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1

Vaginal dryness  

MedlinePLUS

Vaginal dryness is present when the tissues of the vagina are no longer well-lubricated and healthy. When ... sexual intercourse more comfortable. It also helps decrease vaginal dryness. If estrogen levels drop off, the vaginal tissue ...

2

Vaginal Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... symptoms. Common causes are bacterial infections, trichomoniasis, and yeast infections. Some other causes of vaginal symptoms include sexually transmitted diseases, vaginal cancer, and vulvar cancer. Treatment of vaginal problems depends ...

3

Vaginal Atrophy  

MedlinePLUS

... no symptoms at all. Or you may have Vaginal dryness Burning feelings in your vagina Discomfort or pain ... uptodate.com/patients/index.html and search for vaginal dryness About Us Contact Us Donate Connect: © 2014 Copyright ...

4

Vaginal leiomyoma  

PubMed Central

Leiomyomas are common benign tumors in the uterus. However, vaginal leiomyomas remain an uncommon entity with only about 300 reported cases. Here, we report a case of a 38-year-old multigravida who presented with lower abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. A physical examination and ultrasonography were performed, and a diagnosis of cervical fibroid was made. Pervaginal removal of the tumor was performed and subsequent histopathology revealed a vaginal leiomyoma. Although a rare tumor, vaginal leiomyomas may present with a variety of clinical features and may be mistaken preoperatively for cervical fibroid. Removal of tumor by vaginal route, wherever possible, with subsequent histopathological examination appears to be the optimum management plan.

Chakrabarti, Indranil; De, Anuradha; Pati, Shyamapada

2011-01-01

5

[Vaginal leiomyoma].  

PubMed

Vaginal leiomyomas are rare benign tumors. This is a case report with menstrual and urinary difficulties and vaginal mass with inner urethral meatus and hymen displacement. Miccional cystourethrography showed a posterior displaced, comprised and elongated urethra. Excretory urography and pelvic sonogram were normal. Preurethral enucleation extirpation with no complications was practiced. Current literature is reviewed. PMID:16972526

Briceño Pérez, Carlos; Briceño Sanabria, Liliana; Briceño Sanabria, Juan; Briceño Sanabria, Carlos

2006-05-01

6

Vaginal leiomyoma.  

PubMed

Leiomyomas are common benign tumors in the uterus. However, vaginal leiomyomas remain an uncommon entity with only about 300 reported cases. Here, we report a case of a 38-year-old multigravida who presented with lower abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. A physical examination and ultrasonography were performed, and a diagnosis of cervical fibroid was made. Pervaginal removal of the tumor was performed and subsequent histopathology revealed a vaginal leiomyoma. Although a rare tumor, vaginal leiomyomas may present with a variety of clinical features and may be mistaken preoperatively for cervical fibroid. Removal of tumor by vaginal route, wherever possible, with subsequent histopathological examination appears to be the optimum management plan. PMID:21897740

Chakrabarti, Indranil; De, Anuradha; Pati, Shyamapada

2011-01-01

7

Vaginal Discharge  

MedlinePLUS

... who is infected. What about other infections? Two sexually transmitted infections, chlamydia and gonorrhea, can also cause vaginal discharge. ... I need any tests, such as tests for sexually transmitted infections? What do my test results mean? Based on ...

8

Vaginal Pessary  

MedlinePLUS

... your vagina). A pessary can also help many women who have stress urinary incontinence (the leaking of urine when you cough, strain or exercise). Pregnant women who have incontinence can also use a vaginal ...

9

Estrogen Vaginal  

MedlinePLUS

... estradiol vaginal ring is also used to treat hot flushes ('hot flashes'; sudden strong feelings of heat and sweating) ... mild soap and warm water. Do not use hot water or boil the applicator. Ask your pharmacist ...

10

Vaginal Anomalies: Congenital Vaginal Obstruction  

MedlinePLUS

... Female infants are normally born with a thin membrane ( hymen ) that surrounds the vaginal opening. In rare ... specific physiological purpose. high transverse septum: A thin membrane up high in an organism that lies crosswise. ...

11

[Vaginal leiomyoma].  

PubMed

Vaginal leiomyoma is a very rare condition. The earliest reference made to such a tumor is attributed to Denys De Leyden in 1773, and the first review of the literature concerning such tumors was published in 1882. It is estimated approximately 300 leiomyomas of the vagina have been reported in the world literature. The case of a 39-year-old female with large vaginal leiomyoma illustrates the diagnostic difficulties in such cases. In leiomyoma of the vagina surgical treatment is recommended. PMID:12916261

Gottwald, Leszek; Welfel, Jakub; Akoel, Kindah Mo; Lech, Waldemar; Suzin, Jacek; Bie?kiewicz, Andrzej

2003-03-01

12

MRI of vaginal conditions.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an important part of the assessment of suspected vaginal pathology. This pictorial review demonstrates the MRI features and some of the histopathological findings of a variety of vaginal conditions. These may be congenital (total vaginal agenesis, partial vaginal agenesis, longitudinal vaginal septum, transverse vaginal septum), benign (Bartholin's cyst, diffuse vaginal inflammation, invasive endometriosis, ureterovaginal fistula, post-surgical appearances with the formation of a neovagina and adhesions) or malignant, usually due to extension or recurrence from another pelvic malignancy. In this paper, examples of the above are described and illustrated together with examples of the much rarer primary vaginal malignancies. PMID:16038691

López, C; Balogun, M; Ganesan, R; Olliff, J F

2005-06-01

13

Vaginal Birth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This patient education program reviews female reproductive anatomy and explains vaginal birth. It also discusses the stages of labor and delivery, as well as potential risks and complications. This is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: The tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

Institute, Patient E.

2008-11-28

14

Retrohymenal vaginal atresia with perforate transverse vaginal septum.  

PubMed

A transverse vaginal septum is the most common congenital anomaly of the vagina. Vaginal atresia is seen less frequently. There have been some variations in cases of transverse vaginal septum and vaginal atresia. This is the first report of a patient with retrohymenal vaginal atresia and perforate transverse vaginal septum. PMID:1427424

Oga, M; Anai, T; Yoshimatsu, J; Kawano, Y; Hayata, T; Miyakawa, I

1992-01-01

15

Retrohymenal Vaginal Atresia with Perforate Transverse Vaginal Septum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transverse vaginal septum is the most common congenital anomaly of the vagina. Vaginal atresia is seen less frequently. There have been some variations in cases of transverse vaginal septum and vaginal atresia. This is the first report of a patient with retrohymenal vaginal atresia and perforate transverse vaginal septum.Copyright © 1992 S. Karger AG, Basel

Masayuki Oga; Takanobu Anai; Jun Yoshimatsu; Yasushi Kawano; Takashi Hayata; Isao Miyakawa

1992-01-01

16

Vaginal wall fibroid.  

PubMed

Localization of leiomyomas in the vaginal wall is very rare. We report about a case of a vaginal leiomyoma in the anterior vaginal wall, preoperatively identified with sonography and CT. Surgical enucleation was performed. Surgical removal in these cases is safe and usually with minimal bleeding. PMID:18317784

Theodoridis, T D; Zepiridis, L; Chatzigeorgiou, K N; Papanicolaou, A; Bontis, J N

2008-09-01

17

Reconstruction of vaginal agenesis.  

PubMed

Vaginal ageneses are by no means rare anomalies. Complete Mullerian agenesis is the most common reason for vaginal agenesis requiring reconstruction. Patients usually present with pain, hematocolpos, or hematometra in puberty, and later with amenorrhea and dyspareunia. Detailed information is given here regarding etiologies, timing of surgery, and current treatment options for vaginal agenesis. Outcomes and short- and long-term complications of recent treatment options are also discussed. PMID:21372677

Ozkan, Ozlenen; Erman Akar, Münire; Ozkan, Omer; Do?an, N Utku

2011-06-01

18

Vaginal erotic sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaginal erotic sensitivity was investigated in a group of 48 coitally experienced volunteers by means of systematic digital stimulation of both vaginal walls. It was found that 45 subjects reported erotic sensitivity located in most cases on the upper anterior wall, and of those, 30 (66. 7%) either reached orgasm or requested to stop stimulation short of orgasm. This study

Heli Alzate; Maria Ladi Londono

1984-01-01

19

Vaginal agenesis or distal vaginal atresia associated with anorectal malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome is defined as Müllerian aplasia with vaginal agenesis and uterine remnants. It is commonly associated with renal and sometimes vertebral anomalies. MRKH syndrome or distal vaginal atresia is sometimes associated with anorectal malformations. The purpose of this study was to describe seven females with vaginal agenesis or distal vaginal atresia and an anorectal malformation and review the

Tomas Wester; Juan A. Tovar; Risto J. Rintala

20

Vaginal hysterectomy in generally considered contraindications to vaginal surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective The objective was to evaluate the feasibility and complication rate of vaginal hysterectomy with or without adnexectomy in women with enlarged uteri and\\/or other considered contraindications to the vaginal route. Study design Over a period of 2 years, a total of 204 women underwent vaginal hysterectomy for benign pathology. Normally considered contraindications to the vaginal route were: moderate to excessive

Pierluigi Paparella; Ornella Sizzi; Alfonso Rossetti; Franco De Benedittis; Raffaele Paparella

2004-01-01

21

Vaginal repair of vaginal vault dehiscence after postpartum hysterectomy.  

PubMed

Vaginal vault dehiscence (VVD) may occur rarely after hysterectomy. Although mostly, a vaginal cuff dehiscence is seen after robotic or laparoscopic hysterectomy, it may also be observed as a complication of abdominal or vaginal hysterectomy. Vaginal repair is one of the techniques used for VVD. Here, we will describe a case of vaginally repaired VVD, associated with intra-abdominal hematoma after postpartum hysterectomy. PMID:24876366

Avc?o?lu, Sümeyra Nergiz; Alt?nkaya, Sündüz Özlem; Küçük, Mert; Yüksel, Hasan; Demircan-Sezer, Selda

2014-01-01

22

Vaginal bleeding between periods  

MedlinePLUS

... IUD use (may cause occasional spotting) Ectopic pregnancy Miscarriage Other pregnancy complications Vaginal dryness due to lack ... information Are you pregnant? Have you had a miscarriage or abortion? Have you had a D and ...

23

Review of Vaginitis  

PubMed Central

Adisruption of the dynamic equilibrium of the healthy vagina may have significant sequelae, leading to chronic or serious conditions. Therefore, all cases of vaginitis should be accurately diagnosed and appropriately treated.

1993-01-01

24

MRI of vaginal leiomyomas.  

PubMed

The MR appearances of two cases of vaginal leiomyoma are described. Both patients presented with a periurethral mass; one patient presented during pregnancy. MRI allowed precise anatomic localization of the masses and confident preoperative characterization in both cases. PMID:11351183

Shadbolt, C L; Coakley, F V; Qayyum, A; Donat, S M

2001-01-01

25

Vaginal fibroma. Case report.  

PubMed

A case of a vaginal fibroma in a 50-year-old woman is presented. The tumor presented as a solid mass in the upper third of the anterior vaginal wall. Intravenous pyelography (IVP) and cystoscopy excluded any association of the mass with the urinary tract. Surgical excision of the tumor was easily accomplished and histopathological examination established the diagnosis of a fibroid tumor of the vagina. PMID:12556111

Daskalakis, G J; Karabinas, C D; Papantoniou, N E; Papaspyrou, I A; Antsaklis, A J; Michalas, S

2002-01-01

26

Vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

Vaginal bleeding during pregnancy is any discharge of blood from the vagina. It can happen any time from conception ( ... out of every 10 pregnant women have vaginal bleeding during their first 20 weeks of pregnancy.

27

Vaginal Anomalies: Fusion and Duplication  

MedlinePLUS

... dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Vaginal Abnormalities: Fusion and Duplication Having two of everything may be ... if your child's doctor diagnoses an "anomaly of fusion and duplication." What causes vaginal fusion and duplication? ...

28

Spontaneous vaginal evisceration  

PubMed Central

Management of vaginal prolapse in the elderly lacks a uniform consensus and continues to remain challenging. The authors report a case of an elderly lady who presented with a spontaneous vaginal evisceration. She had a long-standing vaginal prolapse being controlled by a shelf pessary, which, in her case became displaced 2 weeks prior to admission. The patient underwent a laparotomy with an intent to replace the bowel back within the peritoneal cavity and repair the vault. During the pelvic floor repair, she sustained an inadvertent button-hole injury to the rectum, which was oversewn. She went on to develop a rectovaginal fistula requiring a de-functioning colostomy. The patient made good recovery subsequently.

I, Siddiqui; A, Samee; C, Hall; J, Cooper; F, O'Mahony

2011-01-01

29

Vaginal Tactile Imaging  

PubMed Central

Changes in the elasticity of the vaginal walls, connective support tissues, and muscles are thought to be significant factors in the development of pelvic organ prolapse, a highly prevalent condition affecting at least 50% of women in the United States during their lifetimes. It creates two predominant concerns specific to the biomechanical properties of pelvic support tissues: how does tissue elasticity affect the development of pelvic organ prolapse and how can functional elasticity be maintained through reconstructive surgery. We designed a prototype of vaginal tactile imager (VTI) for visualization and assessment of elastic properties of pelvic floor tissues. In this paper, we analyze applicability of tactile imaging for evaluation of reconstructive surgery results and characterization of normal and pelvic organ prolapse conditions. A pilot clinical study with 13 patients demonstrated that VTI allows imaging of vaginal walls with increased rigidity due to implanted mesh grafts following reconstructive pelvic surgery and VTI has the potential for prolapse characterization and detection.

van Raalte, Heather; Sarvazyan, Armen P.

2010-01-01

30

A vaginal temperature registration system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radiotelemetric method for measurements of vaginal temperature in the home milieu is presented. Registrations from two subjects show that vaginal temperatures vary up to and about 1°C nighttime. Initially, on going to bed, vaginal temperature drops. A further distinct drop occurs with any kind of experienced sexual arousal, reaching a minimum when and if orgasm is achieved. At rest,

Axel R. Fugl-Meyer; Kerstin Sjögren; Kenneth Johansson

1984-01-01

31

Vaginal Toxic Shock Reaction Triggering Desquamative Inflammatory Vaginitis  

PubMed Central

Objective To report two cases of desquamative inflammatory vaginitis (DIV) associated with toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1)-producing Staphylococcus aureus strains. Materials and Methods Case report of two patients, one with an acute and one with a chronic presentation, diagnosed with DIV on the basis of clinical findings and wet mount microscopy. Pre- and posttreatment vaginal bacterial and yeast cultures were obtained. Results Pretreatment vaginal bacterial cultures from both patients grew TSST-1-producing S. aureus. Subsequent vaginal bacterial cultures following oral antibiotic therapy were negative. Conclusions DIV may be triggered through TSST-1-mediated vaginal toxic shock reaction.

Pereira, Nigel; Edlind, Thomas D.; Schlievert, Patrick M.; Nyirjesy, Paul

2012-01-01

32

Paraurethral vaginal leiomyoma.  

PubMed

A case of paraurethral vaginal leiomyoma becoming clinically apparent in the postpartum period is presented. As is frequently the case, the diagnosis was not apparent. Urinary tract origin is commonly suspected, since the majority of these tumors occur in the midline of the anterior vaginal wall. The tumors are often asymptomatic, but can cause dysuria, urinary frequency, urinary retention, and dyspareunia. Pathologically, they are well circumscribed and have the typical microscopic features of leiomyomas found elsewhere. Simple excision is usually adequate treatment. PMID:3603914

Castle, W N; McLaughlin, W L

1987-07-01

33

Is vaginal hyaluronic acid as effective as vaginal estriol for vaginal dryness relief?  

PubMed

In a multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label, parallel- group trial hyaluronic acid vaginal gel (Hyalofemme) was compared to estriol vaginal cream (Ovestin) in women with vaginal dryness due to various causes. A total of 144 supposedly postmenopausal women below age 70 years were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either receive hyaluronic acid vaginal gel (5 g per application) or estriol vaginal cream (0.5 g cream per application = 0.5 mg estriol) every 3 days for a total of ten applications, respectively. Exclusion criteria included vaginal infections, conventional contraindications to estrogens, use of vaginal products other than the investigational compounds, being unmarried, pregnant, or breastfeeding. The aim of the study was to test for non-inferiority of hyaluronic acid vaginal gel compared to estriol vaginal cream. The primary efficacy end point was the percentage (%) improvement in vaginal dryness, with the secondary end points being the percentage (%) improvements in vaginal itching, burning, and dyspareunia. Efficacy was assessed by using a visual analog scale (VAS) (0-10; 0 = absent, 10 = intolerable) at baseline (V0), during telephone contact after the third administration (V1), and at the final visit after the tenth administration (V2). Safety parameters included vaginal pH, endometrial thickness, and a vaginal smear for vaginal microecosystem assessment. Adverse events were recorded according to international guidelines. 133 women completed the study. At baseline, participants' characteristics did not differ significantly. Mean age was 54 years, time since menopause was 5 years on average, and cause of menopause was mostly natural. However, mean menstrual cycle days were also reported, although according to inclusion criteria only postmenopausal women were eligible for the study. At V1, an improvement in vaginal dryness was reported by about 49 % of women using hyaluronic acid vaginal gel, and by 53 % of women using estriol vaginal cream (p = 0.31). At V2, the percentage improvement rates were 84 and 89 % (p = 0.13), respectively. Improvement rates for vaginal itching, burning, and dyspareunia at V2 were about 86, 85, and 57 % for hyaluronic acid vaginal gel, and 82, 87, and 62 % for estriol vaginal cream (p[0.05), respectively. After treatment, vaginal pH was significantly lower in estriol-treated women compared to those having received hyaluronic acid. Endometrial thickness did not differ between groups. In the majority of women, the vaginal microenvironment remained unaffected by treatment. However, the proportion of women whose abnormal vaginal microecological results became normal was higher in women using estriol vaginal cream. Adverse events (suspected to be) related to the investigational compounds were minor and included vaginal infection and genital itching. The authors concluded that hyaluronic acid vaginal gel was not inferior to estriol vaginal cream in women presenting with vaginal dryness. They suggest using hyaluronic acid vaginal gel not only as an alternative treatment to vaginal estrogens, but also to consider its general use in women presenting with vaginal dryness of any cause. PMID:24178484

Stute, Petra

2013-12-01

34

Vaginitis in adolescents.  

PubMed

Vaginitis is a common complaint of adolescent females. It can cause extreme distress for some patients, especially those with recurrent symptoms. Thus, it is important to take care when evaluating these patients and to acknowledge their frustration when appropriate. A thoughtful and thorough history will determine most causes, with the most common being yeast, trichomoniasis, and BV. PMID:15449843

Syed, Tahniat S; Braverman, Paula K

2004-06-01

35

Vaginal leiomyoma in pregnancy presenting as a prolapsed vaginal mass.  

PubMed

Vaginal leiomyomas are rare benign solid tumours of the vagina. They can cause mechanical dystocia, which is a common problem in obstetrics leading to serious maternal and perinatal complications. Here we describe a patient with a vaginal leiomyoma diagnosed during the mid-trimester that could have caused dystocia. This 22-year-old woman presented with a vaginal mass and leaking vaginal fluid during pregnancy. On examination, a prolapsed, pedunculated mass, measuring 5 × 3 × 4 cm was detected in the anterior vaginal wall. Via a midline incision, the mass was easily enucleated and removed. Transvaginal surgical enucleation of the vaginal leiomyoma is usually curative and recommended as the initial treatment of choice to prevent for dystocia. Such treatment is indicated when the tumour is a potential obstacle to normal labour. PMID:23223657

Dane, Cem; Rustemoglu, Yaprak; Kiray, Murat; Ozkuvanci, Unsal; Tatar, Zeynep; Dane, Banu

2012-12-01

36

Effective treatment of vaginal atrophy with isoflavone vaginal gel.  

PubMed

OBJETIVE: To assess efficacy and tolerability of a isoflavone (Glycine max L. Merr.) vaginal gel to the treatment of vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women. METHODS: The double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Ninety women were treated for 12 weeks with isoflavone vaginal gel 4% (1g/day) and a placebo gel and conjugated equine estrogen cream (0.3mg/day). After 4 and 12 weeks, the vaginal atrophy symptoms were classified at none, mild, moderate and severe and the vaginal cytology were taken to determine the maturation value. The endometrial safety (by transvaginal ultrasonography) was evaluated through at screening and the end of the trial. RESULTS: Isoflavone vaginal gel appears to be effective for relief of vaginal dryness and dyspareunia symptons and an increase in the intermediate and superficial cells was noted. These results were similar to the effects with use of conjugated equine estrogens and superior to placebo gel. No changes in endometrial thickness, sera FSH and estradiol levels were observed at study endpoint. CONCLUSION: Glycine max (L.) Merr. at 4% vaginal gel on a daily basis in postmenopausal women led to improvements in vaginal atrophy symptoms and a significant increase in cell maturation values. Isoflavones proved good treatment options for relief of vulvovaginal symptoms especially in women who do not wish to use hormonal therapy or have contra-indications for this treatment. PMID:23312487

Lima, Sonia M Rolim Rosa; Yamada, Silvia Saito; Reis, Benedito Fabiano; Postigo, Sostenes; Galvão da Silva, Maria Antonieta L; Aoki, Tsutomu

2013-01-01

37

Vaginal Vault Prolapse  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Vaginal vault prolapse is a common complication following vaginal hysterectomy with negative impact on women's quality of life due to associated urinary, anorectal and sexual dysfunction. A clear understanding of the supporting mechanism for the uterus and vagina is important in making the right choice of corrective procedure. Management should be individualised, taking into consideration the surgeon's experience, patients age, comorbidities, previous surgery and sex life. Result. Preexisting pelvic floor defect prior to hysterectomy is the single most important risk factor for vault prolapse. Various surgical techniques have been advanced at hysterectomy to prevent vault prolapse. Studies have shown the McCall's culdoplasty under direct visualisation to be superior. Vault prolapse repair rely on either the use of patient's tissue or synthetic materials and can be carried out abdominally or vaginally. Sacrospinous fixation and abdominal sacrocolpopexy are the commonly performed procedures, with literature in favour of abdominal sacrocolpopexy over sacrospinous fixation due to its reported higher success rate of about 90%. Other less commonly performed procedures include uterosacral ligament suspension and illiococcygeal fixation, both of which are equally effective, with the former having a high risk of ureteric injury. Colpoclesis will play a greater role in the future as the aging population increases. Mesh procedures are gaining in popularity, and preliminary data from vaginal mesh procedures is encouraging. Laparoscopic techniques require a high level of skill and experience. There are many controversies on the mechanism of prolapse and management techniques, which we have tried to address in this article. Conclusion. As the aging population increases, the incidence of prolapse will also rise, older techniques using native tissue will continue, while new techniques using the mesh needs to be studied further. The later may well be the way forward in future.

Uzoma, Azubuike; Farag, K. A.

2009-01-01

38

Venlafaxine-associated vaginal bleeding.  

PubMed

A 41-year-old amenorrheic woman started taking venlafaxine 37.5 mg/day for treatment of depression; 7 days later, she experienced vaginal bleeding, which ceased 1 day after she stopped taking the drug. On rechallenge with venlafaxine, she again experienced vaginal bleeding that resolved after discontinuation. We found no published reports describing vaginal bleeding associated with venlafaxine. However, premarketing and postmarketing data report similar adverse effects in patients taking the agent. In addition, several cases of menstrual irregularities have occurred with two other antidepressants: fluoxetine and bupropion. This case report supports previous surveillance data indicating that venlafaxine may cause vaginal bleeding. PMID:12013367

Linnebur, Sunny A; Saseen, Joseph J; Pace, Wilson D

2002-05-01

39

Vaginal contraceptives still evolving.  

PubMed

The effort to develop vaginal contraceptives began in the distant past and is still underway today. 1000 years ago, South American Indians inserted into the vagina bark strips impregnated with quinine. In medieval times women used vaginal inserts of cloth soaked in honey or vinegar. Quinine pessaries were introduced into Europe in the late 1800s, and in the early 1900s investigators began to study the effects of various chemicals on sperm motility. Following World War II, surfactant spermicides which disrupt the sperm membrane were developed and marketed. Many of these preparations contained nonoxynol-9. Currently, the D-isomer of propranolol is being examined as a spermicidal contraceptive, and several bacteriocides, e.g., benzalkonium and chlorhexidine, are being developed as spermicides which reduce the penetrability of cervical mucus. Other chemicals being investigated act by inhibiting the acrosome reaction. Advantages of vaginal contraceptives are that they are inexpensive, reversible, and relatively safe and easy to use. Generally they require no medical intervention or supervision. In addition, spermicides may kill or inhibit the growth of organisms responsible for sexually transmitted diseases. Disadvantages of spermicides are that they are generally less effective than many other methods, some interfere with sexual spontaneity, they may cause local irritations, and some women find them messy to use. Recently, concerns were expressed about the possible teratogenic effects of sperimicides. Most of these concerns proved to be unfounded. Given the many new avenues of research, the major disadvantage of sperimicides, i.e., their high failure rates, may be minimized in the near future. PMID:12340621

Pearson, R M

1986-01-01

40

Vaginal eroticism: A replication study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaginal eroticism was investigated in a group of 27 coitally experienced volunteers by means of systematic digital stimulation of both vaginal walls. Erogenous zones were found in all subjects, mainly located on the upper anterior wall and the lower posterior one. An orgasmic response was elicited by stimulation of these zones in 89% of the subjects.

Heli Alzate

1985-01-01

41

Vaginal fistula following restorative proctocolectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaginal fistula (VF) is a devastating complication following restorative proctocolectomy. PURPOSE: This study was designed to examine the perioperative factors influencing the outcome and management of vaginal fistula. METHOD: Between October 1983 and September 1994, 526 women underwent restorative proctocolectomy. Nineteen develop VF (3.6 percent), and six were referred from other institutions with this complication. These 25 women were followed

Patrick Y. Lee; Victor W. Fazio; James M. Church; Tracy L. Hull; Kong-Weng Eu; Ian C. Lavery

1997-01-01

42

Quantitative studies of vaginal bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative method of culture, based on a weighed sample and with results expressed as colony forming units (cfu)\\/g was assessed and used to investigate the vaginal flora of normal women and that of women with vaginal disease. Samples were collected by means of disposable plastic loops into modified proteose peptone water transport medium in preweighed bottles. Counts expressed as

A N Masfari; B I Duerden; G R Kinghorn

1986-01-01

43

Treatment of vaginal atrophy.  

PubMed

Vaginal or vulvovaginal atrophy is a widespread but poorly recognized condition of peri- and post-menopausal women. It causes urogenital symptoms of dryness, reduced lubrication, itching, burning, irritable bladder symptoms and painful intercourse. This impacts quality of life and sexual health, but increases with time rather than reduces, as with most other menopausal symptoms. With early identification, treatments can improve these symptoms and reverse the physical changes. However, when embedded, bladder and sexual changes have occurred and these may be more difficult to remedy. Therefore, it is important to educate both healthcare professionals and women about these symptoms and advise on the range of interventions available. PMID:24601810

Domoney, Claudine

2014-03-01

44

Red herring vaginal discharge.  

PubMed

Labial hair tourniquet syndrome is a rare condition that can be easily misdiagnosed and ultimately lead to irreversible damage. An 11-year-old premenarche girl presented with a 5-day history of pain and swelling in the labia with associated vaginal discharge. The general practitioner treated her with clotrimazole without improvement. On examination, there was an oedematous swelling of the right labia with a proximal hair tourniquet. Local anaesthetic was applied and the hair removed with forceps. There was instant relief of pain and the discharge stopped within 24 h. The patient was sent home with a course of antibiotics. PMID:24049092

Lee, Jun Hee; Pringle, Kirsty; Rajimwale, Ashok

2013-01-01

45

Heterogeneity of Vaginal Microbial Communities within Individuals? #  

PubMed Central

Recent culture-independent studies have revealed that a healthy vaginal ecosystem harbors a surprisingly complex assemblage of microorganisms. However, the spatial distribution and composition of vaginal microbial populations have not been investigated using molecular methods. Here, we evaluated site-specific microbial composition within the vaginal ecosystem and examined the influence of sampling technique in detection of the vaginal microbiota. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were prepared from samples obtained from different locations (cervix, fornix, outer vaginal canal) and by different methods (swabbing, scraping, lavaging) from the vaginal tracts of eight clinically healthy, asymptomatic women. The data reveal that the vaginal microbiota is not homogenous throughout the vaginal tract but differs significantly within an individual with regard to anatomical site and sampling method used. Thus, this study illuminates the complex structure of the vaginal ecosystem and calls for the consideration of microenvironments when sampling vaginal microbiota as a clinical predictor of vaginal health.

Kim, Tae Kyung; Thomas, Susan M.; Ho, Mengfei; Sharma, Shobha; Reich, Claudia I.; Frank, Jeremy A.; Yeater, Kathleen M.; Biggs, Diana R.; Nakamura, Noriko; Stumpf, Rebecca; Leigh, Steven R.; Tapping, Richard I.; Blanke, Steven R.; Slauch, James M.; Gaskins, H. Rex; Weisbaum, Jon S.; Olsen, Gary J.; Hoyer, Lois L.; Wilson, Brenda A.

2009-01-01

46

Vaginoscopic resection of vaginal septum.  

PubMed

We report the resection of a vaginal septum while preserving the virginity of a 12-year-old girl with Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich Syndrome (HWWS) having a didelphys uterus, obstructed hemivagina, and an ipsilateral renal agenesis with follow-up at 18 months. Successful resection of the vaginal septum with conservation of the hymenal ring and complete drainage of both the hematocolpos and the hematometra were achieved. Cyclic dysmenorrhea and pelvic pain were completely resolved on follow-up visits at 4, 6, and 18 months. Office hysteroscopy performed during the last follow-up visit revealed a patent vaginal vault without evidence of adenosis or recurrence of the vaginal septum. Vaginoscopy is a safe, convenient, and efficient diagnostic and therapeutic modality that can be used in the management of patients with an obstructed hemivagina. It maintains the patient's virginity and it is useful in patients with a restrictive vaginal opening or narrow vaginal canal. Furthermore, the hysteroscopic excision of the vaginal septum offers minimal risk of recurrence of the septal defect. PMID:23315718

Nassif, Joseph; Al Chami, Ali; Abu Musa, Antoine; Nassar, Anwar H; Kurdi, Ahmad; Ghulmiyyah, Labib

2012-12-01

47

Vaginal leiomyoma in a dog.  

PubMed

The surgical treatment of vaginal leiomyoma in a seven year old Blue Heeler bitch is described. A smooth, 12 cm diameter submucosal, intraluminal, firm mass was found on vaginal examination. It appeared to arise from the left ventral vaginal wall, cranial to the clitoris but caudal to the cervix. There was no history of urinary problems and the dog was normal in all other aspects. The treatment was surgical excision of the mass via an episiotomy. Histological examination indicated a leiomyoma. The differential diagnoses, possible etiologies and control or prevention of the condition by ovariohysterectomy are also discussed. PMID:17422296

Kang, T B; Holmberg, D L

1983-08-01

48

Vaginal Leiomyoma in a Dog  

PubMed Central

The surgical treatment of vaginal leiomyoma in a seven year old Blue Heeler bitch is described. A smooth, 12 cm diameter submucosal, intraluminal, firm mass was found on vaginal examination. It appeared to arise from the left ventral vaginal wall, cranial to the clitoris but caudal to the cervix. There was no history of urinary problems and the dog was normal in all other aspects. The treatment was surgical excision of the mass via an episiotomy. Histological examination indicated a leiomyoma. The differential diagnoses, possible etiologies and control or prevention of the condition by ovariohysterectomy are also discussed. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.

Kang, T. B.; Holmberg, D. L.

1983-01-01

49

Vaginal aplasia and reconstruction.  

PubMed

Congenital vaginal agenesis, with a prevalence of 1 in 4000 females, occurs mainly as a feature of the Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome. Management of patients with MRKH syndrome includes, along with the proper psychological support, the creation of a neovagina to give them the opportunity to have a normal sexual life. Both surgical and non-surgical techniques have been suggested during the past century, for neovagina creation. Among them, the most widespread non-surgical techniques performed are the Frank technique and its modification by Ingram, while the surgical techniques include the McIndoe operation, the Vechietti procedure and its laparoscopic modification and the Williams vaginoplasty and its Creatsas modification. The Creatsas vaginoplasty is a simple, fast and safe technique that has been performed in 178 patients in our Institution over the past 22 years and has provided excellent results in the vast majority of patients. PMID:20089458

Creatsas, G; Deligeoroglou, E

2010-04-01

50

Vaginal Misoprostol versus Vaginal Estradiol in Overcoming Unsatisfactory Colposcopy.  

PubMed

Background: Unsatisfactory colposcopy, an inability to visualize the entire transformation zone, is found in about 10-20% of the patients undergoing the procedure. These patients usually require conization for a comprehensive evaluation of the cervix. Our study aims to compare the efficacy and safety of vaginal misoprostol versus vaginal estradiol in overcoming unsatisfactory colposcopy. Methods: We studied 48 women with unsatisfactory colposcopy. They were randomized into two groups: group I (n = 24) received 200 µg misoprostol vaginally and colposcopy was repeated after 6 h, while the subjects in group II (n = 24) were prescribed a 7-day course of 50 µg estradiol for vaginal insertion followed by a repeat colposcopy. The efficacy and safety of these two drugs were compared. Results: Repeat colposcopy was satisfactory in 70.8% of the women given vaginal misoprostol compared to 82.6% of the women who used vaginal estradiol. The difference was not statistically significant. The adverse effects were reported more often by the women in the misoprostol group (41.6%) as compared to those in estradiol group (13%) (p = 0.04). Conclusion: Both estradiol and misoprostol were comparable in overcoming unsatisfactory colposcopy. However, a higher incidence of adverse effects was noted with misoprostol as compared to estradiol. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:24642984

Makkar, Binni; Batra, Swaraj; Gandhi, Gauri; Zutshi, Vijay; Goswami, Deepti

2014-01-01

51

Transverse vaginal septum with congenital vesical-vaginal communication and cyclical hematuria.  

PubMed

Cyclical hematuria is an unusual presentation of a müllerian fusion anomaly. We report a patient with transverse vaginal septum and menstruation by way of the lower urinary tract because of a vesical-vaginal communication. A defect of vertical fusion, transverse vaginal septum results from failure of canalization of the vaginal plate. Reconstruction using a transvaginal and transabdominal approach created a direct anastomosis between the proximal vaginal segment and the distal vaginal pouch. Previously described cases are reviewed. PMID:17382175

Chin, Arnold I; Rutman, Matthew; Raz, Shlomo

2007-03-01

52

Vaginal bleeding in late pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

One out of 10 women will have vaginal bleeding during their third trimester. At times, it may ... few months of pregnancy, you should always report bleeding to your health care provider right away. You ...

53

Humoral immunity in vaginal candidiasis.  

PubMed Central

Serum antibody titers to Candida albicans were estimated in 37 women with recurrent vaginal candidiasis and in 148 normal American and Finnish subjects, using the passive-hemagglutination technique. The antibody titers ranged from 0 to 16 in normal individuals and 4 to 256 in vaginal candidiasis patients. Antibodies to C. albicans in the sera of vaginal candidiasis patients were found to be the secretory immunoglobulin A type, as determined by gel filtration and double-diffusion tests. The results were confirmed by the indir-ct fluorescent-antibody technique. Our findings suggest that, in vaginal candidiasis, the antibody response is mainly local, consisting of secretory immunoglobulin A, some of which finds its way into systemic circulation. Images

Mathur, S; Koistinen, G V; Horger, E O; Mahvi, T A; Fudenberg, H H

1977-01-01

54

How Is Vaginal Cancer Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS

... tumors, it may be used to biopsy possible metastasis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ... in detecting cancer that has spread to the brain or spinal cord. This rarely occurs in vaginal ...

55

Vaginal creation for müllerian agenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of passive vaginal dilation and McIndoe vaginoplasty in the creation of a neovagina for patients with müllerian agenesis. Study Design: Fifty-one patients with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome were treated for vaginal agenesis at either Johns Hopkins Hospital or Emory University. These historic prospective data were obtained by a review of medical

Carla P. Roberts; Michael J. Haber; John A. Rock

2001-01-01

56

Vaginal Bleeding and Preterm Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Vaginal bleeding during gestation is an ominous sign indicating an adverse pregnancy outcome. Bleeding can occur during all\\u000a stages of gestation. It complicates up to 20% of pregnancies during the first trimester and is regarded as a sign of threatened\\u000a abortion. During the second and third trimesters, vaginal bleeding was found to be a risk factor for adverse maternal and

Offer Erez; Idit Erez-Weiss; Ruth Beer-Weisel; Vered Kleitman-Meir; Moshe Mazor

57

High uterosacral vaginal vault suspension with fascial reconstruction for vaginal repair of enterocele and vaginal vault prolapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to review retrospectively the functional and anatomic outcomes of women who underwent vaginal repair of enterocele and vault prolapse with the use of an intraperitoneal suspension of the vaginal vault to the uterosacral ligaments in conjunction with fascial reconstruction of the anterior and posterior vaginal wall. Study Design: Two hundred two women with

M. Karram; S. Goldwasser; S. Kleeman; A. Steele; B. Vassallo; P. Walsh

2001-01-01

58

Vaginitis: Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor  

MedlinePLUS

... contact us Vaginitis Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor: How long have you had this vaginal discomfort? ... abdominal pain, joint pain, or a rash? Your Doctor Might Examine the Following Body Structures or Functions: ...

59

Vaginal itching and discharge - Adult and adolescent  

MedlinePLUS

... and low estrogen levels, which may lead to vaginal dryness and other symptoms ( Atrophic vaginitis ). Forgotten tampon or foreign body, which may cause a foul odor. Chemicals found in ... irritate the vagina or the skin around the vagina Less common ...

60

21 CFR 884.3900 - Vaginal stent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...3900 Vaginal stent. (a) Identification. A vaginal stent is a device used to enlarge the vagina by stretching, or to support the vagina and to hold a skin graft after reconstructive surgery. (b) Classification. Class II...

2010-04-01

61

21 CFR 884.3900 - Vaginal stent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...3900 Vaginal stent. (a) Identification. A vaginal stent is a device used to enlarge the vagina by stretching, or to support the vagina and to hold a skin graft after reconstructive surgery. (b) Classification. Class II...

2009-04-01

62

Heterogeneity of Vaginal Microbial Communities within Individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent culture-independent studies have revealed that a healthy vaginal ecosystem harbors a surprisingly complex assemblage of microorganisms. However, the spatial distribution and composition of vaginal micro- bial populations have not been investigated using molecular methods. Here, we evaluated site-specific micro- bial composition within the vaginal ecosystem and examined the influence of sampling technique in detection of the vaginal microbiota. 16S

Tae Kyung Kim; Susan M. Thomas; Mengfei Ho; Shobha Sharma; Claudia I. Reich; Jeremy A. Frank; Kathleen M. Yeater; Diana R. Biggs; Noriko Nakamura; Rebecca Stumpf; Steven R. Leigh; Richard I. Tapping; Steven R. Blanke; James M. Slauch; H. Rex Gaskins; Jon S. Weisbaum; Gary J. Olsen; Lois L. Hoyer; Brenda A. Wilson

2009-01-01

63

[Vaginal hysterectomy leniens: intrafascial technique].  

PubMed

The appearance of a new intrafascial technique for vaginal hysterectomy serves to remind us that in spite of well-standardized techniques, gynecologists perform this less often than formerly. The described technique is an intrafascial variation of the extrafascial vaginal hysterectomy beginning at the fundus uteri. We mobilize the anterior vaginal wall using Strassmann's incision. The body of the uterus should be delivered through the anterior fornix. Then follows the ligation of the broad ligaments and careful dissection of the fibroareolar space of the posterior cervical wall. The cardinal ligament requires intrafascial clamping and ligation. This technique is simple and avoids injury to the ureters. If this operation is successfully performed, postoperative pain is minimal, and hospitalization could be greatly reduced. PMID:15459520

Tapia, Jorge E

2004-10-01

64

What is normal vaginal flora?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To observe the composition of the vaginal flora of healthy women over time, and in relation to hormonal changes, sexual activity, and hygiene habits. DESIGN: A longitudinal surveillance of the vaginal flora over an eight week period. SUBJECTS: 26 female health care workers in local genitourinary medicine clinics. METHODS: The participants were anonymised. They filled in diary cards daily. Blind vaginal swabs were self-taken two-seven times weekly. A smear was air-dried for later Gram staining. The swabs were also cultured for Candida spp, Gardnerella vaginalis, anaerobes, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum. RESULTS: Of 26 subjects, only four had normal vaginal microbiology throughout. One woman, who was not sexually active, had bacterial vaginosis (BV) throughout and nine (35%) had intermittent BV. Candidiasis was found intermittently in eight women (31%), and eight had normal microscopy. U urealyticum was isolated intermittently in 40% of women with BV, 25% with candida, and 50% with normal microscopy. Many women were symptomatic, but symptoms correlated poorly with microbiological findings. All but two women were sexually active; however, more women with BV were exposed to semen. BV seemed to be related to frequent use of scented soap, and there appeared to be an additive effect of clothing and hygiene factors. CONCLUSIONS: Our study raises doubts about what should be regarded as normal vaginal flora. It calls into question the significance of finding BV or U urealyticum on a single occasion in asymptomatic women, or of finding normal flora in symptomatic women. The effect of external factors on the vaginal flora deserve further study.

Priestley, C J; Jones, B M; Dhar, J; Goodwin, L

1997-01-01

65

The vaginal microbiome in health and disease  

PubMed Central

Infections of the vaginal tract result from perturbations in the complex interactions between the microbiome and the host vaginal ecosystem. Recent data have linked specific vaginal microbes and urogenital infection with pre-term birth. Here we discuss how next generation sequencing-based approaches to study the vaginal microbiome will be important for defining what constitutes an imbalance of the microbiome and the associated host conditions that lead to subsequent infection and disease states. These studies will provide clinicians reliable diagnostic tools and treatments for women who are at increased risk for vaginal infections, preterm birth, HIV and other sexually acquired diseases, and will provide opportunities for intervention.

White, Bryan A.; Creedon, Douglas J.; Nelson, Karen E.; Wilson, Brenda A.

2011-01-01

66

Current Concepts of Treating Vaginitis  

PubMed Central

Vaginitis can be a frustrating entity to treat, since the incidence of recurrence is high. This paper examines evidence from the literature concerning diagnosis and treatment of Candida albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis, Corynebacterium vaginale, herpes simplex type 2 and gonorrhea. A protocol based on these readings is outlined.

Robinson, Theresa

1977-01-01

67

[Natural remedies for vaginal infections].  

PubMed

Vaginal infections, affecting half of all women, are more severe in women with AIDS. The infection vulva vaginitis, caused by candida, may require medical attention. The doctor performs a pelvic exam and examines vaginal fluids under a microscope. Antibiotics, diet, or a suppressed immune system can increase candida yeast presence. Sweets should be avoided, as well as foods high in leavening, such as bread, cheese, fruit, or alcoholic beverages. Vegetables, grains, rice and wheat can be added to the diet. Eating a half-cup of yogurt daily will help maintain a proper level of yeast. Acidophilus capsules can be taken two or three times daily to relieve digestive problems. Raw or cooked garlic can be used as a vaginal suppository at night. Pau D'arco, the bark of a South American tree, is also anti-yeast. Boil for ten to twenty minutes, and take a teaspoon two or three times a day. Tea, or vinegar and water, can be used as a douche. Some women get relief by adding a half-cup of white vinegar to their bath. Do not wash genitals with soap and do not use sanitary napkins or tampons. Visit a doctor if the condition persists. PMID:11362438

Genet, J

1995-01-01

68

Round Cell Vaginal Malignant Melanoma  

PubMed Central

Malignant melanoma is predominantly a skin disease but in rare instances it may occur at other sites. A vaginal melanoma is a rare clinical entity and the round cell type is an uncommon variant. Although the present case was clinically diagnosed as a urethral caruncle, on histopathological examination and immunostaining it was diagnosed as a round cell pigmented malignant melanoma. The patient refused radical surgery and was given a full course radiotherapy treatment but died a year later. Malignant vaginal melanoma carries a very poor prognosis even when lesion is localised at the time of presentation. The five-year survival rate ranges from 10–20% with the prognosis being influenced by tumour size. A tumour size ?3cm has a poor prognosis. Age, mitotic count, stage, and location of the lesion do not influence survival rates.

Chauhan, Neena; Gaur, Dushyant S.; Pathak, Ved P.

2012-01-01

69

Evaluation and Management of Vaginitis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To evaluate recent advances in our understanding of the clinical relevance, diagnosis, and treatment of vaginal infections, and to determine an efficient and effective method of evaluating this clinical problem in the outpatient setting. DATA SOURCES Relevant papers on vaginitis limited to the English language obtained through a MEDLINE search for the years 1985 to 1997 were reviewed. DATA SYNTHESIS Techniques that enable the identification of the various strains of candida have helped lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of recurrent candida infection. From this information a rationale for the treatment of recurrent disease can be developed. Bacterial vaginosis has been associated with complications, including upper genital tract infection, preterm delivery, and wound infection. Women undergoing pelvic surgery, procedures in pregnancy, or pregnant women at risk of preterm delivery should be evaluated for bacterial vaginosis to decrease the rate of complications associated with this condition. New, more standardized criteria for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis may improve diagnostic consistency among clinicians and comparability of study results. Use of topical therapies in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis are effective and associated with fewer side effects than systemic medication. Trichomonas vaginalis, although decreasing in incidence, has been associated with upper genital tract infection. Therapy of T. vaginalis infection has been complicated by an increasing incidence of resistance to metronidazole. CONCLUSIONS Vaginitis is a common medical problem in women that is associated with significant morbidity and previously unrecognized complications. Research in recent years has improved diagnostic tools as well as treatment modalities for all forms of vaginitis.

Carr, Phyllis L; Felsenstein, Donna; Friedman, Robert H

1998-01-01

70

Pregnancy Interruption by Vaginal Misoprostol  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 132 pregnant women with average gestational age of 14.2 weeks (range 11–22 weeks) undergoing legal abortion volunteered for a trial utilizing vaginal administration of misoprostol. In 106 women a dose of 800 ?g was utilized, whilst in 26 women 1,200-1,600 ?g were given. Nonsurgical expulsion of the fetus was successful in 117 cases (88.6%). Four cases had

Antonio Bugalho; Cassimo Bique; Luisa Almeida; Staffan Bergström

1993-01-01

71

Vaginal leiomyoma--an imitator of prolapse.  

PubMed

Vaginal leiomyoma is a rare tumor with a variable clinical presentation and broad differential diagnosis that can lead to preoperative misdiagnosis. We present a case of vaginal leiomyoma with a symptom complex of prolapse, urinary urgency and urge incontinence. A 50-year-old woman presented with a 4-year history of deteriorating sensation of prolapse, significant complex urinary complaints and prolonged vaginal bleeding. Clinical examination revealed a mobile 6 x 8 cm mass arising from the anterior vaginal wall. She underwent hysteroscopy, curettage, urethrocystoscopy (normal findings) and mass enucleation through a vertical incision. Histology showed a benign leiomyoma. Ultrasonography, MRI, positive-pressure urethrography and urethrocystoscopy should be considered in the evaluation of an anterior wall vaginal mass. Surgical enucleation via a vaginal approach is the treatment of choice. If this surgical procedure results in skeletonization of the urethral and bladder support, a colporrhaphy/pubourethral ligament plication is required. PMID:11484748

Leron, E; Stanton, S L

2000-06-01

72

The vaginal microbiome: rethinking health and diseases  

PubMed Central

Vaginal microbiota form a mutually beneficial relationship with their host and have major impact on health and disease. In recent years our understanding of vaginal bacterial community composition and structure has significantly broadened as a result of investigators using cultivation-independent methods based on the analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences. In asymptomatic, otherwise healthy women, several kinds of vaginal microbiota exist, the majority often dominated by species of Lactobacillus, while others comprise a diverse array of anaerobic microorganisms. Bacterial vaginosis is the most common vaginal conditions and is vaguely characterized as the disruption of the equilibrium of the ‘normal’ vaginal microbiots. A better understanding of ‘normal’ and ‘healthy’ vaginal ecosystems that is based on its ‘true’ function and not simply on its composition would help better define health and further improve disease diagnostics as well as the development of more personalized regimens to promote health and treat diseases.

Ma, Bing; Forney, Larry J.; Ravel, Jacques

2013-01-01

73

Antifungal resistance in yeast vaginitis.  

PubMed Central

The increased number of vaginal yeast infections in the past few years has been a disturbing trend, and the scientific community has been searching for its etiology. Several theories have been put forth to explain the apparent increase. First, the recent widespread availability of low-dosage, azole-based over-the-counter antifungal medications for vaginal yeast infections encourages women to self-diagnose and treat, and women may be misdiagnosing themselves. Their vaginitis may be caused by bacteria, parasites or may be a symptom of another underlying health condition. As a result, they may be unnecessarily and chronically expose themselves to antifungal medications and encourage fungal resistance. Second, medical technology has increased the life span of seriously immune compromised individuals, yet these individuals are frequently plagued by opportunistic fungal infections. Long-term and intense azole-based antifungal treatment has been linked to an increase in resistant Candida and non-Candida species. Thus, the future of limiting antifungal resistance lies in identifying the factors promoting resistance and implementing policies to prevent it.

Dun, E.

1999-01-01

74

Vaginal Birth after Cesarean Section  

PubMed Central

Background: The rate of primary cesarean section (CS) is on the rise. More and more women report with a history of a previous CS. A trial of vaginal delivery can save these women from the risk of repeat CS. Aims: The study was conducted to assess the safety and success rate of vaginal birth after CS (VBAC) in selected cases of one previous lower segment CS (LSCS). Materials and Methods: The prospective observational study was carried out in a tertiary care teaching hospital over a period of two years. One hundred pregnant women with a history of one previous LSCS were enrolled in the study. Results: In the present study, 85% cases had a successful VBAC and 15% underwent a repeat emergency LSCS for failed trial of vaginal delivery. Cervical dilatation of more than 3 cm at the time of admission was a significant factor in favor of a successful VBAC. Birth weight of more than 3,000 g was associated with a lower success rate of VBAC. The incidence of scar dehiscence was 2% in the present study. There was no maternal or neonatal mortality. Conclusion: Trial of VBAC in selected cases has great importance in the present era of the rising rate of primary CS especially in rural areas.

Bangal, Vidyadhar B; Giri, Purushottam A; Shinde, Kunaal K; Gavhane, Satyajit P

2013-01-01

75

Refinement of McIndoe's vaginal reconstruction with ORFIT "S" vaginal stent.  

PubMed

Using McIndoe's vaginal reconstruction with the ORFIT "S" vaginal stent, we achieved good results in 5 patients with congenital vaginal absence over the past 3 years. The ORFIT "S" vaginal stent is a semirigid, porous, and inexpensive stent. The application is easy intraoperatively, and minimal daily care is required for long-term postoperative dilatation. The stent keeps the neovagina in full acceptance of the speculum after long-term follow-up. PMID:8041835

Chen, T H

1994-08-01

76

Assisted breech delivery with transverse vaginal septum.  

PubMed

The incidence of vaginal septum is rare. The infrequency of this anomaly makes accurate estimates of the true incidence very difficult to obtain. Diagnosis is based on careful historyand examination. This is the case of a patient who presented with transverse vaginal septum in labour and breech presentation. The septum was resected and the foetus delivered normally. Careful vaginal examination should be performed in pregnant women at term before labour to detect such manageable abnormalities. PMID:24397081

Anwar, Sadia; Moon, Tooba; Baloch, Sajjad Ahmad; Shah, Syed Humayun

2012-01-01

77

Laparoscopic uterosacral ligament uterine suspension compared with vaginal hysterectomy with vaginal vault suspension for uterovaginal prolapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares the outcomes of laparoscopic uterosacral ligament uterine suspension (LUSUS) to those of vaginal vault suspension with total vaginal hysterectomy (TVH) for the treatment of symptomatic uterovaginal prolapse. We compared the outcomes of 25 LUSUS to those of 25 TVH with vaginal vault suspension among age-matched controls. No significant complications occurred in either group. EBL and hospitalization duration

Aparna Diwan; Charles R. Rardin; William C. Strohsnitter; Alexandra Weld; Peter Rosenblatt; Neeraj Kohli

2006-01-01

78

Continuous low dose estradiol released from a vaginal ring versus estriol vaginal cream for urogenital atrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine if the efficacy of continuous low dose estradiol released from a vaginal ring is equivalent to estriol vaginal cream regarding improvement of the patient's subjective feeling of vaginal dryness and to determine if there is a preference for either of the two study treatments. Methods: Open-label randomized parallel group trial with active control with a blind evaluation

Ronald Barentsen; Peter H. M. van de Weijer; Jan H. N. Schram

1997-01-01

79

Simple vaginal mold for use in the postoperative care of patients with a transverse vaginal septum.  

PubMed

Severe vaginal stenosis is a potentially disabling complication of transverse vaginal septum resection due to the constriction of the resulting circular scar. We describe a vaginal mold that can be easily created by an occupational therapist, and used as a long-term stent of the vagina in young girls. PMID:17418828

Lacy, Judith; Correll, Gretchen R; Walmer, David K; Price, Thomas M

2007-05-01

80

Vaginal leucocyte counts in women with bacterial vaginosis: relation to vaginal and cervical infections  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate whether an elevated vaginal leucocyte count in women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) predicts the presence of vaginal or cervical infections, and to assess the relation of vaginal WBC counts to clinical manifestations. Methods: We retrospectively analysed the relation of vaginal leucocyte counts to vaginal and cervical infections and to clinical manifestations in non-pregnant women diagnosed with BV at an STD clinic visit. Results: Of 296 women with BV studied, the median age was 24 years and 81% were African-American. Elevated vaginal leucocyte counts were associated with objective signs of vaginitis and cervicitis and also predicted candidiasis (OR 7.9, 95% CI 2.2 to 28.9), chlamydia (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.4 to 6.7), gonorrhoea (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3 to 5.4), or trichomoniasis (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.6 to 7.3). In general, as a screening test for vaginal or cervical infections, vaginal leucocyte count had moderate sensitivities and specificities, low positive predictive values, and high negative predictive values. Conclusions: An elevated vaginal leucocyte count in women with BV was a strong predictor of vaginal or cervical infections. Vaginal leucocyte quantification may provide an alternative approach to assessing need for empirical therapy for chlamydia and gonorrhoea, particularly in resource-limited high STD risk settings that provide syndromic management.

Geisler, W; Yu, S; Venglarik, M; Schwebke, J

2004-01-01

81

What Are the Key Statistics about Vaginal Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... factors for vaginal cancer? What are the key statistics about vaginal cancer? Vaginal cancer is rare. Only ... Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects Cancer Facts & Statistics News About Cancer Expert Voices Blog Programs & Services ...

82

[Vaginal contraception. Pt. 1 (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Vaginal contraception is enjoying a revival among women who fear the side effects of the pill or of the IUD. Vaginal contraception by vaginal diaphragm or by cervical cap is totally reversible and never causes complications; there may be short term reversible side effects with the diaphragm, such as cystitis, uretritis, and hemorroids; no side effects are associated with the use of cervical caps. Vaginal contraception has the added advantage of exercising a notable prophylactic actions on the diffusion of verereal diseases and of other vaginal infections such as trichomoniasis and candidosis. It is also possible that vaginal contraception offers protection against cervical neoplasia. Failure rate of diaphragm use is an average 10/100 women years, and for the cervical cap it is about 7.6/100 women years, when both devices are properly used. Vaginal contraception needs to be used in conjunction with spermicidal agents. Spermicidal agents can be used alone and can be very effective; they are, however, not well accepted by most couples, who resent the interruption of the sexual act. Two experimental models of vaginal sponge are now under study; vaginal sponges can be left in place for some time, and insertion is very easy. PMID:12336893

Keith, L; Berger, G S; Jackson, M

1981-04-01

83

Treatment of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy with 10-?g estradiol vaginal tablets.  

PubMed

Postmenopausal estrogen deficiency can lead to symptoms of urogenital atrophy. Individuals with urogenital atrophy have symptoms that include vaginal dryness, vaginal and vulval irritation, vaginal soreness, pain and burning during urination (dysuria), increased vaginal discharge, vaginal odour, vaginal infections, recurrent urinary tract infections, pain associated with sexual activity (dyspareunia) and vaginal bleeding associated with sexual activity. Despite the frequency and effects of vaginal atrophy symptoms, they are often under-reported and, consequently, under-treated. Therefore, care of a menopausal woman should include a physical assessment of vaginal atrophy and a dialogue between the physician and the patient that explores existing symptoms and their effect on vulvovaginal health, sexuality and quality-of-life issues. The development of the ultra-low-dose 10-µg estradiol vaginal tablets is in line with the requirements of regulatory agencies and women's health societies regarding the use of the lowest effective hormonal dose. Because of its effectiveness and safety profiles, in addition to its minimal systemic absorption, the 10-µg estradiol vaginal tablet can offer greater reassurance to health-care providers and postmenopausal women with an annual estradiol administration of only 1.14 mg. PMID:22393176

Panay, Nick; Maamari, Ricardo

2012-03-01

84

Vaginal Laser Doppler Flowmetry Pre and Posthysterectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to demonstrate the applicability of laser doppler flowmetry to pre- and posthysterectomy vaginal blood flow assessment. We used laser Doppler flowmetry to measure pre-and postoperational vaginal blood flow in 8 premenopausal women undergoing benign hysterectomies; we also measured serum E2, FSH, FT and administered a brief sexual function questionnaire. We analyzed data using two

SUSAN M. RICHMAN; PHILIP M. SARREL

2004-01-01

85

Vaginal misoprostol for late first trimester abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group of 120 women with gestations from 64 to 84 days received 800 ?g of vaginal misoprostol every 24 h for a maximum of three doses without performing postexpulsion systematic preventive curettage. Outcome measures included successful abortion (complete abortion without requiring a surgical procedure), side effects, and mean time of expulsion and vaginal bleeding. Complete abortion occurred in 104

J. L Carbonell Esteve; L Varela; A Velazco; E Cabezas; R Tanda; C Sánchez

1998-01-01

86

Evaluation of vaginal antifungal formulations in vivo.  

PubMed Central

Relatively simple and rapid procedures have been developed for evaluating the local efficacy of vaginal antifungal agents in vivo in a vaginal candidiasis model in ovariectomized rats. The results of this investigation indicate that the model and methods described are quite suitable for screening potential antifungal substances and for assessing the chemotherapeutic effectiveness of new antifungal agents and formulations before carrying out clinical studies.

McRipley, R. J.; Erhard, P. J.; Schwind, R. A.; Whitney, R. R.

1979-01-01

87

Excision of high vaginal septum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Transverse vaginal septum occurs because there is a defect in vertical fusion during embryological development of the vagina.\\u000a It is quite rare and is infrequently encountered by most obstetricians and gynecologists in their practice.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Case report  A 14-year-old unmarried student, Miss AUX, presented to a private gynecologist complaining of absent menses. Initial examination\\u000a and investigation revealed intact hymen, normal uterus but

Fahed Al-Abdulhadi; Michael Fidelis Diejomaoh; Assem El Biaa; Jiri Jirous; Mona Al-Qenae

2010-01-01

88

Pregnancy interruption by vaginal misoprostol.  

PubMed

A total of 132 pregnant women with average gestational age of 14.2 weeks (range 11-22 weeks) undergoing legal abortion volunteered for a trial utilizing vaginal administration of misoprostol. In 106 women a dose of 800 micrograms was utilized, whilst in 26 women 1,200-1,600 micrograms were given. Nonsurgical expulsion of the fetus was successful in 117 cases (88.6%). Four cases had to be excluded for various social reasons. A total of 11 did not achieve fetal expulsion within 56 h after application of misoprostol. These cases (11/132; 8.3%) were considered failures. Previous reports in the literature of toxicity trials on animals reporting no fetotoxic nor teratogenic effects of misoprostol at doses up to 10,000 micrograms/kg body weight seem to be of no validity in the human since we could demonstrate that almost 80% of pregnancies were interrupted at a dose of 10-15 micrograms/kg body weight. The conclusion is that vaginal administration of this prostaglandin analogue, not requiring cool temperature for storage, is remarkably effective in achieving safe interruption of pregnancy without any significant complications. PMID:8300007

Bugalho, A; Bique, C; Almeida, L; Bergström, S

1993-01-01

89

Early results of a novel technique for anterior vaginal wall prolapse repair: anterior vaginal wall darn  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to describe the results of a 1-year patient follow-up after anterior vaginal wall darn, a novel technique for the repair of anterior vaginal wall prolapse. Methods Fifty-five patients with anterior vaginal wall prolapse underwent anterior vaginal wall darn. The anterior vaginal wall was detached using sharp and blunt dissection via an incision beginning 1 cm proximal to the external meatus and extending to the vaginal apex. The space between the tissues that attach the lateral vaginal walls to the arcus tendineus fasciae pelvis was then darned. Cough Stress Test, Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification, seven-item Incontinence Impact Questionnaire, and six-item Urogenital Distress Inventory scores were performed 1-year postoperatively to evaluate recovery. Results One-year postoperatively, all patients were satisfied with the results of the procedure. No patient had vaginal mucosal erosion or any other complication. Conclusions One-year postoperative findings for patients in this series indicate that patients with stage II–III anterior vaginal wall prolapse were successfully treated with the anterior vaginal wall darn technique.

2014-01-01

90

Vaginal hysterectomy: a new approach using bicoagulation forceps  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is to assess the feasibility and outcome of vaginal hysterectomies using bicoagulation forceps. Eighty patients undergoing vaginal hysterectomy for several diagnoses were enrolled. In 40 patients, bicoagulation forceps were used for the entirety of the operation. In 19 patients, only vaginal hysterectomy was performed; in 21 patients, vaginal hysterectomy was part of surgery for pelvic floor repair. Forty

Wolfgang Zubke; Sven Becker; Bernhard Krämer; Diethelm Wallwiener

2004-01-01

91

Throwing the dice for the diagnosis of vaginal complaints?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKROUND: Vaginitis is among the most common conditions women are seeking medical care for. Although these infections can easily be treated, the relapse rate is high. This may be due to inadequate use of the diagnostic potential. METHODS: We evaluated the misjudgement rate of the aetiology of vaginal complaints. A total of 220 vaginal samples from women with a vaginal

Andreas Schwiertz; David Taras; Kerstin Rusch; Volker Rusch

2006-01-01

92

Vaginitis  

MedlinePLUS

... resources for press Selected Profiles & Interviews Selected biographies & science-focused interviews Multimedia Audio briefings, videos & podcasts related to NICHD research About NICHD Institute Overview ...

93

[Local combined therapy of vaginal infections by nifuratel-nistatin].  

PubMed

A test included 40 women in the reproductive age with clinical symptoms of vaginitis and microbiological examination. They were treated by combined therapy of vaginal tablets of nifuratel, 500 mg and nistatin 200 000 i. u. during six days, after which they underwent gynaecological reexamination and repeated microbiological examination of vaginal and cervical smears. An analiysis of vaginal secretion found bacterial flora in 34 smears (65%), fungus (Candida albicans) in 15 (24%) and Trichomonas vaginalis in 7 (11%). Local vaginal therapy in vaginitis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis was successfull in all 7 patients, vaginitis caused by Candida albicans was successly treated in 14 (93%) patients. Bacterial vaginitis was cured in 29 (71%) patients during this tharapy. Local vaginal combined therapy of nifuratel and nistatin is eficient in patients with vaginitis caused by fungi and Trichomonas vaginalis too. PMID:20387731

Jahi?, Mahira; Bali?, Adem; Nurki?, Mahmud; Dragovi?, Jasmina; Adzajli?, Amela; Habibovi?, Amra; Mesali?, Lejla; Zigi?, Aza

2010-02-01

94

Clinical evaluation of econazole nitrate in 1% vaginal cream for treatment of vaginal candidosis.  

PubMed

30 patients with mycologically confirmed vaginal candidosis on culture were treated with econazole vaginal cream (Gyno-Pevaryl) applied intravaginally once a day for 2 wk. 8 days after the end of treatment, mycological and clinical cures were demonstrated in 26 patients. Symptoms generally subsided rapidly, and the drug was well tolerated. This study confirms the efficacy of econazole in the treatment of vaginal candidosis. PMID:264069

Schuerwegh, W

1978-02-01

95

Primary intent vaginal hysterectomy: outcomes for common contraindications to vaginal approach hysterectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is, within a broadly inclusive selection strategy for benign vaginal hysterectomy, to determine\\u000a whether the most commonly invoked “contraindications” to vaginal hysterectomy—fibroid enlargement >14 weeks, prior cesarean,\\u000a need for oophorectomy—result in increased risk of complications. This study is of retrospective design within a rural community\\u000a hospital. All vaginal hysterectomies performed by a single practitioner over an

Malcolm W. Mackenzie; Jeffrey D. Johnson

2011-01-01

96

Vaginal involvement in genital erosive lichen planus.  

PubMed

A specialized Vulva Clinic with dedicated gynecologists and dermatologists was established in Oslo, Norway, in 2003. Fifty-eight women referred to the clinic in 2003-2009 were diagnosed with genital erosive lichen planus. All patients filled out a questionnaire. Gynecological examination, including vaginal inspection, was performed, if necessary in general anesthesia. Median age at symptom start was 51 years (range 17-78 years) with 15 women (26%) being younger than 40 years old. Sexual abstinence was reported by 36 women and dyspareunia by another 10. On examination, vaginal involvement was seen in 49 women, including vaginal synechiae in 29 and total obliteration of the vagina in 9. Of 56 women treated with topical corticosteroids for at least three months, two had complete response and 36 partial responses. Similarly, of 22 women treated with tacrolimus, three had complete and six partial response. We conclude that vaginal involvement is more common in genital erosive lichen planus than previously reported. PMID:20583940

Helgesen, Anne Lise Ording; Gjersvik, Petter; Jebsen, Peter; Kirschner, Rolf; Tanbo, Tom

2010-07-01

97

Symptoms of Vaginal and Vulvar Cancers  

MedlinePLUS

... Announcements Radio Public Service Announcements Print Materials Campaign Research Doctors Who Use Social Media Poster Presentation Buttons and Badges Related Resources Gynecologic Cancer Symptoms Diary [PDF-503KB] Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer fact sheet [ ...

98

Vaginal childbirth and pelvic floor disorders  

PubMed Central

Childbirth is an important event in a woman’s life. Vaginal childbirth is the most common mode of delivery and it has been associated with increased incidence of pelvic floor disorders later in life. In this article, the authors review and summarize current literature associating pelvic floor disorders with vaginal childbirth. Stress urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse are strongly associated with vaginal childbirth and parity. The exact mechanism of injury associating vaginal delivery with pelvic floor disorders is not known, but is likely multifactorial, potentially including mechanical and neurovascular injury to the pelvic floor. Observational studies have identified certain obstetrical exposures as risk factors for pelvic floor disorders. These factors often coexist in clusters; hence, the isolated effect of these variables on the pelvic floor is difficult to study.

Memon, Hafsa U; Handa, Victoria L

2013-01-01

99

Urinary incontinence - tension-free vaginal tape  

MedlinePLUS

... vaginal tape is surgery to help control stress urinary incontinence . This is urine leakage that happens when you ... Blaivas JM, Gormley EA, et al. Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Update Panel of the American Urological Association Education ...

100

Portable device for vaginal thermal conductance studies.  

PubMed

Design and development of a portable and self-contained vaginal probe, consisting of an acetone-filled silver cylinder attached to a pressure gauge, is described. Qualitative changes in vaginal thermal conductance were inferred from rates of thermal expansion of precooled acetone measured as a pressure rise. Administration of 10 mg estradiol-17 beta i.v. to ovariectomized heifers resulted in significant increases in rate of thermal expansion. PMID:1176036

Abrams, R M; Thatcher, W W; Gwazdauskas, F C; Sharp, D C; Bazer, F W; Wilcox, C J; Stolwijk, J A

1975-01-01

101

Vaginal Bleeding during Pregnancy and Preterm Birth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relation between self-reported vaginal bleeding during pregnancy and preterm birth in a prospective cohort of 2,829 pregnant women enrolled from prenatal clinics between 1995 and 2000 in central North Carolina. The overall association between vaginal bleeding and preterm birth was modest (risk ratio (RR) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 1.6). Bleeding in the first

Juan Yang; Katherine E. Hartmann; David A. Savitz; Amy H. Herring; Nancy Dole; Andrew F. Olshan; John M. Thorp

102

Preactivated thiomers for vaginal drug delivery vehicles.  

PubMed

It was the purpose of this study to design and evaluate a chitosan derivative as mucoadhesive excipient for vaginal drug delivery systems. The chemical modification of chitosan was achieved by conjugation of thioglycolic acid (TGA) resulting in 1594 ?mol thiol groups per gram of polymer followed by the linkage of mercaptonicotinic acid (MNA) to the immobilized thiol groups via disulfide bonding leading to 702 ?mol ligand per gram of preactivated polymer. The mucoadhesive properties of these polymers within newly designed vaginal formulations (Chitosan-TGA and Chitosan-TGA-MNA) and commercially available vaginal formulations (Candibene®, Daktarin®, Dalacin®, GynoPevaryl®) were tested over a time period of 24 h via a mucoadhesion test system simulating vaginal conditions, tensile studies and mucus polymer interaction studies via viscosity measurements. Within the vaginal test system simulating vaginal in situ conditions, a 1.5-fold increase in mucoadhesion could be observed for preactivated thiomer formulations after 24 h in comparison to commercially available formulations. Similar results were achieved for tensile studies, as the chitosan-TGA-MNA containing formulation resulted in a 4.9-fold increase in total work of adhesion (TWA) in comparison to Candibene which showed the highest TWA value of all tested commercial formulations. Also in terms of rheology investigations of mucus/formulation mixtures, a 5.8-fold increase in dynamic viscosity for chitosan-TGA-MNA containing mixtures could be observed in comparison to the mucus-free control. In contrast, commercially available formulations achieved a maximum enhancement of 1.9-fold. These outcomes confirm that the newly developed polymer is a promising tool for vaginal drug delivery likely providing a prolonged vaginal residence time due to its comparatively high mucoadhesive properties. PMID:23886732

Friedl, Heike E; Dünnhaupt, Sarah; Waldner, Claudia; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

2013-10-01

103

Thromboprophylaxis post vaginal delivery: are we forgetting it? Audit on thromboprophylaxis prescription post vaginal births.  

PubMed

Pulmonary thromboembolism is the leading direct cause of maternal deaths in the UK. The majority of deaths occur in the puerperium. Caesarean section has been recognised as a risk factor but there is concern that more attention to thromboprophylaxis after vaginal births is needed. The hospital maternity unit in Dumfries has written guidelines on thromboprophylaxis after vaginal births. This audit assessed the compliance with these guidelines within this maternity unit. The case notes relating to spontaneous vaginal births over a 2-month period (n=148) and instrumental vaginal births over a 7-month period (n=29) were reviewed. Information concerning venous thromboembolism risk and any thromboprophylaxis given was extracted. The audit showed that 9% of spontaneous vaginal births and 62% of instrumental vaginal births required specific thromboprophylaxis. However, only 31% of the spontaneous vaginal births and 22% of the instrumental vaginal births in which thromboprophylaxis was indicated did indeed receive the required treatment. Failure to respond to venous thromboembolism risk factors was common. Measures to increase the awareness of maternity staff to these factors are suggested. PMID:16390705

Tan, E K; Wisdom, S J

2006-01-01

104

Tension–Free Vaginal Mesh Repair for Anterior Vaginal Wall Prolapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: We determined the efficacy of the use of a tension free prolene mesh to correct a grade III anterior vaginal wall prolapse recurrence.Methods: Twelve women (mean age 65.6 years) with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) (4 type II and 1 type III) and bladder prolapse entered the study. After vaginal incision a pretailored polypropylene mesh was fixed to its four

Roberto Migliari; Michele De Angelis; Giuliana Madeddu; Tiziano Verdacchi

2000-01-01

105

EMAS clinical guide: low-dose vaginal estrogens for postmenopausal vaginal atrophy.  

PubMed

Vaginal atrophy is common in postmenopausal women. This clinical guide provides the evidence for the clinical use of vaginal estrogens for this condition focussing on publications since the 2006 Cochrane systematic review. Use after breast cancer, before assessment of cervical cytology and prolapse surgery is also discussed. PMID:22818886

Rees, Margaret; Pérez-López, Faustino R; Ceasu, Iuliana; Depypere, Herman; Erel, Tamer; Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin; Simoncini, Tommaso; van der Schouw, Yvonne; Tremollieres, Florence

2012-10-01

106

Removal of a vaginal leiomyoma presenting as tumor previa allowing vaginal birth.  

PubMed

Leiomyomas of the vagina are very rare tumors of the female genital tract with only 300 cases reported so far. A case of removal of the vaginal leiomyoma presenting as tumor previa in advanced pregnancy is described. Removal of the tumor allowed vaginal birth three weeks after surgery. PMID:22873113

Boskovic, V; Vrzic-Petronijevic, S; Petronijevic, M; Atanackovic, J; Bratic, D

2012-01-01

107

Transverse vaginal septum associated with tubal atresia.  

PubMed

Transverse vaginal septum is a defect of vertical fusion during embryogenesis of the vagina. The estimated incidence is 1 per 30,000 to 84,000 women. It is infrequently associated with genitourinary tract, gastrointestinal tract, musculoskeletal, and cardiac malformations. Previous reports of transverse vaginal septum have included unilateral absence of the fallopian tube and ovary and absence of the proximal portion of the fallopian tube. This report describes bilateral tubal atresia associated with a transverse vaginal septum. A 17-year-old nulligravida sought medical assessment because of primary amenorrhea and cyclic pelvic pain. Physical examination revealed a blind vaginal pouch and a tender pelvic mass. Radiologic studies showed a transverse vaginal septum 1.5 cm distal to the cervix. The septum was resected with laparoscopic guidance, and bilateral fallopian tubal atresia was noted. The pelvis was otherwise normal. Patients commonly have a pelvic or abdominal mass, pain, and amenorrhea at time of expected menarche. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice. Postoperative dilation may be necessary to prevent restenosis. Outlook for pregnancy is encouraging despite a higher than normal incidence of spontaneous abortion and endometriosis in such patients. PMID:7564549

Polasek, P M; Erickson, L D; Stanhope, C R

1995-10-01

108

Breech vaginal delivery at or near term.  

PubMed

Three percent to 4% of term fetuses will be breech at delivery. Evidence from randomized controlled trials has found a policy of planned cesarean section to be significantly better for the singleton fetus in breech presentation at term compared to a policy of planned vaginal birth. However, some women may wish to avoid cesarean section and for others, cesarean section may not be possible. We undertook this review to identify factors associated with higher and lower risk of adverse fetal or neonatal outcome at term during vaginal breech delivery. We searched MEDLINE from 1966 to 2002 using the search terms vaginal breech delivery and breech presentation and retrieved all relevant articles. We also reviewed personal references and reference lists of articles retrieved. Women who are older or who have a fetus that is either in footling presentation, has a hyperextended head or is estimated to weigh <2500 g or >4000 g may be at higher risk of adverse fetal outcome. Prolonged labor or not having an experienced clinician at vaginal breech birth may also increase the risk. Women with a fetus in breech presentation at term should be offered the option of delivery by planned cesarean section and should be informed that this will reduce their risk of adverse fetal or neonatal outcome. Practitioners should develop and maintain skills at vaginal breech delivery for those women not wishing or not able to be delivered by cesarean section. PMID:12641301

Tunde-Byass, Modupe O; Hannah, Mary E

2003-02-01

109

Protective activity of geranium oil and its component, geraniol, in combination with vaginal washing against vaginal candidiasis in mice.  

PubMed

In order to evaluate an effective administration method of essential oils for vaginal candidiasis, efficacy of vaginal application of essential oils against murine experimental candidiasis was investigated. The effect on vaginal inflammation and Candida growth form was also studied. Vaginal candidiasis was established by intravaginal infection of C. albicans to estradiol-treated mice. These mice intravaginally received essential oils such as geranium and tea tree singly or in combination with vaginal washing. Vaginal administration of clotrimazole significantly decreased the number of viable C. albicans cells in the vaginal cavity by itself. In contrast, these essential oils did not lower the cell number. When application of geranium oil or geraniol was combined with vaginal washing, the cell number was decreased significantly. The myeloperoxidase activity assay exhibited the possibility that essential oils worked not only to reduce the viable cell number of C. albicans, but also to improve vaginal inflammation. The smear of vaginal washing suspension suggested that more yeast-form cells appeared in vaginal smears of these oil-treated mice than in control mice. In vitro study showed that a very low concentration (25 microg/ml) of geranium oil and geraniol inhibited mycelial growth, but not yeast growth. Based on these findings, it is estimated that vaginal application of geranium oil or its main component, geraniol, suppressed Candida cell growth in the vagina and its local inflammation when combined with vaginal washing. PMID:18670079

Maruyama, Naho; Takizawa, Toshio; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Hisajima, Tatsuya; Inouye, Shigeharu; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Abe, Shigeru

2008-08-01

110

A Novel Technique for Anterior Vaginal Wall Prolapse Repair: Anterior Vaginal Wall Darn  

PubMed Central

Aim. The aim of this study is to introduce a new technique, anterior vaginal wall darn (AVWD), which has not been used before to repair the anterior vaginal wall prolapse, a common problem among women. Materials and Methods. Forty-five women suffering from anterior vaginal wall prolapse were operated on with a new technique. The anterior vaginal wall was detached by sharp and blunt dissection via an incision beginning from the 1?cm proximal aspect of the external meatus extending to the vaginal apex, and the space between the tissues that attach the lateral walls of the vagina to the arcus tendineus fascia pelvis (ATFP) was then darned. Preoperation and early postoperation evaluations of the patients were conducted and summarized. Results. Data were collected six months after operation. Cough stress test (CST), Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) evaluation, Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7), and Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6) scores indicated recovery. According to the early postoperation results, all patients were satisfied with the operation. No vaginal mucosal erosion or any other complications were detected. Conclusion. In this initial series, our short-term results suggested that patients with grade II-III anterior vaginal wall prolapsus might be treated successfully with the AVWD method.

Kose, Osman; Saglam, Hasan S.; Kumsar, Sukru; Budak, Salih; Adsan, Oztug

2013-01-01

111

Long-term outcomes of vaginal mesh versus native tissue repair for anterior vaginal wall prolapse  

PubMed Central

Introduction and hypothesis To estimate the risk of repeat surgery for recurrent prolapse or mesh removal after vaginal mesh versus native tissue repair for anterior vaginal wall prolapse. Methods We utilized longitudinal, adjudicated, healthcare claims from 2005 to 2010 to identify women ?18 years who underwent an anterior colporrhaphy (CPT 57420) with or without concurrent vaginal mesh (CPT 57267). The primary outcome was repeat surgery for anterior or apical prolapse or for mesh removal/revision; these outcomes were also analyzed separately. We utilized Kaplan–Meier curves to estimate the cumulative risk of each outcome after vaginal mesh versus native tissue repair. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for vaginal mesh versus native tissue repair, adjusted for age, concurrent hysterectomy, and concurrent or recent sling. Results We identified 27,809 anterior prolapse surgeries with 49,658 person-years of follow-up. Of those, 6,871 (24.7%) included vaginal mesh. The 5-year cumulative risk of any repeat surgery was significantly higher for vaginal mesh versus native tissue (15.2 % vs 9.8 %, p<0.0001) with a 5-year risk of mesh revision/removal of 5.9%. The 5-year risk of surgery for recurrent prolapse was similar between vaginal mesh and native tissue groups (10.4 % vs 9.3 %, p=0.70. The results of the adjusted Cox model were similar (HR 0.93, 95%CI: 0.83, 1.05). Conclusions The use of mesh for anterior prolapse was associated with an increased risk of any repeat surgery, which was driven by surgery for mesh removal. Native tissue and vaginal mesh surgery had similar 5-year risks for surgery for recurrent prolapse.

Funk, Michele Jonsson; Visco, Anthony G.; Weidner, Alison C.; Pate, Virginia

2013-01-01

112

Intermittent local prophylaxis against recurrent vaginal candidosis.  

PubMed Central

Women with recurrent vaginal candidosis were treated until the infection cleared and were then given one clotrimazole 500 mg vaginal tablet a month or an identical placebo as prophylaxis. Of 21 women who received placebo, 16 developed symptoms or signs within three months, compared with nine of 17 women given active treatment. Women who relapsed were treated and then given active prophylaxis once a month. Of 30 women given such treatment, 13 relapsed within three months. Women who relapsed were treated and then given two clotrimazole 500 mg vaginal tablets a month. Of 17 women given prophylaxis twice a month, four developed symptoms or signs within three months, but 10 remained clear for 12 months. No appreciable difference was seen in the incidence of mycological recurrence between the different regimens; within three months over half the women in all treatment groups had become recolonised.

Bushell, T E; Evans, E G; Meaden, J D; Milne, J D; Warnock, D W

1988-01-01

113

Vaginal Leiomyoma with Heterologous Paragangliomatous Elements.  

PubMed

A vaginal leiomyoma with heterologous paragangliomatous elements is reported. The patient was a 62-year-old woman who presented with uterovaginal prolapse and an asymptomatic vaginal mass that had been present for many years. Histology of the excised mass showed a leiomyoma in a submucosal location, with irregularly shaped islands of chief cells scattered throughout the lesion. These cells were arranged in nests and were surrounded by S100 protein-positive sustentacular cells. The chief cells showed immunoreactivity with chromogranin, synaptophysin, and neuron-specific enolase. Although various heterologous elements are commonly encountered within uterine leiomyomata, such elements have not been described within vaginal leiomyomata. Furthermore, the occurrence of paragangliomatous tissue within leiomyomata has not been reported to date. Int J Surg Pathol 8(4):359-365, 2000 PMID:11494018

Naidoo, Prabha

2000-10-01

114

Canine vaginal leiomyoma diagnosed by CT vaginourethrography.  

PubMed

A 13 yr old female spayed Labrador retriever presented for vulvar bleeding. Abdominal radiographs revealed a soft tissue mass in the ventral pelvic canal. A computed tomography (CT) exam and a CT vaginourethrogram localized the mass to the vagina, helped further characterize the mass, and aided in surgical planning. A total vaginectomy was performed and the histologic diagnosis was leiomyoma. Vaginal tumors make up 1.9-3% of all tumors. Seventy-three percent of vaginal tumors are benign, and 83% of those are leiomyomas. Leiomyomas often have a good long-term prognosis with surgical resection. The diagnostic investigation of this case report utilized a multimodal imaging approach to determine the extent and respectability of the vaginal mass. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report describing a CT vaginourethrogram. PMID:24051257

Weissman, Andrea; Jiménez, David; Torres, Brian; Cornell, Karen; Holmes, Shannon P

2013-01-01

115

Fasciocutaneous flap for vaginal and perineal reconstruction  

SciTech Connect

A skin and fascia flap from the medial thigh is proposed for vaginal and perineal reconstruction. Dissection, vascular injection, and radiographs of 20 fresh cadaver limbs uniformly demonstrated the presence of a communicating suprafascial vascular plexus in the medial thigh. Three to four nonaxial vessels were consistently found to enter the proximal plexus from within 5 cm of the perineum. Preservation of these vessels permitted reliable elevation of a 9 X 20 cm fasciocutaneous flap without using the gracilis muscle as a vascular carrier. Fifteen flaps in 13 patients were used for vaginal replacement and coverage of vulvectomy, groin, and ischial defects. Depending on the magnitude of the defect, simultaneous and independent elevation of the gracilis muscle provided additional vascularized coverage as needed. Our experience indicates that the medial thigh fasciocutaneous flap is a durable, less bulky, and potentially sensate alternative to the gracilis musculocutaneous flap for vaginal and perineal reconstruction.

Wang, T.N.; Whetzel, T.; Mathes, S.J.; Vasconez, L.O.

1987-07-01

116

Pregnancy's Stronghold on the Vaginal Microbiome  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the vaginal microbiome throughout full-term uncomplicated pregnancy. Methods Vaginal swabs were obtained from twelve pregnant women at 8-week intervals throughout their uncomplicated pregnancies. Patients with symptoms of vaginal infection or with recent antibiotic use were excluded. Swabs were obtained from the posterior fornix and cervix at 8–12, 17–21, 27–31, and 36–38 weeks of gestation. The microbial community was profiled using hypervariable tag sequencing of the V3–V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene, producing approximately 8 million reads on the Illumina MiSeq. Results Samples were dominated by a single genus, Lactobacillus, and exhibited low species diversity. For a majority of the patients (n?=?8), the vaginal microbiome was dominated by Lactobacillus crispatus throughout pregnancy. Two patients showed Lactobacillus iners dominance during the course of pregnancy, and two showed a shift between the first and second trimester from L. crispatus to L. iners dominance. In all of the samples only these two species were identified, and were found at an abundance of higher than 1% in this study. Comparative analyses also showed that the vaginal microbiome during pregnancy is characterized by a marked dominance of Lactobacillus species in both Caucasian and African-American subjects. In addition, our Caucasian subject population clustered by trimester and progressed towards a common attractor while African-American women clustered by subject instead and did not progress towards a common attractor. Conclusion Our analyses indicate normal pregnancy is characterized by a microbiome that has low diversity and high stability. While Lactobacillus species strongly dominate the vaginal environment during pregnancy across the two studied ethnicities, observed differences between the longitudinal dynamics of the analyzed populations may contribute to divergent risk for pregnancy complications. This helps establish a baseline for investigating the role of the microbiome in complications of pregnancy such as preterm labor and preterm delivery.

Walther-Antonio, Marina R. S.; Jeraldo, Patricio; Berg Miller, Margret E.; Yeoman, Carl J.; Nelson, Karen E.; Wilson, Brenda A.; White, Bryan A.; Chia, Nicholas; Creedon, Douglas J.

2014-01-01

117

Vaginal sensitivity to electric stimuli: Theoretical and practical implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaginal sensitivity was investigated in a group of 60 volunteers by means of an electric stimulus and under nonerotic conditions. In comparison to the dorsum of the hand, the genital area has a low sensitivity for electric stimuli (p 0.001). Of the genital area, the vaginal wall measured 2 to 4 cm from the vaginal introitus was found to be

W. C. M. Weijmar Schultz; J. A. Klatter; B. E. Sturm; J. Nauta

1989-01-01

118

Transverse vaginal septum. A case report.  

PubMed

A case occurred of imperforate, complete transverse vaginal septum in the lower third of the vagina. The patient presented at 16 years of age with primary amenorrhea and was found to have hematocolpos. The clinical impression was an imperforate hymen because of the very low position of the septum in the vagina. After excision the diagnosis of transverse vaginal septum was made histologically because of the presence of müllerian duct (mesodermal origin) tissue in the septum. The patient also had syndactyly of the second and third toes on her right foot. The association of these two congenital abnormalities has not been reported previously. PMID:7738932

Wang, J; Ezzat, W; Davidson, M

1995-02-01

119

Development and in vitro evaluation of an acid buffering bioadhesive vaginal gel for mixed vaginal infections.  

PubMed

An acid buffering bioadhesive vaginal (ABBV) gel was developed for the treatment of mixed vaginal infections. Different bioadhesive polymers were evaluated on the basis of their bioadhesive strength, stability and drug release properties. Bioadhesion and release studies showed that guar gum, xanthan gum and hydroxypropyl methylcelullose K4M formed a good combination of bioadhesive polymers to develop the ABBV gel. Monosodium citrate was used as an acid buffering agent to provide acidic pH (4.4). The drugs clotrimazole (antifungal) and metronidazole (antiprotozoal as well as antibacterial) were used in the formulation along with Lactobacillus spores to treat mixed vaginal infections. The ex vivo retention study showed that the bioadhesive polymers hold the gel for 12-13 hours inside the vaginal tube. Results of the in vitro antimicrobial study indicated that the ABBV gel had better antimicrobial action than the commercial intravaginal drug delivery systems and retention was prolonged in an ex vivo retention experiment. PMID:19103575

Ahmad, Farhan Jalees; Alam, Mohd Aftab; Khan, Zeenat Iqbal; Khar, Roop Krishen; Ali, Mushir

2008-12-01

120

Development and evaluation of acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet for mixed vaginal infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

An acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet was developed for the treatment of genitourinary tract infections. From the bioadhesion\\u000a experiment and release studies it was found that polycarbophil and sodium carboxymethylcellulose is a good combination for\\u000a an acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet. Sodium monocitrate was used as a buffering agent to provide acidic pH (4.4),\\u000a which is an attribute of a healthy vagina.

Mohd Aftab Alam; Farhan Jalees Ahmad; Zeenat Iqbal Khan; Roop Krishen Khar; Mushir Ali

2007-01-01

121

Vaginal Lacerations from Consensual Intercourse in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: (1) To describe lacerations of the vaginal fornices, an injury known to be associated with consensual sexual intercourse, including known complications and treatment course, (2) to contrast these injuries with injuries sustained during sexual assault, and (3) to discuss the assessment of adolescent patients for sexual injuries. Methods:…

Frioux, Sarah M.; Blinman, Thane; Christian, Cindy W.

2011-01-01

122

The tension-free vaginal tape procedure.  

PubMed

This article discusses the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure, which attempts to recreate urethral support at the level of the pubourethral ligaments by placing a polypropylene sling at the midurethra as opposed to the bladder neck. The procedure has the proposed advantage of being done under local anesthesia and being an outpatient surgery and can be performed transvaginally or suprapubically. PMID:21353078

Kleeman, Steven D; Karram, Mickey M

2011-02-01

123

Characteristics of vaginal bleeding during pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe vaginal bleeding and associated pain in pregnancies terminated by childbirth. Design: A descriptive study based on information obtained by questionnaires administered during pregnancy. Setting: Antenatal care clinic at the Obstetrical Department, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Subjects: Women (n = 8714) with singleton pregnancies attending routine antenatal care at the Department during a 2-year period from 1989 to

Susanne Maigaard Axelsen; Tine Brink Henriksen; Morten Hedegaard; Niels Jørgen Secher

1995-01-01

124

Vaginal Douching and Intimate Partner Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Findings. Six percent of the sample reported experiencing any type of IPV in the past year, and 23% reported douching in the past year. IPV is significantly associated with douching after controlling for sociodemographic and health-related covariates. This finding holds for women with and without current reproductive capacity. Conclusions. This is the first study to identify an association between vaginal

Carol S. Weisman; Diane M. Grimley; Lucy Annang; Marianne M. Hillemeier; Gary A. Chase; Anne-Marie Dyer

2007-01-01

125

Vaginal Douching Among Latinas: Practices and Meaning  

PubMed Central

Objectives Vaginal douching is widely practiced by American women, particularly among minority groups, and is associated with increased risk of pelvic and vaginal infections. This research sought to investigate vaginal hygiene practices and meaning associated with them among Latina women and adolescents. Study results would guide development of an intervention to decrease douching among Latinas. Methods In depth qualitative interviews conducted with English- and Spanish-speaking women aged 16–40, seeking care for any reason who reported douching within the last year (n = 34). Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and analyzed using qualitative methods. One-third of interviews were conducted in Spanish. Results Two explanatory models for douching motives emerged: one stressed cosmetic benefits; the other, infection prevention and control. Most women reported douching to eliminate menstrual residue; a small number reported douching in context of sexual intercourse or vaginal symptoms. Many were unaware of associated health risks. Respondents typically learned about douching from female family members and friends. Male partners were described as having little to no involvement in the decision to douche. Women varied in their willingness to stop douching. Two-thirds reported receiving harm reduction messages about “overdouching”. About half indicated previous discussion about douching with health care providers; some had reduced frequency in response to counseling. A number of previously unreported vaginal hygiene practices and products were described, including use of a range of traditional hygiene practices, and products imported from outside the US. Conclusions Respondents expressed a range of commitment to douching. Counseling messages acknowledging benefits women perceive as well as health risks should be developed and delivered tailored to individual beliefs. Further research is needed to assess prevalence and safety of previously unreported practices.

Baquero, Maria; Anderson, Matthew R.; Alvarez, Adelyn; Karasz, Alison

2009-01-01

126

Triapine, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Cervical Cancer or Vaginal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer; Therapy-related Toxicity

2014-04-21

127

Development of generic models for ambulatory vaginal surgery — a preliminary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generic guidelines are applied to reconstructive vaginal operations, so as to convert them to ambulatory procedures. Prototype operations are described and analyzed. These included conceptualizing vaginal prolapse as a type of intussusception caused by vaginal and ligamentous laxity in the middle or posterior parts of the vagina; the avoidance of vaginal excision, excessive tension, and refashioning excess vaginal tissue from

P. E. Papa Petros

1998-01-01

128

Ultra-low-dose vaginal estrogen tablets for the treatment of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy.  

PubMed

Vaginal atrophy is a common chronic condition affecting up to 57% of postmenopausal women. The decrease in estrogen following cessation of menses can lead to bothersome symptoms that include vaginal dryness and irritation, pain and burning during urination (dysuria), urinary tract infections, and pain (dyspareunia) and bleeding during sexual activities. These symptoms can be safely and effectively managed with the use of local estrogen therapy, which reduces the risks associated with long-term systemic hormone therapy. The ultra-low-dose 10 ?g estradiol vaginal tablet is the lowest approved dose available and has an annual estradiol exposure of only 1.14 mg. Its development addresses recommendations from regulatory agencies and women's health societies regarding the use of the lowest hormonal dose. The 10 ?g vaginal tablet displays minimal estradiol absorption, causes no increased risk of endometrial hyperplasia or carcinoma, and provides significant symptom relief. The clinical evidence presented here may offer greater reassurance to health-care professionals and postmenopausal women that vaginal atrophy can be treated safely and effectively. PMID:23848490

Simon, J A; Maamari, R V

2013-08-01

129

Can group B streptococci cause symptomatic vaginitis?  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Maternal cervicovaginal colonization with Lancefield group B streptococci (GBS) is an important risk factor for neonatal morbidity and mortality. About 15% of women are carriers of GBS. Usually, they are asymptomatic. CASES: We describe two patients with symptomatic vaginitis for which no apparent cause was found. Both patients were heavily colonized with GBS. After antibiotic treatment, both became asymptomatic and culture negative, but after recolonization with GBS, symptoms resumed. This phenomenon was repeatedly observed. After emergence of resistance to antibiotics, local application of chlorhexidine appeared to be the only useful treatment. CONCLUSION: We hypothesize that GBS-vaginitis may be a possible disease entity. Although at present it is not clear why some patients become symptomatic, we speculate that the immunologic response is somehow selectively hampered in such patients.

Honig, E; Mouton, J W; van der Meijden, W I

1999-01-01

130

Murine models of vaginal trichomonad infections.  

PubMed

Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus cause common sexually transmitted infections in humans and cattle, respectively. Mouse models of trichomoniasis are important for pathogenic and therapeutic studies. Here, we compared murine genital infections with T. vaginalis and T. foetus. Persistent vaginal infection with T. foetus was established with 100 parasites but T. vaginalis infection required doses of 10(6), perhaps because of greater susceptibility to killing by mouse vaginal polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Infection with T. vaginalis persisted longest after combined treatment of mice with estrogen and dexamethasone, whereas infection was only short-lived when mice were given estrogen or dexamethasone alone, co-infected with Lactobacillus acidophilus, and/or pretreated with antibiotics. Infection rates were similar with metronidazole-resistant (MR) and metronidazole-sensitive (MS) T. vaginalis. High dose but not low dose metronidazole treatment controlled infection with MS better than MR T. vaginalis. These murine models will be valuable for investigating the pathogenesis and treatment of trichomoniasis. PMID:21976570

Cobo, Eduardo R; Eckmann, Lars; Corbeil, Lynette B

2011-10-01

131

Vaginal Bleeding and Gestational Trophoblastic Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Molar pregnancy and gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) comprise a group of interrelated diseases, including complete\\u000a and partial molar pregnancy, placental-site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT), and choriocarcinoma, that have varying propensities\\u000a for local invasion and distal spread. Vaginal bleeding is a common presenting sign, seen in as many as 97% of women with a\\u000a complete molar pregnancy; it is also a frequent

Lisa M. Barroilhet; Donald Peter Goldstein; Ross S. Berkowitz

132

Vaginitis: Making Sense of Over-the-Counter Treatment Options  

PubMed Central

Background. The FDA approved over-the-counter (OTC) use of vaginal antifungals in 1990. Subsequently, a plethora of OTC products have become available to women on drugstore shelves. Objectives. The purpose of this study was to determine the availability of OTC products marketed for the treatment of vaginitis and to determine if their efficacy had been confirmed by published prospective randomized control trials (RCTs). Materials and methods. The authors chose four retail locations frequented by women seeking vaginitis treatment. All products deemed a viable treatment option were purchased. Results. All intravaginal imidazoles purchased, regardless of treatment duration or active ingredient, were found to be of proven efficacy. We were unable to find an RCT confirming the effectiveness of vaginal anti-itch creams and homeopathic treatments for vaginitis. Conclusion. 45% of products available to women in the feminine hygiene section of the stores surveyed could not be confirmed to be effective for treating infectious vaginitis.

B. Angotti, Lauren; C. Lambert, Lara; E. Soper, David

2007-01-01

133

Antibiotic Susceptibility of Potentially Probiotic Vaginal Lactobacilli  

PubMed Central

Objective. To study the antimicrobial susceptibility of six vaginal probiotic lactobacilli. Methods. The disc diffusion method in Müeller Hinton, LAPTg and MRS agars by the NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards) procedure was performed. Due to the absence of a Lactobacillus reference strains, the results were compared to those of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213. Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) with 21 different antibiotics in LAPTg agar and broth was also determined. Results. LAPTg and MRS agars are suitable media to study antimicrobial susceptibility of lactobacilli. However, the NCCLS procedure needs to be standardized for this genus. The MICs have shown that all Lactobacillus strains grew at concentrations above 10 ?g/mL of chloramphenicol, aztreonam, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, streptomycin and kanamycin. Four lactobacilli were sensitive to 1 ?g/mL vancomycin and all of them were resistant to 1000 ?g/mL of metronidazole. Sensitivity to other antibiotics depended on each particular strain. Conclusions. The NCCLS method needs to be standardized in an appropriate medium to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Lactobacillus. Vaginal probiotic lactobacilli do not display uniform susceptibility to antibiotics. Resistance to high concentrations of metronidazole suggests that lactobacilli could be simultaneously used with a bacterial vaginosis treatment to restore the vaginal normal flora.

Ocana, Virginia; Silva, Clara; Nader-Macias, Maria Elena

2006-01-01

134

Herbal vaginal pessary induced acute renal failure  

PubMed Central

In Africa, the use of traditional herbal remedy is widespread. Acute renal failure (ARF) is one of the most serious complications. The use of herbal remedies (mostly orally) accounts for nearly 35% of all cases of acute renal failure in Africa. Development of renal failure following herbal vaginal pessary is rarely reported. In November 2003, a 35-year-old Nigerian female who is a petty trader and a primary school leaver with three children (all males) presented to us in the renal unit with oliguric ARF induced by herbal vaginal pessary. She had sought this alternative medicine in an attempt to have a female child as all her three children are males. Her condition was managed accordingly and required three sessions of hemodialysis. She started diuresing on the eighth day of admission. This case presentation highlights the potential tragedies of herbal preparation, of note, that herbal vaginal pessaries are as deleterious as the oral preparations, and that the dilemma of ignorance is still prevalent in our society.

Onyemekeihia, U. R.; Esume, C. O.; Oladele, C. O.; Oviasu, E.

2009-01-01

135

Vernix Caseosa Peritonitis After Vaginal Delivery  

PubMed Central

Introduction Vernix caseosa peritonitis (VCP) is a very unusual complication caused by inflammatory response to amniotic fluid spilled into the maternal peritoneal cavity. Twenty-seven cases have been reported, and all occurred after cesarean section. Case presentation We present a case of VCP following vaginal delivery; this may be the first case reported after vaginal delivery. Mrs. A, 28 years old, gravida 3, para 2, with one previous cesarean section, was admitted at 41 weeks gestation in active labor. Vacuum extraction was performed to deliver a healthy male baby, 4.410 kg, Apgar scores 7, 8. She developed fever, acute abdominal pain, and distension about 3 hours after delivery. A diagnosis of acute abdomen was made. Laparotomy was performed and it revealed neither uterine scar rupture nor other surgical emergencies, but 500 mL of turbid fluid and some cheesy material on the serosal surface of all viscera. Biopsies were taken. She had a course of antibiotics and her recovery was complete. Histology of the peritoneal fluid and tissue biopsy resulted in a diagnosis of VCP. Conclusion Clinical diagnosis of peritonitis due to vernix caseosa should be considered in patients presenting postpartum with an acute abdomen after vaginal delivery.

Sadath, Shameema A.; Abo Diba, Fathiya I.; Nayak, Surendra; Shamali, Iman Al; Diejomaoh, Michael F.

2013-01-01

136

Anti-STD vaginal contraceptive sponges.  

PubMed

Vaginal sponges offer women control over protection against both pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV. Spermicide-impregnated sponges combine the actions of a physical barrier that blocks the cervix with a material that absorbs the ejaculate and a spermicide. Commercially available spermicides contain 1-5% of nonoxynol-9, shown to inhibit organisms responsible for gonorrhea, chlamydia, candidiasis, genital herpes, syphilis, trichomoniasis, and HIV. On the other hand, nonoxynol-9 is associated with a significantly higher risk of vaginal colonization with bacterial agents, ulcerative genital diseases, and vulvitis. A lower dose of nonoxynol-9 appears to avert vaginal irritation without compromising contraceptive efficacy. Use of chlorhexidene, a spermicide less irritating to mucosal cells than nonoxynol-9 but active against HIV in vivo and in vitro, is under investigation. Also promising are initial findings regarding the Protectaid contraceptive sponge with F-5 gel. Epidemiologic studies and clinical trials should provide quantitative estimates of the level of protection offered by barrier methods and identify the method that combines the highest protection, ease of use, and user acceptability. PMID:9238301

Hassan, E; Creatsas, G; Gravanis, A; Georgoulias, V; Psychoyos, A

1997-06-17

137

Herbal vaginal pessary induced acute renal failure.  

PubMed

In Africa, the use of traditional herbal remedy is widespread. Acute renal failure (ARF) is one of the most serious complications. The use of herbal remedies (mostly orally) accounts for nearly 35% of all cases of acute renal failure in Africa. Development of renal failure following herbal vaginal pessary is rarely reported. In November 2003, a 35-year-old Nigerian female who is a petty trader and a primary school leaver with three children (all males) presented to us in the renal unit with oliguric ARF induced by herbal vaginal pessary. She had sought this alternative medicine in an attempt to have a female child as all her three children are males. Her condition was managed accordingly and required three sessions of hemodialysis. She started diuresing on the eighth day of admission. This case presentation highlights the potential tragedies of herbal preparation, of note, that herbal vaginal pessaries are as deleterious as the oral preparations, and that the dilemma of ignorance is still prevalent in our society. PMID:20535252

Onyemekeihia, U R; Esume, C O; Oladele, C O; Oviasu, E

2009-10-01

138

Vaginal agenesis: Experience with sigmoid colon neovaginoplasty  

PubMed Central

Aim: Objective of this study is to report our experience with sigmoid vaginoplasty in adolescents. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of children with vaginal atresia and Mayer–Rokitansky–Kuster–Hauser syndrome. The sigmoid segment was used for vaginoplasty in all the cases. Results: Eight children were studied over a period of 7 years. The postoperative complications were ileus in 2, mucosal prolapse of the neovagina in 1, and minor wound infection in 1 patient. Seven patients are on regular follow-up. All the neovaginas were patent and functional. One patient had unacceptable perineal appearance, that is, badly scarred perineum as a late complication. None of the patients had vaginal stenosis or excessive mucus discharge, during follow-up visits. Out of the 7 patients, 2 patients are sexually active and satisfied. Conclusions: Sigmoid vaginoplasty is a safe and acceptable procedure for vaginal agenesis with good cosmetic results and acceptable complications rate. Sigmoid colon vaginoplasty is the treatment of choice because of its large lumen, thick walls resistant to trauma, adequate secretion allowing lubrication, not necessitating prolonged dilatation, and short recovery time.

Rawat, Jiledar; Ahmed, Intezar; Pandey, Anand; Khan, Tanvir R.; Singh, Sarita; Wakhlu, Ashish; Kureel, Shiv N.

2010-01-01

139

Differential tissue-specific protein markers of vaginal carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to identify proteins differentially expressed in vaginal cancer to elucidate relevant cancer-related proteins. A total of 16 fresh-frozen tissue biopsies, consisting of 5 biopsies from normal vaginal epithelium, 6 from primary vaginal carcinomas and 5 from primary cervical carcinomas, were analysed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Of the 43 proteins identified with significant

K Hellman; A A Alaiya; S Becker; M Lomnytska; K Schedvins; W Steinberg; A-C Hellström; S Andersson; U Hellman; G Auer

2009-01-01

140

Vaginal adhesions in a woman with the history of dystocia.  

PubMed

Postpartum genital tract adhesions are unusual, and their cause has not been evaluated. However, severe dystocia and numerous pelvic examinations have been suggested as possible causes. Here, we report a case of vaginal adhesions following a difficult labor that presented as dyspareunia for 5 months. Pelvic examination and ultrasonography revealed a transverse vaginal septum that obstructed the vaginal cavity, and fluid collection proximal to this septum. The patient was successfully treated with surgical resection and administration of antibiotics. PMID:24596821

Kim, Hyun Mi; Bae, Jin Young; Cho, Yoo Jin; Kim, Mi Ju; Cha, Hyun-Hwa; Cha, Hyun Wha; Seong, Won Joon

2014-01-01

141

21 CFR 884.5940 - Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use. 884...Devices § 884.5940 Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use. (a) Identification. A powered vaginal muscle stimulator is an electrically...

2009-04-01

142

78 FR 19271 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Metronidazole Vaginal Gel...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bioequivalence Recommendations for Metronidazole Vaginal Gel; Availability AGENCY...Bioequivalence Recommendations for Metronidazole Vaginal Gel.'' The guidance provides...new drug applications (ANDAs) for metronidazole vaginal gel. DATES: Although...

2013-03-29

143

Vaginal tumors in pregnancy. Case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

A young patient with a vaginal tumor in early pregnancy is presented. The difficulty in diagnosis and subsequent management is discussed. Vaginal tumors with special reference to vaginal leiomyoma are reviewed and a differential diagnosis is presented. PMID:3425255

Sadan, O; Kruger, S; van Iddekinge, B

1987-01-01

144

76 FR 17444 - In the Matter of Certain Vaginal Ring Birth Control Devices; Notice of Investigation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certain Vaginal Ring Birth Control Devices; Notice...certain vaginal ring birth control devices by reason...issue an exclusion order and cease and desist orders. ADDRESSES: The complaint...certain vaginal ring birth control devices...

2011-03-29

145

Successful management of a thick transverse vaginal septum with a vesicovaginal fistula by vaginal expansion and surgery.  

PubMed

We present a case of a thick transverse vaginal septum with a vesicovaginal fistula treated with vaginal expansion using dilators, followed by surgery. A 27-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with vaginal atresia and cyclical hematuria. Urethroscopy and cystography showed a vesicovaginal fistula between the proximal vagina and bladder. The vaginal septum was 4 cm thick. Over a 6-month period, the distal vagina was expanded with the use of dilators and the septum was sufficiently thinned. Reconstruction using a transvaginal and transabdominal approach created a direct anastomosis between the proximal and distal vagina. No vaginal strictures or contractures in the anastomotic region have been observed during the 12 months following surgery. The combination of expansion and subsequent reconstructive surgery for the treatment of a thick transverse vaginal septum with a vesicovaginal fistula was less invasive than alternative surgical approaches and provided the desired outcome. PMID:22109703

Kashimura, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Satoru; Nakazawa, Hiroaki

2012-06-01

146

ACOG Committee Opinion No. 378: Vaginal "rejuvenation" and cosmetic vaginal procedures.  

PubMed

So-called "vaginal rejuvenation", "designer vaginoplasty", "revirgination", and "G-spot amplification" are vaginal surgical procedures being offered by some practitioners. These procedures are not medically indicated, and the safety and effectiveness of these procedures have not been documented. Clinicians who receive requests from patients for such procedures should discuss with the patient the reason for her request and perform an evaluation for any physical signs or symptoms that may indicate the need for surgical intervention. Women should be informed about the lack of data supporting the efficacy of these procedures and their potential complications, including infection, altered sensation, dyspareunia, adhesions, and scarring. PMID:17766626

2007-09-01

147

Uterosacral Colpopexy at the Time of Vaginal Hysterectomy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To compare the risk of ureteral compromise and of recurrent vault prolapse following vaginal vs. laparoscopic uterosacral vault suspension at the time of vaginal hysterectomy. STUDY DESIGN In this retrospective, cohort study, uterosacral ligament suspension was performed using either a vaginal or laparoscopic approach. The primary outcome was intraoperative ureteral compromise; secondary outcomes were postoperative anatomic result and recurrent prolapse. The Canadian Task Force Classification was II-2. RESULTS One hundred eighteen patients were included: 96 patients in the vaginal group and 22 patients in the laparoscopic group. Ureteral compromise was identified intraoperatively in 4 (4.2%) cases in the vaginal group; no ureteral compromise was observed in the laparoscopic group (p = 0.33). Failure at the apex, defined as stage ? II for point C, was seen in 6.3% of patients in the vaginal group as compared with 0% in the laparoscopic group; this difference did not achieve statistical significance. Similarly, trends toward lower recurrent symptomatic vault prolapse (10% vs. 0%), any symptomatic prolapse recurrence (12.5% vs. 4.6%), and higher postoperative Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification point C were observed in the laparoscopic group (p > 0.05 for all). CONCLUSION Laparoscopic uterosacral vault suspension following vaginal hysterectomy is a safe alternative to the vaginal approach.

Rardin, Charles R.; Erekson, Elisabeth A.; Sung, Vivian W.; Ward, Renee M.; Myers, Deborah L.

2010-01-01

148

Vaginal Eroticism and Female Orgasm: A Current Appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the light of very recent studies, this paper reviews two controversial issues in the area of female sexuality: vaginal eroticism and female orgasm. From the available evidence, it is concluded that most (and probably all) women possess vaginal zones, mainly located on the anterior wall, whose tactile stimulation can lead to orgasm. The apparent contradiction between this finding and

Heli Alzate

1985-01-01

149

Treatment Options by Stage and Type of Vaginal Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... it doesn't come back. Stage I Squamous cell cancers: Radiation therapy is used for most stage I vaginal cancers. ... for some patients with stage II vaginal squamous cell cancer if it is small ... already had radiation therapy for cervical cancer and who would not be ...

150

Nitroimidazole-resistant vaginal trichomoniasis treated with paromomycin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 33-year old woman with nitroimidazole-resistant vaginal trichomoniasis is described. She was treated with intravaginal paromomycin (500mg daily for 2 days). This cured the trichomoniasis but resulted in severe local side effects. Paromomycin may be useful for difficult cases of nitroimidazole-resistant Trichomonas vaginalis vaginitis. The exact dosage still has to be determined.

Willy A. J. Poppe

2001-01-01

151

Vaginal hysterectomy is made easier with ERBE Biclamp forceps.  

PubMed

The ratio of vaginal hysterectomy to abdominal hysterectomy in the UK is 1:3. It is well known that patients who have had a vaginal hysterectomy recover better compared with abdominal hysterectomy. However, abdominal hysterectomy is the preferred method in most hospitals because it is deemed easier to do. With ERBE Biclamp diathermy forceps, vaginal hysterectomy could be safely and easily performed by gynaecologists. This study showed a different surgical technique for performing vaginal hysterectomy. It allowed easier and safer operations in patients with large uterus, fibroid uterus, where there was no uterine descent and narrow introitus. Also it allowed the adnexal appendages to be removed easily by the vaginal route. We compared 100 patients who had a vaginal hysterectomy performed using this method, with patients who had a vaginal hysterectomy performed by the conventional method using sutures. We found that we could safely perform vaginal hysterectomy with greater ease. Also, the need for postoperative analgesia was less and the patients were discharged earlier. Consequently, the patients' convalescence period was shorter and better. PMID:17999303

Chia, K V; Tandon, S; Moukarram, H

2007-10-01

152

An unusual cause of persistent postpartum vaginal discharge.  

PubMed

We describe the case of a 27-year-old woman with a three-month history of persistent green vaginal discharge following vaginal delivery of her first child. Group C ?-haemolytic streptococcus was ultimately isolated, which appears to be an uncommon cause of this clinical presentation. PMID:23970614

Parrott, Natasha; Asensio, Maria; Gupta, Nadi K

2013-10-01

153

Oral methotrexate and vaginal misoprostol for early abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intramuscular methotrexate followed by vaginal misoprostol has been shown to be effective for abortion at ?49 days gestation. Oral dosing of the methotrexate may offer advantages over parenteral dosing. This pilot study was performed to evaluate if oral methotrexate would be effective when combined with vaginal misoprostol to effect abortion at ?49 days gestation. Twenty pregnant women were randomized to

Mitchell D. Creinin

1996-01-01

154

Oral or vaginal misoprostol for induction of labor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare vaginal versus oral misoprostol for induction of labor. Method: Induction of labor was carried out in 40 women near term in two equal and randomized groups (according to a computer generated table) using misoprostol. Group I received vaginal misoprostol (100 ?g) every 3 h while group II patients were given the same dose via the oral route.

M. K. Toppozada; M. Y. M. Anwar; H. A. Hassan; W. S. El-Gazaerly

1997-01-01

155

Update in management of vaginal mesh erosion.  

PubMed

Mesh erosion is one of the major complications of prolapse surgery conducted by transvaginal approach. Following the extensive use of meshes and warning about potential complications, a new classification of mesh-related adverse events has been proposed. Due to the wide scope of clinical features, no standardized approach has been proposed. Surgery is required after failure of conservative management, mostly based on mesh partial or total excision by transvaginal route, following the classic rules of re-do vaginal surgery. Complex cases are best managed in tertiary reference centers. PMID:23873511

Cornu, Jean-Nicolas; Peyrat, Laurence; Haab, François

2013-10-01

156

Pathology Case Study: Bloody Vaginal Discharge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which an elderly woman experienced bloody vaginal discharge long after menopause. Visitors are given both the microscopic pap smear and biopsy findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in gynecologic pathology.

Dickson, H.; Mahood, L.; Manlucu, E. D.; Nath, Manju E.

2008-10-28

157

Vaginal malignancies in childhood and adolescence.  

PubMed

Throughout the years 1978-1998, 13 patients, 9 months to 16 years of age, were treated for vaginal malignancy at the Medical City Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq. The majority were found to have an embryonal sarcoma, an endodermal sinus tumour or a clear cell adenocarcinoma. Most were treated by genital resection combined with triple cytotoxic therapy. We have eight survivors for more than 3 years following surgery. This study also illustrates the potential curability of these tumours with preservation of urinary function. PMID:15512636

Khunda, S S; Al-Omary, S K

2000-09-01

158

Update on nonoxynol-9 as vaginal spermicide.  

PubMed

Nonoxynol-9 (N-9) is a typical surfactant. For more than 30 years that very property of N-9 has been successfully exploited for its spermicidal action. It is available as an over-the-counter, locally acting vaginal spermicide. The suitability of N-9 as a spermicide is elaborated in this article. The reasons why N-9 may fail as a contraceptive are discussed. In spite of many drawbacks, which are mentioned in the article, N-9 is still often resorted to as a locally acting contraceptive. The review ends with suggestions to alter the molecular structure of N-9 and to adjust the dosages. PMID:19117251

Iyer, Vidya; Poddar, S S

2008-12-01

159

Pap test--with or without vaginal smear?  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate medical and economic justification of vaginal smears as a part of primary screening for cervical carcinoma and its precursors. Study included 245.048 participants whose VCE (vaginal, cervical, endocervical) smears were examined at Department of clinical cytology of University Hospital Center Osijek from 2003 till 2008. There were 12.639 (5.2%) abnormal findings, and they were divided into three groups: abnormal cells found only in vaginal smear (V), abnormal cells found in vaginal and in at least one other smear (V+) and abnormal cells not found in vaginal smear (C/E). These three groups were analysed in respect to cytological differential diagnosis and age of participants. It was estimated how many women could be additionally included in the screening, if vaginal smear would be included in the Pap test only after 50 years of age. In 6.9% of cytologically diagnosed lesions abnormal cells were found exclusively in vaginal smears (0.35% of all findings). As for squamous cell lesions, 91.2% were mild lesions (ASC and LSIL). Invasive squamous cell carcinoma was not diagnosed exclusively by vaginal smear in either woman under 50 years of age, while in women over 50 years of age it was diagnosed in 2.3% of cases. Exclusively by vaginal smear was diagnosed 3.9% of all AGC and 6.3% of adenocarcinoma, while in 85.0% of glandular epithelium lesions abnormal cells were not found in vaginal smears. Two thirds of adenocarcinoma diagnosed exclusively by vaginal smears were endometrial adenocarcinoma, but that is only 10.3% of all endometrial carcinoma diagnosed by Pap test. Obtained results show that taking of vaginal smears along with cervical and endocervical smears as a part of primary screening for cervical carcinoma and its precursors in women under 50 years of age is not justifiable, since vaginal smear only has a role in detection of endometrial carcinoma that are extremely rare in younger age groups. If vaginal smear would be taken only in women over 50 years of age, additional 37.7% of women under 50, or 25.1% women over 50 years of age could be included in the screening. PMID:20437636

Milici?-Juhas, Valerija; Peri?, Marija; Pajtler, Marija; Prvulovi?, Ivana; Curzik, Darko

2010-03-01

160

Vaginal cleansing practices in HIV infected Zambian women.  

PubMed

Vaginal practices are a variety of behavioral techniques that women use to manage their sexual life and personal hygiene. Women perceive vaginal practices as a beneficial practice. However, vaginal cleansing has been identified as one of the main risk factors for bacterial vaginosis and is potentially implicated in Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infection transmission. This study examined the prevalence of vaginal practices and the types of practices used among a sample of HIV positive women living in Lusaka, Zambia. Over 90% of all women recruited engaged in vaginal practices. Certain practices, such as use of water or soap, were more frequently used for hygiene reasons. Herbs and traditional medicines were mainly used to please sexual partner. Strategies to decrease VP appear urgently needed in the Zambian community. PMID:22041932

Alcaide, Maria L; Mumbi, Miriam; Chitalu, Ndashi; Jones, Deborah

2013-03-01

161

The use of autologous buccal mucosa grafts in vaginal reconstruction.  

PubMed

Vaginal reconstruction can be challenging when there is a paucity of tissue, as the ideal donor source has yet to be determined. Many of the existing and commonly used techniques, such as vaginal replacement with skin grafts or bowel segments, have both advantages and disadvantages. A novel technique for vaginal replacement and reconstruction is with autologous buccal mucosa, an epithelium which is an excellent tissue match to the vagina. As urologists often have extensive experience with the use of oral mucosa for urethral reconstruction, it is fitting to apply these techniques to procedures where native vaginal tissue is lacking. This review presents the existing literature as well as the author's own experience with the use of autologous buccal mucosa for a variety of vaginal reconstructive procedures. PMID:24948036

Grimsby, Gwen M; Baker, Linda A

2014-08-01

162

Local Effects of Vaginally Administered Estrogen Therapy: A Review  

PubMed Central

The results of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) led to a distinct decline in the routine use of estrogen as preventive therapy for vasomotor symptoms, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. Without estrogen replacement, one third of women experience symptoms of atrophic vaginitis including dryness, irritation, itching and or dyspareunia. Local application of estrogen has been shown to relieve these symptoms and improve quality of life for these women. In addition, local estrogen therapy may have a favorable effect on sexuality, urinary tract infections, vaginal surgery, and incontinence. This review examines the effects of vaginally applied estrogen on the vaginal epithelium, urethra and endometrium. An accompanying review examines the systemic effects of vaginally applied estrogen.

Krause, Megan; Wheeler, Thomas L.; Snyder, Thomas E.; Richter, Holly E.

2011-01-01

163

Association Between Tampon Use and Choosing the Contraceptive Vaginal Ring  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate whether tampon users are more likely to select the contraceptive vaginal ring than combined oral contraceptive pills (OCPs). Methods The Contraceptive Choice Project is a longitudinal study of 10,000 St. Louis-area women promoting the use of long-acting, reversible methods of contraception and evaluating user continuation and satisfaction for all reversible methods. We performed univariable and multivariable analyses of the 311 women who were asked about tampon use at the time of enrollment and who chose the contraceptive vaginal ring or OCPs to assess the association of tampon use and choice of combined hormonal method. Results Among contraceptive vaginal ring and OCP users, 247 (79%) reported using tampons. Contraceptive vaginal ring users were not significantly different than OCP users in terms of age, race or ethnicity, marital status, insurance, BMI, and parity. Adjusted analysis indicates tampon users were more likely to choose the contraceptive vaginal ring instead of OCPs (adjusted RR=1.34; 95%CI: 1.01–1.78). Women with previous contraceptive vaginal ring experience were also more likely to choose the contraceptive vaginal ring (adjusted RR=1.96; 95%CI: 1.6–2.4). Recent OCP use did not influence method choice. Conclusion In our baseline analysis of the Contraceptive Choice Project, tampon users were more likely to choose the contraceptive vaginal ring than OCPs. Use of tampons could be considered an indicator for the initial acceptability of the contraceptive vaginal ring, but all women should be offered the contraceptive vaginal ring regardless of experience with tampon use.

Tepe, Melissa; Mestad, Renee; Secura, Gina; Allsworth, Jenifer E.; Madden, Tessa; Peipert, Jeffrey F.

2011-01-01

164

Vaginal Health: Insights, Views & Attitudes (VIVA) survey - Canadian cohort.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate knowledge of vaginal atrophy among postmenopausal women (aged 55-65 years), using the Vaginal Health: Insights, Views & Attitudes (VIVA) survey. METHODS: An independent research organization conducted a quantitative Internet-based survey, to obtain information from 3520 women who were living in the UK, the USA, Canada, Sweden, Denmark, Finland or Norway. Findings from Canada are presented (n = 500). RESULTS: Almost half of Canadian respondents had experienced vaginal discomfort since they had stopped menstruating, most commonly (88%) vaginal dryness; over half (56%) reported having experienced symptoms for three years or longer. Seven percent would have attributed vaginal symptoms to vaginal atrophy. Eighty-two percent of women felt that vaginal discomfort would have a negative impact on various aspects of their lives, most notably sexual intimacy (72%), 'having a loving relationship with a partner' (39%) and 'overall quality of life' (30%). While the majority of women (66%) who had experienced vaginal atrophy eventually sought the assistance of a health-care professional, a considerable proportion (34%) did not. Most women (58%) had tried lubricating gels and creams to treat their symptoms, but many were less aware of specific means of treating the underlying cause. However, compared with systemic hormone replacement therapy, more women indicated that they would consider local estrogen therapy (e.g. vaginal tablets or creams). CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that many postmenopausal women in Canada have a low understanding of vaginal atrophy. Medical practitioners should proactively initiate dialogue about this chronic condition with their patients, and discuss appropriate treatment options. PMID:23201626

Frank, Sheldon M; Ziegler, Cleve; Kokot-Kierepa, Marta; Maamari, Ricardo; Nappi, Rossella E

2012-11-30

165

Vaginal breech delivery: results of a prospective registration study  

PubMed Central

Background Most countries recommend planned cesarean section in breech deliveries, which is considered safer than vaginal delivery. As one of few countries in the western world Norway has continued to practice planned vaginal delivery in selected women. The aim of this study is to evaluate prospectively registered neonatal and maternal outcomes in term singleton breech deliveries in a Norwegian hospital during a ten years period. We aim to compare maternal and neonatal outcomes in term breech pregnancies subjected either to planned vaginal or elective cesarean section. Methods A prospective registration study including 568 women with term breech deliveries (>37 weeks) consecutively registered at Sorlandet Hospital Kristiansand between 2001 and 2011. Fetal and maternal outcomes were compared according to delivery method; planned vaginal delivery versus planned cesarean section. Results Of 568 women, elective cesarean section was planned in 279 (49%) cases and vaginal delivery was planned in 289 (51%) cases. Acute cesarean section was performed in 104 of the planned vaginal deliveries (36.3%). There were no neonatal deaths. Two cases of serious neonatal morbidity were reported in the planned vaginal group. One infant had seizures, brachial plexus injury, and cephalhematoma. The other infant had 5-minutes Apgar?vaginal group (10.0%) and eight in the planned cesarean section group (2.9%) (p?vaginal delivery group (p?vaginal group without long-term sequelae.

2013-01-01

166

Rats clearing a vaginal infection by Candida albicans acquire specific, antibody-mediated resistance to vaginal reinfection.  

PubMed Central

Oophorectomized, estrogen-treated rats were susceptible to experimental vaginal infection by Candida albicans. After spontaneous clearing of the primary infection, the animals were highly resistant to a second vaginal challenge with the fungus. The vaginal fluid of Candida-resistant rats contained antibodies directed against mannan constituents and secretory aspartyl proteinase(s) of C. albicans and was capable of transferring a degree of anti-Candida protection to naive, nonimmunized rats. This passive protection was mediated by the immunoglobulin fraction of the vaginal fluid and was substantially abolished by preabsorption of the vaginal fluid with C. albicans, but not with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cells. Vaginal anti-mannan antibodies were also produced by active immunization with heat-killed cells of C. albicans or with a mannan extract when administered via the vaginal route. The protection conferred was comparable to that resulting from clearing of the primary infection. In summary, the data suggest that acquired anticandidal protection in this vaginitis model is mediated at least in part by antibodies, among which those directed against the mannan antigen(s) might play a dominant role.

Cassone, A; Boccanera, M; Adriani, D; Santoni, G; De Bernardis, F

1995-01-01

167

Bacterial vaginosis, vaginal flora patterns and vaginal hygiene practices in patients presenting with vaginal discharge syndrome in The Gambia, West Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV) – a syndrome characterised by a shift in vaginal flora – appears to be particularly common in sub-Saharan Africa, but little is known of the pattern of vaginal flora associated with BV in Africa. We conducted a study aimed at determining the prevalence of BV and patterns of BV-associated vaginal micro-flora among women with vaginal discharge syndrome (VDS) in The Gambia, West Africa. Methods We enrolled 227 women with VDS from a large genito-urinary medicine clinic in Fajara, The Gambia. BV was diagnosed by the Nugent's score and Amsel's clinical criteria. Vaginal swabs were collected for T vaginalis and vaginal flora microscopy, and for Lactobacillus spp, aerobic organisms, Candida spp and BV-associated bacteria (Gardnerella vaginalis, anaerobic bacteria, and Mycoplasma spp) cultures; and cervical swabs were collected for N gonorrhoeae culture and C trachomatis PCR. Sera were tested for HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies. Sexual health history including details on sexual hygiene were obtained by standardised questionnaire. Results BV prevalence was 47.6% by Nugent's score and 30.8% by Amsel's clinical criteria. Lactobacillus spp were isolated in 37.8% of women, and 70% of the isolates were hydrogen-peroxide (H202)-producing strains. Prevalence of BV-associated bacteria were: G vaginalis 44.4%; Bacteroides 16.7%; Prevotella 15.2%; Peptostretococcus 1.5%; Mobiluncus 0%; other anaerobes 3.1%; and Mycoplasma hominis 21.4%. BV was positively associated with isolation of G vaginalis (odds-ratio [OR] 19.42, 95%CI 7.91 – 47.6) and anaerobes (P = 0.001 [OR] could not be calculated), but not with M hominis. BV was negatively associated with presence of Lactobacillus (OR 0.07, 95%CI 0.03 – 0.15), and H2O2-producing lactobacilli (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.05 – 0.28). Presence of H2O2-producing lactobacilli was associated with significantly lower prevalence of G vaginalis, anaerobes and C trachomatis. HIV prevalence was 12.8%. Overall, there was no association between BV and HIV, and among micro-organisms associated with BV, only Bacteroides spp. and Prevotella spp. were associated with HIV. BV or vaginal flora patterns were not associated with any of the factors relating to sexual hygiene practices (vaginal douching, menstrual hygiene, female genital cutting). Conclusion In this population, BV prevalence was higher than in corresponding populations in industrialised countries, but the pattern of vaginal micro-flora associated with BV was similar. BV or vaginal flora patterns were not associated with HIV nor with any of the vaginal hygiene characteristics.

Demba, Edward; Morison, Linda; van der Loeff, Maarten Schim; Awasana, Akum A; Gooding, Euphemia; Bailey, Robin; Mayaud, Philippe; West, Beryl

2005-01-01

168

Surgical treatment of vaginal apex prolapse.  

PubMed

Pelvic organ prolapse is a common problem in women that increases with age and adversely affects quality of life and sexual function. If conservative treatments fail, surgery becomes the main option for symptom abatement. For uterovaginal prolapse, treatment with or without hysterectomy can be offered, and operations must include a specific apical support procedure to be effective. Operations for apical prolapse include transvaginal, open, and laparoscopic or robotic options; few clinical trials have compared the effectiveness and risk of these various surgeries. Grafts can be used selectively for apical suspensions and may improve cure rates but also increase risk of some complications. Slings should be added selectively to reduce postoperative stress incontinence. For women interested in future sexual activity who require apical prolapse surgery, we suggest using transvaginal apical repairs for older patients, those with primary or less severe prolapse, and those at increased surgical risk. We recommend sacral colpopexy with polypropylene mesh (preferably by minimally invasive route) in younger women, those with more severe prolapse or recurrences after vaginal surgery, and women with prolapsed, short vaginas. In older women with severe prolapse who are not interested in sexual activity, obliterative operations are very effective and have high satisfaction rates. An interactive consent process is mandatory, because many decisions-about route of surgery; use of hysterectomy, slings, and grafts; and vaginal capacity for sexual intercourse-require an informed patient's input. Selective referral to specialists in Female Pelvic medicine and Reconstructive Surgery can be considered for complex and recurrent cases. PMID:23344287

Walters, Mark D; Ridgeway, Beri M

2013-02-01

169

[Surgical management of congenital high vaginal atresia].  

PubMed

In the past 15 years five neonates and children have been treated for high vaginal atresia at the Surgical Unit of Department of Pediatrics, University Medical School, Pécs, Hungary. In three of the six patients distal atresia of the vagina was found (Type III). Two of the three were neonates and had a large hydrometrocolpos and the third, a 13-year-old girl, hematometrocolpos. In the fourth patient the vaginal atresia was associated with cloacal and anorectal malformation (Type V). In the fifth there was a duplication of uterus and vagina; however, only one of the two vaginas was atretic. In three patients a pull-through of the vagina was carried out, in one of them according to Pena, in another a transvesical approach, as suggested by Monfort, was used. Following repeated surgeries in the patient with cloacal malformation the vagina was replaced with large intestine. In the case of duplication of vagina and uterus one half of the duplication was removed. PMID:8464627

Alchihabi, N; Pintér, A

1993-04-01

170

REPAIR OF VESICO-VAGINAL FISTULA  

PubMed Central

One hundred and thirteen patients with vesico-vaginal fistula were seen at the University of California Hospital from 1932 through 1959. The most common cause of fistula was trauma associated with pelvic operation, and the operation most often involved was total abdominal hysterectomy. Malignant disease of the pelvic organs was the second most common cause, while radiation therapy and obstetrical causes were next in the order of frequency. Three fistulas healed spontaneously. Twelve bladder by-pass operations were done and 54 repairs were carried out in 46 patients. Thirty-eight patients (82.6 per cent) were cured after one or more repair operations. A variety of operative approaches were used, selected in accordance with the needs of the individual case. Bladder distention postoperatively, due to a plugged catheter, was held responsible for failure of the repair in three cases, and this complication was considered preventable. Close attention to surgical technique, the recognition of bladder injury, and proper repair at the time of operation are prime factors in the prevention of vesico-vaginal fistula.

Hill, Edward C.

1962-01-01

171

A clinical study to assess the effectiveness of a nonhormonal vaginal moisturizer in menopausal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the effectiveness of a vaginal moisturizer in menopausal women with external vaginal dryness. We studied a nonhormonal topically applied external vaginal moisturizer in women with external vaginal (vulvar) dryness to see if we could approach the results of a topically applied hormonal product.Methods: The 4-week clinical study included 30 subjects who were randomly divided into two groups

Lila E. Nachtigall; Margaret J. Nachtigall; Erika Jacob

2000-01-01

172

A comparison of abdominal and vaginal hysterectomies in Benghazi, Libya.  

PubMed

We performed a comparative study between abdominal and vaginal hysterectomies using clinical data from Al-Jamhouria hospital (one of the largest maternity hospitals in Eastern Libya). Various parameters were taken into consideration: the rates of each type (and their subtypes); average age of patients; indications; causes; postoperative complications; and duration of stay in the hospital afterwards. Conclusions and recommendations were drawn from the results of this study. In light of the aforementioned parameters, it was found that: (1) abdominal hysterectomies were more common than vaginal hysterectomies (p < 0.001); (2) patients admitted for abdominal hysterectomies are younger than those admitted for vaginal hysterectomies (p < 0.001); (3) the most common indication for an abdominal hysterectomy was menstrual disturbances, while for vaginal hysterectomies it was vaginal prolapse; (4) the histopathological cause for abdominal and vaginal hysterectomies were observed and the most common were found to be leiomyomas and atrophic endometrium; (5) there was no significant difference between the two routes in terms of postoperative complications; (6) patients who were admitted for abdominal hysterectomies spent a longer amount of time in the hospital (p < 0.01). It was concluded that efforts should be made to further pursue vaginal and laparoscopic hysterectomies as a viable option to the more conventional abdominal route. PMID:23919862

Agnaeber, K; Bodalal, Z

2013-08-01

173

Characterisation of the vaginal Lactobacillus microbiota associated with preterm delivery.  

PubMed

The presence of an abnormal vaginal microflora in early pregnancy is a risk factor for preterm delivery. There is no investigation on vaginal flora dominated by lactic acid bacteria and possible association with preterm delivery. We assessed the dominant vaginal Lactobacillus species in healthy pregnant women in early pregnancy in relation to pregnancy outcome. We observed 111 low risk pregnant women with a normal vaginal microflora 11 + 0 to 14 + 0 weeks of pregnancy without subjective complaints. Vaginal smears were taken for the identification of lactobacilli using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Pregnancy outcome was recorded as term or preterm delivery (limit 36 + 6 weeks of gestation). The diversity of Lactobacillus species in term vs. preterm was the main outcome measure. L. iners alone was detected in 11 from 13 (85%) women who delivered preterm. By contrast, L. iners alone was detected in only 16 from 98 (16%) women who delivered at term (p < 0.001). Fifty six percent women that delivered at term and 8% women that delivered preterm had two or more vaginal Lactobacillus spp. at the same time. This study suggests that dominating L. iners alone detected in vaginal smears of healthy women in early pregnancy might be associated with preterm delivery. PMID:24875844

Petricevic, Ljubomir; Domig, Konrad J; Nierscher, Franz Josef; Sandhofer, Michael J; Fidesser, Maria; Krondorfer, Iris; Husslein, Peter; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Kiss, Herbert

2014-01-01

174

Differential tissue-specific protein markers of vaginal carcinoma  

PubMed Central

The objective was to identify proteins differentially expressed in vaginal cancer to elucidate relevant cancer-related proteins. A total of 16 fresh-frozen tissue biopsies, consisting of 5 biopsies from normal vaginal epithelium, 6 from primary vaginal carcinomas and 5 from primary cervical carcinomas, were analysed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Of the 43 proteins identified with significant alterations in protein expression between non-tumourous and tumourous tissue, 26 were upregulated and 17 were downregulated. Some were similarly altered in vaginal and cervical carcinoma, including cytoskeletal proteins, tumour suppressor proteins, oncoproteins implicated in apoptosis and proteins in the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway. Three proteins were uniquely altered in vaginal carcinoma (DDX48, erbB3-binding protein and biliverdin reductase) and five in cervical carcinoma (peroxiredoxin 2, annexin A2, sarcomeric tropomyosin kappa, human ribonuclease inhibitor and prolyl-4-hydrolase beta). The identified proteins imply involvement of multiple different cellular pathways in the carcinogenesis of vaginal carcinoma. Similar protein alterations were found between vaginal and cervical carcinoma suggesting common tumourigenesis. However, the expression level of some of these proteins markedly differs among the three tissue specimens indicating that they might be useful molecular markers.

Hellman, K; Alaiya, A A; Becker, S; Lomnytska, M; Schedvins, K; Steinberg, W; Hellstrom, A-C; Andersson, S; Hellman, U; Auer, G

2009-01-01

175

Characterisation of the vaginal Lactobacillus microbiota associated with preterm delivery  

PubMed Central

The presence of an abnormal vaginal microflora in early pregnancy is a risk factor for preterm delivery. There is no investigation on vaginal flora dominated by lactic acid bacteria and possible association with preterm delivery. We assessed the dominant vaginal Lactobacillus species in healthy pregnant women in early pregnancy in relation to pregnancy outcome. We observed 111 low risk pregnant women with a normal vaginal microflora 11 + 0 to 14 + 0 weeks of pregnancy without subjective complaints. Vaginal smears were taken for the identification of lactobacilli using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Pregnancy outcome was recorded as term or preterm delivery (limit 36 + 6 weeks of gestation). The diversity of Lactobacillus species in term vs. preterm was the main outcome measure. L. iners alone was detected in 11 from 13 (85%) women who delivered preterm. By contrast, L. iners alone was detected in only 16 from 98 (16%) women who delivered at term (p < 0.001). Fifty six percent women that delivered at term and 8% women that delivered preterm had two or more vaginal Lactobacillus spp. at the same time. This study suggests that dominating L. iners alone detected in vaginal smears of healthy women in early pregnancy might be associated with preterm delivery.

Petricevic, Ljubomir; Domig, Konrad J.; Nierscher, Franz Josef; Sandhofer, Michael J.; Fidesser, Maria; Krondorfer, Iris; Husslein, Peter; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Kiss, Herbert

2014-01-01

176

Rectal Colonization by Group B Streptococcus as a Predictor of Vaginal Colonization  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe rectal colonization by Group B Streptococcus (GBS) and its role in predicting vaginal colonization. Study Design In this prospective cohort of 1248 nonpregnant women, vaginal and rectal swabs for GBS culture were obtained at enrollment and three 4-month intervals. Generalized estimating equations were used to identify factors associated with colonization. Results Eight hundred fourteen (65%) women were colonized by GBS sometime during the observation period. Rectal GBS colonization was the strongest predictor of vaginal colonization (adjusted odds ratio = 14.3; 95% confidence interval: 11.9 to 17.1). Recent sexual intercourse, vaginal colonization with yeast, and a vaginal Nugent score ? 4 were also independent determinants of vaginal GBS colonization. Antimicrobial use decreased vaginal GBS colonization only among women lacking rectal colonization. Conclusions GBS in the gastrointestinal tract is a risk factor for vaginal GBS. Sexual activity and abnormal vaginal microflora are independent determinants of vaginal GBS colonization.

MEYN, Leslie A.; KROHN, Marijane A.; HILLIER, Sharon L.

2009-01-01

177

Magnitude of Interfractional Vaginal Cuff Movement: Implications for External Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To quantify the extent of interfractional vaginal cuff movement in patients receiving postoperative irradiation for cervical or endometrial cancer in the absence of bowel/bladder instruction. Methods and Materials: Eleven consecutive patients with cervical or endometrial cancer underwent placement of three gold seed fiducial markers in the vaginal cuff apex as part of standard of care before simulation. Patients subsequently underwent external irradiation and brachytherapy treatment based on institutional guidelines. Daily megavoltage CT imaging was performed during each external radiation treatment fraction. The daily positions of the vaginal apex fiducial markers were subsequently compared with the original position of the fiducial markers on the simulation CT. Composite dose-volume histograms were also created by summing daily target positions. Results: The average ({+-} standard deviation) vaginal cuff movement throughout daily pelvic external radiotherapy when referenced to the simulation position was 16.2 {+-} 8.3 mm. The maximum vaginal cuff movement for any patient during treatment was 34.5 mm. In the axial plane the mean vaginal cuff movement was 12.9 {+-} 6.7 mm. The maximum vaginal cuff axial movement was 30.7 mm. In the craniocaudal axis the mean movement was 10.3 {+-} 7.6 mm, with a maximum movement of 27.0 mm. Probability of cuff excursion outside of the clinical target volume steadily dropped as margin size increased (53%, 26%, 4.2%, and 1.4% for 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 cm, respectively.) However, rectal and bladder doses steadily increased with larger margin sizes. Conclusions: The magnitude of vaginal cuff movement is highly patient specific and can impact target coverage in patients without bowel/bladder instructions at simulation. The use of vaginal cuff fiducials can help identify patients at risk for target volume excursion.

Ma, Daniel J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Michaletz-Lorenz, Martha [Department of Education and Training, Elekta, Maryland Heights, MO (United States); Goddu, S. Murty [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Grigsby, Perry W., E-mail: pgrigsby@wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Division of Nuclear Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

2012-03-15

178

Uterus preserving vaginal surgery versus vaginal hysterectomy for correction of female pelvic organ prolapse.  

PubMed

(Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). Aim. The objective of this study is to evaluate uterus preserving vaginal procedure of cervical amputation with uterosacral ligament plication (modified Manchester operation) and compare it to vaginal hysterectomy regard recurrence rate, duration of surgery, blood loses, intra and post-operative complications, duration of hospital stay. Methods: Consecutive women with pelvic organ prolapse who underwent either vaginal hyste-rectomy or a modified Manchester procedure were included. Assessments were made preoperatively and at 1-year follow-up, including physical examination with pelvic organ prolapse quantification standardized questionnaires. Results: 66 patients were included in the study with a one year follow-up. We found no significant difference in: recurrence of POP and reintervention (recurrence with required treatment n (%): 3(10) vs. 5(15), p = 0.28) and hospital stay (mean ± SD days: 5 ± 2 vs. 7 ± 2, p = 0.97). Significant less blood loses (250 ± 210 ml. vs. 360 ± 230 ml.) and shorter operation time (67 ± 20 min. vs 102 ± 22 min.) in modified Manchester group, but significant more urinary retention (cases: 8 vs 6) in modified Manchester group. The overall functional outcome was acceptable for both procedures. Conclusions: We found an excellent performance of both procedures regarding recurrences and intra and post-operative complications. A high degree of acceptance-satisfaction shows the modified Manchester operation and is good option for the treatment of uterine prolapse in younger women who wish to keep their uterus and in all cases of genital prolapse with elongation of uterine cervix (when there is not other uterine pathology). Shorter operation time and lower blood lose are another factors for stronger recommendation of the modified Manchester operation for patients with concomitant diseases and/or older age patients with elevated risk from anesthesia and/or surgery. Key worlds: vaginal, hysterectomy, prolapse, uterus. PMID:24802202

Iliev, V N; Andonova, I T

2014-01-01

179

Performing Vaginal Lavage, Crystal Violet Staining, and Vaginal Cytological Evaluation for Mouse Estrous Cycle Staging Identification  

PubMed Central

A rapid means of assessing reproductive status in rodents is useful not only in the study of reproductive dysfunction but is also required for the production of new mouse models of disease and investigations into the hormonal regulation of tissue degeneration (or regeneration) following pathological challenge. The murine reproductive (or estrous) cycle is divided into 4 stages: proestrus, estrus, metestrus, and diestrus. Defined fluctuations in circulating levels of the ovarian steroids 17-?-estradiol and progesterone, the gonadotropins luteinizing and follicle stimulating hormones, and the luteotropic hormone prolactin signal transition through these reproductive stages. Changes in cell typology within the murine vaginal canal reflect these underlying endocrine events. Daily assessment of the relative ratio of nucleated epithelial cells, cornified squamous epithelial cells, and leukocytes present in vaginal smears can be used to identify murine estrous stages. The degree of invasiveness, however, employed in collecting these samples can alter reproductive status and elicit an inflammatory response that can confound cytological assessment of smears. Here, we describe a simple, non-invasive protocol that can be used to determine the stage of the estrous cycle of a female mouse without altering her reproductive cycle. We detail how to differentiate between the four stages of the estrous cycle by collection and analysis of predominant cell typology in vaginal smears and we show how these changes can be interpreted with respect to endocrine status.

McLean, Ashleigh C.; Valenzuela, Nicolas; Fai, Stephen; Bennett, Steffany A.L.

2012-01-01

180

Treating dyspareunia caused by vaginal atrophy: a review of treatment options using vaginal estrogen therapy.  

PubMed

Vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) and dryness are common symptoms of the decline in endogenous production of estrogen at menopause and often result in dyspareunia. Yet while 10% to 40% of women experience discomfort due to VVA, it is estimated that only 25% seek medical help. The main goals of treatment for vaginal atrophy are to improve symptoms and to restore vaginal and vulvar anatomic changes. Treatment choices for postmenopausal dyspareunia resulting from vulvovaginal atrophy will depend on the underlying etiology and might include individualized treatment. A number of forms of vaginal estrogen and manner of delivery are currently available to treat moderate to severe dyspareunia caused by VVA. They all have been shown to be effective and are often the preferred treatment due to the targeted efficacy for urogenital tissues while resulting in only minimal systemic absorption. Both healthcare professionals and patients often find it difficult to broach the subject of sexual problems associated with VVA. However, with minimal effort to initiate a conversation about these problems, healthcare providers can provide useful information to their postmenopausal patients in order to help them each choose the optimal treatment for their needs and symptoms. PMID:21072280

Kingsberg, Sa; Kellogg, S; Krychman, M

2010-01-01

181

Treating dyspareunia caused by vaginal atrophy: a review of treatment options using vaginal estrogen therapy  

PubMed Central

Vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) and dryness are common symptoms of the decline in endogenous production of estrogen at menopause and often result in dyspareunia. Yet while 10% to 40% of women experience discomfort due to VVA, it is estimated that only 25% seek medical help. The main goals of treatment for vaginal atrophy are to improve symptoms and to restore vaginal and vulvar anatomic changes. Treatment choices for postmenopausal dyspareunia resulting from vulvovaginal atrophy will depend on the underlying etiology and might include individualized treatment. A number of forms of vaginal estrogen and manner of delivery are currently available to treat moderate to severe dyspareunia caused by VVA. They all have been shown to be effective and are often the preferred treatment due to the targeted efficacy for urogenital tissues while resulting in only minimal systemic absorption. Both healthcare professionals and patients often find it difficult to broach the subject of sexual problems associated with VVA. However, with minimal effort to initiate a conversation about these problems, healthcare providers can provide useful information to their postmenopausal patients in order to help them each choose the optimal treatment for their needs and symptoms.

Kingsberg, SA; Kellogg, S; Krychman, M

2010-01-01

182

Performing vaginal lavage, crystal violet staining, and vaginal cytological evaluation for mouse estrous cycle staging identification.  

PubMed

A rapid means of assessing reproductive status in rodents is useful not only in the study of reproductive dysfunction but is also required for the production of new mouse models of disease and investigations into the hormonal regulation of tissue degeneration (or regeneration) following pathological challenge. The murine reproductive (or estrous) cycle is divided into 4 stages: proestrus, estrus, metestrus, and diestrus. Defined fluctuations in circulating levels of the ovarian steroids 17-?-estradiol and progesterone, the gonadotropins luteinizing and follicle stimulating hormones, and the luteotropic hormone prolactin signal transition through these reproductive stages. Changes in cell typology within the murine vaginal canal reflect these underlying endocrine events. Daily assessment of the relative ratio of nucleated epithelial cells, cornified squamous epithelial cells, and leukocytes present in vaginal smears can be used to identify murine estrous stages. The degree of invasiveness, however, employed in collecting these samples can alter reproductive status and elicit an inflammatory response that can confound cytological assessment of smears. Here, we describe a simple, non-invasive protocol that can be used to determine the stage of the estrous cycle of a female mouse without altering her reproductive cycle. We detail how to differentiate between the four stages of the estrous cycle by collection and analysis of predominant cell typology in vaginal smears and we show how these changes can be interpreted with respect to endocrine status. PMID:23007862

McLean, Ashleigh C; Valenzuela, Nicolas; Fai, Stephen; Bennett, Steffany A L

2012-01-01

183

Associations between vaginal bacteria and levels of vaginal defensins in pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Objective We evaluated vaginal defensin concentrations and levels of BV-associated bacterial species in pregnant women. Study Design Self-collected vaginal swabs from two visits during pregnancy were tested with qPCR for nine bacterial species. Beta defensin 2 (HBD2), HBD3 and alpha defensins 1–3 (HNP1–3) were measured by ELISA. Results Our 126 participants were primarily African American (60%), had a mean gestational age at enrollment of 10 weeks (±3) and at follow-up of 25 weeks (± 6). At enrollment, prevalence of BV was 74% (94/126), which decreased to 60% (75/126) at follow-up. At enrollment, HBD3 concentrations were significantly lower in women with BV (2.64 + 0.91 vs. 3.25 + 0.99 log10 pg/mL; p = 0.003). Higher concentrations of Atopobium vaginae, BVAB1 and BVAB2 were associated with significantly lower concentrations of HBD3 (p < 0.01). Conclusions BV was associated with lower vaginal concentrations of HBD3, but not HBD2 or HNP1–3, in pregnant women.

Mitchell, Caroline; Gottsch, Michelle L.; Liu, Congzhou; Fredricks, David N.; Nelson, Deborah B.

2013-01-01

184

Colostrum in menopause effects on vaginal cytology/symptoms.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the effects of three weeks of daily colostrum cream on vaginal cytology and local symptoms related to menopause. Genito-urinary symptoms and cell morphology were analyzed at time 0 (T0) and after three weeks (16 +/- days since the end of treatment) at time 1 (T1). Dyspareunia, vaginal dryness, and maturation index (MI) reached a statistically significant difference between T0 and T1. The results proved to be an alternative treatment for vaginal distress caused by lack of hormones in patients in which hormonal treatment is contraindicated. PMID:23971242

Tucci, S; Mancini, R; De Vitis, C; Noto, A; Marra, E; Lukic, A; Giovagnoli, M R; Moscarini, M

2013-01-01

185

Transverse vaginal septum: case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

A case of perforated complete transverse vaginal septum in the upper third of the vagina in a patient presenting at 19 years of age for evaluation of primary infertility. Diagnosis was made by hysterosalpingography. The patient was treated surgically and conceived 2 months after the procedure. The finding of transverse vaginal septum in an asymptomatic infertility patient is highly unusual. We reviewed the literature since 1966 and summarized 73 cases. The review confirms the benign characteristics of this rare anomaly and supports the embryonic origin of the transverse septum from the vaginal plate. PMID:9449593

Levy, G; Warren, M; Maidman, J

1997-01-01

186

Vaginal Myomectomy for a Thirteen-Centimeter Anterior Myoma  

PubMed Central

Vaginal myomectomy is an uncommon but advantageous approach for large interstitial uterine fibroids. Myomectomy is performed via laparotomy and laparoscopy; however, in selected cases, vaginal myomectomy has been proven to be a safe and an effective surgical procedure. We report the case of a 38-year-old para one woman with complaints of chronic lower abdominal pain. Preoperative workup revealed a thirteen-centimeter interstitial uterine myoma in the anterior wall. Successful myomectomy was performed via the vaginal route. We will share the preoperative images, operative technique, and postoperative images.

Deval, Bruno; Rousset, Pascal

2013-01-01

187

Intrapartum diagnosis and treatment of longitudinal vaginal septum.  

PubMed

Longitudinal vaginal septum is a rare Müllerian malformation that may be associated with dyspareunia, dysmenorrhea, primary amenorrhea, and infertility. In this report, the authors present a case of longitudinal vaginal septum in a 15-year-old patient with a full-term pregnancy whose diagnosis was only made during labor following bidigital vaginal and speculum examination. Septoplasty was performed during the second stage of labor. Both mother and child progressed satisfactorily and were discharged from hospital in good health. Six months later, ultrasonography, hysterosalpingography, and hysteroscopy were carried out and no other associated abnormality was found. PMID:24891963

de França Neto, Antonio Henriques; Nóbrega, Bianca Virgolino; Clementino Filho, Jessé; do Ó, Tiago Cavalcanti; de Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos

2014-01-01

188

Intrapartum Diagnosis and Treatment of Longitudinal Vaginal Septum  

PubMed Central

Longitudinal vaginal septum is a rare Müllerian malformation that may be associated with dyspareunia, dysmenorrhea, primary amenorrhea, and infertility. In this report, the authors present a case of longitudinal vaginal septum in a 15-year-old patient with a full-term pregnancy whose diagnosis was only made during labor following bidigital vaginal and speculum examination. Septoplasty was performed during the second stage of labor. Both mother and child progressed satisfactorily and were discharged from hospital in good health. Six months later, ultrasonography, hysterosalpingography, and hysteroscopy were carried out and no other associated abnormality was found.

de Franca Neto, Antonio Henriques; Nobrega, Bianca Virgolino; Clementino Filho, Jesse; do O, Tiago Cavalcanti; de Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos

2014-01-01

189

Pelviscopic Compared to Laparotomic and Vaginal Intrafascial Hysterectomy  

PubMed Central

Between 1993 and 1994, 368 women underwent hysterectomies for benign disorders at the University of Kiel. Of these, 58.7% were performed either by pelviscopic or by laparotomy Classic Intrafascial Supracervical Hysterectomy (CISH). Of the remaining, 14.8% were performed by abdominal hysterectomy, 13.6% by Intrafascial Vaginal Hysterectomy (IVH), 12.2% by Vaginal Hysterectomy (VH), and only 0.05% by Laparoscopic Assisted Vaginal Hysterectomy (LAVH). Comparative data of these six surgical techniques concerning patients characteristics, indications for operation, histological features, blood loss, operating time, hospital stay, uterine weights and postoperatively used analgesics are described.

Lutzewitsch, N.

1997-01-01

190

Vaginal microbiome and sexually transmitted infections: an epidemiologic perspective  

PubMed Central

Vaginal bacterial communities are thought to help prevent sexually transmitted infections. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common clinical syndrome in which the protective lactic acid–producing bacteria (mainly species of the Lactobacillus genus) are supplanted by a diverse array of anaerobic bacteria. Epidemiologically, BV has been shown to be an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes including preterm birth, development of pelvic inflammatory disease, and acquisition of sexually transmitted infections. Longitudinal studies of the vaginal microbiome using molecular techniques such as 16S ribosomal DNA analysis may lead to interventions that shift the vaginal microbiota toward more protective states.

Brotman, Rebecca M.

2011-01-01

191

Imperforate hymen and vaginal atresia and their associated anomalies.  

PubMed Central

The presenting features and associated abnormalities of imperforate hymen and vaginal atresia were studied in 24 girls under the age of 16 years. Hydrocolpos or hydrometrocolpos occurred in 8 infants, 13 older girls developed haematocolpos, but 3 of the girls had no distension of the genital tract. Seven of the older girls were diagnosed as having appendicitis. Anorectal anomalies were present in 9 of the children. Intravenous pyelography was performed on 16 girls and was normal in only one. Urinary tract investigations are indicated in all girls with vaginal outlet obstruction, and the vaginal orifice should be inspected in all girls with anorectal abnormalities.

Shaw, L M; Jones, W A; Brereton, R J

1983-01-01

192

Therapeutic Mechanisms of Treatment in Cervical and Vaginal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Cervical and vaginal cancers remain serious health problems. Worldwide, more than 530,000 women annually are diagnosed with these diseases, with most new incident cases occurring in nations with limited health resources and underdeveloped screening programs. For women whose disease is too bulky or widespread for surgery, radiochemotherapy should be looked upon as the standard of care. Randomized clinical trials have indicated that radiochemotherapy strategies that disrupt the repair of damaged DNA are key to the management of advanced stage cervical and vaginal cancers. Here, from a viewpoint of cancer cell molecular biology, treatments for advanced stage cervical and vaginal cancers are discussed.

Kunos, Charles A

2012-01-01

193

Oxidized Regenerated Cellulose Resembling Vaginal Cuff Abscess  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Application of oxidized regenerated cellulose is commonly performed in laparoscopy to achieve hemostasis during surgery. The appearance of an abscess resembles oxidized regenerated cellulose, causing imaging studies to be difficult to interpret. Case Description: We describe the cases of 3 patients who underwent oxidized regenerated cellulose placement during laparoscopic gynecologic surgery. They subsequently presented with signs and symptoms resembling an abscess. Computed tomographic imaging can be challenging to interpret in such cases; radiologic findings can be used to differentiate between the characteristics of oxidized regenerated cellulose and those of abscess formation on the vaginal cuff. Discussion: Oxidized regenerated cellulose has an appearance that often mimics postsurgical abscess formation. There are distinct characteristics that distinguish both findings. It is essential that patients' records accurately describe the presence and location of regenerated oxidized cellulose when placed intraoperatively, and this information must be relayed to the interpreting radiologist to facilitate medical diagnosis and guide clinical management.

Harkins, Gerald; Dykes, Thomas; Gockley, Allison; Davies, Matthew

2014-01-01

194

Improving Vaginal Examinations Performed by Midwives  

PubMed Central

A vaginal examination (VE) is an essential part of midwifery care, and is routinely performed when assessing the progress of labour. As evidence shows that during labour women may find VEs unpleasant, embarrassing and sometimes painful, the aim of this article is to review literature on the use of VEs during labour and to synthesise information from the available literature on how to provide an effective VE. The studies considered were retrieved from three databases (the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature [CINAHL], SCOPUS and MEDLINE) using the following search terms: “VEs in labour”, “midwives and use of VEs” and “women experiences of VEs in labour”. The literature reviewed suggests that midwives are not careful about VEs. Therefore, a concerted effort is needed to pay attention to the frequency of VEs, the management of pain and distress, information-giving and the preferences of the patient, so that the patient can feel in control during a VE.

Muliira, Rhoda S.; Seshan, Vidya; Ramasubramaniam, Shanthi

2013-01-01

195

Congenital vaginal obstructions: varied presentation and outcome.  

PubMed

Congenital obstructing lesions of vagina, hydrometrocolpos, and hematocolpos, present at a variable time during early childhood and adolescence to different medical and surgical specialties. Twenty-six cases presenting over an 18-years period (1987-2005) were divided into three groups; Group A: neonates (6), Group B: adolescents (18), and Group C: adults (2). Common presentations in neonates (Group A) were abdominal mass (5), neonatal sepsis (3), and respiratory distress (2); whereas abdominal pain (18), voiding dysfunctions (13), and backache (7) were prevalent in adolescents (Group B). Adults (Group C) presented with inability to consummate and infertility (2). Four patients received erroneous treatment; exploratory laparotomy (1) and appendectomy (3). Urinary symptoms and associated urinary abnormalities were present in more than 50% of cases, especially those with complex anomalies. Management included excision of imperforate hymen (16) and transverse vaginal septum (8) through perineal (20) and abdominoperineal approach (4). Patients with urogenital sinus (1) and cloacal malformation (1) had staged reconstruction at 2.5 years of age following preliminary vesicostomy and colostomy at birth. On follow up (range 1-15 years; mean 7) more than 60% patients have menstrual irregularity (11), endometriosis (5), and infertility (4). In conclusion, rarity and variable presentation of congenital vaginal obstructions can lead to delayed diagnosis and erroneous management. A high index of suspicion and cross-sectional imaging help in early diagnosis and associated renal anomalies. A comprehensive management is imperative to preserve the reproductive potentials, as significant proportion of patients may experience sexual difficulties, menstrual irregularity, and infertility. PMID:16871398

Nazir, Zafar; Rizvi, Raheela M; Qureshi, Rahat N; Khan, Zarrish Saeed; Khan, Zarak

2006-09-01

196

Mucus-penetrating nanoparticles for vaginal and gastrointestinal drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method that could provide more uniform and longer-lasting drug delivery to mucosal surfaces holds the potential to greatly improve the effectiveness of prophylactic and therapeutic approaches for numerous diseases and conditions, including sexually transmitted infections and inflammatory bowel disease. However, the body's natural defenses, including adhesive, rapidly cleared mucus linings coating nearly all entry points to the body not covered by skin, has limited the effectiveness of drug and gene delivery by nanoscale delivery systems. Here, we investigate the use of muco-inert mucus-penetrating nanoparticles (MPP) for improving vaginal and gastrointestinal drug delivery. Conventional hydrophobic nanoparticles strongly adhere to mucus, facilitating rapid clearance from the body. Here, we demonstrate that mucoadhesive polystyrene nanoparticles (conventional nanoparticles, CP) become mucus-penetrating in human cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) after pretreatment with sufficient concentrations of Pluronic F127. Importantly, the diffusion rate of large MPP did not change in F127 pretreated CVM, implying there is no affect on the native pore structure of CVM. Additionally, there was no increase in inflammatory cytokine release in the vaginal tract of mice after daily application of 1% F127 for one week. Importantly, HSV virus remains adherent in F127-pretreated CVM. Mucosal epithelia use osmotic gradients for fluid absorption and secretion. We hypothesized that hypotonically-induced fluid uptake could be advantageous for rapidly delivering drugs through mucus to the vaginal epithelium. We evaluated hypotonic formulations for delivering water-soluble drugs and for drug delivery with MPP. Hypotonic formulations markedly increased the rate at which drugs and MPP reached the epithelial surface. Additionally, hypotonic formulations greatly enhanced drug and MPP delivery to the entire epithelial surface, including deep into the vaginal folds (rugae) that isotonic formulations failed to reach. However, hypotonic formulations caused free drugs to be drawn through the epithelium, reducing vaginal retention. In contrast, hypotonic formulations caused MPP to accumulate rapidly and uniformly on vaginal surfaces, ideally positioned for sustained drug delivery. Using a mouse model of vaginal genital herpes (HSV-2) infection, we found that hypotonic delivery of free drug led to improved immediate protection, but diminished longer-term protection. Minimally hypotonic formulations provided rapid and uniform delivery of MPP to the entire vaginal surface, thus enabling formulations with minimal risk of epithelial toxicity. We then describe an ex vivo method for characterizing particle transport on freshly excised mucosal tissues. By directly observing MPP transport on vaginal, gastrointestinal, and respiratory tissue, we were able to determine an innate difference in mucus mesh size at different anatomical locations. In addition, we were able to optimize particle size for gastrointestinal delivery in mice. As described here, there are numerous barriers to effective drug delivery in the gastrointestinal tract, including the mucus barrier. We go on to demonstrate that MPP can improve delivery in the gastrointestinal tract, both by rectal and oral administration. Finally, we describe the use of MPP for improving vaginal drug delivery. Incomplete drug coverage and short duration of action limit the effectiveness of vaginally administered drugs, including microbicides for preventing sexually transmitted infections. We show that MPP provide uniform distribution over the vaginal epithelium, whereas CP are aggregated by mouse vaginal mucus, leading to poor distribution. By penetrating into the deepest mucus layers in the rugae, more MPP were retained in the vaginal tract compared to CP. After 24 h, when delivered in a conventional vaginal gel, patches of a model drug remained on the vaginal epithelium, whereas the epithelium was coated with drug delivered by MPP. We then demonstrate that when administered 30 min prior to inoculum, anti-HSV-2 MPP protected

Ensign-Hodges, Laura

197

Management of Vaginal Atrophy: Implications from the REVIVE Survey.  

PubMed

Vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA) is a chronic and progressive medical condition common in postmenopausal women. Symptoms of VVA such as dyspareunia, vaginal dryness, irritation, and itching can negatively impact sexual function and quality of life. The REVIVE (REal Women's VIews of Treatment Options for Menopausal Vaginal ChangEs) survey assessed knowledge about VVA and recorded attitudes about interactions with healthcare providers (HCPs) and available treatment options for VVA. The REVIVE survey identified unmet needs of women with VVA symptoms such as poor understanding of the condition, poor communication with HCPs despite the presence of vaginal symptoms, and concerns about the safety, convenience, and efficacy of available VVA treatments. HCPs can address these unmet needs by proactively identifying patients with VVA and educating them about the condition as well as discussing treatment preferences and available therapies for VVA. PMID:24987271

Wysocki, Susan; Kingsberg, Sheryl; Krychman, Michael

2014-01-01

198

Management of Vaginal Atrophy: Implications from the REVIVE Survey  

PubMed Central

Vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA) is a chronic and progressive medical condition common in postmenopausal women. Symptoms of VVA such as dyspareunia, vaginal dryness, irritation, and itching can negatively impact sexual function and quality of life. The REVIVE (REal Women’s VIews of Treatment Options for Menopausal Vaginal ChangEs) survey assessed knowledge about VVA and recorded attitudes about interactions with healthcare providers (HCPs) and available treatment options for VVA. The REVIVE survey identified unmet needs of women with VVA symptoms such as poor understanding of the condition, poor communication with HCPs despite the presence of vaginal symptoms, and concerns about the safety, convenience, and efficacy of available VVA treatments. HCPs can address these unmet needs by proactively identifying patients with VVA and educating them about the condition as well as discussing treatment preferences and available therapies for VVA.

Wysocki, Susan; Kingsberg, Sheryl; Krychman, Michael

2014-01-01

199

A rare case of vaginal vault evisceration and its management  

PubMed Central

A 66 year old woman presented to A&E with per vagina bleeding and a mass protruding from the vagina. The patient was examined under anaesthesia, which revealed vaginal prolapse with evisceration of approximately 20-30 cm of bowel. The patient had received an abdominal hysterectomy 30 years ago for menorrhagia. In the last decade, the patient had experienced other recurrent episodes of prolapse (cystocoele and retrocoele). Vaginal vault evisceration is a recognised rare complication of hysterectomy and is a gynaecological emergency. This patient’s condition was rapidly recognised and surgically managed. The repair was achieved in two surgeries. Initially, the small bowel was re-inserted into the peritoneal cavity through the vaginal wall defect and the vaginal defect repaired. After sufficient time for healing, a sacrocolpopexy was performed to repair the prolapse.

Pereira, FD Alves; Rai, H

2012-01-01

200

Vaginal Estrogen Therapy for Patients with Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

On account of the good prognosis for patients with breast cancer, improving or maintaining the quality of life in the aftercare period is becoming more and more important. In particular, the increasing usage of aromatase inhibitors in the past few years has led to an increased incidence of vaginal atrophy with symptoms such as vaginal dryness, petechial bleeding, dyspareunia and recurrent cystitis. And just these symptoms have a detrimental impact on the quality of life of breast cancer patients. Application of a topical estrogen therapy represents the most effective means to treat vaginal atrophy. The use of a systemic or, respectively, topical hormone therapy is, however, contraindicated for breast cancer patients. Further clinical trials are needed in order to assess the safety of vaginal estrogen therapy.

Moegele, M.; Buchholz, S.; Seitz, S.; Lattrich, C.; Ortmann, O.

2013-01-01

201

Vaginal Gel Might Prevent HIV Hours After Exposure  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Vaginal Gel Might Prevent HIV Hours After Exposure Lab tests with monkeys look promising, ... from HIV, even if it is applied several hours after sex, animal research suggests. The antimicrobial gel ...

202

Female sexual dysfunction following vaginal surgery: myth or reality?  

PubMed

This article reviews the mechanisms by which vaginal surgery affects female sexual function and related pathophysiology to potential causes. The anatomy, neurovascular supply of the clitoris and introitus, and intrapelvic nerve supply are discussed as they apply to vaginal surgery. Methods to avoid neurovascular damage during pelvic floor surgery have been corroborated by supporting literature. The incidence of female sexual dysfunction after various transvaginal procedures for indications such as stress urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse, anterior/posterior colporrhaphy, perineoplasty, and vaginal vault prolapse has been discussed. Current literature regarding female sexual dysfunction following other procedures such as vaginal hysterectomy, Martius flap interposition, and vesicovaginal and rectovaginal fistula repair also are reviewed. PMID:15461920

Tunuguntla, Hari S G R; Gousse, Angelo E

2004-10-01

203

Vaginal and Cervical Cytology of the Early Puerperium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cervical and vaginal smears were obtained from 160 women who had delivered one to eight days prior to cytologic examination. Preparations were examined for general morphology and graded for malignancy. The degree of cytologic abnormality was found to corr...

H. B. Soloway

1969-01-01

204

Optimized Dose Distribution of Gammamed Plus Vaginal Cylinders  

SciTech Connect

Endometrial carcinoma is the most common malignancy arising in the female genital tract. Intracavitary vaginal cuff irradiation may be given alone or with external beam irradiation in patients determined to be at risk for locoregional recurrence. Vaginal cylinders are often used to deliver a brachytherapy dose to the vaginal apex and upper vagina or the entire vaginal surface in the management of postoperative endometrial cancer or cervical cancer. The dose distributions of HDR vaginal cylinders must be evaluated carefully, so that clinical experiences with LDR techniques can be used in guiding optimal use of HDR techniques. The aim of this study was to optimize dose distribution for Gammamed plus vaginal cylinders. Placement of dose optimization points was evaluated for its effect on optimized dose distributions. Two different dose optimization point models were used in this study, namely non-apex (dose optimization points only on periphery of cylinder) and apex (dose optimization points on periphery and along the curvature including the apex points). Thirteen dwell positions were used for the HDR dosimetry to obtain a 6-cm active length. Thus 13 optimization points were available at the periphery of the cylinder. The coordinates of the points along the curvature depended on the cylinder diameters and were chosen for each cylinder so that four points were distributed evenly in the curvature portion of the cylinder. Diameter of vaginal cylinders varied from 2.0 to 4.0 cm. Iterative optimization routine was utilized for all optimizations. The effects of various optimization routines (iterative, geometric, equal times) was studied for the 3.0-cm diameter vaginal cylinder. The effect of source travel step size on the optimized dose distributions for vaginal cylinders was also evaluated. All optimizations in this study were carried for dose of 6 Gy at dose optimization points. For both non-apex and apex models of vaginal cylinders, doses for apex point and three dome points were higher for the apex model compared with the non-apex model. Mean doses to the optimization points for both the cylinder models and all the cylinder diameters were 6 Gy, matching with the prescription dose of 6 Gy. Iterative optimization routine resulted in the highest dose to apex point and dome points. The mean dose for optimization point was 6.01 Gy for iterative optimization and was much higher than 5.74 Gy for geometric and equal times routines. Step size of 1 cm gave the highest dose to the apex point. This step size was superior in terms of mean dose to optimization points. Selection of dose optimization points for the derivation of optimized dose distributions for vaginal cylinders affects the dose distributions.

Supe, Sanjay S. [Department of Radiation Physics, Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology, Bangalore, Karnataka (India)], E-mail: sanjayssupe@gmail.com; Bijina, T.K.; Varatharaj, C.; Shwetha, B.; Arunkumar, T.; Sathiyan, S.; Ganesh, K.M.; Ravikumar, M. [Department of Radiation Physics, Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology, Bangalore, Karnataka (India)

2009-04-01

205

Predictive value for infection of febrile morbidity after vaginal surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the screening value of febrile morbidity for detecting infections after vaginal surgery.Methods: A cohort of 431 consecutive women had vaginal surgery at the M. S. Hershey Medical Center from September 1988 through June 1995. Outcomes of febrile morbidity and infection were analyzed.Results: Fifty-four of 431 patients (12.5%) had febrile morbidity. Thirty-five infections (8.1%) were identified, of which

D. Paul Shackelford; M. K Hoffman; M. F Davies; P. F Kaminski

1999-01-01

206

Small bowel obstruction associated with tension-free vaginal tape  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 73-year-old woman with stress urinary incontinence and uterine prolapse underwent vaginal hysterectomy followed by tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) placement. Postoperatively, she presented with low-grade fever and abdominal distension. Abdominal computed tomography revealed bowel distension and abrupt cutoff of the distended small bowel and normal bowel caliber. Transperitoneal laparotomy demonstrated perforation of the mesentery by the TVT without other injury.

Line Leboeuf; Luis E. Mendez; Angelo E. Gousse

2004-01-01

207

Vaginal vault prolapse following cystectomy: transvaginal reconstruction by mesh interposition.  

PubMed

The present study aims to introduce a transvaginal interposition of polypropylene mesh as a reproducible procedure for women with vaginal vault prolapse following cystectomy due to bladder carcinoma. No recurrent prolapse occurred in two cases 16 and 4 months after the operation. With apical fixation of the mesh, vaginal length can be maintained. No perioperative complications appeared. Performing the technique in a reproducible way seems feasible irrespective of differing anatomical conditions. PMID:22955251

Graefe, Flora; Beilecke, Kathrin; Tunn, Ralf

2013-08-01

208

Robotic removal of eroded vaginal mesh into the bladder.  

PubMed

Vaginal mesh erosion into the bladder after midurethral sling procedure or cystocele repair is uncommon, with only a few cases having been reported in the literature. The ideal surgical management is still controversial. Current options for removal of eroded mesh include: endoscopic, transvaginal or abdominal (either open or laparoscopic) approaches. We, herein, present the first case of robotic removal of a large eroded vaginal mesh into the bladder and discuss potential benefits and limitations of the technique. PMID:23600850

Macedo, Francisco Igor B; O'Connor, Jeffrey; Mittal, Vijay K; Hurley, Patrick

2013-11-01

209

Vaginal microflora in healthy women with Gardnerella vaginalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to find the vaginal prevalence of Gardnerella vaginalis in a normal female population, we determined the incidence of G. vaginalis in relation to that of other bacterial genera and species in the vagina. Two-hundred and thirty-nine healthy women were the\\u000a subjects of this study. Vaginal discharge was collected and bacteriological studies were performed. The mean total aerobe\\u000a count

Hiroshige Mikamo; Yasumasa Sato; Yoh Hayasaki; Yin Xiang Hua; Teruhiko Tamaya

2000-01-01

210

Obstetric and gynecological diseases and complications resulting from vaginal dysbacteriosis.  

PubMed

Accurate knowledge of the composition and ecology of vaginal microbial environment of a healthy woman is necessary for the understanding of normal flora and how to reduce the risk for diseases. Vagina and its microflora form a balanced ecosystem in which dominated bacteria are vaginal lactobacilli. There are dynamic changes in this ecosystem having structure and composition depending on many factors. The term dysbacteriosis defines any movement outside the normal range for the given biotope of obligate and/or facultative microflora. Such a change in the quantity and quality of the respective microbial balance is fraught with danger and requires correction and recovery. The purpose of this overview is to examine obstetric and gynecological diseases that can cause vaginal impaired microbial balance. Vaginal dysbacteriosis is a cause, predecessor, and often also consequence of vaginal infections. In essence, any vaginal infection can be seen as dysbacteriosis, developed to the most severe extent. Here, there is a dominant microorganism other than lactic acid bacteria in the vagina (clinically manifested or not, respectively), depletion of defense mechanisms of the vagina associated with the shift of lactobacilli from their dominant role in the vaginal balance, decrease in their number and species diversity, and a resulting change in the healthy status of the vagina. Vaginal dysbacteriosis can be found in pathogenetic mechanism, whereby many obstetric and gynecological diseases develop. Most of these diseases lead directly to increased maternal and infant morbidity and mortality, so it is important to understand the reasons for them and the arrangements for their prevention. PMID:24711012

Kovachev, Stefan Miladinov

2014-08-01

211

Transverse vaginal septum: Case report and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of perforated complete transverse vaginal septum in the upper third of the vagina in a patient presenting at 19 years\\u000a of age for evaluation of primary infertility. Diagnosis was made by hysterosal-pingography. The patient was treated surgically\\u000a and conceived 2 months after the procedure. The finding of transverse vaginal septum in an asymptomatic infertility patient\\u000a is highly unusual.

G. Levy; M. Warren; J. Maidman

1997-01-01

212

Management of Vaginal Erosion of Polypropylene Mesh Slings  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe SPARC (American Medical Systems, Minneapolis, Minnesota) polypropylene sling has recently been introduced as an alternative delivery system to TVT (Ethicon, New Brunswick, New Jersey) tension-free vaginal tape for placement of a tension-free mid urethral sling. Erosion must always be considered a risk of synthetic materials. We present 4 cases of vaginal erosion of polypropylene mesh placed with this system

KATHLEEN C. KOBASHI; FRED E. GOVIER

2003-01-01

213

Longitudinal vaginal septum: a retrospective study of 202 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess issues and management of longitudinal vaginal septum.Study design: The charts of 202 patients referred for a longitudinal vaginal septum over a 24 year period were reviewed.Results: The most common septa were complete and high partial. Associated uterine malformations were frequent (87.8% of the cases), especially in complete or partial high septum (99.4%). The septum was asymptomatic in

Bassam Haddad; Christine Louis-Sylvestre; Philippe Poitout; Bernard-Jean Paniel

1997-01-01

214

Factors influencing women's decisions to self-treat vaginal symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To review the research on women's self-treatment of vaginal symptoms, describe factors influencing this phenomenon, identify evidence-based interventions, and suggest strategies for nurse practitioners (NPs) to promote safe and effective self-treatment decisions by women.\\u000aDATA SOURCES: Research articles identified through Medline and CINAHL databases.\\u000aCONCLUSIONS: The primary factors influencing women's decisions to self-treat vaginal symptoms were personal (attitudes, beliefs,

Rosemary T. Theroux

2005-01-01

215

Diversity of vaginal ecosystem on women in Southern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we analyzed the diversity of vaginal microbiota in 9 bacterial vaginosis (BV) positive and 11 healthy women from the metropolitan area of Guangzhou in Southern China using full-length 16S rDNA. Our data confirmed that a shift in the abundance of bacterial species present in the vaginal environment comparing the BV and non-BV groups. Each sequence read was

Wenbo Hao; Yongzheng Peng; Weiwen Xu; Xiaoqing Liao; Ming Li; Shuhong Luo

2011-01-01

216

RASTREAMENTO DE CANDIDOSE VAGINAL DURANTE A PREVENÇÃO DO CÂNCER CÉRVICO-UTERINO SCREENING OF VAGINAL CANDIDOSIS DURING THE PREVENTION OF UTERINE CERVIX CANCER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: vaginal candidosis is one of the most prevalent infection of the lower genital tract around the world. Lately a huge increase in inciden- ce accounted for ranking this disease as the second more frequent vaginal infection in Brazil. These reasons led some authors to indicate the scree- ning of vaginal discharge in gynecology clinics. Objective: the aim of this

Vânia LN Cavalcante; Aldine T Miranda; Glenda MP Portugal

217

Colpocleisis and Tension-Free Vaginal Tape Sling for Severe Uterine and Vaginal Prolapse and Stress Urinary Incontinence under Local Anesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study ObjectiveTo describe the technique, complications, and outcomes of vaginal repair of concomitant advanced uterine and vaginal prolapse and stress urinary incontinence using colpocleisis and tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) and pubovaginal sling under intravenous sedation and local anesthesia in elderly and\\/or medically compromised patients.

Robert D. Moore; John R. Miklos

2003-01-01

218

Barbed Suture for Vaginal Cuff Closure in Laparoscopic Hysterectomy  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Our aim was to evaluate whether the use of barbed suture for vaginal cuff closure is associated with a decrease in postoperative vaginal bleeding compared with cuff closure with polyglactin 910 in patients who have undergone laparoscopic hysterectomy. Methods: We performed a cohort study of patients who underwent laparoscopic hysterectomy between January 2008 and July 2012 by the minimally invasive gynecologic surgery division of the Gynecology, Obstetrics and Human Reproduction Department at Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá University Hospital, Bogotá, Colombia. Results: A total of 232 women were studied: 163 were in the polyglactin 910 group, and 69 were in the barbed suture group. The main outcome, postoperative vaginal bleeding, was documented in 53 cases (32.5%) in the polyglactin 910 group and in 13 cases (18.8%) in the barbed suture group (relative risk, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.34–0.9; P = .03). No statistically significant differences were found in other postoperative outcomes, such as emergency department admission, vaginal cuff dehiscence, infectious complications, and the presence of granulation tissue. Conclusion: In this study an inverse association was observed between the use of barbed suture for vaginal cuff closure during laparoscopic hysterectomy and the presence of postoperative vaginal bleeding.

Medina, Byron Cardoso; Riano, Giovanni; Hoyos, Luis R.; Otalora, Camila

2014-01-01

219

Biomarkers of leukocyte traffic and activation in the vaginal mucosa.  

PubMed

Development of novel vaginal spermicides and anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) microbicides requires careful assessment of their potential to recruit and activate CD4+ HIV-1 host cells in the female genital tract mucosa, two events that facilitate HIV-1 infection. Leukocyte traffic and activation are mediated by proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, e.g. interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6 and IL-8, which have been detected in vaginal secretions in association with epithelial damage and infections. These proinflammatory mediators, however, have bidirectional, destructive as well as beneficial, effects on the mucosal barrier, and may be counterbalanced by endogenous inhibitors. Here we propose additional biomarkers for the evaluation of compound-induced cervicovaginal mucosal inflammation. Displaying different temporal patterns of detection, the levels of soluble E-selectin, vascular adhesion molecule-1, CD14 and myeloperoxidase in vaginal secretions reflected the mucosal leukocyte reaction to proinflammatory compounds being evaluated for safety in an improved rabbit vaginal irritation model. These biomarkers, which were also detected in human vaginal secretions, may be used to enhance the characterization of mucosal safety of vaginally applied compounds, both in animal as well as clinical studies. PMID:17852080

Trifonova, Radiana T; Bajpai, Malini; Pasicznyk, Jenna-Malia; Chandra, Neelima; Doncel, Gustavo F; Fichorova, Raina N

2007-01-01

220

Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of Vaginal Dendritic Cells in a Rat Model of Candida albicans Vaginitis  

PubMed Central

This study analyzes the phenotype of vaginal dendritic cells (VDCs), their antigenic presentation and activation of T-cell cytokine secretion, and their protective role in a rat model of Candida vaginitis. Histological observation demonstrated a significant accumulation of OX62+ VDCs in the mucosal epithelium of Candida albicans-infected rats at the third round of infection. We identified two subsets of OX62+ VDCs differing in the expression of CD4 molecule in both noninfected and Candida-infected rats. The OX62+ CD4+ subset of VDCs displayed a lymphoid cell-like morphology and expressed the T-cell antigen CD5, whereas the OX62+ CD4? VDC subset exhibited a myeloid morphology and was CD5 negative. Candida infection resulted in VDC maturation with enhanced expression of CD80 and CD134L on both CD4+ and CD4? VDC subsets at 2 and 6 weeks after Candida infection. CD5? CD4? CD86? CD80? CD134L+ VDCs from infected, but not noninfected, rats spontaneously released large amounts of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and tumor necrosis factor alpha, whereas all VDC subsets released comparable levels of IL-10 and IL-2 cytokines. Furthermore, OX62+ VDCs from infected rats primed naïve CD4+ T-cell proliferation and release of cytokines, including gamma interferon, IL-2, IL-6, and IL-10, in response to staphylococcal enterotoxin B stimulation in vitro. Adoptive transfer of highly purified OX62+ VDCs from infected rats induced a significant acceleration of fungal clearance compared with that in rats receiving naive VDCs, suggesting a protective role of VDCs in the anti-Candida mucosal immunity. Finally, VDC-mediated protection was associated with their ability to rapidly migrate to the vaginal mucosa and lymph nodes, as assessed by adoptive transfer of OX62+ VDCs labeled with 5 (and 6-)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester.

De Bernardis, Flavia; Lucciarini, Roberta; Boccanera, Maria; Amantini, Consuelo; Arancia, Silvia; Morrone, Stefania; Mosca, Michela; Cassone, Antonio; Santoni, Giorgio

2006-01-01

221

Phenotypic and functional characterization of vaginal dendritic cells in a rat model of Candida albicans vaginitis.  

PubMed

This study analyzes the phenotype of vaginal dendritic cells (VDCs), their antigenic presentation and activation of T-cell cytokine secretion, and their protective role in a rat model of Candida vaginitis. Histological observation demonstrated a significant accumulation of OX62(+) VDCs in the mucosal epithelium of Candida albicans-infected rats at the third round of infection. We identified two subsets of OX62(+) VDCs differing in the expression of CD4 molecule in both noninfected and Candida-infected rats. The OX62(+) CD4(+) subset of VDCs displayed a lymphoid cell-like morphology and expressed the T-cell antigen CD5, whereas the OX62(+) CD4(-) VDC subset exhibited a myeloid morphology and was CD5 negative. Candida infection resulted in VDC maturation with enhanced expression of CD80 and CD134L on both CD4(+) and CD4(-) VDC subsets at 2 and 6 weeks after Candida infection. CD5(-) CD4(-) CD86(-) CD80(-) CD134L(+) VDCs from infected, but not noninfected, rats spontaneously released large amounts of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and tumor necrosis factor alpha, whereas all VDC subsets released comparable levels of IL-10 and IL-2 cytokines. Furthermore, OX62(+) VDCs from infected rats primed naïve CD4(+) T-cell proliferation and release of cytokines, including gamma interferon, IL-2, IL-6, and IL-10, in response to staphylococcal enterotoxin B stimulation in vitro. Adoptive transfer of highly purified OX62(+) VDCs from infected rats induced a significant acceleration of fungal clearance compared with that in rats receiving naive VDCs, suggesting a protective role of VDCs in the anti-Candida mucosal immunity. Finally, VDC-mediated protection was associated with their ability to rapidly migrate to the vaginal mucosa and lymph nodes, as assessed by adoptive transfer of OX62(+) VDCs labeled with 5 (and 6-)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester. PMID:16790803

De Bernardis, Flavia; Lucciarini, Roberta; Boccanera, Maria; Amantini, Consuelo; Arancia, Silvia; Morrone, Stefania; Mosca, Michela; Cassone, Antonio; Santoni, Giorgio

2006-07-01

222

Efficacy of rifaximin vaginal tablets in treatment of bacterial vaginosis: a molecular characterization of the vaginal microbiota.  

PubMed

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common vaginal disorder characterized by an alteration of the vaginal bacterial morphotypes, associated with sexually transmitted infections and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of different doses of rifaximin vaginal tablets (100 mg/day for 5 days, 25 mg/day for 5 days, and 100 mg/day for 2 days) on the vaginal microbiota of 102 European patients with BV enrolled in a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. An integrated molecular approach based on quantitative PCR (qPCR) and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to investigate the effects of vaginal tablets containing the antibiotic. An increase in members of the genus Lactobacillus and a decrease in the BV-related bacterial groups after the antibiotic treatment were demonstrated by qPCR. PCR-DGGE profiles confirmed the capability of rifaximin to modulate the composition of the vaginal microbial communities and to reduce their complexity. This molecular analysis supported the clinical observation that rifaximin at 25 mg/day for 5 days represents an effective treatment to be used in future pivotal studies for the treatment of BV. PMID:22585228

Cruciani, Federica; Brigidi, Patrizia; Calanni, Fiorella; Lauro, Vittoria; Tacchi, Raffaella; Donders, Gilbert; Peters, Klaus; Guaschino, Secondo; Vitali, Beatrice

2012-08-01

223

Efficacy of Rifaximin Vaginal Tablets in Treatment of Bacterial Vaginosis: a Molecular Characterization of the Vaginal Microbiota  

PubMed Central

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common vaginal disorder characterized by an alteration of the vaginal bacterial morphotypes, associated with sexually transmitted infections and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of different doses of rifaximin vaginal tablets (100 mg/day for 5 days, 25 mg/day for 5 days, and 100 mg/day for 2 days) on the vaginal microbiota of 102 European patients with BV enrolled in a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. An integrated molecular approach based on quantitative PCR (qPCR) and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to investigate the effects of vaginal tablets containing the antibiotic. An increase in members of the genus Lactobacillus and a decrease in the BV-related bacterial groups after the antibiotic treatment were demonstrated by qPCR. PCR-DGGE profiles confirmed the capability of rifaximin to modulate the composition of the vaginal microbial communities and to reduce their complexity. This molecular analysis supported the clinical observation that rifaximin at 25 mg/day for 5 days represents an effective treatment to be used in future pivotal studies for the treatment of BV.

Cruciani, Federica; Brigidi, Patrizia; Calanni, Fiorella; Lauro, Vittoria; Tacchi, Raffaella; Donders, Gilbert; Peters, Klaus; Guaschino, Secondo

2012-01-01

224

Species-level classification of the vaginal microbiome  

PubMed Central

Background The application of next-generation sequencing to the study of the vaginal microbiome is revealing the spectrum of microbial communities that inhabit the human vagina. High-resolution identification of bacterial taxa, minimally to the species level, is necessary to fully understand the association of the vaginal microbiome with bacterial vaginosis, sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy complications, menopause, and other physiological and infectious conditions. However, most current taxonomic assignment strategies based on metagenomic 16S rDNA sequence analysis provide at best a genus-level resolution. While surveys of 16S rRNA gene sequences are common in microbiome studies, few well-curated, body-site-specific reference databases of 16S rRNA gene sequences are available, and no such resource is available for vaginal microbiome studies. Results We constructed the Vaginal 16S rDNA Reference Database, a comprehensive and non-redundant database of 16S rDNA reference sequences for bacterial taxa likely to be associated with vaginal health, and we developed STIRRUPS, a new method that employs the USEARCH algorithm with a curated reference database for rapid species-level classification of 16S rDNA partial sequences. The method was applied to two datasets of V1-V3 16S rDNA reads: one generated from a mock community containing DNA from six bacterial strains associated with vaginal health, and a second generated from over 1,000 mid-vaginal samples collected as part of the Vaginal Human Microbiome Project at Virginia Commonwealth University. In both datasets, STIRRUPS, used in conjunction with the Vaginal 16S rDNA Reference Database, classified more than 95% of processed reads to a species-level taxon using a 97% global identity threshold for assignment. Conclusions This database and method provide accurate species-level classifications of metagenomic 16S rDNA sequence reads that will be useful for analysis and comparison of microbiome profiles from vaginal samples. STIRRUPS can be used to classify 16S rDNA sequence reads from other ecological niches if an appropriate reference database of 16S rDNA sequences is available.

2012-01-01

225

[African vesico-vaginal fistulas (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Obstetrical vesico-vaginal fistulas in Africa are very frequent and are correlated with the insufficiency or even the lack of health structures and sanitary conditions. They follow up a dystocic parturition, and their prevention requires a correct surveillance of pregnancy and parturition. Their pathogenesis consists in a durable compression of the pelvic cavity by the foetal head, inducing ischemia and later on necrosis. Their difficult treatment is based on clinical inspection which makes possible to distinguish several pathological types of fistulas. Surgical tactic will be selected according to the size of the fistula, the conservation or the destruction of the uretra with the vesico-uretral sphincters, the importance of perifistula sclerosis. BRACQUEHAYE'S operation is the basis of the conservatory treatment, associated or not with a technic restoring the urinary continence: either the INGELMAN-SUNDBERG operation of the LE GUYADER rectomyoplasty. When uretra is destroyed, the best palliative intervention is probably the building up of a rectal neobladder. These operations can be performed under conditions often prevailling in Africa. In most cases, they have restored normal social life for the women affected. But setbacks are not rare, and demonstrate the importance of prophylaxis. PMID:6999282

Barnaud, P; Veillard, J M; Richard, J; Jaud, V; Masson, F; Corbeille, R; Guillotreau, J

1980-01-01

226

Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia: a therapeutical dilemma.  

PubMed

Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VaIN) represents a rare and asymptomatic pre-neoplastic lesion. Its natural history and potential evolution into invasive cancer are uncertain. VaIN can occur alone or as a synchronous or metachronous lesion with cervical and vulvar HPV-related intra epithelial or invasive neoplasia. Its association with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia is found in 65% of cases, with vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia in 10% of cases, while for others, the association with concomitant cervical or vulvar intraepithelial neoplasias is found in 30-80% of cases. VaIN is often asymptomatic and its diagnosis is suspected in cases of abnormal cytology, followed by colposcopy and colposcopically-guided biopsy of suspicious areas. In the past, high-grade VaIN and multifocal VaIN have been treated by radical surgery, such as total or partial upper vaginectomy associated with hysterectomy and radiotherapy. The need to maintain the integrity of reproductive capacity has determined the transition from radical therapies to conservative ones, according to the different patients' characteristics. PMID:23267125

Frega, Antonio; Sopracordevole, Francesco; Assorgi, Chiara; Lombardi, Danila; DE Sanctis, Vitaliana; Catalano, Angelica; Matteucci, Eleonora; Milazzo, Giusi Natalia; Ricciardi, Enzo; Moscarini, Massimo

2013-01-01

227

Preferred Characteristics of Vaginal Microbicides in Women with Bacterial Vaginosis  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Vaginal microbicides have the potential to reduce HIV/STD acquisition when used consistently. Our objectives were to determine product attributes associated with willingness to use a vaginal microbicide and whether product preferences varied according to participant characteristics. Methods Women (n?=?408) with bacterial vaginosis (BV) were recruited as part of a randomized trial to prevent BV. Participants completed a survey interview that assessed demographic information, sexual history, and douching behavior. To assess microbicide preferences, women rated whether specific product attributes would make them more or less likely to use a vaginal microbicide. Principal components analyses revealed two major groupings for the product attribute items. We determined the relative importance of each group of product attributes and whether the importance of the different groupings varied among subgroups of women. Results The participants' mean age was 24 years (range 14–45), 64% were black, and 74% were unmarried. Overall, participants reported being most likely to use a vaginal product with protection properties (2.54), whereas they were nearly neutral regarding side effects (0.56). The individual product attributes, could prevent BV, could prevent vaginal odor (2.72), and could prevent vaginal itching and burning (2.61), were rated similarly or slightly higher than could reduce the risk of getting an STD (2.58) or could reduce the risk of getting HIV (2.44). In multivariate analyses, protection attributes were rated significantly higher among older women and marginally higher in women with a greater number of lifetime sexual partners. Younger women were most likely to report that side effects would affect their likelihood of using the product. Conclusions Women with BV rated potential protection features of a vaginal microbicide higher than side effects. A product's personal hygiene aspects were rated equally or more important than the product's ability to prevent HIV/STD infections. Younger women may respond to different factors that influence product acceptability and adherence.

Downs, Julie S.; Marrazzo, Jeanne; Switzer, Galen E.; Tanriover, Ozlem; Wiesenfeld, Harold; Murray, Pamela J.; Hillier, Sharon L.

2009-01-01

228

Converting Potential Abdominal Hysterectomy to Vaginal One: Laparoscopic Assisted Vaginal Hysterectomy  

PubMed Central

Background. The idea of laparoscopic assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH) is to convert a potential abdominal hysterectomy to a vaginal one, thus decreasing associated morbidity and hastening recovery. We compared intraoperative and postoperative outcomes between LAVH and abdominal hysterectomy, to find out if LAVH achieves better clinical results compared with abdominal hysterectomy. Material and methods. A total of 48 women were enrolled in the study. Finally 17 patients underwent LAVH (cases) and 20 underwent abdominal hysterectomy (controls). All surgeries were performed by a set of gynecologists with more or less same level of surgical experience and expertise. Results.None of the patients in LAVH required conversion to laparotomy. Mean operating time was 30 minutes longer in LAVH group as compared to abdominal hysterectomy group (167.06 + 31.97?min versus 135.25 + 31.72 min; P < 0.05). However, the mean blood loss in LAVH was 100?mL lesser than that in abdominal hysterectomy and the difference was found to be statistically significant (248.24 + 117.79?mL versus 340.00 + 119.86?mL; P < 0.05). Another advantage of LAVH was significantly lower pain scores on second and third postoperative days. Overall complications and postoperative hospital stay were not significantly different between the two groups.

Shetty, Jyothi; Shanbhag, Asha

2014-01-01

229

Investigation of product quality between extemporaneously compounded progesterone vaginal suppositories and an approved progesterone vaginal gel.  

PubMed

The purpose of this investigation was to compare quality parameters, including product appearance, content uniformity, pH, weight uniformity, microbial limit testing and preservative effectiveness testing on extemporaneously compounded progesterone vaginal suppositories obtained from 10 randomly chosen compounding pharmacies (90 suppositories each) across the United States, to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved prescription progesterone gel product (Prochieve/Crinone) which is manufactured in a cGMP regulated facility. The content uniformity and pH were determined using qualified methods. The microbial limits testing and preservative effectiveness testing were conducted according to compendial methods. Only one pharmacy provided suppositories that were all within the potency limits required for the prescription progesterone gel product. The other pharmacies provided at least some suppositories where progesterone content was either subpotent or superpotent for progesterone. The pH of most of the compounded suppository products was in the range of 4.22 to 7.68 with a median of 6.30 (normal vaginal pH is <5), whereas the gel product was 2.80. For compounded product from one of the pharmacies, microbial limits testing indicated CDC group IVC-2 and Comamonas acidovorans were detected. This data indicates that pharmacy compounded delivery systems for progesterone should be used with caution. PMID:15595573

Mahaguna, Vorapann; McDermott, J Mario; Zhang, Feng; Ochoa, Felipe

2004-01-01

230

A comparative study of the therapeutic effects of the Zataria multiflora vaginal cream and metronidazole vaginal gel on bacterial vaginosis.  

PubMed

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of most prevalent complications among reproductive-aged women. Metromidazole prescription, which is considered as the first-line treatment of BV, is usually followed by a few side effects. Besides, there is a growing tendency toward herbal medicines for the treatment of vaginitis. Antibacterial and antifungal effects of Zataria multiflora (Z. multiflora) have been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. This study aimed to compare the therapeutic effects of the Z. multiflora vaginal cream and metronidazole vaginal gel on bacterial vaginosis. This was a randomized clinical trial on 90 married women aged 18-40 affected by BV who attended for treatment to the gynecology clinic of Shabih-Khani Hospital. They randomly divided to two groups of 45 participants. Diagnostic criteria were Amsel's criteria and Gram stain. Z. multiflora vaginal cream or metronidazole vaginal gel for five-night usage were prescribed to each group, and after 2-7 days therapeutic effects on participants' complications and their Amsel criteria were assessed. Data analysis was performed by McNemar and Fisher exact tests. Patients' complication and their Amsel's criteria were significantly decreased after treatment with Z. multiflora or metronidazole (p<0.05). Relative risk for unresponsiveness to treatment with Z. multiflora, to unresponsiveness to metronidazole was 1.5, which was not significant. Therapeutic effects of Z. multiflora vaginal cream are similar to metronidazole vaginal gel on BV. Therefore it could be an appropriate choice to BV treatment for those interested in herbal medicines or those affected by side effects of metronidazole. PMID:18824338

Simbar, M; Azarbad, Z; Mojab, F; Majd, H Alavi

2008-12-01

231

Vaginal treatment of endometrial cancer: role in the elderly  

PubMed Central

Background To compare abdominal hysterectomy, the most currently used for treating cancer of the endometrium, to the vaginal hysterectomy in term of survival, morbidity and failure rates. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 68 cases divided into two sub-groups. A study group of 31 cases received vaginal surgery; a control group of 37 cases was treated with a laparotomy. Mean operative time, median hospital stay, intra- and post-operative complications, DFS and OS time as well as occurrence of local or distant recurrences have been evaluated and reported. Cases included patients with a higher rate of medical morbidities (p = 0.01) than controls. Results Mean age was 76.2 and 70.4 years in the vaginal (V) group and abdominal (A) group respectively. Mean operative time was longer for the group A. Group V patients had a lower mean post-operative hospital stay (p < 0.05). Differences in the two groups regarding intra- and post-operative complications, occurrence of local or distant recurrences and DFS time were not statistically significant. Disease specific survival time at 5 years scored 97% for group V, and 97% for group A. Conclusions Results show how vaginal approach had a similar outcome in selected patients. Vaginal surgery could therefore be the proper choice in patients with early stages and lower surgical risk, in addition to elderly patients exposed to a higher surgical risk.

2011-01-01

232

Current status of contraceptive vaginal rings.  

PubMed

Contraceptive vaginal rings (CVR) offer a new, effective contraceptive option, expanding the available choices of hormonal contraception. Various ring prototypes have been evaluated: progestin-only rings and combined progestin-estrogen rings, as well as different combination of progestins and estrogens. The progestin-only ring is intended for continuous use, whereas the combined ring has been designed for cyclic 3-week in/1-week out use, although several studies have explored alternative schemes of extended use. However, only two ring designs have reached the market: NuvaRing, a 1-month combined ring that releases etonogestrel and ethinylestradiol, and Progering, a 3-month progesterone-releasing ring for use in lactating women. A one year Nestorone/ethinyl estradiol CVR is approaching the final stages of development, as the Population Council is preparing to submit a new drug application to the Food and Drug Administration. The main advantages of CVRs are their effectiveness (similar or slightly better than the pill), ease of use without the need of remembering a daily routine, user ability to control initiation and discontinuation, nearly constant release rate allowing for lower doses, greater bioavailability and good cycle control with the combined ring, in comparison with oral contraceptives. Current prototypes in development include rings releasing progesterone receptor modulators, which would provide estrogen-free contraception, as well as combined rings releasing estradiol, instead of ethinyl-estradiol, providing a safer profile. Furthermore, intensive efforts towards developing dual protection rings, providing both contraception and protection against reproductive tract infections, offer hope that this greatly needed technology will soon undergo clinical testing and will be in the hands of women worldwide in the near future. PMID:23040125

Brache, Vivian; Payán, Luis José; Faundes, Aníbal

2013-03-01

233

Efficacy of vaginal misoprostol before hysteroscopy for cervical priming in patients who have undergone cesarean section and no vaginal deliveries.  

PubMed

We wanted to investigate the effect of misoprostol administered vaginally before operative hysteroscopy on cervical dilation, complications, and failure rates in patients who have undergone cesarean section and who have never delivered vaginally. Sixty patients who had undergone cesarean section, who had never delivered vaginally before, and were about to undergo hysteroscopy for various intrauterine lesions were included in this randomized controlled study. Thirty-two patients in the study group were given misoprostol 400 microg, and 28 patients in the control group were given placebo (hexetidine pill) vaginally twice, 6 and 12 hours before the procedure. Primary endpoints were cervical width detected with Hegar dilators and complication and failure rates. Mean cervical width was greater in patients in the study group (6.5 +/- 0.8) than it was in patients in the control group (3.0 +/- 0.6), (p = .0001). Complication and failure rates were lower in patients in the study group (p = .01). Administration of vaginal misoprostol before hysteroscopy proved to be effective in cervical ripening and in reducing complication and failure rates. PMID:18588848

Uckuyu, Ayla; Ozcimen, Emel Ebru; Sevinc, Faika Ceylan; Zeyneloglu, Hulusi Bulent

2008-01-01

234

Transrectal ultrasonography in the assessment of congenital vaginal canalization defects.  

PubMed

Our aim was to evaluate the reliability of transrectal ultrasonography in the preoperative assessment of congenital vaginal canalization defects. We studied nine patients, six with suspected Rokitansky syndrome and three with suspected complete transverse septum. Before corrective surgery all the patients underwent pelvic examination, transabdominal and transrectal ultrasonography. The ultrasonographic findings were compared with the surgical ones. Transrectal ultrasonography provided an accurate map of the pelvic organs showing the precise distances between the urethra and bladder anteriorly, rectum posteriorly, retrohymenal fovea caudally, and pelvic peritoneum cranially. Transrectal ultrasonography produced a picture that corresponded perfectly with the real anatomical situation. Conversely, abdominal ultrasonography provided inadequate images in six of our nine patients, and magnetic resonance imaging was responsible for a mistaken diagnosis in one patient with suspected transverse vaginal septum. In conclusion, if our results are confirmed in larger series, transrectal ultrasonography could be considered as a diagnostic procedure of choice in the assessment of vaginal canalization defects. PMID:10099979

Fedele, L; Portuese, A; Bianchi, S; Zanconato, G; Raffaelli, R

1999-02-01

235

The Human Vaginal Bacterial Biota and Bacterial Vaginosis  

PubMed Central

The bacterial biota of the human vagina can have a profound impact on the health of women and their neonates. Changes in the vaginal microbiota have been associated with several adverse health outcomes including premature birth, pelvic inflammatory disease, and acquisition of HIV infection. Cultivation-independent molecular methods have provided new insights regarding bacterial diversity in this important niche, particularly in women with the common condition bacterial vaginosis (BV). PCR methods have shown that women with BV have complex communities of vaginal bacteria that include many fastidious species, particularly from the phyla Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Healthy women are mostly colonized with lactobacilli such as Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus jensenii, and Lactobacillus iners, though a variety of other bacteria may be present. The microbiology of BV is heterogeneous. The presence of Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae coating the vaginal epithelium in some subjects with BV suggests that biofilms may contribute to this condition.

Srinivasan, Sujatha; Fredricks, David N.

2008-01-01

236

Large Vesico-Vaginal Fistula Caused by a Foreign Body  

PubMed Central

Foreign body is a rare cause of vesico-vaginal fistula most often reported in developed countries. In developing countries obstructed labor is the commonest cause of fistula. A nulliparous 19-year-old female presented with a 3-week history of a foreign body in the vagina causing urinary incontinence and offensive vaginal discharge. Her guardian allegedly inserted the foreign body after she refused a pre-arranged marriage. A plastic container was removed from the vagina under general anesthesia. A large vesico-vaginal fistula was discovered, which was successfully surgically repaired. We recommend urgent removal of the foreign body, preferably under general anesthesia. However, if the history or physical examination reveals prolonged exposure, repair of the fistula should be delayed to allow for adequate debridement in order to prevent any life-threatening complications.

Massinde, AN; Kihunrwa, A

2013-01-01

237

Large vesico-vaginal fistula caused by a foreign body.  

PubMed

Foreign body is a rare cause of vesico-vaginal fistula most often reported in developed countries. In developing countries obstructed labor is the commonest cause of fistula. A nulliparous 19-year-old female presented with a 3-week history of a foreign body in the vagina causing urinary incontinence and offensive vaginal discharge. Her guardian allegedly inserted the foreign body after she refused a pre-arranged marriage. A plastic container was removed from the vagina under general anesthesia. A large vesico-vaginal fistula was discovered, which was successfully surgically repaired. We recommend urgent removal of the foreign body, preferably under general anesthesia. However, if the history or physical examination reveals prolonged exposure, repair of the fistula should be delayed to allow for adequate debridement in order to prevent any life-threatening complications. PMID:24116334

Massinde, An; Kihunrwa, A

2013-07-01

238

Nanopharmaceuticals for improved topical vaginal therapy: can they deliver?  

PubMed

Nanopharmaceuticals have the potential to revolutionise medical treatment by permitting the design of more potent, less toxic "smart" therapeutics, ultimately leading to personalised medicine. This review summarises the challenges and potential uses of nanodelivery system for the topical drug therapy of vaginal diseases. The vaginal route of drug administration remains a challenge in the development of novel drug therapies, including nanomedicines. We attempted to provide an unbiased overview of currently investigated nanodelivery systems, some of which remain to be extensively studied under laboratory conditions, and some of which are already in clinical trials. Most nanodelivery systems are aimed at improving the treatment of vaginal infections, including HIV prevention. Promising new approaches in nanopharmaceutical design are discussed in this review, as well as the controversies related to mucoadhesiveness of nanopharmaceuticals. PMID:23684936

Vani?, Željka; Škalko-Basnet, Nataša

2013-09-27

239

Vesico-vaginal fistula. What is an obstetric fistula?  

PubMed

This article discusses vesico-vaginal fistulae: their causes, prevention, and treatment. A vesico-vaginal fistula is an obstetric complication consisting of a hole in the vaginal wall connecting to the bladder or rectum, often resulting from prolonged and obstructed labor. Most women with fistulae are poor, young, malnourished from birth, chronically anemic, susceptible to disease, and often physically stunted. Incontinence is an immediate effect of fistulae. Nerves in the pelvic region may also be damaged, leading to difficulty in walking. Women with fistulae may smell strongly of urine, and thus are often abandoned by their husbands and considered outcasts in the community. A small proportion of fistulae may heal if the woman is hospitalized and the bladder is drained continuously. Surgical repair is also possible. Obstetric fistulae can be prevented through nutritional improvement, access to family planning, presence of a skilled attendant during childbirth, delaying marriage and first birth, use of a partograph, and use of maternity waiting homes. PMID:12322285

1999-01-01

240

BLT humanized mice as model to study HIV vaginal transmission.  

PubMed

The majority of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections occur by sexual exposure, and vaginal transmission accounts for more than half of all newly acquired infections. Studies of vaginal transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus to nonhuman primates (NHPs) have suggested an important role for immune cell trafficking in the establishment of infection as well is in the process of viral dissemination. However, NHP models do not permit the study of HIV transmission and dissemination. The improvement of humanized mouse models with robust human immune cell reconstitution of the female genital tract renders these mice susceptible to intravaginal HIV infection. Thus humanized mouse models of HIV vaginal infection will allow the study of the mechanisms involved in HIV transmission and dissemination in vivo. PMID:24151319

Deruaz, Maud; Luster, Andrew D

2013-11-01

241

The human vaginal bacterial biota and bacterial vaginosis.  

PubMed

The bacterial biota of the human vagina can have a profound impact on the health of women and their neonates. Changes in the vaginal microbiota have been associated with several adverse health outcomes including premature birth, pelvic inflammatory disease, and acquisition of HIV infection. Cultivation-independent molecular methods have provided new insights regarding bacterial diversity in this important niche, particularly in women with the common condition bacterial vaginosis (BV). PCR methods have shown that women with BV have complex communities of vaginal bacteria that include many fastidious species, particularly from the phyla Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Healthy women are mostly colonized with lactobacilli such as Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus jensenii, and Lactobacillus iners, though a variety of other bacteria may be present. The microbiology of BV is heterogeneous. The presence of Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae coating the vaginal epithelium in some subjects with BV suggests that biofilms may contribute to this condition. PMID:19282975

Srinivasan, Sujatha; Fredricks, David N

2008-01-01

242

Intracystic hemorrhage in a non-endometriotic mullerian vaginal cyst.  

PubMed

The commonest type of simple vaginal cyst is the Mullerian cyst. These are typically lined by columnar epithelium and contain serous or mucinous fluid. If blood is found in the cyst, the source is usually due to the presence of endometrial elements in the cyst wall. The cyst is then termed an endometriotic cyst. In this case report, we have described a woman with a symptomatic 3 cm upper vaginal cyst who underwent surgical excision of the cyst. The cyst cavity was found to be full of old dark blood and mucous, however the wall contained no endometrial tissue and was lined by columnar epithelium which stained positive for mucous with mucicarmine. No cause for the intracystic hemorrhage was identified. We conclude that intracystic hemorrhage can occur in a simple Mullerian vaginal cyst in the absence of endometrial components. PMID:24303459

Rivlin, Michel E; Meeks, G Rodney; Ghafar, Mohamed A; Lewin, Jack R

2013-04-16

243

Intracystic hemorrhage in a non-endometriotic mullerian vaginal cyst  

PubMed Central

The commonest type of simple vaginal cyst is the Mullerian cyst. These are typically lined by columnar epithelium and contain serous or mucinous fluid. If blood is found in the cyst, the source is usually due to the presence of endometrial elements in the cyst wall. The cyst is then termed an endometriotic cyst. In this case report, we have described a woman with a symptomatic 3 cm upper vaginal cyst who underwent surgical excision of the cyst. The cyst cavity was found to be full of old dark blood and mucous, however the wall contained no endometrial tissue and was lined by columnar epithelium which stained positive for mucous with mucicarmine. No cause for the intracystic hemorrhage was identified. We conclude that intracystic hemorrhage can occur in a simple Mullerian vaginal cyst in the absence of endometrial components.

Rivlin, Michel E; Meeks, G Rodney; Ghafar, Mohamed A; Lewin, Jack R

2013-01-01

244

Effects of feminine hygiene products on the vaginal mucosal biome  

PubMed Central

Background Over-the-counter (OTC) feminine hygiene products come with little warning about possible side effects. This study evaluates in-vitro their effects on Lactobacillus crispatus, which is dominant in the normal vaginal microbiota and helps maintain a healthy mucosal barrier essential for normal reproductive function and prevention of sexually transmitted infections and gynecologic cancer. Methods A feminine moisturizer (Vagisil), personal lubricant, and douche were purchased OTC. A topical spermicide (nonoxynol-9) known to alter the vaginal immune barrier was used as a control. L. crispatus was incubated with each product for 2 and 24h and then seeded on agar for colony forming units (CFU). Human vaginal epithelial cells were exposed to products in the presence or absence of L. crispatus for 24h, followed by epithelium-associated CFU enumeration. Interleukin-8 was immunoassayed and ANOVA was used for statistical evaluation. Results Nonoxynol-9 and Vagisil suppressed Lactobacillus growth at 2h and killed all bacteria at 24h. The lubricant decreased bacterial growth insignificantly at 2h but killed all at 24h. The douche did not have a significant effect. At full strength, all products suppressed epithelial viability and all, except the douche, suppressed epithelial-associated CFU. When applied at non-toxic dose in the absence of bacteria, the douche and moisturizer induced an increase of IL-8, suggesting a potential to initiate inflammatory reaction. In the presence of L. crispatus, the proinflammatory effects of the douche and moisturizer were countered, and IL-8 production was inhibited in the presence of the other products. Conclusion Some OTC vaginal products may be harmful to L. crispatus and alter the vaginal immune environment. Illustrated through these results, L. crispatus is essential in the preservation of the function of vaginal epithelial cells in the presence of some feminine hygiene products. More research should be invested toward these products before they are placed on the market.

Fashemi, Bisiayo; Delaney, Mary L.; Onderdonk, Andrew B.; Fichorova, Raina N.

2013-01-01

245

Vaginal Microbiome and Epithelial Gene Array in PostMenopausal Women with Moderate to Severe Dryness  

Microsoft Academic Search

After menopause, many women experience vaginal dryness and atrophy of tissue, often attributed to the loss of estrogen. An understudied aspect of vaginal health in women who experience dryness due to atrophy is the role of the resident microbes. It is known that the microbiota has an important role in healthy vaginal homeostasis, including maintaining the pH balance and excluding

Ruben Hummelen; Jean M. Macklaim; Jordan E. Bisanz; Jo-Anne Hammond; Amy McMillan; Rebecca Vongsa; David Koenig; Gregory B. Gloor; Gregor Reid

2011-01-01

246

A New Technique For the Treatment of Transverse Vaginal Septum by Foley Catheter  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a new surgical technique for the management of transverse vaginal septum in a 13-year-old girl who presented with abdominal pain. Imaging techniques yielded hematocolpos. The patient and her family refused vaginal surgery in order to preserve hymenal integrity for sociocultural beliefs. At laparotomy, a vertical incision was made on posterior vaginal wall. An artery forceps was introduced from

Kaz?m Gezginç; Fatma Yaz?c?; Rengin Karatayl?; Ali Acar

2011-01-01

247

ULTRASONOGRAPHY; ITS VALUE IN THE MANAGEMENT OF FIRST TRIMESTER VAGINAL BLEEDING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To find the value of ultrasound in the management of first trimester vaginal bleeding. Material and Methods: All patients reporting with vaginal bleeding in obstetrics and gynaecology Unit-III, Nishtar Hospital, Multan were included in the study. Non-pregnant patients and patients with vaginal bleeding due to the cause other than conception were excluded. After history, clinical examination and pregnancy test,

MUHAMMAD ALI; RASHIDA HAFEEZ; MANSOOR AHMAD

248

Randomized controlled trial of a prenatal vaginal birth after cesarean section education and support program  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess whether, for women with previous cesarean section, a prenatal education and support program promoting vaginal birth after cesarean delivery increases the probability of vaginal delivery.STUDY DESIGN: Women with a single previous cesarean were recruited before 28 weeks' gestation. Women's self-assessed motivation to attempt vaginal birth after a previous cesarean delivery was measured on a

William Fraser; Elizabeth Maunsell; Ellen Hodnett; Jean-Marie Moutquin

1997-01-01

249

Endoscopic ablation of longitudinal vaginal septa in prepubertal girls: A minimally invasive alternative to open resection  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionVaginal septation is a congenital defect seen in patients with persistent cloaca, urogenital sinus and disorders of Müllerian duct aplasia. Rarely, these patients present with symptoms in infancy and childhood with the exception of hydrocolpos. Treatment traditionally consists of surgical excision of the vaginal septum. We present our experience with minimally invasive endoscopic ablation of vaginal septa.

Margaret Roth; Gerald Mingin; Nafisa Dharamsi; Karen Psooy; Martin Koyle

2010-01-01

250

Evaluation of a deoxyribonucleic acid probe for the detection of Trichomonas vaginalis in vaginal secretions  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to compare Affirm VP, a new deoxyribonucleic acid probe test, with standard “wet preparation” microscopic examinations and culture for the identification of Trichomonas vaginalis organisms in vaginal secretions. STUDY DESIGN: We examined vaginal samples from 615 women with symptoms or signs of vaginitis for T. vaginalis using the deoxyribonucleic acid probe test, microscopic examination of wet

Lynette R. DeMeo; Deborah L. Draper; James A. McGregor; Douglas F. Moore; Christopher R. Peter; Peter S. Kapernick; William M. McCormack

1996-01-01

251

Molecular analysis of the diversity of vaginal microbiota associated with bacterial vaginosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is an ecological disorder of the vaginal microbiota that affects millions of women annually, and is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes including pre-term birth and the acquisition of sexually transmitted infections. However, little is known about the overall structure and composition of vaginal microbial communities; most of the earlier studies focused on predominant vaginal bacteria

Zongxin Ling; Jianming Kong; Fang Liu; Haibin Zhu; Xiaoyi Chen; Yuezhu Wang; Lanjuan Li; Karen E Nelson; Yaxian Xia; Charlie Xiang

2010-01-01

252

A comparison of orally administered misoprostol with vaginally administered misoprostol for cervical ripening and labor induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our purpose was to compare orally administered with vaginally administered misoprostol for cervical ripening and labor induction. Material And Methods: Two hundred twenty subjects with medical or obstetric indications for labor induction and undilated, uneffaced cervices were randomly assigned to receive orally administered or vaginally administered misoprostol. Fifty micrograms of oral misoprostol or 25 ?g of vaginal misoprostol was

Deborah A. Wing; Debby Ham; Richard H. Paul

1999-01-01

253

Labor induction with prostaglandin E 1 misoprostol compared with dinoprostone vaginal insert: A randomized trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare the safety, efficacy, and costs of intravaginal misoprostol versus dinoprostone vaginal inserts for cervical ripening and labor induction.Methods: Two hundred twenty-three labor induction patients were assigned randomly to one of two treatment groups: 1) intravaginal misoprostol or 2) dinoprostone vaginal inserts. Fifty micrograms of misoprostol were placed in the posterior vaginal fornix every 3 hours for a

Luis Sanchez-Ramos; Dirk E. Peterson; Isaac Delke; Francisco L. Gaudier; Andrew M. Kaunitz

1998-01-01

254

Itraconazole in the treatment of acute vaginal candidiasis.  

PubMed

In a multicentre open prospective study itraconazole was evaluated in the treatment of acute vaginal candidiasis. Two dosage regimens were tested--200 mg twice a day for 1 day and 200 mg twice a day for 2 days. There were no statistically significant differences between these dosages, and cure rates at 7 and 28 days after treatment were 83% and 75% respectively. These are marginally lower than those produced by longer courses of oral ketoconazole (Nizoral; Janssen) and vaginal econazole nitrate but the advantages are better patient compliance and greater cost-effectiveness. PMID:2829371

Bloch, B; Barnard, P G; Burger, G D; Meyer, J S; Parkes, J R; Smythe, E

1988-02-01

255

One-day therapy for vaginal candidiasis. A review.  

PubMed

Shorter courses of therapy have been developed for most antifungal agents used for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis, including clotrimazole, econazole, isoconazole, miconazole, terconazole and fluconazole. A search of the medical literature identified 14 studies that compared single-dose therapy for vaginal candidiasis in nonpregnant women. These studies, conducted according to similar study designs, provided sufficient information to evaluate clinical and mycologic cure rates. There were few significant differences in either the clinical or mycologic cure rates of single-dose therapy, and no one therapy was consistently better than any other. Until further information is available, the choice of therapy will continue to be based on individual clinician preference. PMID:10394549

Edelman, D A; Grant, S

1999-06-01

256

[The Martius flap in vaginal surgery: technic and indications].  

PubMed

The Martius pedicle adipose flap can be used as an interposition flap during complex vaginal operations. It is a simple, rapid technique allowing raising of a well vascularized adipose flap with a mean length of 8 to 12 cm. It can be used in certain forms of vaginal repair, such as high supratrigonal vesicovaginal fistula, after bladder perforation, for obstructed urethra after colposuspension, after urethral destruction following prolonged bladder catheterization in a neurological patient, during repair of a complex urethral diverticulum or during transvaginal insertion of an artificial sphincter. After describing the flap raising operative technique, the various operative indications are presented. PMID:9116729

Chassagne, S; Haab, F; Zimmern, P

1997-02-01

257

Free Glycogen in Vaginal Fluids Is Associated with Lactobacillus Colonization and Low Vaginal pH  

PubMed Central

Objective Lactobacillus dominates the lower genital tract microbiota of many women, producing a low vaginal pH, and is important for healthy pregnancy outcomes and protection against several sexually transmitted pathogens. Yet, factors that promote Lactobacillus remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that the amount of free glycogen in the lumen of the lower genital tract is an important determinant of Lactobacillus colonization and a low vaginal pH. Methods Free glycogen in lavage samples was quantified. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used to identify microbiota from 21 African American women collected over 8–11 years. Results Free glycogen levels varied greatly between women and even in the same woman. Samples with the highest free glycogen had a corresponding median genital pH that was significantly lower (pH 4.4) than those with low glycogen (pH 5.8; p<0.001). The fraction of the microbiota consisting of Lactobacillus was highest in samples with high glycogen versus those with low glycogen (median?=?0.97 vs. 0.05, p<0.001). In multivariable analysis, having 1 vs. 0 male sexual partner in the past 6 months was negatively associated, while BMI ?30 was positively associated with glycogen. High concentrations of glycogen corresponded to higher levels of L. crispatus and L. jensenii, but not L. iners. Conclusion These findings show that free glycogen in genital fluid is associated with a genital microbiota dominated by Lactobacillus, suggesting glycogen is important for maintaining genital health. Treatments aimed at increasing genital free glycogen might impact Lactobacillus colonization.

Mirmonsef, Paria; Hotton, Anna L.; Gilbert, Douglas; Burgad, Derick; Landay, Alan; Weber, Kathleen M.; Cohen, Mardge; Ravel, Jacques; Spear, Gregory T.

2014-01-01

258

Vaginal contraceptive activity of a chelated vanadocene.  

PubMed

Bis(cyclopentadienyl) complexes of vanadium (IV) or vanadocenes are rapid and potent inhibitors of human sperm motility with potential as a new class of contraceptive agents. This study sought to determine the vaginal contraceptive activity of vanadocene dithiocarbamate (VDDTC), a stable vanadocene (IV)-chelated complex, using the standard rabbit model as well as the domestic pig as a physiologically relevant animal model for contraception. In experiment I, ovulating New Zealand White does in subgroups of eight were artificially inseminated (AI) with semen mixed with VDDTC (0.01-1 mM) or vehicle. In experiment II, ovulating does in subgroups of 18 were AI at 5 and 60 min after intravaginal application of a gel with and without 0.1% VDDTC or 2% nonoxynol-9 (N-9) (Gynol II, Ortho Pharmaceutical, Raritan, NJ), and allowed to complete term pregnancy. In experiment III, seven sexually mature Duroc gilts in standing estrus were AI with and without intravaginal application of 0.1% VDDTC gel microemulsion. Exposure of rabbit semen to VDDTC at the time of artificial insemination resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in fertility. Exposure of semen to 1 mM VDDTC led to complete inhibition of fertility as assessed by the number of embryos (control 49/94 vs. VDDTC-treated 0/117, p<.0001) or the percent embryos (52% vs. 0%, respectively) based on number of embryos to corpora lutea. Intravaginal administration of 0.1% VDDTC gel microemulsion or Gynol II prior to artificial insemination significantly inhibited term pregnancy rates (88% and 62% inhibition, respectively) when compared to control gel alone. Vanadocene dithiocarbamate gel microemulsion provided 80% inhibition of fertility even when insemination was delayed until 60 min after intravaginal application of VDDTC gel microemulsion. Rabbits that delivered litters despite intravaginal exposure of semen to VDDTC via gel microemulsion had healthy offsprings with no apparent perinatal repercussions. In domestic pigs, intravaginal applications of 0.1% VDDTC gel microemulsion prior to artificial insemination led to complete inhibition of fertility as assessed by the number of embryos (control 29/52 vs. VDDTC-treated 0/44, p<.0001) or the percent embryos (56% vs. 0%, respectively) based on the number of embryos to corpora lutea. These results suggest that VDDTC is a potent contraceptive agent in vivo. Intravaginal use of VDDTC via a gel microemulsion has clinical potential as a safe alternative to currently used detergent-type contraceptives. PMID:16022855

D'Cruz, Osmond J; Uckun, Fatih M

2005-08-01

259

Trocar-guided total tension-free vaginal mesh repair of post-hysterectomy vaginal vault prolapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction and hypothesis  The objective of this study was to report 1 year anatomical and functional outcomes of trocar-guided total tension-free vaginal\\u000a mesh (Prolift™) repair for post-hysterectomy vaginal vault prolapse with one continuous piece of polypropylene mesh.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We conducted a prospective observational cohort study of 46 patients. A minimum sample size of 35 patients was needed to detect\\u000a a recurrence rate of

Alfredo L. Milani; Mariella I. J. Withagen; Mark E. Vierhout

2009-01-01

260

Effectiveness of vaginal tablets containing lactobacilli versus pH tablets on vaginal health and inflammatory cytokines: a randomized, double-blind study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of lactobacilli on vaginal health and proinflammatory cytokines. Sixty-seven patients with bacterial vaginosis (BV), 50 with intermediate flora and 42 with normal vaginal flora were enrolled in this double-blind study. The subjects were randomized to receive probiotic lactobacilli vaginal tablets (L. brevis CD2, L. salivarius subsp. salicinius, L. plantarum) or the vaginal pH tablet (active comparator). Cervico-vaginal lavage was collected to measure the concentrations of IL-1?, TNF? and IL-6 by ELISA. Neutral sphingomyelinase activity was also quantified in both arms before and after treatment. The probiotic vaginal tablet was well tolerated and no side effects were reported. The study demonstrated a cure rate of nearly 80 %; i.e., 32 % of the women could restore normal vaginal flora and 47 % had improved Nugent score, whereas 20 % of the subjects did not clear BV in the first follow-up (after 8 days treatment). The pH tablet containing pH lowering compounds induced resolution of BV and restoration of normal vaginal flora in 74 % and 26 %, respectively. The lactobacilli tablet was found to be better than the pH tablet in preventing BV in healthy subjects. A significant reduction in IL-1? and IL-6 vaginal cytokines was observed after treatment with lactobacilli, while the active comparator did not have any effect on local proinflammatory cytokines. Vaginal neutral sphingomyelinase activity was not modified in either group. Vaginal tablets containing lactobacilli can cure BV and reduce vaginal inflammatory response. PMID:22777592

Hemalatha, R; Mastromarino, P; Ramalaxmi, B A; Balakrishna, N V; Sesikeran, B

2012-11-01

261

AISLAMIENTO DE CEPAS DE ESCHERICHIA COLI DESDE CASOS CLÍNICOS DE INFECCIÓN VAGINAL: ASOCIACIÓN CON OTROS MICROORGANISMOS Y SUSCEPTIBILIDAD ANTIBACTERIANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Objective: To determine the presence of Escherichia coli in vaginal fluids of women with vaginal infection and to study its antimicrobial susceptibility. Methods: 425 samples of women with clinical diagnosis of vaginal infection (cases) and 100 healthy women were studied (controls). The vaginal samples were studied by means of the criteria of Amsel and Nugent. Different methodologies were used

2007-01-01

262

Vaginal misoprostol as medical treatment for first trimester spontaneous miscarriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Misoprostol is effective for cervical priming prior to suction evacuation in first trimester pregnancy termination. This is the first randomized study to compare vaginal misoprostol versus expectant treatment in women presenting with spontaneous miscarriage. METHODS: Sixty women presenting with spontaneous miscarriage were recruited to the study at the Queen Mary Hospital between 1998 and 1999. They were randomized to

Suk Wai Ngai; Yik Ming Chan; Oi Shan Tang; Pak Chung Ho

263

Voluntary vaginal musculature contractions as an enhancer of sexual arousal  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study of the effects of vaginal musculature contractions (Kegel's exercises) on both subjective and physiological measures of sexual arousal, 30 normal females were randomly assigned to one of three groups. The first group was informed about these exercises and was asked to practice them both during lab sessions and during the week intervening between sessions. The second group

Madelyn Renée Messé; James H. Geer

1985-01-01

264

Alexithymia Is Inversely Associated with Women's Frequency of Vaginal Intercourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examined the relation between frequency of penile–vaginal intercourse (FSI; contrasted with other sexual behavior) and alexithymia (difficulty recognizing, identifying, and communicating emotions, reduced fantasy capacity, and an externally oriented cognitive style). To minimize response bias, persons scoring above the 86th percentile on the Eysenck Personality Inventory Lie scale were excluded. Participants (54 female and 39 male healthy young

Stuart Brody

2003-01-01

265

Penile – vaginal intercourse is better: evidence trumps ideology  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has often been asserted that all sexual behaviours are equal. However, empirical research demonstrates that different sexual behaviours differ in many physiological and psychological domains. These differences are remarkably consistent in revealing an association between specifically penile-vaginal intercourse and indices of better physiological and psychological function. Other sexual behaviours (masturbation, partner masturbation, oral sex, anal sex, or any other

2006-01-01

266

Treatment of vaginal candidosis with econazole nitrate and nystatin  

PubMed Central

A study carried out to compare the efficacy of econazole nitrate and nystatin in the treatment of vaginal candidosis showed that a three-day course of econazole nitrate pessaries was as effective as a 14-day course of nystatin pessaries and is more acceptable to patients.

Bingham, J S; Steele, C E

1981-01-01

267

Quantitation of Secretory Immonoglobulin A in Vaginal Secretions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to attempt to correlate vaginal levels of SIgA with variables including age, day of menstrual cycle, use of oral contraceptives, length of time oral contraceptives had been used, and presence of Candida albicans infection. (Author)

Grant, Tamara Dawn; Mace, Kenneth D.

1977-01-01

268

Oral Versus Vaginal Sex Among Adolescents: Perceptions Attitudes and Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Objective. Despite studies indicating that a significant proportion of adolescents are having oral sex, the focus of most empirical studies and inter- vention efforts concerning adolescent sexuality have focused on vaginal intercourse. This narrow focus has created a void in our understanding of adolescents’ per- ceptions of oral sex. This study is the first to investigate adolescents’ perceptions of

Jeanne M. Tschann

269

Vaginal and Oral Microbes, Host Genotype and Preterm Birth  

PubMed Central

Preterm birth (PTB) is a leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity in the U.S. and across the globe. Infection and associated inflammation are important initiators for PTB pathways; an estimated 40% of PTBs are attributed to amniochorionic-decidual or systemic inflammation. Historically, intrauterine infections have been implicated in PTB; recent evidence suggests that infections remote from the fetal site may also be causative. There is strong epidemiological evidence that bacterial vaginosis and periodontitis -- two syndromes characterized by perturbations in the normal vaginal and oral bacterial microflora respectively-- are linked to infection-associated PTB. Oral and vaginal environments are similar in their bacterial microbiology; identical bacterial species have been independently isolated in periodontitis and bacterial vaginosis. Periodontitis and bacterial vaginosis also share many behavioral and sociodemographic risk factors suggesting a possible common pathophysiology. Genetic polymorphisms in host inflammatory responses to infection are shared between bacterial vaginosis, periodontitis and PTB, suggesting common mechanisms through which host genotype modify the effect of abnormal bacterial colonization on preterm birth. We review the state of knowledge regarding the risk of PTB attributable to perturbations in bacterial flora in oral and vaginal sites and the role of host genetics in modifying the risk of infection-related PTB. We posit that bacterial species that are common in perturbed vaginal and oral sites are associated with PTB through their interaction with the host immune system.

Srinivasan, Usha; Misra, Dawn; Marazita, Mary L.; Foxman, Betsy

2014-01-01

270

Phytoestrogen effects on vaginal microbiocenosis of Sprague-Dawley rats.  

PubMed

Phytoestrogens present in the plants endemic for Chile were studied. The effects of phytoextract [specimen of preparation No. 181 (fraction b)] on target tissues were similar to those of estradiol. The preparation inhibited the stimulatory effect of estradiol on vaginal lactobacilli population. PMID:22803047

Rybas, Ya A; Gonzáles, Karla Ferrada; Kravtsov, E G; Tchernitchin, A N; Dalin, M V

2011-11-01

271

Vaginal Practices of HIV-Negative Zimbabwean Women  

PubMed Central

Background. Vaginal practices (VPs) may increase HIV risk by injuring vaginal epithelium or by increasing risk of bacterial vaginosis, an established risk factor for HIV. Methods. HIV-negative Zimbabwean women (n = 2,185) participating in a prospective study on hormonal contraception and HIV risk completed an ancillary questionnaire capturing detailed VP data at quarterly followup visits for two years. Results. Most participants (84%) reported ever cleansing inside the vagina, and at 40% of visits women reported drying the vagina using cloth or paper. Vaginal tightening using cloth/cotton wool, lemon juice, traditional herbs/powders, or other products was reported at 4% of visits. Women with ?15 unprotected sex acts monthly had higher odds of cleansing (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.17, 95% CI: 1.04–1.32). Women with sexually transmitted infections had higher odds of tightening (aOR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.08–1.86). Conclusion. Because certain vaginal practices were associated with other HIV risk factors, synergism between VPs and other risk factors should be explored.

Turner, Abigail Norris; Morrison, Charles S.; Munjoma, Marshall W.; Moyo, Precious; Chipato, Tsungai; van de Wijgert, Janneke H.

2010-01-01

272

Antifungal activity of lectins against yeast of vaginal secretion  

PubMed Central

Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins of non-imune origin. This group of proteins is distributed widely in nature and they have been found in viruses, microorganisms, plants and animals. Lectins of plants have been isolated and characterized according to their chemical, physical-chemical, structural and biological properties. Among their biological activities, we can stress its fungicidal action. It has been previously described the effect of the lectins Dviol, DRL, ConBr and LSL obtained from the seeds of leguminous plants on the growth of yeasts isolated from vaginal secretions. In the present work the experiments were carried out in microtiter plates and the results interpreted by both methods: visual observations and a microplate reader at 530nm. The lectin concentrations varied from 0.5 to 256?g/mL, and the inoculum was established between 65-70% of trammitance. All yeast samples isolated from vaginal secretion were evaluated taxonomically, where were observed macroscopic and microscopic characteristics to each species. The LSL lectin did not demonstrate any antifungal activity to any isolate studied. The other lectins DRL, ConBr and DvioL, showed antifungal potential against yeast isolated from vaginal secretion. These findings offering offer a promising field of investigation to develop new therapeutic strategies against vaginal yeast infections, collaborating to improve women's health.

Gomes, Bruno Severo; Siqueira, Ana Beatriz Sotero; de Cassia Carvalho Maia, Rita; Giampaoli, Viviana; Teixeira, Edson Holanda; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; do Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; de Lima, Adriana Nunes; Souza-Motta, Cristina Maria; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Porto, Ana Lucia Figueiredo

2012-01-01

273

Protection Against Vaginal SIV Transmission with Microencapsulated Vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although protection in animal models against intravenous challenges with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) has been reported, no previous vaccines have protected against a heterosexual route of infection. In this study, five of six macaques were protected against vaginal challenge when immunized with formalin-treated SIV in biodegradable microspheres by the intramuscular plus oral or plus intratracheal route. Oral immunization alone did

Preston A. Marx; Richard W. Compans; Agegnehu Gettie; Jay K. Staas; Richard M. Gilley; Mark J. Mulligan; Galina V. Yamshchikov; Dexiang Chen; John H. Eldridge

1993-01-01

274

Rapid Detection of Vaginal Candida Species by Newly Developed Immunochromatography? †  

PubMed Central

For the diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidiasis, we developed a simple immunochromatographic method that enables the detection of vaginal Candida spp. within about 30 min. Overall, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of this method appeared to be 80.3, 99.3, 98.0, and 92.0%, respectively.

Matsui, Hidehito; Hanaki, Hideaki; Takahashi, Kengo; Yokoyama, Akihiko; Nakae, Taiji; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Omura, Satoshi

2009-01-01

275

Urethral erosion of a tension-free vaginal tape  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundUrethral dilation has been recommended to treat voiding dysfunction that may occur after placement of tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence. We report on a case of urethral erosion by the tape secondary to repetitive urethral dilations after surgery.

Brett J. Vassallo; Steven D. Kleeman; Jeffrey Segal; Mickey M. Karram

2003-01-01

276

Characteristics of women with continued use of vaginal pessaries.  

PubMed

Vaginal pessaries have been shown to be a safe, effective treatment for pelvic organ prolapse, and in some cases, female urinary incontinence. There are limited data that predict long-term pessary use; therefore, the aim of this retrospective, exploratory study was to describe selected characteristics of women using a pessary for 12 months or longer in a nurse-run clinic. PMID:24079114

Lewthwaite, Barbara J; Staley, Doug; Girouard, Lise; Maslow, Ken

2013-01-01

277

Attitudes of Singapore women toward cesarean and vaginal deliveries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To assess the attitude, knowledge, and expectations of Asian pregnant women toward cesarean and vaginal deliveries. Methods: Written questionnaires were given to pregnant women attending the National University Hospital antenatal clinics, and 160 responses were tabulated and analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The participation rate was 65% and 50% of the respondents were Chinese, 20% Indian, 21% Malay, 2%

E. S. Y. Chong; M. Mongelli

2003-01-01

278

Candida albicans forms biofilms on the vaginal mucosa.  

PubMed

Current understanding of resistance and susceptibility to vulvovaginal candidiasis challenges existing paradigms of host defence against fungal infection. While abiotic biofilm formation has a clearly established role during systemic Candida infections, it is not known whether C. albicans forms biofilms on the vaginal mucosa and the possible role of biofilms in disease. In vivo and ex vivo murine vaginitis models were employed to examine biofilm formation by scanning electron and confocal microscopy. C. albicans strains included 3153A (lab strain), DAY185 (parental control strain), and mutants defective in morphogenesis and/or biofilm formation in vitro (efg1/efg1 and bcr1/bcr1). Both 3153A and DAY815 formed biofilms on the vaginal mucosa in vivo and ex vivo as indicated by high fungal burden and microscopic analysis demonstrating typical biofilm architecture and presence of extracellular matrix (ECM) co-localized with the presence of fungi. In contrast, efg1/efg1 and bcr1/bcr1 mutant strains exhibited weak or no biofilm formation/ECM production in both models compared to wild-type strains and complemented mutants despite comparable colonization levels. These data show for the first time that C. albicans forms biofilms in vivo on vaginal epithelium, and that in vivo biotic biofilm formation requires regulators of biofilm formation (BCR1) and morphogenesis (EFG1). PMID:20705667

Harriott, M M; Lilly, E A; Rodriguez, T E; Fidel, P L; Noverr, M C

2010-12-01

279

Candida albicans forms biofilms on the vaginal mucosa  

PubMed Central

Current understanding of resistance and susceptibility to vulvovaginal candidiasis challenges existing paradigms of host defence against fungal infection. While abiotic biofilm formation has a clearly established role during systemic Candida infections, it is not known whether C. albicans forms biofilms on the vaginal mucosa and the possible role of biofilms in disease. In vivo and ex vivo murine vaginitis models were employed to examine biofilm formation by scanning electron and confocal microscopy. C. albicans strains included 3153A (lab strain), DAY185 (parental control strain), and mutants defective in morphogenesis and/or biofilm formation in vitro (efg1/efg1 and bcr1/bcr1). Both 3153A and DAY815 formed biofilms on the vaginal mucosa in vivo and ex vivo as indicated by high fungal burden and microscopic analysis demonstrating typical biofilm architecture and presence of extracellular matrix (ECM) co-localized with the presence of fungi. In contrast, efg1/efg1 and bcr1/bcr1 mutant strains exhibited weak or no biofilm formation/ECM production in both models compared to wild-type strains and complemented mutants despite comparable colonization levels. These data show for the first time that C. albicans forms biofilms in vivo on vaginal epithelium, and that in vivo biotic biofilm formation requires regulators of biofilm formation (BCR1) and morphogenesis (EFG1).

Harriott, M. M.; Lilly, E. A.; Rodriguez, T. E.; Fidel, P. L.; Noverr, M. C.

2010-01-01

280

Vaginal microbicides: where are we and where are we going?  

PubMed

The epidemic of HIV has catalyzed the need for safe and effective prevention methods, particularly for women. Vaginal microbicides have been targeted because these methods can be controlled by women themselves. Microbicides have focused on preventing HIV as well as other sexually transmitted infections, because the acquisition of HIV is enhanced by the presence of many infections. Although many products show promise in preclinical trials, safety remains paramount. The importance of safety was exemplified by the nonoxynol-9 studies which showed actual harm. This experience catalyzed the development of criteria that should be used as safety standards in trials, including immune markers of the cervical epithelium, and colposcopy standards. Unfortunately, immune markers are in their infant stages of development and reliability and validity checks remain large challenges. There have been four recent phase IIb/III trials that had disappointing results. However, these trials offer an opportunity to develop new preclinical models and biomarkers. The search for new microbicides remains critical. Current microbicides in trials can be categorized into vaginal defense enhancers (which help maintain the vaginal pH or facilitate the colonization of vaginal lactobacilli); surfactants (or detergents) which disrupt viral membranes; HIV entry inhibitors; and HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Even with a good product, acceptance by both partners will be essential for its success, and lack of acceptance is often not evident until large trials are completed. PMID:18936885

Moscicki, Anna-Barbara

2008-10-01

281

Vaginal Hygiene and Douching: Perspectives of Hispanic Men  

PubMed Central

Vaginal douching is widely practiced by women in the USA, particularly among minority ethnic groups, and is associated with increased risk of pelvic and vaginal infections. Douching practices are shaped by social and cultural norms regarding female hygiene, reproduction, and sexuality. Little previous research has addressed the beliefs and practices of Latina women, and none has included the perspective of men, though limited data suggests that women may douche to please male partners. The present study seeks to identify the socially and culturally shaped beliefs and attitudes that influence douching practices from the perspective of Latino men. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews in English or Spanish with adult Latino men seeking primary care at a community health centre in New York City (USA). Results indicate that these Latino men (mostly of Caribbean descent) are emphatic about the role of cleanliness in vaginal health, reporting that it substantially influences their choice of partner. Most are very supportive of douching, which they consider a necessary hygiene activity. Vaginal health is perceived as a state that must be attained and maintained through proactive hygiene measures that remove seminal residue, menstrual blood, sweat and bacteria that contaminate the vagina. The implications of these findings for interventions with Latina women are discussed.

Mckee, M Diane; Baquero, Maria; Anderson, Matthew; Karasz, Alison

2009-01-01

282

Vaginal birth after cesarean and uterine rupture rates in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe attempted and successful vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) rates and uterine rupture rates for women with and without prior cesareans, and compare delivery outcomes in hospitals with different attempted VBAC rates.Methods: We used California hospital discharge summary data for 1995 to calculate attempted and successful VBAC rates and uterine rupture rates. We used multivariate logistic regression models

Kimberly D Gregory; Lisa M Korst; Patricia Cane; Lawrence D Platt; Katherine Kahn

1999-01-01

283

Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Delivery: An Admission Scoring System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To develop a scoring system to predict the likelihood of vaginal birth in patients undergoing a trial of labor after previous cesarean delivery using factors known at the time of hospital admission.Methods: Trial of labor was attempted in 5022 patients who were assigned randomly to score derivation and score testing groups. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was used in the

Bruce L Flamm; Ann M Geiger

1997-01-01

284

Vaginal dose, toxicity and sexual outcomes in patients of cervical cancer undergoing image based brachytherapy.  

PubMed

Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate the vaginal dose and toxicity in patients of cervical cancer treated with image guided brachytherapy at our institute. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients treated with image based brachytherapy for cervical cancer were included. Vaginal contouring was done on MRI at brachytherapy and with CT scans of subsequent brachytherapy fractions. Dose volume parameters (DVH) were reported in accordance with the GEC-ESTRO guidelines. These were correlated with vaginal toxicity (assessed by CTCAE version 3) and quality of sexual life assessed at one year of completion of treatment. Results: Vaginal shortness was observed in 22 out of 30 (62.8%) patients, Nine (25.7%) had vaginal dryness and in 10 (28.5%) patients, there was contact bleeding. No association could be demonstrated between the dose volume parameters and vaginal toxicity in the present study. Conclusions: The lack of association between dose volume parameters of vagina with vaginal morbidity may be due to uncertainties involved in the delineation of vaginal wall and dosimetry. Future research is required to accurately define vaginal dose distribution to study its correlation with vaginal morbidity. Vaginal morbidity needs to be documented in order to improve the sexual outcome in these patients. PMID:24870767

Rai, Bhavana; Dhanireddy, Bhaswanth; Patel, Firuza Darius; Kumari, Reena; Oinam, Arun Singh; Simha, Vijai; Sharma, Suresh

2014-01-01

285

Increased CCL2 expression and macrophage/monocyte migration during microbicide-induced vaginal irritation.  

PubMed

Despite availability of successful prevention strategies, HIV continues to spread at alarming rates, especially among women in developing countries. Vaginal microbicides offer a promising approach for blocking transmission of HIV when condom use cannot be negotiated with male partners. A major problem in the development of vaginal microbicides is chemically induced vaginal irritation, which can enhance the risk of HIV transmission. Evaluation of vaginal irritation prior to clinical trials typically uses an expensive and animal-intensive rabbit vaginal irritation model, which could be supplemented by measuring additional inflammatory biomarkers. We studied several immunological parameters as potential biomarkers of vaginal irritation, using the spermicides nonoxynol-9 and benzalkonium chloride as test microbicides. We measured amounts of cytokines, as well as inflammatory cells, in vaginal tissue lysates and on the vaginal surface. We observed that treatment with the selected microbicides increases quantities of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta, CXCL8, and CCL2 in the vaginal tissue parenchyma, and of CCL2 on the vaginal surface. This observation was correlated with increases in macrophages in the vaginal parenchyma. We suggest that measurements of CCL2 and macrophages can serve as new inflammatory biomarkers to evaluate the safety of promising novel microbicides for prevention of HIV. PMID:19929801

Alt, Carsten; Harrison, Travis; Dousman, Linda; Fujita, Nahoko; Shew, Ken; Tran, Thanh-Thuy; Shayesteh, Sara; Matsukawa, Akihiro; Mirsalis, Jon; D'Andrea, Annalisa

2009-11-01

286

Increased CCL2 expression and macrophage/monocyte migration during microbicide-induced vaginal irritation  

PubMed Central

Despite availability of successful prevention strategies, HIV continues to spread at alarming rates, especially among women in developing countries. Vaginal microbicides offer a promising approach for blocking transmission of HIV when condom use cannot be negotiated with male partners. A major problem in the development of vaginal microbicides is chemically induced vaginal irritation, which can enhance the risk of HIV transmission. Evaluation of vaginal irritation prior to clinical trials typically uses an expensive and animal-intensive rabbit vaginal irritation model, which could be supplemented by measuring additional inflammatory biomarkers. We studied several immunological parameters as potential biomarkers of vaginal irritation, using the spermicides nonoxynol-9 and benzalkonium chloride as test microbicides. We measured amounts of cytokines, as well as inflammatory cells, in vaginal tissue lysates and on the vaginal surface. We observed that treatment with the selected microbicides increases quantities of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1?, CXCL8, and CCL2 in the vaginal tissue parenchyma, and of CCL2 on the vaginal surface. This observation was correlated with increases in macrophages in the vaginal parenchyma. We suggest that measurements of CCL2 and macrophages can serve as new inflammatory biomarkers to evaluate the safety of promising novel microbicides for prevention of HIV.

Alt, Carsten; Harrison, Travis; Dousman, Linda; Fujita, Nahoko; Shew, Ken; Tran, Thanh-Thuy; Shayesteh, Sara; Matsukawa, Akihiro; Mirsalis, Jon; D'Andrea, Annalisa

2009-01-01

287

Mucus-Penetrating Nanoparticles for Vaginal Drug Delivery Protect Against Herpes Simplex Virus  

PubMed Central

Incomplete coverage and short duration of action limit the effectiveness of vaginally administered drugs, including microbicides for preventing sexually transmitted infections. We investigated vaginal distribution, retention, and safety of nanoparticles with surfaces modified to enhance transport through mucus. We show that mucus-penetrating particles (MPPs) provide uniform distribution over the vaginal epithelium, whereas conventional nanoparticles (CPs) that are mucoadhesive are aggregated by mouse vaginal mucus, leading to poor distribution. Moreover, when delivered hypotonically, MPPs were transported advectively (versus diffusively) through mucus deep into vaginal folds (rugae) within minutes. By penetrating into the deepest mucus layers, more MPPs were retained in the vaginal tract after 6 h compared to CPs. After 24 h, when delivered in a conventional vaginal gel, patches of a model drug remained on the vaginal epithelium, whereas the epithelium was coated with drug delivered by MPP. We then developed MPPs composed of acyclovir monophosphate (ACVp). When administered prior to vaginal herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) challenge, ACVp-MPPs protected 53% of mice, compared to only 16% protected by soluble drug. Overall, MPPs improved vaginal drug distribution and retention, provided more effective protection against vaginal viral challenge than soluble drug, and were non-toxic when administered daily for one week.

Ensign, Laura M.; Tang, Benjamin C.; Wang, Ying-Ying; Tse, Terence A.; Hoen, Timothy; Cone, Richard; Hanes, Justin

2013-01-01

288

Identification and characterisation of vaginal lactobacilli from South African women  

PubMed Central

Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV), which is highly prevalent in the African population, is one of the most common vaginal syndromes affecting women in their reproductive age placing them at increased risk for sexually transmitted diseases including infection by human immunodeficiency virus-1. The vaginal microbiota of a healthy woman is often dominated by the species belonging to the genus Lactobacillus namely L. crispatus, L. gasseri, L. jensenii and L. iners, which have been extensively studied in European populations, albeit less so in South African women. In this study, we have therefore identified the vaginal Lactobacillus species in a group of 40 African women from Soweto, a township on the outskirts of Johannesburg, South Africa. Methods Identification was done by cultivating the lactobacilli on Rogosa agar, de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS) and Blood agar plates with 5% horse blood followed by sequencing of the 16S ribosomal DNA. BV was diagnosed on the basis of Nugent scores. Since some of the previous studies have shown that the lack of vaginal hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) producing lactobacilli is associated with bacterial vaginosis, the Lactobacillus isolates were also characterised for their production of H2O2. Results Cultivable Lactobacillus species were identified in 19 out of 21 women without BV, in three out of five women with intermediate microbiota and in eight out of 14 women with BV. We observed that L. crispatus, L. iners, L. jensenii, L. gasseri and L. vaginalis were the predominant species. The presence of L. crispatus was associated with normal vaginal microbiota (P = 0.024). High level of H2O2 producing lactobacilli were more often isolated from women with normal microbiota than from the women with BV, although not to a statistically significant degree (P = 0.064). Conclusion The vaginal Lactobacillus species isolated from the cohort of South African women are similar to those identified in European populations. In accordance with the other published studies, L. crispatus is related to a normal vaginal microbiota. Hydrogen peroxide production was not significantly associated to the BV status which could be attributed to the limited number of samples or to other antimicrobial factors that might be involved.

2013-01-01

289

Management of neobladder-vaginal fistula and stress incontinence following radical cystectomy in women: a review.  

PubMed

Contemporary literature regarding the management of neobladder-vaginal fistula and stress urinary incontinence following radical cystectomy and neobladder reconstruction in women is reviewed in this article. Neobladder-vaginal fistula is uncommon but mandates meticulous repair. Compared to the native bladder, the wall of the neobladder is much thinner that may render it vulnerable to fistulization. Preservation of the anterior vaginal wall during radical cystectomy decreases the likelihood of pouch-vaginal fistula. Omental flap interposition between the vaginal stump and neobladder at cystectomy may not always prevent fistulization if anterior vaginal wall is violated or overlapping suture lines are not avoided. Surgery for intractable stress incontinence following neobladder reconstruction is fraught with severe complications and requires judicious use of allograft pubovaginal slingplasty possibly with bone anchors. Martius flap interposition appears to play a crucial role in improving the outcome following transvaginal repair of the neobladder-vaginal fistula in multiple non-overlapping layers. PMID:16160880

Tunuguntla, Hari S G R; Manoharan, Murugesan; Gousse, Angelo E

2005-09-01

290

Colposcopy and High Resolution Anoscopy in Screening For Anal Dysplasia in Patients With Cervical, Vaginal, or Vulvar Dysplasia or Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 1; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 3; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Recurrent Vulvar Cancer; Stage 0 Cervical Cancer; Stage 0 Vaginal Cancer; Stage 0 Vulvar Cancer; Stage I Vaginal Cancer; Stage I Vulvar Cancer; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage III Vulvar Cancer; Stage IV Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer

2012-06-08

291

Nanoparticle Incorporation of Melittin Reduces Sperm and Vaginal Epithelium Cytotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Melittin is a cytolytic peptide component of bee venom which rapidly integrates into lipid bilayers and forms pores resulting in osmotic lysis. While the therapeutic utility of free melittin is limited by its cytotoxicity, incorporation of melittin into the lipid shell of a perfluorocarbon nanoparticle has been shown to reduce its toxicity in vivo. Our group has previously demonstrated that perfluorocarbon nanoparticles containing melittin at concentrations <10 µM inhibit HIV infectivity in vitro. In the current study, we assessed the impact of blank and melittin-containing perfluorocarbon nanoparticles on sperm motility and the viability of both sperm and vaginal epithelial cells. We found that free melittin was toxic to sperm and vaginal epithelium at concentrations greater than 2 µM (p<0.001). However, melittin nanoparticles were not cytotoxic to sperm (p?=?0.42) or vaginal epithelium (p?=?0.48) at an equivalent melittin concentration of 10 µM. Thus, nanoparticle formulation of melittin reduced melittin cytotoxicity fivefold and prevented melittin toxicity at concentrations previously shown to inhibit HIV infectivity. Melittin nanoparticles were toxic to vaginal epithelium at equivalent melittin concentrations ?20 µM (p<0.001) and were toxic to sperm at equivalent melittin concentrations ?40 µM (p<0.001). Sperm cytotoxicity was enhanced by targeting of the nanoparticles to the sperm surface antigen sperm adhesion molecule 1. While further testing is needed to determine the extent of cytotoxicity in a more physiologically relevant model system, these results suggest that melittin-containing nanoparticles could form the basis of a virucide that is not toxic to sperm and vaginal epithelium. This virucide would be beneficial for HIV serodiscordant couples seeking to achieve natural pregnancy.

Jallouk, Andrew P.; Moley, Kelle H.; Omurtag, Kenan; Hu, Grace; Lanza, Gregory M.; Wickline, Samuel A.; Hood, Joshua L.

2014-01-01

292

Associations between Vaginal Pathogenic Community and Bacterial Vaginosis in Chinese Reproductive-Age Women  

PubMed Central

Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of the most common urogenital infections among women of reproductive age that represents shifts in microbiota from Lactobacillus spp. to diverse anaerobes. The aim of our study was to evalute the diagnostic values of Gardnerella, Atopobium, Eggerthella, Megasphaera typeI, Leptotrichia/Sneathia and Prevotella, defined as a vaginal pathogenic community for BV and their associations with vaginal pH and Nugent scores. Methods and Findings We investigated the vaginal pathogenic bacteria and Lactobacillus spp. with species-specific real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) in 50 BV-positive and 50 BV-negative Chinese women of reproductive age. Relative to BV-negative subjects, a siginificant decline in Lactobacillus and an obvious increase in bacteria in the vaginal pathogenic community were observed in BV-postive subjects (P<0.05). With the exception of Megasphaera typeI, other vaginal pathogenic bacteria were highly predictable for BV with a better sensitivity and specificity. The vaginal pathogenic community was positively associated with vaginal pH and Nugent scores, while Lactobacillus spp., such as L. iners and L. crispatus was negatively associated with them (P<0.05). Conclusions Our data implied that the prevalance of vaginal pathogenic bacteria as well as the depletion of Lactobacillus was highly accurate for BV diagnosis. Vaginal microbiota shifts, especially the overgrowth of the vaginal pathogenic community, showed well diagnostic values in predicting BV. Postive correlations between those vaginal pathogenic bacteria and vaginal pH, Nugent score indicated the vaginal pathogenic community rather than a single vaginal microorganism, was participated in the onset of BV directly.

Luo, Yueqiu; Wu, Xiaoxing; Yuan, Li; Tong, Xiaojuan; Li, Lanjuan; Xiang, Charlie

2013-01-01

293

Vaginal chitosan tablets with clotrimazole-design and evaluation of mucoadhesive properties using porcine vaginal mucosa, mucin and gelatine.  

PubMed

Topical administration of clotrimazole represents the common use therapy in the antimycotic genitourinary tract treatment. Due to the fast self-cleaning action of the vagina, commercially available vaginal dosage forms with clotrimazole cannot assure prolonged contact time with mucosa, therefore the main objective of this study was to develop a dosage form for vaginal administration of clotrimazole using chitosan-a biodegradable and biocompatible derivative of chitin. Tablets mucoadhesive properties were examined using texture analyser under the presence of porcine vaginal mucosa and two different models of adhesive layers- mucin gel and gelatine discs. In addition, friability, hardness, swelling behaviour, residence time, surface morphology of the performed tablets, the in vitro release profile of clotrimazole and clotrimazole release kinetics were determined. The release of clotrimazole from formulations with 25 or 40% of chitosan (F2 and F3) followed non Fickian diffusion through chitosan-gel layer and was retarded up to 6 h. Additionally, tablets F2 showed the best results in terms of mucoadhesive properties and appeared to be a good alternative to commercially available antimycotic vaginal dosage forms. PMID:24492586

Szyma?ska, Emilia; Winnicka, Katarzyna; Amelian, Aleksandra; Cwalina, Urszula

2014-01-01

294

MTN-001: Randomized Pharmacokinetic Cross-Over Study Comparing Tenofovir Vaginal Gel and Oral Tablets in Vaginal Tissue and Other Compartments  

PubMed Central

Background Oral and vaginal preparations of tenofovir as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have demonstrated variable efficacy in men and women prompting assessment of variation in drug concentration as an explanation. Knowledge of tenofovir concentration and its active form, tenofovir diphosphate, at the putative vaginal and rectal site of action and its relationship to concentrations at multiple other anatomic locations may provide key information for both interpreting PrEP study outcomes and planning future PrEP drug development. Objective MTN-001 was designed to directly compare oral to vaginal steady-state tenofovir pharmacokinetics in blood, vaginal tissue, and vaginal and rectal fluid in a paired cross-over design. Methods and Findings We enrolled 144 HIV-uninfected women at 4 US and 3 African clinical research sites in an open label, 3-period crossover study of three different daily tenofovir regimens, each for 6 weeks (oral 300 mg tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, vaginal 1% tenofovir gel [40 mg], or both). Serum concentrations after vaginal dosing were 56-fold lower than after oral dosing (p<0.001). Vaginal tissue tenofovir diphosphate was quantifiable in ?90% of women with vaginal dosing and only 19% of women with oral dosing. Vaginal tissue tenofovir diphosphate was ?130-fold higher with vaginal compared to oral dosing (p<0.001). Rectal fluid tenofovir concentrations in vaginal dosing periods were higher than concentrations measured in the oral only dosing period (p<0.03). Conclusions Compared to oral dosing, vaginal dosing achieved much lower serum concentrations and much higher vaginal tissue concentrations. Even allowing for 100-fold concentration differences due to poor adherence or less frequent prescribed dosing, vaginal dosing of tenofovir should provide higher active site concentrations and theoretically greater PrEP efficacy than oral dosing; randomized topical dosing PrEP trials to the contrary indicates that factors beyond tenofovir’s antiviral effect substantially influence PrEP efficacy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00592124

Hendrix, Craig W.; Chen, Beatrice A.; Guddera, Vijayanand; Hoesley, Craig; Justman, Jessica; Nakabiito, Clemensia; Salata, Robert; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Patterson, Karen; Minnis, Alexandra M.; Gandham, Sharavi; Gomez, Kailazarid; Richardson, Barbra A.; Bumpus, Namandje N.

2013-01-01

295

Bioadhesive vaginal tablets containing spray dried microspheres loaded with clotrimazole for treatment of vaginal candidiasis.  

PubMed

The aim of the present investigation was to prepare and evaluate novel bioadhesive vaginal tablets containing clotrimazole loaded microspheres in order to provide long-term therapeutic activity at the site of infection. Tablets were prepared by incorporating drug loaded microspheres and using bioadhesive polymers hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose and Carbopol. Microspheres were prepared by the spray drying technique using Eudragit RS-100 and Eudragit RL-100. Microspheres were characterized by SEM, DSC, FTIR, particle size analysis and evaluated for percentage yield, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release. To achieve bioadhesion to the mucosal tissue, optimized microspheres were incorporated into bioadhesive tablets and were evaluated for in vitro drug release, in vitro and in vivo mucoadhesion. FTIR and DSC studies showed that no chemical interaction occurred between the drug and polymers. The sphericity factor indicated that the prepared microspheres were spherical. Formulation Mt6 indicated a controlled in vitro drug release and good bioadhesive strength. The in vivo images confirmed the bioadhesion and retention property of tablets up to 24 h. The results indicated that this drug delivery system can be explored for controlled intravaginal drug release. PMID:24152896

Gupta, Naresh Vishal; Natasha, Shirodker; Getyala, Anil; Bhat, Ramnath Sudeendra

2013-09-01

296

Distribution and perinatal transmission of bacterial vaginal infections in pregnant women without vaginal symptoms.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: We evaluated the distribution and vertical transmission of bacterial vaginal infections in asymptomatic pregnant women. Methods: We performed multiplex PCR on secretions collected on cervical swabs from pregnant women at over 36 weeks of gestation and on oral secretions collected from their neonates immediately after delivery. We detected sexually transmitted infections (STIs) with the following 6 species: Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Ureaplasma urealyticum. Results: Infectious agents were detected in 64 of 455 pregnant women (14.1%) and in 11 neonates (2.4%). The rate of vertical transmission was 17.2% and all the infectious agents detected in neonates were concordant with those found in their mothers. U. urealyticum was the most frequently detected in the maternal genitalia, followed by M. hominis. Women who were in labor for a longer period of time had a higher risk of vertically transmitting STI agents to their neonates. Conclusions: Vertical transmission of bacterial STIs from mothers to their infants is possible at delivery and influenced by the duration of labor. STIs should be diagnosed in pregnant women to prevent vertical transmission from the mother to the infant at the time of delivery. PMID:24552584

Hahn, Ho-Suap; Lee, Ki-Heon; Koo, Yu-Jin; Kim, Soon-Gyu; Rhee, Jee Eun; Kim, Moon Young; Hwang, Soo-Jin; Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, In-Ho; Lim, Kyung-Taek; Shim, Jae-Uk; Kim, Tae-Jin

2014-05-01

297

Assemblies for in vitro measurement of bioadhesive strength and retention characteristics in simulated vaginal environment.  

PubMed

The vaginal route of administration offers a promising option for local and systemic delivery of drugs. Conventional vaginal formulations are associated with limitations of poor retention, leakage, and messiness, thereby causing inconvenience to users. To overcome these limitations, formulations that adhere to the vaginal mucosa for a sufficient period of time need to be developed. Bioadhesion and retention are desirable characteristics of a vaginal formulation to achieve desired efficacy. These properties can be built in during formulation development by the use of bioadhesive polymers. In the present study, assemblies for in vitro measurement of bioadhesive strength and retention characteristics of vaginal formulations have been developed. A modified simulated vaginal fluid (SVFM) was used to simulate vaginal conditions for bioadhesion studies. Cellophane hydrated with SVFM and isolated sheep vaginal mucosa were used as model membranes. The bioadhesive potential of various polymers and their combinations was evaluated. Among the polymers evaluated, xanthan gum (XG), sodium alginate (SA), Polycarbophil (PC), and their combinations (XG + SA and XG + PC) were found to possess significant bioadhesive strength. In retention experiments, XG, SA, and combinations (XG + SA and XG + PC) were retained in isolated sheep vaginal tissue, while PC exhibited poor retention under experimental conditions. Based on the results of the study conducted, XG, SA, and combinations (XG + SA and XG + PC) have been proposed as potential candidates for developing bioadhesive vaginal drug delivery systems. PMID:12455472

Vermani, Kavita; Garg, Sanjay; Zaneveld, Lourens J D

2002-10-01

298

Effectiveness and safety of vaginal suppositories for the treatment of the vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women: an open, non-controlled clinical trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Menopause, due to the physi- ological decrease in the estrogens levels, is of- ten associated with many symptoms related to vaginal atrophy such vaginal dryness, dyspare- unia, burning, itching, decreasing in libido and therefore a worsening of the quality of life and in particular of the sexual activity. There are many pharmacological remedies to solve these events, first of all

D. COSTANTINO; C. GUARALDI

2008-01-01

299

Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Vaginal Adenocarcinoma; Vaginal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

2014-05-30

300

Tinidazole therapy for metronidazole-resistant vaginal trichomoniasis.  

PubMed

Treatment of patients with metronidazole-refractory vaginal trichomoniasis constitutes a major therapeutic challenge, and treatment options are extremely limited. Although the majority of patients infected with trichomonads, who demonstrate reduced in vitro susceptibility to metronidazole, respond to high-dose but poorly tolerated regimens of metronidazole, clinical failure is by no means uncommon. We report a cure rate of 22 (92%) of 24 patients with refractory trichomoniasis treated with high doses of oral and vaginal tinidazole. This series included 15 cases with increased in vitro minimal lethal concentration values of metronidazole. Tinidazole, despite the high doses used, was extremely well tolerated, with few side effects. Topical paromomycin was effective in 7 (58%) of 12 patients treated, but frequent local vulvovaginal adverse reactions precluded extensive use. Widespread reports of metronidazole resistance and limited treatment options emphasize the need for additional trichomonacidal agents. PMID:11565074

Sobel, J D; Nyirjesy, P; Brown, W

2001-10-15

301

Vaginal Myomectomy for Semipedunculated Cervical Myoma during Pregnancy.  

PubMed

Objective?Cases of prolapsed myoma in which pregnancy was carried to full term or near term after vaginal myomectomy are very rare. Previously, only two such cases have been reported. In addition, both those patients had a pedunculated leiomyoma, which could be treated by twisting or clamping. Here, we report a case of a patient who was able to carry her pregnancy to term despite vaginal myomectomy for semipedunculated myoma at 13 weeks of pregnancy. Study Design?This study is a case presentation. Results?The myoma nucleus was removed by making an incision on the surface of the mass. Systemic and transvaginal antibiotics were prescribed after the surgery. Uterine contractions, short cervix, or cervical funneling was not observed in the remaining duration of pregnancy. Conclusion?While performing myomectomy during pregnancy, removal of the myoma nucleus is safer than twisting. In addition, postoperative administration of local or systemic antibiotic agents does not adversely affect pregnancy. PMID:25032058

Obara, Mikitaka; Hatakeyama, Yuko; Shimizu, Yasushi

2014-05-01

302

Vaginal Myomectomy for Semipedunculated Cervical Myoma during Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Objective?Cases of prolapsed myoma in which pregnancy was carried to full term or near term after vaginal myomectomy are very rare. Previously, only two such cases have been reported. In addition, both those patients had a pedunculated leiomyoma, which could be treated by twisting or clamping. Here, we report a case of a patient who was able to carry her pregnancy to term despite vaginal myomectomy for semipedunculated myoma at 13 weeks of pregnancy. Study Design?This study is a case presentation. Results?The myoma nucleus was removed by making an incision on the surface of the mass. Systemic and transvaginal antibiotics were prescribed after the surgery. Uterine contractions, short cervix, or cervical funneling was not observed in the remaining duration of pregnancy. Conclusion?While performing myomectomy during pregnancy, removal of the myoma nucleus is safer than twisting. In addition, postoperative administration of local or systemic antibiotic agents does not adversely affect pregnancy.

Obara, Mikitaka; Hatakeyama, Yuko; Shimizu, Yasushi

2014-01-01

303

Composition of the Lactobacillus acidophilus complex isolated from vaginal flora.  

PubMed

One hundred and fifty human vaginal samples containing a diversity of pathogens or nonpathogens (Gardnerella vaginalis, Streptococcus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Candida albicans. Mycoplasma sp.) were examined for their content in lactobacilli of the Lactobacillus acidophilus complex. Although all samples contained lactobacilli, strains of the L. acidophilus complex were present in only twenty-nine cases. Isolates were further characterized and compared with type strains or reference strains in an attempt to differentiate by phenotypic means the genospecies of the L. acidophilus complex. Data regarding specific activities of beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) and of phospho-beta-galactosidase (P-beta-gal) provided no specific information at the species level within the L. acidophilus complex. DNA-relatedness differentiates this genospecies. Most lactobacilli isolated from the vaginal flora of symptomatic women were genotypically close to L. gasseri CIP 102991T by the technique of DNA/DNA hybridization. PMID:8722308

Lachlak, N; Ageron, E; Zampatti, O; Michel, G; Grimont, P A

1996-04-01

304

ORF 13904, a new long-acting vaginal contraceptive.  

PubMed

A sulfonated polystyrene polymer, ORF 13904, was discovered in our laboratory to be a highly effective vaginal contraceptive in the rabbit model and to possess a unique mode of action. It was found to be non-spermicidal even at high concentrations, yet it greatly impeded sperm penetration of cervical mucus in vitro. When a gel formulation containing 5% ORF 13904 was administered to rabbits intravaginally, the mean number of fetal implants was reduced dramatically even when coitus was delayed for up to 8 hours or when multiple matings at different time intervals were permitted. The non-spermicidal qualities and extended duration of action of this compound represent major breakthroughs in the development of vaginal contraceptives. PMID:3002719

Homm, R E; Foldesy, R G; Hahn, D W

1985-09-01

305

Chitosan/alginate complexes for vaginal delivery of chlorhexidine digluconate.  

PubMed

Chitosan/alginate complexes were prepared at different polycation/polyanion molar ratios and freeze-dried vaginal inserts were obtained for chlorhexidine digluconate local delivery in genital infections. Complex yield, FT-IR spectra, and TGA thermograms were studied to confirm the interaction between the two polyions. The influence of different complexes on physical handling, morphology, and drug distribution in the samples were evaluated by friability test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. In vitro water-uptake, mucoadhesion and release tests were performed as well as microbiological tests toward pathogenic vaginal microorganisms. The results showed that the selection of suitable chitosan/alginate molar ratio and drug loading allowed modulate insert ability to hydrate, adhere to the mucosa, and release chlorhexidine digluconate. The insert containing an excess of alginate was found to be the best performing formulation and showed good antimicrobial activity toward the pathogens Candida albicans and Escherichia coli. PMID:23121960

Abruzzo, A; Bigucci, F; Cerchiara, T; Saladini, B; Gallucci, M C; Cruciani, F; Vitali, B; Luppi, B

2013-01-16

306

Immune Cell-Mediated Protection against Vaginal Candidiasis: Evidence for a Major Role of Vaginal CD4+ T Cells and Possible Participation of Other Local Lymphocyte Effectors  

PubMed Central

The protective roles of different lymphocyte subsets were investigated in a rat vaginal candidiasis model by adoptive transfer of vaginal lymphocytes (VL) or sorted, purified CD3+ T cells, CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, or CD3? CD5+ B cells from the vaginas of naïve or immune rats following three rounds of Candida albicans infection. The adoptive transfer of total VL from nonimmune animals did not alter the course of vaginal candidiasis of the recipient rats. In contrast, the animals receiving total VL or CD3+ T cells from immune rats showed a highly significant acceleration of fungus clearance compared with animals which received nonimmune VL. The animals with vaginal CD3? CD5+ B cells transferred from immune rats also had fewer Candida CFU than the controls, but fungal clearance was significantly retarded with respect to the animals administered immune T cells. Sorted, purified CD4+ and CD8+ vaginal T cells from immune rats were also adoptively transferred to naïve animals. Although both populations were seen to accelerate the clearance of the fungus from the vagina, CD4+ T cells were much more effective than CD8+ T cells. Overall, there was no difference between the antifungal effects of immune vaginal CD4+ T cells and those achievable with the transfer of whole, immune VL. Histological observations of the vaginal tissues of rats with adoptively transferred immune T cells demonstrated a remarkable accumulation of lymphocytes in the subepithelial lamina propria and also infiltrating the mucosal epithelium. These results strongly suggest that distinct vaginal lymphocyte subsets participate in the adaptive anti-Candida immunity at the vaginal level, with the vaginal CD4+ T cells probably playing a major role.

Santoni, Giorgio; Boccanera, Maria; Adriani, Daniela; Lucciarini, Roberta; Amantini, Consuelo; Morrone, Stefania; Cassone, Antonio; De Bernardis, Flavia

2002-01-01

307

Comparison of Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy and Laparoscopically Assisted Vaginal Hysterectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare the surgical results of 60 women undergoing laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH) and 41 having total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) under the indications of uterine fibroids or adenomyosis. With similar specimen weight, TLH required longer surgery duration (140.4 vs. 115.1 min; p < 0.05) than LAVH. Among women with uteri weighing ?200 g, TLH resulted in relatively smaller blood

Cheng Yu Long; Jia Hong Fang; Wei Chin Chen; Jinu Huang Su; Shih Cheng Hsu

2002-01-01

308

[Internal hirudiniasis: vaginal bleeding resulting from leech bite].  

PubMed

A postmenopausic woman referred continuous bleeding during seven days, which suddenly started after she was swimming in the river. She didn't have a general symptoms. A gynecological examination showed that the cause of the bleeding was a leech bite on the vaginal wall. The worm was gave away by means of surgical forceps without complications. We described the clinical and pathological features of this unusual parasite attack. PMID:9737069

Hernández, M; Ramírez Gutierrez, R E

1998-07-01

309

Midurethral sling outcomes: tension-free vaginal tape versus Pelvilace  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sought to compare the complications and efficacy of tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) and Pelvilace. Chart reviews and telephone\\u000a questionnaires documented complications, urinary symptoms [Urogenital Distress Inventory short form (UDI-6) and Patient Global\\u000a Impression of Improvement (PGII)], and re-operations. Failure was defined as PGII???4 (no change or worse) or reoperation\\u000a for urinary incontinence. There were 91 TVT and 22 Pelvilace

Stuart H. Shippey; Isabel C. Green; Lieschen H. Quiroz; Victoria L. Handa; Robert E. Gutman

2008-01-01

310

Urethral erosion of tension-free vaginal tape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) is gaining popularity as a treatment of choice for women with stress urinary incontinence. It is a minimally invasive procedure with reported short operative and postoperative hospitalization times and low complication rates. We describe urethral erosion of a TVT sling material in a 55-year-old woman who presented with immediate postoperative urinary retention. The sling material was

Shahar Madjar; Marie-Blanche Tchetgen; Amy Van Antwerp; Joseph Abdelmalak; Raymond R Rackley

2002-01-01

311

Effects of vaginal lactobacilli in Chlamydia trachomatis infection.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence indicates that abnormal vaginal flora lacking lactobacilli facilitates the acquisition of several sexually transmitted diseases including Chlamydia trachomatis. C. trachomatis, the most common bacterial agent of genital infections worldwide, can progress from the lower to upper reproductive tract and induce severe sequelae. The ability of C. trachomatis to develop into a persistent form has been suggested as key pathogenetic mechanism underlying chronic infections and sequelae. The aim of our study was to investigate the C. trachomatis interaction with vaginal microbiota analyzing the effects of Lactobacillus strains (L. brevis and L. salivarius) on the different phases of C. trachomatis developmental cycle. In addition, the effect of lactobacilli on persistent chlamydial forms induced by HSV-2 coinfection has also been evaluated. Our results demonstrated significant inhibition of C. trachomatis multiplication by vaginal lactobacilli. L. brevis was significantly more effective than L. salivarius (p<0.05) on all the steps of chlamydial infection cycle suggesting that the ability of lactobacilli to protect from infection is strain-dependent. Lactobacilli had an adverse effect on elementary chlamydial bodies (p<0.05), on chlamydial adsorption to epithelial cells (p<0.001) and on intracellular phases of chlamydial replication (p<0.0001). Our study also demonstrated a protective effect of lactobacilli toward persistent C. trachomatis forms induced by HSV-2 coinfection. A significant increase in the production of C. trachomatis infectious progeny was observed in C. trachomatis/HSV-2 coinfection in the presence of L. brevis (p=0.01) despite a significant inhibition of C. trachomatis multiplication (p=0.028). Our data suggest that a healthy vaginal microbiota can reduce the risk of acquiring C. trachomatis infection and counteract the development of persistent chlamydial forms. PMID:24875405

Mastromarino, Paola; Di Pietro, Marisa; Schiavoni, Giovanna; Nardis, Chiara; Gentile, Massimo; Sessa, Rosa

2014-07-01

312

The risk of low birth weight associated with vaginal douching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the association between vaginal douching and low birth weight (LBW) after accounting for known risk factors.Methods: We used cross-sectional interview data from the 1988 National Survey of Family Growth, a nationally representative sample of 4665 women of child-bearing age and 11,553 singleton live births. We compared the risk of LBW among women who reported they douched regularly

Kevin Fiscella; Peter Franks; Juliette S Kendrick; F. Carol Bruce

1998-01-01

313

Urinary Incontinence after Vaginal Delivery or Cesarean Section  

Microsoft Academic Search

background It is uncertain whether women who deliver by cesarean section have an increased risk of urinary incontinence as compared with nulliparous women and whether women who deliver vaginally have an even higher risk. methods We studied 15,307 women enrolled in the Epidemiology of Incontinence in the County of Nord-Trøndelag (EPINCONT) study, which involved a community-based cohort. The data base

Guri Rortveit; Anne Kjersti Daltveit; Yngvild S. Hannestad; Steinar Hunskaar

2003-01-01

314

Clinical experience with conservative surgery for vaginal endodermal sinus tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cases of vaginal endodermal sinus tumor (EST), a rare pediatric malignancy, were managed with conservative surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. The first case involved a 9-month-old girl with EST of the vagina, who was treated with a partial vaginectomy and VAC regimen (vincristine, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide) during a 2-year period. The serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level returned to normal after

Eui Ho Hwang; Seok Joo Han; Myo Kyung Lee; Chuhl-Joo Lyu; Byung Soo Kim

1996-01-01

315

The importance of the vaginal delivery route for antiretrovirals in HIV prevention.  

PubMed

The HIV/AIDS pandemic continues to be a global health priority, with high rates of new HIV-I infections persisting in young women. One HIV prevention strategy is topical pre-exposure prophylactics or microbicides, which are applied vaginally or rectally to protect the user from HIV and possibly other sexually transmitted infections. Vaginal microbicide delivery will be the focus of this review. Multiple nonspecific and specific antiretroviral microbicide products have been clinically evaluated, and many are in preclinical development, The events of HIV mucosal transmission and dynamics of the cervicovaginal environment should be considered for successful vaginal microbicide delivery. Beyond conventional vaginal formulations, intravaginal rings, tablets and films are employed as platforms in the hope to increase the likelihood of microbicide use. Furthermore, combining multiple antiretrovirals within a given formulation, combining a microbicide product with a vaginal device and integrating novel drug-delivery strategies within a microbicide product are approaches to successful vaginal-microbicide delivery. PMID:22468220

Ferguson, Lindsay M; Rohan, Lisa Cencia

2011-12-01

316

The importance of the vaginal delivery route for antiretrovirals in HIV prevention  

PubMed Central

The HIV/AIDS pandemic continues to be a global health priority, with high rates of new HIV-1 infections persisting in young women. One HIV prevention strategy is topical pre-exposure prophylactics or microbicides, which are applied vaginally or rectally to protect the user from HIV and possibly other sexually transmitted infections. Vaginal microbicide delivery will be the focus of this review. Multiple nonspecific and specific antiretroviral microbicide products have been clinically evaluated, and many are in preclinical development. The events of HIV mucosal transmission and dynamics of the cervicovaginal environment should be considered for successful vaginal microbicide delivery. Beyond conventional vaginal formulations, intravaginal rings, tablets and films are employed as platforms in the hope to increase the likelihood of microbicide use. Furthermore, combining multiple antiretrovirals within a given formulation, combining a microbicide product with a vaginal device and integrating novel drug-delivery strategies within a microbicide product are approaches to successful vaginal-microbicide delivery.

Ferguson, Lindsay M; Rohan, Lisa Cencia

2012-01-01

317

A New Era of the Vaginal Microbiome: Advances using Next-Generation Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Until recently, bacterial species that inhabit the human vagina have been primarily studied using organism-centric approaches. Understanding how these bacterial species interact with each other and the host vaginal epithelium is essential for a more complete understanding of vaginal health. Molecular approaches have already led to the identification of uncultivated bacterial taxa associated with bacterial vaginosis. Here, we review recent studies of the vaginal microbiome and discuss how culture-independent approaches, such as applications of next-generation sequencing, are advancing the field and shifting our understanding of how vaginal health is defined. This work may to lead to improved diagnostic tools and treatments for women who suffer from, or are at risk for, vaginal imbalances, pregnancy complications, and sexually acquired infections. These approaches may also transform our understanding of how host genetic factors, physiological conditions (e.g. menopause) and environmental exposures (e.g. smoking, antibiotic usage) influence the vaginal microbiome.

Fettweis, Jennifer M.; Serrano, Myrna G.; Girerd, Philippe H.; Jefferson, Kimberly K.

2012-01-01

318

Dorsal onlay vaginal graft urethroplasty for female urethral stricture  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Female urethral stricture is an underdiagnosed and overlooked cause of female bladder outlet obstruction. The possible etiologies may be infection, prior dilation, difficult catheterization with subsequent fibrosis, urethral surgery, trauma, or idiopathic. We present our technique and results of dorsal onlay full thickness vaginal graft urethroplasty for female urethral stricture. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was performed on 16 female patients with mid-urethral stricture who underwent dorsal onlay vaginal graft urethroplasty from January 2007 to June 2011. Of these, 13 patients had previously undergone multiple Hegar dilatations, three had previous internal urethrotomies. The preoperative work up included detailed voiding history, local examination, uroflowmetry, calibration, and micturating cystourethrogram. Results: All patients had mid-urethral stricture. Mean age was 47.5 years. Mean Qmax improved from 6.2 to 27.6 ml/s. Mean residual volume decreased from 160 to 20 ml. Mean duration of follow-up was 24.5 months (6 months to 3 years). Only one patient required self-calibration for 6 months after which her stricture stabilized. None of the patient was incontinent. Conclusion: Dorsal vaginal onlay graft urethroplasty could be considered as an effective way to treat female urethral stricture.

Singh, Manmeet; Kapoor, Rakesh; Kapoor, Deepa; Kapoor, Rohit; Srivastav, Alok; Chipde, Saurabh

2013-01-01

319

Vaginal microbiota and its role in HIV transmission and infection.  

PubMed

The urogenital tract appears to be the only niche of the human body that shows clear differences in microbiota between men and women. The female reproductive tract has special features in terms of immunological organization, an epithelial barrier, microbiota, and influence by sex hormones such as estrogen. While the upper genital tract is regarded as free of microorganisms, the vagina is colonized by bacteria dominated by Lactobacillus species, although their numbers vary considerably during life. Bacterial vaginosis is a common pathology characterized by dysbiosis, which increases the susceptibility for HIV infection and transmission. On the other hand, HIV infections are often characterized by a disturbed vaginal microbiota. The endogenous vaginal microbiota may protect against HIV by direct production of antiviral compounds, through blocking of adhesion and transmission by ligands such as lectins, and/or by stimulation of immune responses. The potential role of probiotics in the prevention of HIV infections and associated symptoms, by introducing them to the vaginal and gastrointestinal tract (GIT), is also discussed. Of note, the GIT is a site of considerable HIV replication and CD4(+) T-cell destruction, resulting in both local and systemic inflammation. Finally, genetically engineered lactobacilli show promise as new microbicidal agents against HIV. PMID:23789590

Petrova, Mariya I; van den Broek, Marianne; Balzarini, Jan; Vanderleyden, Jos; Lebeer, Sarah

2013-09-01

320

Vasculogenic female sexual dysfunction: The hemodynamic basis for vaginal engorgement insufficiency and clitoral erectile insufficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Organic female sexual dysfunction may be related in part to vasculogenic impairment of the hypogastric-vaginal\\/clitoral arterial bed. The aim was to develop an animal model of vaginal engorgement insufficiency and clitoral erectile insufficiency. Methods: Pelvic nerve stimulated vaginal engorgement and clitoral erection were achieved in control (normal diet, n=8) and atherosclerotic (balloon injury of aorto-iliac arteries and 0.5% cholesterol

I Goldstein; C Andry; MB Siroky; RJ Krane; KM Azadzoi

1997-01-01

321

Vaginal surgery for uterine descent; which options do we have? A review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several vaginal procedures are available for treating uterine descent. Vaginal hysterectomy is usually the surgeon’s first\\u000a choice. In this literature review, complications, anatomical and symptomatic outcomes, and quality of life after vaginal hysterectomy,\\u000a sacrospinous hysteropexy, the Manchester procedure, and posterior intravaginal slingplasty are described. All procedures had\\u000a low complication rates, except posterior intravaginal slingplasty, with a tape erosion rate of

Viviane Dietz; Steven E. Schraffordt Koops; C. Huub van der Vaart

2009-01-01

322

In vivo evaluation of an in-situ hydrogel system for vaginal administration.  

PubMed

The vaginal retention and local irritation of a carrageenan, poloxamer 407 and carbopol-based thermosensitive hydrogel system for vaginal drug delivery was assessed. Results showed that the residence of hydrogel in the mouse vagina following intravaginal administration was prolonged by carrageenan and further prolonged by the addition of a mucoadhesive component (carbopol). The optimal hydrogel formulation was proven to be safe for vaginal use in rabbits. PMID:24974582

Li, Chenxi; Han, Cong; Zhu, Yan; Lu, Weiyue; Li, Qiuhong; Liu, Yu

2014-06-01

323

In search of sexual pleasure and fidelity: vaginal practices in KwaZulu?Natal, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaginal practices, such as intra?vaginal cleansing, drying and tightening, are suspected of placing women at higher risk of acquiring HIV and STIs. Yet, there is limited understanding of what these practices entail, what motivates women to undertake them and what their socio?cultural and historical meanings are. This paper explores the range of vaginal practices used by women in KwaZulu?Natal, South

Fiona Scorgie; Busisiwe Kunene; Jennifer A. Smit; Ntsiki Manzini; Matthew F. Chersich

2009-01-01

324

Vaginal misoprostol in the management of first-trimester missed abortions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a regimen of vaginal misoprostol in causing the complete expulsion of first-trimester missed abortions, or alternatively dilating the cervix for surgical evacuation. Method: Seventy-four women with a transvaginal ultrasound diagnosis of a first-trimester missed abortion and no more than slight vaginal bleeding were consecutively enrolled. Misoprostol (600 ?g) was administered vaginally and repeated 4

D Ayres-de-Campos; J Teixeira-da-Silva; I Campos; B Patr??cio

2000-01-01

325

Vaginal cavernous hemangioma with cystic ovaries and cystic endometrial hyperplasia in a dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 10-year-old intact female German shepherd dog was presented with a chief compliant of vaginal bleeding that had become progressively\\u000a heavier over a 2-week period. On clinical examination, the abdominal cavity was distended, and no wounds or masses were observed\\u000a in vulva and caudal vaginal regions. Digital vaginal examination and vaginoscopy had no specific findings. Abdominal ultrasonography\\u000a and radiography revealed

Omid Azari; Baharak Akhtardanesh; Amin Derakhshanfar; Mohammad Mehdi Oloumi; Daruosh Vosough

2010-01-01

326

A cost-effectiveness evaluation of preoperative type-and-screen testing for vaginal hysterectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to evaluate the usefulness and cost-effectiveness of routine preoperative type-and-screen testing before vaginal hysterectomy. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective review of all vaginal hysterectomies performed at Hutzel Hospital between 1988 and 1994 with an emphasis on those that required blood transfusion was done. All vaginal hysterectomies completed at Hutzel Hospital were included in this 6-year time period

Scott B. Ransom; S. Gene McNeeley; John M. Malone

1996-01-01

327

Trypan Blue Staining to Determine Vaginal Exposure in Two Types of Plastic Vaginal Applicators Containing Two Different Microbicide Formulations  

PubMed Central

Dye staining of applicators has been shown to be a reliable and objective method to test vaginal insertion in clinical microbicide trials, but different plastics, dyes and product formulations may impact the accuracy of this method. Reportedly used applicators returned from three clinical trials were stained with 1% Trypan Blue. In a phase 1 study (VivaGel®), using gel-filled HTI polypropylene applicators, 1271 (97%) of applicators stained positive. In two phase 1 and 2a studies (LACTIN-V) using linear low-density polyethylene applicators to deliver a dry powder formulation, 57 (95%) and 135 (86%) tested positive, respectively. Dye staining of vaginal applicators is an objective, low cost measure suitable for low resource settings.

Hemmerling, A; Harrison, WG; Brown, JM; Moscicki, AB; Oziemkowska, M; Bukusi, EA; Cohen, CR

2013-01-01

328

Microparticulated anti-HIV vaginal gel: in vitro-in vivo drug release and vaginal irritation study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a Zidovudine (AZT)-loaded microparticulated bioadhesive vaginal gel (MBVG) in order to obtain a controlled releasing, safe gel delivery system. AZT microparticles (ZMPs) were evaluated for encapsulation efficiency, drug loading, surface morphology and in vitro drug release profiles and drug release mechanism and optimized. The optimized ZMPs were then encompassed in bioadhesive gel using different bioadhesive polymers and evaluated for the drug encapsulation efficiency, drug loading, in vitro and in vivo drug release profiles, drug release mechanism and vaginal irritancy study. From the dissolution data of ZMP4 and MBVG4 showed a zero-order diffusion pattern and Fickian diffusion case I transport mechanism in 24 and 36?h, respectively. On the basis of a pharmacokinetic study of MBVG4 (containing ZMP: Carbopol 1:4), it was found to have better bioavailability, larger AUC and T(max) in comparison to an oral pure suspension of AZT. PMID:20497098

Chatterjee, Arkendu; Kumar, Lalit; Bhowmik, Benoy Brata; Gupta, Amlan

2011-10-01

329

Treatment of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia with laser ablation and upper vaginectomy.  

PubMed

To assess the effectiveness of laser ablation and upper vaginectomy in the treatment of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN), we have reviewed the charts of 52 patients managed with laser ablation (28 patients) and upper colpectomy (24 patients). On the basis of our results, patient selection and operator skill have a significant influence on the outcome. In posthysterectomy patients with VAIN(3) at the vaginal apex, in the region of vaginal cuff scar, upper vaginectomy is the treatment of choice, while multifocal VAIN(2-3) or colposcopically well defined lesions, involving large areas of vaginal mucosa, could be successfully managed by CO(2) laser ablation. PMID:12297712

Diakomanolis, Emmanuel; Rodolakis, Alexadros; Boulgaris, Zanis; Blachos, Georgios; Michalas, Stylianos

2002-01-01

330

An unusual presentation of a vaginal leiomyoma in a postmenopausal hysterectomised woman: a case report  

PubMed Central

Leiomyomas are benign tumours commonly occurring in the uterine wall. They are rarely seen in the vaginal wall leading to pressure symptoms on urinary tract. Indentation of leiomyoma from anterior vaginal wall into the bladder is rare and hence we report one such case. A 55 year old Caucasian woman presented to urology clinic with recurrent Urinary tract infection and pressure symptoms. After the diagnosis of a vaginal mass, she was referred to Gynaecology clinic. During the excision of the vaginal mass its indentation into the bladder was noted. Histology report confirmed the diagnosis of benign leiomyoma.

2009-01-01

331

An unusual presentation of a vaginal leiomyoma in a postmenopausal hysterectomised woman: a case report.  

PubMed

Leiomyomas are benign tumours commonly occurring in the uterine wall. They are rarely seen in the vaginal wall leading to pressure symptoms on urinary tract. Indentation of leiomyoma from anterior vaginal wall into the bladder is rare and hence we report one such case. A 55 year old Caucasian woman presented to urology clinic with recurrent Urinary tract infection and pressure symptoms. After the diagnosis of a vaginal mass, she was referred to Gynaecology clinic. During the excision of the vaginal mass its indentation into the bladder was noted. Histology report confirmed the diagnosis of benign leiomyoma. PMID:20181160

Nidhanee, Smitha V; Maiti, Sachchidananda; Shareef, Dillshad; Holland, Nigel

2009-01-01

332

Dyspareunia and lubrication in premature ovarian failure using hormonal therapy and vaginal health.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective To evaluate vaginal microbiological and functional aspects in women with and without premature ovarian failure (POF) and the relationship with sexual function. Methods A cross-sectional study of 36 women with POF under hormonal therapy who were age-matched with 36 women with normal gonadal function. The vaginal tropism was assessed through hormonal vaginal cytology, vaginal pH and vaginal health index (VHI). Vaginal flora were assessed by the amine test, bacterioscopy and culture for fungi. Sexual function was evaluated through the questionnaire Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Results Women in both groups were of similar age and showed similar marital status. The two groups presented vaginal tropic scores according to the VHI but the tropism was worse among women in the POF group. No difference was observed with respect to hormonal cytology and pH. Vaginal flora was similar in both groups. Women with POF showed worse sexual performance with more pain and poorer lubrication than women in the control group. The VHI, the only parameter evaluated showing statistical difference between the groups, did not correlate with the domains of pain and lubrication in the FSFI questionnaire. Conclusion These findings suggest that the use of systemic estrogen among women with POF is not enough to improve complaints of lubrication and pain despite conferring similar tropism and vaginal flora. Other therapeutic options need to be evaluated. PMID:24188246

Pacello, P C C; Yela, D A; Rabelo, S; Giraldo, P C; Benetti-Pinto, C L

2014-08-01

333

Trans-vaginal repair of gynecological supratrigonal vesicovaginal fistulae: A worthy option!  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the appropriateness of vaginal approach for gynecological supratrigonal vesicovaginal fistulae. Patients and Methods: Retrospective review of consecutive women with gynecological supratrigonal Vesico Vaginal Fistulae (VVF) repaired at the fistula unit of Urogynecology department between 1996 and 2011 was done.Out of 48 cases of supratrigonal VVF of gynecological origin identified; 34 (70.8%) cases were repaired vaginally and 14 (36.8%) abdominally with a mean follow-up period of 52.8 (2-132) months. Results: Overall 95.8% were successfully cured at first attempt. The success rate of vaginal repair (94.8%) at first attempt was comparable to that of abdominal repair (100%) (P value = 0.8946). Amongst two failed vaginal repairs, one was successfully cured by subsequent vaginal repair and other by abdominal repair. Conclusion: Three fourth gynecological supratrigonal VVF can be repaired vaginally in first attempt with success rate comparable to abdominal approach. On the basis of this study we postulate that vaginal approach should be preferred over abdominal approach for repair of all vaginally accessible supratrigonal VVF of gynecological origin.

Rajamaheswari, N.; Chhikara, Archana Bharti; Seethalakshmi, K.; Bail, Anupama; Agarwal, Sugandha

2012-01-01

334

Improved compliance and patient satisfaction with estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women previously treated with another local estrogen therapy.  

PubMed

Up to half of all postmenopausal women will experience changes in the genitourinary tract induced by the hypoestrogenic state, collectively known as vaginal atrophy. Vaginally administered local estrogen therapy (LET) is the standard of care for symptoms of vaginal atrophy that do not respond to nonhormonal interventions. Several LET formulations are available, and choice of therapy is based largely on patient needs and preferences. This online survey of postmenopausal LET users was conducted to investigate reasons for switching to vaginal estradiol tablets from other formulations and to evaluate factors associated with patient preference for and compliance with use of LET. Data was analyzed from 73 respondents currently using estradiol vaginal tablets who have previously used the estradiol vaginal ring, estradiol vaginal cream, and/or conjugated estrogen vaginal cream. Patients in this survey rated vaginal symptoms of vaginal atrophy as being more bothersome than urinary symptoms. Respondents preferred their current treatment with the vaginal tablet to their previous treatment with a cream or ring. The preference for tablets over creams was mainly related to formulation and application rather than to any perceived safety issues. Tablets were perceived as efficacious, convenient, and neat to apply. The study participants also reported a longer duration of tablet use compared with creams or rings, and greater compliance with vaginal tablets than with vaginal cream. This study provides new insights into reasons for patient noncompliance with estrogen cream or ring therapy that can be used to maximize patient adherence with LET. PMID:23526171

Minkin, Mary Jane; Maamari, Ricardo; Reiter, Suzanne

2013-01-01

335

Vaginal Extrusion of Transobturator Tape 6 Years after Procedure: How Long Should Be the Follow-Up Period after Vaginal Sling Surgeries?  

PubMed Central

A 77-year-old lady presented to the gynaecology outpatient clinic with vaginal extrusion (3C/T3/S1) six years after a transobturator suburethral sling procedure (TOT). The entire tape was spontaneously extruded vaginally and the vaginal erosion healed with conservative management. Midurethral tapes, currently the standard of care in the management of urodynamic stress incontinence (USI), are associated with a risk of erosion and extrusion of the synthetic material. The present case highlights the importance of the long-term followup after any sling procedure as erosion and/or extrusion may arise at any time following the procedure.

Singh, Chanchal; Weng, Roy Ng Kwok

2012-01-01

336

Pharmacokinetic and safety analyses of tenofovir and tenofovir-emtricitabine vaginal tablets in pigtailed macaques.  

PubMed

Vaginal rapidly disintegrating tablets (RDTs) containing tenofovir (TFV) or TFV and emtricitabine (FTC) were evaluated for safety and pharmacokinetics in pigtailed macaques. Two separate animal groups (n = 4) received TFV (10 mg) or TFV-FTC (10 mg each) RDTs, administered near the cervix. A third group (n = 4) received 1 ml TFV gel. Blood plasma, vaginal tissue biopsy specimens, and vaginal fluids were collected before and after product application at 0, 0.5, 1, 4, and 24 h. A disintegration time of <30 min following vaginal application of the RDTs was noted, with negligible effects on local inflammatory cytokines, vaginal pH, and microflora. TFV pharmacokinetics were generally similar for both RDTs and gel, with peak median concentrations in vaginal tissues and vaginal secretions being on the order of 10(4) to 10(5) ng/g (147 to 571 ?M) and 10(6) ng/g (12 to 34 mM), respectively, at 1 to 4 h postdose. At 24 h, however, TFV vaginal tissue levels were more sustained after RDT dosing, with median TFV concentrations being approximately 1 log higher than those with gel dosing. FTC pharmacokinetics after combination RDT dosing were similar to those of TFV, with peak median vaginal tissue and fluid levels being on the order of 10(4) ng/g (374 ?M) and 10(6) ng/g (32 mM), respectively, at 1 h postdose with levels in fluid remaining high at 24 h. RDTs are a promising alternative vaginal dosage form, delivering TFV and/or FTC at levels that would be considered inhibitory to simian-human immunodeficiency virus in the macaque vaginal microenvironment over a 24-h period. PMID:24566178

Pereira, Lara E; Clark, Meredith R; Friend, David R; Garber, David A; McNicholl, Janet M; Hendry, R Michael; Doncel, Gustavo F; Smith, James M

2014-05-01

337

Outcome of treatment of anterior vaginal wall prolapse and stress urinary incontinence with transobturator tension-free vaginal mesh (prolift) and concomitant tension-free vaginal tape-obturator.  

PubMed

Objective. It is to assess the feasibility, effectiveness, and safety of transobturator tension-free vaginal mesh (Prolift) and concomitant tension-free vaginal tape-obturator (TVT-O) system as a treatment of female anterior vaginal wall prolapse associated with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Patients and Methods. Between December 2006 and July 2007, 20 patients with anterior genital prolapse and voiding dysfunction were treated with the transobturator tension-free vaginal mesh (Prolift) and concomitant tension-free vaginal tape-obturator (TVT-O). Sixteen patients had stress urinary incontinence and 4 patients were considered at risk for development of de novo stress incontinence after the prolapse is repaired. All patients underwent a complete urodynamic assessment. All the patients underwent pelvic examination 4-6 weeks after the operation, and anatomical and functional outcomes were recorded. Results. Twenty cystocoeles were repaired: 6 grade II, 12 grade III, and 2 grade IV. There were no vessel or bladder injuries. Eighteen patients had optimal anatomic results and 2 patients had persistent asymptomatic stage I prolapse. Conclusion. These preliminary results suggest that Prolift system offers a safe and effective treatment for female anterior vaginal wall prolapse. However, a long-term followup is necessary in order to support the good result maintenance. PMID:19125198

Abou-Elela, Ashraf; Salah, Essam; Torky, Haitham; Azazy, Sameh

2009-01-01

338

Prevalence of type-specific human papillomavirus in endocervical, upper and lower vaginal, perineal and vaginal self-collected specimens: Implications for vaginal self-collection.  

PubMed

To determine why a vaginal self-collection tested for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) by Hybrid Capture 2(R) (hc2) has lower sensitivity and specificity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia Grade 2 or worse (> or = CIN 2), we collected 5 specimens (endocervix, upper and lower vagina, perineum, vaginal self-collection) from 2,625 women. Endocervical and self-collected specimens had HR-HPV tests by hc2. All 5 anogenital specimens were tested for 37 HPV genotypes [Linear Array(R), (LA)] from 397 women hc2 positive in endocervical or self-collected specimens and for a randomly selected 71 of 2,228 women hc2 negative on both specimens. Three hundred nintey-five women who screened positive by hc2 or had abnormal cytology underwent colposcopic evaluation. Of 47 women with > or = CIN 2, hc2 was positive in 97.9% (46/47) of endocervical and 80.9% (38/47), p = 0.008 of self-collected specimens. Seven of 9 women with > or = CIN 2 and negative self-collected hc2 tests were positive for HR-HPV by LA. Of 2,578 women without > or = CIN 2, hc2 was positive in 9.8% (253/2,578) of endocervical and 11.4% (294/2,578), p = 0.001 of self-collected specimens. Of the 41 more women without > or = CIN 2 that tested hc2 positive on the self-collected but negative on endocervical specimen, LA tested positive for HR-HPV in 24, negative for HPV in 11 and negative for HR-HPV but positive for low-risk HPV in 6. Lower sensitivity of self-collected specimens is secondary to lower levels of vaginal HR-HPV. The principal cause of the lower specificity of self-collected specimens is HR-HPV present solely in the vagina, which is not associated with > or = CIN 2. PMID:20039323

Belinson, Jerome L; Hu, Shangying; Niyazi, Mayineur; Pretorius, Robert G; Wang, He; Wen, Chen; Smith, Jennifer S; Li, Jing; Taddeo, Frank J; Burchette, Raoul J; Qiao, You-Lin

2010-09-01

339

The Anti-HIV Microbicide Candidate RC-101 Inhibits Pathogenic Vaginal Bacteria Without Harming Endogenous Flora or Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Problem Vaginal microbicides represent a promising approach for preventing heterosexual HIV transmission. However, preclinical evaluation should be conducted to ensure that microbicides will be safe for human cells and healthy microflora of the female reproductive tract. One microbicide candidate, RC-101, has been effective and well-tolerated in preliminary cell culture and macaque models. However, the effect of RC-101 on primary vaginal tissues and resident vaginal microflora requires further evaluation. Method of Study We treated primary vaginal tissues and vaginal bacteria, both pathogenic and commensal, with RC-101 to investigate effects of this microbicide. Results RC-101 was well-tolerated by host tissues, and also by commensal vaginal bacteria. Simultaneously, pathogenic vaginal bacteria, which are known to increase susceptibility to HIV acquisition, were inhibited by RC-101. Conclusions By establishing vaginal microflora, the specific antibacterial activity of RC-101 may provide a dual mechanism of HIV protection. These findings support advancement of RC-101 to clinical trials.

Eade, Colleen R.; Cole, Amy L.; Diaz, Camila; Rohan, Lisa C.; Parniak, Michael A.; Marx, Preston; Tarwater, Patrick M.; Gupta, Phalguni; Cole, Alexander M.

2012-01-01

340

Abnormal Vaginal pH and Mycoplasma genitalium infection  

PubMed Central

Study Objective Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) is a sexually transmitted pathogen linked to female morbidity, but testing for MG is not standardized. We aimed to determine which point-of-care (POC) vaginal tests could predict MG infection. Design, Setting, Participants A cross sectional study recruited sexually active adolescent women, aged 14–22 years (n=217) from an urban medical center. Interventions and Main Outcome Measures Vaginal swabs were POC tested for pH, amines, clue cells, sialidase and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV). MG was detected by research-use-only transcription mediated amplification (TMA) assay. Presence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) were confirmed using TMA. Three criteria were required for diagnosis of Clinical BV: pH >4.5, presence of amines, and > 20% clue cells. Associations were assessed using logistic regression (LR). Results TMA detected MG in 30 (14%), CT in 49 (23%), and NG in 21 (10%) of the samples tested. POC vaginal tests were positive for TV in 21%, amines in 52%, clue cells in 33%, sialidase in 22%, pH > 4.5 in 56%, and clinical BV in 19% of the samples tested. Using logistic regression, pH > 4.5 was a predictor of MG (odds ratio 4.4, p<.05). Of 131 women without clinical BV or TV, 25% of those with pH>4.5 had MG, compared to 9% of those with pH?4.5 (p=.02). Conclusions Until standardized, approved testing for MG is available, pH may be a useful indicator to suspect MG, especially in the absence of BV and TV.

Huppert, Jill S.; Bates, Justin R.; Weber, Akilah F.; Quinn, Nicole; Gaydos, Charlotte A.

2012-01-01

341

[Hysterectomy: indications and advantages of the vaginal route in Mali].  

PubMed

The purpose of this report was to determine the frequency of hysterectomy and describe its indications and outcomes. A retrospective, descriptive study related to active hysterectomy of was conducted at the reference health centre of commune V in Bamako, Mali from January 1st, 2004 to December 31st, 2008. All hysterectomy patients with complete medical files were included. A total of 172 files were identified including 152 that were complete. Hysterectomy accounted for 1.38% of all interventions during the study period. The procedure was carried out in emergency in 0.14% and electively in 13.39%. Mean patient age was 47.9 +/- 11.7 years; 89 patients were older than 45 years. The indications for hysterectomy were complicated uterine fibroids in 82 patients, genital prolapse in 44, adenomyosis in 10, obstetrical hysterectomy in 13 and cervical dysplasia in 3. The abdominal route was used in 100 patients (65.8%) and the vaginal rout in 52 (34.2%). The duration of the procedure and hospital stay was longer after hysterectomy by the abdominal (p<0.05). Perioperative complications were observed in 17% of patients after abdominal hysterectomy versus 7.69% after vaginal hysterectomy. Two maternal deaths due to hemorrhagic shock were observed after obstetrical hysterectomy. Hysterectomy is a frequent intervention that is not without complication risks. Choice of route depends on the indication and skill of the operator. Although endoscopic surgery is still difficult to perform in developing countries, development of vaginal hysterectomy is necessary to reduce perioperative complications. PMID:22393643

Traoré, M; Togo, A; Traoré, Y; Dembélé, B T; Diakité, I; Traoré, S O; Traoré, O M; Coulibaly, A; Keita, S I; Diabaté, A

2011-12-01

342

GM-144, a novel lipophilic vaginal contraceptive gel-microemulsion.  

PubMed

In a systematic effort to develop a dual-function intravaginal spermicide as well as a drug delivery vehicle against sexually transmitted pathogens, a submicron particle size (30-80 nm), lipophilic and spermicidal gel-microemulsion (viz GM-144) containing the pharmaceutical excipients propylene glycol, Captex 300, Cremophor EL, Phospholipon 90G, Rhodigel, Pluronic F-68, and sodium benzoate was formulated. GM-144 completely immobilized sperm in human or rabbit semen in less than 30 seconds. Therefore, the in vivo contraceptive potency of intravaginally applied GM-144 was compared in the standard rabbit model to those of the detergent spermicide, nonoxynol-9 (N-9)-containing formulation. Eighty-four ovulated New Zealand White rabbits in subgroups of 28 were artificially inseminated with and without intravaginal administration of GM-144 or 2% N-9 (Gynol II) formulation and allowed to complete term pregnancy. GM-144 showed remarkable contraceptive activity in the rigorous rabbit model. When compared with control, intravaginal administration of GM-144 and Gynol II resulted in 75% and 70.8% inhibition of fertility (P <.0001 versus control, Fisher's exact test), respectively. Thus, GM-144 as a vaginal contraceptive was as effective as the commercially available N-9 gel. In the rabbit vaginal irritation test, none of the 6 rabbits given daily intravaginal application of spermicidal GM-144 for 10 days developed epithelial ulceration, edema, leukocyte influx, or vascular congestion characteristic of inflammation (total score = 5). Therefore, GM-144 has the potential to become a clinically useful safe vaginal contraceptive and a vehicle for formulating lipophilic drugs used in reducing the risk of heterosexual transmission of sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:14727880

D'Cruz, O J; Yiv, S H; Uckun, F M

2001-01-01

343

Vaginal lactic acid bacteria in the mare: evaluation of the probiotic potential of native Lactobacillus spp. and Enterococcus spp. strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are important members of the human vaginal microbiota and their presence is considered beneficial.\\u000a However, little is known about native vaginal bacteria in other animal species such as the horse. The aim of this work was\\u000a to quantify the vaginal lactic acid bacteria and lactobacilli of mares and to establish if selected equine vaginal lactic\\u000a acid

Martín Fraga; Karen Perelmuter; Luis Delucchi; Esther Cidade; Pablo Zunino

2008-01-01

344

SHIV162P3 Infection of Rhesus Macaques Given Maraviroc Gel Vaginally Does Not Involve Resistant Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maraviroc (MVC) gels are effective at protecting rhesus macaques from vaginal SHIV transmission, but breakthrough infections can occur. To determine the effects of a vaginal MVC gel on infecting SHIV populations in a macaque model, we analyzed plasma samples from three rhesus macaques that received a MVC vaginal gel (day 0) but became infected after high-dose SHIV-162P3 vaginal challenge. Two

Athe M. N. Tsibris; Urboshi Pal; Allison L. Schure; Ronald S. Veazey; Kevin J. Kunstman; Timothy J. Henrich; P. J. Klasse; Steven M. Wolinsky; Daniel R. Kuritzkes; John P. Moore

2011-01-01

345

Outcome after salvage radiotherapy (brachytherapy +\\/? external) in patients with a vaginal recurrence from endometrial carcinomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purpose: The vagina is the site most commonly affected by loco-regional failure in endometrial carcinoma (EC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of vaginal brachytherapy (BT) combined or not with whole pelvic external radiotherapy (RT) for the treatment of patients with vaginal recurrences from endometrial cancer.Patients and methods: Between 1986 and 1999 25 women

Ali Hasbini; Christine Haie-Meder; Philippe Morice; Eric Chirat; Pierre Duvillard; Catherine Lhommé; Monique Delapierre; Alain Gerbaulet

2002-01-01

346

Effects of ovariectomy and steroid hormones on vaginal smooth muscle contractility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of steroid hormones in regulating vaginal smooth muscle contractility was investigated. Rabbits were kept intact or ovariectomized. After 2 weeks, animals were continuously infused with vehicle or supraphysiological levels of testosterone (100 ?g\\/day), or estradiol (200 ?g\\/day), for an additional 2 weeks. The distal vaginal tissue was used to assess contractility in organ baths and changes in tissue

N N Kim; K Min; M A Pessina; R Munarriz; I Goldstein; A M Traish

2004-01-01

347

Beneficial lactobacilli: effects on the vaginal tract in a murine experimental model.  

PubMed

Vaginal probiotics containing lactic acid bacteria with activity towards pathogenic microorganisms that cause urogenital tract infections have been proposed as a valid strategy for their prophylaxis and therapy. A murine experimental model was set up to evaluate the colonization capability of beneficial human lactobacilli and their effects on the mouse vaginal mucosa and innate immune cells. Five Lactobacillus strains were intravaginally inoculated into previously estrogenized BALB/c mice. The significance of the effects observed in the vaginal tract was determined by analysis of variance using the general linear model. The numbers of viable vaginal lactobacilli were significantly higher at proestrous-estrous than those at the metaestrous-diestrous phase and decreased markedly on the days after inoculation. Lactobacilli inoculation did not cause cytological or histological modifications of the murine vaginal tract. Moreover, the intravaginal administration of Lactobacillus salivarius CRL (Centro de Referencia para Lactobacilos culture collection) 1328 and Lactobacillus gasseri CRL 1263 did not affect the amounts of granulocytes and macrophages present in vaginal washings. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that vaginal lactobacilli did not produce adverse effects on the murine vaginal tract. Therefore, they could be proposed as safe probiotic candidates to promote a balanced microbiota in the urogenital tract. PMID:22638932

De Gregorio, Priscilla Romina; Juárez Tomás, María Silvina; Santos, Viviana; Nader-Macías, María Elena Fatima

2012-11-01

348

Abdominal sacral colpopexy and abdominal enterocele repair in the management of vaginal vault prolapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaginal vault prolapse and enterocele represent challenging forms of female pelvic organ relaxation. These conditions are most commonly associated with other pelvic organ defects. Proper diagnosis and management is essential to achieve long-term successful outcomes. Physical examination should be carried out in the lithotomy and standing positions (if necessary) in order to detect a loss of vaginal vault support. With

J. Christian Winters; R. Duane Cespedes; Richard Vanlangendonck

2000-01-01

349

A Longitudinal Study of Vaginal Douching and Bacterial Vaginosis—A Marginal Structural Modeling Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The etiology of bacterial vaginosis is unknown, and there are no long-term therapies for preventing this frequently recurring condition. Vaginal douching has been reported to be associated with bacterial vaginosis in observational studies. However, this association may be due to confounding by indication—that is, confounding by women douching in response to vaginal symptoms associated with bacterial vaginosis. The authors used

Rebecca M. Brotman; Mark A. Klebanoff; Tonja R. Nansel; William W. Andrews; Jane R. Schwebke; Jun Zhang; Kai F. Yu; Jonathan M. Zenilman; Daniel O. Scharfstein

2008-01-01

350

Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy versus total abdominal hysterectomy: A prospective, randomized, multicenter study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate short-term results of laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy with those of total abdominal hysterectomy in a prospective, randomized, multicenter study. Study Design: One hundred sixteen patients referred for abdominal hysterectomy were randomized to either laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy (58 patients) or abdominal hysterectomy (58 patients). Inclusion criteria were one or more of

Riccardo Marana; Mauro Busacca; Errico Zupi; Nicola Garcea; Pierluigi Paparella; Giovan Fiore Catalano

1999-01-01

351

Management of Recurrent VulvoVaginal Candidosis as a Chronic Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

For sporadic acute Candida vaginitis, any oral or local antifungal therapy can be used. For women with recurrent vulvo-vaginal candidosis (RVC), on the other hand, such simple approaches are insufficient, regardless of the product chosen. Instead, RVC should be managed as any other chronic disease and requires long-term, prophylactic, suppressive antifungal treatment. A regimen using individualized, decreasing doses of oral

Gilbert G. G. Donders; Gert Bellen; Werner Mendling

2010-01-01

352

Prevalence of non-specific vaginitis and correlation with isolation of Gardnerella vaginalis in Italian outpatients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among all subjects attending a Center for prevention of female genital tract cancer Gardnerella vaginalis was isclated from 57 out of 171 women affected by non-specific vaginitis (NSV), from 15 of 703 non-NSV vaginitis patients and from 10 of 338 healthy adults. Postmenopausal women showed an increased rate of asymptomatic carriage of G. vaginalis. The data suggest a relatively weak

T. Ceddia; F. Cappa; R. Cialfi; G. Gioia; A. Cassone

1989-01-01

353

Magnetic resonance as an aid in the diagnosis of a transverse vaginal septum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transverse vaginal septum is a rare, often overlooked congenital abnormality that is typically not diagnosed until adolescence. We present the case of a transverse vaginal septum and partial bicornuate uterus in a 16-year-old female with developmental delay and cerebral palsy. Magnetic resonance (MR) is an excellent diagnostic tool to delineate the specific anatomy prior to surgery. The effects of delayed

Catherine Krafft; Charles W. Hartin; Doruk E. Ozgediz

354

The vaginal introitus: A novel site for Chlamydia trachomatis testing in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the vaginal introitus as a noninvasive sampling site for testing for Chlamydia trachomatis.STUDY DESIGN: Swabs from the vaginal introitus were obtained from 300 women attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic and tested for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction. Additionally, 200 of these women self-collected an additional introitus swab and submitted a urine sample

Harold C. Wiesenfeld; R. Phillip Heine; Anne Rideout; Ingrid Macio; Faith DiBiasi; Richard L. Sweet

1996-01-01

355

Determinantes del uso inconsistente del condón en mujeres que tienen sexo vaginal, oral y anal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Title: Consistent condom use determinants among woman that have vaginal, oral and anal sex. Abstract. Some variables from the psychological prevention model ap- plied to AIDS were examined as predictors of consistent condom use dur- ing vaginal, oral and anal sex among university woman. A cross-sectional correlational design was used with a sample of 355 university female stu- dents' age

Susana Robles Montijo; Julio Alfonso; Piña López; Diana Moreno Rodríguez

356

Enhanced vaginal drug delivery through the use of hypotonic formulations that induce fluid uptake.  

PubMed

Mucosal epithelia use osmotic gradients for fluid absorption and secretion. We hypothesized that administration of hypotonic solutions would induce fluid uptake that could be advantageous for rapidly delivering drugs through mucus to the vaginal epithelium. We found that hypotonic formulations markedly increased the rate at which small molecule drugs and mucoinert nanoparticles (mucus-penetrating particles, or MPP), but not conventional mucoadhesive nanoparticles (CP), reached the vaginal epithelial surface in vivo in mice. Additionally, hypotonic formulations greatly enhanced drug and MPP delivery to the entire epithelial surface, including deep into the vaginal folds (rugae) that drugs or MPP in isotonic formulations failed to reach efficiently. However, hypotonic formulations caused unencapsulated "free" drugs to be drawn through the epithelium, reducing vaginal retention. In contrast, hypotonic formulations caused MPP to accumulate rapidly and uniformly on vaginal surfaces, ideally positioned for localized sustained drug delivery. Using a mouse model of vaginal genital herpes (HSV-2) infection, we found that hypotonic delivery of free drug led to improved immediate protection, but diminished longer-term protection. In contrast, as we previously demonstrated, hypotonic delivery of drug via MPP led to better long-term retention and protection in the vagina. Importantly, we demonstrate that slightly hypotonic formulations provided rapid and uniform delivery of MPP to the entire vaginal surface, thus enabling formulations with minimal risk of epithelial toxicity. Hypotonic formulations for vaginal drug delivery via MPP may significantly improve prevention and treatment of reproductive tract diseases and disorders. PMID:23769419

Ensign, Laura M; Hoen, Timothy E; Maisel, Katharina; Cone, Richard A; Hanes, Justin S

2013-09-01

357

Radioisotopic location of the sentinel node in vaginal mucous melanoma before laparoscopic sampling.  

PubMed

A 66-year-old woman was diagnosed with vaginal melanoma. Sentinel node mapping was performed using Tc sulfur colloid. Planar scintigraphic acquisitions detected 2 sentinel nodes in the right external iliac region, which were laparoscopically removed with an anterior vaginectomy. Sentinel node mapping is feasible in cases of vaginal melanoma. PMID:18427341

Descheemaeker, Véronique; Garin, Etienne; Morcel, Karine; Lesimple, Thierry; Burtin, Florence; Levêque, Jean

2008-04-01

358

Follow-up evaluation of the effect of vaginal delivery on the pelvic floor  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vaginal delivery on the pelvic floor by serial measurement of pudendal nerve terminal motor latency, perineal descent, and anal pressure before and after delivery. METHODS: Eighty pregnant females (40 primigravidae, 40 multigravidae) expecting vaginal delivery were prospectively evaluated. Measurements of pudendal nerve terminal motor latency, perineometry, and manometry

Sang-Jeon Lee; Jin-Woo Park

2000-01-01

359

Vaginal leiomyoma as a cause of pelvic pain and cystitis cystica.  

PubMed

Leiomyoma of the vagina occurs extremely rarely and may be confused with a variety of benign vaginal tumors. A preoperative diagnosis is seldom made. The author reports a case of leiomyoma found in the anterior vaginal wall beneath the urethra and associated with pelvic pain and urinary symptoms. PMID:2808027

Shaw, C T

1989-10-01

360

Vaginal hysterectomy as primary treatment of endometrial cancer in medically compromised women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study the survival, rates and patterns of recurrence, and perioperative morbidity in medically compromised women with endometrial cancer treated by primary vaginal hysterectomy.Methods: Fifty-one patients with endometrial cancer treated initially by vaginal hysterectomy between 1977 and 1999 were identified at the University of California, Irvine Medical Center and affiliated hospitals. Data were retrieved from hospital and office records.

John K Chan; Yvonne G Lin; Bradley J Monk; Krishnansu Tewari; Jeffrey D Bloss; Michael L Berman

2001-01-01

361

Role played by lactobacilli in controlling the population of vaginal pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of Lactobacillus species in the female urogenital tract as a barrier to infection is of considerable interest. These organisms are believed to contribute to the control of vaginal microbiota by competing with other microorganisms for adherence to epithelial cells and by producing antimicrobial compounds. These bactericidal compounds include organic acid, which lowers the vaginal pH, hydrogen peroxide, bacteriocin-like

Soledad Boris; Covadonga Barbés

2000-01-01

362

Culture-independent analysis of vaginal microflora: The unrecognized association of Atopobium vaginae with bacterial vaginosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis remains elusive, a few microorganisms, such as Gardnerella vaginalis, are considered markers on Gram stain or culture. Culture-independent analysis of vaginal microflora using 16S rDNA cloning and sequencing of total bacterial communities reveals the gram-positive Atopobium vaginae as a predominant species in disturbed vaginal flora.

Hans Verstraelen; Rita Verhelst; Geert Claeys; Marleen Temmerman; Mario Vaneechoutte

2004-01-01

363

Commensal Bacteria Modulate Innate Immune Responses of Vaginal Epithelial Cell Multilayer Cultures  

PubMed Central

The human vaginal microbiome plays a critical but poorly defined role in reproductive health. Vaginal microbiome alterations are associated with increased susceptibility to sexually-transmitted infections (STI) possibly due to related changes in innate defense responses from epithelial cells. Study of the impact of commensal bacteria on the vaginal mucosal surface has been hindered by current vaginal epithelial cell (VEC) culture systems that lack an appropriate interface between the apical surface of stratified squamous epithelium and the air-filled vaginal lumen. Therefore we developed a reproducible multilayer VEC culture system with an apical (luminal) air-interface that supported colonization with selected commensal bacteria. Multilayer VEC developed tight-junctions and other hallmarks of the vaginal mucosa including predictable proinflammatory cytokine secretion following TLR stimulation. Colonization of multilayers by common vaginal commensals including Lactobacillus crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. rhamnosus led to intimate associations with the VEC exclusively on the apical surface. Vaginal commensals did not trigger cytokine secretion but Staphylococcus epidermidis, a skin commensal, was inflammatory. Lactobacilli reduced cytokine secretion in an isolate-specific fashion following TLR stimulation. This tempering of inflammation offers a potential explanation for increased susceptibility to STI in the absence of common commensals and has implications for testing of potential STI preventatives.

Rose, William A.; McGowin, Chris L.; Spagnuolo, Rae Ann; Eaves-Pyles, Tonyia D.; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Pyles, Richard B.

2012-01-01

364

Culture-independent analysis of vaginal microflora: the unrecognized association of Atopobium vaginae with bacterial vaginosis.  

PubMed

Although the pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis remains elusive, a few microorganisms, such as Gardnerella vaginalis, are considered markers on Gram stain or culture. Culture-independent analysis of vaginal microflora using 16S rDNA cloning and sequencing of total bacterial communities reveals the gram-positive Atopobium vaginae as a predominant species in disturbed vaginal flora. PMID:15507931

Verstraelen, Hans; Verhelst, Rita; Claeys, Geert; Temmerman, Marleen; Vaneechoutte, Mario

2004-10-01

365

A masked randomized comparison of oral and vaginal administration of misoprostol for labor induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To test the null hypothesis that administering misoprostol orally or vaginally will result in no difference in time to vaginal birth, and to determine whether different frequencies of tachysystole and hyperstimulation are associated with route of administration.Methods: Two hundred six women after 37 completed weeks’ gestation who presented with an indication for induction were randomly assigned to receive misoprostol

Kelly A. Bennett; Kimberly Butt; Joan M. G. Crane; Donna Hutchens; David C. Young

1998-01-01

366

Abdominal or vaginal hysterectomy for enlarged uteri: A randomized clinical trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare advantages, disadvantages, and outcomes in patients who undergo vaginal or abdominal hysterectomy for enlarged symptomatic uteri. Study Design: In a prospective, randomized study, 60 vaginal hysterectomies (study group) were compared with 59 abdominal hysterectomies (control group); all of the hysterectomies were performed for symptomatic uterine fibroids from January 1997 through December

L. Benassi; T. Rossi; C. T. Kaihura; L. Ricci; L. Bedocchi; B. Galanti; E. Vadora

2002-01-01

367

77 FR 8900 - Certain Vaginal Ring Birth Control Devices; Termination of the Investigation Based on Withdrawal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...337-TA-768] Certain Vaginal Ring Birth Control Devices; Termination...determination (``ID'') (Order No. 30) of the presiding administrative...importation of certain vaginal birth control devices by reason of...Issued: February 9, 2012. By order of the Commission. James...

2012-02-15

368

Evaluation of a protocol for selecting fetuses in breech presentation for vaginal delivery or cesarean section  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our purpose was to evaluate, with respect to obstetric intervention and neonatal outcome, a protocol for selecting fetuses in breech presentation for vaginal delivery or cesarean section. Study design: A clinical follow-up study was performed between 1984 and 1992 of all term singleton deliveries in breech presentation. Each case selected for vaginal delivery had a matched control in vertex

Susanne Albrechtsen; Svein Rasmussen; Hallvard Reigstad; Trond Markestad; Lorentz M. Irgens; Knut Dalaker

1997-01-01

369

Mesh kits for anterior vaginal prolapse are not cost effective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction and hypothesis  To analyze the cost-effectiveness of traditional anterior colporrhaphy (AC), hand-cut mesh, and mesh kit anterior vaginal\\u000a prolapse (AVP) repair.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A decision analysis model was built using mean operating room (OR) times, mesh extrusion rates, and recurrence rates obtained\\u000a from a meta-analysis along with Medicare reimbursement for surgeon fees and office visits, and hospital costs of supplies,\\u000a OR time,

Sunshine Murray; Rashel M. Haverkorn; Yair Lotan; Gary E. Lemack

2011-01-01

370

Comparison of total laparoscopic, vaginal and abdominal hysterectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Due to technical improvements and growing experience, hysterectomies are performed laparoscopically more and more frequently.\\u000a We analyzed 43 total laparoscopic hysterectomies (TLH) of the years 2005 and 2006 and compared them with 87 vaginal (VH) and\\u000a 103 abdominal hysterectomies (AH).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Patients’ original files and surgery reports of the TLHs, VHs and AHs were analyzed retrospectively for the indication of\\u000a surgery,

Christian Schindlbeck; Konstanze Klauser; Darius Dian; Wolfgang Janni; Klaus Friese

2008-01-01

371

Acute Mesenteric Venous Thrombosis with a Vaginal Contraceptive Ring  

PubMed Central

Mesenteric venous thrombosis is a rare cause of abdominal pain, which if left untreated may result in bowel infarction, peritonitis and death. The majority of patients with this illness have a recognizable, predisposing prothrombotic condition. Oral contraceptives have been identified as a predisposing factor for mesenteric venous thrombosis in reproductive-aged women. In the last fifteen years new methods of hormonal birth control have been introduced, including a transdermal patch and an intravaginal ring. In this report, we describe a case of mesenteric venous thrombosis in a young woman caused by a vaginal contraceptive ring.

Eilbert, Wesley; Hecht, Benjamin; Zuiderveld, Loren

2014-01-01

372

Vaginal Discharge: An Approach to Diagnosis and Management  

PubMed Central

Vaginal discharge is a frequent presenting complaint in an office practice. The authors of this article review the most common causes of this condition, namely Candidiasis, Trichimoniasis, and Bacterial Vaginosis (Gardnerella), as well as the more serious causes, namely gonorrhea, chlamydia, and Herpes simplex. Symptoms and physical signs are generally insufficient to distinguish specific etiologic agents and, as treatment for each is different, diagnostic examination of smears in the office is critical to the management of these patients. A clinical approach and method of office diagnosis is described.

Watson, William J.; DeMarchi, Gregory

1987-01-01

373

Complications from vaginally placed mesh in pelvic reconstructive surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction and hypothesis  We describe complications associated with the use of transvaginal mesh for treatment of pelvic organ prolapse.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We retrospectively identified patients referred to our institution from January 2003 through September 2007 who had complications\\u000a after vaginal placement of mesh.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  We identified 21 patients with a mean (SD) age of 61 (11) years. Types of mesh used included mesh kits (n?=?9,

Roberta E. Blandon; John B. Gebhart; Emanuel C. Trabuco; Christopher J. Klingele

2009-01-01

374

Pathology Case Study: Post Coital Bleeding and Vaginal Discharge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 33-year-old woman has a two-month history of post coital bleeding and vaginal discharge. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in gynecologic pathology.

Christakos, Peter; Nath, Manju E.

2009-10-16

375

Risk factors for vaginal trichomoniasis among women in Basra, Iraq.  

PubMed

We investigated Trichomonas vaginalis infection among 352 women with vaginal discharge, 46 were found to be infected, an infection rate of 13%. There were no significant differences in the isolation rate of T. vaginalis in women according to occupation, educational level, economic status, age, marital status, parity, menstrual status and contraception use. The difference in the isolation rates of T. vaginalis in women with a history of abortion (7.6%) and in women with no history of abortion (15.7%) was statistically significant. PMID:15332733

Mahdi, N K; Gany, Z H; Sharief, M

2001-11-01

376

[Postpartum hemorrhage by vaginal laseration: new case and improved management].  

PubMed

We describe a case of uterine necrosis, following Gelitaspon(®) embolization for postpartum hemorrhage resulting from vaginal laceration. Previous cases published help to improve the safety of this effective method by showing the risk factors, as particles sizes, ultraselective embolization, prevention of infection. Controlling bleeding by surgery is the priority when hemorragy is due to laceration without uterin atony. In case of failure, embolization is an option which should be proposed without delay. Uterine necrosis should be suspected in case of postembolization septic syndrome. PMID:23706157

Gitz, L; Picone, O; Mas, A-E; Dagher, L; Deffieux, X

2014-05-01

377

Single blind comparison of ketoconazole 200 mg oral tablets and clotrimazole 100 mg vaginal tablets and 1% cream in treating acute vaginal candidosis.  

PubMed Central

A single blind study of 103 women with vaginal candidosis was undertaken to compare treatment with conventional topical clotrimazole and oral ketoconazole. Both treatment regimens were equally effective in terms of clinical symptoms, negative results on culture for Candida albicans, and relapse rates. As treatment for vaginal candidosis takes several days, patient compliance is important and the success of a treatment regimen may depend on its acceptability to patients. Those in this study who had previously been treated for vaginal candidosis were asked to compare their current and previous treatments. Significantly more (p less than 0.001) of those treated with ketoconazole than those treated with clotrimazole found it more acceptable than previous treatment. This indicated a strong preference for oral treatment, and oral antifungal agents may be the treatment of choice for vaginal candidosis in the future.

Bingham, J S

1984-01-01

378

The efficacy of Marlex mesh in the repair of severe, recurrent vaginal prolapse of the anterior midvaginal wall  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The study assesses the efficacy and complications of Marlex mesh in repairing severe recurrent anterior vaginal wall prolapse. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-four patients with two or more postsurgical recurrences of severe anterior vaginal wall prolapse were divided into control and treatment groups. Transvaginal repair was similar between groups except for reinforcement of the anterior vaginal wall with synthetic mesh. Two

Thomas M. Julian

1996-01-01

379

Large Vaginal and Bladder Calculi in a Woman With Previous Operation of Bladder Exstrophy: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

This is to report the case of a huge vaginal stone, and bladder calculi in a 26-year-old woman with previous operation of bladder exstrophy. It seems that the vaginal stone was secondary to the remaining wire used in her previous reconstructive surgery for pelvic closure 20 years ago and now surgery is performed to remove the vaginal and bladder stones.

Tavakkoli, Mahmoud; Ghoreifi, Alireza

2013-01-01

380

A comparison of intermittent vaginal administration of misoprostol with continuous dinoprostone for cervical ripening and labor induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our purpose was to compare the effect of vaginal administration of misoprostol (Cytotec) with that of dinoprostone (Cervidil) on cervical ripening and labor induction. Study design: Two hundred patients with indications for induction of labor and unfavorable cervical examinations were randomly assigned to receive vaginally administered misoprostol (prostaglandin E1) or the dinoprostone (prostaglandin E2) vaginal insert. Twenty-five microgram tablets

Deborah A. Wing; Gabriela Ortiz-Omphroy; Richard H. Paul

1997-01-01

381

A comparison of differing dosing regimens of vaginally administered misoprostol for preinduction cervical ripening and labor induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to compare two dosing regimens of vaginally administered misoprostol for preinduction cervical ripening and induction of labor. STUDY DESIGN: Five hundred twenty-two patients with indications for induction of labor and unfavorable cervices were randomly assigned to one of two dosing regimens of vaginally administered misoprostol. Twenty-five microgram tablets of misoprostol were placed in the posterior vaginal

Deborah A. Wing; Richard H. Paul

1996-01-01

382

In vitro evaluation of mucoadhesive vaginal tablets of antifungal drugs prepared with thiolated polymer and development of a new dissolution technique for vaginal formulations.  

PubMed

The main objective of this work was to develop antifungal matrix tablet for vaginal applications using mucoadhesive thiolated polymer. Econazole nitrate (EN) and miconazole nitrate (MN) were used as antifungal drugs to prepare the vaginal tablet formulations. Thiolated poly(acrylic acid)-cysteine (PAA-Cys) conjugate was synthesized by the covalent attachment of L-cysteine to PAA with the formation of amide bonds between the primary amino group of L-cysteine and the carboxylic acid group of the polymer. Vaginal mucoadhesive matrix tablets were prepared by direct compression technique. The investigation focused on the influence of modified polymer on water uptake behavior, mucoadhesive property and release rate of drug. Thiolated polymer increased the water uptake ratio and mucoadhesive property of the formulations. A new simple dissolution technique was developed to simulate the vaginal environment for the evaluation of release behavior of vaginal tablets. In this technique, daily production amount and rate of the vaginal fluid was used without any rotational movement. The drug release was found to be slower from PAA-Cys compared to that from PAA formulations. The similarity study results confirmed that the difference in particle size of EN and MN did not affect their release profile. The release process was described by plotting the fraction released drug versus time and n fitting data to the simple exponential model: M(t)/M(?)=kt(n). The release kinetics were determined as Super Case II for all the formulations prepared with PAA or PAA-Cys. According to these results the mucoadhesive vaginal tablet formulations prepared with PAA-Cys represent good example for delivery systems which prolong the residence time of drugs at the vaginal mucosal surface. PMID:21804238

Baloglu, Esra; Ay Seny?g?t, Zeynep; Karavana, Sinem Yaprak; Vetter, Anja; Met?n, Dilek Yesim; Hilmioglu Polat, Suleyha; Guneri, Tamer; Bernkop-Schnurch, Andreas

2011-01-01

383

Complete imperforate tranverse vaginal septum with septate uterus: A rare anomaly  

PubMed Central

The isolated, complete, transverse vaginal septum is one of the most infrequent anomalies of the female genital tract, and when it coexists with a septate uterus, it is even rarer. This report describes a case of transverse vaginal septum with septate uterus. A 12-year-old girl sought medical assessment because of severe cyclic lower abdominal cramping and pelvic pain. Local examination revealed a blind vaginal pouch of 2 cm and on rectal examination a tender pelvic mass was noted. Radiological examination showed transverse vaginal septum in the lower vagina with bicornuate uterus. Surgical resection of the vaginal septum was done under laparoscopic guidance. Hysteroscopy revealed presence of uterine septum which was resected by a resectoscope. Post-operative dilatation of vagina was done to prevent restenosis. Laparoscopic guided abdominoperineal approach is better in such a case as multiple mullerian anomalies may coexist with each other.

Jain, Nutan; Gupta, Anjali; Kumar, Ravindra; Minj, Agnes

2013-01-01

384

Hysteroscopic Resection of the Vaginal Septum in Uterus Didelphys with Obstructed Hemivagina: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Uterus didelphys with obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis is a rare congenital anomaly. Excision of the obstructed vaginal septum is the treatment of choice for symptom relief and the preservation of reproductive capability. A 14-yr-old girl complained of persistent vaginal spotting following each menstruation. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging revealed a uterus didelphys with left hematocolpos and ipsilateral renal agenesis. Instead of conventional transvaginal excision of the vaginal septum, we used hysteroscopic excision under transabdominal ultrasonographic guidance to preserve the integrity of the hymen. The postoperative course was uneventful, and clinical symptoms were completely resolved after this intervention. Resectoscopic excision of the vaginal septum was found to be easy, safe, effective, and appropriate for young women as it preserved hymen integrity. We believe that this is the first Korean report on the use of a hysteroscopy for vaginal septum resection in a patient with uterus didelphys with obstructed hemivagina.

Kim, Tae Eun; Lee, Gyoung Hoon; Jee, Byung Chul; Ku, Seung-Yup; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun; Kim, Jung Gu; Moon, Shin Yong

2007-01-01

385

Misoprostol vaginal insert for induction of labor: a delivery system with accurate dosing and rapid discontinuation.  

PubMed

Labor induction and cervical ripening are widely utilized and new methods are constantly being investigated. Prostaglandins have been shown to be effective labor induction agents and, in particular, were compared with other prostaglandin preparations; vaginal misoprostol used off-label was associated with reduced failure to achieve vaginal delivery. The challenge is to provide this medication with the correct dosing for this indication and with the ability to discontinue the medication if needed, all while ensuring essential maternal and neonatal safety. The misoprostol vaginal insert initiates cervical ripening using a delivery system that controls misoprostol release and can be rapidly removed. This article reviews the development, safety and efficacy of the misoprostol vaginal insert for induction of labor and cervical ripening, and will focus on vaginally administered prostaglandins. PMID:24328596

Stephenson, Megan L; Hawkins, J Seth; Powers, Barbara L; Wing, Deborah A

2014-01-01

386

[Vaginal bacterial flora under normal conditions and in frequently encountered gynecological pathologies].  

PubMed

The bacterial flora of the female reproductive tract is a central point for the study of infectious diseases in obstetrics and gynecology. The vaginal flora contains a large variety of bacterial species, including both aerobic and anaerobic organisms. The reading of the cultures obtained from vaginal specimens in women with genital tract infections is often hard, because some organisms which are normally present in vagina may sometimes involve infectious processes. Bacterial flora was studied in 126 healthy women, in 120 with symptoms of vaginitis, in 28 with inflammation of the cervix and in 102 women previously treated for vaginitis. Comparison among the groups shows little differences in the microbial population between healthy women and patients with genital tract infections. The use of a questionnaire and the obstetrical examination were very important. As quantitative studies are fundamental, the use of methods for semiquantitative bacteriology at least have been necessary to evaluate relationships among vaginal organisms. PMID:7347700

Zunin, A; Martinetto, P; Achino, A; Viviani, P

1981-01-01

387

Complete imperforate tranverse vaginal septum with septate uterus: A rare anomaly.  

PubMed

The isolated, complete, transverse vaginal septum is one of the most infrequent anomalies of the female genital tract, and when it coexists with a septate uterus, it is even rarer. This report describes a case of transverse vaginal septum with septate uterus. A 12-year-old girl sought medical assessment because of severe cyclic lower abdominal cramping and pelvic pain. Local examination revealed a blind vaginal pouch of 2 cm and on rectal examination a tender pelvic mass was noted. Radiological examination showed transverse vaginal septum in the lower vagina with bicornuate uterus. Surgical resection of the vaginal septum was done under laparoscopic guidance. Hysteroscopy revealed presence of uterine septum which was resected by a resectoscope. Post-operative dilatation of vagina was done to prevent restenosis. Laparoscopic guided abdominoperineal approach is better in such a case as multiple mullerian anomalies may coexist with each other. PMID:23869157

Jain, Nutan; Gupta, Anjali; Kumar, Ravindra; Minj, Agnes

2013-01-01

388

Preoperative dilatation to facilitate repair of the high transverse vaginal septum.  

PubMed

A difficult resection and anastomosis of the high transverse vaginal septum at puberty may result in long-term vaginal stenosis. In this report, we describe an alternative approach to the patient with a transverse vaginal septum to include the following: (1) US-directed needle aspiration with broad spectrum antibiotic prophylaxis to decompress the hematocolpos and relieve the acute pain; (2) continuous suppression of ovulation to prevent acute recurrence of the hematocolpos; and, most importantly, (3) vaginal dilatation before resection of the obstructing membrane to lengthen the lower vagina and ensure postoperative compliance with dilatation before vaginal anastomosis is attempted. Using this approach, we have obtained excellent results in three patients. Further study is necessary to validate this surgical modification. PMID:1601164

Hurst, B S; Rock, J A

1992-06-01

389

Uterine prolapse complicated by vaginal cancer: a case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Primary vaginal cancer is not common, representing 1-2% of all female genital malignancies. We present a case of a third-degree uterine prolapse complicated by an isolated primary vaginal cancer and its surgical treatment. The cervix was clinically normal, but on the nearby prolapsed vaginal wall, a large exogenous hard lesion had developed. A biopsy of the lesion revealed a squamous carcinoma. The patient was asymptomatic and had no recurrence during the last 4 years of follow-up after surgical treatment with radiotherapy. The surgical treatment with or without radiotherapy is the optimum treatment for uterine prolapse with early-stage vaginal squamous cell carcinoma, although the majority of vaginal malignancies are treated with radiotherapy. We recommend always performing a biopsy prior to surgery in prolapse-induced ulceration. PMID:24481208

Wang, Yueling; Li, Qiling; Du, Huiping; Lv, Shulan; Liu, Huiting

2014-01-01

390

Vaginal para-urethral myxoid leiomyoma: case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Vaginal leiomyoma is a rare solid tumour of unknown aetiology, which usually develops in women between the ages of 35 and 50. As it presents with a wide range of symptoms, diagnosis is based on histological findings. Here we present the case of a 27-year-old white woman with a painless vaginal mass associated with dyspareunia, dysmenorrhea and foul-smelling vaginal discharge. She underwent surgery by vaginal route, and the histological findings confirmed a myxoid leiomyoma. After 17 months, the patient was disease-free, and symptoms disappeared. Vaginal leiomyomas are rare, local recurrence and transformation into sarcoma are rare, and complete surgical excision as soon as possible is recommended. PMID:18351279

Costantini, Elisabetta; Cochetti, Giovanni; Porena, Massimo

2008-08-01

391

Chronic vaginal discharge and left leg edema after a transobturator tape procedure.  

PubMed

We report on a patient who underwent total vaginal hysterectomy for urinary incontinence 8 years previously with a sling operation using transobturator tape (TOT). She was admitted to our hospital after complaints of vaginal discharge, foul odor, and bleeding, left thigh pain, and edema. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) revealed a fistula tract from the vagina or urethra with remnant sling tape. We removed the remnant tape using intraoperative ultrasonography. This case exemplifies the rare occurrence of a vaginal fistula extending to the obturator, adductor, and pectineus muscles combined with myositis after TOT placement. It is important that urogynecologists recognize that TOT procedures may result in complications accompanied by common recurrent vaginal symptoms, such as vaginal odor and spotting, which can be identified by MRI or CT. PMID:24085145

Kim, Tae-Hee; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Kim, Jun-Mo

2014-05-01

392

Design and in vitro evaluation of a novel bioadhesive vaginal drug delivery system for clindamycin phosphate.  

PubMed

To develop more effective treatment for bacterial vaginosis, bioadhesive film formulations of clindamycin phosphate (CL) for vaginal delivery were studied. The bioadhesive films were prepared by solvent evaporation method. A 3(2) full factorial design was utilized for optimization of the effect of independent variables such as amount of hydroxypropyl cellulose (X1), amount of xanthan gum (X2) on mechanical properties, and % drug retained on vaginal mucosa. The films were evaluated for various aesthetic and physicodynamic properties. Batch F(86) showed highest overall desirability of 0.99. Batch F86 was considered optimal composition for a novel bioadhesive vaginal formulation, as they have good peelability, high % elongation at break, moderate tensile strength, and retained on vaginal mucosa up to 8 h. Also, films were non-cytotoxic as indicated by negligible decrease in cell viability. Our study may provide a potential vaginal delivery system of CL against bacterial vaginosis. PMID:19842917

Dobaria, Nitin; Mashru, Rajashree

2010-01-01

393

Pharmacokinetics and efficacy of a vaginally administered maraviroc gel in rhesus macaques  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of maraviroc, a CCR5-targeted HIV-1 entry inhibitor, in rhesus macaques following vaginal administration of various maraviroc-loaded aqueous hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) gels, and to correlate the PK data with efficacy in a single high-dose vaginal SHIV-162P3 challenge model. Methods Maraviroc concentrations in vaginal fluid (Weck-Cel® sponge), vaginal tissue (punch biopsy) and plasma were assessed over 72 h following single-dose vaginal application of various maraviroc-loaded HEC gels. The range of maraviroc gel concentrations was sufficiently broad (0.003%–3.3% w/w) that test gels included both fully solubilized and predominantly dispersed formulations. The efficacy of the HEC gels against a single high-dose vaginal SHIV-162P3 challenge was also measured, and correlated with the PK concentrations. Results Maraviroc concentrations in vaginal fluid (range 104–107 ng/mL), vaginal tissue (100–1200 ng/g) and plasma (<102 ng/mL) were highly dependent on maraviroc gel loading, irrespective of the form of the maraviroc component within the gel (solubilized versus dispersed). Fluid and plasma concentrations were generally highest 0.5 or 2 h after gel application, before declining steadily through to 72 h. Maraviroc concentrations in the various biological compartments correlated strongly with the extent of protection against vaginal SHIV-162P3 challenge. Complete protection was achieved with a 3.3% w/w maraviroc gel. Conclusions A high degree of correlation between PK and efficacy was observed. Based on the data obtained with the 3.3% w/w maraviroc gel, maintenance of vaginal fluid and tissue levels in the order of 107 ng/mL and 103 ng/g, respectively, are required for complete protection with this compound.

Malcolm, R. Karl; Forbes, Claire J.; Geer, Leslie; Veazey, Ronald S.; Goldman, Laurie; Johan Klasse, Per; Moore, John P.

2013-01-01

394

Dietary supplementation with probiotics during late pregnancy: outcome on vaginal microbiota and cytokine secretion  

PubMed Central

Background The vaginal microbiota of healthy women consists of a wide variety of anaerobic and aerobic bacterial genera and species dominated by the genus Lactobacillus. The activity of lactobacilli helps to maintain the natural healthy balance of the vaginal microbiota. This role is particularly important during pregnancy because vaginal dismicrobism is one of the most important mechanisms for preterm birth and perinatal complications. In the present study, we characterized the impact of a dietary supplementation with the probiotic VSL#3, a mixture of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus strains, on the vaginal microbiota and immunological profiles of healthy women during late pregnancy. Results An association between the oral intake of the probiotic VSL#3 and changes in the composition of the vaginal microbiota of pregnant women was revealed by PCR-DGGE population profiling. Despite no significant changes were found in the amounts of the principal vaginal bacterial populations in women administered with VSL#3, qPCR results suggested a potential role of the probiotic product in counteracting the decrease of Bifidobacterium and the increase of Atopobium, that occurred in control women during late pregnancy. The modulation of the vaginal microbiota was associated with significant changes in some vaginal cytokines. In particular, the decrease of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 was observed only in control women but not in women supplemented with VSL#3. In addition, the probiotic consumption induced the decrease of the pro-inflammatory chemokine Eotaxin, suggesting a potential anti-inflammatory effect on the vaginal immunity. Conclusion Dietary supplementation with the probiotic VSL#3 during the last trimester of pregnancy was associated to a modulation of the vaginal microbiota and cytokine secretion, with potential implications in preventing preterm birth. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01367470

2012-01-01

395

Clinical Evaluation of a Wireless Intra-Vaginal Pressure Transducer  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the development, feasibility and validity of a wireless intra-vaginal pressure transducer (IVT) which can be used to measure intra-abdominal pressure in real-world settings. Study Design A feasibility study was conducted in sixteen physically active women to determine retention and comfort of various IVT prototype designs during activity. A criterion validity study was conducted among women undergoing urodynamic testing to determine the accuracy of the IVT prototypes when compared to accepted clinical standards. Results A final prototype wireless IVT was developed after four design revisions of the second generation model. The feasibility study found that women reported the final prototype comfortable to wear and easily retained during physical activity. Intra-abdominal pressure measurements from the final prototype IVT compared favorably to standard urodynamic transducers, thus confirming evidence of its utility. Conclusion We have successfully advanced the design of a wireless, intra-vaginal pressure transducer which provides accurate measures of intra-abdominal pressure. The final wireless IVT is better tolerated by patients and overcomes limitations of traditional urodynamic testing while laying the foundations for intra-abdominal pressure monitoring outside of the clinic environment.

Hsu, Yvonne; Coleman, Tanner J; Hitchcock, Robert W; Heintz, Kristina; Shaw, Janet M; Nygaard, Ingrid E

2013-01-01

396

Vaginal carriage of enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis in pregnant women.  

PubMed Central

Bacteroides fragilis is an anaerobic bacterial species that is involved in gynecological infections and pathology. The incidence of vaginal carriage is largely unknown, and in order to study this, 120 pregnant women attending a general hospital for delivery were examined. Cultures were positive for eight of these women (6.6%). Interestingly, potential clonal relatedness could be demonstrated among several of the nonenterotoxigenic B. fragilis strains. Among the strains, only one produced metalloprotease enterotoxin. The presence of the gene for the metalloprotease, giving rise to the pathogenic effect on cultured eukaryotic HT29/C1 cells, was confirmed by a newly designed specific PCR assay. The enterotoxigenic B. fragilis (ETBF) strain was analyzed with the help of arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) and PCR-mediated ribotyping. The ETBF strain was shown to be genetically different compared to several other strains obtained from diverse sources. Our data indicate a relatively high vaginal B. fragilis carriage rate among pregnant women in Warsaw, Poland. Although neither ETBF nor B. fragilis colonization presented a clinical problem, the possible genetic relatedness among the colonizing B. fragilis strains indicates the need for additional research in the field of ETBF transmission and molecular epidemiology.

Leszczynski, P; van Belkum, A; Pituch, H; Verbrugh, H; Meisel-Mikolajczyk, F

1997-01-01

397

Vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma in the United States.  

PubMed

We elected to examine available information from several sources to approximate the annual number of cases of vaginal adenocarcinoma in the United States for recent years. Data were obtained from the Registry of Hormonal Transplacental Carcinogenesis, the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program of the National Cancer Institute, the National Cancer Databank of the American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer, and a survey of gynecologic oncologists practicing in the United States. In 1990 a total of 33 new cases and 11 recurrences were reported, while in 1991 23 new cases and 8 recurrences were reported. Neither SEER nor the Registry appear to provide adequate surveillance for this rare disease. Phase III clinical trials are not feasible, given the small number of patients. Statistically effective phase II one-armed studies to investigate new agents in the treatment of advanced or recurrent vaginal clear cell cancer may be possible. Effective mobilization of patients and physicians will be required for such trials to be completed in a timely manner. PMID:8626097

Trimble, E L; Rubinstein, L V; Menck, H R; Hankey, B F; Kosary, C; Giusti, R M

1996-04-01

398

Clinical challenges in the management of vaginal prolapse.  

PubMed

Pelvic organ prolapse is highly prevalent, and negatively affects a woman's quality of life. Women with bothersome prolapse may be offered pessary management or may choose to undergo corrective surgery. In choosing the most appropriate surgical procedure, there are many factors to consider. These may include the location(s) of anatomic defects, the severity of prolapse symptoms, the activity level of the woman, and concerns regarding the durability of the repair. In many instances, women and their surgeons are challenged to weigh the risks and benefits of native tissue versus mesh-augmented repairs. Though mesh-augmented repairs may offer better durability, they are also associated with unique complications, such as mesh erosion. Furthermore, newer surgical techniques of mesh placement via abdominal or vaginal routes may result in different outcomes compared to traditional techniques. Biologic grafts may also be considered to improve durability of a surgical repair, while avoiding potential complications of synthetic mesh. In this article, we review many of the clinical challenges that gynecologic surgeons face in the surgical management of vaginal prolapse. Furthermore, we review data that can help guide decision making when treating women with pelvic organ prolapse. PMID:24474848

Siddiqui, Nazema Y; Edenfield, Autumn L

2014-01-01

399

Laparoscopically assisted vaginal radical hysterectomy: systematic review of the literature.  

PubMed

Laparoscopically assisted vaginal radical vaginal hysterectomy (LAVRH), a minimally invasive technique that seems to be an attractive alternative to traditional surgery, remains unexplored in the treatment of cervical cancer. We searched Medline (1966-2013) and Scopus (2004-2013) search engines, as well as reference lists from all included studies. Ten studies were retrieved; including 6 retrospective cohort studies, 2 prospective cohort studies, 1 retrospective randomized trial, and a phase II randomized control trial. LAVRH provided equal recurrence-free rates when performed in patients with tumors not exceeding 2 cm in greatest diameter. Its main advantages seem to be less intraoperative blood loss and more radical pelvic lymphadenectomy. The primary disadvantages of the technique are a higher rate of disease-positive surgical margins, resulting in the need for adjuvant therapy, and the slow learning curve required for a surgeon to gain expertise. With use in minimally invasive surgery of newer techniques such as total laparoscopic radical hysterectomy and robotic-assisted radical hysterectomy, and possible future adoption of more conservative techniques such as cervical conization with pelvic lymphadenectomy, the question remains as to whether LAVRH will be adopted by the surgical community or lost to oblivion. PMID:23850361

Pergialiotis, Vassileios; Rodolakis, Alexandros; Christakis, Dimitrios; Thomakos, Nikolaos; Vlachos, Georgios; Antsaklis, Aristides

2013-01-01

400

Levator Ani Muscle Stretch Induced by Simulated Vaginal Birth  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To develop a three-dimensional computer model to predict levator ani muscle stretch during vaginal birth. METHODS: Serial magnetic resonance images from a healthy nulliparous 34-year-old woman, published anatomic data, and engineering graphics software were used to construct a structural model of the levator ani muscles along with related passive tissues. The model was used to quantify pelvic floor muscle stretch induced during the second stage of labor as a model fetal head progressively engaged and then stretched the iliococcygeus, pubococcygeus, and puborectalis muscles. RESULTS: The largest tissue strain reached a stretch ratio (tissue length under stretch/original tissue length) of 3.26 in medial pubococcygeus muscle, the shortest, most medial and ventral levator ani muscle. Regions of the ileococcygeus, pubococcygeus, and puborectalis muscles reached maximal stretch ratios of 2.73, 2.50, and 2.28, respectively. Tissue stretch ratios were proportional to fetal head size: For example, increasing fetal head diameter by 9% increased medial pubococcygeus stretch by the same amount. CONCLUSION: The medial pubococcygeus muscles undergo the largest stretch of any levator ani muscles during vaginal birth. They are therefore at the greatest risk for stretch-related injury.

Lien, Kuo-Cheng; Mooney, Brian; DeLancey, John O. L.; Ashton-Miller, James A.

2005-01-01

401

Ectopic ureter presenting as anterior wall vaginal prolapse.  

PubMed

The differential diagnoses for anterior wall vaginal prolapse (AWVP) include cystocele, enterocele, urethral diverticulum, and Gartner duct cyst. We present a case of a patient with a known solitary right kidney (congenital absence of a left kidney) presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms, absence of urinary incontinence, and feeling of bulge in the vagina. Physical examination revealed grade II AWVP. Because congenital solitary kidney can be associated with other possible genitourinary abnormalities, a pelvic magnetic resonance imaging was obtained. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a tubular structure spanning the left retroperitoneum to the region of the AWVP. Urodynamics revealed an obstructive voiding pattern during pressure-flow phase. The combination of transvaginal and transabdominal surgical excision of the tubular structure resolved the patient's lower urinary tract and prolapse symptoms. Anatomically, her AWVP was corrected. Histopathologic examination of the tubular structure revealed presence of urothelium lining the lumen of the tubular structure consistent with a ureter. This case represents the rare situation in which an ectopic ureter presented as an AWVP. However, patients with congenital solitary kidney presenting with vaginal prolapse should raise the suspicion for other associated genitourinary anomalies, whether these anomalies are related to the prolapse or not. Cross-sectional imaging should be performed in these situations to delineate precise anatomy. PMID:24978091

Chai, Toby C; Davis, Rachel; Hawes, Lisa N; Twaddell, William S

2014-01-01

402

Vaginal myofibroblastoma with glands expressing mammary and prostatic antigens.  

PubMed

A case of unusual vaginal myofibroblastoma containing glands which expressed mammary and prostatic markers is described. The tumor occurred in 70-year-old woman in the proximal third of the vagina. It showed morphology and immunophenotype typical of so-called cervicovaginal myofibroblastoma. The peripheral zone of the lesion contained a few groups of glands suggesting vaginal adenosis or prostatic-type glands on initial examination. The glands showed a surprising simultaneous expression of mammary markers mammaglobin and GCDFP-15 and prostatic markers prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate-specific acid phosphatase (PSAP). Immunostains for alpha-smooth muscle actin, p63 and CD10 highlighted the myoepithelial cell layer of the glands. The finding indicates that simultaneous use of both mammary and prostatic markers for examination of unusual glandular lesions in the vulvovaginal location can be helpful for an exact diagnosis, and can contribute to better understanding of prostatic and mammary differentiations in the female lower genital tract. PMID:22716011

Wallenfels, I; Chlumská, A

2012-01-01

403

Vaginal versus abdominal reconstructive surgery for the treatment of pelvic support defects: A prospective randomized study with long-term outcome evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: Our purpose was to determine whether a vaginal or abdominal approach is more effective in correcting uterovaginal prolapse. STUDY DESIGN: Eighty-eight women with cervical prolapse to or beyond the hymen or with vaginal vault inversion >50% of its length and anterior vaginal wall descent to or beyond the hymen were randomized to a vaginal versus abdominal surgical approach. Forty-eight

J. Thomas Benson; Vincent Lucente; Elizabeth McClellan

1996-01-01

404

Intermittent prophylactic treatment of recurrent vaginal candidiasis by postmenstrual application of a 500 mg clotrimazole vaginal tablet.  

PubMed Central

The therapeutic efficacy of intermittent, monthly, postmenstrual prophylaxis with a single 500 mg clotrimazole vaginal tablet (n = 33) was compared with placebo tablets (n = 29) in 62 woman (age 28.1, SD 7.2 years) with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. The number of episodes of acute vulvovaginal candidiasis experienced during the year prior to inclusion was 6.3, SD 1.9. The cumulative recurrence frequency after 6 months intermittent prophylaxis with clotrimazole (30.3%) was lower (p less than 0.001) than that recorded for the women who received placebo (79.3%). After an additional 6 months observation period without treatment there was no significant difference in the cumulative recurrence frequency between the groups (clotrimazole 84.9%; placebo 86.2%). The vagina was recolonised with Candida albicans in 70% of the women after 6 months prophylactic treatment with clotrimazole and in 86% of the women who had received placebo. Thus, this study has demonstrated that postmenstrual prophylactic treatment with a single 500 mg clotrimazole vaginal tablet, applied monthly, prevents recurrence of symptoms, although it does not eliminate yeasts from the vagina.

Roth, A C; Milsom, I; Forssman, L; Wahlen, P

1990-01-01

405

Vaginal swab specimen processing methods influence performance of rapid semen detection tests: A cautionary tale  

PubMed Central

Background Detection of semen biomarkers in vaginal fluid can be used to assess women’s recent exposure to semen. Quantitative tests for detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) perform well, but are expensive and require specialized equipment. We assessed two rapid immunochromatographic strip tests for identification of semen in vaginal swabs. Study Design We tested 581 vaginal swabs collected from 492 women. Vaginal secretions were eluted into saline, and PSA was measured using the quantitative IMx (Abbott Laboratories) assay. Specimens were also tested using the ABAcard p30 test (Abacus Diagnostics) for detection of PSA and RSID-Semen test (Independent Forensics) for detection of semenogelin (Sg). Results Vaginal swab extraction using saline was compatible with direct assessment of vaginal swab eluates using ABAcard for PSA detection, but not for Sg detection using RSID. The rapid PSA test detected 91% of specimens containing semen compared to 74% by the rapid Sg test. Conclusion Investigators are urged to optimize vaginal swab specimen preparation methods for performance of RSID or other tests to detect semen components other than PSA. Previously described methods for PSA testing are not uniformly applicable to other tests.

Hobbs, Marcia M.; Steiner, Markus J.; Rich, Kimberly D.; Gallo, Maria F.; Warner, Lee; Macaluso, Maurizio

2010-01-01

406

Fetal Head Position during the First Stage of Labor: Comparison between Vaginal Examination and Transabdominal Ultrasound  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Recent evidence indicates that clinical examination, for determination of fetal head position, is subjective and inaccurate. Present study was aimed to compare transabdominal ultrasound for fetal head position with vaginal examination during first stage of labor. Material and Methods. This prospective study was performed at a tertiary center during a two-year period. Before or after clinically indicated vaginal examinations, transverse suprapubic transabdominal real-time ultrasound fetal head position assessment was done. Frequencies of various ultrasound depicted fetal head positions were compared with position determined at vaginal examination. Results. In only 31.5% of patients, fetal head position determinations by vaginal examinations were consistent with those obtained by ultrasound. Cohen's Kappa test of concordance indicated a poor concordance of 0.15. Accuracy of vaginal examination increased to 66% when fetal head position at vaginal examination was recorded correct if reported within +45° of the ultrasound assessment. Rate of agreement between the two assessment methods for consultants versus residents was 36% and 26%, respectively (P = 0.17). Conclusion. We found that vaginal examination was associated with a high error rate in fetal head position determination. Data supports the idea that intrapartum transabdominal ultrasound enhances correct determination of fetal head position during first stage of labor.

Shetty, Jyothi; Aahir, Vinod; Adiga, Prashanth; Kamath, Asha

2014-01-01

407

Prospective comparison of vaginal and abdominal sonography in normal early pregnancy.  

PubMed

Vaginal and abdominal sonography were prospectively compared in 309 consecutive pregnancies of which 175 were normal. Two sonographic criteria of normal were analyzed: (1) the presence of an embryo compared with average gestational sac size and (2) the presence of embryonic cardiac activity compared with crown-rump length. Vaginally, 100% (160/160) of embryos were visualized when the average sac diameter was greater than or equal to 12 mm. Abdominally, an embryo was noted in 99.2% (123/124) of gestational sacs greater than or equal to 27 mm. Vaginal sonography revealed cardiac motion in all embryos of greater than or equal to 5 mm (149/149 cases); abdominal sonography revealed cardiac activity in 100% (132/132) of embryos with a crown-rump length of greater than or equal to 9 mm. One-third of normal embryos less than 5 mm crown-rump length did not demonstrate cardiac activity. The study demonstrates through objective comparison that vaginal sonography is superior to abdominal sonography for detection of an intrauterine embryo and its cardiac activity before 8 menstrual weeks. The diagnosis of embryonic demise should not be made by vaginal sonography in embryos measuring less than 5 mm crown-rump length without a heartbeat, and an empty gestational sac of less than 12 mm average diameter should not be diagnosed as blighted ovum by vaginal scans. In these cases follow-up vaginal sonography is suggested. PMID:2020050

Pennell, R G; Needleman, L; Pajak, T; Baltarowich, O; Vilaro, M; Goldberg, B B; Kurtz, A B

1991-02-01

408

[Possible role of enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis in the etiology of infectious vaginitis].  

PubMed

Vaginitis is a common gynecologic disorder. It is due to several causes, some even unknown. Bacteroides fragilis is the most important anaerobe in clinical bacteriology, some strains of this group are notable for being enterotoxigenic and they have been associated with intestinal and extraintestinal syndromes. They have recently been isolated from patients with vaginitis. The purpose of this study was to investigate a possible association of enterotoxigenic B. fragilis with infectious vaginitis. 265 samples of vaginal exudate were processed, 202 from symptomatic patients and 63 healthy women. The identification of the microorganisms was carried out by conventional methods. In 31.2% of symptomatic patients were identified: Gardnerella vaginalis, Mobiluncus, Candida albicans, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Streptococcus agalactiae. B. fragilis was identified in 27 symptomatic patients and 5 healthy women. These strains were cultivated in liquid medium and incubated during 48 h at 36 degrees C in anaerobe chambers. Supernatant activity was assayed in HT-29 cells. Eighteen B. fragilis strains isolated from symptomatic patients were enterotoxigenic, because induced alterations in target cell morphology. It was not identified in healthy women (P < 0.05). 77.7% of enterotoxigenic B. fragilis strains were not associated with other specific pathogens. This fact suggests that enterotoxigenic B. fragilis could be a cause for vaginitis. The effect of enterotoxin on E-cadherin of vaginal epithelium could facilitate invasion and its possible pathogenic role in the vagina. This is the first report that associates enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis as a possible cause of infectious vaginitis. PMID:22524106

Polanco, Nina; Manzi, Lorna; Carmona, Oswaldo

2012-03-01

409

Vaginal atresia and Bardet-Biedl syndrome association: a component or a distinct entity?  

PubMed

Bardet-Biedl syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder. It is characterized by cardinal anomalies including retinal dystrophy, digital malformations, mental retardation, obesity, and hypogonadism. Recently, renal anomalies also are mentioned among the cardinal signs. Although association of genital anomalies among affected boys are well known, the association of vaginal atresia and other structural genital anomalies are not mentioned among the less-common manifestations of Bardet-Biedl syndrome in girls. Two girls with Bardet-Biedl syndrome presented with hematometrocolpos in the preadolescent period and vaginal atresia was diagnosed. After surgical treatment and extended hospitalization, uncontrolled sepsis resulted in progressive renal failure and death of both patients. Vaginal atresia is often delayed or missed in the early childhood period. In girls with Bardet-Biedl syndrome, vaginal atresia or other structural genital anomalies should be evaluated more systematically during the initial diagnosis of the syndrome. In infancy, the evaluation of a child with vaginal atresia also should include the differential diagnosis of Bardet-Biedl syndrome. Vaginal atresia may either form a component of the syndrome, or girls who present with vaginal atresia in addition to other components of Bardet-Biedl syndrome might form a distinct entity. PMID:10211669

O?uzkurt, P; Tanyel, F C; Hiçsönmez, A

1999-03-01

410

The Vaginal Bacterial Communities of Japanese Women Resemble Those of Women in Other Racial Groups  

PubMed Central

To determine if different racial groups shared common types of vaginal microbiota we characterized the composition and structure of vaginal bacterial communities in asymptomatic and apparently healthy Japanese women in Tokyo, Japan and compared them with those of White and Black women from North America. The composition of vaginal communities was compared based on community profiles of terminal restriction fragments of 16S rRNA genes and phylogenetic analysis of cloned 16S rRNA gene sequences of the numerically dominant bacterial populations. The types of vaginal communities found in Japanese women were similar to those of Black and White women. As with White and Black women, most vaginal communities were dominated by lactobacilli, and only four species of Lactobacillus (L. iners, L. crispatus, L. jensenii and L. gasseri) were commonly found. Communities dominated by multiple species of lactobacilli were common in Japanese and White women, but rare in Black women. The incidence in Japanese women of vaginal communities with several non-Lactobacillus species at moderately high frequencies was intermediate between Black women and White women. The limited number of community types found among women in different ethnic groups suggests that host genetic factors, including the innate and adaptive immune systems, may be more important in determining the species composition of vaginal bacterial communities than are cultural and behavioral differences.

Zhou, Xia; Hansmann, Melanie A.; Davis, Catherine C.; Suzuki, Haruo; Brown, Celeste J.; Schutte, Ursel; Pierson, Jacob D.; Forney, Larry J.

2009-01-01

411

Rectal and vaginal immunization of mice with human papillomavirus L1 virus-like particles.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines based on L1 virus-like particle (VLP) can prevent genital HPV infection and associated lesions after three intramuscular injections. Needle-free administration might facilitate vaccine implementation, especially in developing countries. Here we have investigated rectal and vaginal administration of HPV16 L1 VLPs in mice and their ability to induce anti-VLP and HPV16-neutralizing antibodies in serum and in genital, rectal and oral secretions. Rectal and vaginal immunizations were not effective in the absence of adjuvant. Cholera toxin was able to enhance systemic and mucosal anti-VLPs responses after rectal immunization, but not after vaginal immunization. Rectal immunization with Resiquimod and to a lesser extent Imiquimod, but not monophosphoryl lipid A, induced anti-HPV16 VLP antibodies in serum and secretions. Vaginal immunization was immunogenic only if administered in mice treated with nonoxynol-9, a disrupter of the cervico-vaginal epithelium. Our findings show that rectal and vaginal administration of VLPs can induce significant HPV16-neutralizing antibody levels in secretions, despite the fact that low titers are induced in serum. Imidazoquinolines, largely used to treat genital and anal warts, and nonoxonol-9, used as genital microbicide/spermicide were identified as adjuvants that could be safely used by the rectal or vaginal route, respectively. PMID:19428847

Fraillery, Dominique; Zosso, Nathalie; Nardelli-Haefliger, Denise

2009-04-14

412

Effect of sexual activity on vaginal colonization with hydrogen-peroxide producing Lactobacilli and Gardnerella vaginalis  

PubMed Central

Background Bacterial vaginosis is associated with sexual activity, but mechanisms for this association are unclear. Study Design Cross-sectional analysis of data from women reporting sex with women who provided information on sexual behaviors as part of a study of vaginal bacteria. Vaginal bacteria were detected by semi-quantitative culture. Binomial regression with log-link evaluated associations between detection of bacteria and sexual behaviors reported to occur prior to enrollment. Linear regression evaluated associations between these behaviors and quantity of bacteria. Results Of 320 women, 216 (68%) were colonized with H2O2-producing lactobacilli and 142 (44%) with G. vaginalis. Colonization with G. vaginalis was associated with >20 digital-vaginal sex acts (RR 2.01; 1.22, 3.29) or >10 toy-vaginal acts in the past 3 months (RR 1.76; 1.32, 2.36). Quantity of H2O2-producing lactobacilli was 1.3 log lower in colonized women reporting >10 acts of insertive vaginal sex toy use in the past 3 months (95%CI ?2.04, ?.56), 1.19 log lower with toy-vaginal sex in past 7 days (?1.75, ?.62), and 0.78 log lower in women sharing toys with a partner (?1.25, ?.31). Conclusions Vaginal insertive use and sharing of sex toys was associated with decreased quantities of H2O2-producing lactobacilli and higher risk of colonization with G. vaginalis.

Mitchell, Caroline; Manhart, Lisa E.; Thomas, Katherine K.; Agnew, Kathy; Marrazzo, Jeanne M.

2011-01-01

413

Influence of Vaginal Bacteria and d- and l-Lactic Acid Isomers on Vaginal Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer: Implications for Protection against Upper Genital Tract Infections  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT We evaluated levels of vaginal extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-8) in vaginal secretions in relation to the composition of vaginal bacterial communities and d- and l-lactic acid levels. The composition of vaginal bacterial communities in 46 women was determined by pyrosequencing the V1 to V3 region of 16S rRNA genes. Lactobacilli were dominant in 71.3% of the women, followed by Gardnerella (17.4%), Streptococcus (8.7%), and Enterococcus (2.2%). Of the lactobacillus-dominated communities, 51.5% were dominated by Lactobacillus crispatus, 36.4% by Lactobacillus iners, and 6.1% each by Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus jensenii. Concentrations of l-lactic acid were slightly higher in lactobacillus-dominated vaginal samples, but most differences were not statistically significant. d-Lactic acid levels were higher in samples containing L. crispatus than in those with L. iners (P < 0.0001) or Gardnerella (P = 0.0002). The relative proportion of d-lactic acid in vaginal communities dominated by species of lactobacilli was in concordance with the proportions found in axenic cultures of the various species grown in vitro. Levels of l-lactic acid (P < 0.0001) and the ratio of l-lactic acid to d-lactic acid (P = 0.0060), but not concentrations of d-lactic acid, were also correlated with EMMPRIN concentrations. Moreover, vaginal concentrations of EMMPRIN and MMP-8 levels were highly correlated (P < 0.0001). Taken together, the data suggest the relative proportion of l- to d-lactic acid isomers in the vagina may influence the extent of local EMMPRIN production and subsequent induction of MMP-8. The expression of these proteins may help determine the ability of bacteria to transverse the cervix and initiate upper genital tract infections.

Witkin, Steven S.; Mendes-Soares, Helena; Linhares, Iara M.; Jayaram, Aswathi; Ledger, William J.; Forney, Larry J.

2013-01-01

414

Effect of estrogen on molecular and functional characteristics of the rodent vaginal muscularis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Vaginal atrophy is a consequence of menopause however little is known concerning the effect of a decrease in systemic estrogen on vaginal smooth muscle structure and function. As the incidence of pelvic floor disorders increases with age, it is important to determine if estrogen regulates the molecular composition and contractility of the vaginal muscularis. Aim The goal of this study was to determine the effect of estrogen on molecular and functional characteristics of the vaginal muscularis utilizing a rodent model of surgical menopause. Methods 3–4 month old Sprague Dawley rats underwent sham laparotomy (Sham, n=18) or ovariectomy (Ovx, n=39). Two weeks following surgery, animals received a subcutaneous osmotic pump containing vehicle (Sham, Ovx) or 17- ? estradiol (Ovx). Animals were euthanized one week later and the proximal vagina was collected for analysis of contractile protein expression and in vitro studies of contractility. Measurements were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc analysis (?= 0.05). Main Outcome Measures Protein and mRNA transcript expression levels of contractile proteins, in vitro measurements of vaginal contractility Results Ovariectomy decreased the expression of carboxyl-terminal myosin heavy chain isoform SM1 and h-caldesmon and reduced the amplitude of contraction of the vaginal muscularis in response to KCl. Estradiol replacement reversed these changes. No differences were detected in the % vaginal muscularis, mRNA transcript expression of amino terminal MHC isoforms, l-caldesmon expression and maximal velocity of shortening. Conclusion Systemic estrogen replacement restores functional and molecular characteristics of the vaginal muscularis of ovariectomized rats. Our results indicate that menopause is associated with changes in the vaginal muscularis, which may contribute to the increased incidence of pelvic floor disorders with age.

Basha, Maureen E.; Chang, Shaohua; Burrows, Lara J.; Lassmann, Jenny; Wein, Alan J.; Moreland, Robert S.; Chacko, Samuel K.

2013-01-01

415

Effects of tamoxifen on vaginal blood flow and epithelial morphology in the rat  

PubMed Central

Background Tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator with both estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activity, is widely used as adjuvant therapy in breast cancer patients. Treatment with tamoxifen is associated with sexual side effects, such as increased vaginal dryness and pain/discomfort during sexual activity. There have been limited investigations of the effect of tamoxifen on estrogen-dependent peripheral genital arousal responses. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of tamoxifen on vaginal physiology in the rat. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to sham surgery or bilateral ovariectomy. After 2 weeks, sham-operated rats were implanted with subcutaneous osmotic infusion pumps containing vehicle (control) or tamoxifen (150 ?g/day). Ovariectomized rats were similarly infused with vehicle. After an additional 2 weeks, vaginal blood flow responses to pelvic nerve stimulation were measured by laser Doppler flowmetry and vaginal tissue was collected for histological and biochemical assay. Results Tamoxifen treatment did not change plasma estradiol concentrations relative to control animals, while ovariectomized rats exhibited a 60% decrease in plasma estradiol. Tamoxifen treatment caused a significant decrease in mean uterine weight, but did not alter mean vaginal weight. Vaginal blood flow was significantly decreased in tamoxifen-infused rats compared to controls. Similar to ovariectomized animals, estrogen receptor binding was increased and arginase enzyme activity was decreased in tamoxifen-infused rats. However, different from control and ovariectomized animals, the vaginal epithelium in tamoxifen-infused rats appeared highly mucified. Periodic acid-Schiff staining confirmed a greater production of carbohydrate-rich compounds (e.g. mucin, glycogen) by the vaginal epithelium of tamoxifen-infused rats. Conclusion The observations suggest that tamoxifen exerts both anti-estrogenic and pro-estrogenic effects in the vagina. These physiological alterations may eventually lead to vaginal atrophy and compromise sexual function.

Kim, Noel N; Stankovic, Miljan; Armagan, Abdullah; Cushman, Tulay T; Goldstein, Irwin; Traish, Abdulmaged M

2006-01-01

416

Comparative Study of Oral and Vaginal Misoprostol for Induction of Labour, Maternal and Foetal Outcome  

PubMed Central

Background: Misoprostol is a new promising agent for cervical ripening and induction of labour .The ideal dose, route and frequency of administration of misoprostol are still under investigation. Although, vaginal application of misoprostol has been validated as a reasonable mean of induction, there is a patient resistance to digital examination and there is a risk of ascending infection. For this reason, oral administration of misoprostol for cervical ripening and labour induction has been tried. Aims and Objectives: To compare 50?g of oral misoprostol versus 25?g of intravaginal misoprostol for induction of labour at term and maternal, foetal outcomes. Methods: Two hundred women who were at term, with indication for induction of labour and Bishop scores of ?5 were randomly assigned to receive misoprostol 50?g or 25?g intravaginal, every 4-6 hours, for a maximum of 5 doses. In either group, pregnant females with inadequate uterine contractions despite being given maximum 5 doses of misoprostol, were augmented using oxytocin. The primary outcome measure was time-interval from induction to vaginal delivery and vaginal delivery rate within 24 hours. Results: The median induction to vaginal delivery time in oral group (12.92h) and vaginal group (14.04 h) was not significant. Oral misoprostol resulted in more number of vaginal deliveries as compared to vaginal misoprostol (94% as compared to 86%), which was not significant. There was a significantly higher incidence of uterine tachysystole in the vaginal group, as compared to oral group. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to oxytocin augmentation, caesarean section rate, analgesic requirement and neonatal outcome. Conclusion: Oral misoprostol is as efficacious as vaginal misoprostol because of shorter induction delivery interval, lower caesarean section rates, and lower incidence of failed induction rates. Lower incidence of foetal distress and easy intake are observed if the drug is administered orally.

Komala, Kambhampati; Reddy, Meherlatha; Quadri, Iqbal Jehan; B., Suneetha; V., Ramya

2013-01-01

417

Accuracy of the Clinical Diagnosis of Vaginitis Compared to a DNA Probe Laboratory Standard  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the accuracy of the clinical diagnosis of the three most common causes of acute vulvovaginal symptoms (bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis vaginitis, and trichomoniasis vaginalis) using a traditional, standardized clinical diagnostic protocol compared to a DNA probe laboratory standard. Methods This prospective clinical comparative study had a sample of 535 active duty United States military women presenting with vulovaginal symptoms. Clinical diagnoses were made by research staff using a standardized protocol of history, physical examination including pelvic examination, determination of vaginal pH, vaginal fluid amines test, and wet-prep microscopy. Vaginal fluid samples were obtained for DNA analysis. The research clinicians were blinded to the DNA results. Results The participants described a presenting symptom of abnormal discharge (50%), itching/irritation (33%), malodor (10%), burning (4%), or others such as vulvar pain and vaginal discomfort. According to laboratory standard, there were 225 cases (42%) of bacterial vaginosis 76 cases (14%) of candidiasis vaginitis, 8 cases (1.5%) of trichomoniasis vaginalis, 87 cases of mixed infections (16%), and 139 negative cases (26%). For each single infection, the clinical diagnosis had a sensitivity and specificity of 80.8% and 70.0% for bacterial vaginosis; 83.8% and 84.8% for candidiasis vaginitis; and 84.6% and 99.6% for trichomoniasis vaginalis when compared to the DNA probe standard. Conclusion Compared to a DNA probe standard, clinical diagnosis is 81-85% sensitive and 70- 99% specific for bacterial vaginosis, candida vaginitis, and trichomoniasis. Even under research conditions that provided clinicians with sufficient time and materials to conduct a thorough and standardized clinical evaluation, the diagnosis and therefore, subsequent treatment of these common vaginal problems remains difficult.

Lowe, Nancy K.; Neal, Jeremy L.; Ryan-Wenger, Nancy A.

2009-01-01

418

Interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and IL-8 predict mucosal toxicity of vaginal microbicidal contraceptives.  

PubMed

Inflammation of the female reproductive tract increases susceptibility to HIV-1 and other viral infections and, thus, it becomes a serious liability for vaginal products. Excessive release of proinflammatory cytokines may alter the mucosal balance between tissue destruction and repair and be linked to enhanced penetration and replication of viral pathogens upon chemical insult. The present study evaluates four surface-active microbicide candidates, nonoxynol-9 (N-9), benzalkonium chloride (BZK), sodium dodecyl sulfate, and sodium monolaurate for their activity against human sperm and HIV, and their capacity to induce an inflammatory response on human vaginal epithelial cells and by the rabbit vaginal mucosa. Spermicidal and virucidal evaluations ranked N-9 as the most potent compound but were unable to predict the impact of the compounds on vaginal cell viability. Interleukin (IL)-1 release in vitro reflected their cytotoxicity profiles more accurately. Furthermore, IL-1 concentrations in vaginal washings correlated with cumulative mucosal irritation scores after single and multiple applications (P < 0.01), showing BZK as the most damaging agent for the vaginal mucosa. BZK induced rapid cell death, IL-1 release, and IL-6 secretion. The other compounds required either more prolonged or repeated contact with the vaginal epithelium to induce a significant inflammatory reaction. Increased IL-8 levels after multiple applications in vivo identified compounds with the highest cumulative mucosal toxicity (P < 0.01). In conclusion, IL-1, IL-6, and IL-8 in the vaginal secretions are sensitive indicators of compound-induced mucosal toxicity. The described evaluation system is a valuable tool in identifying novel vaginal contraceptive microbicides, selecting out candidates that may enhance, rather than decrease, HIV transmission. PMID:15128598

Fichorova, R N; Bajpai, M; Chandra, N; Hsiu, J G; Spangler, M; Ratnam, V; Doncel, G F

2004-09-01

419

Evaluation of vaginal pH for detection of bacterial vaginosis  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is highly prevalent among women in reproductive age group. Little information exists on routine vaginal pH measurement in women with BV. We undertook this study to assess the utility of vaginal pH determination for initial evaluation of bacterial vaginosis. Methods: In this cross-sectional study vaginal swabs were collected from women with complaints of white discharge, back ache and pain abdomen attending a government hospital and a community health clinic, and subjected to vaginal pH determination, Gram stain, wet mount and whiff test. Nugent score and Amsel criteria were used for BV confirmation. Results: Of the 270 women included in the analysis, 154 had BV based on Nugents’ score. The mean vaginal pH in women with BV measured by pH strips and pH glove was 5 and 4.9, respectively. The vaginal pH was significantly higher in women with BV. Vaginal discharge was prevalent in 84.8 per cent women, however, only 56.8 per cent of these actually had BV by Nugent score (NS). Presence of clue cells and positive whiff test were significant for BV. Vaginal pH >4.5 by pH strips and pH Glove had a sensitivity of 72 and 79 per cent and specificity of 60 and 53 per cent, respectively to detect BV. Among the combination criteria, clue cells and glove pH >4.5 had highest sensitivity and specificity to detect BV. Interpretation & conclusions: Vaginal pH determination is relatively sensitive, but less specific in detecting women with BV. Inclusion of whiff test along with pH test reduced the sensitivity, but improved specificity. Both, the pH strip and pH glove are equally suitable for screening women with BV on outpatient basis.

Hemalatha, R.; Ramalaxmi, Baru Anantha; Swetha, Eluru; Balakrishna, N.; Mastromarino, Paola

2013-01-01

420

Serum profile of isosorbide mononitrate after vaginal administration in the third trimester.  

PubMed

Vaginally administered nitric oxide donors such as isosorbide mononitrate have been used to ripen the uterine cervix in pregnancy. The pharmacokinetics of isosorbide mononitrate following vaginal administration are unknown. Serum levels of isosorbide mononitrate were determined at baseline and 60, 180 and 360 minutes after vaginal administration of 20 or 40 mg isosorbide mononitrate to pregnant women scheduled for induction of labour at term. Serum levels of isosorbide mononitrate continued to rise up to 360 minutes after isosorbide mononitrate insertion, with mean (SD) final levels of 337 (94) microg/L following isosorbide mononitrate 40 mg and 144 (47) microg/L following isosorbide mononitrate 20 mg, P < 0.01. PMID:12504938

Bates, Catharine D; Nicoll, Antony E; Mullen, Alexander B; Mackenzie, Fiona; Thomson, Andrew J; Norman, Jane E

2003-01-01

421

[Light and scanning electron studies on the morphology of the vaginal plug in laboratory animals].  

PubMed

Serial sections of vaginal plugs of mice, rats, guinea pigs and hamsters (Cricetulus griseus) were studied by light microscopy as well as whole plugs and freeze-fractures by scanning electron microscopy. The vaginal plugs are encircled by a layer of superficial cells of the vaginal epithelium and consist of coagulated seminal fluid, containing irregular holes. The spermatoza are mainly localized inside bigger cavities. Scanning electron microscopic study of freeze-fractured plugs reveals, that this method gives useful information about the inner structure of spermatozoa tails. PMID:6893258

Rosenbauer, K A; Campean, N; Campean, C

1980-01-01

422

Endometrial adenocarcinoma in one horn of a didelphic uterus with vaginal duplication.  

PubMed

A 59-year-old female patient presented with vaginal bleeding. A didelphic uterus with vaginal duplication was diagnosed on the basis of physical examination and radiology tests. Biopsy revealed an endometrial cancer in the left horn, while the right was atrophic. Laparoscopic hysterectomy, bilateral salphingo-oophorectomy, pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy were performed. According to Federation International of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging the tumour was classified Ib. The adjuvant therapy was vaginal cuff brachytherapy. After 6?months, she has no evidence of the disease. PMID:24842355

Vázquez Vicente, Daniel; Di Fiore, Hugo Ariel; Garcia-Foncillas, Jesús; Plaza Arranz, Javier

2014-01-01

423

Huge abdominal mass secondary to a transverse vaginal septum and cervical dysgenesis.  

PubMed

Transverse vaginal septum is a rare occurrence. When it co-exists with cervical dysgenesis, it is even rarer. Primary amenorrhea with cyclic pain is one manifestation in post-pubertal women. A case of transverse vaginal septum with vaginal atresia and cervical dysgenesis is presented. Presentation as a huge abdominal mass and severe anaemia posed diagnostic challenges. A two-staged management is described as well as variation in management of the septum. The involvement of the patient in her follow up is also stressed. PMID:22359424

Opoku, B K; Djokoto, R; Owusu-Bempah, A; Amo-Antwi, K

2011-12-01

424

Primary invasive vaginal cancer. Report of 12 cases.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to describe the clinical features, methods of treatment and results of treatment among patients with primary invasive cancer. Twelve women in whom primary invasive cancer of the vagina was diagnosed between 1996 and 2001 were studied. The mean age of women with primary invasive vaginal cancer was 70.1 years. Half of the patients had advanced stage carcinoma at the time of the diagnosis and 85% of patients had not had a Pap-smear in the last 15 years. Treatment consisted of radiotherapy or a combination of surgery and radiotherapy. Four patients out of six with advanced stage disease died in 30 months. In conclusion, the present study confirms that early detection of the disease could lead to more successful management and therefore better prognosis. PMID:12556110

Diakomanolis, E; Rodolakis, A; Stefanidis, K; Haidopoulos, D; Blachos, G; Kavalakis, J; Michalas, S

2002-01-01

425

[Laparoscopic assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH). Overview on 25 case series].  

PubMed

The aim of the study is to evaluate the laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH) in terms of indications, uterine size, surgical procedures and their safety, intraoperative complications and blood loss, operative time, concomitant surgical procedures and postoperative period of complications. A total of 25 patients underwent LAVH between 1998 and 1993, in our surgical unit. The mean age of our patients was 44.2 years (range 36-66). The most common indication was fibromyoma. The mean size of the removed uterus was 11.5 cm. The mean weight was about 242 g. The mean estimated blood loss was 155 ml and the mean operative time 150 min. Intraoperative complications included one case of bladder injury due to thick adhesions. Postoperative complications included 2 cases of cystitis, and 3 cases of ileus. The hospital stay was 2 to 7 days. PMID:15688771

Lupa?cu, Cr; Georgescu, St; L?zescu, D; Bradea, C; Dasc?lu, Ana-Maria; Lupa?cu, C

2004-01-01

426

Vaginal mass caused by a lately recognized congenital bladder diverticulum  

PubMed Central

Congenital bladder diverticula are strongly associated with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), and are mostly present in childhood. The most common symptom is urinary tract infection at the time of admission. The diverticulum is usually solitary and its location is near the ureteral orifice, which is probably the main cause of VUR. We report a woman who presented with a vaginal mass located on the right inferior part of the external urethral meatus. The patient had a history of recurrent urinary tract infection and right nephrectomy due to VUR nephropathy. We examined her with cystography, computerized tomography, and cystoscopy. The cystoscopic examination was very diagnostic in our patient. The patient underwent diverticulectomy, and after 6 months of follow-up, her complaints had completely disappeared.

Zengin, Kursad; Tanik, Serhat; Gurdal, Mesut; Okur, Aylin; Zengin, Betul

2013-01-01

427

The Relationship of Pregnancy, Vaginal Candidiasis and Glucose Metabolism  

PubMed Central

In 72 pregnant women with culture-proved vaginal candidiasis, and an equal number of controls matched for parity, size, stage of gestation and age, the intravenous glucose tolerance curves were compared using Silverstone's method. The results in both study and control groups did not differ and resembled closely those in Silverstone's series. Half the study group were treated using nystatin alone, while the other half also received tolbutamide. The cure rate was equal in the two groups. Candidiasis in pregnancy does not appear to be related to altered glucose metabolism nor does the addition of this hypoglycemic drug (tolbutamide) improve results. No ill effects, fetal or maternal, were apparent following the use of tolbutamide.

Robinson, S. C.; Nicholas, W. C.; Lee, D. T.; Wanklin, J. M.; Zwicker, Betty

1967-01-01

428

Vaginal atresia with transverse septum in a cat.  

PubMed

A six and half-year-old nulliparous mixed breed cat which had the complaints of vomiting, abdominal distention and depression was presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Osaka Prefecture University. She was suspected of pyometra by clinical signs and tests. By laparotomy, it was clarified that both uterine horns and vagina showed distension by the accumulation of secretions, and the vagina ended blindly leaving a tough connective tissue at the border between cranial and caudal part of the vagina. Postoperative contrast-radiograph of the remaining vagina proved it had no persistence of the hymen. From these findings, the condition was diagnosed as a feline atresia vaginalis with the transverse vaginal septum which is caused by the embryonic failure of canalization of the paramesonephric duct between the end of the Müllerian duct and the urogenital sinus. PMID:9409523

Nomura, K; Koreeda, T; Kawata, M; Shiraishi, Y

1997-11-01

429

A new wireless biosensor for intra-vaginal temperature monitoring.  

PubMed

Wireless Body Sensors for medical purposes offer valuable contributions to improve patients' healthcare, including diagnosis and/or therapeutics monitoring. Body temperature is a crucial parameter in healthcare diagnosis. In gynecology and obstetrics it is measured at the skin's surface, which is very influenced by the environment. This paper proposes a new intra-body sensor for long-term intra-vaginal temperature collection. The embedded IEEE 802.15.4 communication module allows the integration of this sensor in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) for remote data access and monitoring. We present the sensor architecture, the construction of the corresponding testbed, and its performance evaluation. This sensor may be used in different medical applications, including preterm labor prevention and fertility and ovulation period detection. The features of the constructed testbed were validated in laboratory tests verifying its accuracy and performance. PMID:22163471

Caldeira, João M L P; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Garcia, João F R; de la Torre, Isabel

2010-01-01

430

A New Wireless Biosensor for Intra-Vaginal Temperature Monitoring  

PubMed Central

Wireless Body Sensors for medical purposes offer valuable contributions to improve patients’ healthcare, including diagnosis and/or therapeutics monitoring. Body temperature is a crucial parameter in healthcare diagnosis. In gynecology and obstetrics it is measured at the skin’s surface, which is very influenced by the environment. This paper proposes a new intra-body sensor for long-term intra-vaginal temperature collection. The embedded IEEE 802.15.4 communication module allows the integration of this sensor in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) for remote data access and monitoring. We present the sensor architecture, the construction of the corresponding testbed, and its performance evaluation. This sensor may be used in different medical applications, including preterm labor prevention and fertility and ovulation period detection. The features of the constructed testbed were validated in laboratory tests verifying its accuracy and performance.

Caldeira, Joao M. L. P.; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; Garcia, Joao F. R.; de la Torre, Isabel

2010-01-01

431

Vaginal endosonography in the assessment of the anorectum.  

PubMed

Endosonography from within the anus has been used to image the anorectum and its associated musculature. A 5.0-MHz endovaginal probe was inserted vaginally, and longitudinal and cross-sectional views of the anorectum were obtained. We were able to measure rectal length and diameter, puborectalis thickness and angle, thickness of internal and external anal sphincter, and the curvature of the anal canal. We visualized defects in the internal and external anal sphincters. Suitable images were obtained from 70 subjects. Muscle thicknesses were within previously published ranges. Twenty-five of 70 subjects (36%) had defects of the internal anal sphincter, and 19 of 65 subjects (29%) had defects of the external anal sphincter. PMID:7501322

Sandridge, D A; Thorp, J M

1995-12-01

432

Vaginal birth after cesarean section in an HMO.  

PubMed

Despite a large body of evidence that vaginal birth after a previous cesarean section (VBAC) is safe, acceptance of the procedure in the community has been slow. This is in spite of the spiraling cesarean section rate and the strong endorsement of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). Over a 30-month period, all patients presenting to a staff model HMO practice who met the ACOG criteria for VBAC were offered this option. Of 72 candidates, 66 attempted a trial of labor; only four required a repeat cesarean section. No complications were noted in any of the patients or infants. VBAC is a safe procedure, appropriate for a community-based practice, and can yield a high success rate. The implications for HMO obstetric policy are discussed. PMID:10313505

van Amerongen, D

1989-01-01

433

Vaginal mass caused by a lately recognized congenital bladder diverticulum.  

PubMed

Congenital bladder diverticula are strongly associated with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), and are mostly present in childhood. The most common symptom is urinary tract infection at the time of admission. The diverticulum is usually solitary and its location is near the ureteral orifice, which is probably the main cause of VUR. We report a woman who presented with a vaginal mass located on the right inferior part of the external urethral meatus. The patient had a history of recurrent urinary tract infection and right nephrectomy due to VUR nephropathy. We examined her with cystography, computerized tomography, and cystoscopy. The cystoscopic examination was very diagnostic in our patient. The patient underwent diverticulectomy, and after 6 months of follow-up, her complaints had completely disappeared. PMID:24409212

Zengin, Kür?ad; Tanik, Serhat; Gürdal, Mesut; Okur, Aylin; Zengin, Betül

2013-01-01

434

Electrospun fibers for vaginal anti-HIV drug delivery.  

PubMed

Diversity of microbicide delivery systems is essential for future success in the prevention and treatment of HIV in order to account for the varied populations of women all over the world that may benefit from use of these products. Recently, a novel dosage form for intravaginal drug delivery has been developed using drug-eluting fibers fabricated by electrospinning. There is a strong rationale to support the idea that drug-eluting fibers can be designed to realize multiple design constraints in a single product for topical HIV prevention: fibers are able to deliver a wide range of agents, incorporate multiple agents via composites, and facilitate controlled release over relevant time frames for pericoital and sustained (coitally-independent) use. It is also technologically feasible to scale-up production of fiber-based microbicides. Electrospun fibers may allow for prioritization of physical attributes that affect user perceptions without compromising biological efficacy. Challenges with using fibers as a microbicide include issues related to vehicle deployment, spreading and retention in the vaginal vault. In addition, studies will need to address the interaction of the fibers with the mucosal environment, including unknown safety and toxicity. Sustained release fiber microbicides capable of delivering multiple antiretroviral drugs while simultaneously exhibiting tunable degradation or dissolution of the fibers is also a challenge. However, electrospun fibers are a promising new platform for vaginal delivery of anti-HIV agents and future research will inform their place in the field. This article is based on a presentation at the "Product Development Workshop 2013: HIV and Multipurpose Prevention Technologies", held in Arlington, Virginia on February 20-21, 2013. It forms part of a special supplement to Antiviral Research. PMID:24188701

Blakney, Anna K; Ball, Cameron; Krogstad, Emily A; Woodrow, Kim A

2013-12-01

435

Differences in Vaginal Lactobacilli Composition of Iranian Healthy and Bacterial Vaginosis Infected Women: A Comparative Analysis of Their Cytotoxic Effects with Commercial Vaginal Probiotics  

PubMed Central

Background Vaginal flora of healthy women is dominated by Lactobacillus species which can prevent bacterial vaginosis. Objectives The current study aimed to determine the differences in vaginal lactobacilli composition of Iranian healthy and bacterial vaginosis (BV) infected women and compared their cytotoxic effects with commercial vaginal probiotics. Patients and Methods One hundred and seventy eight vaginal specimens were collected from healthy and BV infected women. Lactobacillus colonies were obtained by culturing on laked blood BHI and MRS medias and genetically defined by 16s rRNA sequencing. Differentiating the specimens to normal, intermediate and BV infected were carried out by Ison and Hey grading protocol. Identification of Lactobacillus strains in vaginal specimens were performed by Multiplex PCR. The inhibitory effects of lactobacilli on Hela (tumoral cervical cells) and HNCF-pi52 (normal cervical cells) were conducted by MTT and trypan blue assays. Results L. crispatus, L. gasseri, L. iners, L. jensenii, L. acidophilus and L. rhamnosus were the most frequently occurring species in vagina of healthy Iranian women. L. crispatus and L. jensenni were significantly higher in the normal than in the BV infected groups. Also the cytotoxic effect of L. crispatus on tumoral cervical cells was higher than other lactobacilli including commercial probiotics. Conclusions As L. crispatus and L. jensenni were significantly higher in BV infected women and the cytotoxic effect of L. crispatus on tumoral cervical cells was high, introduction of new probiotics seems necessary.

Motevaseli, Elahe; Shirzad, Mahdieh; Raoofian, Reza; Hasheminasab, Seyyed-Mohammad; Hatami, Maryam; Dianatpour, Mehdi; Modarressi, Mohammad-Hossein

2013-01-01

436

Relation of Recent Tampon Use, Douching, Coitus, and Vaginal Medications for Reported Cervical Cytology Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Health care references recommend avoiding tampons, douching, coitus, and vaginal medications prior to cervical cytology screening yet little research supports these recommendations. A descriptive correlational design was used to investigate tampon use pat...

M. Kulpa

1993-01-01

437

A New Technique for Surgical Treatment of Vaginal Agenesis Using Combined Abdominal-Perineal Approach  

PubMed Central

Optimum therapeutic approach in vaginal agenesis has always been an area of extensive controversies. Although surgical management gained priority due to the evolution of techniques, there is currently no consensus in the literature regarding the best type of surgical approach. The most commonly preferred surgical procedure among gynecologists is McIndoe operation which involves the creation of a space between bladder and rectum, insertion of a mold covered with split-thickness skin graft into that neovaginal space, and use of postoperative vaginal dilation to avoid stenosis. However, many modifications have been introduced in time in an attempt to increase the success rates. In this paper, we describe two cases with vaginal agenesis with functioning uterus who were subjected to surgery by combined abdominal-perineal approach. The surgical technique also included the use of a specially designed vaginal mold made up of polymethyl methacrylate and use of Hyalobarrier gel which is an adhesion-preventing agent.

Beksac, Mehmet Sinan; Salman, Mehmet Coskun; Dogan, Nasuh Utku

2011-01-01

438

Preterm ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome presented with vaginal bleeding: a case report.  

PubMed

Preterm ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (POHS) is an uncommon disorder characterized by prematurity, hypogastric and upper leg swelling of various intensities, high serum estradiol and gonadotropin levels, and ovarian follicular cyst/cysts. In this paper, we present the first case of POHS presenting with vaginal bleeding. A female infant was born via spontaneous vaginal delivery at 25 weeks of gestation with a birth weight of 610 g. At 36 weeks of post-conception age, she developed breast enlargement, swelling of the clitoral hood, labia major and minor, hypogastrium and upper legs. Several weeks later, vaginal bleeding started and lasted 3 days. The vaginal bleeding continued to occur at monthly intervals. The elevated levels of gonadotropins and estrogens, vulvar swelling and cysts in both ovaries confirmed the diagnosis of preterm ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. PMID:24114896

Altuntas, Nilgun; Turkyilmaz, Canan; Yuce, Ozge; Kulali, Ferit; Hirfanoglu, Ibrahim Murat; Onal, Esra; Ergenekon, Ebru; Koç, Esin; Bideci, Aysun; Atalay, Y?ld?z

2014-03-01

439

Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes in Pregnant Women with First Trimester Vaginal Bleeding  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the pregnancy outcomes in first trimester vaginal bleeding. Materials and methods This cross sectional study was done on 60 pregnant women with first trimester vaginal bleeding referring to university hospitals affiliated to Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. All women were evaluated for the outcomes including abortion, preterm rapture of membranes, preterm labor, second and third trimester vaginal bleeding, low birth weight and intra uterine growth retardation and the mode of delivery. Data were analyzed using SPSS- 11. Results Placenta accreta, second trimester bleeding and preterm labor were significantly more prevalent in pregnant women with first trimester bleeding (P ? 0.05). Conclusion According to results of present study vaginal bleeding in first trimester of pregnancy may predict further maternal and fetal complications. We recommend training pregnant women regarding those complications and their prevention.

Amirkhani, Zhila; Abedian, Media; Salehi, Gelareh Rabie; Zarbati, Nesa; Mogharehabed, Maryam; Arefian, Sahba; Jafarabadi, Mina

2013-01-01

440

[Transverse vaginal septum in the upper part of the vagina and pregnancy].  

PubMed

Transverse vaginal septum is a congenital Mullerian malformation resulting from a failure of the fusion or canalization of the urogenital sinus and the Müllerian ducts. It may cause hematocolpos, dyspareunia and infertility in adult patients. In some cases, it is associated with congenital malformations such as coarctation of the aorta or atrial septal defects. A case of a transverse vaginal septum identified during a vaginal check-up of a 39-week pregnant patient during labour is reported. A cesarean surgery was performed with no complications. Septal defect was diagnosed due to heart murmur. It was decided to treat the transverse vaginal septum as soon as the puerperium was over. The patient left the hospital after proper response to treatment. PMID:22916643

Bautista Gómez, Esperanza; Morales-García, Victor; Flores-Romero, Ana Luisa; Pizarro Osorno, Noel; Velásquez-Valdivia, Abner

2012-07-01

441

Transverse vaginal septum in the specific-pathogen-free Wistar rat.  

PubMed

A transverse vaginal septum was found in 2% of a substrain of specific-pathogen-free Wistar rats used in reproductive toxicity studies. Macroscopic observation mostly revealed a complete transverse septum. In a few rats an incomplete septum with a small central pupillary gap was found. Microscopically the septum consisted of a central core of connective tissue covered on both sides by epithelium. The rats with vaginal defects were clinically healthy but were unable to breed because the vaginal septum hampered the progress of the sp