Chronic vaginitis is the most common vaginal disorder. Dogs with vaginitis show no signs of systemic illness but often lick at the vulva and have purulent or hemorrhagic vaginal discharges. Vaginitis is most commonly secondary to a noninfectious inciting factor such as congenital vaginal anomalies, clitoral hypertrophy, foreign bodies, trauma to the vaginal mucosa, or vaginal tumors. Inspection of the caudal vagina and vestibule both visually and digitally will often reveal the source of vaginal irritation. Vaginal cytology is used to establish the stage of the estrous cycle as well as distinguish uterine from vaginal sources of discharge. Vaginal cultures are used to establish the predominant offending organism associated with vaginal discharges and may be used as a guide for selection of a therapeutic agent. Vaginitis is best managed by removing the inciting cause and treating the area locally with antiseptic douches. Congenital malformations at the vestibulovaginal or vestibulovulvar junction may prevent normal intromission. Affected bitches may be reluctant to breed naturally because of pain. Such defects are detected best by digital examination. Congenital vaginal defects may be corrected by digital or surgical means. Prolapse of tissue through the lips of the vulva may be caused by clitoral hypertrophy, vaginal hyperplasia, or vaginal tumors. Enlargement of clitoral tissue is the result of endogenous or exogenous sources of androgens. Treatment of this condition includes removal of the androgen source and/or surgical removal of clitoral tissue. Vaginal hyperplasia is detected during proestrus or estrus of young bitches. Hyperplastic tissue will regress during diestrus. Tissue that is excessively traumatized and/or prolapse of the entire vaginal circumference may be removed surgically. Ovariohysterectomy may be used to prevent recurrence. Vaginal tumors are detected most often in older intact bitches. Such tumors are generally of smooth muscle or fibrous tissue origin and benign. Surgical excision of the tumor combined with ovariohysterectomy is usually curative. PMID:3487158
Soderberg, S F
The vagina is original biotype with its own ecosystem, according to medical ecology science. This ecosystem has dynamic, but very unstable equilibrium. Disturb equilibrium is known as a disbiosys. It was discussed different components of this ecosystem: morphology of vaginal walls, vaginal liquidity, lacto-acid and residental flora, "invader" microorganisms, vaginal acidity, immune processes. It was shared our own experience with medicine Polygynax, remedy of Laboratoire Innotech International (Paris, France). Polygynax has such an advantage - rapidly restore disturbed ecological equlibrium in case of bacterial vulvovaginitis, caused mainly of intestine pathogenic flora. PMID:15673027
Karag'ozov, I; Shopova, E; Andreeva, P
Desquamative inflammatory vaginitis (DIV) is not a diagnosis in itself, and may be the presentation of a range of blistering disorders including pemphigus vulgaris, lichen planus and mucous membrane pemphigoid. The existence of an idiopathic subset of DIV remains controversial and is discussed in the present article. Desquamative inflammatory vaginitis is a rare but disabling condition. It presents in women of any age with a history of discomfort, irritation and painful sexual intercourse. Patients may also report an increased vaginal discharge. Examination of the vulva is normal, but erythematous regions on the vaginal walls are evident with increased vaginal secretion. This secretion is high in polymorphonuclear leukocytes, with an increased number of immature squamous epithelial cells. Repeated cultures are negative for bacteria, viruses and yeast. This is a sterile inflammatory vaginitis that can be difficult to treat, but successful therapy has been reported with topical steroids and clindamycin. PMID:14756890
Vaginal vault dehiscence (VVD) may occur rarely after hysterectomy. Although mostly, a vaginal cuff dehiscence is seen after robotic or laparoscopic hysterectomy, it may also be observed as a complication of abdominal or vaginal hysterectomy. Vaginal repair is one of the techniques used for VVD. Here, we will describe a case of vaginally repaired VVD, associated with intra-abdominal hematoma after postpartum hysterectomy. PMID:24876366
Avc?oglu, Sumeyra Nergiz; Alt?nkaya, Sunduz Ozlem; Kucuk, Mert; Yuksel, Hasan; Demircan-Sezer, Selda
... Vaginal dryness due to lack of estrogen after menopause Stress Stopping and starting birth control pills or estrogens Underactive thyroid (low thyroid function) Use of blood thinners (anticoagulants) Cancer or precancer of the cervix, uterus, or (very ...
Management of vaginal prolapse in the elderly lacks a uniform consensus and continues to remain challenging. The authors report a case of an elderly lady who presented with a spontaneous vaginal evisceration. She had a long-standing vaginal prolapse being controlled by a shelf pessary, which, in her case became displaced 2 weeks prior to admission. The patient underwent a laparotomy with an intent to replace the bowel back within the peritoneal cavity and repair the vault. During the pelvic floor repair, she sustained an inadvertent button-hole injury to the rectum, which was oversewn. She went on to develop a rectovaginal fistula requiring a de-functioning colostomy. The patient made good recovery subsequently. PMID:22707628
I, Siddiqui; A, Samee; C, Hall; J, Cooper; F, O'Mahony
The developmental origin of vaginal epithelium has been controversial for nearly a century, with speculation that vaginal epithelium originates from the Müllerian duct, Wolffian duct, and\\/or urogenital sinus. None of these possibilities have been definitively proven or disproven by direct scientific data. To define precisely the origin of vaginal epithelium, epithelial cells of the Müllerian duct, Wolffian duct, or urogenital
Human papilloma virus is associated with a multitude of lower genital tract diseases in women in addition to cervical cancer, including genital warts, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia, and some vulvar, vaginal, and anal cancers that are associated with oncogenic subtypes. The degree to which HPV manifests pathology depends on viral type, host immune response, and local environmental factors. This article reviews the evaluation and management of the following vulvar and vaginal human papilloma virus diseases: condyloma, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia. Included is a brief discussion of the association with vulvar and vaginal cancer. PMID:23732036
Nelson, Erin L; Stockdale, Colleen K
\\u000a Mary is a 26-year-old woman who attends a Sexual Health clinic. For the preceding 2 weeks she has noticed a profuse, yellow\\u000a vaginal discharge that has a rather musty smell. She also has noted mild irritation on the vulva and she has had some discomfort\\u000a on passing urine. She is otherwise symptomless. Her menstrual periods are regular; the most recent
Introduction. Vaginal vault prolapse is a common complication following vaginal hysterectomy with negative impact on women's quality of life due to associated urinary, anorectal and sexual dysfunction. A clear understanding of the supporting mechanism for the uterus and vagina is important in making the right choice of corrective procedure. Management should be individualised, taking into consideration the surgeon's experience, patients age, comorbidities, previous surgery and sex life. Result. Preexisting pelvic floor defect prior to hysterectomy is the single most important risk factor for vault prolapse. Various surgical techniques have been advanced at hysterectomy to prevent vault prolapse. Studies have shown the McCall's culdoplasty under direct visualisation to be superior. Vault prolapse repair rely on either the use of patient's tissue or synthetic materials and can be carried out abdominally or vaginally. Sacrospinous fixation and abdominal sacrocolpopexy are the commonly performed procedures, with literature in favour of abdominal sacrocolpopexy over sacrospinous fixation due to its reported higher success rate of about 90%. Other less commonly performed procedures include uterosacral ligament suspension and illiococcygeal fixation, both of which are equally effective, with the former having a high risk of ureteric injury. Colpoclesis will play a greater role in the future as the aging population increases. Mesh procedures are gaining in popularity, and preliminary data from vaginal mesh procedures is encouraging. Laparoscopic techniques require a high level of skill and experience. There are many controversies on the mechanism of prolapse and management techniques, which we have tried to address in this article. Conclusion. As the aging population increases, the incidence of prolapse will also rise, older techniques using native tissue will continue, while new techniques using the mesh needs to be studied further. The later may well be the way forward in future. PMID:19936123
Uzoma, Azubuike; Farag, K. A.
Background Episiotomy is done to prevent severe perineal tears, but its routine use has been questioned. The relative effects of midline compared with midlateral episiotomy are unclear. Objectives The objective of this review was to assess the effects of restrictive use of episiotomy compared with routine episiotomy during vaginal birth. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (March 2008). Selection criteria Randomized trials comparing restrictive use of episiotomy with routine use of episiotomy; restrictive use of mediolateral episiotomy versus routine mediolateral episiotomy; restrictive use of midline episiotomy versus routine midline episiotomy; and use of midline episiotomy versus mediolateral episiotomy. Data collection and analysis The two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted the data. Main results We included eight studies (5541 women). In the routine episiotomy group, 75.15% (2035/2708) of women had episiotomies, while the rate in the restrictive episiotomy group was 28.40% (776/2733). Compared with routine use, restrictive episiotomy resulted in less severe perineal trauma (relative risk (RR) 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49 to 0.91), less suturing (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.81) and fewer healing complications (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.85). Restrictive episiotomy was associated with more anterior perineal trauma (RR 1.84, 95% CI 1.61 to 2.10). There was no difference in severe vaginal/perineal trauma (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.18); dyspareunia (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.16); urinary incontinence (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.20) or several pain measures. Results for restrictive versus routine mediolateral versus midline episiotomy were similar to the overall comparison. Authors’ conclusions Restrictive episiotomy policies appear to have a number of benefits compared to policies based on routine episiotomy. There is less posterior perineal trauma, less suturing and fewer complications, no difference for most pain measures and severe vaginal or perineal trauma, but there was an increased risk of anterior perineal trauma with restrictive episiotomy. PMID:19160176
Carroli, Guillermo; Mignini, Luciano
All the prolapses of the median compartment (uterine or vault prolapse) of the pelvis have the same physiopathology. The surgical treatment must be reserved to symptomatic patients. Hysterectomy is discussed. The gold standard of the vaginal way is the sacrospinofixation (Richter procedure) Many other procedures are possible: colpofixation or colpocléisis. On young premenopausal women, the abdominal sacrofixation is the gold standard, but in postmenopausal ones, the vaginal way, specially the sacrospinofixation, is quicker and with less morbidity and hospitalization. PMID:19969278
de Tayrac, R; Letouzey, V; Costa, P; Haab, F; Delmas, V
\\u000a Vaginal bleeding during gestation is an ominous sign indicating an adverse pregnancy outcome. Bleeding can occur during all\\u000a stages of gestation. It complicates up to 20% of pregnancies during the first trimester and is regarded as a sign of threatened\\u000a abortion. During the second and third trimesters, vaginal bleeding was found to be a risk factor for adverse maternal and
Offer Erez; Idit Erez-Weiss; Ruth Beer-Weisel; Vered Kleitman-Meir; Moshe Mazor
The aim of this study was to identify women's motivations for vaginal douching, vaginal douching practices, and women's reactions to situations that discourage vaginal douching. Research took place in the outskirts of Antalya, a city located on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. A total of 776 women participated in the study. Age, religious affiliation, place of residence, and poverty were
Vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC) is safe, cost effective, and the preferred obstetrical option for most parturients in health care settings which are equipped to manage intrapartum emergencies. Since 1981, cesarean sections have been the most frequently performed major surgical procedure in the United States. Approximately 1,000,000 cesarean deliveries are performed in the United States per year. The rate
OBJECTIVE To evaluate recent advances in our understanding of the clinical relevance, diagnosis, and treatment of vaginal infections, and to determine an efficient and effective method of evaluating this clinical problem in the outpatient setting. DATA SOURCES Relevant papers on vaginitis limited to the English language obtained through a MEDLINE search for the years 1985 to 1997 were reviewed. DATA SYNTHESIS Techniques that enable the identification of the various strains of candida have helped lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of recurrent candida infection. From this information a rationale for the treatment of recurrent disease can be developed. Bacterial vaginosis has been associated with complications, including upper genital tract infection, preterm delivery, and wound infection. Women undergoing pelvic surgery, procedures in pregnancy, or pregnant women at risk of preterm delivery should be evaluated for bacterial vaginosis to decrease the rate of complications associated with this condition. New, more standardized criteria for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis may improve diagnostic consistency among clinicians and comparability of study results. Use of topical therapies in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis are effective and associated with fewer side effects than systemic medication. Trichomonas vaginalis, although decreasing in incidence, has been associated with upper genital tract infection. Therapy of T. vaginalis infection has been complicated by an increasing incidence of resistance to metronidazole. CONCLUSIONS Vaginitis is a common medical problem in women that is associated with significant morbidity and previously unrecognized complications. Research in recent years has improved diagnostic tools as well as treatment modalities for all forms of vaginitis. PMID:9613891
Carr, Phyllis L; Felsenstein, Donna; Friedman, Robert H
Vaginal microbiota form a mutually beneficial relationship with their host and have major impact on health and disease. In recent years our understanding of vaginal bacterial community composition and structure has significantly broadened as a result of investigators using cultivation-independent methods based on the analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences. In asymptomatic, otherwise healthy women, several kinds of vaginal microbiota exist, the majority often dominated by species of Lactobacillus, while others comprise a diverse array of anaerobic microorganisms. Bacterial vaginosis is the most common vaginal conditions and is vaguely characterized as the disruption of the equilibrium of the ‘normal’ vaginal microbiots. A better understanding of ‘normal’ and ‘healthy’ vaginal ecosystems that is based on its ‘true’ function and not simply on its composition would help better define health and further improve disease diagnostics as well as the development of more personalized regimens to promote health and treat diseases. PMID:22746335
Ma, Bing; Forney, Larry J.; Ravel, Jacques
Objectives Vaginal douching is widely practiced by American women, particularly among minority groups, and is associated with increased\\u000a risk of pelvic and vaginal infections. This research sought to investigate vaginal hygiene practices and meaning associated\\u000a with them among Latina women and adolescents. Study results would guide development of an intervention to decrease douching\\u000a among Latinas. Methods In depth qualitative interviews
M. Diane McKee; María Baquero; Matthew R. Anderson; Adelyn Alvarez; Alison Karasz
Vaginal cuff dehiscence and evisceration are rare but serious complications of pelvic surgery, specifically hysterectomy. The data on risks of vaginal cuff dehiscence are variable and there is no consensus on how to manage this complication. In our review, we present a summary of the risk factors, presenting symptoms, precipitating events, and management options for patients who present with vaginal cuff dehiscence after pelvic surgery. In addition, we provide a review of the current literature on this important surgical outcome and suggestions for future research on the incidence and prevention of vaginal cuff dehiscence. PMID:21974989
Cronin, Beth; Sung, Vivian W.; Matteson, Kristen A.
Objectives: To determine if the efficacy of continuous low dose estradiol released from a vaginal ring is equivalent to estriol vaginal cream regarding improvement of the patient's subjective feeling of vaginal dryness and to determine if there is a preference for either of the two study treatments. Methods: Open-label randomized parallel group trial with active control with a blind evaluation
Ronald Barentsen; Peter H. M. van de Weijer; Jan H. N. Schram
A vaginal microbicide could slow the spread of HIV. To date, volunteers in placebo-controlled trials of candidate microbicides have been counseled to use condoms. This does not reduce the number of volunteers exposed to possible risk, but it shifts the allotment of risk from those conducting the trial to those women who may be least able to make autonomous decisions. Alternative ways of meeting the obligation to offer volunteers active benefits are explored. Counseling the use of condoms prolongs clinical trials and could cause tens of thousands of otherwise avoidable deaths. PMID:10667178
Vaginal rings, made of soft flexible silicone rubber, for delivery of contraceptive hormones are currently gaining clinical acceptance. This method provides extended release of hormones, which are implanted in the core of the ring and slowly disseminate into vaginal tissue. Although formulations and sizes vary, most rings are approximately 58 mm in diameter with a cross-section of 8.4 mm. Depending
Elof D. B. Johansson; Regine Sitruk-Ware
Background The aim of this study was to describe the results of a 1-year patient follow-up after anterior vaginal wall darn, a novel technique for the repair of anterior vaginal wall prolapse. Methods Fifty-five patients with anterior vaginal wall prolapse underwent anterior vaginal wall darn. The anterior vaginal wall was detached using sharp and blunt dissection via an incision beginning 1 cm proximal to the external meatus and extending to the vaginal apex. The space between the tissues that attach the lateral vaginal walls to the arcus tendineus fasciae pelvis was then darned. Cough Stress Test, Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification, seven-item Incontinence Impact Questionnaire, and six-item Urogenital Distress Inventory scores were performed 1-year postoperatively to evaluate recovery. Results One-year postoperatively, all patients were satisfied with the results of the procedure. No patient had vaginal mucosal erosion or any other complication. Conclusions One-year postoperative findings for patients in this series indicate that patients with stage II–III anterior vaginal wall prolapse were successfully treated with the anterior vaginal wall darn technique. PMID:24973955
A simple method was studied using a menstrual tampon to collect a vaginal specimen for microscopic diagnosis of vaginal infection. The tampon specimen was compared to a specimen obtained during a vaginal speculum examination, obtained in 30 episodes of vaginal complaints from 29 college age females. Thirteen paired specimens were positive for Candida albicans. (Alternately, 1 each of the specimen
James L. Anderson; Patricia A. Sundland
Background and Objectives: The aim of our study is to evaluate the role of electrosurgery and vaginal closure technique in the development of postoperative vaginal cuff dehiscence. Methods: From prospective surgical databases, we identified 463 patients who underwent total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) for benign disease and 147 patients who underwent laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH) for cancer. All TLHs and LAVHs were performed entirely by use of electrosurgery, including colpotomy. Colpotomy in the TLH group was performed with Harmonic Ace Curved Shears (Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Cincinnati, OH, USA), and in the LAVH group, it was performed with a monopolar electrosurgical pencil. The main surgical difference was vaginal cuff closure—laparoscopically in the TLH group and vaginally in the LAVH group. Results: Although patients in the LAVH group were at increased risk for poor healing (significantly older, higher body mass index, more medical comorbidities, higher blood loss, and longer operative time), there were no vaginal cuff dehiscences in the LAVH group compared with 17 vaginal cuff dehiscences (4%) in the TLH group (P = .02). Conclusion: It does not appear that the increased vaginal cuff dehiscence rate associated with TLH is due to electrosurgery; rather, it is due to the vaginal closure technique. PMID:24018078
Kesterson, Joshua; Davies, Matthew; Green, Janis; Penezic, Lindsey; Vargas, Roberto; Harkins, Gerald
Vaginitis is defined as an inflammation of the vagina. It can result in symptoms of any or all of the following: discharge, itching and pain, and often irritation or infection of the vulva. There is no specific cause for vaginitis, and many other conditions can cause the symptoms. Vaginitis is a distressing condition that affects many women of reproductive age and beyond, and encompasses candidiasis (also known as thrush), bacterial vaginosis, and trichomoniasis. It can occur in a single episode, or recur throughout a woman's lifetime. Some women will seek medical help, but many more self-treat with over-the-counter medications, suspecting the recurrence of Candida in particular. This article aims to explore the causes, signs and symptoms, and treatments of vaginitis to provide nurses with the necessary background information to feel more confident in dealing with women's health issues. PMID:20852467
The aim of this study was to identify women's motivations for vaginal douching, vaginal douching practices, and women's reactions to situations that discourage vaginal douching. Research took place in the outskirts of Antalya, a city located on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. A total of 776 women participated in the study. Age, religious affiliation, place of residence, and poverty were found to influence women's attitudes to douching. Motivating factors included mothers' attitudes as well as women's own individual motivations. Women who douched believed that it was a normal and routine behaviour. Women who were members of the Shafii sect were much less likely to practice vaginal douching. Healthcare providers should be aware of women's beliefs and concerns about feminine hygiene and tailor their strategies accordingly. PMID:16846944
It was the purpose of this study to design and evaluate a chitosan derivative as mucoadhesive excipient for vaginal drug delivery systems. The chemical modification of chitosan was achieved by conjugation of thioglycolic acid (TGA) resulting in 1594 ?mol thiol groups per gram of polymer followed by the linkage of mercaptonicotinic acid (MNA) to the immobilized thiol groups via disulfide bonding leading to 702 ?mol ligand per gram of preactivated polymer. The mucoadhesive properties of these polymers within newly designed vaginal formulations (Chitosan-TGA and Chitosan-TGA-MNA) and commercially available vaginal formulations (Candibene®, Daktarin®, Dalacin®, GynoPevaryl®) were tested over a time period of 24 h via a mucoadhesion test system simulating vaginal conditions, tensile studies and mucus polymer interaction studies via viscosity measurements. Within the vaginal test system simulating vaginal in situ conditions, a 1.5-fold increase in mucoadhesion could be observed for preactivated thiomer formulations after 24 h in comparison to commercially available formulations. Similar results were achieved for tensile studies, as the chitosan-TGA-MNA containing formulation resulted in a 4.9-fold increase in total work of adhesion (TWA) in comparison to Candibene which showed the highest TWA value of all tested commercial formulations. Also in terms of rheology investigations of mucus/formulation mixtures, a 5.8-fold increase in dynamic viscosity for chitosan-TGA-MNA containing mixtures could be observed in comparison to the mucus-free control. In contrast, commercially available formulations achieved a maximum enhancement of 1.9-fold. These outcomes confirm that the newly developed polymer is a promising tool for vaginal drug delivery likely providing a prolonged vaginal residence time due to its comparatively high mucoadhesive properties. PMID:23886732
Friedl, Heike E; Dünnhaupt, Sarah; Waldner, Claudia; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas
The immunosuppressive activity of estrogen was further investigated by assessing the pattern of expression of CD25, CD28, CD69, and CD152 on vaginal T cells during estrogen-maintained vaginal candidiasis. A precipitous and significant decrease in vaginal fungal burden toward the end of week 3 postinfection was concurrent with a significant increase in vaginal lymphocyte numbers. During this period, the percentage of CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD152+, and CD28+ vaginal T cells gradually and significantly increased. The percentage of CD3+ and CD3+CD4+ cells increased from 43% and 15% at day 0 to 77% and 40% at day 28 postinfection. Compared with 29% CD152+ vaginal T cells in naive mice, > 70% of vaginal T cells were CD152+ at day 28 postinfection. In conclusion, estrogen-maintained vaginal candidiasis results in postinfection time-dependent changes in the pattern of expression of CD152, CD28, and other T-cell markers, suggesting that T cells are subject to mixed suppression and activation signals. PMID:20525139
There is some evidence that the risk of HIV infection per heterosexual act is higher in low-income countries than in high-income countries. We hypothesize that variations in per sex-act transmission probability of HIV may in part be attributed to differences in the composition and function of the vaginal microbiota between different populations. This paper presents data that are in support of this hypothesis. Experimental and clinical studies have provided evidence that the normal vaginal microbiota plays a protective role against acquisition of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Epidemiological studies have convincingly shown that disturbances of the vaginal microbiome, namely intermediate flora and bacterial vaginosis, increase the risk of acquisition of HIV infection. A review of the literature found large differences in prevalence of bacterial vaginosis between different populations, with the highest prevalence rates found in black populations. Possible explanations for these differences are presented including data suggesting that there are ethnic differences in the composition of the normal vaginal microbiota. Lastly, interventions are discussed to restore and maintain a healthy vaginal environment. PMID:25389548
Buve, Anne; Jespers, Vicky; Crucitti, Tania; Fichorova, Raina N
To overview phytotherapy of vaginitis in order to identify new approaches for new pharmacological treatments. All related literature databases were searched for herbal medicinal treatment in vaginitis. The search terms were plant, herb, herbal therapy, phytotherapy, vaginitis, vaginal, anti-candida, anti-bacterial and anti-trichomonas. All of the human, animal and in vitro studies were included. Anti-candida, anti-bacterial and anti-trichomonas effects were the key outcomes. The plants including carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, geranial, germacrene-D, limonene, linalool, menthol, terpinen-4-ol and thymol exhibited anti-candida effects. A very low concentration of geranium oil and geraniol blocked mycelial growth, but not yeast. Tea tree oil including terpinen-4-ol, alpha-terpinene, gamma-terpinene and alpha-terpineol showed anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-protozoal properties against trichomonas. Allium hirtifolium (persian shallot) comparable to metronidazole exhibited anti-trichomonas activity due to its components such as allicin, ajoene and other organosulfides. The plants having beneficial effects on vaginitis encompass essential oils that clear the pathway that future studies should be focused to standardize theses herbs. PMID:22514885
Azimi, Hanieh; Fallah-Tafti, Mehrnaz; Karimi-Darmiyan, Maliheh; Abdollahi, Mohammad
Objective To assess the vaginal microbiome throughout full-term uncomplicated pregnancy. Methods Vaginal swabs were obtained from twelve pregnant women at 8-week intervals throughout their uncomplicated pregnancies. Patients with symptoms of vaginal infection or with recent antibiotic use were excluded. Swabs were obtained from the posterior fornix and cervix at 8–12, 17–21, 27–31, and 36–38 weeks of gestation. The microbial community was profiled using hypervariable tag sequencing of the V3–V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene, producing approximately 8 million reads on the Illumina MiSeq. Results Samples were dominated by a single genus, Lactobacillus, and exhibited low species diversity. For a majority of the patients (n?=?8), the vaginal microbiome was dominated by Lactobacillus crispatus throughout pregnancy. Two patients showed Lactobacillus iners dominance during the course of pregnancy, and two showed a shift between the first and second trimester from L. crispatus to L. iners dominance. In all of the samples only these two species were identified, and were found at an abundance of higher than 1% in this study. Comparative analyses also showed that the vaginal microbiome during pregnancy is characterized by a marked dominance of Lactobacillus species in both Caucasian and African-American subjects. In addition, our Caucasian subject population clustered by trimester and progressed towards a common attractor while African-American women clustered by subject instead and did not progress towards a common attractor. Conclusion Our analyses indicate normal pregnancy is characterized by a microbiome that has low diversity and high stability. While Lactobacillus species strongly dominate the vaginal environment during pregnancy across the two studied ethnicities, observed differences between the longitudinal dynamics of the analyzed populations may contribute to divergent risk for pregnancy complications. This helps establish a baseline for investigating the role of the microbiome in complications of pregnancy such as preterm labor and preterm delivery. PMID:24896831
Walther-Antonio, Marina R. S.; Jeraldo, Patricio; Berg Miller, Margret E.; Yeoman, Carl J.; Nelson, Karen E.; Wilson, Brenda A.; White, Bryan A.; Chia, Nicholas; Creedon, Douglas J.
Vaginal inspections using colposcopy before insertion of contraceptive vaginal rings and at 2-month intervals during ring use were conducted on 169 users of four different formulations. The rings studied released Nestorone® alone (50, 75, 100 ?g daily over 6 months); ethinyl estradiol: Nestorone (30:100 and 15:150 ?g daily over 6 months); ethinylestradiol:norethindrone acetate (20:1000 and 15:1000 ?g daily over 4
Ian S Fraser; Maria Lacarra; Daniel R Mishell Jr; Francisco Alvarez; Vivian Brache; Pekka Lähteenmäki; Kaisa Elomaa; Edith Weisberg; Harold A Nash
This case report describes use of a porcine small intestinal submucosa patch to prevent vaginal stiffness and retraction after extensive vaginal resection of an endometriosis nodule. A 32-year-old nulliparous woman was referred for surgical treatment of a large rectovaginal nodule that extended from the vaginal to the rectal mucosa. Surgical treatment was performed in 2 steps. Initially, a laparoscopic rectal resection was performed without opening the vagina to reduce the risk of fistula formation; 6 months later, the patient underwent a laparoscopic second-look combined with the vaginal approach to remove remaining disease. A small intestinal submucosa patch was successfully used to prevent vaginal shortening. PMID:19896606
Lemos, Nucélio Luiz de Barros Moreira; Kamergorodsky, Gil; Faria, Ana Luiza Antunes; Ribeiro, Paulo Augusto Ayroza Galvão; Auge, Antonio Pedro Flores; Aoki, Tsutomu
Because primary vaginal cancer is rare, many experts discourage routine cytologic sampling of the vaginal vault following hysterectomy for benign circumstances. The following report describes a case of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia III (VAIN III) detected by a vaginal vault Papanicolaou smear obtained from an asymptomatic 57-year-old woman 23 years after she had a total abdominal hysterectomy for a benign condition. As VAIN III is a true vaginal cancer precursor, the innocent disregard of recommended screening practices averted significant morbidity and possibility mortality for this otherwise healthy woman. PMID:7807042
Ferris, D G; Messing, M J; Crosby, J H
Background: We investigated the rate of vaginal childbirth and Cesarean and its causes in maternity wards of Imam Khomeini Educational Hospital in Ahwaz the capital city of Khuzestan Province and Al- Hadi Hospital in Shoostar as a traditional city. Methods: In this comparative descriptive study data were obtained from medical records of birth deliveries in six months (March to September)
K Karami; M Najafian; P Shahri; S Faizi
Clotrimazole, a tritylimidazole and a new antimicrobial agent, produced itching and irritation of the vulva and vaginal area in less than 1% of the population (N = 131) studied. No abdominal cramps, headache or lightheadedness, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea were observed when 200 mg of clotrimazole was inserted deep in the vagina for several days. PMID:7009034
Wolfson, N; Riley, J; Samuels, B; Singh, J M
PurposeAbsence of the vagina in the pediatric population most commonly results from congenital abnormalities, such as the Mayer-Rokitansky syndrome but it may also be seen after treatment for pelvic tumors, such as rhabdomyosarcoma, and in patients who have had previous gender reassignment. We review our experience using bowel for vaginal replacement in a group of children and young adults to
TERRY W. HENSLE; ELIZABETH A. REILEY
Objective: (1) To describe lacerations of the vaginal fornices, an injury known to be associated with consensual sexual intercourse, including known complications and treatment course, (2) to contrast these injuries with injuries sustained during sexual assault, and (3) to discuss the assessment of adolescent patients for sexual injuries. Methods:…
Frioux, Sarah M.; Blinman, Thane; Christian, Cindy W.
Findings. Six percent of the sample reported experiencing any type of IPV in the past year, and 23% reported douching in the past year. IPV is significantly associated with douching after controlling for sociodemographic and health-related covariates. This finding holds for women with and without current reproductive capacity. Conclusions. This is the first study to identify an association between vaginal
Carol S. Weisman; Diane M. Grimley; Lucy Annang; Marianne M. Hillemeier; Gary A. Chase; Anne-Marie Dyer
Brachytherapy plays a significant role in the management of cervical cancer, but the clinical significance of brachytherapy in the management of vaginal cancer remains to be defined. Thus, a single institutional experience in the treatment of primary invasive vaginal carcinoma was reviewed to define the role of brachytherapy. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 36 patients with primary vaginal carcinoma who received definitive radiotherapy between 1992 and 2010. The treatment modalities included high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy alone (HDR-ICBT; two patients), external beam radiation therapy alone (EBRT; 14 patients), a combination of EBRT and HDR-ICBT (10 patients), or high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT; 10 patients). The median follow-up was 35.2 months. The 2-year local control rate (LCR), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) were 68.8%, 55.3% and 73.9%, respectively. The 2-year LCR for Stage I, II, III and IV was 100%, 87.5%, 51.5% and 0%, respectively (P = 0.007). In subgroup analysis consisting only of T2-T3 disease, the use of HDR-ISBT showed marginal significance for favorable 5-year LCR (88.9% vs 46.9%, P = 0.064). One patient each developed Grade 2 proctitis, Grade 2 cystitis, and a vaginal ulcer. We conclude that brachytherapy can play a central role in radiation therapy for primary vaginal cancer. Combining EBRT and HDR-ISBT for T2-T3 disease resulted in good local control. PMID:23559599
Murakami, N; Kasamatsu, T; Sumi, M; Yoshimura, R; Takahashi, K; Inaba, K; Morota, M; Mayahara, H; Ito, Y; Itami, J
The detection of vaginal lesions has increased with the expanding use of cross-sectional imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) - with its high-contrast resolution and multiplanar capabilities - is often useful for characterizing vaginal masses. Vaginal masses can be classified as congenital, inflammatory, cystic (benign), and neoplastic (benign or malignant) in etiology. Recognition of the typical MR imaging features of such lesions is important because it often determines the treatment approach and may obviate surgery. Finally, vaginal MR imaging can be used to evaluate post-treatment changes related to previous surgery and radiation therapy. In this article, we will review pertinent vaginal anatomy, vaginal and pelvic MRI technique, and the MRI features of a variety of vaginal lesions with pathological correlation. PMID:17924224
Elsayes, K M; Narra, V R; Dillman, J R; Velcheti, V; Hameed, O; Tongdee, R; Menias, C O
Introduction: Vaginal discharge is one of the common reasons for gynecological consultation. Many of the causes of vaginitis have a disturbed vaginal microbial ecosystem associated with them. Effective treatment of vaginal discharge requires that the etiologic diagnosis be established and identifying the same offers a precious input to syndromic management and provides an additional strategy for human immunodeficiency virus prevention. The present study was thus carried out to determine the various causes of vaginal discharge in a tertiary care setting. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 women presenting with vaginal discharge of age between 20 and 50 years, irrespective of marital status were included in this study and women who had used antibiotics or vaginal medication in the previous 14 days and pregnant women were excluded. Results: Of the 400 women with vaginal discharge studied, a diagnosis was established in 303 women. Infectious causes of vaginal discharge were observed in 207 (51.75%) women. Among them, bacterial vaginosis was the most common cause seen in 105 (26.25%) women. The other infections observed were candidiasis alone (61, 15.25%), trichomoniasis alone (12, 3%), mixed infections (22, 5.5%) and mucopurulent cervicitis (7 of the 130 cases looked for, 8.46%). Among the non-infectious causes, 72 (18%) women had physiological vaginal discharge and 13 (3.3%) women had cervical in situ cancers/carcinoma cervix. Conclusion: The pattern of infectious causes of vaginal discharge observed in our study was comparable with the other studies in India. Our study emphasizes the need for including Papanicolaou smear in the algorithm for evaluation of vaginal discharge, as it helps establish the etiology of vaginal discharge reliably and provides a valuable opportunity to screen for cervical malignancies. PMID:24470998
Sivaranjini, R; Jaisankar, TJ; Thappa, Devinder Mohan; Kumari, Rashmi; Chandrasekhar, Laxmisha; Malathi, M; Parija, SC; Habeebullah, S
Fifty nine women with documented normal ovulatory cycles and with no symptoms of vaginal infection were divided into four groups. Each group used a combined contraceptive vaginal ring (CCVR) with a mean daily release rate of 0.015 mg of ethinyloestradiol (EE) and 0.120 mg of 3-ketodesogestrel (3-KDG) per day, for one cycle of either 21, 28, 42, or 56 days. Cultures from the posterior vaginal fornix and from the endocervical canal were obtained immediately before insertion of the ring and on removal of the ring. Changes in the numbers of vaginal cells, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, Chlamydia trachomatis, Gardnerella vaginalis, yeasts and Trichomonas vaginalis were documented at the end of each treatment. Intra- and inter- group changes in the vaginal flora were assessed at the end of each treatment. The comparison between the number and type of flora showed no significant change between the pre-treatment population and the post-treatment population. The results of this study suggest that the use of this CCVR for 21, 28, 42 and 56 days is not associated with an increase in inflammatory cells or pathogenic bacteria. PMID:1623721
Davies, G C; Feng, L X; Newton, J R; Dieben, T O; Coelingh-Bennink, H J
Background: The proper evaluation of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) is essential for choosing the correct treatment. Currently, there is no gold standard for the assessment of female PFM function. Objective: To determine the correlation between vaginal palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, and electromyographic and ultrasonographic variables of the female PFM. Method: This cross-sectional study evaluated 80 women between 18 and 35 years of age who were nulliparous and had no pelvic floor dysfunction. PFM function was assessed based on digital palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, electromyographic activity, bilateral diameter of the bulbocavernosus muscles and the amount of bladder neck movement during voluntary PFM contraction using transperineal bi-dimensional ultrasound. The Pearson correlation was used for statistical analysis (p<0.05). Results: There was a strong positive correlation between PFM function and PFM contraction pressure (0.90). In addition, there was a moderate positive correlation between these two variables and PFM electromyographic activity (0.59 and 0.63, respectively) and movement of the bladder neck in relation to the pubic symphysis (0.51 and 0.60, respectively). Conclusions: This study showed that there was a correlation between vaginal palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, and electromyographic and ultrasonographic variables of the PFM in nulliparous women. The strong correlation between digital palpation and PFM contraction pressure indicated that perineometry could easily be replaced by PFM digital palpation in the absence of equipment. PMID:25372005
Pereira, Vanessa S.; Hirakawa, Humberto S.; Oliveira, Ana B.; Driusso, Patricia
BACKGROUND: Maternal cervicovaginal colonization with Lancefield group B streptococci (GBS) is an important risk factor for neonatal morbidity and mortality. About 15% of women are carriers of GBS. Usually, they are asymptomatic. CASES: We describe two patients with symptomatic vaginitis for which no apparent cause was found. Both patients were heavily colonized with GBS. After antibiotic treatment, both became asymptomatic and culture negative, but after recolonization with GBS, symptoms resumed. This phenomenon was repeatedly observed. After emergence of resistance to antibiotics, local application of chlorhexidine appeared to be the only useful treatment. CONCLUSION: We hypothesize that GBS-vaginitis may be a possible disease entity. Although at present it is not clear why some patients become symptomatic, we speculate that the immunologic response is somehow selectively hampered in such patients. PMID:10449271
Honig, E; Mouton, J W; van der Meijden, W I
On the basis of the studies of the embryogenesis of the vagina, the authors consider that malformations classically described as being partial aplasia should not be separated from the total absence of the vagina. The important feature is the association of a functioning or non functioning uterus with the absence of the vagina. They believe that it is incorrect to describe the pouch of menstrual retention associated with a functioning uterus as "haematocolpos" and that is not justified to describe the cup-shaped vestibular depression as "hemi-vagina". According to the authors, although vaginal aplasia with a functioning uterus forming a pouch of menstrual retention constitutes an absolute indication for surgery, surgery is not justified in cases of vaginal aplasia with a non functioning uterus. If Frank's method fails in these cases, the patient or the couple should be referred to a sexologist, as women with this anomaly retain a perfect femininity, although unable to conceive. PMID:4059773
Minh, H N; Smadja, A; Belaisch, J
After any failed surgery for incontinence, or after any vaginal surgery complicated by incontinence for that matter, it is\\u000a essential to carry out a complete evaluation of the patient— both subjectively and objectively. Certainly recurrent incontinence\\u000a after previous surgery can usually be treated successfully, but it requires precise patient evaluation because it is imperative\\u000a that the exact functional derangement is
Christopher C. R. Chapple
Due to its rarity, treatment guidelines for vaginal cancer are extrapolated from institutional reports and prospective studies of cervical and anal cancer. An expert panel was convened to reach consensus on the selection of imaging and therapeutic modalities. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) used by the panel to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. Four variants were developed to represent clinical scenarios in vaginal cancer management. Group members reached consensus on the appropriateness of the pretreatment evaluation and therapeutic interventions. This article represents the consensus opinion of an expert panel and may be used to inform clinical recommendations in vaginal cancer management. PMID:24575547
Lee, Larissa J; Jhingran, Anuja; Kidd, Elizabeth; Cardenes, Higinia Rosa; Elshaikh, Mohamed A; Erickson, Beth; Mayr, Nina A; Moore, David; Puthawala, Ajmel A; Rao, Gautam G; Small, William; Varia, Mahesh A; Wahl, Andrew O; Wolfson, Aaron H; Yashar, Catheryn M; Yuh, William; Gaffney, David K
Background: Vaginitis, is an infectious inflammation of the vaginal mucosa, which sometimes involves the vulva. The balance of the vaginal flora is maintained by the Lactobacilli and its protective and probiotic role in treating and preventing vaginal infection by producing antagonizing compounds which are regarded as safe for humans. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of Lactobacilli against common bacterial opportunistic pathogens in vaginitis and study the effects of some antibiotics on Lactobacilli isolates. Materials and Methods: In this study (110) vaginal swabs were obtained from women suffering from vaginitis who admitted to Babylon Hospital of Maternity and Paediatrics in Babylon province, Iraq. The study involved the role of intrauterine device among married women with vaginitis and also involved isolation of opportunistic bacterial isolates among pregnant and non pregnant women. This study also involved studying probiotic role of Lactobacilli by production of some defense factors like hydrogen peroxide, bacteriocin, and lactic acid. Results: Results revealed that a total of 130 bacterial isolates were obtained. Intrauterine device was a predisposing factor for vaginitis. The most common opportunistic bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. All Lactobacilli were hydrogen peroxide producers while some isolates were bacteriocin producers that inhibited some of opportunistic pathogens (S. aureus, E. coli). Lactobacilli were sensitive to erythromycin while 93.3% of them were resistant to ciprofloxacin and (40%, 53.3%) of them were resistant to amoxicillin and gentamycin respectively. Results revealed that there was an inverse relationship between Lactobacilli presence and organisms causing vaginitis. This may be attributed to the production of defense factors by Lactobacilli. Conclusion: The types of antibiotics used to treat vaginitis must be very selective in order not to kill the beneficial bacteria (Lactobacilli) that help in preservation of vaginal health and ecosystem as being one of the probiotic bacteria. PMID:22540089
Razzak, Mohammad Sabri A.; Al-Charrakh, Alaa H.; AL-Greitty, Bara Hamid
Most posterior vaginal wall defects are due to abdominoperineal resection for colorectal carcinoma involving the posterior vaginal wall or resection of local malignancies. The rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap, the modified Singapore flap and the gracilis myocutaneous flap remain workhorse solutions for this type of vaginal reconstruction. The introduction of the perforator concept has introduced new therapeutic options using the gluteal donor site region. Recently, perforator-based gluteal flaps have been described as a reliable solution for reconstruction of posterior vaginal wall defects, with low donor site morbidity. Here, we present a new technique to optimise results and minimise morbidity to the patient. PMID:22133384
Smeets, L; Hendrickx, B; Teo, T C
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which an elderly woman experienced bloody vaginal discharge long after menopause. Visitors are given both the microscopic pap smear and biopsy findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in gynecologic pathology.
Dickson, H.; Mahood, L.; Manlucu, E. D.; Nath, Manju E.
A 53-year-old woman developed a vaginal mass following an uncemented total hip arthroplasty. The mass was in direct communication with the hip through an acetabular medial wall defect after loosening of the acetabular component. The mass formation was caused simultaneously by changes secondary to polyethylene wear, a tiny delamination of the porous titanium mesh coating and a broken antirotational tab on the acetabular cup, all of which may have served as sources of metal particles. A careful evaluation of the patient's history, symptoms, X-ray findings and computed tomography scans should always be performed to ensure accurate diagnosis.
Shin, Young-Soo; Jung, Tae-Wan; Han, Seung-Beom
A 53-year-old woman developed a vaginal mass following an uncemented total hip arthroplasty. The mass was in direct communication with the hip through an acetabular medial wall defect after loosening of the acetabular component. The mass formation was caused simultaneously by changes secondary to polyethylene wear, a tiny delamination of the porous titanium mesh coating and a broken antirotational tab on the acetabular cup, all of which may have served as sources of metal particles. A careful evaluation of the patient's history, symptoms, X-ray findings and computed tomography scans should always be performed to ensure accurate diagnosis. PMID:25404779
Shin, Young-Soo; Jung, Tae-Wan; Han, Seung-Beom
In the light of very recent studies, this paper reviews two controversial issues in the area of female sexuality: vaginal eroticism and female orgasm. From the available evidence, it is concluded that most (and probably all) women possess vaginal zones, mainly located on the anterior wall, whose tactile stimulation can lead to orgasm. The apparent contradiction between this finding and
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to evaluate the relative weight of the different variables that may influence the chances of vaginal birth after one cesarean delivery, with the aim of developing a predictive score for success of such a trial. STUDY DESIGN: In this retrospective study, which covered a 10-year period (1981 to 1990), 471 women who attempted vaginal birth at
Daniel Weinstein; Abraham Benshushan; Vasilios Tanos; Ronit Zilberstein; Nathan Rojansky
Objective: We sought to determine the pregnancy and infant outcomes of women with gestational diabetes who attempted vaginal birth after previous cesarean delivery. Study Design: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to compare women with gestational diabetes with matched control subjects without diabetes who attempted vaginal birth after cesarean at Grady Memorial Hospital, Atlanta, from January 1, 1989, through December
Traci L. Coleman; Hugh Randall; William Graves; Michael Lindsay
Objectives: This study was undertaken to determine the relief of climacteric symptoms by vaginal rings delivering estradiol and to monitor estrogen levels. Study Design: Rings releasing in vitro either 60 or 140 ?g\\/d estradiol were used by 35 women who had undergone hysterectomy for each dose level. Hot flash and night sweat incidences, vaginal conditions, and complaints were recorded at
Harold A. Nash; Francisco Alvarez-Sanchez; Daniel R. Mishell; Ian S. Fraser; Takeshi Maruo; Troy M. Harmon
A small animal model for the in vivo study of human immunodeficiency virus-1 and other fastidious infectious agents in human host target tissues is critical for the advancement of therapeutic and preventative strategies. Our laboratory has developed a human vaginal xenograft model that histologically recapitulates features of the human vaginal epithelial barrier. Vaginal xenografts were surgically implanted into C.B.-Igh-1b/IcrTac-Prkdcscid (SCID) and NOD/LtSz-scid/scid (NOD/SCID) mice, with and without human peripheral blood mononuclear cell reconstitution. Immunohistochemical staining of vaginal xenografts demonstrated that in the SCID strain healed vaginal xenografts did not retain intrinsic human immune cells at baseline levels, whereas the NOD/SCID strain supported retention of intrinsic human immune cell populations within the xenografts for at least 2 months after engraftment. In peripheral blood mononuclear cell-reconstituted NOD/SCID mice with vaginal xenografts, flow cytometric analyses detected human immune cell populations in the peripheral blood and immunohistochemical methods detected infiltration of human CD45+ cells in the mouse spleens and vaginal xenografts for at least 2 months after reconstitution. This optimized NOD/SCID human vaginal xenograft model may provide a unique small animal in vivo system for the study of human immunodeficiency virus-1 transmission and infection. PMID:11733382
Kish, Tina M.; Budgeon, Lynn R.; Welsh, Patricia A.; Howett, Mary K.
Vaginal douching is widely practised by women in the USA, particularly among minority ethnic groups, and is associated with increased risk of pelvic and vaginal infections. Douching practices are shaped by social and cultural norms regarding female hygiene, reproduction and sexuality. Little previous research has addressed the beliefs and practices of Latina women and none has included the perspective of
Diane McKee; María Baquero; Matthew Anderson; Alison Karasz
Objective: To relate vaginal breech delivery rates to the following hospital types: public, health maintenance organization, private teaching, or private nonteaching.Methods: In a retrospective study using administrative discharge data from Los Angeles County, California, we calculated the vaginal breech delivery rates of singleton breech deliveries during calendar years 1988 and 1991.Results: Ten thousand four hundred breech deliveries were identified, 8988
Kimberly D Gregory; Lisa M Korst; Michael Krychman; Patricia Cane; Lawrence D Platt
The aim of this study was to evaluate medical and economic justification of vaginal smears as a part of primary screening for cervical carcinoma and its precursors. Study included 245.048 participants whose VCE (vaginal, cervical, endocervical) smears were examined at Department of clinical cytology of University Hospital Center Osijek from 2003 till 2008. There were 12.639 (5.2%) abnormal findings, and they were divided into three groups: abnormal cells found only in vaginal smear (V), abnormal cells found in vaginal and in at least one other smear (V+) and abnormal cells not found in vaginal smear (C/E). These three groups were analysed in respect to cytological differential diagnosis and age of participants. It was estimated how many women could be additionally included in the screening, if vaginal smear would be included in the Pap test only after 50 years of age. In 6.9% of cytologically diagnosed lesions abnormal cells were found exclusively in vaginal smears (0.35% of all findings). As for squamous cell lesions, 91.2% were mild lesions (ASC and LSIL). Invasive squamous cell carcinoma was not diagnosed exclusively by vaginal smear in either woman under 50 years of age, while in women over 50 years of age it was diagnosed in 2.3% of cases. Exclusively by vaginal smear was diagnosed 3.9% of all AGC and 6.3% of adenocarcinoma, while in 85.0% of glandular epithelium lesions abnormal cells were not found in vaginal smears. Two thirds of adenocarcinoma diagnosed exclusively by vaginal smears were endometrial adenocarcinoma, but that is only 10.3% of all endometrial carcinoma diagnosed by Pap test. Obtained results show that taking of vaginal smears along with cervical and endocervical smears as a part of primary screening for cervical carcinoma and its precursors in women under 50 years of age is not justifiable, since vaginal smear only has a role in detection of endometrial carcinoma that are extremely rare in younger age groups. If vaginal smear would be taken only in women over 50 years of age, additional 37.7% of women under 50, or 25.1% women over 50 years of age could be included in the screening. PMID:20437636
Milici?-Juhas, Valerija; Peri?, Marija; Pajtler, Marija; Prvulovi?, Ivana; Curzik, Darko
One hundred and thirteen patients with vesico-vaginal fistula were seen at the University of California Hospital from 1932 through 1959. The most common cause of fistula was trauma associated with pelvic operation, and the operation most often involved was total abdominal hysterectomy. Malignant disease of the pelvic organs was the second most common cause, while radiation therapy and obstetrical causes were next in the order of frequency. Three fistulas healed spontaneously. Twelve bladder by-pass operations were done and 54 repairs were carried out in 46 patients. Thirty-eight patients (82.6 per cent) were cured after one or more repair operations. A variety of operative approaches were used, selected in accordance with the needs of the individual case. Bladder distention postoperatively, due to a plugged catheter, was held responsible for failure of the repair in three cases, and this complication was considered preventable. Close attention to surgical technique, the recognition of bladder injury, and proper repair at the time of operation are prime factors in the prevention of vesico-vaginal fistula. PMID:13954511
Hill, Edward C.
Forensic analysis of biological traces generally encompasses the investigation of both the person who contributed to the trace and the body site(s) from which the trace originates. For instance, for sexual assault cases, it can be beneficial to distinguish vaginal samples from skin or saliva samples. In this study, we explored the use of microbial flora to indicate vaginal origin. First, we explored the vaginal microbiome for a large set of clinical vaginal samples (n?=?240) by next generation sequencing (n?=?338,184 sequence reads) and found 1,619 different sequences. Next, we selected 389 candidate probes targeting genera or species and designed a microarray, with which we analysed a diverse set of samples; 43 DNA extracts from vaginal samples and 25 DNA extracts from samples from other body sites, including sites in close proximity of or in contact with the vagina. Finally, we used the microarray results and next generation sequencing dataset to assess the potential for a future approach that uses microbial markers to indicate vaginal origin. Since no candidate genera/species were found to positively identify all vaginal DNA extracts on their own, while excluding all non-vaginal DNA extracts, we deduce that a reliable statement about the cellular origin of a biological trace should be based on the detection of multiple species within various genera. Microarray analysis of a sample will then render a microbial flora pattern that is probably best analysed in a probabilistic approach. PMID:22282153
Benschop, Corina C G; Quaak, Frederike C A; Boon, Mathilde E; Sijen, Titia; Kuiper, Irene
Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV) – a syndrome characterised by a shift in vaginal flora – appears to be particularly common in sub-Saharan Africa, but little is known of the pattern of vaginal flora associated with BV in Africa. We conducted a study aimed at determining the prevalence of BV and patterns of BV-associated vaginal micro-flora among women with vaginal discharge syndrome (VDS) in The Gambia, West Africa. Methods We enrolled 227 women with VDS from a large genito-urinary medicine clinic in Fajara, The Gambia. BV was diagnosed by the Nugent's score and Amsel's clinical criteria. Vaginal swabs were collected for T vaginalis and vaginal flora microscopy, and for Lactobacillus spp, aerobic organisms, Candida spp and BV-associated bacteria (Gardnerella vaginalis, anaerobic bacteria, and Mycoplasma spp) cultures; and cervical swabs were collected for N gonorrhoeae culture and C trachomatis PCR. Sera were tested for HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies. Sexual health history including details on sexual hygiene were obtained by standardised questionnaire. Results BV prevalence was 47.6% by Nugent's score and 30.8% by Amsel's clinical criteria. Lactobacillus spp were isolated in 37.8% of women, and 70% of the isolates were hydrogen-peroxide (H202)-producing strains. Prevalence of BV-associated bacteria were: G vaginalis 44.4%; Bacteroides 16.7%; Prevotella 15.2%; Peptostretococcus 1.5%; Mobiluncus 0%; other anaerobes 3.1%; and Mycoplasma hominis 21.4%. BV was positively associated with isolation of G vaginalis (odds-ratio [OR] 19.42, 95%CI 7.91 – 47.6) and anaerobes (P = 0.001 [OR] could not be calculated), but not with M hominis. BV was negatively associated with presence of Lactobacillus (OR 0.07, 95%CI 0.03 – 0.15), and H2O2-producing lactobacilli (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.05 – 0.28). Presence of H2O2-producing lactobacilli was associated with significantly lower prevalence of G vaginalis, anaerobes and C trachomatis. HIV prevalence was 12.8%. Overall, there was no association between BV and HIV, and among micro-organisms associated with BV, only Bacteroides spp. and Prevotella spp. were associated with HIV. BV or vaginal flora patterns were not associated with any of the factors relating to sexual hygiene practices (vaginal douching, menstrual hygiene, female genital cutting). Conclusion In this population, BV prevalence was higher than in corresponding populations in industrialised countries, but the pattern of vaginal micro-flora associated with BV was similar. BV or vaginal flora patterns were not associated with HIV nor with any of the vaginal hygiene characteristics. PMID:15757510
Demba, Edward; Morison, Linda; van der Loeff, Maarten Schim; Awasana, Akum A; Gooding, Euphemia; Bailey, Robin; Mayaud, Philippe; West, Beryl
The vaginal mucosa is commonly exposed to chemicals and therapeutic agents that may result in irritation and\\/or inflammation. In addition to acute effects, vaginal irritation and inflammation can make women more susceptible to infections such as HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2). Hence, the vaginal irritation potential of feminine care formulations and vaginally administered therapeutic agents is a significant
Seyoum Ayehunie; Chris Cannon; Karen LaRosa; Jeffrey Pudney; Deborah J. Anderson; Mitchell Klausner
To detect possible stress urinary incontinence associated with but masked by large cystoceles protruding through the vaginal orifice, a vaginal pack test was done in conjunction with video fluoro-urodynamic studies. Sixteen female patients with large cystoceles did not demonstrate stress urinary incontinence on clinical examination and were included in this study. Additionally, 10 healthy female volunteers underwent the same test to study the effect of a vaginal pack on urethral dynamics. The vaginal pack revealed the presence of stress urinary incontinence in 11 patients (69%): 3 (19%) with type II (vesicourethral hypermobility) and 8 (50%) with type III (internal sphincteric deficiency). After insertion of the vaginal pack, urodynamic studies showed that the closing proximal urethral pressure in patients with stress urinary incontinence was significantly lower than in continent patients (p < 0.05). No significant change in urethral pressures was noted in volunteer subjects after vaginal pack insertion. Fluoroscopy showed kinking of the posterior urethra and enlargement of the most dependent portion of the cystocele, that is the lower half of the hourglass image. Our study suggests that the mechanisms of continence in these patients are multifactorial, including urethral kinking, urethral compression and pressure dissipation. The vaginal pack test is easy to perform, increases visualization of the vesicourethral unit when used with fluoroscopy, and can aid in the selection of patients who would benefit from anti-incontinence surgery and/or cystocele repair. PMID:8051758
Ghoniem, G M; Walters, F; Lewis, V
Objective: To monitor yeasts isolated from women during and between episodes of recurrent vulvo-vaginal candidosis (VVC) to determine whether vaginal relapse or re-infection occurred. Methods: Women presenting at the genitourinary medicine clinic with signs and symptoms of VVC were recruited to the study (n = 121). A vaginal washing, high vaginal swab (HVS) and rectal swab were taken and the women treated with a single 500 mg clotrimazole pessary. Women were asked to re-attend after 1, 4, and 12 weeks, or when the VVC recurred, when vaginal washings and HVS were repeated. Candida isolates recovered were strain typed using the Ca3 probe and their similarity assessed. Antifungal susceptibility to fluconazole and clotrimazole were determined. Results: Of the women recruited, 47 completed the study, either returning for four visits or suffering a recurrence during the study period. Of the 22 women who experienced recurrence, the same strain was responsible for the initial and recurrent episode in 17 women. For the remaining five women, four had strain replacement and one had a change of species. None of the isolates recovered from the women demonstrated resistance to either clotrimazole or fluconazole. Conclusions: Our findings support the theory of vaginal relapse and thus may support the use of more prolonged courses of antifungal therapy initially to increase the chances of eradication of the yeast. Key Words: vaginal candidosis PMID:11402224
El-Din, S; Reynolds, M; Ashbee, H; Barton, R; Evans, E
There is currently a resurgence of interest in the oral mucosa as a route for drug delivery. The relative scarcity of human oral mucosa for in vitro permeability studies, and the fact that vaginal mucosa is histologically similar and more abundant than the former, caused us to compare these 2 tissues with respect to their barrier properties to water. Specimens of fresh, clinically-healthy human vaginal and buccal mucosa from non-smokers were taken from excised tissue obtained during vaginal hysterectomies and various oral surgical procedures. Biopsies from each specimen were mounted in flow-through diffusion cells and their permeability to tritiated water determined using a continuous flow-through perfusion system. Specimens were examined histologically before and after permeability experiments and similarities between vaginal and buccal tissues verified. No statistically significant differences between mean steady state flux values (10-16 h) for vaginal and buccal mucosa, respectively, were found. Human vaginal mucosa is therefore as permeable as buccal mucosa to water, and these results warrant further investigation with other compounds to establish whether vaginal mucosa may be a useful model for buccal mucosa for drug permeability studies. PMID:9469607
van der Bijl, P; Thompson, I O; Squier, C A
The presence of an abnormal vaginal microflora in early pregnancy is a risk factor for preterm delivery. There is no investigation on vaginal flora dominated by lactic acid bacteria and possible association with preterm delivery. We assessed the dominant vaginal Lactobacillus species in healthy pregnant women in early pregnancy in relation to pregnancy outcome. We observed 111 low risk pregnant women with a normal vaginal microflora 11 + 0 to 14 + 0 weeks of pregnancy without subjective complaints. Vaginal smears were taken for the identification of lactobacilli using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Pregnancy outcome was recorded as term or preterm delivery (limit 36 + 6 weeks of gestation). The diversity of Lactobacillus species in term vs. preterm was the main outcome measure. L. iners alone was detected in 11 from 13 (85%) women who delivered preterm. By contrast, L. iners alone was detected in only 16 from 98 (16%) women who delivered at term (p < 0.001). Fifty six percent women that delivered at term and 8% women that delivered preterm had two or more vaginal Lactobacillus spp. at the same time. This study suggests that dominating L. iners alone detected in vaginal smears of healthy women in early pregnancy might be associated with preterm delivery. PMID:24875844
Petricevic, Ljubomir; Domig, Konrad J.; Nierscher, Franz Josef; Sandhofer, Michael J.; Fidesser, Maria; Krondorfer, Iris; Husslein, Peter; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Kiss, Herbert
Abstract Estroprogestins with "natural oestrogen" has represented a new option in terms of combined hormonal contraception. So, the aim of this study is to investigate how estroprogestins with natural estrogen may modify the vaginal niche. In literature, very few studies focused on the interaction between hormonal contraception and vaginal milieu. This is a prospective comparative study. We enrolled 60 women from January 2013 to September 2013, 30 of them were administered estradiol valerate dienogest (E2V+DNG - Klaira®) in a quadriphasic regimen, while the other 30 women were administered 17-? estradiol with nomestrol acetate (EV+NOMAC - Zoely®) in a monophasic regimen. After a baseline study of vaginal milieu at recruitment of patients (Gram stain with Nugent score, vaginal pH, vaginal wet mount for the quantification of leukocytes, Lactobacilli and/or presence of Candida), we performed the same follow-up after six months of estroprogestin therapy. Our results showed that the women treated with E2V+DNG had a trend of an improvement of vaginal health in terms of increase of lactobacillar flora and reduction of vaginal pH in place of women treated with EV+NOMAC that showed a reduction of cervical mucus. Finally, our data about the effects on vaginal flora exerted by two estroprogestin pills (EPs) containing a natural estrogen suggest slight, but interesting differences in terms of vaginal ecology. These differences could be related to the type of estrogen, type of progestin, regimen of administration and, after all, to the net balance between estrogenic and progestin component of the EPs. PMID:24993504
De Seta, Francesco; Restaino, Stefano; Banco, Rubina; Conversano, Ester; De Leo, Rossella; Tonon, Maddalena; Maso, Gianpaolo; Barbati, Giulia; Lello, Stefano
A rapid means of assessing reproductive status in rodents is useful not only in the study of reproductive dysfunction but is also required for the production of new mouse models of disease and investigations into the hormonal regulation of tissue degeneration (or regeneration) following pathological challenge. The murine reproductive (or estrous) cycle is divided into 4 stages: proestrus, estrus, metestrus, and diestrus. Defined fluctuations in circulating levels of the ovarian steroids 17-?-estradiol and progesterone, the gonadotropins luteinizing and follicle stimulating hormones, and the luteotropic hormone prolactin signal transition through these reproductive stages. Changes in cell typology within the murine vaginal canal reflect these underlying endocrine events. Daily assessment of the relative ratio of nucleated epithelial cells, cornified squamous epithelial cells, and leukocytes present in vaginal smears can be used to identify murine estrous stages. The degree of invasiveness, however, employed in collecting these samples can alter reproductive status and elicit an inflammatory response that can confound cytological assessment of smears. Here, we describe a simple, non-invasive protocol that can be used to determine the stage of the estrous cycle of a female mouse without altering her reproductive cycle. We detail how to differentiate between the four stages of the estrous cycle by collection and analysis of predominant cell typology in vaginal smears and we show how these changes can be interpreted with respect to endocrine status. PMID:23007862
McLean, Ashleigh C.; Valenzuela, Nicolas; Fai, Stephen; Bennett, Steffany A.L.
Vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) and dryness are common symptoms of the decline in endogenous production of estrogen at menopause and often result in dyspareunia. Yet while 10% to 40% of women experience discomfort due to VVA, it is estimated that only 25% seek medical help. The main goals of treatment for vaginal atrophy are to improve symptoms and to restore vaginal and vulvar anatomic changes. Treatment choices for postmenopausal dyspareunia resulting from vulvovaginal atrophy will depend on the underlying etiology and might include individualized treatment. A number of forms of vaginal estrogen and manner of delivery are currently available to treat moderate to severe dyspareunia caused by VVA. They all have been shown to be effective and are often the preferred treatment due to the targeted efficacy for urogenital tissues while resulting in only minimal systemic absorption. Both healthcare professionals and patients often find it difficult to broach the subject of sexual problems associated with VVA. However, with minimal effort to initiate a conversation about these problems, healthcare providers can provide useful information to their postmenopausal patients in order to help them each choose the optimal treatment for their needs and symptoms. PMID:21072280
Kingsberg, SA; Kellogg, S; Krychman, M
More than 13,000 vaginal prolapse operations are performed in the Netherlands each year. Native tissue repair is associated with a re-operation risk of 20-30%. Randomized trials demonstrate that mesh reinforced repairs are anatomically and functionally more effective in the short and medium term. Sexual functioning is comparable after mesh or native tissue repair; there is no difference in dyspareunia. It is not clear whether, in the long term, mesh decreases the risk of recurrence without increasing the risk of complications. 'Exposure' is the most frequently reported complication (4-19%), but treatment is usually not difficult. Pain caused by 'shrinkage' of the mesh is rare, but can be serious and is difficult to treat. The frequency of this complication is not well known. Until long-term results are known, mesh should only be considered in case of recurrent prolapse. Mesh surgery should be performed after informed consent and by surgeons with proven experience only. PMID:23899707
Milani, A L Fred; Vollebregt, Astrid; Roovers, Jan Paul W R; Withagen, Mariella I J
A vaginal examination (VE) is an essential part of midwifery care, and is routinely performed when assessing the progress of labour. As evidence shows that during labour women may find VEs unpleasant, embarrassing and sometimes painful, the aim of this article is to review literature on the use of VEs during labour and to synthesise information from the available literature on how to provide an effective VE. The studies considered were retrieved from three databases (the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature [CINAHL], SCOPUS and MEDLINE) using the following search terms: “VEs in labour”, “midwives and use of VEs” and “women experiences of VEs in labour”. The literature reviewed suggests that midwives are not careful about VEs. Therefore, a concerted effort is needed to pay attention to the frequency of VEs, the management of pain and distress, information-giving and the preferences of the patient, so that the patient can feel in control during a VE. PMID:23984031
Muliira, Rhoda S.; Seshan, Vidya; Ramasubramaniam, Shanthi
Vaginal bacterial communities are thought to help prevent sexually transmitted infections. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common clinical syndrome in which the protective lactic acid–producing bacteria (mainly species of the Lactobacillus genus) are supplanted by a diverse array of anaerobic bacteria. Epidemiologically, BV has been shown to be an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes including preterm birth, development of pelvic inflammatory disease, and acquisition of sexually transmitted infections. Longitudinal studies of the vaginal microbiome using molecular techniques such as 16S ribosomal DNA analysis may lead to interventions that shift the vaginal microbiota toward more protective states. PMID:22133886
Brotman, Rebecca M.
Fusion defects of the Müllerian ducts occur frequently and they have been described by the American Fertility Society. However, septate uterus with cervical duplication and longitudinal vaginal septum is not described by this classification and has suggested a change in the classical theory of fusion of the Müllerian ducts. This paper describes a rare case report of a patient with complete septate uterus with double cervix and longitudinal vaginal septum, submitted to the vaginal septoplasty for dyspareunia, progressing to clinical improvement. The description of this case is to contribute with all uncommon cases of Müllerian anomalies reports and clinical treatment protocols, which is not yet established. PMID:25136464
Chiamulera, Nara; Botelho, Beatriz
The presenting features and associated abnormalities of imperforate hymen and vaginal atresia were studied in 24 girls under the age of 16 years. Hydrocolpos or hydrometrocolpos occurred in 8 infants, 13 older girls developed haematocolpos, but 3 of the girls had no distension of the genital tract. Seven of the older girls were diagnosed as having appendicitis. Anorectal anomalies were present in 9 of the children. Intravenous pyelography was performed on 16 girls and was normal in only one. Urinary tract investigations are indicated in all girls with vaginal outlet obstruction, and the vaginal orifice should be inspected in all girls with anorectal abnormalities. PMID:6876046
Shaw, L M; Jones, W A; Brereton, R J
A spontaneous transvaginal evisceration is a rare clinical event. The case of a 61-year-old woman is described. It is often associated with previous vaginal surgery as well as postmenopausal hypoestrogenism and therefore atrophy of the vaginal vault. The primary treatment is characterized by laparotomy and reposition of the prolapsed bowel. After assessing the viability resection of compromised segments is indicated. However, the main surgical problem is the prophylaxis of recurrence. Beside the repair of the vaginal disruption a colpocleisis, colpectomy, sacropexia or obliteration of the Douglas cavity is necessary. PMID:11143514
Simanowski, J H; Grotz, M; Kauffels, W
equine urinary and vaginal protein, glucose and pH levels and to determine if any of these criteria could be used as an indicator(s) of estrus and/or approaching ovulation. Urinary samples and vaginal readings were obtained from 20 equine females... over 31 estrous cycles during which ovulation was timed by rectal palpation. Urinary protein, glucose and pH were measured semi-quantitatively by Combistix and quantitatively by a modified Lowry method, Glucostat analysis, and pH meter. Vaginal...
Householder, D. Douglas
Vaginal bacterial communities are thought to help prevent sexually transmitted infections. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common clinical syndrome in which the protective lactic acid-producing bacteria (mainly species of the Lactobacillus genus) are supplanted by a diverse array of anaerobic bacteria. Epidemiologically, BV has been shown to be an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes including preterm birth, development of pelvic inflammatory disease, and acquisition of sexually transmitted infections. Longitudinal studies of the vaginal microbiome using molecular techniques such as 16S ribosomal DNA analysis may lead to interventions that shift the vaginal microbiota toward more protective states. PMID:22133886
Brotman, Rebecca M
The vaginal epithelium provides a barrier to pathogens and recruits immune defenses through the secretion of cytokines and chemokines. Several studies have shown that mucosal sites are innervated by norepinephrine-containing nerve fibers. Here we report that norepinephrine potentiates the proinflammatory response of human vaginal epithelial cells to products produced by Staphylococcus aureus, a pathogen that causes menstrual toxic shock syndrome. The cells exhibit immunoreactivity for catecholamine synthesis enzymes and the norepinephrine transporter. Moreover, the cells secrete norepinephrine and dopamine at low concentrations. These results indicate that norepinephrine may serve as an autocrine modulator of proinflammatory responses in the vaginal epithelium. PMID:23571017
Brosnahan, Amanda J.; Vulchanova, Lucy; Witta, Samantha R.; Dai, Yuying; Jones, Bryan J.; Brown, David R.
Congenital obstructing lesions of vagina, hydrometrocolpos, and hematocolpos, present at a variable time during early childhood and adolescence to different medical and surgical specialties. Twenty-six cases presenting over an 18-years period (1987-2005) were divided into three groups; Group A: neonates (6), Group B: adolescents (18), and Group C: adults (2). Common presentations in neonates (Group A) were abdominal mass (5), neonatal sepsis (3), and respiratory distress (2); whereas abdominal pain (18), voiding dysfunctions (13), and backache (7) were prevalent in adolescents (Group B). Adults (Group C) presented with inability to consummate and infertility (2). Four patients received erroneous treatment; exploratory laparotomy (1) and appendectomy (3). Urinary symptoms and associated urinary abnormalities were present in more than 50% of cases, especially those with complex anomalies. Management included excision of imperforate hymen (16) and transverse vaginal septum (8) through perineal (20) and abdominoperineal approach (4). Patients with urogenital sinus (1) and cloacal malformation (1) had staged reconstruction at 2.5 years of age following preliminary vesicostomy and colostomy at birth. On follow up (range 1-15 years; mean 7) more than 60% patients have menstrual irregularity (11), endometriosis (5), and infertility (4). In conclusion, rarity and variable presentation of congenital vaginal obstructions can lead to delayed diagnosis and erroneous management. A high index of suspicion and cross-sectional imaging help in early diagnosis and associated renal anomalies. A comprehensive management is imperative to preserve the reproductive potentials, as significant proportion of patients may experience sexual difficulties, menstrual irregularity, and infertility. PMID:16871398
Nazir, Zafar; Rizvi, Raheela M; Qureshi, Rahat N; Khan, Zarrish Saeed; Khan, Zarak
A 61-year-old woman presented with the chief complaint of a vaginal bulge for 2 years. She had undergone two operations for pelvic organ prolapse. The initial procedure was the Manchester procedure and posterior colporrhaphy, and the second was a vaginal repair with mesh for recurrent rectocele 3 years after the initial surgery. She noticed the vaginal bulge shortly after the second surgery. A gynecological examination revealed a stage III rectocele associated with a 2 cm, firm mass at the posterior vaginal wall. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed a 2 × 3 cm high-intensity mass located between the vaginal wall and rectum. The recurrent rectocele might have been caused by incomplete support from the mesh, which was not fixed in the vaginal wall, resulting in formation of a mass. The patient underwent complete mesh removal and tension-free vaginal mesh-posterior surgery for the rectocele. The excised mesh had shrunk from a 7 × 5 cm rectangle mesh preoperatively into a firm 2 × 2 × 3 cm mass. No recurrence has been seen for 18 months postoperatively. PMID:21412043
Takahi, Yuko; Kiuchi, Hiroshi; Kimura, Toshio; Kato, Chikako; Ichimaru, Naotsugu
Background:To evaluate associations between alterations in vaginal flora and clinical symptoms in low-risk pregnant women. Methods:Vaginal specimens from 245 pregnant women were analyzed by microscopy for vaginal flora. Signs and symptoms of vaginal infection were determined by patient interviews and gynecologic examinations. Results:Abnormal vaginal flora was identified in 45.7% of the subjects. The final clinical diagnoses were bacterial vaginosis (21.6%),
Fausto Gondo; Márcia G. da Silva; Jossimara Polettini; Andréa da R. Tristao; José C. Peracoli; Steven S. Witkin; Marilza V. C. Rudge
Background. Uterine inversion is a rare, but life threatening, obstetrical emergency which occurs when the uterine fundus collapses into the endometrial cavity. Various conservative and surgical therapies have been outlined in the literature for the management of uterine inversions. Case. We present a case of a chronic, recurrent uterine inversion, which was diagnosed following spontaneous vaginal delivery and recurred seven weeks later. The uterine inversion was likely due to a leiomyoma. This late-presenting, chronic, recurring uterine inversion was treated with a vaginal hysterectomy. Conclusion. Uterine inversions can occur in both acute and chronic phases. Persistent vaginal bleeding with the appearance of a prolapsing fibroid should prompt further investigation for uterine inversion and may require surgical therapy. A vaginal hysterectomy may be an appropriate management option in select populations and may be considered in women who do not desire to maintain reproductive function. PMID:25379314
Pieh-Holder, Kelly L.; DeVente, James E.
Vaginal metastases of renal cell carcinoma have been rarely described. We report a case of a 75-year old woman, who underwent radical right nephrectomy for a renal cell carcinoma. Tumour was classified pT3bN0M0 and grade III of Furhmann grading. One year later, scanner discovered mediastinal and lombo-aortic lymph nodes. She received 2 months of immunotherapy associated with bevacizumab, but stopped because of intolerance. She was readmitted in our institute for vaginal bleeding. Clinical investigations showed a vaginal mass and biopsy revealed a renal cell carcinoma metastasis. This case suggests that retrograde venous dissemination may be at the origin of vaginal metastasis of renal cell carcinoma and emphasized the preventive value of early ligature of renal vein. PMID:23565309
Benbrahim, Zineb; Chouaib, Ali; Mazeron, Renaud; Leger-Ravet, Marie Benedicte; Lefort, Catherine; Lhomme, Catherine; El Mesbahi, Omar; Escudier, Bernard
The advantages of vaginal way in the treatment of cystocele are simplicity, rapidity, peritoneal security. Raphy is subject to recidive. The meshes replace the weak fascia in its role of hammock (Delancey) for the bladder. The mesh covers the central and lateral fascial defects. The procedure consists in a short vertical colpotomy, vesicovaginal dissection, uterine preservation (if uterus is not pathologic), no vaginal excision. The mesh can be spread without fixation, fixed or anchored by arms in the obturator foramen. The results show a significative improvement in the risk of redux cystocele. Complications become less frequent with the expertise and quality of new meshes. Implants are a new vaginal evolving surgery: it must be evaluated by experts and practiced by experienced in vaginal approach surgeons. PMID:19969274
Delmas, V; Haab, F; Costa, P
On account of the good prognosis for patients with breast cancer, improving or maintaining the quality of life in the aftercare period is becoming more and more important. In particular, the increasing usage of aromatase inhibitors in the past few years has led to an increased incidence of vaginal atrophy with symptoms such as vaginal dryness, petechial bleeding, dyspareunia and recurrent cystitis. And just these symptoms have a detrimental impact on the quality of life of breast cancer patients. Application of a topical estrogen therapy represents the most effective means to treat vaginal atrophy. The use of a systemic or, respectively, topical hormone therapy is, however, contraindicated for breast cancer patients. Further clinical trials are needed in order to assess the safety of vaginal estrogen therapy. PMID:24771890
Moegele, M.; Buchholz, S.; Seitz, S.; Lattrich, C.; Ortmann, O.
Reproductive tract infection is a major initiator of preterm birth (PTB). The objective of this prospective cohort study of 88 participants was to determine whether PTB correlates with the vaginal microbiome during pregnancy. Total DNA was purified from posterior vaginal fornix swabs during gestation. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction primers, followed by chain-termination sequencing. Bacteria were identified by comparing contig consensus sequences with the Ribosomal Database Project. Dichotomous responses were summarized via proportions and continuous variables via means ± standard deviation. Mean Shannon Diversity index differed by Welch t test (P = .00016) between caucasians with PTB and term gestation. Species diversity was greatest among African Americans (P = .0045). Change in microbiome/Lactobacillus content and presence of putative novel/noxious bacteria did not correlate with PTB. We conclude that uncultured vaginal bacteria play an important role in PTB and race/ethnicity and sampling location are important determinants of the vaginal microbiome. PMID:23715799
Hyman, Richard W; Fukushima, Marilyn; Jiang, Hui; Fung, Eula; Rand, Larry; Johnson, Brittni; Vo, Kim Chi; Caughey, Aaron B; Hilton, Joan F; Davis, Ronald W; Giudice, Linda C
... Medical Center will perform the state of the art procedure to surgically correct vaginal vault prolapse by ... webcast from Duke University. Today we will be performing a robotic sacrocolpopexy using the da Vinci S system. ...
A method that could provide more uniform and longer-lasting drug delivery to mucosal surfaces holds the potential to greatly improve the effectiveness of prophylactic and therapeutic approaches for numerous diseases and conditions, including sexually transmitted infections and inflammatory bowel disease. However, the body's natural defenses, including adhesive, rapidly cleared mucus linings coating nearly all entry points to the body not covered by skin, has limited the effectiveness of drug and gene delivery by nanoscale delivery systems. Here, we investigate the use of muco-inert mucus-penetrating nanoparticles (MPP) for improving vaginal and gastrointestinal drug delivery. Conventional hydrophobic nanoparticles strongly adhere to mucus, facilitating rapid clearance from the body. Here, we demonstrate that mucoadhesive polystyrene nanoparticles (conventional nanoparticles, CP) become mucus-penetrating in human cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) after pretreatment with sufficient concentrations of Pluronic F127. Importantly, the diffusion rate of large MPP did not change in F127 pretreated CVM, implying there is no affect on the native pore structure of CVM. Additionally, there was no increase in inflammatory cytokine release in the vaginal tract of mice after daily application of 1% F127 for one week. Importantly, HSV virus remains adherent in F127-pretreated CVM. Mucosal epithelia use osmotic gradients for fluid absorption and secretion. We hypothesized that hypotonically-induced fluid uptake could be advantageous for rapidly delivering drugs through mucus to the vaginal epithelium. We evaluated hypotonic formulations for delivering water-soluble drugs and for drug delivery with MPP. Hypotonic formulations markedly increased the rate at which drugs and MPP reached the epithelial surface. Additionally, hypotonic formulations greatly enhanced drug and MPP delivery to the entire epithelial surface, including deep into the vaginal folds (rugae) that isotonic formulations failed to reach. However, hypotonic formulations caused free drugs to be drawn through the epithelium, reducing vaginal retention. In contrast, hypotonic formulations caused MPP to accumulate rapidly and uniformly on vaginal surfaces, ideally positioned for sustained drug delivery. Using a mouse model of vaginal genital herpes (HSV-2) infection, we found that hypotonic delivery of free drug led to improved immediate protection, but diminished longer-term protection. Minimally hypotonic formulations provided rapid and uniform delivery of MPP to the entire vaginal surface, thus enabling formulations with minimal risk of epithelial toxicity. We then describe an ex vivo method for characterizing particle transport on freshly excised mucosal tissues. By directly observing MPP transport on vaginal, gastrointestinal, and respiratory tissue, we were able to determine an innate difference in mucus mesh size at different anatomical locations. In addition, we were able to optimize particle size for gastrointestinal delivery in mice. As described here, there are numerous barriers to effective drug delivery in the gastrointestinal tract, including the mucus barrier. We go on to demonstrate that MPP can improve delivery in the gastrointestinal tract, both by rectal and oral administration. Finally, we describe the use of MPP for improving vaginal drug delivery. Incomplete drug coverage and short duration of action limit the effectiveness of vaginally administered drugs, including microbicides for preventing sexually transmitted infections. We show that MPP provide uniform distribution over the vaginal epithelium, whereas CP are aggregated by mouse vaginal mucus, leading to poor distribution. By penetrating into the deepest mucus layers in the rugae, more MPP were retained in the vaginal tract compared to CP. After 24 h, when delivered in a conventional vaginal gel, patches of a model drug remained on the vaginal epithelium, whereas the epithelium was coated with drug delivered by MPP. We then demonstrate that when administered 30 min prior to inoculum, anti-HSV-2 MPP protected
This article reviews the mechanisms by which vaginal surgery affects female sexual function and related pathophysiology to\\u000a potential causes. The anatomy, neurovascular supply of the clitoris and introitus, and intrapelvic nerve supply are discussed\\u000a as they apply to vaginal surgery. Methods to avoid neurovascular damage during pelvic floor surgery have been corroborated\\u000a by supporting literature. The incidence of female sexual
Hari S. G. R. Tunuguntla; Angelo E. Gousse
Neovaginal reconstruction is an important part of gender reassignment surgery. We report a case of stone formation at the\\u000a apex of vaginal vault constructed with sigmoid colon segment. A 48-year-old woman presented with profuse vaginal discharge\\u000a for 1 year. She had a history of gender reassignment surgery (male to female) in 1994, and the neovagina had been constructed\\u000a with an isolated
S. Sukumaran; P. A. Moran; A. Makar
Vaginal mesh erosion into the bladder after midurethral sling procedure or cystocele repair is uncommon, with only a few cases having been reported in the literature. The ideal surgical management is still controversial. Current options for removal of eroded mesh include: endoscopic, transvaginal or abdominal (either open or laparoscopic) approaches. We, herein, present the first case of robotic removal of a large eroded vaginal mesh into the bladder and discuss potential benefits and limitations of the technique. PMID:23600850
Macedo, Francisco Igor B; O'Connor, Jeffrey; Mittal, Vijay K; Hurley, Patrick
Different non-ionic cellulose ethers (methyl cellulose, MC; hydroxyethyl cellulose, HEC; hydroxypropyl cellulose, HPC; hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, HPMC) and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) were investigated as matrix formers for preparation of mini-tablets targeting vaginal drug delivery. Hexyl aminolevulinat hydrochloridum (HAL) was used as a model drug. The mini-tablets were characterized with respect to their mechanical strength, bioadhesion towards cow vaginal tissue in two independent tests (rotating cylinder test, detachment test using texture analyzer), and dissolution rate in two media mimicking the pH levels of fertile, healthy and post-menopausal women (vaginal fluid simulant pH 4.5, phosphate buffer pH 6.8). Mini-tablets with a matrix of either HPMC or HPC were found to possess adequate mechanical strength, superior bioadhesive behavior towards vaginal tissue, and pH independent controlled release of the model drug, suggesting that both systems would be suited for the treatment of women regardless of age, i.e., respective of their vaginal pH levels. Bioadhesive mini-tablets offer a potential for improved residence time in the vaginal cavity targeting contact with mucosal tissue and prolonged release of the drug. PMID:25166286
Hiorth, Marianne; Nilsen, Susanne; Tho, Ingunn
Post-hysterectomy vaginal vault prolapse is a common complication following different types of hysterectomy with a negative impact on the woman's quality of life due to associated urinary, anorectal and sexual dysfunction. A clear understanding of the supporting mechanisms for the uterus and vagina is important in order to make the right choice of the corrective procedure and also to minimize the risk of posthysterectomy occurrence of vault prolapse. Preexisting pelvic floor defect prior to hysterectomy is the single most important risk factor for vault prolapse. Various surgical techniques have been advanced in hysterectomy to prevent vault prolapse. Vaginal vault repair can be carried out abdominally or vaginally. Sacrospinous fixation and abdominal sacrocolpopexy are the commonly performed procedures. The vaginal approach for vault prolapse is superior to the abdominal approach in terms of complication rates, blood loss, postoperative discomfort, length of hospital stay and cost-effectiveness. Moreover, it allows the simultaneous repair of all coexistent pelvic floor defects, such as cystocele, enterocele and rectocele. Abdominal sacrocolpopexy is associated with a lower rate of recurrent vault prolapse and dyspareunia than the vaginal sacrospinous colpopexy. Other less commonly performed procedures include uterosacral ligament suspension and illeococcygeal fixation with a high risk of ureteric injury. Surgical mesh of non-absorbent material is gaining in popularity and preliminary data from vaginal mesh procedures is encouraging. PMID:23289289
Objective To evaluate the feasibility and safety of vaginal anterior and posterior myomectomy (A surgical technique is described.). Design Longitudinal prospective study. Setting A gynecology department of a university teaching hospital. Population Women with surgical indication for myomectomy for pelvic pain, menorrhagia, symptoms of pressure, or subfertility caused by uterine myomas. Methods From December 1998 to April 2005, all women with uterine myomas selected for surgical treatment were enrolled in a prospective study and underwent vaginal myomectomy. Main Outcome Measures Feasibility of vaginal myomectomy, surgical data and morbidity, and relief of symptoms. Results From 1998 to 2004, 54 patients underwent vaginal myomectomy. There were no cases of laparotomic conversion and hysterectomy. The average operation time was 80 minutes (range, 30 to 170 min). Average blood loss was 80 mL (range, 20 to 350 mL). No complications occurred. The average postoperative stay was 2 days (range, 1 to 3 days). Symptoms resolved in all 54 patients (100%) at 6 months follow-up, and 6 patients had a pregnancy. Conclusion Vaginal myomectomy, in well-selected cases, is feasible and well tolerated. Thanks to the “morcellation” technique, vaginal myomectomy can be useful even in case of large, numerous, and intramural fibroids and allows optimal uterine wall reconstruction with minimal tissue trauma. The procedure is also low time-consuming. PMID:16915172
Carminati, Roberto; Ragusa, Antonio; Giannice, Raffaella; Pantano, Francesco
Different non-ionic cellulose ethers (methyl cellulose, MC; hydroxyethyl cellulose, HEC; hydroxypropyl cellulose, HPC; hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, HPMC) and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) were investigated as matrix formers for preparation of mini-tablets targeting vaginal drug delivery. Hexyl aminolevulinat hydrochloridum (HAL) was used as a model drug. The mini-tablets were characterized with respect to their mechanical strength, bioadhesion towards cow vaginal tissue in two independent tests (rotating cylinder test, detachment test using texture analyzer), and dissolution rate in two media mimicking the pH levels of fertile, healthy and post-menopausal women (vaginal fluid simulant pH 4.5, phosphate buffer pH 6.8). Mini-tablets with a matrix of either HPMC or HPC were found to possess adequate mechanical strength, superior bioadhesive behavior towards vaginal tissue, and pH independent controlled release of the model drug, suggesting that both systems would be suited for the treatment of women regardless of age, i.e., respective of their vaginal pH levels. Bioadhesive mini-tablets offer a potential for improved residence time in the vaginal cavity targeting contact with mucosal tissue and prolonged release of the drug. PMID:25166286
Hiorth, Marianne; Nilsen, Susanne; Tho, Ingunn
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a commonly occurring vaginal infection that is associated with a variety of serious risks related to the reproductive health of women. Conventional antibiotic treatment for this condition is frequently ineffective because the antibiotics tend to inhibit healthy vaginal microflora along with the pathogens. Lactocin 160, a bacteriocin produced by healthy vaginal lactobacilli, is a promising alternative to antibiotics; this compound specifically inhibits the BV-associated vaginal pathogens such as Gardnerella vaginalis and Prevotella bivia without affecting the healthy microflora. This study investigates the molecular mechanism of action for lactocin 160 and reveals that this compound targets the cytoplasmic membrane of G. vaginalis, causing the efflux of ATP molecules and dissipation of the proton motive force. PMID:20445810
Turovskiy, Yevgeniy; Ludescher, Richard D; Aroutcheva, Alla A; Faro, Sebastian; Chikindas, Michael L
Objective of the present study was to develop and evaluate vaginal films with essential in vitro studies. Films were developed using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose as a polymer and formulations were coded. The developed films were evaluated with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, drug content, viscosity, surface pH, thickness, mechanical characterisation and in vitro drug release study. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results confirmed that there is no chemical interaction between drug and stabilisers/excipients. The batch variation was not more than 5% for average thickness and weight of the films. The drug content for the prepared formulation was in the range of 72.32±0.18% to 94.48±0.54%. Viscosity of the formulations increased with the increase in concentration of polymer. Mechanical characterisation revealed that tensile strength and percentage elongation of the films improved as there is increase in degree of substitution of the polymer, but the values of modulus decreased which confirmed that all the prepared films are soft in nature. The in vitro study indicated that 1 and 2% concentrations of polymer are the least concentrations to control the release of drug whereas the 4% concentration of polymer is a good and more effective concentration to control the release. Only one prepared formulation released the drug by following anomalous transport whereas other film formulations released the fluconazole by following Fickian diffusion mechanism. Prepared vaginal films may be an important alternative for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis, because these prepared films suggest the benefits of controlled release of fluconazole at the site of absorption. PMID:24403660
Kumar, L.; Reddy, M. S.; Shirodkar, R. K.; Pai, G. K.; Krishna, V. T.; Verma, R.
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common vaginal disorder characterized by an alteration of the vaginal bacterial morphotypes, associated with sexually transmitted infections and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of different doses of rifaximin vaginal tablets (100 mg/day for 5 days, 25 mg/day for 5 days, and 100 mg/day for 2 days) on the vaginal microbiota of 102 European patients with BV enrolled in a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. An integrated molecular approach based on quantitative PCR (qPCR) and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to investigate the effects of vaginal tablets containing the antibiotic. An increase in members of the genus Lactobacillus and a decrease in the BV-related bacterial groups after the antibiotic treatment were demonstrated by qPCR. PCR-DGGE profiles confirmed the capability of rifaximin to modulate the composition of the vaginal microbial communities and to reduce their complexity. This molecular analysis supported the clinical observation that rifaximin at 25 mg/day for 5 days represents an effective treatment to be used in future pivotal studies for the treatment of BV. PMID:22585228
Cruciani, Federica; Brigidi, Patrizia; Calanni, Fiorella; Lauro, Vittoria; Tacchi, Raffaella; Donders, Gilbert; Peters, Klaus; Guaschino, Secondo
Background The application of next-generation sequencing to the study of the vaginal microbiome is revealing the spectrum of microbial communities that inhabit the human vagina. High-resolution identification of bacterial taxa, minimally to the species level, is necessary to fully understand the association of the vaginal microbiome with bacterial vaginosis, sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy complications, menopause, and other physiological and infectious conditions. However, most current taxonomic assignment strategies based on metagenomic 16S rDNA sequence analysis provide at best a genus-level resolution. While surveys of 16S rRNA gene sequences are common in microbiome studies, few well-curated, body-site-specific reference databases of 16S rRNA gene sequences are available, and no such resource is available for vaginal microbiome studies. Results We constructed the Vaginal 16S rDNA Reference Database, a comprehensive and non-redundant database of 16S rDNA reference sequences for bacterial taxa likely to be associated with vaginal health, and we developed STIRRUPS, a new method that employs the USEARCH algorithm with a curated reference database for rapid species-level classification of 16S rDNA partial sequences. The method was applied to two datasets of V1-V3 16S rDNA reads: one generated from a mock community containing DNA from six bacterial strains associated with vaginal health, and a second generated from over 1,000 mid-vaginal samples collected as part of the Vaginal Human Microbiome Project at Virginia Commonwealth University. In both datasets, STIRRUPS, used in conjunction with the Vaginal 16S rDNA Reference Database, classified more than 95% of processed reads to a species-level taxon using a 97% global identity threshold for assignment. Conclusions This database and method provide accurate species-level classifications of metagenomic 16S rDNA sequence reads that will be useful for analysis and comparison of microbiome profiles from vaginal samples. STIRRUPS can be used to classify 16S rDNA sequence reads from other ecological niches if an appropriate reference database of 16S rDNA sequences is available. PMID:23282177
Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VaIN) represents a rare and asymptomatic pre-neoplastic lesion. Its natural history and potential evolution into invasive cancer are uncertain. VaIN can occur alone or as a synchronous or metachronous lesion with cervical and vulvar HPV-related intra epithelial or invasive neoplasia. Its association with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia is found in 65% of cases, with vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia in 10% of cases, while for others, the association with concomitant cervical or vulvar intraepithelial neoplasias is found in 30-80% of cases. VaIN is often asymptomatic and its diagnosis is suspected in cases of abnormal cytology, followed by colposcopy and colposcopically-guided biopsy of suspicious areas. In the past, high-grade VaIN and multifocal VaIN have been treated by radical surgery, such as total or partial upper vaginectomy associated with hysterectomy and radiotherapy. The need to maintain the integrity of reproductive capacity has determined the transition from radical therapies to conservative ones, according to the different patients' characteristics. PMID:23267125
Frega, Antonio; Sopracordevole, Francesco; Assorgi, Chiara; Lombardi, Danila; DE Sanctis, Vitaliana; Catalano, Angelica; Matteucci, Eleonora; Milazzo, Giusi Natalia; Ricciardi, Enzo; Moscarini, Massimo
Perinatally, and between menarche and menopause, increased levels of estrogen cause large amounts of glycogen to be deposited in the vaginal epithelium. During these times, the anaerobic metabolism of the glycogen, by the epithelial cells themselves and/or by vaginal flora, causes the vagina to become acidic (pH approximately 4). This study was designed to test whether the characteristics of acid production by vaginal flora in vitro can account for vaginal acidity. Eight vaginal Lactobacillus isolates from four species-L. gasseri, L. vaginalis, L. crispatus, and L. jensenii-acidified their growth medium to an asymptotic pH (3.2 to 4.8) that matches the range seen in the Lactobacillus-dominated human vagina (pH 3.6 to 4.5 in most women) (B. Andersch, L. Forssman, K. Lincoln, and P. Torstensson, Gynecol. Obstet. Investig. 21:19-25, 1986; L. Cohen, Br. J. Vener. Dis. 45:241-246, 1969; J. Paavonen, Scand. J. Infect. Dis. Suppl. 40:31-35, 1983; C. Tevi-Bénissan, L. Bélec, M. Lévy, V. Schneider-Fauveau, A. Si Mohamed, M.-C. Hallouin, M. Matta, and G. Grésenguet, Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 4:367-374, 1997). During exponential growth, all of these Lactobacillus species acidified their growth medium at rates on the order of 10(6) protons/bacterium/s. Such rates, combined with an estimate of the total number of lactobacilli in the vagina, suggest that vaginal lactobacilli could reacidify the vagina at the rate observed postcoitally following neutralization by the male ejaculate (W. H. Masters and V. E. Johnson, Human sexual response, p. 93, 1966). During bacterial vaginosis (BV), there is a loss of vaginal acidity, and the vaginal pH rises to >4.5. This correlates with a loss of lactobacilli and an overgrowth of diverse bacteria. Three BV-associated bacteria, Gardnerella vaginalis, Prevotella bivia, and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, acidified their growth medium to an asymptotic pH (4.7 to 6.0) consistent with the characteristic elevated vaginal pH associated with BV. Together, these observations are consistent with vaginal flora, rather than epithelial cells, playing a primary role in creating the acidity of the vagina. PMID:10496892
Boskey, E R; Telsch, K M; Whaley, K J; Moench, T R; Cone, R A
Background. The idea of laparoscopic assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH) is to convert a potential abdominal hysterectomy to a vaginal one, thus decreasing associated morbidity and hastening recovery. We compared intraoperative and postoperative outcomes between LAVH and abdominal hysterectomy, to find out if LAVH achieves better clinical results compared with abdominal hysterectomy. Material and methods. A total of 48 women were enrolled in the study. Finally 17 patients underwent LAVH (cases) and 20 underwent abdominal hysterectomy (controls). All surgeries were performed by a set of gynecologists with more or less same level of surgical experience and expertise. Results.None of the patients in LAVH required conversion to laparotomy. Mean operating time was 30 minutes longer in LAVH group as compared to abdominal hysterectomy group (167.06 + 31.97?min versus 135.25 + 31.72 min; P < 0.05). However, the mean blood loss in LAVH was 100?mL lesser than that in abdominal hysterectomy and the difference was found to be statistically significant (248.24 + 117.79?mL versus 340.00 + 119.86?mL; P < 0.05). Another advantage of LAVH was significantly lower pain scores on second and third postoperative days. Overall complications and postoperative hospital stay were not significantly different between the two groups. PMID:24729873
Shetty, Jyothi; Shanbhag, Asha
BACKGROUND.? Early in life, vaginally delivered infants exhibit a different composition of the gut flora compared with infants delivered by caesarean section (C-section); however, it is unclear whether this also applies to the oral cavity. AIM.? To investigate and compare the oral microbial profile between infants delivered vaginally and by C-section. DESIGN.? This is a cross-sectional case-control study. Eighty-four infants delivered either vaginally (n = 42) or by C-section (n = 42) were randomly selected from the 2009 birth cohort at the County Hospital in Halmstad, Sweden. Medically compromised and premature children (<32 weeks) were excluded. The mean age was 8.25 months (range 6-10 months), and parents were asked to complete a questionnaire on socioeconomic factors, lifestyle, and hygiene habits. Saliva was collected and analysed using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. RESULTS.? A higher prevalence of salivary Streptococcus salivarius, Lactobacillus curvata, Lactobacillus salivarius, and Lactobacuillus casei was detected in infants delivered vaginally (P < 0.05). The caries-associated bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus were detected in 63% and 59% of all children, respectively. CONCLUSION.? A significantly higher prevalence of certain strains of health-related streptococci and lactobacilli was found in vaginally delivered infants compared with infants delivered by C-section. The possible long-term effects on oral health need to be further investigated. PMID:21702851
Nelun Barfod, Mette; Magnusson, Kerstin; Lexner, Michala Oron; Blomqvist, Susanne; Dahlén, Gunnar; Twetman, Svante
What is a vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC)? If you have had a previous cesarean delivery , you have two choices ... vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC). What is a trial of labor after cesarean delivery (TOLAC)? A ...
ABSTRACT A 9-year-old female dog was referred to Azabu University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for dysuria and dyschezia after ovariohysterectomy. After a series of diagnostic imaging, vaginal obstruction was suspected by vaginal fluid retention. Surgical repair was attempted three times to establish patency through the vagina and the vestibule by episiotomy and laparotomy. Another laparotomy was performed to remove the entire vaginal mucosal layer to prevent recurrence, which resulted in favorable outcome. Histopathological examination revealed that the resected tissue was a cyst originated from mesonephric duct remnant. In the present case, the cyst was curable by the entire resection of the cyst lining membrane, which could eradicate all the secretory cells with least damage to the urethral vasculature and innervation. PMID:24646603
WATANABE, Toshifumi; MISHINA, Mika; SAKURAI, Yohei
Foreign body is a rare cause of vesico-vaginal fistula most often reported in developed countries. In developing countries obstructed labor is the commonest cause of fistula. A nulliparous 19-year-old female presented with a 3-week history of a foreign body in the vagina causing urinary incontinence and offensive vaginal discharge. Her guardian allegedly inserted the foreign body after she refused a pre-arranged marriage. A plastic container was removed from the vagina under general anesthesia. A large vesico-vaginal fistula was discovered, which was successfully surgically repaired. We recommend urgent removal of the foreign body, preferably under general anesthesia. However, if the history or physical examination reveals prolonged exposure, repair of the fistula should be delayed to allow for adequate debridement in order to prevent any life-threatening complications. PMID:24116334
Massinde, An; Kihunrwa, A
Vaginal pessaries are often used as first-line management of pelvic organ prolapse in women who are poor surgical candidates or who decline surgical repair. Mostly, pessaries are well tolerated but when neglected may lead to serious complications including vesicovaginal and rectovaginal fistulas. An 89-year-old woman presented with a large vesicovaginal fistula resulting from a Gellhorn pessary that had been neglected for 3 years. The base of the pessary had migrated completely inside the bladder and the fistulous opening measured 4 cm. The pessary was extracted under anesthesia using a Schuchardt incision to increase exposure. After 6 weeks of vaginal estrogen treatment, the fistula was successfully repaired using the Latzko partial colpocleisis technique. Neglect of a vaginal pessary can lead to serious complications. Patient education, local estrogen treatment, excellent fitting, and careful follow-up are of paramount importance in prevention of such complications. PMID:18301852
Arias, Beatriz E; Ridgeway, Beri; Barber, Matthew D
Vaginal tolerance tests were performed with a new potential microbicidal and spermicidal product, an acid-buffering vaginal gel (Acidform) without or with nonoxynol-9 (N-9). The potential advantages over other vaginal products include keeping a low pH, decrease of the irritating effect of N-9 on the cervix or vaginal mucosa associated with greater retention of the product after application, and decreasing “messiness”
Eliana Amaral; Anibal Faúndes; Lourens Zaneveld; Donald Waller; Sanjay Garg
Objective: To identify the effects of depomedroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) on vaginal microbial flora and epithelium.Methods: Women who desired DMPA for contraception were evaluated before and at 3 and 6 months after initiation of 150-mg DMPA injections every 3 months. At each visit, we assessed genital symptoms, vaginal signs, vaginal microflora, and histopathology by vaginal biopsies.Results: Among 38 women observed for
Leslie Miller; Dorothy L Patton; Amalia Meier; Soe Soe Thwin; Thomas M Hooton; David A Eschenbach
Bacterial communities colonizing the reproductive tracts of primates (including humans) impact the health, survival and fitness of the host, and thereby the evolution of the host species. Despite their importance, we currently have a poor understanding of primate microbiomes. The composition and structure of microbial communities vary considerably depending on the host and environmental factors. We conducted comparative analyses of the primate vaginal microbiome using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes of a phylogenetically broad range of primates to test for factors affecting the diversity of primate vaginal ecosystems. The nine primate species included: humans (Homo sapiens), yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus), olive baboons (Papio anubis), lemurs (Propithecus diadema), howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra), red colobus (Piliocolobus rufomitratus), vervets (Chlorocebus aethiops), mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Our results indicated that all primates exhibited host-specific vaginal microbiota and that humans were distinct from other primates in both microbiome composition and diversity. In contrast to the gut microbiome, the vaginal microbiome showed limited congruence with host phylogeny, and neither captivity nor diet elicited substantial effects on the vaginal microbiomes of primates. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance and Wilcoxon tests revealed correlations among vaginal microbiota and host species-specific socioecological factors, particularly related to sexuality, including: female promiscuity, baculum length, gestation time, mating group size and neonatal birth weight. The proportion of unclassified taxa observed in nonhuman primate samples increased with phylogenetic distance from humans, indicative of the existence of previously unrecognized microbial taxa. These findings contribute to our understanding of host-microbe variation and coevolution, microbial biogeography, and disease risk, and have important implications for the use of animal models in studies of human sexual and reproductive diseases. PMID:25036926
Yildirim, Suleyman; Yeoman, Carl J; Janga, Sarath Chandra; Thomas, Susan M; Ho, Mengfei; Leigh, Steven R; Consortium, Primate Microbiome; White, Bryan A; Wilson, Brenda A; Stumpf, Rebecca M
Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate risk factors of vaginal cuff dehiscence or evisceration according to the type of operation. Methods Medical records of 604 women who underwent hysterectomies at Korea University Anam Hospital between June 2007 and June 2011 were reviewed. They were allocated to six groups. The six types of hysterectomies included robotic hysterectomy (n = 7), robotic radical hysterectomy and node dissection (RRHND, n = 9), total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH, n = 274), laparoscopy assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH, n = 238), laparoscopic radical hysterectomy and node dissection (n = 11), and abdominal radical hysterectomy (ARH, n = 63). The characteristics and outcomes of each groups were compared. Results There was no difference in the characteristics of patients between 6 groups. In total of 604 hysterectomies, 3 evisceration (0.49%) and 21 dehiscences (3.47%) occurred. Evisceration were found in RRHND (1/9, 11.1%), TLH (1/276, 0.36%), and ARH (1/63, 1.56%). Dehiscences occurred in TLH (15/274, 5.42%), LAVH (4/238, 1.68%), and ARH (2/63, 3.17%). In 169 cases of TLH with intra-corporeal continuous suture, 1 evisceration and 4 dehiscences occurred, whereas 11 dehiscences occurred in 105 TLH cases with vaginal continuous locking suture (2.96% vs. 10.47%, P = 0.02). Conclusion The incidence of vaginal cuff dehiscenceand eviscerationwas significantly higher in TLH than LAVH. The intra-corporeal cuff suture was superior to the vaginal suture to prevent the vaginal cuff complications in TLH. PMID:24678487
Kim, Myung Ji; Kim, Seongmin; Bae, Hyo Sook; Lee, Jae Kwan; Lee, Nak Woo
Background Over-the-counter (OTC) feminine hygiene products come with little warning about possible side effects. This study evaluates in-vitro their effects on Lactobacillus crispatus, which is dominant in the normal vaginal microbiota and helps maintain a healthy mucosal barrier essential for normal reproductive function and prevention of sexually transmitted infections and gynecologic cancer. Methods A feminine moisturizer (Vagisil), personal lubricant, and douche were purchased OTC. A topical spermicide (nonoxynol-9) known to alter the vaginal immune barrier was used as a control. L. crispatus was incubated with each product for 2 and 24h and then seeded on agar for colony forming units (CFU). Human vaginal epithelial cells were exposed to products in the presence or absence of L. crispatus for 24h, followed by epithelium-associated CFU enumeration. Interleukin-8 was immunoassayed and ANOVA was used for statistical evaluation. Results Nonoxynol-9 and Vagisil suppressed Lactobacillus growth at 2h and killed all bacteria at 24h. The lubricant decreased bacterial growth insignificantly at 2h but killed all at 24h. The douche did not have a significant effect. At full strength, all products suppressed epithelial viability and all, except the douche, suppressed epithelial-associated CFU. When applied at non-toxic dose in the absence of bacteria, the douche and moisturizer induced an increase of IL-8, suggesting a potential to initiate inflammatory reaction. In the presence of L. crispatus, the proinflammatory effects of the douche and moisturizer were countered, and IL-8 production was inhibited in the presence of the other products. Conclusion Some OTC vaginal products may be harmful to L. crispatus and alter the vaginal immune environment. Illustrated through these results, L. crispatus is essential in the preservation of the function of vaginal epithelial cells in the presence of some feminine hygiene products. More research should be invested toward these products before they are placed on the market. PMID:24009546
Fashemi, Bisiayo; Delaney, Mary L.; Onderdonk, Andrew B.; Fichorova, Raina N.
Background Many vaginal dilator therapy guidelines advocate routine vaginal dilation during and after pelvic radiotherapy to prevent stenosis (abnormal narrowing of the vagina). The UK Gynaecological Oncology Nurse Forum recommend dilation “three times weekly for an indefinite time period”. The UK patient charity Cancer Backup advises using vaginal dilators from two to eight weeks after the end of radiotherapy treatment. Australian guidelines recommend dilation after brachytherapy “as soon as is comfortably possible” and “certainly within four weeks and to continue for three years or indefinitely if possible”. However, dilation is intrusive, uses health resources and can be psychologically distressing. It has also caused rare but very serious damage to the rectum. Objectives To review the benefits and harms of vaginal dilation therapy associated with pelvic radiotherapy for cancer. Search methods Searches included the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1950 to 2008), EMBASE (1980 to 2008) and CINAHL (1982 to 2008). Selection criteria Any comparative randomised controlled trials (RCT) or data of any type which compared dilation or penetration of the vagina after pelvic radiotherapy treatment for cancer. Data collection and analysis The review authors independently abstracted data and assessed risk of bias. We analysed the mean difference in sexual function scores and the risk ratio for non-compliance at six weeks and three months in single trial analyses. No trials met the inclusion criteria. Main results Dilation during or immediately after radiotherapy can, in rare cases, cause damage and there is no persuasive evidence from any study to demonstrate that it prevents stenosis. Data from one RCT showed no improvement in sexual scores in women who were encouraged to practice dilation. Two case series and one comparative study using historical controls suggest that dilation might be associated with a longer vaginal length but these data cannot reasonably be interpreted to show that dilation caused the change in the vagina. Authors’ conclusions Routine dilation during or soon after cancer treatment may be harmful. There is no reliable evidence to show that routine regular vaginal dilation during or after radiotherapy prevents the late effects of radiotherapy or improves quality of life. Gentle vaginal exploration might separate the vaginal walls before they can stick together and some women may benefit from dilation therapy once inflammation has settled but there are no good comparative supporting data. PMID:20824858
Miles, Tracie; Johnson, Nick
Objective: Our purpose was to determine the maternal risks associated with failed attempt at vaginal birth after cesarean compared with elective repeat cesarean delivery or successful vaginal birth after cesarean. Study Design: From 1989 to 1998 all patients attempting vaginal birth after cesarean and all patients undergoing repeat cesarean deliveries were reviewed. Data were extracted from a computerized obstetric database
Judith U. Hibbard; Muhammed A. Ismail; Yantao Wang; Catherine Te; Theodore Karrison; Mahmoud A. Ismail
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess whether, for women with previous cesarean section, a prenatal education and support program promoting vaginal birth after cesarean delivery increases the probability of vaginal delivery.STUDY DESIGN: Women with a single previous cesarean were recruited before 28 weeks' gestation. Women's self-assessed motivation to attempt vaginal birth after a previous cesarean delivery was measured on a
William Fraser; Elizabeth Maunsell; Ellen Hodnett; Jean-Marie Moutquin
After menopause, many women experience vaginal dryness and atrophy of tissue, often attributed to the loss of estrogen. An understudied aspect of vaginal health in women who experience dryness due to atrophy is the role of the resident microbes. It is known that the microbiota has an important role in healthy vaginal homeostasis, including maintaining the pH balance and excluding
Ruben Hummelen; Jean M. Macklaim; Jordan E. Bisanz; Jo-Anne Hammond; Amy McMillan; Rebecca Vongsa; David Koenig; Gregory B. Gloor; Gregor Reid
A new technique of using double vaginal ring pessaries to treat uterovaginal prolapse in a group of elderly women is described. Eighteen women with a mean age of 82 years and advanced Stage III or IV uterovaginal prolapse had double vaginal rings inserted. All of them previously had used single vaginal ring pessaries or had undergone pelvic floor repair surgery.
K. Singh; W. M. N. Reid
BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is an ecological disorder of the vaginal microbiota that affects millions of women annually, and is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes including pre-term birth and the acquisition of sexually transmitted infections. However, little is known about the overall structure and composition of vaginal microbial communities; most of the earlier studies focused on predominant vaginal bacteria
Zongxin Ling; Jianming Kong; Fang Liu; Haibin Zhu; Xiaoyi Chen; Yuezhu Wang; Lanjuan Li; Karen E Nelson; Yaxian Xia; Charlie Xiang
Unexplained menstrual-like cyclic vaginal bleeding, lasting for several days and without any uterine and vaginal anomaly, is a rare condition in prepubertal girls. Only small series (containing four to eleven cases) have been described in literature. We report our in nine girls presenting with vaginal bleeding without any abnormality at gynaecological, hormonal and echographic examination. PMID:24753876
Merckx, M.; Weyers, S.; Santegoeds, R.; De Schepper, J.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the surgical outcomes of women with moderately enlarged uteri undergoing vaginal hysterectomy with those of women with uteri of normal size undergoing vaginal hysterectomy. A secondary objective was to investigate the roles of uterine morcellation and laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy in the treatment of these women. Study Design: Thirty consecutive women
James B. Unger
Objectives: The feasibility of providing prolonged and controlled release of the experimental non- nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor TMC120 from a silicone vaginal ring in quantities sufficient to maintain a vaginal concentration offering protection against heterosexual HIV transmission was investigated. Methods: Core-type, silicone elastomer vaginal rings containing TMC120 were manufactured, and in vitro release studies performed under sink conditions. The experimental
R. Karl Malcolm; A. David Woolfson; Clare F. Toner; Ryan J. Morrow; Stephen D. McCullagh
Introduction Vaginal dryness due to vaginal atrophy is a common complaint of postmenopausal women, interfering with sexual function and quality of life. Hormone replacement therapy is the only effective therapy but with known risks that leave unmet medical needs. A new product, ZP-025 vaginal gel, containing purified (dialyzed lyophilized) bovine colostrum, has been developed for the treatment of vaginal dryness secondary to vaginal atrophy. Aim The study aims to investigate the effects of intravaginal application of ZP-025 on vaginal atrophy using an animal model. Methods Ovariectomized female Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Three weeks after surgery, rats were divided into four groups and treated for 4 weeks (twice a day) with placebo or ZP-025 at low (0.5%) or high (2.3%) concentrations of colostrum; in the control group, rats did not receive any treatment. Changes in vaginal blood flow due to pelvic nerve stimulation were assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry and vaginal tissue was collected for histological assay. Main Outcome Measures The main outcome measures were vaginal blood flow before and after pelvic nerve stimulation and histology of vaginal epithelium. Results Treatment with ZP-025 to ovariectomized rats induced an increase of vaginal blood flow parameters (vascular capacitance, amplitude and area under the curve of the response) in response to pelvic nerve stimulation compared with control group, statistically significant at 2.3%. Vaginal epithelium showed a physiological estrous cycle aspect in treated animals, with at least five cell layers vs. one or two cell layers in control rats. As expected from a topical formulation, systemic effects on body weights and uterine wet weights were not observed with application of ZP-025. Conclusions In this study, the new product ZP-025, containing purified colostrum, was shown to have beneficial effects on vaginal atrophy in ovariectomized rats, improving vaginal hemodynamics and thickness of vaginal epithelium. Vailati S, Melloni E, Riscassi E, Behr Roussel D, and Sardina M. Evaluation of the effects of a new intravaginal gel, containing purified bovine colostrum, on vaginal blood flow and vaginal atrophy in ovariectomized rat. Sex Med 2013;1:35–43. PMID:25356286
Vailati, Silvia; Melloni, Elsa; Riscassi, Ermanno; Behr Roussel, Delphine; Sardina, Marco
Objective To compare efficacy and safety of vaginal misoprostol (PGE1 analog) with dinoprostone (PGE2 analog) vaginal insert for labor induction in term pregnancies.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Study design A total of 112 women with singleton pregnancies of ?37 weeks of gestation, and low Bishop scores underwent labor induction.\\u000a The subjects were randomized to receive either 50 ?g misoprostol intravaginally every 4 h to a maximum of five doses
Sebiha Özkan; Eray Çal??kan; Emek Do?er; ?zzet Yücesoy; Semih Özeren; Birol Vural
Little is known about the effects of contraceptive vaginal rings on the vaginal surface epithelium, although most studies have not demonstrated any significant deleterious effect. However, one study found that some medium-to-long-term levonorgestrel-releasing ring users developed chronic erythematous and ulcerative lesions in the posterior vaginal fornix. Subsequently, this ring was completely redesigned (IVR-2) with different dimensions and much greater flexibility.
E. Weisberg; I. S. Fraser; J. Baker; D. Archer; B.-M. Landgren; S. Killick; P. Soutter; T. Krause; C. d’Arcangues
Background: The issue of vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) has become highly visible and contentious. In 1999, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists advocated a policy that surgical capability be ''immediately available'' for women in labor attempting VBAC. Methods: Every hospital in Colorado, Montana, Oregon, and Wisconsin was contacted by telephone at least once during the period 2003 to
Richard G. Roberts; Mark Deutchman; Valerie J. King; George E. Fryer; Thomas J. Miyoshi
The evolution of the laparoscopic techniques for the treatment of patients with early cervical cancer is presen- ted. The laparoscopic assistance makes the pelvic lymphade- nectomy and the removal of the lateral portion of the para- metrium feasible during radical vaginal hysterectomy without the need for the muscle-cutting vulvovaginal incision. The technique is also applicable to patients with early cervical
Primary cancers of the vagina are rare. They comprise 1% to 2% of all gynecologic malignancies and occur predominantly in older women. The diagnosis of primary carcinoma of the vagina requires that the cervix and vulva be intact and that no clinical evidence of other primary tumors exist. Approximately 90% of all vaginal tumors are squamous cell in type on histologic examination. Adenocarcinoma, which is much less common (2% to 4%), is seen primarily in younger women with in utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol. In addition to exposure to diethylstilbestrol, other environmental factors have been associated with the development of vaginal tumors, including chronic irritation from pessaries, previous hysterectomy for benign disease, immunosuppression therapy, cervical irradiation, and endometriosis. Infectious causes seem to play an even more pernicious role in vaginal cancer. The two agents most often implicated are herpes simplex virus and human papillomavirus. These viruses appear to serve as cofactors in the inducement of various genital cancers, working together or with environmental agents such as diethylstilbestrol and host-related genetic abnormalities. The prognosis of vaginal cancer depends on the stage of the disease, with an overall 5-year survival rate of 80% to 90% for early stages. PMID:1659200
Merino, M J
The purpose of this study was to attempt to correlate vaginal levels of SIgA with variables including age, day of menstrual cycle, use of oral contraceptives, length of time oral contraceptives had been used, and presence of Candida albicans infection. (Author)
Grant, Tamara Dawn; Mace, Kenneth D.
Objectives: To assess the attitude, knowledge, and expectations of Asian pregnant women toward cesarean and vaginal deliveries. Methods: Written questionnaires were given to pregnant women attending the National University Hospital antenatal clinics, and 160 responses were tabulated and analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The participation rate was 65% and 50% of the respondents were Chinese, 20% Indian, 21% Malay, 2%
E. S. Y. Chong; M. Mongelli
Background.Recent studies have established that intraperitoneal chemotherapy is associated with improved outcomes compared with intravenous treatment in patients with advanced, optimally cytoreduced ovarian cancer, but at the expense of increased toxicity. We present a case of vaginal evisceration during intraperitoneal chemotherapy for advanced ovarian cancer.
Amy M. Burkett; David E. Cohn; Larry J. Copeland
Objective: To expand on prior investigations and further evaluate the fetal risk associated with vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) by examining the incidence not only of a depressed Apgar score at 5 minutes but also of fetal acidemia.Methods: Between January 1, 1991, and December 31, 1996, the following groups of patients who delivered a singleton fetus with birth weight greater
Michael L Socol; Alan M Peaceman
Objective: To determine characteristics associated with successful trials of labor after cesarean delivery (TOLAC) and to determine the success of vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC) in a subset of patients with previous cesarean delivery for failure to progress at full dilatation.Methods: A retrospective chart review from January 1997 through April 1998 of patients undergoing TOLAC at our institution. Four
Jennifer D. Marshak; Brian S. Cooperman; Wendy B. Fried; Quihu Shi
By 1982, both the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists had recommended that hospitals adopt policies favoring vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC). Yet VBAC has since made only small inroads against repeat cesarean section and is primarily popular among progressive obstetricians and middle-class women wanting to experience natural childbirth and to avoid surgery.
Carol Shepherd McClain
Objective: Our purpose was to determine the impact of labor induction on both the success and safety of a trial of labor in women who are candidates for vaginal birth after cesarean. Study Design: We performed a prospective observational analysis of 505 women consecutively presenting for delivery with a prior cesarean (September 1997–December 1999), of whom 236 (46.7%) underwent trial
Emma J. Sims; Roger B. Newman; Thomas C. Hulsey
Objective: The safety of vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC) in the singleton pregnancy has been known for many years. Despite this knowledge, most physicians feel the risk of VBAC in a twin pregnancy (TP) is too high despite the lack of documentation in the literature. We sought to determine if a VBAC for a TP carried greater risk than
Thomas D. Myles; Rory Miranda
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative cost-effectiveness of attempted vaginal birth after cesarean delivery compared with elective repeat cesarean delivery. Study Design: We performed an historic cohort analysis of women with a single prior cesarean delivery who were delivered at our institution during 1999. Inclusion criteria were ?36 weeks' gestation and carrying a live, singleton
Heather DiMaio; Rodney K. Edwards; Tammy Y. Euliano; R. William Treloar; Amelia C. Cruz
Objective: To describe attempted and successful vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) rates and uterine rupture rates for women with and without prior cesareans, and compare delivery outcomes in hospitals with different attempted VBAC rates.Methods: We used California hospital discharge summary data for 1995 to calculate attempted and successful VBAC rates and uterine rupture rates. We used multivariate logistic regression models
Kimberly D Gregory; Lisa M Korst; Patricia Cane; Lawrence D Platt; Katherine Kahn
Objective: To develop a scoring system to predict the likelihood of vaginal birth in patients undergoing a trial of labor after previous cesarean delivery using factors known at the time of hospital admission.Methods: Trial of labor was attempted in 5022 patients who were assigned randomly to score derivation and score testing groups. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was used in the
Bruce L Flamm; Ann M Geiger
OBJECTIVE: We report a 10-year experience with vaginal birth after cesarean section in women with twins. STUDY DESIGN: Data were gathered from labor and delivery records and maternal and neonatal hospital charts. Women with a vertical uterine scar, a previous uterine rupture, an unrepaired dehiscence, or obstetric contraindications to labor were excluded from a trial of labor. Full-thickness uterine defects
David A. Miller; Patrick Mullin; Dennis Hou; Richard H. Paul
All women, regardless of race, culture, or socioeconomic background, experience urogenital atrophy as a result of hypoestrogenism from the menopause. As women go through the aging cycle, their vaginal and urethral epithelium become progressively deprived of estrogen and the tissue loses epithelial thickness, rugation, moisture, vasculature, and elasticity. The pH increases to above 5, infections in the urinary tract and
Gloria Ann Bachmann
A correspondence between the appearance of vaginal smears and the layers of the epithelium from which the cells had desquamated was established in untreated rats during the estrous cycle, in control ovariectomized rats and in spayed rats injected with either estrogen or progesterone. The technique for preparing and staining the smears (modified Shorr's staining procedure) is outlined. A simplified system of classification which allows the accurate identification of the various stages of the reproductive state in the rat is described. Standing estrus, as well as the influence of estrogen on spayed rats, is characterized by marked cornification of the cells and the disappearance of leukocytes. At the end of estrus, the cornified layer is sloughed off and invasion by leukocytes occurs. During diestrus, as well as in untreated ovariectomized rats, the vaginal contents consistently lack cornified cells whereas leukocytes are very plentiful. Proestrus follows diestrus: the vaginal smear is devoid of leukocytes and characterized by nucleated epithelial cells. Pregnancy, as well as the influence of progesterone on ovariectomized rats, is also characterized by epithelial growth and desquamation but at different rates, resulting in the presence of intermediate cells, and polymorphs and mucus forming a noticeable background to the smear. Since vaginal smears display cell pictures characteristic for each hormone after administration of estrogen or progesterone, exfoliate cytology is a good indicator of the stage of the reproductive state in the rat. PMID:3227778
Montes, G S; Luque, E H
A correspondence between the appearance of vaginal smears and the layers of the epithelium from which the cells had desquamated was established in untreated rats during the estrous cycle, in control ovariectomized rats and in spayed rats injected with either estrogen or progesterone. The technique for preparing and staining the smears (modified Shorr’s staining procedure) is outlined. A simplified.system of
G. S. Monies; E. H. Luque
Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, caused by Candida albicans, is a significant problem in women of child- bearing age. Although cell-mediated immunity (CMI) due to T cells and cytokines is the predominant host defense mechanism against C. albicans at mucosal tissue sites, host defense mechanisms against C. albicans at the vaginal mucosa are poorly understood. Based on an estrogen-dependent murine model of
MICHAEL SAAVEDRA; BRAD TAYLOR; NICHOLAS LUKACS; PAUL L. FIDEL
The umbilical venous plasma prolactin concentrations of three groups of term infants were compared immediately after birth. Samples were taken following seven vaginal deliveries, eight emergency caesarean sections performed during labour, and 12 elective caesarean sections before labour. Mean concentrations of prolactin were significantly lower in the elective caesarean section group compared with the labour groups. This result indicates that
Lindsay Heasman; John A D Spencer; Michael E Symonds
The immediate induction of the full complement of maternal behavior in nonpregnant ewes primed with estrogen and progesterone has been obtained after 5 minutes of vaginal-cervical stimulation. A similar period of such stimulation given to recently parturient ewes, after the development of selective bonding to their own lambs, reversed their rejection behavior of alien lambs and produced a state of
E. B. Keverne; F. Levy; P. Poindron; D. R. Lindsay
The aim of this study was to document the practice of water births and compare their outcome and safety with normal vaginal deliveries. A retrospective case-control study was conducted over a five year period from 1989 to 1994 at the Maternity Unit, Rochford Hospital, Southend, UK. Three hundred and one women electing for water births were compared with the same
Chineze M. Otigbah; Mandish K. Dhanjal; Gloria Harmsworth; Tim Chard
SUMMARY Objective: To determine the presence of Escherichia coli in vaginal fluids of women with vaginal infection and to study its antimicrobial susceptibility. Methods: 425 samples of women with clinical diagnosis of vaginal infection (cases) and 100 healthy women were studied (controls). The vaginal samples were studied by means of the criteria of Amsel and Nugent. Different methodologies were used
Objective: Bacterial vaginosis is associated with an unexplained loss of vaginal lactobacilli. Previously, we have identified certain vaginal lactobacilli-released phages that can inhibit in vitro other vaginal lactobacilli. However, there is no apparent route for phages to be transmitted among women. The purpose of this study was to identify whether certain Lactobacillus products commonly used by women release phages or bacteriocins that can inhibit vaginal lactobacilli. Methods: From 26 Lactobacillus products (2 acidophilus milks, 20 yogurts, 3 Lactobacillus pills, and 1 vaginal douche mix), lactobacilli were isolated with Rogosa SL agar (Difco, Detroit, MI). From these lactobacilli, phages and bacteriocins were induced with mitomycin C and tested against a collection of vaginal Lactobacillus strains. Results: From the 26 products, 43 Lactobacillus strains were isolated. Strains from 11 yogurts released phages, among which 7 inhibited vaginal lactobacilli. Eleven strains released bacteriocins that inhibited vaginal lactobacilli. While about one-half of the vaginal strains were lysed by bacteriocins, less than 20% were lysed by phages. Conclusions: Some vaginal lactobacilli were inhibited in vitro by phages or bacteriocins released from Lactobacillus products used by women, implying that vaginal lactobacilli may be reduced naturally due to phages or bacteriocins from the environment. PMID:18476145
Pavlova, Sylvia I.; Mou, Susan M.; Ma, Wen-ge; Kilic, Ali O.
Despite availability of successful prevention strategies, HIV continues to spread at alarming rates, especially among women in developing countries. Vaginal microbicides offer a promising approach for blocking transmission of HIV when condom use cannot be negotiated with male partners. A major problem in the development of vaginal microbicides is chemically induced vaginal irritation, which can enhance the risk of HIV transmission. Evaluation of vaginal irritation prior to clinical trials typically uses an expensive and animal-intensive rabbit vaginal irritation model, which could be supplemented by measuring additional inflammatory biomarkers. We studied several immunological parameters as potential biomarkers of vaginal irritation, using the spermicides nonoxynol-9 and benzalkonium chloride as test microbicides. We measured amounts of cytokines, as well as inflammatory cells, in vaginal tissue lysates and on the vaginal surface. We observed that treatment with the selected microbicides increases quantities of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta, CXCL8, and CCL2 in the vaginal tissue parenchyma, and of CCL2 on the vaginal surface. This observation was correlated with increases in macrophages in the vaginal parenchyma. We suggest that measurements of CCL2 and macrophages can serve as new inflammatory biomarkers to evaluate the safety of promising novel microbicides for prevention of HIV. PMID:19929801
Alt, Carsten; Harrison, Travis; Dousman, Linda; Fujita, Nahoko; Shew, Ken; Tran, Thanh-Thuy; Shayesteh, Sara; Matsukawa, Akihiro; Mirsalis, Jon; D'Andrea, Annalisa
Tenofovir (TFV) is a proven microbicide when administered topically as a vaginal gel. To improve its efficacy, TFV was combined with the nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor UC781 in a vaginal gel. Mixture design of experiments theory was used to define a range of gel compositions with varying rheological properties and to assess in vitro drug release and tissue retention. Experiments and computations led to the specification of three different gels referred to as a spreading gel (SG), an intermediate spreading gel (ISG), and a bolus gel (BG). These three gels, all containing 1.0% TFV and 0.1% micronized UC781, were evaluated for in vitro release, in vitro tissue retention and safety, and in vivo pharmacokinetics in the rabbit. There were some differences in in vitro release rates of UC781 (the higher the gel viscosity, the slower the release rate) across gels, while release of TFV was independent of gel type. In an organotypic human vaginal-ectocervical (VEC) tissue model, the amounts of tissue-associated TFV and UC781 were several orders of magnitude higher than their in vitro half-maximal inhibitory concentration. There were no differences in VEC tissue concentrations of TFV or UC781 between the SG, ISG, and BG. All three gels were well tolerated in the VEC model as assessed by tissue viability, electrical resistance, histology, and cytokine (interleukin-8 and interleukin-1 beta) release. The local vaginal tissue concentrations in rabbits following a single dose or seven once-daily doses were variable and generally lower than those found in the VEC tissue model. The approach described herein provides a rational schema to design and evaluate vaginal gels for use as microbicides. PMID:22359356
Kiser, Patrick F; Mahalingam, Alamelu; Fabian, Judit; Smith, Eric; Damian, Festo R; Peters, Jennifer J; Katz, David F; Elgendy, Hoda; Clark, Meredith R; Friend, David R
Background The effect of storage conditions on the microbiome and metabolite composition of human biological samples has not been thoroughly investigated as a potential source of bias. We evaluated the effect of two common storage conditions used in clinical trials on the bacterial and metabolite composition of the vaginal microbiota using pyrosequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA gene sequencing and 1H-NMR analyses. Methodology/Principal Findings Eight women were enrolled and four mid-vaginal swabs were collected by a physician from each woman. The samples were either processed immediately, stored at ?80°C for 4 weeks or at ?20°C for 1 week followed by transfer to ?80°C for another 4 weeks prior to analysis. Statistical methods, including Kolmogorovo-Smirnov and Wilcoxon tests, were performed to evaluate the differences in vaginal bacterial community composition and metabolites between samples stored under different conditions. The results showed that there were no significant differences between samples processed immediately after collection or stored for varying durations. 1H-NMR analysis of the small molecule metabolites in vaginal secretions indicated that high levels of lactic acid were associated with Lactobacillus-dominated communities. Relative abundance of lactic acid did not appear to correlate with relative abundance of individual Lactobacillus sp. in this limited sample, although lower levels of lactic acid were observed when L. gasseri was dominant, indicating differences in metabolic output of seemingly similar communities. Conclusions/Significance These findings benefit large-scale, field-based microbiome and metabolomic studies of the vaginal microbiota. PMID:22655031
Bai, Guoyun; Gajer, Pawel; Nandy, Melissa; Ma, Bing; Yang, Hongqiu; Sakamoto, Joyce; Blanchard, May H.; Ravel, Jacques; Brotman, Rebecca M.
Melittin is a cytolytic peptide component of bee venom which rapidly integrates into lipid bilayers and forms pores resulting in osmotic lysis. While the therapeutic utility of free melittin is limited by its cytotoxicity, incorporation of melittin into the lipid shell of a perfluorocarbon nanoparticle has been shown to reduce its toxicity in vivo. Our group has previously demonstrated that perfluorocarbon nanoparticles containing melittin at concentrations <10 µM inhibit HIV infectivity in vitro. In the current study, we assessed the impact of blank and melittin-containing perfluorocarbon nanoparticles on sperm motility and the viability of both sperm and vaginal epithelial cells. We found that free melittin was toxic to sperm and vaginal epithelium at concentrations greater than 2 µM (p<0.001). However, melittin nanoparticles were not cytotoxic to sperm (p?=?0.42) or vaginal epithelium (p?=?0.48) at an equivalent melittin concentration of 10 µM. Thus, nanoparticle formulation of melittin reduced melittin cytotoxicity fivefold and prevented melittin toxicity at concentrations previously shown to inhibit HIV infectivity. Melittin nanoparticles were toxic to vaginal epithelium at equivalent melittin concentrations ?20 µM (p<0.001) and were toxic to sperm at equivalent melittin concentrations ?40 µM (p<0.001). Sperm cytotoxicity was enhanced by targeting of the nanoparticles to the sperm surface antigen sperm adhesion molecule 1. While further testing is needed to determine the extent of cytotoxicity in a more physiologically relevant model system, these results suggest that melittin-containing nanoparticles could form the basis of a virucide that is not toxic to sperm and vaginal epithelium. This virucide would be beneficial for HIV serodiscordant couples seeking to achieve natural pregnancy. PMID:24748389
Jallouk, Andrew P.; Moley, Kelle H.; Omurtag, Kenan; Hu, Grace; Lanza, Gregory M.; Wickline, Samuel A.; Hood, Joshua L.
Identification of vaginal fluids is an important step in the process of sexual assaults confirmation. Advances in both microbiology and molecular biology defined technical approaches allowing the discrimination of body fluids. These protocols are based on the identification of specific bacterial communities by microfloraDNA (mfDNA) amplification. A multiplex real time-PCR assay (ForFLUID kit) has been developed for identifying biological fluids and for discrimination among vaginal, oral and fecal samples. In order to test its efficacy and reliability of the assay in the identification of vaginal fluids, an interlaboratory evaluation has been performed on homogeneous vaginal swabs. All the involved laboratories were able to correctly recognize all the vaginal swabs, and no false positives were identified when the assay was applied on non-vaginal samples. The assay represents an useful molecular tool that can be easily adopted by forensic geneticists involved in vaginal fluid identification. PMID:24365693
Giampaoli, Saverio; Alessandrini, Federica; Berti, Andrea; Ripani, Luigi; Choi, Ajin; Crab, Roselien; De Vittori, Elisabetta; Egyed, Balazs; Haas, Cordula; Lee, Hwan Young; Korabecná, Marie; Noel, Fabrice; Podini, Daniele; Tagliabracci, Adriano; Valentini, Alessio; Romano Spica, Vincenzo
Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 1; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 3; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Recurrent Vulvar Cancer; Stage 0 Cervical Cancer; Stage 0 Vaginal Cancer; Stage 0 Vulvar Cancer; Stage I Vaginal Cancer; Stage I Vulvar Cancer; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage III Vulvar Cancer; Stage IV Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer
Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of a 3-day regimen of clindamycin vaginal ovules with a 7-day regimen of clindamycin vaginal cream for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis (BV) Methods: Women with a clinical diagnosis of BV were treated with a 3-day course of clindamycin ovules or a 7-day course of clindamycin cream administered intravaginally. Three hundred and eighty-four patients received study drug and were included in the evaluable patient population (ovule group, n = 204; cream group, n = 180). Assessments included pelvic examination and diagnostic testing. Primary efficacy endpoints were a resolution of two of three diagnostic criteria at the first follow-up visit and three of three diagnostic criteria at the second. Results: Cure rates in the evaluable patient population were similar between treatment groups: 53.7% (109/204) for the ovule group and 47.8% (85/180) for the cream group (p = 0.2471, 95% CI– 4.1–16.0%). The most commonly reported medical event, vulvovaginal pruritus, had similar incidence in both treatment groups. Conclusions: A 3-day course of clindamycin vaginal ovules is as effective and well-tolerated as a 7-day course of clindamycin vaginal cream in the treatment of BV. PMID:11368263
Peipert, Jeffrey F.; McGregor, James A.; Livengood, Charles; Martin, Maureen; Robbins, Jill; Wajszczuk, Charles P.
The combination of vesicovaginal fistula and complete vaginal vault prolapse is rare. The only published treatment recommendations concern partial colpocleisis; an option that precludes intercourse. In this case report, we describe successful repair of this problem with a Latzko fistula repair and concomitant Michigan four-wall sacrospinous ligament suspension: curing the fistula, correcting the prolapse and preserving sexual function. PMID:22983277
Crosby, Erin C.; Berger, Mitchell B.; DeLancey, John O. L.
The combination of vesicovaginal fistula and complete vaginal vault prolapse is rare. The only published treatment recommendations concern partial colpocleisis, an option that precludes intercourse. In this case report, we describe successful repair of this problem with a Latzko fistula repair and a concomitant Michigan 4-wall sacrospinous ligament suspension: instead of curing the fistula, correcting the prolapse, and preserving sexual function. PMID:22983277
Crosby, Erin C; Berger, Mitchell B; Delancey, John O L
Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of the most common urogenital infections among women of reproductive age that represents shifts in microbiota from Lactobacillus spp. to diverse anaerobes. The aim of our study was to evalute the diagnostic values of Gardnerella, Atopobium, Eggerthella, Megasphaera typeI, Leptotrichia/Sneathia and Prevotella, defined as a vaginal pathogenic community for BV and their associations with vaginal pH and Nugent scores. Methods and Findings We investigated the vaginal pathogenic bacteria and Lactobacillus spp. with species-specific real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) in 50 BV-positive and 50 BV-negative Chinese women of reproductive age. Relative to BV-negative subjects, a siginificant decline in Lactobacillus and an obvious increase in bacteria in the vaginal pathogenic community were observed in BV-postive subjects (P<0.05). With the exception of Megasphaera typeI, other vaginal pathogenic bacteria were highly predictable for BV with a better sensitivity and specificity. The vaginal pathogenic community was positively associated with vaginal pH and Nugent scores, while Lactobacillus spp., such as L. iners and L. crispatus was negatively associated with them (P<0.05). Conclusions Our data implied that the prevalance of vaginal pathogenic bacteria as well as the depletion of Lactobacillus was highly accurate for BV diagnosis. Vaginal microbiota shifts, especially the overgrowth of the vaginal pathogenic community, showed well diagnostic values in predicting BV. Postive correlations between those vaginal pathogenic bacteria and vaginal pH, Nugent score indicated the vaginal pathogenic community rather than a single vaginal microorganism, was participated in the onset of BV directly. PMID:24124575
Luo, Yueqiu; Wu, Xiaoxing; Yuan, Li; Tong, Xiaojuan; Li, Lanjuan; Xiang, Charlie
Background The vaginal microflora is important for maintaining vaginal health and preventing infections of the reproductive tract. The rectum has been suggested as the major source for the colonisation of the vaginal econiche. Methods To establish whether the rectum can serve as a possible bacterial reservoir for colonisation of the vaginal econiche, we cultured vaginal and rectal specimens from pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation, identified the isolates to the species level with tRNA intergenic length polymorphism analysis (tDNA-PCR) and genotyped the isolates for those subjects from which the same species was isolated simultaneously vaginally and rectally, by RAPD-analysis. One vaginal and one rectal swab were collected from a total of each of 132 pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation. Swabs were cultured on Columbia CNA agar and MRS agar. For each subject 4 colonies were selected for each of both sites, i.e. 8 colonies in total. Results Among the 844 isolates that could be identified by tDNA-PCR, a total of 63 bacterial species were present, 9 (14%) only vaginally, 26 (41%) only rectally, and 28 (44%) in both vagina and rectum. A total of 121 (91.6%) of 132 vaginal samples and 51 (38.6%) of 132 rectal samples were positive for lactobacilli. L. crispatus was the most frequently isolated Lactobacillus species from the vagina (40% of the subjects were positive), followed by L. jensenii (32%), L. gasseri (30%) and L. iners (11%). L. gasseri was the most frequently isolated Lactobacillus species from the rectum (15%), followed by L. jensenii (12%), L. crispatus (11%) and L. iners (2%). A total of 47 pregnant women carried the same species vaginally and rectally. This resulted in 50 vaginal/rectal pairs of the same species, for a total of eight different species. For 34 of the 50 species pairs (68%), isolates with the same genotype were present vaginally and rectally and a high level of genotypic diversity within species per subject was also established. Conclusion It can be concluded that there is a certain degree of correspondence between the vaginal and rectal microflora, not only with regard to species composition but also with regard to strain identity between vaginal and rectal isolates. These results support the hypothesis that the rectal microflora serves as a reservoir for colonisation of the vaginal econiche. PMID:19828036
Objective: This study was conducted to identify obstetric risk factors for anal sphincter tear in primiparous patients, patients with a previous cesarean delivery (VBAC), and patients with a previous vaginal delivery (PVD). Study Design: An obstetrics automated record system was accessed to retrospectively review records of all singleton vaginal deliveries at greater than 36 weeks' gestation (excluding breech and stillbirth)
Holly E. Richter; Cynthia G. Brumfield; Suzanne P. Cliver; Kathryn L. Burgio; Cherry L. Neely; R. Edward Varner
Chondosarcoma of the proximal femur is a rare malignant disorder in women of (pre-) childbearing age, for which a radical resection through a hemipelvectomy could be indicated. We describe a case of a 36-year-old primigravida with a hemipelvectomy (2004) who had a history of radiotherapy of the pelvic and uterine regions after an atypical cartilaginous tumour. After an uncomplicated pregnancy, she had a spontaneous rupture of the membranes at 41+2 weeks and an uncomplicated vaginal delivery with physiological development of the infant. On the basis of the literature review, vaginal delivery after hemipelvectomy should be advocated and discussed with the patient and involved care providers. Women with radiotherapy in the pelvic and uterine areas have an increased risk of stillbirth, placental attachment disorders, impaired fetal growth, fetal malposition and preterm labour, but no association with prolonged rupture of the membranes has been described. PMID:25257889
Browne, J L; Oudijk, M A; Holtslag, H R; Schreuder, H W R
Approximately 11% of U.S. women undergo surgery for pelvic floor dysfunction, including genital organ prolapse and urinary and fecal incontinence. The major risk factor for developing these conditions is giving vaginal birth. Vaginal birth is a remarkable event about which little is known from a biomechanical perspective. We first review the functional anatomy of the female pelvic floor, the normal loads acting on the pelvic floor in activities of daily living, and the functional capacity of the pelvic floor muscles. Computer models show that the stretch ratio in the pelvic floor muscles can reach an extraordinary 3.26 by the end of the second stage of labor. Magnetic resonance images provide evidence that show that the pelvic floor regions experiencing the most stretch are at the greatest risk for injury, especially in forceps deliveries. A conceptual model suggests how these injuries may lead to the most common form of pelvic organ prolapse, a cystocele. PMID:19591614
Ashton-Miller, James A.; DeLancey, John O.L.
Chitosan/alginate complexes were prepared at different polycation/polyanion molar ratios and freeze-dried vaginal inserts were obtained for chlorhexidine digluconate local delivery in genital infections. Complex yield, FT-IR spectra, and TGA thermograms were studied to confirm the interaction between the two polyions. The influence of different complexes on physical handling, morphology, and drug distribution in the samples were evaluated by friability test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. In vitro water-uptake, mucoadhesion and release tests were performed as well as microbiological tests toward pathogenic vaginal microorganisms. The results showed that the selection of suitable chitosan/alginate molar ratio and drug loading allowed modulate insert ability to hydrate, adhere to the mucosa, and release chlorhexidine digluconate. The insert containing an excess of alginate was found to be the best performing formulation and showed good antimicrobial activity toward the pathogens Candida albicans and Escherichia coli. PMID:23121960
Abruzzo, A; Bigucci, F; Cerchiara, T; Saladini, B; Gallucci, M C; Cruciani, F; Vitali, B; Luppi, B
Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Vaginal Adenocarcinoma; Vaginal Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Increasing evidence indicates that abnormal vaginal flora lacking lactobacilli facilitates the acquisition of several sexually transmitted diseases including Chlamydia trachomatis. C. trachomatis, the most common bacterial agent of genital infections worldwide, can progress from the lower to upper reproductive tract and induce severe sequelae. The ability of C. trachomatis to develop into a persistent form has been suggested as key pathogenetic mechanism underlying chronic infections and sequelae. The aim of our study was to investigate the C. trachomatis interaction with vaginal microbiota analyzing the effects of Lactobacillus strains (L. brevis and L. salivarius) on the different phases of C. trachomatis developmental cycle. In addition, the effect of lactobacilli on persistent chlamydial forms induced by HSV-2 coinfection has also been evaluated. Our results demonstrated significant inhibition of C. trachomatis multiplication by vaginal lactobacilli. L. brevis was significantly more effective than L. salivarius (p<0.05) on all the steps of chlamydial infection cycle suggesting that the ability of lactobacilli to protect from infection is strain-dependent. Lactobacilli had an adverse effect on elementary chlamydial bodies (p<0.05), on chlamydial adsorption to epithelial cells (p<0.001) and on intracellular phases of chlamydial replication (p<0.0001). Our study also demonstrated a protective effect of lactobacilli toward persistent C. trachomatis forms induced by HSV-2 coinfection. A significant increase in the production of C. trachomatis infectious progeny was observed in C. trachomatis/HSV-2 coinfection in the presence of L. brevis (p=0.01) despite a significant inhibition of C. trachomatis multiplication (p=0.028). Our data suggest that a healthy vaginal microbiota can reduce the risk of acquiring C. trachomatis infection and counteract the development of persistent chlamydial forms. PMID:24875405
Mastromarino, Paola; Di Pietro, Marisa; Schiavoni, Giovanna; Nardis, Chiara; Gentile, Massimo; Sessa, Rosa
Objective Given recent government investigations and media coverage of the controversy regarding mesh surgery, we sought to define patient knowledge and perceptions of vaginal mesh surgery. Study Design An anonymous survey was distributed to a convenience sample of new patients at Urogynecology and Female Urology clinics at a single medical center during April–June 2012. The survey assessed patient demographics, information sources, beliefs and concerns regarding mesh surgery. Fisher’s exact test was used to identify predictors of patients’ beliefs regarding mesh. Logistic and linear regressions were used to identify predictors of aversion to surgery and higher concern regarding future surgery. Results 164 women completed the survey; 62.2% (102/164) indicated knowledge of mesh surgery for prolapse and/or incontinence and were included in subsequent analyses. Mean age was 58.0±12.5 years and 24.5% reported prior mesh surgery. The most common information source was TV commercials (57.8%); only 23.5% of women reported receiving information from a medical professional. Participants indicated the following regarding vaginal mesh: class-action lawsuit in progress (55/102, 54.0%), causes pain (47/102, 47.1%), possibility of rejection (35/102, 34.3%), can cause bleeding and become exposed vaginally (30/102, 29.4%), and should be removed due to recall (28/102, 27.5%). Of these women, 22.1% (19/86) indicated they would not consider mesh surgery. On multivariable logistic regression, level of concern, information from friends/family, and knowledge of class-action lawsuit predicted aversion to mesh surgery. Conclusion Nearly two-thirds of new patients had knowledge of vaginal mesh surgery. We identified considerable misinformation and aversion to future mesh surgery among these women. PMID:23982577
Brown, Lindsay K.; Fenner, Dee E.; Berger, Mitchell B.; Delancey, John O.L.; Morgan, Daniel M.; Patel, Divya A.; Schimpf, Megan O.
A recent population-based study of vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC) attempts observed uterine rupture rates of 24.5 per 1,000 with prostaglandin-induced labor, while the uterine rupture rates with spontaneous labor and labor induced without prostaglandins were lower (5.2\\/1,000 and 7.7\\/1,000 respectively). The authors did not confirm the diagnoses by examining individual medical records, so the actual incidence of uterine
BACKGROUND: NuvaRing® is a combined contraceptive vaginal ring designed for 3 weeks continuous use followed by a 1 week ring-free period. The present study evaluated ovarian function in women who were instructed to either adhere to, or deviate from, the recommended regimen of use. METHODS: In this open-label, randomized study, 45 women aged between 18 and 35 years used NuvaRing
Titia M. T. Mulders; Thom O. M. Dieben; Herjan J. T. Coelingh Bennink
Two studies were carried out at AIIMS to judge efficacy, side-effects and acceptability of the contraceptive vaginal ring, a Silastic ring with an inner core containing 6.0 mg levonorgestrel mixed with Silastic and an outer core of Silastic only. It releases levonorgestrel at a constant rate of 20 µg\\/day and remains effective for 90 days. The first study of 50
K. Buckshee; S. Kumar; L. Sarava
Purpose of review Pelvic floor disorders affect women of all ages and are associated with significant economic burden and poor quality of life. Current literature suggests an association between childbirth and these disorders. In this review, we summarize recent advancements in our understanding of this association. Recent findings Vaginal childbirth appears to be strongly associated with stress urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse. There is less evidence to suggest an association between vaginal delivery and overactive bladder symptoms. History of more than one perineal laceration increases the likelihood of developing prolapse. Similar association has not been established for episiotomy. Disruption or denervation of structural components of pelvic floor support system, particularly levator ani muscle complex, is associated with later development of pelvic floor disorders. Imbalance in homeostasis of connective tissue remodeling of the vaginal wall from overstretching during childbirth is another possible mechanism. Summary Pelvic floor disorders represent a significant health problem affecting women of all ages. Identification of potential modifiable risk factors and advancement in understanding of the underlying pathophysiology is crucial for primary and secondary prevention of these disorders and for improvement in treatment strategies. PMID:22907482
Memon, Hafsa; Handa, Victoria L.
Vaginal lubricants are widely used by women to help solve intercourse difficulties or as enhancers, but recent reports raise questions about their safety. Twelve commercially available gel products were tested for pH value, pH buffering capacity, osmolality and cytotoxicity relevant to vaginal delivery. Obtained data were analyzed in light of the recent Advisory Note by the World Health Organization (WHO) for personal lubricants to be concomitantly used with condoms. Results showed that most products do not comply with pH and osmolality recommended standards, thus posing a potential hazard. Four products presented values of osmolality around three-times higher than the maximum acceptable limit of 1200 mOsm/kg. In vitro cell testing further identified substantial cytotoxicity even at 1:100 dilutions for three products, contrasting with no significant effect of up to at least a 1:5 dilution of a Universal Placebo gel. However, no direct correlation between these last results and pH or osmolality was found, thus suggesting that the individual toxicity of specific formulation components plays an important role in the outcome of a particular product. Although further assessment is required, these results highlight potential safety issues related to the formulation of commercially available vaginal lubricants. PMID:25247884
Cunha, Ana Raquel; Machado, Rita M.; Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Ana; Martinez-de-Oliveira, Jose; das Neves, Jose; Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Rita
Introduction: Female urethral stricture is an underdiagnosed and overlooked cause of female bladder outlet obstruction. The possible etiologies may be infection, prior dilation, difficult catheterization with subsequent fibrosis, urethral surgery, trauma, or idiopathic. We present our technique and results of dorsal onlay full thickness vaginal graft urethroplasty for female urethral stricture. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was performed on 16 female patients with mid-urethral stricture who underwent dorsal onlay vaginal graft urethroplasty from January 2007 to June 2011. Of these, 13 patients had previously undergone multiple Hegar dilatations, three had previous internal urethrotomies. The preoperative work up included detailed voiding history, local examination, uroflowmetry, calibration, and micturating cystourethrogram. Results: All patients had mid-urethral stricture. Mean age was 47.5 years. Mean Qmax improved from 6.2 to 27.6 ml/s. Mean residual volume decreased from 160 to 20 ml. Mean duration of follow-up was 24.5 months (6 months to 3 years). Only one patient required self-calibration for 6 months after which her stricture stabilized. None of the patient was incontinent. Conclusion: Dorsal vaginal onlay graft urethroplasty could be considered as an effective way to treat female urethral stricture. PMID:23956514
Singh, Manmeet; Kapoor, Rakesh; Kapoor, Deepa; Kapoor, Rohit; Srivastav, Alok; Chipde, Saurabh
Most females with total vault prolapse undergo reconstructive procedures to restore normal anatomy and function; however, elderly patients who no longer desire sexual intercourse or are medically unstable can be treated effectively with a vaginal closure or colpocleisis. The traditional approach to colpocleisis has been to simply invert the vagina using pursestring sutures after removing the vaginal mucosa. Although simple to perform, after repairing referred treatment failures who used this approach, we began to use a different approach that emphasizes the strength of an anterior repair and extensive posterior repair that then is sutured together. This vaginal closure is reinforced with a strong perineorrhaphy. This multicompartment colpocleisis was performed in 38 elderly females (mean age 77, range 68 to 88) with total vault prolapse. No treatment failures were noted with a mean follow-up of 24 months (range 3 to 52 months), and all patients were satisfied with the results of the procedure. No significant complications occurred, and no patient has regretted the loss of sexual function. The aim of this article is to discuss the indications, procedural aspects, and results of performing a multicompartment colpocleisis and partial colpocleisis for total vault prolapse in elderly females. PMID:11383994
Cespedes, R D; Winters, J C; Ferguson, K H
In the continuing effort to develop effective HIV prevention methods for women, a vaginal ring containing the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor dapivirine is currently being tested in two safety and efficacy trials. This paper reviews dapivirine ring's pipeline development process, including efforts to determine safe and effective dosing levels as well as identify delivery platforms with the greatest likelihood of success for correct and consistent use. Dapivirine gel and other formulations were developed and tested in preclinical and clinical studies. Multiple vaginal ring prototypes were also tested, resulting in the current ring design as well as additional designs under consideration for future testing. Efficacy results from clinical trials are expected in 2015. Through ongoing consultations with national regulatory authorities, licensure requirements for dapivirine vaginal ring approval have been defined. This article is based on a presentation at the "Product Development Workshop 2013: HIV and Multipurpose Prevention Technologies," held in Arlington, Virginia on February 21-22, 2013. It forms part of a special supplement to Antiviral Research. PMID:24188702
Devlin, Bríd; Nuttall, Jeremy; Wilder, Susan; Woodsong, Cynthia; Rosenberg, Zeda
Staphylococcus aureus has been isolated from vaginal fluids of women with toxic shock syndrome (TSS), a multisystem disease with onset usually during menses. A total of 15 vaginal isolates of S. aureus from TSS patients were compared with 18 vaginal isolates from women without TSS. Phenotypic traits which were significantly more frequent in the TSS group of strains than in the non-TSS group were arsenate resistance, proteolysis of hemoglobin, reduced hemolysis of sheep blood in agar medium, and lack of lethality of culture filtrates for chicken embryos and rabbits. In addition, isoelectric focusing of ethanol extracts of culture filtrates showed differences between the two groups in the occurrence of two proteins. All hemolytic and chicken embryo-lethal strains (3 TSS strains and 14 non-TSS strains) produced an extracellular protein with an isoelectric point of 8.6. In contrast, all TSS strains, but only one-half of non-TSS strains, released a protein with an isoelectric point of 7.0 and an apparent subunit molecular weight of 22,000. Images PMID:6456228
Barbour, A G
Transvaginal repair with mesh of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) provides women with the durability of a synthetic graft using the less-invasive route of vaginal surgery. However, morbidities such as mesh exposures are common and challenging to manage. Small intestinal submucosa (SIS) is a naturally occurring collagen matrix derived from porcine intestine. It contains growth factors and cytokines that promote healing of damaged tissue. This case report describes a large vaginal mesh exposure due to necrosis of the full thickness of the anterior vaginal wall. A remarkable and rapid regeneration of vaginal tissue over the exposed mesh was achieved with SIS placement after failure of treatment with vaginal estrogen for >6 months. Collagen scaffold is an effective, rapid, and minimally invasive treatment for large vaginal mesh exposures. PMID:24832859
The HIV/AIDS pandemic continues to be a global health priority, with high rates of new HIV-1 infections persisting in young women. One HIV prevention strategy is topical pre-exposure prophylactics or microbicides, which are applied vaginally or rectally to protect the user from HIV and possibly other sexually transmitted infections. Vaginal microbicide delivery will be the focus of this review. Multiple nonspecific and specific antiretroviral microbicide products have been clinically evaluated, and many are in preclinical development. The events of HIV mucosal transmission and dynamics of the cervicovaginal environment should be considered for successful vaginal microbicide delivery. Beyond conventional vaginal formulations, intravaginal rings, tablets and films are employed as platforms in the hope to increase the likelihood of microbicide use. Furthermore, combining multiple antiretrovirals within a given formulation, combining a microbicide product with a vaginal device and integrating novel drug-delivery strategies within a microbicide product are approaches to successful vaginal-microbicide delivery. PMID:22468220
Ferguson, Lindsay M; Rohan, Lisa Cencia
Objectives: Vaginal pH is related to hormonal status, and adolescents experience disturbed hormonal patterns following menarche. We assessed hormonal factors and risk of abnormal vaginal pH and bacterial vaginosis (BV) among adolescents attending genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics.Methods: In a cross sectional study adolescents within 5 years of menarche, ?17 years, or with oligo-amenorrhoea were recruited. Vaginal pH and BV were
L Brabin; S A Roberts; E Fairbrother; D Mandal; S P Higgins; S Chandiok; P Wood; G Barnard; H C Kitchener
\\u000a Objective: Use of vaginal douche products has been linked with a variety of reproductive health problems; nonetheless, the practice\\u000a of douching persists. The goals of this study were to 1) determine the use of vaginal douches and other feminine hygiene products,\\u000a 2) ascertain how safe women think vaginal douche products are, and 3) evaluate women's readiness to stop douching. Methods:
Diane M. Grimley; Lucy Annang; Herman R. Foushee; F. Carol Bruce; Juliette S. Kendrick
Vaginal practices, such as intra?vaginal cleansing, drying and tightening, are suspected of placing women at higher risk of acquiring HIV and STIs. Yet, there is limited understanding of what these practices entail, what motivates women to undertake them and what their socio?cultural and historical meanings are. This paper explores the range of vaginal practices used by women in KwaZulu?Natal, South
Fiona Scorgie; Busisiwe Kunene; Jennifer A. Smit; Ntsiki Manzini; Matthew F. Chersich
Objective: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of the excision of uterine fibroids by vaginal myomectomy.Design: Prospective study.Setting: A gynecology department of a university teaching hospital.Patient(s): Women with menorrhagia, pelvic pain, symptoms of pressure, or subfertility attributable to moderate-sized uterine fibroids who otherwise would have required abdominal or laparoscopic myomectomy.Intervention(s): Vaginal myomectomy.Main Outcome Measure(s): The feasibility of vaginal surgery,
Anthony Davies; Roger Hart; Adam L Magos
A 7-year-old girl with foul-smelling, bloody vaginal discharge for more than 2 years was initially suspected of suffering\\u000a from vaginal foreign bodies. Although plain radiography revealed no abnormal findings in the pelvis, magnetic resonance imaging\\u000a (MRI) showed multiple low intensity objects and an intact vaginal wall. Four plastic toys were removed with forceps under\\u000a general anesthesia. MRI is supposed to
M. Kihara; N. Sato; H. Kimura; M. Kamiyama; S. Sekiya; H. Takano
The vaginal retention and local irritation of a carrageenan, poloxamer 407 and carbopol-based thermosensitive hydrogel system for vaginal drug delivery was assessed. Results showed that the residence of hydrogel in the mouse vagina following intravaginal administration was prolonged by carrageenan and further prolonged by the addition of a mucoadhesive component (carbopol). The optimal hydrogel formulation was proven to be safe for vaginal use in rabbits. PMID:24974582
Li, Chenxi; Han, Cong; Zhu, Yan; Lu, Weiyue; Li, Qiuhong; Liu, Yu
Introduction Vaginal atrophy, which may affect up to 45% of postmenopausal women, is often associated with one or more urinary symptoms, including urgency, increased frequency, nocturia, dysuria, incontinence, and recurrent urinary tract infection. Aims To provide an overview of the current literature regarding cellular and clinical aspects of vaginal atrophy and response to treatment with local vaginal estrogen therapy. Methods PubMed searches through February 2012 were conducted using the terms “vaginal atrophy,” “atrophic vaginitis,” and “vulvovaginal atrophy.” Expert opinion was based on review of the relevant scientific and medical literature. Main Outcome Measure Genitourinary symptoms and treatment of vaginal atrophy from peer-reviewed published literature. Results Typically, a diagnosis of vaginal atrophy is made based on patient-reported symptoms, including genitourinary symptoms, and an examination that reveals signs of the disorder; however, many women are hesitant to report vaginal-related symptoms, primarily because of embarrassment. Conclusions Physicians in various disciplines are encouraged to initiate open discussions about vulvovaginal health with postmenopausal women, including recommended treatment options. Goldstein I, Dicks B, Kim NN, and Hartzell R. Multidisciplinary overview of vaginal atrophy and associated genitourinary symptoms in postmenopausal women. Sex Med 2013;1:44–53. PMID:25356287
Goldstein, Irwin; Dicks, Brian; Kim, Noel N; Hartzell, Rose
- seminating catheter and a clean dry glass vaginal speculum. Care was exercised to avoid any mucous contamira tion from ths vaginal wall or the vulva. A head lamg was used in collecting the mucus to illuminate the cervt. cal opening and every precaution...- seminating catheter and a clean dry glass vaginal speculum. Care was exercised to avoid any mucous contamira tion from ths vaginal wall or the vulva. A head lamg was used in collecting the mucus to illuminate the cervt. cal opening and every precaution...
Ghannam, Samir A. M
This is a case report of Bardet-Biedl syndrome associated with vaginal atresia diagnosed in a 15-year-old girl. She had mild mental retardation; obesity; nistagmus, retinitis pigmentosa and optic atrophy in both eyes; accessory digit on the left hand; polydactyly in lower extremities; a mobile, painful, nonfixed mass of 6 cm in diameter in the pelvic region; a palpable cystic mass in front of the rectal wall; and no vaginal opening. Secondary sex characteristics were determined. The vaginal atresia was distinguished from vaginal agenesis by the presence of proximal vagina in radiological examination. PMID:14696812
U?uralp, Sema; Demircan, Mehmet; Cetin, Selma; Si?irci, Ahmet
A 77-year-old lady presented to the gynaecology outpatient clinic with vaginal extrusion (3C/T3/S1) six years after a transobturator suburethral sling procedure (TOT). The entire tape was spontaneously extruded vaginally and the vaginal erosion healed with conservative management. Midurethral tapes, currently the standard of care in the management of urodynamic stress incontinence (USI), are associated with a risk of erosion and extrusion of the synthetic material. The present case highlights the importance of the long-term followup after any sling procedure as erosion and/or extrusion may arise at any time following the procedure. PMID:23227380
Singh, Chanchal; Weng, Roy Ng Kwok
Vaginal rapidly disintegrating tablets (RDTs) containing tenofovir (TFV) or TFV and emtricitabine (FTC) were evaluated for safety and pharmacokinetics in pigtailed macaques. Two separate animal groups (n = 4) received TFV (10 mg) or TFV-FTC (10 mg each) RDTs, administered near the cervix. A third group (n = 4) received 1 ml TFV gel. Blood plasma, vaginal tissue biopsy specimens, and vaginal fluids were collected before and after product application at 0, 0.5, 1, 4, and 24 h. A disintegration time of <30 min following vaginal application of the RDTs was noted, with negligible effects on local inflammatory cytokines, vaginal pH, and microflora. TFV pharmacokinetics were generally similar for both RDTs and gel, with peak median concentrations in vaginal tissues and vaginal secretions being on the order of 104 to 105 ng/g (147 to 571 ?M) and 106 ng/g (12 to 34 mM), respectively, at 1 to 4 h postdose. At 24 h, however, TFV vaginal tissue levels were more sustained after RDT dosing, with median TFV concentrations being approximately 1 log higher than those with gel dosing. FTC pharmacokinetics after combination RDT dosing were similar to those of TFV, with peak median vaginal tissue and fluid levels being on the order of 104 ng/g (374 ?M) and 106 ng/g (32 mM), respectively, at 1 h postdose with levels in fluid remaining high at 24 h. RDTs are a promising alternative vaginal dosage form, delivering TFV and/or FTC at levels that would be considered inhibitory to simian-human immunodeficiency virus in the macaque vaginal microenvironment over a 24-h period. PMID:24566178
Pereira, Lara E.; Friend, David R.; Garber, David A.; McNicholl, Janet M.; Hendry, R. Michael; Doncel, Gustavo F.
Background Daily pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with Truvada (a combination of emtricitabine (FTC) and tenofovir (TFV) disoproxil fumarate (TDF)) is a novel HIV prevention strategy recently found to prevent HIV transmission in men who have sex with men and heterosexual couples. We previously showed that a coitally-dependent Truvada regimen protected macaques against rectal SHIV transmission. Here we examined FTC and tenofovir TFV exposure in vaginal tissues after oral dosing and assessed if peri-coital Truvada also protects macaques against vaginal SHIV infection. Methods The pharmacokinetic profile of emtricitabine (FTC) and tenofovir (TFV) was evaluated at first dose. FTC and TFV levels were measured in blood plasma, rectal, and vaginal secretions. Intracellular concentrations of FTC-triphosphate (FTC-TP) and TFV-diphosphate (TFV-DP) were measured in PBMCs, rectal tissues, and vaginal tissues. Efficacy of Truvada in preventing vaginal SHIV infection was assessed using a repeat-exposure vaginal SHIV transmission model consisting of weekly exposures to low doses of SHIV162p3. Six pigtail macaques with normal menstrual cycles received Truvada 24 h before and 2 h after each weekly virus exposure and six received placebo. Infection was monitored by serology and PCR amplification of SHIV RNA and DNA. Results As in humans, the concentration of FTC was higher than the concentration of TFV in vaginal secretions. Also as in humans, TFV levels in vaginal secretions were lower than in rectal secretions. Intracellular TFV-DP concentrations were also lower in vaginal tissues than in rectal tissues. Despite the low vaginal TFV exposure, all six treated macaques were protected from infection after 18 exposures or 4 full menstrual cycles. In contrast, all 6 control animals were infected. Conclusions We modeled a peri-coital regimen with two doses of Truvada and showed that it fully protected macaques from repeated SHIV exposures. Our results open the possibility for simplified PrEP regimens to prevent vaginal HIV transmission in women. PMID:23226529
Radzio, Jessica; Aung, Wutyi; Holder, Angela; Martin, Amy; Sweeney, Elizabeth; Mitchell, James; Bachman, Shanon; Pau, Chou-Pong; Heneine, Walid; Garcia-Lerma, J. Gerardo
Background Trials of a vaginal Tenofovir gel for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV have given conflicting results. Knowledge of concentrations of Tenofovir and its active form Tenofovir diphosphate, at putative sites of anti-HIV functioning, is central to understanding trial outcomes and design of products and dosage regimens. Topical Tenofovir delivery to the vaginal environment is complex, multivariate and non-linear; determinants relate to drug, vehicle, dosage regimen, and environment. Experimental PK methods cannot yield mechanistic understanding of this process, and have uncontrolled variability in drug sampling. Mechanistic modeling of the process could help delineate its determinants, and be a tool in design and interpretation of products and trials. Methods and Findings We created a four-compartment mass transport model for Tenofovir delivery by a gel: gel, epithelium, stroma, blood. Transport was diffusion-driven in vaginal compartments; blood concentration was time-varying but homogeneous. Parameters for the model derived from in vitro and in vivo PK data, to which model predictions gave good agreement. Steep concentration gradients occurred in stroma ?8 hours after gel release. Increasing epithelial thickness delayed initial TFV delivery to stroma and its decline: tmax increased but AUC at 24 hours was not significantly altered. At 24 and 48 hours, stromal concentrations were 6.3% and 0.2% of Cmax. Concentrations in simulated biopsies overestimated stromal concentrations, as much as ?5X, depending upon time of sampling, biopsy thickness and epithelial thickness. Conclusions There was reasonably good agreement of model predictions with clinical PK data. Conversion of TFV to TFV-DP was not included, but PK data suggest a linear relationship between them. Thus contrasts predicted by this model can inform design of gels and dosage regimens in clinical trials, and interpretation of PK data. This mass transport based approach can be extended to TFV conversion to TFV-DP, and to other drugs and dosage forms. PMID:24040241
Gao, Yajing; Katz, David F.
Objective To compare the impact of the prototype prolapse mesh Gynemesh PS to that of two new generation lower stiffness meshes, UltraPro and SmartMesh, on vaginal morphology and structural composition. Design A mechanistic study employing a non-human primate (NHP) model. Setting Magee-Womens Research Institute at the University of Pittsburgh. Population Parous rhesus macaques, with similar age, weight, parity and POP-Q scores. Methods Following IACUC approval, 50 rhesus macaques were implanted with Gynemesh PS (n=12), UltraPro with its blue line perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of vagina (n=10), UltraPro with its blue line parallel to the longitudinal axis of vagina (n=8) and SmartMesh (n=8) via sacrocolpopexy following hysterectomy. Sham operated animals (n=12) served as controls. Main Outcome Measures The mesh-vagina complex (MVC) was removed after 12 weeks and analyzed for histomorphology, in situ cell apoptosis, total collagen, elastin, glycosaminoglycan content and total collagenase activity. Appropriate statistics and correlation analyses were performed accordingly. Results Relative to sham and the two lower stiffness meshes, Gynemesh PS had the greatest negative impact on vaginal histomorphology and composition. Compared to sham, implantation with Gynemesh PS caused substantial thinning of the smooth muscle layer (1557 ± 499?m vs 866 ± 210 ?m, P=0.02), increased apoptosis particularly in the area of the mesh fibers (P=0.01), decreased collagen and elastin content (20% (P=0.03) and 43% (P=0.02), respectively) and increased total collagenase activity (135% (P=0.01)). GAG (glycosaminoglycan), a marker of tissue injury, was the highest with Gynemesh PS compared to sham and other meshes (P=0.01). Conclusion Mesh implantation with the stiffer mesh Gynemesh PS induced a maladaptive remodeling response consistent with vaginal degeneration. PMID:23240802
Liang, Rui; Abramowitch, Steven; Knight, Katrina; Palcsey, Stacy; Nolfi, Alexis; Feola, Andrew; Stein, Susan; Moalli, Pamela A.
Problem Vaginal microbicides represent a promising approach for preventing heterosexual HIV transmission. However, preclinical evaluation should be conducted to ensure that microbicides will be safe for human cells and healthy microflora of the female reproductive tract. One microbicide candidate, RC-101, has been effective and well-tolerated in preliminary cell culture and macaque models. However, the effect of RC-101 on primary vaginal tissues and resident vaginal microflora requires further evaluation. Method of Study We treated primary vaginal tissues and vaginal bacteria, both pathogenic and commensal, with RC-101 to investigate effects of this microbicide. Results RC-101 was well-tolerated by host tissues, and also by commensal vaginal bacteria. Simultaneously, pathogenic vaginal bacteria, which are known to increase susceptibility to HIV acquisition, were inhibited by RC-101. Conclusions By establishing vaginal microflora, the specific antibacterial activity of RC-101 may provide a dual mechanism of HIV protection. These findings support advancement of RC-101 to clinical trials. PMID:23167830
Eade, Colleen R.; Cole, Amy L.; Diaz, Camila; Rohan, Lisa C.; Parniak, Michael A.; Marx, Preston; Tarwater, Patrick M.; Gupta, Phalguni; Cole, Alexander M.
BackgroundThe involvement of natural antimicrobial peptides in infection-associated preterm birth is unknown. Our aim was to assess regulation by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, monocyte-chemotactic-protein-1 (GM-CSF and MCP-1, interleukin-1 (IL) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in cultured human vaginal epithelial cells.MethodsVK2\\/E6E7 cells were treated with IL-1, MCP-1 and GM-CSF (20\\/100\\/200\\/500 pg\\/ml and 1 ng\\/ml) at 2 h, 4 h, 6 h and 24 h
C Foster; E Chin-Smith; R Tribe
We describe a case of uterine necrosis, following Gelitaspon(®) embolization for postpartum hemorrhage resulting from vaginal laceration. Previous cases published help to improve the safety of this effective method by showing the risk factors, as particles sizes, ultraselective embolization, prevention of infection. Controlling bleeding by surgery is the priority when hemorragy is due to laceration without uterin atony. In case of failure, embolization is an option which should be proposed without delay. Uterine necrosis should be suspected in case of postembolization septic syndrome. PMID:23706157
Gitz, L; Picone, O; Mas, A-E; Dagher, L; Deffieux, X
Objective. To determine the rate, delivery outcome and safety of attempted vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC) in grand multiparous\\u000a women (para 6 or more).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods. This is a retrospective case-control study, performed at King Abdulaziz university hospital, the charts of 405 grand multiparous\\u000a women with previous caesarean section were reviewed to determine rate and delivery outcome of attempted VBAC. The outcome
Tarik Y. Yamani Zamzami
Mesenteric venous thrombosis is a rare cause of abdominal pain, which if left untreated may result in bowel infarction, peritonitis and death. The majority of patients with this illness have a recognizable, predisposing prothrombotic condition. Oral contraceptives have been identified as a predisposing factor for mesenteric venous thrombosis in reproductive-aged women. In the last fifteen years new methods of hormonal birth control have been introduced, including a transdermal patch and an intravaginal ring. In this report, we describe a case of mesenteric venous thrombosis in a young woman caused by a vaginal contraceptive ring. PMID:25035742
Eilbert, Wesley; Hecht, Benjamin; Zuiderveld, Loren
Vaginal discharge is a frequent presenting complaint in an office practice. The authors of this article review the most common causes of this condition, namely Candidiasis, Trichimoniasis, and Bacterial Vaginosis (Gardnerella), as well as the more serious causes, namely gonorrhea, chlamydia, and Herpes simplex. Symptoms and physical signs are generally insufficient to distinguish specific etiologic agents and, as treatment for each is different, diagnostic examination of smears in the office is critical to the management of these patients. A clinical approach and method of office diagnosis is described. PMID:21263805
Watson, William J.; DeMarchi, Gregory
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 33-year-old woman has a two-month history of post coital bleeding and vaginal discharge. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in gynecologic pathology.
Christakos, Peter; Nath, Manju E.
The human vaginal microbiome plays a critical but poorly defined role in reproductive health. Vaginal microbiome alterations are associated with increased susceptibility to sexually-transmitted infections (STI) possibly due to related changes in innate defense responses from epithelial cells. Study of the impact of commensal bacteria on the vaginal mucosal surface has been hindered by current vaginal epithelial cell (VEC) culture systems that lack an appropriate interface between the apical surface of stratified squamous epithelium and the air-filled vaginal lumen. Therefore we developed a reproducible multilayer VEC culture system with an apical (luminal) air-interface that supported colonization with selected commensal bacteria. Multilayer VEC developed tight-junctions and other hallmarks of the vaginal mucosa including predictable proinflammatory cytokine secretion following TLR stimulation. Colonization of multilayers by common vaginal commensals including Lactobacillus crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. rhamnosus led to intimate associations with the VEC exclusively on the apical surface. Vaginal commensals did not trigger cytokine secretion but Staphylococcus epidermidis, a skin commensal, was inflammatory. Lactobacilli reduced cytokine secretion in an isolate-specific fashion following TLR stimulation. This tempering of inflammation offers a potential explanation for increased susceptibility to STI in the absence of common commensals and has implications for testing of potential STI preventatives. PMID:22412914
Rose, William A.; McGowin, Chris L.; Spagnuolo, Rae Ann; Eaves-Pyles, Tonyia D.; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Pyles, Richard B.
The microbiological and epidemiological correlates of vaginal colonisation by Mobiluncus species were examined among randomly selected women attending a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Women positive for Trichomonas vaginalis were excluded. Mobiluncus spp. were detected by Gram stained vaginal smear in 21% of 633 STD clinic patients, including 53% of those with and 4% of those without bacterial vaginosis (BV),
S L Hillier; C W Critchlow; C E Stevens; M C Roberts; P Wolner-Hanssen; D A Eschenbach; K K Holmes
The etiology of bacterial vaginosis is unknown, and there are no long-term therapies for preventing this frequently recurring condition. Vaginal douching has been reported to be associated with bacterial vaginosis in observational studies. However, this association may be due to confounding by indication—that is, confounding by women douching in response to vaginal symptoms associated with bacterial vaginosis. The authors used
Rebecca M. Brotman; Mark A. Klebanoff; Tonja R. Nansel; William W. Andrews; Jane R. Schwebke; Jun Zhang; Kai F. Yu; Jonathan M. Zenilman; Daniel O. Scharfstein
Between 2005 and 2006, we investigated vaginal practices in Yogyakarta, Indonesia; Tete, Mozambique; KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa; and Bangkok and Chonburi, Thailand. We sought to understand women's practices, their motivations for use and the role vaginal practices play in women's health, sexuality and sense of wellbeing. The study was carried out among adult women and men who were identified as using,
Adriane Martin Hilber; Terence H. Hull; Eleanor Preston-Whyte; Brigitte Bagnol; Jenni Smit; Chintana Wacharasin; Ninuk Widyantoro
Do not have any sex (oral, vaginal, anal or using sex toys) with a partner until their treatment sex (oral, vaginal, anal or using sex toys) with a partner until their treatment has also been antibiotics can stop the contraceptive pill or patch from working. Â· If you are under 25 and have ever had sex
Talbot, James P.
There is an urgent need to develop safe, effective, and acceptable vaginal products for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections. Preliminary in vitro results suggest that vaginal formulations of sulfated polysaccharides, including iota-carrageenan, have the potential to block mucosal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Twenty-five women in five sites participated in Phase I trials to evaluate the safety of
Christopher J. Elias; Christiana Coggins; Francisco Alvarez; Vivian Brache; Ian S. Fraser; Maria Lacarra; Pekka Lähteenmäkl; Rebeca Massai; Daniel R. Mishell; David M. Phillips; Ana Maria Salvatierra
The detection and identification of human biological fluids, including vaginal secretions and menstrual blood, are highly important in forensic biology. Previous studies have proposed a few mRNA and bacterial markers for vaginal fluid detection, but they have not proven to be specific and reliable. The aim of this project was to develop, validate and evaluate a reliable, specific test for vaginal fluid identification that would combine detection of vaginal mRNAs and Lactobacilli. We have developed a hexaplex that detects HBD1 (human beta-defensin 1), MUC4 (mucin 4), menstrual blood marker MMP11 (matrix metalloproteinase 11), housekeeping gene G6PDH (glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase) and the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region of Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus gasseri/Lactobacillus johnsonii. We analysed the specificity of the markers and variations among women, as well as the sensitivity of the test and its ability to detect vaginal fluid in mixtures with semen and blood. This approach allows for the detection of vaginal fluid in stains that were up to 2 years old, if stored at room temperature and up to 18 years old if stored frozen. Through simultaneous analysis of 5 vaginal markers, the proposed hexaplex ensures high specificity and reliability in the detection of vaginal material. PMID:23273817
Jakubowska, Joanna; Maciejewska, Agnieszka; Paw?owski, Ryszard; Bielawski, Krzysztof Piotr
Objective: To determine whether vaginal preparation with povidone iodine before cesarean decreased the incidence of postpartum infectious morbidity.Methods: Participants were randomly assigned to vaginal preparation with povidone iodine (n = 247) or no preparation (n = 251). Postpartum infectious morbidity included fever, defined as temperature of 38C or greater after the day of surgery; endometritis, defined as fever with abdominal
Virgil C. Reid; Katherine E. Hartmann; Michael MCMahon; Elizabeth P. Fry
Objectives: Identifying characteristics associated with vaginal birth after cesarean. Study design: Case-control study based on medical records. Study population: women with previous cesarean, who had delivered in a public Rio de Janeiro maternity hospital between 1992 and 1996. Sample: 141 cases (vaginal births after cesarean) and 304 controls (a new cesarean after other(s)). Multivariate analysis with logistic regression was carried
E. d’Orsi; D. Chor; K. Giffin; G. P. Barbosa; A. J. Angulo-Tuesta; A. S. Gama; L. G. Pessoa; T. Shiraiwa; M. J. M. Fonseca
ObjectiveCertain sociodemographic characteristics and pregnancy events were shown to pre-dispose women to decline vaginal birth after cesarean section (CS) in the Western population. The study aimed to identify the sociodemographic factors and pregnancy events associated with Chinese women who declined to attempt vaginal birth after CS.
Man Wah Pang; Lai Wah Law; Tak Yeung Leung; Pui Yee Lai; Tze Kin La
Objective: The vaginal birth after cesarean delivery rate is calculated with a denominator equal to the number of all women who give birth after a previous cesarean delivery, including those who are not candidates for a trial of labor. We evaluated the impact of adjustment for noncandidates for a trial of labor on vaginal birth after cesarean delivery rates. Study
Uma M. Reddy; Michelle M. DiVito; Joanne C. Armstrong; Terry Hyslop; Ronald J. Wapner
A rapid latex agglutination test (Bactigen Group B Streptococcus Cervical Screen) for detection of group B streptococci in cervical-vaginal specimens was evaluated using two different slide systems, the traditional serologic slide and capilliary action track (Trak) slide. Culture was used as reference method. A total of 344 cervical-vaginal specimens were tested. The group B streptococci carrier rate was found by
L. Lotz-Nolan; T. Amato; J. Iltis; W. Wallen; B. Packer
Objectives. To address the issue of sexual dysfunction after vaginal surgery for incontinence based on responses to a mailed questionnaire.Methods. A sexual function questionnaire was mailed to 93 women who underwent anterior vaginal wall suspension for stress urinary incontinence alone (group 1) or in conjunction with a concomitant posterior repair (group 2) at least 1 year previously.Results. A total of
Gary E Lemack; Philippe E Zimmern
Summary The authors have studied the occurrence of PAS positive substances during the differentiation of the vaginal epithelium in fetuses and neonatal mice. The material consists of normal mice, mice that have received estradiol injections for the first five days after birth, and mice that have received both estradiol and colchicine injections. The cranial 3\\/5 of the mouse vaginal epithelium
John Gunnar Forsberg; Hans Olivecrona
Background. Little is known about the etiology of in situ or invasive squamous cell cancer of the vagina. It is thought that some vaginal cancers may have the same etiology as cervical cancer. It is also not known whether in situ and invasive vaginal cancer share the same etiologic factors. We conducted a study to evaluate risk factors for in
Janet R. Daling; Margaret M. Madeleine; Stephen M. Schwartz; Katherine A. Shera; Joseph J. Carter; Barbara McKnight; Peggy L. Porter; Denise A. Galloway; James K. McDougall; Hisham Tamimi
Labor induction and cervical ripening are widely utilized and new methods are constantly being investigated. Prostaglandins have been shown to be effective labor induction agents and, in particular, were compared with other prostaglandin preparations; vaginal misoprostol used off-label was associated with reduced failure to achieve vaginal delivery. The challenge is to provide this medication with the correct dosing for this indication and with the ability to discontinue the medication if needed, all while ensuring essential maternal and neonatal safety. The misoprostol vaginal insert initiates cervical ripening using a delivery system that controls misoprostol release and can be rapidly removed. This article reviews the development, safety and efficacy of the misoprostol vaginal insert for induction of labor and cervical ripening, and will focus on vaginally administered prostaglandins. PMID:24328596
Stephenson, Megan L; Hawkins, J Seth; Powers, Barbara L; Wing, Deborah A
Placental polyp is retained placental tissue within the endometrial cavity, which forms a nidus for inflammation and bleeding. There are very few reported cases of the clinical placental polyp. Here, we report a case of 34-year-old G4L3Ab1 woman with the chief complaint of intermittent vaginal bleeding since her last normal vaginal delivery 3 months ago. Serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) titer was slightly elevated. A polypoid mass was detected within the endometrial cavity by imaging studies. History of the patient, mass lesion within the endometrial cavity and slightly elevated serum hCG titer raised the suspicion of trophoblastic neoplasms. Endometrial curettage yielded unsatisfactory specimen containing only fibrin deposition and was followed by total hysterectomy. The uterus showed slight global enlargement resulting from the presence of a polypoid mass within the endometrial cavity. The red-colored mass had a smooth outer surface and fragile consistency without any permeation into the myometrium. Pathology reported it as the placental polyp. Although very rare, placental polyp should be kept in mind as one of the reasons of abnormal uterine bleeding in parous women. Definite diagnosis is made by pathology examination. PMID:25364371
Behnamfar, Fariba; Zadeh, Fereshteh Mohammadi; Hashemi, Leila
Microbicides are an active area of research for HIV prevention, being developed as a woman-initiated method of prevention during unprotected coitus. Along with safety and efficacy, assessing and improving compliance is a major area of research in microbicide development. We have produced microbicide prototypes in the form of semisoft vaginal suppositories prepared from carrageenan and conducted both qualitative and quantitative studies using these prototypes to determine the physical properties that drive acceptability and possibly adherence. In order to ensure that the suppositories function as effective drug delivery vehicles, we have conducted in vitro dissolution studies in water, vaginal simulant fluid (VSF) and semen simulant fluid (SSF) with suppositories loaded with the antiretroviral drug, tenofovir (TFV). TFV was released via diffusion and matrix erosion in water or by diffusion out of the matrix in VSF and SSF. Diffusion studies were conducted in two different volumes of VSF and SSF. The volume of VSF/SSF into which TFV diffused and the size of the suppositories determined the rate of diffusion from the suppositories. About 45%–50% of the encapsulated TFV diffused out of the suppositories within the first two hours, irrespective of suppository size, diffusion medium (VSF/SSF) and the volume of medium. Prior work indicates that a short waiting period between insertion and coitus is highly desired by women; present data suggest our microbicide prototypes have rapid initial release followed by a slow release curve over the first 24 h. PMID:24999606
Zaveri, Toral; Hayes, John E.; Ziegler, Gregory R.
Humans are colonized by thousands of bacterial species, but it is difficult to assess the metabolic and pathogenic potential of the majority of these because they have yet to be cultured. Here, we characterize an uncultivated vaginal mycoplasma tightly associated with trichomoniasis that was previously known by its 16S rRNA sequence as “Mnola.” In this study, the mycoplasma was found almost exclusively in women infected with the sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis, but rarely observed in women with no diagnosed disease. The genomes of four strains of this species were reconstructed using metagenome sequencing and assembly of DNA from four discrete mid-vaginal samples, one of which was obtained from a pregnant woman with trichomoniasis who delivered prematurely. These bacteria harbor several putative virulence factors and display unique metabolic strategies. Genes encoding proteins with high similarity to potential virulence factors include two collagenases, a hemolysin, an O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase and a feoB-type ferrous iron transport system. We propose the name “Candidatus Mycoplasma girerdii” for this potential new pathogen. PMID:25337710
Fettweis, Jennifer M.; Serrano, Myrna G.; Huang, Bernice; Brooks, J. Paul; Glascock, Abigail L.; Sheth, Nihar U.; Strauss, Jerome F.; Jefferson, Kimberly K.; Buck, Gregory A.
Pelvic organ prolapse is highly prevalent, and negatively affects a woman’s quality of life. Women with bothersome prolapse may be offered pessary management or may choose to undergo corrective surgery. In choosing the most appropriate surgical procedure, there are many factors to consider. These may include the location(s) of anatomic defects, the severity of prolapse symptoms, the activity level of the woman, and concerns regarding the durability of the repair. In many instances, women and their surgeons are challenged to weigh the risks and benefits of native tissue versus mesh-augmented repairs. Though mesh-augmented repairs may offer better durability, they are also associated with unique complications, such as mesh erosion. Furthermore, newer surgical techniques of mesh placement via abdominal or vaginal routes may result in different outcomes compared to traditional techniques. Biologic grafts may also be considered to improve durability of a surgical repair, while avoiding potential complications of synthetic mesh. In this article, we review many of the clinical challenges that gynecologic surgeons face in the surgical management of vaginal prolapse. Furthermore, we review data that can help guide decision making when treating women with pelvic organ prolapse. PMID:24474848
Siddiqui, Nazema Y; Edenfield, Autumn L
Pelvic organ prolapse is highly prevalent, and negatively affects a woman's quality of life. Women with bothersome prolapse may be offered pessary management or may choose to undergo corrective surgery. In choosing the most appropriate surgical procedure, there are many factors to consider. These may include the location(s) of anatomic defects, the severity of prolapse symptoms, the activity level of the woman, and concerns regarding the durability of the repair. In many instances, women and their surgeons are challenged to weigh the risks and benefits of native tissue versus mesh-augmented repairs. Though mesh-augmented repairs may offer better durability, they are also associated with unique complications, such as mesh erosion. Furthermore, newer surgical techniques of mesh placement via abdominal or vaginal routes may result in different outcomes compared to traditional techniques. Biologic grafts may also be considered to improve durability of a surgical repair, while avoiding potential complications of synthetic mesh. In this article, we review many of the clinical challenges that gynecologic surgeons face in the surgical management of vaginal prolapse. Furthermore, we review data that can help guide decision making when treating women with pelvic organ prolapse. PMID:24474848
Siddiqui, Nazema Y; Edenfield, Autumn L
Purpose To retrospectively assess the incidence and magnitude of air pockets around vaginal cylinders and its impact on dose distribution in vaginal cuff image-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Material and methods Fifty endometrial carcinoma patients treated by postoperative HDR vaginal cuff brachytherapy were included in the study. The average age of patients was 58.3 ± 11.8 years (range: 31-87 years). Brachytherapy was performed using cylindrical applicators, and the dose prescribed to 0.5 cm from the applicator's surface, over a length of 5 cm from the applicator's tip. Computed tomography (CT) simulation was used for each brachytherapy fraction. The incidence, vaginal mucosa displacement, volume, and dosimetric effect of air pockets around the vaginal cylinder were evaluated. Results A total of 78 air pockets were found in 29/50 patients (58%) and 45/135 (33%) brachytherapy plans. They were located at the apex: 16/78 (20%) and lateral to the applicator: 62/78 (80%). The volume of air pockets ranged between 0.01 and 2.1 cm3 (mean: 0.15 cm3 ± 0.36 cm3), and the maximum displacement of vaginal mucosa from cylinder surface was between 0.1 and 1.09 cm (mean: 0.34 cm ± 0.2 cm). The dose reduction to the vaginal mucosa generated by the air pockets ranged from 0.5 to 66% (mean: 26.4% ± 13.9%). Conclusions The presence of air pockets around vaginal cylinder applicators is frequently noticed in post-operative vaginal cuff brachytherapy. The dose to the vaginal mucosa is reduced, as a result of displacement generated by air pockets. The effect on the clinical outcome of this dose reduction is yet to be determined. PMID:25337128
Hassouna, Ashraf; Constantinescu, Camelia
Background The vaginal microbiota of healthy women consists of a wide variety of anaerobic and aerobic bacterial genera and species dominated by the genus Lactobacillus. The activity of lactobacilli helps to maintain the natural healthy balance of the vaginal microbiota. This role is particularly important during pregnancy because vaginal dismicrobism is one of the most important mechanisms for preterm birth and perinatal complications. In the present study, we characterized the impact of a dietary supplementation with the probiotic VSL#3, a mixture of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus strains, on the vaginal microbiota and immunological profiles of healthy women during late pregnancy. Results An association between the oral intake of the probiotic VSL#3 and changes in the composition of the vaginal microbiota of pregnant women was revealed by PCR-DGGE population profiling. Despite no significant changes were found in the amounts of the principal vaginal bacterial populations in women administered with VSL#3, qPCR results suggested a potential role of the probiotic product in counteracting the decrease of Bifidobacterium and the increase of Atopobium, that occurred in control women during late pregnancy. The modulation of the vaginal microbiota was associated with significant changes in some vaginal cytokines. In particular, the decrease of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 was observed only in control women but not in women supplemented with VSL#3. In addition, the probiotic consumption induced the decrease of the pro-inflammatory chemokine Eotaxin, suggesting a potential anti-inflammatory effect on the vaginal immunity. Conclusion Dietary supplementation with the probiotic VSL#3 during the last trimester of pregnancy was associated to a modulation of the vaginal microbiota and cytokine secretion, with potential implications in preventing preterm birth. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01367470 PMID:23078375
Objectives To investigate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of maraviroc, a CCR5-targeted HIV-1 entry inhibitor, in rhesus macaques following vaginal administration of various maraviroc-loaded aqueous hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) gels, and to correlate the PK data with efficacy in a single high-dose vaginal SHIV-162P3 challenge model. Methods Maraviroc concentrations in vaginal fluid (Weck-Cel® sponge), vaginal tissue (punch biopsy) and plasma were assessed over 72 h following single-dose vaginal application of various maraviroc-loaded HEC gels. The range of maraviroc gel concentrations was sufficiently broad (0.003%–3.3% w/w) that test gels included both fully solubilized and predominantly dispersed formulations. The efficacy of the HEC gels against a single high-dose vaginal SHIV-162P3 challenge was also measured, and correlated with the PK concentrations. Results Maraviroc concentrations in vaginal fluid (range 104–107 ng/mL), vaginal tissue (100–1200 ng/g) and plasma (<102 ng/mL) were highly dependent on maraviroc gel loading, irrespective of the form of the maraviroc component within the gel (solubilized versus dispersed). Fluid and plasma concentrations were generally highest 0.5 or 2 h after gel application, before declining steadily through to 72 h. Maraviroc concentrations in the various biological compartments correlated strongly with the extent of protection against vaginal SHIV-162P3 challenge. Complete protection was achieved with a 3.3% w/w maraviroc gel. Conclusions A high degree of correlation between PK and efficacy was observed. Based on the data obtained with the 3.3% w/w maraviroc gel, maintenance of vaginal fluid and tissue levels in the order of 107 ng/mL and 103 ng/g, respectively, are required for complete protection with this compound. PMID:23111849
Malcolm, R. Karl; Forbes, Claire J.; Geer, Leslie; Veazey, Ronald S.; Goldman, Laurie; Johan Klasse, Per; Moore, John P.
Recent trends in family planning demonstrate an increasing interest in natural methods of birth regulation. In their present form, however, these methods are highly subjective and individualistic. A further trend in fertility programmes has been a very rapid development of technological methods to detect fertility in the female cycle, some of which could possibly benefit natural family planning users. One such technique--that of changing volumes of cervico-vaginal fluid (CVF), which is a mixture of cervical mucus and vaginal transudate--has been tested in a pilot study to ascertain its reliability to demarcate the fertile phase of the cycle. Results show that in all cycles tested, it is possible using the Rovumeter aspirator to detect the beginning of the fertile phase by rapidly increasing volumes of CVF; this volume reaches a peak approximately 1 day before ovulation detected by ultrasound and demonstrates an abrupt fall after ovulation and the onset of the infertile phase. From the results of this pilot study, we believe that, by the use of suitable algorithms and larger studies, it should be possible to develop a CVF volume method which could be offered as an objective alternative method for users of natural family planning and programmes. PMID:3356775
Flynn, A M; McCarthy, A M; Docker, M; Royston, J P
Purpose. To determine the maternal and fetal outcomes of successful external cephalic version (ECV) as well as factors predicting vaginal birth. Methods. The ECV data over a period of three years at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) between 1 September 2008 and 30 September 2010 was reviewed. Sixty-seven patients who had successful ECV were studied and reviewed for maternal, fetal, and labour outcomes. The control group comprised patients with cephalic singletons of matching parity who delivered following the index cases. Results. The mean gestational age at ECV was 263 ± 6.52?days (37.5 weeks ± 6.52 days). Spontaneous labour and transient cardiotocographic (CTG) changes were the commonest early adverse effects following ECV. The reversion rate was 7.46%. The mean gestational age at delivery of the two groups was significantly different (P = 0.000) with 277.9 ± 8.91 days and 269.9 ± 9.68 days in the study group and control groups, respectively. The study group needed significantly more inductions of labour. They required more operative deliveries, had more blood loss at delivery, a higher incidence of meconium-stained liquor, and more cord around the neck. Previous flexed breeches had a threefold increase in caesarean section rate compared to previous extended breeches (44.1% versus 15.2%, P = 0.010). On the contrary, an amniotic fluid index (AFI) of 13 or more is significantly associated with a higher rate of vaginal birth (86.8% versus 48.3%, P = 0.001). Conclusions. Patients with successful ECV were at higher risk of carrying the pregnancy beyond 40 weeks and needing induction of labour, with a higher rate of caesarean section and higher rates of obstetrics complications. Extended breech and AFI 13 or more were significantly more likely to deliver vaginally postsuccessful ECV. This additional information may be useful to caution a patient with breech that ECV does not bring them to behave exactly like a normal cephalic, so that they have more realistic expectations. However, these predictive factors needed further confirmation and hopefully, in the future, they would be able to further enhance counselling prior to ECV. PMID:24587759
Lim, Pei Shan; Ng, Beng Kwang; Ali, Anizah; Shafiee, Mohamad Nasir; Kampan, Nirmala Chandralega; Mohamed Ismail, Nor Azlin; Omar, Mohd Hashim; Abdullah Mahdy, Zaleha
BACKGROUND Women without stress urinary incontinence undergoing vaginal surgery for pelvicorgan prolapse are at risk for postoperative urinary incontinence. A midurethral sling may be placed at the time of prolapse repair to reduce this risk. METHODS We performed a multicenter trial involving women without symptoms of stress incontinence and with anterior prolapse (of stage 2 or higher on a Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification system examination) who were planning to undergo vaginal prolapse surgery. Women were randomly assigned to receive either a midurethral sling or sham incisions during surgery. One primary end point was urinary incontinence or treatment for this condition at 3 months. The second primary end point was the presence of incontinence at 12 months, allowing for subsequent treatment for incontinence. RESULTS Of the 337 women who underwent randomization, 327 (97%) completed follow-up at 1 year. At 3 months, the rate of urinary incontinence (or treatment) was 23.6% in the sling group and 49.4% in the sham group (P<0.001). At 12 months, urinary incontinence (allowing for subsequent treatment of incontinence) was present in 27.3% and 43.0% of patients in the sling and sham groups, respectively (P = 0.002). The number needed to treat with a sling to prevent one case of urinary incontinence at 12 months was 6.3. The rate of bladder perforation was higher in the sling group than in the sham group (6.7% vs. 0%), as were rates of urinary tract infection (31.0% vs. 18.3%), major bleeding complications (3.1% vs. 0%), and incomplete bladder emptying 6 weeks after surgery (3.7% vs. 0%) (P?0.05 for all comparisons). CONCLUSIONS A prophylactic midurethral sling inserted during vaginal prolapse surgery resulted in a lower rate of urinary incontinence at 3 and 12 months but higher rates of adverse events. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the National Institutes of Health Office of Research on Women’s Health; OPUS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00460434.) PMID:22716974
Wei, John T.; Nygaard, Ingrid; Richter, Holly E.; Nager, Charles W.; Barber, Matthew D.; Kenton, Kim; Amundsen, Cindy L.; Schaffer, Joseph; Meikle, Susan F.; Spino, Cathie
Because of the relative scarcity of fresh human oral mucosa specimens for permeability studies, we investigated the use of human vaginal mucosa as a model of the former. In a previous study we demonstrated the comparable diffusion rate of water across human vaginal and buccal mucosa and proposed the use of the former as a suitable model of the latter for in vitro drug permeability studies. To further evaluate the human vaginal/buccal mucosa model, we decided to compare these two tissues with respect to their permeability to 17beta-estradiol. Clinically healthy human vaginal and buccal mucosa specimens were obtained during vaginal hysterectomies and different oral surgical procedures. The permeability of each tissue specimen to 17beta-estradiol was determined through the use of a continuous flow-through diffusion system. Specimens were examined histologically before and after experiments. Mean flux values for 17beta-estradiol across human buccal mucosa tended to be slightly higher than those observed for vaginal tissue, but no statistically significant differences could be demonstrated. The results from this study further support our hypothesis that human vaginal mucosa may be a suitable model of human buccal mucosa for in vitro drug permeability studies. PMID:9574947
van der Bijl, P; van Eyk, A D; Thompson, I O
Supplementation of progesterone in the luteal phase and continuance of progesterone therapy during the first trimester has been found in several studies to have benefits in promoting fertility, preventing miscarriages and even preventing pre-term labor. Though it can be administered orally, intramuscularly or even sublingually, a very effective route with fewer side effects can be achieved by an intravaginal route. The first vaginal preparations were not made commercially but were compounded by pharmacies. This had the disadvantage of lack of control by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ensuring efficacy of the preparations. Furthermore there was a lack of precise dosing leading to batch to batch variation. The first commercially approved vaginal progesterone preparation in the United States was a vaginal gel which has proven very effective. The main side effect was accumulation of a buildup of the vaginal gel sometimes leading to irritation. Natural micronized progesterone for vaginal administration with the brand name of Utrogestan A((R)) had been approved even before the gel in certain European countries. Endometrin((R)) vaginal tablets are the newest natural progesterone approved by the FDA. Comparisons to the vaginal gel and to intramuscular progesterone have shown similar efficacy especially in studies following controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and oocyte egg retrieval and embryo transfer. Larger studies are needed to compare side effects. PMID:19753133
Check, Jerome H
Introduction. Recent evidence indicates that clinical examination, for determination of fetal head position, is subjective and inaccurate. Present study was aimed to compare transabdominal ultrasound for fetal head position with vaginal examination during first stage of labor. Material and Methods. This prospective study was performed at a tertiary center during a two-year period. Before or after clinically indicated vaginal examinations, transverse suprapubic transabdominal real-time ultrasound fetal head position assessment was done. Frequencies of various ultrasound depicted fetal head positions were compared with position determined at vaginal examination. Results. In only 31.5% of patients, fetal head position determinations by vaginal examinations were consistent with those obtained by ultrasound. Cohen's Kappa test of concordance indicated a poor concordance of 0.15. Accuracy of vaginal examination increased to 66% when fetal head position at vaginal examination was recorded correct if reported within +45° of the ultrasound assessment. Rate of agreement between the two assessment methods for consultants versus residents was 36% and 26%, respectively (P = 0.17). Conclusion. We found that vaginal examination was associated with a high error rate in fetal head position determination. Data supports the idea that intrapartum transabdominal ultrasound enhances correct determination of fetal head position during first stage of labor. PMID:25006479
Shetty, Jyothi; Aahir, Vinod; Adiga, Prashanth; Kamath, Asha
Vaginal marking is a stereotyped scent marking behavior in female Syrian hamsters used to attract male hamsters for mating. Although the modulation of vaginal marking by hormones and odors is well understood, the motor control of this proceptive reproductive behavior remains unknown. Therefore, we used X-ray videography to visualize individual bone movements during vaginal marking. Kinematic analyses revealed several consistent motor patterns of vaginal marking. Despite exhibiting a diversity of trial-to-trial non-marking behaviors (e.g. locomotor stepping), we found that lowering and raising the pelvis consistently corresponded with coordinated flexion and extension cycles of the hip, knee, and tail, suggesting that these movements are fundamental to vaginal marking behavior. Surprisingly, we observed only small changes in the angles of the pelvic and sacral regions, suggesting previous reports of pelvic rotation during vaginal marking may need to be reconsidered. From these kinematic data, we inferred that vaginal marking is primarily due to the actions of hip and knee extensor muscles of the trailing leg working against gravity to support the weight of the animal as it controls the descent of the pelvis to the ground. The cutaneous trunci muscle likely mediates the characteristic flexion of the tail. Interestingly, this tail movement occurred on the same time scale as the joint kinematics suggesting possible synergistic recruitment of these muscle groups. These data therefore provide new targets for future studies examining the peripheral control of female reproductive behaviors. PMID:22138441
Been, Laura E; Bauman, Jay M; Petrulis, Aras; Chang, Young-Hui
Objectives The non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor MC1220 has potent in vitro activity against HIV type 1 (HIV-1). A liposome gel formulation of MC1220 has previously been reported to partially protect rhesus macaques against vaginal challenge with a simian HIV (SHIV). Here, we describe the pre-clinical development of an MC1220-releasing silicone elastomer vaginal ring (SEVR), including pharmacokinetic (PK) and efficacy studies in macaques. Methods In vitro release studies were conducted on SEVRs loaded with 400 mg of MC1220, using simulated vaginal fluid (SVF, n?=?4) and 1?:?1 isopropanol/water (IPA/H2O, n?=?4) as release media. For PK evaluation, SEVRs were inserted into adult female macaques (n?=?6) for 30 days. Following a 1week washout period, fresh rings were placed in the same animals, which were then challenged vaginally with RT-SHIV162P3 once weekly for 4 weeks. Results SEVRs released 1.66 and 101 mg of MC1220 into SVF and IPA/H2O, respectively, over 30 days, the differential reflecting the low aqueous solubility of the drug. In macaque PK studies, MC1220 was consistently detected in vaginal fluid (peak 845 ng/mL) and plasma (peak 0.91 ng/mL). Kaplan–Meier analysis over 9weeks showed significantly lower infection rates for animals given MC1220-containing SEVRs than placebo rings (hazard ratio 0.20, P?=?0.0037). Conclusions An MC1220-releasing SEVR partially protected macaques from vaginal challenge. Such ring devices are a practical method for providing sustained, coitally independent protection against vaginal exposure to HIV-1. PMID:23109186
Fetherston, Susan M.; Geer, Leslie; Veazey, Ronald S.; Goldman, Laurie; Murphy, Diarmaid J.; Ketas, Thomas J.; Klasse, Per Johan; Blois, Sylvain; La Colla, Paolo; Moore, John P.; Malcolm, R. Karl
Background: Misoprostol is a new promising agent for cervical ripening and induction of labour .The ideal dose, route and frequency of administration of misoprostol are still under investigation. Although, vaginal application of misoprostol has been validated as a reasonable mean of induction, there is a patient resistance to digital examination and there is a risk of ascending infection. For this reason, oral administration of misoprostol for cervical ripening and labour induction has been tried. Aims and Objectives: To compare 50?g of oral misoprostol versus 25?g of intravaginal misoprostol for induction of labour at term and maternal, foetal outcomes. Methods: Two hundred women who were at term, with indication for induction of labour and Bishop scores of ?5 were randomly assigned to receive misoprostol 50?g or 25?g intravaginal, every 4-6 hours, for a maximum of 5 doses. In either group, pregnant females with inadequate uterine contractions despite being given maximum 5 doses of misoprostol, were augmented using oxytocin. The primary outcome measure was time-interval from induction to vaginal delivery and vaginal delivery rate within 24 hours. Results: The median induction to vaginal delivery time in oral group (12.92h) and vaginal group (14.04 h) was not significant. Oral misoprostol resulted in more number of vaginal deliveries as compared to vaginal misoprostol (94% as compared to 86%), which was not significant. There was a significantly higher incidence of uterine tachysystole in the vaginal group, as compared to oral group. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to oxytocin augmentation, caesarean section rate, analgesic requirement and neonatal outcome. Conclusion: Oral misoprostol is as efficacious as vaginal misoprostol because of shorter induction delivery interval, lower caesarean section rates, and lower incidence of failed induction rates. Lower incidence of foetal distress and easy intake are observed if the drug is administered orally. PMID:24551660
Komala, Kambhampati; Reddy, Meherlatha; Quadri, Iqbal Jehan; B., Suneetha; V., Ramya
Vaginally administered antiviral agents may reduce the risk of HIV and HSV acquisition. Delivery of these drugs using intravaginal rings (IVRs) holds the potential benefits of improving adherence and decreasing systemic exposure, while maintaining steady-state drug levels in the vaginal tract. Elucidating how IVRs interact with the vaginal microbiome constitutes a critical step in evaluating the safety of these devices, as shifts the vaginal microbiome have been linked with several disease states. To date, clinical IVR trials have relied on culture-dependent methods that omit the high diversity of unculturable microbial population. Longitudinal, culture-independent characterization of the microbiota in vaginal samples from 6 women with recurrent genital HSV who used an acyclovir IVR was carried out and compared to the communities developing in biofilms on the IVR surface. The analysis utilized Illumina MiSeq sequence datasets generated from bar-coded amplicons of 16S rRNA gene fragments. Specific taxa in the vaginal communities of the study participants were found to be associated with the duration of recurrent genital HSV status and the number of HSV outbreaks. Taxonomic comparison of the vaginal and IVR biofilm communities did not reveal any significant differences, suggesting that the IVRs were not systematically enriched with members of the vaginal microbiome. Device usage did not alter the participants' vaginal microbial communities, within the confines of the current study design. Rigorous, molecular analysis of the effects of intravaginal devices on the corresponding microbial communities shows promise for integration with traditional approaches in the clinical evaluation of candidate products. PMID:24361269
Ursell, Luke K; Gunawardana, Manjula; Chang, Simon; Mullen, Madeline; Moss, John A; Herold, Betsy C; Keller, Marla J; McDonald, Daniel; González, Antonio; Knight, Rob; Baum, Marc M
Introduction Vaginal atrophy is a consequence of menopause however little is known concerning the effect of a decrease in systemic estrogen on vaginal smooth muscle structure and function. As the incidence of pelvic floor disorders increases with age, it is important to determine if estrogen regulates the molecular composition and contractility of the vaginal muscularis. Aim The goal of this study was to determine the effect of estrogen on molecular and functional characteristics of the vaginal muscularis utilizing a rodent model of surgical menopause. Methods 3–4 month old Sprague Dawley rats underwent sham laparotomy (Sham, n=18) or ovariectomy (Ovx, n=39). Two weeks following surgery, animals received a subcutaneous osmotic pump containing vehicle (Sham, Ovx) or 17- ? estradiol (Ovx). Animals were euthanized one week later and the proximal vagina was collected for analysis of contractile protein expression and in vitro studies of contractility. Measurements were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc analysis (?= 0.05). Main Outcome Measures Protein and mRNA transcript expression levels of contractile proteins, in vitro measurements of vaginal contractility Results Ovariectomy decreased the expression of carboxyl-terminal myosin heavy chain isoform SM1 and h-caldesmon and reduced the amplitude of contraction of the vaginal muscularis in response to KCl. Estradiol replacement reversed these changes. No differences were detected in the % vaginal muscularis, mRNA transcript expression of amino terminal MHC isoforms, l-caldesmon expression and maximal velocity of shortening. Conclusion Systemic estrogen replacement restores functional and molecular characteristics of the vaginal muscularis of ovariectomized rats. Our results indicate that menopause is associated with changes in the vaginal muscularis, which may contribute to the increased incidence of pelvic floor disorders with age. PMID:23438289
Basha, Maureen E.; Chang, Shaohua; Burrows, Lara J.; Lassmann, Jenny; Wein, Alan J.; Moreland, Robert S.; Chacko, Samuel K.
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) is a Gram-positive bacterium found in the female rectovaginal tract and is capable of producing severe disease in susceptible hosts, including newborns and pregnant women. The vaginal tract is considered a major reservoir for GBS, and maternal vaginal colonization poses a significant risk to the newborn; however, little is known about the specific bacterial factors that promote GBS colonization and persistence in the female reproductive tract. We have developed in vitro models of GBS interaction with the human female cervicovaginal tract using human vaginal and cervical epithelial cell lines. Analysis of isogenic mutant GBS strains deficient in cell surface organelles such as pili and serine-rich repeat (Srr) proteins shows that these factors contribute to host cell attachment. As Srr proteins are heavily glycosylated, we confirmed that carbohydrate moieties contribute to the effective interaction of Srr-1 with vaginal epithelial cells. Antibody inhibition assays identified keratin 4 as a possible host receptor for Srr-1. Our findings were further substantiated in an in vivo mouse model of GBS vaginal colonization, where mice inoculated with an Srr-1-deficient mutant exhibited decreased GBS vaginal persistence compared to those inoculated with the wild-type (WT) parental strain. Furthermore, competition experiments in mice showed that WT GBS exhibited a significant survival advantage over the ?pilA or ?srr-1 mutant in the vaginal tract. Our results suggest that these GBS surface proteins contribute to vaginal colonization and may offer new insights into the mechanisms of vaginal niche establishment. PMID:21984789
Sheen, Tamsin R.; Jimenez, Alyssa; Wang, Nai-Yu; Banerjee, Anirban; van Sorge, Nina M.; Doran, Kelly S.
To maintain a healthy vaginal ecosystem or to restore any disturbance, sufficient estrogen levels, an intact mature vaginal epithelium, and physiological lactobacillary microflora are essential. Thus, a combination of beneficial lactobacilli and estrogen is an appealing treatment option. This article reviews the published data on the use of viable Lactobacillus acidophilus KS400 and a low dose of estriol (0.03 mg E3) in the form of vaginal tablets (Gynoflor®). In vitro studies demonstrated that L. acidophilus KS400 produces lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), inhibits the growth of relevant vaginal pathogens, and inhibits adherence of pathogens to epithelial cells. Topical administration of E3 for treatment of vaginal diseases is generally preferred, as this route of application of hormones produces a more significant local proliferative response and has no stimulating effect on the endometrium. Overall, 16 clinical studies have been published with the combination of L. acidophilus KS400 and 0.03 mg E3. The results of these trials have demonstrated that the combination improves the vaginal epithelium and the restoration of the lactobacillary microflora with an excellent safety profile, even during pregnancy. The combination can be used in pre- and postmenopausal women for the restoration of the vaginal flora after anti-infective therapy, for treatment of symptomatic vaginal atrophy, and for abnormal vaginal flora therapy. It can be also considered in repetitive therapy courses for the long-term prevention of recurrences of bacterial vaginosis, even though further clinical studies are needed to substantiate the benefit of this application. PMID:24592002
Unlu, Cihat; Donders, Gilbert
Trichomoniasis vaginalis is now an important worldwide health problem. Metronidazole has so far been used in treatment, but the metronidazole-resistant strains and unpleasant adverse effects have been developed. Treatment of patients with metronidazole refractory vaginal trichomoniasis constitutes a major therapeutic challenge and treatment options are extremely limited. In the present study, 33 metronidazole-resistant T. vaginalis females were treated with a combined course of metronidazole and tinidazole. Those still resistant to the combined treatment were given Commiphora molmol (Myrrh) as two capsules for six to eight successive days on an empty stomach two hours before breakfast. Also, natural plant extract purified from (Roman) was in-vitro investigated for its efficacy against T. vaginalis on fresh Diamond media. The anti-trichomoniasis vaginalis activity of both P. granatum (in-vitro) and C. molmol (in-vivo) extracts gave promising results. PMID:19530609
El-Sherbini, Gehad T M; El Gozamy, Bothina R; Abdel-Hady, Nevein M; Morsy, Tosson A
The epithelial cell barrier function is a critical factor in the maintenance of the homeostasis of the vaginal mucosa. This study elucidates one of the mast cell-derived chemical mediators, tryptase, on compromising the vaginal epithelial barrier function. The results showed that human vaginal cell line, VK2, express PAR2. Activation of PAR2 increases the expression of ADAM10 in VK2 cells, interferes with the endosome/lysosome fusion, and compromises the epithelial barrier function. We conclude that the activation of PAR2 on VK2 cells increases the expression of ADAM10, and compromises the VK2 monolayer barrier function. PMID:24889831
Li, Yan; Feng, Chong; Wei, Xing; Zhang, Jiyuan; Zan, Ronghua; Zheng, Guizhi; Yang, Xiaoying; Zhai, Jianjun
It is expected that with the rising female life expectancy the prevalence of pelvic organ prolapse will increase. From ancient times mechanical devices have been used to reposition prolapsed organs. Given that surgical correction of prolapse is associated with high recurrence rates, pessaries offer a favorable alternative. In spite of the antiquity of pessary usage the evidence for its use, the effectiveness of symptom relief, and the nuances of clinical management with the pessary in situ have not been studied methodically. There is a need for controlled trials to assess the efficacy of pessaries as opposed to other non-surgical and surgical methods of treating pelvic organ prolapse. Additionally, the long term effects and complications of pessary usage have not been assessed in trials, and knowledge about the potential complications caused by the pessary rests mainly on anecdotal data. This review provides a historical perspective and appraises the current knowledge regarding the indications, effectiveness and the potential complications associated with pessary use. Data were obtained from an electronic search of Medline (1966-2010) and by hand searching the citations which were not available online. Keywords used were pelvic organ prolapse, pelvic floor dysfunction, vaginal pessary and urinary incontinence. Textbooks are also quoted where relevant. Most studies report moderate success rates in the short term following insertion of a pessary for the management of prolapse and concur in the remission of almost all symptoms attributable to the prolapse. Reported success is variable in the remission of urinary and bowel symptoms. We conclude that based on the available evidence (mostly retrospective and prospective cohort studies), treatment with a vaginal pessary is a feasible option that can be offered in the short term to women with prolapse. There is a need for controlled trials to assess the long term efficacy. PMID:21255901
Oliver, Reeba; Thakar, Ranee; Sultan, Abdul H
Urogenital infections affect millions of people every year worldwide. The treatment of these diseases usually requires the use of antimicrobial agents, and more recently, the use of probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cultures for the management of vaginal infections has been extensively studied. In this work, 11 vaginal lactobacilli isolates, previously obtained from healthy patients, were studied to screen microorganisms with probiotic properties against Candida spp. The LAB were tested for their ability of auto-aggregation, co-aggregation with C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis, adhesion to Caco-2 epithelial cells and production of lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). All lactobacilli isolates tested were able to auto-aggregate (ranging from 25.3% to 75.4% assessed at 4 hours of incubation) and to co-aggregate with the four Candida species into different degrees; among them L. crispatus showed the highest scores of co-aggregation. The highest amount of lactic acid was produced by L. salivarius (13.9 g/l), followed by L. johnsonii (6.5 g/l), L. acidophilus (5.5 g/l), and L. jensenii (5.4 g/l). All isolates produced H2O2, but the highest levels (3 – 10 mg/l) were observed for L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. gasseri, L. johnsonii, and L. vaginalis. Only L. agilis, L. jensenii, L. johnsonii and L. ruminus were able to adhere to epithelial Caco-2 cells. Among the isolates evaluated, L agilis, L. jensenii, L. johnsonii, and L. ruminus exhibited simultaneously several desirable properties as potential probiotic strains justifying future studies to evaluate their technological properties in different pharmaceutical preparations for human use. PMID:24031455
Gil1, Natalia F.; Martinez, Rafael C.R.; Gomes, Bruna C.; Nomizo, Auro; De Martinis, Elaine C. P.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the local tolerance of vaginal gels (three gels containing dapivirine, the placebo gel, and Conceptrol) with the Slug Mucosal Irritation test and to compare the results with those of the rabbit vaginal irritation test. The irritation potential on the slug mucosa was assessed by the mucus production caused by a repeated treatment for 5 successive days. Additionally, membrane damage was estimated by the protein and enzyme release. By means of a classification prediction model the formulations were classified into four irritation classes. The effect of a 10-day intravaginal application of the gels on the rabbit vaginal and cervical mucosa was evaluated by means of macroscopic and microscopic examination. The placebo and dapivirine gels induced no irritation of the slug mucosa (low mucus production and protein release, no enzyme release) and no vaginal or cervical irritation in rabbits. Conceptrol caused severe irritation of the slug mucosa (increased mucus production, protein release, and enzyme release) and irritation of the rabbit vagina and cervix. The results obtained with the Slug Mucosal Irritation test were comparable to those of the rabbit vaginal irritation test. PMID:15996583
Dhondt, Marijke M M; Adriaens, Els; Roey, Jens Van; Remon, Jean Paul
Background Vaginal flora of healthy women is dominated by Lactobacillus species which can prevent bacterial vaginosis. Objectives The current study aimed to determine the differences in vaginal lactobacilli composition of Iranian healthy and bacterial vaginosis (BV) infected women and compared their cytotoxic effects with commercial vaginal probiotics. Patients and Methods One hundred and seventy eight vaginal specimens were collected from healthy and BV infected women. Lactobacillus colonies were obtained by culturing on laked blood BHI and MRS medias and genetically defined by 16s rRNA sequencing. Differentiating the specimens to normal, intermediate and BV infected were carried out by Ison and Hey grading protocol. Identification of Lactobacillus strains in vaginal specimens were performed by Multiplex PCR. The inhibitory effects of lactobacilli on Hela (tumoral cervical cells) and HNCF-pi52 (normal cervical cells) were conducted by MTT and trypan blue assays. Results L. crispatus, L. gasseri, L. iners, L. jensenii, L. acidophilus and L. rhamnosus were the most frequently occurring species in vagina of healthy Iranian women. L. crispatus and L. jensenni were significantly higher in the normal than in the BV infected groups. Also the cytotoxic effect of L. crispatus on tumoral cervical cells was higher than other lactobacilli including commercial probiotics. Conclusions As L. crispatus and L. jensenni were significantly higher in BV infected women and the cytotoxic effect of L. crispatus on tumoral cervical cells was high, introduction of new probiotics seems necessary. PMID:23983998
Motevaseli, Elahe; Shirzad, Mahdieh; Raoofian, Reza; Hasheminasab, Seyyed-Mohammad; Hatami, Maryam; Dianatpour, Mehdi; Modarressi, Mohammad-Hossein
Effective single-dose treatment of trichomonal vaginitis is reported. Large single-dose treatment with metronidazole was found to be effective and avoided the side effects occurring with multidose treatment. (MJB)
Moore, Jennifer R.
A 60-year-old woman with past history of perineorrhaphy due to vaginal prolapse; squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix stage IIB, treated with radiation theraphy at doses of 7500 rads administered as teletherapy and brachytherapy with Cesium 137. Ten weeks later a Piver II hysterectomy was performed, her posoperative morbidity was a vaginal abscess. Twelve years later, she developed a pulmonary metastasis. One year thereafter she had vaginal discharge of cetrinous fluid and prolapse of greater omentum through the vagina. She was treated by a midle exploratory celiotomy, primary closure of the vaginal defect and the pelvic floor was covered with an omental pedicle flap. The postoperative period was unremarkable. PMID:8714067
Luna, P; Sanchez, W
ObjectiveTo report on our experience with intraamniotic injection of ethacridine lactate (EL) for second trimester termination of pregnancy (TOP) and to compare its effectiveness with vaginal PGE1 in this setting.
Christoph Berg; Michael Ludwig; Nina Sturm; Klaus Diedrich; Ulrich Gembruch; Annegret Geipel
A 66 year old woman with end-stage renal disease and liver cirrhosis due to chronic hepatitis C virus infection was introduced to hemodialysis therapy in 2003. In 2007, hepatocellular carcinoma was identified and the patient underwent radio frequency ablation (RFA) and ethanol injection therapy (EIT) under laparotomy. A large vaginal tumor was incidentally found at gynecological examination. Histological diagnosis was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (Stage IE). During the first course of chemotherapy, the vaginal tumor began to prolapse from the vaginal wall due to an excellent response to the chemotherapy and finally was resected. The patient received another course of chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. The vaginal tumor was undetectable in the follow-up imaging studies. Although patients with end-stage renal disease are at increased risk for several cancers, the occurrence of malignant lymphoma following hepatocellular carcinoma is rare. Furthermore, lymphomas arising from the female genital tract are very uncommon. PMID:21699006
Komine, Norikuni; Takaki, Ichiro; Aoki, Ken-Ichi; Nishihara, Gakusen; Iwasa, Atsuko; Nakano, Ryuji; Nakamata, Tomochika
frequent aerobic isolates included Acinetobacter lwoffii, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium spp., and Streptococcus spp. These organisms were isolated from both groups of cows, but more frequently from the vaginitis group...
Husted, James Ross
In patients with posthysterectomy prolapse of the vaginal vault, the posterior intravaginal slingplasty (posterior IVS, Tyco Healthcare, USA) has been suggested as an alternative to traditional vaginal vault suspensions. The goal of this technique is to recreate the uterosacral ligaments and to reinforce the rectovaginal fascia with the use of prosthetic material. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman with a history of 27 months of perineal suppurative discharge after she underwent a vaginal vault prolapse and rectocele repair using a posterior IVS (Tyco Healthcare, USA). The IVS tape was reinforced by interposing a rectovaginal monofilament polypropylene mesh (Parietex, Sofradim, France). Imaging studies and surgical exploration confirmed infection of the IVS mesh with the formation of a gluteo-vaginal fistula while the rectovaginal mesh was intact. PMID:19015799
Grynberg, Michael; Teyssedre, Jacques; Staerman, Frederic
...Microbicides: Development for the Prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...vaginal microbicides for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The guidance outlines the types of...
The relevance of volatile fatty acids as a diagnostic test in 79 women with abnormal vaginal discharge was evaluated by a blind, randomised, and placebo controlled trial of tinidazole as a single oral 2 g dose. Automated gas chromatography of ether extracts of discharges taken before treatment showed volatile fatty acids in 18. Volatile fatty acids correlated with malodorous, colour, and microscopically assessed altered bacterial flora and clue cells. At follow up one week later, the odour, colour, and volatile fatty acids in the vaginal discharge of women treated with tinidazole had become normal more often than in those receiving placebo. The disappearance of volatile fatty acids correlated with clinically assessed improvement in women treated with tinidazole. The volatile fatty acid test as an indicator of anaerobic bacterial flora is objective, technically simple and fast, has few problems of sample size and transportation, and may be useful in the aetiological classification and follow up treatment of non-specific vaginal discharges. PMID:3522407
Jokipii, A M; Jokipii, L; Vesterinen, E; Purola, E; Vartiainen, E; Paavonen, J
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was originally described as a sexually transmitted infection caused by a single microbe. The prevailing concept describes BV as a polymicrobial coitus-associated disease of uncertain origin. In this overview the natural history of BV as a monobacterial and polymicrobial entity is examined with respect to the physiological concept of BV in relation to sexual behavior before and after introduction of the hormonal contraceptive pill. Bacterial vaginosis, characterized by low vaginal acidity (elevated pH) and replacement of vaginal Lactobacillus by Gardnerella vaginalis flora, could be caused by unprotected intercourse when a low pH changes through the neutralizing power of male ejaculate, vaginal coital transudate and vaginal neurogenic transudate. A monobacterial form, G. vaginalis vaginitis, could be a physiological post-coital condition for protection of ejaculated spermatozoa, characterized by 'pure'Gardnerella flora and elevated pH as an immediate result of an incidental unprotected coital act through neutralization of vaginal acid and replacement of Lactobacillus by Gardnerella flora. A polymicrobial form of BV could be autoinfection of the post-coital physiological G. vaginalis flora, characterized by a mixture of G. vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis and anaerobic bacteria at lower vaginal acidity, possibly resulting from suppression of normal vaginal acidity through repeated sexual acts, with a resultant higher pH and transfer of enteric bacteria from the perianal region. Monobacterial and polymicrobial auto-infectious forms of BV may be clinically distinct and share a common origin. The understanding of BV as a basic physiological entity could influence the prophylaxis and treatment of the largely therapy-resistant polymicrobial BV. PMID:21916857
Leppäluoto, Pentti A
In a small praxis/ambulance study we evaluated data of 200 women with chronical recurrent cervical infections and with a cervix dysplasia (CIN 1, CIN 2). who got after the primary therapy a treatment with vitamin D vaginal suppositories (12.500 IU, 3 nights a week, for 6 weeks). We found that - when compared with the lactobacillus vaginal suppositories - the high dose vitamin D vaginal treatment might be more effective. Vitamin D showed very good anti-inflammatory effects. In the survey after six weeks therapy 79% of the women had “less vaginal problems,” “less discharge” and “less problems with the sexual intercourse.” Objectively after six weeks therapy only 7% of the patients still had bacterial and/or fungal vaginal infections that required a treatment. We found that vitamin D is reabsorbed by the vaginal mucosa, but the reabsorption may be individually very different. In the CIN 1 group we found six weeks after treatment good antidysplastic effects, in the CIN 2 group we often found no or only temporary antidysplastic effects. So this vaginal vitamin D treatment method might be an option for the therapy and prevention of chronical cervical infections and maybe of a cervic dysplasia CIN 1 (good antiinflammatory effects, antidysplastic effects). This small study is not representative. We need much bigger studies with much more dates and with a longer follow up. Caution: At the moment we do not know, if the vaginal vitamin D treatment with 12500 IE is possible in pregnancy. We have no experience. Therefore we recommend an effective contraception during the application. PMID:24605180
Schulte-Uebbing, C; Schlett, S; Craiut, ID; Antal, L; Olah, H
Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is a commonly used form of contraception, with noncontraceptive benefits for the user. The mode of action is through the suppression of ovulation. It leads to hypoestrogenism which causes dryness of the vagina and dyspareunia. We present in this paper a patient that was very symptomatic with regard to vaginal atrophic changes determined by vaginal cytology. This side effect may become increasingly more common as we see more long-term use of DMPA. PMID:23533869
Badawy, Shawky Z. A.
Detailed quantitative aerobic, anaerobic, fungal and mycoplasma flora was obtained for 43 women presenting with complaints of vaginal discharge and malodour. Clinical response was associated with eradication of the abnormal anaerobic flora, despite persistence of G vaginalis in nine (26%). Topical imidazole therapy appeared to have some advantage over oral therapy. Gram stains of vaginal swabs were found to be the most useful laboratory investigation. PMID:3887255
Meech, R J; Loutit, J
The vaginal mucosa is commonly exposed to chemicals and therapeutic agents that may result in irritation and/or inflammation. In addition to acute effects, vaginal irritation and inflammation can make women more susceptible to infections such as HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus-2. Hence, the vaginal irritation potential of feminine care formulations and vaginally administered therapeutic agents is a significant public health concern. Traditionally, testing of such materials has been performed using the rabbit vaginal irritation (RVI) assay. In the current study, we investigated whether the organotypic, highly differentiated EpiVaginal™ tissue could be used as a non-animal alternative to the RVI test. The EpiVaginal tissue was exposed to a single application of ingredients commonly found in feminine hygiene products and the effects on tissue viability (MTT assay), barrier disruption (measured by transepithelial electrical resistance, TEER and sodium fluorescein (NaFl) leakage), and inflammatory cytokine release (interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-8) patterns were examined. When compared to untreated controls, two irritating ingredients, nonoxynol 9 and benzalkonium chloride, reduced tissue viability to <40% and TEER to <60% while increasing NaFl leakage by 11–24% and IL-1? and IL-1? release by >100%. Four other non-irritating materials had minimal effects on these parameters. Assay reproducibility was confirmed by testing the chemicals using three different tissue production lots and by using tissues reconstructed from cells obtained from three different donors. Coefficients of variation between tissue lots reconstructed with cells obtained from the same donor or lots reconstructed with cells obtained from different donors were less than 10% and 12%, respectively. In conclusion, decreases in tissue viability and barrier function and increases in IL-1? and IL-1? release appear to be useful endpoints for preclinical screening of topically applied chemicals and formulations for their vaginal irritation potential. PMID:20937349
Ayehunie, Seyoum; Cannon, Chris; LaRosa, Karen; Pudney, Jeffrey; Anderson, Deborah J.; Klausner, Mitchell
The vaginal mucosa is commonly exposed to chemicals and therapeutic agents that may result in irritation and/or inflammation. In addition to acute effects, vaginal irritation and inflammation can make women more susceptible to infections such as HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2). Hence, the vaginal irritation potential of feminine care formulations and vaginally administered therapeutic agents is a significant public health concern. Traditionally, testing of such materials has been performed using the rabbit vaginal irritation (RVI) assay. In the current study, we investigated whether the organotypic, highly differentiated EpiVaginal™ tissue could be used as a non-animal alternative to the RVI test. The EpiVaginal tissue was exposed to a single application of ingredients commonly found in feminine hygiene products and the effects on tissue viability (MTT assay), barrier disruption (measured by transepithelial electrical resistance, TEER and sodium fluorescein (NaFl) leakage), and inflammatory cytokine release (interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-8) patterns were examined. When compared to untreated controls, two irritating ingredients, nonoxynol 9 and benzalkonium chloride, reduced tissue viability to <40% and TEER to <60% while increasing NaFl leakage by 11-24% and IL-1? and IL-1? release by >100%. Four other non-irritating materials had minimal effects on these parameters. Assay reproducibility was confirmed by testing the chemicals using three different tissue production lots and by using tissues reconstructed from cells obtained from three different donors. Coefficients of variation between tissue lots reconstructed with cells obtained from the same donor or lots reconstructed with cells obtained from different donors were less than 10% and 12%, respectively. In conclusion, decreases in tissue viability and barrier function and increases in IL-1? and IL-1? release appear to be useful endpoints for preclinical screening of topically applied chemicals and formulations for their vaginal irritation potential. PMID:20937349
Ayehunie, Seyoum; Cannon, Chris; Larosa, Karen; Pudney, Jeffrey; Anderson, Deborah J; Klausner, Mitchell
Aim—The status of vaginal lactobacillary flora, an indicator of possible genital infection and pregnancy complications, can be assessed on wet mount or Gram stained specimens. The former is quick, the latter more routine. The accuracy of the two preparative techniques to detect normal vaginal lactobacillary microflora was compared for 646 patients. The effect of delay in transport medium before Gram staining was also investigated. Methods—Patients presented with infectious vaginitis or for a routine prenatal visit. After placement of a speculum, duplicate smears were taken from the upper vaginal vault and examined fresh or after Gram staining. Lactobacillary grades from both methods were compared with lactate concentration in vaginal rinses. In a subgroup of 238 patients, Gram staining was performed both on fresh smears and those that had been transported in Stuart's growth medium. Results—Higher lactobacillary grades (more disrupted flora) were diagnosed 2.9 times more frequently on Gram stained specimens than on wet mounts (p < 0.0001), a difference even more pronounced after transport in Stuart's medium (relative risk, 4.2; p < 0.0001). Lactobacillary grades assessed on wet mounts correlated better with vaginal lactate concentration than those assessed on Gram stains. Conclusions—Easier recognition of lactobacillary morphotypes on wet mounts than on Gram stains might result from the loss of lactobacilli by the process of fixation or Gram staining. Wet mount microscopy of vaginal smears for assessment of lactobacillary grades, rather than Gram staining, is strongly recommended. Key Words: Gram stain • vaginal smears • wet mounts • lactobacillary flora PMID:10823128
Donders, G.; Vereecken, A.; Dekeersmaecker, A.; Van Bulck, B.; Spitz, B.
The main objective of this investigation was to study the feasibility of developing a vaginal bioadhesive microbicide using a SRI's proprietary two-polymer gel platform (SR-2P). Several formulations were prepared with different combinations of temperature-sensitive polymer (Pluronic® F-127) and mucoadhesive polymer (Noveon® AA-1), producing gels of different characteristics. Prototype polymeric gels were evaluated for pH, osmolality, buffering capacity, and viscosity under simulated vaginal semen dilutions, and bioadhesivity using ex vivo mini pig vaginal tissues and texture analyzer. The pH of the polymeric gel formulations ranged from 5.1 to 6.4; the osmolality varied from 13 to 173 mOsm. Absolute viscosity ranged from 513 to 3,780 cPs, and was significantly reduced (1.5- to 3-fold) upon incubation with simulated vaginal and semen fluid mixture. Among the tested gels (indicated in the middle row as a molar ratio of a mixture of Noveon vs. Pluronic), only SR-2P retained gel structure upon dilution with simulated fluids and mild simulated coital stress. The pH of the SR-2P gel was maintained at about 4.6 in simulated vaginal fluid and also showed high peak force of adhesion in mini pig vaginal tissue. Furthermore, SR-2P gel caused no or only minimal irritation in a mouse vaginal irritation model. The results of this preliminary study demonstrated the potential application of SR-2P gel as a vaginal microbicide vehicle for delivery of anti-HIV agents. PMID:24781671
Podaralla, Satheesh; Alt, Carsten; Shankar, Gita N
. The microbiota of the lower female genital tract was evaluated from vaginal swabs obtained from 623 healthy pregnant women\\u000a at gestation periods of 35–40 weeks. Isolated and identified microorganisms were expressed as percentages of total samples.\\u000a As expected, lactobacilli made up the dominant vaginal microbiota (70%). Enterobacteriaceae, mainly Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Proteus, were present in 38% of the
M. Bayó; M. Berlanga; M. Agut
The presented case reports the treatment of a 80-year-old V gravida IV para suffering from a large perineal hernia and rectocele after vaginal hysterectomy and subsequently performed threefold colpocleisis due to recurrent vault vaginal prolaps.[nl]Since perioperative morbidity and mortality of geriatric patients differ not significantly from thoses of younger women age should not be used as an argument to withhold elderly organ preserving operative strategies with low recurrence rates. PMID:14981567
Bussen, D; Broscheit, J; Bussen, S; Kenn, W; Fuchs, K-H; Sailer, M
With fewer than 250 cases published worldwide, primary vaginal melanoma is an extremely rare malignant entity which is mostly diagnosed in advanced stages. The estimated incidence of vaginal melanoma is 0.026/100?000 women per year. The poor prognosis for advanced tumour stages and different therapies used in very limited numbers of patients require precise preoperative staging and a planned interdisciplinary therapeutic approach.
Kuhn, F.; Dieterich, M.; Klar, E.; Gerber, B.; Prinz, C.
Lactic acid at sufficiently acidic pH is a potent microbicide, and lactic acid produced by vaginal lactobacilli may help protect against reproductive tract infections. However, previous observations likely underestimated healthy vaginal acidity and total lactate concentration since they failed to exclude women without a lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiota, and also did not account for the high carbon dioxide, low oxygen environment of the vagina. Fifty-six women with low (0-3) Nugent scores (indicating a lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiota) and no symptoms of reproductive tract disease or infection, provided a total of 64 cervicovaginal fluid samples using a collection method that avoided the need for sample dilution and rigorously minimized aerobic exposure. The pH of samples was measured by microelectrode immediately after collection and under a physiological vaginal concentration of CO2. Commercial enzymatic assays of total lactate and total acetate concentrations were validated for use in CVF, and compared to the more usual HPLC method. The average pH of the CVF samples was 3.5 ± 0.3 (mean ± SD), range 2.8-4.2, and the average total lactate was 1.0% ± 0.2% w/v; this is a five-fold higher average hydrogen ion concentration (lower pH) and a fivefold higher total lactate concentration than in the prior literature. The microbicidal form of lactic acid (protonated lactic acid) was therefore eleven-fold more concentrated, and a markedly more potent microbicide, than indicated by prior research. This suggests that when lactobacilli dominate the vaginal microbiota, women have significantly more lactic acid-mediated protection against infections than currently believed. Our results invite further evaluations of the prophylactic and therapeutic actions of vaginal lactic acid, whether provided in situ by endogenous lactobacilli, by probiotic lactobacilli, or by products that reinforce vaginal lactic acid. PMID:24223212
O'Hanlon, Deirdre E.; Moench, Thomas R.; Cone, Richard A.
A 27-year-old nulliparous woman presented with large finger-like projections protruding from her vagina. Intraoperatively there were deposits in the pouch of Douglas. Clinical presentation and history of vaginal bleeding suggested malignancy. Histopathology of both the vaginal and pouch of Douglas masses showed endometrial glands and stroma. There was no architectural complexity or cytological atypia of glands or stroma. Immunohistochemistry for
Seema Kaushal; Vatsla Dadhwal; Sandeep R Mathur; Ruma Ray; Prashant Durgapal; Deepika Deka
Recent studies demonstrated that intravaginal rings (IVRs) containing 100 mg of the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) MIV-150 significantly protect macaques against a chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus that expresses the HIV-1 HxB2 reverse transcriptase (SHIV-RT) when present before and after vaginal challenge. The objectives of this study were to (i) evaluate the pharmacodynamics (PD) of MIV-150 in vaginal fluids (VF) and in ectocervical and vaginal tissues following 100-mg MIV-150 IVR exposure and to (ii) gain more insight whether pharmacokinetics (PK) of MIV-150 can predict PD. MIV-150 in VF collected at 1 day and 14 days post-MIV-150 IVR insertion inhibited ex vivo SHIV-RT infection in vaginal biopsy specimens from untreated animals (not carrying IVRs) in a dose-dependent manner. Previous PK studies demonstrated a significant increase of ectocervical and vaginal tissue MIV-150 concentrations 14 days versus 1 day post-IVR insertion, with the highest increase in vaginal tissue. Therefore, we tested PD of MIV-150 in tissues 14 days post-MIV-150 IVR insertion. Ex vivo SHIV-RT infection of vaginal, but not ectocervical, tissues collected 14 days post-MIV-150 IVR insertion was significantly inhibited compared to infection at the baseline (prior to MIV-150 IVR exposure). No changes in vaginal and ectocervical tissue infection were observed after placebo IVR exposure. Overall, these data underscore the use of the ex vivo macaque explant challenge models to evaluate tissue and VF PK/PD of candidate microbicides before in vivo animal efficacy studies. The data support further development of MIV-150-containing IVRs. PMID:24614384
Ouattara, Louise A.; Barnable, Patrick; Mawson, Paul; Seidor, Samantha; Zydowsky, Thomas M.; Kizima, Larisa; Rodriguez, Aixa; Fernandez-Romero, Jose A.; Cooney, Michael L.; Roberts, Kevin D.; Gettie, Agegnehu; Blanchard, James; Robbiani, Melissa
Aging and menopause related decline in circulating levels of estrogen has been shown to adversely affect female sexual arousal function. Our aim was to study the effects of circulating levels of estrogen on the hemodynamic mechanism of vaginal and clitoral engorgement and on the structure of the vaginal and clitoral cavernosal tissue in the rabbit.New Zealand White female rabbits (3.5–4
K Ahn; S Lee; S Ryu; KM Azadzoi
Vaginal infections of BALB\\/c Ann mice with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) were studied. Mice were inoculated with virulent\\u000a strains ANG path and 17 syn+ or low-virulent recombinant strains 27\\/III and 17-syn3 that differ from parental strains in their glycoprotein B (gB) gene\\u000a sequences. When low-virulent strains were inoculated separately, no vaginitis\\/vulvitis was produced despite replication in\\u000a the vagina.
M. Lingen; F. Hengerer; D. Falke
Purpose: Although vaginal dilation is often recommended to minimize or prevent vaginal scarring after pelvic radiotherapy, compliance with this recommendation has historically been very low. Therefore, effective intervention strategies are needed to enhance compliance with vaginal dilation after radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer. Methods and Materials: This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial of a psychoeducational intervention specifically designed to increase compliance with vaginal dilation. The information-motivation-behavioral skills model of enhancing compliance with behavioral change was the basis for the intervention design. Forty-two sexually active women, 21 to 65 years of age, diagnosed with Stages Ic-III cervical or endometrial cancer, who received pelvic radiotherapy, were randomized to either the experimental psychoeducational group or the information-only control group. Assessment via questionnaire occurred before treatment and at 6-week, 6-month, 12-month, 18-month, and 24-month follow-up. Assessment via interview also occurred at 6-month, 12-month, 18-month, and 24-month follow-up. Results: The psychoeducational intervention was successful in increasing compliance with vaginal dilation. Conclusions: This study is the first randomized controlled study to demonstrate the effectiveness of an intervention in increasing compliance with the use of vaginal dilators.
Jeffries, Sherryl A. [Department of Psychosocial Resources, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Calgary Health Region Chronic Pain Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Robinson, John W. [Department of Psychosocial Resources, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada) and Program in Clinical Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada) and Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Craighead, Peter S. [Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Keats, Melanie R. [Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)
The superficial layers of the human vaginal epithelium, which form an interface between host and environment, are comprised of dead flattened cells that have undergone a terminal cell differentiation program called cornification. This entails extrusion of nuclei and intercellular organelles, and the depletion of functional DNA and RNA precluding the synthesis of new proteins. As a consequence, the terminally differentiated cells do not maintain robust intercellular junctions and have a diminished capacity to actively respond to microbial exposure, yet the vaginal stratum corneum (SC) mounts an effective defense against invasive microbial infections. The vaginal SC in reproductive-aged women is comprised of loosely connected glycogen-filled cells, which are permeable to bacterial and viral microbes as well as molecular and cellular mediators of immune defense. We propose here that the vaginal SC provides a unique microenvironment that maintains vaginal health by fostering endogenous lactobacilli and retaining critical mediators of acquired and innate immunity. A better understanding of the molecular and physicochemical properties of the vaginal SC could promote the design of more effective topical drugs and microbicides. PMID:24661416
Anderson, Deborah J; Marathe, Jai; Pudney, Jeffrey
Female sex workers (FSW) are considered one of the key affected populations in Papua New Guinea at risk of acquiring HIV. An integrated bio-behavioral survey of sex workers in Port Moresby was conducted to determine the nature and extent of this risk. About half (51.1 %) of the 411 FSW who reported having any sexual intercourse with clients had engaged in both anal and vaginal intercourse with clients in the last 6 months. In spite of having poorer HIV knowledge (OR95 % CI = 0.14-0.34), FSW who had anal intercourse with clients were significantly more likely to have used a condom at the last vaginal intercourse with a client (OR95 % CI = 1.04-2.87). Similarly, FSW who had anal intercourse with regular and casual partners were significantly more likely to have used a condom at the last vaginal intercourse. Those who engaged in both anal and vaginal intercourse with clients had similar condom use for both vaginal and anal intercourse, with the majority (78.1 %) using a condom at the last occasion for both vaginal and anal intercourse. These FSW may have different risk and protective factors that affect their use of condom during sexual intercourse. Further research is needed to investigate this difference between those who practice anal intercourse and those who do not in order to provide evidence for better programming. PMID:24264727
Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Rawstorne, Patrick; Kupul, Martha; Worth, Heather; Shih, Patti; Man, Wing Young Nicola
Vaginal tolerance tests were performed with a new potential microbicidal and spermicidal product, an acid-buffering vaginal gel (Acidform) without or with nonoxynol-9 (N-9). The potential advantages over other vaginal products include keeping a low pH, decrease of the irritating effect of N-9 on the cervix or vaginal mucosa associated with greater retention of the product after application, and decreasing "messiness" as compared to other vaginal products. Three groups of six women were admitted and randomly assigned to use Acidform with 0%, 2.5%, and 5% N-9. Colposcopic evaluation for vulvar, vaginal, and cervical signs of irritation was performed and photographs were taken, following a specific World Health Organization protocol, at time 0, and after 24 h and 6 days of application of the gel. No irritation or symptom was reported by users of Acidform without N-9. A generalized and intense erythema in cervix was observed in 10 of 12 Acidform/N-9 users and abrasion occurred in nine of them. Vulvar irritation was seen in seven of these 10 volunteers. N-9 concentration in the gel (2.5% or 5.0%) was not related to the findings. No ulcer, exulceration, or de-epithelialization was observed. Acidform without N-9 was well tolerated by volunteers, but it was unable to protect the cervix, vagina, and vulva from the N-9 effects. PMID:10715372
Amaral, E; Faúndes, A; Zaneveld, L; Waller, D; Garg, S
Radiation-induced vaginal fibrosis is a debilitating side-effect affecting up to 80% of women receiving radiotherapy for their gynecological (GYN) malignancies. Despite the significant incidence and severity, little research has been conducted to identify the pathophysiologic changes of vaginal toxicity. In a previous study, we have demonstrated that ultrasound Nakagami shape and PDF parameters can be used to quantify radiation-induced vaginal toxicity. These Nakagami parameters are derived from the statistics of ultrasound backscattered signals to capture the physical properties (e.g., arrangement and distribution) of the biological tissues. In this paper, we propose to expand this Nakagami imaging concept from 2D to 3D to fully characterize radiation-induced changes to the vaginal wall within the radiation treatment field. A pilot study with 5 post-radiotherapy GYN patients was conducted using a clinical ultrasound scanner (6 MHz) with a mechanical stepper. A serial of 2D ultrasound images, with radio-frequency (RF) signals, were acquired at 1 mm step size. The 2D Nakagami shape and PDF parameters were calculated from the RF signal envelope with a sliding window, and then 3D Nakagami parameter images were generated from the parallel 2D images. This imaging method may be useful as we try to monitor radiation-induced vaginal injury, and address vaginal toxicities and sexual dysfunction in women after radiotherapy for GYN malignancies.
Yang, Xiaofeng; Rossi, Peter; Shelton, Joseph; Bruner, Debrorah; Tridandapani, Srini; Liu, Tian
Objective To determine the prevalence of vaginal infections and associated lifestyles of students visiting the University of Cape Coast Hospital. Methods Fifty female students presenting with clinical symptoms of vaginitis were sampled. One hundred samples made up of 50 urine and 50 higher vaginal swabs (HVS) were obtained from patients and questionnaire administered. Samples were wet prepared, examined microscopically, and cultured on blood and chocolate agars for 24 h at (35±2) °C. Colonial morphology, Gram reactions and biochemical tests were used for the identification of isolates. Results There were high percentages of pus cells (64%), epithelial cells (62%) and yeast cells (56%) in all urine samples. Bacterial isolates included Staphylococcus aureus (28%) and (22%), Klebsiella spp. (6%) and (4%) in urine and HVS samples respectively; Escherichia coli in urine (18%) and Candida in HVS (16%). The overall prevalence of vaginitis was 66%, including bacterial vaginosis 28%, Candida infection 22% and co-infection of bacterial and Candida 16%. Lifestyle data showed all sampled students were sexually active, 48% used contraceptives, 54% used antimicrobial agents, and 92% prefered wearing of trousers and shorts. Conclusions The present study indicates prevalence of vaginal infection among female students, which strongly correlates with student lifestyle. Education on lifestyle modifications will go a long way in reducing the prevalence of vaginitis.
Aubyn, Gloria Baaba; Tagoe, Daniel Nii Aryee
One of the most frequent complaints for post-menopausal women is vaginal atrophy, because of reduction in circulating oestrogens. Treatments based on local oestrogen administration have been questioned as topic oestrogens can reach the bloodstream, thus leading to consider their safety as controversial, especially for patients with a history of breast or endometrial cancers. Recently, growth factors have been shown to interact with the oestrogen pathway, but the mechanisms still need to be fully clarified. In this study, we investigated the effect of keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), a known mitogen for epithelial cells, on human vaginal mucosa cells, and its potential crosstalk with oestrogen pathways. We also tested the in vivo efficacy of KGF local administration on vaginal atrophy in a murine model. We demonstrated that KGF is able to induce proliferation of vaginal mucosa, and we gained insight on its mechanism of action by highlighting its contribution to switch ER? signalling towards non-genomic pathway. Moreover, we demonstrated that KGF restores vaginal trophism in vivo similarly to intravaginal oestrogenic preparations, without systemic effects. Therefore, we suggest a possible alternative therapy for vaginal atrophy devoid of the risks related to oestrogen-based treatments, and a patent (no. RM2012A000404) has been applied for this study. PMID:25088572
Ceccarelli, Simona; D'Amici, Sirio; Vescarelli, Enrica; Coluccio, Paolo; Matricardi, Pietro; di Gioia, Cira; Benedetti Panici, Pierluigi; Romano, Ferdinando; Frati, Luigi; Angeloni, Antonio; Marchese, Cinzia
The presence of semen in vaginal fluid, as identified by an acid phosphatase spot test, does not influence vaginal proinflammatory cytokine concentrations. Objective: determine whether semen, as detected by acid phosphatase, influences vaginal cytokines or secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor concentrations. Methods: 138 pregnant women had vaginal fluid collected for Gram stain, acid phosphatase detection by colorimetric assay, and interleukin 1-Beta, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor measurement by enzyme immunoassay. Results for women with and without acid phosphatase were compared by Mann-Whitney test. Results: of 138 subjects, 28 (20%) had acid phosphatase detected; of these, only 19 (68%) reported recent intercourse and 3 (11%) had sperm seen on Gram stain. There were no significant differences in proinflammatory cytokine concentrations; however, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor concentrations were significantly higher among women with acid phosphatase. Conclusions: proinflammatory cytokine measurement does not appear to be affected by the presence of semen, but secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor is significantly higher when semen is present. Detection of semen by acid phosphatase was associated with higher vaginal SLPI concentrations, however, the presence of semen did not appear to influence vaginal proinflammatory cytokine concentrations. PMID:18615190
Agnew, Kathy J.; Aura, Jan; Nunez, Norma; Lee, Zandra; Lawler, Rick; Richardson, Carol E.; Culhane, Jennifer; Hitti, Jane
Evaluation of Sexual Function Outcomes in Women Undergoing Vaginal Rejuvenation/Vaginoplasty Procedures for Symptoms of Vaginal Laxity/Decreased Vaginal Sensation Utilizing Validated Sexual Function Questionnaire (PISQ-12).
Sexual function outcomes were analyzed in a group of women (n = 78) presenting for vaginal rejuvenation/vaginoplasty procedure for a chief complaint of vaginal laxity and decreased sensation with intercourse. Outcomes were analyzed utilizing the validated Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire-12 (PISQ-12) before and at least 6 months after repair with vaginal rejuvenation/vaginoplasty procedure (VR). Mean age was 43.6 ± 7.9 (range 25-62), and 19 patients (24.3%) were found to have prolapse at time of initial exam and underwent vaginal vault suspension in addition to VR. Compared preoperatively and postoperatively, the overall sexual function (Total PISQ-12) statistically improved (30.3 ± 6.6 vs. 38.2 ± 5.2, P < 0.001). All individual scores statistically improved except in 3 categories in which there was no change (Q1-desire, Q5-pain, and Q11- partner premature ejaculation). Overall sexual satisfaction improved as well as subcategories of increased sexual excitement during intercourse and overall increase in intensity of orgasms. Pain with intercourse subscores were found to be no different from preoperatively to postoperatively. Previous studies have shown that sexual function improves with repair of prolapse; however, this is the first study to show improved function using a validated questionnaire in patients undergoing VR for laxity. PMID:24700228
Moore, Robert D; Miklos, John R; Chinthakanan, Orawee
STUDY QUESTION Which inflammation biomarkers detected in the vaginal fluid are most informative for identifying preterm delivery (PTD) risk? SUMMARY ANSWER Elevated interleukin (IL)-6 at mid-trimester was associated with increased odds of spontaneous PTD at <35 weeks and with PTD plus histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA), and had the greatest sensitivity for detecting these two PTD subtypes. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Maternal and/or fetal inflammation play a role in some preterm deliveries, therefore inflammation biomarkers might help to identify women at greater risk. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION We examined 1115 women from the Pregnancy Outcomes and Community Health Study, a cohort study conducted from September 1998 through June 2004, for whom data were available on mid-pregnancy inflammatory biomarkers. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS At enrollment at 16–27 weeks gestation, vaginal fluid samples were collected from a swab and 15 eluted biomarkers were measured using the Meso Scale Discovery multiplex electrochemiluminescence platform. Associations of biomarkers with PTD were examined, according to clinical circumstance, week at delivery and presence/absence of HCA. Weighted logistic regression was used to determine odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for race. Sensitivity and specificity were compared between individual and multiple biomarkers, identified by a bootstrapping method. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Elevated IL-6 (>75th percentile) displayed the strongest association with spontaneous PTD <35 weeks (OR 2.3; CI 1.3–4.0) and PTD with HCA (OR 2.8; CI 1.4–6.0). The sensitivity of IL-6 to detect spontaneous PTD <35 weeks or PTD with HCA was 0.43 and 0.51, respectively, while specificity was 0.74 and 0.75, respectively. IL-6 plus IL1?, IL-6r, tumor necrosis factor-alpha or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor increased specificity (range 0.84–0.88), but decreased sensitivity (range 0.28–0.34) to detect both PTD subtypes. Results were similar when a combination of IL-6 and bacterial vaginosis (BV) was explored. Thus, the use of multiple biomarkers did not detect PTD subtypes with a greater sensitivity than IL-6 alone, and IL-6 is a specific but non-sensitive marker for the detection of spontaneous PTD. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Our ability to find small effect size associations between PTD and inflammation biomarkers (OR <2.0) might have been limited by the modest number of less common PTD subtypes in our population (e.g. spontaneous delivery <35 weeks, PTD accompanied by HCA) and by relatively higher variability for some cytokines, for example tumor necrosis factor-?, IL-12p70, IL-10 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, that are less stable and commonly undetectable or detectable at low levels in human vaginal secretions. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS Larger studies are needed to further explore a role of inflammation biomarkers in combination with other risk factors, including specific BV-associated organisms, for the prediction of PTD subtypes. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) This work was supported by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institute of Nursing, March of Dimes Foundation, Thrasher Research Foundation and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The authors have no conflicts of interest. PMID:23416276
Taylor, Brandie D.; Holzman, Claudia B.; Fichorova, Raina N.; Tian, Yan; Jones, Nicole M.; Fu, Wenjiang; Senagore, Patricia K.
Microbicides are being actively researched and developed as woman-initiated means to prevent HIV transmission during unprotected coitus. Along with safety and efficacy, assessing and improving compliance is a major area of research in microbicide development. We have developed carrageenan-based semisoft vaginal suppositories and have previously evaluated how physical properties such as firmness, size and shape influence women’s willingness to try them. Firmness has previously been quantified in terms of small-strain storage modulus, G’, however large-strain properties of the gels may also play a role in the firmness perception. In the current study we prepared two sets of suppositories with the same G’ but different elongation properties at four different G’ values (250, 2500, 12,500, 25,000 Pa): For convenience we refer to these as “brittle” and “elastic”, although these terms were never provided to study participants. In the first of two tests conducted to assess preference, women compared pairs of brittle and elastic suppositories and indicated their preference. We observed an interaction, as women preferred brittle suppositories at lower G’ (250, 2500 Pa) and elastic ones at a higher G’ (25,000 Pa). In the second test, women evaluated samples across different G’, rated the ease-of-insertion and willingness-to-try and ranked the samples in order of preference. Brittle suppositories at G’ of 12,500 Pa were most preferred. In vitro studies were also conducted to measure the softening of the suppositories in contact with vaginal simulant fluid (VSF). Release of antiretroviral drug tenofovir in VSF was quantified for the brittle and elastic suppositories at G’ of 12,500 Pa to determine the effect of suppository type on release. The initial rate of release was 20% slower with elastic suppositories as compared to brittle suppositories. Understanding how different physical properties simultaneously affect women’s preferences and pharmacological efficacy in terms of drug release is required for the optimization of highly acceptable and efficacious microbicides. PMID:25211123
Zaveri, Toral; Primrose, Rachel J.; Surapaneni, Lahari; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.
The concentrations of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in 42 vaginal samples from healthy and ill bitches were determined. Eight isolates belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Enterococcus were selected and identified and their in vitro antimicrobial activity against canine pathogens and their ability to adhere to canine vaginal epithelial cells were determined. There was no correlation between the concentrations of vaginal LAB and clinical status, body temperature, vaginal pH, or age. Although the animals were either well or suffering from various illnesses, LAB were found in almost every sample, and the selected isolates showed promising probiotic-related features. These findings are significant for the design of strategies for the modulation of vaginal microbiota by vaginal LAB isolates. PMID:19119367
Delucchi, Luis; Fraga, Martín; Perelmuter, Karen; Cidade, Esther; Zunino, Pablo
Abstract Background: Vaginal hysterectomies have been associated with difficulties in patients who have had cesarean sections prior to such hysterectomies. However, the Purohit technique may obviate the problems and make it easier to perform these operations. Objectives: This research tested an approach designed to facilitate vaginal hysterectomy in patients with previous cesarean sections in the absence of fixed adhesions of uterine corpi to previous anterior abdominal scarring. Design/Method: An observational study was conducted in a private general hospital between February 2010 and June 2012. All candidates for hysterectomy for benign indications who had had previous cesarean sections were examined for the presence of clinical and sonographic signs of fixed adhesions of uterine corpi to anterior abdominal-wall incisions caused by prior cesarean sections. Candidates who had such adhesions were not given vaginal hysterectomies. Results: Sixty-four (64) consecutive candidates were selected for vaginal hysterectomies. Of these patients, 26 (40.62%) had 1 cesarean section, 33 (51.56 %) had 2 cesarean sections, and 5 (7.81%) had 3 cesarean sections. Four (4) patients had had prior pelvic operations. The uteri were smaller than 12 weeks' gestation-size in 62 (96.87%) cases. In 26 (40.62 %) cases, there were no obstruction to accessing the anterior cul-de-sacs and vaginal hysterectomies were performed using the Purohit technique. In 38 (59.37 %) cases, dense uterovesical adhesions obstructed access to the anterior cul-de-sacs and a posterioanterior approach was used to perform vaginal hysterectomy in these patients. Vaginal hysterectomy was completed in all 64 cases. Vaginal salpingo-oophorectomy was performed in 3 (4.68%) cases. The mean operative time was 78.59±33.15 (35–190) minutes. The mean weight of specimen uteri was 161.01±108.87 (50–550) g. No patients needed conversions or blood transfusions. No patients had bladder, ureteric, or thermal injuries. Finally, there were no other major postoperative complications. Conclusions: In the absence of fixed adhesions of the uterine corpus to previous anterior abdominal scarring, vaginal hysterectomy for benign indications associated with previous cesarean section may be accomplished safely. The posterioanterior approach during vaginal hysterectomy may avoid unintended bladder injury in the presence of dense uterovesical adhesions caused by previous cesarean sections. (J GYNECOL SURG 29:7) PMID:24761130
Sharma, Jay Gopal; Singh, Sarabjeet; Giri, Dipak Kumar
The human vagina is a complex and dynamic ecosystem containing an abundance of microorganisms. In women of childbearing age, this system is dominated by Lactobacillus spp. In the present work, seventeen newly isolated vaginal strains were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing and were investigated for their antimicrobial properties. Twelve of the isolated Lactobacillus strains showed activity against one or more microorganisms. Six and five of them produced substances that inhibited the growth of two different Klebsiella strains and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. Two lactobacilli strains were active against an Escherichia coli strain, one isolate was active against an Enterococus faecalis strain and another lactobacilli strain showed antimicrobial activity against a Candida parapsilosis strain. The nature of the active compounds was additionally studied, and the presence of bacteriocin-like substances was proved. The genes related to the bacteriocin production in three of the newly isolated strains were identified and sequenced. The presence of gassericin A operon in the genome of the species Lactobacillus crispatus was described for the first time. The presence of antimicrobial activity contributes to their possible use as potential probiotic strains after further research. PMID:24919535
Stoyancheva, Galina; Marzotto, Marta; Dellaglio, Franco; Torriani, Sandra
Adherence of Tritrichomonas foetus to bovine vaginal epithelial cells (VECs) in vitro was investigated with fresh washed bovine VECs and log-phase cultures of T. foetus. Observation under phase-contrast microscopy showed that T. foetus usually adhered first by the posterior flagellum and later by the body. Significantly more keratinized squamous epithelial cells were detected with attached parasites than nonkeratinized round epithelial cells. The optimal pH range for attachment was 6.0 to 7.5, with peak attachment at pH 6.5 for squamous VECs. Surface-reactive bovine antiserum to T. foetus prevented adherence to bovine squamous VECs. Inhibition of adherence occurred at nonagglutinating, nonimmobilizing serum dilutions. Antiserum fractions enriched for immunoglobulin G1 inhibited adherence, but fractions enriched for immunoglobulin G2 did not. The inhibitory antiserum was specific for several medium- to high-molecular-weight membrane antigens as detected in Western blots (immunoblots). The ability of surface-reactive antibodies to prevent adherence and to agglutinate and immobilize T. foetus indicates that they may be protective. Images PMID:2471692
Corbeil, L B; Hodgson, J L; Jones, D W; Corbeil, R R; Widders, P R; Stephens, L R
While significant awareness has been raised about menopause, less attention has been focused on the perimenopausal or "menopausal transition" period. Many women and their physicians remain unaware of the impact of this transitional phase into menopause. Specifically, heavy and unpredictable perimenopausal bleeding is extremely common. It is a normal phenomenon of aging and tends to improve over time. However, about one quarter of perimenopausal women will have heavy flow that persists beyond 3 months and will require medical assistance. The purpose of this review is to focus on the hormonal and physiologic changes that are associated with perimenopausal heavy vaginal bleeding, to present the essential evaluation of causes for this heavy flow, and to outline the evidence for effective medical and surgical treatments. Advances in the understanding of the normal physiology of perimenopause have led to medical therapies that may lead to fewer surgical procedures and hysterectomies and should be of interest to health care practitioners focusing on women's health. Although these issues are addressed in the gynecologic literature, there is relatively less published in other disciplines. PMID:22047099
Chaudhry, Sonal; Berkley, Cynthia; Warren, Michelle
The various microbiota normally associated with the human body have an important influence on human development, physiology, immunity, and nutrition. This is certainly true for the vagina wherein communities of mutualistic bacteria constitute the first line of defense for the host by excluding invasive, nonindigenous organisms that may cause disease. In recent years much has been learned about the bacterial species composition of these communities and how they differ between individuals of different ages and ethnicities. A deeper understanding of their origins and the interrelationships of constituent species is needed to understand how and why they change over time or in response to changes in the host environment. Moreover, there are few unifying theories to explain the ecological dynamics of vaginal ecosystems as they respond to disturbances caused by menses and human activities such as intercourse, douching, and other habits and practices. This fundamental knowledge is needed to diagnose and assess risk to disease. Here we summarize what is known about the species composition, structure, and function of bacterial communities in the human vagina and the applicability of ecological models of community structure and function to understanding the dynamics of this and other ecosystems that comprise the human microbiome. PMID:22683415
Hickey, Roxana J.; Zhou, Xia; Pierson, Jacob D.; Ravel, Jacques; Forney, Larry J.
Malignant melanoma of the vulva and vagina is relatively uncommon and accounts for <5% of all melanomas in women. The aim of our study was to establish the biological properties and evaluate potential therapeutic targets in these tumors. We collected a series of 65 cases from three centers and re-evaluated the tumor tissue for predominant growth pattern (superficial spreading, nodular, and mucosal lentiginous) and tumor thickness. KIT (CD117) expression was detected immunohistochemically. In addition, tumors were screened for BRAF, NRAS, and KIT mutations by PCR and DNA sequencing as well as for KIT amplifications by fluorescence in situ hybridization. None of the cases contained BRAF mutations. NRAS mutations and KIT amplifications were detected in similar frequency (?12%) in tumors of the vulva and vagina. In contrast, KIT mutations were present in 18% of primary melanomas of the vulva, but in none of the tumors arising in the vagina. Moderate or strong KIT protein expression was detected in 30 cases, including all tumors with KIT mutations and 6 of the 7 with KIT amplifications. In conclusion, BRAF mutations are virtually absent in melanomas originating from the vulva or vagina, whereas NRAS mutations and KIT amplifications occur in both locations. KIT mutations appear to be specific for melanomas of the vulva, suggesting that in spite of the anatomic proximity, the development of vulvar and vaginal melanomas involves different molecular alterations which may be targeted by novel treatment approaches. PMID:24603591
Aulmann, Sebastian; Sinn, Hans P; Penzel, Roland; Gilks, C Blake; Schott, Sarah; Hassel, Jessica C; Schmidt, Dietmar; Kommoss, Friedrich; Schirmacher, Peter; Kommoss, Stefan
Surgery of genital prolapse causes haemorrhagic complications in about 1% of cases. The pelvis is highly vascular and accessing the usual landmarks of vaginal surgery, in particular the sciatic spine, is delicate work. Meticulous dissection of closed spaces is often difficult, and exposure and haemostatic procedures will be challenging in the event of any bleeding complication. When fixing prosthesis to the sacrospinous ligament, the inferior gluteal artery and its coccygeal branch are at risk. Fixation to the sacrospinous ligament must be performed more than 25mm away from the sciatic spine and, if possible, must not transfixiate it. Safe insertion of prosthesis requires sufficient experience, and an adequate learning curve. Being aware of vascular anatomy allows one to understand and treat haemorrhagic incidents. Packing or selective embolization seem to be the two methods to adopt, depending on the severity of bleeding and the conditions of exposure on the one hand, and on the technical resources available for embolization, on the other. Hypogastric ligature appears to be ineffective in this context. PMID:24813082
Azaïs, H; Bassil, A; Giraudet, G; Rubod, C; Lucot, J-P; Cosson, M
Purpose. Controversy exists about whether vaginal estrogens interfere with the efficacy of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) in breast cancer patients. With the greater incidence of vaginal atrophy in patients on AIs, a safe and effective nonestrogen therapy is necessary. We hypothesized that vaginal testosterone cream could safely treat vaginal atrophy in women on AIs. Methods. Twenty-one postmenopausal breast cancer patients on AIs with symptoms of vaginal atrophy were treated with testosterone cream applied to the vaginal epithelium daily for 28 days. Ten women received a dose of 300 ?g, 10 received 150 ?g, and one was not evaluable. Estradiol levels, testosterone levels, symptoms of vaginal atrophy, and gynecologic examinations with pH and vaginal cytology were compared before and after therapy. Results. Estradiol levels remained suppressed after treatment to <8 pg/mL. Mean total symptom scores improved from 2.0 to 0.7 after treatment (p < .001) and remained improved 1 month thereafter (p = .003). Dyspareunia (p = .0014) and vaginal dryness (p <.001) improved. The median vaginal pH decreased from 5.5 to 5.0 (p = .028). The median maturation index rose from 20% to 40% (p < .001). Although improvement in total symptom score was similar for both doses (?1.3 for 300 ?g, ?0.8 for 150 ?g; p = .37), only the 300-?g dose was associated with improved pH and maturation values. Conclusions. A 4-week course of vaginal testosterone was associated with improved signs and symptoms of vaginal atrophy related to AI therapy without increasing estradiol or testosterone levels. Longer-term trials are warranted. PMID:21385795
Johnson, Julia; Demers, Laurence; Mount, Sharon; Littenberg, Benjamin; Maclean, Charles D.; Wood, Marie; Muss, Hyman
Summary A remote vaginal metastasis from a colo-rectal carcinoma is extremely rare. Only few cases have been described in the literature. The radiological appearances of a vaginal metastasis from colon-rectal cancer have not been extensively investigated. We report the MRI findings with clinical and pathological correlations of a remote and isolated vaginal metastasis revealing a mid-sigmoid adenocarcinoma in a 67 years old woman. PMID:24567770
D'Arco, Felice; Pizzuti, Laura Micol; Romano, Federica; Natella, Valentina; Laccetti, Ettore; Storto, Giovanni; Maurea, Simone; Mainenti, Pier Paolo
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is one of the most prevalent vaginal infectious diseases, and there are controversial reports regarding the diversity of the associated vaginal microbiota. We determined the vaginal microbial community in patients with VVC, bacterial vaginosis (BV), and mixed infection of VVC and BV using Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA tags. Our results revealed for the first time the highly variable patterns of the vaginal microbiome from VVC patients. In general, the alpha-diversity results of species richness and evenness showed the following order: normal control < VVC only < mixed BV and VVC infection < BV only. The beta-diversity comparison of community structures also showed an intermediate composition of VVC between the control and BV samples. A detailed comparison showed that, although the control and BV communities had typical patterns, the vaginal microbiota of VVC is complex. The mixed BV and VVC infection group showed a unique pattern, with a relatively higher abundance of Lactobacillus than the BV group and higher abundance of Prevotella, Gardnerella, and Atopobium than the normal control. In contrast, the VVC-only group could not be described by any single profile, ranging from a community structure similar to the normal control (predominated with Lactobacillus) to BV-like community structures (abundant with Gardnerella and Atopobium). Treatment of VVC resulted in inconsistent changes of the vaginal microbiota, with four BV/VVC samples recovering to a higher Lactobacillus level, whereas many VVC-only patients did not. These results will be useful for future studies on the role of vaginal microbiota in VVC and related infectious diseases. PMID:24265786
Liu, Mu-Biao; Xu, Su-Rong; He, Yan; Deng, Guan-Hua; Sheng, Hua-Fang; Huang, Xue-Mei; Ouyang, Cai-Yan; Zhou, Hong-Wei
Objective To estimate differences in pelvic floor disorders by mode of delivery. Methods We recruited 1,011 women for a longitudinal cohort study, 5-10 years after first delivery. Using hospital records, we classified each birth as: cesarean without labor, cesarean during active labor, cesarean after complete cervical dilation, spontaneous vaginal birth, or operative vaginal birth. At enrollment, stress incontinence, overactive bladder, anal incontinence, and prolapse symptoms were assessed with a validated questionnaire. Pelvic organ support was assessed using the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification system. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the relative odds of each pelvic floor disorder by obstetric history, adjusting for relevant confounders. Results Compared to cesarean without labor, spontaneous vaginal birth was associated with a significantly greater odds of stress incontinence (odds ratio (OR) 2.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5, 5.5) and prolapse to or beyond the hymen (OR 5.6; 95% CI 2.2, 14.7). Operative vaginal birth significantly increased the odds for all pelvic floor disorders, especially prolapse (OR 7.5; 95% CI 2.7, 20.9). These results suggest that 6.8 additional operative births or 8.9 spontaneous vaginal births, relative to cesarean births, would lead to one additional case of prolapse. Among women delivering exclusively by cesarean, neither active labor nor complete cervical dilation increased the odds for any pelvic floor disorder considered, although the study had less than 80% power to detect a doubling of the odds with these exposures. Conclusion Although spontaneous vaginal delivery was significantly associated with stress incontinence and prolapse, the most dramatic risk was associated with operative vaginal birth. PMID:21897313
Handa, Victoria L.; Blomquist, Joan L.; Knoepp, Leise R.; Hoskey, Kay A.; McDermott, Kelly C.; Muñoz, Alvaro
We previously demonstrated that a commercially available natural product preparation with high content (>90%) of theaflavin derivatives (TFmix) exhibited potent anti-HIV activities. Here we developed a TFmix gel formulation as a topical microbicide candidate. The effect of TFmix on the amyloid fibril formation of semen-derived enhancer of virus infection (SEVI) peptide was detected by transmission electron microscopy. The toxicity of the TFmix gel was evaluated using human vaginal and cervical epithelial cell lines and rabbit vaginal irritation models, respectively. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-?) and immunoregulatory cytokines (IL-10 and GM-CSF) in cervicovaginal lavages (CVLs) were measured by ELISA kits. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunostaining was performed to evaluate inflammation in the vaginal tissues. TFmix gel could degrade SEVI-specific amyloid fibrils and showed low cytotoxicity to epithelial cells of the female reproductive tract. No apparent cervicovaginal toxicity was observed at any time point evaluated following the intravaginal administration of TFmix gel to rabbits, whereas application of N-9 gel resulted in damage to the vaginal epithelium. Neither proinflammatory nor immunoregulatory cytokine production was triggered by TFmix gel. Only low expression of PCNA was observed in vaginal tissues of TFmix gel-treated rabbits. The concentration of TFmix in plasma was very low (below the lower limit of quantitation) 1?h after a single vaginal administration of TFmix gel. However, TFmix was still detected in the cervicovaginal lavages (CVLs) 6?h after treatment, indicating that it could be retained in the vaginal cavity for a long period of time. With its potent anti-HIV-1 activity, marked stability at acidic condition, low mucosal toxicity, and lack of systemic absorption, TFmix gel can be considered as an inexpensive and safe microbicide candidate for the prevention of HIV sexual transmission. PMID:22867271
Yang, Jie; Li, Lin; Jin, Hong; Tan, Suiyi; Qiu, Jiayin; Yang, Lei; Ding, Yanqing; Jiang, Zhi-Hong; Jiang, Shibo; Liu, Shuwen
Background Vaginal birth after Caesarean section (VBAC) is a relevant question for a large number of women due to the internationally rising Caesarean section (CS) rate. There is a great deal of research based on quantitative studies but few qualitative studies about women's experiences. Method A metasynthesis based on the interpretative meta ethnography method was conducted. The inclusion criterion was peer-review qualitative articles from different disciplines about women's experiences of VBAC. Eleven articles were checked for quality, and eight articles were included in the synthesis. Results The included studies were from Australia (four), UK (three), and US (one), and studied women's experience in relation to different aspects of VBAC; decision-making whether to give birth vaginally, the influence of health professionals on decision-making, reason for trying a vaginal birth, experiences when choosing VBAC, experiences of giving birth vaginally, and giving birth with CS when preferring VBAC. The main results are presented with the metaphor groping through the fog; for the women the issue of VBAC is like being in a fog, where decision-making and information from the health care system and professionals, both during pregnancy and the birth, is unclear and contrasting. The results are further presented with four themes: ‘to be involved in decision about mode of delivery is difficult but important,’ ‘vaginal birth has several positive aspects mainly described by women,’ ‘vaginal birth after CS is a risky project,’ and ‘own strong responsibility for giving birth vaginally'. Conclusion In order to promote VBAC, more studies are needed from different maternity settings and countries about women's experiences. Women need evidence-based information not only about the risks involved but also positive aspects of VBAC. PMID:22909230
While many virulence factors promoting Streptococcus pyogenes invasive disease have been described, specific streptococcal factors and host properties influencing asymptomatic mucosal carriage remain uncertain. To address the need for a refined model of prolonged S. pyogenes asymptomatic mucosal colonization, we have adapted a preestrogenized murine vaginal colonization model for S. pyogenes. In this model, derivatives of strains HSC5, SF370, JRS4, NZ131, and MEW123 established a reproducible, asymptomatic colonization of the vaginal mucosa over a period of typically 3 to 4 weeks' duration at a relatively high colonization efficiency. Prior treatment with estradiol prolonged streptococcal colonization and was associated with reduced inflammation in the colonized vaginal epithelium as well as a decreased leukocyte presence in vaginal fluid compared to the levels of inflammation and leukocyte presence in non-estradiol-treated control mice. The utility of our model for investigating S. pyogenes factors contributing to mucosal carriage was verified, as a mutant with a mutation in the transcriptional regulator catabolite control protein A (CcpA) demonstrated significant impairment in vaginal colonization. An assessment of in vivo transcriptional activity in the CcpA? strain for several known CcpA-regulated genes identified significantly elevated transcription of lactate oxidase (lctO) correlating with excessive generation of hydrogen peroxide to self-lethal levels. Deletion of lctO did not impair colonization, but deletion of lctO in a CcpA? strain prolonged carriage, exceeding even that of the wild-type strain. Thus, while LctO is not essential for vaginal colonization, its dysregulation is deleterious, highlighting the critical role of CcpA in promoting mucosal colonization. The vaginal colonization model should prove effective for future analyses of S. pyogenes mucosal colonization. PMID:23460515
Watson, Michael E.; Nielsen, Hailyn V.; Hultgren, Scott J.
Background Many women without preexisting stress urinary incontinence (SUI) who undergo vaginal surgery to correct pelvic organ prolapse will develop symptoms of SUI. A concomitant prophylactic anti-incontinence procedure may prevent SUI symptom development in women undergoing vaginal prolapse surgery. Purpose To present the rationale, design and methodology of a randomized controlled surgical trial (RCT), the Outcomes Following Vaginal Prolapse Repair and Mid Urethral Sling (OPUS) Trial. The primary aims of this RCT are to determine (1) whether the prevalence of post-operative urinary incontinence (UI) differs between stress continent women receiving vaginal prolapse repair with concomitant tension-free vaginal tape (TVT®; a sling procedure commonly used to treat SUI) and those with only sham incisions at 3 months post surgery (2) whether it is more cost-effective to place a TVT prophylactically than to treat the SUI symptoms postoperatively as they occur over a 12 month period after the index surgery.. The study also incorporates a patient preference trial (PPT). Methods Primary outcome, defined as signs (positive cough stress test), symptoms (per validated questionnaire) and/or need for treatment of SUI and its associated cost, at 3 and 12 months post-operatively. Secondary outcomes consist of group differences in lower urinary tract and prolapse symptoms, health related quality of life, measures of vaginal anatomy, and surgical complications. Limitations Given the invasive nature of surgical intervention trials, some individuals may be reluctant to agree with random assignment, potentially impacting result generalizability. To evaluate the magnitude and direction of non-participation bias, the PPT will enroll a sample of those who decline participation in the RCT but are otherwise eligible. Conclusion This sham-controlled RCT will provide important information for patients and surgeons regarding both the short- and long-term optimal treatment approach for stress continent women undergoing a vaginal surgery for prolapse. Non-participation bias will be estimated. PMID:19342469
Wei, John T.; Nygaard, Ingrid; Richter, Holly E.; Brown, Morton B; Barber, Matthew D.; Xu, Xiao; Kenton, Kim; Nager, Charles W.; Schaffer, Joseph; Visco, Anthony; Weber, Anne
Background: Our purpose was to provide the clinical advantages of the laparoscopic approach compare to the vaginal approach in correcting uterine and vaginal vault prolapse. Methods: Between June 2007 and June 2011, 174 women were admitted to HUMC (Hallym University Medical Center) and underwent pelvic reconstructive surgery for prolapsed vaginal vault and uterus. Upon retrospective review of the medical records, 174 of the patients who had symptoms of pelvic organ prolapsed and Baden-Walker prolapse grade ? 2 were selected and divided into two groups as follows: vaginal approach group (n=120) and laparoscopic approach group (n=54). We compared the results of clinical outcome by analyzing Student's t-test and ?2-test or the Fisher exact test as appropriate. Results: There were significant difference in success rates without reoperation for recurrence as 91.7% (vaginal approach group, n=110) vs 100% (laparoscopic approach group, n=54), p=0.032. Mean follow-up duration was 31.3 ± 7.6 months for vaginal approach group and 29.7 ± 9.7 months for laparoscopic approach group. The Foley catheter indwelling duration (4.7± 1.9 vs 3.4±2.1 days, p< 0.001) and the length of postoperative hospitalization (6.4 ± 2.1 vs 5.0 ± 1.9 days, p <0.001) were significantly longer in vaginal approach group, whereas the operative time was significantly longer (108.2 ± 38.6 vs 168.3 ± 69.7 minutes, p <0.001) in laparoscopic approach group. Conclusions: Our result suggest there is significantly lower recurrence rate requiring reoperation and less catheterization time but increased operative time for laparascopic sacrocolpopexy.
Park, Young-Han; Yang, Seong Cheon; Park, Sung Taek; Park, Sung Ho; Kim, Hong Bae
Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcome of an innovative, minimally invasive sling technique with autologous tissue in women with concomitant incontinence and anterior vaginal wall prolapse (AVWP). Materials and Methods: Fifty-six women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) or mixed urinary incontinence and AVWP were randomly assigned into two groups: In Group A (26 patients), anterior colporrhaphy (Kelly placation) and sling placement using a strip of anterior vaginal wall were performed, and in Group B (30 patients), transvaginal mesh correction of AVWP and tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) insertion (retropubic – craniocaudal route) using polypropylene mesh were carried out. The patients were followed-up for over 18 months and were assessed objectively using a 48 h frequency-volume chart, a 48 h pad test and a standardized stress test. Related surgical complications and outcomes were recorded and compared. Results: Surgical cure rates for Group A and Group B at the first (3 days) and last (18 months) post-operative visits were 62% and 84%; and 54%, and 72%, respectively (P = 0.09 and 0.31). Complications occurred in 9 patients (44%) of Group B, but only 3 patients (12%) in Group A. Conclusion: Vaginal sling surgery using an anterior vaginal wall strip can improve SUI and in comparison with propylene mesh is associated with lower complication rates. Although, the surgical success rate of this technique is lower than T-Sling, larger studies with selected patients will help assess the suitable patients for this pelvic reconstructive surgery. PMID:24516492
Zargham, Mahtab; Alizadeh, Farshid; Tadayyon, Farhad; Khorrami, Mohammad-Hatef; Nouri-Mahdavi, Kia; Gharaati, Mohammad Reza; Izadpanahi, Mohammad Hossein; Yazdani, Mohammad; Mazdak, Hamid
Objective To assess the obstetrics risk factors for postpartum urinary retention after vaginal delivery. Material and Methods Of 234 women with a vaginal delivery, 19 (8.1%) women who had postpartum urinary retention were cases, and 215 (91.9%) women who did not were controls. Postpartum urinary retention was defined as the presence of postvoid residual bladder volume ?150 mL or the inability to void within 6 hours after vaginal delivery. Logistic regression analysis identified risk factors for urinary retention. Results Prolonged duration of the second stage of labor (OR=0.46, 95% CI for OR=0.06–3.67, p<0.001), presence of episiotomy (OR=0.07, 95% CI for OR=0.01–0.68, p=0.022) and perineal laceration (OR=97.09, 95% CI for OR=7.93–1188.93, p<0.001), and birth weight of >4000 g for the newborn (OR=0.04, 95% CI for OR=0.01–0.20, p<0.001) were found as independent risk factors for postpartum urinary retention after vaginal delivery. Conclusion Postpartum urinary retention after vaginal delivery is a relatively common condition. Awareness of risk factors, including prolonged second stage of labor, episiotomy, perineal lacerations, and macrosomic birth, may allow us to take the necessary precautions against this complication.
Cavkaytar, Sabri; Kokanal?, Mahmut Kuntay; Baylas, Aysegul; Topcu, Hasan Onur; Laleli, Bergen; Tasc?, Yasemin
In this study, we investigated the potential of supersaturation for the formulation of the poorly water-soluble microbicide dapivirine (DPV) in an aqueous vaginal gel in order to enhance its vaginal tissue uptake. Different excipients such as hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, polyethylene glycol 1000, and cyclodextrins were evaluated for their ability to inhibit precipitation of supersaturated DPV in the formulation vehicle as such as well as in biorelevant media. In vitro permeation assessment across HEC-1A cell layers demonstrated an enhanced DPV flux from supersaturated gels compared with suspension gels. The best performing supersaturated gel containing 500 ?M DPV (supersaturation degree of 4) in the presence of sulfobutyl ether-beta-cyclodextrin (2.5%) appeared to be stable for at least 3 months. In addition, the gel generated a significant increase in vaginal drug uptake in rabbits as compared with suspension gels. We conclude that supersaturation is a possible strategy to enhance the vaginal concentration of hydrophobic microbicides, thereby increasing permeation into the vaginal submucosa. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 103:3696-3703, 2014. PMID:25231545
Grammen, Carolien; Plum, Jakob; Van Den Brande, Jeroen; Darville, Nicolas; Augustyns, Koen; Augustijns, Patrick; Brouwers, Joachim
Qualitative measurement of the infective level is relatively difficult in experimental vaginal candidiasis. Female BALB/c mice aged 8 to 10 weeks were randomly divided into E1, E2 and E0 groups, which received subcutaneous injection of 0.05 mg, 0.1 mg of estradiol benzoate or 0.1 ml soybean oil 3 days before vaginal inoculation, respectively, and hormone treatment continued every other day thereafter. Each group was further divided into infected and noninfected subgroups. The infected mice were inoculated intravaginally with 10 µl (5 × 104 conidia) of Candida albicans suspension, while the noninfected mice were inoculated with 10 µl phosphate-buffered saline. Direct microscopic examination, colony count and vaginal histopathology including infection degree and inflammation extent were performed at 3, 7 and 14 days post inoculation. Estrogen treatment increased the vaginal fungal burden and extent of infection and inflammation compared with the control group, and 0.3 mg/week estrogen generally induced more severe infection and inflammation than 0.15 mg/week estrogen did. Colony count peaked on day 3 and decreased remarkably after 7 days. Infection score increased gradually during the first 7 days and decreased on day 14, while inflammation extent exacerbated progressively over the course of 14 days. This study demonstrates that the modified histological scoring system might be more feasible than colony count for evaluation of infectivity and dynamic change in experimental vaginal candidiasis. PMID:23903055
Zhang, Jin-E; Luo, Dan; Chen, Rong-Yi; Yang, Yan-Ping; Zhou, Ying; Fan, Yi-Ming
This study proposes a sonographic feature of the placenta in association with benign vaginal bleeding. A total of 286 normal singleton pregnancies were examined for 'anteroposterior, AP, placenta', which was reported when the placenta was attached to both anterior and posterior walls of the uterus in sagittal transabdominal ultrasound scans. Pregnancies were followed up by week 20. AP placenta, vaginal bleeding and spontaneous abortion were documented in 61 (21.3%), 44 (15.4%) and 2 (0.7%) pregnant women, respectively. AP placenta was significantly more common in the group with vaginal bleeding (54.5% vs 1.3%, p < 0.001, odds ratio = 6.65 with a 0.95 confidence interval of 3.34-13.24). Abortions occurred only in patients with vaginal bleeding and no AP placenta (10% vs 0%; p = 0.20). In a normal clinical pregnancy with no known risk of miscarriage, the presence of an AP placenta usually forecasts a benign vaginal bleeding/spotting in first 20 weeks of gestation. PMID:24483288
Poureisa, M; Ajiri, A H; Fouladi, D F; Sayah Melli, M; Ghojazadeh, M; Hagigi, A
Vaginal evisceration following colpocleisis is a very rare event and, to our knowledge, there has only been one previous case report. An 86-year-old woman presented to the Emergency Department with acute onset of abdominal pain occurring following a bowel movement. Six months previously, she had undergone a colpocleisis for recurrent vaginal vault prolapse. On presentation to the emergency room, she was noted to have 60 cm of necrotic small bowel protruding through her vaginal introitus. She was taken to the operating room for resection of the small bowel and closure of her colpocleisis. The closure of the vaginal defect was difficult and required a vaginal approach employing an allogenic dermal graft. This was accomplished and the patient had an uneventful recovery and was discharged home. At 18 months followup, she has had no complication or recurrence. Evisceration following colpocleisis is a rare event, but can be very difficult to manage and we suggest consideration of employing a graft to reinforce the repair. PMID:11451011
Moore, R D; Miklos, J R
We describe maternal childbirth goals among women planning either cesarean or vaginal birth. Women in the third trimester planning cesarean or vaginal birth were asked to report up to five childbirth goals. Goal achievement was assessed postpartum. Based on free-text responses, discrete goal categories were identified. Goals and goal achievement were compared between the two groups. Satisfaction was rated on a visual analogue scale and was compared with goal achievement. The sample included 163 women planning vaginal birth and 69 women planning cesarean. Twelve goal categories were identified. Only women planning vaginal birth reported a desire to achieve fulfillment related to childbirth. Women planning cesarean were less likely to express a desire to maintain control over their own responses during childbirth and more likely to report a desire to avoid complications. The 72 women who achieved all stated goals reported significantly higher mean satisfaction scores than the 94 women reporting that at least one goal was not achieved (p = 0.001). Goal achievement was higher among women planning cesarean than among those planning vaginal birth (52.2% versus 23.1%, p <0.001). This research furthers our understanding of women’s attitudes regarding cesarean childbirth and definitions of a successful birth experience. PMID:21660899
Quiroz, Lieschen H.; Blomquist, Joan L.; Macmillan, Deborah; Mccullough, Alexis; Handa, Victoria L.
Coitally delivered microbicide gels containing antiretroviral drugs are important for HIV prevention. However, to date, microbicides have contained entry or reverse transcriptase inhibitors that block early steps in virus infection and thus need to be given as a preexposure dose that interferes with sexual practices and may limit compliance. Integrase inhibitors block late steps after virus infection and therefore are more suitable for post-coital dosing. We first determined the kinetics of strand transfer in vitro and confirmed that integration begins about 6 hours after infection. We then used a repeat-challenge macaque model to assess efficacy of vaginal gels containing integrase strand transfer inhibitors when applied before or after simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge. We showed that gel containing the strand transfer inhibitor L-870812 protected two of three macaques when applied 30 min before SHIV challenge. We next evaluated the efficacy of 1% raltegravir gel and demonstrated its ability to protect macaques when applied 3 hours after SHIV exposure (five of six protected; P < 0.05, Fisher's exact test). Breakthrough infections showed no evidence of drug resistance in plasma or vaginal secretions despite continued gel dosing after infection. We documented rapid vaginal absorption reflecting a short pharmacological lag time and noted that vaginal, but not plasma, virus load was substantially reduced in the breakthrough infection after raltegravir gel treatment. We provide a proof of concept that topically applied integrase inhibitors protect against vaginal SHIV infection when administered shortly before or 3 hours after virus exposure. PMID:24622515
Dobard, Charles; Sharma, Sunita; Parikh, Urvi M; West, Rolieria; Taylor, Andrew; Martin, Amy; Pau, Chou-Pong; Hanson, Debra L; Lipscomb, Jonathan; Smith, James; Novembre, Francis; Hazuda, Daria; Garcia-Lerma, J Gerardo; Heneine, Walid
Abstract Objective Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is associated with preterm delivery, but there is little evidence that treatment improves pregnancy outcomes. We examined whether oral or vaginal metronidazole treatment for BV in early pregnancy was more effective in restoring the normal vaginal environment. Methods This was a randomized controlled trial comparing oral and intravaginal metronidazole for treatment of BV in early pregnancy (<20 weeks). Vaginal samples collected at baseline and 4 weeks after treatment were evaluated using gram stain, culture, colorimetric detection of sialidase, and immunoassay for measurement of proinflammatory cytokines interleukins-1?, -6, -8 (IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8) and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI). We compared the effect of treatment between groups (using chi-square and t test) and within individuals (McNemar's test). Results Of 126 subjects, 108 (86%) completed follow-up (55 oral, 53 intravaginal). Of the study population, 34% achieved therapeutic cure, and this was not different between treatment groups. BV-associated bacteria were significantly reduced in both groups, but few subjects regained colonization with protective lactobacilli. Among women who achieved therapeutic cure, the level of IL-1? dropped significantly (p?0.001) and SLPI increased (p?=?0.003). More women in the vaginal treatment group had undetectable sialidase after treatment (p?=?0.013). Conclusions Treatment with oral or intravaginal metronidazole in early pregnancy reduced colonization with BV-associated bacteria but was not effective in achieving therapeutic cure or in restoring healthy vaginal lactobacilli. PMID:19951217
Balkus, Jennifer; Agnew, Kathy; Lawler, Richard; Hitti, Jane
Objective?Chorioamnionitis, an important cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity, is influenced by epidural use and the occurrence of epidural fever. We evaluated the association between chorioamnionitis, histologic placental findings, and intrapartum factors focusing on epidural use. Materials and Methods?We conducted a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of different doses of oxytocin to prevent postpartum hemorrhage among women who delivered vaginally. The primary outcome was clinical diagnosis of chorioamnionitis leading to antibiotic therapy. Intrapartum factors examined included epidural use, parity, labor induction, gestational age, maternal age, ethnicity, body mass index, cervical dilatation at admission, preeclampsia/eclampsia, preterm labor, and duration of labor. Results?Of the 1,798 women randomized, we excluded 13 multifetal births leaving 1,785 for analysis: 1,491 had an epidural and 294 did not. Of those with epidural, 8.0% had clinically diagnosed chorioamnionitis compared with only 1.0% without epidural: unadjusted odds ratio (OR)?=?8.3 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.63-26.40); p?0.0001. After multivariable logistic regression, epidural use (adjusted OR: 5.80; 95% CI: 1.77-19.11), increasing parity (0.42; 0.32-0.55), and preeclampsia (0.31; 0.14-0.66) were significantly associated with chorioamnionitis. Conclusion?Epidural use is statistically associated with an increase in clinical diagnosis of chorioamnionitis. A cause and effect relationship cannot be confirmed from this study. Independently of labor duration and increasing parity, preeclampsia appeared protective. PMID:24705965
Abramovici, Adi; Szychowski, Jeff M; Biggio, Joseph R; Sakawi, Yasser; Andrews, William W; Tita, Alan T N
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) vaginal pathogenicity is not uniformly acknowledged throughout the literature; accordingly, in women, genital itching and burning, along with leukorrhea are commonly and almost exclusively referred to bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and trichomoniasis. Conversely, GBS virulence for vagina was recognized in the past, as the organism has been observed to potentially cause local inflammation and discharge, as well as lactobacilli rarefaction. We depict here a case where a nonhemolytic (?-hemolytic) GBS strain was found to be the etiologic agent of vaginal infection. Such uncommon S. agalactiae phenotypes are hard to be recognized and may be therefore responsible for misdiagnosing and underestimation of GBS vaginitis prevalence; here, we had the support of the Liofilchem® Chromatic StreptoB medium, that successfully detected such an atypical variant. PMID:23923091
Savini, Vincenzo; Marrollo, Roberta; D'Antonio, Marianna; D'Amario, Claudio; Fazii, Paolo; D'Antonio, Domenico
A 4.5-yr-old multiparous female eastern bongo (Tragelaphus eurycerus isaaci) presented with a prolapsed vagina 4 mo after dystocia and vaginal extraction of a large calf. The prolapse was corrected via manual reduction and vulvoplasty (Caslick operation). A melengesterol acetate contraceptive implant was placed and the bongo was asymptomatic for 6 yr until vaginal prolapse recurrence. The vaginal prolapse recurred four times over a 2-yr span and was managed with repeat Caslick procedures and several epidural injections using 95% grain alcohol. Complications secondary to long-term progestin implant usage, acquired urovagina, as well as perineal atony from the alcohol epidurals are believed to have contributed to prolapse recurrence. Ovariohysterectomy and vaginoplasty ultimately were elected and were curative. According to a survey conducted in response to this case, obstetrical issues and female reproductive tract problems appear to occur sporadically in captive bongo but are not uncommon. PMID:19110705
Gyimesi, Zoltan S; Linhart, Richard D; Burns, Roy B; Anderson, David E; Munson, Linda
Women's initial understandings and anticipated acceptability of long-acting vaginal gels as potential anti-HIV microbicides was investigated by exploring the perceptibility variables associated with prototype formulations. Four focus groups with 29 women, aged 18-45, were conducted to consider gel prototypes with varied physicochemical and rheological properties. Participants responded favorably to the concept of long-acting vaginal gels as microbicides. Distinctions in understandings and stated needs regarding product dosing, characteristics, and effectiveness offer valuable insights into product design. Long-acting vaginal gels capable of protecting against HIV/STIs will be a viable option among potential users, with dosing frequency being an important factor in willingness to use. PMID:24248674
van den Berg, Jacob J; Rosen, Rochelle K; Bregman, Dana E; Thompson, Lara A; Jensen, Kathleen M; Kiser, Patrick F; Katz, David F; Buckheit, Karen; Buckheit, Robert W; Morrow, Kathleen M
A 26 year old, healthy, 41 week primiparous woman received a patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) and experienced paraplegia 11 hours later after a vaginal delivery. This was thought to be the result of complications from PCEA but there was no specific abnormality on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lumbosacral spine. On an electromyography (EMG) study performed 15 days following delivery, signs of tibial neuropathy were present and peripheral nerve injury during vaginal delivery was suspected. Motor weakness and hypoesthesia of both lower extremities improved rapidly, but a decrease in the desire to urinate or defecate, followed by urinary incontinence and constipation persisted, We suspected the sacral plexus had been severely damaged during vaginal delivery. Seven months later, the patient's conditions improved but had not fully recovered. PMID:23459069
Park, Seil; Park, Sung Wook
Purpose: The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of combined contraceptive vaginal rings on serum concentrations of folate and cobalamin in healthy users. Material and Methods: Case-control study on cobalamin and folate status of 45 healthy female nulligravidae using a combined contraceptive vaginal ring for >?3 months and 45 healthy controls. Factors interfering with vitamin metabolism were thoroughly controlled. Results: Cobalamin and folate levels did not differ between the groups. Vegetarian diet, smoking or obesity did not have a significant influence. Conclusions: The use of a combined contraceptive vaginal ring provides an appropriate hormonal contraception in women with pre-existing cobalamin deficiency or restrictive diet habit in order to avoid interferences between vitamin B12 metabolism and exogenously applied estrogens.
Bussen, S.; Bussen, D.
BackgroundWe have previously shown that the antigestagen mifepristone is contraceptive when given in a daily dose of 5 mg, po. Epidemiological studies suggest that gestagen-only contraceptives may increase the risk of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) due to effects on the vaginal defenses to infection. We investigate the effects of mifepristone on vaginal thickness, steroid receptor and natural antimicrobial
Nitish Narvekar; Fatim Lakha; Hilary O. D. Critchley; Anna F. Glasier; Alistair R. W. Williams; Riikka Leminen; Oskari Heikinheimo; Rodney W. Kelly; David T. Baird
We have used a mouse model of vaginal candidiasis to determine the effect of neutrophil depletion on (a) the clearance of Candida albicans and (b) the degree of inflammation associated with infection. No differences in recoverable yeast number or rate of clearance were observed between normal and neutrophil-depleted mice; however, vaginal inflammation was significantly decreased in neutrophil-depleted animals. PMID:9488427
Black, C. Allen; Eyers, Fiona M.; Russell, Adrian; Dunkley, Margaret L.; Clancy, Robert L.; Beagley, Kenneth W.
Overactive bladder (OAB) and vaginal dryness are common problems after menopause. Oxybutynin (OXY) is an antimuscarinic agent that has been available for more than 30 years in the treatment of OAB patients. The aim of the work reported in this paper was to develop long acting mucoadhesive gel formulations of OXY and to investigate their effects on blood levels compared to those of oral OXY immediate release tablets, in rabbits. Mucoadhesive gels were prepared with chitosan, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC K100M) and Poloxamer 407 (Pluronic F 127). The physicopharmaceutical properties of gels were evaluated. The gel formulation which was prepared with HPMC K100M, exhibited the highest viscosity, the greatest adhesiveness, cohesiveness and mucoadhesion values. The formulation which was prepared from HPMC K100M showed suitable permeation characteristics across the vaginal mucosa. Comparative bioavailability studies were carried out on rabbits with vaginal HPMC gel, vaginal chitosan gel, vaginal OXY solution and commercially available oral Üropan tablets. It was concluded that the highest AUC and relative bioavailability values were obtained for the bioadhesive vaginal gel formulation prepared with HPMC K100M. Therefore, the mucoadhesive vaginal gels of OXY can be a promising and innovative alternative therapeutic system for the treatment of OAB. It can be safely used in cases of overactive bladder and as well as vaginal dryness after menopause. PMID:24036011
Tu?cu-Demiröz, Fatmanur; Acartürk, Füsun; Erdo?an, Deniz
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the incidences of uterine rupture among women with and without müllerian duct anomalies who were attempting vaginal birth after cesarean delivery. Study Design: There were 1813 attempts at vaginal birth after cesarean delivery between 1992 and 1997 at the Foothills Hospital in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Of the patients 25
Debra J. Ravasia; Philippa H. Brain; Jeffrey K. Pollard
The objective of this paper was to compare the efficacy, acceptability, safety, and bleeding patterns of TCu 380A intrauterine device (IUD) and progesterone-releasing vaginal ring used by breastfeeding women. The study population included 97 breastfeeding women using IUD and 100 women using vaginal ring. Of the IUD users, no insertion failure, perforation, or accidental pregnancy occurred in 12 months. There
J. H Chen; S. C Wu; W. Q Shao; M. H Zou; J Hu; J Cong; L Miao; C Wang; J Dong; J Gao; B. L Xiao
IgA antibodies in the vaginal tract are essential as a first defense line against microorganisms that enter the body via mucosal surfaces. Several studies have shown that direct application of DNA to the vaginal mucosal surface can induce secretion of IgA molecules specific to the expressed protein. The major challenge of formulating effective vaccines is to overcome the barriers to
Hong Shen; Erwin Goldberg; W. Mark Saltzman
INTRODUCTION Vaginal cuff dehiscence following robotic surgery is uncommon. Published reports of vaginal cuff dehiscence following robotic surgery are increasing, but the true incidence is unknown. PRESENTATION OF CASE Case 1. A 45 year old female had sexual intercourse and presented with a vaginal cuff dehiscence complicated by small bowel evisceration 4 months after RA-TLH. Case 2. A 44 year old female had sexual intercourse and presented with a vaginal cuff dehiscence with small bowel evisceration 6 weeks after RA-TLH. DISCUSSION We discuss the rate of vaginal cuff dehiscence by mode of hysterectomy, surgical and non-surgical risk factors that may contribute to vaginal cuff dehiscence, and proposed preventative methods at the time of RA-TLH to reduce this complication. CONCLUSION Vaginal cuff dehiscence with associated evisceration of intraabdominal contents is a potentially severe complication of hysterectomy. We recommend counseling patients who undergo RA-TLH to abstain from vaginal intercourse for a minimum of 8–12 weeks. PMID:23708306
Nguyen, My-Linh T.; Kapoor, Monica; Pradhan, Tana S.; Pua, Tarah L.; Tedjarati, Sean S.
Exposure of female mice to estrogen during the perinatal period results in estrogen-independent persistent proliferation and cornification of the vaginal epithelium when the animals become adults. However, the occurrence of such irreversible vaginal changes is blocked by concurrent vitamin A treatment. Neonatal exposure to keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), which is a paracrine mediator of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, also induces the persistent
Fujiko Masui; Manabu Matsuda; Takao Mori
Lactobacilli are found in a wide variety of habitats. Four species, Lactobacillus crispatus, L. gasseri, L. iners, and L. jensenii, are common and abundant in the human vagina and absent from other habitats. These may be adapted to the vagina and possess characteristics enabling them to thrive in that environment. Furthermore, stable codominance of multiple Lactobacillus species in a single community is infrequently observed. Thus, it is possible that individual vaginal Lactobacillus species possess unique characteristics that confer to them host-specific competitive advantages. We performed comparative functional genomic analyses of representatives of 25 species of Lactobacillus, searching for habitat-specific traits in the genomes of the vaginal lactobacilli. We found that the genomes of the vaginal species were significantly smaller and had significantly lower GC content than those of the nonvaginal species. No protein families were found to be specific to the vaginal species analyzed, but some were either over- or underrepresented relative to nonvaginal species. We also found that within the vaginal species, each genome coded for species-specific protein families. Our results suggest that even though the vaginal species show no general signatures of adaptation to the vaginal environment, each species has specific and perhaps unique ways of interacting with its environment, be it the host or other microbes in the community. These findings will serve as a foundation for further exploring the role of lactobacilli in the ecological dynamics of vaginal microbial communities and their ultimate impact on host health. PMID:24488312
Suzuki, Haruo; Hickey, Roxana J.; Forney, Larry J.
Objectives: We present a case report of a woman who has survived 13 years after conservative treatment with wide excision for vaginal melanoma and review and evaluate the literature on this disease since the last metaanalysis in 1989. Study Design: A database literature search along with cross referencing from related articles uncovered 66 patients who were reported to have vaginal
Dennis J. Buchanan; John Schlaerth; Tom Kurosaki
Women of European ancestry are more likely to harbour a Lactobacillus-dominated microbiome, whereas African American women are more likely to exhibit a diverse microbial profile. African American women are also twice as likely to be diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis and are twice as likely to experience preterm birth. The objective of this study was to further characterize and contrast the vaginal microbial profiles in African American versus European ancestry women. Through the Vaginal Human Microbiome Project at Virginia Commonwealth University, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis was used to compare the microbiomes of vaginal samples from 1268 African American women and 416 women of European ancestry. The results confirmed significant differences in the vaginal microbiomes of the two groups and identified several taxa relevant to these differences. Major community types were dominated by Gardnerella vaginalis and the uncultivated bacterial vaginosis-associated bacterium-1 (BVAB1) that were common among African Americans. Moreover, the prevalence of multiple bacterial taxa that are associated with microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity and preterm birth, including Mycoplasma, Gardnerella, Prevotella and Sneathia, differed between the two ethnic groups. We investigated the contributions of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including pregnancy, body mass index, diet, smoking and alcohol use, number of sexual partners, and household income, to vaginal community composition. Ethnicity, pregnancy and alcohol use correlated significantly with the relative abundance of bacterial vaginosis-associated species. Trends between microbial profiles and smoking and number of sexual partners were observed; however, these associations were not statistically significant. These results support and extend previous findings that there are significant differences in the vaginal microbiome related to ethnicity and demonstrate that these differences are pronounced even in healthy women. PMID:25073854
Fettweis, Jennifer M; Brooks, J Paul; Serrano, Myrna G; Sheth, Nihar U; Girerd, Philippe H; Edwards, David J; Strauss, Jerome F; Jefferson, Kimberly K; Buck, Gregory A
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most important causative agent of cervical cancers worldwide. However, our understanding of how the vaginal microbiota might be associated with HPV infection is limited. In addition, the influence of human genetic and physiological factors on the vaginal microbiota is unclear. Studies on twins and their families provide the ideal settings to investigate the complicated nature of human microbiota. This study investigated the vaginal microbiota of 68 HPV-infected or uninfected female twins and their families using 454-pyrosequencing analysis targeting the variable region (V2–V3) of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Analysis of the vaginal microbiota from both premenopausal women and HPV-discordant twins indicated that HPV-positive women had significantly higher microbial diversity with a lower proportion of Lactobacillus spp. than HPV-negative women. Fusobacteria, including Sneathia spp., were identified as a possible microbiological marker associated with HPV infection. The vaginal microbiotas of twin pairs were significantly more similar to each other than to those from unrelated individuals. In addition, there were marked significant differences from those of their mother, possibly due to differences in menopausal status. Postmenopausal women had a lower proportion of Lactobacillus spp. and a significantly higher microbiota diversity. This study indicated that HPV infection was associated with the composition of the vaginal microbiota, which is influenced by multiple host factors such as genetics and menopause. The potential biological markers identified in this study could provide insight into HPV pathogenesis and may represent biological targets for diagnostics. PMID:23717441
Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, Sunghee; Lee, Heetae; Song, Yun-Mi; Lee, Kayoung; Han, Min Ji; Sung, Joohon; Ko, GwangPyo
Background The presence of the G-spot (an assumed erotic sensitive area in the anterior wall of the vagina) remains controversial. We explored the histomorphological basis of the G-spot. Methods Biopsies were drawn from a 12 o’clock direction in the distal- and proximal-third areas of the anterior vagina of 32 Chinese subjects. The total number of protein gene product 9.5–immunoreactive nerves and smooth muscle actin–immunoreactive blood vessels in each specimen was quantified using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase assay. Results Vaginal innervation was observed in the lamina propria and muscle layer of the anterior vaginal wall. The distal-third of the anterior vaginal wall had significantly richer small-nerve-fiber innervation in the lamina propria than the proximal-third (p?=?0.000) and in the vaginal muscle layer (p?=?0.006). There were abundant microvessels in the lamina propria and muscle layer, but no small vessels in the lamina propria and few in the muscle layer. Significant differences were noted in the number of microvessels when comparing the distal- with proximal-third parts in the lamina propria (p?=?0.046) and muscle layer (p?=?0.002). Conclusions Significantly increased density of nerves and microvessels in the distal-third of the anterior vaginal wall could be the histomorphological basis of the G-spot. Distal anterior vaginal repair could disrupt the normal anatomy, neurovascular supply and function of the G-spot, and cause sexual dysfunction. PMID:25379731
Li, Ting; Liao, Qinping; Zhang, Hong; Gao, Xuelian; Li, Xueying; Zhang, Miao
In the European Union the use of anabolic hormones in meat production is forbidden since 1988 and this ban of anabolic agents in animal production is strictly controlled. New hormone cocktails passing the detection systems are attractive for the practice and so new approaches to discover their illegal use have to be developed steadily. Verifying physiological effects caused by anabolic steroids will be a new way to develop potential monitoring systems. One promising matrix in female animals will be vaginal smear containing vaginal epithelial cells, because the vaginal epithelium is a primary steroid hormone responsive organ. In this study we quantified the gene expression in vaginal smear of sexually mature cattle in order to observe physiological effects. Further we aimed to establish a new screening method by testing the effect of a combination of certain anabolic steroid hormones on physiological regulations of mRNA expression of selected genes. In an animal trial Nguni heifers were treated with the anabolic combination trenbolone acetate plus estradiol. Vaginal smear samples were taken at 4 different time points. Gene expression of 27 candidate genes, selected by screening the actual literature for steroidal effects on vaginal epithelial cells, were estimated using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. There were different expression changes observed at different time points. It could be shown that the applied anabolic combination significantly influenced the expression of the steroid receptor ER?, the keratinization factor CK8, the proinflammatory interleukins IL-1? and IL-1?, the growth factors FGF7, EGF, EGFR, IGF-1R, TGF? and LTF, the oncogen c-jun and other factors like actin? and ubiquitin 3. Using biostatistical tools like principal components analysis or hierarchical cluster analysis, the potential to develop a gene expression pattern for targeting the illegal use of growth promoters could be demonstrated. PMID:21031338
Riedmaier, I; Reiter, M; Tichopad, A; Pfaffl, M W; Meyer, H H D
Purpose Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN), a rare premalignant condition, is difficult to eradicate. We assess the effectiveness of high-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICR) in patients with VAIN or carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the vagina after hysterectomy. Materials and Methods We reviewed 34 patients treated for posthysterectomy VAIN or CIS of the vagina by brachytherapy as the sole treatment. All patients underwent a coloposcopic-directed punch biopsy or had abnormal cytology, at least 3 consecutive times. All patients were treated with a vaginal cylinder applicator. The total radiation dose was mainly 40 Gy in 8 fractions during the periods of 4 weeks at a prescription point of the median 0.2 cm (range, 0 to 0.5 cm) depth from the surface of the vaginal mucosa. Results Acute toxicity was minimal. Seven patients had grade 1/2 acute urinary and rectal complications. There were 15 cases of late toxicity, predominantly vaginal mucosal reaction in 12 patients. Of these patients, two patients suffered from grade 3 vaginal stricture and dyspareunia continuously. After a median follow-up time of 48 months (range, 4 to 122 months), there were 2 recurrences and 2 persistent diseases, in which a second-line therapy was needed. The success rate was 88.2%. The average prescription point in failure patients was 1.1 mm from the surface of the vagina compared to an average of 2.6 mm in non-recurrent patients (p=0.097). Conclusion HDR-ICR is an effective treatment method in VAIN patients. In spite of high cure rates, we should consider issues regarding vaginal toxicity and radiation techniques to reduce the occurrence of failure and toxicity. PMID:24520226
Song, Jin Ho; Lee, Joo Hwan; Lee, Jong Hoon; Park, Jong Sup; Hong, Sook Hee; Jang, Hong Seok; Kim, Yeon Sil; Choi, Byung Ock
The potent antiretroviral pyrimidinediones IQP-0528 (PYD1) and IQP-0532 (PYD2) were formulated in polyurethane intravaginal rings (IVRs) as prophylactic drug delivery systems to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV-1. To aid in the selection of a pyrimidinedione candidate and the optimal loading of the drug in the IVR delivery system, four pyrimidinedione IVR formulations (PYD1 at 0.5 wt% [PYD10.5wt%], PYD11wt%, PYD24wt%, and PYD214wt%) were evaluated in pigtail macaques over 28 days for safety and pyrimidinedione vaginal biodistribution. Kinetic analysis of vaginal proinflammatory cytokines, native microflora, and drug levels suggested that all formulations were safe, but only the high-loaded PYD214wt% IVR demonstrated consistently high pyrimidinedione vaginal fluid and tissue levels over the 28-day study. This formulation delivered drug in excess of 10 ?g/ml to vaginal fluid and 1 ?g/g to vaginal tissue, a level over 1,000 times the in vitro 50% effective concentration. The in vitro release of PYD1 and PYD2 under nonsink conditions correlated well with in vivo release, both in amount and in kinetic profile, and therefore may serve as a more biologically relevant means of evaluating release in vitro than typically employed sink conditions. Lastly, the pyrimidinediones in the IVR formulation were chemically stable after 90 days of storage at elevated temperature, and the potent nanomolar-level antiviral activity of both molecules was retained after in vitro release. Altogether, these results point to the successful IVR formulation and vaginal biodistribution of the pyrimidinediones and demonstrate the usefulness of the pigtail macaque model in evaluating and screening antiretroviral IVR formulations prior to preclinical and clinical evaluation. PMID:22155820
Johnson, Todd J.; Srinivasan, Priya; Albright, Theodore H.; Watson-Buckheit, Karen; Rabe, Lorna; Martin, Amy; Pau, Chou-Pong; Hendry, R. Michael; Otten, Ron; McNicholl, Janet; Buckheit, Robert; Smith, James
Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common condition, although its aetiology remains unexplained. The aim of this study was to analyse the composition of vaginal microbiota in women from Greenland to provide a quantitative description and improve the understanding of BV. Methods Self-collected vaginal smears and swabs were obtained from 177 women. The vaginal smears were graded for BV according to Nugent’s criteria. The vaginal swab samples were analysed by 19 quantitative PCRs (qPCRs) for selected vaginal bacteria and by PCR for four sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Results STIs were common: Mycoplasma genitalium 12%, Chlamydia trachomatis 7%, Neisseria gonorrhoeae 1%, and Trichomonas vaginalis 0.5%. BV was found in 45% of women, but was not associated with individual STIs. Seven of the 19 vaginal bacteria (Atopobium vaginae, Prevotella spp., Gardnerella vaginalis, BVAB2, Eggerthella-like bacterium, Leptotrichia amnionii, and Megasphaera type 1) had areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve?>?85%, suggesting they are good predictors of BV according to Nugent. Prevotella spp. had the highest odds ratio for BV (OR 437; 95% CI 82–2779) in univariate analysis considering only specimens with a bacterial load above the threshold determined by ROC curve analysis as positive, as well as the highest adjusted odds ratio in multivariate logistic regression analysis (OR 4.4; 95% CI 1.4-13.5). BV could be subdivided into clusters dominated by a single or a few species together. Conclusions BV by Nugent score was highly prevalent. Two of seven key species (Prevotella spp. and A. vaginae) remained significantly associated with BV in a multivariate model after adjusting for other bacterial species. G. vaginalis and Prevotella spp. defined the majority of BV clusters. PMID:24131550
Topical agents, such as microbicides, that can protect against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission are urgently needed. Using a chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV SF162), which is tropic for the chemokine receptor CCR5, we report that topical application of high doses of PSC-RANTES, an amino terminus-modified analog of the chemokine RANTES, provided potent protection against vaginal challenge in rhesus macaques. These experimental findings have potentially important implications for understanding vaginal transmission of HIV and the design of strategies for its prevention. PMID:15486300
Lederman, Michael M; Veazey, Ronald S; Offord, Robin; Mosier, Donald E; Dufour, Jason; Mefford, Megan; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Salkowitz, Janelle R; Rodriguez, Benigno; Blauvelt, Andrew; Hartley, Oliver
Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is an ecological disorder of the vaginal microbiota that affects millions of women annually, and is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes including pre-term birth and the acquisition of sexually transmitted infections. However, little is known about the overall structure and composition of vaginal microbial communities; most of the earlier studies focused on predominant vaginal bacteria in the process of BV. In the present study, the diversity and richness of vaginal microbiota in 50 BV positive and 50 healthy women from China were investigated using culture-independent PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and barcoded 454 pyrosequencing methods, and validated by quantitative PCR. Results Our data demonstrated that there was a profound shift in the absolute and relative abundances of bacterial species present in the vagina when comparing populations associated with healthy and diseased conditions. In spite of significant interpersonal variations, the diversity of vaginal microbiota in the two groups could be clearly divided into two clusters. A total of 246,359 high quality pyrosequencing reads was obtained for evaluating bacterial diversity and 24,298 unique sequences represented all phylotypes. The most predominant phyla of bacteria identified in the vagina belonged to Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria. The higher number of phylotypes in BV positive women over healthy is consistent with the results of previous studies and a large number of low-abundance taxa which were missed in previous studies were revealed. Although no single bacterium could be identified as a specific marker for healthy over diseased conditions, three phyla - Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria, and eight genera including Gardnerella, Atopobium, Megasphaera, Eggerthella, Aerococcus, Leptotrichia/Sneathia, Prevotella and Papillibacter were strongly associated with BV (p < 0.05). These genera are potentially excellent markers and could be used as targets for clinical BV diagnosis by molecular approaches. Conclusions The data presented here have clearly profiled the overall structure of vaginal communities and clearly demonstrated that BV is associated with a dramatic increase in the taxonomic richness and diversity of vaginal microbiota. The study also provides the most comprehensive picture of the vaginal community structure and the bacterial ecosystem, and significantly contributes to the current understanding of the etiology of BV. PMID:20819230
We present the case of a 12-year old girl that presented during a four month period urinary incontinence alternating with normal micturitions, vaginal flow and bacteriuria. IVP shows a pyeloureteral duplication in the right side. The superior and inferior calyceal groups meet in a normal ureter whereas the middle calyceal group is open in one megaureter with ureterocele in medial and extravesical situation, probably vaginal or uterine. During operation a third blind ureter was found connected to the "ureterocele" and medial to the ectopic megaureter. A bibliographical survey is made and surgical and embriological data are commented. PMID:6881758
Agra Cadarso, B; Romeo Martínez, C; Rodríguez Costa, A; Luque Mialdea, R; Montero Redondo, A
Objective To determine the prevalence of group B streptococci (GBS) in our population, and to assess the association between risk factors\\u000a and vaginal flora with maternal rectovaginal colonization.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method Samples were obtained from 405 patients between 35 and 37 weeks of gestation. Swabs from the vaginal and perianal regions\\u000a were cultured in Todd Hewitt and subcultured in blood agar. Colonies suggestive of GBS
Talita T. Rocchetti; Camila Marconi; Vera L. M. Rall; Vera T. M. Borges; José E. Corrente; Márcia G. da Silva
Introduction and hypothesis This study reports 1-year outcomes in women who underwent transvaginal pelvic organ prolapse (POP) surgery with Prolift® transvaginal mesh.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Pre- and postoperative objective vaginal Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) and subjective symptom and impact assessments\\u000a (Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI)-20 and Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire (PFIQ)-7, respectively) were performed. Postoperative\\u000a vaginal tenderness, stricture, and patient satisfaction were also
Luisa A. Wetta; Kimberly A. Gerten; Thomas L. Wheeler; Robert L. Holley; R. Edward Varner; Holly E. Richter
We present a case of a 27-year-old women admitted to the hospital with migraine and left upper extremity weakness. Subsequent imaging with computed tomography and magnetic resonance angiography/venography demonstrated an acute-appearing central venous sinus thrombosis. Her only risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE) was the use of etonogestrel/ethinyl estradiol vaginal contraceptive ring (NuvaRing). The contraceptive ring was removed and the patient was treated according to the current guidelines. She achieved full neurologic recovery at 6 months' follow-up. Here, we describe this unusual case and review the risk of VTE between combined vaginal contraception and combined oral contraception. PMID:24477227
Vo, Timothy L; Cook, Rhett M; Rondina, Matthew T; Kaplan, David
Clinically the strength of the contraction of the female pelvic floor is qualitatively evaluated by vaginal tactile palpation. We therefore developed a probe to enable the quantitative evaluation of the closure pressures along the vagina. Four force sensors mounted on the four orthogonal directions of an intra-vaginal probe were used to measure the vaginal pressure profile (VPP) along the vaginal wall. Clinical experiments on 23 controls and 10 patients with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) were performed using the probe to test the hypothesis that the strength of pelvic floor muscle (PFM) contractions, imposed by voluntary contraction, is related to urinary continence. The results show that VPPs, characterized in terms of pressure distribution on the anterior and posterior vaginal walls, are significantly greater than those in the left and right vaginal walls. When the PFM contracted, the positions of the maximum posterior pressures in continent females and SUI patients were 0.63+/-0.15 cm and 1.19+/-0.2 cm proximal from their peak points of anterior pressure, which are 1.52+/-0.09 cm and 1.69+/-0.13 cm proximal from the introitus of vagina, respectively. The statistical analysis shows that the maximum posterior vaginal pressures of the controls were significantly greater than those of the SUI patients both at rest (continent: 3.4+/-0.3 N cm(-2), SUI: 2.01+/-0.36 N cm(-2), p<0.05) and during PFM contraction (continent: 4.18+/-0.26 N cm(-2), SUI: 2.25+/-0.41 N cm(-2), p<0.01). In addition, the difference between the posterior and anterior vaginal walls is significantly increased when the controls contract the PFM. By contrast, there are no significant differences in the SUI group. The results show that the VPP measured by the prototype probe can be used to quantitatively evaluate the strength of the PFM, which is a clinical index for the diagnosis or assessment of female SUI. PMID:17978426
Peng, Qiyu; Jones, Ruth; Shishido, Keiichi; Omata, Sadao; Constantinou, Christos E
The contraceptive vaginal ring is a novel contraceptive method that offers unique advantages. Intravaginal delivery of both estrogen and progesterone allows continuous release of medication, resulting in lower systemic levels. The use of long-term combined hormonal contraception enables improved cycle control compared with progesterone-only methods. The indications and usage of the NuvaRing® are described along with the efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Overall, the contraceptive vaginal ring appears to be very effective, with a favorable side-effect profile, and is highly acceptable to most patients. PMID:21151688
Wieder, Devorah R; Pattimakiel, Lynn
Objectives: We performed a phase I trial to assess the safety and tolerance of a Lactobacillus vaginal suppository for prevention of recurrent UTI. Methods: Premenopausal women with a history of recurrent UTI were randomized to use L. crispatus CTV-05 or placebo vaginal suppositories daily for five days. Results: 30 women were randomized (15 to L. crispatus CTV-05). No severe adverse events occurred. Mild to moderate vaginal discharge and genital irritation were reported by women in both study arms. Seven women randomized to L. crispatus CTV-05 developed pyuria without associated symptoms. Most women had high concentrations of vaginal H202-producing lactobacilli before randomization. L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. gasseri were the most common Lactobacillus species identified, with stable prevalence over time. Conclusions: L. crispatus CTV-05 can be given as a vaginal suppository with minimal sideeffects to healthy women with a history of recurrent UTI. Mild inflammation of the urinary tract was noted in some women. PMID:18288237
Czaja, Christopher A.; Stapleton, Ann E.; Yarova-Yarovaya, Yuliya; Stamm, Walter E.
Objective. To identify the microbiota communities in the vaginal tracts of healthy Mexican women across the pregnancy. Methods. Vaginal swabs were obtained during the prenatal visit of women from all trimesters (n = 64) of healthy pregnant women of Mexico City. DNA was isolated from each sample, and PCR-DGGE and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments were used to identify the bacterial communities. Results. 21 different microorganisms were identified in the vaginal samples. Lactobacillus genus was present in 98% of women studied. Four lactobacilli species were identified in vaginal samples. L. acidophilus was the predominant (78%) followed by L. iners (54%), L. gasseri (20%), and L. delbrueckii (6%). 17 different microorganisms related to bacterial vaginosis conditions were identified. Ureaplasma urealyticum was the predominant (21%) followed by BVAB1 (17%) and Gemella bergeriae (7.8%). Conclusions. Lactobacillus genus predominates in the vaginal samples of Mexican pregnant women associated with different microorganisms related to bacterial vaginosis conditions. PMID:21960733
Hernandez-Rodriguez, Cesar; Romero-Gonzalez, Roberto; Albani-Campanario, Mario; Figueroa-Damian, Ricardo; Meraz-Cruz, Noemi; Hernandez-Guerrero, Cesar
A comparative study was done to compare risks and benefits of normal vaginal and caesarean section delivery. One hundred women between 36 to 40 weeks gestation were enrolled and face to face interviews and clinical assessments were conducted both in antenatal and postnatal period. Though 98% preferred vaginal birth only 45% eventually had so. Both immediate and late complications were considerably more in caesarian section than in normal vaginal delivery. Mean duration of sickness and mean days required for returning to normal activities were also higher in case of caesarian section. The average cost for Caesarian was $70 while for normal vaginal delivery it was $28. Caesarean delivery has some associated risks and complications. It is expensive than normal vaginal delivery. It will help practitioners to reduce the rate of primary caesarean delivery and the pregnant mothers should be informed about risks and benefits of various birth options. PMID:19377421
Begum, Badrunnesa; Zaman, Rashid Uz; Rahman, Ashequr; Rahaman, M Saifur; Uddin, M Kamal; Hafiz, Rumana; Abedin, Fahmida
Summary. An adult mouse model for studies of latency and recurrence after vaginal HSV-2 infection is not available at present, largely because the infection kills most mice within 14 days. We describe here an antiviral therapy that rescues most vaginally infected mice from death. Vaginally infected mice were nearly all rescued by combined treatment with one dose of monoclonal anti-HSV
E. L. Parr; E. M. Holliday; M. W. Collard; M. B. Parr
Lactobacilli play an important role in maintaining vaginal health. However, during bacterial vaginosis lactobacilli decrease for unknown reasons. Our preliminary study showed that phages could infect vaginal lactobacilli. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the distribution, virulence, and types of vaginal Lactobacillus phages isolated from women of two countries: the United States and Turkey. A total of
ALI O. KILIC; SYLVIA I. PAVLOVA; SENGUL ALPAY; S. SIRRI KILIC; LIN TAO
Objectives: Robot-assisted vaginal vault suspension (RAVVS) for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) represents a minimally-invasive alternative to abdominal sacrocolpopexy. We measured perioperative outcomes and utilization rates of RAVVS. Methods: RAVVS (n = 2381) and open VVS (OVVS, n = 11080) data were extracted from the 2009–2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Propensity score-matched analysis compared patients undergoing RAVVS or OVVS for complications, mortality, prolonged length-of-stay, and elevated hospital charges. Results: Use of RAVVS for POP increased from 2009 to 2010 (16.3% to 19.2%). Patients undergoing RAVVS were more likely to be white (77.2% vs. 69.6%), to carry private insurance (52.8% vs. 46.0%) and to have fewer comorbidities (Charlson Comorbidity Index [CCI] ?1 = 17.5% vs. 26.6%). They were more likely to undergo surgery at urban (98.2% vs. 93.7%) and academic centres (75.7% vs. 56.7%). Patients undergoing RAVVS were less likely to receive a blood-transfusion (0.7% vs. 1.8%, p < 0.001) or experience prolonged length-of-stay (9.3% vs. 25.1%, p < 0.001). They had more intraoperative complications (6.0% vs. 4.2%, p < 0.001), and higher median hospital charges ($32 402 vs. $24 136, p < 0.001). Overall postoperative complications were equivalent (17.9%, p = 1.0), though there were differences in wound (0.4% vs. 1.3%, p < 0.001), genitourinary (4.9% vs. 6.5%, p = 0.009), and surgical (6.6% vs. 4.9%, p = 0.007) complications. Conclusions: The increasing use of RAVVS from 2009 to 2010 suggests a growth in the adoption of robotics to manage POP. We show that RAVVS is associated with decreased length of stay, fewer blood transfusions, as well as lower postoperative wound, genitourinary and vascular complications. The benefits of RAVVS are mitigated by higher hospital charges and higher rates of intra-operative complications. PMID:24839477
Li, Hanhan; Sammon, Jesse; Roghmann, Florian; Sood, Akshay; Ehlert, Michael; Sun, Maxine; Menon, Mani; Atiemo, Humphrey; Trinh, Quoc-Dien
The draft genome of a highly auto-aggregating Lactobacillus plantarum strain isolated from a human vagina is reported. The peculiar phenotype also provides an adhesive and co-aggregative potential with various pathogens, which could be of significance in the vaginal niche. Detailed genome analysis could aid in identifying the adhesins of the strain. PMID:25395634
Malik, Shweta; Siezen, Roland J; Renckens, Bernadet; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Vanderleyden, Jos; Lebeer, Sarah
The draft genome of a highly auto-aggregating Lactobacillus plantarum strain isolated from a human vagina is reported. The peculiar phenotype also provides an adhesive and co-aggregative potential with various pathogens, which could be of significance in the vaginal niche. Detailed genome analysis could aid in identifying the adhesins of the strain. PMID:25395634
Malik, Shweta; Siezen, Roland J.; Renckens, Bernadet; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Vanderleyden, Jos
Background: This study examines the prevalence of vaginal, oral, and anal intercourse among a population of urban, public middle school students, the characteristics of early sexual initiators, and the sequence of sexual initiation. Such data are limited for early adolescents. Methods: A total of 1279 seventh-grade students (57.3% female, 43.6%…
Markham, Christine M.; Peskin, Melissa Fleschler; Addy, Robert C.; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Tortolero, Susan R.
This study examined whether a comprehensive set of psychosocial factors was equally predictive of both adolescent vaginal intercourse and oral sex among 1,105 adolescents aged 12-16. Logistic regressions were used to examine the relationships between parental communication, religiosity, bonding to school, heavy drinking, sex expectancies,…
Bersamin, Melina M.; Walker, Samantha; Fisher, Deborah A.; Grube, Joel W.
Background Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) involves the introduction of instruments through a natural orifice into the peritoneal cavity to perform surgical interventions. The vagina is the most widely used approach to NOTES. We report the utilization of the vaginal opening at the time of vaginal hysterectomy as a natural orifice for laparoscopic appendectomy. Material/Methods We reviewed cases of 10 patients with chronic appendicitis who underwent transvaginal laparoscopic appendectomy simultaneously with vaginal hysterectomy. A laparoscopic approach was established after removal of the uterus, and the appendix was removed transvaginally. Among the 10 cases, 5 were conducted under gasless laparoscopy by using a simple abdominal wall-lifting instrument. Results All procedures were performed successfully without intraoperative or major postoperative complications. The appendectomy portion of the procedure took approximately 21 minutes to 34 minutes. All patients were discharged less than 4 days after surgery, without external scars. Conclusions Transvaginal appendectomy with rigid laparoscopic instruments following vaginal hysterectomy appears to be a feasible and safe modification of established techniques, with acceptable outcomes. PMID:25300522
Tian, Yu; Wu, Shuo-Dong; Chen, Ying-Han; Wang, Dan-Bo
); and delivery in a public non-university hospital. Epidural% Â analgesia was found to be a protective factor, delay in initial care, and place of delivery are independent risk factors for severe blood loss in women after vaginal delivery: factors associated with severity Marine Driessen 1 , Marie-H l ne Bouvier
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
The giant panda is seasonally monoestrus, experiencing a single estrous with spontaneous ovulation in the spring. Therefore, accurate monitoring of the estrous cycle to pinpoint the time of ovulation is critical for the success of timed mating or artificial insemination. Analysis of exfoliated vaginal epithelial cells is a simple technique that rapidly yields information about the estrous status of a
B. Durrant; N. Czekala; M. Olson; A. Anderson; D. Amodeo; R. Campos-Morales; F. Gual-Sill; J. Ramos-Garza
PurposeThe vaginal ring and the transdermal patch offer important contraceptive options for women at high risk for unintended pregnancy. Little is known about what adolescents and young women think about these methods and why use of the ring has been relatively low compared with the patch. We sought to examine young women's attitudes and perceptions about the ring and the
Tina R. Raine; Laura B. Epstein; Cynthia C. Harper; Beth A. Brown; Cherrie B. Boyer
We previously reported nonaqueous silicone elastomer gels (SEGs) for sustained vaginal administration of the CCR5-targeted entry inhibitor maraviroc (MVC). Here, we describe chemically modified SEGs (h-SEGs) in which the hydrophobic cyclomethicone component was partially replaced with relatively hydrophilic silanol-terminated polydimethylsiloxanes (st-PDMS). MVC and emtricitabine (a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor), both currently under evaluation as topical microbicides to counter sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), were used as model antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. Gel viscosity and in vitro ARV release were significantly influenced by st-PDMS molecular weight and concentration in the h-SEGs. Unexpectedly, gels prepared with lower molecular weight grades of st-PDMS showed higher viscosities. h-SEGs provided enhanced release over 24 h compared with aqueous hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) gels, did not modify the pH of simulated vaginal fluid (SVF), and were shown to less cytotoxic than standard HEC vaginal gel. ARV solubility increased as st-PDMS molecular weight decreased (i.e., as percentage hydroxyl content increased), helping to explain the in vitro release trends. Dye ingression and SVF dilution studies confirmed the increased hydrophilicity of the h-SEGs. h-SEGs have potential for use in vaginal drug delivery, particularly for ARV-based HIV-1 microbicides. PMID:24585370
Forbes, Claire J; McCoy, Clare F; Murphy, Diarmaid J; Woolfson, A David; Moore, John P; Evans, Abbey; Shattock, Robin J; Malcolm, R Karl
Objective The purpose was to ascertain how tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) slings are used in the United Kingdom. Methods A postal questionnaire was sent to all 446 gynaecologists and urologists thought to be using TVT sling surgery in the UK. Results There was wide variation in technique amongst the 236 respondents. These varied with respect to the type of anaesthetic
Julian W. Barrington; Mohammed Abdel-fattah; Farida Bano
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare cycle control and tolerability of the NuvaRing (NV Organon, Oss, The Netherlands), a novel combined contraceptive vaginal ring, with a standard combined oral contraceptive pill. STUDY DESIGN: Healthy women aged 18 to 40 years who requested contraception received either NuvaRing or a combined oral contraceptive containing 30 ?g ethinyl estradiol and
Ragnheidur I. Bjarnadóttir; Marjo Tuppurainen; Stephen R. Killick
Background\\/Aims: The aim of this study was to obtain the surgical therapeutic index (STI) of tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) and transobturator tape (TOT) and compare it with the previously obtained result of Burch colposuspension. Methods: The study population consisted of 121 patients who were diagnosed as having stress urinary incontinence, underwent TVT or TOT between January 1, 2000 and June
Myung Jae Jeon; Da Jung Chung; Joo Hyun Park; Sei Kwang Kim; Jae Wook Kim; Sang Wook Bai
The observations from the present study indicate that vaginal formulations of the sulfated polysaccharide carrageenan are highly effective in protecting mice from herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection. Test formulations were placed in the vaginas of progestin-treated mice prior to inoculation with HSV-2. Infection was determined by the presence of inflammation in the genital region and death. At a
VANAJA R. ZACHAROPOULOS; DAVID M. PHILLIPS
Remodeling of vaginal extracellular matrix and smooth muscle likely plays a critical role in reducing the risk of maternal injury during vaginal delivery by altering the mechanical properties to increase distension and reduce stress. Long-Evans rats were divided into five groups to examine the passive mechanical and active contractile properties throughout pregnancy and postpartum: virgin (n=17), mid-pregnant (Day 14-16, n=12), late-pregnant (Day 20-22, n=14), immediate postpartum (0-2 h after delivery, n=14), and 4 week postpartum (n=15). Longitudinal sections of vaginal tissue were loaded to failure uniaxially for passive mechanical or active contractile properties were examined. For passive mechanics, the tangent modulus decreased 45% by mid-pregnancy and immediately postpartum (p<0.001). The ultimate strain continuously increased up to 43% higher than virgin animals (p=0.007) in the immediate postpartum group. For active mechanics, the maximal contractile force was 36-56% lower through immediate postpartum animals, and was significantly more sensitive to K+ throughout pregnancy and postpartum (p=0.003). The changes observed in the passive and active properties of the rat vagina are consistent with what would be expected from a tissue that is remodeling to maximize its ability to distend at the time of vaginal delivery to facilitate passage of the fetus with minimal injury. PMID:20824342
Feola, Andrew; Moalli, Pamela; Alperin, Marianna; Duerr, Robbie; Gandley, Robin E; Abramowitch, Steven
The reproductive biology of wild Canis species is often described as unique among mammals because an unusual combination of behavioral and physiological characteristics including a seasonally monestrous cycle, copulatory lock or tie, obligatory pseudopregnancy, social monogamy, and biparental care of the young. We investigated social behavior, endocrine profiles, and vaginal cytology of female coyotes (Canis latrans) during 4 breeding seasons,
Debra A. Carlson; Eric M. Gese
Since most abdominal hysterectomies are performed for treatment of large uterine fibroids, an effective laparoscopic approach must be discovered for the endoscopic treatment of large uterine fibroids. We performed a retrospective analysis of all laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomies (LAVHs) we performed on uteri that were both greater than 12 weeks' size on preoperative examination and heavier than 450 g on pathologic
Michael L. Nimaroff; Michael Dimino; Susan Maloney
Exposure to semen elicits an inflammatory response in the female reproductive tract of rodents and other animals. The nature and regulation of any similar response in humans is poorly understood. This study investigated seminal plasma induction of inflam- matory cytokine and chemokine gene regulation in human cervical and vaginal epithelial cells in vitro. Affymetrix microarray gene profiling revealed that inflammatory
David J. Sharkey; Anne M. Macpherson; Kelton P. Tremellen; Sarah A. Robertson
McKusick-Kaufman syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disease diagnosed by polydactyly, hydrometrocolpos, and congenital heart disease. We present an unusual laparotomy confirmed urogenital MRI finding (atretic vaginal pouch) in a 3-month-old girl with McKusick-Kaufman syndrome. Up to our knowledge, this MR finding has not been reported in the literature yet. PMID:22470656
Mostafavi, Seyed-Hassan; Hooman, Nakysa; Hallaji, Farideh
Objectives: In women who underwent vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC), we assessed the risk of uterine rupture and other complications in those who received misoprostol and oxytocin (M+O) compared with two other groups: VBAC patients who had spontaneous labor (SL) and those who received oxytocin alone (OA).Methods: From 1996 to 1999, we compared risks for fetal and maternal complications
Victor Nwachuku; Antonio Sison; Carlene Quashie; Andrew Chau; Sze-Ya Yeh
A recent trend discouraging or not offering women a choice to labor after a cesarean birth has resulted in higher cesarean birth rates and lower rates of vaginal birth after cesarean birth (VBAC). The few studies describing midwifery practice have demonstrated favorable outcomes; however, the studies are too small to thoroughly evaluate critical outcomes. In this retrospective descriptive study, clinical
Melissa D. Avery; Catherine A. Carr; Patricia Burkhardt
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of increasing birth weight on the success rates for a trial of labor in women with one previous cesarean delivery. Study Design: To evaluate the effect of increasing birth weight for women who undergo a trial of labor, the medical records of women who had attempted a vaginal birth
Mohammed A. Elkousy; Mary Sammel; Erika Stevens; Jeffrey F. Peipert; George Macones
Midwives have been providing care for women choosing vaginal birth after cesarean birth (VBAC) for over 20 years. The 1999 American College of Obstetrician Gynecologist (ACOG) guidelines and recent studies questioning the relative safety of VBAC have raised concerns about continuing to offer this option. As part of an effort to understand VBAC care provided by midwives, this study used
Catherine A. Carr; Patricia Burkhardt; Melissa Avery
In women who underwent vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC), we assessed the risk of uterine rupture in those who received misoprostol and oxytocin (M+O) compared with that in two other groups—VBAC patients who had spontaneous labor (SL) and those who received oxytocin alone (OA). From 1996 to 1999, we compared risks for fetal and maternal complications, including uterine rupture,
Victor Nwachuku; Antonio Sison; Carlene Quashie; Andrew Chau; Sze-Ya Yeh
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a short interdelivery interval is associated with decreased rate of successful vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC).METHODS: A retrospective cohort study from January 1, 1997, to December 31, 2000, was conducted. Patients with previous cesarean delivery who attempted VBAC were identified. The analysis was limited to patients at term with one prior cesarean. The interdelivery interval was
Wilson H Huang; Dana K Nakashima; Pamela J Rumney; Kirk A Keegan; Kenneth Chan
Intravaginal misoprostol has become increasingly employed for labor induction among patients with an unfavorable Bishop’s score. Almost all of the reported studies have specifically excluded patients with prior uterine surgery. There has been, therefore, very little information concerning its usage among patients attempting vaginal birth after cesarean section. We report a patient with two prior low transverse uterine incisions who
Robert B. Gherman; Susan McBrayer; Joseph Browning
To determine the success rate, maternal complications and the neonatal outcome of attempting vaginal birth after cesarean section in grand-grand multiparous, Para 10 and more with one previ- ous Cesarean section. The second objective is to determine the success rate of VBAC according to parity. A retrospective case controlled study conducted at the Maternity and Children Hospital in Makkah, Saudi
Nabeel S. Bondagji
- norrhea, dyspareunia (vaginal hyperalgesia ), and dyschezia [14,19]. Animal models involving surgical were nine SpragueÂ±Dawley virgin female rats, 200Â±225 g at the beginning of the study (325Â±350 g at end always trained and tested 3Â±6 h after lights on. The study was approved by Florida State Univer- sity
Berkley, Karen J.
In a multicenter 1-year trial of contraceptive vaginal rings (rings) involving 150 women, three dose combinations of the progestin Nestorone® (NES) and ethinylestradiol (EE) were compared with respect to effectiveness, safety and acceptability. Mean in vitro drug release rates for the three doses were 150 and 15, 150 and 20 and 200 and 15 ?g\\/day of NES and EE, respectively.
Irving Sivin; Daniel R. Mishell; Francisco Alvarez; Vivian Brache; Kaisa Elomaa; Pekka Lähteenmäki; Rebeca Massai; Patricia Miranda; Horacio Croxatto; Catherine Dean; Margaret Small; Harold Nash; Theodore M. Jackanicz
BackgroundMany women discontinue their use of hormonal contraception, and even those who continue so may have difficulty using oral contraceptive pills consistently. New delivery systems, including the vaginal ring, may be easier to use, but user acceptability and satisfaction with these new methods may be affected by women's experience with their bodies.
Julie E. Schafer; Lauren M. Osborne; Anne R. Davis; Carolyn Westhoff
A combined contraceptive vaginal ring designed to last 12 months was tested at three clinic sites. This ring released approximately 1 mg of norethindrone acetate (NET-Ac) and 20 ?g of ethinyl estradiol (EE) daily. A total of 60 women were enrolled to use the ring in a schedule of 3 weeks in\\/1 week out. Serum norethindrone (NET) and ethinyl estradiol
Edith Weisberg; Ian S Fraser; M Lacarra; Daniel R Mishell; F Alvarez; V Brache; H. A Nash
ObjectiveTo assess the efficacy, tolerability, and acceptance of a vaginal ring delivering the equivalent of 50 or 100 ?g per day of estradiol (E2), compared with placebo, for relief of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms and urogenital symptoms in postmenopausal women.
The acceptability of a vaginal ring releasing ethinyl oestradiol 20 mcg per day and norethindrone acetate 1 mg per day was assessed during a six-month phase II trial comparing three different regimens, which was carried out simultaneously in Los Angeles and Sydney. Sixty women were enrolled in Sydney and 90 in Los Angeles. On admission into the study, the women
Edith Weisberg; Ian S. Fraser; Daniel R. Mishell; Maria Lacarra; C. Wayne Bardin
The study population included 159 women aged 18 to 37 years requiring contraception (60 in Sydney; 99 in Los Angeles). The design consisted of a 6-month study of a contraceptive vaginal ring (CVR) releasing 20 ?g ethinyl estradiol and 1 mg of norethindrone acetate daily over two successive cycles with a new ring on each of three different insertion regimens.
E. Weisberg; I. S. Fraser; M. Lacarra; D. R. Mishell; T. Jackanicz
BackgroundThis study compared metabolic, hormonal and lipid profiles before and during use of a contraceptive vaginal ring (RING) releasing 15 mcg ethinyl estradiol (EE) and 120 mcg etonogestrel per day (NuvaRing®, Organon USA Inc., Roseland, NJ) versus a low-dose oral contraceptive (PILL) containing 20 mcg EE and 100 mcg levonorgestrel daily (Aviane, Barr Pharmaceuticals Inc., Pomona, NY).
Karen E. Elkind-Hirsch; Carmen Darensbourg; Beverly Ogden; Lauren F. Ogden; Philip Hindelang
Background Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) involves the introduction of instruments through a natural orifice into the peritoneal cavity to perform surgical interventions. The vagina is the most widely used approach to NOTES. We report the utilization of the vaginal opening at the time of vaginal hysterectomy as a natural orifice for laparoscopic appendectomy. Material and Methods We reviewed cases of 10 patients with chronic appendicitis who underwent transvaginal laparoscopic appendectomy simultaneously with vaginal hysterectomy. A laparoscopic approach was established after removal of the uterus, and the appendix was removed transvaginally. Among the 10 cases, 5 were conducted under gasless laparoscopy by using a simple abdominal wall-lifting instrument. Results All procedures were performed successfully without intraoperative or major postoperative complications. The appendectomy portion of the procedure took approximately 21 minutes to 34 minutes. All patients were discharged less than 4 days after surgery, without external scars. Conclusions Transvaginal appendectomy with rigid laparoscopic instruments following vaginal hysterectomy appears to be a feasible and safe modification of established techniques, with acceptable outcomes. PMID:25300522
Tian, Yu; Wu, Shuo-Dong; Chen, Ying-Han; Wang, Dan-Bo
We want to compare the efficacy and safety of vaginal versus sublingual misoprostol for cervical ripening and induction of labor. This randomized clinical trial was performed on 140 women with medical or obstetric indications for labor induction. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: vaginal and sublingual administration of misoprostol. In first group, 25 µg misoprostol was placed in the posterior fornix of the vagina and second group received 25 µg misoprostol sublingually, every 6 hours for 24 h. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were analyzed. There was no significant difference in the demographic characteristics between two groups. The main indication for cesarean section in both groups was fetal distress, followed by absence of active labor progress. Evaluation of cesarean indication was not significantly different in two groups; including fetal distress, absence of active labor, uterine over activity and failure to progress. The maternal complication in sublingual group included residual placenta (2%), tachysystole (2%), vomiting (12%), atoni (3.3%) and abdominal pain (5.5%), although there was no significant difference between two groups. Sublingual misoprostol is as effective as vaginal misoprostol for induction of labor at term. However, sublingual misoprostol has the advantage of easy administration and may be more suitable than vaginal misoprostol. PMID:24734084
Ayati, Sedigheh; Vahidroodsari, Fatemeh; Farshidi, Farnoosh; Shahabian, Masoud; Afzal Aghaee, Monavar
ABH typing by immunocytochemical method has been carried out on 163 selected vaginal swabs. 127 cases (78%) were determined correctly, 11 cases (7%) incorrectly and 25 cases (15%) could not be classified. Often, not all of the vaginal cells showed the expected positive staining, which was not counted as a false result. The incorrect results were not dependent on the secretor status, but 37% of the non-secretor cases could not be classified immunocytochemically, as compared with 12% of the secretors. In a second series, 61 vaginal swabs, dried on microscope slides, have been covered with semen from an A1 B secretor. Absorption of heterologous antigens by the vaginal epithelia could be demonstrated only after extremely long incubation with semen and extremely long incubation with the anti-A or anti-B antibodies. From the 163 "native" swabs, 17 gave a positive reaction with the acid phosphatase test, but only one false ABH result. A possible influence of bacteria upon the results is discussed. We believe that in practice, no faults in immunocytochemical ABH typing have to be expected, due to absorption of heterologous antigens. PMID:2054308
Scheithauer, R; Hofmann, R
There is evidence that average total charges per episode of child birth depend on maternal plus child length of stay, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) utilization, maternal race and mode of delivery. In particular, when maternal and child records are linked, this study suggests that when adjusted for maternal characteristics, the cost of vaginal deliveries followed by NICU utilization may
Vahé A. Kazandjian; C. Patrick Chaulk; Sam Ogunbo; Karol Wicker
Tritrichomonas foetus is a serious veterinary pathogen, causing bovine trichomoniasis, a sexually transmitted disease leading to infertility and abortion. T. foetus infects the mucosal surfaces of the reproductive tract. Infection with T. foetus leads to apoptotic cell death of bovine vaginal epithelial cells (BVECs) in culture. An affinity-purified cysteine protease (CP) fraction yielding on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel elec- trophoresis
B. N. Singh; J. J. Lucas; G. R. Hayes; Ish Kumar; D. H. Beach; Marcel Frajblat; R. O. Gilbert; U. Sommer; C. E. Costello
Women are at significant risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, with the cervicovaginal mucosa serving as a major portal for virus entry. Female-initiated preventatives, including topical microbi- cides, are urgently needed to help curtail the HIV\\/AIDS pandemic. Here we report on the development of a novel, live microbicide that employs a natural vaginal strain of Lactobacillus jensenii engineered to
Xiaowen Liu; Laurel A. Lagenaur; David A. Simpson; Kirsten P. Essenmacher; Courtney L. Frazier-Parker; Yang Liu; Daniel Tsai; Srinivas S. Rao; Dean H. Hamer; Thomas P. Parks; Peter P. Lee; Qiang Xu
Purpose: We report demographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors associated with adherence to vaginal dilation and describe the sexual and marital or nonmarital dyadic functioning of women following high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy for endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively evaluated women aged 18 years or older in whom early-stage endometrial (IAgr3-IIB) cancers were treated by HDR intravaginal brachytherapy within
Lois C. Friedman; Rita Abdallah; Mark Schluchter; Ashok Panneerselvam; Charles A. Kunos
Menstrual toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a serious illness that afflicts women of premenopausal age worldwide and arises from vaginal infection by Staphylococcus aureus and concurrent production of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1). Studies have illustrated the capacity of lactobacilli to reduce S. aureus virulence, including the capacity to suppress TSST-1. We hypothesized that an aberrant microbiota characteristic of pathogenic bacteria would induce the increased production of TSST-1 and that this might represent a risk factor for the development of TSS. A S. aureus TSST-1 reporter strain was grown in the presence of vaginal swab contents collected from women with a clinically healthy vaginal status, women with an intermediate status, and those diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis (BV). Bacterial supernatant challenge assays were also performed to test the effects of aerobic vaginitis (AV)-associated pathogens toward TSST-1 production. While clinical samples from healthy and BV women suppressed toxin production, in vitro studies demonstrated that Streptococcus agalactiae and Enterococcus spp. significantly induced TSST-1 production, while some Lactobacillus spp. suppressed it. The findings suggest that women colonized by S. aureus and with AV, but not BV, may be more susceptible to menstrual TSS and would most benefit from prophylactic treatment. PMID:23315732
MacPhee, Roderick A.; Miller, Wayne L.; Gloor, Gregory B.; McCormick, John K.; Hammond, Jo-Anne; Burton, Jeremy P.
Objectives: The cause of recurrent vulvovaginitis remains unexplained in most cases. Heat shock protein synthesis is induced under conditions of stress; its presence in vaginal samples from women who were between episodes of recurrent vulvovaginitis thus might reflect a persistent perturbation in the local milieu. Study Design: We undertook an evaluation by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of 60-kd heat
Paulo Giraldo; Andreas Neuer; Irina L. Korneeva; Ayrton Ribeiro-Filho; José A. Simões; Steven S. Witkin
PURPOSE: Quality of life is altered after abdominoperineal resection, because of permanent iliac colostomy. Psychological rehabilitation is even more difficult after extended abdominoperineal resection to the vagina, because of the loss of both continence and sexual functions. We report the first case of total anorectal and vaginal reconstruction using dynamic graciloplasty and colonic vaginoplasty after extended abdominoperineal resection. METHODS: A
Eric Rullier; Tarun McBride; Frank Zerbib; Michel Caudry; Jean Saric
Background The vaginal microbial community plays a vital role in maintaining women’s health. Understanding the precise bacterial composition is challenging because of the diverse and difficult-to-culture nature of many bacterial constituents, necessitating culture-independent methodology. During a natural menstrual cycle, physiological changes could have an impact on bacterial growth, colonization, and community structure. The objective of this study was to assess the stability of the vaginal microbiome of healthy Canadian women throughout a menstrual cycle by using cpn60-based microbiota analysis. Vaginal swabs from 27 naturally cycling reproductive-age women were collected weekly through a single menstrual cycle. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to amplify the universal target region of the cpn60 gene and generate amplicons representative of the microbial community. Amplicons were pyrosequenced, assembled into operational taxonomic units, and analyzed. Samples were also assayed for total 16S rRNA gene content and Gardnerella vaginalis by quantitative PCR and screened for the presence of Mollicutes by using family and genus-specific PCR. Results Overall, the vaginal microbiome of most women remained relatively stable throughout the menstrual cycle, with little variation in diversity and only modest fluctuations in species richness. Microbiomes between women were more different than were those collected consecutively from individual women. Clustering of microbial profiles revealed the expected groupings dominated by Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus iners, and Lactobacillus jensenii. Interestingly, two additional clusters were dominated by either Bifidobacterium breve or a heterogeneous mixture of nonlactobacilli. Direct G. vaginalis quantification correlated strongly with its pyrosequencing-read abundance, and Mollicutes, including Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum, and Ureaplasma urealyticum, were detected in most samples. Conclusions Our cpn60-based investigation of the vaginal microbiome demonstrated that in healthy women most vaginal microbiomes remained stable through their menstrual cycle. Of interest in these findings was the presence of Bifidobacteriales beyond just Gardnerella species. Bifidobacteriales are frequently underrepresented in 16S rRNA gene-based studies, and their detection by cpn60-based investigation suggests that their significance in the vaginal community may be underappreciated. PMID:25053998
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is one of the most common causes of vaginitis and affects about 75?% of women of reproductive age. In order to better understand the epidemiology and pathogenesis of this disease, we evaluated genetic relatedness among 62 clinical isolates of Candida albicans sequentially obtained from the anus and vagina of patients with sporadic and recurrent VVC. Evaluation of patients' demographic and clinical data, direct examination, and colony forming units (c.f.u.) counts of vaginal and anal samples were also performed. The genotypes of strains were determined with ABC genotyping and Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Genotype A was the most prevalent (93.6?%), followed by genotype C (6.4?%), whereas genotype B was not found. We found the maintenance of the same ABC genotype, regardless of the body site of each patient. Most of the vaginal strains suffered microevolution, whereas most of the anal strains were replaced during the period of study. Vaginal and anal isolates of C. albicans obtained simultaneously from the same patient showed the same ABC genotype and high genetic similarity as determined by RAPD. Genotype A seemed to be dominant in both vaginal and anal isolates of patients with VVC. Our results corroborate the hypothesis that there are 'substrains' of the C. albicans vaginal clone successfully established, which dominate in an apparently random manner over the course of time. It is suggested that the anal reservoir constitutes a possible source for vaginal infection in most of the cases. PMID:25187602
Araújo Paulo de Medeiros, Mariana; Vieira de Melo, Ana Patrícia; Gonçalves, Sarah Santos; Milan, Eveline Pipolo; Chaves, Guilherme Maranhão
Background Public hospitals in developing countries, rather than the preventive and primary healthcare sectors, are the major consumers of healthcare resources. Imbalances in rational, equitable and efficient allocation of scarce resources lie in the scarcity of research & information on economic aspects of health care. The objective of this study was to determine the average cost of a spontaneous vaginal delivery and Caesarean section in a tertiary level government hospital in Islamabad, Pakistan and to estimate the out of pocket expenditures to households using these services. Methods This hospital based cost accounting cross sectional study determines the average cost of vaginal delivery and Caesarean section from two perspectives, the patient's and the hospital. From the patient's perspective direct and indirect expenditures of 133 post-partum mothers (65 delivered by Caesarean section & 68 by spontaneous vaginal delivery) admitted in the maternity general ward were determined. From the hospital perspective the step down methodology was adopted, capital and recurrent costs were determined from inputs and cost centers. Results The average cost for a spontaneous vaginal delivery from the hospital's side was 40 US$ (2688 rupees) and from the patient's perspective was 79 US$ (5278 rupees). The average cost for a Caesarean section from the hospital side was 162 US$ (10868 rupees) and 204 US$ (13678 rupees) from the patient's side. Average monthly household income was 141 ± 87 US$ for spontaneous vaginal delivery and 168 ± 97 US$ for Caesarean section. Three fourth (74%) of households had a monthly income of less than 149 US$ (10000 rupees). Conclusion The apparently "free" maternity care at government hospitals involves substantial hidden and unpredicted costs. The anticipated fear of these unpredicted costs may be major factor for many poor households to seek cheaper alternate maternity healthcare. PMID:20085662
Purpose To report outcomes following adjuvant high-dose-rate vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) with or without chemotherapy for high-intermediate risk (HIR) and high-risk, early stage endometrial cancer as defined in Gynecologic Oncology Group trial 0249. Material and methods From May 2000 to January 2014, 68 women with HIR and high-risk endometrial cancer underwent surgical staging followed by VBT. Median VBT dose was 21 Gy delivered in three fractions prescribed to 0.5 cm depth. Paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 and carboplatin area under the curve 6 was administered every 21 days in sequence with VBT. Actuarial survival estimates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Patient demographics included a median age of 66 years (range: 36-91) and stages IA (49%), IB (38%), and II (13%), respectively. Thirty-one (46%) patients had HIR disease with endometrioid histology, and 33 (48%) patients had serous or clear cell histology. Thirty-seven (54%) patients received a median 3 cycles (range: 3-6) of chemotherapy in addition to VBT, and 65 patients (96%) completed all prescribed therapy. During a median follow up of 33.1 months (range: 4.0-161.7), four patients have recurred, including one vaginal recurrence. The 3-year estimates of vaginal, pelvic, and distant recurrences were 1.9%, 2.4%, and 9.1%, respectively. The 3-year rates of disease-free and overall survival were 87.7% and 93.9%, respectively. Conclusions Early outcomes with adjuvant VBT with or without chemotherapy demonstrate high rates of vaginal and pelvic control for women with HIR disease. Early vaginal and pelvic relapses in high-risk patients suggest that pelvic external beam radiotherapy is warranted in this subgroup, but additional data from large phase III trials is warranted. PMID:25337127
Eastwick, Gary; Anne, Pramila Rani; Rosenblum, Norman G.; Schilder, Russell J.; Chalian, Raffi; Zibelli, Allison M.; Kim, Christine H.; Den, Robert
OBJECTIVES The etiology of bacterial vaginosis (BV) remains unknown. We sought to describe longitudinal changes in vaginal microbiota. METHODS Thirty-nine women self-collected vaginal specimens twice-weekly for 16 weeks as part of a vaginal douching cessation study. In an analysis where each woman serves as her own control, we used Conditional Logistic Regression to evaluate daily, time-varying factors associated with a woman’s incident BV episode(s) as compared to her persistently BV-negative sample(s). BV was defined by Nugent’s Gram stain score ?7. RESULTS The mean age was 36.8 years; 56.4% were African-American. 46.2% of participants had BV in the first four weeks of observation. Rapid fluctuation of vaginal microbiota was observed in 226 transitions to BV or spontaneous remission. Duration of BV was often short: 51% of the episodes lasted only one sample interval (three days). Among women who had at least one BV episode, the median number of episodes per woman was 8.7 (SD=7.4, range: 1–22). Lubricant use one day prior to specimen collection (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 11.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.96–70.27) and rectal sex two days prior (aOR: 4.48, 95% CI: 2.79–7.17) were associated with BV onset. CONCLUSION Rapid fluctuation of the vaginal microbiota was observed. Longitudinal studies with long intervals between sampling are likely to miss episodes of BV. Recent report of lubricant use and rectal sex were associated with incident BV. PMID:20660593
Brotman, Rebecca M.; Ravel, Jacques; Cone, Richard A.; Zenilman, Jonathan M.
Background Pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrECP) using antiretroviral agents is a promising strategy for the prevention of sexual HIV transmission in women. Molecular transporters in the human vaginal tract (VT) may play a pivotal role in determining drug disposition and, consequently, pharmacodynamic outcomes in these efforts. Little is known, however, on the expression of these transporters in vaginal tissues, representing a critical knowledge gap. Methodology/Principal Findings Our study analyzed the genome-wide transcriptome in 44 vaginal tissue samples from 6 reproductive-age women undergoing gynecologic surgeries. The analysis revealed that, unexpectedly, a large number (43%) of gene isoforms corresponding to membrane transporters were over-expressed (above the median expression level) in all samples. A subset of 12 highly expressed membrane transporters was identified and contained 10 members (83%) of the solute carrier superfamily. The largest difference in membrane transporter gene expression was observed across subjects, but more subtle differential expression also was found along the anterior-posterior axis of the VT. Cross-validation of the microarray analyses with measurements RT-qPCR demonstrated high concordance between these data sets. Immunofluorescence labeling of membrane transporter proteins in vaginal tissues was highly dependent on tissue/cell types. Conclusions/Significance Antiretroviral PrECP drugs currently under evaluation are substrates for molecular transporters that were commonly expressed, but fell into both over- or under-expressed categories in all samples, suggesting a complex role for carrier-mediated processes in determining the disposition of these xenobiotics in vaginal tissues. These findings hold important implications for the successful development of products, either oral or intravaginal, for female-controlled HIV PrECP. PMID:24143220
Gunawardana, Manjula; Mullen, Madeline; Moss, John A.; Pyles, Richard B.; Nusbaum, Rebecca J.; Patel, Jignesh; Vincent, Kathleen L.; Wang, Charles; Guo, Chao; Yuan, Yate-Ching; Warden, Charles D.; Baum, Marc M.
INTRODUCTION.: Vasoactive peptides, such as bradykinin, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), and endothelin 1 (ET-1), are assumed to be involved in the control of female genital vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle. Tissue levels of said peptides are controlled by the activity of endopeptidase enzymes. Theoretically, in female genital tissues, inhibiting the degradation of bradykinin, CNP, and VIP, or the conversion of Big ET-1 into ET-1 should result in an enhancement in smooth muscle relaxation and, thus, an improvement in sexual response. AIM.: Elucidate the effects of the endopeptidase inhibitor KC 12615 on the contraction/relaxation response of isolated human vaginal smooth muscle to Big ET-1, bradykinin, CNP, or VIP. METHODS.: Tissue bath experiments were carried out to ascertain the responses of human vaginal tissue challenged by ET-1 (0.1??M) to increasing concentrations of bradykinin, CNP, and VIP (0.01??M, 0.1??M, and 1??M, respectively). The effects were also evaluated following preexposure to KC 12615 (10??M, for 20 minutes). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES.: Measure the effects of KC 12615 on the relaxation of isolated human vaginal smooth muscle brought about by bradykinin, CNP, or VIP and the contraction mediated by Big ET-1. RESULTS.: The tension induced by ET-1 was reversed by bradykinin, CNP, or VIP (-25?±?6.6%, -13.3?±?2.2%, and -17.6?±?10%, respectively). Big ET-1 induced contraction of the vaginal tissue. Preexposure of the tissue to KC 12615 increased the relaxation exerted by bradykinin, CNP, or VIP (to -39.2?±?5.8%, -40.7?±?7.3%, and -44.6?±?19%, respectively). The contraction induced by Big ET-1 was attenuated in the presence of KC 12615 (to approximately 25% of the initial response). CONCLUSION.: Inhibition of endopeptidase activity can antagonize the contraction of human vaginal tissue induced by Big ET-1 and increase the relaxation induced by vasoactive endogenous peptides. PMID:23347427
Rahardjo, Harrina E; Uckert, Stefan; Taher, Akmal; Sonnenberg, Joachim E; Kauffels, Wolfgang; Rahardjo, Djoko; Kuczyk, Markus A
BACKGROUND This study examines the prevalence of vaginal, oral, and anal inter-course among a population of urban, public middle school students, the characteristics of early sexual initiators, and the sequence of sexual initiation. Such data are limited for early adolescents. METHODS A total of 1279 seventh-grade students (57.3% female, 43.6% black, and 41.8% Hispanic), mean age 12.5 years (SD = 0.63) from 10 middle schools in a large southeastern US public school district completed a cross-sectional survey using audio computer-assisted self-interviews. Main outcomes included lifetime and past 3-months’ experience of vaginal, oral, and anal sex; condom use; age of initiation; and number of lifetime partners. RESULTS Overall, 12.0% of students had engaged in vaginal sex, 7.9% in oral sex, and 6.5% in anal sex. Among students who had initiated intercourse, approximately two thirds were currently sexually active and one quarter reported ?4 lifetime partners. Six percent had engaged in 1 type of intercourse, 4% in 2 types of intercourse, and 4% in all 3 types of intercourse; vaginal sex was typically initiated at an earlier or at the same age as other types of intercourse. Only 2% had engaged in oral sex without engaging in vaginal sex. Although black students were significantly more likely to have initiated sex compared to other racial/ethnic groups, Hispanic students who had initiated each type of intercourse were more likely to be currently sexually active and to have engaged in recent unprotected sex. CONCLUSIONS A small percentage of early adolescents are engaging in multiple sexual behaviors. These findings have implications for early adolescent school-based sexual health education. PMID:19292852
Markham, Christine M.; Peskin, Melissa Fleschler; Addy, Robert C.; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Tortolero, Susan R.
Background: Rupture of fetal membranes can occur at any gestational age. Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) means rupture of fetal membranes before the onset of labor. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the reliability of the vaginal washing fluid urea and creatinine for the diagnosis of PROM and to determine cut-off values. Materials and Methods: A total of 179 pregnant women were recruited. All patients underwent different examinations. These included nitrazine paper test, fern test, amniotic fluid pooling, vaginal washing fluid urea and creatinine sampling. The one group consisted of 126 pregnant women between 14 and 41 weeks of gestation with the complaint of vaginal fluid leakage. Patients who had positive pooling, nitrazine paper test and fern test were considered as confirmed PROM group (group 1). On the other side, patients with pooling (-) and/or nitrazine paper test (-) and/or fern test (-) were taken as suspected unconfirmed PROM cases (group 2). The control group consisted of 53 pregnant women between 14 and 41 weeks of gestation without any complaint or complication. Weconducted one-way ANOVA test on the urea and creatinine measures and post-hoc comparison test. Cut-off value was determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: Vaginal fluid concentrations of urea and creatinine were significantly different between the three groups (p<0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and accuracy were all 100% in detecting premature rupture of membranes by evaluation of vaginal fluid creatinine concentration with a cut-off value of 0.45 mg/dl, respectively. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that of two markers investigated creatinine has the higher diagnostic power. PMID:24639733
Kariman, Nourossadat; Afrakhte, Maryam; Hedayati, Mehdi; Fallahian, Masoumeh; Alavi Majd, Hamid
Objectives: We conducted retrospective and prospective clinical studies at the Columbus Hospital of Rome to point out changes in choosing the route for performing hysterectomy; to evaluate the feasibility of vaginal hysterectomy (VH) and oophorectomy, even in commonly considered contraindications to the vaginal route; to describe a method of laparoscopic oophorectomy following vaginal hysterectomy; and laparoscopic assistance in impossible vaginal hysterectomies. Methods: From November 1999 to November 2001, 226 patients (age 46.1±4.6 years, range 35 to 58) underwent hysterectomy for benign pathologies: 22 (9.7%) underwent total laparoscopic hysterectomy for the presence of severe endometriosis, limited access to the fornices, or immobile uterus with no lateral mobilization; 204 (90.3%) underwent vaginal hysterectomy. Patients with uterine prolapse were excluded. Uterine size, previous cesarean deliveries, pelvic surgeries and the requirement of prophylactic oophorectomy were not considered contraindications to the vaginal approach. We retrospectively analyzed 509 hysterectomies performed in the previous 2 years from 1997 through 1998. Results: During vaginal hysterectomy, adnexectomy was possible in 90.6% of the cases in which it was indicated (unilateral in 21.8% because of adnexal pathology) and was technically impossible in 9.3%. In 4 patients (1.9%), it was not possible to complete a vaginal hysterectomy, owing to the presence of thick adhesions obliterating the cul-de-sac, to severe endometriosis, or to other unforeseen circumstances. In these few patients with difficult access to the ovaries (2.9% of all VH) or with difficulties in mobilizing the uterus, we resorted to laparoscopy. The pneumoperitoneum was achieved with an insufflation tube inserted via the vagina into the abdominal cavity and packing the vagina. Thus, the risks associated with the insertion of the Veress needle were avoided. In all but 2 patients in whom conversion to laparotomy was necessary, laparoscopy was successfully completed. No major complications occurred. In the retrospective analysis of 509 hysterectomies, we determined that 29% were vaginal, 43% abdominal, and 28% laparoscopic (mostly LAVH). In the following years, LAVH allowed the conversion of a significant number of abdominal or laparoscopic hysterectomies to a vaginal route, showing that the vaginal approach was possible in most of cases. Conclusions: The vaginal approach is feasible in more than 90% of cases even if oophorectomy is required. In the few cases with difficult access to ovaries or difficulties in mobilizing the uterus, the laparoscopic route can easily be adapted by packing the vagina and obtaining a pneumoperitoneum without the risk and loss of time of the insertion of the Veress needle. In this way, it is possible to avoid a great number of LAVH, reducing operating time and the risks of a concomitant procedure. PMID:15554277
Paparella, Pierluigi; Bonito, Claudio; Paparella, Raffaele; Rossetti, Alfonso
Prior cesarean section—An acceptable risk for vaginal delivery at free-standing midwife-led birth centers? Results of the analysis of vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC) in German birth centers
ObjectivesIs out-of-hospital vaginal birth at a birth center safe for women with a previous cesarean section? Do their maternal or neonatal outcomes vary significantly from those of a “non-cesarean” control group?
Matthias David; Mechthild M. Gross; Anke Wiemer; Jürgen Pachaly; Klaus Vetter
Purpose: To evaluate the value of adjuvant external beam pelvic radiotherapy as adjunct to vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) in medium-risk endometrial carcinoma, with regard to locoregional tumor control, recurrences, survival, and toxicity. Methods and Materials: Consecutive series of 527 evaluable patients were included in this randomized trial. Median follow-up for patients alive was 62 months. The primary study endpoints were locoregional recurrences and overall survival. Secondary endpoints were recurrence-free survival, recurrence-free interval, cancer-specific survival, and toxicity. Results: Five-year locoregional relapse rates were 1.5% after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) plus VBT and 5% after vaginal irradiation alone (p = 0.013), and 5-year overall survival rates were 89% and 90%, respectively (p = 0.548). Endometrial cancer-related death rates were 3.8% after EBRT plus VBT and 6.8% after VBT (p = 0.118). Pelvic recurrences (exclusively vaginal recurrence) were reduced by 93% by the addition of EBRT to VBT. Deep myometrial infiltration was a significant prognostic factor in this medium-risk group of endometrioid carcinomas but not International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics grade or DNA ploidy. Combined radiotherapy was well tolerated, with serious (Grade 3) late side effects of less than 2%. However, there was a significant difference in favor of VBT alone. Conclusions: Despite a significant locoregional control benefit with combined radiotherapy, no survival improvement was recorded, but increased late toxicity was noted in the intestine, bladder, and vagina. Combined RT should probably be reserved for high-risk cases with two or more high-risk factors. VBT alone should be the adjuvant treatment option for purely medium-risk cases.
Sorbe, Bengt, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Gynecological Oncology, Oerebro University Hospital, Oerebro (Sweden); Horvath, Gyoergy; Andersson, Hakan [Department of Gynecological Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Boman, Karin [Department of Gynecological Oncology, Umea University Hospital, Umea (Sweden); Lundgren, Caroline [Department of Gynecological Oncology, Radiumhemmet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Pettersson, Birgitta [Medical Products Agency, Uppsala (Sweden)
Yellowish discharge after application of intravaginal progesterone releasing inserts is frequently observed in cows. The objective of this study was to compare the bacteriological contamination of the vagina and uterus before and after a treatment with a progesterone insert in heifers. Forty-two Holstein heifers received a progesterone releasing insert [Eazi-Breed controlled internal drug release (CIDR) insert; Pfizer Animal Health, Berlin, Germany] for 7d. The protruding tail had been removed from half of the inserts (no tail group: n=21; tail group: n=21). Nine heifers from the tail group lost the insert within the 7-d treatment interval and were excluded. Heifers identified in estrus were artificially inseminated on d 9 or 10. Vaginal discharge was scored on a 4-point scale [vaginal discharge score (VDS) 0 to 3] and vaginal swabs were taken for bacteriological examination on d 0 and 7 and the day of artificial insemination (AI). Furthermore, cytological and bacteriological samples were obtained from the uterus on d 7 and the day of AI. On d 0, coliforms and Streptococcus spp. were found in vaginal swabs of 21 heifers (64%). On d 7, all heifers showed purulent vaginal discharge (VDS 2 to 3). The VDS was higher in the tail group compared with the no tail group. Arcanobacterium pyogenes, coliforms, and Streptococcus spp. were isolated from the vaginal swabs in 32 of 33 (96%) heifers on d 7. On the day of AI, VDS had improved to 0 or 1 in 96% of the heifers. However, A. pyogenes, coliforms, and Streptococcus spp. were still isolated in 17 of 33 (53%) heifers from the vagina and in 32 of 33 (96%) heifers from the endometrium. Endometrial cytology revealed polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) in 11 heifers (6 to 32% PMN). Five samples exceeded the threshold of 5% PMN, and 2 samples exceeded the 10% PMN threshold, indicative of subclinical endometritis. In conclusion, pyogenic bacteria were found in the vagina and uterus on d 7 and the day of AI after intravaginal progesterone treatment. The severity of the discharge was affected by the protruding tail of the insert. PMID:22818458
Fischer-Tenhagen, C; von Krueger, X; Heuwieser, W
Novel therapeutic approaches are needed to combat the urinary tract infection in women. During menstruation elevated protein concentration and increase in oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations with decrease in vaginal Lactobacilli all together contribute to urinary tract infections. Lactobacillus species are a predominant member of the vaginal microflora and are critical in the prevention of a number of urogenital diseases. In order to increase antimicrobial potential of vaginal Lactobacilli, bacteriocin colicin E2 which has specific activity against uropathogenic Escherichia coli has been overexpressed in vaginal probiotic Lactobacillus brevis DT24. Recombinant Lactobacillus brevis DT24 expressing colicin E2 showed much higher inhibitory activity against uropathogenic Escherichia coli than wild type L. brevis DT24 in vitro. Efficacy of probiotic Lactobacillus brevis DT24 expressing colicin E2 protein is required for further in vivo evaluation. PMID:24649377
Study ObjectiveTo assess the feasibility and results of laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy (LSC) with two separate meshes along the anterior and posterior vaginal walls in correcting multicompartment pelvic organ prolapse (POP).
Pierre Gadonneix; Alfredo Ercoli; Delphine Salet-Lizée; Odile Cotelle; Brigitte Bolner; Michel Van Den Akker; Richard Villet
Purpose:We studied the diagnosis, management and prognosis of vaginal mesh erosion using a thermally bonded nonwoven polypropylene mesh in a transobturator suburethral tape procedure for the surgical treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women.
S. DOMINGO; P. ALAMÁ; N. RUIZ; A. PERALES; A. PELLICER
ObjectiveWe sought to determine whether women with diet-controlled gestational diabetes mellitus who attempt vaginal birth after cesarean delivery are at increased risk of failure, when compared with their non-diabetic counterparts.
Dominic Marchiano; Mohammed Elkousy; Erika Stevens; Jeffrey Peipert; George Macones
BackgroundThe purpose of this review was to compare pharmacology, contraceptive efficacy, cycle control, side effects and acceptability with the combined contraceptive vaginal ring (CCVR) and combined oral contraceptives (COCs).
Frans J. M. E. Roumen
ObjectivesThis prospective, multicentre, randomised study compared the safety and success rate of tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) and transobturator tape (TOT) in treatment of female stress urinary incontinence.
Massimo Porena; Elisabetta Costantini; Bruno Frea; Antonella Giannantoni; Stefania Ranzoni; Luigi Mearini; Vittorio Bini; Ervin Kocjancic
Objective To compare tension-free vaginal tape with colposuspension as primary treatment for stress incontinence. Design Multicentred randomised comparative trial. Setting Gynaecology or urology departments in 14 centres in the United Kingdom and Eire, including university teaching hospitals and district general hospitals. Participants 344 women with urodynamic stress incontinence; 175 randomised to tension-free vaginal tape and 169 to colposuspension Main outcome measures Assessment before treatment and at six months postoperatively with the SF-36, the Bristol female lower urinary tract symptoms questionnaire, the EQ-5D health questionnaire, a one week urinary diary, one hour perineal pad test, cystometry, and, in some centres, urethral profilometry. Results 23 women in the colposuspension group and 5 in the vaginal tape group withdrew before surgery. No significant difference was found between the groups for cure rates: 115 (66%) women in the vaginal tape group and 97 (57%) in the colposuspension group were objectively cured (95% confidence interval for difference in cure ?4.7% to 21.3%). Bladder injury was more common during the vaginal tape procedure; postoperative complications, in particular delayed resumption of micturition, were more common after colposuspension. Operation time, duration of hospital stay, and return to normal activity were all longer after colposuspension than after the vaginal tape procedure. Conclusion Surgery with tension-free vaginal tape is associated with more operative complications than colposuspension, but colposuspension is associated with more postoperative complications and longer recovery. Vaginal tape shows promise for the treatment of urodynamic stress incontinence because of minimal access and rapid recovery times; cure rates at six months were comparable with colposuspension. What is already known on this topicFew randomised trials exist on surgery for stress incontinenceSystematic reviews suggest that colposuspension is associated with cure rates of up to 90%Case series of tension-free vaginal tape suggest cure rates of about 85%, with rapid return to normal activityWhat this study addsAt six months the tension-free vaginal tape procedure is as effective as colposuspension for the primary treatment of stress incontinenceOperative complications were more common with vaginal tape, but duration of hospital stay and return to normal activity were shorter than with colposuspensionPostoperative complications were more common after colposuspension PMID:12114234
Ward, Karen; Hilton, Paul