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Sample records for apm rod issue

  1. Statistical analysis of test data for APM rod issue

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T.B.; Harris, S.P.; Reeve, C.P.

    1992-05-01

    The uncertainty associated with the use of the K-Reactor axial power monitors (APMs) to measure roof-top-ratios is investigated in this report. Internal heating test data acquired under both DC-flow conditions and AC-flow conditions have been analyzed. These tests were conducted to simulate gamma heating at the lower power levels planned for reactor operation. The objective of this statistical analysis is to investigate the relationship between the observed and true roof-top-ratio (RTR) values and associated uncertainties at power levels within this lower operational range. Conditional on a given, known power level, a prediction interval for the true RTR value corresponding to a new, observed RTR is given. This is done for a range of power levels. Estimates of total system uncertainty are also determined by combining the analog-to-digital converter uncertainty with the results from the test data.

  2. Axial power monitor rod issues and resolution for K-14.1

    SciTech Connect

    Easterling, T.C.; Fields, C.C.; Hightower, N.T. III; Wooten, L.A.; Andre, S.K.; Apperson, C.E.; Bailey, M.H.; Bell, D.L.; Clare, G.H.; Collins, S.L.; Croft, W.D.; Edwards, T.B.; Geiger, G.T.; Harris, S.P.; Lietzow, J.L.; McCulloch, R.W.; McFarlane, A.F.; Randolph, H.W.; Reed, R.L.; Reeve, C.P.; Revolinski, S.M.; Sessions, H.T.; Shine, E.P.; Smith, T.A.; Sossman, C.L.; Taylor, J.J.; Weber, J.H.

    1992-05-01

    A recent concern arose over the treatment of uncertainty associated with the K-Reactor axial power monitors (APMs). There are nine axial power monitor rods located at various positions in the K-Reactor core. By comparing the output of one sensor near the top of the rod to the output of another sensor near the bottom of the rod, the relative ratio of the neutron flux from the top to the bottom of the core can be determined. This ratio is called the roof-top-ratio (RTR) and is the output of a top sensor (Sensor 2) divided by the output of a bottom sensor (Sensor 6). The RTR is important to the safety analyses because when the RTR is maintained within certain ranges, the severity of reactivity transients is limited. There are uncertainties associated with the equipment`s ability to measure the true roof top ratio. It was determined recently that sufficient uncertainty was not accounted for either in reactor operation or in the safety analyses. The concern about uncertainty was addressed for three separate issues. One issue dear with the linear response of the sensors for power ranges planned for K-Reactor operation. The second issue dear with overall uncertainty in the RTR channel. The third issue dear with apparent large ranges in confidence bands for the RTR at low reactor powers as represented by original vendor data. Plots of sparse vendor data indicated unacceptably large uncertainties in RTR would have to be accounted for at the power ranges planned for K-Reactor operation. These concerns were brought to management`s attention through the existing procedures for notification, irrespective of their potential impact on the restart schedule. Analyses have been completed to resolve the APM issues described above, and work is progressing to take the needed steps to change operational procedures.

  3. APMS SVD methodology and implementation

    SciTech Connect

    BG Amidan; TA Ferryman

    2000-04-17

    One of the main tasks within the Aviation Performance Measurement System (APMS) program uses statistical methodologies to find atypical flights. With thousands of flights a day and hundreds of parameters being recorded every second for each flight, the amount of data escalates and the ability to find atypical flights becomes more difficult. The purpose of this paper is to explain the method known as single value decomposition (SVD) employed to search for the atypical flights and display useful graphics that facilitate understanding the causes of atypicality for these flights. Other methods could also perform this search and some are planned for future implementation.

  4. Licensing of spent fuel dry storage and consolidated rod storage: A Review of Issues and Experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.

    1990-02-01

    The results of this study, performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), respond to the nuclear industry's recommendation that a report be prepared that collects and describes the licensing issues (and their resolutions) that confront a new applicant requesting approval from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for dry storage of spent fuel or for large-scale storage of consolidated spent fuel rods in pools. The issues are identified in comments, questions, and requests from the NRC during its review of applicants' submittals. Included in the report are discussions of (1) the 18 topical reports on cask and module designs for dry storage fuel that have been submitted to the NRC, (2) the three license applications for dry storage of spent fuel at independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs) that have been submitted to the NRC, and (3) the three applications (one of which was later withdrawn) for large-scale storage of consolidated fuel rods in existing spent fuel storage pools at reactors that were submitted tot he NRC. For each of the applications submitted, examples of some of the issues (and suggestions for their resolutions) are described. The issues and their resolutions are also covered in detail in an example in each of the three subject areas: (1) the application for the CASTOR V/21 dry spent fuel storage cask, (2) the application for the ISFSI for dry storage of spent fuel at Surry, and (3) the application for full-scale wet storage of consolidated spent fuel at Millstone-2. The conclusions in the report include examples of major issues that applicants have encountered. Recommendations for future applicants to follow are listed. 401 refs., 26 tabs.

  5. Use of APM for Assessing Language Arts Placement Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, James E.; Opp, Ronald D.

    The admissable probability measurement (APM) format was used to score a criterion referenced language arts test administered in an inner city junior high school. Its 30 items covered capitalization, punctuation, parts of speech, and sentence analysis. With APM, students indicate their confidence in their answer choice, and guessing is heavily…

  6. Photometric calibration of the APM Proper Motion Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, D. W.

    1989-05-01

    Deep BVR photometry is presented in the magnitude range B = 11-21, obtained using a CCD camera. These magnitudes are used to calibrate the photographic photometry of the APM Proper Motion Project. Useful color-color relationships are also presented, calculated using the stellar spectra of Gunn and Stryker (1983).

  7. Polarization at TDR probe rods: An issue when collecting waveforms with the TDR100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechtold, M.; Huisman, J. A.; Weihermüller, L.; Vereecken, H.

    2010-05-01

    Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) is commonly used to determine the soil bulk electrical conductivity. To obtain accurate measurements, the three parameters of a series resistor model (probe constant, Kp; cable resistance, RC; and remaining resistance, R0) are typically calibrated using liquids with known electrical conductivity. Several studies have reported discrepancies between calibrated and directly measured parameters of the series resistor model. In this study, we suggest that a technical issue with the TDR100 cable tester contributed to part of these inconsistencies. Our results show that with an increasing level of waveform averaging the reflection coefficient, as well as the calibration parameters Kp, RC, and R0, approached a maximum value. A comparison with independently determined values indicated that a high level of waveform averaging provided the physically most plausible results. Based on our results, we propose to average at least 16 waveforms each consisting of at least 250 points. An oscilloscope-based signal analysis showed that the increase in reflection coefficient with increasing waveform averaging in saline media is related to a capacitance associated with electrode polarization in combination with a change in the pulse period of the pulse train when the TDR100 starts collecting data points. This capacitance resulted in a slow change of the average voltage in the TDR pulse train until a stable average voltage was reached. Higher levels of waveform averaging cancel the impact of the first erroneous voltage measurements out. In practical applications, the errors in the determination of the bulk electrical conductivity can be as high as 5% for the low conductivity range (< 0.1 S m-1) and up to 370% in saline media (~ 1.4 S m-1), when waveform averaging is changed after calibration.

  8. Rodding Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rods can be made of stainless steel or titanium. Regular rods do not expand. They have many ... v regular), the rod materials (stainless steel v titanium) and the age for a first rodding surgery. ...

  9. Ballistic projectile metallurgical issues and fundamentals: Aerosol production in rod penetration erosion and erosion phenomena associated with railgun development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, Brenda I.

    The issue is derived from ballistic erosion as it relates to nanoparticle production and respiration of these particles as a health concern ballistic erosion and ballistic erosion as it relates to railgun performance. A common thread between these two issues is dynamic recrystallization (DRX). DRX has been demonstrated to be the dominant mechanism for solid-state flow associated with ballistic projectile/target penetration and interaction, friction-stir welding phenomena, and other high-strain rate deformation phenomena. Aerosol particulates collected on filters from ballistic penetration and erosion events for W-Ni-Co and W-Ni-Fe kinetic energy rod projectiles penetrating steel target plates were observed to be highly cytotoxic after 48 h exposure to human epithelial A549 lung cells. The aerosol consisted of micron-size Fe particulates and nanoparticulate aggregates consisting of W, Ni or W, Co and some Fe, characterized by SEM and TEM, and using energy-dispersive (X-ray) spectrometry by (EDS) for elemental analysis and mapping. Cytotoxic assays of micron and nano-size, manufactured metal particulates of W, Ni, Fe, and Co demonstrated that only the nanoparticulate elements demonstrated measurable cytotoxicity. Aluminum projectile (or armature) tribomaterial deposition onto copper conducting rails in an experimental solid-armature railgun system was observed, by optical, SEM and TEM. The extreme deformation at the aluminum/copper interface creates a solid-state flow regime by dynamic recrystallization which also leads to the erosion-product deposition. Melting of the low-temperature aluminum deposit also contributes to the rail damage and degradation of electromagnetic behavior. The creation of nano-grains by dynamic recrystallization allows for mixing at the aluminum/copper interface, and there is no evidence for traditional alloying.

  10. APMS 3.0 Flight Analyst Guide: Aviation Performance Measuring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jay, Griff; Prothero, Gary; Romanowski, Timothy; Lynch, Robert; Lawrence, Robert; Rosenthal, Loren

    2004-01-01

    The Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS) is a method-embodied in software-that uses mathematical algorithms and related procedures to analyze digital flight data extracted from aircraft flight data recorders. APMS consists of an integrated set of tools used to perform two primary functions: a) Flight Data Importation b) Flight Data Analysis.

  11. Issues in Three-Dimensional Depletion Analysis of Measured Data Near the End of a Fuel Rod

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, Mark D; Gauld, Ian C; Suyama, Kenya

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of reactor operation result in nonuniform axial-burnup profiles in fuel with any significant burnup. At the beginning of life in a pressurized water reactor (PWR), a near-cosine axial-shaped flux will begin depleting fuel near the axial center of a fuel assembly at a greater rate than at the ends. As the reactor continues to operate, the cosine flux shape will flatten because of the fuel depletion and fission-product buildup that occur near the center. However, because of the high leakage near the end of the fuel assembly, burnup will drop off rapidly near the ends. Partial-length absorbers or nonuniform axial fuel loadings can further complicate the burnup profile. In a boiling water reactor, the same phenomena come into play, but the burnup profile is complicated by the significant variation of axial moderator density and by nonuniform axial loadings of burnable poison rods. Numerous studies of axial burnup effects have been published. However, most analyses performed in estimation of isotopic distributions due to axial burnup have been based on a set of two-dimensional (2-D) calculations performed for burnups that represent the axial burnup distribution in a fuel assembly. In general, this approach works quite well because the in-core axial gradient of the neutron flux is small over most of the length of the fuel rod, and the 2-D approximation is appropriate. Conversely, because the axial gradient becomes significant as one approaches either end of the fuel assembly, the 2-D approximation begins to break down at that point. It has been theorized that axial leakage will lead to a reduced fast flux relative to the thermal flux, softening the spectrum near the ends of the fuel, and that a 2-D approximation is conservative in that it provides more plutonium production. This has not been put the test, however, for two reasons--a lack of good three-dimensional (3-D) analysis methods acceptable for away-from-reactor applications and, more importantly, a

  12. Optimization of ammonia-peroxide water mixture (APM) for high volume manufacturing through surface chemical investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Shariq

    Ammonia-peroxide mixture (APM) is a widely used wet chemical system for particle removal from silicon surfaces. The conventional APM solution in a volume ratio of 1:1:5 (NH4OH:H2O2:H 2O) is employed at elevated temperatures of 70--80 °C. At these temperatures, APM solution etch es silicon at a rate of ˜3 A/min, which is unacceptable for current technology node. Additionally, APM solutions are unstable due to the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide and evaporative loss of ammonium hydroxide resulting in the change in APM solution composition. This has generated interest in the use of dilute APM solutions. However, dilution ratios are chosen without any established fundamental relationship between particle-wafer interactions and APM solutions. Atomic force microscopy has been used to measure interaction forces between H-terminated Si surface and Si tip in APM solutions of different compositions. The approach force curves results show attractive forces in DI-water, NH 4OH:H2O (1:100) and H2O2:H2O (1:100) solutions at separation distances of less than 10 nm for all immersion times (2, 10 and 60 min) investigated. In the case of dilute APM solutions, the forces are purely repulsive within 2 min of immersion time. During retraction, the adhesion force between Si surface and Si tip was in the range of 0.8 nN to 10.0 nN. In dilute APM solutions, no adhesion force is measured between Si surfaces and repulsive forces dominated at all distances. These results show that even in very dilute APM solutions, repulsive forces exist between Si surface and particle re-deposition can be prevented. The stability of APM solutions has been investigated as a function of temperature (24--65 °C), dilution ratio (1:1:5--1:2:100), solution pH (8.0--9.7) and Fe2+ concentration (0--10 ppb) using an optical concentration monitor. The results show that the rate of H2O2 decomposition increased with an increase in temperature, solution pH and Fe2+ concentration. The kinetic analysis showed that

  13. From work plan to rod and beyond: Lessons learned on regulatory issues at the Weldon Spring Site

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonell, M.; Peterson, J.; Uhlmeyer, T.; Ferguson, R.

    1993-11-01

    Compliance with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) is a key element of successful cleanup activities at environmental restoration sites. A number of ARAR issues were raised during the, planning, assessment, and implementation of restoration activities at a US Department of Energy (DOE) mixed waste site in Missouri. Resolutions were developed for issues ranging from storage time requirements to land disposal restrictions. This paper discusses ARAR issues and resolutions.

  14. Network inference from AP-MS data: computational challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Teng, Ben; Zhao, Can; Liu, Xiaoqing; He, Zengyou

    2015-07-01

    Protein-protein interaction is of primary importance to understand protein functions. In recent years, the high-throughput AP-MS experiments have generated a large amount of bait-prey data, posing great challenges on the computational analysis of such data for inferring true interactions and protein complexes. To date, many research efforts have been devoted to developing novel computational methods to analyze these AP-MS data sets. In this article, we review and classify the key computational methods developed for the inference of protein-protein interactions and the detection of protein complexes from the AP-MS experiments. We hope that our review as well as the challenges highlighted in the article will provide valuable insights into driving future research for further advancing the state-of-the-art technologies in computational prediction, characterization and analysis of protein-protein interactions and protein complexes from the AP-MS data. PMID:25378435

  15. Intermittent communications modeling and simulation for autonomous unmanned maritime vehicles using an integrated APM and FSMC framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coker, Ayodeji; Straatemeier, Logan; Rogers, Ted; Valdez, Pierre; Griendling, Kelly; Cooksey, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    In this work a framework is presented for addressing the issue of intermittent communications faced by autonomous unmanned maritime vehicles operating at sea. In particular, this work considers the subject of predictive atmospheric signal transmission over multi-path fading channels in maritime environments. A Finite State Markov Channel is used to represent a Nakagami-m modeled physical fading radio channel. The range of the received signal-to-noise ratio is partitioned into a finite number of intervals which represent application-specific communications states. The Advanced Propagation Model (APM), developed at the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center San Diego, provides a characterization of the transmission channel in terms of evaporation duct induced signal propagation loss. APM uses a hybrid ray-optic and parabolic equations model which allows for the computation of electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation over various sea and/or terrain paths. These models which have been integrated in the proposed framework provide a strategic and mission planning aid for the operation of maritime unmanned vehicles at sea.

  16. The alternate AP-1 adaptor subunit Apm2 interacts with the Mil1 regulatory protein and confers differential cargo sorting

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, Shawn T.; Burston, Helen E.; Bean, Björn D. M.; Raghuram, Nandini; Maldonado-Báez, Lymarie; Davey, Michael; Wendland, Beverly; Conibear, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Heterotetrameric adaptor protein complexes are important mediators of cargo protein sorting in clathrin-coated vesicles. The cell type–specific expression of alternate μ chains creates distinct forms of AP-1 with altered cargo sorting, but how these subunits confer differential function is unclear. Whereas some studies suggest the μ subunits specify localization to different cellular compartments, others find that the two forms of AP-1 are present in the same vesicle but recognize different cargo. Yeast have two forms of AP-1, which differ only in the μ chain. Here we show that the variant μ chain Apm2 confers distinct cargo-sorting functions. Loss of Apm2, but not of Apm1, increases cell surface levels of the v-SNARE Snc1. However, Apm2 is unable to replace Apm1 in sorting Chs3, which requires a dileucine motif recognized by the γ/σ subunits common to both complexes. Apm2 and Apm1 colocalize at Golgi/early endosomes, suggesting that they do not associate with distinct compartments. We identified a novel, conserved regulatory protein that is required for Apm2-dependent sorting events. Mil1 is a predicted lipase that binds Apm2 but not Apm1 and contributes to its membrane recruitment. Interactions with specific regulatory factors may provide a general mechanism to diversify the functional repertoire of clathrin adaptor complexes. PMID:26658609

  17. The APM bright galaxy Surveys: the Equatorial Galaxy Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raychaudhury, S.; Lynden-Bell, D.; Scharf, C.; Hudson, M. J.

    1994-05-01

    The catalogs of bright galaxies (B_J<16.5) compiled from APM scans of UKST IIIa-J Sky Survey plates have now covered most of the southern sky (|b|>20(deg) ). This presentation reviews the current status of these catalogs, and the ongoing scientific research supported by them. In particular, the first results from the catalog of galaxies (B_J<17, D>0(') .5) compiled from the IIIa--J plates of the UKST Equatorial Survey are presented. This covers a part of the sky (-17(deg) < delta < -2(deg) , |b|>20(deg) ) that was not surveyed for the UGC and ESO catalogs, and hence is the first equivalent galaxy catalog in the Equatorial Sky. All galaxy candidates from a preliminary star-galaxy separation exercise were visually inspected, and the identified galaxies were assigned a morphological type. This catalog of over 50,000 galaxies from 200 plates lists accurate positions and shape parameters for all galaxies, together with their diameters and B_J magnitudes, measured by edge-matching and CCD calibration.

  18. The role of the APM centre to support Columbus Precursor Flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rum, Giovanni; Canu, Claudio; Battocchio, Luciano; Cardano, Mario

    1993-03-01

    The APM Centre will be one of the most important European ground facilities for the support of the Columbus Attached Laboratory: it will act as system reference, it will support the on-board operations through the engineering and logistics support functions and it will play a key-role for the payload integration, performing both the payload analytical integration and the final acceptance of the Payload Elements before shipping to the U.S. for the integration on the Logistic Carrier. As the Spacelab mission E-1 is a Columbus Precursor Flight, it will be a unique opportunity to test at least two of the main functions of the APM Centre, namely the payload integration support and the engineering support. This paper describes in detail the above mentioned tasks performed by the APM Centre in the frame of Spacelab mission E-1, making comparison to the corresponding Columbus activities, as applicable.

  19. 77 FR 36485 - Alternative Personnel Management System (APMS) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... System (APMS) published October 21, 1997 (62 FR 54604, 54606), May 6, 2005 (70 FR 23996), July 15, 2008 (73 FR 40500), and July 21, 2009 (74 FR 35841 and 74 FR 35843) to (1) eliminate the required bonus for... published the plan in the Federal Register on October 2, 1987 (52 FR 37082). The published...

  20. 76 FR 78889 - Alternative Personnel Management System (APMS) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... October 2, 1987. 52 FR 37082. The project plan has been modified twice to clarify certain NIST authorities (54 FR 21331 of May 17, 1989, and 55 FR 39220 of Sept. 25, 1990). The project plan and subsequent amendments were consolidated in the final APMS plan, which became permanent on October 21, 1997, 62 FR...

  1. 77 FR 51518 - Alternative Personnel Management System (APMS) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ...This notice announces changes to existing provisions of the National Institute of Standards and Technology's (NIST) Alternative Personnel Management System (APMS). NIST will pilot direct-hire authority for a period of one year from the publication date of this notice, for all positions in the General Engineering, 801 series and General Physical Science, 1301...

  2. The Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS): An Integrated Suite of Tools for Measuring Performance and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving C.; Connor, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This is a report of work in progress. In it, I summarize the status of the research and development of the Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS) for managing, processing, and analyzing digital flight-recorded data, The objectives of the NASA-FAA APMS research project are to establish a sound scientific and technological basis for flight-data analysis, to define an open and flexible architecture for flight-data analysis systems, and to articulate guidelines for a standardized database structure on which to continue to build future flight-data-analysis extensions. APMS offers to the air transport community an open, voluntary standard for flight-data-analysis software; a standard that will help to ensure suitable functionality and data interchangeability among competing software programs. APMS will develop and document the methodologies, algorithms, and procedures for data management and analyses to enable users to easily interpret the implications regarding safety and efficiency of operations. APMS does not entail the implementation of a nationwide flight-data-collection system. It is intended to provide technical tools to ease the large-scale implementation of flight-data analyses at both the air-carrier and the national-airspace levels in support of their Flight Operations and Quality Assurance (FOQA) Programs and Advanced Qualifications Programs (AQP). APMS cannot meet its objectives unless it develops tools that go substantially beyond the capabilities of the current commercially available software and supporting analytic methods that are mainly designed to count special events. These existing capabilities, while of proven value, were created primarily with the needs-of aircrews in mind. APMS tools must serve the needs of the government and air carriers, as well as aircrews, to fully support the FOQA and AQP programs. They must be able to derive knowledge not only through the analysis of single flights (special-event detection), but also through

  3. APMS: An Integrated Suite of Tools for Measuring Performance and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving C.; Lynch, Robert E.; Connors, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    This is a report of work in progress. In it, I summarize the status of the research and development of the Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS) for managing, processing, and analyzing digital flight-recorded data. The objectives of the NASA-FAA APMS research project are to establish a sound scientific and technological basis for flight-data analysis, to define an open and flexible architecture for flight-data-analysis systems, and to articulate guidelines for a standardized database structure on which to continue to build future flight-data-analysis extensions. APMS will offer to the air transport community an open, voluntary standard for flight-data-analysis software, a standard that will help to ensure suitable functionality, and data interchangeability, among competing software programs. APMS will develop and document the methodologies, algorithms, and procedures for data management and analyses to enable users to easily interpret the implications regarding safety and efficiency of operations. APMS does not entail the implementation of a nationwide flight-data-collection system. It is intended to provide technical tools to ease the large-scale implementation of flight-data analyses at both the air-carrier and the national-airspace levels in support of their Flight Operations and Quality Assurance (FOQA) Programs and Advanced Qualifications Programs (AQP). APMS cannot meet its objectives unless it develops tools that go substantially beyond the capabilities of the current commercially available software and supporting analytic methods that are mainly designed to count special events. These existing capabilities, while of proven value, were created primarily with the needs of air crews in mind. APMS tools must serve the needs of the government and air carriers, as well as air crews, to fully support the FOQA and AQP programs. They must be able to derive knowledge not only through the analysis of single flights (special-event detection), but through

  4. CONTROL ROD

    DOEpatents

    Zinn, W.H.; Ross, H.V.

    1958-11-18

    A control rod is described for a nuclear reactor. In certaln reactor designs it becomes desirable to use a control rod having great width but relatively llttle thickness. This patent is addressed to such a need. The neutron absorbing material is inserted in a triangular tube, leaving volds between the circular insert and the corners of the triangular tube. The material is positioned within the tube by the use of dummy spacers to achleve the desired absorption pattern, then the ends of the tubes are sealed with suitable plugs. The tubes may be welded or soldered together to form two flat surfaces of any desired width, and covered with sheetmetal to protect the tubes from damage. This design provides a control member that will not distort under the action of outside forces or be ruptured by gases generated within the jacketed control member.

  5. Interlaboratory reproducibility of large-scale human protein-complex analysis by standardized AP-MS.

    PubMed

    Varjosalo, Markku; Sacco, Roberto; Stukalov, Alexey; van Drogen, Audrey; Planyavsky, Melanie; Hauri, Simon; Aebersold, Ruedi; Bennett, Keiryn L; Colinge, Jacques; Gstaiger, Matthias; Superti-Furga, Giulio

    2013-04-01

    The characterization of all protein complexes of human cells under defined physiological conditions using affinity purification-mass spectrometry (AP-MS) is a highly desirable step in the quest to understand the phenotypic effects of genomic information. However, such a challenging goal has not yet been achieved, as it requires reproducibility of the experimental workflow and high data consistency across different studies and laboratories. We systematically investigated the reproducibility of a standardized AP-MS workflow by performing a rigorous interlaboratory comparative analysis of the interactomes of 32 human kinases. We show that it is possible to achieve high interlaboratory reproducibility of this standardized workflow despite differences in mass spectrometry configurations and subtle sample preparation-related variations and that combination of independent data sets improves the approach sensitivity, resulting in even more-detailed networks. Our analysis demonstrates the feasibility of obtaining a high-quality map of the human protein interactome with a multilaboratory project. PMID:23455922

  6. The role of the APM centre to support Columbus precursor flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rum, Giovanni; Canu, Claudio; Battocchio, Luciano; Cardano, Mario

    1992-07-01

    The responsibilities of the APM Center (APMC), which is the engineering support center for the Columbus Attached Laboratory (APM), in the context of Spacelab mission E1 are described. Comparisons are made with analogous Columbus activities. The APMC will be one of the most important European ground facilities for the support of the Columbus Attached laboratory. The APMC will act as the system reference. Additionally, it will support the onboard operations through the engineering and logistics support functions. Finally. the APMC will play a key role for the payload integration, performing both the payload analytical integration and the final acceptance of the payload elements before shipping to the U.S. for the integration on the Logistic Carrier. As the Spacelab mission E1 is a Columbus precursor flight, it will be a unique opportunity to test at least two of the main functions of the APMC, namely the payload integration support and the engineering support.

  7. Bias and high-order galaxy correlation functions in the APM galaxy survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaztanaga, Enrique; Frieman, Joshua A.

    1994-01-01

    On large scales, the higher order moments of the mass distribution, S(sub J) = bar-zeta(sub J)/bar-zeta(sup J-1)(sub 2), e.g., the skewness S(sub 3) and kurtosis S(sub 4), can be predicted using nonlinear perturbation theory. Comparison of these predictions with moments of the observed galaxy distribution probes the bias between galaxies and mass. Applying this method to models with initially Gaussian fluctuations and power spectra P(k) similar to that of galaxies in the Automatic Plate Measuring (APM) survey, we find that the predicted higher order moments S(sub J)(R) are in good agreement with those directly inferred from the APM survey in the absence of bias. We use this result to place limits on the linear and nonlinear bias parameters. Models in which the extra power observed on large scales (with respect to the standard cold dark matter (CDM) model) is produced by scale-dependent bias match the APM higher order amplitudes only if nonlinear bias (rather than nonlinear gravity) generates the observed higher order moments. When normalized to Cosmic Background Explorer Differential Microwave Radiometer (COBE DMR), these models are siginificantly ruled out by the S(sub 3) observations. The cold plus hot dark matter model normalized to COBE can reproduce the APM higher order correlations if one introduces nonlinear bias terms, while the low-density CDM model with a cosmological constant does not require any bias to fit the large-scale amplitudes.

  8. The use and role of the Ambulatory Phonation Monitor (APM) in voice assessment.

    PubMed

    Nacci, A; Fattori, B; Mancini, V; Panicucci, E; Ursino, F; Cartaino, F M; Berrettini, S

    2013-02-01

    Vocal load plays a significant role in the aetiology of voice disorders and influences the response to treatment. For this reason, many researchers have focused their attention on how a voice is used, especially when vocal load is increased, during working hours for instance. The majority of studies in this regard have been performed by recording vocal parameters for brief periods with the aid of microphones. The first devices produced recorded only a few parameters and for relatively short periods of time, and since microphones were used there was a problem with both privacy and background noise such as the inclusion of voices from nearby people. Recently, microprocessors that can monitor a voice for an entire day have been developed; these use miniaturised accelerometers as vocal sensors. The latest commerciallyavailable version is the Ambulatory Phonation Monitor (APM) (KayPENTAX, Lincoln Park, NJ, USA) which can record several vocal parameters for over 18 hours and supply a series of graphic representations of the variations in these parameters during the recording period. In particular, the APM permits recording vocal load by measuring the cycle dose and distance dose, and evaluates vocal intensity (dB sound pressure level [SPL]), fundamental frequency and total phonation time. This report describes the APM, the use of an accelerometer as a vocal sensor, the importance of its calibration and the parameters it records. In particular, details are given on phonation time, variations in frequency, vocal intensity, phonation density and vocal dose. The role of the APM in voice studies is also described, in addition to its potential clinical applications as demonstrated by the few reports available in the literature. We also discuss our experience with the device in groups of euphonic and dysphonic elementary school teachers. PMID:23620641

  9. Mutation of the Membrane-Associated M1 Protease APM1 Results in Distinct Embryonic and Seedling Developmental Defects in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Peer, Wendy Ann; Hosein, Fazeeda N.; Bandyopadhyay, Anindita; Makam, Srinivas N.; Otegui, Marisa S.; Lee, Gil-Je; Blakeslee, Joshua J.; Cheng, Yan; Titapiwatanakun, Boosaree; Yakubov, Bahktiyor; Bangari, Bharat; Murphy, Angus S.

    2009-01-01

    Aminopeptidase M1 (APM1), a single copy gene in Arabidopsis thaliana, encodes a metallopeptidase originally identified via its affinity for, and hydrolysis of, the auxin transport inhibitor 1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). Mutations in this gene result in haploinsufficiency. Loss-of-function mutants show irregular, uncoordinated cell divisions throughout embryogenesis, affecting the shape and number of cotyledons and the hypophysis, and is seedling lethal at 5 d after germination due to root growth arrest. Quiescent center and cell cycle markers show no signals in apm1-1 knockdown mutants, and the ground tissue specifiers SHORTROOT and SCARECROW are misexpressed or mislocalized. apm1 mutants have multiple, fused cotyledons and hypocotyls with enlarged epidermal cells with cell adhesion defects. apm1 alleles show defects in gravitropism and auxin transport. Gravistimulation decreases APM1 expression in auxin-accumulating root epidermal cells, and auxin treatment increases expression in the stele. On sucrose gradients, APM1 occurs in unique light membrane fractions. APM1 localizes at the margins of Golgi cisternae, plasma membrane, select multivesicular bodies, tonoplast, dense intravacuolar bodies, and maturing metaxylem cells. APM1 associates with brefeldin A–sensitive endomembrane structures and the plasma membrane in cortical and epidermal cells. The auxin-related phenotypes and mislocalization of auxin efflux proteins in apm1 are consistent with biochemical interactions between APM1 and NPA. PMID:19531600

  10. Decreased Expression Of apM1 in Omental and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue of Humans With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Beavers, Lisa S.; Conner, Laura J.; Corominola, Helena; Johnson, Dwayne; Hammond, Craig D.; Rafaeloff-Phail, Ronit; Seng, Thomas; Suter, Todd M.; Sluka, James P.; Ravussin, Eric; Gadski, Robert A.; Caro, Jose F.

    2000-01-01

    We have screened a subtracted cDNA library in order to identify differentially expressed genes in omental adipose tissue of human patients with Type 2 diabetes. One clone (#1738) showed a marked reduction in omental adipose tissue from patients with Type 2 diabetes. Sequencing and BLAST analysis revealed clone #1738 was the adipocyte-specific secreted protein gene apM1 (synonyms ACRP30, AdipoQ, GBP28). Consistent with the murine orthologue, apM1 mRNA was expressed in cultured human adipocytes and not in preadipocytes. Using RT-PCR we confirmed that apM1 mRNA levels were significantly reduced in omental adipose tissue of obese patients with Type 2 diabetes compared with lean and obese normoglycemic subjects. Although less pronounced, apM1 mRNA levels were reduced in subcutaneous adipose tissue of Type 2 diabetic patients. Whereas the biological function of apM1 is presently unknown, the tissue specific expression, structural similarities to TNFα and the dysregulated expression observed in obese Type 2 diabetic patients suggest that this factor may play a role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes. PMID:11469400

  11. Analysis of protein complexes through model-based biclustering of label-free quantitative AP-MS data

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyungwon; Kim, Sinae; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I

    2010-01-01

    Affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry (AP-MS) has become a common approach for identifying protein–protein interactions (PPIs) and complexes. However, data analysis and visualization often rely on generic approaches that do not take advantage of the quantitative nature of AP-MS. We present a novel computational method, nested clustering, for biclustering of label-free quantitative AP-MS data. Our approach forms bait clusters based on the similarity of quantitative interaction profiles and identifies submatrices of prey proteins showing consistent quantitative association within bait clusters. In doing so, nested clustering effectively addresses the problem of overrepresentation of interactions involving baits proteins as compared with proteins only identified as preys. The method does not require specification of the number of bait clusters, which is an advantage against existing model-based clustering methods. We illustrate the performance of the algorithm using two published intermediate scale human PPI data sets, which are representative of the AP-MS data generated from mammalian cells. We also discuss general challenges of analyzing and interpreting clustering results in the context of AP-MS data. PMID:20571534

  12. Analysis of protein complexes through model-based biclustering of label-free quantitative AP-MS data.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyungwon; Kim, Sinae; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I

    2010-06-22

    Affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry (AP-MS) has become a common approach for identifying protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and complexes. However, data analysis and visualization often rely on generic approaches that do not take advantage of the quantitative nature of AP-MS. We present a novel computational method, nested clustering, for biclustering of label-free quantitative AP-MS data. Our approach forms bait clusters based on the similarity of quantitative interaction profiles and identifies submatrices of prey proteins showing consistent quantitative association within bait clusters. In doing so, nested clustering effectively addresses the problem of overrepresentation of interactions involving baits proteins as compared with proteins only identified as preys. The method does not require specification of the number of bait clusters, which is an advantage against existing model-based clustering methods. We illustrate the performance of the algorithm using two published intermediate scale human PPI data sets, which are representative of the AP-MS data generated from mammalian cells. We also discuss general challenges of analyzing and interpreting clustering results in the context of AP-MS data. PMID:20571534

  13. APM for a Constellation Intersatellite Link - EM Qualification and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartel, Frank; Kozilek, Horst

    2016-01-01

    For an Intersatellite Link (ISL) of a future constellation program, a study phase was initiated by ESA to design a mechanism for Radio Frequency communication. Airbus DS Friedrichshafen (ADSF) proposed a design based on the Antenna Pointing Mechanism (APM) family with modifications that met the stated needs of the constellation. A qualification program was started beginning in September 2015 to verify the launch and thermal loads and the equipment performance (Radio Frequency, Pointing, Microvibration and Magnetic Moment). Technical challenges identified with the Engineering Model will be discussed within this paper.

  14. Rod examination gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Bacvinskas, W.S.; Bayer, J.E.; Davis, W.W.; Fodor, G.; Kikta, T.J.; Matchett, R.L.; Nilsen, R.J.; Wilczynski, R.

    1991-12-31

    The present invention is directed to a semi-automatic rod examination gauge for performing a large number of exacting measurements on radioactive fuel rods. The rod examination gauge performs various measurements underwater with remote controlled machinery of high reliability. The rod examination gauge includes instruments and a closed circuit television camera for measuring fuel rod length, free hanging bow measurement, diameter measurement, oxide thickness measurement, cladding defect examination, rod ovality measurement, wear mark depth and volume measurement, as well as visual examination. A control system is provided including a programmable logic controller and a computer for providing a programmed sequence of operations for the rod examination and collection of data.

  15. FUEL ROD ASSEMBLY

    DOEpatents

    Hutter, E.

    1959-09-01

    A cluster of nuclear fuel rods aod a tubular casing through which a coolant flows in heat-change contact with the ruel rods are described. The casting is of trefoil section and carries the fuel rods, each of which has two fin engaging the serrated fins of the other two fuel rods, whereby the fuel rods are held in the casing and are interlocked against relative longitudinal movement.

  16. Highly-excited CO emission in APM 08279+5255 at z = 3.9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiß, A.; Downes, D.; Neri, R.; Walter, F.; Henkel, C.; Wilner, D. J.; Wagg, J.; Wiklind, T.

    2007-06-01

    We report the detection of the CO 4-3, 6-5, 9-8, 10-9, and 11-10 lines in the Broad Absorption Line quasar APM 08279+5255 at z=3.9 using the IRAM 30 m telescope. We also present IRAM PdBI high spatial resolution observations of the CO 4-3 and 9-8 lines, and of the 1.4 mm dust radiation as well as an improved spectrum of the HCN(5-4) line. Unlike CO in other QSO host galaxies, the CO line SED of APM 08279+5255 rises up to the CO(10-9) transition. The line fluxes in the CO ladder and the dust continuum fluxes are best fit by a two component model, a “cold” component at ~ 65 K with a high density of n(H2) = 1×105 cm-3, and a “warm”, ~ 220 K component with a density of 1×104 cm-3. We show that IR pumping via the 14 μm bending mode of HCN is the most likely channel for the HCN excitation. From our models we find, that the CO(1-0) emission is dominated by the dense gas component which implies that the CO conversion factor is higher than usually assumed for high-z galaxies with α ≈ 5 M⊙ (K km s-1 pc^2)-1. Using brightness temperature arguments, the results from our high-resolution mapping, and lens models from the literature, we argue that the molecular lines and the dust continuum emission arise from a very compact (r ≈ 100-300 pc), highly gravitationally magnified ( m = 60-110) region surrounding the central AGN. Part of the difference relative to other high-z QSOs may therefore be due to the configuration of the gravitational lens, which gives us a high-magnification zoom right into the central 200-pc radius of APM 08279+5255 where IR pumping plays a significant role for the excitation of the molecular lines.

  17. How Does Attention Relate to the Ability-Specific and Position-Specific Components of Reasoning Measured by APM?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Xuezhu; Goldhammer, Frank; Moosbrugger, Helfried; Schweizer, Karl

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the nature of the ability-specific and position-specific components of Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) by relating them to a number of types of attention. The ability-specific component represents the constant part of cognitive performance whereas the position-specific component reflects the…

  18. Using ProHits to store, annotate and analyze affinity purification - mass spectrometry (AP-MS) data

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guomin; Zhang, Jianping; Choi, Hyungwon; Lambert, Jean-Philippe; Srikumar, Tharan; Larsen, Brett; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I.; Raught, Brian; Tyers, Mike; Gingras, Anne-Claude

    2012-01-01

    Affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry (AP-MS) is a robust technique used to identify protein-protein interactions. With recent improvements in sample preparation, and dramatic advances in MS instrumentation speed and sensitivity, this technique is becoming more widely used throughout the scientific community. To meet the needs of research groups both large and small, we have developed software solutions for tracking, scoring and analyzing AP-MS data. Here, we provide details for the installation and utilization of ProHits, a Laboratory Information Management System designed specifically for AP-MS interaction proteomics. This protocol explains: (i) how to install the complete ProHits system, including modules for the management of mass spectrometry files and the analysis of interaction data, and (ii) alternative options for the use of pre-existing search results in simpler versions of ProHits, including a virtual machine implementation of our ProHits Lite software. We also describe how to use the main features of the software to analyze AP-MS data. PMID:22948730

  19. Control rod drive

    SciTech Connect

    Hawke, Basil C.

    1986-01-01

    A control rod drive uses gravitational forces to insert one or more control rods upwardly into a reactor core from beneath the reactor core under emergency conditions. The preferred control rod drive includes a vertically movable weight and a mechanism operatively associating the weight with the control rod so that downward movement of the weight is translated into upward movement of the control rod. The preferred control rod drive further includes an electric motor for driving the control rods under normal conditions, an electrically actuated clutch which automatically disengages the motor during a power failure and a decelerator for bringing the control rod to a controlled stop when it is inserted under emergency conditions into a reactor core.

  20. The Richness Dependence of Galaxy Cluster Correlations: Results From A Redshift Survey Of Rich APM Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croft, R. A. C.; Dalton, G. B.; Efstathiou, G.; Sutherland, W. J.; Maddox, S. J.

    1997-01-01

    We analyze the spatial clustering properties of a new catalog of very rich galaxy clusters selected from the APM Galaxy Survey. These clusters are of comparable richness and space density to Abell Richness Class greater than or equal to 1 clusters, but selected using an objective algorithm from a catalog demonstrably free of artificial inhomogeneities. Evaluation of the two-point correlation function xi(sub cc)(r) for the full sample and for richer subsamples reveals that the correlation amplitude is consistent with that measured for lower richness APM clusters and X-ray selected clusters. We apply a maximum likelihood estimator to find the best fitting slope and amplitude of a power law fit to x(sub cc)(r), and to estimate the correlation length r(sub 0) (the value of r at which xi(sub cc)(r) is equal to unity). For clusters with a mean space density of 1.6 x 10(exp -6) h(exp 3) MpC(exp -3) (equivalent to the space density of Abell Richness greater than or equal to 2 clusters), we find r(sub 0) = 21.3(+11.1/-9.3) h(exp -1) Mpc (95% confidence limits). This is consistent with the weak richness dependence of xi(sub cc)(r) expected in Gaussian models of structure formation. In particular, the amplitude of xi(sub cc)(r) at all richnesses matches that of xi(sub cc)(r) for clusters selected in N-Body simulations of a low density Cold Dark Matter model.

  1. Piston rod seal

    DOEpatents

    Lindskoug, Stefan

    1984-01-01

    In a piston rod seal of the type comprising a gland through which the piston rod is passed the piston is provided with a sleeve surrounding the piston rod and extending axially so as to axially partly overlap the gland when the piston is in its bottom dead center position.

  2. CONTROL ROD DRIVE

    DOEpatents

    Chapellier, R.A.; Rogers, I.

    1961-06-27

    Accurate and controlled drive for the control rod is from an electric motor. A hydraulic arrangement is provided to balance a piston against which a control rod is urged by the application of fluid pressure. The electric motor drive of the control rod for normal operation is made through the aforementioned piston. In the event scramming is required, the fluid pressure urging the control rod against the piston is relieved and an opposite fluid pressure is applied. The lack of mechanical connection between the electric motor and control rod facilitates the scramming operation.

  3. CRUCIFORM CONTROL ROD JOINT

    DOEpatents

    Thorp, A.G. II

    1962-08-01

    An invention is described which relates to nuclear reactor control rod components and more particularly to a joint between cruciform control rod members and cruciform control rod follower members. In one embodiment this invention provides interfitting crossed arms at adjacent ends of a control rod and its follower in abutting relation. This holds the members against relative opposite longitudinal movement while a compression member keys the arms against relative opposite rotation around a common axis. Means are also provided for centering the control rod and its follower on a common axis and for selectively releasing the control rod from its follower for the insertion of a replacement of the control rod and reuse of the follower. (AEC)

  4. CONTROL ROD DRIVE

    DOEpatents

    Chapellier, R.A.

    1960-05-24

    BS>A drive mechanism was invented for the control rod of a nuclear reactor. Power is provided by an electric motor and an outside source of fluid pressure is utilized in conjunction with the fluid pressure within the reactor to balance the loadings on the motor. The force exerted on the drive mechanism in the direction of scramming the rod is derived from the reactor fluid pressure so that failure of the outside pressure source will cause prompt scramming of the rod.

  5. Pull rod assembly

    DOEpatents

    Cioletti, O.C.

    1988-04-21

    A pull rod assembly comprising a pull rod having three peripheral grooves, a piston device including an adaptor ring and a seal ring, said piston device being mounted on the pull rod by a split ring retainer situated in one groove and extending into an interior groove in the adaptor and a resilient split ring retained in another groove and positioned to engage the piston device and to retain the seal on its adaptor.

  6. Loss of Apm1, the μ1 Subunit of the Clathrin-Associated Adaptor-Protein-1 Complex, Causes Distinct Phenotypes and Synthetic Lethality with Calcineurin Deletion in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Kita, Ayako; Sugiura, Reiko; Shoji, Hiromi; He, Yi; Deng, Lu; Lu, Yabin; Sio, Susie O.; Takegawa, Kaoru; Sakaue, Motoyoshi; Shuntoh, Hisato; Kuno, Takayoshi

    2004-01-01

    Calcineurin is a highly conserved regulator of Ca2+ signaling in eukaryotes. In fission yeast, calcineurin is not essential for viability but is required for cytokinesis and Cl- homeostasis. In a genetic screen for mutations that are synthetically lethal with calcineurin deletion, we isolated a mutant, cis1-1/apm1-1, an allele of the apm1+ gene that encodes a homolog of the mammalian μ1A subunit of the clathrin-associated adaptor protein-1 (AP-1) complex. The cis1-1/apm1-1 mutant as well as the apm1-deleted (Δapm1) cells showed distinct phenotypes: temperature sensitivity; tacrolimus (FK506) sensitivity; and pleiotropic defects in cytokinesis, cell integrity, and vacuole fusion. Electron micrographs revealed that Δapm1 cells showed large vesicular structures associated with Golgi stacks and accumulated post-Golgi secretory vesicles. Δapm1 cells also showed the massive accumulation of the exocytic v-SNARE Syb1 in the Golgi/endosomes and a reduced secretion of acid phosphatase. These phenotypes observed in apm1 mutations were accentuated upon temperature up-shift and FK506 treatment. Notably, Apm1-GFP localized to the Golgi/endosomes, the spindle pole bodies, and the medial region. These findings suggest a role for Apm1 associated with the Golgi/endosome function, thereby affecting various cellular processes, including secretion, cytokinesis, vacuole fusion, and cell integrity and also suggest that calcineurin is involved in these events. PMID:15047861

  7. Exploiting rod technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1990-06-01

    ROD development was proceeding apace until recent budgetary decisions caused funding support for ROD development to be drastically reduced. The funding which was originally provided by DARPA and the Balanced Technology Initiative (BTI) Office has been cut back to zero from $800K. To determine the aeroballistic coefficients of a candidate dart, ARDEC is currently supporting development out of its own 6.2 funds at about $100K. ARDEC has made slow progress toward achieving this end because of failures in the original dart during testing. It appears that the next dart design to be tested will diverge from the original concept visualized by DARPA and Science and Technology Associates (STA). STA, the design engineer, takes exception to these changes on the basis of inappropriate test conditions and insufficient testing. At this time, the full resolution of this issue will be difficult because of the current management structure, which separates the developer (ARDEC) from the designer (STA).

  8. Control Rod Malfunction at the NRAD Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas L. Maddock

    2010-05-01

    The neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD) is a training, research, and isotope (TRIGA) reactor located at the INL. The reactor is normally shut down by the insertion of three control rods that drop into the core when power is removed from electromagnets. During a routine shutdown, indicator lights on the console showed that one of the control rods was not inserted. It was initially thought that the indicator lights were in error because of a limit switch that was out of adjustment. Through further testing, it was determined that the control rod did not drop when the scram switch was initially pressed. The control rod anomaly led to a six month shutdown of the reactor and an in depth investigation of the reactor protective system. The investigation looked into: scram switch operation, console modifications, and control rod drive mechanisms. A number of latent issues were discovered and corrected during the investigation. The cause of the control rod malfunction was found to be a buildup of corrosion in the control rod drive mechanism. The investigation resulted in modifications to equipment, changes to both operation and maintenance procedures, and additional training. No reoccurrences of the problem have been observed since corrective actions were implemented.

  9. More on the penetration of yawed rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Z.; Dekel, E.; Ashuach, Y.

    2006-08-01

    One of the most complex processes, in the field of terminal ballistics, is that of yawed impact of long rods. In spite of many experimental observations, and some analytical modeling, a clear picture of this issue is still lacking. In order to gain some insight into the operating mechanisms, we developed a simple engineering model which considers the yawed rod as a series of small disks. We then define the effective length and diameter of the rod by considering those disks which are going to hit the initial crater which is opened by the impact. We also performed a series of 3D numerical simulations with various L/D tungsten alloy rods impacting a steel target, at yaws in the full range of 0-90^circ. We analyzed the results of these simulations in terms of the normalized penetration (P/D), where D is the rod diameter, and looked for systematic trends in the results for the various rods. The agreement between our model predictions and both experimental data and simulation results is quite good. Based on this agreement we can highlight some new features of the penetration process of yawed rods.

  10. FUEL ROD CLUSTERS

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, A.B.

    1959-08-01

    A cluster of nuclear fuel rods and a tubular casing therefor through which a coolant flows in heat-exchange contact with the fuel rods is described. The fuel rcds are held in the casing by virtue of the compressive force exerted between longitudinal ribs of the fuel rcds and internal ribs of the casing or the internal surfaces thereof.

  11. Rod Photoreceptors Detect Rapid Flicker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, J. D.; MacLeod, Donald I. A.

    1977-01-01

    Rod-isolation techniques show that light-adapted human rods detect flicker frequencies as high as 28 hertz, and that the function relating rod critical flicker frequency to stimulus intensity contains two distinct branches. (MLH)

  12. On the deuterium abundance at z_a = 3.514 towards APM 08279+5255

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levshakov, S. A.; Agafonova, I. I.; Kegel, W. H.

    2000-03-01

    A very low primordial deuterium abundance of D/H =~ 1.5*E-5 has recently been proposed by Molaro et al. in the Lyman limit system with log N_{H i} =~ 18.1 cm-2 at z_a = 3.514 towards the quasar APM 08279+5255. The D/H value was estimated through the standard Voigt fitting procedure utilizing a simple one-component model of the absorbing region. We have investigated this system using our new Monte Carlo inversion procedure which allows us to recover self-consistently both the physical parameters of the gas cloud and the projected velocity and density distributions along the line of sight. The absorption lines of H i, C ii, C iv, Si iii, and Si iv were analyzed simultaneously. The result obtained shows a considerably lower neutral hydrogen column density log N_{H i} =~ 15.7 cm-2. Hence, the measurement of the deuterium abundance in this system is rather uncertain. We find that the asymmetric blue wing of the hydrogen Lyalpha absorption is readily explained by H i alone. Thus, up to now, deuterium was detected in only four QSO spectra (Q 1937-1009, Q 1009+2956, Q 0130-4021, and Q 1718+4807) and all of them are in concordance with D/H =~ 4*E-5. Based on data obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is jointly operated by the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  13. Control rod driveline and grapple

    DOEpatents

    Germer, John H.

    1987-01-01

    A control rod driveline and grapple is disclosed for placement between a control rod drive and a nuclear reactor control rod containing poison for parasitic neutron absorption required for reactor shutdown. The control rod is provided with an enlarged cylindrical handle which terminates in an upwardly extending rod to provide a grapple point for the driveline. The grapple mechanism includes a tension rod which receives the upwardly extending handle and is provided with a lower annular flange. A plurality of preferably six grapple segments surround and grip the control rod handle. Each grapple rod segment grips the flange on the tension rod at an interior upper annular indentation, bears against the enlarged cylindrical handle at an intermediate annulus and captures the upwardly flaring frustum shaped handle at a lower and complementary female segment. The tension rods and grapple segments are surrounded by and encased within a cylinder. The cylinder terminates immediately and outward extending annulus at the lower portion of the grapple segments. Excursion of the tension rod relative to the encasing cylinder causes rod release at the handle by permitting the grapple segments to pivot outwardly and about the annulus on the tension rod so as to open the lower defined frustum shaped annulus and drop the rod. Relative movement between the tension rod and cylinder can occur either due to electromagnetic release of the tension rod within defined limits of travel or differential thermal expansion as between the tension rod and cylinder as where the reactor exceeds design thermal limits.

  14. Anthropogenic contribution to cloud condensation nuclei and the first aerosol indirect climate effect modelled by GEOS-Chem/APM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, F.

    2013-05-01

    Atmospheric particles influence climate indirectly by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) that affect cloud properties (albedo, lifetime, etc.) and precipitation. The first aerosol indirect radiative forcing (FAIRF) (i.e., cloud albedo effect) constitutes the largest uncertainty among the various radiative forcings quantified by the latest IPCC assessment report (IPCC2007). In order to confidently interpret climate change over the past century and project future change, it is essential to reduce the FAIRF uncertainty. One of the large sources of the uncertainty is the poor knowledge of the number concentrations and spatial distributions of pre-industrial and present-day aerosols. All previous and recent FAIRF studies are based on global models with simplified chemistry and aerosol microphysics, which may lead to large uncertainties in predicted aerosol properties and FAIRF values. Here, we investigate the anthropogenic contribution to CCN and associated FAIRF using a state-of-the-art global chemical transport and aerosol model (GEOS-Chem/APM) that contains a number of advanced features (including size-resolved sectional particle microphysics, online comprehensive SOx-NOx-Ox-VOCs chemistry, consideration of nitrate and secondary organic aerosols, online aerosol-cloud-radiation calculation, usage of more accurate assimilated meteorology, etc.). As far as we know, this is the first time that a global model with full chemistry and size-resolved (sectional) particle microphysics is employed to study FAIRF. Key aerosol properties predicted by GEOS-Chem/APM for the present-day case have been evaluated against a large set of land-, ship-, aircraft-, and satellite- based aerosol measurements including total particle number concentrations, CCN concentrations, AODs, and vertical profiles of extinction coefficients. The GEOS-Chem/APM model, with its advanced features and ability to reproduce observed aerosol properties (including CCN) around the globe, is expected to

  15. DISCOVERY OF WATER VAPOR IN THE HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASAR APM 08279+5255 AT z = 3.91

    SciTech Connect

    Lis, D. C.; Phillips, T. G.; Neufeld, D. A.; Gerin, M.; Neri, R. E-mail: tgp@submm.caltech.edu E-mail: maryvonne.gerin@lra.ens.fr E-mail: cox@iram.fr

    2011-09-01

    We report a detection of the excited 2{sub 20}-2{sub 11} rotational transition of para-H{sub 2}O in APM 08279+5255 using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. At z = 3.91, this is the highest-redshift detection of interstellar water to date. From large velocity gradient modeling, we conclude that this transition is predominantly radiatively pumped and on its own does not provide a good estimate of the water abundance. However, additional water transitions are predicted to be detectable in this source, which would lead to an improved excitation model. We also present a sensitive upper limit for the hydrogen fluoride (HF) J = 1-0 absorption toward APM 08279+5255. While the face-on geometry of this source is not favorable for absorption studies, the lack of HF absorption is still puzzling and may be indicative of a lower fluorine abundance at z = 3.91 compared with the Galactic interstellar medium.

  16. Understanding flame rods

    SciTech Connect

    McAuley, J.A. Jr.

    1995-11-01

    The flame rod is probably the least understood method of flame detection. Although it is not recommended for oilfired equipment, it is very common on atmospheric, or {open_quotes}in-shot,{close_quotes} gas burners. It is also possible, although not common, to have an application with a constant gas pilot, monitored by a flame rod, and maintaining an oil main flame. Regardless of the application, chances are that flame rods will be encountered during the course of servicing. The technician today must be versatile and able to work on many different types of equipment. One must understand the basic principles of flame rods, and how to correct potential problems. The purpose of a flame detection system is two-fold: (1) to prove there is no flame when there shouldn`t be one, and (2) to prove there is a flame when there should be one. Flame failure response time is very important. This is the amount of time it takes to realize there is a loss of flame, two to four seconds is typical today. Prior to flame rods, either bi-metal or thermocouple type flame detectors were common. The response time for these detectors was up to three minutes, seldom less than one minute.

  17. Intramedullary rodding in osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Mulpuri, K; Joseph, B

    2000-01-01

    The results of intramedullary rodding of long bones of 16 children with osteogenesis imperfecta, over a 10-year period, were analyzed. Sheffield elongating rods or non-elongating rods were used. The frequency of fractures was dramatically reduced after implantation of either type of rod, and the ambulatory status improved in all instances. The results were significantly better after Sheffield rodding with regard to the frequency of complications requiring reoperations and the longevity of the rods. Migration of the rods, encountered frequently, appears to be related to improper placement of the rods in the bone. It seems likely that if care is taken to ensure precise placement of a rod of appropriate size, several of these complications may be avoided. PMID:10739296

  18. COMPOSITE CONTROL ROD

    DOEpatents

    Rock, H.R.

    1963-12-24

    A composite control rod for use in controlling a nuclear reactor is described. The control rod is of sandwich construction in which finned dowel pins are utilized to hold together sheets of the neutron absorbing material and nonabsorbing structural material thereby eliminating the need for being dependent on the absorbing material for structural support. The dowel pins perform the function of absorbing the forces due to differential thermal expansion, seating further with the fins into the sheets of material and crushing before damage is done either to the absorbing or non-absorbing material. (AEC)

  19. Anchor for Fiberglas Guy Rod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, A. H.

    1982-01-01

    Solution to problem of anchoring fiberglas guy rods to install nut with threads on outer circumference, followed by aluminum sleeve. Sleeve has opening oval at upper and round at bottom end. End of rod is split so fiberglas wedge can be inserted to form V-shaped end. Spread end of rod fits into tapered hole in sleeve and threaded aluminum coupling is put over rod and sleeve.

  20. REACTOR CONTROL ROD OPERATING SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Miller, G.

    1961-12-12

    A nuclear reactor control rod mechanism is designed which mechanically moves the control rods into and out of the core under normal conditions but rapidly forces the control rods into the core by catapultic action in the event of an emergency. (AEC)

  1. THE WATER VAPOR SPECTRUM OF APM 08279+5255: X-RAY HEATING AND INFRARED PUMPING OVER HUNDREDS OF PARSECS

    SciTech Connect

    Bradford, C. M.; Bock, J. J.; Naylor, B. J.; Nguyen, H. T.; Zmuidzinas, J.; Bolatto, A. D.; Maloney, P. R.; Aguirre, J. E.; Glenn, J.; Kamenetzky, J.; Lupu, R.; Scott, K.; Matsuhara, H.; Murphy, E. J.

    2011-11-10

    We present the rest-frame 200-320 {mu}m spectrum of the z = 3.91 quasar APM 08279+5255, obtained with Z-Spec at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. In addition to the J = 8 {yields} 7 to J = 13 {yields} 12 CO rotational transitions which dominate the CO cooling, we find six transitions of water originating at energy levels ranging up to 643 K. Most are first detections at high redshift, and we have confirmed one transition with CARMA. The CO cooling is well described by our X-ray dominated region (XDR) model, assuming L{sub 1-100keV} {approx} 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 46} erg s{sup -1}, and that the gas is distributed over a 550-pc size scale, as per the now-favored {mu} = 4 lensing model. The total observed cooling in water corresponds to 6.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} L{sub Sun }, comparable to that of CO. We compare the water spectrum with that of Mrk 231, finding that the intensity ratios among the high-lying lines are similar, but with a total luminosity scaled up by a factor of {approx}50. Using this scaling, we estimate an average water abundance relative to H{sub 2} of 1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7}, a good match to the prediction of the chemical network in the XDR model. As with Mrk 231, the high-lying water transitions are excited radiatively via absorption in the rest-frame far-infrared, and we show that the powerful dust continuum in APM 08279+5255 is more than sufficient to pump this massive reservoir of warm water vapor.

  2. Hafnium stainless steel absorber rod for control rod

    SciTech Connect

    Charnley, J.E.; Cearley, J.E.; Dixon, R.C.; Izzo, K.R.; Aiello, L.L.

    1989-08-01

    This patent describes an improvement in a control rod having a stainless steel body for enclosing a neutron absorbing poison, the control rod having movement along an axial direction for insertion into and out of a nuclear reactor for controlling a nuclear reaction. The improvement comprising: a piece of hafnium; a piece of stainless steel joined to the hafnium by a thin diffusion interface created by friction welding. The hafnium and the stainless steel oriented serially in the axial direction with the thin diffusion interface disposed normal to the axial direction of the control rod movement; means for confining the hafnium to movement along the axial direction with the control rod; and means for attaching the piece of stainless steel to the remaining portion of the control rod to load the weld therebetween under compression or tension during the control rod movement. Whereby the thin diffusion interface is loaded in tension or compression only upon dynamic movement of the control rod.

  3. Fluid Dynamics in Sucker Rod Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, R.P.; Mansure, A.J.

    1999-01-14

    Sucker rod pumps are installed in approximately 90% of all oil wells in the U.S. Although they have been widely used for decades, there are many issues regarding the fluid dynamics of the pump that have not been fully investigated. A project was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories to develop unimproved understanding of the fluid dynamics inside a sucker rod pump. A mathematical flow model was developed to predict pressures in any pump component or an entire pump under single-phase fluid and pumping conditions. Laboratory flow tests were conducted on instrumented individual pump components and on a complete pump to verify and refine the model. The mathematical model was then converted to a Visual Basic program to allow easy input of fluid, geometry and pump parameters and to generate output plots. Examples of issues affecting pump performance investigated with the model include the effects of viscosity, surface roughness, valve design details, plunger and valve pressure differentials, and pumping rate.

  4. Locked-wrap fuel rod

    DOEpatents

    Kaplan, Samuel; Chertock, Alan J.; Punches, James R.

    1977-01-01

    A method for spacing fast reactor fuel rods using a wire wrapper improved by orienting the wire-wrapped fuel rods in a unique manner which introduces desirable performance characteristics not attainable by previous wire-wrapped designs. Use of this method in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor results in: (a) improved mechanical performance, (b) improved rod-to-rod contact, (c) reduced steel volume, and (d) improved thermal-hydraulic performance. The method produces a "locked wrap" design which tends to lock the rods together at each of the wire cluster locations.

  5. SAFETY SYSTEM FOR CONTROL ROD

    DOEpatents

    Paget, J.A.

    1963-05-14

    A structure for monitoring the structural continuity of a control rod foi a neutron reactor is presented. A electric conductor readily breakable under mechanical stress is fastened along the length of the control rod at a plurality of positions and forms a closed circuit with remote electrical components responsive to an open circuit. A portion of the conductor between the control rod and said components is helically wound to allow free and normally unrestricted movement of the segment of conductor secured to the control rod relative to the remote components. Any break in the circuit is indicative of control rod breakage. (AEC)

  6. APPARATUS FOR SHEATHING RODS

    DOEpatents

    Ford, W.K.; Wyatt, M.; Plail, S.

    1961-08-01

    An arrangement is described for sealing a solid body of nuclear fuel, such as a uranium metal rod, into a closelyfitting thin metallic sheath with an internal atmosphere of inert gas. The sheathing process consists of subjecting the sheath, loaded with the nuclear fuel body, to the sequential operations of evacuation, gas-filling, drawing (to entrap inert gas and secure close contact between sheath and body), and sealing. (AEC)

  7. Vortices in vibrated granular rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neicu, Toni; Kudrolli, Arshad

    2002-03-01

    We report the first experimental observation of vortex patterns in granular rods inside a container that is vibrated vertically . The experiments were carried out with an anodized aluminum circular container which is rigidly attached to an electromagnetic shaker and the patterns are imaged using a high-frame rate digital camera. At low rod numbers and driving amplitudes, the rods are observed to lie horizontally. Above a critical number or packing fraction of rods, moving domains of vertical rods are spontaneously observed to form which coexist with horizontal rods. These small domains of vertical rods coarsen over time to form a few large vortices. The size of the vortices increases with the number of rods. We are able to track the ends of the vertical rods and obtain the velocity fields of the vortices. The mean azimuthal velocity as a function of distance from the center of the vortex is obtained as a function of the packing fraction. We will report the phase diagram of the various patterns observed as function of number of rods and driving amplitude. The mechanism for the formation and motion of the domains of vertical rods will be also discussed.

  8. Safety rod latch inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Leader, D.R.

    1992-02-01

    During an attempt to raise control rods from the 100 K reactor in December, one rod could not be withdrawn. Subsequent investigation revealed that a small button'' in the latch mechanism had broken off of the lock plunger'' and was wedged in a position that prevented rod withdrawal. Concern that this failure may have resulted from corrosion or some other metallurgical problem resulted in a request that SRL examine six typical latch mechanisms from the 100 L reactor by use of radiography and metallography. During the examination of the L-Area latches, a failed latch mechanism from the 100 K reactor was added to the investigation. Fourteen latches that had a history of problems were removed from K-Area and sent to SRL for inclusion in this study the week after the original seven assemblies were examined, bringing the total of latch assemblies discussed in this report to twenty one. Results of the examination of the K-Area latch that initiated this study is not included in this report.

  9. Safety rod latch inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Leader, D.R.

    1992-02-01

    During an attempt to raise control rods from the 100 K reactor in December, one rod could not be withdrawn. Subsequent investigation revealed that a small ``button`` in the latch mechanism had broken off of the ``lock plunger`` and was wedged in a position that prevented rod withdrawal. Concern that this failure may have resulted from corrosion or some other metallurgical problem resulted in a request that SRL examine six typical latch mechanisms from the 100 L reactor by use of radiography and metallography. During the examination of the L-Area latches, a failed latch mechanism from the 100 K reactor was added to the investigation. Fourteen latches that had a history of problems were removed from K-Area and sent to SRL for inclusion in this study the week after the original seven assemblies were examined, bringing the total of latch assemblies discussed in this report to twenty one. Results of the examination of the K-Area latch that initiated this study is not included in this report.

  10. Fiber optic laser rod

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, G.F.

    1988-04-13

    A laser rod is formed from a plurality of optical fibers, each forming an individual laser. Synchronization of the individual fiber lasers is obtained by evanescent wave coupling between adjacent optical fiber cores. The fiber cores are dye-doped and spaced at a distance appropriate for evanescent wave coupling at the wavelength of the selected dye. An interstitial material having an index of refraction lower than that of the fiber core provides the optical isolation for effective lasing action while maintaining the cores at the appropriate coupling distance. 2 figs.

  11. Reactor control rod timing system

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Peter T. K.

    1982-01-01

    A fluid driven jet-edge whistle timing system for control rods of a nuclear reactor for producing real-time detection of the timing of each control rod in its scram operation. An important parameter in reactor safety, particularly for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR), is the time deviation between the time the control rod is released and the time the rod actually reaches the down position. The whistle has a nearly pure tone signal with center frequency (above 100 kHz) far above the frequency band in which the energy of the background noise is concentrated. Each control rod can be fitted with a whistle with a different frequency so that there is no ambiguity in differentiating the signal from each control rod.

  12. Making Highly Pure Glass Rods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Proposed quasi-containerless method for making glass rods or fibers minimizes contact between processing equipment and product. Method allows greater range of product sizes and shapes than achieved in experiments on containerless processing. Molten zone established in polycrystalline rod. Furnace sections separated, and glass rod solidifies between them. Clamp supports solid glass as it grows in length. Pulling clamp rapidly away from melt draws glass fiber. Fiber diameter controlled by adjustment of pulling rate.

  13. Automatic safety rod for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Germer, John H.

    1988-01-01

    An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-core flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

  14. Piston and connecting rod assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brogdon, James William (Inventor); Gill, David Keith (Inventor); Chatten, John K. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A piston and connecting rod assembly includes a piston crown, a piston skirt, a connecting rod, and a bearing insert. The piston skirt is a component separate from the piston crown and is connected to the piston crown to provide a piston body. The bearing insert is a component separate from the piston crown and the piston skirt and is fixedly disposed within the piston body. A bearing surface of a connecting rod contacts the bearing insert to thereby movably associate the connecting rod and the piston body.

  15. Automatic state partitioning for multibody systems (APM): an efficient algorithm for constructing Markov state models to elucidate conformational dynamics of multibody systems.

    PubMed

    Sheong, Fu Kit; Silva, Daniel-Adriano; Meng, Luming; Zhao, Yutong; Huang, Xuhui

    2015-01-13

    The conformational dynamics of multibody systems plays crucial roles in many important problems. Markov state models (MSMs) are powerful kinetic network models that can predict long-time-scale dynamics using many short molecular dynamics simulations. Although MSMs have been successfully applied to conformational changes of individual proteins, the analysis of multibody systems is still a challenge because of the complexity of the dynamics that occur on a mixture of drastically different time scales. In this work, we have developed a new algorithm, automatic state partitioning for multibody systems (APM), for constructing MSMs to elucidate the conformational dynamics of multibody systems. The APM algorithm effectively addresses different time scales in the multibody systems by directly incorporating dynamics into geometric clustering when identifying the metastable conformational states. We have applied the APM algorithm to a 2D potential that can mimic a protein-ligand binding system and the aggregation of two hydrophobic particles in water and have shown that it can yield tremendous enhancements in the computational efficiency of MSM construction and the accuracy of the models. PMID:26574199

  16. Constraints from the old quasar APM 08279+5255 on two classes of Λ( t)-cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesus, J. F.

    2008-04-01

    The viability of two different classes of Λ( t)CDM cosmologies is tested by using the APM 08279+5255, an old quasar at redshift z = 3.91. In the first class of models, the cosmological term scales as Λ( t) ~ R - n . The particular case n = 0 describes the standard ΛCDM model whereas n = 2 stands for the Chen and Wu model. For an estimated age of 2 Gyr, it is found that the power index has a lower limit n > 0.21, whereas for 3 Gyr the limit is n > 0.6. Since n can not be so large as ~ 0.81, the ΛCDM and Chen and Wu models are also ruled out by this analysis. The second class of models is the one recently proposed by Wang and Meng which describes several Λ( t)CDM cosmologies discussed in the literature. By assuming that the true age is 2 Gyr it is found that the ɛ parameter satisfies the lower bound ɛ > 0.11 , while for 3 Gyr, a lower limit of ɛ > 0.52 is obtained. Such limits are slightly modified when the baryonic component is included.

  17. Composite Lightning Rods for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Charles F., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Composite, lightweight sacrificial tip with graphite designed reduces lightning-strike damage to composite parts of aircraft and dissipates harmful electrical energy. Device consists of slender composite rod fabricated from highly-conductive unidirectional reinforcing fibers in matrix material. Rods strategically installed in trailing edges of aircraft wings, tails, winglets, control surfaces, and rearward-most portion of aft fuselage.

  18. Rod Climbing of Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Youjing; Wang, Xiaorong

    We wish to report an unexpected effect observed for particle suspensions sucked to pass through a vertical pipe. Above a critical concentration, the suspension on the outside of the pipe may climb along the outside wall of the pipe and then display a surprising rod-climbing effect. Our study shows that the phenomenon is influenced mainly by the suspension composition, the pipe dimension and the suction speed. The effects of the pipe materials of different kinds are negligible. Increasing the suction force and the concentration increases the climbing height. Increasing the pipe diameter and wall thickness reduces the climbing effect. This behavior may be relevant to that the suspensions of the type described are all displaying markedly shear-thickening.

  19. Gas Interference in Sucker Rod Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samad, Abdus

    2010-10-01

    Commonly used artificial lift or dewatering system is sucker rod pump and gas interference of the pump is the biggest issue in the oil and gas industry. Gas lock or fluid pound problems occur due to the gas interference when the pump has partially or completely unfilled plunger barrel. There are several techniques available in the form of patents to solve these problems but those techniques have positive as well as negative aspects. Some of the designs rely on the leakage and some of the designs rely on the mechanical arrangements etc to break the gas lock. The present article compares the existing gas interference handling techniques.

  20. Regenerative hyperpolarization in rods.

    PubMed Central

    Werblin, F S

    1975-01-01

    1. The electrical properties of the rods in Necturus maculosus were studied at the cell body and the outer segments in dark and light under current and voltage clamp with a pair of intracellular electrodes separated by about 1 mum. 2. The membrane resistance in the dark was voltage- and time-dependent both for the cell body and the outer segment. Slight depolarizations in the cell body reduced the slope resistance from 60 to 10 M omega with a time constant of about 1 sec. Polarization in either direction, at the outer segment, when greater than about 20 mV, reduced the slope resistance from 60 to 30 M omega. The dark potential in the cell body was typically -30 to -35 m V; at the outer segment it was typically only -10 to -15 mV. 3. The light-elicited voltage response in both the cell body and the outer segment was largest with the membrane near the dark potential level. In both regions, the response was reduced when the membrane was polarized in either direction. 4. Under voltage-clamp conditions, a reversal potential for the light response near + 10 mV was measured at the outer segment. At the cell body no reversal potential for the light response was measured; there the clamping current required during the light response was almost of the same magnitude at all potential levels. 5. When the membrane at the cell body was hyperpolarized in the dark under voltage clamp, a transient outward current, typically about one-half the magnitude of the initial inward clamping current was required to maintain the membrane at the clamped potential level. This outward current transient was associated with a decrease in membrane resistance with similar time course. The transient outward current reversed and became inward when the membrane was clamped to potentials more negative than -80 mV. Thus, the transient outward current appears to involve a transient activation initiated by hyperpolarization. I is regenerative in that it is initiated by hyperpolarization and tends to

  1. Status of rod consolidation, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    It is estimated that the spent fuel storage pools at some domestic light-water reactors will run out of space before 2003, the year that the US Department of Energy currently predicts it will have a repository available. Of the methods being studied to alleviate the problem, rod consolidation is one of the leading candidates for achieving more efficient use of existing space in spent fuel storage pools. Rod consolidation involves mechanically removing all the fuel rods from the fuel assembly hardware (i.e., the structural components) and placing the fuel rods in a close-packed array in a canister without space grids. A typical goal of rod consolidation systems is to insert the fuel rods from two fuel assemblies into a canister that has the same exterior dimensions as one standard fuel assembly (i.e., to achieve a consolidation or compaction ratio of 2:1) and to compact the nonfuel-bearing structural components from those two fuel assemblies by a factor of 10 to 20. This report provides an overview of the current status of rod consolidation in the United States and a small amount of information on related activities in other countries. 85 refs., 36 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Characteristics of aerosols in urban and rural areas: GEOS-Chem+APM nested grid simulation and comparison with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, G.; Yu, F.

    2011-12-01

    Aerosol microphysics (nucleation, condensation, growth and coagulation) shows significant impact on aerosol size distribution which is important for the investigation of aerosol properties and its associated environment and climate impacts. Here, we use a recently developed global size-resolved aerosol microphysics model (GEOS-Chem+APM, Yu and Luo, ACP, 2009), which uses the ion-mediated nucleation theory to simulate tropospheric particle formation and a new scheme to consider the kinetic condensation of low volatile secondary organic gas (SOG) (in addition to H2SO4 gas) on nucleated particles, to study the major characteristics of aerosol size distribution in urban and rural areas and explore the key factors dominating aerosol properties over these regions. Multiple-year simulations with a nested domain (horizontal resolution 0.5ox0.667o) over Europe have been carried out and compared with long-term continuous particle size distribution measurements at an urban area (Melpitz, Gernmay) and a rural area (Hyytiälä, Finland). The analysis shows that aerosol number concentration at the urban site is generally three times higher than that at the rural site. Significant diurnal and inter-monthly variations of aerosol nucleation events can be found at both sites. Because of high concentration of sulfur acid, freshly nucleated particles at urban site are much easier to grow to large-size particles rather than those at rural site. The model captures the major characteristics of aerosol size distribution observed at the two sites. Model simulation implicates that sulfur acid dominates particle growth process at Melpitz, while SOG shows significant contribution at Hyytiälä, especially during summertime. We also study the mixing state of aerosols at both the urban and rural sites, and aerosol optical property and radiative forcing in urban and rural areas are calculated to investigate the associated environment and climate impacts over these regions.

  3. Hopf solitons and elastic rods

    SciTech Connect

    Harland, Derek; Sutcliffe, Paul; Speight, Martin

    2011-03-15

    Hopf solitons in the Skyrme-Faddeev model are stringlike topological solitons classified by the integer-valued Hopf charge. In this paper we introduce an approximate description of Hopf solitons in terms of elastic rods. The general form of the elastic rod energy is derived from the field theory energy and is found to be an extension of the classical Kirchhoff rod energy. Using a minimal extension of the Kirchhoff energy, it is shown that a simple elastic rod model can reproduce many of the qualitative features of Hopf solitons in the Skyrme-Faddeev model. Features that are captured by the model include the buckling of the charge three solution, the formation of links at charges five and six, and the minimal energy trefoil knot at charge seven.

  4. 75 FR 3962 - Notice of Availability of a Record of Decision (ROD) for the Proposed Bay Area Rapid Transit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ...The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public that it has issued a ROD for the proposed construction and operation of the proposed BART connector project at OAK. The ROD evaluated the proposed BART-OAK connector project at OAK, Oakland, Alameda County,...

  5. Materials and mechanical design analysis of boron carbide reactor safety rods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.C.

    1992-04-01

    The purpose of this task was to analyze the materials and mechanical design bases for the new boron carbide safety rod. These analyses included examination of the irradiation response of the materials, chemical compatibility of component materials, moisture considerations for the boron carbide pellets and susceptibility of the rod to corrosion under reactor environmental conditions. A number of issues concerning the mechanical behavior were also addressed. These included: safety rod dynamic response in scram scenarios, flexibility and mishandling behavior, and response to thermal excursions associated with gamma heating. A surveillance program aimed at evaluating the integrity of the safety rods following actual operating conditions and justifying life extension for the rods was also proposed. Based on the experimental testing and analyses associated with this task, it is concluded that the boron carbide safety rod design meets the materials and mechanical criteria for successful operational performance.

  6. Nuclear design of Helical Cruciform Fuel rods

    SciTech Connect

    Shirvan, K.; Kazimi, M. S.

    2012-07-01

    In order to increase the power density of current and new light water reactor designs, the Helical Cruciform Fuel (HCF) rods are proposed. The HCF rods are equivalent to a cylindrical rod, with the fuel in a cruciform shaped, twisted axially. The HCF rods increase the surface area to volume ratio and inter-subchannel mixing behavior due to their cruciform and helical shapes, respectively. In a previous study, the HCF rods have shown the potential to up-rate existing PWRs by 50% and BWRs by 25%. However, HCF rods do display different neutronics modeling and performance. The cruciform cross section of HCF rods creates radially asymmetric heat generation and temperature distribution. The nominal HCF rod's beginning of life reactivity is reduced, compared to a cylindrical rod with the same fuel volume, by 500 pcm, due to increase in absorption in cladding. The rotation of these rods accounts for reactivity changes, which depends on the H/HM ratio of the pin cell. The HCF geometry shows large sensitivities to U{sup 235} or gadolinium enrichments compared to a cylindrical geometry. In addition, the gadolinium-containing HCF rods show a stronger effect on neighboring HCF rods than in case of cylindrical rods, depending on the orientation of the HCF rods. The helical geometry of the rods introduces axial shadowing of about 600 pcm, not seen in typical cylindrical rods. (authors)

  7. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CONTROL ROD DRIVE APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Oakes, L.C.; Walker, C.S.

    1959-12-15

    ABS>A suspension mechanism between a vertically movable nuclear reactor control rod and a rod extension, which also provides information for the operator or an automatic control signal, is described. A spring connects the rod extension to a drive shift. The extension of the spring indicates whether (1) the rod is at rest on the reactor, (2) the rod and extension are suspended, or (3) the extension alone is suspended, the spring controlling a 3-position electrical switch.

  8. Stuck fuel rod capping sleeve

    DOEpatents

    Gorscak, Donald A.; Maringo, John J.; Nilsen, Roy J.

    1988-01-01

    A stuck fuel rod capping sleeve to be used during derodding of spent fuel assemblies if a fuel rod becomes stuck in a partially withdrawn position and, thus, has to be severed. The capping sleeve has an inner sleeve made of a lower work hardening highly ductile material (e.g., Inconel 600) and an outer sleeve made of a moderately ductile material (e.g., 304 stainless steel). The inner sleeve may be made of an epoxy filler. The capping sleeve is placed on a fuel rod which is then severed by using a bolt cutter device. Upon cutting, the capping sleeve deforms in such a manner as to prevent the gross release of radioactive fuel material

  9. Advanced gray rod control assembly

    DOEpatents

    Drudy, Keith J; Carlson, William R; Conner, Michael E; Goldenfield, Mark; Hone, Michael J; Long, Jr., Carroll J; Parkinson, Jerod; Pomirleanu, Radu O

    2013-09-17

    An advanced gray rod control assembly (GRCA) for a nuclear reactor. The GRCA provides controlled insertion of gray rod assemblies into the reactor, thereby controlling the rate of power produced by the reactor and providing reactivity control at full power. Each gray rod assembly includes an elongated tubular member, a primary neutron-absorber disposed within the tubular member said neutron-absorber comprising an absorber material, preferably tungsten, having a 2200 m/s neutron absorption microscopic capture cross-section of from 10 to 30 barns. An internal support tube can be positioned between the primary absorber and the tubular member as a secondary absorber to enhance neutron absorption, absorber depletion, assembly weight, and assembly heat transfer characteristics.

  10. Three-Rod Linear Ion Traps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janik, Gary R.; Prestage, John D.; Maleki, Lutfollah

    1993-01-01

    Three-parallel-rod electrode structures proposed for use in linear ion traps and possibly for electrostatic levitation of macroscopic particles. Provides wider viewing angle because they confine ions in regions outside rod-electrode structures.

  11. Control rods in LMFBRs: a physics assessment

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, H.F.; Collins, P.J.

    1982-08-01

    This physics assessment is based on roughly 300 control rod worth measurements in ZPPR from 1972 to 1981. All ZPPR assemblies simulated mixed-oxide LMFBRs, representing sizes of 350, 700, and 900 MWe. Control rod worth measurements included single rods, various combinations of rods, and Ta and Eu rods. Additional measurements studied variations in B/sub 4/C enrichment, rod interaction effects, variations in rod geometry, neutron streaming in sodium-filled channels, and axial worth profiles. Analyses were done with design-equivalent methods, using ENDF/B Version IV data. Some computations for the sensitivities to approximations in the methods have been included. Comparisons of these analyses with the experiments have allowed the status of control rod physics in the US to be clearly defined.

  12. Solid-state-laser-rod holder

    DOEpatents

    Gettemy, D.J.; Barnes, N.P.; Griggs, J.E.

    1981-08-11

    The disclosure relates to a solid state laser rod holder comprising Invar, copper tubing, and epoxy joints. Materials and coefficients of expansion of the components of the holder combine with the rod to produce a joint which will give before the rod itself will. The rod may be lased at about 70 to 80/sup 0/K and returned from such a temperature to room temperature repeatedly without its or the holder's destruction.

  13. 21 CFR 876.4270 - Colostomy rod.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Colostomy rod. 876.4270 Section 876.4270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4270 Colostomy rod. (a) Identification. A colostomy rod...

  14. 21 CFR 876.4270 - Colostomy rod.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Colostomy rod. 876.4270 Section 876.4270 Food and... GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4270 Colostomy rod. (a) Identification. A colostomy rod is a device used during the loop colostomy procedure. A loop of colon is surgically brought out...

  15. 21 CFR 876.4270 - Colostomy rod.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Colostomy rod. 876.4270 Section 876.4270 Food and... GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4270 Colostomy rod. (a) Identification. A colostomy rod is a device used during the loop colostomy procedure. A loop of colon is surgically brought out...

  16. 21 CFR 876.4270 - Colostomy rod.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Colostomy rod. 876.4270 Section 876.4270 Food and... GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4270 Colostomy rod. (a) Identification. A colostomy rod is a device used during the loop colostomy procedure. A loop of colon is surgically brought out...

  17. 21 CFR 876.4270 - Colostomy rod.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Colostomy rod. 876.4270 Section 876.4270 Food and... GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4270 Colostomy rod. (a) Identification. A colostomy rod is a device used during the loop colostomy procedure. A loop of colon is surgically brought out...

  18. Inverted Control Rod Lock-In Device

    DOEpatents

    Brussalis, W. G.; Bost, G. E.

    1962-12-01

    A mechanism which prevents control rods from dropping out of the reactor core in the event the vessel in which the reactor is mounted should capsize is described. The mechanism includes a pivoted toothed armature which engages the threaded control rod lead screw and prevents removal of the rod whenever the armature is not attracted by the provided electromagnetic means. (AEC)

  19. Fuel followed control rod installation at AFRRI

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Mark; Owens, Chris; Forsbacka, Matt

    1992-07-01

    Fuel Followed Control Rods (FFCRs) were installed at the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute's 1 MW TRIGA Reactor. The procedures for obtaining, shipping, and installing the FFCRs is described. As part of the FFCR installation, the transient rod drive was relocated. Core performance due to the addition of the fuel followed control rods is discussed. (author)

  20. Synaptic transmission from rods to rod-dominated bipolar cells in the tiger salamander retina.

    PubMed

    Yang, X L; Wu, S M

    1993-06-11

    Synaptic transmission between photoreceptors and bipolar cells was studied in dark-adapted tiger salamander retinas. Based on the relative light sensitivity, bipolar cells, either depolarizing (DBC) or hyperpolarizing (HBC), fell into two groups: one receives inputs primarily from rods (rod-dominated bipolar cells, DBCR and HBCR) and the other receives inputs primarily from cones (cone-dominated bipolar cells, DBCC and HBCC). The input-output relations of the rod-DBCR and rod-HBCR synapses were determined by plotting the voltage responses of the rod and DBCR (or HBCR) to dim 500-nm light steps, which polarizes only the rods but not the cones. The slope gains of both synapses were the highest near the dark rod voltage (-2.5 for the rod-DBCR synapse and 4.0 for the rod-HBCR synapse), and they (the absolute values) became progressively smaller at more hyperpolarized rod voltages. PMID:8186975

  1. 75 FR 30899 - Notice of a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and Record of Decision (ROD) on a Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... Decision (ROD) on a Final Environmental Assessment (FEA) for the Proposed Federal Action at the Macon... FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the approval of a FONSI/ROD on an FEA for a... affect the quality of the environment. The FEA evaluated Macon County Airport's proposal to extend...

  2. Rod cluster having improved vane configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Shockling, L.A.; Francis, T.A.

    1989-09-05

    This patent describes a pressurized water reactor vessel, the vessel defining a predetermined axial direction of the flow of coolant therewithin and having plural spider assemblies supporting, for vertical movement within the vessel, respective clusters of rods in spaced, parallel axial relationship, parallel to the predetermined axial direction of coolant flow, and a rod guide for each spider assembly and respective cluster of rods. The rod guide having horizontally oriented support plates therewithin, each plate having an interior opening for accommodating axial movement therethrough of the spider assembly and respective cluster of rods. The opening defining plural radially extending channels and corresponding parallel interior wall surfaces of the support plate.

  3. ELECTROMAGNETIC APPARATUS FOR MOVING A ROD

    DOEpatents

    Young, J.N.

    1958-04-22

    An electromagnetic apparatus for moving a rod-like member in small steps in either direction is described. The invention has particular application in the reactor field where the reactor control rods must be moved only a small distance and where the use of mechanical couplings is impractical due to the high- pressure seals required. A neutron-absorbing rod is mounted in a housing with gripping uaits that engage the rod, and coils for magnetizing the gripping units to make them grip, shift, and release the rod are located outside the housing.

  4. Determination of heavy metals concentrations in airborne particulates matter (APM) from Manjung district, Perak using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshad, Nursyairah; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Saat, Ahmad; Alias, Masitah

    2015-04-01

    Airborne particulates trace metals are considered as public health concern as it can enter human lungs through respiratory system. Generally, any substance that has been introduced to the atmosphere that can cause severe effects to living things and the environment is considered air pollution. Manjung, Perak is one of the development districts that is active with industrial activities. There are many industrial activities surrounding Manjung District area such as coal fired power plant, quarries and iron smelting which may contribute to the air pollution into the environment. This study was done to measure the concentrations of Hg, U, Th, K, Cu, Fe, Cr, Zn, As, Se, Pb and Cd in the Airborne Particulate Matter (APM) collected at nine locations in Manjung District area within 15 km radius towards three directions (North, North-East and South-East) in 5 km intervals. The samples were collected using mini volume air sampler with cellulose filter through total suspended particulate (TSP). The sampler was set up for eight hours with the flow rate of 5 L/min. The filter was weighed before and after sample collection using microbalance, to get the amount of APM and kept in desiccator before analyzing. The measurement was done using calibrated Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometer. The air particulate concentrations were found below the Malaysia Air Quality Guidelines for TSP (260 µg/m3). All of the metals concentrations were also lower than the guidelines set by World Health Organization (WHO), Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Argonne National Laboratory, USA NCRP (1975). From the concentrations, the enrichment factor were calculated.

  5. Tribe kills fuel rod proposal

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-13

    This article is a review of nuclear utilities` efforts to find a repository of spent fuel rods. The rejection by the Mescalero Apaches of plans to build a waste repository on tribal lands has left a number of utilities scrambling to find interim solutions. Prairie Island will have to close before the end of the year unless a solution is found, and the Hope Creek/Salem units, exhausting there storage capacity within ten years, are considering dry-cask storage.

  6. Fuel rod assembly to manifold attachment

    DOEpatents

    Donck, Harry A.; Veca, Anthony R.; Snyder, Jr., Harold J.

    1980-01-01

    A fuel element is formed with a plurality of fuel rod assemblies detachably connected to an overhead support with each of the fuel rod assemblies having a gas tight seal with the support to allow internal fission gaseous products to flow without leakage from the fuel rod assemblies into a vent manifold passageway system on the support. The upper ends of the fuel rod assemblies are located at vertically extending openings in the support and upper threaded members are threaded to the fuel rod assemblies to connect the latter to the support. The preferred threaded members are cap nuts having a dome wall encircling an upper threaded end on the fuel rod assembly and having an upper sealing surface for sealing contact with the support. Another and lower seal is achieved by abutting a sealing surface on each fuel rod assembly with the support. A deformable portion on the cap nut locks the latter against inadvertent turning off the fuel rod assembly. Orienting means on the fuel rod and support primarily locates the fuel rods azimuthally for reception of a deforming tool for the cap nut. A cross port in the fuel rod end plug discharges into a sealed annulus within the support, which serves as a circumferential chamber, connecting the manifold gas passageways in the support.

  7. Fabrication of control rods for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sease, J.D.

    1998-03-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) is a research-type nuclear reactor that was designed and built in the early 1960s and has been in continuous operation since its initial criticality in 1965. Under current plans, the HFIR is expected to continue in operation until 2035. This report updates ORNL/TM-9365, Fabrication Procedure for HFIR Control Plates, which was mainly prepared in the early 1970's but was not issued until 1984, and reflects process changes, lessons learned in the latest control rod fabrication campaign, and suggested process improvements to be considered in future campaigns. Most of the personnel involved with the initial development of the processes and in part campaigns have retired or will retire soon. Because their unlikely availability in future campaigns, emphasis has been placed on providing some explanation of why the processes were selected and some discussions about the importance of controlling critical process parameters. Contained in this report is a description of the function of control rods in the reactor, the brief history of the development of control rod fabrication processes, and a description of procedures used in the fabrication of control rods. A listing of the controlled documents and procedures used in the last fabrication campaigns is referenced in Appendix A.

  8. BWR feedwater nozzle and control-rod-drive return line nozzle cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    In its 1978 Annual Report to Congress, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission identified as an unresolved safety issue the appearance of cracks in feedwater nozzles at boiling-water reactors (BWRs). Later similar cracking, detected in return water lines for control-rod-drive systems at BWRs, was designated Part II of the issue. This article outlines the resolution of these cracking problems.

  9. High temperature control rod assembly

    DOEpatents

    Vollman, Russell E.

    1991-01-01

    A high temperature nuclear control rod assembly comprises a plurality of substantially cylindrical segments flexibly joined together in succession by ball joints. The segments are made of a high temperature graphite or carbon-carbon composite. The segment includes a hollow cylindrical sleeve which has an opening for receiving neutron-absorbing material in the form of pellets or compacted rings. The sleeve has a threaded sleeve bore and outer threaded surface. A cylindrical support post has a threaded shaft at one end which is threadably engaged with the sleeve bore to rigidly couple the support post to the sleeve. The other end of the post is formed with a ball portion. A hollow cylindrical collar has an inner threaded surface engageable with the outer threaded surface of the sleeve to rigidly couple the collar to the sleeve. the collar also has a socket portion which cooperates with the ball portion to flexibly connect segments together to form a ball and socket-type joint. In another embodiment, the segment comprises a support member which has a threaded shaft portion and a ball surface portion. The threaded shaft portion is engageable with an inner threaded surface of a ring for rigidly coupling the support member to the ring. The ring in turn has an outer surface at one end which is threadably engageably with a hollow cylindrical sleeve. The other end of the sleeve is formed with a socket portion for engagement with a ball portion of the support member. In yet another embodiment, a secondary rod is slidably inserted in a hollow channel through the center of the segment to provide additional strength. A method for controlling a nuclear reactor utilizing the control rod assembly is also included.

  10. Self-assembly of rod-coil-rod ABA-type triblock copolymers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ji-Zhong; Sun, Zhao-Yan; Zhang, Cheng-Xiang; An, Li-Jia; Tong, Zhen

    2008-02-21

    Self-assembled behavior of symmetric ABA rod-coil-rod triblock copolymer melts is studied by applying self-consistent-field lattice techniques in three-dimensional space. The phase diagram is constructed to understand the effects of the chain architecture on the self-assembled behavior. Four stable structures are observed for the ABA rod-coil-rod triblock, i.e., spherelike, lamellar, gyroidlike, and cylindrical structures. Different from AB rod-coil diblock and BAB coil-rod-coil triblock copolymers, the lamellar structure observed in ABA rod-coil-rod triblock copolymer melts is not stable for high volume fraction of the rod component (f(rod)=0.8), which is attributed to the intramolecular interactions between the two rod blocks of the polymer chain. When 0.3rod)<0.7, the intramolecular interactions between the two rigid blocks of the polymer chain are decrease, which results in the occurrence of some interesting metastable mixed structures. These structures have not been observed in polymers containing only one rod block, such as a lamellar-alt-lamellar structure. The results are expected to provide guidance for the design of microstructures in experiments. PMID:18298171

  11. Reactor control rod timing system. [LMFBR

    DOEpatents

    Wu, P.T.K.

    1980-03-18

    A fluid driven jet-edge whistle timing system is described for control rods of a nuclear reactor for producing real-time detection of the timing of each control rod in its scram operation. An important parameter in reactor safety, particularly for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR), is the time deviation between the time the control rod is released and the time the rod actually reaches the down position. The whistle has a nearly pure tone signal with center frequency (above 100 kHz) far above the frequency band in which the energy of the background noise is concentrated. Each control rod can be fitted with a whistle with a different frequency so that there is no ambiguity in differentiating the signal from each control rod.

  12. Automatic safety rod for reactors. [LMFBR

    DOEpatents

    Germer, J.H.

    1982-03-23

    An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

  13. Growth and Morphology of Rod Eutectics

    SciTech Connect

    Jing Teng; Shan Liu; R. Trivedi

    2008-03-17

    The formation of rod eutectic microstructure is investigated systematically in a succinonitrile-camphor alloy of eutectic composition by using the directional solidification technique. A new rod eutectic configuration is observed in which the rods form with elliptical cylindrical shape. Two different orientations of the ellipse are observed that differ by a 90{sup o} rotation such that the major and the minor axes are interchanged. Critical experiments in thin samples, where a single layer of rods forms, show that the spacing and orientation of the elliptic rods are governed by the growth rate and the sample thickness. In thicker samples, multi layers of rods form with circular cross-section and the scaling law between the spacing and velocity predicted by the Jackson and Hunt model is validated. A theoretical model is developed for a two-dimensional array of elliptical rods that are arranged in a hexagonal or a square array, and the results are shown to be consistent with the experimental observations. The model of elliptic rods is also shown to reduce to that for the circular rod eutectic when the lengths of the two axes are equal, and to the lamellar eutectic model when one of the axes is much larger than the other one.

  14. Temperature actuated automatic safety rod release

    DOEpatents

    Hutter, Ernest; Pardini, John A.; Walker, David E.

    1987-01-01

    A temperature-actuated apparatus is disclosed for releasably supporting a safety rod in a nuclear reactor, comprising a safety rod upper adapter having a retention means, a drive shaft which houses the upper adapter, and a bimetallic means supported within the drive shaft and having at least one ledge which engages a retention means of the safety rod upper adapter. A pre-determined increase in temperature causes the bimetallic means to deform so that the ledge disengages from the retention means, whereby the bimetallic means releases the safety rod into the core of the reactor.

  15. Temperature actuated automatic safety rod release

    DOEpatents

    Hutter, E.; Pardini, J.A.; Walker, D.E.

    1984-03-13

    A temperature-actuated apparatus is disclosed for releasably supporting a safety rod in a nuclear reactor, comprising a safety rod upper adapter having a retention means, a drive shaft which houses the upper adapter, and a bimetallic means supported within the drive shaft and having at least one ledge which engages a retention means of the safety rod upper adapter. A pre-determined increase in temperature causes the bimetallic means to deform so that the ledge disengages from the retention means, whereby the bimetallic means releases the safety rod into the core of the reactor.

  16. The directional sensitivity of retinal rods.

    PubMed Central

    Alpern, M; Ching, C C; Kitahara, K

    1983-01-01

    Rod field sensitivity, 10-S(r) (i.e. the reciprocal of the radiance of a background required for 10-fold elevation of rod threshold) was measured for monochromatic backgrounds traversing the pupil at various points (r) on three subjects. The wave-length dependency of the directional sensitivities of the three foveal cone mechanisms of the principal subject have been reported previously (Alpern & Kitahara, 1983). Rods, as cones, are less sensitive to obliquely incident, than to normally incident backgrounds. At the pupil margin (4 mm) the effect is between 0.368 and 0.976 log10 units smaller for rods. After correction for losses by corneal reflexion and by absorption in the lens, S(r) for rods is reasonably described by the parabolic equation used by Stiles (1937) to quantify the directional sensitivity of cones. The small effect for rods precludes a description as consistently precise as this equation provides for cones. The steepness of the parabolic curve best fitting the directional sensitivity data of the rods of the principal subject was independent of background wave number. For a second subject, whose rods are supposed to be smaller, it was directly proportional to the square of that wave number. The latter is the expectation if the directional sensitivity of this subject's rods were determined by principles outlined in the diffraction theory of Simon (1970). PMID:6644624

  17. Digital Library Storage using iRODS Data Grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedges, Mark; Blanke, Tobias; Hasan, Adil

    Digital repository software provides a powerful and flexible infrastructure for managing and delivering complex digital resources and metadata. However, issues can arise in managing the very large, distributed data files that may constitute these resources. This paper describes an implementation approach that combines the Fedora digital repository software with a storage layer implemented as a data grid, using the iRODS middleware developed by DICE (Data Intensive Cyber Environments) as the successor to SRB. This approach allows us to use Fedoras flexible architecture to manage the structure of resources and to provide application- layer services to users. The grid-based storage layer provides efficient support for managing and processing the underlying distributed data objects, which may be very large (e.g. audio-visual material). The Rule Engine built into iRODS is used to integrate complex workflows at the data level that need not be visible to users, e.g. digital preservation functionality.

  18. Overview of Fuel Rod Simulator Usage at ORNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Larry J.; McCulloch, Reg

    2004-02-01

    During the 1970s and early 1980s, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operated large out-of-reactor experimental facilities to resolve thermal-hydraulic safety issues in nuclear reactors. The fundamental research ranged from material mechanical behavior of fuel cladding during the depressurization phase of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) to basic heat transfer research in gas- or sodium-cooled cores. The largest facility simulated the initial phase (less than 1 min. of transient time) of a LOCA in a commercial pressurized-water reactor. The nonnuclear reactor cores of these facilities were mimicked via advanced, highly instrumented electric fuel rod simulators locally manufactured at ORNL. This paper provides an overview of these experimental facilities with an emphasis on the fuel rod simulators.

  19. Overview of Fuel Rod Simulator Usage at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Larry J.; McCulloch, Reg

    2004-02-04

    During the 1970s and early 1980s, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operated large out-of-reactor experimental facilities to resolve thermal-hydraulic safety issues in nuclear reactors. The fundamental research ranged from material mechanical behavior of fuel cladding during the depressurization phase of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) to basic heat transfer research in gas- or sodium-cooled cores. The largest facility simulated the initial phase (less than 1 min. of transient time) of a LOCA in a commercial pressurized-water reactor. The nonnuclear reactor cores of these facilities were mimicked via advanced, highly instrumented electric fuel rod simulators locally manufactured at ORNL. This paper provides an overview of these experimental facilities with an emphasis on the fuel rod simulators.

  20. A multi-epoch spectroscopic study of the BAL quasar APM 08279+5255. II. Emission- and absorption-line variability time lags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saturni, F. G.; Trevese, D.; Vagnetti, F.; Perna, M.; Dadina, M.

    2016-03-01

    Context. The study of high-redshift bright quasars is crucial to gather information about the history of galaxy assembly and evolution. Variability analyses can provide useful data on the physics of quasar processes and their relation with the host galaxy. Aims: In this study, we aim to measure the black hole mass of the bright lensed BAL QSO APM 08279+5255 at z = 3.911 through reverberation mapping, and to update and extend the monitoring of its C IV absorption line variability. Methods: We perform the first reverberation mapping of the Si IV and C IV emission lines for a high-luminosity quasar at high redshift with the use of 138 R-band photometric data and 30 spectra available over 16 years of observations. We also cross-correlate the C IV absorption equivalent width variations with the continuum light curve to estimate the recombination time lags of the various absorbers and infer the physical conditions of the ionised gas. Results: We find a reverberation-mapping time lag of ~900 rest-frame days for both Si IV and C IV emission lines. This is consistent with an extension of the BLR size-to-luminosity relation for active galactic nuclei up to a luminosity of ~1048 erg s-1, and implies a black hole mass of 1010 M⊙. Additionally, we measure a recombination time lag of ~160 days in the rest frame for the C IV narrow absorption system, which implies an electron density of the absorbing gas of ~2.5 × 104 cm-3. Conclusions: The measured black hole mass of APM 08279+5255 indicates that the quasar resides in an under-massive host-galaxy bulge with Mbulge ~ 7.5MBH, and that the lens magnification is lower than ~8. Finally, the inferred electron density of the narrow-line absorber implies a distance of the order of 10 kpc of the absorbing gas from the quasar, placing it within the host galaxy.

  1. Connexin 36 and rod bipolar cell independent rod pathways drive retinal ganglion cells and optokinetic reflexes.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Cameron S; Abd-El-Barr, Muhammad; van der Heijden, Meike; Lo, Eric M; Paul, David; Bramblett, Debra E; Lem, Janis; Simons, David L; Wu, Samuel M

    2016-02-01

    Rod pathways are a parallel set of synaptic connections which enable night vision by relaying and processing rod photoreceptor light responses. We use dim light stimuli to isolate rod pathway contributions to downstream light responses then characterize these contributions in knockout mice lacking rod transducin-α (Trα), or certain pathway components associated with subsets of rod pathways. These comparisons reveal that rod pathway driven light sensitivity in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is entirely dependent on Trα, but partially independent of connexin 36 (Cx36) and rod bipolar cells. Pharmacological experiments show that rod pathway-driven and Cx36-independent RGC ON responses are also metabotropic glutamate receptor 6-dependent. To validate the RGC findings in awake, behaving animals we measured optokinetic reflexes (OKRs), which are sensitive to changes in ON pathways. Scotopic OKR contrast sensitivity was lost in Trα(-/-) mice, but indistinguishable from controls in Cx36(-/-) and rod bipolar cell knockout mice. Mesopic OKRs were also altered in mutant mice: Trα(-/-) mice had decreased spatial acuity, rod BC knockouts had decreased sensitivity, and Cx36(-/-) mice had increased sensitivity. These results provide compelling evidence against the complete Cx36 or rod BC dependence of night vision's ON component. Further, the findings suggest the parallel nature of rod pathways provides considerable redundancy to scotopic light sensitivity but distinct contributions to mesopic responses through complicated interactions with cone pathways. PMID:26718442

  2. Tipping Time of a Quantum Rod

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrikar, Onkar

    2010-01-01

    The behaviour of a quantum rod, pivoted at its lower end on an impenetrable floor and restricted to moving in the vertical plane under the gravitational potential, is studied analytically under the approximation that the rod is initially localized to a "small-enough" neighbourhood around the point of classical unstable equilibrium. It is shown…

  3. Computing Temperatures In Optically Pumped Laser Rods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrukh, Usamah O.

    1991-01-01

    Computer program presents new model solving temperature-distribution problem for laser rods of finite length and calculates both radial and axial components of temperature distributions in these rods. Contains several self-checking schemes to prevent over-writing of memory blocks and to provide simple tracing of information in case of trouble. Written in Microsoft FORTRAN 77.

  4. Vortex Noise from Rotating Cylindrical Rods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowell, E Z; Deming, A F

    1935-01-01

    A series of round rods of the some diameter were rotated individually about the mid-point of each rod. Vortices are shed from the rods when in motion, giving rise to the emission of sound. With the rotating system placed in the open air, the distribution of sound in space, the acoustical power output, and the spectral distribution have been studied. The frequency of emission of vortices from any point on the rod is given by the formula von Karman. From the spectrum estimates are made of the distribution of acoustical power along the rod, the amount of air concerned in sound production, the "equivalent size" of the vortices, and the acoustical energy content for each vortex.

  5. Rod-Coil Block Polyimide Copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B. (Inventor); Kinder, James D. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    This invention is a series of rod-coil block polyimide copolymers that are easy to fabricate into mechanically resilient films with acceptable ionic or protonic conductivity at a variety of temperatures. The copolymers consist of short-rigid polyimide rod segments alternating with polyether coil segments. The rods and coil segments can be linear, branched or mixtures of linear and branched segments. The highly incompatible rods and coil segments phase separate, providing nanoscale channels for ion conduction. The polyimide segments provide dimensional and mechanical stability and can be functionalized in a number of ways to provide specialized functions for a given application. These rod-coil black polyimide copolymers are particularly useful in the preparation of ion conductive membranes for use in the manufacture of fuel cells and lithium based polymer batteries.

  6. Eulerian Formulation of Spatially Constrained Elastic Rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynen, Alexandre

    Slender elastic rods are ubiquitous in nature and technology. For a vast majority of applications, the rod deflection is restricted by an external constraint and a significant part of the elastic body is in contact with a stiff constraining surface. The research work presented in this doctoral dissertation formulates a computational model for the solution of elastic rods constrained inside or around frictionless tube-like surfaces. The segmentation strategy adopted to cope with this complex class of problems consists in sequencing the global problem into, comparatively simpler, elementary problems either in continuous contact with the constraint or contact-free between their extremities. Within the conventional Lagrangian formulation of elastic rods, this approach is however associated with two major drawbacks. First, the boundary conditions specifying the locations of the rod centerline at both extremities of each elementary problem lead to the establishment of isoperimetric constraints, i.e., integral constraints on the unknown length of the rod. Second, the assessment of the unilateral contact condition requires, in principle, the comparison of two curves parametrized by distinct curvilinear coordinates, viz. the rod centerline and the constraint axis. Both conspire to burden the computations associated with the method. To streamline the solution along the elementary problems and rationalize the assessment of the unilateral contact condition, the rod governing equations are reformulated within the Eulerian framework of the constraint. The methodical exploration of both types of elementary problems leads to specific formulations of the rod governing equations that stress the profound connection between the mechanics of the rod and the geometry of the constraint surface. The proposed Eulerian reformulation, which restates the rod local equilibrium in terms of the curvilinear coordinate associated with the constraint axis, describes the rod deformed configuration

  7. Optical coherence tomography for nondestructive evaluation of fuel rod degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Renshaw, Jeremy B.; Jenkins, Thomas P. Buckner, Benjamin D.; Friend, Brian

    2015-03-31

    Nuclear power plants regularly inspect fuel rods to ensure safe and reliable operation. Excessive corrosion can cause fuel failures which can have significant repercussions for the plant, including impacts on plant operation, worker exposure to radiation, and the plant's INPO rating. While plants typically inspect for fuel rod corrosion using eddy current techniques, these techniques have known issues with reliability in the presence of tenacious, ferromagnetic crud layers that can deposit during operation, and the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) inspection results can often be in error by a factor of 2 or 3. For this reason, alternative measurement techniques, such as Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), have been evaluated that are not sensitive to the ferromagnetic nature of the crud. This paper demonstrates that OCT has significant potential to characterize the thickness of crud layers that can deposit on the surfaces of fuel rods during operation. Physical trials have been performed on simulated crud samples, and the resulting data show an apparent correlation between the crud layer thickness and the OCT signal.

  8. Optical coherence tomography for nondestructive evaluation of fuel rod degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renshaw, Jeremy B.; Jenkins, Thomas P.; Buckner, Benjamin D.; Friend, Brian

    2015-03-01

    Nuclear power plants regularly inspect fuel rods to ensure safe and reliable operation. Excessive corrosion can cause fuel failures which can have significant repercussions for the plant, including impacts on plant operation, worker exposure to radiation, and the plant's INPO rating. While plants typically inspect for fuel rod corrosion using eddy current techniques, these techniques have known issues with reliability in the presence of tenacious, ferromagnetic crud layers that can deposit during operation, and the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) inspection results can often be in error by a factor of 2 or 3. For this reason, alternative measurement techniques, such as Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), have been evaluated that are not sensitive to the ferromagnetic nature of the crud. This paper demonstrates that OCT has significant potential to characterize the thickness of crud layers that can deposit on the surfaces of fuel rods during operation. Physical trials have been performed on simulated crud samples, and the resulting data show an apparent correlation between the crud layer thickness and the OCT signal.

  9. A Multi-Stage Wear Model for Grid-to-Rod Fretting of Nuclear Fuel Rods

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Peter Julian

    2014-01-01

    The wear of fuel rod cladding against the supporting structures in the cores of pressurized water nuclear reactors (PWRs) is an important and potentially costly tribological issue. Grid-to-rod fretting (GTRF), as it is known, involves not only time-varying contact conditions, but also elevated temperatures, flowing hot water, aqueous tribo-corrosion, and the embrittling effects of neutron fluences. The multi-stage, closed-form analytical model described in this paper relies on published out-of-reactor wear and corrosion data and a set of simplifying assumptions to portray the conversion of frictional work into wear depth. The cladding material of interest is a zirconium-based alloy called Zircaloy-4, and the grid support is made of a harder and more wear-resistant material. Focus is on the wear of the cladding. The model involves an incubation stage, a surface oxide wear stage, and a base alloy wear stage. The wear coefficient, which is a measure of the efficiency of conversion of frictional work into wear damage, can change to reflect the evolving metallurgical condition of the alloy. Wear coefficients for Zircaloy-4 and for a polyphase zirconia layer were back-calculated for a range of times required to wear to a critical depth. Inputs for the model, like the friction coefficient, are taken from the tribology literature in lieu of in-reactor tribological data. Concepts of classical fretting were used as a basis, but are modified to enable the model to accommodate the complexities of the PWR environment. Factors like grid spring relaxation, pre-oxidation of the cladding, multiple oxide phases, gap formation, impact, and hydrogen embrittlement are part of the problem definition but uncertainties in their relative roles limits the ability to validate the model. Sample calculations of wear depth versus time in the cladding illustrate how GTRF wear might occur in a discontinuous fashion during months-long reactor operating cycles. A means to account for grid/rod gaps

  10. DEVICE FOR CONTROLLING INSERTION OF ROD

    DOEpatents

    Beaty, B.J.

    1958-10-14

    A device for rapidly inserting a safety rod into a nuclear reactor upon a given signal or in the event of a power failure in order to prevent the possibility of extensive damage caused by a power excursion is described. A piston is slidably mounted within a vertical cylinder with provision for an electromagnetic latch at the top of the cylinder. This assembly, with a safety rod attached to the piston, is mounted over an access port to the core region of the reactor. The piston is normally latched at the top of the cylinder with the safety rod clear of the core area, however, when the latch is released, the piston and rod drop by their own weight to insert the rod. Vents along the side of the cylinder permit the escape of the air entrapped under the piston over the greater part of the distance, however, at the end of the fall the entrapped air is compressed thereby bringing the safety rod gently to rest, thus providing for a rapid automatic insertion of the rod with a minimum of structural shock.

  11. Granular materials interacting with thin flexible rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neto, Alfredo Gay; Campello, Eduardo M. B.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we develop a computational model for the simulation of problems wherein granular materials interact with thin flexible rods. We treat granular materials as a collection of spherical particles following a discrete element method (DEM) approach, while flexible rods are described by a large deformation finite element (FEM) rod formulation. Grain-to-grain, grain-to-rod, and rod-to-rod contacts are fully permitted and resolved. A simple and efficient strategy is proposed for coupling the motion of the two types (discrete and continuum) of materials within an iterative time-stepping solution scheme. Implementation details are shown and discussed. Validity and applicability of the model are assessed by means of a few numerical examples. We believe that robust, efficiently coupled DEM-FEM schemes can be a useful tool to the simulation of problems wherein granular materials interact with thin flexible rods, such as (but not limited to) bombardment of grains on beam structures, flow of granular materials over surfaces covered by threads of hair in many biological processes, flow of grains through filters and strainers in various industrial segregation processes, and many others.

  12. Gelation and mechanical response of patchy rods.

    PubMed

    Kazem, Navid; Majidi, Carmel; Maloney, Craig E

    2015-10-28

    We perform Brownian dynamics simulations to study the gelation of suspensions of attractive, rod-like particles. We show that in detail the rod-rod surface interactions can dramatically affect the dynamics of gelation and the structure and mechanics of the networks that form. If the attraction between the rods is perfectly smooth along their length, they will collapse into compact bundles. If the attraction is sufficiently corrugated or patchy, over time, a rigid space-spanning network will form. We study the structure and mechanical properties of the networks that form as a function of the fraction of the surface, f, that is allowed to bind. Surprisingly, the structural and mechanical properties are non-monotonic in f. At low f, there are not a sufficient number of cross-linking sites to form networks. At high f, rods bundle and form disconnected clusters. At intermediate f, robust networks form. The elastic modulus and yield stress are both non-monotonic in the surface coverage. The stiffest and strongest networks show an essentially homogeneous deformation under strain with rods re-orienting along the extensional axis. Weaker, more clumpy networks at high f re-orient relatively little with strong non-affine deformation. These results suggest design strategies for tailoring surface interactions between rods to yield rigid networks with optimal mechanical properties. PMID:26381995

  13. Phototransduction in mouse rods and cones

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yingbin; Yau, King-Wai

    2010-01-01

    Phototransduction is the process by which light triggers an electrical signal in a photoreceptor cell. Image-forming vision in vertebrates is mediated by two types of photoreceptors: the rods and the cones. In this review, we provide a summary of the success in which the mouse has served as a vertebrate model for studying rod phototransduction, with respect to both the activation and termination steps. Cones are still not as well-understood as rods partly because it is difficult to work with mouse cones due to their scarcity and fragility. The situation may change, however. PMID:17226052

  14. Control rod drive hydraulic system

    DOEpatents

    Ose, Richard A.

    1992-01-01

    A hydraulic system for a control rod drive (CRD) includes a variable output-pressure CR pump operable in a charging mode for providing pressurized fluid at a charging pressure, and in a normal mode for providing the pressurized fluid at a purge pressure, less than the charging pressure. Charging and purge lines are disposed in parallel flow between the CRD pump and the CRD. A hydraulic control unit is disposed in flow communication in the charging line and includes a scram accumulator. An isolation valve is provided in the charging line between the CRD pump and the scram accumulator. A controller is operatively connected to the CRD pump and the isolation valve and is effective for opening the isolation valve and operating the CRD pump in a charging mode for charging the scram accumulator, and closing the isolation valve and operating the CRD pump in a normal mode for providing to the CRD through the purge line the pressurized fluid at a purge pressure lower than the charging pressure.

  15. Control rod for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Roman, Walter G.; Sutton, Jr., Harry G.

    1979-01-01

    A control rod assembly for a nuclear reactor is disclosed having a remotely disengageable coupling between the control rod and the control rod drive shaft. The coupling is actuated by first lowering then raising the drive shaft. The described motion causes axial repositioning of a pin in a grooved rotatable cylinder, each being attached to different parts of the drive shaft which are axially movable relative to each other. In one embodiment, the relative axial motion of the parts of the drive shaft is used either to couple or to uncouple the connection by forcing resilient members attached to the drive shaft into or out of shouldered engagement, respectively, with an indentation formed in the control rod.

  16. Impact of AD995 alumina rods

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, L.C.; Furnish, M.D.; Reinhart, W.D.; Grady, D.E.

    1997-10-01

    Gas guns and velocity interferometric techniques have been used to determine the loading behavior of an AD995 alumina rod 19 mm in diameter by 75 mm and 150 mm long, respectively. Graded-density materials were used to impact both bare and sleeved alumina rods while the velocity interferometer was used to monitor the axial-velocity of the free end of the rods. Results of these experiments demonstrate that (1) a time-dependent stress pulse generated during impact allows an efficient transition from the initial uniaxial strain loading to a uniaxial stress state as the stress pulse propagates through the rod, and (2) the intermediate loading rates obtained in this configuration lie between split Hopkinson bar and shock-loading techniques.

  17. Talking Shop. Second Language Acquisition Research: How Does It Help Teachers. An Interview with Rod Ellis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ELT Journal, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Rod Ellis discusses contribution, past, present, and future, of second-language acquisition (SLA) studies to English language teaching. Considers two primary issues: conditions that facilitate and promote SLA in classroom; and how teachers can create those conditions. Role of grammar in English classroom is discussed, recent research is described,…

  18. Double-clad nuclear fuel safety rod

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, William H.; Atcheson, Donald B.; Vaidyanathan, Swaminathan

    1984-01-01

    A device for shutting down a nuclear reactor during an undercooling or overpower event, whether or not the reactor's scram system operates properly. This is accomplished by double-clad fuel safety rods positioned at various locations throughout the reactor core, wherein melting of a secondary internal cladding of the rod allows the fuel column therein to shift from the reactor core to place the reactor in a subcritical condition.

  19. Strategy for Fuel Rod Receipt, Characterization, Sample Allocation for the Demonstration Sister Rods

    SciTech Connect

    Marschman, Steven C.; Warmann, Stephan A.; Rusch, Chris

    2014-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), Office of Fuel Cycle Technology, has established the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) to conduct the research and development activities related to storage, transportation, and disposal of used nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The mission of the UFDC is to identify alternatives and conduct scientific research and technology development to enable storage, transportation and disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and wastes generated by existing and future nuclear fuel cycles. The UFDC Storage and Transportation staffs are responsible for addressing issues regarding the extended or long-term storage of UNF and its subsequent transportation. The near-term objectives of the Storage and Transportation task are to use a science-based approach to develop the technical bases to support the continued safe and secure storage of UNF for extended periods, subsequent retrieval, and transportation. While low burnup fuel [that characterized as having a burnup of less than 45 gigawatt days per metric tonne uranium (GWD/MTU)] has been stored for nearly three decades, the storage of high burnup used fuels is more recent. The DOE has funded a demonstration project to confirm the behavior of used high burnup fuel under prototypic conditions. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is leading a project team to develop and implement the Test Plan to collect this data from a UNF dry storage system containing high burnup fuel. The Draft Test Plan for the demonstration outlines the data to be collected; the high burnup fuel to be included; the technical data gaps the data will address; and the storage system design, procedures, and licensing necessary to implement the Test Plan. To provide data that is most relevant to high burnup fuel in dry storage, the design of the test storage system must closely mimic real conditions high burnup SNF experiences during all stages of dry storage: loading, cask drying

  20. Measurements of control rod efficiency in RBMK critical assembly upon dropping of the rods

    SciTech Connect

    Zhitarev, V. E. Kachanov, V. M.; Sergevnin, A. Yu.; Lebedev, G. V.

    2014-12-15

    The efficiency of control rods in the RBMK critical assembly was measured in the case where one manual-control rod (MCR) is dropped from a steady critical state, and several other MCRs were additionally dropped after 44 s. The measured number of neutrons in the assembly during and after dropping of the rods was used to calculate the efficiency values of the rods by solution of the system of point kinetics equations. A series of methods of the initial data treatment for determination of the desired values of reactivity without the calculated corrections were used.

  1. Close packing of rods on spherical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smallenburg, Frank; Löwen, Hartmut

    2016-04-01

    We study the optimal packing of short, hard spherocylinders confined to lie tangential to a spherical surface, using simulated annealing and molecular dynamics simulations. For clusters of up to twelve particles, we map out the changes in the geometry of the closest-packed configuration as a function of the aspect ratio L/D, where L is the cylinder length and D the diameter of the rods. We find a rich variety of cluster structures. For larger clusters, we find that the best-packed configurations up to around 100 particles are highly dependent on the exact number of particles and aspect ratio. For even larger clusters, we find largely disordered clusters for very short rods (L/D = 0.25), while slightly longer rods (L/D = 0.5 or 1) prefer a global baseball-like geometry of smectic-like domains, similar to the behavior of large-scale nematic shells. Intriguingly, we observe that when compared to their optimal flat-plane packing, short rods adapt to the spherical geometry more efficiently than both spheres and longer rods. Our results provide predictions for experimentally realizable systems of colloidal rods trapped at the interface of emulsion droplets.

  2. Close packing of rods on spherical surfaces.

    PubMed

    Smallenburg, Frank; Löwen, Hartmut

    2016-04-28

    We study the optimal packing of short, hard spherocylinders confined to lie tangential to a spherical surface, using simulated annealing and molecular dynamics simulations. For clusters of up to twelve particles, we map out the changes in the geometry of the closest-packed configuration as a function of the aspect ratio L/D, where L is the cylinder length and D the diameter of the rods. We find a rich variety of cluster structures. For larger clusters, we find that the best-packed configurations up to around 100 particles are highly dependent on the exact number of particles and aspect ratio. For even larger clusters, we find largely disordered clusters for very short rods (L/D = 0.25), while slightly longer rods (L/D = 0.5 or 1) prefer a global baseball-like geometry of smectic-like domains, similar to the behavior of large-scale nematic shells. Intriguingly, we observe that when compared to their optimal flat-plane packing, short rods adapt to the spherical geometry more efficiently than both spheres and longer rods. Our results provide predictions for experimentally realizable systems of colloidal rods trapped at the interface of emulsion droplets. PMID:27131565

  3. Epigenomic landscapes of retinal rods and cones

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Alisa; Luo, Chongyuan; Davis, Fred P; Mukamel, Eran A; Henry, Gilbert L; Nery, Joseph R; Urich, Mark A; Picard, Serge; Lister, Ryan; Eddy, Sean R; Beer, Michael A; Ecker, Joseph R; Nathans, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Rod and cone photoreceptors are highly similar in many respects but they have important functional and molecular differences. Here, we investigate genome-wide patterns of DNA methylation and chromatin accessibility in mouse rods and cones and correlate differences in these features with gene expression, histone marks, transcription factor binding, and DNA sequence motifs. Loss of NR2E3 in rods shifts their epigenomes to a more cone-like state. The data further reveal wide differences in DNA methylation between retinal photoreceptors and brain neurons. Surprisingly, we also find a substantial fraction of DNA hypo-methylated regions in adult rods that are not in active chromatin. Many of these regions exhibit hallmarks of regulatory regions that were active earlier in neuronal development, suggesting that these regions could remain undermethylated due to the highly compact chromatin in mature rods. This work defines the epigenomic landscapes of rods and cones, revealing features relevant to photoreceptor development and function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11613.001 PMID:26949250

  4. High-throughput rod-induced electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Dezhi; Xiao, Zhiming; Teh, Kwok Siong; Han, Zhibin; Luo, Guoxi; Shi, Chuan; Sun, Daoheng; Zhao, Jinbao; Lin, Liwei

    2016-09-01

    A high throughput electrospinning process, directly from flat polymer solution surfaces induced by a moving insulating rod, has been proposed and demonstrated. Different rods made of either phenolic resin or paper with a diameter of 1–3 cm and a resistance of about 100–500 MΩ, has been successfully utilized in the process. The rod is placed approximately 10 mm above the flat polymer solution surface with a moving speed of 0.005–0.4 m s‑1 this causes the solution to generate multiple liquid jets under an applied voltage of 15–60 kV for the tip-less electrospinning process. The local electric field induced by the rod can boost electrohydrodynamic instability in order to generate Taylor cones and liquid jets. Experimentally, it is found that a large rod diameter and a small solution-to-rod distance can enhance the local electrical field to reduce the magnitude of the applied voltage. In the prototype setup with poly (ethylene oxide) polymer solution, an area of 5 cm  ×  10 cm and under an applied voltage of 60 kV, the maximum throughput of nanofibers is recorded to be approximately144 g m‑2 h‑1.

  5. International symposium on fuel rod simulators: development and application

    SciTech Connect

    McCulloch, R.W.

    1981-05-01

    Separate abstracts are included for each of the papers presented concerning fuel rod simulator operation and performance; simulator design and evaluation; clad heated fuel rod simulators and fuel rod simulators for cladding investigations; fuel rod simulator components and inspection; and simulator analytical modeling. Ten papers have previously been input to the Energy Data Base.

  6. Mechanical performance of fiberglass sucker-rod strings

    SciTech Connect

    Tripp, H.A.

    1988-08-01

    The natural frequencies of fiberglass sucker-rod strings can be calculated by treating the rod strings as modified spring/mass vibration systems. The ratio of the pumping-unit operating speed to the rod-string natural frequency can then be used as a basis for understanding fiberglass-rod performance and for predicting downhole pump stroke lengths.

  7. 49 CFR 230.93 - Pistons and piston rods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pistons and piston rods. 230.93 Section 230.93... Tenders Driving Gear § 230.93 Pistons and piston rods. (a) Maintenance and testing. Pistons and piston rods shall be maintained in safe and suitable condition for service. Piston rods shall be inspected...

  8. Nuclear reactor remote disconnect control rod coupling indicator

    DOEpatents

    Vuckovich, Michael

    1977-01-01

    A coupling indicator for use with nuclear reactor control rod assemblies which have remotely disengageable couplings between the control rod and the control rod drive shaft. The coupling indicator indicates whether the control rod and the control rod drive shaft are engaged or disengaged. A resistive network, utilizing magnetic reed switches, senses the position of the control rod drive mechanism lead screw and the control rod position indicating tube, and the relative position of these two elements with respect to each other is compared to determine whether the coupling is engaged or disengaged.

  9. Photovoltage of Rods and Cones in the Macaque Retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneeweis, David M.; Schnapf, Julie L.

    1995-05-01

    The kinetics, gain, and reliability of light responses of rod and cone photoreceptors are important determinants of overall visual sensitivity. In voltage recordings from photoreceptors in an intact primate retina, rods were found to be functionally isolated from each other, unlike the tightly coupled rods of cold-blooded vertebrates. Cones were observed to receive excitatory input from rods, which indicates that the cone pathway also processes rod signals. This input might be expected to degrade the spatial resolution of mesopic vision.

  10. Regulatory perspective on incomplete control rod insertions

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterton, M.

    1997-01-01

    The incomplete control rod insertions experienced at South Texas Unit 1 and Wolf Creek are of safety concern to the NRC staff because they represent potential precursors to loss of shutdown margin. Even before it was determined if these events were caused by the control rods or by the fuel there was an apparent correlation of the problem with high burnup fuel. It was determined that there was also a correlation between high burnup and high drag forces as well as with rod drop time histories and lack of rod recoil. The NRC staff initial actions were aimed at getting a perspective on the magnitude of the problem as far as the number of plants and the amount of fuel that could be involved, as well as the safety significance in terms of shutdown margin. As tests have been performed and data has been analyzed the focus has shifted more toward understanding the problem and the ways to eliminate it. At this time the staff`s understanding of the phenomena is that it was a combination of factors including burnup, power history and temperature. The problem appears to be very sensitive to these factors, the interaction of which is not clearly understood. The model developed by Westinghouse provides a possible explanation but there is not sufficient data to establish confidence levels and sensitivity studies involving the key parameters have not been done. While several fixes to the problem have been discussed, no definitive fixes have been proposed. Without complete understanding of the phenomena, or fixes that clearly eliminate the problem the safety concern remains. The safety significance depends on the amount of shutdown margin lost due to incomplete insertion of the control rods. Were the control rods to stick high in the core, the reactor could not be shutdown by the control rods and other means such as emergency boration would be required.

  11. Fuel rod mechanical deformation during the PBF/LOFT lead rod loss-of-coolant experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Varacalle, Jr., D. J.; MacDonald, P. E.; Shiozawa, S.; Driskell, W. E.

    1980-01-01

    Results of four PBF/LOFT Lead Rod (LLR) sequential blowdown tests conducted in the Power Burst Facility (PBF) are presented. Each test employed four separately shrouded fuel rods. The primary objective of the test series was to evaluate the extent of mechanical deformation that would be expected to occur to low pressure (0.1 MPa), light water reactor design fuel rods when subjected to a series of double ended cold leg break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) tests, and to determine whether subjecting these deformed fuel rods to subsequent testing would result in rod failure. The extent of mechanical deformation (buckling, collapse, or waisting of the cladding) was evaluated by comparison of cladding temperature and system pressure measurements with out-of-pile experimental data, and by posttest visual examinations and cladding diametral measurements.

  12. Passive electrical properties of rod outer segments

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Gertrude; Fatt, P.

    1968-01-01

    1. Measurements on a packed suspension of randomly oriented, dark-adapted frog rods at frequencies of 15 c/s-0·5 Mc/s indicate a behaviour similar to that of other biological materials. 2. Results are analysed on the assumption that the low-frequency limiting resistance is determined by current flowing in the suspending medium and that, of the rods, two thirds are oriented perpendicular to the applied field and one third parallel to it. Those parallel to the field are treated as non-conductors. 3. From the high-frequency limiting resistance the conductivity of the rod interior is calculated to vary linearly with the conductivity of the medium. The slope of the relation of internal to external conductivity is 0·50 with a limiting internal conductivity (at zero external) of 280 μmho/cm. 4. On the assumption that the suspension can be represented as a single-capacitance network, the characteristic frequency of impedance is used to calculate a capacitance for the rod surface of 1·54 μF/cm2. On the assumption of a distribution in properties of the suspension according to the theory of Bruggeman, the capacitance is calculated to have a value of about one half this. 5. At frequencies below 5 kc/s the impedance locus deviates from the curve describing the behaviour at higher frequencies. It is suggested that this may involve conduction in a thin layer extending along the surface of the rod. PMID:5685292

  13. Gelation And Mechanical Response of Patchy Rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazem, Navid; Majidi, Carmel; Maloney, Craig

    We perform Brownian Dynamics simulations to study the gelation of suspensions of attractive, rod-like particles. We show that details of the particle-particle interactions can dramatically affect the dynamics of gelation and the structure and mechanics of the networks that form. If the attraction between the rods is perfectly smooth along their length, they will collapse into compact bundles. If the attraction is sufficiently corrugated or patchy, over time, a rigid space spanning network forms. We study the structure and mechanical properties of the networks that form as a function of the fraction of the surface that is allowed to bind. Surprisingly, the structural and mechanical properties are non-monotonic in the surface coverage. At low coverage, there are not a sufficient number of cross-linking sites to form networks. At high coverage, rods bundle and form disconnected clusters. At intermediate coverage, robust networks form. The elastic modulus and yield stress are both non-monotonic in the surface coverage. The stiffest and strongest networks show an essentially homogeneous deformation under strain with rods re-orienting along the extensional axis. Weaker, clumpy networks at high surface coverage exhibit relatively little re-orienting with strong non-affine deformation. These results suggest design strategies for tailoring surface interactions between rods to yield rigid networks with optimal properties. National Science Foundation and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  14. Radiological characterization of spent control rod assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Lepel, E.A.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.; Pratt, S.L.; Haggard, D.L.

    1995-10-01

    This document represents the final report of an ongoing study to provide radiological characterizations, classifications, and assessments in support of the decommissioning of nuclear power stations. This report describes the results of non-destructive and laboratory radionuclide measurements, as well as waste classification assessments, of BWR and PWR spent control rod assemblies. The radionuclide inventories of these spent control rods were determined by three separate methodologies, including (1) direct assay techniques, (2) calculational techniques, and (3) by sampling and laboratory radiochemical analyses. For the BWR control rod blade (CRB) and PWR burnable poison rod assembly (BPRA), {sup 60}Co and {sup 63}Ni, present in the stainless steel cladding, were the most abundant neutron activation products. The most abundant radionuclide in the PWR rod cluster control assembly (RCCA) was {sup 108m}Ag (130 yr halflife) produced in the Ag-In-Cd alloy used as the neutron poison. This radionuclide will be the dominant contributor to the gamma dose rate for many hundreds of years. The results of the direct assay methods agree very well ({+-}10%) with the sampling/radiochemical measurements. The results of the calculational methods agreed fairly well with the empirical measurements for the BPRA, but often varied by a factor of 5 to 10 for the CRB and the RCCA assemblies. If concentration averaging and encapsulation, as allowed by 10CFR61.55, is performed, then each of the entire control assemblies would be classified as Class C low-level radioactive waste.

  15. Dynamic behavior of rod photoreceptor disks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunhe; Jiang, Yunhai; Koutalos, Yiannis

    2002-09-01

    Eukaryotic cells use membrane organelles, like the endoplasmic reticulum or the Golgi, to carry out different functions. Vertebrate rod photoreceptors use hundreds of membrane sacs (the disks) for the detection of light. We have used fluorescent tracers and single cell imaging to study the properties of rod photoreceptor disks. Labeling of intact rod photoreceptors with membrane markers and polar tracers revealed communication between intradiskal and extracellular space. Internalized tracers moved along the length of the rod outer segment, indicating communication between the disks as well. This communication involved the exchange of both membrane and aqueous phase and had a time constant in the order of minutes. The communication pathway uses approximately 2% of the available membrane disk area and does not allow the passage of molecules larger than 10 kDa. It was possible to load the intradiskal space with fluorescent Ca(2+) and pH dyes, which reported an intradiskal Ca(2+) concentration in the order of 1 microM and an acidic pH 6.5, both of them significantly different than intracellular and extracellular Ca(2+) concentrations and pH. The results suggest that the rod photoreceptor disks are not discrete, passive sacs but rather comprise an active cellular organelle. The communication between disks may be important for membrane remodeling as well as for providing access to the intradiskal space of the whole outer segment. PMID:12202366

  16. Single Rod Vibration in Axial Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weichselbaum, Noah; Wang, Shengfu; Bardet, Philippe

    2013-11-01

    Fluid structure interaction of a single rod in axial flow is a coupled dynamical system present in many application including nuclear reactors, steam generators, and towed antenna arrays. Fluid-structure response can be quantified thanks to detailed experimental data where both structure and fluid responses are recorded. Such datum deepen understanding of the physics inherent to the system and provide high-dimensionality quantitative measurements to validate coupled structural and CFD codes with various level of complexity. In this work, single rods fixed on both ends in a concentric pipe, are subjected to an axial flow with Reynolds number based on hydraulic diameter of Re =4000. Rods of varying material stiffness and diameter are utilized in the experiment resulting in a range of dimensionless U between 0.5 and 1, where U = (ρA/EI)1/2uL. Experimental measurements of the velocity field around the rod are taken with PIV from time-resolved Nd:YLF laser and a high speed CMOS camera. Three-dimensional and temporal vibration and deflection of the rod is recorded with shadowgraphy utilizing two sets of pulsed high power LED and dedicated CMOS camera. Through integration of these two diagnostics, it is possible to reconstruct the full FSI domain providing unique validation data.

  17. Coiling of elastic rods on rigid substrates

    PubMed Central

    Jawed, Mohammad K.; Da, Fang; Joo, Jungseock; Grinspun, Eitan; Reis, Pedro M.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the deployment of a thin elastic rod onto a rigid substrate and study the resulting coiling patterns. In our approach, we combine precision model experiments, scaling analyses, and computer simulations toward developing predictive understanding of the coiling process. Both cases of deposition onto static and moving substrates are considered. We construct phase diagrams for the possible coiling patterns and characterize them as a function of the geometric and material properties of the rod, as well as the height and relative speeds of deployment. The modes selected and their characteristic length scales are found to arise from a complex interplay between gravitational, bending, and twisting energies of the rod, coupled to the geometric nonlinearities intrinsic to the large deformations. We give particular emphasis to the first sinusoidal mode of instability, which we find to be consistent with a Hopf bifurcation, and analyze the meandering wavelength and amplitude. Throughout, we systematically vary natural curvature of the rod as a control parameter, which has a qualitative and quantitative effect on the pattern formation, above a critical value that we determine. The universality conferred by the prominent role of geometry in the deformation modes of the rod suggests using the gained understanding as design guidelines, in the original applications that motivated the study. PMID:25267649

  18. Coiling of elastic rods on rigid substrates.

    PubMed

    Jawed, Mohammad K; Da, Fang; Joo, Jungseock; Grinspun, Eitan; Reis, Pedro M

    2014-10-14

    We investigate the deployment of a thin elastic rod onto a rigid substrate and study the resulting coiling patterns. In our approach, we combine precision model experiments, scaling analyses, and computer simulations toward developing predictive understanding of the coiling process. Both cases of deposition onto static and moving substrates are considered. We construct phase diagrams for the possible coiling patterns and characterize them as a function of the geometric and material properties of the rod, as well as the height and relative speeds of deployment. The modes selected and their characteristic length scales are found to arise from a complex interplay between gravitational, bending, and twisting energies of the rod, coupled to the geometric nonlinearities intrinsic to the large deformations. We give particular emphasis to the first sinusoidal mode of instability, which we find to be consistent with a Hopf bifurcation, and analyze the meandering wavelength and amplitude. Throughout, we systematically vary natural curvature of the rod as a control parameter, which has a qualitative and quantitative effect on the pattern formation, above a critical value that we determine. The universality conferred by the prominent role of geometry in the deformation modes of the rod suggests using the gained understanding as design guidelines, in the original applications that motivated the study. PMID:25267649

  19. Rod consolidation at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.

    1986-12-01

    A rod consolidation demonstration with irradiated pressurized water reactor fuel was recently conducted by personnel from Nuclear Assurance Corporation and West Valley Nuclear Services Company at the West Valley Demonstration Project in West Valley, New York. The rod consolidation demonstration involved pulling all of the fuel rods from six fuel Assemblies. In general, the rod pulling proceeded smoothly. The highest compaction ratio attained was 1:8:1. Among the total of 1074 fuel rods were some known degraded rods (they had collapsed cladding, a result of in-reactor fuel densification), but no rods were broken or dropped during the demonstration. One aim was to gather information on the effect of rod consolidation operations on the integrity of the fuel rods during subsequent handling and storage. Another goal was to collect information on the condition and handling of intact, damaged, and failed fuel that has been in storage for an extended period. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Studying rod photoreceptor development in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Morris, A.C.; Fadool, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The zebrafish has rapidly become a favored model vertebrate organism, well suited for studies of developmental processes using large-scale genetic screens. In particular, zebrafish morphological and behavioral genetic screens have led to the identification of genes important for development of the retinal photoreceptors. This may help clarify the genetic mechanisms underlying human photoreceptor development and dysfunction in retinal diseases. In this review, we present the advantages of zebrafish as a vertebrate model organism, summarize retinal and photoreceptor cell development in zebrafish, with emphasis on the rod photoreceptors, and describe zebrafish visual behaviors that can be used for genetic screens. We then describe some of the photoreceptor cell mutants that have been isolated in morphological and behavioral screens and discuss the limitations of current screening methods for uncovering mutations that specifically affect rod function. Finally, we present some alternative strategies to target the rod developmental pathway in zebrafish. PMID:16199068

  1. Magnetic switch for reactor control rod

    DOEpatents

    Germer, John H.

    1986-01-01

    A magnetic reed switch assembly for activating an electromagnetic grapple utilized to hold a control rod in position above a reactor core. In normal operation the magnetic field of a permanent magnet is short-circuited by a magnetic shunt, diverting the magnetic field away from the reed switch. The magnetic shunt is made of a material having a Curie-point at the desired release temperature. Above that temperature the material loses its ferromagnetic properties, and the magnetic path is diverted to the reed switch which closes and short-circuits the control circuit for the control rod electromagnetic grapple which allows the control rod to drop into the reactor core for controlling the reactivity of the core.

  2. Magnetic switch for reactor control rod. [LMFBR

    DOEpatents

    Germer, J.H.

    1982-09-30

    A magnetic reed switch assembly is described for activating an electromagnetic grapple utilized to hold a control rod in position above a reactor core. In normal operation the magnetic field of a permanent magnet is short-circuited by a magnetic shunt, diverting the magnetic field away from the reed switch. The magnetic shunt is made of a material having a Curie-point at the desired release temperature. Above that temperature the material loses its ferromagnetic properties, and the magnetic path is diverted to the reed switch which closes and short-circuits the control circuit for the control rod electro-magnetic grapple which allows the control rod to drop into the reactor core for controlling the reactivity of the core.

  3. Fragmentation of an axially impacted slender rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, W.; Waas, A. M.

    2010-02-01

    Motivated by experimental results on the dynamic buckling and fragmentation of a vertical column impacted by a falling mass, results from an analytical model for dynamic buckling which considers the dynamic interaction between the axial column deformation and the out-of-plane buckling displacements are used to interpret the fragmentation process and the resulting fragment lengths. It is shown that a critical time exists for the rod to undergo fragmentation. At this critical time, the rod deforms in a modulated pattern of waves, setting up the stage for the ensuing fragmentation as a result of induced large curvatures that exceed the critical bending strain of the rod material. The resulting fragment length distributions, which show two characteristics peaks at \\frac{\\lambda}{2} and \\frac{\\lambda}{4} , where λ is a characteristic half-wavelength, are found to compare favorably with the experimental results.

  4. Hot Cutting of Real-Time Cast-Forged GS Ductile Iron for Automotive Rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouilland, Laurence; Mansori, Mohamed El

    2011-01-01

    In the global economy context, automotive industry suppliers have to keep a constant advance on products design and manufacturing process. Concerning automotive rods, the substitution of forged steel by spherical graphite iron (SG iron) with high mechanical properties constitutes a valid economic alternative. Such rods are produced using a complex coupled process: casting and forging followed by an austempered heat treatment. The forging operation is capable to shape the cast rod which introduces hot deformation to increase mechanical properties of net-shape SG iron rod. However, the intermediate re-heating between casting and forging must be avoided to keep competitive manufacturing costs. A major concern of this new process development is the cracks produced in rod's surface which are consecutive to hot spruing involved after casting operations. This issue is addressed in this paper which discusses the physical mechanisms involved in the hot ductile damage of SG iron. Hot cutting tests were performed to simulate the spruing operation which shows the close interactions between microstructure, machining parameters and resulting damages. The damage mechanisms in terms of crack initiation and its growth have been studied with respect to the constituent phases (austenite+graphite nodules), the cut surface morphology and the hot cutting performance.

  5. The impact of tungsten long rod penetrators into water filled targets

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, L.T.; Dickinson, D.L.; Hertel, E.S. Jr.

    1998-02-01

    Twelve experiments were conducted to determine the effect of water filled targets on the penetration of tungsten long rods in terms of their residual mass and integrity. CTH hydrocode calculations were performed for each of the experiments to ensure that the erosion and breakup of the tungsten projectiles could be accurately reproduced. The CTH hydrocode predictions correlation well with the experimental results in most cases. Only 8% of the variance is unexplained. The slip interface between the rod and water was approximated in one of two ways: (1) using the CTH BLINT option in 2-D or (2) using a standard Eulerian mixed cells treatment. Results indicate that a 3-D BLINT algorithm is critical to predicting rod residual lengths. The authors were unable to reproduce rod fracture that occurred in every experiment where the water column exceeded 25 cm in length. The authors feel that this is due to a change in rod material properties during penetration, and continue to investigate the issue.

  6. Multicultural Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Charrles; Kampfe, Charlene

    This chapter examines issues related to working with diverse populations with addictions. A brief history of multiculturalism and multicultural counseling is presented. Issues particular to the treatment of people with addictions are examined, as well as prevention and assessment issues. Substance abuse issues among people in the gay male and…

  7. Nuclear reactor fuel rod attachment system

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1980-09-17

    A reusable system is described for removably attaching a nuclear reactor fuel rod to a support member. A locking cap is secured to the fuel rod and a locking strip is fastened to the support member. The locking cap has two opposing fingers shaped to form a socket having a body portion. The locking strip has an extension shaped to rigidly attach to the socket's body portion. The locking cap's fingers are resiliently deflectable. For attachment, the locking cap is longitudinally pushed onto the locking strip causing the extension to temporarily deflect open the fingers to engage the socket's body portion. For removal, the process is reversed.

  8. Method for producing titanium aluminide weld rod

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, Jeffrey S.; Turner, Paul C.; Argetsinger, Edward R.

    1995-01-01

    A process for producing titanium aluminide weld rod comprising: attaching one end of a metal tube to a vacuum line; placing a means between said vacuum line and a junction of the metal tube to prevent powder from entering the vacuum line; inducing a vacuum within the tube; placing a mixture of titanium and aluminum powder in the tube and employing means to impact the powder in the tube to a filled tube; heating the tube in the vacuum at a temperature sufficient to initiate a high-temperature synthesis (SHS) reaction between the titanium and aluminum; and lowering the temperature to ambient temperature to obtain a intermetallic titanium aluminide alloy weld rod.

  9. HIGH STRENGTH CONTROL RODS FOR NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Lustman, B.; Losco, E.F.; Cohen, I.

    1961-07-11

    Nuclear reactor control rods comprised of highly compressed and sintered finely divided metal alloy panticles and fine metal oxide panticles substantially uniformly distributed theretbrough are described. The metal alloy consists essentially of silver, indium, cadmium, tin, and aluminum, the amount of each being present in centain percentages by weight. The oxide particles are metal oxides of the metal alloy composition, the amount of oxygen being present in certain percentages by weight and all the oxygen present being substantially in the form of metal oxide. This control rod is characterized by its high strength and resistance to creep at elevated temperatures.

  10. Control rod drive for reactor shutdown

    DOEpatents

    McKeehan, Ernest R.; Shawver, Bruce M.; Schiro, Donald J.; Taft, William E.

    1976-01-20

    A means for rapidly shutting down or scramming a nuclear reactor, such as a liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactor, and serves as a backup to the primary shutdown system. The control rod drive consists basically of an in-core assembly, a drive shaft and seal assembly, and a control drive mechanism. The control rod is driven into the core region of the reactor by gravity and hydraulic pressure forces supplied by the reactor coolant, thus assuring that common mode failures will not interfere with or prohibit scramming the reactor when necessary.

  11. Method and means of packaging nuclear fuel rods for handling

    DOEpatents

    Adam, Milton F.

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear fuel rods, especially spent nuclear fuel rods that may show physical distortion, are encased within a metallic enclosing structure by forming a tube about the fuel rod. The tube has previously been rolled to form an overlapping tubular structure and then unrolled and coiled about an axis perpendicular to the tube. The fuel rod is inserted into the tube as the rolled tube is removed from a coiled strip and allowed to reassume its tubular shape about the fuel rod. Rollers support the coiled strip in an open position as the coiled strip is uncoiled and allowed to roll about the fuel rod.

  12. Modeling and simulation performance of sucker rod beam pump

    SciTech Connect

    Aditsania, Annisa; Rahmawati, Silvy Dewi Sukarno, Pudjo; Soewono, Edy

    2015-09-30

    Artificial lift is a mechanism to lift hydrocarbon, generally petroleum, from a well to surface. This is used in the case that the natural pressure from the reservoir has significantly decreased. Sucker rod beam pumping is a method of artificial lift. Sucker rod beam pump is modeled in this research as a function of geometry of the surface part, the size of sucker rod string, and fluid properties. Besides its length, sucker rod string also classified into tapered and un-tapered. At the beginning of this research, for easy modeling, the sucker rod string was assumed as un-tapered. The assumption proved non-realistic to use. Therefore, the tapered sucker rod string modeling needs building. The numerical solution of this sucker rod beam pump model is computed using finite difference method. The numerical result shows that the peak of polished rod load for sucker rod beam pump unit C-456-D-256-120, for non-tapered sucker rod string is 38504.2 lb, while for tapered rod string is 25723.3 lb. For that reason, to avoid the sucker rod string breaks due to the overload, the use of tapered sucker rod beam string is suggested in this research.

  13. Modeling and simulation performance of sucker rod beam pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aditsania, Annisa; Rahmawati, Silvy Dewi; Sukarno, Pudjo; Soewono, Edy

    2015-09-01

    Artificial lift is a mechanism to lift hydrocarbon, generally petroleum, from a well to surface. This is used in the case that the natural pressure from the reservoir has significantly decreased. Sucker rod beam pumping is a method of artificial lift. Sucker rod beam pump is modeled in this research as a function of geometry of the surface part, the size of sucker rod string, and fluid properties. Besides its length, sucker rod string also classified into tapered and un-tapered. At the beginning of this research, for easy modeling, the sucker rod string was assumed as un-tapered. The assumption proved non-realistic to use. Therefore, the tapered sucker rod string modeling needs building. The numerical solution of this sucker rod beam pump model is computed using finite difference method. The numerical result shows that the peak of polished rod load for sucker rod beam pump unit C-456-D-256-120, for non-tapered sucker rod string is 38504.2 lb, while for tapered rod string is 25723.3 lb. For that reason, to avoid the sucker rod string breaks due to the overload, the use of tapered sucker rod beam string is suggested in this research.

  14. A Cambrian origin for vertebrate rods

    PubMed Central

    Asteriti, Sabrina; Grillner, Sten; Cangiano, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrates acquired dim-light vision when an ancestral cone evolved into the rod photoreceptor at an unknown stage preceding the last common ancestor of extant jawed vertebrates (∼420 million years ago Ma). The jawless lampreys provide a unique opportunity to constrain the timing of this advance, as their line diverged ∼505 Ma and later displayed high-morphological stability. We recorded with patch electrodes the inner segment photovoltages and with suction electrodes the outer segment photocurrents of Lampetra fluviatilis retinal photoreceptors. Several key functional features of jawed vertebrate rods are present in their phylogenetically homologous photoreceptors in lamprey: crucially, the efficient amplification of the effect of single photons, measured by multiple parameters, and the flow of rod signals into cones. These results make convergent evolution in the jawless and jawed vertebrate lines unlikely and indicate an early origin of rods, implying strong selective pressure toward dim-light vision in Cambrian ecosystems. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07166.001 PMID:26095697

  15. Monodisperse hard rods in external potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhti, Benaoumeur; Karbach, Michael; Maass, Philipp; Müller, Gerhard

    2015-10-01

    We consider linear arrays of cells of volume Vc populated by monodisperse rods of size σ Vc,σ =1 ,2 ,... , subject to hardcore exclusion interaction. Each rod experiences a position-dependent external potential. In one application we also examine effects of contact forces between rods. We employ two distinct methods of exact analysis with complementary strengths and different limits of spatial resolution to calculate profiles of pressure and density on mesoscopic and microscopic length scales at thermal equilibrium. One method uses density functionals and the other statistically interacting vacancy particles. The applications worked out include gravity, power-law traps, and hard walls. We identify oscillations in the profiles on a microscopic length scale and show how they are systematically averaged out on a well-defined mesoscopic length scale to establish full consistency between the two approaches. The continuum limit, realized as Vc→0 ,σ →∞ at nonzero and finite σ Vc , connects our highest-resolution results with known exact results for monodisperse rods in a continuum. We also compare the pressure profiles obtained from density functionals with the average microscopic pressure profiles derived from the pair distribution function.

  16. Piston rod seal for a Stirling engine

    DOEpatents

    Shapiro, Wilbur

    1984-01-01

    In a piston rod seal for a Stirling engine, a hydrostatic bearing and differential pressure regulating valve are utilized to provide for a low pressure differential across a rubbing seal between the hydrogen and oil so as to reduce wear on the seal.

  17. Piston rod seal for a Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, W.

    1984-01-31

    In a piston rod seal for a Stirling engine, a hydrostatic bearing and differential pressure regulating valve are utilized to provide for a low pressure differential across a rubbing seal between the hydrogen and oil so as to reduce wear on the seal. 3 figs.

  18. Dark Current and Photocurrent in Retinal Rods

    PubMed Central

    Hagins, W. A.; Penn, R. D.; Yoshikami, S.

    1970-01-01

    The interstitial voltages, currents, and resistances of the receptor layer of the isolated rat retina have been investigated with arrays of micropipette electrodes inserted under direct visual observation by infrared microscopy. In darkness a steady current flows inward through the plasma membrane of the rod outer segments. It is balanced by equal outward current distributed along the remainder of each rod. Flashes of light produce a photocurrent which transiently reduces the dark current with a waveform resembling the PII and a-wave components of the electroretinogram. The photocurrent is produced by a local action of light within 12 μm of its point of absorption in the outer segments. The quantum current gain of the photocurrent is greater than 106. The electrical space constant of rat rods is greater than 25 μm, so that the electrical effects of the photocurrent are large enough at the rod synapses to permit single absorbed photons to be detected by the visual system. The photocurrent is apparently the primary sensory consequence of light absorption by rhodopsin. ImagesFigure 3Figure 8Figure 14 PMID:5439318

  19. CONTROL ROD ALLOY CONTAINING NOBLE METAL ADDITIONS

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, W.K.; Ray, W.E.

    1960-05-01

    Silver-base alloys suitable for use in the fabrication of control rods for neutronic reactors are given. The alloy consists of from 0.5 wt.% to about 1.5 wt.% of a noble metal of platinum, ruthenium, rhodium, osmium, or palladium, up to 10 wt.% of cadmium, from 2 to 20 wt.% indium, the balance being silver.

  20. Image analysis for measuring rod network properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongjae; Choi, Jungkyu; Nam, Jaewook

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, metallic nanowires have been attracting significant attention as next-generation flexible transparent conductive films. The performance of films depends on the network structure created by nanowires. Gaining an understanding of their structure, such as connectivity, coverage, and alignment of nanowires, requires the knowledge of individual nanowires inside the microscopic images taken from the film. Although nanowires are flexible up to a certain extent, they are usually depicted as rigid rods in many analysis and computational studies. Herein, we propose a simple and straightforward algorithm based on the filtering in the frequency domain for detecting the rod-shape objects inside binary images. The proposed algorithm uses a specially designed filter in the frequency domain to detect image segments, namely, the connected components aligned in a certain direction. Those components are post-processed to be combined under a given merging rule in a single rod object. In this study, the microscopic properties of the rod networks relevant to the analysis of nanowire networks were measured for investigating the opto-electric performance of transparent conductive films and their alignment distribution, length distribution, and area fraction. To verify and find the optimum parameters for the proposed algorithm, numerical experiments were performed on synthetic images with predefined properties. By selecting proper parameters, the algorithm was used to investigate silver nanowire transparent conductive films fabricated by the dip coating method.

  1. Drop Ejection From an Oscillating Rod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, E. D.; Basaran, O. A.

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of a drop of a Newtonian liquid that is pendant from or sessile on a solid rod that is forced to undergo time-periodic oscillations along its axis is studied theoretically. The free boundary problem governing the time evolution of the shape of the drop and the flow field inside it is solved by a method of lines using a finite element algorithm incorporating an adaptive mesh. When the forcing amplitude is small, the drop approaches a limit cycle at large times and undergoes steady oscillations thereafter. However, drop breakup is the consequence if the forcing amplitude exceeds a critical value. Over a wide range of amplitudes above this critical value, drop ejection from the rod occurs during the second oscillation period from the commencement of rod motion. Remarkably, the shape of the interface at breakup and the volume of the primary drop formed are insensitive to changes in forcing amplitude. The interface shape at times close to and at breakup is a multi-valued function of distance measured along the rod axis and hence cannot be described by recently popularized one-dimensional approximations. The computations show that drop ejection occurs without the formation of a long neck. Therefore, this method of drop formation holds promise of preventing formation of undesirable satellite droplets.

  2. 11. Detail showing stay rods and westerly Samson post; view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Detail showing stay rods and westerly Samson post; view to west. Note slackness of stay rods while draw-span is closed. - Summer Street Bridge, Spanning Reserved Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  3. Reprogramming of adult rod photoreceptors prevents retinal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Montana, Cynthia L.; Kolesnikov, Alexander V.; Shen, Susan Q.; Myers, Connie A.; Kefalov, Vladimir J.; Corbo, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    A prime goal of regenerative medicine is to direct cell fates in a therapeutically useful manner. Retinitis pigmentosa is one of the most common degenerative diseases of the eye and is associated with early rod photoreceptor death followed by secondary cone degeneration. We hypothesized that converting adult rods into cones, via knockdown of the rod photoreceptor determinant Nrl, could make the cells resistant to the effects of mutations in rod-specific genes, thereby preventing secondary cone loss. To test this idea, we engineered a tamoxifen-inducible allele of Nrl to acutely inactivate the gene in adult rods. This manipulation resulted in reprogramming of rods into cells with a variety of cone-like molecular, histologic, and functional properties. Moreover, reprogramming of adult rods achieved cellular and functional rescue of retinal degeneration in a mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa. These findings suggest that elimination of Nrl in adult rods may represent a unique therapy for retinal degeneration. PMID:23319618

  4. Stimulus-evoked outer segment changes in rod photoreceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaohui; Thapa, Damber; Wang, Benquan; Lu, Yiming; Gai, Shaoyan; Yao, Xincheng

    2016-06-01

    Rod-dominated transient retinal phototropism (TRP) has been recently observed in freshly isolated mouse and frog retinas. Comparative confocal microscopy and optical coherence tomography revealed that the TRP was predominantly elicited from the rod outer segment (OS). However, the biophysical mechanism of rod OS dynamics is still unknown. Mouse and frog retinal slices, which displayed a cross-section of retinal photoreceptors and other functional layers, were used to test the effect of light stimulation on rod OSs. Time-lapse microscopy revealed stimulus-evoked conformational changes of rod OSs. In the center of the stimulated region, the length of the rod OS shrunk, while in the peripheral region, the rod OS swung toward the center region. Our experimental observation and theoretical analysis suggest that the TRP may reflect unbalanced rod disc-shape changes due to localized visible light stimulation.

  5. 32 CFR 989.21 - Record of decision (ROD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the signator. A ROD (40 CFR 1505.2) is a concise public document stating what an agency's decision is... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.21 Record of decision (ROD). (a) The proponent and the...

  6. 32 CFR 989.21 - Record of decision (ROD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the signator. A ROD (40 CFR 1505.2) is a concise public document stating what an agency's decision is... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.21 Record of decision (ROD). (a) The proponent and the...

  7. 5. DETAIL OF ROD MILL BASE AND CONVEYOR BELT SUPPORT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL OF ROD MILL BASE AND CONVEYOR BELT SUPPORT, EAST VIEW. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Grinding Rod Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  8. A solvable model of hard rods with gravitational interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champion, M.; Alastuey, A.

    2015-01-01

    We consider a simple 1D model of hard rods with gravitational interactions. First, we consider the situation where the sytem is enclosed in a box with finite size and we exactly compute the equilibrium thermodynamical quantities. Thanks to the confining nature of gravity in 1D which prevents evaporation, the box can be released and we can study an open system with its center of mass fixed. Then, we exactly compute the corresponding equilibrium density profile within the microcanonical ensemble. All those analytical results are discussed in connection with the general issue of ensemble inequivalences for systems with long-range interactions. They also provide specific tests for the reliability of the hydrostatic approach combined with a mean-field treatment of gravitational interactions. In particular, the hydrostatic approach is shown to fail for energies close to the collapse energy where a core-halo structure emerges.

  9. 13. SOUTHEAST TO SUCKER ROD WORK BENCH AND WOODEN SUCKER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. SOUTHEAST TO SUCKER ROD WORK BENCH AND WOODEN SUCKER ROD STORAGE RACKS ALONG EAST WALL OF FACTORY INTERIOR. AT THIS BENCH WORKERS RIVETED THREADED WROUGHT IRON CONNECTORS TO THE ENDS OF 20' LONG WOODEN SUCKER RODS (THE RODS WHICH EXTEND DOWNWARD IN THE WELL FROM THE GROUND SURFACE TO PISTON DISPLACEMENT PUMPS WHICH ACTUALLY ELEVATE WATER TO THE SURFACE). ROZNOR HEATER AT THE FAR RIGHT WAS ADDED CIRCA 1960. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  10. Rod Has High Tensile Strength And Low Thermal Expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. E.; Everton, R. L.; Howe, E.; O'Malley, M.

    1996-01-01

    Thoriated tungsten extension rod fabricated to replace stainless-steel extension rod attached to linear variable-differential transformer in gap-measuring gauge. Threads formed on end of rod by machining with special fixtures and carefully chosen combination of speeds and feeds.

  11. Measurement of the Speed of Sound in a Metal Rod.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Se-yuen; Ng, Yee-kong; Wu, Kam-wah

    2000-01-01

    Suggests two improved methods to measure the speed of sound in a metal rod. One employs a fast timer to measure the time required for a compression pulse to travel along the rod from end to end, and a second uses a microphone to measure the frequency of the fundamental mode of a freely suspending singing rod. (Author/ASK)

  12. Viscosity of concentrated suspensions of sphere/rod mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Mor, R.; Gottlieb, M.; Graham, A.L.; Mondy, L.A.

    1996-05-01

    This paper discusses the viscosity of concentrated suspensions of sphere/rod mixtures by adopting the Thomas relations for spheres and Milliken`s for randomly oriented rods with aspect ratio of 20. The relative viscosity of a mixed suspension may now be calculated for any combination of rods (of aspect ratio 20) and spheres.

  13. CONTROL ROD DRIVE MECHANISM FOR A NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Hawke, B.C.; Liederbach, F.J.; Lones, W.

    1963-05-14

    A lead-screw-type control rod drive featuring an electric motor and a fluid motor arranged to provide a selectably alternative driving means is described. The electric motor serves to drive the control rod slowly during normal operation, while the fluid motor, assisted by an automatic declutching of the electric motor, affords high-speed rod insertion during a scram. (AEC)

  14. 21 CFR 888.3020 - Intramedullary fixation rod.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intramedullary fixation rod. 888.3020 Section 888.3020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3020 Intramedullary fixation rod. (a) Identification. An intramedullary fixation rod...

  15. 21 CFR 888.3020 - Intramedullary fixation rod.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Intramedullary fixation rod. 888.3020 Section 888.3020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3020 Intramedullary fixation rod. (a) Identification. An intramedullary fixation rod...

  16. Carbon Inverse Opal Rods for Nonenzymatic Cholesterol Detection.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Qifeng; Xie, Zhuoying; Ding, Haibo; Zhu, Cun; Yang, Zixue; Gu, Zhongze

    2015-11-18

    Carbon inverse opal rods made from silica photonic crystal rods are used for nonenzymatic cholesterol sensing. The characteristic reflection peak originating from the physical periodic structure works as sensing signals for quantitatively estimating cholesterol concentrations. Carbon inverse opal rods work both in cholesterol standard solutions and human serum. They are suitable for practical use in clinical diagnose. PMID:26415111

  17. Successful gene therapy in the RPGRIP1-deficient dog: a large model of cone-rod dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Lhériteau, Elsa; Petit, Lolita; Weber, Michel; Le Meur, Guylène; Deschamps, Jack-Yves; Libeau, Lyse; Mendes-Madeira, Alexandra; Guihal, Caroline; François, Achille; Guyon, Richard; Provost, Nathalie; Lemoine, Françoise; Papal, Samantha; El-Amraoui, Aziz; Colle, Marie-Anne; Moullier, Philippe; Rolling, Fabienne

    2014-02-01

    For the development of new therapies, proof-of-concept studies in large animal models that share clinical features with their human counterparts represent a pivotal step. For inherited retinal dystrophies primarily involving photoreceptor cells, the efficacy of gene therapy has been demonstrated in canine models of stationary cone dystrophies and progressive rod-cone dystrophies but not in large models of progressive cone-rod dystrophies, another important cause of blindness. To address the last issue, we evaluated gene therapy in the retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator interacting protein 1 (RPGRIP1)-deficient dog, a model exhibiting a severe cone-rod dystrophy similar to that seen in humans. Subretinal injection of AAV5 (n = 5) or AAV8 (n = 2) encoding the canine Rpgrip1 improved photoreceptor survival in transduced areas of treated retinas. Cone function was significantly and stably rescued in all treated eyes (18-72% of those recorded in normal eyes) up to 24 months postinjection. Rod function was also preserved (22-29% of baseline function) in four of the five treated dogs up to 24 months postinjection. No detectable rod function remained in untreated contralateral eyes. More importantly, treatment preserved bright- and dim-light vision. Efficacy of gene therapy in this large animal model of cone-rod dystrophy provides great promise for human treatment. PMID:24091916

  18. Rebirth of a control rod at the Phenix power plant

    SciTech Connect

    De Carvalho, Corinne; Vignau, Bernard; Masson, Marc

    2007-07-01

    This paper outlines the operations involved in cleaning the control rod for the complementary shutdown system in the Phenix Power Plant, the French sodium-cooled fast reactor. The Phenix reactor is controlled by six control rods and a complementary shutdown system. The latter comprises a control rod and a mechanism maintaining the rod in position by means of an electromagnet. The electromagnet is continuously supplied with power and holds the rod control assembly in position by magnetisation on a plane circular surface made from pure iron. The bearing capacity of the mechanism on the rod was initially 80 daN with a rod weight of 26.3 daN. This deteriorated progressively over time. The bearing surface of the rod and the electromagnet became contaminated with a deposit of sodium oxides and metallic particles, thus creating an air gap. This reached a figure of 36 daN in 2005 and was deemed not to be sufficient to prevent the rod from dropping at the wrong time during reactor operation. The Power Plant thus decided to replace the rod mechanism in the reactor in an initial phase, followed by the control rod itself. As the Phenix Power Plant had no spare control rods left, they initiated a 'salvage' plan, over two stages, for the rod removed from the reactor and placed in the fuel storage drum: - Inspection of the bearing surface of the rod by means of a borescope to check whether the rod could be salvaged, - A cleaning operation on the bearing face and checks on the bearing capacity of the rod. The operation is subject to very stringent requirements: the rod must not be taken out of the sodium to ensure that it can be reused in the reactor. The operation must thus take place in the fuel storage drum where there are no facilities for such an operation and where operating conditions are very hostile: high temperatures (the sodium in the fuel storage drum is at a temperature of 150 deg. C, high dose rate (3 mGy/h on the bearing surface) and the bearing surface is submerged

  19. Mie resonance in the arrays of dielectric rods in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalal, Reena; Kalra, Yogita; Sinha, R. K.

    2015-09-01

    Mie resonance in square arrays of dielectric rods has been reported. Arrays in square lattice of dielectric rods with very high permittivity in air have been considered. Light of transverse electric mode has been launched on the square array of cylindrical dielectric rods. Mie resonance of first two orders has been observed in the dielectric rods, due to which electric and magnetic dipoles are generated in the rods. Thus, electric resonance and magnetic resonance at different frequencies has been observed with material of high value of permittivity.

  20. Variable flow control for a nuclear reactor control rod

    DOEpatents

    Carleton, Richard D.; Bhattacharyya, Ajay

    1978-01-01

    A variable flow control for a control rod assembly of a nuclear reactor that depends on turbulent friction though an annulus. The annulus is formed by a piston attached to the control rod drive shaft and a housing or sleeve fitted to the enclosure housing the control rod. As the nuclear fuel is burned up and the need exists for increased reactivity, the control rods are withdrawn, which increases the length of the annulus and decreases the rate of coolant flow through the control rod assembly.

  1. Diffusion of a nanowire rod through an obstacle field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasimov, Dror; Admon, Tamir; Roichman, Yael

    2016-05-01

    We report the experimental realization of a rod diffusing in a two-dimensional obstacle field following the single rod dynamics. We use a silver nanowire as our rod and two types of obstacles: repelling light beams and polymer pillars. We study the effect of hydrodynamic interactions on the transport of the rod, comparing both experimental realizations and recent simulations. We propose a framework for analyzing the transport through such systems, and we predict a new superdiffusive regime of rod transport at high obstacle concentration and short times.

  2. Theory of thin-walled rods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldenveizer, A L

    1951-01-01

    Starting with the Love equations for bending of extensible shells, "principal stress states" are sought for a thin-walled rod of arbitrary but open cross section. Principal stress states exclude those local states arising from end conditions which damp out with distance from the ends. It is found that for rods of intermediate length, long enough to avoid local bending at a support, and short enough that elementary torsion and bending are not the most significant stress states, four principal states exist. Three of these states are associated with the planar distribution of axial stress and are equivalent to the engineering theory of extension and bending of solid sections. The fourth state resembles that which has been called in the literature "bending stress due to torsional", except that cross sections are permitted to bend and the shear along the center line of the cross section is permitted to differ from zero.

  3. [Rod of Asclepius. Symbol of medicine].

    PubMed

    Young, Pablo; Finn, Bárbara C; Bruetman, Julio E; Cesaro Gelos, Jorge; Trimarchi, Hernán

    2013-09-01

    Symbolism is one of the most archaic forms of human thoughts. Symbol derives from the Latin word symbolum, and the latter from the Greek symbolon or symballo, which means "I coincide, I make matches". The Medicine symbol represents a whole series of historical and ethical values. Asclepius Rod with one serpent entwined, has traditionally been the symbol of scientific medicine. In a misconception that has lasted 500 years, the Caduceus of Hermes, entwined by two serpents and with two wings, has been considered the symbol of Medicine. However, the Caduceus is the current symbol of Commerce. Asclepius Rod and the Caduceus of Hermes represent two professions, Medicine and Commerce that, in ethical practice, should not be mixed. Physicians should be aware of their real emblem, its historical origin and meaning. PMID:24522424

  4. Statistical properties of a folded elastic rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayart, Elsa; Deboeuf, Stéphanie; Boué, Laurent; Corson, Francis; Boudaoud, Arezki; Adda-Bedia, Mokhtar

    2010-03-01

    A large variety of elastic structures naturally seem to be confined into environments too small to accommodate them; the geometry of folded structures span a wide range of length-scales. The elastic properties of these confined systems are further constrained by self-avoidance as well as by the dimensionality of both structures and container. To mimic crumpled paper, we devised an experimental setup to study the packing of a dimensional elastic object in 2D geometries: an elastic rod is folded at the center of a circular Hele-Shaw cell by a centripetal force. The initial configuration of the rod and the acceleration of the rotating disk allow to span different final folded configurations while the final rotation speed controls the packing intensity. Using image analysis we measure geometrical and mechanical properties of the folded configurations, focusing on length, curvature and energy distributions.

  5. Following the equilibria of slender elastic rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarus, Arnaud; Miller, James; Reis, Pedro

    2012-02-01

    We present a novel continuation method to characterize and quantify the equilibria of elastic rods under large geometrically nonlinear displacements and rotations. To describe the kinematics we exploit the synthetic power and computational efficiency of quaternions. The energetics of bending, stretching and torsion are all taken into account to derive the equilibrium equations which we solve using an asymptotic numerical continuation method. This provides access to the full set of analytical equilibrium branches (stable and unstable), a.k.a bifurcation diagrams. This is in contrast with the individual solution points attained by classic energy minimization or predictor-corrector techniques. We challenge our numerics for the specific problem of an extremely twisted naturally curved rod and perform a detailed comparison against a precision desktop-scale experiments. The quantification of the underlying 3D buckling instabilities and the characterization of the resulting complex configurations are in excellent agreement between numerics and experiments.

  6. Dynamics of gas-fluidized granular rods.

    PubMed

    Daniels, L J; Park, Y; Lubensky, T C; Durian, D J

    2009-04-01

    We study a quasi-two-dimensional monolayer of granular rods fluidized by a spatially and temporally homogeneous upflow of air. By tracking the position and orientation of the particles, we characterize the dynamics of the system with sufficient resolution to observe ballistic motion at the shortest time scales. Particle anisotropy gives rise to dynamical anisotropy and superdiffusive dynamics parallel to the rod's long axis, causing the parallel and perpendicular mean-square displacements to become diffusive on different time scales. The distributions of free times and free paths between collisions deviate from exponential behavior, underscoring the nonthermal character of the particle motion. The dynamics show evidence of rotational-translational coupling similar to that of an anisotropic Brownian particle. We model rotational-translational coupling in the single-particle dynamics with a modified Langevin model using nonthermal noise sources. This suggests a phenomenological approach to thinking about collections of self-propelling particles in terms of enhanced memory effects. PMID:19518218

  7. On the Vortex Sound from Rotating Rods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yudin, E. Y.

    1947-01-01

    The motion of different bodies imersed in liquid or gaseous media is accompanied by characteristic sound which is excited by the formation of unstable surfaces of separation behind the body, usually disintegrating into a system of discrete vortices(such as the Karman vortex street due to the flow about an infintely long rod, etc.).In the noise from fans,pumps,and similar machtnery, vortexnQif3eI?Yequently predominates. The purpose of this work is to elucidate certain questions of the dependence ofthis sound upon the aerodynamic parameters and the tip speed of the rotating rods,or blades. Although scme material is given below,insufficientto calculate the first rough approximation to the solution of this question,such as the mechanics of vortex formation,never the less certain conclusions maybe found of practical application for the reduction of noise from rotating blades.

  8. Nuclear reactor fuel rod attachment system

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.

    1982-01-01

    A reusable system for removably attaching a nuclear reactor fuel rod (12) to a support member (14). A locking cap (22) is secured to the fuel rod (12) and a locking strip (24) is fastened to the support member (14). The locking cap (22) has two opposing fingers (24a and 24b) shaped to form a socket having a body portion (26). The locking strip has an extension (36) shaped to rigidly attach to the socket's body portion (26). The locking cap's fingers are resiliently deflectable. For attachment, the locking cap (22) is longitudinally pushed onto the locking strip (24) causing the extension (36) to temporarily deflect open the fingers (24a and 24b) to engage the socket's body portion (26). For removal, the process is reversed.

  9. Hamiltonian formulations and symmetries in rod mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Dichmann, D.J.; Li, Yiwei; Maddocks, J.H.

    1996-12-31

    This article provides a survey of contemporary rod mechanics, including both dynamic and static theories. Much of what we discuss is regarded as classic material within the mechanics community, but the objective here is to provide a self-contained account accessible to workers interested in modelling DNA. We also describe a number of recent results and computations involving rod mechanics that have been obtained by our group at the University of Maryland. This work was largely motivated by applications to modelling DNA, but our approach reflects a background of research in continuum mechanics. In particular, we emphasize the role that Hamiltonian formulations and symmetries play in the effective computation of special solutions, conservation laws of dynamics and integrals of statics. 41 refs., 10 figs.

  10. A survey of laser lightning rod techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Arnold A., Jr.; Berthel, Robert O.

    1991-01-01

    The work done to create a laser lightning rod (LLR) is discussed. Some ongoing research which has the potential for achieving an operational laser lightning rod for use in the protection of missile launch sites, launch vehicles, and other property is discussed. Because of the ease with which a laser beam can be steered into any cloud overhead, an LLR could be used to ascertain if there exists enough charge in the clouds to discharge to the ground as triggered lightning. This leads to the possibility of using LLRs to test clouds prior to launching missiles through the clouds or prior to flying aircraft through the clouds. LLRs could also be used to probe and discharge clouds before or during any hazardous ground operations. Thus, an operational LLR may be able to both detect such sub-critical electrical fields and effectively neutralize them.

  11. HTGR green rod intercomparison. I. Hydrogen assay

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, M.M.; Adams, E.L.

    1981-01-01

    A /sup 252/Cf hydrogen monitor has been used to determine the hydrogen content of each of the 144 unfired (green) fuel rods being circulated in the New Brunswick Laboratory fuel measurement evaluation program. The monitor was calibrated with standards fabricated by Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) Analytical Chemistry Group, CMB-1. Measurements were made relative to these standards and overall accuracies of +-3% were achieved.

  12. Rod Driven Frequency Entrainment and Resonance Phenomena.

    PubMed

    Salchow, Christina; Strohmeier, Daniel; Klee, Sascha; Jannek, Dunja; Schiecke, Karin; Witte, Herbert; Nehorai, Arye; Haueisen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    A controversy exists on photic driving in the human visual cortex evoked by intermittent photic stimulation. Frequency entrainment and resonance phenomena are reported for frequencies higher than 12 Hz in some studies while missing in others. We hypothesized that this might be due to different experimental conditions, since both high and low intensity light stimulation were used. However, most studies do not report radiometric measurements, which makes it impossible to categorize the stimulation according to photopic, mesopic, and scotopic vision. Low intensity light stimulation might lead to scotopic vision, where rod perception dominates. In this study, we investigated photic driving for rod-dominated visual input under scotopic conditions. Twelve healthy volunteers were stimulated with low intensity light flashes at 20 stimulation frequencies, leading to rod activation only. The frequencies were multiples of the individual alpha frequency (α) of each volunteer in the range from 0.40 to 2.30(∗)α. Three hundred and six-channel whole head magnetoencephalography recordings were analyzed in time, frequency, and spatiotemporal domains with the Topographic Matching Pursuit algorithm. We found resonance phenomena and frequency entrainment for stimulations at or close to the individual alpha frequency (0.90-1.10(∗)α) and half of the alpha frequency (0.40-0.55(∗)α). No signs of resonance and frequency entrainment phenomena were revealed around 2.00(∗)α. Instead, on-responses at the beginning and off-responses at the end of each stimulation train were observed for the first time in a photic driving experiment at frequencies of 1.30-2.30(∗)α, indicating that the flicker fusion threshold was reached. All results, the resonance and entrainment as well as the fusion effects, provide evidence for rod-dominated photic driving in the visual cortex. PMID:27588002

  13. Analysis of Double-encapsulated Fuel Rods

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, Jason Dean; Medvedev, Pavel G; Novascone, Stephen Rhead; Perez, Danielle Marie; Williamson, Richard L

    2014-09-01

    In an LWR fuel rod, the cladding encapsulates the fuel, contains fission products, and transfers heat directly to the water coolant. In some situations, it may be advantageous to separate the cladding from the coolant through use of a secondary cladding or capsule. This may be done to increase confidence that the fuel or fission products will not mix with the coolant, to provide a mechanism for controlling the rod temperature, or to place multiple experimental rodlets within a single housing. With an axisymmetric assumption, it is possible to derive closed-form expressions for the temperature profile in a fuel rod using radially-constant thermal conductivity in the fuel. This is true for both a traditional fuel-cladding rod and a double-encapsulated fuel (fuel, cladding, capsule) configuration. Likewise, it is possible to employ a fuel performance code to analyse both a traditional and a double-encapsulated fuel. In the case of the latter, two sets of gap heat transfer conditions must be imposed. In this work, we review the equations associated with radial heat transfer in a cylindrical system, present analytic and computational results for a postulated power and gas mixture history for IFA-744, and describe the analysis of the AFC-2A, 2B metallic fuel alloy experiments at the Advanced Test Reactor, including the effect of a release of fission products into the cladding-capsule gap. The computational results for these two cases were obtained using BISON, a fuel performance code under development at Idaho National Laboratory.

  14. On the perfect hexagonal packing of rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starostin, E. L.

    2006-04-01

    In most cases the hexagonal packing of fibrous structures or rods extremizes the energy of interaction between strands. If the strands are not straight, then it is still possible to form a perfect hexatic bundle. Conditions under which the perfect hexagonal packing of curved tubular structures may exist are formulated. Particular attention is given to closed or cycled arrangements of the rods like in the DNA toroids and spools. The closure or return constraints of the bundle result in an allowable group of automorphisms of the cross-sectional hexagonal lattice. The structure of this group is explored. Examples of open helical-like and closed toroidal-like bundles are presented. An expression for the elastic energy of a perfectly packed bundle of thin elastic rods is derived. The energy accounts for both the bending and torsional stiffnesses of the rods. It is shown that equilibria of the bundle correspond to solutions of a variational problem formulated for the curve representing the axis of the bundle. The functional involves a function of the squared curvature under the constraints on the total torsion and the length. The Euler-Lagrange equations are obtained in terms of curvature and torsion and due to the existence of the first integrals the problem is reduced to the quadrature. The three-dimensional shape of the bundle may be readily reconstructed by integration of the Ilyukhin-type equations in special cylindrical coordinates. The results are of universal nature and are applicable to various fibrous structures, in particular, to intramolecular liquid crystals formed by DNA condensed in toroids or packed inside the viral capsids. International Workshop on Biopolymers: Thermodynamics, Kinetics and Mechanics of DNA, RNA and Proteins, 30.05.2005-3.06.2005, The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy.

  15. Rod Driven Frequency Entrainment and Resonance Phenomena

    PubMed Central

    Salchow, Christina; Strohmeier, Daniel; Klee, Sascha; Jannek, Dunja; Schiecke, Karin; Witte, Herbert; Nehorai, Arye; Haueisen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    A controversy exists on photic driving in the human visual cortex evoked by intermittent photic stimulation. Frequency entrainment and resonance phenomena are reported for frequencies higher than 12 Hz in some studies while missing in others. We hypothesized that this might be due to different experimental conditions, since both high and low intensity light stimulation were used. However, most studies do not report radiometric measurements, which makes it impossible to categorize the stimulation according to photopic, mesopic, and scotopic vision. Low intensity light stimulation might lead to scotopic vision, where rod perception dominates. In this study, we investigated photic driving for rod-dominated visual input under scotopic conditions. Twelve healthy volunteers were stimulated with low intensity light flashes at 20 stimulation frequencies, leading to rod activation only. The frequencies were multiples of the individual alpha frequency (α) of each volunteer in the range from 0.40 to 2.30∗α. Three hundred and six-channel whole head magnetoencephalography recordings were analyzed in time, frequency, and spatiotemporal domains with the Topographic Matching Pursuit algorithm. We found resonance phenomena and frequency entrainment for stimulations at or close to the individual alpha frequency (0.90–1.10∗α) and half of the alpha frequency (0.40–0.55∗α). No signs of resonance and frequency entrainment phenomena were revealed around 2.00∗α. Instead, on-responses at the beginning and off-responses at the end of each stimulation train were observed for the first time in a photic driving experiment at frequencies of 1.30–2.30∗α, indicating that the flicker fusion threshold was reached. All results, the resonance and entrainment as well as the fusion effects, provide evidence for rod-dominated photic driving in the visual cortex. PMID:27588002

  16. Measurements of lightning rod responses to nearby strikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C. B.; Aulich, G. D.; Rison, W.

    2000-05-01

    Following Benjamin Franklin's invention of the lightning rod, based on his discovery that electrified objects could be discharged by approaching them with a metal needle in hand, conventional lightning rods in the U.S. have had sharp tips. In recent years, the role of the sharp tip in causing a lightning rod to act as a strike receptor has been questioned leading to experiments in which pairs of various sharp-tipped and blunt rods have been exposed beneath thunderclouds to determine the better strike receptor. After seven years of tests, none of the sharp Franklin rods or of the so-called “early streamer emitters” has been struck, but 12 blunt rods with tip diameters ranging from 12.7 mm to 25.4 mm have taken strikes. Our field experiments and our analyses indicate that the strike-reception probabilities of Franklin's rods are greatly increased when their tips are made moderately blunt.

  17. Nuclear thermionic converter. [tungsten-thorium oxide rods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. M.; Mondt, J. F. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Efficient nuclear reactor thermionic converter units are described which can be constructed at low cost and assembled in a reactor which requires a minimum of fuel. Each converter unit utilizes an emitter rod with a fluted exterior, several fuel passages located in the bulges that are formed in the rod between the flutes, and a collector receiving passage formed through the center of the rod. An array of rods is closely packed in an interfitting arrangement, with the bulges of the rods received in the recesses formed between the bulges of other rods, thereby closely packing the nuclear fuel. The rods are constructed of a mixture of tungsten and thorium oxide to provide high power output, high efficiency, high strength, and good machinability.

  18. Interfacial phenomena in hard-rod fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shundyak, K. Y.

    2004-05-01

    This thesis addresses questions of interfacial ordering in hard-rod fluids at coexistence of the isotropic and nematic phases and in their contact with simple model substrates. It is organized as follows. Chapter II provides some background information about the relation between the statistical mechanical and thermodynamical level of descriptions of bulk hard-rod fluids, as well as introduces the asymptotically exact Onsager model, and some basic facts of interfacial thermodynamics. Chapter III represents studies of the simplest free IN interface in a fluid of monodisperse Onsager hard rods. For the analysis of this system we develop an efficient perturbative method to determine the (biaxial) one-particle distribution function in inhomogeneous systems. Studies of the free planar isotropic-nematic interfaces are continued in Chapter IV, where they are considered in binary mixtures of hard rods. For sufficiently different particle shapes the bulk phase diagrams of these mixtures exhibit a triple point, where an isotropic (I) phase coexists with two nematic phases (N1 and N2) of different composition. For all explored mixtures we find that upon approach of the triple point the IN2 interface shows complete wetting by an intervening N1 film. We compute the surface tension of isotropic-nematic interfaces, and find a remarkable increase with fractionation. These studies are complemented by an analysis of bulk phase behavior and interfacial properties of nonadditive binary mixtures of thin and thick hard rods in Chapter V. The formulation of this model was motivated by recent experiments in the group of Fraden, who explored the phase behavior of a mixture of viruses with different effective diameters. In our model, species of the same types are considered as interacting with the hard-core repulsive potential, whereas the excluded volume for dissimilar rods is taken to be larger (smaller) then for the pure hard rods. Such a nonadditivity enhances (reduces) fractionation at

  19. Incorporation of squalene into rod outer segments

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, R.K.; Fliesler, S.J. )

    1990-08-15

    We have reported previously that squalene is the major radiolabeled nonsaponifiable lipid product derived from ({sup 3}H)acetate in short term incubations of frog retinas. In the present study, we demonstrate that newly synthesized squalene is incorporated into rod outer segments under similar in vitro conditions. We show further that squalene is an endogenous constituent of frog rod outer segment membranes; its concentration is approximately 9.5 nmol/mumol of phospholipid or about 9% of the level of cholesterol. Pulse-chase experiments with radiolabeled precursors revealed no metabolism of outer segment squalene to sterols in up to 20 h of chase. Taken together with our previous absolute rate studies, these results suggest that most, if not all, of the squalene synthesized by the frog retina is transported to rod outer segments. Synthesis of protein is not required for squalene transport since puromycin had no effect on squalene incorporation into outer segments. Conversely, inhibition of isoprenoid synthesis with mevinolin had no effect on the incorporation of opsin into the outer segment. These latter results support the conclusion that the de novo synthesis and subsequent intracellular trafficking of opsin and isoprenoid lipids destined for the outer segment occur via independent mechanisms.

  20. ELECTROMAGNETIC APPARATUS FOR MOVING A ROD

    DOEpatents

    Young, J.N.

    1957-08-20

    An electromagnetic device for moving an object in a linear path by increments is described. The device is specifically adapted for moving a neutron absorbing control rod into and out of the core of a reactor and consists essentially of an extension member made of magnetic material connected to one end of the control rod and mechanically flexible to grip the walls of a sleeve member when flexed, a magnetic sleeve member coaxial with and slidable between limit stops along the flexible extension, electromagnetic coils substantially centrally located with respect to the flexible extension to flex the extension member into gripping engagement with the sleeve member when ener gized, moving electromagnets at each end of the sleeve to attract the sleeve when energized, and a second gripping electromagnet positioned along the flexible extension at a distance from the previously mentioned electromagnets for gripping the extension member when energized. In use, the second gripping electromagnet is deenergized, the first gripping electromagnet is energized to fix the extension member in the sleeve, and one of the moving electromagnets is energized to attract the sleeve member toward it, thereby moving the control rod.

  1. 76 FR 19122 - Record of Decision (ROD) for Authorizing the Use of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Sand Resources...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... the Use of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Sand Resources in National Aeronautics and Space... Availability (NOA) of the Record of Decision. SUMMARY: BOEMRE has issued a ROD to authorize the use of OCS sand... for the purpose of making sand available from a shoal on the OCS for placement on the beach in...

  2. 78 FR 33103 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... (``Commerce'') issued a countervailing duty order on imports of wire rod from Brazil (67 FR 64871). On October..., Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine (67 FR 65944-65947). Following the five-year reviews by..., Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine (73 FR 44218). The Commission is now conducting...

  3. ADF/cofilin-actin rods in neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bamburg, J.R.; Bernstein, B.W.; Davis, R.C.; Flynn, K.C.; Goldsbury, C.; Jensen, J.R.; Maloney, M.T.; Marsden, I.T.; Minamide, L.S.; Pak, C.W.; Shaw, A.E.; Whiteman, I.; Wiggan, O.

    2015-01-01

    Dephosphorylation (activation) of cofilin, an actin binding protein, is stimulated by initiators of neuronal dysfunction and degeneration including oxidative stress, excitotoxic glutamate, ischemia, and soluble forms of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ). Hyperactive cofilin forms rod-shaped cofilin-saturated actin filament bundles (rods). Other proteins are recruited to rods but are not necessary for rod formation. Neuronal cytoplasmic rods accumulate within neurites where they disrupt synaptic function and are a likely cause of synaptic loss without neuronal loss, as occurs early in dementias. Different rod-inducing stimuli target distinct neuronal populations within the hippocampus. Rods form rapidly, often in tandem arrays, in response to stress. They accumulate phosphorylated tau that immunostains for epitopes present in “striated neuropil threads,” characteristic of tau pathology in Alzheimer disease (AD) brain. Thus, rods might aid in further tau modifications or assembly into paired helical filaments, the major component of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Rods can occlude neurites and block vesicle transport. Some rod-inducing treatments cause an increase in secreted Aβ. Thus rods may mediate the loss of synapses, production of excess Aβ, and formation of NFTs, all of the pathological hallmarks of AD. Cofilin-actin rods also form within the nucleus of heat-shocked neurons and are cleared from cells expressing wild type huntingtin protein but not in cells expressing mutant or silenced huntingtin, suggesting a role for nuclear rods in Huntington disease (HD). As an early event in the neurodegenerative cascade, rod formation is an ideal target for therapeutic intervention that might be useful in treatment of many different neurological diseases. PMID:20088812

  4. Between a Map and a Data Rod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, William; Rui, Hualan; Strub, Richard; Vollmer, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    A Digital Divide has long stood between how NASA and other satellite-derived data are typically archived (time-step arrays or maps) and how hydrology and other point-time series oriented communities prefer to access those data. In essence, the desired method of data access is orthogonal to the way the data are archived. Our approach to bridging the Divide is part of a larger NASA-supported data rods project to enhance access to and use of NASA and other data by the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) Hydrologic Information System (HIS) and the larger hydrology community. Our main objective was to determine a way to reorganize data that is optimal for these communities. Two related objectives were to optimally reorganize data in a way that (1) is operational and fits in and leverages the existing Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) operational environment and (2) addresses the scaling up of data sets available as time series from those archived at the GES DISC to potentially include those from other Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) data archives. Through several prototype efforts and lessons learned, we arrived at a non-database solution that satisfied our objectivesconstraints. We describe, in this presentation, how we implemented the operational production of pre-generated data rods and, considering the tradeoffs between length of time series (or number of time steps), resources needed, and performance, how we implemented the operational production of on-the-fly (virtual) data rods. For the virtual data rods, we leveraged a number of existing resources, including the NASA Giovanni Cache and NetCDF Operators (NCO) and used data cubes processed in parallel. Our current benchmark performance for virtual generation of data rods is about a years worth of time series for hourly data (9,000 time steps) in 90 seconds. Our approach is a specific implementation of

  5. Spherical Joint Piston and Connecting Rod Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Under an interagency agreement with the Department of Energy, the NASA Lewis Research Center manages a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Technology (HDET) research program. The overall program objectives are to reduce fuel consumption through increased engine efficiency, reduce engine exhaust emissions, and provide options for the use of alternative fuels. The program is administered with a balance of research contracts, university research grants, and focused in-house research. The Cummins Engine Company participates in the HDET program under a cost-sharing research contract. Cummins is researching and developing in-cylinder component technologies for heavy-duty diesel engines. An objective of the Cummins research is to develop technologies for a low-emissions, 55-percent thermal efficiency (LE-55) engine. The best current-production engines in this class achieve about 46-percent thermal efficiency. Federal emissions regulations are driving this technology. Regulations for heavy duty diesel engines were tightened in 1994, more demanding emissions regulations are scheduled for 1998, and another step is planned for 2002. The LE-55 engine emissions goal is set at half of the 1998 regulation level and is consistent with plans for 2002 emissions regulations. LE-55 engine design requirements to meet the efficiency target dictate a need to operate at higher peak cylinder pressures. A key technology being developed and evaluated under the Cummins Engine Company LE-55 engine concept is the spherical joint piston and connecting rod. Unlike conventional piston and connecting rod arrangements which are joined by a pin forming a hinged joint, the spherical joint piston and connecting rod use a ball-and-socket joint. The ball-and-socket arrangement enables the piston to have an axisymmetric design allowing rotation within the cylinder. The potential benefits of piston symmetry and rotation are reduced scuffing, improved piston ring sealing, improved lubrication, mechanical and thermal

  6. Between a Map and a Data Rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, W. L.; Rui, H.; Strub, R. F.; Vollmer, B.

    2015-12-01

    A "Digital Divide" has long stood between how NASA and other satellite-derived data are typically archived (time-step arrays or "maps") and how hydrology and other point-time series oriented communities prefer to access those data. In essence, the desired method of data access is orthogonal to the way the data are archived. Our approach to bridging the Divide is part of a larger NASA-supported "data rods" project to enhance access to and use of NASA and other data by the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) Hydrologic Information System (HIS) and the larger hydrology community. Our main objective was to determine a way to reorganize data that is optimal for these communities. Two related objectives were to optimally reorganize data in a way that (1) is operational and fits in and leverages the existing Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) operational environment and (2) addresses the scaling up of data sets available as time series from those archived at the GES DISC to potentially include those from other Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) data archives. Through several prototype efforts and lessons learned, we arrived at a non-database solution that satisfied our objectives/constraints. We describe, in this presentation, how we implemented the operational production of pre-generated data rods and, considering the tradeoffs between length of time series (or number of time steps), resources needed, and performance, how we implemented the operational production of on-the-fly ("virtual") data rods. For the virtual data rods, we leveraged a number of existing resources, including the NASA Giovanni Cache and NetCDF Operators (NCO) and used data cubes processed in parallel. Our current benchmark performance for virtual generation of data rods is about a year's worth of time series for hourly data (~9,000 time steps) in ~90 seconds. Our approach is a specific

  7. The COPERNIC3 project: how AREVA is successfully developing an advanced global fuel rod performance code

    SciTech Connect

    Garnier, Ch.; Mailhe, P.; Sontheimer, F.; Landskron, H.; Deuble, D.; Arimescu, V.I.; Billaux, M.

    2007-07-01

    Fuel performance is a key factor for minimizing operating costs in nuclear plants. One of the important aspects of fuel performance is fuel rod design, based upon reliable tools able to verify the safety of current fuel solutions, prevent potential issues in new core managements and guide the invention of tomorrow's fuels. AREVA is developing its future global fuel rod code COPERNIC3, which is able to calculate the thermal-mechanical behavior of advanced fuel rods in nuclear plants. Some of the best practices to achieve this goal are described, by reviewing the three pillars of a fuel rod code: the database, the modelling and the computer and numerical aspects. At first, the COPERNIC3 database content is described, accompanied by the tools developed to effectively exploit the data. Then is given an overview of the main modelling aspects, by emphasizing the thermal, fission gas release and mechanical sub-models. In the last part, numerical solutions are detailed in order to increase the computational performance of the code, with a presentation of software configuration management solutions. (authors)

  8. Issues Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sando, Joe S.

    A program for teaching techniques of critical thinking on issues concerning American Indians was developed for students at Albuquerque Indian School. It was designed to include not only the students but also their families with learning activities that required consultation in search of answers or understanding. The first issue presented sought to…

  9. The ATLAS tile calorimeter ROD injector and multiplexer board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valero, A.; Castillo, V.; Ferrer, A.; González, V.; Hernández, Y.; Higón, E.; Sanchís, E.; Solans, C.; Torres, J.; Valls, J. A.

    2011-02-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is a sampling detector composed by cells made of iron-scintillator tiles. The calorimeter cell signals are digitized in the front-end electronics and transmitted to the Read-Out Drivers (RODs) at the first level trigger rate. The ROD receives triggered data from up to 9856 channels and provides the energy, phase and quality factor of the signals to the second level trigger. The back-end electronics is divided into four partitions containing eight RODs each. Therefore, a total of 32 RODs are used to process and transmit the data of the TileCal detector. In order to emulate the detector signals in the production and commissioning of ROD modules a board called ROD Injector and Multiplexer Board (RIMBO) was designed. In this paper, the RIMBO main functional blocks, PCB design and the different operation modes are described. It is described the crucial role of the board within the TileCal ROD test-bench in order to emulate the front-end electronics during the validation of ROD boards as well as during the evaluation of the ROD signal reconstruction algorithms. Finally, qualification and performance results for the injection operation mode obtained during the Tile Calorimeter ROD production tests are presented.

  10. Family Issues

    MedlinePlus

    ... not mean that everyone gets along all the time. Conflicts are a part of family life. Many things can lead to conflict, such as illness, disability, addiction, job loss, school problems, and marital issues. Listening to ...

  11. Visual transduction in human rod photoreceptors.

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, T W; Schneeweis, D M; Schnapf, J L

    1993-01-01

    1. Photocurrents were recorded with suction electrodes from rod photoreceptors of seven humans. 2. Brief flashes of light evoked transient outward currents of up to 20 pA. With increasing light intensity the peak response amplitude increased along an exponential saturation function. A half-saturating peak response was evoked by approximately sixty-five photoisomerizations. 3. Responses to brief dim flashes rose to a peak in about 200 ms. The waveform was roughly like the impulse response of a series of four to five low-pass filters. 4. The rising phases of the responses to flashes of increasing strength were found to fit with a biochemical model of phototransduction with an 'effective delay time' and 'characteristic time' of about 2 and 800 ms, respectively. 5. Spectral sensitivities were obtained over a wavelength range from 380 to 760 nm. The action spectrum, which peaked at 495 nm, followed the template described for photoreceptors in the macaque retina. Variation between rods in the position of the spectrum on the wavelength axis was small. 6. The scotopic luminosity function derived from human psychophysical experiments was found to agree well with the measured rod action spectrum after adjustments were made for lens absorption and photopigment self-screening in the intact eye. 7. Responses to steps of light rose monotonically to a maintained level, showing little or no relaxation. Nevertheless, the relationship between light intensity and steady-state response amplitude was shallower than that expected from simple response saturation. This is consistent with an adaptation mechanism acting on a rapid time scale. 8. Flash sensitivity fell with increasing intensities of background light according to Weber's law. Sensitivity was reduced twofold by lights evoking about 120 photoisomerizations per second. Background lights decreased the time to peak and the integration time of the flash response by up to 20%. PMID:8229828

  12. Biomechanical study comparing a new combined rod-plate system with conventional dual-rod and plate systems.

    PubMed

    Sha, Mo; Ding, Zheng-Qi; Ting, Hu S; Kang, Liang-Qi; Zhai, Wen-Liang; Liu, Hui

    2013-02-01

    Most anterior spinal instrumentation systems are designed as either a plate or dual-rod system and have corresponding limitations. Dual-rod designs may offer greater adjustability; however, this system also maintains a high profile and lacks a locking design. Plate systems are designed to be stiffer, but the fixed configuration is not adaptable to the variety of vertebral body shapes. The authors designed a new combined rod-plate system (D-rod) to overcome these limitations and compared its biomechanical performance with the conventional dual-rod and plate system. Eighteen pig spinal specimens were divided into 3 groups (6 per group). An L1 corpectomy was performed and fixed with the D-rod (group A; n=6), Z-plate (Sofamor Danek, Memphis, Tennessee) (group B; n=6), or Ventrofix (Synthes, Paoli, Pennsylvania) (group C; n=6) system. T13-L2 range of motion was measured with a 6 degrees of freedom (ie, flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation) spine simulator under pure moments of 6.0 Nm. The D-rod and Ventrofix specimens were significantly stiffer than the Z-plate specimens (P<.05) based on results obtained from lateral bending and flexion-extension tests. The D-rod and Z-plate specimens were significantly stiffer than the Ventrofix specimens (P<.05) in axial rotation. The D-rod combines the advantages of the plate and dual-rod systems, where the anterior rod exhibits the design of a low-profile locking plate, enhanced stability, and decreased interference of the surrounding vasculature. The posterior rods function in compression and distraction, and the dual-rod system offers greater adjustability and control over screw placement. The results indicate that it may provide adequate stability for anterior thoracolumbar reconstruction. PMID:23383624

  13. Nonequilibrium clustering of self-propelled rods.

    PubMed

    Peruani, Fernando; Deutsch, Andreas; Bär, Markus

    2006-09-01

    Motivated by aggregation phenomena in gliding bacteria, we study collective motion in a two-dimensional model of active, self-propelled rods interacting through volume exclusion. In simulations with individual particles, we find that particle clustering is facilitated by a sufficiently large packing fraction eta or length-to-width ratio kappa . The transition to clustering in simulations is well captured by a mean-field model for the cluster size distribution, which predicts that the transition values kappac of the aspect ratio for a fixed packing fraction eta are given by kappac=Ceta-1 where C is a constant. PMID:17025586

  14. Nonelastomeric Rod Seals for Advanced Hydraulic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hady, W. F.; Waterman, A. W.

    1976-01-01

    Advanced high temperature hydraulic system rod sealing requirements can be met by using seals made of nonelastomeric (plastic) materials in applications where elastomers do not have adequate life. Exploratory seal designs were optimized for advanced applications using machinable polyimide materials. These seals demonstrated equivalent flight hour lives of 12,500 at 350 F and 9,875 at 400 F in advanced hydraulic system simulation. Successful operation was also attained under simulated space shuttle applications; 96 reentry thermal cycles and 1,438 hours of vacuum storage. Tests of less expensive molded plastic seals indicated a need for improved materials to provide equivalent performance to the machined seals.

  15. Rodded shutdown system for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Martin P.; Govi, Aldo R.

    1978-01-01

    A top mounted nuclear reactor diverse rodded shutdown system utilizing gas fed into a pressure bearing bellows region sealed at the upper extremity to an armature. The armature is attached to a neutron absorber assembly by a series of shafts and connecting means. The armature is held in an uppermost position by an electromagnet assembly or by pressurized gas in a second embodiment. Deenergizing the electromagnet assembly, or venting the pressurized gas, causes the armature to fall by the force of gravity, thereby lowering the attached absorber assembly into the reactor core.

  16. ALLOY COMPOSITION FOR NEUTRONIC REACTOR CONTROL RODS

    DOEpatents

    Lustman, B.; Losco, E.F.; Snyder, H.J.; Eggleston, R.R.

    1963-01-22

    This invention relates to alloy compositons suitable as cortrol rod material consisting of, by weight, from 85% to 85% Ag, from 2% to 20% In, from up to 10% of Cd, from up to 5% Sn, and from up to 1.5% Al, the amount of each element employed being determined by the equation X + 2Y + 3Z + 3W + 4V = 1.4 and less, where X, Y, Z, W, and V represent the atom fractions of the elements Ag, Cd, In, Al and Sn. (AEC)

  17. Dynamic, multiaxial impact response of confined and unconfined ceramic rods

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, J.L.; Grady, D.E.

    1993-09-01

    A new configuration for impact testing was implemented which yielded time-resolved measurements of the dynamic response of materials undergoing multiaxial strain. With this`-Method, one end of an initially stationary rod (ie., right circular cylinder) of test material was subjected to planar impact with a flat-faced projectile. The test rod was either free (unconfined) or mounted within a close-fitting sleeve which provided lateral confinement. Velocity interferometer diagnostics monitored the axial (longitudinal) velocity of the rod free end, and the transverse (radial) velocity for one or more points on the periphery of the rod or confinement sleeve. Analysis of the resultant velocity records allowed assessment of material properties, such as wave speeds and compressive yield strength, without the requirement of intact recovery of the rod. Data were obtained for alumina (Coors AD-99.5) rods in a series of tests involving variations in confinement and peak impact stress.

  18. Electric field in the vicinity of long thin conducting rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezinkina, M. M.; Rezinkin, O. L.; Svetlichnaya, E. E.

    2015-09-01

    We report on the results of numerical and analytical calculations of distributions of potentials and electric fields in the vicinity of thin conducting rods that model the leader channel of lightning and lightning rods. We consider rods represented in the form of a uniformly charged filament, a conducting ellipsoid with a free charge on its surface, as well an ellipsoid or a cylinder in a uniform external electric field. The effect of parameters of conducting rods modeling the leader channel of lightning and lightning rods, as well as the region containing a space charge around the tip of the leader channel, on the distribution of potentials and field strengths are analyzed. The conditions for the propagation of the counter leader from the lightning rod are specified.

  19. Convergent synthesis of multiporphyrin light-harvesting rods

    DOEpatents

    Lindsey, Jonathan S.; Loewe, Robert S.

    2003-08-05

    The present invention provides a convergent method for the synthesis of light harvesting rods. The rods are oligomers of the formula A.sup.1 (A.sup.b+1).sub.b, wherein b is at least 1, A.sup.1 through A.sup.b+1 are covalently coupled rod segments, and each rod segment A.sup.1 through A.sup.1+b comprises a compound of the formula X.sup.1 (X.sup.m+1).sub.m wherein m is at least 1 and X.sup.1 through X.sup.m+1 are covalently coupled porphyrinic macrocycles. Light harvesting arrays and solar cells containing such light harvesting rods are also described, along with intermediates useful in such methods and rods produced by such methods.

  20. Swarming and swirling in self-propelled polar granular rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudrolli, Arshad; Lumay, Geoffroy; Volfson, Dmitri; Tsimring, Lev

    2008-03-01

    We discuss the dynamics of ``self-propelled" polar rods experimentally and numerically. In the experiment, the polar motion was achieved by vibrating rods with asymmetric mass distribution. In the numerics, we postulate a driving force acting along the axis of the rod. We observe aggregation of rods at the boundaries because of the inability of rods to turn around and escape for high enough density under low noise conditions. As vibration strength and thus noise is increased, the aggregation reduces and a uniformly distributed state displaying local orientation order and swirls are observed. We observe greater than √n density fluctuations which are in a qualitative agreement with the Toner-Tu model, but this agreement should not be over-emphasized since the model is directly applicable to a nematic regime. Our findings elucidate an important and interesting interplay between the shape and the directed motion in realistic self-propelled rods which affects the phenomenology of their collective dynamics.

  1. Safety analysis forseismic motion of control rods accounting for rod misalignment

    SciTech Connect

    Osmin, W.L.; Paik, I.K.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the results of three safety analyses performed by the SRL Safety Analysis Group (SAG) to assess the safety impact of control rod motion induced by a Design Basis Earthquake (DBE).

  2. COMPUTER MODEL OF TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION IN OPTICALLY PUMPED LASER RODS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrukh, U. O.

    1994-01-01

    Managing the thermal energy that accumulates within a solid-state laser material under active pumping is of critical importance in the design of laser systems. Earlier models that calculated the temperature distribution in laser rods were single dimensional and assumed laser rods of infinite length. This program presents a new model which solves the temperature distribution problem for finite dimensional laser rods and calculates both the radial and axial components of temperature distribution in these rods. The modeled rod is either side-pumped or end-pumped by a continuous or a single pulse pump beam. (At the present time, the model cannot handle a multiple pulsed pump source.) The optical axis is assumed to be along the axis of the rod. The program also assumes that it is possible to cool different surfaces of the rod at different rates. The user defines the laser rod material characteristics, determines the types of cooling and pumping to be modeled, and selects the time frame desired via the input file. The program contains several self checking schemes to prevent overwriting memory blocks and to provide simple tracing of information in case of trouble. Output for the program consists of 1) an echo of the input file, 2) diffusion properties, radius and length, and time for each data block, 3) the radial increments from the center of the laser rod to the outer edge of the laser rod, and 4) the axial increments from the front of the laser rod to the other end of the rod. This program was written in Microsoft FORTRAN77 and implemented on a Tandon AT with a 287 math coprocessor. The program can also run on a VAX 750 mini-computer. It has a memory requirement of about 147 KB and was developed in 1989.

  3. Failure of expansion joint tie rods -- Impact on bellows integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.L.; Miller, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Expansion joints are used in piping systems to accomodate pipe deflections during service and to facilitate fitup. Often, tie rods are employed to limit the range of axial deflection. Additional restraint against excessive displacement can be provided by the surrounding pipe and associated supports. This paper presents a methodology that was employed to estimate the consequences of tie rod failure. Of particular interest is whether tie rod failure can lead to sufficient displacement as to cause bellows rupture.

  4. Failure of expansion joint tie rods -- Impact on bellows integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.L.; Miller, R.F.

    1992-12-31

    Expansion joints are used in piping systems to accomodate pipe deflections during service and to facilitate fitup. Often, tie rods are employed to limit the range of axial deflection. Additional restraint against excessive displacement can be provided by the surrounding pipe and associated supports. This paper presents a methodology that was employed to estimate the consequences of tie rod failure. Of particular interest is whether tie rod failure can lead to sufficient displacement as to cause bellows rupture.

  5. Ordering stripe structures of nanoscale rods in diblock copolymer scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kang; Ma, Yu-qiang

    2002-05-01

    We report a simulation on the formation of ordered stripe structures of nanoscale rods driven by symmetric diblock copolymer melts. Due to the preferential adsorption of one species of the diblock onto the mobile rods, the phase ordering process will couple with the movement of rods. We find that the self-assembly of rods on the copolymer scaffold produces the highly ordered nanowires of rods, and copolymer blends in turn form the well-oriented lamellar structure. This is due to the interplay among the micro-phase separating dynamics in the diblock copolymer, the wetting interaction between rods and diblock copolymer, and the nematic ordering dynamics of rods. We examine the influence of the domain size, the wetting strength, and the rod number density on the formation of such a nanoscale structure. Additionally, we indicate that the orientation of the pattern can be well controlled by external fields acting on the rods. The results suggest that our model system may provide a novel and simple way to control and design the ordering nanowire structure.

  6. On the theory of thin and thin-walled rods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dzhanelidze, G Y

    1951-01-01

    Through the work of V. Z. Vlasov a theory of thin-walled rods has been established that is widely applicable in practice. This theory was extended by A. A. Umanski to thin-walled rods of closed profile section. The authors based their work on the concepts of the modern theory of shells. An attempt is made herein to construct a theory of thin-walled rods including the classical theory of deformation of thin rods by making use of a kinematic assumption.

  7. Pultruded Rod/Overwrap Testing for Various Stitched Stringer Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leone, Frank A., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    The unidirectional carbon pultruded rod running through the tops of the stringers is a key design feature of the Pultruded Rod Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept as applied to aircraft fuselage structure. Reported herein are the test methods and results from a test campaign in which the strength of the rod/overwrap interface of various PRSEUS stringer configurations were characterized. The different stringer configurations included different materials and stacking sequences for the stringer overwrap and whether or not an additional layer of adhesive was included between the rod and the overwrap.

  8. Transient elastic impact response of slender graphite rods

    SciTech Connect

    Erdem, I.

    2007-12-15

    Graphite rods are manufactured by extruding the mixture of calcined petroleum coke and coal tar pitch into the desired shape and baking the cooled specimens at about 800{sup o}C. Cracking can occur in rods during the manufacturing process. It is useful to be able to detect the presence of such cracks in the rods prior to their being machined and put into use as electrodes or cathodes or thermal insulator. In an effort to develop a nondestructive testing approach to evaluation of the rods, transient elastic impact was determined for slender rods. Theory for solid, slender rods provided an important starting point for this work. Subsequently, numerical models were developed and simulation was used to determine the response of rods containing cracks. Experiments on graphite rods with and without cracks were conducted and the internal condition determined from the recorded signals. The rods were then cut lengthwise to reveal the internal condition and verify the predicted results. In all cases the knowledge gained from simulation allowed for the presence of cracks to be detected.

  9. Biophysical mechanism of transient retinal phototropism in rod photoreceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaohui; Thapa, Damber; Wang, Benquan; Gai, Shaoyan; Yao, Xincheng

    2016-03-01

    Oblique light stimulation evoked transient retinal phototropism (TRP) has been recently detected in frog and mouse retinas. High resolution microscopy of freshly isolated retinas indicated that the TRP is predominated by rod photoreceptors. Comparative confocal microscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT) revealed that the TRP predominantly occurred from the photoreceptor outer segment (OS). However, biophysical mechanism of rod OS change is still unknown. In this study, frog retinal slices, which open a cross section of retinal photoreceptor and other functional layers, were used to test the effect of light stimulation on rod OS. Near infrared light microscopy was employed to monitor photoreceptor changes in retinal slices stimulated by a rectangular-shaped visible light flash. Rapid rod OS length change was observed after the stimulation delivery. The magnitude and direction of the rod OS change varied with the position of the rods within the stimulated area. In the center of stimulated region the length of the rod OS shrunk, while in the peripheral region the rod OS tip swung towards center region in the plane perpendicular to the incident stimulus light. Our experimental result and theoretical analysis suggest that the observed TRP may reflect unbalanced disc-shape change due to localized pigment bleaching. Further investigation is required to understand biochemical mechanism of the observed rod OS kinetics. Better study of the TRP may provide a noninvasive biomarker to enable early detection of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other diseases that are known to produce retinal photoreceptor dysfunctions.

  10. The evaluation of corrosion resistant rod end rolling element bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Braza, J.F.; Giuntoli, K.; Imundo, J.R.

    1998-12-31

    Recent developments on carburizing grades of stainless steels have provided new materials to produce corrosion resistant airframe control bearings. This paper presents the application of one of these new carburizing grades of stainless steel to rod end ball bearings. The outer ring of the rod end bearing is made out of carburized stainless steel, while the inner ring and balls are made out of through-hardened stainless steel. The stainless steel rod end bearings were evaluated according to various ASTM and Military specifications for performance and corrosion resistance. The stainless steel rod end bearings exceeded the performance requirements of standard rod end bearings (which are comprised of a carburized 8620 steel outer ring and 52100 steel inner ring and balls) in accordance with MIL-B-6039. The rod end bearings were evaluated in the radial fracture load, axial fracture load, and radial dynamic load tests. Also, salt spray and alternate immersion corrosion tests (ASTM B 117-85 and G 44-88, respectively) were conducted on the stainless steel rod end bearings. The stainless steel rod end bearings exhibited superior corrosion resistance to the standard 8620/52100 steel rod end bearings.