. Using the genome context and metabolic subsystem analyses of reconstructed regulons, we tentatively assigned functional roles and predicted candidate effectors for 78 and 67% of the analyzed LacI-TFs, respectively. Nearly 90% of the studied LacI-TFs are local regulators of sugar utilization pathways, whereas the remaining 125 global regulators control large and diverse sets of metabolic genes. The global LacI-TFs include the previously known regulators CcpA in Firmicutes, FruR in Enterobacteria, and PurR in Gammaproteobacteria, as well as the three novel regulators—GluR, GapR, and PckR—that are predicted to control the central carbohydrate metabolism in three lineages of Alphaproteobacteria. Phylogenetic analysis of regulators combined with the reconstructed regulons provides a model of evolutionary diversification of the LacI protein family. The obtained genomic collection of in silico reconstructed LacI-TF regulons in bacteria is available in the RegPrecise database (http://regprecise.lbl.gov). It provides a framework for future structural and functional classification of the LacI protein family and identification of molecular determinants of the DNA and ligand specificity. The inferred regulons can be also used for functional gene annotation and reconstruction of sugar catabolic networks in diverse bacterial lineages. PMID:24966856

Ravcheev, Dmitry A.; Khoroshkin, Matvei S.; Laikova, Olga N.; Tsoy, Olga V.; Sernova, Natalia V.; Petrova, Svetlana A.; Rakhmaninova, Aleksandra B.; Novichkov, Pavel S.; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.

2014-01-01

3

RegulonDB (version 3.0): transcriptional regulation and operon organization in Escherichia coli K-12  

Microsoft Academic Search

RegulonDB is a database on transcription regulation and operon organization in Escherichia coli. The current version describes regulatory signals of tran- scription initiation, promoters, regulatory binding sites of specific regulators, ribosome binding sites and terminators, as well as information on genes clustered in operons. These specific annotations have been gathered from a constant search in the literature, as well as

Heladia Salgado; Alberto Santos-zavaleta; Socorro Gama-castro; Dulce Millán-zárate; Frederick R. Blattner; Julio Collado-vides

2000-01-01

4

Regulon-Specific Control of Transcription Elongation across the Yeast Genome  

PubMed Central

Transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II was often considered an invariant non-regulated process. However, genome-wide studies have shown that transcriptional pausing during elongation is a frequent phenomenon in tightly-regulated metazoan genes. Using a combination of ChIP-on-chip and genomic run-on approaches, we found that the proportion of transcriptionally active RNA polymerase II (active versus total) present throughout the yeast genome is characteristic of some functional gene classes, like those related to ribosomes and mitochondria. This proportion also responds to regulatory stimuli mediated by protein kinase A and, in relation to cytosolic ribosomal-protein genes, it is mediated by the silencing domain of Rap1. We found that this inactive form of RNA polymerase II, which accumulates along the full length of ribosomal protein genes, is phosphorylated in the Ser5 residue of the CTD, but is hypophosphorylated in Ser2. Using the same experimental approach, we show that the in vivo–depletion of FACT, a chromatin-related elongation factor, also produces a regulon-specific effect on the expression of the yeast genome. This work demonstrates that the regulation of transcription elongation is a widespread, gene class–dependent phenomenon that also affects housekeeping genes. PMID:19696888

Pelechano, Vicent; Jimeno-González, Silvia; Rodríguez-Gil, Alfonso; García-Martínez, José; Pérez-Ortín, José E.; Chávez, Sebastián

2009-01-01

5

RegulonDB (version 3.2): transcriptional regulation and operon organization in Escherichia coli K-12  

Microsoft Academic Search

RegulonDB is a database on mechanisms of transcription regulation and operon organization in Escherichia coli K-12. The current version has considerably increased numbers of regulatory elements such as promoters, binding sites and terminators. The complete repertoire of known and predicted DNA-binding transcriptional regulators can be considered to be included in this version. The database now distinguishes different allosteric conformations of

Heladia Salgado; Alberto Santos-zavaleta; Socorro Gama-castro; Dulce Millán-zárate; Edgar Díaz-peredo; Fabiola Sánchez-solano; Ernesto Pérez-rueda; César Bonavides-martínez; Julio Collado-vides

2001-01-01

6

The Cryptosporidium parvum ApiAP2 gene family: insights into the evolution of apicomplexan AP2 regulatory systems  

PubMed Central

We provide the first comprehensive analysis of any transcription factor family in Cryptosporidium, a basal-branching apicomplexan that is the second leading cause of infant diarrhea globally. AP2 domain-containing proteins have evolved to be the major regulatory family in the phylum to the exclusion of canonical regulators. We show that apicomplexan and perkinsid AP2 domains cluster distinctly from other chromalveolate AP2s. Protein-binding specificity assays of C. parvum AP2 domains combined with motif conservation upstream of co-regulated gene clusters allowed the construction of putative AP2 regulons across the in vitro life cycle. Orthologous Apicomplexan AP2 (ApiAP2) expression has been rearranged relative to the malaria parasite P. falciparum, suggesting ApiAP2 network rewiring during evolution. C. hominis orthologs of putative C. parvum ApiAP2 proteins and target genes show greater than average variation. C. parvum AP2 domains display reduced binding diversity relative to P. falciparum, with multiple domains binding the 5?-TGCAT-3?, 5?-CACACA-3? and G-box motifs (5?-G[T/C]GGGG-3?). Many overrepresented motifs in C. parvum upstream regions are not AP2 binding motifs. We propose that C. parvum is less reliant on ApiAP2 regulators in part because it utilizes E2F/DP1 transcription factors. C. parvum may provide clues to the ancestral state of apicomplexan transcriptional regulation, pre-AP2 domination. PMID:24957599

Oberstaller, Jenna; Pumpalova, Yoanna; Schieler, Ariel; Llinas, Manuel; Kissinger, Jessica C.

2014-01-01

7

Transcription factor sigma B of Bacillus subtilis controls a large stationary-phase regulon.  

PubMed Central

Transcription factor sigma B of Bacillus subtilis is active during the stationary growth phase, but its physiological role remains unknown. Understanding the function and regulation of genes controlled by sigma B (csb genes) should provide important clues to sigma B function in stationary-phase cells. To this end, we used a genetic approach to identify six new csb genes. This strategy relies on two elements: (i) random transcriptional fusions between the Escherichia coli lacZ gene and genes on the B. subtilis chromosome, generated in vivo with transposon Tn917lacZ, and (ii) a plate transformation technique to introduce a null sigB mutation into the fusion-bearing recipients directly on indicator plates. This strategy allowed the comparison of fusion expression in strains that were isogenic save for the presence or absence of a functional sigma B protein. Beginning with 1,400 active fusions, we identified 11 that were wholly or partly controlled by sigma B. These fusions mapped to six different loci that exhibit substantial contrasts in their patterns of expression in the logarithmic and stationary growth phases, suggesting that they participate in diverse cellular functions. However, for all six loci, the sigma B-dependent component of their expression was manifest largely in the stationary phase. The high frequency of six independent csb loci detected in a random collection of 1,400 fusions screened, the fact that four of the six new loci were defined by a single fusion, and the absence of the previously identified ctc and csbA genes in the present collection strongly suggest that sigma B controls a large stationary-phase regulon. PMID:8320211

Boylan, S A; Redfield, A R; Price, C W

1993-01-01

8

Transcriptional Profiling of Cross Pathway Control in Neurospora crassa and Comparative Analysis of the Gcn4 and CPC1 Regulons? †  

PubMed Central

Identifying and characterizing transcriptional regulatory networks is important for guiding experimental tests on gene function. The characterization of regulatory networks allows comparisons among both closely and distantly related species, providing insight into network evolution, which is predicted to correlate with the adaptation of different species to particular environmental niches. One of the most intensely studied regulatory factors in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the bZIP transcription factor Gcn4p. Gcn4p is essential for a global transcriptional response when S. cerevisiae experiences amino acid starvation. In the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora crassa, the ortholog of GCN4 is called the cross pathway control-1 (cpc-1) gene; it is required for the ability of N. crassa to induce a number of amino acid biosynthetic genes in response to amino acid starvation. Here, we deciphered the CPC1 regulon by profiling transcription in wild-type and cpc-1 mutant strains with full-genome N. crassa 70-mer oligonucleotide microarrays. We observed that at least 443 genes were direct or indirect CPC1 targets; these included 67 amino acid biosynthetic genes, 16 tRNA synthetase genes, and 13 vitamin-related genes. Comparison among the N. crassa CPC1 transcriptional profiling data set and the Gcn4/CaGcn4 data sets from S. cerevisiae and Candida albicans revealed a conserved regulon of 32 genes, 10 of which are predicted to be directly regulated by Gcn4p/CPC1. The 32-gene conserved regulon comprises mostly amino acid biosynthetic genes. The comparison of regulatory networks in species with clear orthology among genes sheds light on how gene interaction networks evolve. PMID:17449655

Tian, Chaoguang; Kasuga, Takao; Sachs, Matthew S.; Glass, N. Louise

2007-01-01

9

The Streptococcus pneumoniae cia Regulon: CiaR Target Sites and Transcription Profile Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ciaR-ciaH system is one of 13 two-component signal-transducing systems of the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mutations in the histidine protein kinase CiaH confer increased resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics and interfere with the development of genetic competence. In order to identify the genes controlled by the cia system, the cia regulon, DNA fragments targeted by the response regulator CiaR were

Thorsten Mascher; Dorothea Zahner; Michelle Merai; Nadege Balmelle; Antoine B. de Saizieu; Regine Hakenbeck

2003-01-01

10

Activation of the Escherichia coli marA/soxS/rob regulon in response to transcriptional activator concentration.  

PubMed

The paralogous transcriptional activators MarA, SoxS, and Rob activate a common set of promoters, the marA/soxS/rob regulon of Escherichia coli, by binding a cognate site (marbox) upstream of each promoter. The extent of activation varies from one promoter to another and is only poorly correlated with the in vitro affinity of the activator for the specific marbox. Here, we examine the dependence of promoter activation on the level of activator in vivo by manipulating the steady-state concentrations of MarA and SoxS in Lon protease mutants and by measuring promoter activation using lacZ transcriptional fusions. We found that: (i) the MarA concentrations needed for half-maximal stimulation varied by at least 19-fold among the 10 promoters tested; (ii) most marboxes were not saturated when there were 24,000 molecules of MarA per cell; (iii) the correlation between the MarA concentration needed for half-maximal promoter activity in vivo and marbox binding affinity in vitro was poor; and (iv) the two activators differed in their promoter activation profiles. The marRAB and sodA promoters could both be saturated by MarA and SoxS in vivo. However, saturation by MarA resulted in greater marRAB and lesser sodA transcription than did saturation by SoxS, implying that the two activators interact with RNA polymerase in different ways at the different promoters. Thus, the concentration and nature of activator determine which regulon promoters are activated, as well as the extent of their activation. PMID:18514222

Martin, Robert G; Bartlett, Emily S; Rosner, Judah L; Wall, Michael E

2008-07-01

11

Activation of the Iron Regulon by the Yeast Aft1\\/Aft2 Transcription Factors Depends on Mitochondrial but Not Cytosolic Iron-Sulfur Protein Biogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two transcriptional activators, Aft1 and Aft2, regulate iron homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These factors induce the expression of iron regulon genes in iron-deficient yeast but are inactivated in iron-replete cells. Iron inhibition of Aft1\\/Aft2 is abrogated in cells defective for Fe-S cluster biogenesis within the mito- chondrial matrix (Chen, O. S., Crisp, R. J., Valachovic, M., Bard, M., Winge, D.

Julian C. Rutherford; Luis Ojeda; Janneke Balk; Ulrich Muhlenhoff; Roland Lill; Dennis R. Winge

2005-01-01

12

Transcription factor family-based reconstruction of singleton regulons and study of the Crp/Fnr, ArsR, and GntR families in Desulfovibrionales genomes.  

PubMed

Accurate detection of transcriptional regulatory elements is essential for high-quality genome annotation, metabolic reconstruction, and modeling of regulatory networks. We developed a computational approach for reconstruction of regulons operated by transcription factors (TFs) from large protein families and applied this novel approach to three TF families in 10 Desulfovibrionales genomes. Phylogenetic analyses of 125 regulators from the ArsR, Crp/Fnr, and GntR families revealed that 65% of these regulators (termed reference TFs) are well conserved in Desulfovibrionales, while the remaining 35% of regulators (termed singleton TFs) are species specific and show a mosaic distribution. For regulon reconstruction in the group of singleton TFs, the standard orthology-based approach was inefficient, and thus, we developed a novel approach based on the simultaneous study of all homologous TFs from the same family in a group of genomes. As a result, we identified binding for 21 singleton TFs and for all reference TFs in all three analyzed families. Within each TF family we observed structural similarities between DNA-binding motifs of different reference and singleton TFs. The collection of reconstructed regulons is available at the RegPrecise database (http://regprecise.lbl.gov/RegPrecise/Desulfovibrionales.jsp). PMID:23086211

Kazakov, Alexey E; Rodionov, Dmitry A; Price, Morgan N; Arkin, Adam P; Dubchak, Inna; Novichkov, Pavel S

2013-01-01

13

Transcription Profiling of the mgrA Regulon in Staphylococcus aureus  

Microsoft Academic Search

MgrA has been shown to affect multiple Staphylococcus aureus genes involved in virulence and antibiotic resistance. To comprehensively identify the target genes regulated by mgrA, we employed a microarray method to analyze the transcription profiles of S. aureus Newman, its isogeneic mgrA mutant, and an MgrA-overpro- ducing derivative. We compared genes that were differentially expressed at exponential or early stationary

Thanh T. Luong; Paul M. Dunman; Ellen Murphy; Steven J. Projan; Chia Y. Lee

2006-01-01

14

RegulonDB version 7.0: transcriptional regulation of Escherichia coli K-12 integrated within genetic sensory response units (Gensor Units)  

PubMed Central

RegulonDB (http://regulondb.ccg.unam.mx/) is the primary reference database of the best-known regulatory network of any free-living organism, that of Escherichia coli K-12. The major conceptual change since 3 years ago is an expanded biological context so that transcriptional regulation is now part of a unit that initiates with the signal and continues with the signal transduction to the core of regulation, modifying expression of the affected target genes responsible for the response. We call these genetic sensory response units, or Gensor Units. We have initiated their high-level curation, with graphic maps and superreactions with links to other databases. Additional connectivity uses expandable submaps. RegulonDB has summaries for every transcription factor (TF) and TF-binding sites with internal symmetry. Several DNA-binding motifs and their sizes have been redefined and relocated. In addition to data from the literature, we have incorporated our own information on transcription start sites (TSSs) and transcriptional units (TUs), obtained by using high-throughput whole-genome sequencing technologies. A new portable drawing tool for genomic features is also now available, as well as new ways to download the data, including web services, files for several relational database manager systems and text files including BioPAX format. PMID:21051347

Gama-Castro, Socorro; Salgado, Heladia; Peralta-Gil, Martin; Santos-Zavaleta, Alberto; Muniz-Rascado, Luis; Solano-Lira, Hilda; Jimenez-Jacinto, Veronica; Weiss, Verena; Garcia-Sotelo, Jair S.; Lopez-Fuentes, Alejandra; Porron-Sotelo, Liliana; Alquicira-Hernandez, Shirley; Medina-Rivera, Alejandra; Martinez-Flores, Irma; Alquicira-Hernandez, Kevin; Martinez-Adame, Ruth; Bonavides-Martinez, Cesar; Miranda-Rios, Juan; Huerta, Araceli M.; Mendoza-Vargas, Alfredo; Collado-Torres, Leonardo; Taboada, Blanca; Vega-Alvarado, Leticia; Olvera, Maricela; Olvera, Leticia; Grande, Ricardo; Morett, Enrique; Collado-Vides, Julio

2011-01-01

15

Characterization of TetD as a transcriptional activator of a subset of genes of the Escherichia coli SoxS/MarA/Rob regulon.  

PubMed

In Escherichia coli, SoxS, MarA and Rob form a closely related subset of the AraC/XylS family of positive regulators, sharing approximately 42% amino acid sequence identity over the length of SoxS and the ability to activate transcription of a common set of target genes that provide resistance to redox-cycling compounds and antibiotics. On the basis of its approximately 43% amino acid sequence identity with SoxS, MarA and Rob, TetD, encoded by transposon Tn10, appears to be a fourth member of the subset. However, although its expression has been shown to be negatively regulated by TetC and not inducible by tetracycline, the physiological function of TetD is unknown. Accordingly, in the work presented here, we initiate a molecular characterization of TetD. We show that expression of TetD activates transcription of a subset of the SoxS/MarA/Rob regulon genes and confers resistance to redox-cycling compounds and antibiotics. We show that mutations in the putative TetD binding site of a TetD-activatable promoter and a mutation in the protein's N-terminal DNA recognition helix interfere with transcription activation, thereby indicating that TetD directly activates target gene transcription. Finally, we show that TetD, like SoxS and MarA, is intrinsically unstable; however, unlike SoxS and MarA, TetD is not degraded by Lon or any of the cell's known cytoplasmic ATP-dependent proteases. Thus, we conclude that TetD is a bona fide member of the SoxS/MarA/Rob subfamily of positive regulators. PMID:15853893

Griffith, Kevin L; Becker, Stephen M; Wolf, Richard E

2005-05-01

16

Proteolytic degradation of Escherichia coli transcription activators SoxS and MarA as the mechanism for reversing the induction of the superoxide (SoxRS) and multiple antibiotic resistance (Mar) regulons.  

PubMed

In Escherichia coli, the SoxRS regulon confers resistance to redox-cycling compounds, and the Mar regulon provides a defence against multiple antibiotics. The response regulators, SoxS and MarA, are synthesized de novo in response to their inducing signals and directly activate transcription of a common set of target genes. Although the mechanisms of transcription activation by SoxS and MarA have been well studied, little is known about how the systems are shut-off once the inducing stress has subsided, except that de novo synthesis of the regulators is known to cease almost immediately. Here, we induced the SoxRS regulon and determined that, upon removal of the inducer, expression of the regulon's genes quickly returns to the preinduced level. This rapid shut-off indicates that the system is reset by an active process. We found that SoxS is unstable and infer that SoxS degradation is responsible for the rapid return of the system to the ground state upon removal of the inducing signal. We also found that MarA is unstable and that the instability of both proteins is intrinsic and unregulated. We used null mutations of protease genes to identify the proteases involved in the degradation of SoxS and MarA. Among single protease mutations, only lon mutations increased the half-life of SoxS and MarA. In addition, SoxS appeared to be nearly completely stable in a lon ftsH double mutant. Using hexahistidine tags placed at the respective ends of the activators, we found that access to the amino-terminus is essential for the proteolytic degradation. PMID:15009903

Griffith, Kevin L; Shah, Ishita M; Wolf, Richard E

2004-03-01

17

Quantitative and Qualitative Stem Rust Resistance Factors in Barley Are Associated with Transcriptional Suppression of Defense Regulons  

PubMed Central

Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici; Pgt) is a devastating fungal disease of wheat and barley. Pgt race TTKSK (isolate Ug99) is a serious threat to these Triticeae grain crops because resistance is rare. In barley, the complex Rpg-TTKSK locus on chromosome 5H is presently the only known source of qualitative resistance to this aggressive Pgt race. Segregation for resistance observed on seedlings of the Q21861 × SM89010 (QSM) doubled-haploid (DH) population was found to be predominantly qualitative, with little of the remaining variance explained by loci other than Rpg-TTKSK. In contrast, analysis of adult QSM DH plants infected by field inoculum of Pgt race TTKSK in Njoro, Kenya, revealed several additional quantitative trait loci that contribute to resistance. To molecularly characterize these loci, Barley1 GeneChips were used to measure the expression of 22,792 genes in the QSM population after inoculation with Pgt race TTKSK or mock-inoculation. Comparison of expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL) between treatments revealed an inoculation-dependent expression polymorphism implicating Actin depolymerizing factor3 (within the Rpg-TTKSK locus) as a candidate susceptibility gene. In parallel, we identified a chromosome 2H trans-eQTL hotspot that co-segregates with an enhancer of Rpg-TTKSK-mediated, adult plant resistance discovered through the Njoro field trials. Our genome-wide eQTL studies demonstrate that transcript accumulation of 25% of barley genes is altered following challenge by Pgt race TTKSK, but that few of these genes are regulated by the qualitative Rpg-TTKSK on chromosome 5H. It is instead the chromosome 2H trans-eQTL hotspot that orchestrates the largest inoculation-specific responses, where enhanced resistance is associated with transcriptional suppression of hundreds of genes scattered throughout the genome. Hence, the present study associates the early suppression of genes expressed in this host–pathogen interaction with enhancement of R-gene mediated resistance. PMID:21829384

Moscou, Matthew J.; Lauter, Nick; Steffenson, Brian; Wise, Roger P.

2011-01-01

18

Evolution of apicomplexan secretory organelles  

PubMed Central

The alveolate superphylum includes many free-living and parasitic organisms, which are united by the presence of alveolar sacs lying proximal to the plasma membrane, providing cell structure. All species comprising the apicomplexan group of alveolates are parasites and have adapted to the unique requirements of the parasitic lifestyle. Here the evolution of apicomplexan secretory organelles that are involved in the critical process of egress from one cell and invasion of another is explored. The variations within the Apicomplexa and how these relate to species-specific biology will be discussed. In addition, recent studies have identified specific calcium-sensitive molecules that coordinate the various events and regulate the release of these secretory organelles within apicomplexan parasites. Some aspects of this machinery are conserved outside the Apicomplexa, and are beginning to elucidate the conserved nature of the machinery. Briefly, the relationship of this secretion machinery within the Apicomplexa will be discussed, compared with free-living and predatory alveolates, and how these might have evolved from a common ancestor. PMID:23068912

Gubbels, Marc-Jan; Duraisingh, Manoj T.

2013-01-01

19

A common red algal origin of the apicomplexan, dinoflagellate, and heterokont plastids.  

PubMed

The discovery of a nonphotosynthetic plastid in malaria and other apicomplexan parasites has sparked a contentious debate about its evolutionary origin. Molecular data have led to conflicting conclusions supporting either its green algal origin or red algal origin, perhaps in common with the plastid of related dinoflagellates. This distinction is critical to our understanding of apicomplexan evolution and the evolutionary history of endosymbiosis and photosynthesis; however, the two plastids are nearly impossible to compare due to their nonoverlapping information content. Here we describe the complete plastid genome sequences and plastid-associated data from two independent photosynthetic lineages represented by Chromera velia and an undescribed alga CCMP3155 that we show are closely related to apicomplexans. These plastids contain a suite of features retained in either apicomplexan (four plastid membranes, the ribosomal superoperon, conserved gene order) or dinoflagellate plastids (form II Rubisco acquired by horizontal transfer, transcript polyuridylylation, thylakoids stacked in triplets) and encode a full collective complement of their reduced gene sets. Together with whole plastid genome phylogenies, these characteristics provide multiple lines of evidence that the extant plastids of apicomplexans and dinoflagellates were inherited by linear descent from a common red algal endosymbiont. Our phylogenetic analyses also support their close relationship to plastids of heterokont algae, indicating they all derive from the same endosymbiosis. Altogether, these findings support a relatively simple path of linear descent for the evolution of photosynthesis in a large proportion of algae and emphasize plastid loss in several lineages (e.g., ciliates, Cryptosporidium, and Phytophthora). PMID:20534454

Janouskovec, Jan; Horák, Ales; Oborník, Miroslav; Lukes, Julius; Keeling, Patrick J

2010-06-15

20

Transcriptome profiling defines a novel regulon modulated by the LysR-type transcriptional regulator MexT in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

The LysR-family regulator MexT modulates the expression of the MexEF-OprN efflux system in the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Recently, we demonstrated that MexT regulates certain virulence phenotypes, including the type-three secretion system and early attachment independent of its role in regulating MexEF-OprN. In this study, transcriptome profiling was utilized to investigate the global nature of MexT regulation in P. aeruginosa PAO1 and an isogenic mexEF mutant. Twelve genes of unknown function were highly induced by overexpressing MexT independent of MexEF-OprN. A well-conserved DNA motif was identified in the upstream regulatory region of nine of these genes and upstream of mexE. Reporter fusion analysis demonstrated that the expression of the genes was significantly induced by MexT in P. aeruginosa and a heterogenous Escherichia coli strain and that the conserved sequence was required for this induction. The conserved DNA motif was further characterized as the MexT binding site by site-directed mutagenesis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Genes containing this conserved regulatory sequence were identified across other Pseudomonas species, and their expression was activated by MexT. Thus, a novel regulon directly modulated by MexT, that includes but is independent of mexEF-oprN, has been identified. PMID:19846594

Tian, Zhe-Xian; Fargier, Emilie; Mac Aogain, Micheal; Adams, Claire; Wang, Yi-Ping; O'Gara, Fergal

2009-01-01

21

Characterization of the GbdR Regulon in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa displays tremendous metabolic diversity, controlled in part by the abundance of transcription regulators in the genome. We have been investigating P. aeruginosa's response to the host, particularly changes regulated by the host-derived quaternary amines choline and glycine betaine (GB). We previously identified GbdR as an AraC family transcription factor that directly regulates choline acquisition from host phospholipids (via binding to plcH and pchP promoters), is required for catabolism of the choline metabolite GB, and is an activator that induces transcription in response to GB or dimethylglycine. Our goal was to characterize the GbdR regulon in P. aeruginosa by using genetics and chemical biology in combination with transcriptomics and in vitro DNA-binding assays. Here we show that GbdR activation regulates transcription of 26 genes from 12 promoters, 11 of which have measureable binding to GbdR in vitro. The GbdR regulon includes the genes encoding GB, dimethylglycine, sarcosine, glycine, and serine catabolic enzymes and the BetX and CbcXWV quaternary amine transport proteins. We characterized the GbdR consensus binding site and used it to identify that the recently characterized acetylcholine esterase gene, choE (PA4921), is also regulated by GbdR. The regulon member not directly controlled by GbdR is the secreted lipase gene lipA, which was also the only regulon member repressed under GbdR-activating conditions. Determination of the GbdR regulon provides deeper understanding of how GbdR links bacterial metabolism and virulence. Additionally, identification of two uncharacterized regulon members suggests roles for these proteins in response to choline metabolites. PMID:24097953

Hampel, Ken J.; LaBauve, Annette E.; Meadows, Jamie A.; Fitzsimmons, Liam F.; Nock, Adam M.

2014-01-01

22

Rhodopseudomonas palustris Regulons Detected by Cross-Species Analysis of Alphaproteobacterial Genomes  

PubMed Central

Rhodopseudomonas palustris, an ?-proteobacterium, carries out three of the chemical reactions that support life on this planet: the conversion of sunlight to chemical-potential energy; the absorption of carbon dioxide, which it converts to cellular material; and the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia. Insight into the transcription-regulatory network that coordinates these processes is fundamental to understanding the biology of this versatile bacterium. With this goal in mind, we predicted regulatory signals genomewide, using a two-step phylogenetic-footprinting and clustering process that we had developed previously. In the first step, 4,963 putative transcription factor binding sites, upstream of 2,044 genes and operons, were identified using cross-species Gibbs sampling. Bayesian motif clustering was then employed to group the cross-species motifs into regulons. We have identified 101 putative regulons in R. palustris, including 8 that are of particular interest: a photosynthetic regulon, a flagellar regulon, an organic hydroperoxide resistance regulon, the LexA regulon, and four regulons related to nitrogen metabolism (FixK2, NnrR, NtrC, and ?54). In some cases, clustering allowed us to assign functions to proteins that previously had been annotated with only putative functions; we have identified RPA0828 as the organic hydroperoxide resistance regulator and RPA1026 as a cell cycle methylase. In addition to predicting regulons, we identified a novel inverted repeat that likely forms a highly conserved stem-loop and that occurs downstream of over 100 genes. PMID:16269786

Conlan, Sean; Lawrence, Charles; McCue, Lee Ann

2005-01-01

23

Synthesis of chloroplast galactolipids in apicomplexan parasites.  

PubMed

Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol and digalactosyldiacylglycerol are major chloroplast lipids of algae and land plants and are synthesized within the plastid envelope. Here we report that in Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum lysates, radiolabeled UDP-galactose is incorporated into monogalactosylcerebrosides, monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, and digalactosyldiacylglycerol due to distinct enzymological activities. Furthermore, DGDG is immunologically detected in apicomplexans. PMID:12456013

Maréchal, Eric; Azzouz, Nahid; de Macedo, Cristiana Santos; Block, Maryse A; Feagin, Jean E; Schwarz, Ralph T; Joyard, Jacques

2002-08-01

24

The dual transcriptional regulator CysR in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 controls a subset of genes of the McbR regulon in response to the availability of sulphide acceptor molecules  

PubMed Central

Background Regulation of sulphur metabolism in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 has been studied intensively in the last few years, due to its industrial as well as scientific importance. Previously, the gene cg0156 was shown to belong to the regulon of McbR, a global transcriptional repressor of sulphur metabolism in C. glutamicum. This gene encodes a putative ROK-type regulator, a paralogue of the activator of sulphonate utilisation, SsuR. Therefore, it is an interesting candidate for study to further the understanding of the regulation of sulphur metabolism in C. glutamicum. Results Deletion of cg0156, now designated cysR, results in the inability of the mutant to utilise sulphate and aliphatic sulphonates. DNA microarray hybridisations revealed 49 genes with significantly increased and 48 with decreased transcript levels in presence of the native CysR compared to a cysR deletion mutant. Among the genes positively controlled by CysR were the gene cluster involved in sulphate reduction, fpr2 cysIXHDNYZ, and ssuR. Gel retardation experiments demonstrated that binding of CysR to DNA depends in vitro on the presence of either O-acetyl-L-serine or O-acetyl-L-homoserine. Mapping of the transcription start points of five transcription units helped to identify a 10 bp inverted repeat as the possible CysR binding site. Subsequent in vivo tests proved this motif to be necessary for CysR-dependent transcriptional regulation. Conclusion CysR acts as the functional analogue of the unrelated LysR-type regulator CysB from Escherichia coli, controlling sulphide production in response to acceptor availability. In both bacteria, gene duplication events seem to have taken place which resulted in the evolution of dedicated regulators for the control of sulphonate utilisation. The striking convergent evolution of network topology indicates the strong selective pressure to control the metabolism of the essential but often toxic sulphur-containing (bio-)molecules. PMID:18854009

Rückert, Christian; Milse, Johanna; Albersmeier, Andreas; Koch, Daniel J; Pühler, Alfred; Kalinowski, Jörn

2008-01-01

25

Direct Quantitative Transcript Analysis of the agr Regulon of Staphylococcus aureus during Human Infection in Comparison to the Expression Profile In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Bacteria possess a repertoire of distinct regulatory systems promoting survival in disparate environments. Under in vitro conditions it was demonstrated for the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus that the expression of most virulence factors is coordinated by the global regulator agr. To monitor bacterial gene regulation in the host, we developed a method for direct transcript analysis from clinical specimens. Quantification of specific transcripts was performed by competitive reverse transcription-PCR, and results were normalized against the constitutively expressed gene for gyrase (gyr). Using sputum from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients infected with S. aureus we examined the transcription of the effector molecule RNAIII of agr, of spa (protein A), generally repressed by agr, and of hla (alpha-toxin), generally activated by agr. In the CF lung RNAIII was expressed poorly, indicating an inactive agr in vivo. Despite the low level of RNAIII expression, spa was detectable only in minute amounts and an irregular transcription of hla was observed in all sputum samples. After subculturing of patient strains agr-deficient isolates and isolates with unusual expression profiles, i.e., not consistent with those obtained from prototypic strains, were observed. In conclusion, the agr activity seems to be nonessential in CF, and from the described expression pattern of spa and hla, other regulatory circuits aside from agr are postulated in vivo. PMID:10678942

Goerke, Christiane; Campana, Silvia; Bayer, Manfred G.; Doring, Gerd; Botzenhart, Konrad; Wolz, Christiane

2000-01-01

26

Direct Quantitative Transcript Analysis of the agr Regulon of Staphylococcus aureus during Human Infection in Comparison to the Expression Profile In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria possess a repertoire of distinct regulatory systems promoting survival in disparate environments. Under in vitro conditions it was demonstrated for the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus that the expres- sion of most virulence factors is coordinated by the global regulator agr. To monitor bacterial gene regulation in the host, we developed a method for direct transcript analysis from clinical specimens.

CHRISTIANE GOERKE; SILVIA CAMPANA; MANFRED G. BAYER; GERD DORING; KONRAD BOTZENHART; CHRISTIANE WOLZ

2000-01-01

27

The extrachromosomal DNAs of apicomplexan parasites.  

PubMed

Molecular analyses in recent years have begun to elucidate the identity and role of two extrachromosomal DNAs found in apicomplexan parasites. One of these is a small tandemly repeated DNA that encodes three classical mitochondrial protein coding genes, attesting to its identity. This molecule also encodes mitochondrial rRNAs as small fragments in scattered locations. Despite their unusual nature, evidence suggests that these rRNAs are functional. They offer an opportunity to evaluate structure-function correlations in the absence of much of the more variable sequences found in other rRNAs. The second extrachromosomal DNA has characteristics reminiscent of chloroplast DNAs and thus points to an unexpected ancestry for the apicomplexans. Both DNAs are inherited maternally, as is usual for organelle DNAs, but their subcellular locations have not been demonstrated unequivocally. Although the majority of studies with these two DNAs thus far have been with Plasmodium species, evidence from other apicomplexans suggests that these unusual organelle genomes are common to the phylum. PMID:7826027

Feagin, J E

1994-01-01

28

The PlcR Virulence Regulon of Bacillus cereus Michel Gohar1,2  

E-print Network

The PlcR Virulence Regulon of Bacillus cereus Michel Gohar1,2 *, Karoline Faegri3 , Ste, Oslo, Norway, 4 Institut Pasteur, Paris, France Abstract PlcR is a Bacillus cereus transcriptional the transcription of genes designed to overcome obstacles that hinder B. cereus growth within the host: food supply

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

29

Regulon inference without arbitrary thresholds: three levels of sensitivity  

SciTech Connect

Reconstruction of transcriptional regulatory networks is one of the major challenges facing the bioinformatics community in view of constantly growing number of complete genomes. The comparative genomics approach has been successfully used for the analysis of the transcriptional regulation of many metabolic systems in various bacteria taxa. The key step in this approach is given a position weight matrix, find an optimal threshold for the search of potential binding sites in genomes. In our previous work we proposed an approach for automatic selection of TFBS score threshold coupled with inference of regulon content. In this study we developed two modifications of this approach providing two additional levels of sensitivity.

Dubchak, Pavel Novichkov, Elena Stavrovskaya, Dmitry Rodionov, Andrey Mironov, Inna; Rodionov, Dmitry; Mironov, Andrey; Dubchak, Inna; Novichkov, P.S.

2010-11-15

30

Apicomplexan apicortins possess a long disordered N-terminal extension.  

PubMed

A new protein, termed apicortin, has recently been identified, which occurs only in the placozoan animal Trichoplax adhaerens and in the genomes of all currently sequenced apicomplexan parasites (e.g., Toxoplasma, Plasmodium, etc.). Apicortins unite two conserved domains, a DCX motif and a partial p25alpha sequence, which are singly found in diverse other proteins, in doublecortins and TPPPs, respectively. Here I show that although apicortin has a limited phylogenomic distribution, its occurrence is broader than thought previously. It has been identified in another primitive opisthokont, in the chytrid fungus, Spizellomyces punctatus. Apicortins can be divided into two subgroups: apicomplexan and non-apicomplexan ones. The main difference is that the former ones possess a long, N-terminal extension predicted to be disordered, which is missing in the other subgroup. The appearance of the extension in apicomplexan apicortins is an "innovation" of this phylum, and may play a functional role in the protein-protein interactions. PMID:21463710

Orosz, Ferenc

2011-07-01

31

Tracking Transmission of Apicomplexan Symbionts in Diverse Caribbean Corals  

PubMed Central

Symbionts in each generation are transmitted to new host individuals either vertically (parent to offspring), horizontally (from exogenous sources), or a combination of both. Scleractinian corals make an excellent study system for understanding patterns of symbiont transmission since they harbor diverse symbionts and possess distinct reproductive modes of either internal brooding or external broadcast spawning that generally correlate with vertical or horizontal transmission, respectively. Here, we focused on the under-recognized, but apparently widespread, coral-associated apicomplexans (Protista: Alveolata) to determine if symbiont transmission depends on host reproductive mode. Specifically, a PCR-based assay was utilized towards identifying whether planula larvae and reproductive adults from brooding and broadcast spawning scleractinian coral species in Florida and Belize harbored apicomplexan DNA. Nearly all (85.5%; n = 85/89) examined planulae of five brooding species (Porites astreoides, Agaricia tenuifolia, Agaricia agaricites, Favia fragum, Mycetophyllia ferox) and adults of P. astreoides were positive for apicomplexan DNA. In contrast, no (n = 0/10) apicomplexan DNA was detected from planulae of four broadcast spawning species (Acropora cervicornis, Acropora palmata, Pseudodiploria strigosa, and Orbicella faveolata) and rarely in gametes (8.9%; n = 5/56) of these species sampled from the same geographical range as the brooding species. In contrast, tissue samples from nearly all (92.0%; n = 81/88) adults of the broadcast spawning species A. cervicornis, A. palmata and O. faveolata harbored apicomplexan DNA, including colonies whose gametes and planulae tested negative for these symbionts. Taken together, these data suggest apicomplexans are transmitted vertically in these brooding scleractinian coral species while the broadcast spawning scleractinian species examined here acquire these symbionts horizontally. Notably, these transmission patterns are consistent with those of other scleractinian coral symbionts. While this study furthers knowledge regarding these symbionts, numerous questions remain to be addressed, particularly in regard to the specific interaction(s) between these apicomplexans and their hosts. PMID:24260438

Kirk, Nathan L.; Ritson-Williams, Raphael; Coffroth, Mary Alice; Miller, Margaret W.; Fogarty, Nicole D.; Santos, Scott R.

2013-01-01

32

Regulon and the Identification of Additional Sporulation Genes in Bacillus subtilis  

E-print Network

The sE Regulon and the Identification of Additional Sporulation Genes in Bacillus subtilis Patrick of the developmental transcription factor sE in Bacillus subtilis. The sE factor governs gene expression in the larger by Elsevier Science Ltd Keywords: Bacillus subtilis; sporulation; sigma factors; bacterial genomics; protein

Jensen, Shane T.

33

Comprehensive insights into Mycobacterium tuberculosis DevR (DosR) regulon activation switch.  

PubMed

DevR regulon function is believed to be crucial for the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis during dormancy. In this study, we undertook a comprehensive analysis of the DevR regulon. All the regulon promoters were assigned to four classes based on the number of DevR binding sites (Dev boxes). A minimum of two boxes are essential for complete interaction and their tandem arrangement is an architectural hallmark at all promoters. Initial interaction of DevR with the conserved box is essential for its cooperative binding to adjacent sites bearing low to very poor sequence conservation and is the universal mechanism underlying DevR-mediated transcriptional induction. The functional importance of tandem arrangement was established by analyzing promoter variants harboring Dev boxes with altered spacing. Conserved sequence logos were generated from 47 binding sequences which included 24 newly discovered Dev boxes. In each half site of an 18-bp binding motif, G(5) and C(7) are essential for DevR binding. Finally, we show that DevR regulon induction occurs in a temporal manner and genes that are induced early are also usually powerfully induced. The information theory-based approach along with binding and temporal expression studies provide us with comprehensive insights into the complex pattern of DevR regulon activation. PMID:21653552

Chauhan, Santosh; Sharma, Deepak; Singh, Alka; Surolia, Avadhesha; Tyagi, Jaya Sivaswami

2011-09-01

34

Characterization of the YdeO Regulon in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Enterobacteria are able to survive under stressful conditions within animals, such as acidic conditions in the stomach, bile salts during transfer to the intestine and anaerobic conditions within the intestine. The glutamate-dependent (GAD) system plays a major role in acid resistance in Escherichia coli, and expression of the GAD system is controlled by the regulatory cascade consisting of EvgAS > YdeO > GadE. To understand the YdeO regulon in vivo, we used ChIP-chip to interrogate the E. coli genome for candidate YdeO binding sites. All of the seven operons identified by ChIP-chip as being potentially regulated by YdeO were confirmed as being under the direct control of YdeO using RT-qPCR, EMSA, DNaseI-footprinting and reporter assays. Within this YdeO regulon, we identified four stress-response transcription factors, DctR, NhaR, GadE, and GadW and enzymes for anaerobic respiration. Both GadE and GadW are involved in regulation of the GAD system and NhaR is an activator for the sodium/proton antiporter gene. In conjunction with co-transcribed Slp, DctR is involved in protection against metabolic endoproducts under acidic conditions. Taken all together, we suggest that YdeO is a key regulator of E. coli survival in both acidic and anaerobic conditions. PMID:25375160

Yamanaka, Yuki; Oshima, Taku; Ishihama, Akira; Yamamoto, Kaneyoshi

2014-01-01

35

Identification of the CRE-1 Cellulolytic Regulon in Neurospora crassa  

PubMed Central

Background In filamentous ascomycete fungi, the utilization of alternate carbon sources is influenced by the zinc finger transcription factor CreA/CRE-1, which encodes a carbon catabolite repressor protein homologous to Mig1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In Neurospora crassa, deletion of cre-1 results in increased secretion of amylase and ?-galactosidase. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show that a strain carrying a deletion of cre-1 has increased cellulolytic activity and increased expression of cellulolytic genes during growth on crystalline cellulose (Avicel). Constitutive expression of cre-1 complements the phenotype of a N. crassa ?cre-1 strain grown on Avicel, and also results in stronger repression of cellulolytic protein secretion and enzyme activity. We determined the CRE-1 regulon by investigating the secretome and transcriptome of a ?cre-1 strain as compared to wild type when grown on Avicel versus minimal medium. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR of putative target genes showed that CRE-1 binds to only some adjacent 5?-SYGGRG-3? motifs, consistent with previous findings in other fungi, and suggests that unidentified additional regulatory factors affect CRE-1 binding to promoter regions. Characterization of 30 mutants containing deletions in genes whose expression level increased in a ?cre-1 strain under cellulolytic conditions identified novel genes that affect cellulase activity and protein secretion. Conclusions/Significance Our data provide comprehensive information on the CRE-1 regulon in N. crassa and contribute to deciphering the global role of carbon catabolite repression in filamentous ascomycete fungi during plant cell wall deconstruction. PMID:21980519

Sun, Jianping; Glass, N. Louise

2011-01-01

36

Comparative genomics of metabolic capacities of regulons controlled by cis-regulatory RNA motifs in bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background In silico comparative genomics approaches have been efficiently used for functional prediction and reconstruction of metabolic and regulatory networks. Riboswitches are metabolite-sensing structures often found in bacterial mRNA leaders controlling gene expression on transcriptional or translational levels. An increasing number of riboswitches and other cis-regulatory RNAs have been recently classified into numerous RNA families in the Rfam database. High conservation of these RNA motifs provides a unique advantage for their genomic identification and comparative analysis. Results A comparative genomics approach implemented in the RegPredict tool was used for reconstruction and functional annotation of regulons controlled by RNAs from 43 Rfam families in diverse taxonomic groups of Bacteria. The inferred regulons include ~5200 cis-regulatory RNAs and more than 12000 target genes in 255 microbial genomes. All predicted RNA-regulated genes were classified into specific and overall functional categories. Analysis of taxonomic distribution of these categories allowed us to establish major functional preferences for each analyzed cis-regulatory RNA motif family. Overall, most RNA motif regulons showed predictable functional content in accordance with their experimentally established effector ligands. Our results suggest that some RNA motifs (including thiamin pyrophosphate and cobalamin riboswitches that control the cofactor metabolism) are widespread and likely originated from the last common ancestor of all bacteria. However, many more analyzed RNA motifs are restricted to a narrow taxonomic group of bacteria and likely represent more recent evolutionary innovations. Conclusions The reconstructed regulatory networks for major known RNA motifs substantially expand the existing knowledge of transcriptional regulation in bacteria. The inferred regulons can be used for genetic experiments, functional annotations of genes, metabolic reconstruction and evolutionary analysis. The obtained genome-wide collection of reference RNA motif regulons is available in the RegPrecise database (http://regprecise.lbl.gov/). PMID:24060102

2013-01-01

37

Microarray analysis of the Ler regulon in enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli strains.  

PubMed

The type III protein secretion system is an important pathogenicity factor of enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli pathotypes. The genes encoding this apparatus are located on a pathogenicity island (the locus of enterocyte effacement) and are transcriptionally activated by the master regulator Ler. In each pathotype Ler is also known to regulate genes located elsewhere on the chromosome, but the full extent of the Ler regulon is unclear, especially for enteropathogenic E. coli. The Ler regulon was defined for two strains of E. coli: E2348/69 (enteropathogenic) and EDL933 (enterohaemorrhagic) in mid and late log phases of growth by DNA microarray analysis of the transcriptomes of wild-type and ler mutant versions of each strain. In both strains the Ler regulon is focused on the locus of enterocyte effacement - all major transcriptional units of which are activated by Ler, with the sole exception of the LEE1 operon during mid-log phase growth in E2348/69. However, the Ler regulon does extend more widely and also includes unlinked pathogenicity genes: in E2348/69 more than 50 genes outside of this locus were regulated, including a number of known or potential pathogenicity determinants; in EDL933 only 4 extra-LEE genes, again including known pathogenicity factors, were activated. In E2348/69, where the Ler regulon is clearly growth phase dependent, a number of genes including the plasmid-encoded regulator operon perABC, were found to be negatively regulated by Ler. Negative regulation by Ler of PerC, itself a positive regulator of the ler promoter, suggests a negative feedback loop involving these proteins. PMID:24454682

Bingle, Lewis E H; Constantinidou, Chrystala; Shaw, Robert K; Islam, Md Shahidul; Patel, Mala; Snyder, Lori A S; Lee, David J; Penn, Charles W; Busby, Stephen J W; Pallen, Mark J

2014-01-01

38

Targeting Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism in Human Apicomplexan Parasites  

PubMed Central

Synthesis de novo, acquisition by salvage and interconversion of purines and pyrimidines represent the fundamental requirements for their eventual assembly into nucleic acids as nucleotides and the deployment of their derivatives in other biochemical pathways. A small number of drugs targeted to nucleotide metabolism, by virtue of their effect on folate biosynthesis and recycling, have been successfully used against apicomplexan parasites such as Plasmodium and Toxoplasma for many years, although resistance is now a major problem in the prevention and treatment of malaria. Many targets not involving folate metabolism have also been explored at the experimental level. However, the unravelling of the genome sequences of these eukaryotic unicellular organisms, together with increasingly sophisticated molecular analyses, opens up possibilities of introducing new drugs that could interfere with these processes. This review examines the status of established drugs of this type and the potential for further exploiting the vulnerability of apicomplexan human pathogens to inhibition of this key area of metabolism. PMID:17266529

Hyde, John E.

2009-01-01

39

Prevalence of encysted apicomplexans in muscles of raptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

An acid–pepsin digestion technique was used to examine portions of breast muscle and heart from raptors for encysted protozoans. Apicomplexan zoites were present in 52 (45.6%) of the 114 samples examined: 11 of 12 (91.7%) red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus), 20 of 34 (58.8%) red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), two of seven (28.6%) Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperi), three of four (75%) sharp-shinned

David S Lindsay; Byron L Blagburn

1999-01-01

40

In silico analysis of the cyclophilin repertoire of apicomplexan parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cyclophilins (Cyps) are peptidyl cis\\/trans isomerases implicated in diverse processes such as protein folding, signal transduction, and RNA processing. They are also candidate drug targets, in particular for the immunosuppressant cyclosporine A. In addition, cyclosporine is known to exhibit anti-parasitic effects on a wide range of organisms including several apicomplexa. In order to obtain new non-immunosuppressive drugs targeting apicomplexan

Jürgen Krücken; Gisela Greif; Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna

2009-01-01

41

The shikimate pathway in apicomplexan parasites: implications for drug development.  

PubMed

The shikimate pathway provides basic building blocks for a variety of aromatic compounds including aromatic amino acids, ubiquinone, folate and compounds of the secondary metabolism. The seven enzymatic reactions of the pathway lead to the generation of chorismate from simple products of the carbohydrate metabolism, namely erythrose 4-phosphate and phosphoenolpyruvate. The shikimate pathway is present in plants, bacteria, fungi and chromalveolata to which the apicomplexan parasites belong. As it is absent from humans, the enzymes of the shikimate pathway are attractive targets for antimicrobial drug development. Inhibition of the pathway is effective in controlling growth of certain apicomplexan parasites including the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Yet, despite being an attractive drug target, our knowledge of the shikimate pathway in this parasite group is lacking. The current review summarizes the available information and discusses aspects of the genetic organization of the shikimate pathway in apicomplexan parasites. Compounds acting on shikimate pathway enzymes will be presented and discussed in light of their impact for antiapicomplexan/antiplasmodial drug development. PMID:23747859

Derrer, Bianca; Macheroux, Peter; Kappes, Barbara

2013-01-01

42

A Novel Candidate Vaccine for Cytauxzoonosis Inferred from Comparative Apicomplexan Genomics  

PubMed Central

Cytauxzoonosis is an emerging infectious disease of domestic cats (Felis catus) caused by the apicomplexan protozoan parasite Cytauxzoon felis. The growing epidemic, with its high morbidity and mortality points to the need for a protective vaccine against cytauxzoonosis. Unfortunately, the causative agent has yet to be cultured continuously in vitro, rendering traditional vaccine development approaches beyond reach. Here we report the use of comparative genomics to computationally and experimentally interpret the C. felis genome to identify a novel candidate vaccine antigen for cytauxzoonosis. As a starting point we sequenced, assembled, and annotated the C. felis genome and the proteins it encodes. Whole genome alignment revealed considerable conserved synteny with other apicomplexans. In particular, alignments with the bovine parasite Theileria parva revealed that a C. felis gene, cf76, is syntenic to p67 (the leading vaccine candidate for bovine theileriosis), despite a lack of significant sequence similarity. Recombinant subdomains of cf76 were challenged with survivor-cat antiserum and found to be highly seroreactive. Comparison of eleven geographically diverse samples from the south-central and southeastern USA demonstrated 91–100% amino acid sequence identity across cf76, including a high level of conservation in an immunogenic 226 amino acid (24 kDa) carboxyl terminal domain. Using in situ hybridization, transcription of cf76 was documented in the schizogenous stage of parasite replication, the life stage that is believed to be the most important for development of a protective immune response. Collectively, these data point to identification of the first potential vaccine candidate antigen for cytauxzoonosis. Further, our bioinformatic approach emphasizes the use of comparative genomics as an accelerated path to developing vaccines against experimentally intractable pathogens. PMID:23977000

Tarigo, Jaime L.; Scholl, Elizabeth H.; Bird, David McK.; Brown, Corrie C.; Cohn, Leah A.; Dean, Gregg A.; Levy, Michael G.; Doolan, Denise L.; Trieu, Angela; Nordone, Shila K.; Felgner, Philip L.; Vigil, Adam; Birkenheuer, Adam J.

2013-01-01

43

iRegulon: From a Gene List to a Gene Regulatory Network Using Large Motif and Track Collections  

PubMed Central

Identifying master regulators of biological processes and mapping their downstream gene networks are key challenges in systems biology. We developed a computational method, called iRegulon, to reverse-engineer the transcriptional regulatory network underlying a co-expressed gene set using cis-regulatory sequence analysis. iRegulon implements a genome-wide ranking-and-recovery approach to detect enriched transcription factor motifs and their optimal sets of direct targets. We increase the accuracy of network inference by using very large motif collections of up to ten thousand position weight matrices collected from various species, and linking these to candidate human TFs via a motif2TF procedure. We validate iRegulon on gene sets derived from ENCODE ChIP-seq data with increasing levels of noise, and we compare iRegulon with existing motif discovery methods. Next, we use iRegulon on more challenging types of gene lists, including microRNA target sets, protein-protein interaction networks, and genetic perturbation data. In particular, we over-activate p53 in breast cancer cells, followed by RNA-seq and ChIP-seq, and could identify an extensive up-regulated network controlled directly by p53. Similarly we map a repressive network with no indication of direct p53 regulation but rather an indirect effect via E2F and NFY. Finally, we generalize our computational framework to include regulatory tracks such as ChIP-seq data and show how motif and track discovery can be combined to map functional regulatory interactions among co-expressed genes. iRegulon is available as a Cytoscape plugin from http://iregulon.aertslab.org. PMID:25058159

Imrichova, Hana; Van de Sande, Bram; Standaert, Laura; Christiaens, Valerie; Hulselmans, Gert; Herten, Koen; Naval Sanchez, Marina; Potier, Delphine; Svetlichnyy, Dmitry; Kalender Atak, Zeynep; Fiers, Mark; Marine, Jean-Christophe; Aerts, Stein

2014-01-01

44

Dual Transcriptional Regulation of the Escherichia coli Phosphate-Starvation-Inducible psiE Gene of the Phosphate Regulon by PhoB and the Cyclic AMP (cAMP)cAMP Receptor Protein Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have shown that the Escherichia coli phosphate-starvation-inducible psiE gene is regulated by both phosphate and the carbon source by using both lacZ and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene (cat) fusions. Yet, under all conditions tested, a single transcriptional start site lying 7 bp downstream of a predicted 210 region was revealed by primer extension analysis. DNase I footprinting showed that the

SOO-KI KIM; SIGENOBU KIMURA; HIDEO SHINAGAWA; ATSUO NAKATA; KI-SUNG LEE; BARRY L. WANNER; KOZO MAKINO

2000-01-01

45

The Bacillus subtilis ?M Regulon and its Contribution to Cell Envelope Stress Responses  

PubMed Central

The Bacillus subtilis extracytoplasmic function (ECF) ?M factor is activated by cell envelope stress elicited by antibiotics, and by acid, heat, ethanol, and superoxide stresses. Here, we have used several complementary approaches to identify genes controlled by ?M. In many cases, expression is only partially dependent on ?M due to both overlapping promoter recognition with other ECF ? factors and the presence of additional promoter elements. Genes regulated by ?M have a characteristic pattern of induction in response to cell envelope-acting antibiotics as evidenced by hierarchical clustering analysis. ?M also contributes to the expression of the Spx transcription factor and thereby indirectly regulates genes of the Spx regulon. Cell envelope stress responses also include regulons controlled by ?W, ?B, and several two-component regulatory systems (e.g. LiaRS, YycFG, BceRS). Activation of the ?M regulon increases expression of proteins functioning in transcriptional control, cell wall synthesis and shape determination, cell division, DNA damage monitoring, recombinational repair, and detoxification. PMID:18179421

Eiamphungporn, Warawan; Helmann, John D.

2011-01-01

46

The BaeSR regulon is involved in defense against zinc toxicity in E. coli.  

PubMed

Intracellular zinc homeostasis is regulated by an extensive network of transporters, ligands and transcription factors. The zinc detoxification functions of three transporters and a periplasmic protein regulated by the BaeSR two-component system were explored in this work by evaluating the effect of single gene knockouts in the BaeSR regulon on the cell growth rate, free zinc, total zinc and total copper after zinc shock. Two exporters, MdtABC and MdtD, and the periplasmic protein, Spy, are involved in zinc detoxification based on the growth defects at high cell density and increases in free (>1000-fold) and total zinc/copper (>2-fold) that were observed in the single knockout strains upon exposure to zinc. These proteins complement the ATP-driven zinc export mediated by ZntA in E. coli to limit zinc toxicity. These results highlight the functions of the BaeSR regulon in metal homeostasis. PMID:23446818

Wang, Da; Fierke, Carol A

2013-04-01

47

Evolution of the Mycobacterial SigK Regulon?  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have established that members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex exhibit variable production of the antigenic proteins MPT70 and MPT83 due to mutations in their positive regulator, SigK (sigma factor K), and their negative regulator, RskA (regulator of sigma K). To further understand this highly specific SigK-controlled regulon, we have undertaken evolutionary studies to determine the presence of homologues of SigK-regulated genes in other organisms and to predict its transcriptional network. Evolutionary analysis indicates that the positive and negative regulators are conserved across many organisms, but that the genes under their control are variable. Moreover, the addition, loss, and movement of various genes in the mpt70/83 locus suggest that these genes are unlikely to be cotranscribed. To test predictions from sequence analysis, we have used promoter luciferase fusions and Northern blots to show that the majority of genes in this locus have their own promoters, of which a subset are SigK regulated (mpt83, dipZ, mpt70, and Rv0449c). Next, we have shown that the intracellular inducibility of mpt70 and mpt83 is a conserved property, shared between M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium marinum. In addition, we have shown that SigK and RskA from an environmental mycobacterium isolate (M. gilvum PYR-GCK) complemented the regulatory activity of M. tuberculosis ?sigK rskA. Together, our data indicate that the regulatory system SigK/RskA is conserved across the Mycobacterium genus, whereas the regulon under its control varies considerably across species. PMID:18203833

Veyrier, Frederic; Said-Salim, Battouli; Behr, Marcel A.

2008-01-01

48

Comparison of Protective Immune Responses to Apicomplexan Parasites  

PubMed Central

Members of the phylum Apicomplexa, which includes the species Plasmodium, Eimeria, Toxoplasma, and Babesia amongst others, are the most successful intracellular pathogens known to humankind. The widespread acquisition of antimicrobial resistance to most drugs used to date has sparked a great deal of research and commercial interest in the development of vaccines as alternative control strategies. A few antigens from the asexual and sexual stages of apicomplexan development have been identified and their genes characterised; however, the fine cellular and molecular details of the effector mechanisms crucial for parasite inhibition and stimulation of protective immunity are still not entirely understood. This paper provides an overview of what is currently known about the protective immune response against the various types of apicomplexan parasites and focuses mainly on the similarities of these pathogens and their host interaction. Finally, the evolutionary relationships of these parasites and their hosts, as well as the modulation of immune functions that are critical in determining the outcome of the infection by these pathogenic organisms, are discussed. PMID:21876783

Frolich, Sonja; Entzeroth, Rolf; Wallach, Michael

2012-01-01

49

Prevalence of encysted apicomplexans in muscles of raptors.  

PubMed

An acid-pepsin digestion technique was used to examine portions of breast muscle and heart from raptors for encysted protozoans. Apicomplexan zoites were present in 52 (45.6%) of the 114 samples examined: 11 of 12 (91.7%) red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus), 20 of 34 (58.8%) red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), two of seven (28.6%) Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperi), three of four (75%) sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus), one (100%) Mississippi kites (Ictinia misisippiensis), one of two (50%) American kestrels (Falco sparverius), one bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), one of two (50%) golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), one of three (33%) turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), two of three (66.7%) black vultures (Coragyps atratus), three of six (50%) great-horned owls (Bubo virginianus), five of 15 (33.3%) barred owls (Strix varia), and one of 12 (8.3%) screech owls (Asio otus). Encysted protozoans were not observed in digests of tissues from three broad-winged hawks (Buteo platypterus), four ospreys (Pandion haliaetus), and five barn owls (Tyto alba). Apicomplexan cysts resembling Sarcocystis species were observed in tissue sections of muscles from 28 (37.8%) of 74 raptors. PMID:9950339

Lindsay, D S; Blagburn, B L

1999-01-28

50

In silico analysis of the cyclophilin repertoire of apicomplexan parasites  

PubMed Central

Background Cyclophilins (Cyps) are peptidyl cis/trans isomerases implicated in diverse processes such as protein folding, signal transduction, and RNA processing. They are also candidate drug targets, in particular for the immunosuppressant cyclosporine A. In addition, cyclosporine is known to exhibit anti-parasitic effects on a wide range of organisms including several apicomplexa. In order to obtain new non-immunosuppressive drugs targeting apicomplexan cyclophilins, a profound knowledge of the cyclophilin repertoire of this phylum would be necessary. Results BLAST and maximum likelihood analyses identified 16 different cyclophilin subfamilies within the genomes of Cryptosporidium hominis, Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium falciparum, Theileria annulata, Theileria parva, and Babesia bovis. In addition to good statistical support from the phylogenetic analysis, these subfamilies are also confirmed by comparison of cyclophilin domain architecture. Within an individual genome, the number of different Cyp genes that could be deduced varies between 7–9 for Cryptosporidia and 14 for T. gondii. Many of the putative apicomplexan cyclophilins are predicted to be nuclear proteins, most of them presumably involved in RNA processing. Conclusion The genomes of apicomplexa harbor a cyclophilin repertoire that is at least as complex as that of most fungi. The identification of Cyp subfamilies that are specific for lower eukaryotes, apicomplexa, or even the genus Plasmodium is of particular interest since these subfamilies are not present in host cells and might therefore represent attractive drug targets. PMID:19555495

Krucken, Jurgen; Greif, Gisela; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

2009-01-01

51

Evolution of a Bacterial Regulon Controlling Virulence Homeostasis  

E-print Network

Evolution of a Bacterial Regulon Controlling Virulence and Mg2+ Homeostasis J. Christian Perez1,2¤a governs virulence and Mg2+ homeostasis in several bacterial species. We establish that the ancestral Pho Regulon Controlling Virulence and Mg2+ Homeostasis. PLoS Genet 5(3): e1000428. doi:10.1371/journal

Granada, Universidad de

52

Members of the Sinorhizobium meliloti ChvI regulon identified by a DNA binding screen  

PubMed Central

Background The Sinorhizobium meliloti ExoS/ChvI two component regulatory system is required for N2-fixing symbiosis and exopolysaccharide synthesis. Orthologous systems are present in other Alphaproteobacteria, and in many instances have been shown to be necessary for normal interactions with corresponding eukaryotic hosts. Only a few transcriptional regulation targets have been determined, and as a result there is limited understanding of the mechanisms that are controlled by the system. Results In an attempt to better define the members of the regulon, we have applied a simple in vitro electrophoretic screen for DNA fragments that are bound by the ChvI response regulator protein. Several putative transcriptional targets were identified and three were further examined by reporter gene fusion experiments for transcriptional regulation. Two were confirmed to be repressed by ChvI, while one was activated by ChvI. Conclusions Our results suggest a role for ChvI as both a direct activator and repressor of transcription. The identities and functions of many of these genes suggest explanations for some aspects of the pleiotropic phenotype of exoS and chvI mutants. This work paves the way for in depth characterization of the ExoS/ChvI regulon and its potential role in directing bacteria-host relationships. PMID:23758731

2013-01-01

53

Haemophilus influenzae OxyR: Characterization of Its Regulation, Regulon and Role in Fitness  

PubMed Central

To prevent damage by reactive oxygen species, many bacteria have evolved rapid detection and response systems, including the OxyR regulon. The OxyR system detects reactive oxygen and coordinates the expression of numerous defensive antioxidants. In many bacterial species the coordinated OxyR-regulated response is crucial for in vivo survival. Regulation of the OxyR regulon of Haemophilus influenzae was examined in vitro, and significant variation in the regulated genes of the OxyR regulon among strains of H. influenzae was observed. Quantitative PCR studies demonstrated a role for the OxyR-regulated peroxiredoxin/glutaredoxin as a mediator of the OxyR response, and also indicated OxyR self-regulation through a negative feedback loop. Analysis of transcript levels in H. influenzae samples derived from an animal model of otitis media demonstrated that the members of the OxyR regulon were actively upregulated within the chinchilla middle ear. H. influenzae mutants lacking the oxyR gene exhibited increased sensitivity to challenge with various peroxides. The impact of mutations in oxyR was assessed in various animal models of H. influenzae disease. In paired comparisons with the corresponding wild-type strains, the oxyR mutants were unaffected in both the chinchilla model of otitis media and an infant model of bacteremia. However, in weanling rats the oxyR mutant was significantly impaired compared to the wild-type strain. In contrast, in all three animal models when infected with a mixture of equal numbers of both wild-type and mutant strains the mutant strain was significantly out competed by the wild-type strain. These findings clearly establish a crucial role for OxyR in bacterial fitness. PMID:23226321

Whitby, Paul W.; Morton, Daniel J.; VanWagoner, Timothy M.; Seale, Thomas W.; Cole, Brett K.; Mussa, Huda J.; McGhee, Phillip A.; Bauer, Chee Yoon S.; Springer, Jennifer M.; Stull, Terrence L.

2012-01-01

54

Genomic Reconstruction of the Transcriptional Regulatory Network in Bacillus subtilis  

PubMed Central

The adaptation of microorganisms to their environment is controlled by complex transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs), which are still only partially understood even for model species. Genome scale annotation of regulatory features of genes and TRN reconstruction are challenging tasks of microbial genomics. We used the knowledge-driven comparative-genomics approach implemented in the RegPredict Web server to infer TRN in the model Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis and 10 related Bacillales species. For transcription factor (TF) regulons, we combined the available information from the DBTBS database and the literature with bioinformatics tools, allowing inference of TF binding sites (TFBSs), comparative analysis of the genomic context of predicted TFBSs, functional assignment of target genes, and effector prediction. For RNA regulons, we used known RNA regulatory motifs collected in the Rfam database to scan genomes and analyze the genomic context of new RNA sites. The inferred TRN in B. subtilis comprises regulons for 129 TFs and 24 regulatory RNA families. First, we analyzed 66 TF regulons with previously known TFBSs in B. subtilis and projected them to other Bacillales genomes, resulting in refinement of TFBS motifs and identification of novel regulon members. Second, we inferred motifs and described regulons for 28 experimentally studied TFs with previously unknown TFBSs. Third, we discovered novel motifs and reconstructed regulons for 36 previously uncharacterized TFs. The inferred collection of regulons is available in the RegPrecise database (http://regprecise.lbl.gov/) and can be used in genetic experiments, metabolic modeling, and evolutionary analysis. PMID:23504016

Leyn, Semen A.; Kazanov, Marat D.; Sernova, Natalia V.; Ermakova, Ekaterina O.; Novichkov, Pavel S.

2013-01-01

55

Genome Sequence of Babesia bovis and Comparative Analysis of Apicomplexan Hemoprotozoa  

PubMed Central

Babesia bovis is an apicomplexan tick-transmitted pathogen of cattle imposing a global risk and severe constraints to livestock health and economic development. The complete genome sequence was undertaken to facilitate vaccine antigen discovery, and to allow for comparative analysis with the related apicomplexan hemoprotozoa Theileria parva and Plasmodium falciparum. At 8.2 Mbp, the B. bovis genome is similar in size to that of Theileria spp. Structural features of the B. bovis and T. parva genomes are remarkably similar, and extensive synteny is present despite several chromosomal rearrangements. In contrast, B. bovis and P. falciparum, which have similar clinical and pathological features, have major differences in genome size, chromosome number, and gene complement. Chromosomal synteny with P. falciparum is limited to microregions. The B. bovis genome sequence has allowed wide scale analyses of the polymorphic variant erythrocyte surface antigen protein (ves1 gene) family that, similar to the P. falciparum var genes, is postulated to play a role in cytoadhesion, sequestration, and immune evasion. The ?150 ves1 genes are found in clusters that are distributed throughout each chromosome, with an increased concentration adjacent to a physical gap on chromosome 1 that contains multiple ves1-like sequences. ves1 clusters are frequently linked to a novel family of variant genes termed smorfs that may themselves contribute to immune evasion, may play a role in variant erythrocyte surface antigen protein biology, or both. Initial expression analysis of ves1 and smorf genes indicates coincident transcription of multiple variants. B. bovis displays a limited metabolic potential, with numerous missing pathways, including two pathways previously described for the P. falciparum apicoplast. This reduced metabolic potential is reflected in the B. bovis apicoplast, which appears to have fewer nuclear genes targeted to it than other apicoplast containing organisms. Finally, comparative analyses have identified several novel vaccine candidates including a positional homolog of p67 and SPAG-1, Theileria sporozoite antigens targeted for vaccine development. The genome sequence provides a greater understanding of B. bovis metabolism and potential avenues for drug therapies and vaccine development. PMID:17953480

Brayton, Kelly A; Lau, Audrey O. T; Herndon, David R; Hannick, Linda; Kappmeyer, Lowell S; Berens, Shawn J; Bidwell, Shelby L; Brown, Wendy C; Crabtree, Jonathan; Fadrosh, Doug; Feldblum, Tamara; Forberger, Heather A; Haas, Brian J; Howell, Jeanne M; Khouri, Hoda; Koo, Hean; Mann, David J; Norimine, Junzo; Paulsen, Ian T; Radune, Diana; Ren, Qinghu; Smith, Roger K; Suarez, Carlos E; White, Owen; Wortman, Jennifer R; Knowles, Donald P; McElwain, Terry F; Nene, Vishvanath M

2007-01-01

56

The GroE chaperonin machine is a major modulator of the CIRCE heat shock regulon of Bacillus subtilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Class I heat-inducible genes in Bacillus subtilis consist of the heptacistronic dnaK and the bicistronic groE operon and form the CIRCE regulon. Both operons are negatively regulated at the level of transcription by the HrcA repressor interacting with its operator, the CIRCE element. Here, we demonstrate that the DnaK chaperone machine is not involved in the regulation of HrcA and

Axel Mogk; Georg Homuth; Christian Scholz; Lana Kim; Franz X. Schmid; Wolfgang Schumann

1997-01-01

57

A small RNA serving both the Hfq and CsrA regulons  

PubMed Central

The abundant RNA-binding proteins CsrA and Hfq each impact bacterial physiology by working in conjunction with small RNAs to control large post-transcriptional regulons. The small RNAs involved were considered mechanistically distinct, regulating mRNAs either directly through Hfq-mediated base-pairing or indirectly by sequestering the global translational repressor CsrA. In this issue of Genes & Development, Jřrgensen and colleagues (pp. 1132–1145) blur these distinctions with a dual-mechanism small RNA that acts through both Hfq and CsrA to regulate the formation of bacterial biofilms. PMID:23699406

Holmqvist, Erik; Vogel, Jorg

2013-01-01

58

ApicoAlign: an alignment and sequence search tool for apicomplexan proteins  

PubMed Central

Background Over the recent years, a number of genomes have been successfully sequenced and this was followed by genome annotation projects to help understand the biological capabilities of newly sequenced genomes. To improve the annotation of Plasmodium falciparum proteins, we earlier developed parasite specific matrices (PfSSM) and demonstrated their (Smat80 and PfFSmat60) better performance over standard matrices (BLOSUM and PAM). Here we extend that study to nine apicomplexan species other than P. falciparum and develop a web application ApicoAlign for improving the annotation of apicomplexan proteins. Results The SMAT80 and PfFSmat60 matrices perform better for apicomplexan proteins compared to BLOSUM in detecting the orthologs and improving the alignment of these proteins with their potential orthologs respectively. Database searches against non-redundant (nr) database have shown that SMAT80 gives superior performance compared to BLOSUM series in terms of E-values, bit scores, percent identity, alignment length and mismatches for most of the apicomplexan proteins studied here. Using these matrices, we were able to find orthologs for rhomboid proteases of P. berghei, P. falciparum &P. vivax and large subunit of U2 snRNP auxiliary factor of Cryptosporidium parvum in Arabidopsis thaliana. We also show improved pairwise alignments of proteins from Apicomplexa viz. Cryptosporidium parvum and P. falciparum with their orthologs from other species using the PfFSmat60 matrix. Conclusions The SMAT80 and PfFSmat60 substitution matrices perform better for apicomplexan proteins compared to BLOSUM series. Since they can be helpful in improving the annotation of apicomplexan genomes and their functional characterization, we have developed a web server ApicoAlign for finding orthologs and aligning apicomplexan proteins. PMID:22369294

2011-01-01

59

Eimeripain, a Cathepsin B-Like Cysteine Protease, Expressed throughout Sporulation of the Apicomplexan Parasite Eimeria tenella  

PubMed Central

The invasion and replication of Eimeria tenella in the chicken intestine is responsible for avian coccidiosis, a disease that has major economic impacts on poultry industries worldwide. E. tenella is transmitted to naďve animals via shed unsporulated oocysts that need contact with air and humidity to form the infectious sporulated oocysts, which contain the first invasive form of the parasite, the sporozoite. Cysteine proteases (CPs) are major virulence factors expressed by protozoa. In this study, we show that E. tenella expresses five transcriptionally regulated genes encoding one cathepsin L, one cathepsin B and three cathepsin Cs. Biot-LC-LVG-CHN2, a cystatin derived probe, tagged eight polypeptides in unsporulated oocysts but only one in sporulated oocysts. CP-dependant activities were found against the fluorescent substrates, Z-FR-AMC and Z-LR-AMC, throughout the sporulation process. These activities corresponded to a cathepsin B-like enzyme since they were inhibited by CA-074, a specific cathepsin B inhibitor. A 3D model of the catalytic domain of the cathepsin B-like protease, based on its sequence homology with human cathepsin B, further confirmed its classification as a papain-like protease with similar characteristics to toxopain-1 from the related apicomplexan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii; we have, therefore, named the E. tenella cathepsin B, eimeripain. Following stable transfection of E. tenella sporozoites with a plasmid allowing the expression of eimeripain fused to the fluorescent protein mCherry, we demonstrated that eimeripain is detected throughout sporulation and has a punctate distribution in the bodies of extra- and intracellular parasites. Furthermore, CA-074 Me, the membrane-permeable derivative of CA-074, impairs invasion of epithelial MDBK cells by E. tenella sporozoites. This study represents the first characterization of CPs expressed by a parasite from the Eimeria genus. Moreover, it emphasizes the role of CPs in transmission and dissemination of exogenous stages of apicomplexan parasites. PMID:22457711

Rieux, Anais; Gras, Simon; Lecaille, Fabien; Niepceron, Alisson; Katrib, Marilyn; Smith, Nicholas C.; Lalmanach, Gilles; Brossier, Fabien

2012-01-01

60

Receptor for Retrograde Transport in the Apicomplexan Parasite Toxoplasma gondii  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii and its apicomplexan relatives (such as Plasmodium falciparum, which causes malaria) are obligate intracellular parasites that rely on sequential protein release from specialized secretory organelles for invasion and multiplication within host cells. Because of the importance of these unusual membrane trafficking pathways for drug development and comparative cell biology, characterizing them is essential. In particular, it is unclear what role retrieval mechanisms play in parasite membrane trafficking or where they operate. Previously, we showed that T. gondii’s beta-COP (Tg?COP; a subunit of coatomer protein complex I, COPI) and retrieval reporters localize exclusively to the zone between the parasite endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus. This suggested the existence of an HDEL receptor in T. gondii. We have now identified, cloned, and sequenced this receptor, TgERD2. TgERD2 localizes in a Golgi or ER pattern suggestive of the HDEL retrieval reporter (K. M. Hager, B. Striepen, L. G. Tilney, and D. S. Roos, J. Cell Sci. 112:2631-2638, 1999). A functional assay reveals that TgERD2 is able to complement the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ERD2 null mutant. Retrieval studies reveal that stable expression of a fluorescent exogenous retrieval ligand results in a dispersal of ?COP signal throughout the cytoplasm and, surprisingly, results in ?COP staining of the vacuolar space of the parasite. In contrast, stable expression of TgERD2GFP does not appear to disturb ?COP staining. In addition to TgERD2, Toxoplasma contains two more divergent ERD2 relatives. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that these proteins belong to a previously unrecognized ERD2 subfamily common to plants and alveolate organisms and as such could represent mediators of parasite-specific retrieval functions. No evidence of class 2 ERD2 proteins was found in metazoan organisms or fungi. PMID:15701805

Pfluger, Stacy L.; Goodson, Holly V.; Moran, Jennifer M.; Ruggiero, Christine J.; Ye, Xin; Emmons, Krista M.; Hager, Kristin M.

2005-01-01

61

RegulonDB v8.0: omics data sets, evolutionary conservation, regulatory phrases, cross-validated gold standards and more.  

PubMed

This article summarizes our progress with RegulonDB (http://regulondb.ccg.unam.mx/) during the past 2 years. We have kept up-to-date the knowledge from the published literature regarding transcriptional regulation in Escherichia coli K-12. We have maintained and expanded our curation efforts to improve the breadth and quality of the encoded experimental knowledge, and we have implemented criteria for the quality of our computational predictions. Regulatory phrases now provide high-level descriptions of regulatory regions. We expanded the assignment of quality to various sources of evidence, particularly for knowledge generated through high-throughput (HT) technology. Based on our analysis of most relevant methods, we defined rules for determining the quality of evidence when multiple independent sources support an entry. With this latest release of RegulonDB, we present a new highly reliable larger collection of transcription start sites, a result of our experimental HT genome-wide efforts. These improvements, together with several novel enhancements (the tracks display, uploading format and curational guidelines), address the challenges of incorporating HT-generated knowledge into RegulonDB. Information on the evolutionary conservation of regulatory elements is also available now. Altogether, RegulonDB version 8.0 is a much better home for integrating knowledge on gene regulation from the sources of information currently available. PMID:23203884

Salgado, Heladia; Peralta-Gil, Martin; Gama-Castro, Socorro; Santos-Zavaleta, Alberto; Muńiz-Rascado, Luis; García-Sotelo, Jair S; Weiss, Verena; Solano-Lira, Hilda; Martínez-Flores, Irma; Medina-Rivera, Alejandra; Salgado-Osorio, Gerardo; Alquicira-Hernández, Shirley; Alquicira-Hernández, Kevin; López-Fuentes, Alejandra; Porrón-Sotelo, Liliana; Huerta, Araceli M; Bonavides-Martínez, César; Balderas-Martínez, Yalbi I; Pannier, Lucia; Olvera, Maricela; Labastida, Aurora; Jiménez-Jacinto, Verónica; Vega-Alvarado, Leticia; Del Moral-Chávez, Victor; Hernández-Alvarez, Alfredo; Morett, Enrique; Collado-Vides, Julio

2013-01-01

62

RegulonDB v8.0: omics data sets, evolutionary conservation, regulatory phrases, cross-validated gold standards and more  

PubMed Central

This article summarizes our progress with RegulonDB (http://regulondb.ccg.unam.mx/) during the past 2 years. We have kept up-to-date the knowledge from the published literature regarding transcriptional regulation in Escherichia coli K-12. We have maintained and expanded our curation efforts to improve the breadth and quality of the encoded experimental knowledge, and we have implemented criteria for the quality of our computational predictions. Regulatory phrases now provide high-level descriptions of regulatory regions. We expanded the assignment of quality to various sources of evidence, particularly for knowledge generated through high-throughput (HT) technology. Based on our analysis of most relevant methods, we defined rules for determining the quality of evidence when multiple independent sources support an entry. With this latest release of RegulonDB, we present a new highly reliable larger collection of transcription start sites, a result of our experimental HT genome-wide efforts. These improvements, together with several novel enhancements (the tracks display, uploading format and curational guidelines), address the challenges of incorporating HT-generated knowledge into RegulonDB. Information on the evolutionary conservation of regulatory elements is also available now. Altogether, RegulonDB version 8.0 is a much better home for integrating knowledge on gene regulation from the sources of information currently available. PMID:23203884

Salgado, Heladia; Peralta-Gil, Martin; Gama-Castro, Socorro; Santos-Zavaleta, Alberto; Muniz-Rascado, Luis; Garcia-Sotelo, Jair S.; Weiss, Verena; Solano-Lira, Hilda; Martinez-Flores, Irma; Medina-Rivera, Alejandra; Salgado-Osorio, Gerardo; Alquicira-Hernandez, Shirley; Alquicira-Hernandez, Kevin; Lopez-Fuentes, Alejandra; Porron-Sotelo, Liliana; Huerta, Araceli M.; Bonavides-Martinez, Cesar; Balderas-Martinez, Yalbi I.; Pannier, Lucia; Olvera, Maricela; Labastida, Aurora; Jimenez-Jacinto, Veronica; Vega-Alvarado, Leticia; del Moral-Chavez, Victor; Hernandez-Alvarez, Alfredo; Morett, Enrique; Collado-Vides, Julio

2013-01-01

63

Structural and Mechanistic Basis of Zinc Regulation Across the E. coli Zur Regulon  

PubMed Central

Commensal microbes, whether they are beneficial or pathogenic, are sensitive to host processes that starve or swamp the prokaryote with large fluctuations in local zinc concentration. To understand how microorganisms coordinate a dynamic response to changes in zinc availability at the molecular level, we evaluated the molecular mechanism of the zinc-sensing zinc uptake regulator (Zur) protein at each of the known Zur-regulated genes in Escherichia coli. We solved the structure of zinc-loaded Zur bound to the PznuABC promoter and show that this metalloregulatory protein represses gene expression by a highly cooperative binding of two adjacent dimers to essentially encircle the core element of each of the Zur-regulated promoters. Cooperativity in these protein-DNA interactions requires a pair of asymmetric salt bridges between Arg52 and Asp49? that connect otherwise independent dimers. Analysis of the protein-DNA interface led to the discovery of a new member of the Zur-regulon: pliG. We demonstrate this gene is directly regulated by Zur in a zinc responsive manner. The pliG promoter forms stable complexes with either one or two Zur dimers with significantly less protein-DNA cooperativity than observed at other Zur regulon promoters. Comparison of the in vitro Zur-DNA binding affinity at each of four Zur-regulon promoters reveals ca. 10,000-fold variation Zur-DNA binding constants. The degree of Zur repression observed in vivo by comparison of transcript copy number in wild-type and ?zur strains parallels this trend spanning a 100-fold difference. We conclude that the number of ferric uptake regulator (Fur)-family dimers that bind within any given promoter varies significantly and that the thermodynamic profile of the Zur-DNA interactions directly correlates with the physiological response at different promoters. PMID:25369000

Gilston, Benjamin A.; Wang, Suning; Marcus, Mason D.; Canalizo-Hernández, Mónica A.; Swindell, Elden P.; Xue, Yi; Mondragón, Alfonso; O'Halloran, Thomas V.

2014-01-01

64

Divergence of the SigB regulon and pathogenesis of the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group  

PubMed Central

Background The Bacillus cereus sensu lato group currently includes seven species (B. cereus, B. anthracis, B. mycoides, B. pseudomycoides, B. thuringiensis, B. weihenstephanensis and B. cytotoxicus) that recent phylogenetic and phylogenomic analyses suggest are likely a single species, despite their varied phenotypes. Although horizontal gene transfer and insertion-deletion events are clearly important for promoting divergence among these genomes, recent studies have demonstrated that a major basis for phenotypic diversity in these organisms may be differential regulation of the highly similar gene content shared by these organisms. To explore this hypothesis, we used an in silico approach to evaluate the relationship of pathogenic potential and the divergence of the SigB-dependent general stress response within the B. cereus sensu lato group, since SigB has been demonstrated to support pathogenesis in Bacillus, Listeria and Staphylococcus species. Results During the divergence of these organisms from a common “SigB-less” ancestor, the placement of SigB promoters at varied locations in the B. cereus sensu lato genomes predict alternative structures for the SigB regulon in different organisms. Predicted promoter changes suggesting differential transcriptional control of a common gene pool predominate over evidence of indels or horizontal gene transfer for explaining SigB regulon divergence. Conclusions Four lineages of the SigB regulon have arisen that encompass different gene contents and suggest different strategies for supporting pathogenesis. This is consistent with the hypothesis that divergence within the B. cereus sensu lato group rests in part on alternative strategies for regulation of a common gene pool. PMID:23088190

2012-01-01

65

Vitamin and co-factor biosynthesis pathways in Plasmodium and other apicomplexan parasites  

PubMed Central

Vitamins are essential components of the human diet. By contrast, the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and related apicomplexan parasites synthesise certain vitamins, de novo, either completely or in parts. The occurrence of the various biosynthesis pathways is specific to different apicomplexan parasites, emphasising their distinct requirements for nutrients and growth factors. The absence of vitamin biosynthesis from the human host implies that inhibition of the parasite pathways may be a way to interfere specifically with parasite development. However, the precise role of biosynthesis and potential uptake of vitamins for the overall regulation of vitamin homeostasis in the parasites needs to be established first. In this review Sylke Müller and Barbara Kappes focus mainly on the procurement of vitamin B1, B5 and B6 by Plasmodium and other apicomplexan parasites. PMID:17276140

Muller, Sylke; Kappes, Barbara

2007-01-01

66

RpfF-dependent regulon of Xylella fastidiosa.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Xylella fastidiosa regulates traits important to both virulence of grape as well as colonization of sharpshooter vectors via its production of a fatty acid signal molecule known as DSF whose production is dependent on rpfF. Although X. fastidiosa rpfF mutants exhibit increased virulence to plants, they are unable to be spread from plant to plant by insect vectors. To gain more insight into the traits that contribute to these processes, a whole-genome Agilent DNA microarray for this species was developed and used to determine the RpfF-dependent regulon by transcriptional profiling. In total, 446 protein coding genes whose expression was significantly different between the wild type and an rpfF mutant (false discovery rate < 0.05) were identified when cells were grown in PW liquid medium. Among them, 165 genes were downregulated in the rpfF mutant compared with the wild-type strain whereas 281 genes were over-expressed. RpfF function was required for regulation of 11 regulatory and ? factors, including rpfE, yybA, PD1177, glnB, rpfG, PD0954, PD0199, PD2050, colR, rpoH, and rpoD. In general, RpfF is required for regulation of genes involved in attachment and biofilm formation, enhancing expression of hemagglutinin genes hxfA and hxfB, and suppressing most type IV pili and gum genes. A large number of other RpfF-dependent genes that might contribute to virulence or insect colonization were also identified such as those encoding hemolysin and colicin V, as well as genes with unknown functions. PMID:22877314

Wang, Nian; Li, Jian-Liang; Lindow, Steven E

2012-11-01

67

Comparative Genomics of Transcriptional Regulation of Methionine Metabolism in Proteobacteria  

PubMed Central

Methionine metabolism and uptake genes in Proteobacteria are controlled by a variety of RNA and DNA regulatory systems. We have applied comparative genomics to reconstruct regulons for three known transcription factors, MetJ, MetR, and SahR, and three known riboswitch motifs, SAH, SAM-SAH, and SAM_alpha, in ?200 genomes from 22 taxonomic groups of Proteobacteria. We also identified two novel regulons: a SahR-like transcription factor SamR controlling various methionine biosynthesis genes in the Xanthomonadales group, and a potential RNA regulatory element with terminator-antiterminator mechanism controlling the metX or metZ genes in beta-proteobacteria. For each analyzed regulator we identified the core, taxon-specific and genome-specific regulon members. By analyzing the distribution of these regulators in bacterial genomes and by comparing their regulon contents we elucidated possible evolutionary scenarios for the regulation of the methionine metabolism genes in Proteobacteria. PMID:25411846

Leyn, Semen A.; Suvorova, Inna A.; Kholina, Tatiana D.; Sherstneva, Sofia S.; Novichkov, Pavel S.; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.

2014-01-01

68

Sequencing of the smallest Apicomplexan genome from the human pathogen Babesia microtiy  

E-print Network

it with that of other protozoa. B. microti has the smallest nuclear genome among all Apicomplexan parasites sequenced that B. microti has the minimal metabolic requirement for intraerythrocytic protozoan parasitism. B. microti multigene families differ from those of other protozoa in both the copy number and organization

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

69

Fatty acid and sterol metabolism: potential antimicrobial targets in apicomplexan and trypanosomatid parasitic protozoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current treatments for diseases caused by apicomplexan and trypanosomatid parasites are inadequate due to toxicity, the development of drug resistance and an inability to eliminate all life cycle stages of these parasites from the host. New therapeutics agents are urgently required. It has recently been demonstrated that type II fatty acid biosynthesis occurs in the plastid of Plasmodium falciparum and

C. W. Roberts; R. McLeod; D. W. Rice; M. Ginger; M. L. Chance; L. J. Goad

2003-01-01

70

Host cell invasion by the apicomplexans: the significance of microneme protein proteolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intracellular life-style has been adopted by many pathogens as a successful immune evasion mechanism. To gain entry to a large variety of host cells and to establish an intracellular niche, Toxoplasma gondii and other apicomplexans rely on an active process distinct from phagocytosis. Calcium-regulated secretion of microneme proteins and parasite actin polymerization together with the action of at least one

Timothy Dowse; Dominique Soldati

2004-01-01

71

Identification of the MBF1 heat-response regulon of Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

Brief periods of heat stress of even a few days can have a detrimental effect on yield production worldwide, causing devastating economic and societal impacts. Here we report on the identification of a new heat-response regulon in plants controlled by the multiprotein bridging factor 1c (MBF1c) protein of Arabidopsis thaliana. Members of the highly conserved MBF1 protein family function as non-DNA-binding transcriptional co-activators involved in regulating metabolic and development pathways in different organisms from yeast to humans. Nonetheless, our studies suggest that MBF1c from Arabidopsis functions as a transcriptional regulator which binds DNA and controls the expression of 36 different transcripts during heat stress, including the important transcriptional regulator DRE-binding protein 2A (DREB2A), two heat shock transcription factors (HSFs), and several zinc finger proteins. We further identify CTAGA as a putative response element for MBF1c, demonstrate that the DNA-binding domain of MBF1c has a dominant-negative effect on heat tolerance when constitutively expressed in plants, and show that constitutive expression of MBF1c in soybean enhances yield production in plants grown under controlled growth conditions without causing adverse effects on growth. Our findings could have a significant impact on improving heat tolerance and yield of different crops subjected to heat stress. PMID:21457365

Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Sejima, Hiroe; Tam, Rachel; Schlauch, Karen; Mittler, Ron

2011-06-01

72

Protein level identification of the Listeria monocytogenes Sigma H, Sigma L, and Sigma C regulons  

PubMed Central

Background Transcriptional regulation by alternative sigma (?) factors represents an important mechanism that allows bacteria to rapidly regulate transcript and protein levels in response to changing environmental conditions. While the role of the alternative ? factor ?B has been comparatively well characterized in L. monocytogenes, our understanding of the roles of the three other L. monocytogenes alternative ? factors is still limited. In this study, we employed a quantitative proteomics approach using Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) to characterize the L. monocytogenes ?L, ?H, and ?C protein regulons. Proteomic comparisons used a quadruple alternative ? factor mutant strain (?BCHL) and strains expressing a single alternative ? factor (i.e., ?L, ?H, and ?C; strains ?BCH, ?BCL, and ?BHL) to eliminate potential redundancies between ? factors. Results Among the three alternative ? factors studied here, ?H provides positive regulation for the largest number of proteins, consistent with previous transcriptomic studies, while ?L appears to contribute to negative regulation of a number of proteins. ?C was found to regulate a small number of proteins in L. monocytogenes grown to stationary phase at 37°C. Proteins identified as being regulated by multiple alternative ? factors include MptA, which is a component of a PTS system with a potential role in regulation of PrfA activity. Conclusions This study provides initial insights into global regulation of protein production by the L. monocytogenes alternative ? factors ?L, ?H, and ?C. While, among these ? factors, ?H appears to positively regulate the largest number of proteins, we also identified PTS systems that appear to be co-regulated by multiple alternative ? factors. Future studies should not only explore potential roles of alternative ? factors in activating a “cascade” of PTS systems that potentially regulate PrfA, but also may want to explore the ?L and ?C regulons under different environmental conditions to identify conditions where these ? factors may regulate larger numbers of proteins or genes. PMID:23841528

2013-01-01

73

The iron stimulon and fur regulon of Geobacter sulfurreducens and their role in energy metabolism.  

PubMed

Iron plays a critical role in the physiology of Geobacter species. It serves as both an essential component for proteins and cofactors and an electron acceptor during anaerobic respiration. Here, we investigated the iron stimulon and ferric uptake regulator (Fur) regulon of Geobacter sulfurreducens to examine the coordination between uptake of Fe(II) and the reduction of Fe(III) at the transcriptional level. Gene expression studies across a variety of different iron concentrations in both the wild type and a ?fur mutant strain were used to determine the iron stimulon. The stimulon consists of a broad range of gene products, ranging from iron-utilizing to central metabolism and iron reduction proteins. Integration of gene expression and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) data sets assisted in the identification of the Fur transcriptional regulatory network and Fur's role as a regulator of the iron stimulon. Additional physiological and transcriptional analyses of G. sulfurreducens grown with various Fe(II) concentrations revealed the depth of Fur's involvement in energy metabolism and the existence of redundancy within the iron-regulatory network represented by IdeR, an alternative iron transcriptional regulator. These characteristics enable G. sulfurreducens to thrive in environments with fluctuating iron concentrations by providing it with a robust mechanism to maintain tight and deliberate control over intracellular iron homeostasis. PMID:24584254

Embree, Mallory; Qiu, Yu; Shieu, Wendy; Nagarajan, Harish; O'Neil, Regina; Lovley, Derek; Zengler, Karsten

2014-05-01

74

The Iron Stimulon and Fur Regulon of Geobacter sulfurreducens and Their Role in Energy Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Iron plays a critical role in the physiology of Geobacter species. It serves as both an essential component for proteins and cofactors and an electron acceptor during anaerobic respiration. Here, we investigated the iron stimulon and ferric uptake regulator (Fur) regulon of Geobacter sulfurreducens to examine the coordination between uptake of Fe(II) and the reduction of Fe(III) at the transcriptional level. Gene expression studies across a variety of different iron concentrations in both the wild type and a ?fur mutant strain were used to determine the iron stimulon. The stimulon consists of a broad range of gene products, ranging from iron-utilizing to central metabolism and iron reduction proteins. Integration of gene expression and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) data sets assisted in the identification of the Fur transcriptional regulatory network and Fur's role as a regulator of the iron stimulon. Additional physiological and transcriptional analyses of G. sulfurreducens grown with various Fe(II) concentrations revealed the depth of Fur's involvement in energy metabolism and the existence of redundancy within the iron-regulatory network represented by IdeR, an alternative iron transcriptional regulator. These characteristics enable G. sulfurreducens to thrive in environments with fluctuating iron concentrations by providing it with a robust mechanism to maintain tight and deliberate control over intracellular iron homeostasis. PMID:24584254

Embree, Mallory; Qiu, Yu; Shieu, Wendy; Nagarajan, Harish; O'Neil, Regina; Lovley, Derek

2014-01-01

75

Modulation of toxin production by the flagellar regulon in Clostridium difficile.  

PubMed

We show in this study that toxin production in Clostridium difficile is altered in cells which can no longer form flagellar filaments. The impact of inactivation of fliC, CD0240, fliF, fliG, fliM, and flhB-fliR flagellar genes upon toxin levels in culture supernatants was assessed using cell-based cytotoxicity assay, proteomics, immunoassay, and immunoblotting approaches. Each of these showed that toxin levels in supernatants were significantly increased in a fliC mutant compared to that in the C. difficile 630 parent strain. In contrast, the toxin levels in supernatants secreted from other flagellar mutants were significantly reduced compared with that in the parental C. difficile 630 strain. Transcriptional analysis of the pathogenicity locus genes (tcdR, tcdB, tcdE, and tcdA) revealed a significant increase of all four genes in the fliC mutant strain, while transcription of all four genes was significantly reduced in fliM, fliF, fliG, and flhB-fliR mutants. These results demonstrate that toxin transcription in C. difficile is modulated by the flagellar regulon. More significantly, mutant strains showed a corresponding change in virulence compared to the 630 parent strain when tested in a hamster model of C. difficile infection. This is the first demonstration of differential flagellum-related transcriptional regulation of toxin production in C. difficile and provides evidence for elaborate regulatory networks for virulence genes in C. difficile. PMID:22851750

Aubry, Annie; Hussack, Greg; Chen, Wangxue; KuoLee, Rhonda; Twine, Susan M; Fulton, Kelly M; Foote, Simon; Carrillo, Catherine D; Tanha, Jamshid; Logan, Susan M

2012-10-01

76

Modulation of Toxin Production by the Flagellar Regulon in Clostridium difficile  

PubMed Central

We show in this study that toxin production in Clostridium difficile is altered in cells which can no longer form flagellar filaments. The impact of inactivation of fliC, CD0240, fliF, fliG, fliM, and flhB-fliR flagellar genes upon toxin levels in culture supernatants was assessed using cell-based cytotoxicity assay, proteomics, immunoassay, and immunoblotting approaches. Each of these showed that toxin levels in supernatants were significantly increased in a fliC mutant compared to that in the C. difficile 630 parent strain. In contrast, the toxin levels in supernatants secreted from other flagellar mutants were significantly reduced compared with that in the parental C. difficile 630 strain. Transcriptional analysis of the pathogenicity locus genes (tcdR, tcdB, tcdE, and tcdA) revealed a significant increase of all four genes in the fliC mutant strain, while transcription of all four genes was significantly reduced in fliM, fliF, fliG, and flhB-fliR mutants. These results demonstrate that toxin transcription in C. difficile is modulated by the flagellar regulon. More significantly, mutant strains showed a corresponding change in virulence compared to the 630 parent strain when tested in a hamster model of C. difficile infection. This is the first demonstration of differential flagellum-related transcriptional regulation of toxin production in C. difficile and provides evidence for elaborate regulatory networks for virulence genes in C. difficile. PMID:22851750

Aubry, Annie; Hussack, Greg; Chen, Wangxue; KuoLee, Rhonda; Twine, Susan M.; Fulton, Kelly M.; Foote, Simon; Carrillo, Catherine D.; Tanha, Jamshid

2012-01-01

77

Evolution of Chloroplast Transcript Processing in Plasmodium and Its Chromerid Algal Relatives  

PubMed Central

It is well understood that apicomplexan parasites, such as the malaria pathogen Plasmodium, are descended from free-living algae, and maintain a vestigial chloroplast that has secondarily lost all genes of photosynthetic function. Recently, two fully photosynthetic relatives of parasitic apicomplexans have been identified, the ‘chromerid’ algae Chromera velia and Vitrella brassicaformis, which retain photosynthesis genes within their chloroplasts. Elucidating the processes governing gene expression in chromerid chloroplasts might provide valuable insights into the origins of parasitism in the apicomplexans. We have characterised chloroplast transcript processing pathways in C. velia, V. brassicaformis and P. falciparum with a focus on the addition of an unusual, 3? poly(U) tail. We demonstrate that poly(U) tails in chromerids are preferentially added to transcripts that encode proteins that are directly involved in photosynthetic electron transfer, over transcripts for proteins that are not involved in photosynthesis. To our knowledge, this represents the first chloroplast transcript processing pathway to be associated with a particular functional category of genes. In contrast, Plasmodium chloroplast transcripts are not polyuridylylated. We additionally present evidence that poly(U) tail addition in chromerids is involved in the alternative processing of polycistronic precursors covering multiple photosynthesis genes, and appears to be associated with high levels of transcript abundance. We propose that changes to the chloroplast transcript processing machinery were an important step in the loss of photosynthesis in ancestors of parasitic apicomplexans. PMID:24453981

Dorrell, Richard G.; Drew, James; Nisbet, R. Ellen R.; Howe, Christopher J.

2014-01-01

78

Apicomplexan rhomboids have a potential role in microneme protein cleavage during host cell invasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apicomplexan parasites secrete transmembrane (TM) adhesive proteins as part of the process leading to host cell attachment and invasion. These microneme proteins are cleaved in their TM domains by an unidentified protease termed microneme protein protease 1 (MPP1). The cleavage site sequence (IA?GG), mapped in the Toxoplasma gondii microneme proteins TgMIC2 and TgMIC6, is conserved in microneme proteins of other

Timothy J. Dowse; John C. Pascall; Kenneth D. Brown; Dominique Soldati

2005-01-01

79

Streptococcus mutans NADH oxidase lies at the intersection of overlapping regulons controlled by oxygen and NAD+ levels.  

PubMed

NADH oxidase (Nox, encoded by nox) is a flavin-containing enzyme used by the oral pathogen Streptococcus mutans to reduce diatomic oxygen to water while oxidizing NADH to NAD(+). The critical nature of Nox is 2-fold: it serves to regenerate NAD(+), a carbon cycle metabolite, and to reduce intracellular oxygen, preventing formation of destructive reactive oxygen species (ROS). As oxygen and NAD(+) have been shown to modulate the activity of the global transcription factors Spx and Rex, respectively, Nox is potentially poised at a critical junction of two stress regulons. In this study, microarray data showed that either addition of oxygen or loss of nox resulted in altered expression of genes involved in energy metabolism and transport and the upregulation of genes encoding ROS-metabolizing enzymes. Loss of nox also resulted in upregulation of several genes encoding transcription factors and signaling molecules, including the redox-sensing regulator gene rex. Characterization of the nox promoter revealed that nox was regulated by oxygen, through SpxA, and by Rex. These data suggest a regulatory loop in which the roles of nox in reduction of oxygen and regeneration of NAD(+) affect the activity levels of Spx and Rex, respectively, and their regulons, which control several genes, including nox, crucial to growth of S. mutans under conditions of oxidative stress. PMID:24682329

Baker, J L; Derr, A M; Karuppaiah, K; MacGilvray, M E; Kajfasz, J K; Faustoferri, R C; Rivera-Ramos, I; Bitoun, J P; Lemos, J A; Wen, Z T; Quivey, R G

2014-06-01

80

Engineering an Acinetobacter regulon for biosensing and high-throughput enzyme screening in E. coli via flow cytometry  

PubMed Central

We created a single cell sorting system to screen for enzyme activity in Escherichia coli producing 3,4 dihydroxy benzoate (34DHB). To do so, we engineered a transcription factor regulon controlling the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) for induction by 34DHB. An autoregulated transcription factor, pcaU, was borrowed from Acinetobacter sp ADP1 to E. coli and its promoter region adapted for activity in E. Coli. The engineered pcaU regulon was inducible at >5 ?M exogenous 34DHB, making it a sensitive biosensor for this industrially significant nylon precursor. Addition of a second plasmid provided IPTG inducible expression of dehydroshikimate dehydratase enzyme (AsbF), which converts endogenous dehydroshikimate to 34DHB. This system produced GFP fluorescence in an IPTG dose-dependent manner, and was easily detected in single cell on flow cytometer despite a moderate catalytic efficiency of AsbF. Using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), individual cells carrying the active AsbF could be isolated even when diluted into a decoy population of cells carrying a mutant (inactivated) AsbF variant at one part in a million. The same biosensor was also effective for further optimization of itself. FACS on E. coli carrying randomized loci in the promoter showed several variants with enhanced response to 34DHB. PMID:24861620

Jha, Ramesh K.; Kern, Theresa L.; Fox, David T.; M. Strauss, Charlie E.

2014-01-01

81

Characterization of the oxidative stress stimulon and PerR regulon of Campylobacter jejuni  

PubMed Central

Background During gut colonization, the enteric pathogen Campylobacter jejuni must surmount the toxic effects of reactive oxygen species produced by its own metabolism, the host immune system, and intestinal microflora. Elucidation of C. jejuni oxidative stress defense mechanisms is critical for understanding Campylobacter pathophysiology. Results The mechanisms of oxidative stress defense in C. jejuni were characterized by transcriptional profiling and phenotypic analysis of wild-type and mutant strains. To define the regulon of the peroxide-sensing regulator, PerR, we constructed an isogenic ?perR mutant and compared its transcriptome profile with that of the wild-type strain. Transcriptome profiling identified 104 genes that belonged to the PerR regulon. PerR appears to regulate gene expression in a manner that both depends on and is independent of the presence of iron and/or H2O2. Mutation of perR significantly reduced motility. A phenotypic analysis using the chick colonization model showed that the ?perR mutant exhibited attenuated colonization behavior. An analysis of changes in the transcriptome induced by exposure to H2O2, cumene hydroperoxide, or menadione revealed differential expression of genes belonging to a variety of biological pathways, including classical oxidative stress defense systems, heat shock response, DNA repair and metabolism, fatty acid biosynthesis, and multidrug efflux pumps. Mutagenic and phenotypic studies of the superoxide dismutase SodB, the alkyl-hydroxyperoxidase AhpC, and the catalase KatA, revealed a role for these proteins in oxidative stress defense and chick gut colonization. Conclusion This study reveals an interplay between PerR, Fur, iron metabolism and oxidative stress defense, and highlights the role of these elements in C. jejuni colonization of the chick cecum and/or subsequent survival. PMID:19835633

Palyada, Kiran; Sun, Yi-Qian; Flint, Annika; Butcher, James; Naikare, Hemant; Stintzi, Alain

2009-01-01

82

Effects of Enrichment on Expression of Key Nutrient Regulons in Extremophiles in Hydrothermal Springs at Yellowstone National Park  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To cope with nutrient limitation, micro-organisms have evolved diverse means to increase acquisition of nutrients such as ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate and trace metals when they become limiting. These strategies typically involve production of compound-specific transporters (i.e., ammonium transporters) or extracellular enzymes (i.e., alkaline phosphatase). Genes that encode these proteins are often under the control of shared regulatory proteins called regulons. Regulons of genes for N, P, or Fe metabolism ultimately affect the transport of vital nutrients into and out of cells and thus help organisms deal with nutrient limitation. Regulons for N, P, and Fe have been found and studied ex situ for model organisms under various nutrient-limiting conditions but are relatively unstudied in the field, especially in hydrothermal systems. The aim of this study was to characterize transcription patterns of genes for N, P, and Fe processing under experimental nutrient enrichment in a complex microbial community from an alkaline hot spring located in Yellowstone National Park. Microbial mat samples and hot spring water were placed in bottles, subjected to a fully factorial manipulation of N (125 ?M N as ammonium nitrate), phosphorus (7.8 ?M P as sodium phosphate), and Fe (7.8 x 10-2 ?M Fe as ferric citrate), and incubated overnight at in situ temperatures. Following incubation, hot spring water was filtered and preserved for nutrient analyses and biomass subsamples were snap-frozen for molecular analysis. Chemical analysis showed a total removal of NH4 and PO4 from the water in all treatments. NO3 decreased slightly in most treatments (control, +N, +P, +Fe, +PFe, and +NPFe) but increased in the others (+NFe and +NP). Interestingly, Fe concentrations were lower in amended samples (+Fe, +NFe, +PFe, and +NPFe) than in unamended samples (control, +N, +P, +NP). To assess the transcriptional responses, primers were designed to target genes controlled by the ferric uptake regulator (Fur), phosphate-responsive signal transduction pathway (Pho), and the nitrogen transcriptional regulator TnrA. These genes-glnA, nrgAB, narB, yusV, asnRS, gltA, pstS, tagA, and phoA- have been successfully sequenced in our microbial mat community. Gene expression work is currently underway to determine if transcription of these genes is altered under single nutrient limitation and/or co-limitation, thus reflecting the results seen in the water chemistry data.

Knowlton, M.; Elser, J. J.; Poret-peterson, A. T.

2011-12-01

83

The NsrR Regulon in Nitrosative Stress Resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Nitric oxide (NO·) is an important mediator of innate immunity. The facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella has evolved mechanisms to detoxify and evade the antimicrobial actions of host-derived NO· produced during infection. Expression of the NO·-detoxifying flavohemoglobin Hmp is controlled by the NO·-sensing transcriptional repressor NsrR and is required for Salmonella virulence. In this study we show that NsrR responds to very low NO· concentrations, suggesting that it plays a primary role in the nitrosative stress response. Additionally, we have defined the NsrR regulon in Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium 14028s using transcriptional microarray, qRT-PCR and in silico methods. A novel NsrR-regulated gene designated STM1808 has been identified, along with hmp, hcp-hcr, yeaR-yoaG, ygbA and ytfE. STM1808 and ygbA are important for S. Typhimurium growth during nitrosative stress, and the hcp-hcr locus plays a supportive role in NO· detoxification. ICP-MS analysis of purified STM1808 suggests that it is a zinc metalloprotein, with histidine residues H32 and H82 required for NO· resistance and zinc binding. Moreover, STM1808 and ytfE promote Salmonella growth during systemic infection of mice. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that NsrR-regulated genes in addition to hmp are important for NO· detoxification, nitrosative stress resistance and Salmonella virulence. PMID:22831173

Karlinsey, Joyce E.; Bang, Iel-Soo; Becker, Lynne A.; Frawley, Elaine R.; Porwollik, Steffen; Robbins, Hannah F.; Thomas, Vinai Chittezham; Urbano, Rodolfo; McClelland, Michael; Fang, Ferric C.

2012-01-01

84

In Silico Identification of Specialized Secretory-Organelle Proteins in Apicomplexan Parasites and In Vivo Validation in Toxoplasma gondii  

PubMed Central

Apicomplexan parasites, including the human pathogens Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum, employ specialized secretory organelles (micronemes, rhoptries, dense granules) to invade and survive within host cells. Because molecules secreted from these organelles function at the host/parasite interface, their identification is important for understanding invasion mechanisms, and central to the development of therapeutic strategies. Using a computational approach based on predicted functional domains, we have identified more than 600 candidate secretory organelle proteins in twelve apicomplexan parasites. Expression in transgenic T. gondii of eight proteins identified in silico confirms that all enter into the secretory pathway, and seven target to apical organelles associated with invasion. An in silico approach intended to identify possible host interacting proteins yields a dataset enriched in secretory/transmembrane proteins, including most of the antigens known to be engaged by apicomplexan parasites during infection. These domain pattern and projected interactome approaches significantly expand the repertoire of proteins that may be involved in host parasite interactions. PMID:18974850

2008-01-01

85

Amino acid contacts between sigma 70 domain 4 and the transcription activators RhaS and RhaR  

E-print Network

The RhaS and RhaR proteins are transcription activators that respond to the availability Of L-rhamnose and activate transcription of the operons in the Escherichia coli L-rhamnose catabolic regulon. RhaR activates transcription of rhaSR, and RhaS...

Wickstrum, J. R.; Egan, Susan M.

2004-09-01

86

Identification of the Alternative Sigma Factor SigX Regulon and Its Implications for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pathogenicity  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is distinguished by its broad metabolic diversity and its remarkable capability for adaptation, which relies on a large collection of transcriptional regulators and alternative sigma (?) factors. The largest group of alternative ? factors is that of the extracytoplasmic function (ECF) ? factors, which control key transduction pathways for maintenance of envelope homeostasis in response to external stress and cell growth. In addition, there are specific roles of alternative ? factors in regulating the expression of virulence and virulence-associated genes. Here, we analyzed a deletion mutant of the ECF ? factor SigX and applied mRNA profiling to define the SigX-dependent regulon in P. aeruginosa in response to low-osmolarity-medium conditions. Furthermore, the combination of transcriptional data with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) led to the identification of the DNA binding motif of SigX. Genome-wide mapping of SigX-binding regions revealed enrichment of downstream genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis, type III secretion, swarming and cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) signaling. In accordance, a sigX deletion mutant exhibited altered fatty acid composition of the cell membrane, reduced cytotoxicity, impaired swarming activity, elevated c-di-GMP levels, and increased biofilm formation. In conclusion, a combination of ChIP-seq with transcriptional profiling and bioinformatic approaches to define consensus DNA binding sequences proved to be effective for the elucidation of the regulon of the alternative ? factor SigX, revealing its role in complex virulence-associated phenotypes in P. aeruginosa. PMID:24187091

Blanka, Andrea; Schulz, Sebastian; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Franke, Raimo; Bielecka, Agata; Nicolai, Tanja; Casilag, Fiordiligie; Duvel, Juliane; Abraham, Wolf-Rainer; Kaever, Volkhard

2013-01-01

87

An atomic-resolution view of neofunctionalization in the evolution of apicomplexan lactate dehydrogenases  

PubMed Central

Malate and lactate dehydrogenases (MDH and LDH) are homologous, core metabolic enzymes that share a fold and catalytic mechanism yet possess strict specificity for their substrates. In the Apicomplexa, convergent evolution of an unusual LDH from MDH produced a difference in specificity exceeding 12 orders of magnitude. The mechanisms responsible for this extraordinary functional shift are currently unknown. Using ancestral protein resurrection, we find that specificity evolved in apicomplexan LDHs by classic neofunctionalization characterized by long-range epistasis, a promiscuous intermediate, and few gain-of-function mutations of large effect. In canonical MDHs and LDHs, a single residue in the active-site loop governs substrate specificity: Arg102 in MDHs and Gln102 in LDHs. During the evolution of the apicomplexan LDH, however, specificity switched via an insertion that shifted the position and identity of this ‘specificity residue’ to Trp107f. Residues far from the active site also determine specificity, as shown by the crystal structures of three ancestral proteins bracketing the key duplication event. This work provides an unprecedented atomic-resolution view of evolutionary trajectories creating a nascent enzymatic function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02304.001 PMID:24966208

Boucher, Jeffrey I; Jacobowitz, Joseph R; Beckett, Brian C; Classen, Scott; Theobald, Douglas L

2014-01-01

88

Sphingolipid synthesis and scavenging in the intracellular apicomplexan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii  

PubMed Central

Sphingolipids are essential components of eukaryotic cell membranes, particularly the plasma membrane, and are involved in a diverse array of signal transduction pathways. Mammals produce sphingomyelin (SM) as the primary complex sphingolipid via the well characterised SM synthase. In contrast yeast, plants and some protozoa utilise an evolutionarily related inositol phosphorylceramide (IPC) synthase to synthesise IPC. This activity has no mammalian equivalent and IPC synthase has been proposed as a target for anti-fungals and anti-protozoals. However, detailed knowledge of the sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway of the apicomplexan protozoan parasites was lacking. In this study bioinformatic analyses indicated a single copy orthologue of the putative SM synthase from the apicomplexan Plasmodium falciparum (the causative agent of malaria) was a bona fide sphingolipid synthase in the related model parasite, Toxoplasma gondii (TgSLS). Subsequently, TgSLS was indicated, by complementation of a mutant cell line, to be a functional orthologue of the yeast IPC synthase (AUR1p), demonstrating resistance to the well characterised AUR1p inhibitor aureobasidin A. In vitro, recombinant TgSLS exhibited IPC synthase activity and, for the first time, the presence of IPC was demonstrated in T. gondii lipid extracts by mass spectrometry. Furthermore, host sphingolipid biosynthesis was indicated to influence, but be non-essential for, T. gondii proliferation, suggesting that whilst scavenging does take place de novo sphingolipid synthesis may be important for parasitism. PMID:23246819

Pratt, Steven; Wansadhipathi-Kannangara, Nilu K.; Bruce, Catherine R.; Mina, John G.; Shams-Eldin, Hosam; Casas, Josefina; Hanada, Kentaro; Schwarz, Ralph T.; Sonda, Sabrina; Denny, Paul W.

2013-01-01

89

Sphingolipid synthesis and scavenging in the intracellular apicomplexan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii.  

PubMed

Sphingolipids are essential components of eukaryotic cell membranes, particularly the plasma membrane, and are involved in a diverse array of signal transduction pathways. Mammals produce sphingomyelin (SM) as the primary complex sphingolipid via the well characterised SM synthase. In contrast yeast, plants and some protozoa utilise an evolutionarily related inositol phosphorylceramide (IPC) synthase to synthesise IPC. This activity has no mammalian equivalent and IPC synthase has been proposed as a target for anti-fungals and anti-protozoals. However, detailed knowledge of the sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway of the apicomplexan protozoan parasites was lacking. In this study bioinformatic analyses indicated a single copy orthologue of the putative SM synthase from the apicomplexan Plasmodium falciparum (the causative agent of malaria) was a bona fide sphingolipid synthase in the related model parasite, Toxoplasma gondii (TgSLS). Subsequently, TgSLS was indicated, by complementation of a mutant cell line, to be a functional orthologue of the yeast IPC synthase (AUR1p), demonstrating resistance to the well characterised AUR1p inhibitor aureobasidin A. In vitro, recombinant TgSLS exhibited IPC synthase activity and, for the first time, the presence of IPC was demonstrated in T. gondii lipid extracts by mass spectrometry. Furthermore, host sphingolipid biosynthesis was indicated to influence, but be non-essential for, T. gondii proliferation, suggesting that whilst scavenging does take place de novo sphingolipid synthesis may be important for parasitism. PMID:23246819

Pratt, Steven; Wansadhipathi-Kannangara, Nilu K; Bruce, Catherine R; Mina, John G; Shams-Eldin, Hosam; Casas, Josefina; Hanada, Kentaro; Schwarz, Ralph T; Sonda, Sabrina; Denny, Paul W

2013-01-01

90

Characterization and analysis of the Burkholderia pseudomallei BsaN virulence regulon  

PubMed Central

Background Burkholderia pseudomallei is a facultative intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of melioidosis. A conserved type III secretion system (T3SS3) and type VI secretion system (T6SS1) are critical for intracellular survival and growth. The T3SS3 and T6SS1 genes are coordinately and hierarchically regulated by a TetR-type regulator, BspR. A central transcriptional regulator of the BspR regulatory cascade, BsaN, activates a subset of T3SS3 and T6SS1 loci. Results To elucidate the scope of the BsaN regulon, we used RNAseq analysis to compare the transcriptomes of wild-type B. pseudomallei KHW and a bsaN deletion mutant. The 60 genes positively-regulated by BsaN include those that we had previously identified in addition to a polyketide biosynthesis locus and genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis. BsaN was also found to repress the transcription of 51 genes including flagellar motility loci and those encoding components of the T3SS3 apparatus. Using a promoter-lacZ fusion assay in E. coli, we show that BsaN together with the chaperone BicA directly control the expression of the T3SS3 translocon, effector and associated regulatory genes that are organized into at least five operons (BPSS1516-BPSS1552). Using a mutagenesis approach, a consensus regulatory motif in the promoter regions of BsaN-regulated genes was shown to be essential for transcriptional activation. Conclusions BsaN/BicA functions as a central regulator of key virulence clusters in B. pseudomallei within a more extensive network of genetic regulation. We propose that BsaN/BicA controls a gene expression program that facilitates the adaption and intracellular survival of the pathogen within eukaryotic hosts. PMID:25085508

2014-01-01

91

Expanding the Direct HetR Regulon in Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120  

PubMed Central

In response to a lack of environmental combined nitrogen, the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 differentiates nitrogen-fixing heterocyst cells in a periodic pattern. HetR is a transcription factor that coordinates the regulation of this developmental program. An inverted repeat-containing sequence in the hepA promoter required for proheterocyst-specific transcription was identified based on sequence similarity to a previously characterized binding site for HetR in the promoter of hetP. The binding affinity of HetR for the hepA site is roughly an order of magnitude lower than that for the hetP binding site. A BLAST search of the Anabaena genome identified 166 hepA-like sites that occur as single or tandem sites (two binding sites separated by 13 bp). The vast majority of these sites are present in predicted intergenic regions. HetR bound five representative single binding sites in vitro, and binding was abrogated by transversions in the binding sites that conserved the inverted repeat nature of the sites. Binding to four representative tandem sites was not observed. Transcriptional fusions of the green fluorescent protein gene gfp with putative promoter regions associated with the representative binding sites indicated that HetR could function as either an activator or repressor and that activation was cell-type specific. Taken together, we have expanded the direct HetR regulon and propose a model in which three categories of HetR binding sites, based on binding affinity and nucleotide sequence, contribute to three of the four phases of differentiation. PMID:24375104

Videau, Patrick; Ni, Shuisong; Rivers, Orion S.; Ushijima, Blake; Feldmann, Erik A.; Cozy, Loralyn M.; Kennedy, Michael A.

2014-01-01

92

Regulation of Rugosity and Biofilm Formation in Vibrio cholerae: Comparison of VpsT and VpsR Regulons and Epistasis Analysis of vpsT, vpsR, and hapR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio cholerae undergoes phenotypic variation that generates two morphologically different variants, termed smooth and rugose. The transcriptional profiles of the two variants differ greatly, and many of the differentially regulated genes are controlled by a complex regulatory circuitry that includes the transcrip- tional regulators VpsR, VpsT, and HapR. In this study, we identified the VpsT regulon and compared the VpsT

Sinem Beyhan; Kivanc Bilecen; Sofie R. Salama; Catharina Casper-Lindley; Fitnat H. Yildiz

2007-01-01

93

A regulon conserved in monocot and dicot plants defines a functional module in antifungal plant immunity.  

PubMed

At least two components that modulate plant resistance against the fungal powdery mildew disease are ancient and have been conserved since the time of the monocot-dicot split (? 200 Mya). These components are the seven transmembrane domain containing MLO/MLO2 protein and the syntaxin ROR2/PEN1, which act antagonistically and have been identified in the monocot barley (Hordeum vulgare) and the dicot Arabidopsis thaliana, respectively. Additionally, syntaxin-interacting N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor adaptor protein receptor proteins (VAMP721/722 and SNAP33/34) as well as a myrosinase (PEN2) and an ABC transporter (PEN3) contribute to antifungal resistance in both barley and/or Arabidopsis. Here, we show that these genetically defined defense components share a similar set of coexpressed genes in the two plant species, comprising a statistically significant overrepresentation of gene products involved in regulation of transcription, posttranslational modification, and signaling. Most of the coexpressed Arabidopsis genes possess a common cis-regulatory element that may dictate their coordinated expression. We exploited gene coexpression to uncover numerous components in Arabidopsis involved in antifungal defense. Together, our data provide evidence for an evolutionarily conserved regulon composed of core components and clade/species-specific innovations that functions as a module in plant innate immunity. PMID:21098265

Humphry, Matt; Bednarek, Pawel; Kemmerling, Birgit; Koh, Serry; Stein, Mónica; Göbel, Ulrike; Stüber, Kurt; Pislewska-Bednarek, Mariola; Loraine, Ann; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; Somerville, Shauna; Panstruga, Ralph

2010-12-14

94

Genome-Scale Analyses of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica AraC Reveal Noncanonical Targets and an Expanded Core Regulon  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli AraC is a well-described transcription activator of genes involved in arabinose metabolism. Using complementary genomic approaches, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-chip, and transcription profiling, we identify direct regulatory targets of AraC, including five novel target genes: ytfQ, ydeN, ydeM, ygeA, and polB. Strikingly, only ytfQ has an established connection to arabinose metabolism, suggesting that AraC has a broader function than previously described. We demonstrate arabinose-dependent repression of ydeNM by AraC, in contrast to the well-described arabinose-dependent activation of other target genes. We also demonstrate unexpected read-through of transcription at the Rho-independent terminators downstream of araD and araE, leading to significant increases in the expression of polB and ygeA, respectively. AraC is highly conserved in the related species Salmonella enterica. We use ChIP sequencing (ChIP-seq) and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to map the AraC regulon in S. enterica. A comparison of the E. coli and S. enterica AraC regulons, coupled with a bioinformatic analysis of other related species, reveals a conserved regulatory network across the family Enterobacteriaceae comprised of 10 genes associated with arabinose transport and metabolism. PMID:24272778

Stringer, Anne M.; Currenti, Salvatore; Bonocora, Richard P.; Baranowski, Catherine; Petrone, Brianna L.; Palumbo, Michael J.; Reilly, Andrew A.; Zhang, Zhen; Erill, Ivan

2014-01-01

95

Broad genomic and transcriptional analysis reveals a highly derived genome in dinoflagellate mitochondria  

PubMed Central

Background Dinoflagellates comprise an ecologically significant and diverse eukaryotic phylum that is sister to the phylum containing apicomplexan endoparasites. The mitochondrial genome of apicomplexans is uniquely reduced in gene content and size, encoding only three proteins and two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) within a highly compacted 6 kb DNA. Dinoflagellate mitochondrial genomes have been comparatively poorly studied: limited available data suggest some similarities with apicomplexan mitochondrial genomes but an even more radical type of genomic organization. Here, we investigate structure, content and expression of dinoflagellate mitochondrial genomes. Results From two dinoflagellates, Crypthecodinium cohnii and Karlodinium micrum, we generated over 42 kb of mitochondrial genomic data that indicate a reduced gene content paralleling that of mitochondrial genomes in apicomplexans, i.e., only three protein-encoding genes and at least eight conserved components of the highly fragmented large and small subunit rRNAs. Unlike in apicomplexans, dinoflagellate mitochondrial genes occur in multiple copies, often as gene fragments, and in numerous genomic contexts. Analysis of cDNAs suggests several novel aspects of dinoflagellate mitochondrial gene expression. Polycistronic transcripts were found, standard start codons are absent, and oligoadenylation occurs upstream of stop codons, resulting in the absence of termination codons. Transcripts of at least one gene, cox3, are apparently trans-spliced to generate full-length mRNAs. RNA substitutional editing, a process previously identified for mRNAs in dinoflagellate mitochondria, is also implicated in rRNA expression. Conclusion The dinoflagellate mitochondrial genome shares the same gene complement and fragmentation of rRNA genes with its apicomplexan counterpart. However, it also exhibits several unique characteristics. Most notable are the expansion of gene copy numbers and their arrangements within the genome, RNA editing, loss of stop codons, and use of trans-splicing. PMID:17897476

Jackson, Christopher J; Norman, John E; Schnare, Murray N; Gray, Michael W; Keeling, Patrick J; Waller, Ross F

2007-01-01

96

Malaria, which is caused by the apicomplexan pro-tist, Plasmodium, is the major re-emerging disease  

E-print Network

Malaria, which is caused by the apicomplexan pro- tist, Plasmodium, is the major re and it is espe- cially lethal for children. To make this topically ap- preciated, the Malaria Foundation International (http://www.malaria.org/) stated that "The malaria epidemic is like loading up seven Boeing 747

Simpson, Larry

97

Conserved CO-FT regulons contribute to the photoperiod flowering control in soybean  

PubMed Central

Background CO and FT orthologs, belonging to the BBX and PEBP family, respectively, have important and conserved roles in the photoperiod regulation of flowering time in plants. Soybean genome experienced at least three rounds of whole genome duplications (WGDs), which resulted in multiple copies of about 75% of genes. Subsequent subfunctionalization is the main fate for paralogous gene pairs during the evolutionary process. Results The phylogenic relationships revealed that CO orthologs were widespread in the plant kingdom while FT orthologs were present only in angiosperms. Twenty-eight CO homologous genes and twenty-four FT homologous genes were gained in the soybean genome. Based on the collinear relationship, the soybean ancestral CO ortholog experienced three WGD events, but only two paralogous gene pairs (GmCOL1/2 and GmCOL5/13) survived in the modern soybean. The paralogous gene pairs, GmCOL1/2 or GmCOL5/13, showed similar expression patterns in pair but different between pairs, indicating that they functionally diverged. GmFTL1 to 7 were derived from the same ancestor prior to the whole genome triplication (WGT) event, and after the Legume WGD event the ancestor diverged into two branches, GmFTL3/5/7 and GmFTL1/2/4/6. GmFTL7 were truncated in the N-terminus compared to other FT-lineage genes, but ubiquitously expressed. Expressions of GmFTL1 to 6 were higher in leaves at the flowering stage than that at the seedling stage. GmFTL3 was expressed at the highest level in all tissues except roots at the seedling stage, and its circadian pattern was different from the other five ones. The transcript of GmFTL6 was highly accumulated in seedling roots. The circadian rhythms of GmCOL5/13 and GmFT1/2/4/5/6 were synchronized in a day, demonstrating the complicate relationship of CO-FT regulons in soybean leaves. Over-expression of GmCOL2 did not rescue the flowering phenotype of the Arabidopsis co mutant. However, ectopic expression of GmCOL5 did rescue the co mutant phenotype. All GmFTL1 to 6 showed flower-promoting activities in Arabidopsis. Conclusions After three recent rounds of whole genome duplications in the soybean, the paralogous genes of CO-FT regulons showed subfunctionalization through expression divergence. Then, only GmCOL5/13 kept flowering-promoting activities, while GmFTL1 to 6 contributed to flowering control. Additionally, GmCOL5/13 and GmFT1/2/3/4/5/6 showed similar circadian expression profiles. Therefore, our results suggested that GmCOL5/13 and GmFT1/2/3/4/5/6 formed the complicate CO-FT regulons in the photoperiod regulation of flowering time in soybean. PMID:24397545

2014-01-01

98

Sequencing of the smallest Apicomplexan genome from the human pathogen Babesia microti.  

PubMed

We have sequenced the genome of the emerging human pathogen Babesia microti and compared it with that of other protozoa. B. microti has the smallest nuclear genome among all Apicomplexan parasites sequenced to date with three chromosomes encoding ?3500 polypeptides, several of which are species specific. Genome-wide phylogenetic analyses indicate that B. microti is significantly distant from all species of Babesidae and Theileridae and defines a new clade in the phylum Apicomplexa. Furthermore, unlike all other Apicomplexa, its mitochondrial genome is circular. Genome-scale reconstruction of functional networks revealed that B. microti has the minimal metabolic requirement for intraerythrocytic protozoan parasitism. B. microti multigene families differ from those of other protozoa in both the copy number and organization. Two lateral transfer events with significant metabolic implications occurred during the evolution of this parasite. The genomic sequencing of B. microti identified several targets suitable for the development of diagnostic assays and novel therapies for human babesiosis. PMID:22833609

Cornillot, Emmanuel; Hadj-Kaddour, Kamel; Dassouli, Amina; Noel, Benjamin; Ranwez, Vincent; Vacherie, Benoît; Augagneur, Yoann; Brčs, Virginie; Duclos, Aurelie; Randazzo, Sylvie; Carcy, Bernard; Debierre-Grockiego, Françoise; Delbecq, Stéphane; Moubri-Ménage, Karina; Shams-Eldin, Hosam; Usmani-Brown, Sahar; Bringaud, Frédéric; Wincker, Patrick; Vivarčs, Christian P; Schwarz, Ralph T; Schetters, Theo P; Krause, Peter J; Gorenflot, André; Berry, Vincent; Barbe, Valérie; Ben Mamoun, Choukri

2012-10-01

99

Sequencing of the smallest Apicomplexan genome from the human pathogen Babesia microti†  

PubMed Central

We have sequenced the genome of the emerging human pathogen Babesia microti and compared it with that of other protozoa. B. microti has the smallest nuclear genome among all Apicomplexan parasites sequenced to date with three chromosomes encoding ?3500 polypeptides, several of which are species specific. Genome-wide phylogenetic analyses indicate that B. microti is significantly distant from all species of Babesidae and Theileridae and defines a new clade in the phylum Apicomplexa. Furthermore, unlike all other Apicomplexa, its mitochondrial genome is circular. Genome-scale reconstruction of functional networks revealed that B. microti has the minimal metabolic requirement for intraerythrocytic protozoan parasitism. B. microti multigene families differ from those of other protozoa in both the copy number and organization. Two lateral transfer events with significant metabolic implications occurred during the evolution of this parasite. The genomic sequencing of B. microti identified several targets suitable for the development of diagnostic assays and novel therapies for human babesiosis. PMID:22833609

Cornillot, Emmanuel; Hadj-Kaddour, Kamel; Dassouli, Amina; Noel, Benjamin; Ranwez, Vincent; Vacherie, Benoit; Augagneur, Yoann; Bres, Virginie; Duclos, Aurelie; Randazzo, Sylvie; Carcy, Bernard; Debierre-Grockiego, Francoise; Delbecq, Stephane; Moubri-Menage, Karina; Shams-Eldin, Hosam; Usmani-Brown, Sahar; Bringaud, Frederic; Wincker, Patrick; Vivares, Christian P.; Schwarz, Ralph T.; Schetters, Theo P.; Krause, Peter J.; Gorenflot, Andre; Berry, Vincent; Barbe, Valerie; Ben Mamoun, Choukri

2012-01-01

100

The FurA regulon in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120: in silico prediction and experimental validation of novel target genes  

PubMed Central

In the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, the ferric uptake regulator FurA functions as a global transcriptional regulator. Despite several analyses have focused on elucidating the FurA-regulatory network, the number of target genes described for this essential transcription factor is limited to a handful of examples. In this article, we combine an in silico genome-wide predictive approach with experimental determinations to better define the FurA regulon. Predicted FurA-binding sites were identified upstream of 215 genes belonging to diverse functional categories including iron homeostasis, photosynthesis and respiration, heterocyst differentiation, oxidative stress defence and light-dependent signal transduction mechanisms, among others. The probabilistic model proved to be effective at discerning FurA boxes from non-cognate sequences, while subsequent electrophoretic mobility shift assay experiments confirmed the in vitro specific binding of FurA to at least 20 selected predicted targets. Gene-expression analyses further supported the dual role of FurA as transcriptional modulator that can act both as repressor and as activator. In either role, the in vitro affinity of the protein to its target sequences is strongly dependent on metal co-regulator and reducing conditions, suggesting that FurA couples in vivo iron homeostasis and the response to oxidative stress to major physiological processes in cyanobacteria. PMID:24503250

Gonzalez, Andres; Angarica, Vladimir Espinosa; Sancho, Javier; Fillat, Maria F.

2014-01-01

101

The Fur regulon in anaerobically grown Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium: identification of new Fur targets  

PubMed Central

Background The Ferric uptake regulator (Fur) is a transcriptional regulator that controls iron homeostasis in bacteria. Although the regulatory role of Fur in Escherichia coli is well characterized, most of the studies were conducted under routine culture conditions, i.e., in ambient oxygen concentration. To reveal potentially novel aspects of the Fur regulon in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium under oxygen conditions similar to that encountered in the host, we compared the transcriptional profiles of the virulent wild-type strain (ATCC 14028s) and its isogenic ?fur strain under anaerobic conditions. Results Microarray analysis of anaerobically grown ?fur S. Typhimurium identified 298 differentially expressed genes. Expression of several genes controlled by Fnr and NsrR appeared to be also dependent on Fur. Furthermore, Fur was required for the activity of the cytoplasmic superoxide disumutases (MnSOD and FeSOD). The regulation of FeSOD gene, sodB, occurred via small RNAs (i.e., the ryhB homologs, rfrA and rfrB) with the aid of the RNA chaperone Hfq. The transcription of sodA was increased in ?fur; however, the enzyme was inactive due to the incorporation of iron instead of manganese in SodA. Additionally, in ?fur, the expression of the gene coding for the ferritin-like protein (ftnB) was down-regulated, while the transcription of the gene coding for the nitric oxide (NO·) detoxifying flavohemoglobin (hmpA) was up-regulated. The promoters of ftnB and hmpA do not contain recognized Fur binding motifs, which indicated their probable indirect regulation by Fur. However, Fur activation of ftnB was independent of Fnr. In addition, the expression of the gene coding for the histone-like protein, H-NS (hns) was increased in ?fur. This may explain the observed down-regulation of the tdc operon, responsible for the anaerobic degradation of threonine, and ftnB in ?fur. Conclusions This study determined that Fur is a positive factor in ftnB regulation, while serving to repress the expression of hmpA. Furthermore, Fur is required for the proper expression and activation of the antioxidant enzymes, FeSOD and MnSOD. Finally, this work identified twenty-six new targets of Fur regulation, and demonstrates that H-NS repressed genes are down-regulated in ?fur. PMID:22017966

2011-01-01

102

Previously unknown apicomplexan species infecting Iceland scallop, Chlamys islandica (Müller, 1776), queen scallop, Aequipecten opercularis L., and king scallop, Pecten maximus L.  

PubMed

Examination of three scallop species from three separate locations: Iceland scallop from Icelandic waters, king scallop from Scottish waters and queen scallop from Faroese and Scottish waters, revealed infections of a previously unknown apicomplexan parasite in all three scallop species. Developmental forms observed in the shells appeared to include both sexual and asexual stages of the parasite, i.e. merogony, gametogony and sporogony, which suggests a monoxenous life cycle. Meronts, gamonts, zygotes and mature oocysts were solely found in the muscular tissue. Zoites, which could be sporozoites and/or merozoites, were observed in great numbers, most frequently in muscles, both intracellular and free in the extracellular space. Zoites were also common inside haemocytes. Examination of the ultrastructure showed that the zoites contained all the major structures characterizing apicomplexans. This apicomplexan parasite is morphologically different from other apicomplexan species previously described from bivalves. Presently, its systematic position within the phylum Apicomplexa cannot be ascertained. PMID:21893066

Kristmundsson, Árni; Helgason, Sigurđur; Bambir, Slavko Helgi; Eydal, Matthías; Freeman, Mark A

2011-11-01

103

The Global Transcriptional Response of Bacillus subtilis to Peroxide Stress Is Coordinated by Three Transcription Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus subtilis exhibits a complex adaptive response to low levels of peroxides. We used global transcrip- tional profiling to monitor the magnitude and kinetics of changes in the mRNA population after exposure to either hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 )o rtert-butyl peroxide (t-buOOH). The peroxide stimulons could be largely accounted for by three regulons controlled by the PerR, B, and OhrR transcription

John D. Helmann; Ming Fang Winston Wu; Ahmed Gaballa; Phil A. Kobel; Maud M. Morshedi; Paul Fawcett; Chris Paddon

2003-01-01

104

Sterol composition and biosynthetic genes of the recently discovered photosynthetic alveolate, Chromera velia (chromerida), a close relative of apicomplexans.  

PubMed

Chromera velia is a recently discovered, photosynthetic, marine alveolate closely related to apicomplexan parasites, and more distantly to perkinsids and dinoflagellates. To date, there are no published studies on the sterols of C. velia. Because apicomplexans and perkinsids are not known to synthesize sterols de novo, but rather obtain them from their host organisms, our objective was to examine the composition of the sterols of C. velia to assess whether or not there is any commonality with dinoflagellates as the closest taxonomic group capable of synthesizing sterols de novo. Furthermore, knowledge of the sterols of C. velia may provide insight into the sterol biosynthetic capabilities of apicomplexans prior to loss of sterol biosynthesis. We have found that C. velia possesses two primary sterols, 24-ethylcholesta-5,22E-dien-3?-ol, and 24-ethylcholest-5-en-3?-ol, not common to dinoflagellates, but rather commonly found in other classes of algae and plants. In addition, we have identified computationally three genes, SMT1 (sterol-24C-methyltransferase), FDFT1 (farnesyl diphosphate farnesyl transferase, squalene synthase), and IDI1 (isopentenyl diphosphate ?-isomerase), predicted to be involved in sterol biosynthesis by their similarity to analogous genes in other sterol-producing eukaryotes, including a number of algae. PMID:22313428

Leblond, Jeffrey D; Dodson, Joshua; Khadka, Manoj; Holder, Sabrina; Seipelt, Rebecca L

2012-01-01

105

Identification of the Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum TP0092 (RpoE) Regulon and Its Implications for Pathogen Persistence in the Host and Syphilis Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Bacteria often respond to harmful environmental stimuli with the induction of extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma (?) factors that in turn direct RNA polymerase to transcribe specific groups of response genes (or regulons) to minimize cellular damage and favor adaptation to the changed extracellular milieu. In Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the agent of syphilis, the TP0092 gene is predicted to code for the pathogen's only annotated ECF ? factor, homologous to RpoE, known in Escherichia coli to control a key transduction pathway for maintenance of envelope homeostasis in response to external stress and cell growth. Here we have shown that TP0092 is highly transcribed during experimental syphilis. Furthermore, TP0092 transcription levels significantly increase as infection progresses toward immune clearance of the pathogen, suggesting a role for TP0092 in helping T. pallidum respond to harmful stimuli in the host environment. To investigate this hypothesis, we determined the TP0092 regulon at two different time points during infection using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing. A total of 22 chromosomal regions, all containing putative TP0092-binding sites and corresponding to as many T. pallidum genes, were identified. Noteworthy among them are the genes encoding desulfoferrodoxin and thioredoxin, involved in detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Because T. pallidum does not possess other enzymes for ROS detoxification, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, or glutathione peroxidase, our results suggest that the TP0092 regulon is important in protecting the syphilis spirochete from damage caused by ROS produced at the site of infection during the inflammatory response. PMID:23243302

Denisenko, Oleg; Tompa, Martin; Centurion-Lara, Arturo

2013-01-01

106

RNA-Seq Analysis Reveals a Six-Gene SoxR Regulon in Streptomyces coelicolor  

PubMed Central

The redox-regulated transcription factor SoxR is conserved in diverse bacteria, but emerging studies suggest that this protein plays distinct physiological roles in different bacteria. SoxR regulates a global oxidative stress response (involving >100 genes) against exogenous redox-cycling drugs in Escherichia coli and related enterics. In the antibiotic producers Streptomyces coelicolor and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, however, SoxR regulates a smaller number of genes that encode membrane transporters and proteins with homology to antibiotic-tailoring enzymes. In both S. coelicolor and P. aeruginosa, SoxR-regulated genes are expressed in stationary phase during the production of endogenously-produced redox-active antibiotics. These observations suggest that SoxR evolved to sense endogenous secondary metabolites and activate machinery to process and transport them in antibiotic-producing bacteria. Previous bioinformatics analysis that searched the genome for SoxR-binding sites in putative promoters defined a five-gene SoxR regulon in S. coelicolor including an ABC transporter, two oxidoreductases, a monooxygenase and an epimerase/dehydratase. Since this in silico screen may have missed potential SoxR-targets, we conducted a whole genome transcriptome comparison of wild type S. coelicolor and a soxR-deficient mutant in stationary phase using RNA-Seq. Our analysis revealed a sixth SoxR-regulated gene in S. coelicolor that encodes a putative quinone oxidoreductase. Knowledge of the full complement of genes regulated by SoxR will facilitate studies to elucidate the function of this regulatory molecule in antibiotic producers. PMID:25162599

Naseer, Nawar; Shapiro, Joshua A.; Chander, Monica

2014-01-01

107

Identified members of the Streptomyces lividans AdpA regulon involved in differentiation and secondary metabolism  

PubMed Central

Background AdpA is a key transcriptional regulator involved in the complex growth cycle of Streptomyces. Streptomyces are Gram-positive bacteria well-known for their production of secondary metabolites and antibiotics. Most work on AdpA has been in S. griseus, and little is known about the pathways it controls in other Streptomyces spp. We recently discovered interplay between ClpP peptidases and AdpA in S. lividans. Here, we report the identification of genes directly regulated by AdpA in S. lividans. Results Microarray experiments revealed that the expression of hundreds of genes was affected in a S. lividans adpA mutant during early stationary phase cultures in YEME liquid medium. We studied the expression of the S. lividans AdpA-regulated genes by quantitative real-time PCR analysis after various times of growth. In silico analysis revealed the presence of potential AdpA-binding sites upstream from these genes; electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicated that AdpA binds directly to their promoter regions. This work identifies new pathways directly controlled by AdpA and that are involved in S. lividans development (ramR, SLI7885 also known as hyaS and SLI6586), and primary (SLI0755-SLI0754 encoding CYP105D5 and Fdx4) or secondary (cchA, cchB, and hyaS) metabolism. Conclusions We characterised six S. lividans AdpA-dependent genes whose expression is directly activated by this pleiotropic regulator. Several of these genes are orthologous to bldA-dependent genes in S. coelicolor. Furthermore, in silico analysis suggests that over hundred genes may be directly activated or repressed by S. lividans AdpA, although few have been described as being part of any Streptomyces AdpA regulons. This study increases the number of known AdpA-regulated pathways in Streptomyces spp. PMID:24694298

2014-01-01

108

Lipid Synthesis in Protozoan Parasites: a Comparison Between Kinetoplastids and Apicomplexans  

PubMed Central

Lipid metabolism is of crucial importance for pathogens. Lipids serve as cellular building blocks, signalling molecules, energy stores, posttranslational modifiers, and pathogenesis factors. Parasites rely on a complex system of uptake and synthesis mechanisms to satisfy their lipid needs. The parameters of this system change dramatically as the parasite transits through the various stages of its life cycle. Here we discuss the tremendous recent advances that have been made in the understanding of the synthesis and uptake pathways for fatty acids and phospholipids in apicomplexan and kinetoplastid parasites, including Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium, Trypanosoma and Leishmania. Lipid synthesis differs in significant ways between parasites from both phyla and the human host. Parasites have acquired novel pathways through endosymbiosis, as in the case of the apicoplast, have dramatically reshaped substrate and product profiles, and have evolved specialized lipids to interact with or manipulate the host. These differences potentially provide opportunities for drug development. We outline the lipid pathways for key species in detail as they progress through the developmental cycle and highlight those that are of particular importance to the biology of the pathogens and/or are the most promising targets for parasite-specific treatment. PMID:23827884

Ramakrishnan, Srinivasan; Serricchio, Mauro; Striepen, Boris; Butikofer, Peter

2013-01-01

109

Subcellular localization and characterization of chorismate synthase in the apicomplexan Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed

The resurgence of drug-resistant apicomplexa, in particular Plasmodium falciparum, the most fatal human malarial parasite, has focused attention on the recent discovery of the shikimate pathway in these organisms, as it may provide the urgently required, novel drug targets resulting from the absence of this pathway in mammals. The direction of a parasiticidal drug design programme obviously requires knowledge of the subcellular localization and indeed full characterization of the possible enzyme targets. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of chorismate synthase from P. falciparum and present the first biochemical and immunological studies of an enzyme of the shikimate pathway from an apicomplexan parasite. We show that this chorismate synthase does not possess an intrinsic flavin reductase activity and is therefore monofunctional like the plant and bacterial chorismate synthases. Highest immunological cross-reactivity was found with a plant chorismate synthase. However, in contrast to the plant enzyme, which is located to the plastid, P. falciparum chorismate synthase is found in the parasite cytosol, akin to the fungal enzymes that possess an intrinsic flavin reductase activity (i.e. are bifunctional). Thus, P. falciparum chorismate synthase has a combination of properties that distinguishes it from other described chorismate synthases. PMID:11298276

Fitzpatrick, T; Ricken, S; Lanzer, M; Amrhein, N; Macheroux, P; Kappes, B

2001-04-01

110

Identification of the Candida albicans Cap1p Regulon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cap1p, a transcription factor of the basic region leucine zipper family, regulates the oxidative stress response (OSR) in Candida albicans. Alteration of its C-terminal cysteine-rich domain (CRD) results in Cap1p nuclear retention and transcriptional activation. To better understand the function of Cap1p in C. albicans ,w e used genome-wide location profiling (chromatin immunoprecipitation-on-chip) to identify its transcriptional targets in vivo.

Sadri Znaidi; Katherine S. Barker; Sandra Weber; Anne-Marie Alarco; Teresa T. Liu; Genevieve Boucher; P. David Rogers; Martine Raymond

2009-01-01

111

Variable Suites of Non-effector Genes Are Co-regulated in the Type III Secretion Virulence Regulon across the Pseudomonas syringae Phylogeny  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas syringae is a phylogenetically diverse species of Gram-negative bacterial plant pathogens responsible for crop diseases around the world. The HrpL sigma factor drives expression of the major P. syringae virulence regulon. HrpL controls expression of the genes encoding the structural and functional components of the type III secretion system (T3SS) and the type three secreted effector proteins (T3E) that are collectively essential for virulence. HrpL also regulates expression of an under-explored suite of non-type III effector genes (non-T3E), including toxin production systems and operons not previously associated with virulence. We implemented and refined genome-wide transcriptional analysis methods using cDNA-derived high-throughput sequencing (RNA-seq) data to characterize the HrpL regulon from six isolates of P. syringae spanning the diversity of the species. Our transcriptomes, mapped onto both complete and draft genomes, significantly extend earlier studies. We confirmed HrpL-regulation for a majority of previously defined T3E genes in these six strains. We identified two new T3E families from P. syringae pv. oryzae 1_6, a strain within the relatively underexplored phylogenetic Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) group IV. The HrpL regulons varied among strains in gene number and content across both their T3E and non-T3E gene suites. Strains within MLST group II consistently express the lowest number of HrpL-regulated genes. We identified events leading to recruitment into, and loss from, the HrpL regulon. These included gene gain and loss, and loss of HrpL regulation caused by group-specific cis element mutations in otherwise conserved genes. Novel non-T3E HrpL-regulated genes include an operon that we show is required for full virulence of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola 1448A on French bean. We highlight the power of integrating genomic, transcriptomic, and phylogenetic information to drive concise functional experimentation and to derive better insight into the evolution of virulence across an evolutionarily diverse pathogen species. PMID:24391493

Mucyn, Tatiana S.; Yourstone, Scott; Lind, Abigail L.; Biswas, Surojit; Nishimura, Marc T.; Baltrus, David A.; Cumbie, Jason S.; Chang, Jeff H.; Jones, Corbin D.; Dangl, Jeffery L.; Grant, Sarah R.

2014-01-01

112

Regulation of rugosity and biofilm formation in Vibrio cholerae: comparison of VpsT and VpsR regulons and epistasis analysis of vpsT, vpsR, and hapR.  

PubMed

Vibrio cholerae undergoes phenotypic variation that generates two morphologically different variants, termed smooth and rugose. The transcriptional profiles of the two variants differ greatly, and many of the differentially regulated genes are controlled by a complex regulatory circuitry that includes the transcriptional regulators VpsR, VpsT, and HapR. In this study, we identified the VpsT regulon and compared the VpsT and VpsR regulons to elucidate the contribution of each positive regulator to the rugose variant transcriptional profile and associated phenotypes. We have found that although the VpsT and VpsR regulons are very similar, the magnitude of the gene regulation accomplished by each regulator is different. We also determined that cdgA, which encodes a GGDEF domain protein, is partially responsible for the altered vps gene expression between the vpsT and vpsR mutants. Analysis of epistatic relationships among hapR, vpsT, and vpsR with respect to a whole-genome expression profile, colony morphology, and biofilm formation revealed that vpsR is epistatic to hapR and vpsT. Expression of virulence genes was increased in a vpsR hapR double mutant relative to a hapR mutant, suggesting that VpsR negatively regulates virulence gene expression in the hapR mutant. These results show that a complex regulatory interplay among VpsT, VpsR, HapR, and GGDEF/EAL family proteins controls transcription of the genes required for Vibrio polysaccharide and virulence factor production in V. cholerae. PMID:17071756

Beyhan, Sinem; Bilecen, Kivanc; Salama, Sofie R; Casper-Lindley, Catharina; Yildiz, Fitnat H

2007-01-01

113

Proteomic Analysis of the Quorum-Sensing Regulon in Pantoea stewartii and Identification of Direct Targets of EsaR  

PubMed Central

The proteobacterium Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii causes Stewart's wilt disease in maize when it colonizes the xylem and secretes large amounts of stewartan, an exopolysaccharide. The success of disease pathogenesis lies in the timing of bacterial virulence factor expression through the different stages of infection. Regulation is achieved through a quorum-sensing (QS) system consisting of the acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) synthase, EsaI, and the transcription regulator EsaR. At low cell densities, EsaR represses transcription of itself and of rcsA, an activator of the stewartan biosynthesis operon; it also activates esaS, which encodes a small RNA (sRNA). Repression or activation ceases at high cell densities when EsaI synthesizes sufficient levels of the AHL ligand N-3-oxo-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone to bind and inactivate EsaR. This study aims to identify other genes activated or repressed by EsaR during the QS response. Proteomic analysis identified a QS regulon of more than 30 proteins. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays of promoters of genes encoding differentially expressed proteins distinguished direct targets of EsaR from indirect targets. Additional quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and DNA footprinting analysis established that EsaR directly regulates the promoters of dkgA, glpF, and lrhA. The proteins encoded by dkgA, glpF, and lrhA are a 2,5-diketogluconate reductase, glycerol facilitator, and transcriptional regulator of chemotaxis and motility, respectively, indicating a more global QS response in P. stewartii than previously recognized. PMID:23913428

Ramachandran, Revathy

2013-01-01

114

Investigation of the malE Promoter and MalR, a Positive Regulator of the Maltose Regulon, for an Improved Expression System in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius  

PubMed Central

In this study, the regulator MalR (Saci_1161) of the TrmB family from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius was identified and was shown to be involved in transcriptional control of the maltose regulon (Saci_1660 to Saci_1666), including the ABC transporter (malEFGK), ?-amylase (amyA), and ?-glycosidase (malA). The ?malR deletion mutant exhibited a significantly decreased growth rate on maltose and dextrin but not on sucrose. The expression of the genes organized in the maltose regulon was induced only in the presence of MalR and maltose in the growth medium, indicating that MalR, in contrast to its TrmB and TrmB-like homologues, is an activator of the maltose gene cluster. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that the binding of MalR to malE was independent of sugars. Here we report the identification of the archaeal maltose regulator protein MalR, which acts as an activator and controls the expression of genes involved in maltose transport and metabolic conversion in S. acidocaldarius, and its use for improvement of the S. acidocaldarius expression system under the control of an optimized maltose binding protein (malE) promoter by promoter mutagenesis. PMID:24271181

Wagner, Michaela; Wagner, Alexander; Ma, Xiaoqing; Kort, Julia Christin; Ghosh, Abhrajyoti; Rauch, Bernadette; Siebers, Bettina

2014-01-01

115

Analysis of the ArcA regulon in anaerobically grown Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium  

PubMed Central

Background Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a Gram-negative pathogen that must successfully adapt to the broad fluctuations in the concentration of dissolved dioxygen encountered in the host. In Escherichia coli, ArcA (Aerobic Respiratory Control) helps the cells to sense and respond to the presence of dioxygen. The global role of ArcA in E. coli is well characterized; however, little is known about its role in anaerobically grown S. Typhimurium. Results We compared the transcriptional profiles of the virulent wild-type (WT) strain (ATCC 14028s) and its isogenic arcA mutant grown under anaerobic conditions. We found that ArcA directly or indirectly regulates 392 genes (8.5% of the genome); of these, 138 genes are poorly characterized. Regulation by ArcA in S. Typhimurium is similar, but distinct from that in E. coli. Thus, genes/operons involved in core metabolic pathways (e.g., succinyl-CoA, fatty acid degradation, cytochrome oxidase complexes, flagellar biosynthesis, motility, and chemotaxis) were regulated similarly in the two organisms. However, genes/operons present in both organisms, but regulated differently by ArcA in S. Typhimurium included those coding for ethanolamine utilization, lactate transport and metabolism, and succinate dehydrogenases. Salmonella-specific genes/operons regulated by ArcA included those required for propanediol utilization, flagellar genes (mcpAC, cheV), Gifsy-1 prophage genes, and three SPI-3 genes (mgtBC, slsA, STM3784). In agreement with our microarray data, the arcA mutant was non-motile, lacked flagella, and was as virulent in mice as the WT. Additionally, we identified a set of 120 genes whose regulation was shared with the anaerobic redox regulator, Fnr. Conclusion(s) We have identified the ArcA regulon in anaerobically grown S. Typhimurium. Our results demonstrated that in S. Typhimurium, ArcA serves as a transcriptional regulator coordinating cellular metabolism, flagella biosynthesis, and motility. Furthermore, ArcA and Fnr share in the regulation of 120 S. Typhimurium genes. PMID:21418628

2011-01-01

116

Overproduction of AcrR increases organic solvent tolerance mediated by modulation of SoxS regulon in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Acriflavine resistance regulator (AcrR), a local transcription factor, regulates the expression of the acrRAB genes associated with the AcrAB-TolC multidrug efflux pump. Screening of organic solvent tolerance (OST) with the overexpression of 13 genes in Escherichia coli revealed that the overexpression of acrR improved OST. Overexpression of AcrR in a background strain of wild-type E. coli and in the OST strain LMB015 (?fadR ?marR; acrR (+) and ?fadR ?marR acrR (+) strain, respectively) significantly increased cell growth in the presence of n-hexane/cyclohexane, which attenuated the membrane reduction capacity of the wild-type strain below 50 % of the control level. This was recovered to control levels in the acrR (+) strain. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of RNA from the wild-type, ?acrR, and acrR (+) strains showed that AcrR represses the transcription of marRAB and soxRS, and its own gene cluster, acrRAB. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that AcrR binds directly to the promoter region of acrRAB, marAB, and soxRS, indicating that AcrR acts on global regulators to affect mar-sox-rob regulon. In the acrR (+) strain, soxS expression was significantly upregulated compared with the wild-type. The OST of the acrR (+) strain was completely lost in the ?soxS acrR (+) strain, indicating that SoxS mediated OST improvement in the acrR (+) strain. The observation that all genes associated with marRAB and soxRS are upregulated in the ?acrR strain, and that there is only moderate induction of soxS (and marB) in the acrR (+) strain, provides insight into how acrR overexpression confers bacterial OST and the mar-sox-rob regulon control network. PMID:25176444

Lee, Jae Ok; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Kim, Ok Bin

2014-10-01

117

Re-Emergence of the Apicomplexan Theileria equi in the United States: Elimination of Persistent Infection and Transmission Risk  

PubMed Central

Arthropod-borne apicomplexan pathogens that cause asymptomatic persistent infections present a significant challenge due to their life-long transmission potential. Although anti-microbials have been used to ameliorate acute disease in animals and humans, chemotherapeutic efficacy for apicomplexan pathogen elimination from a persistently infected host and removal of transmission risk is largely unconfirmed. The recent re-emergence of the apicomplexan Theileria equi in U.S. horses prompted testing whether imidocarb dipropionate was able to eliminate T. equi from naturally infected horses and remove transmission risk. Following imidocarb treatment, levels of T. equi declined from a mean of 104.9 organisms/ml of blood to undetectable by nested PCR in 24 of 25 naturally infected horses. Further, blood transfer from treated horses that became nested PCR negative failed to transmit to naďve splenectomized horses. Although these results were consistent with elimination of infection in 24 of 25 horses, T. equi-specific antibodies persisted in the majority of imidocarb treated horses. Imidocarb treatment was unsuccessful in one horse which remained infected as measured by nested PCR and retained the ability to infect a naďve recipient via intravenous blood transfer. However, a second round of treatment eliminated T. equi infection. These results support the utility of imidocarb chemotherapy for assistance in the control and eradication of this tick-borne pathogen. Successful imidocarb dipropionate treatment of persistently infected horses provides a tool to aid the global equine industry by removing transmission risk associated with infection and facilitating international movement of equids between endemic and non-endemic regions. PMID:22970295

Ueti, Massaro W.; Mealey, Robert H.; Kappmeyer, Lowell S.; White, Stephen N.; Kumpula-McWhirter, Nancy; Pelzel, Angela M.; Grause, Juanita F.; Bunn, Thomas O.; Schwartz, Andy; Traub-Dargatz, Josie L.; Hendrickson, Amy; Espy, Benjamin; Guthrie, Alan J.; Fowler, W. Kent; Knowles, Donald P.

2012-01-01

118

Investigation of the Fur regulon in G. sulfurreducens  

E-print Network

Iron-dependent transcriptional regulators: Two key regulatory proteinsRegulatory functions ferric uptake regulation protein Fur iron/regulatory protein P-II, putative Transport and binding proteins (5) GSU3268 feoB-2 30882 ferrous iron

Shieu, Wendy Aiween

2010-01-01

119

Inducer responses of BenM, a LysR-type transcriptional regulator from Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1  

Microsoft Academic Search

BenM and CatM control transcription of a complex regulon for aromatic compound degradation. These Acinetobacter baylyi paralogues belong to the largest family of prokaryotic transcriptional regulators, the LysR-type proteins. Whereas BenM activates transcription synergistically in response to two effectors, benzoate and cis,cis-muconate, CatM responds only to cis,cis-muconate. Here, site-directed mutagenesis was used to determine the physiological significance of an unexpected

Sarah H. Craven; Obidimma C. Ezezika; Sandra Haddad; Ruth A. Hall; Cory Momany; Ellen L. Neidle

2009-01-01

120

Genomic reconstruction of transcriptional regulatory networks in lactic acid bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background Genome scale annotation of regulatory interactions and reconstruction of regulatory networks are the crucial problems in bacterial genomics. The Lactobacillales order of bacteria collates various microorganisms having a large economic impact, including both human and animal pathogens and strains used in the food industry. Nonetheless, no systematic genome-wide analysis of transcriptional regulation has been previously made for this taxonomic group. Results A comparative genomics approach was used for reconstruction of transcriptional regulatory networks in 30 selected genomes of lactic acid bacteria. The inferred networks comprise regulons for 102 orthologous transcription factors (TFs), including 47 novel regulons for previously uncharacterized TFs. Numerous differences between regulatory networks of the Streptococcaceae and Lactobacillaceae groups were described on several levels. The two groups are characterized by substantially different sets of TFs encoded in their genomes. Content of the inferred regulons and structure of their cognate TF binding motifs differ for many orthologous TFs between the two groups. Multiple cases of non-orthologous displacements of TFs that control specific metabolic pathways were reported. Conclusions The reconstructed regulatory networks substantially expand the existing knowledge of transcriptional regulation in lactic acid bacteria. In each of 30 studied genomes the obtained regulatory network contains on average 36 TFs and 250 target genes that are mostly involved in carbohydrate metabolism, stress response, metal homeostasis and amino acids biosynthesis. The inferred networks can be used for genetic experiments, functional annotations of genes, metabolic reconstruction and evolutionary analysis. All reconstructed regulons are captured within the Streptococcaceae and Lactobacillaceae collections in the RegPrecise database (http://regprecise.lbl.gov). PMID:23398941

2013-01-01

121

Global Transcriptional Response of Bacillus subtilis to Heat Shock  

Microsoft Academic Search

of these genes are members of a general stress response regulon controlled by the secondary sigma factor, B, while others are under control of the HrcA or CtsR heat shock regulators. We have used DNA microarrays to monitor the global transcriptional response to heat shock. We find strong induction of known B-dependent genes with a characteristic rapid induction followed by

JOHN D. HELMANN; M. F. W. Wu; PHIL A. KOBEL; FRANCISCO-JAVIER GAMO; MICHAEL WILSON; MAUD M. MORSHEDI; MARC NAVRE; CHRIS PADDON

2001-01-01

122

The MetJ regulon in gammaproteobacteria determined by comparative genomics methods  

PubMed Central

Background Whole-genome sequencing of bacteria has proceeded at an exponential pace but annotation validation has lagged behind. For instance, the MetJ regulon, which controls methionine biosynthesis and transport, has been studied almost exclusively in E. coli and Salmonella, but homologs of MetJ exist in a variety of other species. These include some that are pathogenic (e.g. Yersinia) and some that are important for environmental remediation (e.g. Shewanella) but many of which have not been extensively characterized in the literature. Results We have determined the likely composition of the MetJ regulon in all species which have MetJ homologs using bioinformatics techniques. We show that the core genes known from E. coli are consistently regulated in other species, and we identify previously unknown members of the regulon. These include the cobalamin transporter, btuB; all the genes involved in the methionine salvage pathway; as well as several enzymes and transporters of unknown specificity. Conclusions The MetJ regulon is present and functional in five orders of gammaproteobacteria: Enterobacteriales, Pasteurellales, Vibrionales, Aeromonadales and Alteromonadales. New regulatory activity for MetJ was identified in the genomic data and verified experimentally. This strategy should be applicable for the elucidation of regulatory pathways in other systems by using the extensive sequencing data currently being generated. PMID:22082356

2011-01-01

123

Defense against protein carbonylation by DnaK/DnaJ and proteases of the heat shock regulon.  

PubMed

Protein carbonylation is an irreversible oxidative modification that increases during organism aging and bacterial growth arrest. We analyzed whether the heat shock regulon has a role in defending Escherichia coli cells against this deleterious modification upon entry into stationary phase. Providing the cell with ectopically elevated levels of the heat shock transcription factor, sigma32, effectively reduced stasis-induced carbonylation. Separate overproduction of the major chaperone systems, DnaK/DnaJ and GroEL/GroES, established that the former of these is more important in counteracting protein carbonylation. Deletion of the heat shock proteases Lon and HslVU enhanced carbonylation whereas a clpP deletion alone had no effect. However, ClpP appears to have a role in reducing protein carbonyls in cells lacking Lon and HslVU. Proteomic immunodetection of carbonylated proteins in the wild-type, lon, and hslVU strains demonstrated that the same spectrum of proteins displayed a higher load of carbonyl groups in the lon and hslVU mutants. These proteins included the beta-subunit of RNA polymerase, elongation factors Tu and G, the E1 subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, isocitrate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, and serine hydroxymethyltranferase. PMID:15937182

Fredriksson, Asa; Ballesteros, Manuel; Dukan, Sam; Nyström, Thomas

2005-06-01

124

moaR, a gene that encodes a positive regulator of the monoamine regulon in Klebsiella aerogenes.  

PubMed Central

We cloned and sequenced a Klebsiella aerogenes gene (moaR) for activation of arylsulfatase synthesis by tyramine. This gene was cloned by complementation of a K. aerogenes mutant in which tyramine fails to relieve the arylsulfatase repression caused by sulfur compounds. The moaR gene also activated induction of the synthesis of both tyramine oxidase and the 30-kDa protein that is specifically induced by high concentrations of tyramine or catecholamines. The moaR gene on the chromosome of the wild-type strain of K. aerogenes was disrupted by homologous recombination with a plasmid containing the inactivated moaR. The resultant mutant showed the same phenotype as previously isolated atsT mutant strains that are negative for the derepressed synthesis of arylsulfatase. In this mutant strain, tyramine also failed to induce the synthesis of tyramine oxidase or the production of a 30-kDa protein. The moaR gene is capable of encoding a protein of 26,238 Da. The putative MoaR protein has a helix-turn-helix motif in its C terminus. Thus, it seems likely that the MoaR protein regulates the operons by binding to the regulatory region of the monoamine regulon. The MoaR protein is subject to autogenous control, which was shown by use of a moaR'-lacZ transcriptional fusion. Images PMID:8407801

Azakami, H; Sugino, H; Yokoro, N; Iwata, N; Murooka, Y

1993-01-01

125

Identification of genes for small non-coding RNAs that belong to the regulon of the two-component regulatory system CiaRH in Streptococcus  

PubMed Central

Background Post-transcriptional regulation by small RNAs (sRNAs) in bacteria is now recognized as a wide-spread regulatory mechanism modulating a variety of physiological responses including virulence. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, an important human pathogen, the first sRNAs to be described were found in the regulon of the CiaRH two-component regulatory system. Five of these sRNAs were detected and designated csRNAs for cia-dependent small RNAs. CiaRH pleiotropically affects ?-lactam resistance, autolysis, virulence, and competence development by yet to be defined molecular mechanisms. Since CiaRH is highly conserved among streptococci, it is of interest to determine if csRNAs are also included in the CiaRH regulon in this group of organisms consisting of commensal as well as pathogenic species. Knowledge on the participation of csRNAs in CiaRH-dependent regulatory events will be the key to define the physiological role of this important control system. Results Genes for csRNAs were predicted in streptococcal genomes and data base entries other than S. pneumoniae by searching for CiaR-activated promoters located in intergenic regions that are followed by a transcriptional terminator. 61 different candidate genes were obtained specifying csRNAs ranging in size from 51 to 202 nt. Comparing these genes among each other revealed 40 different csRNA types. All streptococcal genomes harbored csRNA genes, their numbers varying between two and six. To validate these predictions, S. mitis, S. oralis, and S. sanguinis were subjected to csRNA-specific northern blot analysis. In addition, a csRNA gene from S. thermophilus plasmid pST0 introduced into S. pneumoniae was also tested. Each of the csRNAs was detected on these blots and showed the anticipated sizes. Thus, the method applied here is able to predict csRNAs with high precision. Conclusions The results of this study strongly suggest that genes for small non-coding RNAs, csRNAs, are part of the regulon of the two-component regulatory system CiaRH in all streptococci. PMID:21106082

2010-01-01

126

The Copper-Responsive RicR Regulon Contributes to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Virulence  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT As with most life on Earth, the transition metal copper (Cu) is essential for the viability of the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, infected hosts can also use Cu to control microbial growth. Several Cu-responsive pathways are present in M. tuberculosis, including the regulated in copper repressor (RicR) regulon, which is unique to pathogenic mycobacteria. In this work, we describe the contribution of each RicR-regulated gene to Cu resistance in vitro and to virulence in animals. We found that the deletion or disruption of individual RicR-regulated genes had no impact on virulence in mice, although several mutants had Cu hypersensitivity. In contrast, a mutant unable to activate the RicR regulon was not only highly susceptible to Cu but also attenuated in mice. Thus, these data suggest that several genes of the RicR regulon are required simultaneously to combat Cu toxicity in vivo or that this regulon is also important for resistance against Cu-independent mechanisms of host defense. IMPORTANCE Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of tuberculosis, killing millions of people every year. Therefore, understanding the biology of M. tuberculosis is crucial for the development of new therapies to treat this devastating disease. Our studies reveal that although host-supplied Cu can suppress bacterial growth, M. tuberculosis has a unique pathway, the RicR regulon, to defend against Cu toxicity. These findings suggest that Cu homeostasis pathways in both the host and the pathogen could be exploited for the treatment of tuberculosis. PMID:24549843

Shi, Xiaoshan; Festa, Richard A.; Ioerger, Thomas R.; Butler-Wu, Susan; Sacchettini, James C.; Darwin, K. Heran; Samanovic, Marie I.

2014-01-01

127

Role of the small RNA RyhB in the Fur regulon in mediating the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis and iron acquisition systems in Klebsiella pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

Background The capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and iron acquisition systems are important determinants of Klebsiella pneumoniae infections, and we have previously reported that the ferric uptake repressor (Fur) can play dual role in iron acquisition and CPS biosynthesis. In many bacteria, Fur negatively controls the transcription of the small non-coding RNA RyhB to modulate cellular functions and virulence. However, in K. pneumoniae, the role played by RyhB in the Fur regulon has not been characterised. This study investigated Fur regulation of ryhB transcription and the functional role of RyhB in K. pneumoniae. Results Deletion of fur from K. pneumoniae increased the transcription of ryhB; the electric mobility shift assay and the Fur-titration assay revealed that Fur could bind to the promoter region of ryhB, suggesting that Fur directly represses ryhB transcription. Additionally, in a ?fur strain with elevated CPS production, deletion of ryhB obviously reduced CPS production. The following promoter-reporter assay and quantitative real-time PCR of cps genes verified that RyhB activated orf1 and orf16 transcription to elevate CPS production. However, deletion of ryhB did not affect the mRNA levels of rcsA, rmpA, or rmpA2. These results imply that Fur represses the transcription of ryhB to mediate the biosynthesis of CPS, which is independent of RcsA, RmpA, and RmpA2. In addition, the ?fur strain’s high level of serum resistance was attenuated by the deletion of ryhB, indicating that RyhB plays a positive role in protecting the bacterium from serum killing. Finally, deletion of ryhB in ?fur reduced the expression of several genes corresponding to 3 iron acquisition systems in K. pneumoniae, and resulted in reduced siderophore production. Conclusions The regulation and functional role of RyhB in K. pneumoniae is characterized in this study. RyhB participates in Fur regulon to modulate the bacterial CPS biosynthesis and iron acquisition systems in K. pneumoniae. PMID:22827802

2012-01-01

128

Apicortin, a unique protein, with a putative cytoskeletal role, shared only by apicomplexan parasites and the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens.  

PubMed

A new protein, termed apicortin, has been identified, which contains a DCX (doublecortin) and a partial p25-alpha domain. The DCX domains of the doublecortin superfamily are responsible for their microtubule binding and stabilizing properties. The p25-alpha domain occurs in TPPPs (Tubulin Polymerization Promoting Proteins) exhibiting Microtubule Associated Protein (MAP)-like functions. TPPP orthologs can be classified as long- and short-type ones. The latter ones do not contain the partial p25-alpha domain, which is the most conservative part of the long-type TPPPs and was evolutionary-preserved independently from the whole domain. Apicortin seems to occur only in the placozoan animal Trichoplax adhaerens and in each of the apicomplexan parasites, the genomes of which are available. The function of the novel protein can be predicted from the fact that it contains two different microtubule-binding domains. Apicomplexans, important pathogens of humans and animals, possess unique cytoskeletal elements, as subpellicular microtubules and apical polar rings, which are specific for this phylum, extremely stabilized by unknown MAPs. One of the candidates can be the apicortin, which is supported by a recent experimental proteomics analysis. The role of the new protein in T. adhaerens may be similar but needs clarification. PMID:19778640

Orosz, Ferenc

2009-12-01

129

The GroE chaperonin machine is a major modulator of the CIRCE heat shock regulon of Bacillus subtilis.  

PubMed Central

Class I heat-inducible genes in Bacillus subtilis consist of the heptacistronic dnaK and the bicistronic groE operon and form the CIRCE regulon. Both operons are negatively regulated at the level of transcription by the HrcA repressor interacting with its operator, the CIRCE element. Here, we demonstrate that the DnaK chaperone machine is not involved in the regulation of HrcA and that the GroE chaperonin exerts a negative effect in the post-transcriptional control of HrcA. When expression of the groE operon was turned off, the dnaK operon was significantly activated and large amounts of apparently inactive HrcA repressor were produced. Overproduction of GroEL, on the other hand, resulted in decreased expression of the dnaK operon. Introduction of the hrcA gene and its operator into Escherichia coli was sufficient to elicit a transient heat shock response, indicating that no additional Bacillus-specific gene(s) was needed. As in B. subtilis, the groEL gene of E. coli negatively influenced the activity of HrcA. HrcA could be overproduced in E. coli, but formed inclusion bodies which could be dissolved in 8 M urea. Upon removal of urea, HrcA had a strong tendency to aggregate, but aggregation could be suppressed significantly by the addition of GroEL. Purified HrcA repressor was able specifically to retard a DNA fragment containing the CIRCE element, and the amount of retarded DNA was increased significantly in the presence of GroEL. These results suggest that the GroE chaperonin machine modulates the activity of the HrcA repressor and therefore point to a novel function of GroE as a modulator of the heat shock response. PMID:9303302

Mogk, A; Homuth, G; Scholz, C; Kim, L; Schmid, F X; Schumann, W

1997-01-01

130

Identification of a CO2 Responsive Regulon in Bordetella  

PubMed Central

Sensing the environment allows pathogenic bacteria to coordinately regulate gene expression to maximize survival within or outside of a host. Here we show that Bordetella species regulate virulence factor expression in response to carbon dioxide levels that mimic in vivo conditions within the respiratory tract. We found strains of Bordetella bronchiseptica that did not produce adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) when grown in liquid or solid media with ambient air aeration, but produced ACT and additional antigens when grown in air supplemented to 5% CO2. Transcriptome analysis and quantitative real time-PCR analysis revealed that strain 761, as well as strain RB50, increased transcription of genes encoding ACT, filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin, fimbriae and the type III secretion system in 5% CO2 conditions, relative to ambient air. Furthermore, transcription of cyaA and fhaB in response to 5% CO2 was increased even in the absence of BvgS. In vitro analysis also revealed increases in cytotoxicity and adherence when strains were grown in 5% CO2. The human pathogens B. pertussis and B. parapertussis also increased transcription of several virulence factors when grown in 5% CO2, indicating that this response is conserved among the classical bordetellae. Together, our data indicate that Bordetella species can sense and respond to physiologically relevant changes in CO2 concentrations by regulating virulence factors important for colonization, persistence and evasion of the host immune response. PMID:23112828

Hester, Sara E.; Lui, Minghsun; Nicholson, Tracy; Nowacki, Daryl; Harvill, Eric T.

2012-01-01

131

Genome-Wide Analysis of Cell Type-Specific Gene Transcription during Spore Formation in Clostridium difficile  

PubMed Central

Clostridium difficile, a Gram positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium is an emergent pathogen and the most common cause of nosocomial diarrhea. Although transmission of C. difficile is mediated by contamination of the gut by spores, the regulatory cascade controlling spore formation remains poorly characterized. During Bacillus subtilis sporulation, a cascade of four sigma factors, ?F and ?G in the forespore and ?E and ?K in the mother cell governs compartment-specific gene expression. In this work, we combined genome wide transcriptional analyses and promoter mapping to define the C. difficile ?F, ?E, ?G and ?K regulons. We identified about 225 genes under the control of these sigma factors: 25 in the ?F regulon, 97 ?E-dependent genes, 50 ?G-governed genes and 56 genes under ?K control. A significant fraction of genes in each regulon is of unknown function but new candidates for spore coat proteins could be proposed as being synthesized under ?E or ?K control and detected in a previously published spore proteome. SpoIIID of C. difficile also plays a pivotal role in the mother cell line of expression repressing the transcription of many members of the ?E regulon and activating sigK expression. Global analysis of developmental gene expression under the control of these sigma factors revealed deviations from the B. subtilis model regarding the communication between mother cell and forespore in C. difficile. We showed that the expression of the ?E regulon in the mother cell was not strictly under the control of ?F despite the fact that the forespore product SpoIIR was required for the processing of pro-?E. In addition, the ?K regulon was not controlled by ?G in C. difficile in agreement with the lack of pro-?K processing. This work is one key step to obtain new insights about the diversity and evolution of the sporulation process among Firmicutes. PMID:24098137

Saujet, Laure; Soutourina, Olga; Monot, Marc; Shelyakin, Pavel V.; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Dupuy, Bruno; Henriques, Adriano O.; Martin-Verstraete, Isabelle

2013-01-01

132

Comparative genomic reconstruction of transcriptional networks controlling central metabolism in the Shewanella genus  

SciTech Connect

Genome-scale prediction of gene regulation and reconstruction of transcriptional regulatory networks in bacteria is one of the critical tasks of modern genomics. Despite the growing number of genome-scale gene expression studies, our abilities to convert the results of these studies into accurate regulatory annotations and to project them from model to other organisms are extremely limited. The comparative genomics approaches and computational identification of regulatory sites are useful for the in silico reconstruction of transcriptional regulatory networks in bacteria. The Shewanella genus is comprised of metabolically versatile gamma-proteobacteria, whose lifestyles and natural environments are substantially different from Escherichia coli and other model bacterial species. To explore conservation and variations in the Shewanella transcriptional networks we analyzed the repertoire of transcription factors and performed genomics-based reconstruction and comparative analysis of regulons in 16 Shewanella genomes. The inferred regulatory network includes 82 transcription factors and their DNA binding sites, 8 riboswitches and 6 translational attenuators. Forty five regulons were newly inferred from the genome context analysis, whereas others were propagated from previously characterized regulons in the Enterobacteria and Pseudomonas spp.. However, even orthologous regulators with conserved DNA-binding motifs may control substantially different gene sets, revealing striking differences in regulatory strategies between the Shewanella spp. and E. coli. Multiple examples of regulatory network rewiring include regulon contraction and expansion (as in the case of PdhR, HexR, FadR), and numerous cases of recruiting non-orthologous regulators to control equivalent pathways (e.g. NagR for N-acetylglucosamine catabolism and PsrA for fatty acid degradation) and, conversely, orthologous regulators to control distinct pathways (e.g. TyrR, ArgR, Crp).

Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Novichkov, Pavel; Stavrovskaya, Elena D.; Rodionova, Irina A.; Li, Xiaoqing; Kazanov, Marat D.; Ravcheev, Dmitry A.; Gerasimova, Anna V.; Kazakov, Alexey E.; Kovaleva, Galina Y.; Permina, Elizabeth A.; Laikova, Olga N.; Overbeek, Ross; Romine, Margaret F.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Arkin, Adam P.; Dubchak, Inna; Osterman, Andrei L.; Gelfand, Mikhail S.

2011-06-15

133

Ribulokinase and Transcriptional Regulation of Arabinose Metabolism in Clostridium acetobutylicum  

PubMed Central

The transcription factor AraR controls utilization of l-arabinose in Bacillus subtilis. In this study, we combined a comparative genomic reconstruction of AraR regulons in nine Clostridium species with detailed experimental characterization of AraR-mediated regulation in Clostridium acetobutylicum. Based on the reconstructed AraR regulons, a novel ribulokinase, AraK, present in all analyzed Clostridium species was identified, which was a nonorthologous replacement of previously characterized ribulokinases. The predicted function of the araK gene was confirmed by inactivation of the araK gene in C. acetobutylicum and biochemical assays using purified recombinant AraK. In addition to the genes involved in arabinose utilization and arabinoside degradation, extension of the AraR regulon to the pentose phosphate pathway genes in several Clostridium species was revealed. The predicted AraR-binding sites in the C. acetobutylicum genome and the negative effect of l-arabinose on DNA-regulator complex formation were verified by in vitro binding assays. The predicted AraR-controlled genes in C. acetobutylicum were experimentally validated by testing gene expression patterns in both wild-type and araR-inactivated mutant strains during growth in the absence or presence of l-arabinose. PMID:22194461

Zhang, Lei; Leyn, Semen A.; Gu, Yang; Jiang, Weihong

2012-01-01

134

Dissimilatory Metabolism of Nitrogen Oxides in Bacteria: Comparative Reconstruction of Transcriptional Networks  

PubMed Central

Bacterial response to nitric oxide (NO) is of major importance since NO is an obligatory intermediate of the nitrogen cycle. Transcriptional regulation of the dissimilatory nitric oxides metabolism in bacteria is diverse and involves FNR-like transcription factors HcpR, DNR, and NnrR; two-component systems NarXL and NarQP; NO-responsive activator NorR; and nitrite-sensitive repressor NsrR. Using comparative genomics approaches, we predict DNA-binding motifs for these transcriptional factors and describe corresponding regulons in available bacterial genomes. Within the FNR family of regulators, we observed a correlation of two specificity-determining amino acids and contacting bases in corresponding DNA recognition motif. Highly conserved regulon HcpR for the hybrid cluster protein and some other redox enzymes is present in diverse anaerobic bacteria, including Clostridia, Thermotogales, and delta-proteobacteria. NnrR and DNR control denitrification in alpha- and beta-proteobacteria, respectively. Sigma-54-dependent NorR regulon found in some gamma- and beta-proteobacteria contains various enzymes involved in the NO detoxification. Repressor NsrR, which was previously known to control only nitrite reductase operon in Nitrosomonas spp., appears to be the master regulator of the nitric oxides' metabolism, not only in most gamma- and beta-proteobacteria (including well-studied species such as Escherichia coli), but also in Gram-positive Bacillus and Streptomyces species. Positional analysis and comparison of regulatory regions of NO detoxification genes allows us to propose the candidate NsrR-binding motif. The most conserved member of the predicted NsrR regulon is the NO-detoxifying flavohemoglobin Hmp. In enterobacteria, the regulon also includes two nitrite-responsive loci, nipAB (hcp-hcr) and nipC (dnrN), thus confirming the identity of the effector, i.e. nitrite. The proposed NsrR regulons in Neisseria and some other species are extended to include denitrification genes. As the result, we demonstrate considerable interconnection between various nitrogen-oxides-responsive regulatory systems for the denitrification and NO detoxification genes and evolutionary plasticity of this transcriptional network. PMID:16261196

Rodionov, Dmitry A; Dubchak, Inna L; Arkin, Adam P; Alm, Eric J; Gelfand, Mikhail S

2005-01-01

135

Dissimilatory Metabolism of Nitrogen Oxides in Bacteria:Comparative Reconstruction of Transcriptional Networks  

SciTech Connect

Bacterial response to nitric oxide (NO) is of major importance since NO is an obligatory intermediate of the nitrogen cycle. Transcriptional regulation of the dissimilatory nitric oxides metabolism in bacteria is diverse and involves FNR-like transcription factors HcpR, DNR and NnrR, two-component systems NarXL and NarQP, NO-responsive activator NorR, and nitrite sensitive repressor NsrR. Using comparative genomics approaches we predict DNA-binding signals for these transcriptional factors and describe corresponding regulons in available bacterial genomes. Within the FNR family of regulators, we observed a correlation of two specificity-determining amino acids and contacting bases in corresponding DNA signal. Highly conserved regulon HcpR for the hybrid cluster protein and some other redox enzymes is present in diverse anaerobic bacteria including Clostridia, Thermotogales and delta-proteobacteria. NnrR and DNR control denitrification in alpha- and beta-proteobacteria, respectively. Sigma-54-dependent NorR regulon found in some gamma- and beta-proteobacteria contains various enzymes involved in the NO detoxification. Repressor NsrR, which was previously known to control only nitrite reductase operon in Nitrosomonas spp., appears to be the master regulator of the nitric oxides metabolism not only in most gamma- and beta-proteobacteria (including well-studied species like Escherichia coli), but also in Gram-positive Bacillus and Streptomyces species. Positional analysis and comparison of regulatory regions of NO detoxification genes allows us to propose the candidate NsrR-binding signal. The most conserved member of the predicted NsrR regulon is the NO-detoxifying flavohemoglobin Hmp. In enterobacteria, the regulon includes also two nitrite-responsive loci, nipAB (hcp-hcr) and nipC(dnrN), thus confirming the identity of the effector, i.e., nitrite. The proposed NsrR regulons in Neisseria and some other species are extended to include denitrification genes. As the result, we demonstrate considerable interconnection between various nitrogen-oxides-responsive regulatory systems for the denitrification and NO detoxification genes and evolutionary plasticity of this transcriptional network.

Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Dubchak, Inna L.; Arkin, Adam P.; Alm, EricJ.; Gelfand, Mikhail S.

2005-09-01

136

Hydrophobic moeties in recombinant proteins are crucial to generate efficient saponin-based vaccine against Apicomplexan Babesia divergens.  

PubMed

Throughout Europe, bovine babesiosis is mainly caused by Babesia divergens, an Apicomplexan parasite transmitted by tick bites. The intra-erythrocytic development of B. divergens merozoites leads to haemolytic anaemia, and bovine babesiosis is responsible for economic losses in the agro-business industry. A totally efficient recombinant vaccine based on the merozoite surface protein Bd37 and saponin QuilA was recently described. In the present study we determined that protective immunity elicited by the Bd37 recombinant protein was related to the presence of hydrophobic residues in the protein. Using polymeric fusion of Bd37 as well as cell-free in vitro protein expression, we successfully expressed recombinant proteins containing hydrophobic sequences without the need of GST fusion. We used different hydrophobic sequences and different recombinant Bd37 proteins to demonstrate that antigen hydrophobicity affects the immune system, turning an inefficient protein into a 100% protective vaccine. Some hypotheses about the hydrophobic effect and its potential application to other parasitic protozoa vaccine are also discussed. PMID:16199111

Delbecq, Stéphane; Hadj-Kaddour, Kamel; Randazzo, Sylvie; Kleuskens, Jos; Schetters, Theo; Gorenflot, André; Précigout, Eric

2006-01-30

137

Characterization of the Fur Regulon in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000?†  

PubMed Central

The plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (DC3000) is found in a wide variety of environments and must monitor and respond to various environmental signals such as the availability of iron, an essential element for bacterial growth. An important regulator of iron homeostasis is Fur (ferric uptake regulator), and here we present the first study of the Fur regulon in DC3000. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq), 312 chromosomal regions were highly enriched by coimmunoprecipitation with a C-terminally tagged Fur protein. Integration of these data with previous microarray and global transcriptome analyses allowed us to expand the putative DC3000 Fur regulon to include genes both repressed and activated in the presence of bioavailable iron. Using nonradioactive DNase I footprinting, we confirmed Fur binding in 41 regions, including upstream of 11 iron-repressed genes and the iron-activated genes encoding two bacterioferritins (PSPTO_0653 and PSPTO_4160), a ParA protein (PSPTO_0855), and a two-component system (TCS) (PSPTO_3382 to PSPTO_3380). PMID:21784947

Butcher, Bronwyn G.; Bronstein, Philip A.; Myers, Christopher R.; Stodghill, Paul V.; Bolton, James J.; Markel, Eric J.; Filiatrault, Melanie J.; Swingle, Bryan; Gaballa, Ahmed; Helmann, John D.; Schneider, David J.; Cartinhour, Samuel W.

2011-01-01

138

Immunogenicity of Eight Dormancy Regulon-Encoded Proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in DNA-Vaccinated and Tuberculosis-Infected Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypoxia and low concentrations of nitric oxide have been reported to upregulate in vitro gene expression of 48 proteins of the dormancy (DosR) regulon of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These proteins are thought to be essential for the survival of bacteria during persistence in vivo and are targeted by the immune system during latent infection in humans. Here we have analyzed the

Virginie Roupie; Marta Romano; Lei Zhang; Hannelie Korf; May Young Lin; Kees L. M. C. Franken; Tom H. M. Ottenhoff; Michel R. Klein; Kris Huygen

2007-01-01

139

Staphylococcus aureus competence genes: mapping of the SigH, ComK1 and ComK2 regulons by transcriptome sequencing.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen. Hospital infections caused by methicillin-resistant strains (MRSA), which have acquired resistance to a broad spectrum of antibiotics through horizontal gene transfer (HGT), are of particular concern. In S.?aureus, virulence and antibiotic resistance genes are often encoded on mobile genetic elements that are disseminated by HGT. Conjugation and phage transduction have long been known to mediate HGT in this species, but it is unclear whether natural genetic transformation contributes significantly to the process. Recently, it was reported that expression of the alternative sigma factor SigH induces the competent state in S.?aureus. The transformation efficiency obtained, however, was extremely low, indicating that the optimal conditions for competence development had not been found. We therefore used transcriptome sequencing to determine whether the full set of genes known to be required for competence in other naturally transformable bacteria is part of the SigH regulon. Our results show that several essential competence genes are not controlled by SigH. This presumably explains the low transformation efficiency previously reported, and demonstrates that additional regulating mechanisms must be involved. We found that one such mechanism involves ComK1, a transcriptional activator that acts synergistically with SigH. PMID:25155269

Fagerlund, Annette; Granum, Per Einar; Hĺvarstein, Leiv Sigve

2014-11-01

140

Combined Amplicon Pyrosequencing Assays Reveal Presence of the Apicomplexan "type-N" (cf. Gemmocystis cylindrus) and Chromera velia on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia  

PubMed Central

Background The coral is predominantly composed of the metabolically dependent coral host and the photosynthetic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp. The system as a whole interacts with symbiotic eukaryotes, bacteria and viruses. Gemmocystiscylindrus (cf. “type-N” symbiont) belonging to the obligatory parasitic phylum Apicomplexa (Alveolata) is ubiquitous in the Caribbean coral, but its presence in the Great Barrier Reef coral has yet to be documented. Approaches allowing identification of the healthy community from the pathogenic or saprobic organisms are needed for sustainable coral reef monitoring. Methods & Principal Findings We investigated the diversity of eukaryotes associated with a common reef-building corals from the southern Great Barrier Reef. We used three tag encoded 454 amplicon pyrosequencing assays targeting eukaryote small-subunit rRNA gene to demonstrate the presence of the apicomplexan type-N and a photosynthetic sister species to Apicomplexa - Chromeravelia. Amplicon pyrosequencing revealed presence of the small-subunit rRNA genes of known eukaryotic pathogens (Cryptosporidium and Cryptococcus). We therefore conducted bacterial tag encoded amplicon pyrosequencing assay for small-subunit rRNA gene to support effluent exposure of the coral. Bacteria of faecal origin (Enterobacteriales) formed 41% of total sequences in contrast to 0-2% of the coral-associated bacterial communities with and without C. velia, respectively. Significance This is the first time apicomplexan type-N has been detected in the Great Barrier Reef. Eukaryote tag encoded amplicon pyrosequencing assays demonstrate presence of apicomplexan type-N and C. Velia in total coral DNA. The data highlight the need for combined approaches for eukaryotic diversity studies coupled with bacterial community assessment to achieve a more realistic goals of defining the holobiont community and assessing coral disease. With increasing evidence of Apicomplexa in coral reef environments, it is important not only to understand the evolution of these organisms but also identify their potential as pathogens. PMID:24098768

Slapeta, Jan; Linares, Marjorie C.

2013-01-01

141

The ResD Response Regulator, through Functional Interaction with NsrR and Fur, Plays Three Distinct Roles in Bacillus subtilis Transcriptional Control  

PubMed Central

The ResD response regulator activates transcription of diverse genes in Bacillus subtilis in response to oxygen limitation. ResD regulon genes that are the most highly induced during nitrate respiration include the nitrite reductase operon (nasDEF) and the flavohemoglobin gene (hmp), whose products function in nitric oxide (NO) metabolism. Transcription of these genes is also under the negative control of the NO-sensitive NsrR repressor. Recent studies showed that the NsrR regulon contains genes with no apparent relevance to NO metabolism and that the ResD response regulator and NsrR coordinately regulate transcription. To determine whether these genes are direct targets of NsrR and ResD, we used chromatin affinity precipitation coupled with tiling chip (ChAP-chip) and ChAP followed by quantitative PCR (ChAP-qPCR) analyses. The study showed that ResD and NsrR directly control transcription of the ykuNOP operon in the Fur regulon. ResD functions as an activator at the nasD and hmp promoters, whereas it functions at the ykuN promoter as an antirepressor of Fur and a corepressor for NsrR. This mechanism likely participates in fine-tuning of transcript levels in response to different sources of stress, such as oxygen limitation, iron limitation, and exposure to NO. PMID:24214949

Henares, Bernadette; Kommineni, Sushma; Chumsakul, Onuma; Ogasawara, Naotake; Ishikawa, Shu

2014-01-01

142

Probing regulon of ArcA in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 by integrated genomic analyses  

SciTech Connect

The Arc two-component system is a global regulator controlling many genes involved in aerobic/anaerobic respiration and fermentative metabolism in Escherichia coli. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 contains a gene encoding a putative ArcA homolog with {approx} 81% amino acid sequence identity to the E. coli ArcA protein but not a full-length arcB gene. To understand the role of ArcA in S. oneidensis, an arcA deletion strain was constructed and subjected to both physiological characterization and microarray analysis. Compared to the wild-type MR-1, the mutant exhibited impaired aerobic growth and a defect in utilizing DMSO in the absence of O{sub 2}. Microarray analyses on cells grown aerobically and anaerobically on fumarate revealed that expression of 1009 genes was significantly affected (p < 0.05) by the mutation. In contrast to E. coli ArcA, the protein appears to be dispensable in regulation of the TCA cycle in S. oneidensis. To further determine genes regulated by the Arc system, an ArcA recognition weight matrix from DNA-binding data and bioinformatics analysis was generated and used to produce an ArcA sequence affinity map. By combining both techniques, we identified an ArcA regulon of at least 50 operons, of which only 6 were found to be directly controlled by ArcA in E. coli. These results indicate that the Arc system in S. oneidensis differs from that in E. coli substantially in terms of its physiological function and regulon while their binding motif are strikingly similar.

Gao, Haichun [University of Oklahoma; Wang, Xiaohu [Baylor College of Medicine, Huston; Yang, Zamin Koo [ORNL; Palzkill, Timothy [Baylor College of Medicine, Huston; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma

2008-01-01

143

Probing regulon of ArcA in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 by integrated genomic analyses  

PubMed Central

Background The Arc two-component system is a global regulator controlling many genes involved in aerobic/anaerobic respiration and fermentative metabolism in Escherichia coli. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 contains a gene encoding a putative ArcA homolog with ~81% amino acid sequence identity to the E. coli ArcA protein but not a full-length arcB gene. Results To understand the role of ArcA in S. oneidensis, an arcA deletion strain was constructed and subjected to both physiological characterization and microarray analysis. Compared to the wild-type MR-1, the mutant exhibited impaired aerobic growth and a defect in utilizing DMSO in the absence of O2. Microarray analyses on cells grown aerobically and anaerobically on fumarate revealed that expression of 1009 genes was significantly affected (p < 0.05) by the mutation. In contrast to E. coli ArcA, the protein appears to be dispensable in regulation of the TCA cycle in S. oneidensis. To further determine genes regulated by the Arc system, an ArcA recognition weight matrix from DNA-binding data and bioinformatics analysis was generated and used to produce an ArcA sequence affinity map. By combining both techniques, we identified an ArcA regulon of at least 50 operons, of which only 6 were found to be directly controlled by ArcA in E. coli. Conclusion These results indicate that the Arc system in S. oneidensis differs from that in E. coli substantially in terms of its physiological function and regulon while their binding motif are strikingly similar. PMID:18221523

Gao, Haichun; Wang, Xiaohu; Yang, Zamin K; Palzkill, Timothy; Zhou, Jizhong

2008-01-01

144

Studying Gene Expression: Database Searches and Promoter Fusions to Investigate Transcriptional Regulation in Bacteria†  

PubMed Central

A laboratory project was designed to illustrate how to search biological databases and utilize the information provided by these resources to investigate transcriptional regulation in Escherichia coli. The students searched several databases (NCBI Genomes, RegulonDB and EcoCyc) to learn about gene function, regulation, and the organization of transcriptional units. A fluorometer and GFP promoter fusions were used to obtain fluorescence data and measure changes in transcriptional activity. The class designed and performed experiments to investigate the regulation of genes necessary for biosynthesis of amino acids and how expression is affected by environmental signals and transcriptional regulators. Assessment data showed that this activity enhanced students’ knowledge of databases, reporter genes and transcriptional regulation. PMID:23653697

Martinez-Vaz, Betsy M.; Makarevitch, Irina; Stensland, Shane

2010-01-01

145

Analysis of the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ArcA Regulon Identifies Fumarate Reductase as a Determinant of Virulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

response to anaerobic conditions, and we recently showed that an A. pleuropneumoniae arcA mutant had reduced virulence compared to the wild type (F. F. Buettner, A. Maas, and G.-F. Gerlach, Vet. Microbiol. 127:106-115, 2008). In order to understand the attenuated phenotype, we investigated the ArcA regulon of A. pleuropneumoniae by using a combination of transcriptome (microarray) and proteome (two-dimensional difference

Falk F. R. Buettner; Ibrahim M. Bendallah; Janine T. Bosse; Karla Dreckmann; John H. E. Nash; Paul R. Langford; G.-F. Gerlach

2008-01-01

146

Transcriptional Regulation of the Cellobiose Operon of Streptococcus mutans? §  

PubMed Central

The ability of Streptococcus mutans to catabolize cellobiose, a ?-linked glucoside generated during the hydrolysis of cellulose, is shown to be regulated by a transcriptional regulator, CelR, which is encoded by an operon with a phospho-?-glucosidase (CelA) and a cellobiose-specific sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) permease (EIICel). The roles of CelR, EIICel components, and certain fructose/mannose-PTS permeases in the transcriptional regulation of the cel locus were analyzed. The results revealed that (i) the celA and celB (EIIBCel) gene promoters require CelR for transcriptional activation in response to cellobiose, but read-through from the celA promoter contributes to expression of the EIICel genes; (ii) the EIICel subunits were required for growth on cellobiose and for transcriptional activation of the cel genes; (iii) CcpA plays little direct role in catabolite repression of the cel regulon, but loss of specific PTS permeases alleviated repression of cel genes in the presence of preferred carbohydrates; and (iv) glucose could induce transcription of the cel regulon when transported by EIICel. CelR derivatives containing amino acid substitutions for five conserved histidine residues in two PTS regulatory domains and an EIIA-like domain also provided important insights regarding the function of this regulator. Based on these data, a model for the involvement of PTS permeases and the general PTS proteins enzyme I and HPr was developed that reveals a critical role for the PTS in CcpA-independent catabolite repression and induction of cel gene expression in S. mutans. PMID:19168613

Zeng, Lin; Burne, Robert A.

2009-01-01

147

Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosR Regulon Gene Rv0079 Encodes a Putative, 'Dormancy Associated Translation Inhibitor (DATIN)'  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a major human pathogen that has evolved survival mechanisms to persist in an immune-competent host under a dormant condition. The regulation of M. tuberculosis metabolism during latent infection is not clearly known. The dormancy survival regulon (DosR regulon) is chiefly responsible for encoding dormancy related functions of M. tuberculosis. We describe functional characterization of an important gene of DosR regulon, Rv0079, which appears to be involved in the regulation of translation through the interaction of its product with bacterial ribosomal subunits. The protein encoded by Rv0079, possibly, has an inhibitory role with respect to protein synthesis, as revealed by our experiments. We performed computational modelling and docking simulation studies involving the protein encoded by Rv0079 followed by in vitro translation and growth curve analysis experiments, involving recombinant E. coli and Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG) strains that overexpressed Rv0079. Our observations concerning the interaction of the protein with the ribosomes are supportive of its role in regulation/inhibition of translation. We propose that the protein encoded by locus Rv0079 is a ‘dormancy associated translation inhibitor’ or DATIN. PMID:22719925

Kumar, Ashutosh; Majid, Mohammad; Kunisch, Ralph; Rani, Pittu Sandhya; Qureshi, Insaf A.; Lewin, Astrid; Hasnain, Seyed E.; Ahmed, Niyaz

2012-01-01

148

Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the PhoP Regulon in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Versus Typhimurium  

PubMed Central

Background S. Typhi, a human-restricted Salmonella enterica serovar, causes a systemic intracellular infection in humans (typhoid fever). In comparison, S. Typhimurium causes gastroenteritis in humans, but causes a systemic typhoidal illness in mice. The PhoP regulon is a well studied two component (PhoP/Q) coordinately regulated network of genes whose expression is required for intracellular survival of S. enterica. Methodology/Principal Findings Using high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), we examined the protein expression profiles of three sequenced S. enterica strains: S. Typhimurium LT2, S. Typhi CT18, and S. Typhi Ty2 in PhoP-inducing and non-inducing conditions in vitro and compared these results to profiles of phoP?/Q? mutants derived from S. Typhimurium LT2 and S. Typhi Ty2. Our analysis identified 53 proteins in S. Typhimurium LT2 and 56 proteins in S. Typhi that were regulated in a PhoP-dependent manner. As expected, many proteins identified in S. Typhi demonstrated concordant differential expression with a homologous protein in S. Typhimurium. However, three proteins (HlyE, STY1499, and CdtB) had no homolog in S. Typhimurium. HlyE is a pore-forming toxin. STY1499 encodes a stably expressed protein of unknown function transcribed in the same operon as HlyE. CdtB is a cytolethal distending toxin associated with DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, and cellular distension. Gene expression studies confirmed up-regulation of mRNA of HlyE, STY1499, and CdtB in S. Typhi in PhoP-inducing conditions. Conclusions/Significance This study is the first protein expression study of the PhoP virulence associated regulon using strains of Salmonella mutant in PhoP, has identified three Typhi-unique proteins (CdtB, HlyE and STY1499) that are not present in the genome of the wide host-range Typhimurium, and includes the first protein expression profiling of a live attenuated bacterial vaccine studied in humans (Ty800). PMID:19746165

Charles, Richelle C.; Harris, Jason B.; Chase, Michael R.; Lebrun, Lauren M.; Sheikh, Alaullah; LaRocque, Regina C.; Logvinenko, Tanya; Rollins, Sean M.; Tarique, Abdullah; Hohmann, Elizabeth L.; Rosenberg, Ian; Krastins, Bryan; Sarracino, David A.; Qadri, Firdausi; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Ryan, Edward T.

2009-01-01

149

Binding motifs in bacterial gene promoters modulate transcriptional effects of global regulators CRP and ArcA  

SciTech Connect

Bacterial gene regulation involves transcription factors (TF) that bind to DNA recognition sequences in operon promoters. These recognition sequences, many of which are palindromic, are known as regulatory elements or transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). Some TFs are global regulators that can modulate the expression of hundreds of genes. In this study we examine global regulator half-sites, where a half-site, which we shall call a binding motif (BM), is one half of a palindromic TFBS. We explore the hypothesis that the number of BMs plays an important role in transcriptional regulation, examining empirical data from transcriptional profiling of the CRP and ArcA regulons. We compare the power of BM counts and of full TFBS characteristics to predict induced transcriptional activity. We find that CRP BM counts have a nonlinear effect on CRP-dependent transcriptional activity and predict this activity better than full TFBS quality or location.

Leuze, Mike; Karpinets, Tatiana V.; Syed, Mustafa H.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Uberbacher, Edward

2012-05-30

150

Model of transcriptional activation by MarA in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

The AraC family transcription factor MarA activates approximately 40 genes (the marA/soxS/rob regulon) of the Escherichia coli chromosome resulting in different levels of resistance to a wide array of antibiotics and to superoxides. Activation of marA/soxS/rob regulon promoters occurs in a well-defined order with respect to the level of MarA; however, the order of activation does not parallel the strength of MarA binding to promoter sequences. To understand this lack of correspondence, we developed a computational model of transcriptional activation in which a transcription factor either increases or decreases RNA polymerase binding, and either accelerates or retards post-binding events associated with transcription initiation. We used the model to analyze data characterizing MarA regulation of promoter activity. The model clearly explains the lack of correspondence between the order of activation and the MarA-DNA affinity and indicates that the order of activation can only be predicted using information about the strength of the full MarA-polymerase-DNA interaction. The analysis further suggests that MarA can activate without increasing polymerase binding and that activation can even involve a decrease in polymerase binding, which is opposite to the textbook model of activation by recruitment. These findings are consistent with published chromatin immunoprecipitation assays of interactions between polymerase and the E. coli chromosome. We find that activation involving decreased polymerase binding yields lower latency in gene regulation and therefore might confer a competitive advantage to cells. Our model yields insights into requirements for predicting the order of activation of a regulon and enables us to suggest that activation might involve a decrease in polymerase binding which we expect to be an important theme of gene regulation in E. coli and beyond. PMID:20019803

Wall, Michael E; Markowitz, David A; Rosner, Judah L; Martin, Robert G

2009-12-01

151

Model of transcriptional activation by MarA in escherichia coli  

SciTech Connect

The AraC family transcription factor MarA activates approximately 40 genes (the marA/soxS/rob regulon) of the Escherichia coli chromosome resulting in different levels of resistance to a wide array of antibiotics and to superoxides. Activation of marA/soxS/rob regulon promoters occurs in a well-defined order with respect to the level of MarA; however, the order of activation does not parallel the strength of MarA binding to promoter sequences. To understand this lack of correspondence, we developed a computational model of transcriptional activation in which a transcription factor either increases or decreases RNA polymerase binding, and either accelerates or retards post-binding events associated with transcription initiation. We used the model to analyze data characterizing MarA regulation of promoter activity. The model clearly explains the lack of correspondence between the order of activation and the MarA-DNA affinity and indicates that the order of activation can only be predicted using information about the strength of the full MarA-polymerase-DNA interaction. The analysis further suggests that MarA can activate without increasing polymerase binding and that activation can even involve a decrease in polymerase binding, which is opposite to the textbook model of activation by recruitment. These findings are consistent with published chromatin immunoprecipitation assays of interactions between polymerase and the E. coli chromosome. We find that activation involving decreased polymerase binding yields lower latency in gene regulation and therefore might confer a competitive advantage to cells. Our model yields insights into requirements for predicting the order of activation of a regulon and enables us to suggest that activation might involve a decrease in polymerase binding which we expect to be an important theme of gene regulation in E. coli and beyond.

Wall, Michael E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rosner, Judah L [NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF HEALTH; Martin, Robert G [NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF HEALTH

2009-01-01

152

Variation in the Group B Streptococcus CsrRS Regulon and Effects on Pathogenicity? †  

PubMed Central

CsrRS (or CovRS) is a two-component regulatory system that controls expression of multiple virulence factors in the important human pathogen group B Streptococcus (GBS). We now report global gene expression studies in GBS strains 2603V/R and 515 and their isogenic csrR and csrS mutants. Together with data reported previously for strain NEM316, the results reveal a conserved 39-gene CsrRS regulon. In vitro phosphorylation-dependent binding of recombinant CsrR to promoter regions of both positively and negatively regulated genes suggests that direct binding of CsrR can mediate activation as well as repression of target gene expression. Distinct patterns of gene regulation in csrR versus csrS mutants in strain 2603V/R compared to 515 were associated with different hierarchies of relative virulence of wild-type, csrR, and csrS mutants in murine models of systemic infection and septic arthritis. We conclude that CsrRS regulates a core group of genes including important virulence factors in diverse strains of GBS but also displays marked variability in the repertoire of regulated genes and in the relative effects of CsrS signaling on CsrR-mediated gene regulation. Such variation is likely to play an important role in strain-specific adaptation of GBS to particular host environments and pathogenic potential in susceptible hosts. PMID:18203834

Jiang, Sheng-Mei; Ishmael, Nadeeza; Hotopp, Julie Dunning; Puliti, Manuela; Tissi, Luciana; Kumar, Nikhil; Cieslewicz, Michael J.; Tettelin, Hervé; Wessels, Michael R.

2008-01-01

153

The ArcA regulon and oxidative stress resistance in Haemophilus influenzae  

PubMed Central

Haemophilus influenzae transits between niches within the human host that are predicted to differ in oxygen levels. The ArcAB two-component signal transduction system controls gene expression in response to respiratory conditions of growth and has been implicated in bacterial pathogenesis, yet the mechanism is not understood. We undertook a genome-scale study to identify genes of the H. influenzae ArcA regulon. Deletion of arcA resulted in increased anaerobic expression of genes of the respiratory chain and of H. influenzae's partial tricarboxylic acid cycle, and decreased anaerobic expression levels of genes of polyamine metabolism, and iron sequestration. Deletion of arcA also conferred a susceptibility to transient exposure to hydrogen peroxide that was greater following anaerobic growth than after aerobic growth. Array data revealed that the dps gene, not previously assigned to the ArcA modulon in bacteria, exhibited decreased expression in the arcA mutant. Deletion of dps resulted in hydrogen peroxide sensitivity and complementation restored resistance, providing insight into the previously uncharacterized mechanism of arcA-mediated H2O2 resistance. The results indicate a role for H. influenzae arcA and dps in pre-emptive defence against transitions from growth in low oxygen environments to aerobic exposure to hydrogen peroxide, an antibacterial oxidant produced by phagocytes during infection. PMID:17542927

Wong, Sandy M S; Alugupalli, Kishore R; Ram, Sanjay; Akerley, Brian J

2007-01-01

154

Computational prediction of the Crc regulon identifies genus-wide and species-specific targets of catabolite repression control in Pseudomonas bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background Catabolite repression control (CRC) is an important global control system in Pseudomonas that fine tunes metabolism in order optimise growth and metabolism in a range of different environments. The mechanism of CRC in Pseudomonas spp. centres on the binding of a protein, Crc, to an A-rich motif on the 5' end of an mRNA resulting in translational down-regulation of target genes. Despite the identification of several Crc targets in Pseudomonas spp. the Crc regulon has remained largely unexplored. Results In order to predict direct targets of Crc, we used a bioinformatics approach based on detection of A-rich motifs near the initiation of translation of all protein-encoding genes in twelve fully sequenced Pseudomonas genomes. As expected, our data predict that genes related to the utilisation of less preferred nutrients, such as some carbohydrates, nitrogen sources and aromatic carbon compounds are targets of Crc. A general trend in this analysis is that the regulation of transporters is conserved across species whereas regulation of specific enzymatic steps or transcriptional activators are often conserved only within a species. Interestingly, some nucleoid associated proteins (NAPs) such as HU and IHF are predicted to be regulated by Crc. This finding indicates a possible role of Crc in indirect control over a subset of genes that depend on the DNA bending properties of NAPs for expression or repression. Finally, some virulence traits such as alginate and rhamnolipid production also appear to be regulated by Crc, which links nutritional status cues with the regulation of virulence traits. Conclusions Catabolite repression control regulates a broad spectrum of genes in Pseudomonas. Some targets are genus-wide and are typically related to central metabolism, whereas other targets are species-specific, or even unique to particular strains. Further study of these novel targets will enhance our understanding of how Pseudomonas bacteria integrate nutritional status cues with the regulation of traits that are of ecological, industrial and clinical importance. PMID:21108798

2010-01-01

155

Deep sequencing analyses expands the Pseudomonas aeruginosa AmpR regulon to include small RNA-mediated regulation of iron acquisition, heat shock and oxidative stress response  

PubMed Central

Pathogenicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a major cause of many acute and chronic human infections, is determined by tightly regulated expression of multiple virulence factors. Quorum sensing (QS) controls expression of many of these pathogenic determinants. Previous microarray studies have shown that the AmpC ?-lactamase regulator AmpR, a member of the LysR family of transcription factors, also controls non-?-lactam resistance and multiple virulence mechanisms. Using RNA-Seq and complementary assays, this study further expands the AmpR regulon to include diverse processes such as oxidative stress, heat shock and iron uptake. Importantly, AmpR affects many of these phenotypes, in part, by regulating expression of non-coding RNAs such as rgP32, asRgsA, asPrrF1 and rgRsmZ. AmpR positively regulates expression of the major QS regulators LasR, RhlR and MvfR, and genes of the Pseudomonas quinolone system. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-Seq and ChIP–quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction studies show that AmpR binds to the ampC promoter both in the absence and presence of ?-lactams. In addition, AmpR directly binds the lasR promoter, encoding the QS master regulator. Comparison of the AmpR-binding sequences from the transcriptome and ChIP-Seq analyses identified an AT-rich consensus-binding motif. This study further attests to the role of AmpR in regulating virulence and physiological processes in P. aeruginosa. PMID:24157832

Balasubramanian, Deepak; Kumari, Hansi; Jaric, Melita; Fernandez, Mitch; Turner, Keith H.; Dove, Simon L.; Narasimhan, Giri; Lory, Stephen; Mathee, Kalai

2014-01-01

156

Characterization of the SigD regulon of C. difficile and its positive control of toxin production through the regulation of tcdR.  

PubMed

Clostridium difficile intestinal disease is mediated largely by the actions of toxins A (TcdA) and B (TcdB), whose production occurs after the initial steps of colonization involving different surface or flagellar proteins. In B. subtilis, the sigma factor SigD controls flagellar synthesis, motility, and vegetative autolysins. A homolog of SigD encoding gene is present in the C.difficile 630 genome. We constructed a sigD mutant in C. difficile 630 ?erm to analyze the regulon of SigD using a global transcriptomic approach. A total of 103 genes were differentially expressed between the wild-type and the sigD mutant, including genes involved in motility, metabolism and regulation. In addition, the sigD mutant displayed decreased expression of genes involved in flagellar biosynthesis, and also of genes encoding TcdA and TcdB as well as TcdR, the positive regulator of the toxins. Genomic analysis and RACE-PCR experiments allowed us to characterize promoter sequences of direct target genes of SigD including tcdR and to identify the SigD consensus. We then established that SigD positively regulates toxin expression via direct control of tcdR transcription. Interestingly, the overexpression of FlgM, a putative anti-SigD factor, inhibited the positive regulation of motility and toxin synthesis by SigD. Thus, SigD appears to be the first positive regulator of the toxin synthesis in C. difficile. PMID:24358307

El Meouche, Imane; Peltier, Johann; Monot, Marc; Soutourina, Olga; Pestel-Caron, Martine; Dupuy, Bruno; Pons, Jean-Louis

2013-01-01

157

RegTransBase – a database of regulatory sequences and interactions based on literature: a resource for investigating transcriptional regulation in prokaryotes  

PubMed Central

Background Due to the constantly growing number of sequenced microbial genomes, comparative genomics has been playing a major role in the investigation of regulatory interactions in bacteria. Regulon inference mostly remains a field of semi-manual examination since absence of a knowledgebase and informatics platform for automated and systematic investigation restricts opportunities for computational prediction. Additionally, confirming computationally inferred regulons by experimental data is critically important. Description RegTransBase is an open-access platform with a user-friendly web interface publicly available at http://regtransbase.lbl.gov. It consists of two databases – a manually collected hierarchical regulatory interactions database based on more than 7000 scientific papers which can serve as a knowledgebase for verification of predictions, and a large set of curated by experts transcription factor binding sites used in regulon inference by a variety of tools. RegTransBase captures the knowledge from published scientific literature using controlled vocabularies and contains various types of experimental data, such as: the activation or repression of transcription by an identified direct regulator; determination of the transcriptional regulatory function of a protein (or RNA) directly binding to DNA or RNA; mapping of binding sites for a regulatory protein; characterization of regulatory mutations. Analysis of the data collected from literature resulted in the creation of Putative Regulons from Experimental Data that are also available in RegTransBase. Conclusions RegTransBase is a powerful user-friendly platform for the investigation of regulation in prokaryotes. It uses a collection of validated regulatory sequences that can be easily extracted and used to infer regulatory interactions by comparative genomics techniques thus assisting researchers in the interpretation of transcriptional regulation data. PMID:23547897

2013-01-01

158

Mobilization of Processed, Membrane-Tethered SPT23 Transcription Factor by CDC48 UFD1\\/NPL4, a Ubiquitin-Selective Chaperone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The OLE pathway of yeast regulates the level of the ER-bound enzyme ?9-fatty acid desaturase OLE1, thereby controlling membrane fluidity. A central component of this regulon is the transcription factor SPT23, a homolog of mammalian NF-?B. SPT23 is synthesized as an inactive, ER membrane-anchored precursor that is activated by regulated ubiquitin\\/proteasome-dependent processing (RUP). We now show that SPT23 dimerizes prior

Michael Rape; Thorsten Hoppe; Ingo Gorr; Marian Kalocay; Holger Richly; Stefan Jentsch

2001-01-01

159

Identification of a Salmonella ancillary copper detoxification mechanism by a comparative analysis of the genome-wide transcriptional response to copper and zinc excess.  

PubMed

Copper and zinc are essential metal ions, but toxic in excess. Bacteria have evolved different strategies to control their intracellular concentrations, ensuring proper supply while avoiding toxicity, including the induction of metal-specific as well as non-specific mechanisms. We compared the transcriptional profiles of Salmonella Typhimurium after exposure to either copper or zinc ions in both rich and minimal media. Besides metal-specific regulatory networks many global stress-response pathways react to an excess of either of these metal ions. Copper excess affects both zinc and iron homeostasis by inducing transcription of these metal-specific regulons. In addition to the control of zinc-specific regulons, zinc excess affects the Cpx regulon and the ?(E) envelope-stress responses. Finally, novel metal-specific upregulated genes were detected including a new copper-detoxification pathway that involves the siderophore enterobactin and the outer-membrane protein TolC. This work sheds light onto the transcriptional landscape of Salmonella after copper or zinc overload, and discloses a new mechanism of copper detoxification. PMID:24858080

Pontel, Lucas B; Scampoli, Nadia L; Porwollik, Steffen; Checa, Susana K; McClelland, Michael; Soncini, Fernando C

2014-08-01

160

Binding motifs in bacterial gene promoters modulate transcriptional effect of global regulators  

SciTech Connect

Bacterial gene regulation involves transcription factors (TFs) that influence the expression of many genes. Global regulators, including CRP (cAMP Receptor Protein), ArcA, and FNR, can modulate the transcriptional activity of multiple operons. The similarity of a regulatory element s sequence to a TF s consensus binding site (BS) and the position of the regulatory element in an operon promoter are considered the most important determinants of this TF s regulatory influence. In this study we explore the hypothesis that the number of TFBS half-sites (where a half-site is one half of the palindromic BS consensus sequence, which we shall refer to as a binding motif or a BM) of a global regulator in an operon s promoter plays an important role in the operon s transcriptional regulation. We examine empirical data from transcriptional profiling of the CRP regulon in Shewanella oneidenses MR 1 and Escherichia coli, and of the ArcA regulon in S. oneidenses MR 1. We compare the power of CRP BM counts and of full, symmetrical CRP TFBS characteristics, namely similarity to consensus and location, to predict CRP-induced transcriptional activity. We find that CRP BM counts have a nonlinear effect on CRP-dependent transcriptional activity and predict this activity better than full-length TFBS quality or location. Regression analysis indicates that IHF (Integration Host Factor) and ArcA have synergistic effects on CRP-induced gene transcription, positive and negative, respectively. Based on these results, we propose that the fine-tuning of bacterial transcriptional activity by CRP may involves not only the bending of the operon promoter, facilitated by CRP in cooperation with the histone-like protein IHF, but also the cumulative binding affinity of multiple weak BMs.

Leuze, Michael Rex [ORNL; Karpinets, Tatiana V [ORNL; Syed, Mustafa H [ORNL; Beliaev, Alexander S [ORNL; Uberbacher, Edward C [ORNL

2012-01-01

161

Two Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinases from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii are transcriptionally regulated by nutrient starvation  

PubMed Central

We report here, the transcriptional regulation of 2 Calcium Dependent Protein Kinases in response to nutrient starvation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii vegetative cells. The CDPK proteins, CDPK1 and CDPK3; share 53% identity among themselves, a maximum of 57% and 52% to higher plants respectively and 42% to apicomplexan protozoans. We expressed a CDPK1-GFP fusion protein in the C. reinhardtii vegetative cells and showed its distribution both in the cell body and the membrane-matrix fraction of the flagella. The fusion protein exhibits mobility shift in the presence of Ca2+, confirming its Ca2+-binding properties. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of transcriptional regulation of CDPKs from a unicellular chlorophyte in response to nutrient starvation namely acetate (A), phosphorus (P), and nitrogen (N). PMID:24514873

Motiwalla, Mustafa J; Sequeira, Marilyn P; D'Souza, Jacinta S

2014-01-01

162

Liberate and grab it, ingest and digest it: the GbdR regulon of the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

The compatible solute glycine betaine is a powerful osmostress protectant, but many microorganisms can also use it as a nutrient. K. J. Hampel et al. (J. Bacteriol. 196:7-15, 2014) defined a regulon in the notorious pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa that comprises modules for the harvest and import of the glycine betaine biosynthetic precursor choline and its subsequent catabolism to pyruvate. The reported data link the GbdR activator with the metabolism of host-derived compounds (e.g., phosphocholine) and virulence traits of P. aeruginosa. PMID:24163344

Bremer, Erhard

2014-01-01

163

Structural Determinants of DNA Binding by a P. falciparum ApiAP2 Transcriptional Regulator  

SciTech Connect

Putative transcription factors have only recently been identified in the Plasmodium spp., with the major family of regulators comprising the Apicomplexan Apetala2 (AP2) proteins. To better understand the DNA-binding mechanisms of these transcriptional regulators, we characterized the structure and in vitro function of an AP2 DNA-binding domain from a prototypical Apicomplexan AP2 protein, PF14{_}0633 from Plasmodium falciparum. The X-ray crystal structure of the PF14{_}0633 AP2 domain bound to DNA reveals a {beta}-sheet fold that binds the DNA major groove through base-specific and backbone contacts; a prominent {alpha}-helix supports the {beta}-sheet structure. Substitution of predicted DNA-binding residues with alanine weakened or eliminated DNA binding in solution. In contrast to plant AP2 domains, the PF14{_}0633 AP2 domain dimerizes upon binding to DNA through a domain-swapping mechanism in which the {alpha}-helices of the AP2 domains pack against the {beta}-sheets of the dimer mates. DNA-induced dimerization of PF14{_}0633 may be important for tethering two distal DNA loci together in the nucleus and/or for inducing functional rearrangements of its domains to facilitate transcriptional regulation. Consistent with a multisite binding mode, at least two copies of the consensus sequence recognized by PF14{_}0633 are present upstream of a previously identified group of sporozoite-stage genes. Taken together, these findings illustrate how Plasmodium has adapted the AP2 DNA-binding domain for genome-wide transcriptional regulation.

Lindner, Scott E.; De Silva, Erandi K.; Keck, James L.; Llinás, Manuel (Princeton); (UW-MED)

2010-11-05

164

Identification and characterization of transcription networks in environmentally significant species  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the regulation of gene expression, transcription regulation in particular, is one of the grand challenges of molecular biology. Transcription regulation is arguably the most important foundation of cellular function, since it exerts the most fundamental control of the abundance of virtually all of a cell's functional macromolecules. Nevertheless, this process, perhaps because of its difficulty, has been the subject of only a limited number of genomic level analyses. We have undertaken bioinformatics projects to address this issue by developing (1) a cross-species comparison method (i.e. phylogenetic footprinting) for the identification of transcription factor binding sites, (2) a Bayesian clustering method to identify regulons, (3) an improved scanning algorithm that uses a position weight matrix and several related species sequence data to locate transcription factor binding sites, and (4) a method to predict cognate binding sites for transcription factors of unknown specificity. These bioinformatics methods were developed using the model proteobacterium Escherichia coli, with further applications to the genomes of environmentally significant microbes (Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Shewanella oneidensis) in later years of the grant.

Lawrence, Charles E.; McCue, Lee Ann

2005-11-30

165

Cross-Species Comparison of the Burkholderia pseudomallei, Burkholderia thailandensis, and Burkholderia mallei Quorum-Sensing Regulons.  

PubMed

Burkholderia pseudomallei, Burkholderia thailandensis, and Burkholderia mallei (the Bptm group) are close relatives with very different lifestyles: B. pseudomallei is an opportunistic pathogen, B. thailandensis is a nonpathogenic saprophyte, and B. mallei is a host-restricted pathogen. The acyl-homoserine lactone quorum-sensing (QS) systems of these three species show a high level of conservation. We used transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) to define the quorum-sensing regulon in each species, and we performed a cross-species analysis of the QS-controlled orthologs. Our analysis revealed a core set of QS-regulated genes in all three species, as well as QS-controlled factors shared by only two species or unique to a given species. This global survey of the QS regulons of B. pseudomallei, B. thailandensis, and B. mallei serves as a platform for predicting which QS-controlled processes might be important in different bacterial niches and contribute to the pathogenesis of B. pseudomallei and B. mallei. PMID:25182491

Majerczyk, Charlotte D; Brittnacher, Mitchell J; Jacobs, Michael A; Armour, Christopher D; Radey, Matthew C; Bunt, Richard; Hayden, Hillary S; Bydalek, Ryland; Greenberg, E Peter

2014-11-15

166

Elucidating the regulon of multidrug resistance regulator RarA in Klebsiella pneumoniae.  

PubMed

RarA is an AraC-type regulator in Klebsiella pneumoniae, which, when overexpressed, confers a low-level multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotype linked to the upregulation of both the acrAB and oqxAB efflux genes. Increased rarA expression has also been shown to be integral in the development of tigecycline resistance in the absence of ramA in K. pneumoniae. Given its phenotypic role in MDR, microarray analyses were performed to determine the RarA regulon. Transcriptome analysis was undertaken using strains Ecl8?rarA/pACrarA-2 (rarA-expressing construct) and Ecl8?rarA/pACYC184 (vector-only control) using bespoke microarray slides consisting of probes derived from the genomic sequences of K. pneumoniae MGH 78578 (NC_009648.1) and Kp342 (NC_011283.1). Our results show that rarA overexpression resulted in the differential expression of 66 genes (42 upregulated and 24 downregulated). Under the COG (clusters of orthologous groups) functional classification, the majority of affected genes belonged to the category of cell envelope biogenesis and posttranslational modification, along with genes encoding the previously uncharacterized transport proteins (e.g., KPN_03141, sdaCB, and leuE) and the porin OmpF. However, genes associated with energy production and conversion and amino acid transport/metabolism (e.g., nuoA, narJ, and proWX) were found to be downregulated. Biolog phenotype analyses demonstrated that rarA overexpression confers enhanced growth of the overexpresser in the presence of several antibiotic classes (i.e., beta-lactams and fluoroquinolones), the antifungal/antiprotozoal compound clioquinol, disinfectants (8-hydroxyquinoline), protein synthesis inhibitors (i.e., minocycline and puromycin), membrane biogenesis agents (polymyxin B and amitriptyline), DNA synthesis (furaltadone), and the cytokinesis inhibitor (sanguinarine). Both our transcriptome and phenotypic microarray data support and extend the role of RarA in the MDR phenotype of K. pneumoniae. PMID:23318802

De Majumdar, Shyamasree; Veleba, Mark; Finn, Sarah; Fanning, Séamus; Schneiders, Thamarai

2013-04-01

167

Mutational analysis of the role of the first helix of region 4.2 of the ? 70 subunit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase in transcriptional activation by activator protein PhoB  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcription of the genes belonging to the phosphate (pho) regulon inEscherichia coli requires the specific activator protein PhoB, in addition to RNA polymerase containing the major sigma factor, ?70, which is encoded byrpoD. We previously isolated two mutant ?70s(D570G and E575K) that were specifically defective in transcribing thepho genes. The mutated sites were located near and within the first helix

S.-K. Kim; K. Makino; M. Amemura; A. Nakata; H. Shinagawa

1995-01-01

168

Post-translational control of the Streptomyces lividans ClgR regulon by ClpP Audrey Bellier, Myriam Gominet and Philippe Mazodier*  

E-print Network

encoded by a gene paralogous to popR. The ClgR regulon also includes lon encoding an ATP and Lon proteases, degradation, ClgR activator, Streptomyces, differentiation * For correspondence: Telephone: (33) 1 45 68 88 42 Fax: (33) 1 45 68 89 38 E-mail: mazodier@pasteur.fr pasteur-00167389,version1

Boyer, Edmond

169

PhyloScan: identification of transcription factor binding sites using cross-species evidence  

PubMed Central

Background When transcription factor binding sites are known for a particular transcription factor, it is possible to construct a motif model that can be used to scan sequences for additional sites. However, few statistically significant sites are revealed when a transcription factor binding site motif model is used to scan a genome-scale database. Methods We have developed a scanning algorithm, PhyloScan, which combines evidence from matching sites found in orthologous data from several related species with evidence from multiple sites within an intergenic region, to better detect regulons. The orthologous sequence data may be multiply aligned, unaligned, or a combination of aligned and unaligned. In aligned data, PhyloScan statistically accounts for the phylogenetic dependence of the species contributing data to the alignment and, in unaligned data, the evidence for sites is combined assuming phylogenetic independence of the species. The statistical significance of the gene predictions is calculated directly, without employing training sets. Results In a test of our methodology on synthetic data modeled on seven Enterobacteriales, four Vibrionales, and three Pasteurellales species, PhyloScan produces better sensitivity and specificity than MONKEY, an advanced scanning approach that also searches a genome for transcription factor binding sites using phylogenetic information. The application of the algorithm to real sequence data from seven Enterobacteriales species identifies novel Crp and PurR transcription factor binding sites, thus providing several new potential sites for these transcription factors. These sites enable targeted experimental validation and thus further delineation of the Crp and PurR regulons in E. coli. Conclusion Better sensitivity and specificity can be achieved through a combination of (1) using mixed alignable and non-alignable sequence data and (2) combining evidence from multiple sites within an intergenic region. PMID:17244358

Carmack, C Steven; McCue, Lee Ann; Newberg, Lee A; Lawrence, Charles E

2007-01-01

170

Integration of a complex regulatory cascade involving the SirA/BarA and Csr global regulatory systems that controls expression of the Salmonella SPI-1 and SPI-2 virulence regulons through HilD  

PubMed Central

Summary Salmonella pathogenicity islands 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and SPI-2) play key roles in the pathogenesis of Salmonella enterica. Previously, we showed that when Salmonella grows in LB medium HilD, encoded in SPI-1, first induces the expression of hilA, located in SPI-1, and subsequently of the ssrAB operon, located in SPI-2. These genes code for HilA and the SsrA/B two-component system, the positive regulators of the SPI-1 and SPI-2 regulons, respectively. In this study, we demonstrate that CsrA, a global regulatory RNA-binding protein, post-transcriptionally regulates hilD expression by directly binding near the Shine-Dalgarno and translation initiation codon sequences of the hilD mRNA, preventing its translation and leading to its accelerated turnover. Negative regulation is counteracted by the global SirA/BarA two-component system, which directly activates the expression of CsrB and CsrC, two non-coding regulatory RNAs that sequester CsrA, thereby preventing it from binding to its target mRNAs. Our results illustrate the integration of global and specific regulators into a multi-factorial regulatory cascade controlling the expression of virulence genes acquired by horizontal transfer events. PMID:21518393

Martinez, Luary C.; Yakhnin, Helen; Camacho, Martha I.; Georgellis, Dimitris; Babitzke, Paul; Puente, Jose L.; Bustamante, Victor H.

2011-01-01

171

The CcpA regulon of Streptococcus suis reveals novel insights into the regulation of the streptococcal central carbon metabolism by binding of CcpA to two distinct binding motifs.  

PubMed

Streptococcus suis (S.?suis) is a neglected zoonotic streptococcus causing fatal diseases in humans and in pigs. The transcriptional regulator CcpA (catabolite control protein A) is involved in the metabolic adaptation to different carbohydrate sources and virulence of S.?suis and other pathogenic streptococci. In this study, we determined the DNA binding characteristics of CcpA and identified the CcpA regulon during growth of S.?suis. Electrophoretic mobility shift analyses showed promiscuous DNA binding of CcpA to cognate cre sites in vitro. In contrast, sequencing of immunoprecipitated chromatin revealed two specific consensus motifs, a pseudo-palindromic cre motif (WWGAAARCGYTTTCWW) and a novel cre2 motif (TTTTYHWDHHWWTTTY), within the regulatory elements of the genes directly controlled by CcpA. Via these elements CcpA regulates expression of genes involved in carbohydrate uptake and conversion, and in addition in important metabolic pathways of the central carbon metabolism, like glycolysis, mixed-acid fermentation, and the fragmentary TCA cycle. Furthermore, our analyses provide evidence that CcpA regulates the genes of the central carbon metabolism by binding either the pseudo-palindromic cre motif or the cre2 motif in a HPr(Ser)?P independent conformation. PMID:24673665

Willenborg, Jörg; de Greeff, Astrid; Jarek, Michael; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Goethe, Ralph

2014-04-01

172

Immunogenicity of Novel DosR Regulon-Encoded Candidate Antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Three High-Burden Populations in Africa? †  

PubMed Central

Increasing knowledge about DosR regulon-encoded proteins has led us to produce novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens for immunogenicity testing in human populations in three countries in Africa to which tuberculosis (TB) is endemic. A total of 131 tuberculin skin test-positive and/or ESAT-6/CFP10-positive, human immunodeficiency virus-negative adult household contacts of active pulmonary TB cases from South Africa (n = 56), The Gambia (n = 26), and Uganda (n = 49) were tested for gamma interferon responses to 7 classical and 51 DosR regulon-encoded M. tuberculosis recombinant protein antigens. ESAT-6/CFP10 fusion protein evoked responses in >75% of study participants in all three countries. Of the DosR regulon-encoded antigens tested, Rv1733c was the most commonly recognized by participants from both South Africa and Uganda and the third most commonly recognized antigen in The Gambia. The four most frequently recognized DosR regulon-encoded antigens in Uganda (Rv1733c, Rv0081, Rv1735c, and Rv1737c) included the three most immunogenic antigens in South Africa. In contrast, Rv3131 induced the highest percentage of responders in Gambian contacts (38%), compared to only 3.4% of Ugandan contacts and no South African contacts. Appreciable percentages of TB contacts with a high likelihood of latent M. tuberculosis infection responded to several novel DosR regulon-encoded M. tuberculosis proteins. In addition to significant similarities in antigen recognition profiles between the three African population groups, there were also disparities, which may stem from genetic differences between both pathogen and host populations. Our findings have implications for the selection of potential TB vaccine candidates and for determining biosignatures of latent M. tuberculosis infection, active TB disease, and protective immunity. PMID:19553548

Black, Gillian F.; Thiel, Bonnie A.; Ota, Martin O.; Parida, Shreemanta K.; Adegbola, Richard; Boom, W. Henry; Dockrell, Hazel M.; Franken, Kees L. M. C.; Friggen, Annemiek H.; Hill, Philip C.; Klein, Michel R.; Lalor, Maeve K.; Mayanja, Harriet; Schoolnik, Gary; Stanley, Kim; Weldingh, Karin; Kaufmann, Stefan H. E.; Walzl, Gerhard; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.

2009-01-01

173

A Horizontally Acquired Transcription Factor Coordinates Salmonella Adaptations to Host Microenvironments  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The transcription factors HilA and SsrB activate expression of two type III secretion systems (T3SSs) and cognate effectors that reprogram host cell functions to benefit infecting Salmonella in the host. These transcription factors, the secretion systems, and the effectors are all encoded by horizontally acquired genes. Using quantitative proteomics, we quantified the abundance of 2,149 proteins from hilA or ssrB Salmonella in vitro. Our results suggest that the HilA regulon does not extend significantly beyond proteins known to be involved in direct interactions with intestinal epithelium. On the other hand, SsrB influences the expression of a diverse range of proteins, many of which are ancestral to the acquisition of ssrB. In addition to the known regulon of T3SS-related proteins, we show that, through SodCI and bacterioferritin, SsrB controls resistance to reactive oxygen species and that SsrB down-regulates flagella and motility. This indicates that SsrB-controlled proteins not only redirect host cell membrane traffic to establish a supportive niche within host cells but also have adapted to the chemistry and physical constraints of that niche. PMID:25249283

Rogers, Lindsay D.; Sanderson, Kristy L.; Gouw, Joost W.; Hartland, Elizabeth L.; Foster, Leonard J.

2014-01-01

174

Mycobacterial Dormancy Regulon Protein Rv2623 as a Novel Biomarker for the Diagnosis of Latent and Active Tuberculous Meningitis  

PubMed Central

The present study was designed to investigate Rv2623 antigen, a major dormancy regulon protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in CSF of suspected latent and active tuberculous meningitis (TBM) patients. A total of 100 CSF samples from TBM (n = 31), suspected latent TBM (n = 22), and suitable noninfectious control subjects (n = 47) were collected and evaluated for Rv2623 antigen level using ELISA protocol. A significantly high (P < 0.05) mean absorbance was observed in samples of suspected latent TBM and active TBM patients as compared to non-TBM control patients. However, no significant difference in Rv2623 level was observed between suspected latent TBM and TBM patients. Our preliminary findings suggest that Rv2623 may be useful as a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of the latent as well as active TBM infection. Futher evaluation of this biomarker in large number of samples is therefore needed to confirm the result. PMID:24167379

Jain, Ruchika K.; Nayak, Amit R.; Husain, Aliabbas A.; Panchbhai, Milind S.; Chandak, Nitin; Purohit, Hemant J.; Taori, Girdhar M.; Daginawala, Hatim F.; Kashyap, Rajpal S.

2013-01-01

175

Identification of RpoH regulon in geobacter sulfurreducens under heat shock conditions  

E-print Network

regulation protein Fur Regulatory functions ferrous ironiron/manganese-dependent transcriptional regulator Regulatory functions response regulator, putative (REC) Signal transduction GSU1416 iron-sulfur cluster-binding proteiniron-sulfur subunit Energy metabolism GSU1656 response receiver sensor diguanylate cyclase (REC, PAS, GGDEF) Regulatory functions GSU1665 rhomboid-related membrane protein

Kagan, Larisa

2009-01-01

176

Deciphering the Regulon of Streptomyces coelicolor AbrC3, a Positive Response Regulator of Antibiotic Production  

PubMed Central

The atypical two-component system (TCS) AbrC1/C2/C3 (encoded by SCO4598, SCO4597, and SCO4596), comprising two histidine kinases (HKs) and a response regulator (RR), is crucial for antibiotic production in Streptomyces coelicolor and for morphological differentiation under certain nutritional conditions. In this study, we demonstrate that deletion of the RR-encoding gene, abrC3 (SCO4596), results in a dramatic decrease in actinorhodin (ACT) and undecylprodiginine (RED) production and delays morphological development. In contrast, the overexpression of abrC3 in the parent strain leads to a 33% increase in ACT production in liquid medium. Transcriptomic analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation with microarray technology (ChIP-chip) analysis of the ?abrC3 mutant and the parent strain revealed that AbrC3 directly controls ACT production by binding to the actII-ORF4 promoter region; this was independently verified by in vitro DNA-binding assays. This binding is dependent on the sequence 5?-GAASGSGRMS-3?. In contrast, the regulation of RED production is not due to direct binding of AbrC3 to either the redZ or redD promoter region. This study also revealed other members of the AbrC3 regulon: AbrC3 is a positive autoregulator which also binds to the promoter regions of SCO0736, bdtA (SCO3328), absR1 (SCO6992), and SCO6809. The direct targets share the 10-base consensus binding sequence and may be responsible for some of the phenotypes of the ?abrC3 mutant. The identification of the AbrC3 regulon as part of the complex regulatory network governing antibiotic production widens our knowledge regarding TCS involvement in control of antibiotic synthesis and may contribute to the rational design of new hyperproducer host strains through genetic manipulation of such systems. PMID:24509929

Rico, Sergio; Santamaria, Ramon I.; Yepes, Ana; Rodriguez, Hector; Laing, Emma; Bucca, Giselda; Smith, Colin P.

2014-01-01

177

The Pseudomonas aeruginosa devB/SOL Homolog, pgl, Is a Member of the hex Regulon and Encodes 6-Phosphogluconolactonase  

PubMed Central

A cyclic version of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway is used by Pseudomonas aeruginosa to metabolize carbohydrates. Genes encoding the enzymes that catabolize intracellular glucose to pyruvate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate are coordinately regulated, clustered at 39 min on the chromosome, and collectively form the hex regulon. Within the hex cluster is an open reading frame (ORF) with homology to the devB/SOL family of unidentified proteins. This ORF encodes a protein of either 243 or 238 amino acids; it overlaps the 5? end of zwf (encodes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) and is followed immediately by eda (encodes the Entner-Doudoroff aldolase). The devB/SOL homolog was inactivated in P. aeruginosa PAO1 by recombination with a suicide plasmid containing an interrupted copy of the gene, creating mutant strain PAO8029. PAO8029 grows at 9% of the wild-type rate using mannitol as the carbon source and at 50% of the wild-type rate using gluconate as the carbon source. Cell extracts of PAO8029 were specifically deficient in 6-phosphogluconolactonase (Pgl) activity. The cloned devB/SOL homolog complemented PAO8029 to restore normal growth on mannitol and gluconate and restored Pgl activity. Hence, we have identified this gene as pgl and propose that the devB/SOL family members encode 6-phosphogluconolactonases. Interestingly, three eukaryotic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) isozymes, from human, rabbit, and Plasmodium falciparum, contain Pgl domains, suggesting that the sequential reactions of G6PDH and Pgl are incorporated in a single protein. 6-Phosphogluconolactonase activity is induced in P. aeruginosa PAO1 by growth on mannitol and repressed by growth on succinate, and it is expressed constitutively in P. aeruginosa PAO8026 (hexR). Taken together, these results establish that Pgl is an essential enzyme of the cyclic Entner-Doudoroff pathway encoded by pgl, a structural gene of the hex regulon. PMID:10869070

Hager, Paul W.; Calfee, M. Worth; Phibbs, Paul V.

2000-01-01

178

GAL4 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae activates the lactose-galactose regulon of Kluyveromyces lactis and creates a new phenotype: glucose repression of the regulon.  

PubMed Central

A Kluyveromyces lactis mutant defective in lac9 cannot induce beta-galactosidase or galactokinase activity and is unable to grow on lactose or galactose. When this strain was transformed with the GAL4 positive regulatory gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae it was able to grow on lactose or galactose as the sole carbon source. Transformants bearing GAL4 exhibited a 4.5-h generation time on galactose or lactose, versus 24 h for the nontransformed lac9 strain. A K. lactis lac9 strain bearing two integrated copies of GAL4 showed 3.5-fold induction of beta-galactosidase activity and 1.8-fold induction of galactokinase activity compared with 15.6-fold and 4.4-fold induction, respectively, for the LAC9 wild-type strain. In transformants bearing 10 integrated copies of GAL4, the induced level of beta-galactosidase was nearly as high as in the LAC9 wild-type strain. In addition to restoring lactose and galactose gene expression, GAL4 in K. lactis lac9 mutant cells conferred a new phenotype, severe glucose repression of lactose and galactose-inducible enzymes. Glucose repressed beta-galactosidase activity 35- to 74-fold and galactokinase activity 14- to 31-fold in GAL4 transformants, compared with the 2-fold glucose repression exhibited in the LAC9 wild-type strain. The S. cerevisiae MEL1 gene was repressed fourfold by glucose in LAC9 cells. In contrast, the MEL1 gene in a GAL4 lac9 strain was repressed 20-fold by glucose. These results indicate that the GAL4 and LAC9 proteins activate transcription in a similar manner. However, either the LAC9 or GAL4 gene or a product of these genes responds differently to glucose in K. lactis. Images PMID:3102945

Riley, M I; Hopper, J E; Johnston, S A; Dickson, R C

1987-01-01

179

Effects of triclocarban on the transcription of estrogen, androgen and aryl hydrocarbon receptor responsive genes in human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Triclocarban (TCC) is an antimicrobial agent that is used in detergents, soaps and other personal hygiene products. Similarly to triclosan the widespread use of TCC has raised concerns about its endocrine potential. In luciferase-based reporter assays TCC has been shown to enhance estrogenic and androgenic activities following cellular coexposure with estrogen or dihydrotestosterone, respectively. The present study demonstrates that although coexposure with TCC enhances the estrogenic and androgenic readout of luciferase-based reporter cell lines such as HeLa9908 and MDA-kb2, it fails to act as a xenoandrogen on transcriptional level, nor does it induce cell proliferation in the estrogen sensitive E-screen. In addition TCC did not alter the expression of estrogen responsive genes in human mammary carcinoma MCF-7 cells exposed to 17?-estradiol, bisphenol A, butylparaben or genistein. However, TCC was shown to interfere with the regulon of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) as TCC showed a costimulatory effect on transcription of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, effectively lowering the transcriptional threshold for both genes in the presence of estrogens. It thus seems, that while the induction of the respective luciferase reporter assays by TCC is an unspecific false positive signal caused by luciferase stabilisation, TCC has the potential to interfere with the regulatory crosstalk of the estrogen receptor (ER) and the AhR regulon. PMID:23524099

Tarnow, Patrick; Tralau, Tewes; Hunecke, Danele; Luch, Andreas

2013-08-01

180

MycoperonDB: a database of computationally identified operons and transcriptional units in Mycobacteria  

PubMed Central

Background A key post genomics challenge is to identify how genes in an organism come together and perform physiological functions. An important first step in this direction is to identify transcriptional units, operons and regulons in a genome. Here we implement and report a strategy to computationally identify transcriptional units and operons of mycobacteria and construct a database-MycoperonDB. Description We have predicted transcriptional units and operons in mycobacteria and organized these predictions in the form of relational database called MycoperonDB. MycoperonDB database at present consists of 18053 genes organized as 8256 predicted operons and transcriptional units from five closely related species of mycobacteria. The database further provides literature links for experimentally characterized operons. All known promoters and related information is collected, analysed and stored. It provides a user friendly interface to allow a web based navigation of transcription units and operons. The web interface provides search tools to locate transcription factor binding DNA motif upstream to various genes. The reliability of operon prediction has been assessed by comparing the predicted operons with a set of known operons. Conclusion MycoperonDB is a publicly available structured relational database which has information about mycobacterial genes, transcriptional units and operons. We expect this database to assist molecular biologists/microbiologists in general, to hypothesize functional linkages between operonic genes of mycobacteria, their experimental characterization and validation. The database is freely available from our website . PMID:17254314

Ranjan, Sarita; Gundu, Ranjit Kumar; Ranjan, Akash

2006-01-01

181

The inner membrane complex sub-compartment proteins critical for replication of the apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii adopt a pleckstrin homology fold.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii, an apicomplexan parasite prevalent in developed nations, infects up to one-third of the human population. The success of this parasite depends on several unique structures including an inner membrane complex (IMC) that lines the interior of the plasma membrane and contains proteins important for gliding motility and replication. Of these proteins, the IMC sub-compartment proteins (ISPs) have recently been shown to play a role in asexual T. gondii daughter cell formation, yet the mechanism is unknown. Complicating mechanistic characterization of the ISPs is a lack of sequence identity with proteins of known structure or function. In support of elucidating the function of ISPs, we first determined the crystal structures of representative members TgISP1 and TgISP3 to a resolution of 2.10 and 2.32 Ĺ, respectively. Structural analysis revealed that both ISPs adopt a pleckstrin homology fold often associated with phospholipid binding or protein-protein interactions. Substitution of basic for hydrophobic residues in the region that overlays with phospholipid binding in related pleckstrin homology domains, however, suggests that ISPs do not retain phospholipid binding activity. Consistent with this observation, biochemical assays revealed no phospholipid binding activity. Interestingly, mapping of conserved surface residues combined with crystal packing analysis indicates that TgISPs have functionally repurposed the phospholipid-binding site likely to coordinate protein partners. Recruitment of larger protein complexes may also be aided through avidity-enhanced interactions resulting from multimerization of the ISPs. Overall, we propose a model where TgISPs recruit protein partners to the IMC to ensure correct progression of daughter cell formation. PMID:24675080

Tonkin, Michelle L; Beck, Josh R; Bradley, Peter J; Boulanger, Martin J

2014-05-16

182

DREB Regulons in Abiotic-Stress-Responsive Gene Expression in Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Plant growth and productivity is affected by various abiotic stresses such as drought, high salinity, and low temperature.\\u000a Expression of a variety of genes is induced by these stresses in various plants. In the signal transduction network from perception\\u000a of stress signals to stress-responsive gene expression, various transcription factors and cis-acting elements in the stress-responsive gene expression function for plant

Kazuko Yamaguchi-Shinozaki; Kazuo Shinozaki

183

Adenylate Cyclase Mutations Rescue the degP Temperature-Sensitive Phenotype and Induce the Sigma E and Cpx Extracytoplasmic Stress Regulons in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inactivation of the gene encoding the periplasmic protease DegP confers a high-temperature-sensitive phenotype in Escherichia coli. We have previously demonstrated that a degP mutant of E. coli strain CBM (W3110 pldA1) is not temperature sensitive and showed that this was most likely due to constitutive activation of the sigma E and Cpx extracytoplasmic stress regulons in the parent strain. In

Timothy G. Strozen; Geoffrey R. Langen; S. Peter Howard

2005-01-01

184

Deep Sequencing Analysis of Small Noncoding RNA and mRNA Targets of the Global Post-Transcriptional Regulator, Hfq  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in high-throughput pyrosequencing (HTPS) technology now allow a thorough analysis of RNA bound to cellular proteins, and, therefore, of post-transcriptional regulons. We used HTPS to discover the Salmonella RNAs that are targeted by the common bacterial Sm-like protein, Hfq. Initial transcriptomic analysis revealed that Hfq controls the expression of almost a fifth of all Salmonella genes, including several horizontally acquired pathogenicity islands (SPI-1, -2, -4, -5), two sigma factor regulons, and the flagellar gene cascade. Subsequent HTPS analysis of 350,000 cDNAs, derived from RNA co-immunoprecipitation (coIP) with epitope-tagged Hfq or control coIP, identified 727 mRNAs that are Hfq-bound in vivo. The cDNA analysis discovered new, small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) and more than doubled the number of sRNAs known to be expressed in Salmonella to 64; about half of these are associated with Hfq. Our analysis explained aspects of the pleiotropic effects of Hfq loss-of-function. Specifically, we found that the mRNAs of hilD (master regulator of the SPI-1 invasion genes) and flhDC (flagellar master regulator) were bound by Hfq. We predicted that defective SPI-1 secretion and flagellar phenotypes of the hfq mutant would be rescued by overexpression of HilD and FlhDC, and we proved this to be correct. The combination of epitope-tagging and HTPS of immunoprecipitated RNA detected the expression of many intergenic chromosomal regions of Salmonella. Our approach overcomes the limited availability of high-density microarrays that have impeded expression-based sRNA discovery in microorganisms. We present a generic strategy that is ideal for the systems-level analysis of the post-transcriptional regulons of RNA-binding proteins and for sRNA discovery in a wide range of bacteria. PMID:18725932

Sittka, Alexandra; Lucchini, Sacha; Papenfort, Kai; Sharma, Cynthia M.; Rolle, Katarzyna; Binnewies, Tim T.; Hinton, Jay C. D.; Vogel, Jörg

2008-01-01

185

Activation of Silent gal Genes in the lac-gal Regulon of Streptococcus thermophilus  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus thermophilus strain CNRZ 302 is unable to ferment galactose, neither that generated intracellularly by lactose hydrolysis nor the free sugar. Nevertheless, sequence analysis and complementation studies with Escherichia coli demonstrated that strain CNRZ 302 contained structurally intact genes for the Leloir pathway enzymes. These were organized into an operon in the order galKTE, which was preceded by a divergently transcribed regulator gene, galR, and followed by a galM gene and the lactose operon lacSZ. Results of Northern blot analysis showed that the structural gal genes were transcribed weakly, and only in medium containing lactose, by strain CNRZ 302. However, in a spontaneous galactose-fermenting mutant, designated NZ302G, the galKTE genes were well expressed in cells grown on lactose or galactose. In both CNRZ 302 and the Gal+ mutant NZ302G, the transcription of the galR gene was induced by growth on lactose. Disruption of galR indicated that it functioned as a transcriptional activator of both the gal and lac operons while negatively regulating its own expression. Sequence analysis of the gal promoter regions of NZ302G and nine other independently isolated Gal+ mutants of CNRZ 302 revealed mutations at three positions in the galK promoter region, which included substitutions at positions ?9 and ?15 as well as a single-base-pair insertion at position ?37 with respect to the main transcription initiation point. Galactokinase activity measurements and analysis of gusA reporter gene fusions in strains containing the mutated promoters suggested that they were gal promoter-up mutations. We propose that poor expression of the gal genes in the galactose-negative S. thermophilus CNRZ 302 is caused by naturally occurring mutations in the galK promoter. PMID:11157930

Vaughan, Elaine E.; van den Bogaard, Patrick T. C.; Catzeddu, Pasquale; Kuipers, Oscar P.; de Vos, Willem M.

2001-01-01

186

Characterization of the AggR Regulon in Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

AggR is a transcriptional regulator of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) and has been proposed as the defining factor for typical EAEC strains. Expression of multiple putative virulence factors, including the aggregative adherence fimbriae (AAF), dispersin, the dispersin translocator Aat, and the Aai type VI secretion system, have been found to be regulated by AggR. Here, we confirm the existence of at least 44 AggR-regulated genes using DNA microarray and real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR); these genes include chromosomal and plasmid-borne loci and 19 previously unsuspected genes. Two previously uncharacterized virulence plasmid-encoded open reading frames (ORFs) (designated ORF3 and ORF4) exhibit significant identity with isoprenoid biosynthesis genes of Bacteria and Archaea. The predicted ORF4 product is closely related to isopentenyl isomerase (IDI) enzymes, whereas the predicted product of the adjacent ORF3 exhibits an aspartate-rich region that is common among trans-isoprenyl phosphate synthases. We show that mutations in these ORFs confer changes in bacterial surface properties. AggR coordinately controls expression of a large number of EAEC genes. PMID:23090962

Morin, Nicholas; Santiago, Araceli E.; Ernst, Robert K.; Guillot, Stacey J.

2013-01-01

187

Genome-Wide Analysis of the Pho Regulon in a pstCA Mutant of Citrobacter rodentium  

PubMed Central

The phosphate-specific transport operon, pstSCAB-phoU, of Gram-negative bacteria is an essential part of the Pho regulon. Its key roles are to encode a high-affinity inorganic phosphate transport system and to prevent activation of PhoB in phosphate-rich environments. In general, mutations in pstSCAB-phoU lead to the constitutive expression of the Pho regulon. Previously, we constructed a pstCA deletion mutant of Citrobacter rodentium and found it to be attenuated for virulence in mice, its natural host. This attenuation was dependent on PhoB or PhoB-regulated gene(s) because a phoB mutation restored virulence for mice to the pstCA mutant. To investigate how downstream genes may contribute to the virulence of C. rodentium, we used microarray analysis to investigate global gene expression of C. rodentium strain ICC169 and its isogenic pstCA mutant when grown in phosphate-rich medium. Overall 323 genes of the pstCA mutant were differentially expressed by at least 1.5-fold compared to the wild-type C. rodentium. Of these 145 were up-regulated and 178 were down-regulated. Differentially expressed genes included some involved in phosphate homoeostasis, cellular metabolism and protein metabolism. A large number of genes involved in stress responses and of unknown function were also differentially expressed, as were some virulence-associated genes. Up-regulated virulence-associated genes in the pstCA mutant included that for DegP, a serine protease, which appeared to be directly regulated by PhoB. Down-regulated genes included those for the production of the urease, flagella, NleG8 (a type III-secreted protein) and the tad focus (which encodes type IVb pili in Yersinia enterocolitica). Infection studies using C57/BL6 mice showed that DegP and NleG8 play a role in bacterial virulence. Overall, our study provides evidence that Pho is a global regulator of gene expression in C. rodentium and indicates the presence of at least two previously unrecognized virulence determinants of C. rodentium, namely, DegP and NleG8. PMID:23226353

Cheng, Catherine; Wakefield, Matthew J.; Yang, Ji; Tauschek, Marija; Robins-Browne, Roy M.

2012-01-01

188

Transcription factors and genetic circuits orchestrating the complex, multilayered response of Clostridium acetobutylicum to butanol and butyrate stress  

PubMed Central

Background Organisms of the genus Clostridium are Gram-positive endospore formers of great importance to the carbon cycle, human normo- and pathophysiology, but also in biofuel and biorefinery applications. Exposure of Clostridium organisms to chemical and in particular toxic metabolite stress is ubiquitous in both natural (such as in the human microbiome) and engineered environments, engaging both the general stress response as well as specialized programs. Yet, despite its fundamental and applied significance, it remains largely unexplored at the systems level. Results We generated a total of 96 individual sets of microarray data examining the transcriptional changes in C. acetobutylicum, a model Clostridium organism, in response to three levels of chemical stress from the native metabolites, butanol and butyrate. We identified 164 significantly differentially expressed transcriptional regulators and detailed the cellular programs associated with general and stressor-specific responses, many previously unexplored. Pattern-based, comparative genomic analyses enabled us, for the first time, to construct a detailed picture of the genetic circuitry underlying the stress response. Notably, a list of the regulons and DNA binding motifs of the stress-related transcription factors were identified: two heat-shock response regulators, HrcA and CtsR; the SOS response regulator LexA; the redox sensor Rex; and the peroxide sensor PerR. Moreover, several transcriptional regulators controlling stress-responsive amino acid and purine metabolism and their regulons were also identified, including ArgR (arginine biosynthesis and catabolism regulator), HisR (histidine biosynthesis regulator), CymR (cysteine metabolism repressor) and PurR (purine metabolism repressor). Conclusions Using an exceptionally large set of temporal transcriptional data and regulon analyses, we successfully built a STRING-based stress response network model integrating important players for the general and specialized metabolite stress response in C. acetobutylicum. Since the majority of the transcription factors and their target genes are highly conserved in other organisms of the Clostridium genus, this network would be largely applicable to other Clostridium organisms. The network informs the molecular basis of Clostridium responses to toxic metabolites in natural ecosystems and the microbiome, and will facilitate the construction of genome-scale models with added regulatory-network dimensions to guide the development of tolerant strains. PMID:24196194

2013-01-01

189

Global Transcriptional Control by NsrR in Bacillus subtilis  

PubMed Central

The NO-sensitive NsrR repressor of Bacillus subtilis, which carries a [4Fe-4S] cluster, controls transcription of nasD and hmp (class I regulation) under anaerobic conditions. Here, we describe another class of NsrR regulation (class II regulation) that controls a more diverse collection of genes. Base substitution analysis showed that [4Fe-4S]-NsrR recognizes a partial dyad symmetry within the class I cis-acting sites, whereas NO-insensitive interaction of NsrR with an A+T-rich class II regulatory site showed relaxed sequence specificity. Genome-wide transcriptome studies identified genes that are under the control of the class II NsrR regulation. The class II NsrR regulon includes genes controlled by both AbrB and Rok repressors, which also recognize A+T-rich sequences, and by the Fur repressor. Transcription of class II genes was elevated in an nsrR mutant during anaerobic fermentative growth with pyruvate. Although NsrR binding to the class II regulatory sites was NO insensitive in vitro, transcription of class II genes was moderately induced by NO, which involved reversal of NsrR-dependent repression, suggesting that class II repression is also NO sensitive. In all NsrR-repressed genes tested, the loss of NsrR repressor activity was not sufficient to induce transcription as induction required the ResD response regulator. The ResD-ResE signal transduction system is essential for activation of genes involved in aerobic and anaerobic respiration. This study indicated coordinated regulation between ResD and NsrR and uncovered a new role of ResD and NsrR in transcriptional regulation during anaerobiosis of B. subtilis. PMID:22287527

Kommineni, Sushma; Lama, Amrita; Popescu, Benjamin

2012-01-01

190

Energetic Consequences of nitrite stress in Desulfovibrio vulgarisHildenborough, inferred from global transcriptional analysis  

SciTech Connect

Many of the proteins that are candidates for bioenergetic pathways involved with sulfate respiration in Desulfovibrio spp. have been studied, but complete pathways and overall cell physiology remain to be resolved for many environmentally relevant conditions. In order to understand the metabolism of these microorganisms under adverse environmental conditions for improved bioremediation efforts, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough was used as a model organism to study stress response to nitrite, an important intermediate in the nitrogen cycle. Previous physiological studies demonstrated that growth was inhibited by nitrite and that nitrite reduction was observed to be the primary mechanism of detoxification. Global transcriptional profiling with whole-genome microarrays revealed coordinated cascades of responses to nitrite in pathways of energy metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, oxidative stress response, and iron homeostasis. In agreement with previous observations, nitrite-stressed cells showed a decrease in the expression of genes encoding sulfate reduction functions in addition to respiratory oxidative phosphorylation and ATP synthase activity. Consequently, the stressed cells had decreased expression of the genes encoding ATP-dependent amino acid transporters and proteins involved in translation. Other genes up-regulated in response to nitrite include the genes in the Fur regulon, which is suggested to be involved in iron homeostasis, and genes in the Per regulon, which is predicted to be responsible for oxidative stress response.

He, Qiang; Huang, Katherine H.; He, Zhili; Alm, Eric J.; Fields,Matthew W.; Hazen, Terry C.; Arkin, Adam P.; Wall, Judy D.; Zhou, Jizhong

2005-11-03

191

Functional Genomics Analysis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Iron Responsive Transcription Factor Aft1 Reveals Iron-Independent Functions  

PubMed Central

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcription factor Aft1 is activated in iron-deficient cells to induce the expression of iron regulon genes, which coordinate the increase of iron uptake and remodel cellular metabolism to survive low-iron conditions. In addition, Aft1 has been implicated in numerous cellular processes including cell-cycle progression and chromosome stability; however, it is unclear if all cellular effects of Aft1 are mediated through iron homeostasis. To further investigate the cellular processes affected by Aft1, we identified >70 deletion mutants that are sensitive to perturbations in AFT1 levels using genome-wide synthetic lethal and synthetic dosage lethal screens. Our genetic network reveals that Aft1 affects a diverse range of cellular processes, including the RIM101 pH pathway, cell-wall stability, DNA damage, protein transport, chromosome stability, and mitochondrial function. Surprisingly, only a subset of mutants identified are sensitive to extracellular iron fluctuations or display genetic interactions with mutants of iron regulon genes AFT2 or FET3. We demonstrate that Aft1 works in parallel with the RIM101 pH pathway and the role of Aft1 in DNA damage repair is mediated by iron. In contrast, through both directed studies and microarray transcriptional profiling, we show that the role of Aft1 in chromosome maintenance and benomyl resistance is independent of its iron regulatory role, potentially through a nontranscriptional mechanism. PMID:20439772

Berthelet, Sharon; Usher, Jane; Shulist, Kristian; Hamza, Akil; Maltez, Nancy; Johnston, Anne; Fong, Ying; Harris, Linda J.; Baetz, Kristin

2010-01-01

192

SoxR, a [2Fe-2S] transcription factor, is active only in its oxidized form.  

PubMed Central

SoxR protein is known to function both as a sensor and as a transcriptional activator for a superoxide response regulon in Escherichia coli. The activity of SoxR was tested by its ability to enable the transcription of its target gene, soxS, in vitro. The activity of the oxidized form was lost when its [2Fe-2S] clusters were reduced by dithionite under anaerobic conditions, and it was rapidly restored by autooxidation. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that induction of the regulon is effected by the univalent oxidation of the Fe-S centers of SoxR. In vivo, this oxidation may be caused by an alteration of the redox balance of electron chain intermediates that normally maintains soxR in an inactive, reduced state. Oxidized SoxR was about twice as effective as reduced SoxR in protecting the soxS operator from endonucleolytic cleavage. However, this difference could not account for a greater than 50-fold difference in their activities and therefore could not support a model in which oxidation activates SoxR by enabling it to bind to DNA. NADPH, ferredoxin, flavodoxin, or ferredoxin (flavodoxin):NADP+ reductase could not reduce SoxR directly in vitro at a measurable rate. The midpoint potential for SoxR was measured at -283 mV. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8816757

Gaudu, P; Weiss, B

1996-01-01

193

Inference of Self-Regulated Transcriptional Networks by Comparative Genomics  

PubMed Central

The assumption of basic properties, like self-regulation, in simple transcriptional regulatory networks can be exploited to infer regulatory motifs from the growing amounts of genomic and meta-genomic data. These motifs can in principle be used to elucidate the nature and scope of transcriptional networks through comparative genomics. Here we assess the feasibility of this approach using the SOS regulatory network of Gram-positive bacteria as a test case. Using experimentally validated data, we show that the known regulatory motif can be inferred through the assumption of self-regulation. Furthermore, the inferred motif provides a more robust search pattern for comparative genomics than the experimental motifs defined in reference organisms. We take advantage of this robustness to generate a functional map of the SOS response in Gram-positive bacteria. Our results reveal definite differences in the composition of the LexA regulon between Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, and confirm that regulation of cell-division inhibition is a widespread characteristic of this network among Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:23032607

Cornish, Joseph P.; Matthews, Fialelei; Thomas, Julien R.; Erill, Ivan

2012-01-01

194

The promoter architectural landscape of the Salmonella PhoP regulon  

PubMed Central

The DNA-binding protein PhoP controls virulence and Mg2+ homeostasis in the Gram-negative pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. PhoP regulates expression of a large number of genes that differ both in their ancestry and in the biochemical functions and physiological roles of the encoded products. This suggests that PhoP-regulated genes are differentially expressed. To understand how a bacterial activator might generate varied gene expression behaviour, we investigated the cis-acting promoter features (i.e. the number of PhoP binding sites, as well as their orientation and location with respect to the sites bound by RNA polymerase and the sequences that constitute the PhoP binding sites) in 23 PhoP-activated promoters. Our results show that natural PhoP-activated promoters utilize only a limited number of combinations of cis-acting features – or promoter architectures. We determine that PhoP activates transcription by different mechanisms, and that ancestral and horizontally acquired PhoP-activated genes have distinct promoter architectures. PMID:22435712

Zwir, Igor; Latifi, Tammy; Perez, J Christian; Huang, Henry; Groisman, Eduardo A

2012-01-01

195

Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of the Hfq-Regulon in Sinorhizobium meliloti 2011  

PubMed Central

Riboregulation stands for RNA-based control of gene expression. In bacteria, small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) are a major class of riboregulatory elements, most of which act at the post-transcriptional level by base-pairing target mRNA genes. The RNA chaperone Hfq facilitates antisense interactions between target mRNAs and regulatory sRNAs, thus influencing mRNA stability and/or translation rate. In the ?-proteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti strain 2011, the identification and detection of multiple sRNAs genes and the broadly pleitropic phenotype associated to the absence of a functional Hfq protein both support the existence of riboregulatory circuits controlling gene expression to ensure the fitness of this bacterium in both free living and symbiotic conditions. In order to identify target mRNAs subject to Hfq-dependent riboregulation, we have compared the proteome of an hfq mutant and the wild type S. meliloti by quantitative proteomics following protein labelling with 15N. Among 2139 univocally identified proteins, a total of 195 proteins showed a differential abundance between the Hfq mutant and the wild type strain; 65 proteins accumulated ?2-fold whereas 130 were downregulated (?0.5-fold) in the absence of Hfq. This profound proteomic impact implies a major role for Hfq on regulation of diverse physiological processes in S. meliloti, from transport of small molecules to homeostasis of iron and nitrogen. Changes in the cellular levels of proteins involved in transport of nucleotides, peptides and amino acids, and in iron homeostasis, were confirmed with phenotypic assays. These results represent the first quantitative proteomic analysis in S. meliloti. The comparative analysis of the hfq mutant proteome allowed identification of novel strongly Hfq-regulated genes in S. meliloti. PMID:23119037

Sobrero, Patricio; Schluter, Jan-Philip; Lanner, Ulrike; Schlosser, Andreas; Becker, Anke; Valverde, Claudio

2012-01-01

196

Pho regulon promoter-mediated transcription of the key pathway gene aroG Fbr improves the performance of an l -phenylalanine-producing Escherichia coli strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

DAHP synthase (EC 4.1.2.15) is one of the key enzymes involved in aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. An approximately twofold decrease in DAHP synthase activity level was detected in the late growth phase of the l-phenylalanine (Phe)-producing E. coli strain, in which this enzyme encoded by aroG4 is resistant to feedback inhibition. An additional copy of aroG4 that

Vera G. Doroshenko; Irina S. Tsyrenzhapova; Alexander A. Krylov; Evgeniya M. Kiseleva; Vladimir Yu. Ermishev; Svetlana M. Kazakova; Irina V. Biryukova; Sergey V. Mashko

2010-01-01

197

Phenylacetic Acid Catabolism and Its Transcriptional Regulation in Corynebacterium glutamicum  

PubMed Central

The industrially important organism Corynebacterium glutamicum has been characterized in recent years for its robust ability to assimilate aromatic compounds. In this study, C. glutamicum strain AS 1.542 was investigated for its ability to catabolize phenylacetic acid (PAA). The paa genes were identified; they are organized as a continuous paa gene cluster. The type strain of C. glutamicum, ATCC 13032, is not able to catabolize PAA, but the recombinant strain ATCC 13032/pEC-K18mob2::paa gained the ability to grow on PAA. The paaR gene, encoding a TetR family transcription regulator, was studied in detail. Disruption of paaR in strain AS 1.542 resulted in transcriptional increases of all paa genes. Transcription start sites and putative promoter regions were determined. An imperfect palindromic motif (5?-ACTNACCGNNCGNNCGGTNAGT-3?; 22 bp) was identified in the upstream regions of paa genes. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) demonstrated specific binding of PaaR to this motif, and phenylacetyl coenzyme A (PA-CoA) blocked binding. It was concluded that PaaR is the negative regulator of PAA degradation and that PA-CoA is the PaaR effector. In addition, GlxR binding sites were found, and binding to GlxR was confirmed. Therefore, PAA catabolism in C. glutamicum is regulated by the pathway-specific repressor PaaR, and also likely by the global transcription regulator GlxR. By comparative genomic analysis, we reconstructed orthologous PaaR regulons in 57 species, including species of Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Flavobacteria, that carry PAA utilization genes and operate by conserved binding motifs, suggesting that PaaR-like regulation might commonly exist in these bacteria. PMID:22685150

Chen, Xi; Kohl, Thomas A.; Rückert, Christian; Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Li, Ling-Hao; Ding, Jiu-Yuan

2012-01-01

198

The Unfolded Protein Response in the Protozoan Parasite Toxoplasma gondii Features Translational and Transcriptional Control  

PubMed Central

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an important regulatory network that responds to perturbations in protein homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In mammalian cells, the UPR features translational and transcriptional mechanisms of gene expression aimed at restoring proteostatic control. A central feature of the UPR is phosphorylation of the ? subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF2) by PERK (EIF2AK3/PEK), which reduces the influx of nascent proteins into the ER by lowering global protein synthesis, coincident with preferential translation of key transcription activators of genes that function to expand the processing capacity of this secretory organelle. Upon ER stress, the apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is known to induce phosphorylation of Toxoplasma eIF2? and lower translation initiation. To characterize the nature of the ensuing UPR in this parasite, we carried out microarray analyses to measure the changes in the transcriptome and in translational control during ER stress. We determined that a collection of transcripts linked with the secretory process are induced in response to ER stress, supporting the idea that a transcriptional induction phase of the UPR occurs in Toxoplasma. Furthermore, we determined that about 500 gene transcripts showed enhanced association with translating ribosomes during ER stress. Many of these target genes are suggested to be involved in gene expression, including JmjC5, which continues to be actively translated during ER stress. This study indicates that Toxoplasma triggers a UPR during ER stress that features both translational and transcriptional regulatory mechanisms, which is likely to be important for parasite invasion and development. PMID:23666622

Joyce, Bradley R.; Tampaki, Zoi; Kim, Kami

2013-01-01

199

Insights into the CtrA Regulon in Development of Stress Resistance in Obligatory Intracellular Pathogen Ehrlichia chaffeensis  

PubMed Central

Summary Ehrlichia chaffeensis is an obligate intracellular bacterium that causes human monocytic ehrlichiosis. Ehrlichiae have a biphasic developmental cycle consisting of dense-cored cells (DCs) and reticulate cells (RCs). Isolated DCs are more stress resistant and infectious than RCs. Here, we report that a response regulator, CtrA was upregulated in human monocytes at the late growth stage when DCs develop. E. chaffeensis CtrA bound to the promoters of late-stage transcribed genes: ctrA, ompA (peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein), bolA (stress-induced morphogen), and surE (stationary phase survival protein), which contain CtrA-binding motifs, and transactivated ompA, surE, and bolA promoter-lacZ fusions in Escherichia coli. OmpA was predominantly expressed in DCs. E. chaffeensis binding to and subsequent infection of monocytes were inhibited by anti-OmpA IgG. E. chaffeensis BolA bound to the promoters of genes encoding outer surface proteins TRP120 and ECH_1038, which were expressed in DCs, and transactivated trp120 and ECH_1038 promoter-lacZ fusions. E. chaffeensis bolA complemented a stress-sensitive E. coli bolA mutant. E. coli expressing E. chaffeensis surE exhibited increased resistance to osmotic stress. Our results suggest that E. chaffeensis CtrA plays a role in coordinating development of the stress resistance for passage from the present to the next host cells through its regulon. PMID:22014113

Cheng, Zhihui; Miura, Koshiro; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Kumagai, Yumi; Rikihisa, Yasuko

2011-01-01

200

The new pLAI (lux regulon based auto-inducible) expression system for recombinant protein production in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Background After many years of intensive research, it is generally assumed that no universal expression system can exist for high-level production of a given recombinant protein. Among the different expression systems, the inducible systems are the most popular for their tight regulation. However, induction is in many cases less favorable due to the high cost and/or toxicity of inducers, incompatibilities with industrial scale-up or detrimental growth conditions. Expression systems using autoinduction (or self-induction) prove to be extremely versatile allowing growth and induction of recombinant proteins without the need to monitor cell density or add inducer. Unfortunately, almost all the actual auto inducible expression systems need endogenous or induced metabolic changes during the growth to trigger induction, both frequently linked to detrimental condition to cell growth. In this context, we use a simple modular approach for a cell density-based genetic regulation in order to assemble an autoinducible recombinant protein expression system in E. coli. Result The newly designed pLAI expression system places the expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli under control of the regulatory genes of the lux regulon of Vibrio fischeri's Quorum Sensing (QS) system. The pLAI system allows a tight regulation of the recombinant gene allowing a negligible basal expression and expression only at high cell density. Sequence optimization of regulative genes of QS of V. fischeri for expression in E. coli upgraded the system to high level expression. Moreover, partition of regulative genes between the plasmid and the host genome and introduction of a molecular safety lock permitted tighter control of gene expression. Conclusion Coupling gene expression to cell density using cell-to-cell communication provides a promising approach for recombinant protein production. The system allows the control of expression of the target recombinant gene independently from external inducers or drastic changes in metabolic conditions and enabling tight regulation of expression. PMID:22222111

2012-01-01

201

Induction of the heat shock regulon of Escherichia coli markedly increases production of bacterial viruses at high temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Production of bacteriophages T2, T4, and T6 at 42.8 to 44/sup 0/C was increased from 8- to 260-fold by adapting the Escherichia coli host (grown at 30/sup 0/C) to growth at the high temperature for 8 min before infection; this increase was abolished if the host htpR (rpoH) gene was inactive. Others have shown that the htpR protein increases or activates the synthesis of at least 17 E. coli heat shock proteins upon raising the growth temperature above a certain level. At 43.8 to 44/sup 0/C in T4-infected, unadapted cells, the rates of RNA, DNA, and protein synthesis were about 100, 70 and 70%, respectively, of those in T4-infected, adapted cells. Production of the major processed capsid protein, gp23, was reduced significantly more than that of most other T4 proteins in unadapted cells relative to adapted cells. Only 4.6% of the T4 DNA made in unadapted cells was resistant to micrococcal nuclease, versus 50% in adapted cells. Thus, defective maturation of T4 heads appears to explain the failure of phage production in unadapted cells. Overproduction of the heat shock protein GroEL from plasmids restored T4 production in unadapted cells to about 50% of that seen in adapted cells. T4-infected, adapted E. coli B at around 44/sup 0/C exhibited a partial tryptophan deficiency. Production of bacteriophage T7 at 44/sup 0/C was increased two- to fourfold by adapting the host to 44/sup 0/C before infection; evidence against involvement of the htpR (rpoH) gene is presented. This work and recent work with bacteriophage delta appear to represent the first demonstrations for any virus that expression of the heat shock regulon of a host is necessary for virus production at high temperature.

Wiberg, J.S.; Mowrey-Mckee, M.F.; Stevens, E.J.

1988-01-01

202

Analysis of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Regulon Controlled by the Sensor Kinase KinB and Sigma Factor RpoN  

PubMed Central

Alginate overproduction by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, also known as mucoidy, is associated with chronic endobronchial infections in cystic fibrosis. Alginate biosynthesis is initiated by the extracytoplasmic function sigma factor (?22; AlgU/AlgT). In the wild-type (wt) nonmucoid strains, such as PAO1, AlgU is sequestered to the cytoplasmic membrane by the anti-sigma factor MucA that inhibits alginate production. One mechanism underlying the conversion to mucoidy is mutation of mucA. However, the mucoid conversion can occur in wt mucA strains via the degradation of MucA by activated intramembrane proteases AlgW and/or MucP. Previously, we reported that the deletion of the sensor kinase KinB in PAO1 induces an AlgW-dependent proteolysis of MucA, resulting in alginate overproduction. This type of mucoid induction requires the alternate sigma factor RpoN (?54). To determine the RpoN-dependent KinB regulon, microarray and proteomic analyses were performed on a mucoid kinB mutant and an isogenic nonmucoid kinB rpoN double mutant. In the kinB mutant of PAO1, RpoN controlled the expression of approximately 20% of the genome. In addition to alginate biosynthetic and regulatory genes, KinB and RpoN also control a large number of genes including those involved in carbohydrate metabolism, quorum sensing, iron regulation, rhamnolipid production, and motility. In an acute pneumonia murine infection model, BALB/c mice exhibited increased survival when challenged with the kinB mutant relative to survival with PAO1 challenge. Together, these data strongly suggest that KinB regulates virulence factors important for the development of acute pneumonia and conversion to mucoidy. PMID:22210761

Damron, F. Heath; Owings, Joshua P.; Okkotsu, Yuta; Varga, John J.; Schurr, Jill R.; Goldberg, Joanna B.; Schurr, Michael J.

2012-01-01

203

Characterization of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa metalloendopeptidase, Mep72, a member of the Vfr regulon  

PubMed Central

Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa Vfr (the virulence factor regulator) enhances P. aeruginosa virulence by positively regulating the expression of numerous virulence genes. A previous microarray analysis identified numerous genes positively regulated by Vfr in strain PAK, including the yet uncharacterized PA2782 and PA2783. Results In this study, we report the detailed characterization of PA2783 in the P. aeruginosa strain PAO1. RT-PCR analysis confirmed that PA2782-PA2783 constitute an operon. A mutation in vfr significantly reduced the expression of both genes. The predicted protein encoded by PA2783 contains a typical leader peptide at its amino terminus end as well as metalloendopeptidase and carbohydrate binding motifs at its amino terminus and carboxy terminus regions, respectively. An in-frame PA2783::phoA fusion encoded a hybrid protein that was exported to the periplasmic space of Escherichia coli and P. aeruginosa. In PAO1, the proteolytic activity of the PA2783-encoded protein was masked by other P. aeruginosa extracellular proteases but an E. coli strain carrying a PA2783 recombinant plasmid produced considerable proteolytic activity. The outer membrane fraction of an E. coli strain in which PA2783 was overexpressed contained specific endopeptidase activity. In the presence of cAMP, purified recombinant Vfr (rVfr) bound to a 98-bp fragment within the PA2782-PA2783 upstream region that carries a putative Vfr consensus sequence. Through a series of electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we localized rVfr binding to a 33-bp fragment that contains part of the Vfr consensus sequence and a 5-bp imperfect (3/5) inverted repeat at its 3? and 5? ends (TGGCG-N22-CGCTG). Deletion of either repeat eliminated Vfr binding. Conclusions PA2782 and PA2783 constitute an operon whose transcription is positively regulated by Vfr. The expression of PA2783 throughout the growth cycle of P. aeruginosa follows a unique pattern. PA2783 codes for a secreted metalloendopeptidase, which we named Mep72. Mep72, which has metalloendopeptidase and carbohydrate-binding domains, produced proteolytic and endopeptidase activities in E. coli. Vfr directly regulates the expression of the PA2782-mep72 operon by binding to its upstream region. However, unlike other Vfr-targeted genes, Vfr binding does not require an intact Vfr consensus binding sequence. PMID:24279383

2013-01-01

204

A Bayesian Change point model for differential gene expression patterns of the DosR regulon of Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

E-print Network

Abstract Background Low oxygen availability has been shown previously to stimulate M. tuberculosis to establish non-replicative persistence in vitro. The two component sensor/regulator dosRS is a major mediator in the transcriptional response of M...

Zhang, Yi; Hatch, Kim A; Wernisch, Lorenz; Bacon, Joanna

2008-02-22

205

Dynamics of transcriptional start site selection during nitrogen stress-induced cell differentiation in Anabaena sp. PCC7120  

PubMed Central

The fixation of atmospheric N2 by cyanobacteria is a major source of nitrogen in the biosphere. In Nostocales, such as Anabaena, this process is spatially separated from oxygenic photosynthesis and occurs in heterocysts. Upon nitrogen step-down, these specialized cells differentiate from vegetative cells in a process controlled by two major regulators: NtcA and HetR. However, the regulon controlled by these two factors is only partially defined, and several aspects of the differentiation process have remained enigmatic. Using differential RNA-seq, we experimentally define a genome-wide map of >10,000 transcriptional start sites (TSS) of Anabaena sp. PCC7120, a model organism for the study of prokaryotic cell differentiation and N2 fixation. By analyzing the adaptation to nitrogen stress, our global TSS map provides insight into the dynamic changes that modify the transcriptional organization at a critical step of the differentiation process. We identify >900 TSS with minimum fold change in response to nitrogen deficiency of eight. From these TSS, at least 209 were under control of HetR, whereas at least 158 other TSS were potentially directly controlled by NtcA. Our analysis of the promoters activated during the switch to N2 fixation adds hundreds of protein-coding genes and noncoding transcripts to the list of potentially involved factors. These data experimentally define the NtcA regulon and the DIF+ motif, a palindrome at or close to position ?35 that seems essential for heterocyst-specific expression of certain genes. PMID:22135468

Mitschke, Jan; Vioque, Agustin; Haas, Fabian; Hess, Wolfgang R.; Muro-Pastor, Alicia M.

2011-01-01

206

Transcription in archaea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using the sequences of all the known transcription-associated proteins from Bacteria and Eucarya (a total of 4,147), we have identified their homologous counterparts in the four complete archaeal genomes. Through extensive sequence comparisons, we establish the presence of 280 predicted transcription factors or transcription-associated proteins in the four archaeal genomes, of which 168 have homologs only in Bacteria, 51 have homologs only in Eucarya, and the remaining 61 have homologs in both phylogenetic domains. Although bacterial and eukaryotic transcription have very few factors in common, each exclusively shares a significantly greater number with the Archaea, especially the Bacteria. This last fact contrasts with the obvious close relationship between the archaeal and eukaryotic transcription mechanisms per se, and in particular, basic transcription initiation. We interpret these results to mean that the archaeal transcription system has retained more ancestral characteristics than have the transcription mechanisms in either of the other two domains.

Kyrpides, N. C.; Ouzounis, C. A.; Woese, C. R. (Principal Investigator)

1999-01-01

207

Transcriptional activation: risky business.  

PubMed

Transcriptional regulation is all about getting RNA polymerase to the right place on the gene at the right time and making sure that it is competent to conduct transcription. Traditional views of this process place most of their emphasis on the events that precede initiation of transcription. We imagine a promoter-bound transcriptional activator (or collection of activators) recruiting components of the basal transcriptional machinery to the DNA, eventually leading to the recruitment of RNA polymerase II and the onset of gene transcription. Although these events play a crucial role in regulating gene expression, they are only half the story. Correct regulation of transcription requires that polymerase not only initiates when and where it should, but that it stops initiating when no longer appropriate. But how are the signals from transcriptional activators, telling RNA polymerase to fire, terminated? Is this process governed by chance, with activators simply falling off the promoter at a certain frequency? Or is there some more direct mechanism, whereby activators are aggressively limited from uncontrolled promoter activation? A new article by suggests the latter may be true, and provides a mechanism for how a component of the basal transcription machinery can mark the activators it has encountered, sentencing them to an early death or banishing them from the nucleus. The ability of the basal transcriptional apparatus to mark activators provides an efficient way to limit activator function and ensures that continuing transcription initiation at a promoter is coupled to the continuing synthesis and activation of transcriptional activators. PMID:11331599

Tansey, W P

2001-05-01

208

Prediction of the general transcription factors associated with RNA polymerase II in Plasmodium falciparum: conserved features and differences relative to other eukaryotes  

PubMed Central

Background To date, only a few transcription factors have been identified in the genome of the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of malaria. Moreover, no detailed molecular analysis of its basal transcription machinery, which is otherwise well-conserved in the crown group of eukaryotes, has yet been reported. In this study, we have used a combination of sensitive sequence analysis methods to predict the existence of several parasite encoded general transcription factors associated with RNA polymerase II. Results Several orthologs of general transcription factors associated with RNA polymerase II can be predicted among the hypothetical proteins of the P. falciparum genome using the two-dimensional Hydrophobic Cluster Analysis (HCA) together with profile-based search methods (PSI-BLAST). These predicted orthologous genes encoding putative transcription factors include the large subunit of TFIIA and two candidates for its small subunit, the TFIIE ?-subunit, which would associate with the previously known TFIIE ?-subunit, the TFIIF ?-subunit, as well as the p62/TFB1 subunit of the TFIIH core. Within TFIID, the putative orthologs of TAF1, TAF2, TAF7 and TAF10 were also predicted. However, no candidates for TAFs with classical histone fold domain (HFD) were found, suggesting an unusual architecture of TFIID complex of RNA polymerase II in the parasite. Conclusion Taken together, these results suggest that more general transcription factors may be present in the P. falciparum proteome than initially thought. The prediction of these orthologous general transcription factors opens the way for further studies dealing with transcriptional regulation in P. falciparum. These alternative and sensitive sequence analysis methods can help to identify candidates for other transcriptional regulatory factors in P. falciparum. They will also facilitate the prediction of biological functions for several orphan proteins from other apicomplexan parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium parvum and Eimeria. PMID:16042788

Callebaut, Isabelle; Prat, Karine; Meurice, Edwige; Mornon, Jean-Paul; Tomavo, Stanislas

2005-01-01

209

HIV-1 Reverse Transcription  

PubMed Central

Reverse transcription and integration are the defining features of the Retroviridae; the common name “retrovirus” derives from the fact that these viruses use a virally encoded enzyme, reverse transcriptase (RT), to convert their RNA genomes into DNA. Reverse transcription is an essential step in retroviral replication. This article presents an overview of reverse transcription, briefly describes the structure and function of RT, provides an introduction to some of the cellular and viral factors that can affect reverse transcription, and discusses fidelity and recombination, two processes in which reverse transcription plays an important role. In keeping with the theme of the collection, the emphasis is on HIV-1 and HIV-1 RT. PMID:23028129

Hu, Wei-Shau; Hughes, Stephen H.

2012-01-01

210

Inhibiting eukaryotic transcription  

PubMed Central

This review first discusses ways in which we can evaluate transcription inhibition, describe changes in nuclear structure due to transcription inhibition, and report on genes that are paradoxically stimulated by transcription inhibition. Next, it summarizes the characteristics and mechanisms of commonly used inhibitors: ?-amanitin is highly selective for RNAP II and RNAP III but its action is slow, actinomycin D is fast but its selectivity is poor, CDK9 inhibitors such as DRB and flavopiridol are fast and reversible but many genes escape transcription inhibition. New compounds, such as triptolide, are fast and selective and able to completely arrest transcription by triggering rapid degradation of RNAP II. PMID:21922053

2011-01-01

211

Structural determinants of DNA binding by a P. falciparum ApiAP2 transcriptional regulator  

PubMed Central

Putative transcription factors have only recently been identified in the Plasmodium spp., with the major family of regulators comprising the Apicomplexan AP2 (ApiAP2) proteins. To better understand the DNA-binding mechanisms of these transcriptional regulators, we characterized the structure and in vitro function of an AP2 DNA-binding domain from a prototypical ApiAP2 protein, PF14_0633 from Plasmodium falciparum. The X-ray crystal structure of the PF14_0633 AP2 domain bound to DNA reveals a ?-sheet fold that binds the DNA major groove through base-specific and backbone contacts; a prominent ?-helix supports the ?-sheet structure. Substitution of predicted DNA-binding residues with alanine weakened or eliminated DNA binding in solution. In contrast to plant AP2 domains, the PF14_0633 AP2 domain dimerizes upon binding to DNA through a domain-swapping mechanism in which the ?-helices of the AP2 domains pack against the ?-sheets of the dimer mates. DNA-induced dimerization of PF14_0633 may be important for tethering two distal DNA loci together in the nucleus and/or for inducing functional rearrangements of its domains to facilitate transcriptional regulation. Consistent with a multi-site binding mode, at least two copies of the consensus sequence recognized by PF14_0633 are present upstream of a previously identified group of sporozoite-stage genes. Taken together, these findings illustrate how Plasmodium has adapted the AP2 DNA-binding domain for genome-wide transcriptional regulation. PMID:19913037

Lindner, Scott E.; De Silva, Erandi K.; Keck, James L.; Llinás, Manuel

2009-01-01

212

A workflow for genome-wide mapping of archaeal transcription factors with ChIP-seq.  

PubMed

Deciphering the structure of gene regulatory networks across the tree of life remains one of the major challenges in postgenomic biology. We present a novel ChIP-seq workflow for the archaea using the model organism Halobacterium salinarum sp. NRC-1 and demonstrate its application for mapping the genome-wide binding sites of natively expressed transcription factors. This end-to-end pipeline is the first protocol for ChIP-seq in archaea, with methods and tools for each stage from gene tagging to data analysis and biological discovery. Genome-wide binding sites for transcription factors with many binding sites (TfbD) are identified with sensitivity, while retaining specificity in the identification the smaller regulons (bacteriorhodopsin-activator protein). Chromosomal tagging of target proteins with a compact epitope facilitates a standardized and cost-effective workflow that is compatible with high-throughput immunoprecipitation of natively expressed transcription factors. The Pique package, an open-source bioinformatics method, is presented for identification of binding events. Relative to ChIP-Chip and qPCR, this workflow offers a robust catalog of protein-DNA binding events with improved spatial resolution and significantly decreased cost. While this study focuses on the application of ChIP-seq in H. salinarum sp. NRC-1, our workflow can also be adapted for use in other archaea and bacteria with basic genetic tools. PMID:22323522

Wilbanks, Elizabeth G; Larsen, David J; Neches, Russell Y; Yao, Andrew I; Wu, Chia-Ying; Kjolby, Rachel A S; Facciotti, Marc T

2012-05-01

213

SlyA Is a Transcriptional Regulator Involved in the Virulence of Enterococcus faecalis?  

PubMed Central

Phylogenetic analysis of the crystal structure of the Enterococcus faecalis SlyA (EF_3002) transcriptional factor places it between the SlyA and MarR regulator subfamilies. Proteins of these families are often involved in the regulation of genes important for bacterial virulence and stress response. To gather evidence for the role of this putative regulator in E. faecalis biology, we dissected the genetic organization of the slyA-EF_3001 locus and constructed a slyA deletion mutant as well as complemented strains. Interestingly, compared to the wild-type parent, the ?slyA mutant is more virulent in an insect infection model (Galleria mellonella), exhibits increased persistence in mouse kidneys and liver, and survives better inside peritoneal macrophages. In order to identify a possible SlyA regulon, global microarray transcriptional analysis was performed. This study revealed that the slyA-EF_3001 locus appears to be autoregulated and that 117 genes were differentially regulated in the ?slyA mutant. In the mutant strain, 111 were underexpressed and 6 overexpressed, indicating that SlyA functions mainly as an activator of transcription. PMID:21536798

Michaux, Charlotte; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Reffuveille, Fany; Auffray, Yanick; Posteraro, Brunella; Gilmore, Michael S.; Hartke, Axel; Giard, Jean-Christophe

2011-01-01

214

Relationship of the superoxide dismutase genes, sodA and sodB, to the iron uptake (/ital fur/) regulon in /ital Escherichia coli/ K-12  

SciTech Connect

Expression of sodA, as indicated by MnSod activity is normal in /ital fur/ mutants. This suggests that sodA is not a member of the /ital fur/ regulon and that the putative Fe-binding, regulatory protein of sodA, suggested by Moody and Hassan is not the Fur protein. by contrast, expression of sodB, as indicated by FeSod activity, is completely blocked in /ital fur/ mutants and the effect is restored by transformation with a plasmid having a normal /ital fur/ locus. The observations suggest that Fur, either directly or indirectly, controls SodB biosynthesis. Additional observations are described which indicate that SodB and Fur act together in a complicated fashion to control the biosynthesis of enterobactin. 26 refs., 3 tabs.

Niederhoffer, E.C.; Naranjo, C.M.; Fee, J.A.

1988-01-01

215

Computational Reconstruction of Iron- and Manganese-Responsive Transcriptional Networks in ?-Proteobacteria  

PubMed Central

We used comparative genomics to investigate the distribution of conserved DNA-binding motifs in the regulatory regions of genes involved in iron and manganese homeostasis in alpha-proteobacteria. Combined with other computational approaches, this allowed us to reconstruct the metal regulatory network in more than three dozen species with available genome sequences. We identified several classes of cis-acting regulatory DNA motifs (Irr-boxes or ICEs, RirA-boxes, Iron-Rhodo-boxes, Fur-alpha-boxes, Mur-box or MRS, MntR-box, and IscR-boxes) in regulatory regions of various genes involved in iron and manganese uptake, Fe-S and heme biosynthesis, iron storage, and usage. Despite the different nature of the iron regulons in selected lineages of alpha-proteobacteria, the overall regulatory network is consistent with, and confirmed by, many experimental observations. This study expands the range of genes involved in iron homeostasis and demonstrates considerable interconnection between iron-responsive regulatory systems. The detailed comparative and phylogenetic analyses of the regulatory systems allowed us to propose a theory about the possible evolution of Fe and Mn regulons in alpha-proteobacteria. The main evolutionary event likely occurred in the common ancestor of the Rhizobiales and Rhodobacterales, where the Fur protein switched to regulating manganese transporters (and hence Fur had become Mur). In these lineages, the role of global iron homeostasis was taken by RirA and Irr, two transcriptional regulators that act by sensing the physiological consequence of the metal availability rather than its concentration per se, and thus provide for more flexible regulation. PMID:17173478

Rodionov, Dmitry A; Gelfand, Mikhail S; Todd, Jonathan D; Curson, Andrew R. J; Johnston, Andrew W. B

2006-01-01

216

Toxoplasma Transcription Factor TgAP2XI-5 Regulates the Expression of Genes Involved in Parasite Virulence and Host Invasion*  

PubMed Central

Gene regulation in apicomplexan parasites, a phylum containing important protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium and Toxoplasma, is poorly understood. The life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii is complex, with multiple proliferation and differentiation steps, of which tachyzoite proliferation is the most relevant to pathogenesis in humans and animals. Tachyzoites express invasion and virulence factors that are crucial for their survival and manipulation of host cell functions. The expression of those factors is tightly controlled during the tachyzoite cell cycle to permit their correct packaging in newly formed apical secretory organelles named micronemes and rhoptries in the daughter cells. However, little is known about the factors that control the expression of genes encoding the virulence factors present in these parasite-specific secretory organelles. We report that the plant-like nuclear factor TgAP2XI-5 targets more than 300 gene promoters and actively controls the transcription of these genes. Most of these target genes, including those that are essential for parasite virulence, showed a peak of expression in the S and M phases of the cell cycle. Furthermore, we identified the cis-regulatory element recognized by TgAP2XI-5 and demonstrated its ability to actively drive gene transcription. Our results demonstrated that TgAP2XI-5 is a novel DNA sequence-specific transcription factor associated with promoter activation. TgAP2XI-5 may regulate gene transcription of crucial virulence factors in T. gondii. PMID:24025328

Walker, Robert; Gissot, Mathieu; Huot, Ludovic; Alayi, Tchilabalo Dilezitoko; Hot, David; Marot, Guillemette; Schaeffer-Reiss, Christine; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Kim, Kami; Tomavo, Stanislas

2013-01-01

217

Global transcriptional analysis of clpP mutations of type 2 Streptococcus pneumoniae and their effects on physiology and virulence.  

PubMed

Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important human pathogen that contains single copies of genes encoding the ClpP and FtsH ATP-dependent proteases but lacks the Lon and HslV proteases. We constructed and characterized the phenotypes of clpP, clpC, and clpX deletion replacement mutants, which lack the ClpP protease subunit or the putative ClpC or ClpX ATPase specificity factor. A DeltaclpP mutant, but not a DeltaclpC or DeltaclpX mutant, of the virulent D39 type 2 strain of S. pneumoniae grew poorly at 30 degrees C and failed to grow at 40 degrees C. Despite this temperature sensitivity, transcription of the heat shock regulon determined by microarray analysis was induced in a DeltaclpP mutant, which was also more sensitive to oxidative stress by H2O2 and to puromycin than its clpP+ parent strain. A DeltaclpP mutant, but not a DeltaclpC mutant, was strongly attenuated for virulence in the murine lung and sepsis infection models. All of these phenotypes were complemented in a DeltaclpP/clpP+ merodiploid strain. Consistent with these complementation patterns, clpP was found to be in a monocistronic operon, whose transcription was induced about fivefold by heat shock in S. pneumoniae as determined by Northern and real-time reverse transcription-PCR analyses. Besides clpP, transcription of clpC, clpE, and clpL, but not clpX or ftsH, was induced by heat shock or entry into late exponential growth phase. Microarray analysis of DeltaclpP mutants showed a limited change in transcription pattern (approximately 80 genes) consistent with these phenotypes, including repression of genes involved in oxidative stress, metal ion transport, and virulence. In addition, transcription of the early and late competence regulon was induced in the DeltaclpP mutant, and competence gene expression and DNA uptake seemed to be constitutively induced throughout growth. Together, these results indicate that ClpP-mediated proteolysis plays a complex and central role in numerous pneumococcal stress responses, development of competence, and virulence. PMID:12057945

Robertson, Gregory T; Ng, Wai-Leung; Foley, Joseph; Gilmour, Raymond; Winkler, Malcolm E

2002-07-01

218

Transcript Slippage and Recoding  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Accurate transmission of genetic information during transcription requires that RNA polymerases maintain the correct register\\u000a of the active site during each cycle of nucleotide incorporation. The RNA:DNA hybrid plays an important role in maintaining\\u000a this lateral stability, and it has been observed that when the polymerase encounters homopolymeric tracts in the DNA template\\u000a the transcript and\\/or the transcription complex may

Michael Anikin; Vadim Molodtsov; Dmitry Temiakov; William T. McAllister

219

Short Day–Mediated Cessation of Growth Requires the Downregulation of AINTEGUMENTALIKE1 Transcription Factor in Hybrid Aspen  

PubMed Central

Day length is a key environmental cue regulating the timing of major developmental transitions in plants. For example, in perennial plants such as the long-lived trees of the boreal forest, exposure to short days (SD) leads to the termination of meristem activity and bud set (referred to as growth cessation). The mechanism underlying SD–mediated induction of growth cessation is poorly understood. Here we show that the AIL1-AIL4 (AINTEGUMENTALIKE) transcription factors of the AP2 family are the downstream targets of the SD signal in the regulation of growth cessation response in hybrid aspen trees. AIL1 is expressed in the shoot apical meristem and leaf primordia, and exposure to SD signal downregulates AIL1 expression. Downregulation of AIL gene expression by SDs is altered in transgenic hybrid aspen plants that are defective in SD perception and/or response, e.g. PHYA or FT overexpressors. Importantly, SD–mediated regulation of growth cessation response is also affected by overexpression or downregulation of AIL gene expression. AIL1 protein can interact with the promoter of the key cell cycle genes, e.g. CYCD3.2, and downregulation of the expression of D-type cyclins after SD treatment is prevented by AIL1 overexpression. These data reveal that execution of SD–mediated growth cessation response requires the downregulation of AIL gene expression. Thus, while early acting components like PHYA and the CO/FT regulon are conserved in day-length regulation of flowering time and growth cessation between annual and perennial plants, signaling pathways downstream of SD perception diverge, with AIL transcription factors being novel targets of the CO/FT regulon connecting the perception of SD signal to the regulation of meristem activity. PMID:22072988

Karlberg, Anna; Bako, Laszlo; Bhalerao, Rishikesh P.

2011-01-01

220

Control of Proteobacterial Central Carbon Metabolism by the HexR Transcriptional Regulator. A Case Study in Shewanella oneidensis  

SciTech Connect

Bacteria exploit multiple mechanisms for controlling central carbon metabolism (CCM). Thus, a bioinformatic analysis together with some experimental data implicated HexR transcriptional factor as a global CCM regulator in some lineages of Gammaproteobacteria operating as a functional replacement of Cra regulator characteristic of Enterobacteriales. In this study we combined a large-scale comparative genomic reconstruction of HexRcontrolled regulons in 87 species of Proteobacteria with the detailed experimental analysis of HexR regulatory network in Shewanella oneidensis model system. Although nearly all of the HexR-controlled genes are associated with CCM, remarkable variations were revealed in the scale (from 1-2 target operons in Enterobacteriales up to 20 operons in Aeromonadales) and gene content of HexR regulons between 11 compared lineages. A predicted 17-bp pseudo-palindrome with a consensus tTGTAATwwwATTACa, was confirmed as HexR-binding motif for 15 target operons (comprising 30 genes) by in vitro binding assays. The negative effect of the key CCM intermediate, 2-keto-3-deoxy-6- phosphogluconate, on the DNA-regulator complex formation was verified. A dual mode of HexR action on various target promoters, repression of genes involved in catabolic pathways and activation of gluconeogenic genes, was for the first time predicted by the bioinformatc analysis and experimentally verified by changed gene expression pattern in S. oneidensis AhexR mutant. Phenotypic profiling revealed the inability of this mutant to grow on lactate or pyruvate as a single carbon source. A comparative metabolic flux analysis of wild-type and mutant strains of S. oneidensis using 13Clactate labeling and GC-MS analysis confirmed the hypothesized HexR role as a master regulator of gluconeogenic flux from pyruvate via the transcriptional activation of phosphoenolpyruvate synthase (PpsA).

Leyn, Semen; Li, Xiaoqing; Zheng, Qijing; Novichkov, Pavel; Reed, Samantha B.; Romine, Margaret F.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Yang, Chen; Osterman, Andrei L.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.

2011-08-17

221

Discovery of a diverse clade of gregarine apicomplexans (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinorida) from Pacific eunicid and onuphid polychaetes, including descriptions of Paralecudina n. gen., Trichotokara japonica n. sp., and T. eunicae n. sp.  

PubMed

Marine gregarines are poorly understood apicomplexan parasites with large trophozoites that inhabit the body cavities of marine invertebrates. Two novel species of gregarines were discovered in polychaete hosts collected in Canada and Japan. The trophozoites of Trichotokara japonica n. sp. were oval to rhomboidal shaped, and covered with longitudinal epicytic folds with a density of six to eight folds/micron. The nucleus was situated in the middle of the cell, and the mucron was elongated and covered with hair-like projections; antler-like projections also extended from the anterior tip of the mucron. The distinctively large trophozoites of Trichotokara eunicae n. sp. lacked an elongated mucron and had a tadpole-like cell shape consisting of a bulbous anterior region and a tapered tail-like posterior region. The cell surface was covered with longitudinal epicytic folds with a density of three to five folds/micron. Small subunit (SSU) rDNA sequences of both species were very divergent and formed a strongly supported clade with the recently described species Trichotokara nothriae and an environmental sequence (AB275074). This phylogenetic context combined with the morphological features of T. eunicae n. sp. required us to amend the description for Trichotokara. The sister clade to the Trichotokara clade consisted of environmental sequences and Lecudina polymorpha, which also possesses densely packed epicyctic folds (3-5 folds/micron) and a prominently elongated mucron. This improved morphological and molecular phylogenetic context justified the establishment of Paralecudina (ex. Lecudina) polymorpha n. gen. et comb. PMID:23347320

Rueckert, Sonja; Wakeman, Kevin C; Leander, Brian S

2013-01-01

222

WRKY transcription factors  

PubMed Central

WRKY transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators found exclusively in plants. They have diverse biological functions in plant disease resistance, abiotic stress responses, nutrient deprivation, senescence, seed and trichome development, embryogenesis, as well as additional developmental and hormone-controlled processes. WRKYs can act as transcriptional activators or repressors, in various homo- and heterodimer combinations. Here we review recent progress on the function of WRKY transcription factors in Arabidopsis and other plant species such as rice, potato, and parsley, with a special focus on abiotic, developmental, and hormone-regulated processes. PMID:24492469

Bakshi, Madhunita; Oelmuller, Ralf

2014-01-01

223

Non-canonical CRP sites control competence regulons in Escherichia coli and many other g-proteobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Escherichia coli's cAMP receptor protein (CRP), the archetypal bacterial transcription factor, regulates over a hundred promoters by binding 22 bp symmetrical sites with the consensus core half-site TGTGA. However, Haemophilus influenzae has two types of CRP sites, one like E.coli's and one with the core sequence TGCGA that regulates genes required for DNA uptake (natural competence). Only the latter 'CRP-S'

Andrew D. S. Cameron; Rosemary J. Redfield

2006-01-01

224

Deciphering Transcriptional Regulatory Mechanisms Associated with Hemicellulose Degradation in Neurospora crassa  

PubMed Central

Hemicellulose, the second most abundant plant biomass fraction after cellulose, is widely viewed as a potential substrate for the production of liquid fuels and other value-added materials. Degradation of hemicellulose by filamentous fungi requires production of many different enzymes, which are induced by biopolymers or its derivatives and regulated mainly at the transcriptional level through transcription factors (TFs). Neurospora crassa, a model filamentous fungus, expresses and secretes enzymes required for plant cell wall deconstruction. To better understand genes specifically associated with degradation of hemicellulose, we applied secretome and transcriptome analysis to N. crassa grown on beechwood xylan. We identified 34 secreted proteins and 353 genes with elevated transcription on xylan. The xylanolytic phenotype of strains with deletions in genes identified from the secretome and transcriptome analysis of the wild type was assessed, revealing functions for known and unknown proteins associated with hemicellulose degradation. By evaluating phenotypes of strains containing deletions of predicted TF genes in N. crassa, we identified a TF (XLR-1; xylan degradation regulator 1) essential for hemicellulose degradation that is an ortholog to XlnR/XYR1 in Aspergillus and Trichoderma species, respectively, a major transcriptional regulator of genes encoding both cellulases and hemicellulases. Deletion of xlr-1 in N. crassa abolished growth on xylan and xylose, but growth on cellulose and cellulolytic activity were only slightly affected. To determine the regulatory mechanisms for hemicellulose degradation, we explored the transcriptional regulon of XLR-1 under xylose, xylanolytic, and cellulolytic conditions. XLR-1 regulated only some predicted hemicellulase genes in N. crassa and was required for a full induction of several cellulase genes. Hemicellulase gene expression was induced by a combination of release from carbon catabolite repression (CCR) and induction. This systematic analysis illustrates the similarities and differences in regulation of hemicellulose degradation among filamentous fungi. PMID:22345350

Sun, Jianping; Tian, Chaoguang; Diamond, Spencer

2012-01-01

225

Genome-Scale Co-Expression Network Comparison across Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Reveals Significant Conservation at the Regulon Level of Local Regulators Despite Their Dissimilar Lifestyles  

PubMed Central

Availability of genome-wide gene expression datasets provides the opportunity to study gene expression across different organisms under a plethora of experimental conditions. In our previous work, we developed an algorithm called COMODO (COnserved MODules across Organisms) that identifies conserved expression modules between two species. In the present study, we expanded COMODO to detect the co-expression conservation across three organisms by adapting the statistics behind it. We applied COMODO to study expression conservation/divergence between Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, and Bacillus subtilis. We observed that some parts of the regulatory interaction networks were conserved between E. coli and S. enterica especially in the regulon of local regulators. However, such conservation was not observed between the regulatory interaction networks of B. subtilis and the two other species. We found co-expression conservation on a number of genes involved in quorum sensing, but almost no conservation for genes involved in pathogenicity across E. coli and S. enterica which could partially explain their different lifestyles. We concluded that despite their different lifestyles, no significant rewiring have occurred at the level of local regulons involved for instance, and notable conservation can be detected in signaling pathways and stress sensing in the phylogenetically close species S. enterica and E. coli. Moreover, conservation of local regulons seems to depend on the evolutionary time of divergence across species disappearing at larger distances as shown by the comparison with B. subtilis. Global regulons follow a different trend and show major rewiring even at the limited evolutionary distance that separates E. coli and S. enterica. PMID:25101984

Zarrineh, Peyman; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Aminael; Hosseinkhan, Nazanin; Narimani, Zahra; Marchal, Kathleen; Masoudi-Nejad, Ali

2014-01-01

226

Global Transcriptional Responses of the Toxic Cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa, to Nitrogen Stress, Phosphorus Stress, and Growth on Organic Matter  

PubMed Central

Whole transcriptome shotgun sequencing (RNA-seq) was used to assess the transcriptomic response of the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa during growth with low levels of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (low N), low levels of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (low P), and in the presence of high levels of high molecular weight dissolved organic matter (HMWDOM). Under low N, one third of the genome was differentially expressed, with significant increases in transcripts observed among genes within the nir operon, urea transport genes (urtBCDE), and amino acid transporters while significant decreases in transcripts were observed in genes related to photosynthesis. There was also a significant decrease in the transcription of the microcystin synthetase gene set under low N and a significant decrease in microcystin content per Microcystis cell demonstrating that N supply influences cellular toxicity. Under low P, 27% of the genome was differentially expressed. The Pho regulon was induced leading to large increases in transcript levels of the alkaline phosphatase phoX, the Pst transport system (pstABC), and the sphX gene, and transcripts of multiple sulfate transporter were also significantly more abundant. While the transcriptional response to growth on HMWDOM was smaller (5–22% of genes differentially expressed), transcripts of multiple genes specifically associated with the transport and degradation of organic compounds were significantly more abundant within HMWDOM treatments and thus may be recruited by Microcystis to utilize these substrates. Collectively, these findings provide a comprehensive understanding of the nutritional physiology of this toxic, bloom-forming cyanobacterium and the role of N in controlling microcystin synthesis. PMID:23894552

Harke, Matthew J.; Gobler, Christopher J.

2013-01-01

227

A dual-signal regulatory circuit activates transcription of a set of divergent operons in Salmonella typhimurium  

PubMed Central

We present a molecular mechanism for signal transduction that activates transcription of the SlyA regulon in Salmonella typhimurium. We demonstrate that SlyA mediates transcriptional activation in response to guanosine tetraphosphate, ppGpp, according to the following observations: (i) in vivo transcription of SlyA-dependent genes is repressed when ppGpp is absent; this transcription can be restored by overproducing SlyA; (ii) in vivo dimerization and binding of SlyA to the target promoter are facilitated in the presence of ppGpp; and (iii) in vitro SlyA binding to the target promoter is enhanced when ppGpp is supplemented. Thus, ppGpp must be the cytoplasmic component that stimulates SlyA regulatory function by interacting directly with this regulator in Salmonella. This signaling domain, integrated by the PhoP/PhoQ 2-component system that activates slyA transcription by sensing Mg2+, forms feedforward loops that regulate chromosomal loci identified through a motif search over the S. typhimurium genome. Many such loci are divergent operons, each formed by 2 neighboring genes in which transcription of these 2 loci proceeds in opposite directions. Both genes, however, are controlled by PhoP and SlyA through a single shared PhoP box and SlyA box present in their intergenic regions. A substitution in either box sequence causes a simultaneous cessation of transcription of a divergent operon, pagD-pagC, equivalent to the phenotype in a phoP or slyA mutant. We also identified several chromosomal loci that possess pagC-type genes without the cognate pagD-type genes. Therefore, our results provide a molecular basis for the understanding of SlyA-dependent phenotypes associated with Salmonella virulence. PMID:19091955

Zhao, Guang; Weatherspoon, Natasha; Kong, Wei; Curtiss, Roy; Shi, Yixin

2008-01-01

228

The RclR protein is a reactive chlorine-specific transcription factor in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Reactive chlorine species (RCS) such as hypochlorous acid are powerful antimicrobial oxidants. Used extensively for disinfection in household and industrial settings (i.e. as bleach), RCS are also naturally generated in high quantities during the innate immune response. Bacterial responses to RCS are complex and differ substantially from the well characterized responses to other physiologically relevant oxidants, like peroxide or superoxide. Several RCS-sensitive transcription factors have been identified in bacteria, but most of them respond to multiple stressors whose damaging effects overlap with those of RCS, including reactive oxygen species and electrophiles. We have now used in vivo genetic and in vitro biochemical methods to identify and demonstrate that Escherichia coli RclR (formerly YkgD) is a redox-regulated transcriptional activator of the AraC family, whose highly conserved cysteine residues are specifically sensitive to oxidation by RCS. Oxidation of these cysteines leads to strong, highly specific activation of expression of genes required for survival of RCS stress. These results demonstrate the existence of a widely conserved bacterial regulon devoted specifically to RCS resistance. PMID:24078635

Parker, Benjamin W; Schwessinger, Emily A; Jakob, Ursula; Gray, Michael J

2013-11-01

229

Functional diversification of ROK-family transcriptional regulators of sugar catabolism in the Thermotogae phylum  

PubMed Central

Large and functionally heterogeneous families of transcription factors have complex evolutionary histories. What shapes specificities toward effectors and DNA sites in paralogous regulators is a fundamental question in biology. Bacteria from the deep-branching lineage Thermotogae possess multiple paralogs of the repressor, open reading frame, kinase (ROK) family regulators that are characterized by carbohydrate-sensing domains shared with sugar kinases. We applied an integrated genomic approach to study functions and specificities of regulators from this family. A comparative analysis of 11 Thermotogae genomes revealed novel mechanisms of transcriptional regulation of the sugar utilization networks, DNA-binding motifs and specific functions. Reconstructed regulons for seven groups of ROK regulators were validated by DNA-binding assays using purified recombinant proteins from the model bacterium Thermotoga maritima. All tested regulators demonstrated specific binding to their predicted cognate DNA sites, and this binding was inhibited by specific effectors, mono- or disaccharides from their respective sugar catabolic pathways. By comparing ligand-binding domains of regulators with structurally characterized kinases from the ROK family, we elucidated signature amino acid residues determining sugar-ligand regulator specificity. Observed correlations between signature residues and the sugar-ligand specificities provide the framework for structure functional classification of the entire ROK family. PMID:23209028

Kazanov, Marat D.; Li, Xiaoqing; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Osterman, Andrei L.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.

2013-01-01

230

ASTP Onboard Voice Transcription  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The transcription is presented of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project voice communications as recorded on the command module data storage equipment. Data from this recorder are telemetered (dumped) to Space Tracking and Data Network sites for retransmission to the Johnson Space Center. The transcript is divided into three columns -- time, speaker, and text. The Greenwich mean time column consists of three two-digit numbers representing hours, minutes, and seconds (e.g., 22 34 14) for the Julian dates shown at the top of the page on which a new day begins. The speaker column indicates the source of a transmission; the text column contains the verbatim transcript of the communications.

1975-01-01

231

The Fidelity of Transcription  

PubMed Central

The fidelity of RNA synthesis depends on both accurate template-mediated nucleotide selection and proper maintenance of register between template and RNA. Loss of register, or transcriptional slippage, is particularly likely on homopolymeric runs in the template. Transcriptional slippage can alter the coding capacity of mRNAs and is used as a regulatory mechanism. Here we describe mutations in the largest subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase II that substantially increase the level of transcriptional slippage. Alleles of RPB1 (RPO21) with elevated slippage rates were identified among 6-azauracil-sensitive mutants and were also isolated using a slippage-dependent reporter gene. Biochemical characterization of polymerase II isolated from these mutants confirms elevated levels of transcriptional slippage. PMID:23223234

Strathern, Jeffrey; Malagon, Francisco; Irvin, Jordan; Gotte, Deanna; Shafer, Brenda; Kireeva, Maria; Lubkowska, Lucyna; Jin, Ding Jun; Kashlev, Mikhail

2013-01-01

232

Reverse Transcription-PCR  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash animation shows how the method of reverse transcription-PCR is performed and some sample data are produced. It uses sound and mouse-over identification to help students learn more and retain the information.

American Society For Microbiology;

2003-05-12

233

The Transcriptional Landscape of Campylobacter jejuni under Iron Replete and Iron Limited Growth Conditions  

PubMed Central

The genome-wide Campylobacter jejuni transcriptional response under iron replete and iron limited conditions was characterized using RNA-seq. We have identified 111 novel C. jejuni 5’UTRs and mapped 377 co-transcribed genes into 230 transcriptional operons. In contrast to previous microarray results, the C. jejuni iron stimulon is less extensive than previously believed and consists of 77 iron activated genes and 50 iron repressed genes. As anticipated, the iron repressed genes are primarily those involved in iron acquisition or oxidative stress defense. Interestingly, these experiments have revealed that iron is an important modulator of flagellar biogenesis with almost all the components of the flagella found to be iron activated. Given that motility is a well-known C. jejuni colonization factor, this suggests that there is an important regulatory coupling of flagellar biogenesis and iron level in C. jejuni. In addition we have identified several consensus mutations in the C. jejuni NCTC11168 strain that are widespread in the Campylobacter research community and which may explain conflicting phenotypic reports for this strain. Comparative analysis of iron responsive genes with the known Fur regulon indicates that many iron responsive genes are not Fur responsive; suggesting that additional iron regulatory factors remain to be characterized in C. jejuni. Further analysis of the RNA-seq data identified multiple novel transcripts including 19 potential ncRNAs. The expression of selected ncRNAs was confirmed and quantified with qRT-PCR. The qRT-PCR results indicate that several of these novel transcripts are either Fur and/or iron responsive. The fact that several of these ncRNAs are iron responsive or Fur regulated suggests that they may perform regulatory roles in iron homeostasis. PMID:24223952

Butcher, James; Stintzi, Alain

2013-01-01

234

Global transcriptional response of Caulobacter crescentus to iron availability  

PubMed Central

Background In the alpha subclass of proteobacteria iron homeostasis is controlled by diverse iron responsive regulators. Caulobacter crescentus, an important freshwater ?-proteobacterium, uses the ferric uptake repressor (Fur) for such purpose. However, the impact of the iron availability on the C. crescentus transcriptome and an overall perspective of the regulatory networks involved remain unknown. Results In this work we report the identification of iron-responsive and Fur-regulated genes in C. crescentus using microarray-based global transcriptional analyses. We identified 42 genes that were strongly upregulated both by mutation of fur and by iron limitation condition. Among them, there are genes involved in iron uptake (four TonB-dependent receptor gene clusters, and feoAB), riboflavin biosynthesis and genes encoding hypothetical proteins. Most of these genes are associated with predicted Fur binding sites, implicating them as direct targets of Fur-mediated repression. These data were validated by ?-galactosidase and EMSA assays for two operons encoding putative transporters. The role of Fur as a positive regulator is also evident, given that 27 genes were downregulated both by mutation of fur and under low-iron condition. As expected, this group includes many genes involved in energy metabolism, mostly iron-using enzymes. Surprisingly, included in this group are also TonB-dependent receptors genes and the genes fixK, fixT and ftrB encoding an oxygen signaling network required for growth during hypoxia. Bioinformatics analyses suggest that positive regulation by Fur is mainly indirect. In addition to the Fur modulon, iron limitation altered expression of 113 more genes, including induction of genes involved in Fe-S cluster assembly, oxidative stress and heat shock response, as well as repression of genes implicated in amino acid metabolism, chemotaxis and motility. Conclusions Using a global transcriptional approach, we determined the C. crescentus iron stimulon. Many but not all of iron responsive genes were directly or indirectly controlled by Fur. The iron limitation stimulon overlaps with other regulatory systems, such as the RpoH and FixK regulons. Altogether, our results showed that adaptation of C. crescentus to iron limitation not only involves increasing the transcription of iron-acquisition systems and decreasing the production of iron-using proteins, but also includes novel genes and regulatory mechanisms. PMID:23941329

2013-01-01

235

Promoter and regulon analysis of nitrogen assimilation factor, sigma54, reveal alternative strategy for E. coli MG1655 flagellar biosynthesis.  

PubMed

Bacteria core RNA polymerase (RNAP) must associate with a sigma factor to recognize promoter sequences. Promoters recognized by the sigma(54) (or sigma(N)) associated RNA polymerase are unique in having conserved positions around -24 and -12 nucleotides upstream from the transcriptional start site. Using DNA microarrays representing the entire Escherichia coli genome and promoter validation approaches, we identify 40 in vivo targets of sigma(54), the nitrogen assimilation sigma factor, and estimate that there are 70 sigma(54) promoters in total. Immunoprecipitation assays have been performed to further evaluate the efficiency of our approaches. In addition, promoter consensus binding search and primer extension assay helped us to identify a new sigma(54) promoter carried by insB-5 in the upstream of flhDC operon. The involvement of sigma(54) in flagellar biosynthesis in sequenced E. coli strain MG1655 indicates a fluid gene regulation phenomenon carried by some mobile elements in bacteria genome. PMID:19969540

Zhao, Kai; Liu, Mingzhu; Burgess, Richard R

2010-03-01

236

Molecular Characterization of Transcriptional Regulation of rovA by PhoP and RovA in Yersinia pestis  

PubMed Central

Background Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of plague. The two transcriptional regulators, PhoP and RovA, are required for the virulence of Y. pestis through the regulation of various virulence-associated loci. They are the global regulators controlling two distinct large complexes of cellular pathways. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on the LacZ fusion, primer extension, gel mobility shift, and DNase I footprinting assays, RovA is shown to recognize both of the two promoters of its gene in Y. pestis. The autoregulation of RovA appears to be a conserved mechanism shared by Y. pestis and its closely related progenitor, Y. pseudotuberculosis. In Y. pestis, the PhoP regulator responds to low magnesium signals and then negatively controls only one of the two promoters of rovA through PhoP-promoter DNA association. Conclusions/Significance RovA is a direct transcriptional activator for its own gene in Y. pestis, while PhoP recognizes the promoter region of rovA to repress its transcription. The direct regulatory association between PhoP and RovA bridges the PhoP and RovA regulons in Y. pestis. PMID:21966533

Wang, Li; Xiao, Xiao; Tan, Yafang; Guo, Zhaobiao; Zhou, Dongsheng; Yang, Ruifu

2011-01-01

237

PtrBAM1, a ?-amylase-coding gene of Poncirus trifoliata, is a CBF regulon member with function in cold tolerance by modulating soluble sugar levels.  

PubMed

?-Amylase (BAM) catalyses starch breakdown to generate maltose, which can be incorporated into sugar metabolism. However, the role of BAM genes in cold tolerance is less characterized. In this study, we report the isolation and functional characterization of a chloroplast-localizing BAM-encoding gene PtrBAM1 from Poncirus trifoliata. PtrBAM1 was induced by cold, dehydration and salt, but repressed by maltose. Overexpression of PtrBAM1 in tobacco (Nicotiana nudicaulis) increased BAM activity, promoted starch degradation and enhanced the contents of maltose and soluble sugars, whereas opposite changes were observed when PtrBAM1 homolog in lemon (Citrus lemon) was knocked down. The tobacco overexpressing lines exhibited enhanced tolerance to cold at chilling or freezing temperatures. Under cold stress, higher BAM activity and greater accumulation of maltose and soluble sugars were observed in the overexpressing lines when compared with the wild-type or empty vector transformants. Bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that PtrBAM1 promoter contained a CBF-recognizing element. Yeast one-hybrid assay demonstrated that PtrCBF could interact with the promoter fragment containing the element. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PtrBAM1 is a member of CBF regulon and plays an important role in cold tolerance by modulating the levels of soluble sugars acting as osmolytes or antioxidants. PMID:24905016

Peng, Ting; Zhu, Xiaofang; Duan, Nian; Liu, Ji-Hong

2014-12-01

238

Discovering Regulatory Overlapping RNA Transcripts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

STEREO is a novel algorithm that discovers cis-regulatory RNA interactions by assembling complete and potentially overlapping same-strand RNA transcripts from tiling expression data. STEREO first identifies coherent segments of transcription and then discovers individual transcripts that are consistent with the observed segments given intensity and shape constraints. We used STEREO to identify 1446 regions of overlapping transcription in two strains of yeast, including transcripts that comprise a new form of molecular toggle switch that controls gene variegation.

Danford, Timothy; Dowell, Robin; Agarwala, Sudeep; Grisafi, Paula; Fink, Gerald; Gifford, David

239

The transcription factor encyclopedia.  

PubMed

Here we present the Transcription Factor Encyclopedia (TFe), a new web-based compendium of mini review articles on transcription factors (TFs) that is founded on the principles of open access and collaboration. Our consortium of over 100 researchers has collectively contributed over 130 mini review articles on pertinent human, mouse and rat TFs. Notable features of the TFe website include a high-quality PDF generator and web API for programmatic data retrieval. TFe aims to rapidly educate scientists about the TFs they encounter through the delivery of succinct summaries written and vetted by experts in the field. TFe is available at http://www.cisreg.ca/tfe. PMID:22458515

Yusuf, Dimas; Butland, Stefanie L; Swanson, Magdalena I; Bolotin, Eugene; Ticoll, Amy; Cheung, Warren A; Zhang, Xiao Yu Cindy; Dickman, Christopher T D; Fulton, Debra L; Lim, Jonathan S; Schnabl, Jake M; Ramos, Oscar H P; Vasseur-Cognet, Mireille; de Leeuw, Charles N; Simpson, Elizabeth M; Ryffel, Gerhart U; Lam, Eric W-F; Kist, Ralf; Wilson, Miranda S C; Marco-Ferreres, Raquel; Brosens, Jan J; Beccari, Leonardo L; Bovolenta, Paola; Benayoun, Bérénice A; Monteiro, Lara J; Schwenen, Helma D C; Grontved, Lars; Wederell, Elizabeth; Mandrup, Susanne; Veitia, Reiner A; Chakravarthy, Harini; Hoodless, Pamela A; Mancarelli, M Michela; Torbett, Bruce E; Banham, Alison H; Reddy, Sekhar P; Cullum, Rebecca L; Liedtke, Michaela; Tschan, Mario P; Vaz, Michelle; Rizzino, Angie; Zannini, Mariastella; Frietze, Seth; Farnham, Peggy J; Eijkelenboom, Astrid; Brown, Philip J; Laperričre, David; Leprince, Dominique; de Cristofaro, Tiziana; Prince, Kelly L; Putker, Marrit; del Peso, Luis; Camenisch, Gieri; Wenger, Roland H; Mikula, Michal; Rozendaal, Marieke; Mader, Sylvie; Ostrowski, Jerzy; Rhodes, Simon J; Van Rechem, Capucine; Boulay, Gaylor; Olechnowicz, Sam W Z; Breslin, Mary B; Lan, Michael S; Nanan, Kyster K; Wegner, Michael; Hou, Juan; Mullen, Rachel D; Colvin, Stephanie C; Noy, Peter John; Webb, Carol F; Witek, Matthew E; Ferrell, Scott; Daniel, Juliet M; Park, Jason; Waldman, Scott A; Peet, Daniel J; Taggart, Michael; Jayaraman, Padma-Sheela; Karrich, Julien J; Blom, Bianca; Vesuna, Farhad; O'Geen, Henriette; Sun, Yunfu; Gronostajski, Richard M; Woodcroft, Mark W; Hough, Margaret R; Chen, Edwin; Europe-Finner, G Nicholas; Karolczak-Bayatti, Magdalena; Bailey, Jarrod; Hankinson, Oliver; Raman, Venu; LeBrun, David P; Biswal, Shyam; Harvey, Christopher J; DeBruyne, Jason P; Hogenesch, John B; Hevner, Robert F; Héligon, Christophe; Luo, Xin M; Blank, Marissa Cathleen; Millen, Kathleen Joyce; Sharlin, David S; Forrest, Douglas; Dahlman-Wright, Karin; Zhao, Chunyan; Mishima, Yuriko; Sinha, Satrajit; Chakrabarti, Rumela; Portales-Casamar, Elodie; Sladek, Frances M; Bradley, Philip H; Wasserman, Wyeth W

2012-01-01

240

Inference of expanded Lrp-like feast/famine transcription factor targets in a non-model organism using protein structure-based prediction.  

PubMed

Widespread microbial genome sequencing presents an opportunity to understand the gene regulatory networks of non-model organisms. This requires knowledge of the binding sites for transcription factors whose DNA-binding properties are unknown or difficult to infer. We adapted a protein structure-based method to predict the specificities and putative regulons of homologous transcription factors across diverse species. As a proof-of-concept we predicted the specificities and transcriptional target genes of divergent archaeal feast/famine regulatory proteins, several of which are encoded in the genome of Halobacterium salinarum. This was validated by comparison to experimentally determined specificities for transcription factors in distantly related extremophiles, chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments, and cis-regulatory sequence conservation across eighteen related species of halobacteria. Through this analysis we were able to infer that Halobacterium salinarum employs a divergent local trans-regulatory strategy to regulate genes (carA and carB) involved in arginine and pyrimidine metabolism, whereas Escherichia coli employs an operon. The prediction of gene regulatory binding sites using structure-based methods is useful for the inference of gene regulatory relationships in new species that are otherwise difficult to infer. PMID:25255272

Ashworth, Justin; Plaisier, Christopher L; Lo, Fang Yin; Reiss, David J; Baliga, Nitin S

2014-01-01

241

Inference of Expanded Lrp-Like Feast/Famine Transcription Factor Targets in a Non-Model Organism Using Protein Structure-Based Prediction  

PubMed Central

Widespread microbial genome sequencing presents an opportunity to understand the gene regulatory networks of non-model organisms. This requires knowledge of the binding sites for transcription factors whose DNA-binding properties are unknown or difficult to infer. We adapted a protein structure-based method to predict the specificities and putative regulons of homologous transcription factors across diverse species. As a proof-of-concept we predicted the specificities and transcriptional target genes of divergent archaeal feast/famine regulatory proteins, several of which are encoded in the genome of Halobacterium salinarum. This was validated by comparison to experimentally determined specificities for transcription factors in distantly related extremophiles, chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments, and cis-regulatory sequence conservation across eighteen related species of halobacteria. Through this analysis we were able to infer that Halobacterium salinarum employs a divergent local trans-regulatory strategy to regulate genes (carA and carB) involved in arginine and pyrimidine metabolism, whereas Escherichia coli employs an operon. The prediction of gene regulatory binding sites using structure-based methods is useful for the inference of gene regulatory relationships in new species that are otherwise difficult to infer. PMID:25255272

Ashworth, Justin; Plaisier, Christopher L.; Lo, Fang Yin; Reiss, David J.; Baliga, Nitin S.

2014-01-01

242

Transcription of Russian Names  

Microsoft Academic Search

SOME 35 years ago I made in the columns of NATURE the proposal to adopt for the transcription of Russian names a few letters from the Bohemian alphabet. My letter was submitted to the authority of the editor of the Journal of the Chemical Society (for I was at that time Abstractor of that Journal for Russian literature), but he

Bohuslav Brauner; A. GLAZUNOV

1922-01-01

243

Transcription of Russian Names  

Microsoft Academic Search

WITH regard to the recent correspondence in NATURE on the transcription of Russian names, may I direct attention to the fact that the Russian Academy of Sciences adopted a system of transliteration many years ago, and a note by Prof. J. W. Gregory giving the new rules appeared in NATURE on May 14, 1908, p. 42. In all the publications

Cecil A. Hoare

1922-01-01

244

Mapping Yeast Transcriptional Networks  

PubMed Central

The term “transcriptional network” refers to the mechanism(s) that underlies coordinated expression of genes, typically involving transcription factors (TFs) binding to the promoters of multiple genes, and individual genes controlled by multiple TFs. A multitude of studies in the last two decades have aimed to map and characterize transcriptional networks in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We review the methodologies and accomplishments of these studies, as well as challenges we now face. For most yeast TFs, data have been collected on their sequence preferences, in vivo promoter occupancy, and gene expression profiles in deletion mutants. These systematic studies have led to the identification of new regulators of numerous cellular functions and shed light on the overall organization of yeast gene regulation. However, many yeast TFs appear to be inactive under standard laboratory growth conditions, and many of the available data were collected using techniques that have since been improved. Perhaps as a consequence, comprehensive and accurate mapping among TF sequence preferences, promoter binding, and gene expression remains an open challenge. We propose that the time is ripe for renewed systematic efforts toward a complete mapping of yeast transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. PMID:24018767

Hughes, Timothy R.; de Boer, Carl G.

2013-01-01

245

Tagging mammalian transcription complexity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of the 'transcriptome' is more complex than first realized. Although CAGE, various tagging technol- ogies and tiling arrays show that most of the mammalian genome is transcribed, a large proportion of transcripts do not encode proteins and are either poorly polyade- nylated, involved in sense-antisense pairs or never leave the nucleus. In this article, I review the various

Piero Carninci

2006-01-01

246

Activating transcription factor 4.  

PubMed

Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) belongs to the ATF/CREB (activating transcription factor/cyclic AMP response element binding protein) family of basic region-leucine zipper (bZip) transcription factors, which have the consensus binding site cAMP responsive element (CRE). ATF4 has numerous dimerization partners. ATF4 is induced by stress signals including anoxia/hypoxia, endoplasmic reticulum stress, amino acid deprivation, and oxidative stress. ATF4 expression is regulated transcriptionally, translationally via the PERK pathway of eIF2alpha phosphorylation, and posttranslationally by phosphorylation, which targets ATF4 to proteasomal degradation. ATF4 regulates the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress, amino acid synthesis, differentiation, metastasis and angiogenesis. Transgenic studies have demonstrated ATF4 to be involved in hematopoiesis, lens and skeletal development, fertility, proliferation, differentiation, and long-term memory. ATF4 expression is upregulated in cancer. Since ATF4 is induced by tumour microenvironmental factors, and regulates processes relevant to cancer progression, it might serve as a potential therapeutic target in cancer. PMID:17466566

Ameri, Kurosh; Harris, Adrian L

2008-01-01

247

Serotonergic transcriptional programming determines  

E-print Network

not been demonstrated. Using mouse dams with a specific disruption in serotonin neuron development, we found that serotonergic function is required for the nurturing and survival of offspring. Full rescue transcription factor in the brain is restricted to 5HT neurons4. Normal numbers of serotonergic precursors

248

Cationic antimicrobial peptides serve as activation signals for the Salmonella Typhimurium PhoPQ and PmrAB regulons in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium uses two-component regulatory systems (TCRSs) to respond to environmental stimuli. Upon infection, the TCRSs PhoP-PhoQ (PhoPQ) and PmrA-PmrB (PmrAB) are activated by environmental signals detected in the lumen of the intestine and within host cells. TCRS-mediated gene expression leads to upregulation of genes involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) modification and cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) resistance. This research expands on previous studies which have shown that CAMPs can activate Salmonella TCRSs in vitro. The focus of this work was to determine if CAMPs can act as environmental signals for PhoPQ- and PmrAB-mediated gene expression in vitro, during infection of macrophages and in a mouse model of infection. Monitoring of PhoPQ and PmrAB activation using recombinase-based in vivo expression technology (RIVET), alkaline phosphtase and ?-galactosidase reporter fusion constructs demonstrated that S. Typhimurium PhoQ can sense CAMPs in vitro. In mouse macrophages, the cathelecidin CRAMP does not activate the PhoPQ regulon. Acidification of the Salmonella-containing vacuole activates PhoP- and PmrA-regulated loci but blocking acidification still does not reveal a role for CRAMP in TCRS activation in mouse macrophages. However, assays performed in susceptible wild type (WT), CRAMP knockout (KO), and matrilysin (a metalloproteinase necessary for activating murine ?-defensins) KO mice suggest CRAMP, but not ?-defensins, serve as a putative direct TCRS activation signal in the mouse intestine. These studies provide a better understanding of the in vivo environments that result in activation of these virulence-associated TCRSs. PMID:22919691

Richards, Susan M; Strandberg, Kristi L; Conroy, Megan; Gunn, John S

2012-01-01

249

Transcriptional Profiling of Nitrogen Fixation and the Role of NifA in the Diazotrophic Endophyte Azoarcus sp. Strain BH72  

PubMed Central

Background The model endophyte Azoarcus sp. strain BH72 is known to contribute fixed nitrogen to its host Kallar grass and also expresses nitrogenase genes endophytically in rice seedlings. Availability of nitrogen is a signal regulating the transcription of nitrogenase genes. Therefore, we analysed global transcription in response to differences in the nitrogen source. Methodology/Principal Findings A DNA microarray, comprising 70-mer oligonucleotides representing 3989 open reading frames of the genome of strain BH72, was used for transcriptome studies. Transcription profiles of cells grown microaerobically on N2 versus ammonium were compared. Expression of 7.2% of the genes was significantly up-regulated, and 5.8% down-regulated upon N2 fixation, respectively. A parallel genome-wide prediction of ?54-type promoter elements mapped to the upstream region of 38 sequences of which 36 were modulated under the N2 response. In addition to modulation of genes related to N2 fixation, the expressions of gene clusters that might be related to plant-microbe interaction and of several transcription factors were significantly enhanced. While comparing under N2-fixation conditions the transcriptome of wild type with a nifLA? insertion mutant, NifA being the essential transcriptional activator for nif genes, 24.5% of the genome was found to be affected in expression. A genome-wide prediction of 29 NifA binding sequences matched to 25 of the target genes whose expression was differential during microarray analysis, some of which were putatively negatively regulated by NifA. For selected genes, differential expression was corroborated by real time RT-PCR studies. Conclusion/Significance Our data suggest that life under conditions of nitrogen fixation is an important part of the lifestyle of strain BH72 in roots, as a wide range of genes far beyond the nif regulon is modulated. Moreover, the NifA regulon in strain BH72 appears to encompass a wider range of cellular functions beyond the regulation of nif genes. PMID:24516534

Sarkar, Abhijit; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara

2014-01-01

250

Online Ordering of Official Transcripts  

E-print Network

Operating Procedures Cost of Transcript Accounting #12;UMACRAO 2006 Overview System Modules Web Server Merchant Storefront Customer enters credit card info Transaction authorized or denied Order IT Project System modules Business Practices & Operating Procedures Cost of Transcript & Accounting Auth

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

251

Orthologous transcription factors in bacteria have differentfunctions and regulate different genes  

SciTech Connect

Transcription factors (TFs) form large paralogous genefamilies and have complex evolutionary histories. Here, we ask whetherputative orthologs of TFs, from bidirectional best BLAST hits (BBHs), areevolutionary orthologs with conserved functions. We show that BBHs of TFsfrom distantly related bacteria are usually not evolutionary orthologs.Furthermore, the false orthologs usually respond to different signals andregulate distinct pathways, while the few BBHs that are evolutionaryorthologs do have conserved functions. To test the conservation ofregulatory interactions, we analyze expression patterns. We find thatregulatory relationships between TFs and their regulated genes areusually not conserved for BBHs in Escherichia coli K12 and Bacillussubtilis. Even in the much more closely related bacteria Vibrio choleraeand Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, predicting regulation from E. coli BBHshas high error rates. Using gene-regulon correlations, we identify geneswhose expression pattern differs between E. coli and S. oneidensis. Usingliterature searches and sequence analysis, we show that these changes inexpression patterns reflect changes ingene regulation, even forevolutionary orthologs. We conclude that the evolution of bacterialregulation should be analyzed with phylogenetic trees, rather than BBHs,and that bacterial regulatory networks evolve more rapidly thanpreviously thought.

Price, Morgan N.; Dehal, Paramvir S.; Arkin, Adam P.

2007-07-25

252

Global transcriptional control by glucose and carbon regulator CcpA in Clostridium difficile  

PubMed Central

The catabolite control protein CcpA is a pleiotropic regulator that mediates the global transcriptional response to rapidly catabolizable carbohydrates, like glucose in Gram-positive bacteria. By whole transcriptome analyses, we characterized glucose-dependent and CcpA-dependent gene regulation in Clostridium difficile. About 18% of all C. difficile genes are regulated by glucose, for which 50% depend on CcpA for regulation. The CcpA regulon comprises genes involved in sugar uptake, fermentation and amino acids metabolism, confirming the role of CcpA as a link between carbon and nitrogen pathways. Using combination of chromatin immunoprecipitation and genome sequence analysis, we detected 55 CcpA binding sites corresponding to ?140 genes directly controlled by CcpA. We defined the C. difficile CcpA consensus binding site (creCD motif), that is, ‘RRGAAAANGTTTTCWW’. Binding of purified CcpA protein to 19 target creCD sites was demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. CcpA also directly represses key factors in early steps of sporulation (Spo0A and SigF). Furthermore, the C. difficile toxin genes (tcdA and tcdB) and their regulators (tcdR and tcdC) are direct CcpA targets. Finally, CcpA controls a complex and extended regulatory network through the modulation of a large set of regulators. PMID:22989714

Antunes, Ana; Camiade, Emilie; Monot, Marc; Courtois, Emmanuelle; Barbut, Frederic; Sernova, Natalia V.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Martin-Verstraete, Isabelle; Dupuy, Bruno

2012-01-01

253

Global transcriptional control by glucose and carbon regulator CcpA in Clostridium difficile.  

PubMed

The catabolite control protein CcpA is a pleiotropic regulator that mediates the global transcriptional response to rapidly catabolizable carbohydrates, like glucose in Gram-positive bacteria. By whole transcriptome analyses, we characterized glucose-dependent and CcpA-dependent gene regulation in Clostridium difficile. About 18% of all C. difficile genes are regulated by glucose, for which 50% depend on CcpA for regulation. The CcpA regulon comprises genes involved in sugar uptake, fermentation and amino acids metabolism, confirming the role of CcpA as a link between carbon and nitrogen pathways. Using combination of chromatin immunoprecipitation and genome sequence analysis, we detected 55 CcpA binding sites corresponding to ?140 genes directly controlled by CcpA. We defined the C. difficile CcpA consensus binding site (cre(CD) motif), that is, 'RRGAAAANGTTTTCWW'. Binding of purified CcpA protein to 19 target cre(CD) sites was demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. CcpA also directly represses key factors in early steps of sporulation (Spo0A and SigF). Furthermore, the C. difficile toxin genes (tcdA and tcdB) and their regulators (tcdR and tcdC) are direct CcpA targets. Finally, CcpA controls a complex and extended regulatory network through the modulation of a large set of regulators. PMID:22989714

Antunes, Ana; Camiade, Emilie; Monot, Marc; Courtois, Emmanuelle; Barbut, Frédéric; Sernova, Natalia V; Rodionov, Dmitry A; Martin-Verstraete, Isabelle; Dupuy, Bruno

2012-11-01

254

Divergent transcription is associated with promoters of transcriptional regulators  

PubMed Central

Background Divergent transcription is a wide-spread phenomenon in mammals. For instance, short bidirectional transcripts are a hallmark of active promoters, while longer transcripts can be detected antisense from active genes in conditions where the RNA degradation machinery is inhibited. Moreover, many described long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are transcribed antisense from coding gene promoters. However, the general significance of divergent lncRNA/mRNA gene pair transcription is still poorly understood. Here, we used strand-specific RNA-seq with high sequencing depth to thoroughly identify antisense transcripts from coding gene promoters in primary mouse tissues. Results We found that a substantial fraction of coding-gene promoters sustain divergent transcription of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA)/mRNA gene pairs. Strikingly, upstream antisense transcription is significantly associated with genes related to transcriptional regulation and development. Their promoters share several characteristics with those of transcriptional developmental genes, including very large CpG islands, high degree of conservation and epigenetic regulation in ES cells. In-depth analysis revealed a unique GC skew profile at these promoter regions, while the associated coding genes were found to have large first exons, two genomic features that might enforce bidirectional transcription. Finally, genes associated with antisense transcription harbor specific H3K79me2 epigenetic marking and RNA polymerase II enrichment profiles linked to an intensified rate of early transcriptional elongation. Conclusions We concluded that promoters of a class of transcription regulators are characterized by a specialized transcriptional control mechanism, which is directly coupled to relaxed bidirectional transcription. PMID:24365181

2013-01-01

255

A Large Family of Antivirulence Regulators Modulates the Effects of Transcriptional Activators in Gram-negative Pathogenic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

We have reported that transcription of a hypothetical small open reading frame (orf60) in enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) strain 042 is impaired after mutation of aggR, which encodes a global virulence activator. We have also reported that the cryptic orf60 locus was linked to protection against EAEC diarrhea in two epidemiologic studies. Here, we report that the orf60 product acts as a negative regulator of aggR itself. The orf60 protein product lacks homology to known repressors, but displays 44–100% similarity to at least fifty previously undescribed small (<10 kDa) hypothetical proteins found in many gram negative pathogen genomes. Expression of orf60 homologs from enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) repressed the expression of the AraC-transcriptional ETEC regulator CfaD/Rns and its regulon in ETEC strain H10407. Complementation in trans of EAEC 042orf60 by orf60 homologs from ETEC and the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium resulted in dramatic suppression of aggR. A C. rodentium orf60 homolog mutant showed increased levels of activator RegA and increased colonization of the adult mouse. We propose the name Aar (AggR-activated regulator) for the clinically and epidemiologically important orf60 product in EAEC, and postulate the existence of a large family of homologs among pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae and Pasteurellaceae. We propose the name ANR (AraC Negative Regulators) for this family. PMID:24875828

Santiago, Araceli E.; Ruiz-Perez, Fernando; Jo, Noah Y.; Vijayakumar, Vidhya; Gong, Mei Q.; Nataro, James P.

2014-01-01

256

RegPrecise web services interface: programmatic access to the transcriptional regulatory interactions in bacteria reconstructed by comparative genomics.  

PubMed

Web services application programming interface (API) was developed to provide a programmatic access to the regulatory interactions accumulated in the RegPrecise database (http://regprecise.lbl.gov), a core resource on transcriptional regulation for the microbial domain of the Department of Energy (DOE) Systems Biology Knowledgebase. RegPrecise captures and visualize regulogs, sets of genes controlled by orthologous regulators in several closely related bacterial genomes, that were reconstructed by comparative genomics. The current release of RegPrecise 2.0 includes >1400 regulogs controlled either by protein transcription factors or by conserved ribonucleic acid regulatory motifs in >250 genomes from 24 taxonomic groups of bacteria. The reference regulons accumulated in RegPrecise can serve as a basis for automatic annotation of regulatory interactions in newly sequenced genomes. The developed API provides an efficient access to the RegPrecise data by a comprehensive set of 14 web service resources. The RegPrecise web services API is freely accessible at http://regprecise.lbl.gov/RegPrecise/services.jsp with no login requirements. PMID:22700702

Novichkov, Pavel S; Brettin, Thomas S; Novichkova, Elena S; Dehal, Paramvir S; Arkin, Adam P; Dubchak, Inna; Rodionov, Dmitry A

2012-07-01

257

A large family of antivirulence regulators modulates the effects of transcriptional activators in Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria.  

PubMed

We have reported that transcription of a hypothetical small open reading frame (orf60) in enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) strain 042 is impaired after mutation of aggR, which encodes a global virulence activator. We have also reported that the cryptic orf60 locus was linked to protection against EAEC diarrhea in two epidemiologic studies. Here, we report that the orf60 product acts as a negative regulator of aggR itself. The orf60 protein product lacks homology to known repressors, but displays 44-100% similarity to at least fifty previously undescribed small (<10 kDa) hypothetical proteins found in many gram negative pathogen genomes. Expression of orf60 homologs from enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) repressed the expression of the AraC-transcriptional ETEC regulator CfaD/Rns and its regulon in ETEC strain H10407. Complementation in trans of EAEC 042orf60 by orf60 homologs from ETEC and the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium resulted in dramatic suppression of aggR. A C. rodentium orf60 homolog mutant showed increased levels of activator RegA and increased colonization of the adult mouse. We propose the name Aar (AggR-activated regulator) for the clinically and epidemiologically important orf60 product in EAEC, and postulate the existence of a large family of homologs among pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae and Pasteurellaceae. We propose the name ANR (AraC Negative Regulators) for this family. PMID:24875828

Santiago, Araceli E; Ruiz-Perez, Fernando; Jo, Noah Y; Vijayakumar, Vidhya; Gong, Mei Q; Nataro, James P

2014-05-01

258

Yeast transcription factors Kevin Struhl  

E-print Network

Yeast transcription factors Kevin Struhl Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA Studies of yeast Transcriptional regulatory mechanisms are fundamentally similar in eukaryotic organisms from yeasts to humans (for reviews of yeast transcription, see [1,2]). Compo- nents of the chromatin template and the basic RNA

259

Control of Transcriptional Elongation  

PubMed Central

Elongation is becoming increasingly recognized as a critically controlled step in transcriptional regulation. While traditional genetic and biochemical studies have identified major players of transcriptional elongation, our understanding of the importance and roles of these factors is evolving rapidly through the recent advances in genome-wide and single-molecule technologies. Here we focus on how elongation can modulate the transcriptional outcome through the rate-liming step of RNA polymerase II pausing near promoters, and how the participating factors were identified. Among the factors we describe are NELF and DSIF, the pausing factors, and P-TEFb, the key player in pause release. We also describe non-exclusive models for how pausing is achieved by making use of high resolution genome-wide mapping of paused Pol II relative to promoter elements and the first nucleosome. We also discuss Pol II elongation through the bodies of genes and the roles of FACT and Spt6, the factors that allow Pol II to move through nucleosomes. PMID:24050178

Kwak, Hojoong; Lis, John T.

2014-01-01

260

Transcriptional profiling of ParA and ParB mutants in actively dividing cells of an opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

Accurate chromosome segregation to progeny cells is a fundamental process ensuring proper inheritance of genetic material. In bacteria with simple cell cycle, chromosome segregation follows replication initiation since duplicated oriC domains start segregating to opposite halves of the cell soon after they are made. ParA and ParB proteins together with specific DNA sequences are parts of the segregation machinery. ParA and ParB proteins in Pseudomonas aeruginosa are important for optimal growth, nucleoid segregation, cell division and motility. Comparative transcriptome analysis of parA null and parB null mutants versus parental P. aeruginosa PAO1161 strain demonstrated global changes in gene expression pattern in logarithmically growing planktonic cultures. The set of genes similarly affected in both mutant strains is designated Par regulon and comprises 536 genes. The Par regulon includes genes controlled by two sigma factors (RpoN and PvdS) as well as known and putative transcriptional regulators. In the absence of Par proteins, a large number of genes from RpoS regulon is induced, reflecting the need for slowing down the cell growth rate and decelerating the metabolic processes. Changes in the expression profiles of genes involved in c-di-GMP turnover point out the role of this effector in such signal transmission. Microarray data for chosen genes were confirmed by RT-qPCR analysis. The promoter regions of selected genes were cloned upstream of the promoter-less lacZ gene and analyzed in the heterologous host E. coli?lac. Regulation by ParA and ParB of P. aeruginosa was confirmed for some of the tested promoters. Our data demonstrate that ParA and ParB besides their role in accurate chromosome segregation may act as modulators of genes expression. Directly or indirectly, Par proteins are part of the wider regulatory network in P. aeruginosa linking the process of chromosome segregation with the cell growth, division and motility. PMID:24498062

Bartosik, Aneta A; Glabski, Krzysztof; Jecz, Paulina; Mikulska, Sylwia; Fogtman, Anna; Koblowska, Marta; Jagura-Burdzy, Grazyna

2014-01-01

261

Transcriptional Regulation of the CO2-Concentrating Mechanism in a Euryhaline, Coastal Marine Cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. Strain PCC 7002: Role of NdhR/CcmR?  

PubMed Central

Cyanobacterial photosynthesis occurs in radically diverse habitats and utilizes various forms of a CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) featuring multiple inorganic carbon (Ci) transporters. Cyanobacteria from dynamic environments can transform CCM activity depending on Ci availability, and yet the molecular basis for this regulation is unclear, especially in coastal strains. LysR family transcription factors resembling the Calvin cycle regulator CbbR from proteobacteria have been implicated in the expression of Ci transporter genes in freshwater cyanobacteria. Our survey of related factors revealed a group of divergent CbbR-like sequences confined to freshwater and coastal or offshore cyanobacteria. Inactivation of the single gene (termed ccmR) from this variable cluster in the euryhaline (coastal) strain Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 led to constitutive expression of a high-affinity CCM. Derepression of HCO3? transporter gene transcription, including that of BicA, a recently discovered HCO3? transporter (G. D. Price et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:18228-18233, 2004), was observed. A unique CcmR-regulated operon containing bicA plus 9 open reading frames encoding likely Na+/H+ antiporters from the CPA1 and Mnh families was defined that is essential for maximal HCO3?-dependent oxygen evolution. The promoter region required for Ci-regulated transcription of this operon was defined. We propose that CcmR (and its associated regulon) represents a specialization for species inhabiting environments subject to fluctuating Ci concentrations. PMID:17307862

Woodger, Fiona J.; Bryant, Donald A.; Price, G. Dean

2007-01-01

262

Inhibition of Lon-dependent degradation of the Escherichia coli transcription activator SoxS by interaction with 'soxbox' DNA or RNA polymerase.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli SoxS, the direct transcription activator of the SoxRS (superoxide) regulon, is intrinsically unstable with an in vivo half-life of approximately 2 min. Overexpression of SoxS is lethal, but mutations interfering with DNA binding relieve the toxicity. Here, we determined the effects on the half-life of SoxS of alanine substitutions that confer defects in positive control, i.e. transcription activation, or in specific DNA binding. We found that both types of mutations render SoxS more unstable than the wild-type protein, as if 'soxbox' DNA and RNA polymerase serve as stabilizing ligands in vivo that protect SoxS from degradation by Lon, the protease shown previously to be primarily responsible for its turnover. Indeed, we found that the addition of soxbox DNA or RNA polymerase to an in vitro degradation system decreases the rate of SoxS proteolysis by Lon protease. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first examples of target DNA and RNA polymerase serving as ligands that inhibit the turnover of an unstable transcription activator. PMID:16556231

Shah, Ishita M; Wolf, Richard E

2006-04-01

263

The Salmonella Spi1 Virulence Regulatory Protein HilD Directly Activates Transcription of the Flagellar Master Operon flhDC  

PubMed Central

Infection of intestinal epithelial cells is dependent on the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium pathogenicity island 1 (Spi1)-encoded type III injectisome system and flagellar motility. Thus, the expression of virulence and flagellar genes is subject to tight regulatory control mechanisms in order to ensure the correct spatiotemporal production of the respective gene products. In this work, we reveal a new level of cross-regulation between the Spi1 and flagellar regulatory systems. Transposon mutagenesis identified a class of mutants that prevented flhDC autorepression by overexpressing HilD. HilD, HilC, RtsA, and HilA comprise a positive regulatory circuit for the expression of the Spi1 genes. Here, we report a novel transcriptional cross talk between the Spi1 and flagellar regulons where HilD transcriptionally activates flhDC gene expression by binding to nucleotides ?68 to ?24 upstream from the P5 transcriptional start site. We additionally show that, in contrast to the results of a previous report, HilA does not affect flagellar gene expression. Finally, we discuss a model of the cross-regulation network between Spi1 and the flagellar system and propose a regulatory mechanism via the Spi1 master regulator HilD that would prime flagellar genes for rapid reactivation during host infection. PMID:24488311

Singer, Hanna M.; Kuhne, Caroline; Deditius, Julia A.

2014-01-01

264

Identification of Genes in the ?22 Regulon of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Required for Cell Envelope Homeostasis in Either the Planktonic or the Sessile Mode of Growth  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The Pseudomonas aeruginosa extracytoplasmic functioning (ECF) sigma factor ?22 is encoded by algT/algU and is inhibited by anti-sigma factor MucA. ?22 was originally discovered for its essential role in the expression of the exopolysaccharide alginate by mucoid strains associated with chronic pulmonary infection. However, ?22 is now known to also have a large regulon associated with the response to cell wall stress. Our recent transcriptome analysis identified 293 open reading frames (ORFs) in the ?22 stress stimulon that include genes for outer envelope biogenesis and remodeling, although most of the genes have undefined functions. To better understand the ?22-dependent stress response, mutants affected in 27 genes of the ?22 stimulon were examined and expression was studied with lacZ fusions. Mutants constructed in the 27 genes showed no major change in response to cell wall-acting antibiotics or growth at elevated temperatures nor in alginate production. The mutants were examined for their effects on the expression of the ?22-dependent promoter of the alginate biosynthetic operon (PalgD) as a measure of ?22 derepression from MucA. By testing PalgD expression under both planktonic and sessile growth conditions, 11 genes were found to play a role in the stress response that activates ?22. Some mutations caused an increase or a decrease in the response to cell wall stress. Interestingly, mutations in 7 of the 11 genes caused constitutive PalgD expression under nonstressed conditions and thus showed that these genes are involved in maintaining envelope homeostasis. Mutations in PA0062 and PA1324 showed constitutive PalgD expression during both the planktonic and the sessile modes of growth. However, the PA5178 mutation caused constitutive PalgD expression only during planktonic growth. In contrast, mutations in PA2717, PA0567, PA3040, and PA0920 caused constitutive PalgD expression only in the sessile/biofilm mode of growth. This provides evidence that the ?22 stimulon for cell envelope homeostasis overlaps with biofilm control mechanisms. PMID:22589289

Wood, Lynn F.; Ohman, Dennis E.

2012-01-01

265

The NifA-RpoN Regulon of Mesorhizobium loti Strain R7A and Its Symbiotic Activation by a Novel LacI/GalR-Family Regulator  

PubMed Central

Mesorhizobium loti is the microsymbiont of Lotus species, including the model legume L. japonicus. M. loti differs from other rhizobia in that it contains two copies of the key nitrogen fixation regulatory gene nifA, nifA1 and nifA2, both of which are located on the symbiosis island ICEMlSymR7A. M. loti R7A also contains two rpoN genes, rpoN1 located on the chromosome outside of ICEMlSymR7A and rpoN2 that is located on ICEMlSymR7A. The aims of the current work were to establish how nifA expression was activated in M. loti and to characterise the NifA-RpoN regulon. The nifA2 and rpoN2 genes were essential for nitrogen fixation whereas nifA1 and rpoN1 were dispensable. Expression of nifA2 was activated, possibly in response to an inositol derivative, by a novel regulator of the LacI/GalR family encoded by the fixV gene located upstream of nifA2. Other than the well-characterized nif/fix genes, most NifA2-regulated genes were not required for nitrogen fixation although they were strongly expressed in nodules. The NifA-regulated nifZ and fixU genes, along with nifQ which was not NifA-regulated, were required in M. loti for a fully effective symbiosis although they are not present in some other rhizobia. The NifA-regulated gene msi158 that encodes a porin was also required for a fully effective symbiosis. Several metabolic genes that lacked NifA-regulated promoters were strongly expressed in nodules in a NifA2-dependent manner but again mutants did not have an overt symbiotic phenotype. In summary, many genes encoded on ICEMlSymR7A were strongly expressed in nodules but not free-living rhizobia, but were not essential for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. It seems likely that some of these genes have functional homologues elsewhere in the genome and that bacteroid metabolism may be sufficiently plastic to adapt to loss of certain enzymatic functions. PMID:23308282

Sullivan, John T.; Brown, Steven D.; Ronson, Clive W.

2013-01-01

266

The NifA-RpoN regulon of Mesorhizobium loti strain R7A and its symbiotic activation by a novel LacI/GalR-family regulator.  

PubMed

Mesorhizobium loti is the microsymbiont of Lotus species, including the model legume L. japonicus. M. loti differs from other rhizobia in that it contains two copies of the key nitrogen fixation regulatory gene nifA, nifA1 and nifA2, both of which are located on the symbiosis island ICEMlSym(R7A). M. loti R7A also contains two rpoN genes, rpoN1 located on the chromosome outside of ICEMlSym(R7A) and rpoN2 that is located on ICEMlSym(R7A). The aims of the current work were to establish how nifA expression was activated in M. loti and to characterise the NifA-RpoN regulon. The nifA2 and rpoN2 genes were essential for nitrogen fixation whereas nifA1 and rpoN1 were dispensable. Expression of nifA2 was activated, possibly in response to an inositol derivative, by a novel regulator of the LacI/GalR family encoded by the fixV gene located upstream of nifA2. Other than the well-characterized nif/fix genes, most NifA2-regulated genes were not required for nitrogen fixation although they were strongly expressed in nodules. The NifA-regulated nifZ and fixU genes, along with nifQ which was not NifA-regulated, were required in M. loti for a fully effective symbiosis although they are not present in some other rhizobia. The NifA-regulated gene msi158 that encodes a porin was also required for a fully effective symbiosis. Several metabolic genes that lacked NifA-regulated promoters were strongly expressed in nodules in a NifA2-dependent manner but again mutants did not have an overt symbiotic phenotype. In summary, many genes encoded on ICEMlSym(R7A) were strongly expressed in nodules but not free-living rhizobia, but were not essential for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. It seems likely that some of these genes have functional homologues elsewhere in the genome and that bacteroid metabolism may be sufficiently plastic to adapt to loss of certain enzymatic functions. PMID:23308282

Sullivan, John T; Brown, Steven D; Ronson, Clive W

2013-01-01

267

Characterization of PmfR, the Transcriptional Activator of the pAO1-Borne purU-mabO-folD Operon of Arthrobacter nicotinovorans  

PubMed Central

Nicotine catabolism by Arthrobacter nicotinovorans is linked to the presence of the megaplasmid pAO1. Genes involved in this catabolic pathway are arranged on the plasmid into gene modules according to function. During nicotine degradation ?-N-methylaminobutyrate is formed from the pyrrolidine ring of nicotine. Analysis of the pAO1 open reading frames (ORF) resulted in identification of the gene encoding a demethylating ?-N-methylaminobutyrate oxidase (mabO). This gene was shown to form an operon with purU- and folD-like genes. Only in bacteria grown in the presence of nicotine could transcripts of the purU-mabO-folD operon be detected, demonstrating that this operon constitutes part of the pAO1 nicotine regulon. Its transcriptional start site was determined by primer extension analysis. Transcription of the operon was shown to be controlled by a new transcriptional regulator, PmfR, the product of a gene that is transcribed divergently from the purU, mabO, and folD genes. PmfR was purified, and electromobility shift assays and DNase I-nuclease digestion experiments were used to determine that its DNA binding site is located between ?48 and ?88 nucleotides upstream of the transcriptional start site of the operon. Disruption of pmfR by homologous recombination with a chloramphenicol resistance cassette demonstrated that PmfR acts in vivo as a transcriptional activator. Mutagenesis of the PmfR target DNA suggested that the sequence GTTT-14 bp-AAAC is the core binding site of the regulator upstream of the ?35 promoter region of the purU-mabO-folD operon. PMID:15838033

Chiribau, Calin B.; Sandu, Cristinel; Igloi, Gabor L.; Brandsch, Roderich

2005-01-01

268

The DeoR-type transcriptional regulator SugR acts as a repressor for genes encoding the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) in Corynebacterium glutamicum  

PubMed Central

Background The major uptake system responsible for the transport of fructose, glucose, and sucrose in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 is the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS). The genes encoding PTS components, namely ptsI, ptsH, and ptsF belong to the fructose-PTS gene cluster, whereas ptsG and ptsS are located in two separate regions of the C. glutamicum genome. Due to the localization within and adjacent to the fructose-PTS gene cluster, two genes coding for DeoR-type transcriptional regulators, cg2118 and sugR, are putative candidates involved in the transcriptional regulation of the fructose-PTS cluster genes. Results Four transcripts of the extended fructose-PTS gene cluster that comprise the genes sugR-cg2116, ptsI, cg2118-fruK-ptsF, and ptsH, respectively, were characterized. In addition, it was shown that transcription of the fructose-PTS gene cluster is enhanced during growth on glucose or fructose when compared to acetate. Subsequently, the two genes sugR and cg2118 encoding for DeoR-type regulators were mutated and PTS gene transcription was found to be strongly enhanced in the presence of acetate only in the sugR deletion mutant. The SugR regulon was further characterized by microarray hybridizations using the sugR mutant and its parental strain, revealing that also the PTS genes ptsG and ptsS belong to this regulon. Binding of purified SugR repressor protein to a 21 bp sequence identified the SugR binding site as an AC-rich motif. The two experimentally identified SugR binding sites in the fructose-PTS gene cluster are located within or downstream of the mapped promoters, typical for transcriptional repressors. Effector studies using electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) revealed the fructose PTS-specific metabolite fructose-1-phosphate (F-1-P) as a highly efficient, negative effector of the SugR repressor, acting in the micromolar range. Beside F-1-P, other sugar-phosphates like fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (F-1,6-P) and glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) also negatively affect SugR-binding, but in millimolar concentrations. Conclusion In C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 the DeoR-type regulator SugR acts as a pleiotropic transcriptional repressor of all described PTS genes. Thus, in contrast to most DeoR-type repressors described, SugR is able to act also on the transcription of the distantly located genes ptsG and ptsS of C. glutamicum. Transcriptional repression of the fructose-PTS gene cluster is observed during growth on acetate and transcription is derepressed in the presence of the PTS sugars glucose and fructose. This derepression of the fructose-PTS gene cluster is mainly modulated by the negative effector F-1-P, but reduced sensitivity to the other effectors, F-1,6-P or G-6-P might cause differential transcriptional regulation of genes of the general part of the PTS (ptsI, ptsH) and associated genes encoding sugar-specific functions (ptsF, ptsG, ptsS). PMID:18005413

Gaigalat, Lars; Schlüter, Jan-Philip; Hartmann, Michelle; Mormann, Sascha; Tauch, Andreas; Pühler, Alfred; Kalinowski, Jörn

2007-01-01

269

New Family of Tungstate-Responsive Transcriptional Regulators in Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The trace elements molybdenum and tungsten are essential components of cofactors of many metalloenzymes. However, in sulfate-reducing bacteria, high concentrations of molybdate and tungstate oxyanions inhibit growth, thus requiring the tight regulation of their homeostasis. By a combination of bioinformatic and experimental techniques, we identified a novel regulator family, tungstate-responsive regulator (TunR), controlling the homeostasis of tungstate and molybdate in sulfate-reducing deltaproteobacteria. The effector-sensing domains of these regulators are similar to those of the known molybdate-responsive regulator ModE, while their DNA-binding domains are homologous to XerC/XerD site-specific recombinases. Using a comparative genomics approach, we identified DNA motifs and reconstructed regulons for 40 TunR family members. Positional analysis of TunR sites and putative promoters allowed us to classify most TunR proteins into two groups: (i) activators of modABC genes encoding a high-affinity molybdenum and tungsten transporting system and (ii) repressors of genes for toluene sulfonate uptake (TSUP) family transporters. The activation of modA and modBC genes by TunR in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough was confirmed in vivo, and we discovered that the activation was diminished in the presence of tungstate. A predicted 30-bp TunR-binding motif was confirmed by in vitro binding assays. A novel TunR family of bacterial transcriptional factors controls tungstate and molybdate homeostasis in sulfate-reducing deltaproteobacteria. We proposed that TunR proteins participate in protection of the cells from the inhibition by these oxyanions. To our knowledge, this is a unique case of a family of bacterial transcriptional factors evolved from site-specific recombinases. PMID:23913324

Rajeev, Lara; Luning, Eric G.; Zane, Grant M.; Siddartha, Kavya; Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Dubchak, Inna; Arkin, Adam P.; Wall, Judy D.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

2013-01-01

270

AthaMap, integrating transcriptional and post-transcriptional data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The AthaMap database generates a map of pre- dicted transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) for the whole Arabidopsis thaliana genome. AthaMap has now been extended to include data on post- transcriptional regulation. A total of 403173 geno- mic positions of small RNAs have been mapped in the A. thaliana genome. These identify 5772 putative post-transcriptionally regulated target genes. AthaMap tools

Lorenz Bülow; Stefan Engelmann; Martin Schindler; Reinhard Hehl

2009-01-01

271

Transients in chloroplast gene transcription  

SciTech Connect

Transcriptional regulation of chloroplast genes is demonstrated by Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR). These genes encode apoproteins of the reaction centres of photosystem I and photosystem II. Their transcription is regulated by changes in wavelength of light selectively absorbed by photosystem I and photosystem II, and therefore by the redox state of an electron carrier located between the two photosystems. Chloroplast transcriptional redox regulation is shown to have greater amplitude, and the kinetics of transcriptional changes are more complex, than suggested by previous experiments using only DNA probes in Northern blot experiments. Redox effects on chloroplast transcription appear to be superimposed on an endogenous rhythm of mRNA abundance. The functional significance of these transients in chloroplast gene transcription is discussed.

Puthiyaveetil, Sujith [School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Allen, John F. [School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: j.f.allen@qmul.ac.uk

2008-04-18

272

Transcription factors in airway diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcription factors regulate the expression of multiple inflammatory genes and play a pivotal role in chronic inflammatory diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Prominent transcription factors in airway diseases include nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and activator protein-1 (AP-1), which together regulate the expression of multiple inflammatory proteins. Glucocorticoids activate glucocorticoid receptors (GR), which act as transcription factors

Peter J Barnes

2006-01-01

273

Sigma Factors for Cyanobacterial Transcription  

PubMed Central

Cyanobacteria are photosynthesizing microorganisms that can be used as a model for analyzing gene expression. The expression of genes involves transcription and translation. Transcription is performed by the RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme, comprising a core enzyme and a sigma (?) factor which confers promoter selectivity. The unique structure, expression, and function of cyanobacterial ? factors (and RNAP core subunits) are summarized here based on studies, reported previously. The types of promoter recognized by the ? factors are also discussed with regard to transcriptional regulation. PMID:19838335

Imamura, Sousuke; Asayama, Munehiko

2009-01-01

274

Dynamic regulation of chloroplast transcription  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the coordinated expression of plastid and nuclear genes for chlorplast development and provides an opportunity to understand how plants sense and alter gene expression in response to light. Topic areas covered include the following: changing perspectives of plastid transcription; plastid genome organization; protein stoichiometry, mRNA abundance, and transcription rates; significance of plastid mRNA stability; overall dynamics of chloroplast transcription; differential transcription during chloroplast development;special role for a nuclear-encoded plastid-localized RNA polymerase. 27 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Mullet, J.E. (Texas A M Univ., College Station, TX (United States))

1993-10-01

275

Initiation of HIV Reverse Transcription  

PubMed Central

Reverse transcription of retroviral genomes into double stranded DNA is a key event for viral replication. The very first stage of HIV reverse transcription, the initiation step, involves viral and cellular partners that are selectively packaged into the viral particle, leading to an RNA/protein complex with very specific structural and functional features, some of which being, in the case of HIV-1, linked to particular isolates. Recent understanding of the tight spatio-temporal regulation of reverse transcription and its importance for viral infectivity further points toward reverse transcription and potentially its initiation step as an important drug target. PMID:21994608

Isel, Catherine; Ehresmann, Chantal; Marquet, Roland

2010-01-01

276

Transcript for "Edinburgh life: sport" video Speaker name Transcript  

E-print Network

Transcript for "Edinburgh life: sport" video Speaker name Transcript Alina Silyenek I'm a member for the Centre for Sport and Exercise. I've been going here for three years and I'm really happy, there are bicycles, there are stairmasters, there are rowing machines, there are treadmills, there are weights rooms

Edinburgh, University of

277

Isolation of fusions between the lac genes and several genes of the exu regulon: Analysis of their regulation, determination of the transcription direction of the uxaC-uxaA operon, in Escherichia coli K-12  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene fusions between the lac structural genes and different genes of the hexuronate system were isolated by the two methods described by Casadaban (1976, 1979). Mud (Aprlac) mutants which have the lac genes fused to te regulatory region of exuT, uxaC, uxaA and uxaB genes were constructed. Separately, the lac genes carried by a ?plac-Mu hybrid phage were placed into

Nicole Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat; Janine Robert-Baudouy

1981-01-01

278

Positive and Negative Transcriptional Regulation of the Escherichia coli Gluconate Regulon Gene gntT by GntR and the Cyclic AMP (cAMP)cAMP Receptor Protein Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gntT gene of Escherichia coli is specifically induced by gluconate and repressed via catabolite repression. Thus, gluconate is both an inducer and a repressor of gntT expression since gluconate is a catabolite-repressing sugar. In a gntR deletion mutant, the expression of a chromosomal gntT::lacZ fusion is both high and consti- tutive, confirming that GntR is the negative regulator of

NORBERT PEEKHAUS; T. CONWAY

1998-01-01

279

Blue and Red Light Modulates SigB-Dependent Gene Transcription, Swimming Motility and Invasiveness in Listeria monocytogenes  

PubMed Central

Background In a number of gram-positive bacteria, including Listeria, the general stress response is regulated by the alternative sigma factor B (SigB). Common stressors which lead to the activation of SigB and the SigB-dependent regulon are high osmolarity, acid and several more. Recently is has been shown that also blue and red light activates SigB in Bacillus subtilis. Methodology/Principal Findings By qRT-PCR we analyzed the transcriptional response of the pathogen L. monocytogenes to blue and red light in wild type bacteria and in isogenic deletion mutants for the putative blue-light receptor Lmo0799 and the stress sigma factor SigB. It was found that both blue (455 nm) and red (625 nm) light induced the transcription of sigB and SigB-dependent genes, this induction was completely abolished in the SigB mutant. The blue-light effect was largely dependent on Lmo0799, proving that this protein is a genuine blue-light receptor. The deletion of lmo0799 enhanced the red-light effect, the underlying mechanism as well as that of SigB activation by red light remains unknown. Blue light led to an increased transcription of the internalin A/B genes and of bacterial invasiveness for Caco-2 enterocytes. Exposure to blue light also strongly inhibited swimming motility of the bacteria in a Lmo0799- and SigB-dependent manner, red light had no effect there. Conclusions/Significance Our data established that visible, in particular blue light is an important environmental signal with an impact on gene expression and physiology of the non-phototrophic bacterium L. monocytogenes. In natural environments these effects will result in sometimes random but potentially also cyclic fluctuations of gene activity, depending on the light conditions prevailing in the respective habitat. PMID:21264304

Ondrusch, Nicolai; Kreft, Jürgen

2011-01-01

280

DNA damage repair and transcription  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the course of DNA damage a complex repertoire of molecular signals, chromatin determinants and specific transcription factors are set in motion for repair. In many instances, the response pathway can be characterized by profound changes in molecular remodeling and is intimately linked with DNA replication and gene transcription. Our understanding of the molecular pathways has come from scientific developments

A. El-Osta

2004-01-01

281

Transcriptional Potencies of Inhaled Glucocorticoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucocorticoids (GC) are the most effective anti-inflammatory drugs used in asthma. By a process called trans -activation, they in- crease the transcription of genes involved in either beneficial pro- cesses or certain side effects. Through trans -repression, they in- hibit the transcription factors nuclear factor kappa B (NF- k B) and activator protein-1 (AP-1), thereby decreasing the expression of many

DANY JAFFUEL; PASCAL DEMOLY; CLAIRE GOUGAT; PATRICK BALAGUER; GISČLE MAUTINO; PHILIPPE GODARD; JEAN BOUSQUET; MARC MATHIEU

2000-01-01

282

Pashto Reader Passages in Transcription.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The passages in transcription comprise one component of the "Pashto Reader" materials. They accompany "Pashto Reader," which is the basic text, and the "Pashto Reader Originals," the passages in their original published forms. They are passages in Pashto presented in broad phonetic transcription, for use by linguists and others interested in the…

Tegey, Habibullah; Robson, Barbara

283

Context Specific Transcription Factor Prediction  

PubMed Central

One of the goals of systems biology is the identification of regulatory mechanisms that govern an organism’s response to external stimuli. Transcription factors have been hypothesized as a major contributor to an organism’s response to various outside stimuli, and a great deal of work has been done to predict the set of transcription factors which regulate a given gene. Most of the current methods seek to identify possible binding sites from genomic sequence. Initial attempts at predicting transcription factors from genomic sequences suffered from the problem of false positives. Making the problem more difficult, it has also been shown that while predicted binding sites might be false positives, they can be shown to bind to their corresponding sequences in vitro. One method for rectifying this is through the use of phylogenetic analysis in which only regions which show high evolutionary conservation are analyzed. However such an approach may be too stringent because of the level of degeneracy shown in transcription factor binding site position weight matrices. Due to the degeneracy, there may be only a few bases that need to be conserved across species. Therefore, while a sequence may not show a high level of evolutionary conservation, these sequences may still show high affinity for the same transcription factor. In predicting transcription factor binding we explore the notion that “Co-expression implies co-regulation” [Allocco et al. BMC Bioinformatics 5:18, 2004]. With multiple genes requiring similar transcription factors binding sites, there exists a basis for eliminating false positives. This method allows for the selection of transcription factors binding sites that are active under a given experimental paradigm, thereby allowing us to indirectly incorporate the effects of chromosome and recognition site presentation upon transcription factor binding prediction. Rather than having to rationalize that a few transcription factors binding sites are over-represented in a cluster of genes, one can show that a few transcription factors are active in the cluster of genes that have been grouped together. Although the method focuses on predicting experiment-specific transcription factor binding sites, it is possible that if such a methodology were used in an iterative process where different experiments were analyzed, one could obtain a comprehensive set of transcription factors binding sites which regulate the various dynamic responses shown by biological systems under a variety of conditions hence building a more comprehensive model of transcriptional regulation. PMID:17377845

Yang, Eric; Simcha, David; Almon, Richard R.; Dubois, Debra C.; Jusko, William J.; Androulakis, Ioannis P.

2014-01-01

284

Transcriptional regulation during Drosophila spermatogenesis  

PubMed Central

Drosophila spermatogenesis has become a paradigmatic system for the study of mechanisms that regulate adult stem cell maintenance, proliferation and differentiation. The dramatic cellular differentiation process from germline stem cell (GSC) to mature sperm is accompanied by dynamic changes in gene expression, which are regulated at transcriptional, post-transcriptional (including translational) and post-translational levels. Post-transcriptional regulation has been proposed as a unique feature of germ cells. However, recent studies have provided new insights into transcriptional regulation during Drosophila spermatogenesis. Both signaling pathways and epigenetic mechanisms act to orchestrate the transcriptional regulation of distinct genes at different germ cell differentiation stages. Many of the regulatory pathways that control male gamete differentiation in Drosophila are conserved in mammals. Therefore, studies using Drosophila spermatogenesis will provide insight into the molecular mechanisms that regulate mammalian germ cell differentiation pathways. PMID:23087835

Lim, Cindy; Tarayrah, Lama; Chen, Xin

2012-01-01

285

Transcriptional Regulation of Osteoblasts  

PubMed Central

The differentiation of osteoblasts from mesenchymal precursors requires a series of cell fate decisions controlled by a hierarchy of transcription factors. These include RUNX2, Osterix (OSX), ATF4 and a large number of nuclear coregulators. During bone development, initial RUNX2 expression coincides with the formation of mesenchymal condensations and precedes the branching of chondrogenic and osteogenic lineages. Given its central role in bone development, it is not surprising that RUNX2 is subject to a variety of controls. These include posttranslational modification, especially phosphorylation, and interactions with accessory nuclear factors. Specific examples of RUNX2 regulation to be reviewed include phosphorylation by the ERK/MAP kinase pathway and interactions with DLX5. RUNX2 is regulated via phosphorylation of critical serine residues in the proline/serine/threonine domain. In vivo, the transgenic expression of constitutively active MAP kinase in osteoblasts accelerated skeletal development, while a dominant-negative MAPK retarded development in a RUNX2-dependent manner. DLX5-RUNX2 complexes can be detected in osteoblasts and this interaction plays a critical role in maintaining osteoblast-specific expression of the bone sialoprotein gene. These studies allow us to begin understanding the complex mechanisms necessary to fine-tune bone formation as mesenchymal progenitors progress down the osteoblast lineage. PMID:18728356

Franceschi, Renny T.; Ge, Chunxi; Xiao, Guozhi; Roca, Hernan; Jiang, Di

2008-01-01

286

Microphthalmia Transcription Factor  

PubMed Central

Malignant melanomas do not uniformly retain expression of melanocytic gene products—an observation associated with diagnostic dilemmas. Microphthalmia transcription factor (Mitf) is a melanocytic nuclear protein critical for the embryonic development and postnatal viability of melanocytes. It serves as a master regulator in modulating extracellular signals, such as those triggered by ?-MSH and c-Kit ligand. Because of its central role in melanocyte survival and to assess its potential use as a histopathological marker for melanoma, Mitf expression was examined in histologically confirmed human melanoma specimens. Western blot analysis of melanoma cell lines revealed consistent expression of two Mitf protein isoforms differing by MAP kinase-mediated phosphorylation. In a series of 76 consecutive human melanoma surgical specimens, 100% stained positively for Mitf with a nuclear pattern of reactivity. In a side-by-side comparison, Mitf staining was positive in melanomas that failed to stain for either HMB-45 or S-100, the most common currently used melanoma markers. Of 60 non-melanoma tumors, none displayed nuclear Mitf staining and two displayed cytoplasmic staining. Although Mitf does not distinguish benign from malignant melanocytic lesions, for invasive neoplasms it appears to be a highly sensitive and specific histopathological melanocyte marker for melanoma. PMID:10487831

King, Roy; Weilbaecher, Katherine N.; McGill, Gael; Cooley, Edward; Mihm, Martin; Fisher, David E.

1999-01-01

287

Trypanosome MKT1 and the RNA-binding protein ZC3H11: interactions and potential roles in post-transcriptional regulatory networks  

PubMed Central

The trypanosome zinc finger protein ZC3H11 binds to AU-rich elements in mRNAs. It is essential for survival of the mammalian-infective bloodstream form, where it stabilizes several mRNAs including some encoding chaperones, and is also required for stabilization of chaperone mRNAs during the heat-shock response in the vector-infective procyclic form. When ZC3H11 was artificially ‘tethered’ to a reporter mRNA in bloodstream forms it increased reporter expression. We here show that ZC3H11 interacts with trypanosome MKT1 and PBP1, and that domains required for both interactions are necessary for function in the bloodstream-form tethering assay. PBP1 interacts with MKT1, LSM12 and poly(A) binding protein, and localizes to granules during parasite starvation. All of these proteins are essential for bloodstream-form trypanosome survival and increase gene expression in the tethering assay. MKT1 is cytosolic and polysome associated. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen and tandem affinity purification we found that trypanosome MKT1 interacts with multiple RNA-binding proteins and other potential RNA regulators, placing it at the centre of a post-transcriptional regulatory network. A consensus interaction sequence, H(E/D/N/Q)PY, was identified. Recruitment of MKT1-containing regulatory complexes to mRNAs via sequence-specific mRNA-binding proteins could thus control several different post-transcriptional regulons. PMID:24470144

Singh, Aditi; Minia, Igor; Droll, Dorothea; Fadda, Abeer; Clayton, Christine; Erben, Esteban

2014-01-01

288

Transcriptional regulation in wood formation.  

PubMed

Wood (i.e. xylem tissue) in trees is mainly composed of two types of cells, fibres and tracheary elements. Recent molecular studies of various trees, as well as the non-tree species Arabidopsis thaliana and Zinnia elegans, have revealed coordinated gene expression during differentiation of these cells in wood and the presence of several transcription factors that might govern the complex networks of transcriptional regulation. This article reviews recent findings concerning the regulation of genes by transcription factors involved in wood formation such as AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF), CLASS III HOMEODOMAIN-LEUCINE ZIPPER (HD-ZIPIII), KANADI (KAN), MYB and NAM/ATAF/CUC (NAC). PMID:17224301

Demura, Taku; Fukuda, Hiroo

2007-02-01

289

The benPK operon, proposed to play a role in transport, is part of a regulon for benzoate catabolism in Acinetobacter sp. strain ADP1  

Microsoft Academic Search

BenM and CatM are distinct, but similar, LysR-type transcriptional regulators of the soil bacterium Acinetobacter sp. strain ADP1. Together, the two regulators control the expression of at least 14 genes involved in the degradation of aromatic compounds via the catechol branch of the b-ketoadipate pathway. In these studies, BenM and CatM were each purified to homogeneity to test the possibility

Todd J. Clark; Cory Momany; Ellen L. Neidle

290

A direct link between the global regulator PhoP and the Csr regulon in Y. pseudotuberculosis through the small regulatory RNA CsrC.  

PubMed

In this study we investigated the influence of the global response regulator PhoP on the complex regulatory cascade controlling expression of early stage virulence genes of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis via the virulence regulator RovA. Our analysis revealed the following novel features: (1) PhoP activates expression of the CsrC RNA in Y. pseudotuberculosis, leading to activation of RovA synthesis through the CsrABC-RovM cascade, (2) activation of csrC transcription is direct and PhoP is shown to bind to two separate PhoP box-like sites, (3) PhoP-mediated activation results in transcription from two different promoters closely downstream of the PhoP binding sites, leading to two distinct CsrC RNAs, and (4) the stability of the CsrC RNAs differs significantly between the Y. pseudotuberculosis strains YPIII and IP32953 due to a 20 nucleotides insertion in CsrC(IP32953), which renders the transcript more susceptible to degradation. In summary, our study showed that PhoP-mediated influence on the regulatory cascade controlling the Csr system and RovA in Y. pseudotuberculosis varies within the species, suggesting that the Csr system is a focal point to readjust and adapt the genus to different hosts and reservoirs. PMID:24786463

Nuss, Aaron M; Schuster, Franziska; Kathrin Heroven, Ann; Heine, Wiebke; Pisano, Fabio; Dersch, Petra

2014-05-01

291

Analysis of transcriptional regulatory circuitry  

E-print Network

The research in this thesis has focused on the analysis of data from two types of microarray technologies with the goal of improving understanding of transcriptional regulatory circuitry in yeast. These microarray technologies, ...

Rinaldi, Nicola J., 1974-

2004-01-01

292

Coupling transcription and alternative splicing.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing regulation not only depends on the interaction of splicing factors with splicing enhancers and silencers in the pre-mRNA, but also on the coupling between transcription and splicing. This coupling is possible because splicing is often cotranscriptional and promoter identity and occupation may affect alternative splicing. We discuss here the different mechanisms by which transcription regulates alternative splicing. These include the recruitment of splicing factors to the transcribing polymerase and "kinetic coupling", which involves changes in the rate of transcriptional elongation that in turn affect the timing in which splice sites are presented to the splicing machinery. The recruitment mechanism may depend on the particular features of the carboxyl terminal domain of RNA polymerase II, whereas kinetic coupling seems to be linked to how changes in chromatin structure and other factors affect transcription elongation. PMID:18380347

Kornblihtt, Alberto R

2007-01-01

293

Discovering Regulatory Overlapping RNA Transcripts  

E-print Network

STEREO is a novel algorithm that discovers cis-regulatory RNA interactions by assembling complete and potentially overlapping same-strand RNA transcripts from tiling expression data. STEREO first identifies coherent segments ...

Danford, Timothy

294

Glucocorticoids: Effects on Gene Transcription  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major antiinflammatory effects of glucocorticoids appear to be due largely to interaction between the activated glucocorticoid receptor and transcription factors, notably nuclear factor- B( NF-B) and activator protein-1, that mediate the expression of inflamma- tory genes. NF-B switches on inflammatory genes via a process involving recruitment of transcriptional coactivator proteins and changes in chromatin modifications such as histone acetylation.

Ian M. Adcock; Kaz Ito; Peter J. Barnes

2004-01-01

295

Transcription regulation by distal enhancers  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide chromatin profiling efforts have shown that enhancers are often located at large distances from gene promoters within the noncoding genome. Whereas enhancers can stimulate transcription initiation by communicating with promoters via chromatin looping mechanisms, we propose that enhancers may also stimulate transcription elongation by physical interactions with intronic elements. We review here recent findings derived from the study of the hematopoietic system. PMID:22771987

Stadhouders, Ralph; van den Heuvel, Anita; Kolovos, Petros; Jorna, Ruud; Leslie, Kris; Grosveld, Frank; Soler, Eric

2012-01-01

296

Transcriptional proofreading in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

A novel transcriptional proofreading mechanism associated with the beta-subunit of wild-type RNA polymerase from Escherichia coli is suggested from the following data. The purified holoenzyme contains an NTPase activity which specifically converts noncognate NTPs to their corresponding NDP in a template-dependent manner during in vitro transcription of synthetic single- and double-stranded templates. In contrast, purified enzyme from an rpoB mutant which shows increased transcriptional error lacked template-dependent NTP hydrolytic activity. The NTP hydrolytic activity of wild-type enzyme was critically dependent on the integrity of the initiation complex, and required continued transcriptional elongation. Transcription and translation of the lacZ gene proceeded 17% faster in the mutant than in its wild-type parent. These results are discussed in terms of a proofreading model in which the rate of transcription is limited by proofreading events that involve recognition and hydrolysis of noncognate NTPs before they can be misincorporated into RNA. Images PMID:2555156

Libby, R T; Nelson, J L; Calvo, J M; Gallant, J A

1989-01-01

297

Contrasting Transcriptional Responses of a Virulent and an Attenuated Strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infecting Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Background H37Rv and H37Ra are well-described laboratory strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis derived from the same parental strain, H37, that show dramatically different pathogenic phenotypes. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, the transcriptomes of the two strains during axenic growth in broth and during intracellular growth within murine bone-marrow macrophages were compared by whole genome expression profiling. We identified and compared adaptations of either strain upon encountering an intracellular environment, and also contrasted the transcriptomes of the two strains while inside macrophages. In the former comparison, both strains induced genes that would facilitate intracellular survival including those involved in mycobactin synthesis and fatty acid metabolism. However, this response was stronger and more extensive for H37Rv than for H37Ra. This was manifested as the differential expression of a greater number of genes and an increased magnitude of expression for these genes in H37Rv. In comparing intracellular transcriptional signatures, fifty genes were found to be differentially expressed between the strains. Of these fifty, twelve were under control of the PhoPR regulon. Further differences between strains included genes whose products were members of the ESAT-6 family of proteins, or were associated with their secretion. Conclusions/Significance Along with the recent identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms in H37Ra when compared to H37Rv, our demonstration of differential expression of PhoP-regulated and ESX-1 region-related genes during macrophage infection further highlights the significance of these genes in the attenuation of H37Ra. PMID:20548782

Hinds, Jason; Malloff, Chad A.; Bains, Manjeet; Hancock, Robert E.; Lam, Wan L.

2010-01-01

298

The CRYPTOCHROME1-Dependent Response to Excess Light Is Mediated through the Transcriptional Activators ZINC FINGER PROTEIN EXPRESSED IN INFLORESCENCE MERISTEM LIKE1 and ZML2 in Arabidopsis[C][W  

PubMed Central

Exposure of plants to light intensities that exceed the electron utilization capacity of the chloroplast has a dramatic impact on nuclear gene expression. The photoreceptor Cryptochrome 1 (cry1) is essential to the induction of genes encoding photoprotective components in Arabidopsis thaliana. Bioinformatic analysis of the cry1 regulon revealed the putative cis-element CryR1 (GnTCKAG), and here we demonstrate an interaction between CryR1 and the zinc finger GATA-type transcription factors ZINC FINGER PROTEIN EXPRESSED IN INFLORESCENCE MERISTEM LIKE1 (ZML1) and ZML2. The ZML proteins specifically bind to the CryR1 cis-element as demonstrated in vitro and in vivo, and TCTAG was shown to constitute the core sequence required for ZML2 binding. In addition, ZML2 activated transcription of the yellow fluorescent protein reporter gene driven by the CryR1 cis-element in Arabidopsis leaf protoplasts. T-DNA insertion lines for ZML2 and its homolog ZML1 demonstrated misregulation of several cry1-dependent genes in response to excess light. Furthermore, the zml1 and zml2 T-DNA insertion lines displayed a high irradiance-sensitive phenotype with significant photoinactivation of photosystem II (PSII), indicated by reduced maximum quantum efficiency of PSII, and severe photobleaching. Thus, we identified the ZML2 and ZML1 GATA transcription factors as two essential components of the cry1-mediated photoprotective response. PMID:22786870

Shaikhali, Jehad; de Dios Barajas-Lopez, Juan; Otvos, Krisztina; Kremnev, Dmitry; Garcia, Ana Sanchez; Srivastava, Vaibhav; Wingsle, Gunnar; Bako, Laszlo; Strand, Asa

2012-01-01

299

Two functions of the C-terminal domain of Escherichia coli Rob: mediating "sequestration-dispersal" as a novel off-on switch for regulating Rob's activity as a transcription activator and preventing degradation of Rob by Lon protease.  

PubMed

In Escherichia coli, Rob activates transcription of the SoxRS/MarA/Rob regulon. Previous work revealed that Rob resides in three to four immunostainable foci, that dipyridyl and bile salts are inducers of its activity, and that inducers bind to Rob's C-terminal domain (CTD). We propose that sequestration inactivates Rob by blocking its access to the transcriptional machinery and that inducers activate Rob by mediating its dispersal, allowing interaction with RNA polymerase. To test "sequestration-dispersal" as a new mechanism for regulating the activity of transcriptional activators, we fused Rob's CTD to SoxS and used indirect immunofluorescence microscopy to determine the effect of inducers on SoxS-Rob's cellular localization. Unlike native SoxS, which is uniformly distributed throughout the cell, SoxS-Rob is sequestered without an inducer, but is rapidly dispersed when cells are treated with an inducer. In this manner, Rob's CTD serves as an anti-sigma factor in regulating the co-sigma-factor-like activity of SoxS when fused to it. Rob's CTD also protects its N-terminus from Lon protease, since Lon's normally rapid degradation of SoxS is blocked in the chimera. Accordingly, Rob's CTD has novel regulatory properties that can be bestowed on another E. coli protein. PMID:19289129

Griffith, Kevin L; Fitzpatrick, M Megan; Keen, Edward F; Wolf, Richard E

2009-05-01

300

Interactions between DNA damage, repair, and transcription  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review addresses a variety of mechanisms by which DNA repair interacts with transcription and vice versa. Blocking of transcriptional elongation is the best studied of these mechanisms. Transcription recovery after damage therefore has often been used as a surrogate marker of DNA repair in cells. However, it has become evident that relationships between DNA damage, repair, and transcription are

Andriy Khobta; Bernd Epe

301

Adaptively inferring human transcriptional subnetworks  

PubMed Central

Although the human genome has been sequenced, progress in understanding gene regulation in humans has been particularly slow. Many computational approaches developed for lower eukaryotes to identify cis-regulatory elements and their associated target genes often do not generalize to mammals, largely due to the degenerate and interactive nature of such elements. Motivated by the switch-like behavior of transcriptional responses, we present a systematic approach that allows adaptive determination of active transcriptional subnetworks (cis-motif combinations, the direct target genes and physiological processes regulated by the corresponding transcription factors) from microarray data in mammals, with accuracy similar to that achieved in lower eukaryotes. Our analysis uncovered several new subnetworks active in human liver and in cell-cycle regulation, with similar functional characteristics as the known ones. We present biochemical evidence for our predictions, and show that the recently discovered G2/M-specific E2F pathway is wider than previously thought; in particular, E2F directly activates certain mitotic genes involved in hepatocellular carcinomas. Additionally, we demonstrate that this method can predict subnetworks in a condition-specific manner, as well as regulatory crosstalk across multiple tissues. Our approach allows systematic understanding of how phenotypic complexity is regulated at the transcription level in mammals and offers marked advantage in systems where little or no prior knowledge of transcriptional regulation is available. PMID:16760900

Das, Debopriya; Nahle, Zaher; Zhang, Michael Q

2006-01-01

302

RNA Polymerase II Transcription: Structure and Mechanism  

PubMed Central

A minimal RNA polymerase II (pol II) transcription system comprises the polymerase and five general transcription factors (GTFs) TFIIB, -D, -E, -F, and -H. The addition of Mediator enables a response to regulatory factors. The GTFs are required for promoter recognition and the initiation of transcription. Following initiation, pol II alone is capable of RNA transcript elongation and of proofreading. Structural studies reviewed here reveal roles of GTFs in the initiation process and shed light on the transcription elongation mechanism. PMID:23000482

Liu, Xin; Bushnell, David A.; Kornberg, Roger D.

2014-01-01

303

GENE LOOPS ENHANCE TRANSCRIPTIONAL DIRECTIONALITY  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic genomes are extensively transcribed, forming both messenger (m) and noncoding (nc) RNAs. ncRNAs made by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) often initiate from bidirectional promoters (nucleosome-depleted chromatin) that synthesise mRNA and ncRNA in opposite directions. We demonstrate that actively transcribed mRNA encoding genes by adopting a gene loop conformation, restrict divergent transcription of ncRNAs. Since gene loop formation depends on a protein factor (Ssu72) that co-associates with both promoter and terminator, its inactivation leads to increased synthesis of promoter-associated divergent ncRNAs, referred to as Ssu72 restricted transcripts (SRT). Similarly, inactivation of individual gene loops by gene mutation enhances SRT synthesis. We demonstrate that gene loop conformation enforces transcriptional directionality on otherwise bidirectional promoters. PMID:23019609

Tan-Wong, Sue Mei; Zaugg, Judith B.; Camblong, Jurgi; Xu, Zhenyu; Zhang, David W.; Mischo, Hannah E.; Ansari, Aseem Z.; Luscombe, Nicholas M.; Steinmetz, Lars M.; Proudfoot, Nick J.

2012-01-01

304

Gene loops enhance transcriptional directionality.  

PubMed

Eukaryotic genomes are extensively transcribed, forming both messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). ncRNAs made by RNA polymerase II often initiate from bidirectional promoters (nucleosome-depleted chromatin) that synthesize mRNA and ncRNA in opposite directions. We demonstrate that, by adopting a gene-loop conformation, actively transcribed mRNA encoding genes restrict divergent transcription of ncRNAs. Because gene-loop formation depends on a protein factor (Ssu72) that coassociates with both the promoter and the terminator, the inactivation of Ssu72 leads to increased synthesis of promoter-associated divergent ncRNAs, referred to as Ssu72-restricted transcripts (SRTs). Similarly, inactivation of individual gene loops by gene mutation enhances SRT synthesis. We demonstrate that gene-loop conformation enforces transcriptional directionality on otherwise bidirectional promoters. PMID:23019609

Tan-Wong, Sue Mei; Zaugg, Judith B; Camblong, Jurgi; Xu, Zhenyu; Zhang, David W; Mischo, Hannah E; Ansari, Aseem Z; Luscombe, Nicholas M; Steinmetz, Lars M; Proudfoot, Nick J

2012-11-01

305

[Transcriptional control of ciliary genes].  

PubMed

Cilia are found in many eukaryotic species and share a common microtubule architecture that can nonetheless show very diverse features within one animal. The genesis of cilia and their diversity require the expression of different specific genes. At least two classes of transcription factors are involved in ciliogenesis: the RFX family, essential for the assembly of most cilia and the FOXJ1 transcription factors that are key regulators of motile cilia assembly. These two different families of transcription factors have both specific and common target genes and they can also cooperate for the formation of cilia. In collaboration with cell type specific factors, they also contribute to the specialisation of cilia. As a consequence, the identification of RFX and FOXJ1 target genes has emerged as an efficient strategy to identify novel ciliary genes, and in particular genes potentially implicated in ciliopathies. PMID:25388578

Vieillard, Jennifer; Jerber, Julie; Durand, Bénédicte

2014-11-01

306

Transcriptional outcome of telomere signalling.  

PubMed

Telomeres protect chromosome ends from degradation and inappropriate DNA damage response activation through their association with specific factors. Interestingly, these telomeric factors are able to localize outside telomeric regions, where they can regulate the transcription of genes involved in metabolism, immunity and differentiation. These findings delineate a signalling pathway by which telomeric changes control the ability of their associated factors to regulate transcription. This mechanism is expected to enable a greater diversity of cellular responses that are adapted to specific cell types and telomeric changes, and may therefore represent a pivotal aspect of development, ageing and telomere-mediated diseases. PMID:24913665

Ye, Jing; Renault, Valérie M; Jamet, Karine; Gilson, Eric

2014-07-01

307

Evolution of Eukaryotic Transcription Circuits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. The gradual modification of transcription circuits over evolutionary time scales is an important source of the diversity of life. Over the past decade, studies in animals have shown how seemingly small molecular changes in gene regulation can have large effects on morphology and physiology and how selective pressures can act on these changes. More recently, genome-wide studies, particularly those in single-cell yeasts, have uncovered evidence of extensive transcriptional rewiring, indicating that even closely related organisms regulate their genes using markedly different circuitries.

Brian B. Tuch (University of California;Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics and Department of Microbiology and Immunology); Hao Li (University of California;Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics); Alexander D. Johnson (University of California;Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics and Department of Microbiology and Immunology)

2008-03-28

308

Chromatin and Transcription in Yeast  

PubMed Central

Understanding the mechanisms by which chromatin structure controls eukaryotic transcription has been an intense area of investigation for the past 25 years. Many of the key discoveries that created the foundation for this field came from studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, including the discovery of the role of chromatin in transcriptional silencing, as well as the discovery of chromatin-remodeling factors and histone modification activities. Since that time, studies in yeast have continued to contribute in leading ways. This review article summarizes the large body of yeast studies in this field. PMID:22345607

Rando, Oliver J.; Winston, Fred

2012-01-01

309

Transcript synchronization using local dynamic programming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A local text alignment algorithm is introduced in this work for synchronizing transcripts. The proposed algorithm can be used for any transcript alignment process where high computational complexity is a concern. Dynamic programming is typically used to align a set of transcripts: however, the computational complexity of dynamic programming is high. To reduce the computational complexity, a local dynamic programming algorithm is introduced that aligns subsections of the transcripts. Aligning subsections of the transcripts greatly reduces the information needed for accurate synchronization. The information is reduced because it is not necessary to compare all words between the two transcripts. For example, words at the beginning of one transcript would not be compared to the words at the end of the other transcript. The subsection size is dependent on the total number of alignment errors between the transcripts. It is shown that the computational complexity of the proposed local dynamic programming algorithm is greatly reduced while preserving alignment accuracy.

Martone, Anthony F.; Delp, Edward J.

2010-10-01

310

The transcriptional landscape of the deep-sea bacterium Photobacterium profundum in both a toxR mutant and its parental strain  

PubMed Central

Background The deep-sea bacterium Photobacterium profundum is an established model for studying high pressure adaptation. In this paper we analyse the parental strain DB110 and the toxR mutant TW30 by massively parallel cDNA sequencing (RNA-seq). ToxR is a transmembrane DNA-binding protein first discovered in Vibrio cholerae, where it regulates a considerable number of genes involved in environmental adaptation and virulence. In P. profundum the abundance and activity of this protein is influenced by hydrostatic pressure and its role is related to the regulation of genes in a pressure-dependent manner. Results To better characterize the ToxR regulon, we compared the expression profiles of wt and toxR strains in response to pressure changes. Our results revealed a complex expression pattern with a group of 22 genes having expression profiles similar to OmpH that is an outer membrane protein transcribed in response to high hydrostatic pressure. Moreover, RNA-seq allowed a deep characterization of the transcriptional landscape that led to the identification of 460 putative small RNA genes and the detection of 298 protein-coding genes previously unknown. We were also able to perform a genome-wide prediction of operon structure, transcription start and termination sites, revealing an unexpected high number of genes (992) with large 5?-UTRs, long enough to harbour cis-regulatory RNA structures, suggesting a correlation between intergenic region size and UTR length. Conclusion This work led to a better understanding of high-pressure response in P. profundum. Furthermore, the high-resolution RNA-seq analysis revealed several unexpected features about transcriptional landscape and general mechanisms of controlling bacterial gene expression. PMID:23107454

2012-01-01

311

Listeria monocytogenes Grown at 7?C Shows Reduced Acid Survival and an Altered Transcriptional Response to Acid Shock Compared to L. monocytogenes Grown at 37?C  

PubMed Central

Survival of the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in acidic environments (e.g., in the human stomach) is vital to its transmission. Refrigerated, ready-to-eat foods have been sources of listeriosis outbreaks. The purpose of this study was to determine whether growth at a low temperature (i.e., 7°C) affects L. monocytogenes survival or gene transcription after exposure to a simulated gastric environment (i.e., acid shock at 37°C). L. monocytogenes cells grown at 7°C were less resistant to artificial gastric fluid (AGF) or acidified brain heart infusion broth (ABHI) than bacteria grown at higher temperatures (i.e., 30°C or 37°C). For L. monocytogenes grown at 7°C, stationary-phase cells were more resistant to ABHI than log-phase cells, indicating that both temperature and growth phase affect acid survival. Microarray transcriptomic analysis revealed that the number and functional categories of genes differentially expressed after acid shock differed according to both growth temperature and growth phase. The acid response of L. monocytogenes grown to log phase at 37°C involved stress-related transcriptional regulators (i.e., ?B, ?H, CtsR, and HrcA), some of which have been implicated in adaptation to the intracellular environment. In contrast, for bacteria grown at 7°C to stationary phase, acid exposure did not result in differential expression of the stress regulons examined. However, two large operons encoding bacteriophage-like proteins were induced, suggesting lysogenic prophage induction. The adaptive transcriptional response observed in 37°C-grown cells was largely absent in 7°C-grown cells, suggesting that temperatures commonly encountered during food storage and distribution affect the ability of L. monocytogenes to survive gastric passage and ultimately cause disease. PMID:22447604

Ivy, R. A.; Wiedmann, M.

2012-01-01

312

INVESTIGATION Nonclassical Regulation of Transcription  

E-print Network

of significant interactions with individual Men alleles, suggesting that these trans-effects can be modified organization governs interactions between neighboring genetic elements, such as transcription factories, hetero these interactions are trans-interactions mediated by the pairing of homologous chromosomes. These trans- effects

Merritt, Thomas J. S.

313

KpnEF, a New Member of the Klebsiella pneumoniae Cell Envelope Stress Response Regulon, Is an SMR-Type Efflux Pump Involved in Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Resistance  

PubMed Central

Klebsiella pneumoniae has been frequently associated with nosocomial infections. Efflux systems are ubiquitous transporters that also function in drug resistance. Genome analysis of K. pneumoniae strain NTUH-K2044 revealed the presence of ?15 putative drug efflux systems. We discuss here for the first time the characterization of a putative SMR-type efflux pump, an ebrAB homolog (denoted here as kpnEF) with respect to Klebsiella physiology and the multidrug-resistant phenotype. Analysis of hypermucoviscosity revealed direct involvement of kpnEF in capsule synthesis. The ?kpnEF mutant displayed higher sensitivity to hyperosmotic (?2.8-fold) and high bile (?4.0-fold) concentrations. Mutation in kpnEF resulted in increased susceptibility to cefepime, ceftriaxone, colistin, erythromycin, rifampin, tetracycline, and streptomycin; mutated strains changed from being resistant to being susceptible, and the resistance was restored upon complementation. The ?kpnEF mutant displayed enhanced sensitivity toward structurally related compounds such as sodium dodecyl sulfate, deoxycholate, and dyes, including clinically relevant disinfectants such as benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine, and triclosan. The prevalence of kpnEF in clinical strains broadens the diversity of antibiotic resistance in K. pneumoniae. Experimental evidence of CpxR binding to the efflux pump promoter and quantification of its expression in a cpxAR mutant background demonstrated kpnEF to be a member of the Cpx regulon. This study helps to elucidate the unprecedented biological functions of the SMR-type efflux pump in Klebsiella spp. PMID:23836167

Rajamohan, Govindan

2013-01-01

314

Cellular Transcription Factor ZASC1 Regulates Murine Leukemia Virus Transcription?  

PubMed Central

To identify cellular processes involved in retroviral infection, we employed a high-volume forward genetic screen of insertionally mutagenized somatic cells using a murine leukemia virus (MLV) vector. This approach identified a clonal cell line that exhibited approximately 10-fold reduced gene expression from MLV vectors following infection despite supporting normal levels of MLV reverse transcription and integration. The defect in this cell line was specific for the MLV long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter, as normal levels of reporter gene expression were obtained from both an internal cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter contained within an LTR-defective MLV vector and LTR expression from an avian sarcoma and leukosis virus (ASLV) vector. Complementation and shRNA knockdown experiments demonstrated that the defective gene in these cells is ZASC1 (ZNF639), a transcription factor with strong links to cancer and inherited ataxias. We demonstrated that ZASC1 is a sequence-specific DNA binding protein with three closely related binding sites located within the MLV LTR promoter, but it does not bind to the ASLV promoter. Mutating these putative ZASC1 binding sites significantly reduced levels of MLV gene expression. While wild-type ZASC1 activated expression from the MLV promoter, a green fluorescent protein-ZASC1 fusion protein showed dominant-negative inhibition of MLV gene expression. These studies identify the cellular transcription factor ZASC1 as an activator of MLV gene expression and provide tools that should be useful in studying the links between ZASC1 and human diseases. PMID:20484494

Bruce, James W.; Hierl, Michael; Young, John A. T.; Ahlquist, Paul

2010-01-01

315

c-Myc regulates transcriptional pause release  

E-print Network

Recruitment of the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription initiation apparatus to promoters by specific DNA-binding transcription factors is well recognized as a key regulatory step in gene expression. We report here ...

Rahl, Peter B.

316

31 CFR 15.737-23 - Transcript.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transcript. 15.737-23 Section 15.737-23 Money and Finance: Treasury... Administrative Enforcement Proceedings § 15.737-23 Transcript. In cases where the hearing is stenographically...

2010-07-01

317

31 CFR 15.737-23 - Transcript.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transcript. 15.737-23 Section 15.737-23 Money and Finance: Treasury... Administrative Enforcement Proceedings § 15.737-23 Transcript. In cases where the hearing is stenographically...

2013-07-01

318

31 CFR 15.737-23 - Transcript.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transcript. 15.737-23 Section 15.737-23 Money and Finance: Treasury... Administrative Enforcement Proceedings § 15.737-23 Transcript. In cases where the hearing is stenographically...

2011-07-01

319

31 CFR 15.737-23 - Transcript.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transcript. 15.737-23 Section 15.737-23 Money and Finance: Treasury... Administrative Enforcement Proceedings § 15.737-23 Transcript. In cases where the hearing is stenographically...

2012-07-01

320

Fast transcription of unstructured audio recordings  

E-print Network

We introduce a new method for human-machine collaborative speech transcription that is significantly faster than existing transcription methods. In this approach, automatic audio processing algorithms are used to robustly ...

Roy, Brandon Cain

321

Integrated stress response of Escherichia coli to methylglyoxal: transcriptional readthrough from the nemRA operon enhances protection through increased expression of glyoxalase I  

PubMed Central

Methylglyoxal (MG) elicits activation of K+ efflux systems to protect cells against the toxicity of the electrophile. ChIP-chip targeting RNA polymerase, supported by a range of other biochemical measurements and mutant creation, was used to identify genes transcribed in response to MG and which complement this rapid response. The SOS DNA repair regulon is induced at cytotoxic levels of MG, even when exposure to MG is transient. Glyoxalase I alone among the core MG protective systems is induced in response to MG exposure. Increased expression is an indirect consequence of induction of the upstream nemRA operon, encoding an enzyme system that itself does not contribute to MG detoxification. Moreover, this induction, via nemRA only occurs when cells are exposed to growth inhibitory concentrations of MG. We show that the kdpFABCDE genes are induced and that this expression occurs as a result of depletion of cytoplasmic K+ consequent upon activation of the KefGB K+ efflux system. Finally, our analysis suggests that the transcriptional changes in response to MG are a culmination of the damage to DNA and proteins, but that some integrate specific functions, such as DNA repair, to augment the allosteric activation of the main protective system, KefGB. PMID:23646895

Ozyamak, Ertan; Almeida, Camila; de Moura, Alessandro P S; Miller, Samantha; Booth, Ian R

2013-01-01

322

Identification of a p-coumarate degradation regulon in Rhodopseudomonas palustris by Xpression, an integrated tool for prokaryotic RNA-seq data processing.  

PubMed

High-throughput sequencing of cDNA prepared from RNA, an approach known as RNA-seq, is coming into increasing use as a method for transcriptome analysis. Despite its many advantages, widespread adoption of the technique has been hampered by a lack of easy-to-use, integrated, open-source tools for analyzing the nucleotide sequence data that are generated. Here we describe Xpression, an integrated tool for processing prokaryotic RNA-seq data. The tool is easy to use and is fully automated. It performs all essential processing tasks, including nucleotide sequence extraction, alignment, quantification, normalization, and visualization. Importantly, Xpression processes multiplexed and strand-specific nucleotide sequence data. It extracts and trims specific sequences from files and separately quantifies sense and antisense reads in the final results. Outputs from the tool can also be conveniently used in downstream analysis. In this paper, we show the utility of Xpression to process strand-specific RNA-seq data to identify genes regulated by CouR, a transcription factor that controls p-coumarate degradation by the bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris. PMID:22798355

Phattarasukol, Somsak; Radey, Matthew C; Lappala, Colin R; Oda, Yasuhiro; Hirakawa, Hidetada; Brittnacher, Mitchell J; Harwood, Caroline S

2012-10-01

323

Identification of a p-Coumarate Degradation Regulon in Rhodopseudomonas palustris by Xpression, an Integrated Tool for Prokaryotic RNA-Seq Data Processing  

PubMed Central

High-throughput sequencing of cDNA prepared from RNA, an approach known as RNA-seq, is coming into increasing use as a method for transcriptome analysis. Despite its many advantages, widespread adoption of the technique has been hampered by a lack of easy-to-use, integrated, open-source tools for analyzing the nucleotide sequence data that are generated. Here we describe Xpression, an integrated tool for processing prokaryotic RNA-seq data. The tool is easy to use and is fully automated. It performs all essential processing tasks, including nucleotide sequence extraction, alignment, quantification, normalization, and visualization. Importantly, Xpression processes multiplexed and strand-specific nucleotide sequence data. It extracts and trims specific sequences from files and separately quantifies sense and antisense reads in the final results. Outputs from the tool can also be conveniently used in downstream analysis. In this paper, we show the utility of Xpression to process strand-specific RNA-seq data to identify genes regulated by CouR, a transcription factor that controls p-coumarate degradation by the bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris. PMID:22798355

Phattarasukol, Somsak; Radey, Matthew C.; Lappala, Colin R.; Oda, Yasuhiro; Hirakawa, Hidetada; Brittnacher, Mitchell J.

2012-01-01

324

Transcriptional regulation by STAT6  

PubMed Central

Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins are critical mediators of cytokine signaling. Among the seven STAT proteins, STAT6 is activated by IL-4 and IL-13 and plays a predominant role in the immune system. However, there is increasing evidence that STAT6 may function in other tissues and organ systems. IL-4, IL-13, and STAT6 promote humoral immunity, clearance of helminthic parasites as well as the pathogenesis of allergic disorders like asthma, food allergies, and atopic dermatitis. In this review, we will describe our current understanding of the biological functions of STAT6 and summarize recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms by which STAT6 regulates transcription. PMID:21442426

Kaplan, Mark H.

2011-01-01

325

Transcriptional Regulation and its Misregulation in Disease  

PubMed Central

The gene expression programs that establish and maintain specific cell states in humans are controlled by thousands of transcription factors, cofactors and chromatin regulators. Misregulation of these gene expression programs can cause a broad range of diseases. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of transcriptional regulation and discuss how these have provided new insights into transcriptional misregulation in disease. PMID:23498934

Lee, Tong Ihn; Young, Richard A.

2013-01-01

326

Electronic Transcripts: Past, Present, and Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Electronic transcripts are no longer a concept awaiting definition. They are here to stay. Although paper transcripts remain the standard--at least in terms of volume--an ever-increasing number and eventual majority of students and alumni will expect if not require electronic transcripts. College registrars and admissions officers' obligation to…

Harris, Sarah; Hannah, Andrew; Stones, Dave; Morley, Robert

2011-01-01

327

Regulation of transcription factors by neuronal activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synaptic activity regulates the expression of a set of neuronal gene products that are important for neuronal survival and differentiation, synaptogenesis and, ultimately, complex behaviour. Activity-dependent signalling pathways induce neuronal gene transcription by modulating the function of both transcriptional activators and repressors, and recent studies have revealed significant diversity in the mechanisms that control the activity of these transcriptional regulators.

Anne E. West; Eric C. Griffith; Michael E. Greenberg

2002-01-01

328

Transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms of addiction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations of long-term changes in brain structure and function that accompany chronic exposure to drugs of abuse suggest that alterations in gene regulation contribute substantially to the addictive phenotype. Here, we review multiple mechanisms by which drugs alter the transcriptional potential of genes. These mechanisms range from the mobilization or repression of the transcriptional machinery — including the transcription factors

Alfred J. Robison; Eric J. Nestler

2011-01-01

329

From Transcriptional Regulation to Aggressive Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene expression in higher organisms, is, to a large degree, controlled at the level of transcription, where DNA-binding proteins (transcription factors) play an influential role in gene regulation. This is achieved through various mechanisms, including those that involve silencer and enhancer regions. Variation in those regulatory regions, as well as in the genes encoding the transcription factors, has been shown

Ursula M. D'Souza; Alexander Kel; Frans Sluyter

2003-01-01

330

Transcriptional Control of Adrenal Steroidogenesis  

PubMed Central

In the adrenal gland, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) acting through the cAMP protein kinase (PKA) transduction pathway is the main regulator of genes involved in glucocorticoid synthesis. The prolactin (PRL) receptor is expressed in the adrenal cortex of most mammals, but experimental proof that PRL ensures direct control on glucocorticoid synthesis in rodents remains elusive. To unravel the physiological importance of PRL in adrenocortical functions, we measured steroidogenic capacity of Prlr-deficient mice (Prlr?/?) and explored the influence of JAK/STAT signaling, the major PRL transduction pathway, on the steroidogenic activity of adrenocortical cell cultures. We demonstrate that lack of Prlr does not affect basal (nor stress-induced) corticosterone levels in mice. PRL triggers JAK2/STAT5-dependent transcription in adrenal cells, but this does not influence corticosterone release. In contrast, pharmacological or siRNA-mediated inhibition of JAK2 reveals its essential role in both basal and ACTH/cAMP-induced steroidogenesis. We demonstrate that nuclear JAK2 regulates the amount of active transcription factor CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) through tyrosine phosphorylation and prevention of proteasomal degradation, which in turn leads to transcriptional activation of the rate-limiting steroidogenic Star gene. Hence, we describe a novel link between PKA and JAK2 by which nuclear JAK2 signaling controls adrenal steroidogenesis by increasing the stability of CREB. PMID:21808064

Lefrancois-Martinez, Anne-Marie; Blondet-Trichard, Antonine; Binart, Nadine; Val, Pierre; Chambon, Celine; Sahut-Barnola, Isabelle; Pointud, Jean-Christophe; Martinez, Antoine

2011-01-01

331

Transcription termination maintains chromosome integrity.  

PubMed

DNA replication fork movement is impeded by collisions with transcription elongation complexes (TEC). We propose that a critical function of transcription termination factors is to prevent TEC from blocking DNA replication and inducing replication fork arrest, one consequence of which is DNA double-strand breaks. We show that inhibition of Rho-dependent transcription termination by bicyclomycin in Escherichia coli induced double-strand breaks. Cells deleted for Rho-cofactors nusA and nusG were hypersensitive to bicyclomycin, and had extensive chromosome fragmentation even in the absence of the drug. An RNA polymerase mutation that destabilizes TEC (rpoB*35) increased bicyclomycin resistance >40-fold. Double-strand break formation depended on DNA replication, and can be explained by replication fork collapse. Deleting recombination genes required for replication fork repair (recB and ruvC) increased sensitivity to bicyclomycin, as did loss of the replication fork reloading helicases rep and priA. We propose that Rho responds to a translocating replisome by releasing obstructing TEC. PMID:21183718

Washburn, Robert S; Gottesman, Max E

2011-01-11

332

Transcription by RNA polymerase II: initiator-directed formation of transcription-competent complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of transcription by RNA polymer- ase II have revealed two promoter elements, the TATA motif and the initiator (Inr), capable of directing specific transcription initiation. Although binding to the TATA motif by one of the components of the transcription machinery has been shown to be the initial recognition step in transcription complex formation, many promoters that lack a traditional

LISA WEIS; DANNY REINBERG

1992-01-01

333

Transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of a NAC1 transcription factor in Medicago truncatula roots.  

PubMed

• Legume roots develop two types of lateral organs, lateral roots and nodules. Nodules develop as a result of a symbiotic interaction with rhizobia and provide a niche for the bacteria to fix atmospheric nitrogen for the plant. • The Arabidopsis NAC1 transcription factor is involved in lateral root formation, and is regulated post-transcriptionally by miRNA164 and by SINAT5-dependent ubiquitination. We analyzed in Medicago truncatula the role of the closest NAC1 homolog in lateral root formation and in nodulation. • MtNAC1 shows a different expression pattern in response to auxin than its Arabidopsis homolog and no changes in lateral root number or nodulation were observed in plants affected in MtNAC1 expression. In addition, no interaction was found with SINA E3 ligases, suggesting that post-translational regulation of MtNAC1 does not occur in M. truncatula. Similar to what was found in Arabidopsis, a conserved miR164 target site was retrieved in MtNAC1, which reduced protein accumulation of a GFP-miR164 sensor. Furthermore, miR164 and MtNAC1 show an overlapping expression pattern in symbiotic nodules, and overexpression of this miRNA led to a reduction in nodule number. • This work suggests that regulatory pathways controlling a conserved transcription factor are complex and divergent between M. truncatula and Arabidopsis. PMID:21770944

D'haeseleer, Katrien; Den Herder, Griet; Laffont, Carole; Plet, Julie; Mortier, Virginie; Lelandais-Bričre, Christine; De Bodt, Stefanie; De Keyser, Annick; Crespi, Martin; Holsters, Marcelle; Frugier, Florian; Goormachtig, Sofie

2011-08-01

334

The role of MADS-box transcription factors in secondary metabolism and sexual development in the maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides.  

PubMed

MADS-box transcription factors (TFs) regulate functionally diverse gene targets in eukaryotes. In select ascomycetes, MADS-box TFs have been shown to play a role in virulence, and vegetative and sexual development. Here, we characterized Fusarium verticillioides MADS-box TFs, Mads1 and Mads2, in terms of their roles in secondary metabolism and sexual mating. Sequence analyses showed that MADS1 and MADS2 encode TFs with a SRF-type dimerization domain and a MEF2-type dimerization domain, respectively. The MADS1 and MADS2 knockout mutants (Fmt1 and Fmt2 strains, respectively) exhibited decreased vegetative growth and FB1 production when compared to the wild-type. Fmt1 showed reduced expression of 14 polyketide synthase (PKS) genes present in the organism, whereas Fmt2 did not display a change in PKS gene expression. Significantly, the deletion of MADS1 and MADS2 in the MAT1-2 genotype (Fmt4 and Fmt5 strains, respectively) led to strains that failed to produce perithecia and ascospores when crossed with the MAT1-1 wild-type strain. Notably, deletion of either gene did not have an effect on the ability of the fungus to colonize maize stalk or kernels. FB1 production and PKS expression data suggest that Mads1 is a broad regulator of secondary metabolism in F. verticillioides, and may target regulons upstream of Mads2 to influence FB1 production. In addition, MADS-box TFs in F. verticillioides play a critical role in the perithecia development. PMID:23985144

Ortiz, Carlos S; Shim, Won-Bo

2013-11-01

335

Secondary sigma Factor Controls Transcription of Flagellar and Chemotaxis Genes in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genes specifying chemotaxis, motility, and flagellar function in Escherichia coli are coordinately regulated and form a large and complex regulon. Despite the importance of these genes in controlling bacterial behavior, little is known of the molecular mechanisms that regulate their expression. We have identified a minor form of E. coli RNA polymerase that specifically transcribes several E. coli chemotaxis\\/flagellar

David N. Arnosti; Michael J. Chamberlin

1989-01-01

336

Transcription factors regulating pituitary development.  

PubMed

This review will address contributions of nuclear transcription factors to the embryologic development and definitive function of the anterior pituitary gland. The HESX1, PITX1, PITX2, PROP1 and POU1F1 genes are of particular interest because of their recognized or potential associations with human disease. Mutations of any of the first three genes produce complex disease phenotypes such as septo-optic dysplasia, Treacher Collins Franceschetti syndrome or Rieger syndrome that may include deficiency of one or more pituitary hormones. Mutations in PROP1 or POU1F1, or their mouse homologous, result in severe hypopituitarism as well as morphological abnormalities of the pituitary gland. PMID:10549299

Parks, J S; Brown, M R

1999-06-01

337

The transcriptional regulator Rv0485 modulates the expression of a pe and ppe gene pair and is required for Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence.  

PubMed

The pe and ppe genes are unique to mycobacteria and are widely speculated to play a role in tuberculosis pathogenesis. However, little is known about how expression of these genes is controlled. Elucidating the regulatory control of genes found exclusively in mycobacteria, such as the pe and ppe gene families, may be key to understanding the success of this pathogen. In this study, we used a transposon mutagenesis approach to elucidate pe and ppe regulation. This resulted in the identification of Rv0485, a previously uncharacterized transcriptional regulator. Microarray and quantitative real-time PCR analysis confirmed that disruption of Rv0485 reduced the expression of the pe13 and ppe18 gene pair (Rv1195 and Rv1196), defined the Rv0485 regulon, and emphasized the lack of global regulation of pe and ppe genes. The in vivo phenotype of the Rv0485 transposon mutant strain (Rv0485::Tn) was investigated in the mouse model, where it was demonstrated that the mutation has minimal effect on bacterial organ burden. Despite this, disruption of Rv0485 allowed mice to survive for significantly longer, with substantially reduced lung pathology in comparison with mice infected with wild-type Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Infection of immune-deficient SCID mice with the Rv0485::Tn strain also resulted in extended survival times, suggesting that Rv0485 plays a role in modulation of innate immune responses. This is further supported by the finding that disruption of Rv0485 resulted in reduced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by infected murine macrophages. In summary, we have demonstrated that disruption of a previously uncharacterized transcriptional regulator, Rv0485, results in reduced expression of pe13 and ppe18 and attenuation of M. tuberculosis virulence. PMID:19651861

Goldstone, Rachael M; Goonesekera, Sunali D; Bloom, Barry R; Sampson, Samantha L

2009-10-01

338

The Transcriptional Regulator Rv0485 Modulates the Expression of a pe and ppe Gene Pair and Is Required for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Virulence? §  

PubMed Central

The pe and ppe genes are unique to mycobacteria and are widely speculated to play a role in tuberculosis pathogenesis. However, little is known about how expression of these genes is controlled. Elucidating the regulatory control of genes found exclusively in mycobacteria, such as the pe and ppe gene families, may be key to understanding the success of this pathogen. In this study, we used a transposon mutagenesis approach to elucidate pe and ppe regulation. This resulted in the identification of Rv0485, a previously uncharacterized transcriptional regulator. Microarray and quantitative real-time PCR analysis confirmed that disruption of Rv0485 reduced the expression of the pe13 and ppe18 gene pair (Rv1195 and Rv1196), defined the Rv0485 regulon, and emphasized the lack of global regulation of pe and ppe genes. The in vivo phenotype of the Rv0485 transposon mutant strain (Rv0485::Tn) was investigated in the mouse model, where it was demonstrated that the mutation has minimal effect on bacterial organ burden. Despite this, disruption of Rv0485 allowed mice to survive for significantly longer, with substantially reduced lung pathology in comparison with mice infected with wild-type Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Infection of immune-deficient SCID mice with the Rv0485::Tn strain also resulted in extended survival times, suggesting that Rv0485 plays a role in modulation of innate immune responses. This is further supported by the finding that disruption of Rv0485 resulted in reduced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by infected murine macrophages. In summary, we have demonstrated that disruption of a previously uncharacterized transcriptional regulator, Rv0485, results in reduced expression of pe13 and ppe18 and attenuation of M. tuberculosis virulence. PMID:19651861

Goldstone, Rachael M.; Goonesekera, Sunali D.; Bloom, Barry R.; Sampson, Samantha L.

2009-01-01

339

Genome-wide analysis reveals new roles for the activation domains of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae heat shock transcription factor (Hsf1) during the transient heat shock response.  

PubMed

In response to elevated temperatures, cells from many organisms rapidly transcribe a number of mRNAs. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this protective response involves two regulatory systems: the heat shock transcription factor (Hsf1) and the Msn2 and Msn4 (Msn2/4) transcription factors. Both systems modulate the induction of specific heat shock genes. However, the contribution of Hsf1, independent of Msn2/4, is only beginning to emerge. To address this question, we constructed an msn2/4 double mutant and used microarrays to elucidate the genome-wide expression program of Hsf1. The data showed that 7.6% of the genome was heat-induced. The up-regulated genes belong to a wide range of functional categories, with a significant increase in the chaperone and metabolism genes. We then focused on the contribution of the activation domains of Hsf1 to the expression profile and extended our analysis to include msn2/4Delta strains deleted for the N-terminal or C-terminal activation domain of Hsf1. Cluster analysis of the heat-induced genes revealed activation domain-specific patterns of expression, with each cluster also showing distinct preferences for functional categories. Computational analysis of the promoters of the induced genes affected by the loss of an activation domain showed a distinct preference for positioning and topology of the Hsf1 binding site. This study provides insight into the important role that both activation domains play for the Hsf1 regulatory system to rapidly and effectively transcribe its regulon in response to heat shock. PMID:16926161

Eastmond, Dawn L; Nelson, Hillary C M

2006-10-27

340

Overexpression of groESL in Clostridium acetobutylicum results in increased solvent production and tolerance, prolonged metabolism, and changes in the cell's transcriptional program.  

PubMed

DNA array and Western analyses were used to examine the effects of groESL overexpression and host-plasmid interactions on solvent production in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Strain 824(pGROE1) was created to overexpress the groESL operon genes from a clostridial thiolase promoter. The growth of 824(pGROE1) was inhibited up to 85% less by a butanol challenge than that of the control strain, 824(pSOS95del). Overexpression of groESL resulted in increased final solvent titers 40% and 33% higher than those of the wild type and plasmid control strains, respectively. Active metabolism lasted two and one half times longer in 824(pGROE1) than in the wild type. Transcriptional analysis of 824(pGROE1) revealed increased expression of motility and chemotaxis genes and a decrease in the expression of the other major stress response genes. Decreased expression of the dnaKJ operon upon overexpression of groESL suggests that groESL functions as a modulator of the CIRCE regulon, which is shown here to include the hsp90 gene. Analysis of the plasmid control strain 824(pSOS95del) revealed complex host-plasmid interactions relative to the wild-type strain, resulting in prolonged biphasic growth and metabolism. Decreased expression of four DNA gyrases resulted in differential expression of many key primary metabolism genes. The ftsA and ftsZ genes were expressed at higher levels in 824(pSOS95del), revealing an altered cell division and sporulation pattern. Both transcriptional and Western analyses revealed elevated stress protein expression in the plasmid-carrying strain. PMID:12902291

Tomas, Christopher A; Welker, Neil E; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T

2003-08-01

341

Regulating Inducible Transcription Through Controlled Localization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Inducible transcription factors are key targets of many signaling pathways. Transcription of target genes by inducible transcription factors is regulated by numerous mechanisms that affect access to and affinity for target genes, interaction with coactivators, or transcriptional activity itself. Because of cytoplasmic sequestration, a subset of transcription factors are maintained inactive in unstimulated cells until the proper inducing stimulus is provided. The mechanism of cytoplasmic sequestration was originally thought to involve the masking of nuclear localization signals (NLSs) on transcription factors. However, recent reports suggest that such a static model of cytoplasmic retention is perhaps far too simple, and that these inducible transcription factors instead constantly shuttle between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Furthermore, it has been shown that the sequestration of inducible transcription factors can be accomplished through multiple mechanisms in addition to masking of the NLSs. In this review, we discuss a few signaling pathways that illustrate mechanisms of controlling the localization of inducible transcription factors and provide a more encompassing model to explain how inducible transcription factors may be regulated by cytoplasmic sequestration.

Elizabeth C. Ziegler (Yale University School of Medicine;Section of Immunobiology and Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry REV); Sankar Ghosh (Yale University School of Medicine;Section of Immunobiology and Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry REV)

2005-05-17

342

INSIGHTS FROM GENOMIC PROFILING OF TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS  

PubMed Central

A crucial question in the field of gene regulation is whether the location at which a transcription factor binds influences its effectiveness or the mechanism by which it regulates transcription. Comprehensive transcription factor binding maps are needed to address these issues, and genome-wide mapping is now possible thanks to the technological advances of ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq. This review discusses how recent genomic profiling of transcription factors gives insight into how binding specificity is achieved and what features of chromatin influence the ability of transcription factors to interact with the genome, and also suggests future experiments to further our understanding of the causes and consequences of transcription factor-genome interactions. PMID:19668247

Farnham, Peggy

2010-01-01

343

Transcription activation by catabolite activator protein (CAP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcription activation by Escherichia coli catabolite activator protein (CAP) at each of two classes of simple CAP-dependent promoters is understood in structural and mechanistic detail. At class I CAP-dependent promoters, CAP activates transcription from a DNA site located upstream of the DNA site for RNA polymerase holoenzyme (RNAP); at these promoters, transcription activation involves protein-protein interactions between CAP and the

Steve Busby; Richard H Ebright

1999-01-01

344

Heritable change caused by transient transcription errors.  

PubMed

Transmission of cellular identity relies on the faithful transfer of information from the mother to the daughter cell. This process includes accurate replication of the DNA, but also the correct propagation of regulatory programs responsible for cellular identity. Errors in DNA replication (mutations) and protein conformation (prions) can trigger stable phenotypic changes and cause human disease, yet the ability of transient transcriptional errors to produce heritable phenotypic change ('epimutations') remains an open question. Here, we demonstrate that transcriptional errors made specifically in the mRNA encoding a transcription factor can promote heritable phenotypic change by reprogramming a transcriptional network, without altering DNA. We have harnessed the classical bistable switch in the lac operon, a memory-module, to capture the consequences of transient transcription errors in living Escherichia coli cells. We engineered an error-prone transcription sequence (A9 run) in the gene encoding the lac repressor and show that this 'slippery' sequence directly increases epigenetic switching, not mutation in the cell population. Therefore, one altered transcript within a multi-generational series of many error-free transcripts can cause long-term phenotypic consequences. Thus, like DNA mutations, transcriptional epimutations can instigate heritable changes that increase phenotypic diversity, which drives both evolution and disease. PMID:23825966

Gordon, Alasdair J E; Satory, Dominik; Halliday, Jennifer A; Herman, Christophe

2013-06-01

345

46 CFR 201.147 - Official transcript.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OF TRANSPORTATION POLICY, PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE The Record: Contents; Development; Perfection; Confidential Treatment (Rule 15) § 201.147 Official transcript. The...

2010-10-01

346

Nuclear transcription factors in mammalian mitochondria  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Nuclear transcription factors have been detected in mammalian mitochondria and may directly regulate mitochondrial gene expression. Emerging genomics techniques may overcome outstanding challenges in this field.

Sarah Leigh-Brown; José Antonio Enriquez; Duncan T Odom

2010-01-01

347

Balanced Branching in Transcription Termination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theory of stochastic transcription termination based on free-energy competition requires two or more reaction rates to be delicately balanced over a wide range of physical conditions. A large body of work on glasses and large molecules suggests that this should be impossible in such a large system in the absence of a new organizing principle of matter. We review the experimental literature of termination and find no evidence for such a principle but many troubling inconsistencies, most notably anomalous memory effects. These suggest that termination has a deterministic component and may conceivably be not stochastic at all. We find that a key experiment by Wilson and von Hippel allegedly refuting deterministic termination was an incorrectly analyzed regulatory effect of Mg(2+) binding.

Harrington, K. J.; Laughlin, R. B.; Liang, S.

2001-01-01

348

Computational inference of transcriptional regulatory networks from expression proling and transcription  

E-print Network

Computational inference of transcriptional regulatory networks from expression pro ABSTRACT We have developed a computational method for transcriptional regulatory network inference, CARRIE (Computational Ascertainment of Regu- latory Relationships Inferred from Expression), which combines microarray

Babu, M. Madan

349

Transcription regulation networks describe the inter-actions between transcription factor proteins and  

E-print Network

Transcription regulation networks describe the inter- actions between transcription factor proteins the transcription rate of genes, allowing cells to make the proteins they need at the appropriate times and amounts of which are common to both types of network. I will then turn to motifs that are specific to developmental

Papadimitriou, Christos H.

350

How do I get my training transcripts? 1. HR Training Transcript  

E-print Network

How do I get my training transcripts? 1. HR Training Transcript There are two ways to access your HR Training Transcript ­ either through Banner Self Service or 49er Express. I) Using Banner Self credentials, then select the "Employee" tab Select the "Human Resources Training Courses Completed" link II

Howitt, Ivan

351

Transcript mapping for historic handwritten document images  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a large number of scanned historical documents that need to be indexed for archival and retrieval purposes. A visual word spotting scheme that would serve these purposes is a challenging task even when the transcription of the document image is available. We propose a framework for mapping each word in the transcript to the associated word image in

Catalin I. Tomai; Bin Zhang; Venu Govindaraju

2002-01-01

352

Transcriptional transgene silencing and chromatin components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to simplistic views that have long prevailed in genetics textbooks, gene transcription in higher organisms cannot be fully understood by analysing binding of transcription factors to DNA target sites within the promoter regions, just as it would be inappropriate to picture the genetic information within a nucleus as a simple string of DNA. Instead, DNA is embedded in a

Peter Meyer

2000-01-01

353

Transcription and the Issue of Standardization  

Microsoft Academic Search

For millenia, the human family has relied on transcription of spoken discourse into permanent written records as an indispensable tool of culture, history, and science. Currently, various transcription systems are used by linguists, psycholinguists, sociolinguists, and ethnographers to encode verbal, prosodic, paralinguistic, and extralinguistic features of spoken discourse for scientific analysis. The recent history of such systems, some problems involved

Daniel C. O'Connell; Sabine Kowal

1999-01-01

354

Transcription: Gene control by targeted histone acetylation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transcriptional regulator in yeast, Gcn5p, activates transcription by targeted acetylation of specific lysine residues in the amino-terminal tails of histones. This targete modification is restricted to nucleosomes assembled on the promoters of Gcn5p-responsive genes.

Axel Imhof; Alan P Wolffe

1998-01-01

355

with aberrant transcriptional properties17 cause semidominant  

E-print Network

with aberrant transcriptional properties17 cause semidominant human Pallister­Hall (PHS) and post alter the transcriptional output of Gli3-regulated target genes. A Methods Animals The generation hybridization Alcian blue and alizarin red staining of cartilage and bone, and whole mount in situ hybridization

Kirchhausen, Tomas

356

Pulsing electromagnetic fields induce cellular transcription  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weak, pulsing electromagnetic fields can modify biological processes. The hypothesis that responses to such induced currents depend on pulse characteristics was evaluated by using transcription as the target process. Two pulses in clinical use, the repetitive single pulse and the repetitive pulse train, were tested. These pulses produced different results from each other and from controls when transcription in dipteran

R. Goodman; C. A. Bassett; A. S. Henderson

1983-01-01

357

Phonetic Transcription of African American Vernacular English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article summarizes African American Vernacular English (AAVE) phonological features from the perspective of phonetic transcription. Relevant International Phonetic Alphabet symbols and diacritics are discussed, as well as the importance of transcription detail when differentiating dialect variation from phonological delay or disorder. A chart…

Pollock, Karen E.; Meredith, Linette Hinton

2001-01-01

358

Protein Synthesis: Transcription/Translation Overview  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the transcription process of RNA within the plant cell. Single stranded RNA moves out of the cell where it is translated into proteins. This is the first in a series of three animations on protein synthesis. The other two animations are Transcription and Translation.

359

Mapping of ribosomal RNA transcripts in wheat.  

PubMed Central

Ribosomal RNA transcripts in wheat have been studied by RNA gel blotting and their termini determined from electrophoretic analysis of S1 nuclease-resistant RNA/DNA hybrids and also of hybrids created by primer extension. A major putative transcription initiation site has been localized 1132 base pairs upstream from the 5' end of the 18S RNA sequence. A major putative processing site occurs 640 base pairs from the 5' end of the 18S RNA. Transcripts extending at least 750 base pairs beyond the 3' end of the 25S rRNA sequence into the array of intergenic repeats are present, as are transcripts covering the principal initiation sequence. This suggests that some transcripts extend through the intergenic DNA from one repeat unit into the next. PMID:2535511

Vincentz, M; Flavell, R B

1989-01-01

360

Premature termination of transcription by RNAP II  

PubMed Central

Transcription elongation is now recognized as an important mechanism of gene regulation in eukaryotes. A large number of genes undergo an early step in transcription that is rate limiting for expression. Genome-wide studies showing that RNA polymerase II accumulates to high densities near the promoters of many genes has led to the idea that promoter-proximal pausing of transcription is a widespread, rate-limiting step in early elongation. Recent evidence suggests that much of this paused RNA polymerase II is competent for transcription elongation. Here, we discuss recent studies suggesting that RNA polymerase II that accumulates nearby the promoter of a subset of genes is undergoing premature termination of transcription. PMID:23714697

Contreras, Xavier; Benkirane, Monsef; Kiernan, Rosemary

2013-01-01

361

Transcription Factor Networks in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Specific cellular fates and functions depend on differential gene expression, which occurs primarily at the transcriptional level and is controlled by complex regulatory networks of transcription factors (TFs). TFs act through combinatorial interactions with other TFs, cofactors, and chromatin-remodeling proteins. Here, we define protein-protein interactions using a coaffinity purification/mass spectrometry method and study 459 Drosophila melanogaster transcription-related factors, representing approximately half of the established catalog of TFs. We probe this network in vivo, demonstrating functional interactions for many interacting proteins, and test the predictive value of our data set. Building on these analyses, we combine regulatory network inference models with physical interactions to define an integrated network that connects combinatorial TF protein interactions to the transcriptional regulatory network of the cell. We use this integrated network as a tool to connect the functional network of genetic modifiers related to mastermind, a transcriptional cofactor of the Notch pathway. PMID:25242320

Rhee, David Y; Cho, Dong-Yeon; Zhai, Bo; Slattery, Matthew; Ma, Lijia; Mintseris, Julian; Wong, Christina Y; White, Kevin P; Celniker, Susan E; Przytycka, Teresa M; Gygi, Steven P; Obar, Robert A; Artavanis-Tsakonas, Spyros

2014-09-25

362

The Transcriptional Control of Lymphatic Vascular Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

More than 100 years ago, Florence Sabin suggested that lymphatic vessels develop by sprouting from preexisting blood vessels, but it is only over the past decade that the molecular mechanisms underpinning lymphatic vascular development have begun to be elucidated. Genetic manipulations in mice have identified a transcriptional hub comprised of Prox1, CoupTFII, and Sox18 that is essential for lymphatic endothelial cell fate specification. Recent work has identified a number of additional transcription factors that regulate later stages of lymphatic vessel differentiation and maturation. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of the transcriptional control of lymphatic vascular development and reflects on efforts to better understand the activities of transcriptional networks during this discrete developmental process. Finally, we highlight the transcription factors associated with human lymphatic vascular disorders, demonstrating the importance of understanding how the activity of these key molecules is regulated, with a view toward the development of innovative therapeutic avenues.

Mathias Francois (University of Queensland); Natasha Harvey (University of Adelaide); Benjamin Hogan (University of Queensland)

2011-06-01

363

Transcriptional control of flavonoid biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Flavonoids are plant secondary polyphenolic metabolites and fulfil many vital biological functions, offering a valuable metabolic and genetic model for studying transcriptional control of gene expression. Arabidopsis thaliana mainly accumulates 3 types of flavonoids, including flavonols, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins (PAs). Flavonoid biosynthesis involves a multitude of well-characterized enzymatic and regulatory proteins. Three R2R3-MYB proteins (MYB11, MYB12, and MYB111) control flavonol biosynthesis via activating the early biosynthetic steps, whereas the production of anthocyanins and PAs requires the MYB-bHLH-WD40 (MBW) complex to activate the late biosynthetic genes. Additional regulators of flavonoid biosynthesis have recently come to light, which interact with R2R3-MYBs or bHLHs to organize or disrupt the formation of the MBW complex, leading to enhanced or compromised flavonoid production. This mini-review gives an overview of how these novel players modulate flavonoid metabolism and thus plant developmental processes and further proposes a fine-tuning mechanism to complete the complex regulatory network controlling flavonoid biosynthesis. PMID:24393776

Li, Shutian

2014-01-01

364

Isolation and characterization of transcription fidelity mutants.  

PubMed

Accurate transcription is an essential step in maintaining genetic information. Error-prone transcription has been proposed to contribute to cancer, aging, adaptive mutagenesis, and mutagenic evolution of retroviruses and retrotransposons. The mechanisms controlling transcription fidelity and the biological consequences of transcription errors are poorly understood. Because of the transient nature of mRNAs and the lack of reliable experimental systems, the identification and characterization of defects that increase transcription errors have been particularly challenging. In this review we describe novel genetic screens for the isolation of fidelity mutants in both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli RNA polymerases. We obtained and characterized two distinct classes of mutants altering NTP misincorporation and transcription slippage both in vivo and in vitro. Our study not only validates the genetic schemes for the isolation of RNA polymerase mutants that alter fidelity, but also sheds light on the mechanism of transcription accuracy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Chromatin in time and space. PMID:22366339

Strathern, Jeffrey N; Jin, Ding Jun; Court, Donald L; Kashlev, Mikhail

2012-07-01

365

On schemes of combinatorial transcription logic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cells receive a wide variety of cellular and environmental signals, which are often processed combinatorially to generate specific genetic responses. Here we explore theoretically the potentials and limitations of combinatorial signal integration at the level of cis-regulatory transcription control. Our analysis suggests that many complex transcription-control functions of the type encountered in higher eukaryotes are already implementable within the much simpler bacterial transcription system. Using a quantitative model of bacterial transcription and invoking only specific protein-DNA interaction and weak glue-like interaction between regulatory proteins, we show explicit schemes to implement regulatory logic functions of increasing complexity by appropriately selecting the strengths and arranging the relative positions of the relevant protein-binding DNA sequences in the cis-regulatory region. The architectures that emerge are naturally modular and evolvable. Our results suggest that the transcription regulatory apparatus is a "programmable" computing machine, belonging formally to the class of Boltzmann machines. Crucial to our results is the ability to regulate gene expression at a distance. In bacteria, this can be achieved for isolated genes via DNA looping controlled by the dimerization of DNA-bound proteins. However, if adopted extensively in the genome, long-distance interaction can cause unintentional intergenic cross talk, a detrimental side effect difficult to overcome by the known bacterial transcription-regulation systems. This may be a key factor limiting the genome-wide adoption of complex transcription control in bacteria. Implications of our findings for combinatorial transcription control in eukaryotes are discussed. Abbreviations: TF, transcription factor RNAP, RNA polymerase DNF, disjunctive normal form CNF, conjunctive normal form

Buchler, Nicolas E.; Gerland, Ulrich; Hwa, Terence

2003-04-01

366

Evolution of transcription networks in response to temporal fluctuations  

E-print Network

Evolution of transcription networks in response to temporal fluctuations Journal: Evolution, Evolution & Marine Biology Keywords: Population Genetics, Epistasis, Genetic Networks, Transcription Evolution: For Review Only #12;EVOLUTION OF TRANSCRIPTION NETWORKS IN RESPONSE TO TEMPORAL FLUCTUATIONS

Hespanha, JoĂŁo Pedro

367

Studying the Cell Biology of Apicomplexan Parasites Using Fluorescent Proteins  

E-print Network

mM L-glutamine, 1% heat-inactivated bovine fetal calf serum ~Hyclone!, 5 U/ml penicillin, 10 mg/ml streptomycin, and 0.25 mg/ml fungizone ~Gibco!. HFF cells are grown in identical medium but fetal calf serum is replaced with 10% cosmic calf serum. Both HFF cells and parasites are grown in temperature-controlled ~378C

Gubbels, Marc-Jan

368

CHD chromatin remodelers and the transcription cycle  

PubMed Central

It is well established that ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers modulate DNA access of transcription factors and RNA polymerases by “opening” or “closing” chromatin structure. However, this view is far too simplistic. Recent findings have demonstrated that these enzymes not only set the stage for the transcription machinery to act but also are actively involved at every step of the transcription process. As a consequence, they affect initiation, elongation, termination and RNA processing. In this review we will use the CHD family as a paradigm to illustrate the progress that has been made in revealing these new concepts. PMID:22223048

Murawska, Magdalena

2011-01-01

369

Evolution of transcriptional regulatory circuits in bacteria  

PubMed Central

Related organisms typically respond to a given cue by altering the level or activity of orthologous transcription factors, which, paradoxically, often regulate expression of distinct gene sets. Although promoter rewiring of shared genes is primarily responsible for regulatory differences among related eukaryotic species, in bacteria, species-specific genes are often controlled by ancestral transcription factors and regulatory circuit evolution has been further shaped by horizontal gene transfer. Modifications in transcription factors and in promoter structure also contribute to divergence in bacterial regulatory circuits. PMID:19632175

Perez, J. Christian; Groisman, Eduardo A.

2009-01-01

370

Functional Analysis of Transcription Factors in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Transcription factors (TFs) regulate the expression of genes at the transcriptional level. Modification of TF activity dynamically alters the transcriptome, which leads to metabolic and phenotypic changes. Thus, functional analysis of TFs using ‘omics-based’ methodologies is one of the most important areas of the post-genome era. In this mini-review, we present an overview of Arabidopsis TFs and introduce strategies for the functional analysis of plant TFs, which include both traditional and recently developed technologies. These strategies can be assigned to five categories: bioinformatic analysis; analysis of molecular function; expression analysis; phenotype analysis; and network analysis for the description of entire transcriptional regulatory networks. PMID:19478073

Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru

2009-01-01

371

Repression of Meiotic Genes by Antisense Transcription and by Fkh2 Transcription Factor in Schizosaccharomyces pombe  

PubMed Central

In S. pombe, about 5% of genes are meiosis-specific and accumulate little or no mRNA during vegetative growth. Here we use Affymetrix tiling arrays to characterize transcripts in vegetative and meiotic cells. In vegetative cells, many meiotic genes, especially those induced in mid-meiosis, have abundant antisense transcripts. Disruption of the antisense transcription of three of these mid-meiotic genes allowed vegetative sense transcription. These results suggest that antisense transcription represses sense transcription of meiotic genes in vegetative cells. Although the mechanism(s) of antisense mediated transcription repression need to be further explored, our data indicates that RNAi machinery is not required for repression. Previously, we and others used non-strand specific methods to study splicing regulation of meiotic genes and concluded that 28 mid-meiotic genes are spliced only in meiosis. We now demonstrate that the “unspliced” signal in vegetative cells comes from the antisense RNA, not from unspliced sense RNA, and we argue against the idea that splicing regulates these mid-meiotic genes. Most of these mid-meiotic genes are induced in mid-meiosis by the forkhead transcription factor Mei4. Interestingly, deletion of a different forkhead transcription factor, Fkh2, allows low levels of sense expression of some mid-meiotic genes in vegetative cells. We propose that vegetative expression of mid-meiotic genes is repressed at least two independent ways: antisense transcription and Fkh2 repression. PMID:22238674

Chen, Huei-Mei; Rosebrock, Adam P.; Khan, Sohail R.; Futcher, Bruce; Leatherwood, Janet K.

2012-01-01

372

We have a problem with your transcript request because: Transcripts cannot be sent directly to student without  

E-print Network

to student without documentation from the institution requesting transcript. Signature missing. Sign and return. Debt owed to Ramapo. Transcript cannot be released. Please contact _________________________ STUDENT: MAILING LABEL: Usually OFFICIAL transcripts are mailed to another institution, a place

Rainforth, Emma C.

373

Predictive Regulatory Models in of Transcriptional Networks  

E-print Network

Gaining insights on gene regulation from large-scale functional data sets is a grand challenge in systems biology. In this article, we develop and apply methods for transcriptional regulatory network inference from diverse ...

Kahveci, Tamer

374

39 CFR 952.22 - Transcript.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.22 Transcript. (a) Hearings shall be reported and transcribed by a court reporter....

2013-07-01

375

39 CFR 952.22 - Transcript.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.22 Transcript. (a) Hearings shall be stenographically reported by a contract reporter...

2010-07-01

376

39 CFR 952.22 - Transcript.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.22 Transcript. (a) Hearings shall be reported and transcribed by a court reporter....

2012-07-01

377

39 CFR 952.22 - Transcript.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS (EFF. UNTIL 7-22-2011) § 952.22 Transcript. (a) Hearings shall be stenographically...

2011-07-01

378

Regulation of Transcription by Long Noncoding RNAs.  

PubMed

Over the past decade there has been a greater understanding of genomic complexity in eukaryotes ushered in by the immense technological advances in high-throughput sequencing of DNA and its corresponding RNA transcripts. This has resulted in the realization that beyond protein-coding genes, there are a large number of transcripts that do not encode for proteins and, therefore, may perform their function through RNA sequences and/or through secondary and tertiary structural determinants. This review is focused on the latest findings on a class of noncoding RNAs that are relatively large (>200 nucleotides), display nuclear localization, and use different strategies to regulate transcription. These are exciting times for discovering the biological scope and the mechanism of action for these RNA molecules, which have roles in dosage compensation, imprinting, enhancer function, and transcriptional regulation, with a great impact on development and disease. PMID:25251851

Bonasio, Roberto; Shiekhattar, Ramin

2014-11-23

379

A Gauss pseudospectral transcription for optimal control  

E-print Network

A pseudospectral method for solving nonlinear optimal control problems is proposed in this thesis. The method is a direct transcription that transcribes the continuous optimal control problem into a discrete nonlinear ...

Benson, David, 1978-

2005-01-01

380

Engineering transcription-based digital logic devices  

E-print Network

Implementing in vivo information processing is a key challenge in synthetic biology. We describe the construction and characterization of digital transcription-based devices from zinc fingers and leucine zippers. We also ...

Shetty, Reshma P.

2007-07-17

381

Engineering transcription-based digital logic devices  

E-print Network

The goal of Synthetic Biology is to engineer systems from biological parts. One class of systems are those whose purpose is to process information. My work seeks to build transcription-based devices for use in combinational ...

Shetty, Reshma P.

2005-10-20

382

AcademiCast Transcript Texas Tech University  

E-print Network

AcademiCast Transcript Texas Tech University March 13, 2013 Pierce: This is AcademiCast--Texas Tech University's podcast series from the Office of the Provost as its candidate to lead the university. Nellis currently serves as president

Rock, Chris

383

AcademiCast Transcript Texas Tech University  

E-print Network

of about $330,000. The university's National Wind Institute has also attractedAcademiCast Transcript Texas Tech University August 30, 2013 Pierce: This is AcademiCast--Texas Tech University's podcast series from the Office of the Provost

Rock, Chris

384

20 CFR 901.47 - Transcript.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Transcript. 901.47 Section 901.47 Employees' Benefits JOINT BOARD FOR THE ENROLLMENT OF ACTUARIES REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PERFORMANCE OF ACTUARIAL SERVICES UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974...

2010-04-01

385

Transcription factor abundance controlled by an auto-regulatory mechanism involving a transcription start site switch  

PubMed Central

A transcriptional feedback loop is the simplest and most direct means for a transcription factor to provide an increased stability of gene expression. In this work performed in human cells, we reveal a new negative auto-regulatory mechanism involving an alternative transcription start site (TSS) usage. Using the activating transcription factor ZNF143 as a model, we show that the ZNF143 low-affinity binding sites, located downstream of its canonical TSS, play the role of protein sensors to induce the up- or down-regulation of ZNF143 gene expression. We uncovered that the TSS switch that mediates this regulation implies the differential expression of two transcripts with an opposite protein production ability due to their different 5? untranslated regions. Moreover, our analysis of the ENCODE data suggests that this mechanism could be used by other transcription factors to rapidly respond to their own aberrant expression level. PMID:24234445

Ngondo, Richard Patryk; Carbon, Philippe

2014-01-01

386

Dragon systems' 1998 broadcast news transcription system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we shall describe key improvements to Dragon'sBroadcast News Transcription System, which include: theaddition of a speaker-change detection algorithm to ourpreprocessing subsystem, a new diagonalizing transformationtrained using semi-tied covariances, and the addition ofprobabilities on pronunciations. This new transcription systemyields a word error rate of 15.2% on the 1997 evaluation testdata, and 14.5% on the 1998 evaluation test data.1.

Steven Wegmann; Puming Zhan; Ira Carp; Michael Newman; Jon Yamron; Larry Gillick

1999-01-01

387

Transcription Factors in Xylem Development. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Answers to the following questions are answered in this report. do the two pine Byb proteins previously identified as candidate transcription factors bind to DNA and activate transcription? In what cell types are tehse Myb proteins expressed? Are these proteins localized to the nucleus? Do other proteins in pine xylem interact with these Myb proteins? Does altered expression of these genes have an impact on xylogenesis, specifically the expression of monolignol biosynthetic genes?

Sederoff, Ronald; Whetten, Ross; O'Malley, David; Campbell, Malcolm

1999-07-01

388

Turkey coronavirus polymerase gene and genome transcription  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey coronavirus (TCoV) is a group 3 coronavirus in the family Coronaviridae. However, little is known about TCoV genome and genome transcription. The objectives of this study were to investigate polymerase gene and genome transcription of TCoV. ^ Sequences of polymerase gene and full-length genome of TCoV were completed for isolates 540 and ATCC. The genome contains 27749 nucleotides (nt)

Jianzhong Cao

2007-01-01

389

Transcript Profiling Reveals New Insights into the Acclimation of the Mesophilic Fresh-Water Cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 to Iron Starvation1[W  

PubMed Central

The regulatory network for acclimation of the obligate photoautotrophic fresh water cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 to iron (Fe) limitation was studied by transcript profiling with an oligonucleotide whole genome DNA microarray. Six regions on the chromosome with several Fe-regulated genes each were identified. The irpAB and fut region encode putative Fe uptake systems, the suf region participates in [Fe-sulfur] cluster assembly under oxidative stress and Fe limitation, the isiAB region encodes CP43? and flavodoxin, the idiCB region encodes the NuoE-like electron transport associated protein IdiC and the transcriptional activator IdiB, and the ackA/pgam region encodes an acetate kinase and a phosphoglycerate mutase. We also investigated the response of two S. elongatus PCC 7942 mutants to Fe starvation. These were mutant K10, lacking IdiB but containing IdiC, and mutant MuD, representing a idiC-merodiploid mutant with a strongly reduced amount of IdiC as well as IdiB. The absence of IdiB in mutant K10 or the strongly reduced amount of IdiB in mutant MuD allowed for the identification of additional members of the Fe-responsive IdiB regulon. Besides idiA and the irpAB operon somB(1), somA(2), ftr1, ackA, pgam, and nat also seem to be regulated by IdiB. In addition to the reduced amount of IdiB in MuD, the low concentration of IdiC may be responsible for a number of additional changes in the abundance of mainly photosynthesis-related transcripts as compared to the wild type and mutant K10. This fact may explain why it has been impossible to obtain a fully segregated IdiC-free mutant, whereas it was possible to obtain a fully segregated IdiB-free mutant. PMID:18424627

Nodop, Anke; Pietsch, Daniel; Hocker, Ralf; Becker, Anke; Pistorius, Elfriede K.; Forchhammer, Karl; Michel, Klaus-Peter

2008-01-01

390

Transcriptional regulation of episodic glucocorticoid secretion.  

PubMed

Circadian and ultradian variations of basal glucocorticoid secretion and transient elevations during stress are essential for homeostasis. Using intronic qRT-PCR to measure changes in primary transcript (hnRNA) we have shown that secretory events induced by stress or ACTH injection are followed by episodic increases in transcription of rate limiting steroidogenic proteins, such as steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage and melanocortin receptor associated protein. These transcriptional episodes imply rapid turnover of steroidogenic proteins and the need of de novo synthesis following each secretory event. In addition to episodic ACTH secretion, it is likely that intracellular feedback mechanisms at the adrenal fasciculata level contribute to the generation of episodes of transcription. The time relationship between activation and translocation of the CREB co-activator, transducer of regulated CREB activity (TORC) to the nucleus preceding transcriptional episodes suggest the involvement of TORC in the transcriptional activation of StAR and other steroidogenic proteins. PMID:23138111

Liu, Ying; Smith, Lorna I; Huang, Victoria; Poon, Victoria; Coello, Ana; Olah, Mark; Spiga, Francesca; Lightman, Stafford L; Aguilera, Greti

2013-05-22